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1

Virus-Induced Gene Silencing, a Post Transcriptional Gene Silencing Method  

PubMed Central

Virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS) is one of the reverse genetics tools for analysis of gene function that uses viral vectors carrying a target gene fragment to produce dsRNA which trigger RNA-mediated gene silencing. There are a number of viruses which have been modified to silence the gene of interest effectively with a sequence-specific manner. Therefore, different types of methodologies have been advanced and modified for VIGS approach. Virus-derived inoculations are performed on host plants using different methods such as agro-infiltration and in vitro transcriptions. VIGS has many advantages compared to other loss-of-gene function approaches. The approach provides the generation of rapid phenotype and no need for plant transformation. The cost of VIGS experiment is relatively low, and large-scale analysis of screening studies can be achieved by the VIGS. However, there are still limitations of VIGS to be overcome. Nowadays, many virus-derived vectors are optimized to silence more than one host plant such as TRV-derived viral vectors which are used for Arabidopsis and Nicothiana benthamiana. By development of viral silencing systems monocot plants can also be targeted as silencing host in addition to dicotyledonous plants. For instance, Barley stripe mosaic virus (BSMV)-mediated VIGS allows silencing of barley and wheat genes. Here we summarize current protocols and recent modified viral systems to lead silencing of genes in different host species.

Unver, Turgay; Budak, Hikmet

2009-01-01

2

Personalized gene silencing therapeutics for Huntington disease.  

PubMed

Gene silencing offers a novel therapeutic strategy for dominant genetic disorders. In specific diseases, selective silencing of only one copy of a gene may be advantageous over non-selective silencing of both copies. Huntington disease (HD) is an autosomal dominant disorder caused by an expanded CAG trinucleotide repeat in the Huntingtin gene (HTT). Silencing both expanded and normal copies of HTT may be therapeutically beneficial, but preservation of normal HTT expression is preferred. Allele-specific methods can selectively silence the mutant HTT transcript by targeting either the expanded CAG repeat or single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in linkage disequilibrium with the expansion. Both approaches require personalized treatment strategies based on patient genotypes. We compare the prospect of safe treatment of HD by CAG- and SNP-specific silencing approaches and review HD population genetics used to guide target identification in the patient population. Clinical implementation of allele-specific HTT silencing faces challenges common to personalized genetic medicine, requiring novel solutions from clinical scientists and regulatory authorities. PMID:24646433

Kay, C; Skotte, N H; Southwell, A L; Hayden, M R

2014-07-01

3

RNA-triggered gene silencing  

Microsoft Academic Search

Double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) has recently been shown to trigger sequence-specific gene silencing in a wide variety of organisms, including nematodes, plants, trypanosomes, fruit flies and planaria; meanwhile an as yet uncharacterized RNA trigger has been shown to induce DNA methylation in several different plant systems. In addition to providing a surprisingly effective set of tools to interfere selectively with gene

Andrew Fire

1999-01-01

4

Nickel and epigenetic gene silencing.  

PubMed

Insoluble nickel compounds are well-established human carcinogens. Occupational exposure to these compounds leads to increased incidence of lung and nasal cancer in nickel refinery workers. Apart from its weak mutagenic activity and hypoxia mimicking effect there is mounting experimental evidence indicating that epigenetic alteration plays an important role in nickel-induced carcinogenesis. Multiple epigenetic mechanisms have been identified to mediate nickel-induced gene silencing. Nickel ion is able to induce heterochromatinization by binding to DNA-histone complexes and initiating chromatin condensation. The enzymes required for establishing or removing epigenetic marks can be targeted by nickel, leading to altered DNA methylation and histone modification landscapes. The current review will focus on the epigenetic changes that contribute to nickel-induced gene silencing. PMID:24705264

Sun, Hong; Shamy, Magdy; Costa, Max

2013-01-01

5

Nickel and Epigenetic Gene Silencing  

PubMed Central

Insoluble nickel compounds are well-established human carcinogens. Occupational exposure to these compounds leads to increased incidence of lung and nasal cancer in nickel refinery workers. Apart from its weak mutagenic activity and hypoxia mimicking effect there is mounting experimental evidence indicating that epigenetic alteration plays an important role in nickel-induced carcinogenesis. Multiple epigenetic mechanisms have been identified to mediate nickel-induced gene silencing. Nickel ion is able to induce heterochromatinization by binding to DNA-histone complexes and initiating chromatin condensation. The enzymes required for establishing or removing epigenetic marks can be targeted by nickel, leading to altered DNA methylation and histone modification landscapes. The current review will focus on the epigenetic changes that contribute to nickel-induced gene silencing.

Sun, Hong; Shamy, Magdy; Costa, Max

2013-01-01

6

Environmentally Induced Gene Silencing in Breast Cancer.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The main goal of the study was to test the hypothesis that a reduction in gene expression could induce gene silencing (i.e. relatively stable loss of gene expression) in breast cells. Silencing of a variety of tumor suppressor genes plays a major role in ...

M. Turker

2008-01-01

7

MGMT Gene Silencing and Benefit from Temozolomide in Glioblastoma  

Microsoft Academic Search

background Epigenetic silencing of the MGMT (O 6 -methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase) DNA- repair gene by promoter methylation compromises DNA repair and has been associated with longer survival in patients with glioblastoma who receive alkylating agents. methods We tested the relationship between MGMT silencing in the tumor and the survival of patients who were enrolled in a randomized trial comparing radiotherapy alone

Monika E. Hegi; Annie-Claire Diserens; Thierry Gorlia; Marie-France Hamou; Nicolas de Tribolet; Michael Weller; Johan M. Kros; Johannes A. Hainfellner; Warren Mason; Luigi Mariani; Jacoline E. C. Bromberg; Peter Hau; René O. Mirimanoff; J. Gregory Cairncross; Robert C. Janzer; Roger Stupp

2005-01-01

8

Epigenetic gene silencing in acute promyelocytic leukemia  

Microsoft Academic Search

The recent explosion in our knowledge of how chromatin organization modulates gene transcription has highlighted the importance of epigenetic mechanisms in the initiation and progression of human cancer. These epigenetic changes—in particular, aberrant promoter hypermethylation that is associated with inappropriate gene silencing—affect virtually every step in tumor progression. Intriguingly, methylation patterns are severely altered in tumors, with an overall hypomethylation

R Villa; F De Santis; A Gutierrez; S Minucci; P. G Pelicci; L Di Croce

2004-01-01

9

Ribonomic and Short Hairpin RNA Gene Silencing Methods to Explore Functional Gene Programs Associated With Tumor Growth Arrest  

PubMed Central

Summary In this chapter, we present an approach using genomic and ribonomic profiling to investigate functional gene programs in a tumor growth model. To reach this goal, ribonomic profiling was combined with RNA interference in a tumor dormancy model. Strategies merging functional genomic technologies are outlined for the identification of novel posttranscriptionally regulated targets of p38 to show that they are functionally linked to the induction or interruption of cellular growth in cancer. In the first section of this chapter, we describe a method for the detection of mRNA subsets associated with RNA-binding proteins such as hnRNP A1 using (1) immunopurification of mRNA–protein complexes, from either whole cell lysates or subcellular fractions and (2) gene expression arrays to find those mRNAs bound to hnRNP A1. In the second section, short hairpin RNA technology was used to create a library of shRNAs that target p38 induced mRNAs expression libraries are utilized to “knockdown” the genes identified in the first section. Finally, this library of gene candidates is evaluated in vivo to address their functional role in the induction or maintenance of dormancy.

Baroni, Timothy E.; Lastro, Michele T.; Ranganathan, Aparna C.; Tenenbaum, Scott A.; Conklin, Douglas S.; Aguirre-Ghiso, Julio A.

2008-01-01

10

Transcriptional silencing of homeotic genes in Drosophila.  

PubMed

Homeotic genes are subject to transcriptional silencing, which prevents their expression in inappropriate body regions. Here, we shall focus on Drosophila, as little is known about this process in other organisms. Evidence is accumulating that silencing of Drosophila homeotic genes is conferred by two types of cis- regulatory sequences: initiation (SIL-1) and maintenance (SIL-M) elements. The former contain target sites for transient repressors with a highly localised distribution in the early embryo and the latter for constitutive repressors that are likely to be present in all cells. We discuss how SIL-1 elements may cooperate with SIL-M elements to promote formation of a silencing complex. We propose that this complex consists of specific non-histone proteins, the so-called Polycomb group proteins, and that it is anchored at SIL-M elements and at the promoter. PMID:8763830

Bienz, M; Müller, J

1995-09-01

11

Posttranscriptional Gene Silencing and Translation in Giardia  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a The control of gene expression in Giardia lamblia includes several mechanisms already described in higher eukaryotes, but with some interesting features for this early-branching\\u000a organism. Here we describe two gene expression control systems in Giardia, posttranscriptional gene silencing (PTGS) and translation, and the close interaction between them. For the first mechanism,\\u000a all the components were identified as being active in

Pablo R. Gargantini; César G. Prucca; Hugo D. Luján

12

Virus-induced gene silencing in Solanum species.  

PubMed

Virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS) has been used routinely in Nicotiana benthamiana to assess functions of candidate genes and as a way to discover new genes required for diverse pathways, especially disease resistance signalling. VIGS has recently been shown to work in Arabidopsis thaliana and in tomato. Here, we report that VIGS using the tobacco rattle virus (TRV) viral vector can be used in several Solanum species, although the choice of vector and experimental conditions vary depending on the species under study. We have successfully silenced the phytoene desaturase (PDS) gene in the diploid wild species Solanum bulbocastanum and S. okadae, in the cultivated tetraploid S. tuberosum and in the distant hexaploid relative S. nigrum (commonly known as deadly nightshade). To test whether the system could be utilised as a rapid way to assess gene function of candidate resistance (R) genes in potato and its wild relatives, we silenced R1 and Rx in S. tuberosum and RB in S. bulbocastanum. Silencing of R1, Rx and RB successfully attenuated R-gene-mediated disease resistance and resulted in susceptible phenotypes in detached leaf assays. Thus, the VIGS system is an effective method of rapidly assessing gene function in potato. PMID:15225290

Brigneti, Gianinna; Martín-Hernández, Ana M; Jin, Hailing; Chen, Judy; Baulcombe, David C; Baker, Barbara; Jones, Jonathan D G

2004-07-01

13

Gene silencing in crustaceans: from basic research to biotechnologies.  

PubMed

Gene silencing through RNA interference (RNAi) is gaining momentum for crustaceans, both in basic research and for commercial development. RNAi has proven instrumental in a growing number of crustacean species, revealing the functionality of novel crustacean genes essential among others to development, growth, metabolism and reproduction. Extensive studies have also been done on silencing of viral transcripts in crustaceans, contributing to the understanding of the defense mechanisms of crustaceans and strategies employed by viruses to overcome these. The first practical use of gene silencing in aquaculture industry has been recently achieved, through manipulation of a crustacean insulin-like androgenic gland hormone. This review summarizes the advancements in the use of RNAi in crustaceans, and assesses the advantages of this method, as well as the current hurdles that hinder its large-scale practice. PMID:24705266

Sagi, Amir; Manor, Rivka; Ventura, Tomer

2013-01-01

14

Short hairpin RNA-mediated gene silencing.  

PubMed

Since the first application of RNA interference (RNAi) in mammalian cells, the expression of short hairpin RNAs (shRNAs) for targeted gene silencing has become a benchmark technology. Using plasmid and viral vectoring systems, the transcription of shRNA precursors that are effectively processed by the RNAi pathway can lead to potent gene knockdown. The past decade has seen continual advancement and improvement to the various strategies that can be used for shRNA delivery, and the use of shRNAs for clinical applications is well underway. Driving these developments has been the many benefits afforded by shRNA technologies, including the stable integration of expression constructs for long-term expression, infection of difficult-to-target cell lines and tissues using viral vectors, and the temporal control of shRNA transcription by inducible promoters. The use of different effector molecule formats, promoters, and vector types, has meant that experiments can be tailored to target specific cell types and minimize cellular toxicities. Through the application of combinatorial RNAi (co-RNAi), multiple shRNA delivery strategies can improve gene knockdown, permit multiple transcripts to be targeted simultaneously, and curtail the emergence of viral escape mutants. This chapter reviews the history, cellular processing, and various applications of shRNAs in mammalian systems, including options for effector molecule design, vector and promoter types, and methods for multiple shRNA delivery. PMID:23027054

Lambeth, Luke S; Smith, Craig A

2013-01-01

15

Virus-induced gene silencing in tomato.  

PubMed

We have previously demonstrated that a tobacco rattle virus (TRV)-based vector can be used in virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS) to study gene function in Nicotiana benthamiana. Here we show that recombinant TRV infects tomato plants and induces efficient gene silencing. Using this system, we suppressed the PDS, CTR1 and CTR2 genes in tomato. Suppression of CTR1 led to a constitutive ethylene response phenotype and up-regulation of an ethylene response gene, CHITINASE B. This phenotype is similar to Arabidopsis ctr1 mutant plants. We have constructed a modified TRV vector based on the GATEWAY recombination system, allowing restriction- and ligation-free cloning. Our results show that tomato expressed sequence tags (ESTs) can easily be cloned into this modified vector using a single set of primers. Using this vector, we have silenced RbcS and an endogenous gene homologous to the tomato EST cLED3L14. In the future, this modified vector system will facilitate large-scale functional analysis of tomato ESTs. PMID:12220268

Liu, Yule; Schiff, Michael; Dinesh-Kumar, S P

2002-09-01

16

RNA-Dependent Gene Silencing and Epigenetics in Animals  

Microsoft Academic Search

In animals noncoding RNAs are involved in a large variety of gene silencing mechanisms. These include post-transcriptional RNA interference (RNAi) that is mediated by small double-stranded RNAs and results in degradation of messenger RNAs as well as epigenetic silencing of genes. RNAi as a naturally occurring silencing mechanism has been well investigated in various eukaryotic organisms. Sequencing of the human

Martina Paulsen; Sascha Tierling; Stephanie Barth; Jörn Walter

17

Bacterial Cellular Engineering by Genome Editing and Gene Silencing  

PubMed Central

Genome editing is an important technology for bacterial cellular engineering, which is commonly conducted by homologous recombination-based procedures, including gene knockout (disruption), knock-in (insertion), and allelic exchange. In addition, some new recombination-independent approaches have emerged that utilize catalytic RNAs, artificial nucleases, nucleic acid analogs, and peptide nucleic acids. Apart from these methods, which directly modify the genomic structure, an alternative approach is to conditionally modify the gene expression profile at the posttranscriptional level without altering the genomes. This is performed by expressing antisense RNAs to knock down (silence) target mRNAs in vivo. This review describes the features and recent advances on methods used in genomic engineering and silencing technologies that are advantageously used for bacterial cellular engineering.

Nakashima, Nobutaka; Miyazaki, Kentaro

2014-01-01

18

Silencing of toxic gene expression by Fis  

PubMed Central

Bacteria and bacteriophages have evolved DNA modification as a strategy to protect their genomes. Mom protein of bacteriophage Mu modifies the phage DNA, rendering it refractile to numerous restriction enzymes and in turn enabling the phage to successfully invade a variety of hosts. A strong fortification, a combined activity of the phage and host factors, prevents untimely expression of mom and associated toxic effects. Here, we identify the bacterial chromatin architectural protein Fis as an additional player in this crowded regulatory cascade. Both in vivo and in vitro studies described here indicate that Fis acts as a transcriptional repressor of mom promoter. Further, our data shows that Fis mediates its repressive effect by denying access to RNA polymerase at mom promoter. We propose that a combined repressive effect of Fis and previously characterized negative regulatory factors could be responsible to keep the gene silenced most of the time. We thus present a new facet of Fis function in Mu biology. In addition to bringing about overall downregulation of Mu genome, it also ensures silencing of the advantageous but potentially lethal mom gene.

Karambelkar, Shweta; Swapna, Ganduri; Nagaraja, Valakunja

2012-01-01

19

RNA-Dependent Gene Silencing and Epigenetics in Animals  

Microsoft Academic Search

In animals noncoding RNAs are involved in a large variety of gene silencing mechanisms. These include post-transcriptional\\u000a RNA interference (RNAi) that is mediated by small double-stranded RNAs and results in degradation of messenger RNAs as well\\u000a as epigenetic silencing of genes. RNAi as a naturally occurring silencing mechanism has been well investigated in various\\u000a eukaryotic organisms. Sequencing of the human

Martina Paulsen; Sascha Tierling; Stephanie Barth; Jörn Walter

20

Mechanisms of Polycomb gene silencing: knowns and unknowns  

Microsoft Academic Search

Polycomb proteins form chromatin-modifying complexes that implement transcriptional silencing in higher eukaryotes. Hundreds of genes are silenced by Polycomb proteins, including dozens of genes that encode crucial developmental regulators in organisms ranging from plants to humans. Two main families of complexes, called Polycomb repressive complex 1 (PRC1) and PRC2, are targeted to repressed regions. Recent studies have advanced our understanding

Jeffrey A. Simon; Robert E. Kingston

2009-01-01

21

HLTF gene silencing in human colon cancer.  

PubMed

Chromatin remodeling enzymes are increasingly implicated in a variety of important cellular functions. Various components of chromatin remodeling complexes, including several members of the SWI/SNF family, have been shown to be disrupted in cancer. In this study we identified as a target for gene inactivation in colon cancer the gene for helicase-like transcription factor (HLTF), a SWI/SNF family protein. Loss of HLTF expression accompanied by HLTF promoter methylation was noted in nine of 34 colon cancer cell lines. In these cell lines HLTF expression was restored by treatment with the demethylating agent 5-azacytidine. In further studies of primary colon cancer tissues, HLTF methylation was detected in 27 of 63 cases (43%). No methylation of HLTF was detected in breast or lung cancers, suggesting selection for HLTF methylation in colonic malignancies. Transfection of HLTF suppressed 75% of colony growth in each of three different HLTF-deficient cell lines, but showed no suppressive effect in any of three HLTF-proficient cell lines. These findings show that HLTF is a common target for methylation and epigenetic gene silencing in colon cancer and suggest HLTF is a candidate colon cancer suppressor gene. PMID:11904375

Moinova, Helen R; Chen, Wei-Dong; Shen, Lanlan; Smiraglia, Dominic; Olechnowicz, Joseph; Ravi, Lakshmeswari; Kasturi, Lakshmi; Myeroff, Lois; Plass, Christoph; Parsons, Ramon; Minna, John; Willson, James K V; Green, Sylvan B; Issa, Jean-Pierre; Markowitz, Sanford D

2002-04-01

22

Extremely stable Piwi-induced gene silencing in Caenorhabditis elegans  

PubMed Central

In recent years, the Piwi pathway has been shown to regulate the silencing of mobile genetic elements. However, we know little about how Piwi pathways impose silencing and even less about trans-generational stability of Piwi-induced silencing. We demonstrate that the Caenorhabditis elegans Piwi protein PRG-1 can initiate an extremely stable form of gene silencing on a transgenic, single-copy target. This type of silencing is faithfully maintained over tens of generations in the absence of a functional Piwi pathway. Interestingly, RNAi can also trigger permanent gene silencing of a single-copy transgene and the phenomenon will be collectively referred to as RNA-induced epigenetic silencing (RNAe). RNAe can act in trans and is dependent on endogenous RNAi factors. The involvement of factors known to act in nuclear RNAi and the fact that RNAe is accompanied by repressive chromatin marks indicate that RNAe includes a transcriptional silencing component. Our results demonstrate that, at least in C. elegans, the Piwi pathway can impose a state of gene silencing that borders on ‘permanently silent'. Such a property may be more widely conserved among Piwi pathways in different animals.

Luteijn, Maartje J; van Bergeijk, Petra; Kaaij, Lucas J T; Almeida, Miguel Vasconcelos; Roovers, Elke F; Berezikov, Eugene; Ketting, Rene F

2012-01-01

23

Transgenic gene silencing strategies for virus control  

Microsoft Academic Search

Co-suppression of transgenes and their homologous viral sequences by RNA silencing is a powerful strategy for achieving high-level\\u000a virus resistance in plants. This review provides a brief overview of RNA silencing mechanisms in plants and discusses important\\u000a transgene construct design features underpinning successful RNA silencing-mediated transgenic virus control. Application of\\u000a those strategies to protect horticultural and field crops from virus

R. G. Dietzgen; N. Mitter

2006-01-01

24

Epigenetic repeat-induced gene silencing (RIGS) in Arabidopsis  

Microsoft Academic Search

In several plant systems expression of structurally intact genes may be silenced epigenetically when a transgenic construct increases the copy number of DNA sequences. Here we report epigenetic silencing inArabidopsis lines containing transgenic inserts of defined genetic structure, all at the same genomic locus. These comprise an allelic series that includes a single copy of the primary insert, which carries

Farhah F. Assaad; Kerry Lee Tucker; Ethan R. Signer

1993-01-01

25

Novel RNA-based Strategies for Therapeutic Gene Silencing  

Microsoft Academic Search

The past decade has seen intense scientific interest in non-coding RNAs. In particular, the discovery and subsequent exploitation of gene silencing via RNA interference (RNAi) has revolutionized the way in which gene expression is now studied and understood. It is now well established that post-transcriptional gene silencing (PTGS) by the microRNA (miRNA) and other RNAi-associated pathways represents an essential layer

Christopher R Sibley; Yiqi Seow; Matthew JA Wood

2010-01-01

26

Protection of Renal Ischemia Injury using Combination Gene Silencing of Complement 3 and Caspase 3 Genes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background. Ischemia\\/reperfusion (I\\/R) injury occurs in clinical kidney transplantation, which results in graft dys- function and rejection. It has been documented that I\\/R injury is associated with complement activation and renal cell apoptosis.ThepurposeofthisstudywastodevelopastrategytopreventI\\/RinjuryusingsmallinterferingRNA(siRNA) that target complement 3 (C3) and caspase 3 genes. Methods. siRNA-expression vectors were constructed to target C3 and caspase 3 genes. Gene silencing efficacy was assessed using

Xiufen Zheng; Xusheng Zhang; Hongtao Sun; Biao Feng; Mu Li; Gang Chen; Costin Vladau; Dong Chen; Motohiko Suzuki; Lisa Min; Weihua Liu; Robert Zhong; Bertha Garcia; Anthony Jevnikar; Wei-Ping Min

2006-01-01

27

Tissue-specific gene silencing monitored in circulating RNA  

PubMed Central

Pharmacologic target gene modulation is the primary objective for RNA antagonist strategies and gene therapy. Here we show that mRNAs encoding tissue-specific gene transcripts can be detected in biological fluids and that RNAi-mediated target gene silencing in the liver and brain results in quantitative reductions in serum and cerebrospinal fluid mRNA levels, respectively. Further, administration of an anti-miRNA oligonucleotide resulted in decreased levels of the miRNA in circulation. Moreover, ectopic expression of an adenoviral transgene in the liver was quantified based on measurement of serum mRNA levels. This noninvasive method for monitoring tissue-specific RNA modulation could greatly advance the clinical development of RNA-based therapeutics.

Sehgal, Alfica; Chen, Qingmin; Gibbings, Derrick; Sah, Dinah W.Y.; Bumcrot, David

2014-01-01

28

Listening to the silent genes: transgene silencing, gene regulation and pathogen control  

Microsoft Academic Search

By capitalizing on the initially puzzling observations of unpredictable transgene silencing and variable expression, plant scientists have pioneered research into a novel type of epigenetic regulation, termed homology-dependent gene silencing. This silencing process has implications for natural mechanisms of gene expression in plants and other eukaryotes, and has branched out into studies of reversible DNA modifications; RNA metabolism, transport and

Jan M. Kooter; Marjori A. Matzke; Peter Meyer

1999-01-01

29

RNAi-mediated gene silencing in non-human primates  

Microsoft Academic Search

The opportunity to harness the RNA interference (RNAi) pathway to silence disease-causing genes holds great promise for the development of therapeutics directed against targets that are otherwise not addressable with current medicines. Although there are numerous examples of in vivo silencing of target genes after local delivery of small interfering RNAs (siRNAs), there remain only a few reports of RNAi-mediated

Tracy S. Zimmermann; Amy C. H. Lee; Akin Akinc; Birgit Bramlage; David Bumcrot; Matthew N. Fedoruk; Jens Harborth; James A. Heyes; Lloyd B. Jeffs; Matthias John; Adam D. Judge; Kieu Lam; Kevin McClintock; Lubomir V. Nechev; Lorne R. Palmer; Timothy Racie; Ingo Röhl; Stephan Seiffert; Sumi Shanmugam; Vandana Sood; Jürgen Soutschek; Ivanka Toudjarska; Amanda J. Wheat; Ed Yaworski; William Zedalis; Victor Koteliansky; Muthiah Manoharan; Hans-Peter Vornlocher; Ian MacLachlan

2006-01-01

30

Gene silencing by RNAi in mouse Sertoli cells  

PubMed Central

Background RNA interference (RNAi) is a valuable tool in the investigation of gene function. The purpose of this study was to examine the availability, target cell types and efficiency of RNAi in the mouse seminiferous epithelium. Methods The experimental model was based on transgenic mice expressing EGFP (enhanced green fluorescent protein). RNAi was induced by in vivo transfection of plasmid vectors encoding for short hairpin RNAs (shRNAs) targeting EGFP. shRNAs were transfected in vivo by microinjection into the seminiferous tubules via the rete testis followed by square wave electroporation. As a transfection reporter, expression of red fluorescent protein (HcRed 1) was used. Cell types, the efficiency of both transfections and RNAi were all evaluated. Results Sertoli cells were the main transfected cells. A reduction of about 40% in the level of EGFP protein was detected in cells successfully transfected both in vivo and in vitro. However, the efficiency of in vivo transfection was low. Conclusion In adult seminiferous epithelial cells, in vivo post-transcriptional gene silencing mediated by RNAi via shRNA is efficient in Sertoli cells. Similar levels of RNAi were detected both in vivo and in vitro. This also indicates that Sertoli cells have the necessary silencing machinery to repress the expression of endogenous genes via RNAi.

Gonzalez-Gonzalez, Emilio; Lopez-Casas, Pedro P; del Mazo, Jesus

2008-01-01

31

In vivo chromatin accessibility correlates with gene silencing in Drosophila.  

PubMed Central

Gene silencing by heterochromatin is a well-known phenomenon that, in Drosophila, is called position effect variegation (PEV). The long-held hypothesis that this gene silencing is associated with an altered chromatin structure received direct support only recently. Another gene-silencing phenomenon in Drosophila, although similar in its phenotype of variegation, has been shown to be associated with euchromatic sequences and is dependent on developmental regulators of the Polycomb group (Pc-G) of gene products. One model proposes that the Pc-G products may cause a local heterochromatinization that maintains a repressed state of transcription of their target genes. Here, we test these models by measuring the accessibility of white or miniwhite sequences, in different contexts, to the Escherichia coli dam DNA methyltransferase in vivo. We present evidence that PEV and Pc-G-mediated repression mechanisms, although based on different protein factors, may indeed involve similar higher-order chromatin structure.

Boivin, A; Dura, J M

1998-01-01

32

MORC Family ATPases Required for Heterochromatin Condensation and Gene Silencing#  

PubMed Central

Transposable elements (TEs) and DNA repeats are commonly targeted by DNA and histone methylation to achieve epigenetic gene silencing. We isolated mutations in two Arabidopsis genes, AtMORC1 and AtMORC6, which cause de-repression of DNA-methylated genes and TEs, but no losses of DNA or histone methylation. AtMORC1 and AtMORC6 are members of the conserved Microrchidia (MORC) adenosine triphosphatase (ATPase) family, predicted to catalyze alterations in chromosome superstructure. The atmorc1 and atmorc6 mutants show decondensation of pericentromeric heterochromatin, increased interaction of pericentromeric regions with the rest of the genome, and transcriptional defects that are largely restricted to loci residing in pericentromeric regions. Knockdown of the single MORC homolog in Caenorhabditis elegans also impairs transgene silencing. We propose that the MORC ATPases are conserved regulators of gene silencing in eukaryotes.

Moissiard, Guillaume; Cokus, Shawn J.; Cary, Joshua; Feng, Suhua; Billi, Allison C.; Stroud, Hume; Husmann, Dylan; Zhan, Ye; Lajoie, Bryan R.; McCord, Rachel Patton; Hale, Christopher J.; Feng, Wei; Michaels, Scott D.; Frand, Alison R.; Pellegrini, Matteo; Dekker, Job; Kim, John K.; Jacobsen, Steve

2012-01-01

33

Heparanase Gene Silencing, Tumor Invasiveness, Angiogenesis, and Metastasis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Heparanase is an endoglycosidase that de- grades heparan sulfate, the main polysaccharide constituent of the extracellular matrix and basement membrane. Ex- pression of the heparanase gene is associated with the inva- sive, angiogenic, and metastatic potential of diverse malig- nant tumors and cell lines. We used gene-silencing strategies to evaluate the role of heparanase in malignancy and to explore

Evgeny Edovitsky; Michael Elkin; Eyal Zcharia; Tamar Peretz; Israel Vlodavsky

2004-01-01

34

RNAi-based gene silencing in chicken brain development.  

PubMed

The mouse is the most commonly used vertebrate model for the analysis of gene function because of the well-established genetic tools that are available for loss-of-function studies. However, studies of gene function during development can be problematic in mammals. Many genes are active during different stages of development. Absence of gene function during early development may cause embryonic lethality and thus prevent analysis of later stages of development. To avoid these problems, precise temporal control of gene silencing is required. In contrast to mammals, oviparous animals are accessible for experimental manipulations during embryonic development. The combination of accessibility and RNAi-based gene silencing makes the chicken embryo a powerful model for developmental studies. Depending on the time window during which gene silencing is attempted, chicken embryos can be used for RNAi in ovo or cultured in a domed dish for easier access during ex ovo RNAi. Both techniques allow for precise temporal control of gene silencing during embryonic development. PMID:24048939

Andermatt, Irwin; Stoeckli, Esther T

2014-01-01

35

Silencers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Large size silencers are attached to the intake and exhaust of large industrial plants, e.g. forced ventilation systems for mining industry, intake of cooling towers (Fig. 11.1) or flue gas stacks of power plants to protect the neighbourhood from plant noise. Large silencers are also required for ventilation openings of rooms with high internal sound pressure levels, e.g. industrial production halls or subway ventilation ducts.

Kurze, U.; Riedel, E.

36

[The analysis of rbcS gene function by post-transcription gene silencing in Nicotiana benthamiana].  

PubMed

A system of virus-induced post-transcriptional gene silencing for studying rbcS gene function was established and optimized using tobacco rattle virus vector and Nicotiana benthamiana as experimental materiaes. The following analyses were conducted: phenotypic characterization of rbcS gene silenced plants, transcription levels of rbcS gene by RT-PCR; protein levels of rbcS by the antibodies of rbcS and rbcL and photosynthetic pigments wntents in rbcS silenced plants by HPLC method. The results showed that the seedlings at 21-24-day-old and Agrobacterium concentration at OD600 = 1-1.5 gave the best results for gene silencing. The expression level of rbcL was very likely regulated by rbcS, and rbcS gene did not relate to the collection of photosynthetic energy. Probability analysis showed that the tobacco rattle virus vector system is a useful and effective technique to study rbcS gene function via post-transcriptional gene silencing. PMID:16018185

Zhou, Xiao-Fu; Ma, Peng-Da; Wang, Ren-Hou; Zhu, Xiao-Juan; Liu, Bao; Wang, Xing-Zhi

2005-06-01

37

Histone deacetylase inhibitors reverse gene silencing in Friedreich's ataxia.  

PubMed

Expansion of GAA x TTC triplets within an intron in FXN (the gene encoding frataxin) leads to transcription silencing, forming the molecular basis for the neurodegenerative disease Friedreich's ataxia. Gene silencing at expanded FXN alleles is accompanied by hypoacetylation of histones H3 and H4 and trimethylation of histone H3 at Lys9, observations that are consistent with a heterochromatin-mediated repression mechanism. We describe the synthesis and characterization of a class of histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors that reverse FXN silencing in primary lymphocytes from individuals with Friedreich's ataxia. We show that these molecules directly affect the histones associated with FXN, increasing acetylation at particular lysine residues on histones H3 and H4 (H3K14, H4K5 and H4K12). This class of HDAC inhibitors may yield therapeutics for Friedreich's ataxia. PMID:16921367

Herman, David; Jenssen, Kai; Burnett, Ryan; Soragni, Elisabetta; Perlman, Susan L; Gottesfeld, Joel M

2006-10-01

38

Virus-induced gene silencing in soybean and common bean.  

PubMed

Plant viral vectors are useful for transient gene expression as well as for downregulation of gene expression via virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS). When used in reverse genetics approaches, VIGS offers a convenient way of transforming genomic information into knowledge of gene function. Efforts to develop and improve plant viral vectors have expanded their applications and have led to substantial advances needed to facilitate gene function studies in major row crops. Here, we describe a DNA-based Bean pod mottle virus (BPMV) vector system for both gene expression and VIGS in soybean and common bean. PMID:23386301

Zhang, Chunquan; Whitham, Steven A; Hill, John H

2013-01-01

39

Thermodynamic Control of Small RNA-Mediated Gene Silencing  

PubMed Central

Small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) and microRNAs (miRNAs) are key regulators of posttranscriptional gene silencing, which is referred to as RNA interference (RNAi) or RNA silencing. In RNAi, siRNA loaded onto the RNA-induced silencing complex (RISC) downreugulates target gene expression by cleaving mRNA whose sequence is perfectly complementary to the siRNA guide strand. We previously showed that highly functional siRNAs possessed the following characteristics: A or U residues at nucleotide position 1 measured from the 5? terminal, four to seven A/Us in positions 1–7, and G or C residues at position 19. This finding indicated that an RNA strand with a thermodynamically unstable 5? terminal is easily retained in the RISC and functions as a guide strand. In addition, it is clear that unintended genes with complementarities only in the seed region (positions 2–8) are also downregulated by off-target effects. siRNA efficiency is mainly determined by the Watson–Crick base-pairing stability formed between the siRNA seed region and target mRNA. siRNAs with a low seed-target duplex melting temperature (Tm) have little or no seed-dependent off-target activity. Thus, important parts of the RNA silencing machinery may be regulated by nucleotide base-pairing thermodynamic stability. A mechanistic understanding of thermodynamic control may enable an efficient target gene-specific RNAi for functional genomics and safe therapeutic applications.

Ui-Tei, Kumiko; Nishi, Kenji; Takahashi, Tomoko; Nagasawa, Tatsuya

2012-01-01

40

Endothelial Cells Are Susceptible to Rapid siRNA Transfection and Gene Silencing Ex Vivo  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND Endothelial gene silencing via small interfering RNA (siRNA) transfection represents a promising strategy for the control of vascular disease. Here, we demonstrate endothelial gene silencing in human saphenous vein using three rapid siRNA transfection techniques amenable for use in the operating room. MATERIALS AND METHODS Control siRNA, Cy5 siRNA, or siRNA targeting glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) or endothelial specific nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) were applied to surplus human saphenous vein for 10 minutes by (i) soaking, (ii) applying 300 mmHg hyperbaric pressure, or (iii) 120 mmHg luminal distending pressure. Transfected vein segments were maintained in organ culture. siRNA delivery and gene silencing were assessed by tissue layer using confocal microscopy and immunohistochemistry. RESULTS Distending pressure transfection yielded the highest levels of endothelial siRNA delivery (22% pixels fluorescing) and gene silencing (60% GAPDH knockdown, 55% eNOS knockdown) as compared to hyperbaric (12% pixels fluorescing, 36% GAPDH knockdown, 30% eNOS knockdown) or non-pressurized transfections (10% pixels fluorescing, 30% GAPDH knockdown, 25% eNOS knockdown). Cumulative endothelial siRNA delivery (16% pixels fluorescing) and gene silencing (46% GAPDH knockdown) exceeded levels achieved in the media/adventitia (8% pixels fluorescing, 24% GAPDH knockdown) across all transfection methods. CONCLUSION Endothelial gene silencing is possible within the timeframe and conditions of surgical application without the use of transfection reagents. The high sensitivity of endothelial cells to siRNA transfection marks the endothelium as a promising target of gene therapy in vascular disease.

Andersen, Nicholas D.; Chopra, Atish; Monahan, Thomas S.; Malek, Junaid Y.; Jain, Monica; Pradhan, Leena; Ferran, Christiane; LoGerfo, Frank W.

2010-01-01

41

Reconstitution of Heterochromatin-Dependent Transcriptional Gene Silencing  

PubMed Central

Summary Heterochromatin assembly in budding yeast requires the SIR complex, which contains the NAD-dependent deacetylase Sir2 and the Sir3 and Sir4 proteins. Sir3 binds to nucleosomes containing deacetylated histone H4 lysine 16 (H4K16) and, with Sir4, promotes spreading of Sir2 and deacetylation along the chromatin fiber. Combined action of histone modifying and binding activities is a conserved hallmark of heterochromatin, but the relative contribution of each activity to silencing has remained unclear. Here we reconstitute SIR-chromatin complexes using purified components and show that the SIR complex efficiently deacetylates chromatin templates and promotes the assembly of altered structures that silence Gal4-VP16-activated transcription. Silencing requires all three Sir proteins, even with fully deacetylated chromatin, and involves the specific association of Sir3 with deacetylated H4K16. These results define a minimal set of components that mediate heterochromatic gene silencing and demonstrate distinct contributions for histone deacetylation and nucleosome binding in the silencing mechanism.

Johnson, Aaron; Li, Geng; Sikorski, Timothy W.; Buratowski, Stephen; Woodcock, Christopher L.; Moazed, Danesh

2009-01-01

42

Aucsia gene silencing causes parthenocarpic fruit development in tomato.  

PubMed

In angiosperms, auxin phytohormones play a crucial regulatory role in fruit initiation. The expression of auxin biosynthesis genes in ovules and placenta results in uncoupling of tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) fruit development from fertilization with production of parthenocarpic fruits. We have identified two newly described genes, named Aucsia genes, which are differentially expressed in auxin-synthesis (DefH9-iaaM) parthenocarpic tomato flower buds. The two tomato Aucsia genes encode 53-amino-acid-long peptides. We show, by RNA interference-mediated gene suppression, that Aucsia genes are involved in both reproductive and vegetative plant development. Aucsia-silenced tomato plants exhibited auxin-related phenotypes such as parthenocarpic fruit development, leaf fusions, and reflexed leaves. Auxin-induced rhizogenesis in cotyledon explants and polar auxin transport in roots were reduced in Aucsia-silenced plants compared with wild-type plants. In addition, Aucsia-silenced plants showed an increased sensitivity to 1-naphthylphthalamic acid, an inhibitor of polar auxin transport. We further prove that total indole-3-acetic acid content was increased in preanthesis Aucsia-silenced flower buds. Thus, the data presented demonstrate that Aucsia genes encode a novel family of plant peptides that control fruit initiation and affect other auxin-related biological processes in tomato. Aucsia homologous genes are present in both chlorophytes and streptophytes, and the encoded peptides are distinguished by a 16-amino-acid-long (PYSGXSTLALVARXSA) AUCSIA motif, a lysine-rich carboxyl-terminal region, and a conserved tyrosine-based endocytic sorting motif. PMID:18987210

Molesini, Barbara; Pandolfini, Tiziana; Rotino, Giuseppe Leonardo; Dani, Valeria; Spena, Angelo

2009-01-01

43

Tobacco rattle virus-based virus-induced gene silencing in Nicotiana benthamiana.  

PubMed

Tobacco rattle virus (TRV)-based virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS) is widely used in various plant species to downregulate the expression of a target plant gene. TRV is a bipartite, positive-strand RNA virus with the TRV1 and TRV2 genomes. To induce post-transcriptional gene silencing (PTGS), the TRV2 genome is genetically modified to carry a fragment of the target gene and delivered into the plant (along with the TRV1 genome) by agroinoculation. TRV1- and TRV2-carrying Agrobacterium strains are then co-inoculated into 3-week-old plant leaves by one of three methods: a needleless syringe, the agrodrench method or by pricking with a toothpick. Target gene silencing occurs in the newly developed noninoculated leaves within 2-3 weeks of TRV inoculation. The TRV-VIGS protocol described here takes only 4 weeks to implement, and it is faster and easier to perform than other gene silencing techniques that are currently available. Although we use Nicotiana benthamiana as an example, the protocol is adaptable to other plant species. PMID:24901739

Senthil-Kumar, Muthappa; Mysore, Kirankumar S

2014-07-01

44

RIGS (Repeat-Induced Gene Silencing) in Arabidopsis is Transcriptional and Alters Chromatin Configuration  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have previously reported repeat-induced gene silencing (RIGS) in Arabidopsis, in which transgene expression may be silenced epigenetically when repeated sequences are present. Among an allelic series of lines comprising a primary transformant and various recombinant progeny carrying different numbers of drug resistance gene copies at the same locus, silencing was found to depend strictly on repeated sequences and to

Fei Ye; Ethan R. Signer

1996-01-01

45

Analysis of developmental control genes using virus-induced gene silencing.  

PubMed

A consistent challenge in studying the evolution of developmental processes has been the problem of explicitly assessing the function of developmental control genes in diverse species. In recent years, virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS) has proved to be remarkably adaptable and efficient in silencing developmental control genes in species across the angiosperms. Here we describe proven protocols for Nicotiana benthamiana and Papaver somniferum, representing a core and basal eudicot species. PMID:23386295

Geuten, Koen; Viaene, Tom; Vekemans, Dries; Kourmpetli, Sofia; Drea, Sinead

2013-01-01

46

Fluorescence microscopy-based high-throughput screening for factors involved in gene silencing.  

PubMed

Gene silencing in eukaryotes is a highly controlled process. It involves the concerted action of histone and DNA-modifying enzymes as well as transcription factors and chromatin-associated proteins. To understand how epigenetic gene silencing is regulated, it is important to identify the factors involved in this process. Here we describe an assay that allows high-throughput screening for factors involved in gene silencing. This assay exploits the susceptibility of the viral cytomegalovirus (CMV) promoter to epigenetic silencing in embryonic stem cells (ESCs) and uses reporter constructs with an optical readout to determine the gene silencing potential of candidate factors. This approach allows to study mechanisms and kinetics of gene silencing in living cells and to evaluate the role of DNA methyltransferases, histone-modifying enzymes, and other chromatin-associated factors during gene silencing. PMID:23980012

Bultmann, Sebastian; Leonhardt, Heinrich

2013-01-01

47

Endogenous Targets of Transcriptional Gene Silencing in Arabidopsis  

PubMed Central

Transcriptional gene silencing (TGS) frequently inactivates foreign genes integrated into plant genomes but very likely also suppresses an unknown subset of chromosomal information. Accordingly, RNA analysis of mutants impaired in silencing should uncover endogenous targets of this epigenetic regulation. We compared transcripts from wild-type Arabidopsis carrying a silent transgene with RNA from an isogenic transgene-expressing TGS mutant. Two cDNA clones were identified representing endogenous RNA expressed only in the mutant. The synthesis of these RNAs was found to be released in several mutants affected in TGS, implying that TGS in general and not a particular mutation controls the transcriptional activity of their templates. Detailed analysis revealed that the two clones are part of longer transcripts termed TSI (for transcriptionally silent information). Two major classes of related TSI transcripts were found in a mutant cDNA library. They are synthesized from repeats present in heterochromatic pericentromeric regions of Arabidopsis chromosomes. These repeats share sequence homology with the 3? terminal part of the putative retrotransposon Athila. However, the transcriptional activation does not include the transposon itself and does not promote its movement. There is no evidence for a general release of silencing from retroelements. Thus, foreign genes in plants encounter the epigenetic control normally directed, at least in part, toward a subset of pericentromeric repeats.

Steimer, Andrea; Amedeo, Paolo; Afsar, Karin; Fransz, Paul; Scheid, Ortrun Mittelsten; Paszkowski, Jerzy

2000-01-01

48

Pulmonary Gene Silencing in Transgenic EGFP Mice Using Aerosolised Chitosan\\/siRNA Nanoparticles  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose  This work describes the production and application of an aerosolised formulation of chitosan nanoparticles for improved pulmonary\\u000a siRNA delivery and gene silencing in mice.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  Aerosolised chitosan\\/siRNA nanoparticles were pneumatically formed using a nebulising catheter and sized by laser diffraction.\\u000a In vitro silencing of aerosolised and non-aerosolised formulations was evaluated in an EGFP endogenous-expressing H1299 cell line\\u000a by flow cytometry. Non-invasive

Ebbe J. B. Nielsen; Jan M. Nielsen; Daniel Becker; Alexander Karlas; Hridayesh Prakash; Sys Z. Glud; Jonathan Merrison; Flemming Besenbacher; Thomas F. Meyer; Jørgen Kjems; Kenneth A. Howard

2010-01-01

49

Requirements for gene silencing mediated by U1 snRNA binding to a target sequence  

Microsoft Academic Search

U1 interference (U1i) is a novel method to block gene expression. U1i requires expression of a 5'-end- mutated U1 snRNA designed to base pair to the 3'-terminal exon of the target gene's pre-mRNA that leads to inhibition of polyadenylation. Here, we show U1i is robust ( T 95%) and a 10-nt target length is sufficient for good silencing. Surprisingly, longer

Xabi Abad; Maria Vera; Stephen P. Jung; Evelyn Oswald; Ines Romero; Vaibhav Amin; Puri Fortes; Samuel I. Gunderson

2008-01-01

50

Virus resistance and gene silencing: killing the messenger.  

PubMed

On occassion, virus-derived transgenes in plants can be poorly expressed and yet provide excellent virus resistance, and transgene constructs designed to supplement the expression of endogenous genes can have the effect of co-suppressing themselves and the endogenous genes. These two phenomena appear to result from the same post-transcriptional silencing mechanism, which operates by targeted-RNA degradation. Recent research into RNA-mediated virus resistance and co-suppression has provided insights into the interactions between plant viruses and their hosts, and spawned several models to explain the phenomenon. PMID:10529827

Waterhouse; Smith; Wang

1999-11-01

51

Suppression of Virus Accumulation in Transgenic Plants Exhibiting Silencing of Nuclear Genes.  

PubMed Central

Homology-dependent gene silencing contributes to variation between transgenic plants with respect to transgene and/or endogenous gene expression levels. Recent studies have linked post-transcriptional gene silencing and virus resistance in plants expressing virus-derived transgenes. Using a potato virus X vector, we present three examples in which silencing of nonviral transgenes prevented virus accumulation. This effect was dependent on sequence homology between the virus and the silenced transgene. Analysis of potato virus X derivatives carrying bacterial [beta]-glucuronidase (GUS) sequences showed that the 3[prime] region of the GUS coding sequence was a target of the silencing mechanism in two independent tobacco lines. Methylation of the silenced GUS transgenes in these lines was also concentrated in the 3[prime] region of the GUS coding sequence. Based on this concurrence, we propose a link between the DNA-based transgene methylation and the RNA-based gene silencing process.

English, J. J.; Mueller, E.; Baulcombe, D. C.

1996-01-01

52

Optimized cDNA libraries for virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS) using tobacco rattle virus  

PubMed Central

Background Virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS) has emerged as a method for performing rapid loss-of-function experiments in plants. Despite its expanding use, the effect of host gene insert length and other properties on silencing efficiency have not been systematically tested. In this study, we probed the optimal properties of cDNA fragments of the phytoene desaturase (PDS) gene for efficient VIGS in Nicotiana benthamiana using tobacco rattle virus (TRV). Results NbPDS inserts of between 192 bp and 1304 bp led to efficient silencing as determined by analysis of leaf chlorophyll a levels. The region of the NbPDS cDNA used for silencing had a small effect on silencing efficiency with 5' and 3' located inserts performing more poorly than those from the middle. Silencing efficiency was reduced by the inclusion of a 24 bp poly(A) or poly(G) homopolymeric region. We developed a method for constructing cDNA libraries for use as a source of VIGS-ready constructs. Library construction involved the synthesis of cDNA on a solid phase support, digestion with RsaI to yield short cDNA fragments lacking poly(A) tails and suppression subtractive hybridization to enrich for differentially expressed transcripts. We constructed two cDNA libraries from methyl-jasmonate treated N. benthamiana roots and obtained 2948 ESTs. Thirty percent of the cDNA inserts were 401–500 bp in length and 99.5% lacked poly(A) tails. To test the efficiency of constructs derived from the VIGS-cDNA libraries, we silenced the nicotine biosynthetic enzyme, putrescine N-methyltransferase (PMT), with ten different VIGS-NbPMT constructs ranging from 122 bp to 517 bp. Leaf nicotine levels were reduced by more than 90% in all plants infected with the NbPMT constructs. Conclusion Based on the silencing of NbPDS and NbPMT, we suggest the following design guidelines for constructs in TRV vectors: (1) Insert lengths should be in the range of ~200 bp to ~1300 bp, (2) they should be positioned in the middle of the cDNA and (3) homopolymeric regions (i.e. poly(A/T) tails) should not be included. Our VIGS-cDNA library method, which incorporates these guidelines to produce sequenced, VIGS-ready cDNAs, will be useful for both fast-forward and reverse genetics experiments in TRV vectors.

Liu, Enwu; Page, Jonathan E

2008-01-01

53

Global reactivation of epigenetically silenced genes in prostate cancer.  

PubMed

Transcriptional silencing associated with aberrant promoter hypermethylation is a common mechanism of inactivation of tumor suppressor genes in cancer cells. To globally profile the genes silenced by hypermethylation in prostate cancer, we screened a whole genome expression microarray for genes reactivated in the LNCaP, DU-145, PC-3, and MDA2b prostate tumor cell lines after treatment with the demethylating drug 5-aza-2-deoxycytidine and the histone deacetylation-inhibiting drug trichostatin A. A total of 2,997 genes showed at least 2-fold upregulation of expression after drug treatment in at least one prostate tumor cell line. For validation, we examined the first 45 genes, ranked by upregulation of expression, which had a typical CpG island and were known to be expressed in the normal cell counterpart. Two important findings were, first, that several genes known to be frequently hypermethylated in prostate cancer were apparent, and, second, that validation studies revealed eight novel genes hypermethylated in the prostate tumor cell lines, four of which were unmethylated in normal prostate cells and hypermethylated in primary prostate tumors (SLC15A3, 66%; KRT7, 54%; TACSTD2, 17%; GADD45b, 3%). Thus, we established the utility of our screen for genes hypermethylated in prostate cancer cells. One of the novel genes was TACSTD2/TROP2, a marker of human prostate basal cells with stem cell characteristics. TACSTD2 was unmethylated in prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia and may have utility in emerging methylation-based prostate cancer tests. Further study of the hypermethylome will provide insight into the biology of the disease and facilitate translational studies in prostate cancer. PMID:20699414

Ibragimova, Ilsiya; Ibáñez de Cáceres, Inmaculada; Hoffman, Amanda M; Potapova, Anna; Dulaimi, Essel; Al-Saleem, Tahseen; Hudes, Gary R; Ochs, Michael F; Cairns, Paul

2010-09-01

54

TRB3 Gene Silencing Alleviates Diabetic Cardiomyopathy in a Type 2 Diabetic Rat Model  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE Tribbles 3 (TRB3) is associated with insulin resistance, an important trigger in the development of diabetic cardiomyopathy (DCM). We sought to determine whether TRB3 plays a major role in modulating DCM and the mechanisms involved. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS The type 2 diabetic rat model was induced by high-fat diet and low-dose streptozotocin. We evaluated the characteristics of type 2 DCM by serial echocardiography and metabolite tests, Western blot analysis for TRB3 expression, and histopathologic analyses of cardiomyocyte density, lipids accumulation, cardiac inflammation, and fibrosis area. We then used gene silencing to investigate the role of TRB3 in the pathophysiologic features of DCM. RESULTS Rats with DCM showed severe insulin resistance, left ventricular dysfunction, aberrant lipids deposition, cardiac inflammation, fibrosis, and TRB3 overexpression. We found that the silencing of TRB3 ameliorated metabolic disturbance and insulin resistance; myocardial hypertrophy, lipids accumulation, inflammation, fibrosis, and elevated collagen I-to-III content ratio in DCM rats were significantly decreased. These anatomic findings were accompanied by significant improvements in cardiac function. Furthermore, with TRB3 gene silencing, the inhibited phosphorylation of Akt was restored and the increased phosphorylation of extracellular signal–regulated kinase 1/2 and Jun NH2-terminal kinase in DCM was significantly decreased. Conclusions. TRB3 gene silencing may exert a protective effect on DCM by improving selective insulin resistance, implicating its potential role for treatment of human DCM.

Ti, Yun; Xie, Guo-lu; Wang, Zhi-hao; Bi, Xiao-lei; Ding, Wen-yuan; Wang, Jia; Jiang, Gui-hua; Bu, Pei-li; Zhang, Yun; Zhong, Ming; Zhang, Wei

2011-01-01

55

Virus-Induced Silencing of a Plant Cellulose Synthase Gene  

PubMed Central

Specific cDNA fragments corresponding to putative cellulose synthase genes (CesA) were inserted into potato virus X vectors for functional analysis in Nicotiana benthamiana by using virus-induced gene silencing. Plants infected with one group of cDNAs had much shorter internode lengths, small leaves, and a “dwarf” phenotype. Consistent with a loss of cell wall cellulose, abnormally large and in many cases spherical cells ballooned from the undersurfaces of leaves, particularly in regions adjacent to vascular tissues. Linkage analyses of wall polysaccharides prepared from infected leaves revealed a 25% decrease in cellulose content. Transcript levels for at least one member of the CesA cellulose synthase gene family were lower in infected plants. The decrease in cellulose content in cell walls was offset by an increase in homogalacturonan, in which the degree of esterification of carboxyl groups decreased from ?50 to ?33%. The results suggest that feedback loops interconnect the cellular machinery controlling cellulose and pectin biosynthesis. On the basis of the phenotypic features of the infected plants, changes in wall composition, and the reduced abundance of CesA mRNA, we concluded that the cDNA fragments silenced one or more cellulose synthase genes.

Burton, Rachel A.; Gibeaut, David M.; Bacic, Antony; Findlay, Kim; Roberts, Keith; Hamilton, Andrew; Baulcombe, David C.; Fincher, Geoffrey B.

2000-01-01

56

Transcriptional gene silencing mediated by non-coding RNAs  

PubMed Central

Chromatin remodelling guided by non-coding RNA (ncRNA) contributes mechanistically to the establishment of chromatin structure and to the maintenance of epigenetic memory. Various ncRNAs have been identified as regulators of chromatin structure and gene expression. The widespread occurrence of antisense transcription in eukaryotes emphasizes the prevalence of gene regulation by natural antisense transcripts. Recently, antisense ncRNAs have been implicated in the silencing of tumor suppressor genes through epigenetic remodeling events. Characterization of the antisense RNAs involved in the development or maintenance of oncogenic states may define ncRNAs as early biomarkers for the emergence of cancer, and could have a significant impact on the development of tools for disease diagnosis and treatment. In this review, current knowledge on the mechanisms of ncRNA-mediated transcriptional gene silencing in humans is discussed, and parallels between the establishment of a silent chromatin state mediated by siRNAs and long antisense ncRNAs are highlighted.

Malecova, Barbora; Morris, Kevin V

2010-01-01

57

Virus-induced silencing of a plant cellulose synthase gene.  

PubMed

Specific cDNA fragments corresponding to putative cellulose synthase genes (CesA) were inserted into potato virus X vectors for functional analysis in Nicotiana benthamiana by using virus-induced gene silencing. Plants infected with one group of cDNAs had much shorter internode lengths, small leaves, and a "dwarf" phenotype. Consistent with a loss of cell wall cellulose, abnormally large and in many cases spherical cells ballooned from the undersurfaces of leaves, particularly in regions adjacent to vascular tissues. Linkage analyses of wall polysaccharides prepared from infected leaves revealed a 25% decrease in cellulose content. Transcript levels for at least one member of the CesA cellulose synthase gene family were lower in infected plants. The decrease in cellulose content in cell walls was offset by an increase in homogalacturonan, in which the degree of esterification of carboxyl groups decreased from approximately 50 to approximately 33%. The results suggest that feedback loops interconnect the cellular machinery controlling cellulose and pectin biosynthesis. On the basis of the phenotypic features of the infected plants, changes in wall composition, and the reduced abundance of CesA mRNA, we concluded that the cDNA fragments silenced one or more cellulose synthase genes. PMID:10810144

Burton, R A; Gibeaut, D M; Bacic, A; Findlay, K; Roberts, K; Hamilton, A; Baulcombe, D C; Fincher, G B

2000-05-01

58

Synthetic versions of firefly luciferase and Renilla luciferase reporter genes that resist transgene silencing in sugarcane  

PubMed Central

Background Down-regulation or silencing of transgene expression can be a major hurdle to both molecular studies and biotechnology applications in many plant species. Sugarcane is particularly effective at silencing introduced transgenes, including reporter genes such as the firefly luciferase gene. Synthesizing transgene coding sequences optimized for usage in the host plant is one method of enhancing transgene expression and stability. Using specified design rules we have synthesised new coding sequences for both the firefly luciferase and Renilla luciferase reporter genes. We have tested these optimized versions for enhanced levels of luciferase activity and for increased steady state luciferase mRNA levels in sugarcane. Results The synthetic firefly luciferase (luc*) and Renilla luciferase (Renluc*) coding sequences have elevated G?+?C contents in line with sugarcane codon usage, but maintain 75% identity to the native firefly or Renilla luciferase nucleotide sequences and 100% identity to the protein coding sequences. Under the control of the maize pUbi promoter, the synthetic luc* and Renluc* genes yielded 60x and 15x higher luciferase activity respectively, over the native firefly and Renilla luciferase genes in transient assays on sugarcane suspension cell cultures. Using a novel transient assay in sugarcane suspension cells combining co-bombardment and qRT-PCR, we showed that synthetic luc* and Renluc* genes generate increased transcript levels compared to the native firefly and Renilla luciferase genes. In stable transgenic lines, the luc* transgene generated significantly higher levels of expression than the native firefly luciferase transgene. The fold difference in expression was highest in the youngest tissues. Conclusions We developed synthetic versions of both the firefly and Renilla luciferase reporter genes that resist transgene silencing in sugarcane. These transgenes will be particularly useful for evaluating the expression patterns conferred by existing and newly isolated promoters in sugarcane tissues. The strategies used to design the synthetic luciferase transgenes could be applied to other transgenes that are aggressively silenced in sugarcane.

2014-01-01

59

Gene silencing in a polyploid homosporous fern: paleopolyploidy revisited.  

PubMed Central

Because of their high chromosome numbers, homosporous vascular plants were considered paleopolyploids until recent enzyme electrophoretic studies rejected this hypothesis by showing that they express only diploid numbers of isozymes. In polyploid sporophytes of the homosporous fern pelleae rufa, however, progressive diminution of phosphoglucoisomerase activities encoded by one ancestral genome culminates in tetraploid plants exhibiting a completely diploidized electrophoretic phenotype for this enzyme. The demonstration that such gene silencing can make a polyploid fern look isozymically like a diploid questions the validity of isozyme evidence for testing the paleopolyploid hypothesis and supports the proposed role of polyploidization followed by genetic diploidizaton in the evolutionary history of homosporous pteridohytes. Images

Gastony, G J

1991-01-01

60

Epigenetic Activation and Silencing of the Gene that Encodes IFN-?  

PubMed Central

Transcriptional activation and repression of genes that are developmentally regulated or exhibit cell-type specific expression patterns is largely achieved by modifying the chromatin template at a gene locus. Complex formation of stable epigenetic histone marks, loss or gain of DNA methylation, alterations in chromosome conformation, and specific utilization of both proximal and distal transcriptional enhancers and repressors all contribute to this process. In addition, long non-coding RNAs are a new species of regulatory RNAs that either positively or negatively regulate transcription of target gene loci. IFN-? is a pro-inflammatory cytokine with critical functions in both innate and adaptive arms of the immune system. This review focuses on our current understanding of how the chromatin template is modified at the IFNG locus during developmental processes leading to its transcriptional activation and silencing.

Aune, Thomas M.; Collins, Patrick L.; Collier, Sarah P.; Henderson, Melodie A.; Chang, Shaojing

2013-01-01

61

ssiRNA Induced Gene Silencing is Transmitted Between Cells From the Mammalian Central Nervous System  

PubMed Central

Although siRNA induced gene silencing can be transmitted between cells in plants and in C. elegans, this phenomenon has been barely studied in mammalian cells. Both immortalized oligodendrocytes and SNB-19 glioblastoma cells were transfected with siRNA constructs for PTEN (phosphatase and tensin homolog deleted on chromosome 10) or Akt (Akt/protein kinase B). Co-cultures were established between silenced cells and non-silenced cells which were hygromycin resistant and/or expressed green fluorescent protein (GFP). After fluorescence sorting or hygromycin selection to remove the silenced cells, the expression of PTEN or Akt genes in the originally unsilenced cells was in all cases significantly decreased. Importantly, silencing did not occur in transwell culture studies, suggesting that transmission of the silencing signal requires a close association between cells. These results provide the first direct demonstration that an siRNA induced silencing signal can be transmitted between mammalian central nervous system (CNS) cells.

Zhao, Tian-Yong; Zou, Shi-Ping; Alimova, Yelena V.; Wang, Guoying; Hauser, Kurt F.; Ghandour, M. Said; Knapp, Pamela E.

2014-01-01

62

SATB1 Defines the Developmental Context for Gene Silencing by Xist in Lymphoma and Embryonic Cells  

PubMed Central

SUMMARY The noncoding Xist RNA triggers silencing of one of the two female X chromosomes during X inactivation in mammals. Gene silencing by Xist is restricted to a special developmental context in early embryos and specific hematopoietic precursors. Here, we show that Xist can initiate silencing in a lymphoma model. We identify the special AT-rich binding protein SATB1 as an essential silencing factor. Loss of SATB1 in tumor cells abrogates the silencing function of Xist. In lymphocytes Xist localizes along SATB1-organized chromatin and SATB1 and Xist influence each other’s pattern of localization. SATB1 and its homolog SATB2 are expressed during the initiation window for X inactivation in ES cells. Importantly, viral expression of SATB1 or SATB2 enables gene silencing by Xist in embryonic fibroblasts, which normally do not provide an initiation context. Thus, our data establish SATB1 as a crucial silencing factor contributing to the initiation of X inactivation.

Agrelo, Ruben; Souabni, Abdallah; Novatchkova, Maria; Haslinger, Christian; Leeb, Martin; Komnenovic, Vukoslav; Kishimoto, Hiroyuki; Gresh, Lionel; Kohwi-Shigematsu, Terumi; Kenner, Lukas; Wutz, Anton

2014-01-01

63

RNA silencing as a tool to uncover gene function and engineer novel traits in soybean  

PubMed Central

RNA silencing refers collectively to diverse RNA-mediated pathways of nucleotide-sequence-specific inhibition of gene expression. It has been used to analyze gene function and engineer novel traits in various organisms. Here, we review the application of RNA silencing in soybean. To produce soybean lines, in which a particular gene is stably silenced, researchers have frequently used a transgene that transcribes inverted repeats of a target gene segment. Suppression of gene expression in developing soybean embryos has been one of the main focuses of metabolic engineering using transgene-induced silencing. Plants that have enhanced resistance against diseases caused by viruses or cyst nematode have also been produced. Meanwhile, Agrobacterium rhizogenes-mediated transformation has been used to induce RNA silencing in roots, which enabled analysis of the roles of gene products in nodulation or disease resistance. RNA silencing has also been induced using viral vectors, which is particularly useful for gene function analysis. So far, three viral vectors for virus-induced gene silencing have been developed for soybean. One of the features of the soybean genome is the presence of a large number of duplicated genes. Potential use of RNA silencing technology in combination with forward genetic approaches for analyzing duplicated genes is discussed.

Kasai, Megumi; Kanazawa, Akira

2012-01-01

64

Virus-aided gene expression and silencing using TRV for functional analysis of floral scent-related genes.  

PubMed

Flower scent is a composite character determined by a complex mixture of low-molecular-weight volatile molecules. Despite the importance of floral fragrance, our knowledge on factors regulating these pathways remains sketchy. Virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS) and virus-aided gene expression (VAGE) are characterized by a simple inoculation procedure and rapid results as compared to transgenesis, allowing screening and characterization of scent-related genes. Here, we describe methods using TRV as a VIGS/VAGE vector for the characterization of scent-related genes, protein compartmentalization studies, and protein subcellular targeting. PMID:23386300

Spitzer-Rimon, Ben; Cna'ani, Alon; Vainstein, Alexander

2013-01-01

65

Molecular deregulation induced by silencing of the high mobility group protein A2 gene in retinoblastoma cells  

PubMed Central

Aim To explore the molecular mechanisms deregulated by high mobility group protein A2 (HMGA2) gene silencing in retinoblastoma (RB) cells. Methods Synthetic anti-HMGA2 short interfering RNA (siRNA) was used to silence the HMGA2 gene in cultured Y79 RB cells that were subjected to whole genome microarray analysis. The expression of differentially regulated key genes was confirmed with quantitative reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (qRT–PCR) in post-silenced RB cell lines (Y79 and WERI Rb1). These deregulated genes were compared for their constitutive expression in primary RB tumors (n=10). Zymographic determination of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) activity was performed in RB cells. A cell cycle assay and a proliferation assay were performed in post-transfected RB cells. Results HMGA2 gene silencing in cultured RB cells results in reduced cell proliferation and transition in the G1/S phase. The whole genome microarray analysis of HMGA2 silenced Y79 cells revealed overall upregulation of 1,132 genes (?1.0 fold) and downregulation of 1,562 genes (? ?1.0 fold). Specific quantitative pathway analysis of the deregulated genes (using Biointerpreter) revealed 150 upregulated genes and 77 downregulated genes (?1.0 fold) involved in vital pathways, namely, mitogen-activated protein kinase, Janus kinase/signal transducers and activators of transcription, Ras pathway, Ras-induced extracellular signal-regulated protein kinases 1 and 2, and tumor protein p53. The differential expression of genes obtained from microarray analysis (Homo sapiens ELK1, member of ETS oncogene family [ELK1], Homo sapiens cyclin-dependent kinase 6 [CDK6], Homo sapiens E2F transcription factor 4, p107/p130-binding [E2F4], Homo sapiens G-2 and S-phase expressed 1 [GTSE1], Damage-regulated autophagy modulator [DRAM], Homo sapiens cadherin 1, type 1,E-cadherin (epithelial) [CDH1], Homo sapiens snail homolog 1 (Drosophila) [SNAI1], Homo sapiens matrix metallopeptidase 2 [MMP2], and Homo sapiens matrix metallopeptidase 9 [MMP9]) was confirmed with quantitative reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction in post-silenced RB cells. Zymographic analysis revealed that the increase in MMP mRNA expression in the post-silenced RB cells did not correlate with corresponding enzyme activity. Conclusions Our study revealed molecular regulatory changes induced by HMGA2 silencing in RB cancer cells, offering mechanistic insights into the anticancer potential. HMGA2 may be considered a promising candidate for gene silencing therapy in RB.

Venkatesan, Nalini; Deepa, Perinkulam Ravi; Deepa, Murali; Khetan, Vikas; Reddy, M. Ashwin

2012-01-01

66

Gene silencing in adipose tissue macrophages regulates whole-body metabolism in obese mice.  

PubMed

Adipose tissue (AT) inflammation and infiltration by macrophages is associated with insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes in obese humans, offering a potential target for therapeutics. However, whether AT macrophages (ATMs) directly contribute to systemic glucose intolerance has not been determined. The reason is the lack of methods to ablate inflammatory genes expressed in macrophages specifically localized within AT depots, leaving macrophages in other tissues unaffected. Here we report that i.p. administration of siRNA encapsulated by glucan shells in obese mice selectively silences genes in epididymal ATMs, whereas macrophages within lung, spleen, kidney, heart, skeletal muscle, subcutaneous (SubQ) adipose, and liver are not targeted. Such administration of GeRPs to silence the inflammatory cytokines TNF-? or osteopontin in epididymal ATMs of obese mice caused significant improvement in glucose tolerance. These data are consistent with the hypothesis that cytokines produced by ATMs can exacerbate whole-body glucose intolerance. PMID:23630254

Aouadi, Myriam; Tencerova, Michaela; Vangala, Pranitha; Yawe, Joseph C; Nicoloro, Sarah M; Amano, Shinya U; Cohen, Jessica L; Czech, Michael P

2013-05-14

67

Gene silencing in adipose tissue macrophages regulates whole-body metabolism in obese mice  

PubMed Central

Adipose tissue (AT) inflammation and infiltration by macrophages is associated with insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes in obese humans, offering a potential target for therapeutics. However, whether AT macrophages (ATMs) directly contribute to systemic glucose intolerance has not been determined. The reason is the lack of methods to ablate inflammatory genes expressed in macrophages specifically localized within AT depots, leaving macrophages in other tissues unaffected. Here we report that i.p. administration of siRNA encapsulated by glucan shells in obese mice selectively silences genes in epididymal ATMs, whereas macrophages within lung, spleen, kidney, heart, skeletal muscle, subcutaneous (SubQ) adipose, and liver are not targeted. Such administration of GeRPs to silence the inflammatory cytokines TNF-? or osteopontin in epididymal ATMs of obese mice caused significant improvement in glucose tolerance. These data are consistent with the hypothesis that cytokines produced by ATMs can exacerbate whole-body glucose intolerance.

Aouadi, Myriam; Tencerova, Michaela; Vangala, Pranitha; Yawe, Joseph C.; Nicoloro, Sarah M.; Amano, Shinya U.; Cohen, Jessica L.; Czech, Michael P.

2013-01-01

68

Protocol: using virus-induced gene silencing to study the arbuscular mycorrhizal symbiosis in Pisum sativum  

PubMed Central

Virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS) is an alternative reverse genetics tool for silencing of genes in some plants, which are difficult to transform. The pea early-browning virus (PEBV) has been developed as a VIGS vector and used in pea for functional analysis of several genes. However, the available PEBV-VIGS protocols are inadequate for studying genes involved in the symbiosis with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF). Here we describe a PEBV-VIGS protocol suitable for reverse genetics studies in pea of genes involved in the symbiosis with AMF and show its effectiveness in silencing genes involved in the early and late stages of AMF symbiosis.

2010-01-01

69

Highly efficient virus-induced gene silencing in apple and soybean by apple latent spherical virus vector and biolistic inoculation.  

PubMed

Virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS) is an effective tool for the analysis of the gene function in plants within a short time. However, in woody fruit tree like apple, some of Solanum crops, and soybean, it is generally difficult to inoculate virus vector by conventional inoculation methods. Here, we show efficient VIGS in apple and soybean by Apple latent spherical virus (ALSV) vector and biolistic inoculation. The plants inoculated with ALSV vectors by particle bombardment showed uniform silenced phenotypes of target genes within 2-3 weeks post inoculation. PMID:23386303

Yamagishi, Noriko; Yoshikawa, Nobuyuki

2013-01-01

70

An intronic microRNA silences genes that are functionally antagonistic to its host gene  

Microsoft Academic Search

MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are short noncoding RNAs that down-regulate gene expression by silencing specific target mRNAs. While many miRNAs are transcribed from their own genes, nearly half map within introns of 'host' genes, the significance of which remains unclear. We report that transcrip- tional activation of apoptosis-associated tyrosine kinase (AATK), essential for neuronal differentiation, also generates miR-338 from an AATK gene

Sailen Barik

2008-01-01

71

Postembryonic Establishment of Megabase-Scale Gene Silencing in Nucleolar Dominance  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nucleolar dominance is an epigenetic phenomenon in plant and animal genetic hybrids that describes the expression of 45S ribosomal RNA genes (rRNA genes) inherited from only one progenitor due to the silencing of the other progenitor's rRNA genes. rRNA genes are tandemly arrayed at nucleolus organizer regions (NORs) that span millions of basepairs, thus gene silencing in nucleolar dominance occurs

Olga Pontes; Richard J. Lawrence; Manuela Silva; Sasha Preuss; Pedro Costa-Nunes; Keith Earley; Nuno Neves; Wanda Viegas; Craig S. Pikaard

2007-01-01

72

Changing Hydrozoan Bauplans by Silencing Hox-Like Genes  

PubMed Central

Regulatory genes of the Antp class have been a major factor for the invention and radiation of animal bauplans. One of the most diverse animal phyla are the Cnidaria, which are close to the root of metazoan life and which often appear in two distinct generations and a remarkable variety of body forms. Hox-like genes have been known to be involved in axial patterning in the Cnidaria and have been suspected to play roles in the genetic control of many of the observed bauplan changes. Unfortunately RNAi mediated gene silencing studies have not been satisfactory for marine invertebrate organisms thus far. No direct evidence supporting Hox-like gene induced bauplan changes in cnidarians have been documented as of yet. Herein, we report a protocol for RNAi transfection of marine invertebrates and demonstrate that knock downs of Hox-like genes in Cnidaria create substantial bauplan alterations, including the formation of multiple oral poles (“heads”) by Cnox-2 and Cnox-3 inhibition, deformation of the main body axis by Cnox-5 inhibition and duplication of tentacles by Cnox-1 inhibition. All phenotypes observed in the course of the RNAi studies were identical to those obtained by morpholino antisense oligo experiments and are reminiscent of macroevolutionary bauplan changes. The reported protocol will allow routine RNAi studies in marine invertebrates to be established.

Jakob, Wolfgang; Schierwater, Bernd

2007-01-01

73

A virus-induced gene silencing approach to understanding alkaloid metabolism in Catharanthus roseus  

PubMed Central

The anticancer agents vinblastine and vincristine are bisindole alkaloids derived from coupling vindoline and catharanthine, monoterpenoid indole alkaloids produced exclusively by Madagascar periwinkle (Catharanthus roseus) plants. Industrial production of vinblastine and vincristine currently relies on isolation from C. roseus leaves, a process that affords these compounds in 0.0003–0.01% yields. Metabolic engineering efforts to improve alkaloid content or provide alternative sources of the bisindole alkaloids ultimately rely on the isolation and characterization of the genes involved. Several vindoline biosynthetic genes have been isolated, and the cellular and subcellular organization of the corresponding enzymes has been well studied. However, due to the leaf-specific localization of vindoline biosynthesis, and the lack of production of this precursor in cell suspension and hairy root cultures of C. roseus, further elucidation of this pathway demands the development of reverse genetics approaches to assay gene function in planta. The bipartite pTRV vector system is a Tobacco Rattle Virus-based virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS) platform that has provided efficient and effective means to assay gene function in diverse plant systems. We have developed a VIGS method to investigate gene function in C. roseus plants using the pTRV vector system. The utility of this approach in understanding gene function in C. roseus leaves is demonstrated by silencing known vindoline biosynthetic genes previously characterized in vitro.

Liscombe, David K.; O'Connor, Sarah E.

2011-01-01

74

RNAi-Mediated Gene silencing in Zebrafish Triggered by Convergent Transcription  

PubMed Central

RNAi based strategies to induce gene silencing are commonly employed in numerous model organisms but have not been extensively used in zebrafish. We found that introduction of transgenes containing convergent transcription units in zebrafish embryos induced stable transcriptional gene silencing (TGS) in cis and trans for reporter (mCherry) and endogenous (One-Eyed Pinhead (OEP) and miR-27a/b) genes. Convergent transcription enabled detection of both sense and antisense transcripts and silencing was suppressed upon Dicer knockdown, indicating processing of double stranded RNA. By ChIP analyses, increased silencing was accompanied by enrichment of the heterochromatin mark H3K9me3 in the two convergently arranged promoters and in the intervening reading frame. Our work demonstrates that convergent transcription can induce gene silencing in zebrafish providing another tool to create specific temporal and spatial control of gene expression.

Andrews, Omozusi E.; Cha, Diana J.; Wei, Chunyao; Patton, James G.

2014-01-01

75

RNAi-Mediated Gene silencing in Zebrafish Triggered by Convergent Transcription.  

PubMed

RNAi based strategies to induce gene silencing are commonly employed in numerous model organisms but have not been extensively used in zebrafish. We found that introduction of transgenes containing convergent transcription units in zebrafish embryos induced stable transcriptional gene silencing (TGS) in cis and trans for reporter (mCherry) and endogenous (One-Eyed Pinhead (OEP) and miR-27a/b) genes. Convergent transcription enabled detection of both sense and antisense transcripts and silencing was suppressed upon Dicer knockdown, indicating processing of double stranded RNA. By ChIP analyses, increased silencing was accompanied by enrichment of the heterochromatin mark H3K9me3 in the two convergently arranged promoters and in the intervening reading frame. Our work demonstrates that convergent transcription can induce gene silencing in zebrafish providing another tool to create specific temporal and spatial control of gene expression. PMID:24909225

Andrews, Omozusi E; Cha, Diana J; Wei, Chunyao; Patton, James G

2014-01-01

76

Analysis of hairpin RNA transgene-induced gene silencing in Fusarium oxysporum  

PubMed Central

Background Hairpin RNA (hpRNA) transgenes can be effective at inducing RNA silencing and have been exploited as a powerful tool for gene function analysis in many organisms. However, in fungi, expression of hairpin RNA transcripts can induce post-transcriptional gene silencing, but in some species can also lead to transcriptional gene silencing, suggesting a more complex interplay of the two pathways at least in some fungi. Because many fungal species are important pathogens, RNA silencing is a powerful technique to understand gene function, particularly when gene knockouts are difficult to obtain. We investigated whether the plant pathogenic fungus Fusarium oxysporum possesses a functional gene silencing machinery and whether hairpin RNA transcripts can be employed to effectively induce gene silencing. Results Here we show that, in the phytopathogenic fungus F. oxysporum, hpRNA transgenes targeting either a ?-glucuronidase (Gus) reporter transgene (hpGus) or the endogenous gene Frp1 (hpFrp) did not induce significant silencing of the target genes. Expression analysis suggested that the hpRNA transgenes are prone to transcriptional inactivation, resulting in low levels of hpRNA and siRNA production. However, the hpGus RNA can be efficiently transcribed by promoters acquired either by recombination with a pre-existing, actively transcribed Gus transgene or by fortuitous integration near an endogenous gene promoter allowing siRNA production. These siRNAs effectively induced silencing of a target Gus transgene, which in turn appeared to also induce secondary siRNA production. Furthermore, our results suggested that hpRNA transcripts without poly(A) tails are efficiently processed into siRNAs to induce gene silencing. A convergent promoter transgene, designed to express poly(A)-minus sense and antisense Gus RNAs, without an inverted-repeat DNA structure, induced consistent Gus silencing in F. oxysporum. Conclusions These results indicate that F. oxysporum possesses functional RNA silencing machineries for siRNA production and target mRNA cleavage, but hpRNA transgenes may induce transcriptional self-silencing due to its inverted-repeat structure. Our results suggest that F. oxysporum possesses a similar gene silencing pathway to other fungi like fission yeast, and indicate a need for developing more effective RNA silencing technology for gene function studies in this fungal pathogen.

2013-01-01

77

Design of potential siRNA molecules for T antigen gene silencing of Merkel Cell Polyomavirus  

PubMed Central

Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC) is the most aggressive skin cancer. Recently, it was demonstrated that human Merkel cell polyomavirus (MCV) is clonally integrated in 80% of MCC tumors. Genetic studies of MCV have shown that T antigen protein is responsible for replication of genome and play a foremost role in viral infection. Therefore, T antigen protein may be used as suitable target for disease diagnosis. Viral activity can be restrained through RNA interference (RNAi) technology, an influential method for post transcriptional gene silencing in a sequence specific manner. In current study four effective siRNA molecules for silencing of MCV were rationally designed and validated using computational methods, which may lead to knockdown the activity of virus. Thus, this approach may provide an insight for the chemical synthesis of antiviral RNA molecule for the treatment of MCC at genome level.

Hoque, Kazi Muhammad Ahasanul; Azim, Md Faisal; Mia, M Robin; Kayesh, Rafidin; Ali, Md Hazrat; Islam, Md Jahidul; Shakil, Shahriar Kabir; Shuvra, Tonmay Modak

2012-01-01

78

Virus-induced gene silencing of 14-3-3 genes abrogates dark repression of nitrate reductase activity in Nicotiana benthamiana  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to study the effect of repression of 14-3-3 genes on actual activity of the nitrate reductase (NR) in Nicotiana benthamiana leaves, Nb14-3-3a gene was silenced by virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS) method using potato virus X (PVX). Expression of Nb14-3-3a as well as Nb14-3-3b genes was altogether repressed in the leaves of PVX-14-3a-infected plants. Furthermore, two-dimensional gel electrophoresis\\u000a and

Tatsuya Hirano; Akiko Ito; Thomas Berberich; Ryohei Terauchi; Hiromasa Saitoh

2007-01-01

79

LNA-antisense rivals siRNA for gene silencing.  

PubMed

Locked nucleic acid (LNA) is a class of nucleic acid analogs possessing unprecedented binding affinity toward complementary DNA and RNA while obeying the Watson-Crick base-pairing rules. For efficient gene silencing in vitro and in vivo, fully modified or chimeric LNA oligonucleotides have been applied. LNA oligonucleotides are commercially available, can be transfected using standard techniques, are non-toxic, lead to increased target accessibility, can be designed to activate RNase H, and function in steric block approaches. LNA-Antisense, including gapmer LNA containing a central DNA or phosphorothioate-DNA segment flanked by LNA gaps, rivals siRNA as the technology of choice for target validation and therapeutic applications. PMID:15603252

Jepsen, Jan Stenvang; Wengel, Jesper

2004-03-01

80

Developmental regulation of antisense-mediated gene silencing in Dictyostelium.  

PubMed

In Dictyostelium, the expression of antisense transcripts has been successfully used to reduce or eliminate gene expression. In most cases this occurs on the level of RNA stability resulting in a loss of both sense and antisense transcript accumulation. We here show that the antisense effect is regulated during the developmental cycle, i.e., in certain developmental stages and under certain developmental conditions, complementary RNAs appear not to interact with each other, resulting in a failure to abolish expression of the gene of interest. We find that this is not only the case with artificially introduced antisense constructs but also with the endogenous, antisense-regulated PSV-A gene. Our data demonstrate that antisense-mediated gene silencing is conferred by a biochemical machinery that is subject to regulation in vivo. The results provide a basis to better understand this machinery and to dissect the components. They may also explain the failure of some antisense experiments in Dictyostelium and possibly in other organisms. PMID:7734941

Sadiq, M; Hildebrandt, M; Maniak, M; Nellen, W

1994-01-01

81

Cohesin and Polycomb Proteins Functionally Interact to Control Transcription at Silenced and Active Genes  

PubMed Central

Cohesin is crucial for proper chromosome segregation but also regulates gene transcription and organism development by poorly understood mechanisms. Using genome-wide assays in Drosophila developing wings and cultured cells, we find that cohesin functionally interacts with Polycomb group (PcG) silencing proteins at both silenced and active genes. Cohesin unexpectedly facilitates binding of Polycomb Repressive Complex 1 (PRC1) to many active genes, but their binding is mutually antagonistic at silenced genes. PRC1 depletion decreases phosphorylated RNA polymerase II and mRNA at many active genes but increases them at silenced genes. Depletion of cohesin reduces long-range interactions between Polycomb Response Elements in the invected-engrailed gene complex where it represses transcription. These studies reveal a previously unrecognized role for PRC1 in facilitating productive gene transcription and provide new insights into how cohesin and PRC1 control development.

Schaaf, Cheri A.; Misulovin, Ziva; Gause, Maria; Koenig, Amanda; Gohara, David W.; Watson, Audrey; Dorsett, Dale

2013-01-01

82

Cohesin and polycomb proteins functionally interact to control transcription at silenced and active genes.  

PubMed

Cohesin is crucial for proper chromosome segregation but also regulates gene transcription and organism development by poorly understood mechanisms. Using genome-wide assays in Drosophila developing wings and cultured cells, we find that cohesin functionally interacts with Polycomb group (PcG) silencing proteins at both silenced and active genes. Cohesin unexpectedly facilitates binding of Polycomb Repressive Complex 1 (PRC1) to many active genes, but their binding is mutually antagonistic at silenced genes. PRC1 depletion decreases phosphorylated RNA polymerase II and mRNA at many active genes but increases them at silenced genes. Depletion of cohesin reduces long-range interactions between Polycomb Response Elements in the invected-engrailed gene complex where it represses transcription. These studies reveal a previously unrecognized role for PRC1 in facilitating productive gene transcription and provide new insights into how cohesin and PRC1 control development. PMID:23818863

Schaaf, Cheri A; Misulovin, Ziva; Gause, Maria; Koenig, Amanda; Gohara, David W; Watson, Audrey; Dorsett, Dale

2013-06-01

83

Virus-induced gene silencing as a tool for functional analyses in the emerging model plant Aquilegia (columbine, Ranunculaceae)  

PubMed Central

Background The lower eudicot genus Aquilegia, commonly known as columbine, is currently the subject of extensive genetic and genomic research aimed at developing this taxon as a new model for the study of ecology and evolution. The ability to perform functional genetic analyses is a critical component of this development process and ultimately has the potential to provide insight into the genetic basis for the evolution of a wide array of traits that differentiate flowering plants. Aquilegia is of particular interest due to both its recent evolutionary history, which involves a rapid adaptive radiation, and its intermediate phylogenetic position between core eudicot (e.g., Arabidopsis) and grass (e.g., Oryza) model species. Results Here we demonstrate the effective use of a reverse genetic technique, virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS), to study gene function in this emerging model plant. Using Agrobacterium mediated transfer of tobacco rattle virus (TRV) based vectors, we induce silencing of PHYTOENE DESATURASE (AqPDS) in Aquilegia vulgaris seedlings, and ANTHOCYANIDIN SYNTHASE (AqANS) and the B-class floral organ identity gene PISTILLATA in A. vulgaris flowers. For all of these genes, silencing phenotypes are associated with consistent reduction in endogenous transcript levels. In addition, we show that silencing of AqANS has no effect on overall floral morphology and is therefore a suitable marker for the identification of silenced flowers in dual-locus silencing experiments. Conclusion Our results show that TRV-VIGS in Aquilegia vulgaris allows data to be rapidly obtained and can be reproduced with effective survival and silencing rates. Furthermore, this method can successfully be used to evaluate the function of early-acting developmental genes. In the future, data derived from VIGS analyses will be combined with large-scale sequencing and microarray experiments already underway in order to address both recent and ancient evolutionary questions.

Gould, Billie; Kramer, Elena M

2007-01-01

84

Construction and properties of a gene-silencing vector based on Poplar mosaic virus (genus Carlavirus).  

PubMed

A gene-silencing vector based on a full-length genomic clone of Poplar mosaic virus (PopMV) was constructed, with coat protein and movement protein genes removed, and containing instead, the coding sequence for green fluorescent protein (GFP). This paper demonstrates that the PopMV-derived gene-silencing vector was able to silence GFP expression in GFP transgenic Nicotiana benthamiana plants. The full-length genome of an Oxford isolate of PopMV (PV275) was cloned and sequenced. A full-length PopMV clone, under transcriptional control of the 35SCaMV promoter was then constructed, and the clone was able to replicate locally in Nicotiana species. Several autonomous plant RNA and DNA viruses have been converted into vectors and implemented for virus-induced gene-silencing (VIGS) of transgenes and endogenous genes [Burton, R., Gibeaut, D., Bacic, A., Findlay, K., Roberts, K., Hamilton, A., Baulcombe, D., Fincher, G., 2000. Virus-induced silencing of a plant cellulose synthase gene. Plant Cell 12, 691-706; Dalmay, T., Horsefield, R., Braunstein, T.H., Baulcombe, D.C., 2001. SDE3 encodes an RNA helicase required for post-transcriptional gene silencing in Arabidopsis. EMBO J. 20, 2069-2077; Gossele, V., Fache, I., Meulewaeter, F., Cornelissen, M., Metzlaff, M., 2002. SVISS--a novel transient gene silencing system for gene function discovery and validation in tobacco plants. Plant J. 32, 859-866; Holzberg, S., Brosio, P., Gross, C., Pogue, G.P., 2002. Barley stripe mosaic virus-induced gene silencing in a monocot plant. Plant J. 30, 315-327; Ratcliff, F., Martin-Hernandez, A., Baulcombe, D., 2000. Tobacco rattle virus as a vector for analysis of gene function by silencing. Plant J. 25, 237-245; Ruiz, M., Vionnet, O., Baulcombe, D., 1998. Initiation and maintenance of virus-induced gene silencing. Plant Cell 10, 937-946]. The use of a virus that naturally infects trees as a gene-silencing vector has not been demonstrated before. The ability to systemically silence a plant transgene following the production of a gene-silencing signal from a locally replicating viral-construct derived from a carlavirus has not to our knowledge been shown before. PMID:15664047

Naylor, M; Reeves, J; Cooper, J I; Edwards, M-L; Wang, H

2005-03-01

85

The effect of RAFT-derived cationic block copolymer structure on gene silencing efficiency.  

PubMed

In this work a series of ABA tri-block copolymers was prepared from oligo(ethylene glycol) methyl ether methacrylate (OEGMA(475)) and N,N-dimethylaminoethyl methacrylate (DMAEMA) to investigate the effect of polymer composition on cell viability, siRNA uptake, serum stability and gene silencing. Reversible Addition-Fragmentation Chain Transfer (RAFT) polymerization was used as the method of polymer synthesis as this technique allows the preparation of well-defined block copolymers with low polydispersity. Eight block copolymers were prepared by systematically varying the central cationic block (DMAEMA) length from 38 to 192 monomer units and the outer hydrophilic block (OEGMA(475)) from 7 to 69 units. The polymers were characterized using size exclusion chromatography and (1)H NMR. Chinese Hamster Ovary-GFP and Human Embryonic Kidney 293 cells were used to assay cell viability while the efficiency of block copolymers to complex with siRNA was evaluated by agarose gel electrophoresis. The ability of the polymer-siRNA complexes to enter into cells and to silence the targeted reporter gene enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) was measured by using a CHO-GFP silencing assay. The length of the central cationic block appears to be the key structural parameter that has a significant effect on cell viability and gene silencing efficiency with block lengths of 110-120 monomer units being the optimum. The ABA block copolymer architecture is also critical with the outer hydrophilic blocks contributing to serum stability and overall efficiency of the polymer as a delivery system. PMID:22831854

Hinton, Tracey M; Guerrero-Sanchez, Carlos; Graham, Janease E; Le, Tam; Muir, Benjamin W; Shi, Shuning; Tizard, Mark L V; Gunatillake, Pathiraja A; McLean, Keith M; Thang, San H

2012-10-01

86

A geminivirus-induced gene silencing system for gene function validation in cassava.  

PubMed

We have constructed an African cassava mosaic virus (ACMV) based gene-silencing vector as a reverse genetics tool for gene function analysis in cassava. The vector carrying a fragment from the Nicotiana tabacum sulfur gene (su), encoding one unit of the chloroplast enzyme magnesium chelatase, was used to induce the silencing of the cassava orthologous gene resulting in yellow-white spots characteristic of the inhibition of su expression. This result suggests that well developed sequence databases from model plants like Arabidopsis thaliana, Nicotiana benthamiana, N. tabacum, Lycopersicon esculentum and others could be used as a major source of information and sequences for functional genomics in cassava. Furthermore, a fragment of the cassava CYP79D2 endogenous gene, sharing 89% homology with CYP79D1 endogenous gene was inserted into the ACMV vector. The resultant vector was inducing the down regulation of the expression of these two genes which catalyze the first-dedicated step in the synthesis of linamarin, the major cyanogenic glycoside in cassava. At 21 days post-inoculation (dpi), a 76% reduction of linamarin content was observed in silenced leaves. Using transgenic plants expressing antisense RNA of CYP79D1 and CYP79D2, Siritunga and Sayre (2003) obtained several lines with a reduction level varying from 60% to 94%. This result provides the first example of direct comparison of the efficiency of a virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS) system and the transgenic approach for suppression of a biosynthetic pathway. The ACMV VIGS system will certainly be a complement and in some cases an alternative to the transgenic approach, for gene discovery and gene function analysis in cassava. PMID:15630624

Fofana, Ismael B F; Sangaré, Abdourahamane; Collier, Ray; Taylor, Christopher; Fauquet, Claude M

2004-11-01

87

Characterization of oncogene-silenced transgenic plants: implications for Agrobacterium biology and post-transcriptional gene silencing.  

PubMed

SUMMARY Agrobacterium tumefaciens tumorigenesis is initiated by the horizontal transfer of a suite of oncogenes that alter hormone synthesis and sensitivity in infected plant cells. Transgenic plants silenced for the iaaM and ipt oncogenes are highly recalcitrant to tumorigenesis, and present a unique resource to elucidate fundamental questions related to Agrobacterium biology and post-transcriptional gene silencing (PTGS). The oncogene-silenced transgenic tomato line 01/6 was used to characterize A. tumefaciens growth in planta and to screen for iaaM and ipt sequence variants. Even in the absence of macroscopic and microscopic indications of tumorigenesis, A. tumefaciens is capable of long-term survival in the hypocotyl tissues of the 01/6 line. A. tumefaciens growth, however, is significantly reduced in the 01/6 line, with populations decreased by 96% relative to wild-type at 52 days post-inoculation. In addition, the 01/6 line displayed suppression of tumorigenesis against all 35 tested strains of A. tumefaciens. High target homology is an absolute requirement of PTGS, therefore this result suggests that regions of the iaaM and ipt oncogenes are very highly conserved across most A. tumefaciens strains. Finally, graft transmissibility of oncogene silencing was assessed by grafting various non-silenced tomato genotypes on to the 01/6 line. Phenotypic and molecular evidence (tumorigenesis and absence of small interfering RNAs, respectively) suggest that oncogene silencing is not graft-transmissible, at least to wild-type and antisense iaaM-over-expressing genotypes. PMID:20569363

Escobar, M A; Civerolo, E L; Polito, V S; Pinney, K A; Dandekar, A M

2003-01-01

88

Systemic RNAi-mediated Gene Silencing in Nonhuman Primate and Rodent Myeloid Cells.  

PubMed

Leukocytes are central regulators of inflammation and the target cells of therapies for key diseases, including autoimmune, cardiovascular, and malignant disorders. Efficient in vivo delivery of small interfering RNA (siRNA) to immune cells could thus enable novel treatment strategies with broad applicability. In this report, we develop systemic delivery methods of siRNA encapsulated in lipid nanoparticles (LNP) for durable and potent in vivo RNA interference (RNAi)-mediated silencing in myeloid cells. This work provides the first demonstration of siRNA-mediated silencing in myeloid cell types of nonhuman primates (NHPs) and establishes the feasibility of targeting multiple gene targets in rodent myeloid cells. The therapeutic potential of these formulations was demonstrated using siRNA targeting tumor necrosis factor-? (TNF?) which induced substantial attenuation of disease progression comparable to a potent antibody treatment in a mouse model of rheumatoid arthritis (RA). In summary, we demonstrate a broadly applicable and therapeutically relevant platform for silencing disease genes in immune cells. PMID:23344621

Novobrantseva, Tatiana I; Borodovsky, Anna; Wong, Jamie; Klebanov, Boris; Zafari, Mohammad; Yucius, Kristina; Querbes, William; Ge, Pei; Ruda, Vera M; Milstein, Stuart; Speciner, Lauren; Duncan, Rick; Barros, Scott; Basha, Genc; Cullis, Pieter; Akinc, Akin; Donahoe, Jessica S; Narayanannair Jayaprakash, K; Jayaraman, Muthusamy; Bogorad, Roman L; Love, Kevin; Whitehead, Katie; Levins, Chris; Manoharan, Muthiah; Swirski, Filip K; Weissleder, Ralph; Langer, Robert; Anderson, Daniel G; de Fougerolles, Antonin; Nahrendorf, Matthias; Koteliansky, Victor

2012-01-01

89

Systemic RNAi-mediated Gene Silencing in Nonhuman Primate and Rodent Myeloid Cells  

PubMed Central

Leukocytes are central regulators of inflammation and the target cells of therapies for key diseases, including autoimmune, cardiovascular, and malignant disorders. Efficient in vivo delivery of small interfering RNA (siRNA) to immune cells could thus enable novel treatment strategies with broad applicability. In this report, we develop systemic delivery methods of siRNA encapsulated in lipid nanoparticles (LNP) for durable and potent in vivo RNA interference (RNAi)-mediated silencing in myeloid cells. This work provides the first demonstration of siRNA-mediated silencing in myeloid cell types of nonhuman primates (NHPs) and establishes the feasibility of targeting multiple gene targets in rodent myeloid cells. The therapeutic potential of these formulations was demonstrated using siRNA targeting tumor necrosis factor-? (TNF?) which induced substantial attenuation of disease progression comparable to a potent antibody treatment in a mouse model of rheumatoid arthritis (RA). In summary, we demonstrate a broadly applicable and therapeutically relevant platform for silencing disease genes in immune cells.

Novobrantseva, Tatiana I; Borodovsky, Anna; Wong, Jamie; Klebanov, Boris; Zafari, Mohammad; Yucius, Kristina; Querbes, William; Ge, Pei; Ruda, Vera M; Milstein, Stuart; Speciner, Lauren; Duncan, Rick; Barros, Scott; Basha, Genc; Cullis, Pieter; Akinc, Akin; Donahoe, Jessica S; Narayanannair Jayaprakash, K; Jayaraman, Muthusamy; Bogorad, Roman L; Love, Kevin; Whitehead, Katie; Levins, Chris; Manoharan, Muthiah; Swirski, Filip K; Weissleder, Ralph; Langer, Robert; Anderson, Daniel G; de Fougerolles, Antonin; Nahrendorf, Matthias; Koteliansky, Victor

2012-01-01

90

Oncogenic RAS directs silencing of tumor suppressor genes through ordered recruitment of transcriptional repressors  

PubMed Central

We previously identified 28 cofactors through which a RAS oncoprotein directs transcriptional silencing of Fas and other tumor suppressor genes (TSGs). Here we performed RNAi-based epistasis experiments and found that RAS-directed silencing occurs through a highly ordered pathway that is initiated by binding of ZFP354B, a sequence-specific DNA-binding protein, and culminates in recruitment of the DNA methyltransferase DNMT1. RNAi and pharmacological inhibition experiments reveal that silencing requires continuous function of RAS and its cofactors and can be rapidly reversed, which may have therapeutic implications for reactivation of silenced TSGs in RAS-positive cancers.

Wajapeyee, Narendra; Malonia, Sunil K.; Palakurthy, Rajendra K.; Green, Michael R.

2013-01-01

91

The Coat Protein of Turnip Crinkle Virus Suppresses Posttranscriptional Gene Silencing at an Early Initiation Step  

Microsoft Academic Search

Posttranscriptional gene silencing (PTGS), or RNA silencing, is a sequence-specific RNA degradation pro- cess that targets foreign RNA, including viral and transposon RNA for destruction. Several RNA plant viruses have been shown to encode suppressors of PTGS in order to survive this host defense. We report here that the coat protein (CP) of Turnip crinkle virus (TCV) strongly suppresses PTGS.

F. Qu; T. Ren; T. J. Morris

2003-01-01

92

Mechanisms guiding Polycomb activities during gene silencing in Arabidopsis thaliana  

PubMed Central

Polycomb group (PcG) proteins act in an evolutionarily conserved epigenetic pathway that regulates chromatin structures in plants and animals, repressing many developmentally important genes by modifying histones. PcG proteins can form at least two multiprotein complexes: Polycomb Repressive Complexes 1 and 2 (PRC1 and PRC2, respectively). The functions of Arabidopsis thaliana PRCs have been characterized in multiple stages of development and have diverse roles in response to environmental stimuli. Recently, the mechanism that precisely regulates Arabidopsis PcG activity was extensively studied. In this review, we summarize recent discoveries in the regulations of PcG at the three different layers: the recruitment of PRCs to specific target loci, the polyubiquitination and degradation of PRC2, and the antagonism of PRC2 activity by the Trithorax group proteins. Current knowledge indicates that the powerful activity of the PcG pathway is strictly controlled for specific silencing of target genes during plant development and in response to environmental stimuli.

He, Chongsheng; Huang, Hai; Xu, Lin

2013-01-01

93

Mechanisms guiding Polycomb activities during gene silencing in Arabidopsis thaliana.  

PubMed

Polycomb group (PcG) proteins act in an evolutionarily conserved epigenetic pathway that regulates chromatin structures in plants and animals, repressing many developmentally important genes by modifying histones. PcG proteins can form at least two multiprotein complexes: Polycomb Repressive Complexes 1 and 2 (PRC1 and PRC2, respectively). The functions of Arabidopsis thaliana PRCs have been characterized in multiple stages of development and have diverse roles in response to environmental stimuli. Recently, the mechanism that precisely regulates Arabidopsis PcG activity was extensively studied. In this review, we summarize recent discoveries in the regulations of PcG at the three different layers: the recruitment of PRCs to specific target loci, the polyubiquitination and degradation of PRC2, and the antagonism of PRC2 activity by the Trithorax group proteins. Current knowledge indicates that the powerful activity of the PcG pathway is strictly controlled for specific silencing of target genes during plant development and in response to environmental stimuli. PMID:24312106

He, Chongsheng; Huang, Hai; Xu, Lin

2013-01-01

94

Enhancing glycoprotein sialylation by targeted gene silencing in mammalian cells.  

PubMed

Recombinant glycoproteins produced by mammalian cells represent an important category of therapeutic pharmaceuticals used in human health care. Of the numerous sugars moieties found in glycoproteins, the terminal sialic acid is considered particularly important. Sialic acid has been found to influence the solubility, thermal stability, resistance to protease attack, antigenicity, and specific activity of various glycoproteins. In mammalian cells, it is often desirable to maximize the final sialic acid content of a glycoprotein to ensure its quality and consistency as an effective pharmaceutical. In this study, CHO cells overexpressing recombinant human interferon gamma (hIFNgamma) were treated using short interfering RNA (siRNA) and short-hairpin RNA (shRNA) to reduce expression of two newly identified sialidase genes, Neu1 and Neu3. By knocking down expression of Neu3 we achieved a 98% reduction in sialidase function in CHO cells. The recombinant hIFNgamma was examined for sialic acid content that was found to be increased 33% and 26% respectively with samples from cell stationary phase and death phase as compared to control. Here, we demonstrate an effective targeted gene silencing strategy to enhance protein sialylation using RNA interference (RNAi) technology. PMID:20014139

Zhang, Min; Koskie, Kerry; Ross, James S; Kayser, Kevin J; Caple, Matthew V

2010-04-15

95

DNA Methylation and Complete Transcriptional Silencing of Cancer Genes Persist after Depletion of EZH2  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent work suggests a link between the polycomb group protein EZH2 and mediation of gene silencing in association with maintenance of DNA methylation. However,we show that whereas basally expressed target cancer genes with minimal DNA methylation have increased transcription during EZH2 knockdown,densely DNA hypermethylated and silenced genes retain their methylation and remain transcriptionally silent. These results suggest that EZH2 can

Kelly M. McGarvey; Eriko Greene; Jill A. Fahrner; Thomas Jenuwein; Stephen B. Baylin

96

SIRT1 Inhibition Alleviates Gene Silencing in Fragile X Mental Retardation Syndrome  

Microsoft Academic Search

Expansion of the CGG•CCG-repeat tract in the 5? UTR of the FMR1 gene to >200 repeats leads to heterochromatinization of the promoter and gene silencing. This results in Fragile X syndrome (FXS), the most common heritable form of mental retardation. The mechanism of gene silencing is unknown. We report here that a Class III histone deacetylase, SIRT1, plays an important

Rea Biacsi; Daman Kumari; Karen Usdin

2008-01-01

97

Prevention of hyperglycemia-induced myocardial apoptosis by gene silencing of Toll-like receptor-4  

PubMed Central

Background Apoptosis is an early event involved in cardiomyopathy associated with diabetes mellitus. Toll-like receptor (TLR) signaling triggers cell apoptosis through multiple mechanisms. Up-regulation of TLR4 expression has been shown in diabetic mice. This study aimed to delineate the role of TLR4 in myocardial apoptosis, and to block this process through gene silencing of TLR4 in the myocardia of diabetic mice. Methods Diabetes was induced in C57/BL6 mice by the injection of streptozotocin. Diabetic mice were treated with 50 ?g of TLR4 siRNA or scrambled siRNA as control. Myocardial apoptosis was determined by TUNEL assay. Results After 7 days of hyperglycemia, the level of TLR4 mRNA in myocardial tissue was significantly elevated. Treatment of TLR4 siRNA knocked down gene expression as well as diminished its elevation in diabetic mice. Apoptosis was evident in cardiac tissues of diabetic mice as detected by a TUNEL assay. In contrast, treatment with TLR4 siRNA minimized apoptosis in myocardial tissues. Mechanistically, caspase-3 activation was significantly inhibited in mice that were treated with TLR4 siRNA, but not in mice treated with control siRNA. Additionally, gene silencing of TLR4 resulted in suppression of apoptotic cascades, such as Fas and caspase-3 gene expression. TLR4 deficiency resulted in inhibition of reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and NADPH oxidase activity, suggesting suppression of hyperglycemia-induced apoptosis by TLR4 is associated with attenuation of oxidative stress to the cardiomyocytes. Conclusions In summary, we present novel evidence that TLR4 plays a critical role in cardiac apoptosis. This is the first demonstration of the prevention of cardiac apoptosis in diabetic mice through silencing of the TLR4 gene.

2010-01-01

98

MBD2 contributes to developmental silencing of the human ?-globin gene  

PubMed Central

During erythroid development the embryonic ?-globin gene becomes silenced as erythropoiesis shifts from the yolk sac to the fetal liver where ?-globin gene expression predominates. Previous studies have shown that the ?-globin gene is autonomously silenced through promoter proximal cis-acting sequences in adult erythroid cells. We have shown a role for the methylcytosine binding domain protein 2 (MBD2) in the developmental silencing of the avian embryonic ?-globin and human fetal ?-globin genes. To determine the roles of MBD2 and DNA methylation in human ?-globin gene silencing, transgenic mice containing all sequences extending from the 5? hypersensitive site 5 (HS5) of the ?-globin locus LCR to the human ?-globin gene promoter were generated. These mice show correct developmental expression and autonomous silencing of the transgene. Either the absence of MBD2 or treatment with the DNA methyltransferase inhibitor 5-azacytidine increases ?-globin transgene expression by 15–20 fold in adult mice. Adult mice containing the entire human ?-globin locus also show an increase in expression of both the ?-globin gene transgene and endogenous ?Y and ?H1 genes in the absence of MBD2. These results indicate the human ?-globin gene is subject to multilayered silencing mediated in part by MBD2.

Rupon, Jeremy W.; Wang, Shou Zhen; Gnanapragasam, Merlin; Labropoulos, Stefanos; Ginder, Gordon D.

2011-01-01

99

Increasing the amylose content of durum wheat through silencing of the SBEIIa genes  

PubMed Central

Background High amylose starch has attracted particular interest because of its correlation with the amount of Resistant Starch (RS) in food. RS plays a role similar to fibre with beneficial effects for human health, providing protection from several diseases such as colon cancer, diabetes, obesity, osteoporosis and cardiovascular diseases. Amylose content can be modified by a targeted manipulation of the starch biosynthetic pathway. In particular, the inactivation of the enzymes involved in amylopectin synthesis can lead to the increase of amylose content. In this work, genes encoding starch branching enzymes of class II (SBEIIa) were silenced using the RNA interference (RNAi) technique in two cultivars of durum wheat, using two different methods of transformation (biolistic and Agrobacterium). Expression of RNAi transcripts was targeted to the seed endosperm using a tissue-specific promoter. Results Amylose content was markedly increased in the durum wheat transgenic lines exhibiting SBEIIa gene silencing. Moreover the starch granules in these lines were deformed, possessing an irregular and deflated shape and being smaller than those present in the untransformed controls. Two novel granule bound proteins, identified by SDS-PAGE in SBEIIa RNAi lines, were investigated by mass spectrometry and shown to have strong homologies to the waxy proteins. RVA analysis showed new pasting properties associated with high amylose lines in comparison with untransformed controls. Finally, pleiotropic effects on other starch genes were found by semi-quantitative and Real-Time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Conclusion We have found that the silencing of SBEIIa genes in durum wheat causes obvious alterations in granule morphology and starch composition, leading to high amylose wheat. Results obtained with two different methods of transformation and in two durum wheat cultivars were comparable.

2010-01-01

100

H2A.Z Maintenance During Mitosis Reveals Nucleosome Shifting on Mitotically Silenced Genes  

PubMed Central

Profound chromatin changes occur during mitosis to allow for gene silencing and chromosome segregation followed by re-activation of memorized transcription states in daughter cells. Using genome-wide sequencing, we found H2A.Z containing +1 nucleosomes of active genes shift upstream to occupy TSSs during mitosis, significantly reducing nucleosome-depleted regions. Single molecule analysis confirmed nucleosome shifting and demonstrated that mitotic shifting is specific to active genes that are silenced during mitosis and thus is not seen on promoters, which are silenced by methylation or mitotically expressed genes. Using the GRP78 promoter as a model, we found H3K4 tri-methylation is also maintained while other indicators of active chromatin are lost and expression is decreased. These key changes provide a potential mechanism for rapid silencing and re-activation of genes during the cell cycle.

Kelly, Theresa K.; Miranda, Tina Branscombe; Liang, Gangning; Berman, Benjamin P.; Lin, Joy C.; Tanay, Amos; Jones, Peter A.

2010-01-01

101

Efficient Gene Silencing Mediated by Tobacco Rattle Virus in an Emerging Model Plant Physalis  

PubMed Central

The fruit of Physalis has a berry and a novelty called inflated calyx syndrome (ICS, also named the ‘Chinese lantern’). Elucidation of the underlying developmental mechanisms of fruit diversity demands an efficient gene functional inference platform. Here, we tested the application of the tobacco rattle virus (TRV)-mediated gene-silencing system in Physalis floridana. First, we characterized the putative gene of a phytoene desaturase in P. floridana (PfPDS). Infecting the leaves of the Physalis seedlings with the PfPDS-TRV vector resulted in a bleached plant, including the developing leaves, floral organs, ICS, berry, and seed. These results indicated that a local VIGS treatment can efficiently induce a systemic mutated phenotype. qRT-PCR analyses revealed that the bleaching extent correlated to the mRNA reduction of the endogenous PfPDS. Detailed comparisons of multiple infiltration and growth protocols allowed us to determine the optimal methodologies for VIGS manipulation in Physalis. We subsequently utilized this optimized VIGS methodology to downregulate the expression of two MADS-box genes, MPF2 and MPF3, and compared the resulting effects with gene-downregulation mediated by RNA interference (RNAi) methods. The VIGS-mediated gene knockdown plants were found to resemble the mutated phenotypes of floral calyx, fruiting calyx and pollen maturation of the RNAi transgenic plants for both MPF2 and MPF3. Moreover, the two MADS-box genes were appeared to have a novel role in the pedicel development in P. floridana. The major advantage of VIGS-based gene knockdown lies in practical aspects of saving time and easy manipulation as compared to the RNAi. Despite the lack of heritability and mosaic mutation phenotypes observed in some organs, the TRV-mediated gene silencing system provides an alternative efficient way to infer gene function in various developmental processes in Physalis, thus facilitating understanding of the genetic basis of the evolution and development of the morphological diversities within the Solanaceae.

Zhang, Shaohua; He, Chaoying

2014-01-01

102

A Vector Library for Silencing Central Carbon Metabolism Genes with Antisense RNAs in Escherichia coli  

PubMed Central

We describe here the construction of a series of 71 vectors to silence central carbon metabolism genes in Escherichia coli. The vectors inducibly express antisense RNAs called paired-terminus antisense RNAs, which have a higher silencing efficacy than ordinary antisense RNAs. By measuring mRNA amounts, measuring activities of target proteins, or observing specific phenotypes, it was confirmed that all the vectors were able to silence the expression of target genes efficiently. Using this vector set, each of the central carbon metabolism genes was silenced individually, and the accumulation of metabolites was investigated. We were able to obtain accurate information on ways to increase the production of pyruvate, an industrially valuable compound, from the silencing results. Furthermore, the experimental results of pyruvate accumulation were compared to in silico predictions, and both sets of results were consistent. Compared to the gene disruption approach, the silencing approach has an advantage in that any E. coli strain can be used and multiple gene silencing is easily possible in any combination.

Ohno, Satoshi; Yoshikawa, Katsunori; Shimizu, Hiroshi; Tamura, Tomohiro

2014-01-01

103

Small-Interfering RNA-Eluting Surfaces as a Novel Concept for Intravascular Local Gene Silencing  

PubMed Central

New drug-eluting stent (DES) methods have recently been demonstrated to improve outcomes of intravascular interventions. A novel technique is the design of gene-silencing stents that elute specific small-interfering RNAs (siRNAs) for better vascular wall regeneration. Although siRNAs used to alter gene expression have surpassed expectations in in vitro experiments, the functional and local delivery of siRNAs is still the major obstacle for the in vivo application of RNA interference. In this preliminary in vitro study we investigated a surface-immobilized siRNA delivery technique that would be readily adaptable for local intravascular applications in vivo. The transfection potency of gelatin coatings consisting of a specific siRNA complexed with polyethylenimine (PEI) was examined in primary human endothelial cells by flow cytometry and quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction. Several media conditions, such as the presence or absence of serum during cultivation, were investigated. Furthermore, different siRNA and PEI amounts, as well as nitrogen/phosphate ratios, were tested for their transfection efficiency. Gelatin coatings consisting of PEI and siRNA against an exemplary endothelial adhesion molecule receptor achieved a significant knockdown of around 70%. The transfection efficiency of the coatings was not influenced by the presence of serum. The results of this preliminary study support the expectation that this novel coating may be favorable for local in vivo gene silencing (for example, when immobilized on stents or balloons for percutanous transluminal coronary angioplasty). However, further animal experiments are needed to confirm the translation into clinical practice. This intriguing technology leads the way to more sophisticated and individualized coatings for the post-DES era, toward silencing of genes involved in the pathway of intimal hyperplasia.

Nolte, Andrea; Walker, Tobias; Schneider, Martina; Kray, Oya; Avci-Adali, Meltem; Ziemer, Gerhard; Wendel, Hans Peter

2011-01-01

104

The role of the polycomb complex in silencing ?-globin gene expression in nonerythroid cells  

PubMed Central

Although much is known about globin gene activation in erythroid cells, relatively little is known about how these genes are silenced in nonerythroid tissues. Here we show that the human ?- and ?-globin genes are silenced by fundamentally different mechanisms. The ?-genes, which are surrounded by widely expressed genes in a gene dense region of the genome, are silenced very early in development via recruitment of the Polycomb (PcG) complex. By contrast, the ?-globin genes, which lie in a relatively gene-poor chromosomal region, are not bound by this complex in nonerythroid cells. The PcG complex seems to be recruited to the ?-cluster by sequences within the CpG islands associated with their promoters; the ?-globin promoters do not lie within such islands. Chromatin associated with the ?-globin cluster is modified by histone methylation (H3K27me3), and silencing in vivo is mediated by the localized activity of histone deacetylases (HDACs). The repressive (PcG/HDAC) machinery is removed as hematopoietic progenitors differentiate to form erythroid cells. The ?- and ?-globin genes thus illustrate important, contrasting mechanisms by which cell-specific hematopoietic genes (and tissue-specific genes in general) may be silenced.

Garrick, David; De Gobbi, Marco; Samara, Vasiliki; Rugless, Michelle; Holland, Michelle; Ayyub, Helena; Lower, Karen; Sloane-Stanley, Jackie; Gray, Nicki; Koch, Christoph; Dunham, Ian

2008-01-01

105

The non-coding Air RNA is required for silencing autosomal imprinted genes  

Microsoft Academic Search

In genomic imprinting, one of the two parental alleles of an autosomal gene is silenced epigenetically by a cis-acting mechanism. A bidirectional silencer for a 400-kilobase region that contains three imprinted, maternally expressed protein-coding genes (Igf2r\\/Slc22a2\\/Slc22a3) has been shown by targeted deletion to be located in a sequence of 3.7kilobases, which also contains the promoter for the imprinted, paternally expressed

Frank Sleutels; Ronald Zwart; Denise P. Barlow

2002-01-01

106

Bmi1 cooperates with Dnmt1-associated protein 1 in gene silencing  

Microsoft Academic Search

Polycomb group (PcG) proteins are involved in gene silencing through chromatin modifications. Among polycomb repressive complexes (PRCs), PRC1 exhibits H2A-K119 ubiquitin E3 ligase activity. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying PRC1-mediated gene silencing remain largely obscure. In this study, we found that Bmi1 directly interacts with Dnmt-associated protein 1 (Dmap1), which has been characterized to associate with the maintenance DNA methyltransferase,

Masamitsu Negishi; Atsunori Saraya; Satoru Miyagi; Kenji Nagao; Yoshimasa Inagaki; Mitsuo Nishikawa; Shoji Tajima; Haruhiko Koseki; Hiroshi Tsuda; Yoshinari Takasaki; Hiromitsu Nakauchi; Atsushi Iwama

2007-01-01

107

Optimizing virus-induced gene silencing efficiency with Cymbidium mosaic virus in Phalaenopsis flower.  

PubMed

Virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS) is a good way to study floral gene functions of orchids, especially those with a long life cycle. To explore the applicability and improve viral silencing efficiency for application of Cymbidium mosaic virus (CymMV)-induced gene silencing, we examined several variables, including the optimal length of the DNA fragment, the effect of developmental maturation status of inflorescence, and suitable inoculation sites. A CymMV-based VIGS system can be used with orchids to silence genes including PeUFGT3, PeMADS5 and PeMADS6 and induce prominent phenotypes with silencing efficiency up to 95.8% reduction. The DNA fragment size used for silencing can be as small as 78-85 bp and still reach 61.5-95.8% reduction. The effect of cDNA location as a target in VIGS varies among genes because of non-target gene influence when using the 5' terminus of the coding region of both PeMADS5 and PeMADS6. Use of VIGS to knock down a B-class MADS-box gene (PeMADS6) in orchids with different maturation status of inflorescence allowed for observing discernable knockdown phenotypes in flowers. Furthermore, silencing effects with Agro-infiltration did not differ with both leaf and inflorescence injections, but injection in the leaf saved time and produced less damage to plants. We propose an optimized approach for VIGS using CymMV as a silencing vector for floral functional genomics in Phalaenopsis orchid with Agro-infiltration: (1) DNA fragment length about 80 bp, (2) a more mature status of inflorescence and (3) leaf injection. PMID:23352400

Hsieh, Ming-Hsien; Lu, Hsiang-Chia; Pan, Zhao-Jun; Yeh, Hsin-Hung; Wang, Shyh-Shyan; Chen, Wen-Huei; Chen, Hong-Hwa

2013-03-01

108

Silencing of genes required for glycosylphosphatidylinositol anchor biosynthesis in Burkitt lymphoma  

PubMed Central

Objective To investigate the mechanism of glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI) anchor deficiency in Burkitt lymphoma cell lines. Methods We identified a large GPI anchor protein deficient population in three different Burkitt lymphoma cell lines through proaerolysin treatment of the cells and flow cytometry analysis using a proaerolysin variant (FLAER). The mechanism of GPI anchor protein deficiency was studied by DNA gene sequencing, a cell-free assay to investigate the GPI anchor biosynthetic pathway, microarray analysis, and quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction. Results Burkitt lymphoma cell lines harbor large populations of FLAERneg cells, which are resistant to proaerolysin. In all three cell lines, silencing of a gene involved in an early step in GPI-anchor biosynthesis was responsible for the lack of GPI-anchored proteins on the cell surface. Quantitative polymerase chain reaction and microarray analysis demonstrate that the level of mRNA for PIGL and PIGY is lower in the FLAERneg Ramos cells and that mRNA levels of PIGY are reduced in the Akata and Daudi cells. Hypermethylation of these genes was associated with the low levels of mRNA and treatment of the cells with 5-aza-2? deoxycytidine restored cell surface GPI-anchored proteins to the FLAERneg cells. Conclusion GPI-anchored protein deficiency in Burkitt lymphoma cells is not due to a genetic mutation (e.g., PIGA); rather, the lack of GPI-anchored proteins results from transcriptional silencing of PIGL and PIGY.

Hu, Rong; Mukhina, Galina L.; Lee, Soo Hee; Jones, Richard J.; Englund, Paul T.; Brown, Patrick; Sharkis, Saul J.; Buckley, J. Thomas; Brodsky, Robert A.

2009-01-01

109

The neuron-restrictive silencer element: A dual enhancer/silencer crucial for patterned expression of a nicotinic receptor gene in the brain  

PubMed Central

The neuron-restrictive silencer element (NRSE) has been identified in several neuronal genes and confers neuron specificity by silencing transcription in nonneuronal cells. NRSE is present in the promoter of the neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptor ?2-subunit gene that determines its neuron-specific expression in the nervous system. Using transgenic mice, we show that NRSE may either silence or enhance transcription depending on the cellular context within the nervous system. In vitro in neuronal cells, NRSE activates transcription of synthetic promoters when located downstream in the 5? untranslated region, or at less than 50 bp upstream from the TATA box, but switches to a silencer when located further upstream. In contrast, in nonneuronal cells NRSE always functions as a silencer. Antisense RNA inhibition shows that the NRSE-binding protein REST contributes to the activation of transcription in neuronal cells.

Bessis, Alain; Champtiaux, Nicolas; Chatelin, Laurent; Changeux, Jean-Pierre

1997-01-01

110

Multiple small RNA pathways regulate the silencing of repeated and foreign genes in C. elegans  

PubMed Central

Gene segments from other organisms, such as viruses, are detected as foreign and targeted for silencing by RNAi pathways. A deep-sequencing map of the small RNA response to repeated transgenes introduced to Caenorhabditis elegans revealed that specific segments are targeted by siRNAs. Silencing of the foreign gene segments depends on an antiviral response that involves changes in active and silent chromatin modifications and altered levels of antisense siRNAs. Distinct Argonaute proteins target foreign genes for silencing or protection against silencing. We used a repeated transgene in a genome-wide screen to identify gene disruptions that enhance silencing of foreign genetic elements and identified 69 genes. These genes cluster in four groups based on overlapping sets of coexpressed genes, including a group of germline-expressed genes that are likely coregulated by the E2F transcription factor. Many of the gene inactivations enhance exogenous RNAi. About half of the 69 genes have roles in endogenous RNAi pathways that regulate diverse processes, including silencing of duplicated genes and transposons and chromosome segregation. Of these newly identified genes, several are required for siRNA biogenesis or stability in the oocyte-specific ERGO-1 pathway, including eri-12, encoding an interactor of the RNAi-defective protein RDE-10, and ntl-9/CNOT9, one of several CCR4/NOT complex genes that we identified. The conserved ARF-like small GTPase ARL-8 is required specifically for primary siRNA biogenesis or stability in the sperm-specific ALG-3/4 endogenous RNAi pathway.

Fischer, Sylvia E.J.; Pan, Qi; Breen, Peter C.; Qi, Yan; Shi, Zhen; Zhang, Chi; Ruvkun, Gary

2013-01-01

111

Method to produce sterile male flowers and partenocarpic fruits by genetic silencing, associated sequences and vectors containing said sequences  

US Patent & Trademark Office Database

Genes VvPI from Vitis vinifera cv. Cabernet Sauvignon and LePI from Lycopersicon esculentum are described; together with the use of these genes to produce sterile male flowers and seedless or parthenocarpic fruits. Silencing vectors that comprise these sequences or a part thereof are disclosed. The methods of the invention are directed to producing sterile male flowers and parthenocarpic fruits by genetic silencing, and includes: obtaining the codifying sequence of Pistillata (PI)-homologous genes from the target species; analyzing the expression of the sequence obtained in step (a) to test its expression according to the pattern described for Pistillata genes; analyzing the complementation of PI-gene mutant with the PI sequence obtained from the target species, to assess that the obtained sequence fulfills the function of a PI gene; making a genetic silencing construct that comprises a region of the codifying sequence of PI in a plant expression vector; incorporation of the constructed vector into Agrobacterium tumefaciens; transforming target plants with Agrobacterium tumefaciens modified with the silencing vector and selecting said transformed plants; and checking the absence of Agrobacterium contamination and corroborating transgenic plants by transgene amplification.

2011-08-09

112

Silencing near tRNA genes is nucleosome-mediated and distinct from boundary element function.  

PubMed

Transfer RNA (tRNA) genes and other RNA polymerase III transcription units are dispersed in high copy throughout nuclear genomes, and can antagonize RNA polymerase II transcription in their immediate chromosomal locus. Previous work in Saccharomyces cerevisiae found that this local silencing required subnuclear clustering of the tRNA genes near the nucleolus. Here we show that the silencing also requires nucleosome participation, though the nature of the nucleosome interaction appears distinct from other forms of transcriptional silencing. Analysis of an extensive library of histone amino acid substitutions finds a large number of residues that affect the silencing, both in the histone N-terminal tails and on the nucleosome disk surface. The residues on the disk surfaces involved are largely distinct from those affecting other regulatory phenomena. Consistent with the large number of histone residues affecting tgm silencing, survey of chromatin modification mutations shows that several enzymes known to affect nucleosome modification and positioning are also required. The enzymes include an Rpd3 deacetylase complex, Hos1 deacetylase, Glc7 phosphatase, and the RSC nucleosome remodeling activity, but not multiple other activities required for other silencing forms or boundary element function at tRNA gene loci. Models for communication between the tRNA gene transcription complexes and local chromatin are discussed. PMID:23707796

Good, Paul D; Kendall, Ann; Ignatz-Hoover, James; Miller, Erin L; Pai, Dave A; Rivera, Sara R; Carrick, Brian; Engelke, David R

2013-08-15

113

Silencing of the IKK? gene by siRNA inhibits invasiveness and growth of breast cancer cells  

PubMed Central

Introduction I?B kinase ? (IKK?) is a member of the IKK family that plays an important role in the activation of NF-?B. Overexpressed in more than 30% of breast cancers, IKK? has been recently identified as a potential breast cancer oncogene. The purpose of the present study is to examine the therapeutic potential of IKK? siRNA on human breast cancer cells. Methods Eight siRNAs targeting different regions of the IKK? mRNA were designed, and the silencing effect was screened by quantitative real-time RT-PCR. The biological effects of synthetic siRNAs on human breast cancer cells were investigated by examining the cell proliferation, migration, invasion, focus formation, anchorage-independent growth (via soft agar assay), cell cycle arrest, apoptosis (via annexing binding), NF-?B basal level, and NF-?B-related gene expressions upon the IKK? silencing. Results Silencing of IKK? in human breast cancer cells resulted in a decrease of focus formation potential and clonogenicity as well as in vitro cell migration/invasion capabilities. Moreover, knockdown of IKK? suppressed cell proliferation. Cell cycle assay showed that the anti-proliferation effect of IKK? siRNA was mediated by arresting cells in the G0/G1 phase, which was caused by downregulation of cyclin D1. Furthermore, we demonstrated that silencing of IKK? inhibited the NF-?B basal activity as well as the Bcl-2 expression. Significant apoptosis was not observed in breast cancer cells upon the silencing of IKK?. The present study provided the first evidence that silencing IKK? using synthetic siRNA can inhibit the invasiveness properties and proliferation of breast cancer cells. Conclusions Our results suggested that silencing IKK? using synthetic siRNA may offer a novel therapeutic strategy for breast cancer.

2010-01-01

114

The DNA methylation locus DDM1 is required for maintenance of gene silencing in Arabidopsis  

PubMed Central

To investigate the relationship between cytosine methylation and gene silencing in Arabidopsis, we constructed strains containing the ddm1 hypomethylation mutation and a methylated and silenced PAI2 tryptophan biosynthetic gene (MePAI2) that results in a blue fluorescent plant phenotype. The ddm1 mutation had both an immediate and a progressive effect on PAI gene silencing. In the first generation, homozygous ddm1 MePAI2 plants displayed a weakly fluorescent phenotype, in contrast to the strongly fluorescent phenotype of the DDM1 MePAI2 parent. After two generations of inbreeding by self-pollination, the ddm1/ddm1 lines became nonfluorescent. The progressive loss of fluorescence correlated with a progressive loss of methylation from the PAI2 gene. These results indicate that methylation is necessary for maintenance of PAI gene silencing and that intermediate levels of DNA methylation are associated with intermediate gene silencing. The results also support our earlier hypothesis that ddm1 homozygotes act as “epigenetic mutators” by accumulating heritable changes in DNA methylation that can lead to changes in gene expression.

Jeddeloh, Jeffrey A.; Bender, Judith; Richards, Eric J.

1998-01-01

115

Gene silencing and Polycomb group proteins: an overview of their structure, mechanisms and phylogenetics.  

PubMed

DNA methylation, histone modifications, and chromatin configuration are crucially important in the regulation of gene expression. Among these epigenetic mechanisms, silencing the expression of certain genes depending on developmental stage and tissue specificity is a key repressive system in genome programming. Polycomb (Pc) proteins play roles in gene silencing through different mechanisms. These proteins act in complexes and govern the histone methylation profiles of a large number of genes that regulate various cellular pathways. This review focuses on two main Pc complexes, Pc repressive complexes 1 and 2, and their phylogenetic relationship, structures, and function. The dynamic roles of these complexes in silencing will be discussed herein, with a focus on the recruitment of Pc complexes to target genes and the key factors involved in their recruitment. PMID:23692361

Golbabapour, Shahram; Majid, Nazia Abdul; Hassandarvish, Pouya; Hajrezaie, Maryam; Abdulla, Mahmood Ameen; Hadi, A Hamid A

2013-06-01

116

Gold Nanorod-siRNA Induces Efficient In Vivo Gene Silencing in the Rat Hippocampus  

PubMed Central

Gold nanorods (GNRs), cellular imaging nanoprobes, have been used for drug delivery therapy to immunologically privileged regions in the brain. We demonstrate that nanoplexes formed by electrostatic binding between negatively charged RNA and positively charged GNRs, silence the expression of the target housekeeping gene, glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) within the CA1 hippocampal region of the rat brain, without showing cytotoxicity. Fluorescence imaging with siRNACy3GAPDH and dark field imaging using plasmonic enhanced scattering from GNRs were used to monitor the distribution of the nanoplexes within different neuronal cell types present in the targeted hippocampal region. Our results show robust nanoplex uptake and slow release of the fluorescent gene silencer with significant impact on suppression of GAPDH gene expression (70% gene silencing, >10 days post-injection). The observed gene knockdown using nanoplexes in targeted regions of the brain opens a new era of drug treatment for neurological disorders.

Bonoiu, Adela C.; Bergey, Earl J.; Ding, Hong; Hu, Rui; Kumar, Rajiv; Yong, Ken-Tye; Prasad, Paras N.; Mahajan, Supriya; Picchione, Kelly E.; Bhattacharjee, Arin; Ignatowski, Tracey A.

2011-01-01

117

Gene Silencing and Polycomb Group Proteins: An Overview of their Structure, Mechanisms and Phylogenetics  

PubMed Central

Abstract DNA methylation, histone modifications, and chromatin configuration are crucially important in the regulation of gene expression. Among these epigenetic mechanisms, silencing the expression of certain genes depending on developmental stage and tissue specificity is a key repressive system in genome programming. Polycomb (Pc) proteins play roles in gene silencing through different mechanisms. These proteins act in complexes and govern the histone methylation profiles of a large number of genes that regulate various cellular pathways. This review focuses on two main Pc complexes, Pc repressive complexes 1 and 2, and their phylogenetic relationship, structures, and function. The dynamic roles of these complexes in silencing will be discussed herein, with a focus on the recruitment of Pc complexes to target genes and the key factors involved in their recruitment.

Majid, Nazia Abdul; Hassandarvish, Pouya; Hajrezaie, Maryam; Abdulla, Mahmood Ameen; Hadi, A. Hamid A.

2013-01-01

118

Effect of the silencing of the Ehcp112 gene on the in vitro virulence of Entamoeba histolytica  

PubMed Central

Background Entamoeba histolytica is an intestinal protozoan parasite that causes amoebiasis in humans, affecting up to 50 million people worldwide each year and causing 40,000 to 100,000 deaths annually. EhCP112 is a cysteine proteinase of E. histolytica able to disrupt cell monolayers and digest extracellular matrix proteins, it is secreted by trophozoites and it can be active in a wide range of temperature and pH. These characteristics have encouraged the use of EhCP112 in the design and production of possible vaccines against amoebiasis, obtaining promising results. Nevertheless, we have no conclusive information about the role of EhCP112 in the E. histolytica pathogenesis. Methods A set of three specific siRNA sequences were used to silence the Ehcp112 gene via the soaking system. Silencing was evaluated by Western blot using an antibody against the EhCP112 recombinant protein. Finally, we analyzed the protease activity, the phagocytosis rate and the ability to destroy MDCK cells of the EhCP112-silenced trophozoites. Results The highest silencing effect on EhCP112 was detected at 16 h of treatment; time enough to perform the in vitro virulence assays, which showed that EhCP112 silencing produces a significant reduction in cytolysis and phagocytosis of target cells, indicating the participation of this proteinase in these events. Conclusions EhCP112 is involved in the in vitro virulence of E. histolytica.

2013-01-01

119

SIRT1 Inhibition Alleviates Gene Silencing in Fragile X Mental Retardation Syndrome  

PubMed Central

Expansion of the CGG•CCG-repeat tract in the 5? UTR of the FMR1 gene to >200 repeats leads to heterochromatinization of the promoter and gene silencing. This results in Fragile X syndrome (FXS), the most common heritable form of mental retardation. The mechanism of gene silencing is unknown. We report here that a Class III histone deacetylase, SIRT1, plays an important role in this silencing process and show that the inhibition of this enzyme produces significant gene reactivation. This contrasts with the much smaller effect of inhibitors like trichostatin A (TSA) that inhibit Class I, II and IV histone deacetylases. Reactivation of silenced FMR1 alleles was accompanied by an increase in histone H3 lysine 9 acetylation as well as an increase in the amount of histone H4 that is acetylated at lysine 16 (H4K16) by the histone acetyltransferase, hMOF. DNA methylation, on the other hand, is unaffected. We also demonstrate that deacetylation of H4K16 is a key downstream consequence of DNA methylation. However, since DNA methylation inhibitors require DNA replication in order to be effective, SIRT1 inhibitors may be more useful for FMR1 gene reactivation in post-mitotic cells like neurons where the effect of the gene silencing is most obvious.

Biacsi, Rea; Kumari, Daman; Usdin, Karen

2008-01-01

120

The silencing of the SWI/SNF subunit and anticancer gene BRM in Rhabdoid tumors  

PubMed Central

Rhabdoid sarcomas are highly malignant tumors that usually occur in young children. A key to the genesis of this tumor is the mutational loss of the BAF47 gene as well as the widespread epigenetic suppression of other key anticancer genes. The BRM gene is one such epigenetically silenced gene in Rhabdoid tumors. This gene codes for an ATPase catalytic subunit that shifts histones and opens the chromatin. We show that BRM is an epigenetically silenced gene in 10/11 Rhabdoid cell lines and in 70% of Rhabdoid tumors. Moreover, BRM can be induced by BAF47 re-expression and by Flavopiridol. By selective shRNAi knockdown of BRM, we show that BRM re-expression is necessary for growth inhibition by BAF47 re-expression or Flavopiridol application. Similar to lung cancer cell lines, we found that HDAC3, HDAC9, MEF2D and GATA3 controlled BRM silencing and that HDAC9 was overexpressed in Rhabdoid cancer cell lines. In primary BRM-deficient Rhabdoid tumors, HDAC9 was also found to be highly overexpressed. Two insertional BRM promoter polymorphisms contribute to BRM silencing, but only the -1321 polymorphism correlated with BRM silencing in Rhabdoid cell lines. To determine how these polymorphisms were tied to BRM silencing, we conducted ChIP assays and found that both HDAC9 and MEF2D bound to the BRM promoter at or near these polymorphic sites. Using BRM promoter swap experiments, we indirectly showed that both HDAC9 and MEF2D bound to these polymorphic sites. Together, these data show that the mechanism of BRM silencing contributes to the pathogenesis of Rhabdoid tumors and appears to be conserved among tumor types.

Kahali, Bhaskar; Yu, Jinlong; Marquez, Stefanie B.; Thompson, Kenneth. W.; Liang, Shermi Y.; Lu, Li; Reisman, David

2014-01-01

121

The silencing of the SWI/SNF subunit and anticancer gene BRM in Rhabdoid tumors.  

PubMed

Rhabdoid sarcomas are highly malignant tumors that usually occur in young children. A key to the genesis of this tumor is the mutational loss of the BAF47 gene as well as the widespread epigenetic suppression of other key anticancer genes. The BRM gene is one such epigenetically silenced gene in Rhabdoid tumors. This gene codes for an ATPase catalytic subunit that shifts histones and opens the chromatin. We show that BRM is an epigenetically silenced gene in 10/11 Rhabdoid cell lines and in 70% of Rhabdoid tumors. Moreover, BRM can be induced by BAF47 re-expression and by Flavopiridol. By selective shRNAi knockdown of BRM, we show that BRM re-expression is necessary for growth inhibition by BAF47 re-expression or Flavopiridol application. Similar to lung cancer cell lines, we found that HDAC3, HDAC9, MEF2D and GATA3 controlled BRM silencing and that HDAC9 was overexpressed in Rhabdoid cancer cell lines. In primary BRM-deficient Rhabdoid tumors, HDAC9 was also found to be highly overexpressed. Two insertional BRM promoter polymorphisms contribute to BRM silencing, but only the -1321 polymorphism correlated with BRM silencing in Rhabdoid cell lines. To determine how these polymorphisms were tied to BRM silencing, we conducted ChIP assays and found that both HDAC9 and MEF2D bound to the BRM promoter at or near these polymorphic sites. Using BRM promoter swap experiments, we indirectly showed that both HDAC9 and MEF2D bound to these polymorphic sites. Together, these data show that the mechanism of BRM silencing contributes to the pathogenesis of Rhabdoid tumors and appears to be conserved among tumor types. PMID:24913006

Kahali, Bhaskar; Yu, Jinlong; Marquez, Stefanie B; Thompson, Kenneth W; Liang, Shermi Y; Lu, Li; Reisman, David

2014-05-30

122

Mod5 protein binds to tRNA gene complexes and affects local transcriptional silencing  

PubMed Central

The tRNA gene-mediated (tgm) silencing of RNA polymerase II promoters is dependent on subnuclear clustering of the tRNA genes, but genetic analysis shows that the silencing requires additional mechanisms. We have identified proteins that bind tRNA gene transcription complexes and are required for tgm silencing but not required for gene clustering. One of the proteins, Mod5, is a tRNA modifying enzyme that adds an N6-isopentenyl adenosine modification at position 37 on a small number of tRNAs in the cytoplasm, although a subpopulation of Mod5 is also found in the nucleus. Recent publications have also shown that Mod5 has tumor suppressor characteristics in humans as well as confers drug resistance through prion-like misfolding in yeast. Here, we show that a subpopulation of Mod5 associates with tRNA gene complexes in the nucleolus. This association occurs and is required for tgm silencing regardless of whether the pre-tRNA transcripts are substrates for Mod5 modification. In addition, Mod5 is bound to nuclear pre-tRNA transcripts, although they are not substrates for the A37 modification. Lastly, we show that truncation of the tRNA transcript to remove the normal tRNA structure also alleviates silencing, suggesting that synthesis of intact pre-tRNAs is required for the silencing mechanism. These results are discussed in light of recent results showing that silencing near tRNA genes also requires chromatin modification.

Pratt-Hyatt, Matthew; Pai, Dave A.; Haeusler, Rebecca A.; Wozniak, Glenn G.; Good, Paul D.; Miller, Erin L.; McLeod, Ian X.; Yates, John R.; Hopper, Anita K.; Engelke, David R.

2013-01-01

123

The Effect of Temperature on Gene Silencing by siRNAs: Implications for Silencing in the Anterior Chamber of the Eye  

PubMed Central

Gene silencing by siRNAs offers the potential for reducing the expression of mutated genes that cause disease. It has been shown that the folding or secondary structure of a specific mRNA was significantly correlated to the silencing observed. Since this base pairing is dependent on free energy, the temperature of the cells may influence the effectiveness of a particular siRNA. The aqueous humor of the human eye has been measured to be around 34°C with the lens acting as a thermal barrier in the eye. The trabecular meshwork, bathed by the aqueous humor, probably has a temperature lower than body temperature under normal conditions. Mutated myocilin, that is associated with primary open angle glaucoma, would appear to be a candidate for silencing by siRNAs. Silencing of the mutated myocilin might prevent additional accumulation of this protein in the rough endoplasmic reticulum. These experiments were undertaken to determine the influence of lowered temperatures on the silencing of myocilin by five siRNAs. Three different patterns of silencing emerged when the silencings were compared with cells grown at 33°C, 35°C, and 37°C. For one of the siRNAs, the silencing was increased at lower temperatures. For two siRNAs, no significant changes in silencing were observed with different temperatures. Two of the siRNAs were significantly influenced by temperature with little if any silencing occurring at the lowest temperature. These data indicate that siRNAs directed to tissues in the anterior chamber of the eye should be checked at temperatures lower than 37°C to determine their effectiveness.

Russell, Paul; Walsh, Erin; Chen, WeiPing; Goldwich, Andreas; Tamm, Ernst R.

2006-01-01

124

tRNA genes protect a reporter gene from epigenetic silencing in mouse cells  

PubMed Central

It is a well-established fact that the tRNA genes in yeast can function as chromatin barrier elements. However, so far there is no experimental evidence that tRNA and other Pol III-transcribed genes exhibit barrier activity in mammals. This study utilizes a recently developed reporter gene assay to test a set of Pol III-transcribed genes and gene clusters with variable promoter and intergenic regions for their ability to prevent heterochromatin-mediated reporter gene silencing in mouse cells. The results show that functional copies of mouse tRNA genes are effective barrier elements. The number of tRNA genes as well as their orientation influence barrier function. Furthermore, the DNA sequence composition of intervening and flanking regions affects barrier activity of tRNA genes. Barrier activity was maintained for much longer time when the intervening and flanking regions of tRNA genes were replaced by AT-rich sequences, suggesting a negative role of DNA methylation in the establishment of a functional barrier. Thus, our results suggest that tRNA genes are essential elements in establishment and maintenance of chromatin domain architecture in mammalian cells.

Ebersole, Thomas; Kim, Jung-Hyun; Samoshkin, Alexander; Kouprina, Natalay; Pavlicek, Adam; White, Robert J

2011-01-01

125

Promoter targeted small RNAs induce long-term transcriptional gene silencing in human cells  

PubMed Central

Small RNAs targeted to gene promoters in human cells can mediate transcriptional gene silencing (TGS) by directing silent state epigenetic modifications to targeted loci. Many mechanistic details of this process remain poorly defined, and the ability to stably modulate gene expression in this manner has not been explored. Here we describe the mechanisms of establishment and maintenance of long-term transcriptional silencing of the human ubiquitin C gene (UbC). Sustained targeting of the UbC promoter with a small RNA for a minimum of 3 days resulted in long-term silencing which correlated with an early increase in histone methylation and a later increase in DNA methylation at the targeted locus. Transcriptional silencing of UbC required the presence of a promoter-associated RNA. The establishment and maintenance of the TGS were shown to require distinct protein factors. Argonaute 1 (Ago1), DNA methyltransferase 3a (DNMT3a) and histone deacetylase 1 (HDAC1) were required for the initiation of silencing, and DNA methyltransferase 1 (DNMT1) was necessary for maintenance. Taken together the data presented here highlight the cellular pathway with which noncoding RNAs interact to epigenetically regulate gene expression in human cells.

Hawkins, Peter G.; Santoso, Sharon; Adams, Christopher; Anest, Vasiliki; Morris, Kevin V.

2009-01-01

126

Polyethyleneimine (PEI) Mediated siRNA Gene Silencing in the Schistosoma mansoni Snail Host, Biomphalaria glabrata  

PubMed Central

An in vivo, non-invasive technique for gene silencing by RNA interference (RNAi) in the snail, Biomphalaria glabrata, has been developed using cationic polymer polyethyleneimine (PEI) mediated delivery of long double-stranded (ds) and small interfering (si) RNA. Cellular delivery was evaluated and optimized by using a ‘mock’ fluorescent siRNA. Subsequently, we used the method to suppress expression of Cathepsin B (CathB) with either the corresponding siRNA or dsRNA of this transcript. In addition, the knockdown of peroxiredoxin (Prx) at both RNA and protein levels was achieved with the PEI-mediated soaking method. B. glabrata is an important snail host for the transmission of the parasitic digenean platyhelminth, Schistosoma mansoni that causes schistosomiasis in the neotropics. Progress is being made to realize the genome sequence of the snail and to uncover gene expression profiles and cellular pathways that enable the snail to either prevent or sustain an infection. Using PEI complexes, a convenient soaking method has been developed, enabling functional gene knockdown studies with either dsRNA or siRNA. The protocol developed offers a first whole organism method for host-parasite gene function studies needed to identify key mechanisms required for parasite development in the snail host, which ultimately are needed as points for disrupting this parasite mediated disease.

Knight, Matty; Miller, Andre; Liu, Yijia; Scaria, Puthupparampil; Woodle, Martin; Ittiprasert, Wannaporn

2011-01-01

127

Identification of genes epigenetically silenced by CpG methylation in human gastric carcinoma  

Microsoft Academic Search

To identify novel methylation-silenced genes in gastric cancer, we carried out a genome-wide search for genes that are up-regulated after treatment with the demethylating agent, 5-aza-2?-deoxycytidine (5Aza-dC). When three gastric cancer cell lines (SNU-1,-601, and -719) were treated with 5Aza-dC, 143 genes were found to be upregulated by twofold or more using oligonucleotide microarrays. Six of these genes, i.e. TFPI2,

Chang Do Jee; Min A. Kim; Eun Ji Jung; Jin Kim; Woo Ho Kim

2009-01-01

128

Virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS) in Cysticapnos vesicaria, a zygomorphic-flowered Papaveraceae (Ranunculales, basal eudicots)  

PubMed Central

Background and Aims Studies of evolutionary diversification in the basal eudicot family Papaveraceae, such as the transition from actinomorphy to zygomorphy, are hampered by the lack of comparative functional studies. So far, gene silencing methods are only available in the actinomorphic species Eschscholzia californica and Papaver somniferum. This study addresses the amenability of Cysticapnos vesicaria, a derived fumitory with zygomorphic flowers, to virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS), and describes vegetative and reproductive traits in this species. Methods VIGS-mediated downregulation of the C. vesicaria PHYTOENE DESATURASE gene (CvPDS) and of the FLORICAULA gene CvFLO was carried out using Agrobacterium tumefaciens transfer of Tobacco rattle virus (TRV)-based vectors. Wild-type and vector-treated plants were characterized using reverse transcription–PCR (RT–PCR), in situ hybridization, and macroscopic and scanning electron microscopic imaging. Key Results Cysticapnos vesicaria germinates rapidly, can be grown at high density, has a short life cycle and is self-compatible. Inoculation of C. vesicaria with a CvPDS-VIGS vector resulted in strong photobleaching of green parts and reduction of endogenous CvPDS transcript levels. Gene silencing persisted during inflorescence development until fruit set. Inoculation of plants with CvFLO-VIGS affected floral phyllotaxis, symmetry and floral organ identities. Conclusions The high penetrance, severity and stability of pTRV-mediated silencing, including the induction of meristem-related phenotypes, make C. vesicaria a very promising new focus species for evolutionary–developmental (evo–devo) studies in the Papaveraceae. This now enables comparative studies of flower symmetry, inflorescence determinacy and other traits that diversified in the Papaveraceae.

Hidalgo, Oriane; Bartholmes, Conny; Gleissberg, Stefan

2012-01-01

129

Transcriptional silencing by single-stranded RNAs targeting a noncoding RNA that overlaps a gene promoter  

PubMed Central

RNAi using single-strand RNA would provide new options for therapeutic development and for investigating critical questions of mechanism. Using chemically modified single-strands we test the hypothesis that single-stranded RNAs can engage the RNAi pathway and silence gene transcription. We find that a chemically modified single-stranded silencing RNA (ss-siRNA) designed to be complementary to a long noncoding RNA (lncRNA) requires argonaute protein, functions through the RNAi pathway, and inhibits gene transcription. These data expand the use of single-stranded RNA to cell nuclei.

Matsui, Masayuki; Prakash, Thazha P.; Corey, David R.

2014-01-01

130

Therapeutic silencing of an endogenous gene by systemic administration of modified siRNAs.  

PubMed

RNA interference (RNAi) holds considerable promise as a therapeutic approach to silence disease-causing genes, particularly those that encode so-called 'non-druggable' targets that are not amenable to conventional therapeutics such as small molecules, proteins, or monoclonal antibodies. The main obstacle to achieving in vivo gene silencing by RNAi technologies is delivery. Here we show that chemically modified short interfering RNAs (siRNAs) can silence an endogenous gene encoding apolipoprotein B (apoB) after intravenous injection in mice. Administration of chemically modified siRNAs resulted in silencing of the apoB messenger RNA in liver and jejunum, decreased plasma levels of apoB protein, and reduced total cholesterol. We also show that these siRNAs can silence human apoB in a transgenic mouse model. In our in vivo study, the mechanism of action for the siRNAs was proven to occur through RNAi-mediated mRNA degradation, and we determined that cleavage of the apoB mRNA occurred specifically at the predicted site. These findings demonstrate the therapeutic potential of siRNAs for the treatment of disease. PMID:15538359

Soutschek, Jürgen; Akinc, Akin; Bramlage, Birgit; Charisse, Klaus; Constien, Rainer; Donoghue, Mary; Elbashir, Sayda; Geick, Anke; Hadwiger, Philipp; Harborth, Jens; John, Matthias; Kesavan, Venkitasamy; Lavine, Gary; Pandey, Rajendra K; Racie, Timothy; Rajeev, Kallanthottathil G; Röhl, Ingo; Toudjarska, Ivanka; Wang, Gang; Wuschko, Silvio; Bumcrot, David; Koteliansky, Victor; Limmer, Stefan; Manoharan, Muthiah; Vornlocher, Hans-Peter

2004-11-11

131

Noncoding RNA gene silencing through genomic integration of RNA destabilizing elements using zinc finger nucleases  

PubMed Central

Zinc finger nucleases (ZFNs) allow site-specific manipulation of the genome. So far, the use of ZFNs to create gene knockouts has been restricted to protein-coding genes. However, non-protein-encoding RNAs (ncRNA) play important roles in the cell, although the functions of most ncRNAs are unknown. Here, we describe a ZFN-based method suited for the silencing of protein-coding and noncoding genes. This method relies on the ZFN-mediated integration of RNA destabilizing elements into the human genome, e.g., poly(A) signals functioning as termination elements and destabilizing downstream sequences. The biallelic integration of poly(A) signals into the gene locus of the long ncRNA MALAT1 resulted in a 1000-fold decrease of RNA expression. Thus, this approach is more specific and 300 times more efficient than RNA interference techniques. The opportunity to create a variety of loss-of-function tumor model cell lines in different cancer backgrounds will promote future functional analyses of important long noncoding RNA transcripts.

Gutschner, Tony; Baas, Marion; Diederichs, Sven

2011-01-01

132

Silencing of Host Genes Directed by Virus-Derived Short Interfering RNAs in Caenorhabditis elegans  

PubMed Central

Small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) processed from viral replication intermediates by RNase III-like enzyme Dicer guide sequence-specific antiviral silencing in fungi, plants, and invertebrates. In plants, virus-derived siRNAs (viRNAs) can target and silence cellular transcripts and, in some cases, are responsible for the induction of plant diseases. Currently it remains unclear whether viRNAs are also capable of modulating the expression of cellular genes in the animal kingdom, although animal virus-encoded microRNAs (miRNAs) are known to guide efficient silencing of host genes, thereby facilitating virus replication. In this report, we showed that viRNAs derived from a modified nodavirus triggered potent silencing of homologous cellular transcripts produced by the endogenous gene or transgene in the nematode worm Caenorhabditis elegans. Like that found in plants, virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS) in C. elegans also involves RRF-1, a worm RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRP) that is known to produce single-stranded secondary siRNAs in a Dicer-independent manner. We further demonstrated that VIGS in C. elegans is inheritable, suggesting that VIGS has the potential to generate profound epigenetic consequences in future generations. Altogether, these findings, for the first time, confirmed that viRNAs have the potential to modulate host gene expression in the animal kingdom. Most importantly, the success in uncoupling the trigger and the target of the antiviral silencing would allow for the exploration of novel features of virus-host interactions mediated by viRNAs in the animal kingdom.

Guo, Xunyang; Li, Wan-Xiang

2012-01-01

133

Post-transcriptional regulation of meiotic genes by a nuclear RNA silencing complex.  

PubMed

RNA is a central component of gene-silencing pathways that regulate diverse cellular processes. In the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe, an RNA-based mechanism represses meiotic gene expression during vegetative growth. This pathway depends on the zinc finger protein Red1, which is required to degrade meiotic mRNAs as well as to target histone H3 lysine 9 (H3K9) methylation, a repressive chromatin mark, to a subset of meiotic genes. However, the mechanism of Red1 function is unknown. Here we use affinity purification and mass spectrometry to identify a Red1-containing nuclear RNA silencing (NURS) complex. In addition to Red1, this complex includes the Mtl1, Red5, Ars2, Rmn1, and Iss10 proteins and associates with several other complexes that are involved in either signaling or mediating RNA silencing. By analyzing the effects of gene knockouts and inducible knockdown alleles, we show that NURS subunits regulate RNA degradation and H3K9 methylation at meiotic genes. We also identify roles for individual NURS subunits in interactions with Mmi1, an RNA-binding protein that marks meiotic RNAs for destruction, and the nuclear exosome RNA degradation complex. Finally, we show that the levels of H3K9 methylation at meiotic genes are not sufficient to restrict RNA polymerase II access or repress gene expression during vegetative growth. Our results demonstrate that Red1 partners with other proteins to silence meiotic gene expression at the post-transcriptional level. Conservation of a NURS-like complex in human cells suggests that this pathway plays an ancient and fundamental role in RNA silencing. PMID:24713849

Egan, Emily D; Braun, Craig R; Gygi, Steven P; Moazed, Danesh

2014-06-01

134

Dosage Compensation in the Mouse Balances Up-Regulation and Silencing of X-Linked Genes  

PubMed Central

Dosage compensation in mammals involves silencing of one X chromosome in XX females and requires expression, in cis, of Xist RNA. The X to be inactivated is randomly chosen in cells of the inner cell mass (ICM) at the blastocyst stage of development. Embryonic stem (ES) cells derived from the ICM of female mice have two active X chromosomes, one of which is inactivated as the cells differentiate in culture, providing a powerful model system to study the dynamics of X inactivation. Using microarrays to assay expression of X-linked genes in undifferentiated female and male mouse ES cells, we detect global up-regulation of expression (1.4- to 1.6-fold) from the active X chromosomes, relative to autosomes. We show a similar up-regulation in ICM from male blastocysts grown in culture. In male ES cells, up-regulation reaches 2-fold after 2–3 weeks of differentiation, thereby balancing expression between the single X and the diploid autosomes. We show that silencing of X-linked genes in female ES cells occurs on a gene-by-gene basis throughout differentiation, with some genes inactivating early, others late, and some escaping altogether. Surprisingly, by allele-specific analysis in hybrid ES cells, we also identified a subgroup of genes that are silenced in undifferentiated cells. We propose that X-linked genes are silenced in female ES cells by spreading of Xist RNA through the X chromosome territory as the cells differentiate, with silencing times for individual genes dependent on their proximity to the Xist locus.

Lin, Hong; Gupta, Vibhor; VerMilyea, Matthew D; Falciani, Francesco; Lee, Jeannie T; O'Neill, Laura P; Turner, Bryan M

2007-01-01

135

Gene silencing in root lesion nematodes (Pratylenchus spp.) significantly reduces reproduction in a plant host.  

PubMed

Root lesion nematodes (RLNs, Pratylenchus species) are a group of economically important migratory endoparasitic plant pathogens that attack host roots of major crops such as wheat and sugarcane, and can reduce crop yields by 7-15%. Pratylenchus thornei and Pratylenchus zeae were treated with double stranded RNA (dsRNA) to study gene silencing, (RNA interference, RNAi), as a potential strategy for their control. Mixed stages of nematodes of both species ingested dsRNA when incubated in a basic soaking solution in the presence of the neurostimulant octopamine. Incubation for up to 16 h in soaking solutions containing 10-50 mM octopamine, 0.1-1.0 mg/mL FITC, and 0.5-6 mM spermidine did not affect vitality. Spermidine phosphate salt hexahydrate rather than spermidine or spermidine trihydrochloride increased uptake of FITC by nematodes, and this resulted in more effective gene silencing. Silencing pat-10 and unc-87 genes of P. thornei and P. zeae resulted in paralysis and uncoordinated movements in both species, although to a higher degree in P. thornei. There was also a greater reduction in transcript of both genes in P. thornei indicating that it may be more susceptible to RNAi. For P. thornei treated with dsRNA of pat-10 and unc-87 there was a significant reduction (77-81%) in nematode reproduction on carrot mini discs over a 5 week period. The results show that RLNs are clearly amenable to gene silencing, and that in planta delivery of dsRNA to target genes in these nematodes should confer host resistance. Moreover, for the two genes, dsRNA derived from either nematode species silenced the corresponding gene in both species. This implies cross-species control of nematodes via RNAi is possible. PMID:23201220

Tan, Jo-Anne C H; Jones, Michael G K; Fosu-Nyarko, John

2013-02-01

136

Post-transcriptional regulation of meiotic genes by a nuclear RNA silencing complex  

PubMed Central

RNA is a central component of gene-silencing pathways that regulate diverse cellular processes. In the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe, an RNA-based mechanism represses meiotic gene expression during vegetative growth. This pathway depends on the zinc finger protein Red1, which is required to degrade meiotic mRNAs as well as to target histone H3 lysine 9 (H3K9) methylation, a repressive chromatin mark, to a subset of meiotic genes. However, the mechanism of Red1 function is unknown. Here we use affinity purification and mass spectrometry to identify a Red1-containing nuclear RNA silencing (NURS) complex. In addition to Red1, this complex includes the Mtl1, Red5, Ars2, Rmn1, and Iss10 proteins and associates with several other complexes that are involved in either signaling or mediating RNA silencing. By analyzing the effects of gene knockouts and inducible knockdown alleles, we show that NURS subunits regulate RNA degradation and H3K9 methylation at meiotic genes. We also identify roles for individual NURS subunits in interactions with Mmi1, an RNA-binding protein that marks meiotic RNAs for destruction, and the nuclear exosome RNA degradation complex. Finally, we show that the levels of H3K9 methylation at meiotic genes are not sufficient to restrict RNA polymerase II access or repress gene expression during vegetative growth. Our results demonstrate that Red1 partners with other proteins to silence meiotic gene expression at the post-transcriptional level. Conservation of a NURS-like complex in human cells suggests that this pathway plays an ancient and fundamental role in RNA silencing.

Egan, Emily D.; Braun, Craig R.; Gygi, Steven P.; Moazed, Danesh

2014-01-01

137

Array-Based Approaches for the Identification of Epigenetic Silenced Tumor Suppressor Genes  

PubMed Central

Carcinogenesis involves the inactivation or inhibition of genes that function as tumor suppressors. Deletions, mutations, or epigenetic silencing of tumor suppressor genes can lead to altered growth, differentiation, and apoptosis. DNA methylation and histone modifications are important epigenetic mechanisms of gene regulation and play essential roles both independently and cooperatively in tumor initiation and progression. Realization that many tumor suppressor genes are silenced by epigenetic mechanisms has stimulated discovery of novel tumor suppressor genes. One of the most useful of these approaches is an epigenetic reactivation screening strategy that combines treatment of cancer cells in vitro with DNA methyltransferase and/or histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors, followed by global gene expression analysis using microarrays, to identify upregulated genes. This approach is most effective when complemented by microarray analyses to identify genes repressed in primary tumors. Recently, using cancer cell lines treated with a DNA methylation inhibitor and/or a HDAC inhibitor in conjunction with cDNA microarray analysis, candidate tumor suppressor genes, which are subject to epigenetic silencing, have been identified in endometrial, colorectal, esophageal, and pancreatic cancers. An increasing number of studies have utilized epigenetic reactivation screening to discover novel tumor suppressor genes in cancer. The results of some of the most recent studies are highlighted in this review.

Takai, Noriyuki; Narahara, Hisashi

2008-01-01

138

ADAM33 gene silencing by promoter hypermethylation as a molecular marker in breast invasive lobular carcinoma  

PubMed Central

Background ADAM33 protein is a member of the family of transmembrane glycoproteins composed of multidomains. ADAM family members have different activities, such as proteolysis and adhesion, making them good candidates to mediate the extracellular matrix remodelling and changes in cellular adhesion that characterise certain pathologies and cancer development. It was reported that one family member, ADAM23, is down-regulated by promoter hypermethylation. This seems to correlate with tumour progression and metastasis in breast cancer. In this study, we explored the involvement of ADAM33, another ADAM family member, in breast cancer. Methods First, we analysed ADAM33 expression in breast tumour cell lines by RT-PCR and western blotting. We also used 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine (5azadCR) treatment and DNA bisulphite sequencing to study the promoter methylation of ADAM33 in breast tumour cell lines. We evaluated ADAM33 methylation in primary tumour samples by methylation specific PCR (MSP). Finally, ADAM33 promoter hypermethylation was correlated with clinicopathological data using the chi-square test and Fisher's exact test. Results The expression analysis of ADAM33 in breast tumour cell lines by RT-PCR revealed gene silencing in 65% of tumour cell lines. The corresponding lack of ADAM33 protein was confirmed by western blotting. We also used 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine (5-aza-dCR) demethylation and bisulphite sequencing methodologies to confirm that gene silencing is due to ADAM33 promoter hypermethylation. Using MSP, we detected ADAM33 promoter hypermethylation in 40% of primary breast tumour samples. The correlation between methylation pattern and patient's clinicopathological data was not significantly associated with histological grade; tumour stage (TNM); tumour size; ER, PR or ERBB2 status; lymph node status; metastasis or recurrence. Methylation frequency in invasive lobular carcinoma (ILC) was 76.2% compared with 25.5% in invasive ductal carcinoma (IDC), and this difference was statistically significant (p = 0.0002). Conclusion ADAM33 gene silencing may be related to the discohesive histological appearance of ILCs. We suggest that ADAM33 promoter methylation may be a useful molecular marker for differentiating ILC and IDC.

2009-01-01

139

Lentiviral Transduction of Human Postnatal Skeletal (Stromal, Mesenchymal) Stem Cells: In Vivo Transplantation and Gene Silencing  

Microsoft Academic Search

Systems for gene transfer and silencing in human skeletal stem cells (hSSCs, also stromal or mesenchymal stem cells) are important\\u000a for addressing critical issues in basic hSSC and skeletal biology and for developing gene therapy strategies for treatment\\u000a of skeletal diseases. Whereas recent studies have shown the efficacy of lentiviral transduction for gene transfer in hSSCs\\u000a in vitro, no study

S. Piersanti; B. Sacchetti; A. Funari; S. Di Cesare; D. Bonci; G. Cherubini; C. Peschle; M. Riminucci; P. Bianco; I. Saggio

2006-01-01

140

Critical Role of Histone Methylation in Tumor Suppressor Gene Silencing in Colorectal Cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

The mechanism of DNA hypermethylation-associated tumor suppressor gene silencing in cancer remains incompletely understood. Here, we show by chromatin immunoprecipitation that for three genes (P16, MLH1, and the O6-methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase gene, MGMT), histone H3 Lys-9 methylation directly correlates and histone H3 Lys-9 acetylation inversely correlates with DNA methylation in three neoplastic cell lines. Treatment with the histone deacetylase inhibitor trichostatin

Yutaka Kondo; LanLan Shen; Jean-Pierre J. Issa

2003-01-01

141

A high-throughput virus-induced gene silencing protocol identifies genes involved in multi-stress tolerance  

PubMed Central

Background Understanding the function of a particular gene under various stresses is important for engineering plants for broad-spectrum stress tolerance. Although virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS) has been used to characterize genes involved in abiotic stress tolerance, currently available gene silencing and stress imposition methodology at the whole plant level is not suitable for high-throughput functional analyses of genes. This demands a robust and reliable methodology for characterizing genes involved in abiotic and multi-stress tolerance. Results Our methodology employs VIGS-based gene silencing in leaf disks combined with simple stress imposition and effect quantification methodologies for easy and faster characterization of genes involved in abiotic and multi-stress tolerance. By subjecting leaf disks from gene-silenced plants to various abiotic stresses and inoculating silenced plants with various pathogens, we show the involvement of several genes for multi-stress tolerance. In addition, we demonstrate that VIGS can be used to characterize genes involved in thermotolerance. Our results also showed the functional relevance of NtEDS1 in abiotic stress, NbRBX1 and NbCTR1 in oxidative stress; NtRAR1 and NtNPR1 in salinity stress; NbSOS1 and NbHSP101 in biotic stress; and NtEDS1, NbETR1, NbWRKY2 and NbMYC2 in thermotolerance. Conclusions In addition to widening the application of VIGS, we developed a robust, easy and high-throughput methodology for functional characterization of genes involved in multi-stress tolerance.

2013-01-01

142

The non-coding Air RNA is required for silencing autosomal imprinted genes.  

PubMed

In genomic imprinting, one of the two parental alleles of an autosomal gene is silenced epigenetically by a cis-acting mechanism. A bidirectional silencer for a 400-kilobase region that contains three imprinted, maternally expressed protein-coding genes (Igf2r/Slc22a2/Slc22a3) has been shown by targeted deletion to be located in a sequence of 3.7 kilobases, which also contains the promoter for the imprinted, paternally expressed non-coding Air RNA. Expression of Air is correlated with repression of all three genes on the paternal allele; however, Air RNA overlaps just one of these genes in an antisense orientation. Here we show, by inserting a polyadenylation signal that truncates 96% of the RNA transcript, that Air RNA is required for silencing. The truncated Air allele maintains imprinted expression and methylation of the Air promoter, but shows complete loss of silencing of the Igf2r/Slc22a2/Slc22a3 gene cluster on the paternal chromosome. Our results indicate that non-coding RNAs have an active role in genomic imprinting. PMID:11845212

Sleutels, Frank; Zwart, Ronald; Barlow, Denise P

2002-02-14

143

Gene silencing activity of siRNA molecules containing phosphorodithioate substitutions.  

PubMed

Chemically synthesized small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) have been widely used to identify gene function and hold great potential in providing a new class of therapeutics. Chemical modifications are desired for therapeutic applications to improve siRNA efficacy. Appropriately protected ribonucleoside-3'-yl S-[?-(benzoylmercapto)ethyl]pyrrolidino-thiophosphoramidite monomers were prepared for the synthesis of siRNA containing phosphorodithioate (PS2) substitutions in which the two non-bridging oxygen atoms are replaced by sulfur atoms. A series of siRNAs containing PS2 substitutions have been strategically designed, synthesized, and evaluated for their gene silencing activities. These PS2-siRNA duplexes exhibit an A-form helical structure similar to unmodified siRNA. The effect of PS2 substitutions on gene silencing activity is position-dependent, with certain PS2-siRNAs showing activity significantly higher than that of unmodified siRNA. The relative gene silencing activities of siRNAs containing either PS2 or phosphoromonothioate (PS) linkages at identical positions are variable and depend on the sites of modification. 5'-Phosphorylation of PS2-siRNAs has little or no effect on gene silencing activity. Incorporation of PS2 substitutions into siRNA duplexes increases their serum stability. These results offer preliminary evidence of the potential value of PS2-modified siRNAs. PMID:22512638

Yang, Xianbin; Sierant, Malgorzata; Janicka, Magdalena; Peczek, Lukasz; Martinez, Carlos; Hassell, Tom; Li, Na; Li, Xin; Wang, Tianzhi; Nawrot, Barbara

2012-07-20

144

Gene Silencing Activity of siRNA Molecules Containing Phosphorodithioate Substitutions  

PubMed Central

Chemically synthesized small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) have been widely used to identify gene function and hold great potential in providing a new class of therapeutics. Chemical modifications are desired for therapeutic applications to improve siRNA efficacy. Appropriately protected ribonucleoside-3?-yl S-[?-(benzoylmercapto)ethyl] pyrrolidinothiophosphoramidite monomers were prepared for the synthesis of siRNA containing phosphorodithioate (PS2) substitutions in which the two non-bridging oxygen atoms are replaced by sulfur atoms. A series of siRNAs containing PS2 substitutions have been strategically designed, synthesized and evaluated for their gene silencing activities. These PS2-siRNA duplexes exhibit an A-form helical structure similar to unmodified siRNA. The effect of PS2 substitutions on gene silencing activity is position-dependent, with certain PS2-siRNAs showing significantly higher activity than unmodified siRNA. The relative gene silencing activities of siRNAs containing either PS2 or phosphoromonothioate (PS) linkages at identical positions are variable and depend on the sites of modification. 5?-Phosphorylation of PS2-siRNAs has little or no effect on gene silencing activity. Incorporation of PS2 substitutions into siRNA duplexes increases their serum stability. These results offer preliminary evidence of the potential value of PS2 modified siRNAs.

Yang, Xianbin; Sierant, Malgorzata; Janicka, Magdalena; Peczek, Lukasz; Martinez, Carlos; Hassell, Tom; Li, Na; Li, Xin; Wang, Tianzhi; Nawrot, Barbara

2012-01-01

145

Silencing myostatin gene by RNAi in sheep embryos.  

PubMed

Myostatin (MSTN) gene is described as a negative regulator of the skeletal muscle growth. Controlling MSTN gene expression by genetic manipulation could accelerate the muscle growth and meat production of livestock animals. In the present study, several siRNAs targeting sheep MSTN gene were designed and their interfering efficiency was evaluated in vitro. The present study showed that one of the siRNAs, PSL1, could down-regulate the expression of MSTN significantly. PSL1 was ligated into lentivirus vector, GP-Supersilencing, to construct a siRNA expression lentivirus vector. Fibroblast cells were infected by lentivirus particles and positive cells were isolated by flow cytometry. Nucleus of the positive cell was transferred into enucleated oocytes of sheep. The present study showed that 99.4% of the sorted cells displayed green fluorescence. After enucleation of oocytes with microinjection, about 20% of reconstructed embryos can be developed into morulas, and strong green fluorescence could be observed using a fluorescence microscope. This method can be available to produce transgenic cell line for somatic cell nucleus transfer for transgenic animals. PMID:22285957

Tang, Dayun; Zhu, Huabin; Wu, Jianmin; Chen, Hanzhong; Zhang, Yan; Zhao, Xueming; Chen, Xiaoliang; Du, Weihua; Wang, Dong; Lin, Xiukun

2012-04-15

146

Efficient gene delivery and silencing of mouse and human pancreatic islets  

PubMed Central

Background In view of the importance of beta cells in glucose homeostasis and the profound repercussions of beta cell pathology on human health, the acquisition of tools to study pancreatic islet function is essential for the design of alternative novel therapies for diabetes. One promising approach toward this goal involves the modification of gene expression profile of beta cells. Results This study describes a new method of gene and siRNA delivery into human pancreatic islets by microporation technology. We demonstrated that mild islet distention with accutase greatly enhanced the transfection efficiency without compromising in vitro function (secretion, apoptosis and viability). As an example, the recently identified gene involved in type 2 diabetes, ZnT8, can be over-expressed or silenced by RNA interference using this technology. Microporation can also be used on rodent islets. Conclusions Taken together, our results demonstrate that microporation technology can be used to modify gene expression in whole rodent and human islets without altering their in vitro function and will be key to the elucidation of the factors responsible for proper islet function.

2010-01-01

147

Lipid Nanoparticle Delivery of siRNA to Silence Neuronal Gene Expression in the Brain.  

PubMed

Manipulation of gene expression in the brain is fundamental for understanding the function of proteins involved in neuronal processes. In this article, we show a method for using small interfering RNA (siRNA) in lipid nanoparticles (LNPs) to efficiently silence neuronal gene expression in cell culture and in the brain in vivo through intracranial injection. We show that neurons accumulate these LNPs in an apolipoprotein E-dependent fashion, resulting in very efficient uptake in cell culture (100%) with little apparent toxicity. In vivo, intracortical or intracerebroventricular (ICV) siRNA-LNP injections resulted in knockdown of target genes either in discrete regions around the injection site or in more widespread areas following ICV injections with no apparent toxicity or immune reactions from the LNPs. Effective targeted knockdown was demonstrated by showing that intracortical delivery of siRNA against GRIN1 (encoding GluN1 subunit of the NMDA receptor (NMDAR)) selectively reduced synaptic NMDAR currents in vivo as compared with synaptic AMPA receptor currents. Therefore, LNP delivery of siRNA rapidly manipulates expression of proteins involved in neuronal processes in vivo, possibly enabling the development of gene therapies for neurological disorders.Molecular Therapy-Nucleic Acids (2013) 2, e136; doi:10.1038/mtna.2013.65; published online 3 December 2013. PMID:24301867

Rungta, Ravi L; Choi, Hyun B; Lin, Paulo Jc; Ko, Rebecca Wy; Ashby, Donovan; Nair, Jay; Manoharan, Muthiah; Cullis, Pieter R; Macvicar, Brian A

2013-01-01

148

Post-transcriptional gene silencing of the gene encoding aldolase from soybean cyst nematode by transformed soybean roots.  

PubMed

Plant parasitic nematodes cause approximately 157 billion US dollars in losses worldwide annually. The soybean cyst nematode (SCN), Heterodera glycines, is responsible for an estimated one billion dollars in losses to the US farmer each year. A promising new approach for control of plant parasitic nematode control is gene silencing. We tested this approach by silencing the SCN gene HgALD, encoding fructose-1,6-diphosphate aldolase. This enzyme is important in the conversion of glucose into energy and may be especially important in actin-based motility during parasite invasion of its host. An RNAi construct targeted to silence HgALD was transformed into soybean roots of composite plants to examine its efficacy to reduce the development of females formed by SCN. The number of mature females on roots transformed with the RNAi construct designed to silence the HgALD gene was reduced by 58%. These results indicate that silencing the aldolase gene of SCN +can greatly decrease the number of female SCN reaching maturity, and it is a promising step towards broadening resistance of plants against plant-parasitic nematodes. PMID:23541467

Youssef, Reham M; Kim, Kyung-Hwan; Haroon, Sanaa A; Matthews, Benjamin F

2013-06-01

149

Mi2?-mediated silencing of the fetal ?-globin gene in adult erythroid cells.  

PubMed

An understanding of the human fetal to adult hemoglobin switch offers the potential to ameliorate ?-type globin gene disorders such as sickle cell anemia and ?-thalassemia through activation of the fetal ?-globin gene. Chromatin modifying complexes, including MBD2-NuRD and GATA-1/FOG-1/NuRD, play a role in ?-globin gene silencing, and Mi2? (CHD4) is a critical component of NuRD complexes. We observed that knockdown of Mi2? relieves ?-globin gene silencing in ?-YAC transgenic murine chemical inducer of dimerization hematopoietic cells and in CD34(+) progenitor-derived human primary adult erythroid cells. We show that independent of MBD2-NuRD and GATA-1/FOG-1/NuRD, Mi2? binds directly to and positively regulates both the KLF1 and BCL11A genes, which encode transcription factors critical for ?-globin gene silencing during ?-type globin gene switching. Remarkably, <50% knockdown of Mi2? is sufficient to significantly induce ?-globin gene expression without disrupting erythroid differentiation of primary human CD34(+) progenitors. These results indicate that Mi2? is a potential target for therapeutic induction of fetal hemoglobin. PMID:23444401

Amaya, Maria; Desai, Megha; Gnanapragasam, Merlin Nithya; Wang, Shou Zhen; Zu Zhu, Sheng; Williams, David C; Ginder, Gordon D

2013-04-25

150

Mi2?-mediated silencing of the fetal ?-globin gene in adult erythroid cells  

PubMed Central

An understanding of the human fetal to adult hemoglobin switch offers the potential to ameliorate ?-type globin gene disorders such as sickle cell anemia and ?-thalassemia through activation of the fetal ?-globin gene. Chromatin modifying complexes, including MBD2-NuRD and GATA-1/FOG-1/NuRD, play a role in ?-globin gene silencing, and Mi2? (CHD4) is a critical component of NuRD complexes. We observed that knockdown of Mi2? relieves ?-globin gene silencing in ?-YAC transgenic murine chemical inducer of dimerization hematopoietic cells and in CD34+ progenitor-derived human primary adult erythroid cells. We show that independent of MBD2-NuRD and GATA-1/FOG-1/NuRD, Mi2? binds directly to and positively regulates both the KLF1 and BCL11A genes, which encode transcription factors critical for ?-globin gene silencing during ?-type globin gene switching. Remarkably, <50% knockdown of Mi2? is sufficient to significantly induce ?-globin gene expression without disrupting erythroid differentiation of primary human CD34+ progenitors. These results indicate that Mi2? is a potential target for therapeutic induction of fetal hemoglobin.

Amaya, Maria; Desai, Megha; Gnanapragasam, Merlin Nithya; Wang, Shou Zhen; Zu Zhu, Sheng; Williams, David C.

2013-01-01

151

Gene silencing in X-chromosome inactivation: advances in understanding facultative heterochromatin formation  

Microsoft Academic Search

In female mammals, one of the two X chromosomes is silenced for dosage compensation between the sexes. X-chromosome inactivation is initiated in early embryogenesis by the Xist RNA that localizes to the inactive X chromosome. During development, the inactive X chromosome is further modified, a specialized form of facultative heterochromatin is formed and gene repression becomes stable and independent of

Anton Wutz

2011-01-01

152

Systemic RNAi mediated gene silencing in the anhydrobiotic nematode Panagrolaimus superbus  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Gene silencing by RNA interference (RNAi) is a powerful tool for functional genomics. Although RNAi was first described in Caenorhabditis elegans, several nematode species are unable to mount an RNAi response when exposed to exogenous double stranded RNA (dsRNA). These include the satellite model organisms Pristionchus pacificus and Oscheius tipulae. Available data also suggest that the RNAi pathway targeting

Adam J Shannon; Trevor Tyson; Ilona Dix; Jacqueline Boyd; Ann M Burnell

2008-01-01

153

Suppression of gene silencing: A general strategy used by diverse DNA and RNA viruses of plants  

PubMed Central

In transgenic and nontransgenic plants, viruses are both initiators and targets of a defense mechanism that is similar to posttranscriptional gene silencing (PTGS). Recently, it was found that potyviruses and cucumoviruses encode pathogenicity determinants that suppress this defense mechanism. Here, we test diverse virus types for the ability to suppress PTGS. Nicotiana benthamiana exhibiting PTGS of a green fluorescent protein transgene were infected with a range of unrelated viruses and various potato virus X vectors producing viral pathogenicity factors. Upon infection, suppression of PTGS was assessed in planta through reactivation of green fluorescence and confirmed by molecular analysis. These experiments led to the identification of three suppressors of PTGS and showed that suppression of PTGS is widely used as a counter-defense strategy by DNA and RNA viruses. However, the spatial pattern and degree of suppression varied extensively between viruses. At one extreme, there are viruses that suppress in all tissues of all infected leaves, whereas others are able to suppress only in the veins of new emerging leaves. This variation existed even between closely related members of the potexvirus group. Collectively, these results suggest that virus-encoded suppressors of gene silencing have distinct modes of action, are targeted against distinct components of the host gene-silencing machinery, and that there is dynamic evolution of the host and viral components associated with the gene-silencing mechanism.

Voinnet, Olivier; Pinto, Yvonne M.; Baulcombe, David C.

1999-01-01

154

Silencing of the Y-chromosomal gene tspy during murine evolution.  

PubMed

We have studied the process of tspy gene silencing in murine evolution. We have isolated functional tspy sequences from Apodemus agrarius, A. sylvaticus, A. flavicollis, and Mus platythrix (subgenus Pyromys) and nonfunctional tspy sequences from species of the subgenus Mus. We present two alternative models as to how tspy may have lost its function in the murine lineage. PMID:10754104

Schubert, S; Dechend, F; Skawran, B; Kunze, B; Winking, H; Weile, C; Römer, I; Hemberger, M; Fundele, R; Sharma, T; Schmidtke, J

2000-04-01

155

Fox Chase researchers identify new mechanism used by cells to reverse silenced genes:  

Cancer.gov

Scientists at Fox Chase Cancer Center have discovered a new mechanism used by cells in the body to turn on silenced genes. This process is critical in preventing the development of cancer—suggesting the possibility of new therapies that might target the specific changes underlying the disease.

156

DNA-intercalators Causing Rapid Re-expression of Methylated and Silenced Genes in Cancer Cells  

PubMed Central

Epigenetic inactivation of tumor-suppressor and other regulatory genes plays a critical role in carcinogenesis. Transcriptional silencing is often maintained by DNA methyl transferase (DNMT)-mediated hypermethylation of CpG islands in promoter DNA. Nucleoside analogs including azacytidine and decitabine have been used to inhibit DNMT and re-activate genes, and are clinically used. Their shortcomings include a short half-life and a slow onset of action due to required nucleotide incorporation during DNA replication, which may limit clinical utility. It might be useful to begin to identify lead compounds having novel properties, specifically distinct and fast-acting gene desilencing. We previously identified chemicals augmenting gene expression in multiple reporter systems. We now report that a subset of these compounds that includes quinacrine re-expresses epigenetically silenced genes implicated in carcinogenesis. p16, TFPI2, the cadherins E-cadherin and CDH13, and the secreted frizzle-related proteins (SFRPs) SFRP1 and SFRP5 were desilenced in cancer cell lines. These lead compounds were fast-acting: re-expression occurred by 12-24 hours. Reactivation of silenced genes was accompanied by depletion of DNMT1 at the promoters of activated genes and demethylation of DNA. A model compound, 5175328, induced changes more rapidly than decitabine. These gene desilencing agents belonged to a class of acridine compounds, intercalated into DNA, and inhibited DNMT1 activity in vitro. Although to define the mechanism would be outside the scope of this initial report, this class may re-activate silenced genes in part by intercalating into DNA and subsequently inhibiting full DNMT1 activity. Rapid mechanisms for chemical desilencing of methylated genes therefore exist.

Hossain, M. Zulfiquer; Healey, Megan A.; Lee, Calvin; Poh, Weijie; Yerram, Sashidhar R.; Patel, Kalpesh; Azad, Nilofer S.; Herman, James G.; Kern, Scott E.

2013-01-01

157

Microarray analysis of gene expression in the ovarian cancer cell line HO-8910 with silencing of the ZNF217 gene.  

PubMed

Zinc-finger protein 217 (ZNF217), which is overexpressed during cancer progression, can promote tumor cell immortalization. To examine the function of ZNF217, a global expression profile was carried out using Affymetrix Gene Chip analysis with HG-U133 plus 2.0 arrays in the ovarian cancer cell line HO-8910 after silencing of the ZNF217 gene. The results were analyzed using the Gene Ontology program to investigate the functional network affected by ZNF217 in ovarian cancer cells. Changes in the mRNA expression of the affected genes were confirmed by real-time reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). The results showed that the ZNF217 gene is a key regulator of ovarian cancer, as the silencing of ZNF217 resulted in significant down-regulation by at least 8-fold of 164 genes in the HO-8910 cell line compared to non-silenced control cells. Among these down-regulated genes were ALOX15, CD1D, FXYD3, GAS6, KRT4, LIN7B, MMP-24, PDZK1, PEX6, PRSS8, SLC2A9, STRN and WFDC2. Down-regulation was confirmed by real-time RT-PCR after the silencing of ZNF217 (p<0.05). The results suggest that ZNF217 plays a central role in malignant processes in ovarian cancer. PMID:21475912

Sun, Guiqin; Qin, Jingxia; Qiu, Yuwen; Gao, Yunfei; Yu, Yanhong; Deng, Qinkai; Zhong, Mei

2009-01-01

158

Virus-Induced Gene Silencing as a Tool for Comparative Functional Studies in Thalictrum  

PubMed Central

Perennial woodland herbs in the genus Thalictrum exhibit high diversity of floral morphology, including four breeding and two pollination systems. Their phylogenetic position, in the early-diverging eudicots, makes them especially suitable for exploring the evolution of floral traits and the fate of gene paralogs that may have shaped the radiation of the eudicots. A current limitation in evolution of plant development studies is the lack of genetic tools for conducting functional assays in key taxa spanning the angiosperm phylogeny. We first show that virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS) of a PHYTOENE DESATURASE ortholog (TdPDS) can be achieved in Thalictrum dioicum with an efficiency of 42% and a survival rate of 97%, using tobacco rattle virus (TRV) vectors. The photobleached leaf phenotype of silenced plants significantly correlates with the down-regulation of endogenous TdPDS (P<0.05), as compared to controls. Floral silencing of PDS was achieved in the faster flowering spring ephemeral T. thalictroides. In its close relative, T. clavatum, silencing of the floral MADS box gene AGAMOUS (AG) resulted in strong homeotic conversions of floral organs. In conclusion, we set forth our optimized protocol for VIGS by vacuum-infiltration of Thalictrum seedlings or dormant tubers as a reference for the research community. The three species reported here span the range of floral morphologies and pollination syndromes present in Thalictrum. The evidence presented on floral silencing of orthologs of the marker gene PDS and the floral homeotic gene AG will enable a comparative approach to the study of the evolution of flower development in this group.

Di Stilio, Veronica S.; Kumar, Rachana A.; Oddone, Alessandra M.; Tolkin, Theadora R.; Salles, Patricia; McCarty, Kacie

2010-01-01

159

Dynamic and reversibility of heterochromatic gene silencing in human disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

In eukaryotic organisms cellular fate and tissue specific gene expression are regulated by the activity of proteins known as transcription factors that by interacting with specific DNA sequences direct the activation or repression of target genes. The post genomic era has shown that transcription factors are not the unique key regulators of gene expression. Epigenetic mechanisms such as DNA methylation,

Giuseppe ZARDO; Francesco FAZI; Lorena TRAVAGLINI; Clara NERVI

2005-01-01

160

Transcriptional gene silencing by Arabidopsis microrchidia homologues involves the formation of heteromers  

PubMed Central

Epigenetic gene silencing is of central importance to maintain genome integrity and is mediated by an elaborate interplay between DNA methylation, histone posttranslational modifications, and chromatin remodeling complexes. DNA methylation and repressive histone marks usually correlate with transcriptionally silent heterochromatin, however there are exceptions to this relationship. In Arabidopsis, mutation of Morpheus Molecule 1 (MOM1) causes transcriptional derepression of heterochromatin independently of changes in DNA methylation. More recently, two Arabidopsis homologues of mouse microrchidia (MORC) genes have also been implicated in gene silencing and heterochromatin condensation without altering genome-wide DNA methylation patterns. In this study, we show that Arabidopsis microrchidia (AtMORC6) physically interacts with AtMORC1 and with its close homologue, AtMORC2, in two mutually exclusive protein complexes. RNA-sequencing analyses of high-order mutants indicate that AtMORC1 and AtMORC2 act redundantly to repress a common set of loci. We also examined genetic interactions between AtMORC6 and MOM1 pathways. Although AtMORC6 and MOM1 control the silencing of a very similar set of genomic loci, we observed synergistic transcriptional regulation in the mom1/atmorc6 double mutant, suggesting that these epigenetic regulators act mainly by different silencing mechanisms.

Moissiard, Guillaume; Bischof, Sylvain; Husmann, Dylan; Pastor, William A.; Hale, Christopher J.; Yen, Linda; Stroud, Hume; Papikian, Ashot; Vashisht, Ajay A.; Wohlschlegel, James A.; Jacobsen, Steven E.

2014-01-01

161

RNA-mediated gene silencing of ToxB in Pyrenophora tritici-repentis.  

PubMed

The fungus Pyrenophora tritici-repentis causes tan spot, a wheat leaf disease of worldwide importance. The pathogen produces three host-selective toxins, including Ptr ToxB, which causes chlorophyll degradation and foliar chlorosis on toxin-sensitive wheat genotypes. The ToxB gene, which codes for Ptr ToxB, was silenced in a wild-type race 5 isolate of the fungus thorough a sense- and antisense-mediated silencing mechanism. Toxin production by the silenced strains was evaluated in culture filtrates of the fungus via Western blotting analysis, and plant bioassays were conducted to test the virulence of the transformants in planta. The chlorosis-inducing ability of the silenced strains was correlated with the quantity of Ptr ToxB, and transformants in which toxin production was strongly decreased also caused very little disease on toxin-sensitive wheat genotypes. Cytological analysis of the infection process revealed that, in addition to a reduced capacity to induce chlorosis, the silenced strains with the greatest decrease in the levels of Ptr ToxB produced significantly fewer appressoria than the wild-type isolate, 12 and 24 h after inoculation onto wheat leaves. The results provide strong support for the suggestion that the amount of Ptr ToxB protein produced by fungal isolates plays a significant role in the quantitative variation in the virulence of P. tritici-repentis. PMID:21980935

Aboukhaddour, Reem; Kim, Yong Min; Strelkov, Stephen E

2012-04-01

162

EMBRYONIC FLOWER1 Participates in Polycomb Group-Mediated AG Gene Silencing in Arabidopsis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Polycomb group (PcG)-mediated gene silencing is a common developmental strategy used to maintain stably inherited repression of target genes and involves different protein complexes known as Polycomb-repressive complexes (PRCs). In animals, the two best-characterized PcG complexes are PRC1 and PRC2. In this report, we demonstrate that the plant- specific protein EMBRYONIC FLOWER1 (EMF1) functions in maintaining the repression of the

Myriam Calonje; Rosario Sanchez; Lingjing Chen; Z. R. Sung

2008-01-01

163

In vivo gene silencing in solid tumors by targeted electrically mediated siRNA delivery  

Microsoft Academic Search

RNA interference (RNAi)-mediated gene silencing approaches appear very promising for therapies based on the targeted inhibition of disease-relevant genes. The major hurdle to the therapeutic development of RNAi strategies remains, however, the efficient delivery of the RNAi-inducing molecules, the short interfering RNAs (siRNAs) and short hairpin RNAs (shRNAs), to the target tissue. With respect to cancer treatment the development of

M Golzio; L Mazzolini; A Ledoux; A Paganin; M Izard; L Hellaudais; A Bieth; M J Pillaire; C Cazaux; J S Hoffmann; B Couderc; J Teissié

2007-01-01

164

Aucsia Gene Silencing Causes Parthenocarpic Fruit Development in Tomato[C][W  

PubMed Central

In angiosperms, auxin phytohormones play a crucial regulatory role in fruit initiation. The expression of auxin biosynthesis genes in ovules and placenta results in uncoupling of tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) fruit development from fertilization with production of parthenocarpic fruits. We have identified two newly described genes, named Aucsia genes, which are differentially expressed in auxin-synthesis (DefH9-iaaM) parthenocarpic tomato flower buds. The two tomato Aucsia genes encode 53-amino-acid-long peptides. We show, by RNA interference-mediated gene suppression, that Aucsia genes are involved in both reproductive and vegetative plant development. Aucsia-silenced tomato plants exhibited auxin-related phenotypes such as parthenocarpic fruit development, leaf fusions, and reflexed leaves. Auxin-induced rhizogenesis in cotyledon explants and polar auxin transport in roots were reduced in Aucsia-silenced plants compared with wild-type plants. In addition, Aucsia-silenced plants showed an increased sensitivity to 1-naphthylphthalamic acid, an inhibitor of polar auxin transport. We further prove that total indole-3-acetic acid content was increased in preanthesis Aucsia-silenced flower buds. Thus, the data presented demonstrate that Aucsia genes encode a novel family of plant peptides that control fruit initiation and affect other auxin-related biological processes in tomato. Aucsia homologous genes are present in both chlorophytes and streptophytes, and the encoded peptides are distinguished by a 16-amino-acid-long (PYSGXSTLALVARXSA) AUCSIA motif, a lysine-rich carboxyl-terminal region, and a conserved tyrosine-based endocytic sorting motif.

Molesini, Barbara; Pandolfini, Tiziana; Rotino, Giuseppe Leonardo; Dani, Valeria; Spena, Angelo

2009-01-01

165

Simultaneous silencing of endo-?-1,4 xylanase genes reveals their roles in the virulence of Magnaporthe oryzae.  

PubMed

Due to functional redundancy, it is often difficult to genetically analyse the biological function of fungal cell wall-degrading enzymes that belong to a gene family. To overcome this difficulty, we used RNAi to knock-down (KD) multiple xylanase genes to elucidate their roles in the pathogenicity of the blast fungus, Magnaporthe oryzae. To obtain the maximum average efficiency of gene silencing for the xylanase genes, we used the 'building blocks method', in which a 40 bp sequence was chosen from an endoxylanase gene, and 10 such sequences from 10 endoxylanases were combined to make an artificial RNAi trigger by synthetic DNA. Quantitative RT-PCR analysis revealed that the transcript levels of all the expressed xylanase genes were significantly reduced in KD mutants with the artificial RNAi trigger. Even though the KD mutants did not completely lose their pathogenicity to host plants, the number of lesions, rate of penetration and extent of infected cells were all reduced in KD mutant-infected leaves. The degree of pathogenicity reduction was associated with the silencing levels of xylanase mRNA and enzymatic activity in the KD mutants. Cytological analysis indicated that xylanases play significant roles in both vertical penetration and horizontal expansion of M. oryzae in infected plants. PMID:21696466

Nguyen, Quoc Bao; Itoh, Kenji; Van Vu, Ba; Tosa, Yukio; Nakayashiki, Hitoshi

2011-08-01

166

Global effects on gene expression in fission yeast by silencing and RNA interference machineries.  

PubMed

Histone modifications influence gene expression in complex ways. The RNA interference (RNAi) machinery can repress transcription by recruiting histone-modifying enzymes to chromatin, although it is not clear whether this is a general mechanism for gene silencing or whether it requires repeated sequences such as long terminal repeats (LTRs). We analyzed the global effects of the Clr3 and Clr6 histone deacetylases, the Clr4 methyltransferase, the zinc finger protein Clr1, and the RNAi proteins Dicer, RdRP, and Argonaute on the transcriptome of Schizosaccharomyces pombe (fission yeast). The clr mutants derepressed similar subsets of genes, many of which also became transcriptionally activated in cells that were exposed to environmental stresses such as nitrogen starvation. Many genes that were repressed by the Clr proteins clustered in extended regions close to the telomeres. Surprisingly few genes were repressed by both the silencing and RNAi machineries, with transcripts from centromeric repeats and Tf2 retrotransposons being notable exceptions. We found no correlation between repression by RNAi and proximity to LTRs, and the wtf family of repeated sequences seems to be repressed by histone deacetylation independent of RNAi. Our data indicate that the RNAi and Clr proteins show only a limited functional overlap and that the Clr proteins play more global roles in gene silencing. PMID:15632061

Hansen, Klavs R; Burns, Gavin; Mata, Juan; Volpe, Thomas A; Martienssen, Robert A; Bähler, Jürg; Thon, Geneviève

2005-01-01

167

Global Effects on Gene Expression in Fission Yeast by Silencing and RNA Interference Machineries†  

PubMed Central

Histone modifications influence gene expression in complex ways. The RNA interference (RNAi) machinery can repress transcription by recruiting histone-modifying enzymes to chromatin, although it is not clear whether this is a general mechanism for gene silencing or whether it requires repeated sequences such as long terminal repeats (LTRs). We analyzed the global effects of the Clr3 and Clr6 histone deacetylases, the Clr4 methyltransferase, the zinc finger protein Clr1, and the RNAi proteins Dicer, RdRP, and Argonaute on the transcriptome of Schizosaccharomyces pombe (fission yeast). The clr mutants derepressed similar subsets of genes, many of which also became transcriptionally activated in cells that were exposed to environmental stresses such as nitrogen starvation. Many genes that were repressed by the Clr proteins clustered in extended regions close to the telomeres. Surprisingly few genes were repressed by both the silencing and RNAi machineries, with transcripts from centromeric repeats and Tf2 retrotransposons being notable exceptions. We found no correlation between repression by RNAi and proximity to LTRs, and the wtf family of repeated sequences seems to be repressed by histone deacetylation independent of RNAi. Our data indicate that the RNAi and Clr proteins show only a limited functional overlap and that the Clr proteins play more global roles in gene silencing.

Hansen, Klavs R.; Burns, Gavin; Mata, Juan; Volpe, Thomas A.; Martienssen, Robert A.; Bahler, Jurg; Thon, Genevieve

2005-01-01

168

Disruption of Rpp1-mediated soybean rust immunity by virus-induced gene silencing.  

PubMed

Phakopsora pachyrhizi, a fungus that causes rust disease on soybean, has potential to impart significant yield loss and disrupt food security and animal feed production. Rpp1 is a soybean gene that confers immunity to soybean rust, and it is important to understand how it regulates the soybean defense system and to use this knowledge to protect commercial crops. It was previously discovered that some soybean proteins resembling transcription factors accumulate in the nucleus of Rpp1 soybeans. To determine if they contribute to immunity, Bean pod mottle virus was used to attenuate or silence the expression of their genes. Rpp1 plants subjected to virus-induced gene silencing exhibited reduced amounts of RNA for 5 of the tested genes, and the plants developed rust-like symptoms after subsequent inoculation with fungal spores. Symptoms were associated with the accumulation of rust fungal RNA and protein. Silenced plants also had reduced amounts of RNA for the soybean Myb84 transcription factor and soybean isoflavone O-methyltransferase, both of which are important to phenylpropanoid biosynthesis and lignin formation, crucial components of rust resistance. These results help resolve some of the genes that contribute to Rpp1-mediated immunity and improve upon the knowledge of the soybean defense system. It is possible that these genes could be manipulated to enhance rust resistance in otherwise susceptible soybean cultivars. PMID:24401541

Cooper, Bret; Campbell, Kimberly B; McMahon, Michael B; Luster, Douglas G

2013-12-31

169

Disruption of Rpp1-mediated soybean rust immunity by virus-induced gene silencing  

PubMed Central

Phakopsora pachyrhizi, a fungus that causes rust disease on soybean, has potential to impart significant yield loss and disrupt food security and animal feed production. Rpp1 is a soybean gene that confers immunity to soybean rust, and it is important to understand how it regulates the soybean defense system and to use this knowledge to protect commercial crops. It was previously discovered that some soybean proteins resembling transcription factors accumulate in the nucleus of Rpp1 soybeans. To determine if they contribute to immunity, Bean pod mottle virus was used to attenuate or silence the expression of their genes. Rpp1 plants subjected to virus-induced gene silencing exhibited reduced amounts of RNA for 5 of the tested genes, and the plants developed rust-like symptoms after subsequent inoculation with fungal spores. Symptoms were associated with the accumulation of rust fungal RNA and protein. Silenced plants also had reduced amounts of RNA for the soybean Myb84 transcription factor and soybean isoflavone O-methyltransferase, both of which are important to phenylpropanoid biosynthesis and lignin formation, crucial components of rust resistance. These results help resolve some of the genes that contribute to Rpp1-mediated immunity and improve upon the knowledge of the soybean defense system. It is possible that these genes could be manipulated to enhance rust resistance in otherwise susceptible soybean cultivars.

Cooper, Bret; Campbell, Kimberly B; McMahon, Michael B; Luster, Douglas G

2013-01-01

170

Reverse Genetics of Floral Scent: Application of Tobacco Rattle Virus-Based Gene Silencing in Petunia1[OA  

PubMed Central

Floral fragrance is responsible for attracting pollinators as well as repelling pathogens and pests. As such, it is of immense biological importance. Molecular dissection of the mechanisms underlying scent production would benefit from the use of model plant systems with big floral organs that generate an array of volatiles and that are amenable to methods of forward and reverse genetics. One candidate is petunia (Petunia hybrida), which has emerged as a convenient model system, and both RNAi and overexpression approaches using transgenes have been harnessed for the study of floral volatiles. Virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS) is characterized by a simple inoculation procedure and rapid results relative to transgenesis. Here, we demonstrate the applicability of the tobacco rattle virus-based VIGS system to studies of floral scent. Suppression of the anthocyanin pathway via chalcone synthase silencing was used as a reporter, allowing easy visual identification of anthocyaninless silenced flowers/tissues with no effect on the level of volatile emissions. Use of tobacco rattle virus constructs containing target genes involved in phenylpropanoid volatile production, fused to the chalcone synthase reporter, allowed simple identification of flowers with suppressed activity of the target genes. The applicability of VIGS was exemplified with genes encoding S-adenosyl-l-methionine:benzoic acid/salicylic acid carboxyl methyltransferase, phenylacetaldehyde synthase, and the myb transcription factor ODORANT1. Because this high-throughput reverse-genetics approach was applicable to both structural and regulatory genes responsible for volatile production, it is expected to be highly instrumental for large-scale scanning and functional characterization of novel scent genes.

Spitzer, Ben; Zvi, Michal Moyal Ben; Ovadis, Marianna; Marhevka, Elena; Barkai, Oren; Edelbaum, Orit; Marton, Ira; Masci, Tania; Alon, Michal; Morin, Shai; Rogachev, Ilana; Aharoni, Asaph; Vainstein, Alexander

2007-01-01

171

Silencing of the N family of resistance genes in Nicotiana edwardsonii compromises the hypersensitive response to tombusviruses.  

PubMed

The nontarget effects associated with silencing of the N gene in Nicotiana edwardsonii, an amphidiploid species derived from N. glutinosa and N. clevelandii, have been characterized in this study. The N protein confers resistance to Tobacco mosaic virus (TMV), and is representative of a family of nucleotide-binding site leucine-rich repeat proteins present in N. glutinosa. Previous studies have shown that silencing of the N gene or of other plant genes associated with N-mediated defenses abolishes host resistance to TMV, and this effect can be measured through enhancements in movement or replication of TMV in the N-silenced plants. However, the nontarget effects of gene silencing have not been investigated thoroughly. Notably, are the functions of other resistance (R) genes also affected in experiments designed to silence the N gene? To investigate whether heterologous sequences could silence the N gene, we selected an R gene homolog from N. glutinosa that differed from the N gene by approximately 17%, created a hairpin transgene, and developed transgenic N. edwardsonii plants. Expression of this hairpin in the transgenic N. edwardsonii plants compromised the hypersensitive response to TMV, demonstrating that a single hairpin transgene could silence a block of R genes related by sequence similarity. We then investigated whether the response of N-silenced plants to other viruses would be altered, and found that the hypersensitive response triggered against the tombusviruses Tomato bushy stunt virus and Cymbidium ringspot virus also was compromised. This study indicates that a Tombusvirus R gene shares some homology with the N gene, which could facilitate the cloning of this gene. PMID:17918628

Balaji, Boovaraghan; Cawly, John; Angel, Carlos; Zhang, Zhanyuan; Palanichelvam, Karuppaiah; Cole, Anthony; Schoelz, James

2007-10-01

172

Multi-armed cationic cyclodextrin:poly(ethylene glycol) polyrotaxanes as efficient gene silencing vectors†  

PubMed Central

A family of branched polyrotaxanes (bPRTx+), threaded with multiple cationic ?-cyclodextrins (?-CDs) onto a multi-armed poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) core, were synthesized and studied as gene silencing vectors. These bPRTx+ formed stable, positively charged complexes with diameters of 150–250 nm at N/P ratios as low as 2.5. The bPRTx+ materials were shown to have gene-silencing efficiencies comparable to those of Lipofectamine 2000 (L2k) and bPEI, while displaying similar toxicity profiles. The unique structure of these polyrotaxanes allows them to effectively condense and complex siRNA into nanoparticles at much lower N/P ratios than L2k or bPEI. These findings suggest that bPRTx+ may be useful materials for gene therapy applications.

Kulkarni, Aditya; DeFrees, Kyle; Schuldt, Ryan A.; Vlahu, Alexander; VerHeul, Ross; Hyun, Seok-Hee; Deng, Wei

2012-01-01

173

3?UTR-Mediated Gene Silencing of the Mixed Lineage Leukemia (MLL) Gene  

PubMed Central

Translocations involving the Mixed Lineage Leukemia (MLL) gene generate in-frame fusions of MLL with more than 50 different partner genes (PGs). Common to all MLL translocations is the exchange not only of coding regions, but also of MLL and PG 3?-untranslated regions (3?UTRs). As a result, the MLL-PG fusion is normally highly expressed and considered the main driver of leukemia development, whereas the function of the PG-MLL fusions in leukemic disease is unclear. As 3?UTRs have been recognized as determinant regions for regulation of gene expression, we hypothesized that loss of the MLL 3?UTR could have a role in generating high MLL-PG levels and leukemia development. Here, we first tested the MLL-PG and PG-MLL mRNA levels in different leukemic cells and tumours and uncovered differential expression that indicates strong repression by the MLL-3?UTR. Reporter assays confirmed that the 3?UTR of MLL, but not of its main PGs, harbours a region that imposes a strong gene silencing effect. Gene suppression by the MLL 3?UTR was largely microRNA independent and did not affect mRNA stability, but inhibited transcription. This effect can at least partially be attributed to a tighter interaction of the MLL 3?UTR with RNA polymerase II than PG 3?UTRs, affecting its phosphorylation state. Altogether, our findings indicate that MLL translocations relieve oncogenic MLL-PG fusions from the repressive MLL 3?UTR, contributing to higher activity of these genes and leukaemia development.

Gomez-Benito, Maria; Loayza-Puch, Fabricio; Oude Vrielink, Joachim; Odero, Maria D.; Agami, Reuven

2011-01-01

174

The distribution of repressive histone modifications on silenced FMR1 alleles provides clues to the mechanism of gene silencing in fragile X syndrome  

PubMed Central

Fragile X syndrome (FXS) is the most common heritable cause of intellectual disability and the most common known cause of autism. Most cases of FXS result from the expansion of a CGG·CCG repeat in the 5? UTR of the FMR1 gene that leads to gene silencing. It has previously been shown that silenced alleles are associated with histone H3 dimethylated at lysine 9 (H3K9Me2) and H3 trimethylated at lysine 27 (H3K27Me3), modified histones typical of developmentally repressed genes. We show here that these alleles are also associated with elevated levels of histone H3 trimethylated at lysine 9 (H3K9Me3) and histone H4 trimethylated at lysine 20 (H4K20Me3). All four of these modified histones are present on exon 1 of silenced alleles at levels comparable to that seen on pericentric heterochromatin. The two groups of histone modifications show a different distribution on fragile X alleles: H3K9Me2 and H3K27Me3 have a broad distribution, whereas H3K9Me3 and H4K20Me3 have a more focal distribution with the highest level of these marks being present in the vicinity of the repeat. This suggests that the trigger for gene silencing may be local to the repeat itself and perhaps involves a mechanism similar to that involved in the formation of pericentric heterochromatin.

Kumari, Daman; Usdin, Karen

2010-01-01

175

Gene silencing activity of siRNAs with a ribo-difluorotoluyl nucleotide.  

PubMed

Recently, chemically synthesized short interfering RNA (siRNA) duplexes have been used with success for gene silencing. Chemical modification is desired for therapeutic applications to improve biostability and pharmacokinetic properties; chemical modification may also provide insight into the mechanism of silencing. siRNA duplexes containing the 2,4-difluorotoluyl ribonucleoside (rF) were synthesized to evaluate the effect of noncanonical nucleoside mimetics on RNA interference. 5'-Modification of the guide strand with rF did not alter silencing relative to unmodified control. Internal uridine to rF substitutions were well-tolerated. Thermal melting analysis showed that the base pair between rF and adenosine (A) was destabilizing relative to a uridine-adenosine pair, although it was slightly less destabilizing than other mismatches. The crystal structure of a duplex containing rFoA pairs showed local structural variations relative to a canonical RNA helix. As the fluorine atoms cannot act as hydrogen bond acceptors and are more hydrophobic than uridine, there was an absence of a well-ordered water structure around the rF residues in both grooves. siRNAs with the rF modification effectively silenced gene expression and offered improved nuclease resistance in serum; therefore, evaluation of this modification in therapeutic siRNAs is warranted. PMID:17163665

Xia, Jie; Noronha, Anne; Toudjarska, Ivanka; Li, Feng; Akinc, Akin; Braich, Ravi; Frank-Kamenetsky, Maria; Rajeev, Kallanthottathil G; Egli, Martin; Manoharan, Muthiah

2006-04-25

176

Cytosine Methylation Associated with Repeat-Induced Point Mutation Causes Epigenetic Gene Silencing in Neurospora Crassa  

PubMed Central

Repeated DNA sequences are frequently mutated during the sexual cycle in Neurospora crassa by a process named repeat-induced point mutation (RIP). RIP is often associated with methylation of cytosine residues in and around the mutated sequences. Here we demonstrate that this methylation can silence a gene located in nearby, unique sequences. A large proportion of strains that had undergone RIP of a linked duplication flanking a single-copy transgene, hph (hygromycin B phosphotransferase), showed partial silencing of hph. These strains were all heavily methylated throughout the single-copy hph sequences and the flanking sequences. Silencing was alleviated by preventing methylation, either by 5-azacytidine (5AC) treatment or by introduction of a mutation (eth-1) known to reduce intracellular levels of S-adenosylmethionine. Silenced strains exhibited spontaneous reactivation of hph at frequencies of 10(-4) to 0.5. Reactivated strains, as well as cells that were treated with 5AC, gave rise to cultures that were hypomethylated and partially hygromycin resistant, indicating that some of the original methylation was propagated by a maintenance mechanism. Gene expression levels were found to be variable within a population of clonally related cells, and this variation was correlated with epigenetically propagated differences in methylation patterns.

Irelan, J. T.; Selker, E. U.

1997-01-01

177

HIGS: host-induced gene silencing in the obligate biotrophic fungal pathogen Blumeria graminis.  

PubMed

Powdery mildew fungi are obligate biotrophic pathogens that only grow on living hosts and cause damage in thousands of plant species. Despite their agronomical importance, little direct functional evidence for genes of pathogenicity and virulence is currently available because mutagenesis and transformation protocols are lacking. Here, we show that the accumulation in barley (Hordeum vulgare) and wheat (Triticum aestivum) of double-stranded or antisense RNA targeting fungal transcripts affects the development of the powdery mildew fungus Blumeria graminis. Proof of concept for host-induced gene silencing was obtained by silencing the effector gene Avra10, which resulted in reduced fungal development in the absence, but not in the presence, of the matching resistance gene Mla10. The fungus could be rescued from the silencing of Avra10 by the transient expression of a synthetic gene that was resistant to RNA interference (RNAi) due to silent point mutations. The results suggest traffic of RNA molecules from host plants into B. graminis and may lead to an RNAi-based crop protection strategy against fungal pathogens. PMID:20884801

Nowara, Daniela; Gay, Alexandra; Lacomme, Christophe; Shaw, Jane; Ridout, Christopher; Douchkov, Dimitar; Hensel, Götz; Kumlehn, Jochen; Schweizer, Patrick

2010-09-01

178

Nuclear RNAi contributes to the silencing of off-target genes and repetitive sequences in Caenorhabditis elegans.  

PubMed

Small RNAs recognize, bind, and regulate other complementary cellular RNAs. The introduction of small RNAs to eukaryotic cells frequently results in unintended silencing of related, but not identical, RNAs: a process termed off-target gene silencing. Off-target gene silencing is one of the major concerns during the application of small RNA-based technologies for gene discovery and the treatment of human disease. Off-target gene silencing is commonly thought to be due to inherent biochemical limitations of the RNAi machinery. Here we show that following the introduction of exogenous sources of double-stranded RNA, the nuclear RNAi pathway, but not its cytoplasmic counterparts, is the primary source of off-target silencing in Caenorhabditis elegans. In addition, we show that during the normal course of growth and development the nuclear RNAi pathway regulates repetitive gene families. Therefore, we speculate that RNAi off-target effects might not be "mistakes" but rather an intentional and genetically programmed aspect of small RNA-mediated gene silencing, which might allow small RNAs to silence rapidly evolving parasitic nucleic acids. Finally, reducing off-target effects by manipulating the nuclear RNAi pathway in vivo might improve the efficacy of small RNA-based technologies. PMID:24532782

Zhou, Xufei; Xu, Fei; Mao, Hui; Ji, Jiaojiao; Yin, Meng; Feng, Xuezhu; Guang, Shouhong

2014-05-01

179

Dissecting functions of KATANIN and WRINKLED1 in cotton fiber development by virus-induced gene silencing.  

PubMed

Most of the world's natural fiber comes from cotton (Gossypium spp.), which is an important crop worldwide. Characterizing genes that regulate cotton yield and fiber quality is expected to benefit the sustainable production of natural fiber. Although a huge number of expressed sequence tag sequences are now available in the public database, large-scale gene function analysis has been hampered by the low-efficiency process of generating transgenic cotton plants. Tobacco rattle virus (TRV) has recently been reported to trigger virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS) in cotton leaves. Here, we extended the utility of this method by showing that TRV-VIGS can operate in reproductive organs as well. We used this method to investigate the function of KATANIN and WRINKLED1 in cotton plant development. Cotton plants with suppressed KATANIN expression produced shorter fibers and elevated weight ratio of seed oil to endosperm. By contrast, silencing of WRINKLED1 expression resulted in increased fiber length but reduced oil seed content, suggesting the possibility to increase fiber length by repartitioning carbon flow. Our results provide evidence that the TRV-VIGS system can be used for rapid functional analysis of genes involved in cotton fiber development. PMID:22837356

Qu, Jing; Ye, Jian; Geng, Yun-Feng; Sun, Yan-Wei; Gao, Shi-Qiang; Zhang, Bi-Pei; Chen, Wen; Chua, Nam-Hai

2012-10-01

180

[New perspective in the treatment of chronic myeloid leukemia? gene silencing therapy].  

PubMed

Chronic myeloid leukemia is an incurable white blood cell disease with slow progression which affects myeloid stem cells. In the course of chromosome 22 shortening a fusion oncogene arises whose product, a Bcr-Abl oncoprotein, is a continuously expressed tyrosine kinase protein. Beside the opportunity of chemotherapy, stem cell therapy and interferon-a therapy, the application of tyrosine kinase inhibitors also became widespread in the treatment of the disease. Patients bearing the T315I point mutation, however, show resistance against all tyrosine kinase inhibitors, which can be managed by dose escalation or the combination of therapies. The discovery of RNA interference or gene silencing put the therapeutic opportunity of CML in new light. The in vitro application of anti-bcr-abl siRNA showed promising results in the causal treatment of the disease, feasible for identification of new genes associated to the disease, but we do not have sufficient evidence for the safety and efficacy of this method in human therapy. PMID:22403758

Kiss-Tóth, Éva; Juhászné Szalai, Adrienn; Koska, Péter; Szebeni, János; Kiss-Tóth, Emõke; Barkai, László; Fodor, Bertalan

2012-03-01

181

Vitamin D receptor gene silencing effects on differentiation of myogenic cell lines.  

PubMed

Introduction: The active form of vitamin D (1,25-dihydroxy-vitamin D3) is known to increase fast-type myosin heavy chain expression in differentiated myogenic cell lines. The mechanisms for this effect are not fully understood. The aim of this study was to determine the role of signals transmitted through the vitamin D receptor (VDR) during differentiation of myoblasts. Methods: Electroporation was used to introduce VDR siRNA molecules into C2C12 and G8 murine myoblast cell lines. Gene and protein expression profiles of VDR-gene silenced cells were analyzed in vitro. Results: Suppressing VDR expression by RNA interference resulted in inhibition of myogenic differentiation of C2C12 and G8 cell lines at both mRNA and protein levels. Conclusions: Our results suggest that myoblasts require signals transmitted through VDR for differentiation into myocytes and emphasize the importance of VDR expression in skeletal muscles for maintaining muscle volume in the elderly. Muscle Nerve 49: 700-708, 2014. PMID:23873355

Tanaka, Masahiko; Kishimoto, Koshi N; Okuno, Hiroshi; Saito, Hideo; Itoi, Eiji

2014-05-01

182

Silencing the SpMPK1, SpMPK2, and SpMPK3 Genes in Tomato Reduces Abscisic Acid--Mediated Drought Tolerance  

PubMed Central

Drought is a major threat to agriculture production worldwide. Mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) play a pivotal role in sensing and converting stress signals into appropriate responses so that plants can adapt and survive. To examine the function of MAPKs in the drought tolerance of tomato plants, we silenced the SpMPK1, SpMPK2, and SpMPK3 genes in wild-type plants using the virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS) method. The results indicate that silencing the individual genes or co-silencing SpMPK1, SpMPK2, and SpMPK3 reduced the drought tolerance of tomato plants by varying degrees. Co-silencing SpMPK1 and SpMPK2 impaired abscisic acid (ABA)-induced and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2)-induced stomatal closure and enhanced ABA-induced H2O2 production. Similar results were observed when silencing SpMPK3 alone, but not when SpMPK1 and SpMPK2 were individually silenced. These data suggest that the functions of SpMPK1 and SpMPK2 are redundant, and they overlap with that of SpMPK3 in drought stress signaling pathways. In addition, we found that SpMPK3 may regulate H2O2 levels by mediating the expression of CAT1. Hence, SpMPK1, SpMPK2, and SpMPK3 may play crucial roles in enhancing tomato plants’ drought tolerance by influencing stomatal activity and H2O2 production via the ABA-H2O2 pathway.

Li, Cui; Yan, Jian-Min; Li, Yun-Zhou; Zhang, Zhen-Cai; Wang, Qiao-Li; Liang, Yan

2013-01-01

183

Agrobacterium Mediated Transient Gene Silencing (AMTS) in Stevia rebaudiana: Insights into Steviol Glycoside Biosynthesis Pathway  

PubMed Central

Background Steviol glycoside biosynthesis pathway has emerged as bifurcation from ent-kaurenoic acid, substrate of methyl erythritol phosphate pathway that also leads to gibberellin biosynthesis. However, the genetic regulation of steviol glycoside biosynthesis has not been studied. So, in present study RNA interference (RNAi) based Agrobacterium mediated transient gene silencing (AMTS) approach was followed. SrKA13H and three SrUGTs (SrUGT85C2, SrUGT74G1 and SrUGT76G1) genes encoding ent-kaurenoic acid-13 hydroxylase and three UDP glycosyltransferases of steviol glycoside biosynthesis pathway were silenced in Stevia rebaudiana to understand its molecular mechanism and association with gibberellins. Methodology/Principal Findings RNAi mediated AMTS of SrKA13H and three SrUGTs has significantly reduced the expression of targeted endogenous genes as well as total steviol glycoside accumulation. While gibberellins (GA3) content was significantly enhanced on AMTS of SrUGT85C2 and SrKA13H. Silencing of SrKA13H and SrUGT85C2 was found to block the metabolite flux of steviol glycoside pathway and shifted it towards GA3 biosynthesis. Further, molecular docking of three SrUGT proteins has documented highest affinity of SrUGT76G1 for the substrates of alternate pathways synthesizing steviol glycosides. This could be a plausible reason for maximum reduction in steviol glycoside content on silencing of SrUGT76G1 than other genes. Conclusions SrKA13H and SrUGT85C2 were identified as regulatory genes influencing carbon flux between steviol glycoside and gibberellin biosynthesis. This study has also documented the existence of alternate steviol glycoside biosynthesis route.

Guleria, Praveen; Yadav, Sudesh Kumar

2013-01-01

184

Transcriptional Gene Silencing (TGS) via the RNAi Machinery in HIV-1 Infections  

PubMed Central

Gene silencing via non-coding RNA, such as siRNA and miRNA, can occur at the transcriptional, post-transcriptional, and translational stages of expression. Transcriptional gene silencing (TGS) involving the RNAi machinery generally occurs through DNA methylation, as well as histone post-translational modifications, and corresponding remodeling of chromatin around the target gene into a heterochromatic state. The mechanism by which mammalian TGS occurs includes the recruitment of RNA-induced initiation of transcriptional gene silencing (RITS) complexes, DNA methyltransferases (DNMTs), and other chromatin remodelers. Additionally, virally infected cells encoding miRNAs have also been shown to manipulate the host cell RNAi machinery to induce TGS at the viral genome, thereby establishing latency. Furthermore, the introduction of exogenous siRNA and shRNA into infected cells that target integrated viral promoters can greatly suppress viral transcription via TGS. Here we examine the latest findings regarding mammalian TGS, specifically focusing on HIV-1 infected cells, and discuss future avenues of exploration in this field.

Sampey, Gavin C; Guendel, Irene; Das, Ravi; Jaworski, Elizabeth; Klase, Zachary; Narayanan, Aarthi; Kehn-Hall, Kylene; Kashanchi, Fatah

2012-01-01

185

Gene loss and silencing in Tragopogon miscellus (Asteraceae): comparison of natural and synthetic allotetraploids.  

PubMed

Whole-genome duplication (polyploidisation) is a widespread mechanism of speciation in plants. Over time, polyploid genomes tend towards a more diploid-like state, through downsizing and loss of duplicated genes (homoeologues), but relatively little is known about the timing of gene loss during polyploid formation and stabilisation. Several studies have also shown gene transcription to be affected by polyploidisation. Here, we examine patterns of gene loss in 10 sets of homoeologues in five natural populations of the allotetraploid Tragopogon miscellus that arose within the past 80 years following independent whole-genome duplication events. We also examine 44 first-generation synthetic allopolyploids of the same species. No cases of homoeologue loss arose in the first allopolyploid generation, but after 80 years, 1.6% of homoeologues were lost in natural populations. For seven homoeologue sets we also examined transcription, finding that 3.4% of retained homoeologues had been silenced in the natural populations, but none in the synthetic plants. The homoeologue losses and silencing events found were not fixed within natural populations and did not form a predictable pattern among populations. We therefore show haphazard loss and silencing of homoeologues, occurring within decades of polyploid formation in T. miscellus, but not in the initial generation. PMID:19277058

Buggs, R J A; Doust, A N; Tate, J A; Koh, J; Soltis, K; Feltus, F A; Paterson, A H; Soltis, P S; Soltis, D E

2009-07-01

186

Efficient delivery of small interfering RNA to plant cells by a nanosecond pulsed laser-induced stress wave for posttranscriptional gene silencing.  

PubMed

Small interfering RNA (siRNA) induced posttranscriptional gene silencing (PTGS) has been an efficient method for genetic and molecular analysis of certain developmental and physiological processes and represented a potential strategy for both controlling virus replication and developing therapeutic products. However, there are limitations for the methods currently used to deliver siRNA into cells. We report here, to our knowledge, the first efficient delivery of siRNA to plant cells by a nanosecond pulsed laser-induced stress wave (LISW) for posttranscriptional gene silencing. Using LISW, we are able to silence gene expression in cell cultures of three different plant species rice (Oryza sativa L.), cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.), and slash pine (Pinus elliottii Engelm.). Gene silencing induced by siRNA has been confirmed by northern blot, laser scanning microscopy, and siRNA analysis. These data suggested that LISW-mediated siRNA delivery can be a reliable and effective method for inducing PTGS in cultured cells. PMID:22980207

Tang, Wei; Weidner, Douglas A; Hu, Benjamin Y; Newton, Ronald J; Hu, Xin-Hua

2006-09-01

187

Inhibition of human esophageal squamous cell carcinomas by targeted silencing of tumor enhancer genes: an overview  

PubMed Central

Esophageal cancer has been reported as the ninth most common malignancy and ranks as the sixth most frequent cause of death worldwide. Esophageal cancer treatment involves surgery, chemotherapy, radiation therapy, or combination therapy. Novel strategies are needed to boost the oncologic outcome. Recent advances in the molecular biology of esophageal cancer have documented the role of genetic alterations in tumorigenesis. Oncogenes serve a pivotal function in tumorigenesis. Targeted therapies are directed at the unique molecular signature of cancer cells for enhanced efficacy with low toxicity. RNA interference (RNAi) technology is a powerful tool for silencing endogenous or exogenous genes in mammalian cells. Related results have shown that targeting oncogenes with siRNAs, specifically the mRNA, effectively reduces tumor cell proliferation and induces apoptotic cell death. This article will briefly review studies on silencing tumor enhancer genes related to the induction of esophageal cancer.

Islamian, Jalil Pirayesh; Mohammadi, Mohsen; Baradaran, Behzad

2014-01-01

188

Gene silencing by siRNAs and antisense oligonucleotides in the laboratory and the clinic  

PubMed Central

Synthetic nucleic acids are commonly used laboratory tools for modulating gene expression and have the potential to be widely used in the clinic. Progress towards nucleic acid drugs, however, has been slow and many challenges remain to be overcome before their full impact on patient care can be understood. Antisense oligonucleotides (ASOs) and small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) are the two most widely used strategies for silencing gene expression. We first describe these two approaches and contrast their relative strengths and weaknesses for laboratory applications. We then review the choices faced during development of clinical candidates and the current state of clinical trials. Attitudes towards clinical development of nucleic acid silencing strategies have repeatedly swung from optimism to depression during the past twenty years. Our goal is to provide the information needed to design robust studies with oligonucleotides, making use of the strengths of each oligonucleotide technology.

Watts, Jonathan K.; Corey, David R.

2014-01-01

189

Identification and Characterization of Plant Genes Involved in Agrobacterium -Mediated Plant Transformation by Virus-Induced Gene Silencing  

Microsoft Academic Search

Genetic transformation of plant cells by Agrobacterium tu- mefaciens represents a unique case of trans-kingdom sex re- quiring the involvement of both bacterial virulence proteins and plant-encoded proteins. We have developed in planta and leaf-disk assays in Nicotiana benthamiana for identifying plant genes involved in Agrobacterium-mediated plant trans- formation using virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS) as a genomics tool. VIGS was

Ajith Anand; Zarir Vaghchhipawala; Choong-Min Ryu; Li Kang; Keri Wang; Olga del-Pozo; Gregory B. Martin; Kirankumar S. Mysore

2007-01-01

190

Genome-wide screening for methylation-silenced genes in colorectal cancer.  

PubMed

Identification of methylation-silenced genes in colorectal cancer (CRC) is of great importance. We employed oligonucleotide microarrays to identify differences in global gene expression of five CRC cell lines (HCT116, RKO, Colo320, SW480 and HT29) that were analyzed before and after treatment with 5-aza-2'-deoxycitidine. Selected candidates were subjected to methylation-specific PCR and real-time quantitative reverse transcription-PCR using 15 CRC cell lines and 23 paired tumor and normal samples from CRC patients. After 5-aza-2'-deoxycitidine treatment, 139 genes were re-expressed in all 5 CRC cell lines collectively with a fold change of more than 1.5 in at least one cell line. These genes include known methylated and silenced genes in CRC. After applying study selection criteria we identified 20 candidates. The GADD45B and THSD1 genes were selected for further analysis. Among 15 colon cancer cell lines, methylation was only identified in THSD1 (27%). THSD1 methylation was subsequently investigated in 23 colorectal tumors and methylation was detected in 9% of the analyzed samples; the observed promoter hypermethylation was cancer-specific. THSD1 mRNA down-regulation was observed in tumor tissues. This genome-wide screening led to the identification of genes putatively affected by methylation in CRC. The THSD1 gene may play a role in the tumorigenesis of CRC. PMID:22664866

Khamas, Ahmed; Ishikawa, Toshiaki; Mogushi, Kaoru; Iida, Satoru; Ishiguro, Megumi; Tanaka, Hiroshi; Uetake, Hiroyuki; Sugihara, Kenichi

2012-08-01

191

The insulation of genes from external enhancers and silencing chromatin  

PubMed Central

Insulators are DNA sequence elements that can serve in some cases as barriers to protect a gene against the encroachment of adjacent inactive condensed chromatin. Some insulators also can act as blocking elements to protect against the activating influence of distal enhancers associated with other genes. Although most of the insulators identified so far derive from Drosophila, they also are found in vertebrates. An insulator at the 5? end of the chicken ?-globin locus marks a boundary between an open chromatin domain and a region of constitutively condensed chromatin. Detailed analysis of this element shows that it possesses both enhancer blocking activity and the ability to screen reporter genes against position effects. Enhancer blocking is associated with binding of the protein CTCF; sites that bind CTCF are found at other critical points in the genome. Protection against position effects involves other properties that appear to be associated with control of histone acetylation and methylation. Insulators thus are complex elements that can help to preserve the independent function of genes embedded in a genome in which they are surrounded by regulatory signals they must ignore.

Burgess-Beusse, Bonnie; Farrell, Catherine; Gaszner, Miklos; Litt, Michael; Mutskov, Vesco; Recillas-Targa, Felix; Simpson, Melanie; West, Adam; Felsenfeld, Gary

2002-01-01

192

Prevention of hyperglycemia-induced myocardial apoptosis by gene silencing of Toll-like receptor-4  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Apoptosis is an early event involved in cardiomyopathy associated with diabetes mellitus. Toll-like receptor (TLR) signaling triggers cell apoptosis through multiple mechanisms. Up-regulation of TLR4 expression has been shown in diabetic mice. This study aimed to delineate the role of TLR4 in myocardial apoptosis, and to block this process through gene silencing of TLR4 in the myocardia of diabetic

Yuwei Zhang; Tianqing Peng; Huaqing Zhu; Xiufen Zheng; Xusheng Zhang; Nan Jiang; Xiaoshu Cheng; Xiaoyan Lai; Aminah Shunnar; Manpreet Singh; Neil Riordan; Vladimir Bogin; Nanwei Tong; Wei-Ping Min

2010-01-01

193

Silencing the ap65 gene reduces adherence to vaginal epithelial cells by Trichomonas vaginalis.  

PubMed

Host parasitism by Trichomonas vaginalis is complex and in part mediated by adherence to vaginal epithelial cells (VECs). Four trichomonad surface proteins bind VECs as adhesins, and AP65 is a major adhesin with sequence identity to an enzyme of the hydrogenosome organelle that is involved in energy generation. In order to perform genetic analysis and assess the role of AP65 in T. vaginalis adherence, we silenced expression of ap65 using antisense RNA. The gene for ap65 was inserted into the vector pBS-neo in sense and antisense orientations to generate plasmids pBS-neoS (S) and pBS-neoAS (AS), respectively. Trichomonads were then transfected with S and AS plasmids for selection of stable transfectants using Geneticin, and the presence of plasmid in transfectants was confirmed by polymerase chain reaction of the neo gene. Reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction and Northern blot analysis showed decreased amounts of ap65 transcript in AS transfected parasites. Growth kinetics of the antisense-transfected and wild type organisms were similar, suggesting that silencing AP65 did not affect overall energy generation for growth. Immunoblot analysis using monoclonal antibody (mAb) to AP65 of AS transfectants showed decreased amounts of AP65 when compared to wild type or S transfectants. Not unexpectedly, this corresponded to decreased amounts of AP65 bound to VECs in a functional ligand assay. Reduction in parasite surface expression of AP65 was related to lower levels of adherence to VECs by AS-transfectants compared to control organisms. Antisense silencing of ap65 was not alleviated by growth of trichomonads in high iron, which up-regulates transcription of ap65. Our work reaffirms the role for AP65 as an adhesin, and in addition, we demonstrate antisense RNA gene silencing in T. vaginalis to study the contribution of specific genes in pathogenesis. PMID:15306014

Mundodi, V; Kucknoor, A S; Klumpp, D J; Chang, T-H; Alderete, J F

2004-08-01

194

Genetic unmasking of epigenetically silenced tumor suppressor genes in colon cancer cells deficient in DNA methyltransferases  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hypermethylation associated silencing of the CpG islands of tumor suppressor genes is a common hallmark of human cancer. Here we report a functional search for hypermethylated CpG islands using the colorectal cancer cell line HCT-116, in which two major DNA methyltransferases, DNMT1 and DNMT3b, have been genetically disrupted (DKO cells). Using two molecular screenings for differentially methylated loci (differential methylation

Maria F. Paz; Susan Wei; Juan C. Cigudosa; Sandra Rodriguez-Perales; Miguel A. Peinado; Tim Hui-Ming Huang; Manel Esteller

2003-01-01

195

Promoter Targeting shRNA Suppresses HIV-1 Infection In vivo Through Transcriptional Gene Silencing  

PubMed Central

Despite prolonged and intensive application, combined antiretroviral therapy cannot eradicate human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-1 because it is harbored as a latent infection, surviving for long periods of time. Alternative approaches are required to overcome the limitations of current therapy. We have been developing a short interfering RNA (siRNA) gene silencing approach. Certain siRNAs targeting promoter regions of genes induce transcriptional gene silencing. We previously reported substantial transcriptional gene silencing of HIV-1 replication by an siRNA targeting the HIV-1 promoter in vitro. In this study, we show that this siRNA, expressed as a short hairpin RNA (shRNA) (shPromA-JRFL) delivered by lentiviral transduction of human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs), which are then used to reconstitute NOJ mice, is able to inhibit HIV-1 replication in vivo, whereas a three-base mismatched variant (shPromA-M2) does not. In shPromA-JRFL–treated mice, HIV-1 RNA in serum is significantly reduced, and the ratio of CD4+/CD8+ T cells is significantly elevated. Expression levels of the antisense RNA strand inversely correlates with HIV-1 RNA in serum. The silenced HIV-1 can be reactivated by T-cell activation in ex vivo cultures. HIV-1 suppression is not due to offtarget effects of shPromA-JRFL. These data provide “proof-of principle” that an shRNA targeting the HIV-1 promoter is able to suppress HIV-1 replication in vivo.

Suzuki, Kazuo; Hattori, Shinichiro; Marks, Katherine; Ahlenstiel, Chantelle; Maeda, Yosuke; Ishida, Takaomi; Millington, Michelle; Boyd, Maureen; Symonds, Geoff; Cooper, David A; Okada, Seiji; Kelleher, Anthony D

2013-01-01

196

Role of hPHF1 in H3K27 Methylation and Hox Gene Silencing  

Microsoft Academic Search

Received 29 August 2007\\/Returned for modification 29 October 2007\\/Accepted 7 December 2007 Polycomb group (PcG) proteins are required for maintaining the silent state of the homeotic genes and other important developmental regulators. The silencing function of the PcG proteins has been linked to their intrinsic histone modifying enzymatic activities. The EED-EZH2 complex, containing the core subunits EZH2, EED, SUZ12, and

Ru Cao; Hengbin Wang; Jin He; Hediye Erdjument-Bromage; Paul Tempst; Yi Zhang

2008-01-01

197

Dietary and genetic effects on age-related loss of gene silencing reveal epigenetic plasticity of chromatin repression during aging  

PubMed Central

During aging, changes in chromatin state that alter gene transcription have been postulated to result in expression of genes that are normally silenced, leading to deleterious age-related effects on cellular physiology. Despite the prevalence of this hypothesis, it is primarily in yeast that loss of gene silencing with age has been well documented. We use a novel position effect variegation (PEV) reporter in Drosophila melanogaster to show that age-related loss of repressive heterochromatin is associated with loss of gene silencing in metazoans and is affected by Sir2, as it is in yeast. The life span-extending intervention, calorie restriction (CR), delays the age-related loss of gene silencing, indicating that loss of gene silencing is a component of normal aging. Diet switch experiments show that such flies undergo a rapid change in their level of gene silencing, demonstrating the epigenetic plasticity of chromatin during aging and highlighting the potential role of diet and metabolism in chromatin maintenance, Thus, diet and related interventions may be of therapeutic importance for age-related diseases, such as cancer.

Jiang, Nan; Du, Guyu; Tobias, Ethan; Wood, Jason G.; Whitaker, Rachel; Neretti, Nicola; Helfand, Stephen L.

2013-01-01

198

Dietary and genetic effects on age-related loss of gene silencing reveal epigenetic plasticity of chromatin repression during aging.  

PubMed

During aging, changes in chromatin state that alter gene transcription have been postulated to result in expression of genes that are normally silenced, leading to deleterious age-related effects on cellular physiology. Despite the prevalence of this hypothesis, it is primarily in yeast that loss of gene silencing with age has been well documented. We use a novel position effect variegation (PEV) reporter in Drosophila melanogaster to show that age-related loss of repressive heterochromatin is associated with loss of gene silencing in metazoans and is affected by Sir2, as it is in yeast. The life span-extending intervention, calorie restriction (CR), delays the age-related loss of gene silencing, indicating that loss of gene silencing is a component of normal aging. Diet switch experiments show that such flies undergo a rapid change in their level of gene silencing, demonstrating the epigenetic plasticity of chromatin during aging and highlighting the potential role of diet and metabolism in chromatin maintenance, Thus, diet and related interventions may be of therapeutic importance for age-related diseases, such as cancer. PMID:24243774

Jiang, Nan; Du, Guyu; Tobias, Ethan; Wood, Jason G; Whitaker, Rachel; Neretti, Nicola; Helfand, Stephen L

2013-11-01

199

Effective Gene Silencing in a Microsporidian Parasite Associated with Honeybee (Apis mellifera) Colony Declines ? †  

PubMed Central

Honeybee colonies are vulnerable to parasites and pathogens ranging from viruses to vertebrates. An increasingly prevalent disease of managed honeybees is caused by the microsporidian Nosema ceranae. Microsporidia are basal fungi and obligate parasites with much-reduced genomic and cellular components. A recent genome-sequencing effort for N. ceranae indicated the presence of machinery for RNA silencing in this species, suggesting that RNA interference (RNAi) might be exploited to regulate Nosema gene expression within bee hosts. Here we used controlled laboratory experiments to show that double-stranded RNA homologous to specific N. ceranae ADP/ATP transporter genes can specifically and differentially silence transcripts encoding these proteins. This inhibition also affects Nosema levels and host physiology. Gene silencing could be mediated solely by Nosema or in concert with known systemic RNAi mechanisms in their bee hosts. These results are novel for the microsporidia and provide a possible avenue for controlling a disease agent implicated in severe honeybee colony losses. Moreover, since microsporidia are pathogenic in several known veterinary and human diseases, this advance may have broader applications in the future for disease control.

Paldi, Nitzan; Glick, Eitan; Oliva, Maayan; Zilberberg, Yaron; Aubin, Lucie; Pettis, Jeffery; Chen, Yanping; Evans, Jay D.

2010-01-01

200

DNA elements reducing transcriptional gene silencing revealed by a novel screening strategy.  

PubMed

Transcriptional gene silencing (TGS)--a phenomenon observed in endogenous genes/transgenes in eukaryotes--is a huge hindrance to transgenic technology and occurs mainly when the genes involved share sequence homology in their promoter regions. TGS depends on chromosomal position, suggesting the existence of genomic elements that suppress TGS. However, no systematic approach to identify such DNA elements has yet been reported. Here, we developed a successful novel screening strategy to identify such elements (anti-silencing regions-ASRs), based on their ability to protect a flanked transgene from TGS. A silenced transgenic tobacco plant in which a subsequently introduced transgene undergoes obligatory promoter-homology dependent TGS in trans allowed the ability of DNA elements to prevent TGS to be used as the screening criterion. We also identified ASRs in a genomic library from a different plant species (Lotus japonicus: a perennial legume); the ASRs include portions of Ty1/copia retrotransposon-like and pararetrovirus-like sequences; the retrotransposon-like sequences also showed interspecies anti-TGS activity in a TGS-induction system in Arabidopsis. Anti-TGS elements could provide effective tools to reduce TGS and ensure proper regulation of transgene expression. Furthermore, the screening strategy described here will also facilitate the efficient identification of new classes of anti-TGS elements. PMID:23382937

Kishimoto, Naoki; Nagai, Jun-ichi; Kinoshita, Takehito; Ueno, Keiichiro; Ohashi, Yuko; Mitsuhara, Ichiro

2013-01-01

201

DNA Elements Reducing Transcriptional Gene Silencing Revealed by a Novel Screening Strategy  

PubMed Central

Transcriptional gene silencing (TGS)–a phenomenon observed in endogenous genes/transgenes in eukaryotes–is a huge hindrance to transgenic technology and occurs mainly when the genes involved share sequence homology in their promoter regions. TGS depends on chromosomal position, suggesting the existence of genomic elements that suppress TGS. However, no systematic approach to identify such DNA elements has yet been reported. Here, we developed a successful novel screening strategy to identify such elements (anti-silencing regions–ASRs), based on their ability to protect a flanked transgene from TGS. A silenced transgenic tobacco plant in which a subsequently introduced transgene undergoes obligatory promoter-homology dependent TGS in trans allowed the ability of DNA elements to prevent TGS to be used as the screening criterion. We also identified ASRs in a genomic library from a different plant species (Lotus japonicus: a perennial legume); the ASRs include portions of Ty1/copia retrotransposon-like and pararetrovirus-like sequences; the retrotransposon-like sequences also showed interspecies anti-TGS activity in a TGS-induction system in Arabidopsis. Anti-TGS elements could provide effective tools to reduce TGS and ensure proper regulation of transgene expression. Furthermore, the screening strategy described here will also facilitate the efficient identification of new classes of anti-TGS elements.

Ueno, Keiichiro; Ohashi, Yuko; Mitsuhara, Ichiro

2013-01-01

202

Host-induced gene silencing: a tool for understanding fungal host interaction and for developing novel disease control strategies.  

PubMed

Recent discoveries regarding small RNAs and the mechanisms of gene silencing are providing new opportunities to explore fungal pathogen-host interactions and potential strategies for novel disease control. Plant pathogenic fungi are a constant and major threat to global food security; they represent the largest group of disease-causing agents on crop plants on the planet. An initial understanding of RNA silencing mechanisms and small RNAs was derived from model fungi. Now, new knowledge with practical implications for RNA silencing is beginning to emerge from the study of plant-fungus interactions. Recent studies have shown that the expression of silencing constructs in plants designed on fungal genes can specifically silence their targets in invading pathogenic fungi, such as Fusarium verticillioides, Blumeria graminis and Puccinia striiformis f.sp. tritici. Here, we highlight the important general aspects of RNA silencing mechanisms and emphasize recent findings from plant pathogenic fungi. Strategies to employ RNA silencing to investigate the basis of fungal pathogenesis are discussed. Finally, we address important aspects for the development of fungal-derived resistance through the expression of silencing constructs in host plants as a powerful strategy to control fungal disease. PMID:22111693

Nunes, Cristiano C; Dean, Ralph A

2012-06-01

203

Cooperation between EZH2, NSPc1-mediated histone H2A ubiquitination and Dnmt1 in HOX gene silencing  

Microsoft Academic Search

An intricate interplay between DNA methylation and polycomb-mediated gene silencing has been high- lighted recently. Here we provided evidence that Nervous System Polycomb 1 (NSPc1), a BMI1 homo- logous polycomb protein, plays important roles in promoting H2A ubiquitination and cooperates with DNA methylation in HOX gene silencing. We showed that NSPc1 stimulates H2A ubiquitination in vivo and in vitro through

Xudong Wu; Yanhua Gong; Jiping Yue; Boqin Qiang; Jiangang Yuan; Xiaozhong Peng

2008-01-01

204

Gene silencing in alveolar type II cells using cell-specific promoter in vitro and in vivo  

Microsoft Academic Search

RNA interference (RNAi) is a sequence-specific post- transcriptional gene silencing process. Although it is widely used in the loss-of-function studies, none of the current RNAi technologies can achieve cell- specific gene silencing. The lack of cell specificity limits its usage in vivo. Here, we report a cell-specific RNAi system using an alveolar epithelial type II cell- specific promoter—the surfactant protein

Deming Gou; Telugu Narasaraju; Narendranath Reddy Chintagari; Nili Jin; Pengcheng Wang; Lin Liu

2004-01-01

205

Gene Silencing by RNA Interference in the White Rot Fungus Phanerochaete chrysosporium?  

PubMed Central

The effectiveness of RNA interference (RNAi) is demonstrated in the lignin-degrading fungus Phanerochaete chrysosporium. The manganese-containing superoxide dismutase gene (MnSOD1) was used as the target for RNAi. The plasmid constructed for gene silencing contained a transcriptional unit for hairpin RNA expression. Significantly lower MnSOD expression at both the mRNA and protein activity levels was detected in RNAi transformants. Furthermore, even though P. chrysosporium possesses three copies of the MnSOD gene, this RNAi construct was sufficient to decrease the enzymatic activity by as much as 70% relative to control levels. Implementation of the RNAi technique in P. chrysosporium provides an alternative genetic tool for studies of gene function, particularly of essential genes or gene families.

Matityahu, Avi; Hadar, Yitzhak; Dosoretz, Carlos G.; Belinky, Paula A.

2008-01-01

206

Silencing of Nicotiana benthamiana Neuroblastoma-Amplified Gene causes ER stress and cell death  

PubMed Central

Background Neuroblastoma Amplified Gene (NAG) was identified as a gene co-amplified with the N-myc gene, whose genomic amplification correlates with poor prognosis of neuroblastoma. Later it was found that NAG is localized in endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and is a component of the syntaxin 18 complex that is involved in Golgi-to-ER retrograde transport in human cells. Homologous sequences of NAG are found in plant databases, but its function in plant cells remains unknown. Results Nicotiana benthamania Neuroblastoma-Amplified Gene (NbNAG) encodes a protein of 2,409 amino acids that contains the secretory pathway Sec39 domain and is mainly localized in the ER. Silencing of NbNAG by virus-induced gene silencing resulted in growth arrest and acute plant death with morphological markers of programmed cell death (PCD), which include chromatin fragmentation and modification of mitochondrial membrane potential. NbNAG deficiency caused induction of ER stress genes, disruption of the ER network, and relocation of bZIP28 transcription factor from the ER membrane to the nucleus, similar to the phenotypes of tunicamycin-induced ER stress in a plant cell. NbNAG silencing caused defects in intracellular transport of diverse cargo proteins, suggesting that a blocked secretion pathway by NbNAG deficiency causes ER stress and programmed cell death. Conclusions These results suggest that NAG, a conserved protein from yeast to mammals, plays an essential role in plant growth and development by modulating protein transport pathway, ER stress response and PCD.

2013-01-01

207

Characterisation of PAUSE-1, a powerful silencer in the human plasminogen activator inhibitor type 2 gene promoter  

PubMed Central

Plasminogen activator inhibitor type 2 (PAI-2) is a serine protease inhibitor traditionally regarded as a regulator of fibrinolysis and extracellular matrix degradation. More recently, PAI-2 has been implicated in diverse processes such as keratinocyte differentiation, cell death and viral pathogenesis. The PAI-2 promoter tightly regulates PAI-2 gene expression in a cell-specific manner and this control is mediated, in part, by the upstream silencer element, PAUSE-1. Here we have defined PAUSE-1 and investigated its activity as a silencer. A series of mutations were generated within the PAUSE-1 element and analysed for transcription factor binding and transcriptional silencing activity. These studies have defined the minimal functional PAUSE-1 element as TCTNxAGAN3T4, where x = 0, 2 or 4. Examination of related elements present in other promoters, such as the human IFN? promoter, suggests that PAUSE-1 is a member of a family of universal silencers with the consensus sequence TCTNxAGA. UV crosslinking analyses determined that the PAUSE-1 binding protein was ?67 kDa. Insertion of PAUSE-1 into the heterologous (SV40) or the minimal PAI-2 promoters silenced transcription by 2.5-fold. These data show that PAUSE-1 acts as a powerful silencer of PAI-2 gene transcription and is likely to be important in the silencing of other genes as well.

Ogbourne, Steven M.; Antalis, Toni M.

2001-01-01

208

The C. elegans CSR-1 Argonaute pathway counteracts epigenetic silencing to promote germline gene expression  

PubMed Central

SUMMARY Organisms can develop adaptive sequence-specific immunity by re-expressing pathogen-specific small RNAs that guide gene silencing. For example, the C. elegans PIWI-Argonaute/piRNA pathway recruits RNA-dependent RNA polymerase RdRP to foreign sequences to amplify a trans-generational small RNA-induced epigenetic silencing signal (termed RNAe). Here we provide evidence that in addition to an adaptive memory of silenced sequences, C. elegans can also develop an opposing adaptive memory of expressed/self mRNAs. We refer to this mechanism, which can prevent or reverse RNAe as RNA-induced epigenetic gene activation (RNAa). We show that CSR-1, which engages RdRP-amplified small RNAs complementary to germline-expressed mRNAs, is required for RNAa. We show that a transgene with RNAa activity also exhibits accumulation of cognate CSR-1 small RNAs. Our findings suggest that C. elegans adaptively acquires and maintains a trans-generational CSR-1 memory that recognizes and protects self mRNAs, allowing piRNAs to recognize foreign sequences innately, without need for prior exposure.

Seth, Meetu; Shirayama, Masaki; Gu, Weifeng; Ishidate, Takao; Conte, Darryl; Mello, Craig C.

2014-01-01

209

The C. elegans CSR-1 argonaute pathway counteracts epigenetic silencing to promote germline gene expression.  

PubMed

Organisms can develop adaptive sequence-specific immunity by reexpressing pathogen-specific small RNAs that guide gene silencing. For example, the C. elegans PIWI-Argonaute/piwi-interacting RNA (piRNA) pathway recruits RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRP) to foreign sequences to amplify a transgenerational small-RNA-induced epigenetic silencing signal (termed RNAe). Here, we provide evidence that, in addition to an adaptive memory of silenced sequences, C. elegans can also develop an opposing adaptive memory of expressed/self-mRNAs. We refer to this mechanism, which can prevent or reverse RNAe, as RNA-induced epigenetic gene activation (RNAa). We show that CSR-1, which engages RdRP-amplified small RNAs complementary to germline-expressed mRNAs, is required for RNAa. We show that a transgene with RNAa activity also exhibits accumulation of cognate CSR-1 small RNAs. Our findings suggest that C. elegans adaptively acquires and maintains a transgenerational CSR-1 memory that recognizes and protects self-mRNAs, allowing piRNAs to recognize foreign sequences innately, without the need for prior exposure PMID:24360782

Seth, Meetu; Shirayama, Masaki; Gu, Weifeng; Ishidate, Takao; Conte, Darryl; Mello, Craig C

2013-12-23

210

Effective endogenous gene silencing mediated by pH responsive peptides proceeds via multiple pathways  

PubMed Central

Cationic amphipathic histidine rich peptides possess high plasmid DNA and siRNA delivery capabilities. To further understand the pH responsive siRNA delivery process and evaluate the capabilities of such peptides we have investigated their ability to mediate specific silencing of endogenous GAPDH gene activity in MCF-7 and A549 cells and compared this with plasmid DNA delivery. A substantial and selective reduction of both GAPDH activity and expression was achieved using pH responsive peptide vectors, which compared favourably with that mediated by commercially available non-viral vectors in terms of efficacy and toxicity. Furthermore, by comparing the efficacy of both gene delivery and silencing mediated by a series of such peptides, their sensitivities to known inhibitors of endocytotic processes, and their route of uptake via confocal live cell imaging, we show that both plasmid DNA and siRNA are internalised via endocytosis. However siRNA entry facilitated by LAH4-L1, proceeds via a cholesterol dependent mechanism, in contrast to DNA transfer which is associated with clathrin dependent endocytosis. Furthermore, using peptides that respond at increasingly acidic pH, we demonstrate that the route of entry for the siRNA that ultimately mediates silencing is peptide specific and while some pH responsive peptides promote the escape of labelled siRNA from endosomes, others may promote entry via alternative mechanisms.

Lam, Jenny. K.W.; Liang, Wanling; Lan, Yun; Chaudhuri, Poulami; Chow, Michael Y.T.; Witt, Katarzyna; Kudsiova, Laila; Mason, A. James

2012-01-01

211

Highly Efficient Virus-induced Gene Silencing (VIGS) in California Poppy (Eschscholzia californica): An Evaluation of VIGS as a Strategy to Obtain Functional Data from Non-model Plants  

PubMed Central

Background and Aims Eschscholzia californica (California poppy) is an emerging model plant for ‘evo–devo’ studies from the basal eudicot clade of Papaveraceae. California poppy has a relatively small genome, a short life cycle and, most importantly, it is amenable for transformation. However, since this transformation protocol is time consuming, virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS) was evaluated as a fast method to obtain functional data for California poppy genes. Methods Commercially available California poppy plants were infiltrated with Agrobacterium tumefaciens carrying the tobacco rattle virus plasmids pTRV1 and pTRV2. pTRV2 contained part of the eschscholzia Phytoene Desaturase (EcPDS) gene whose loss of function results in photobleaching of the green parts of the plant and in a lack of floral coloration. The degree and duration of these symptoms was evaluated for vegetative rosettes and plants in flower. Key Results It is shown that VIGS is able to effectively down-regulate the EcPDS gene in eschscholzia. Various degrees of silencing were observed starting <2 weeks after infiltration with Agrobacterium tumefaciens in 92 % of the plants. Tissue with silencing symptoms also showed complete or strong reduction of EcPDS transcripts. Strong silencing resulted in almost completely white petals, fruits, shoots and leaves. Plants with a strong degree of silencing will eventually die off; however, others are able to produce EcPDS gene product even after a strong initial silencing and will recover. Silencing was found to be not always systemic, but was often restricted to certain organs or parts of organs. Conclusions VIGS is an effective, fast and transient method to down-regulate gene expression in eschscholzia. It serves well to detect prominent phenotypes which may become obvious even if some target gene transcript remains in the plant tissue. However, subtle phenotypes will be more difficult to detect, as extremely strong silencing effects occur in <10 % of all flowers from infected plants.

Wege, Stefanie; Scholz, Andrea; Gleissberg, Stefan; Becker, Annette

2007-01-01

212

RNAi-mediated Gene Silencing of Mutant Myotilin Improves Myopathy in LGMD1A Mice.  

PubMed

Recent progress suggests gene therapy may one day be an option for treating some forms of limb girdle muscular dystrophy (LGMD). Nevertheless, approaches targeting LGMD have so far focused on gene replacement strategies for recessive forms of the disease. In contrast, no attempts have been made to develop molecular therapies for any of the eight dominantly inherited forms of LGMD. Importantly, the emergence of RNA interference (RNAi) therapeutics in the last decade provided new tools to combat dominantly inherited LGMDs with molecular therapy. In this study, we describe the first RNAi-based, preclinical gene therapy approach for silencing a gene associated with dominant LGMD. To do this, we developed adeno-associated viral vectors (AAV6) carrying designed therapeutic microRNAs targeting mutant myotilin (MYOT), which is the underlying cause of LGMD type 1A (LGMD1A). Our best MYOT-targeted microRNA vector (called miMYOT) significantly reduced mutant myotilin mRNA and soluble protein expression in muscles of LGMD1A mice (the TgT57I model) both 3 and 9 months after delivery, demonstrating short- and long-term silencing effects. This MYOT gene silencing subsequently decreased deposition of MYOT-seeded intramuscular protein aggregates, which is the hallmark feature of LGMD1A. Histological improvements were accompanied by significant functional correction, as miMYOT-treated animals showed increased muscle weight and improved specific force in the gastrocnemius, which is one of the most severely affected muscles in TgT57I mice and patients with dominant myotilin mutations. These promising results in a preclinical model of LGMD1A support the further development of RNAi-based molecular therapy as a prospective treatment for LGMD1A. Furthermore, this study sets a foundation that may be refined and adapted to treat other dominant LGMD and related disorders. PMID:24781192

Liu, Jian; Wallace, Lindsay M; Garwick-Coppens, Sara E; Sloboda, Darcée D; Davis, Carol S; Hakim, Chady H; Hauser, Michael A; Brooks, Susan V; Mendell, Jerry R; Harper, Scott Q

2014-01-01

213

RNAi-mediated Gene Silencing of Mutant Myotilin Improves Myopathy in LGMD1A Mice  

PubMed Central

Recent progress suggests gene therapy may one day be an option for treating some forms of limb girdle muscular dystrophy (LGMD). Nevertheless, approaches targeting LGMD have so far focused on gene replacement strategies for recessive forms of the disease. In contrast, no attempts have been made to develop molecular therapies for any of the eight dominantly inherited forms of LGMD. Importantly, the emergence of RNA interference (RNAi) therapeutics in the last decade provided new tools to combat dominantly inherited LGMDs with molecular therapy. In this study, we describe the first RNAi-based, preclinical gene therapy approach for silencing a gene associated with dominant LGMD. To do this, we developed adeno-associated viral vectors (AAV6) carrying designed therapeutic microRNAs targeting mutant myotilin (MYOT), which is the underlying cause of LGMD type 1A (LGMD1A). Our best MYOT-targeted microRNA vector (called miMYOT) significantly reduced mutant myotilin mRNA and soluble protein expression in muscles of LGMD1A mice (the TgT57I model) both 3 and 9 months after delivery, demonstrating short- and long-term silencing effects. This MYOT gene silencing subsequently decreased deposition of MYOT-seeded intramuscular protein aggregates, which is the hallmark feature of LGMD1A. Histological improvements were accompanied by significant functional correction, as miMYOT-treated animals showed increased muscle weight and improved specific force in the gastrocnemius, which is one of the most severely affected muscles in TgT57I mice and patients with dominant myotilin mutations. These promising results in a preclinical model of LGMD1A support the further development of RNAi-based molecular therapy as a prospective treatment for LGMD1A. Furthermore, this study sets a foundation that may be refined and adapted to treat other dominant LGMD and related disorders.

Liu, Jian; Wallace, Lindsay M; Garwick-Coppens, Sara E; Sloboda, Darcee D; Davis, Carol S; Hakim, Chady H; Hauser, Michael A; Brooks, Susan V; Mendell, Jerry R; Harper, Scott Q

2014-01-01

214

RNA-Mediated Silencing in Algae: Biological Roles and Tools for Analysis of Gene Function ?  

PubMed Central

Algae are a large group of aquatic, typically photosynthetic, eukaryotes that include species from very diverse phylogenetic lineages, from those similar to land plants to those related to protist parasites. The recent sequencing of several algal genomes has provided insights into the great complexity of these organisms. Genomic information has also emphasized our lack of knowledge of the functions of many predicted genes, as well as the gene regulatory mechanisms in algae. Core components of the machinery for RNA-mediated silencing show widespread distribution among algal lineages, but they also seem to have been lost entirely from several species with relatively small nuclear genomes. Complex sets of endogenous small RNAs, including candidate microRNAs and small interfering RNAs, have now been identified by high-throughput sequencing in green, red, and brown algae. However, the natural roles of RNA-mediated silencing in algal biology remain poorly understood. Limited evidence suggests that small RNAs may function, in different algae, in defense mechanisms against transposon mobilization, in responses to nutrient deprivation and, possibly, in the regulation of recently evolved developmental processes. From a practical perspective, RNA interference (RNAi) is becoming a promising tool for assessing gene function by sequence-specific knockdown. Transient gene silencing, triggered with exogenously synthesized nucleic acids, and/or stable gene repression, involving genome-integrated transgenes, have been achieved in green algae, diatoms, yellow-green algae, and euglenoids. The development of RNAi technology in conjunction with system level “omics” approaches may provide the tools needed to advance our understanding of algal physiological and metabolic processes.

Cerutti, Heriberto; Ma, Xinrong; Msanne, Joseph; Repas, Timothy

2011-01-01

215

Silencing of CHD5 gene by promoter methylation in leukemia.  

PubMed

Chromodomain helicase DNA binding protein 5 (CHD5) was previously proposed to function as a potent tumor suppressor by acting as a master regulator of a tumor-suppressive network. CHD5 is down-regulated in several cancers, including leukemia and is responsible for tumor generation and progression. However, the mechanism of CHD5 down-regulation in leukemia is largely unknown. In this study, quantitative reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction and western blotting analyses revealed that CHD5 was down-regulated in human leukemia cell lines and samples. Luciferase reporter assays showed that most of the baseline regulatory activity was localized from 500 to 200 bp upstream of the transcription start site. Bisulfite DNA sequencing of the identified regulatory element revealed that the CHD5 promoter was hypermethylated in human leukemia cells and samples. Thus, CHD5 expression was inversely correlated with promoter DNA methylation in these samples. Treatment with DNA methyltransferase inhibitor 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine (DAC) activates CHD5 expression in human leukemia cell lines. In vitro luciferase reporter assays demonstrated that methylation of the CHD5 promoter repressed its promoter activity. Furthermore, a chromatin immunoprecipitation assay combined with qualitative PCR identified activating protein 2 (AP2) as a potential transcription factor involved in CHD5 expression and indicated that treatment with DAC increases the recruitment of AP2 to the CHD5 promoter. In vitro transcription-factor activity studies showed that AP2 over-expression was able to activate CHD5 promoter activity. Our findings indicate that repression of CHD5 gene expression in human leukemia is mediated in part by DNA methylation of its promoter. PMID:24454811

Zhao, Rui; Meng, Fanyi; Wang, Nisha; Ma, Wenli; Yan, Qitao

2014-01-01

216

siRNA mediated gene silencing in Fusarium sp. HKF15 for overproduction of bikaverin.  

PubMed

Fusarium sp. HKF15 is an isolate from effluent treatment plant which produces bikaverin. Bikaverin is a polyketide having antitumor and antibiotic potential. Acetyl coenzyme A is a common precursor for bikaverin as well as carotenoids and gibberellins. A polyketide synthase gene bik1 is responsible for bikaverin production whereas, hydroxymethyl glutaryl coenzyme A reductase (hmgR) and farnesyl pyrophosphate synthase (fpps) are carotenoid and gibberellin pathway genes. Aim of this study was assessing siRNA mediated gene silencing for bikaverin overproduction with down-regulation of carotenoid and gibberellin pathway. HKF15 protoplasts derived from glucose grown culture were treated with 200pmolml(-1)hmgR and fpps siRNAs separately. Along with down-regulation of target genes, there was 2.4-fold increase in bik1 gene expression. The silencing was effective till 48h with a 41% increase in bikaverin production. The study proposes a strategy for manipulation of physiology towards desired secondary metabolite overproduction. PMID:24636053

Deshmukh, Radhika; Purohit, Hemant J

2014-04-01

217

Genetic unmasking of epigenetically silenced tumor suppressor genes in colon cancer cells deficient in DNA methyltransferases.  

PubMed

Hypermethylation associated silencing of the CpG islands of tumor suppressor genes is a common hallmark of human cancer. Here we report a functional search for hypermethylated CpG islands using the colorectal cancer cell line HCT-116, in which two major DNA methyltransferases, DNMT1 and DNMT3b, have been genetically disrupted (DKO cells). Using two molecular screenings for differentially methylated loci [differential methylation hybridization (DMH) and amplification of inter-methylated sites (AIMS)], we found that DKO cells, but not the single DNMT1 or DNMT3b knockouts, have a massive loss of hypermethylated CpG islands that induces the re-activation of the contiguous genes. We have characterized a substantial number of these CpG island associated genes with potentially important roles in tumorigenesis, such as the cadherin member FAT, or the homeobox genes LMX-1 and DUX-4. For other genes whose role in transformation has not been characterized, such as the calcium channel alpha1I or the thromboxane A2 receptor, their re-introduction in DKO cells inhibited colony formation. Thus, our results demonstrate the role of DNMT1 and DNMT3b in CpG island methylation associated silencing and the usefulness of genetic disruption strategies in searching for new hypermethylated loci. PMID:12915469

Paz, Maria F; Wei, Susan; Cigudosa, Juan C; Rodriguez-Perales, Sandra; Peinado, Miguel A; Huang, Tim Hui-Ming; Esteller, Manel

2003-09-01

218

Dendrimers as Carriers for siRNA Delivery and Gene Silencing: A Review  

PubMed Central

RNA interference (RNAi) was first literaturally reported in 1998 and has become rapidly a promising tool for therapeutic applications in gene therapy. In a typical RNAi process, small interfering RNAs (siRNA) are used to specifically downregulate the expression of the targeted gene, known as the term “gene silencing.” One key point for successful gene silencing is to employ a safe and efficient siRNA delivery system. In this context, dendrimers are emerging as potential nonviral vectors to deliver siRNA for RNAi purpose. Dendrimers have attracted intense interest since their emanating research in the 1980s and are extensively studied as efficient DNA delivery vectors in gene transfer applications, due to their unique features based on the well-defined and multivalent structures. Knowing that DNA and RNA possess a similar structure in terms of nucleic acid framework and the electronegative nature, one can also use the excellent DNA delivery properties of dendrimers to develop effective siRNA delivery systems. In this review, the development of dendrimer-based siRNA delivery vectors is summarized, focusing on the vector features (siRNA delivery efficiency, cytotoxicity, etc.) of different types of dendrimers and the related investigations on structure-activity relationship to promote safe and efficient siRNA delivery system.

Huang, Weizhe; He, Ziying

2013-01-01

219

Systemic RNAi mediated gene silencing in the anhydrobiotic nematode Panagrolaimus superbus  

PubMed Central

Background Gene silencing by RNA interference (RNAi) is a powerful tool for functional genomics. Although RNAi was first described in Caenorhabditis elegans, several nematode species are unable to mount an RNAi response when exposed to exogenous double stranded RNA (dsRNA). These include the satellite model organisms Pristionchus pacificus and Oscheius tipulae. Available data also suggest that the RNAi pathway targeting exogenous dsRNA may not be fully functional in some animal parasitic nematodes. The genus Panagrolaimus contains bacterial feeding nematodes which occupy a diversity of niches ranging from polar, temperate and semi-arid soils to terrestrial mosses. Thus many Panagrolaimus species are adapted to tolerate freezing and desiccation and are excellent systems to study the molecular basis of environmental stress tolerance. We investigated whether Panagrolaimus is susceptible to RNAi to determine whether this nematode could be used in large scale RNAi studies in functional genomics. Results We studied two species: Panagrolaimus sp. PS1159 and Panagrolaimus superbus. Both nematode species displayed embryonic lethal RNAi phenotypes following ingestion of Escherichia coli expressing dsRNA for the C. elegans embryonic lethal genes Ce-lmn-1 and Ce-ran-4. Embryonic lethal RNAi phenotypes were also obtained in both species upon ingestion of dsRNA for the Panagrolaimus genes ef1b and rps-2. Single nematode RT-PCR showed that a significant reduction in mRNA transcript levels occurred for the target ef1b and rps-2 genes in RNAi treated Panagrolaimus sp. 1159 nematodes. Visible RNAi phenotypes were also observed when P. superbus was exposed to dsRNA for structural genes encoding contractile proteins. All RNAi phenotypes were highly penetrant, particularly in P. superbus. Conclusion This demonstration that Panagrolaimus is amenable to RNAi by feeding will allow the development of high throughput methods of RNAi screening for P. superbus. This greatly enhances the utility of this nematode as a model system for the study of the molecular biology of anhydrobiosis and cryobiosis and as a possible satellite model nematode for comparative and functional genomics. Our data also identify another nematode infraorder which is amenable to RNAi and provide additional information on the diversity of RNAi phenotypes in nematodes.

Shannon, Adam J; Tyson, Trevor; Dix, Ilona; Boyd, Jacqueline; Burnell, Ann M

2008-01-01

220

Effect of the guide strand 3'-end structure on the gene-silencing potency of asymmetric siRNA.  

PubMed

siRNAs are short dsRNAs that mediate efficient target gene silencing in a sequence-specific manner. We previously developed a novel siRNA structure, called asiRNA (asymmetric siRNA), which alleviates the off-target effects associated with conventional siRNA structures without decreasing target gene silencing potency. In the present study, we explored the effect of the guide strand 3'-end structure on the gene silencing potency of asiRNA. Interestingly, asiRNAs with a 21 nt guide strand solely composed of RNA resulted in gene silencing that was more than 6-fold more efficient compared with the corresponding asiRNA guide strand harbouring a dTdT (deoxythymidine dinucleotide) at its 3'-end. We demonstrated that the molecular basis of potency of the asiRNA with a 21 nt guide strand composed solely of RNA was due to the enhanced formation of the RISC (RNA-induced silencing complex) and increased affinity towards hAgo2 (human Argonaute2). Our observations may assist researchers in designing new asiRNAs with high on-target silencing efficiency with low off-target effects, which is critical for applications in both basic research and therapeutic development. PMID:24800867

Hong, Sun Woo; Park, June Hyun; Yun, Soyeong; Lee, Chang Han; Shin, Chanseok; Lee, Dong-Ki

2014-08-01

221

Effect of base modifications on structure, thermodynamic stability, and gene silencing activity of short interfering RNA.  

PubMed

A series of nucleobase-modified siRNA duplexes containing "rare" nucleosides, 2-thiouridine (s(2)U), pseudouridine (Psi), and dihydrouridine (D), were evaluated for their thermodynamic stability and gene silencing activity. The duplexes with modified units at terminal positions exhibited similar stability as the nonmodified reference. Introduction of the s(2)U or Psi units into the central part of the antisense strand resulted in duplexes with higher melting temperatures (Tm). In contrary, D unit similarly like wobble base pair led to the less stable duplexes (DeltaTm 3.9 and 6.6 degrees C, respectively). Gene-silencing activity of siRNA duplexes directed toward enhanced green fluorescent protein or beta-site APP cleaving enzyme was tested in a dual fluorescence assay. The duplexes with s(2)U and Psi units at their 3'-ends and with a D unit at their 5'-ends (with respect to the guide strands) were the most potent gene expression inhibitors. Duplexes with s(2)U and Psi units at their 5'-ends were by 50% less active than the nonmodified counterpart. Those containing a D unit or wobble base pair in the central domain had the lowest Tm, disturbed the A-type helical structure, and had more than three times lower activity than their nonmodified congener. Activity of siRNA containing the wobble base pair could be rescued by placing the thio-nucleoside at the position 3'-adjacent to the mutation site. Thermally stable siRNA molecules containing several s(2)U units in the antisense strand were biologically as potent as their native counterparts. The present results provide a new chemical tool for modulation of siRNA gene-silencing activity. PMID:17585051

Sipa, Katarzyna; Sochacka, Elzbieta; Kazmierczak-Baranska, Julia; Maszewska, Maria; Janicka, Magdalena; Nowak, Genowefa; Nawrot, Barbara

2007-08-01

222

Effect of base modifications on structure, thermodynamic stability, and gene silencing activity of short interfering RNA  

PubMed Central

A series of nucleobase-modified siRNA duplexes containing “rare” nucleosides, 2-thiouridine (s2U), pseudouridine (?), and dihydrouridine (D), were evaluated for their thermodynamic stability and gene silencing activity. The duplexes with modified units at terminal positions exhibited similar stability as the nonmodified reference. Introduction of the s2U or ? units into the central part of the antisense strand resulted in duplexes with higher melting temperatures (Tm). In contrary, D unit similarly like wobble base pair led to the less stable duplexes (?Tm 3.9 and 6.6°C, respectively). Gene-silencing activity of siRNA duplexes directed toward enhanced green fluorescent protein or beta-site APP cleaving enzyme was tested in a dual fluorescence assay. The duplexes with s2U and ? units at their 3?-ends and with a D unit at their 5?-ends (with respect to the guide strands) were the most potent gene expression inhibitors. Duplexes with s2U and ? units at their 5?-ends were by 50% less active than the nonmodified counterpart. Those containing a D unit or wobble base pair in the central domain had the lowest Tm, disturbed the A-type helical structure, and had more than three times lower activity than their nonmodified congener. Activity of siRNA containing the wobble base pair could be rescued by placing the thio-nucleoside at the position 3?-adjacent to the mutation site. Thermally stable siRNA molecules containing several s2U units in the antisense strand were biologically as potent as their native counterparts. The present results provide a new chemical tool for modulation of siRNA gene-silencing activity.

Sipa, Katarzyna; Sochacka, Elzbieta; Kazmierczak-Baranska, Julia; Maszewska, Maria; Janicka, Magdalena; Nowak, Genowefa; Nawrot, Barbara

2007-01-01

223

Strong host resistance targeted against a viral suppressor of the plant gene silencing defence mechanism.  

PubMed Central

The 2b protein encoded by cucumber mosaic cucumovirus (Cmv2b) acts as an important virulence determinant by suppressing post-transcriptional gene silencing (PTGS), a natural plant defence mechanism against viruses. We report here that the tomato aspermy cucumovirus 2b protein (Tav2b), when expressed from the unrelated tobacco mosaic tobamovirus (TMV) RNA genome, activates strong host resistance responses to TMV in tobacco which are typical of the gene-for-gene disease resistance mechanism. Domain swapping between Cmv2b, which does not elicit these responses, and Tav2b, revealed functional domains in Tav2b critical for triggering virus resistance and hypersensitive cell death. Furthermore, substitution of two amino acids from Tav2b by those found at the same positions in Cmv2b, Lys21-->Val and Arg28-->Ser, abolished the ability to induce hypersensitive cell death and virus resistance. However, in Nicotiana benthamiana, a species related to tobacco, Tav2b functions as a virulence determinant and suppresses PTGS. Thus, a viral suppressor of the host gene silencing defence mechanism is the target of another independent host resistance mechanism. Our results provide new insights into the complex molecular strategies employed by viruses and their hosts for defence, counter-defence and counter counter-defence.

Li, H W; Lucy, A P; Guo, H S; Li, W X; Ji, L H; Wong, S M; Ding, S W

1999-01-01

224

Epigenetic Silencing of Nucleolar rRNA Genes in Alzheimer's Disease  

PubMed Central

Background Ribosomal deficits are documented in mild cognitive impairment (MCI), which often represents an early stage Alzheimer's disease (AD), as well as in advanced AD. The nucleolar rRNA genes (rDNA), transcription of which is critical for ribosomal biogenesis, are regulated by epigenetic silencing including promoter CpG methylation. Methodology/Principal Findings To assess whether CpG methylation of the rDNA promoter was dysregulated across the AD spectrum, we analyzed brain samples from 10 MCI-, 23 AD-, and, 24 age-matched control individuals using bisulfite mapping. The rDNA promoter became hypermethylated in cerebro-cortical samples from MCI and AD groups. In parietal cortex, the rDNA promoter was hypermethylated more in MCI than in advanced AD. The cytosine methylation of total genomic DNA was similar in AD, MCI, and control samples. Consistent with a notion that hypermethylation-mediated silencing of the nucleolar chromatin stabilizes rDNA loci, preventing their senescence-associated loss, genomic rDNA content was elevated in cerebrocortical samples from MCI and AD groups. Conclusions/Significance In conclusion, rDNA hypermethylation could be a new epigenetic marker of AD. Moreover, silencing of nucleolar chromatin may occur during early stages of AD pathology and play a role in AD-related ribosomal deficits and, ultimately, dementia.

Pietrzak, Maciej; Rempala, Grzegorz; Nelson, Peter T.; Zheng, Jing-Juan; Hetman, Michal

2011-01-01

225

Gene silencing of c-Met leads to brain metastasis inhibitory effects.  

PubMed

An unfortunate consequence of improvements in the treatments of advanced primary cancers is the concurrent increase of metastatic brain tumors. Despite of unfavorable clinical prognosis, radiation therapy is still the only viable treatment option for brain metastases. Expression of c-Met induces cell migration and invasion in many cancers, which are indispensable steps for metastasis. Accordingly, we examined the effects of gene silencing of c-Met on brain metastasis to evaluate the possibility of c-Met as a potential target. MDA-MB-435 cells were transfected with c-Met targeting short hairpin RNAs (shRNAs). Effects of c-Met shRNAs on the expression of epithelial mesenchymal transition (EMT) related proteins, in vitro migration, and in vivo brain metastasis were examined. Expression of mesenchymal markers and in vitro migration of MDA-MB-435 cells were significantly inhibited by introduction of c-Met shRNAs. When c-Met-silenced MDA-MB-435 cells were stereotactically implanted into the brains of immune-compromised mice or injected into the right internal carotid arteries, c-Met-silenced MDA-MB-435 cells produced significantly smaller tumor masses or survival time was significantly prolonged, respectively, compared with MDA-MB-435 cells transfected with control shRNA. The data reveal the novel function of c-Met in the process of brain metastasis and its potential as a preventive and/or therapeutic target in this disease. PMID:23625089

Lee, Se Jeong; Seol, Ho Jun; Lee, Hye Won; Kang, Won Young; Kang, Bong Gu; Jin, Juyoun; Jo, Mi-Young; Jin, Younggeon; Lee, Jung-Il; Joo, Kyeung Min; Nam, Do-Hyun

2013-10-01

226

Independent Chromatin Binding of ARGONAUTE4 and SPT5L\\/KTF1 Mediates Transcriptional Gene Silencing  

Microsoft Academic Search

Eukaryotic genomes contain significant amounts of transposons and repetitive DNA elements, which, if transcribed, can be detrimental to the organism. Expression of these elements is suppressed by establishment of repressive chromatin modifications. In Arabidopsis thaliana, they are silenced by the siRNA–mediated transcriptional gene silencing pathway where long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) produced by RNA Polymerase V (Pol V) guide ARGONAUTE4 (AGO4)

M. Jordan Rowley; Maria I. Avrutsky; Christopher J. Sifuentes; Ligia Pereira; Andrzej T. Wierzbicki

2011-01-01

227

Efficient Gene Silencing by Self-Assembled Complexes of siRNA and Symmetrical Fatty Acid Amides of Spermine  

PubMed Central

Gene silencing by siRNA (synthetic dsRNA of 21-25 nucleotides) is a well established biological tool in gene expression studies and has a promising therapeutic potential for difficult-to-treat diseases. Five fatty acids of various chain length and oxidation state (C12:0, C18:0, C18:1, C18:2, C22:1) were conjugated to the naturally occurring polyamine, spermine, and evaluated for siRNA delivery and gene knock-down. siRNA delivery could not be related directly to gene silencing efficiency as N4,N9-dierucoyl spermine resulted in higher siRNA delivery compared to N4,N9-dioleoyl spermine. GFP silencing in HeLa cells showed that the unsaturated fatty acid amides are more efficient than saturated fatty acid amides, with N4,N9-dioleoyl spermine resulting in the most efficient gene silencing in the presence of serum. The alamarBlue cell viability assay showed that fatty acid amides of spermine have good viability (75%–85% compared to control) except N4,N9-dilauroyl spermine which resulted in low cell viability. These results prove that unsaturated fatty acid amides of spermine are efficient, non-toxic, non-viral vectors for siRNA mediated gene silencing.

Metwally, Abdelkader A.; Pourzand, Charareh; Blagbrough, Ian S.

2011-01-01

228

Identification and characterization of a novel transcriptional silencer in the human collagen type IV gene COL4A2.  

PubMed

Collagen type IV [alpha 1(IV)2 alpha 2(IV)] is the basic structural component of all basement membranes. The two subunit genes COL4A1 and COL4A2 are found closely linked in the human and murine genomes and are transcribed divergently from a common promoter. Previously, activating elements had been detected within both genes which are indispensable for efficient transcription. An additional negative regulatory element has now been identified within the third intron of the COL4A2 gene which is able to inhibit transcription of both COL4 genes from their shared promoter, as well as the nonrelated herpes simplex virus thymidine kinase promoter. The element exerts its inhibitory effect largely independently from its relative orientation and distance from the initiation site of transcription. Therefore, the element represents a silencer which is named the "COL4 silencer." The minimal functional silencer could be narrowed down by deletion mapping to a sequence element located within intron 3 of the COL4A2 gene. This motif is specifically recognized by a nuclear protein, named "SILBF," and the binding site of which was determined by footprinting assays. Mutation studies and deletion analysis proved that the presence of this sequence element and its interaction with SILBF is not only essential but also sufficient for the silencing function. We assume that the COL4 silencer plays an important role in the control of overall expression and the balance of divergent transcription of both COL4 genes. PMID:7744753

Haniel, A; Welge-Lüssen, U; Kühn, K; Pöschl, E

1995-05-12

229

The design, preparation, and evaluation of asymmetric small interfering RNA for specific gene silencing in mammalian cells.  

PubMed

RNA interference (RNAi) is a highly efficient endogenous gene silencing mechanism mediated by short double-stranded RNAs termed small interfering RNAs (siRNAs). The current standard siRNA structure, which is used by most researchers to trigger sequence-specific target gene silencing, consists of a double strand region of 19 bp with 2 nt 3'-overhangs at both ends. However, in addition to the desired target gene silencing, this conventional siRNA structure also exhibits several unintended effects that constitute obstacles to the use of siRNA in gene function studies and therapeutics development. Here, we provide protocols for designing and preparing an alternative structure for RNAi trigger, termed asymmetric shorter-duplex RNA (asiRNA). The asiRNA structure has a duplex region shorter than 19 bp and has an asymmetric 3'-overhang structure. Importantly, the asiRNA structure not only triggers efficient target gene silencing comparable to that of the 19 bp standard siRNA structure but also significantly reduces nonspecific effects triggered by 19 bp siRNAs such as sense-strand-mediated off-target silencing and the saturation of RNAi machinery. Procedures are described for verifying that asiRNA activates gene silencing through an Ago2-dependent pathway and for assessing the miRNA pathway competition potency and specific and nonspecific silencing abilities of asiRNAs. We propose that asiRNA, an improved RNAi trigger that can overcome the nonspecific effects evoked by standard siRNA structures, can be developed as a precise and effective tool for both functional genomics and therapeutic applications. PMID:23027049

Chang, Chanil; Hong, Sun Woo; Dua, Pooja; Kim, Soyoun; Lee, Dong-ki

2013-01-01

230

Post-transcriptional gene silencing of the p23 silencing suppressor of Citrus tristeza virus confers resistance to the virus in transgenic Mexican lime.  

PubMed

Previously, we have shown that most Mexican limes (Citrus aurantifolia (Christ.) Swing.) expressing the p23 gene of Citrus tristeza virus (CTV) exhibit aberrations resembling viral leaf symptoms. Here we report that five independent transgenic lines having normal phenotype displayed characteristics typical of post-transcriptional gene silencing (PTGS): multiple copies of the transgene, low levels of the corresponding mRNA, methylation of the silenced transgene, and accumulation of p23-specific small interfering RNAs (siRNAs). When graft- or aphid-inoculated with CTV, some propagations of these silenced lines were immune: they neither expressed symptoms nor accumulated virions and viral RNA as estimated by DAS-ELISA and Northern blot hybridization, respectively. Other propagations were moderately resistant because they became infected later and showed attenuated symptoms compared to controls. The susceptible propagations, in addition to symptom expression and elevated virus titer, accumulated p23-specific siRNAs at levels significantly higher than immune or non-inoculated propagations, and showed transgene demethylation. This variable response among clonal transformants indicates that factors other than the genetic background of the transgenic plants play a key role in PTGS-mediated resistance. PMID:16429257

Fagoaga, Carmen; López, Carmelo; de Mendoza, Alfonso Hermoso; Moreno, Pedro; Navarro, Luis; Flores, Ricardo; Peña, Leandro

2006-01-01

231

Involvement of the checkpoint protein Mec1p in silencing of gene expression at telomeres in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.  

PubMed

Yeast strains with a mutation in the MEC1 gene are deficient in the cellular checkpoint response to DNA-damaging agents and have short telomeres (K. B. Ritchie, J. C. Mallory, and T. D. Petes, Mol. Cell. Biol. 19:6065-6075, 1999; T. A. Weinert, G. L. Kiser, and L. H. Hartwell, Genes Dev. 8:652-665, 1994). In wild-type yeast cells, genes inserted near the telomeres are transcriptionally silenced (D. E. Gottschling, O. M. Aparichio, B. L. Billington, and V. A. Zakian, Cell 63:751-762, 1990). We show that mec1 strains have reduced ability to silence gene expression near the telomere. This deficiency was alleviated by the sml1 mutation. Overexpression of Mec1p also resulted in a silencing defect, although this overexpression did not affect the checkpoint function of Mec1p. Telomeric silencing was not affected by mutations in several other genes in the Mec1p checkpoint pathway (null mutations in RAD9 and CHK1 or in several hypomorphic rad53 alleles) but was reduced by a null mutation of DUN1. In addition, the loss of telomeric silencing in mec1 strains was not a consequence of the slightly shortened telomeres observed in these strains. PMID:10713162

Craven, R J; Petes, T D

2000-04-01

232

High-stearic and High-oleic cottonseed oils produced by hairpin RNA-mediated post-transcriptional gene silencing.  

PubMed

We have genetically modified the fatty acid composition of cottonseed oil using the recently developed technique of hairpin RNA-mediated gene silencing to down-regulate the seed expression of two key fatty acid desaturase genes, ghSAD-1-encoding stearoyl-acyl-carrier protein Delta 9-desaturase and ghFAD2-1-encoding oleoyl-phosphatidylcholine omega 6-desaturase. Hairpin RNA-encoding gene constructs (HP) targeted against either ghSAD-1 or ghFAD2-1 were transformed into cotton (Gossypium hirsutum cv Coker 315). The resulting down-regulation of the ghSAD-1 gene substantially increased stearic acid from the normal levels of 2% to 3% up to as high as 40%, and silencing of the ghFAD2-1 gene resulted in greatly elevated oleic acid content, up to 77% compared with about 15% in seeds of untransformed plants. In addition, palmitic acid was significantly lowered in both high-stearic and high-oleic lines. Similar fatty acid composition phenotypes were also achieved by transformation with conventional antisense constructs targeted against the same genes, but at much lower frequencies than were achieved with the HP constructs. By intercrossing the high-stearic and high-oleic genotypes, it was possible to simultaneously down-regulate both ghSAD-1 and ghFAD2-1 to the same degree as observed in the individually silenced parental lines, demonstrating for the first time, to our knowledge, that duplex RNA-induced posttranslational gene silencing in independent genes can be stacked without any diminution in the degree of silencing. The silencing of ghSAD-1 and/or ghFAD2-1 to various degrees enables the development of cottonseed oils having novel combinations of palmitic, stearic, oleic, and linoleic contents that can be used in margarines and deep frying without hydrogenation and also potentially in high-value confectionery applications. PMID:12177486

Liu, Qing; Singh, Surinder P; Green, Allan G

2002-08-01

233

Smad signaling is required for the maintenance of epigenetic gene silencing during breast cancer progression  

PubMed Central

Aberrant regulatory DNA methylation patterns have been associated with breast cancer progression. While most efforts have been focused on describing the gene targets for DNA methylation, the molecular events that define the activity of the DNA methylation machinery have remained elusive. Here we describe the use of a breast cancer cell line model system to investigate the mechanisms that regulate epigenetic alterations of gene expression patterns responsible for epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT), a critical step during conversion to malignant breast cancer. We found that breast cancer cells which have undergone EMT exhibit overactive TGF? signaling and loss of expression of genes including CDH1, CGN, CLDN4 and KLK10 mediated by DNA hypermethylation of their corresponding promoter regions. Consistent with the notion that activated TGF?-Smad signaling is involved in “epigenetic memory” to maintain epigenetically silenced state of critical genes, disruption of Smad signaling due to Smad7 overexpression or depletion of Smad2, but not Smad4, in mesenchymal-like breast cancer cells resulted in DNA demethylation and re-expression of the corresponding genes. This reversal of epigenetic changes was accompanied with the acquisition of epithelial morphology and suppression of invasive properties of breast cancer cells. Furthermore, disruption of TGF? signaling caused a corresponding decrease in DNMT1 binding activity suggesting that failure to maintain methylation of the newly synthesized DNA is the likely cause of demethylation. In summary, our studies reveal for the first time, that hyperactive TGF?-TGF?R-Smad2 signaling axis is involved in the maintenance of epigenetic silencing of critical target genes to facilitate breast cancer progression.

Papageorgis, Panagiotis; Lambert, Arthur W.; Ozturk, Sait; Gao, Fangming; Pan, Hongjie; Manne, Upender; Alekseyev, Yuriy; Thiagalingam, Arunthathi; Abdolmaleky, Hamid M.; Lenburg, Marc; Thiagalingam, Sam

2009-01-01

234

Inhibition of lysine-specific demethylase 1 by polyamine analogues results in reexpression of aberrantly silenced genes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Epigenetic chromatin modification is a major regulator of eukary- otic gene expression, and aberrant epigenetic silencing of gene expression contributes to tumorigenesis. Histone modifications include acetylation, phosphorylation, and methylation, resulting in a combination of histone marks known collectively as the histone code. The chromatin marks at a given promoter determine, in part, whether specific promoters are in an open\\/active conformation

Yi Huang; Eriko Greene; Tracy Murray Stewart; Andrew C. Goodwin; Stephen B. Baylin; Patrick M. Woster; Robert A. Casero

2007-01-01

235

Kaiso Contributes to DNA Methylation-Dependent Silencing of Tumor Suppressor Genes in Colon Cancer Cell Lines  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aberrant CpG methylation of tumor suppressor gene regula- tory elements is associated with transcriptional silencing and contributes to malignant transformation of different tissues. It is presumed that methylated DNA sequences recruit repressor machinery to actively shutdown gene expression. The Kaiso protein is a transcriptional repressor expressed in human and murine colorectal tumors that can bind to methylated clusters of CpG

Eloisi C. Lopes; Ester Valls; Maria E. Figueroa; Alexander Mazur; Fan-Guo Meng; Gabriela Chiosis; Peter W. Laird; Nicole Schreiber-Agus; John M. Greally; Egor Prokhortchouk; Ari Melnick

2008-01-01

236

Silencing livin gene by siRNA leads to apoptosis induction, cell cycle arrest, and proliferation inhibition in malignant melanoma LiBr cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aim:The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of silencing the livin gene by small interfering RNA (siRNA) on the expression of livin and the effects on apoptosis, cell cycle, and proliferation in human malignant melanoma LiBr cells.Methods:Three chemically-synthetic siRNA duplexes targeting livin were transiently transfected into the LiBr cells, and the effects on livin expression were

Hao Wang; Sheng-shun Tan; Xin-yang Wang; Dong-hua Liu; Chun-shui Yu; Zhuan-li Bai; Da-lin He; Jun Zhao

2007-01-01

237

Angiotensinogen gene silencing reduces markers of lipid accumulation and inflammation in cultured adipocytes.  

PubMed

Inflammatory adipokines secreted from adipose tissue are major contributors to obesity-associated inflammation and other metabolic dysfunctions. We and others have recently documented the contribution of adipose tissue renin-angiotensin system to the pathogenesis of obesity, inflammation, and insulin resistance. We hypothesized that adipocyte-derived angiotensinogen (Agt) plays a critical role in adipogenesis and/or lipogenesis as well as inflammation. This was tested using 3T3-L1 adipocytes, stably transfected with Agt-shRNA or scrambled Sc-shRNA as a control. Transfected preadipocytes were differentiated and used to investigate the role of adipose Agt through microarray and PCR analyses and adipokine profiling. As expected, Agt gene silencing significantly reduced the expression of Agt and its hormone product angiotensin II (Ang II), as well as lipid accumulation in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. Microarray studies identified several genes involved in lipid metabolism and inflammatory pathways which were down-regulated by Agt gene inactivation, such as glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase 1 (Gpd1), serum amyloid A 3 (Saa3), nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain containing 1 (Nod1), and signal transducer and activator of transcription 1 (Stat1). Mouse adipogenesis PCR arrays revealed lower expression levels of adipogenic/lipogenic genes such as peroxisome proliferator activated receptor gamma (PPAR?), sterol regulatory element binding transcription factor 1 (Srebf1), adipogenin (Adig), and fatty acid binding protein 4 (Fabp4). Further, silencing of Agt gene significantly lowered expression of pro-inflammatory adipokines including interleukin-6 (IL-6), tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-?), and monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1). In conclusion, this study directly demonstrates critical effects of Agt in adipocyte metabolism and inflammation and further support a potential role for adipose Agt in the pathogenesis of obesity-associated metabolic alterations. PMID:23483012

Carroll, Wenting X; Kalupahana, Nishan S; Booker, Suzanne L; Siriwardhana, Nalin; Lemieux, Monique; Saxton, Arnold M; Moustaid-Moussa, Naima

2013-01-01

238

Role of hPHF1 in H3K27 methylation and Hox gene silencing.  

PubMed

Polycomb group (PcG) proteins are required for maintaining the silent state of the homeotic genes and other important developmental regulators. The silencing function of the PcG proteins has been linked to their intrinsic histone modifying enzymatic activities. The EED-EZH2 complex, containing the core subunits EZH2, EED, SUZ12, and RbAp48, functions as a histone H3K27-specific methyltransferase. Here we describe the identification and characterization of a related EED-EZH2 protein complex which is distinguished from the previous complex by the presence of another PcG protein, hPHF1. Consistent with the ability of hPHF1 to stimulate the enzymatic activity of the core EED-EZH2 complex in vitro, manipulation of mPcl1, the mouse counterpart of hPHF1, in NIH 3T3 cells and cells of the mouse male germ cell line GC1spg results in global alteration of H3K27me2 and H3K27me3 levels and Hox gene expression. Small interfering RNA-mediated knockdown of mPcl1 affects association of the Eed-Ezh2 complex with certain Hox genes, such as HoxA10, as well as Hox gene expression concomitant with an alteration on the H3K27me2 levels of the corresponding promoters. Therefore, our results reveal hPHF1 as a component of a novel EED-EZH2 complex and demonstrate its important role in H3K27 methylation and Hox gene silencing. PMID:18086877

Cao, Ru; Wang, Hengbin; He, Jin; Erdjument-Bromage, Hediye; Tempst, Paul; Zhang, Yi

2008-03-01

239

Enhanced Wound Healing, Kinase and Stem Cell Marker Expression in Diabetic Organ-Cultured Human Corneas Upon MMP-10 and Cathepsin F Gene Silencing  

PubMed Central

Purpose. Diabetic corneas overexpress proteinases including matrix metalloproteinase-10 (M10) and cathepsin F (CF). Our purpose was to assess if silencing M10 and CF in organ-cultured diabetic corneas using recombinant adenovirus (rAV)-driven small hairpin RNA (rAV-sh) would normalize slow wound healing, and diabetic and stem cell marker expression. Methods. Sixteen pairs of organ-cultured autopsy human diabetic corneas (four per group) were treated with rAV-sh. Proteinase genes were silenced either separately, together, or both, in combination (Combo) with rAV-driven c-met gene overexpression. Fellow control corneas received rAV-EGFP. Quantitative RT-PCR confirmed small hairpin RNA (shRNA) silencing effect. Ten days after transfection, 5-mm epithelial wounds were made with n-heptanol and healing time recorded. Diabetic, signaling, and putative stem cell markers were studied by immunofluorescence of corneal cryostat sections. Results. Proteinase silencing reduced epithelial wound healing time versus rAV–enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) control (23% for rAV-shM10, 31% for rAV-shCF, and 36% for rAV-shM10 + rAV-shCF). Combo treatment was even more efficient (55% reduction). Staining patterns of diabetic markers (?3?1 integrin and nidogen-1), and of activated epidermal growth factor receptor and its signaling target activated Akt were normalized upon rAV-sh treatment. Combo treatment also restored normal staining for activated p38. All treatments, especially the combined ones, increased diabetes-altered staining for putative limbal stem cell markers, ?Np63?, ABCG2, keratins 15 and 17, and laminin ?3 chain. Conclusions. Small hairpin RNA silencing of proteinases overexpressed in diabetic corneas enhanced corneal epithelial and stem cell marker staining and accelerated wound healing. Combined therapy with c-met overexpression was even more efficient. Specific corneal gene therapy has a potential for treating diabetic keratopathy.

Saghizadeh, Mehrnoosh; Epifantseva, Irina; Hemmati, David M.; Ghiam, Chantelle A.; Brunken, William J.; Ljubimov, Alexander V.

2013-01-01

240

Oxidative Stress Can Affect the Gene Silencing Effect of DOTAP Liposome in an In Vitro Translation System  

PubMed Central

Oxidative stress can affect in vitro GFP expression through its control of the gene silencing effect of the liposome prepared by 1,2-dioleoyl-3-trimethyl-ammonium propane (DOTAP). The gene silencing effect of cationic DOTAP liposome in in vitro GFP expression, especially focusing on its translation process, and the effects of oxidative stress on its silencing effect were investigated. GFP expression, initiated by mRNA, was found to be thoroughly inhibited in the presence of DOTAP liposome at concentration of more than 2.5 mM, though its inhibitory effect was reduced in the presence of hydrogen peroxide. The analyses of (i) the interaction of mRNA with DOTAP, (ii) the chemical structure of DOTAP, and (iii) the membrane fluidity of DOTAP liposome imply the possible role of gene expression by the liposome membrane and stress conditions.

Umakoshi, Hiroshi; Tanabe, Tomoyuki; Suga, Keishi; Bui, Huong Thi; Shimanouchi, Toshinori; Kuboi, Ryoichi

2011-01-01

241

Heterochromatic Genes Undergo Epigenetic Changes and Escape Silencing in Immunodeficiency, Centromeric Instability, Facial Anomalies (ICF) Syndrome  

PubMed Central

Immunodeficiency, Centromeric Instability, Facial Anomalies (ICF) syndrome is a rare autosomal recessive disorder that is characterized by a marked immunodeficiency, severe hypomethylation of the classical satellites 2 and 3 associated with disruption of constitutive heterochromatin, and facial anomalies. Sixty percent of ICF patients have mutations in the DNMT3B (DNA methyltransferase 3B) gene, encoding a de novo DNA methyltransferase. In the present study, we have shown that, in ICF lymphoblasts and peripheral blood, juxtacentromeric heterochromatic genes undergo dramatic changes in DNA methylation, indicating that they are bona fide targets of the DNMT3B protein. DNA methylation in heterochromatic genes dropped from about 80% in normal cells to approximately 30% in ICF cells. Hypomethylation was observed in five ICF patients and was associated with activation of these silent genes. Although DNA hypomethylation occurred in all the analyzed heterochromatic genes and in all the ICF patients, gene expression was restricted to some genes, every patient having his own group of activated genes. Histone modifications were preserved in ICF patients. Heterochromatic genes were associated with histone modifications that are typical of inactive chromatin: they had low acetylation on H3 and H4 histones and were slightly enriched in H3K9Me3, both in ICF and controls. This was also the case for those heterochromatic genes that escaped silencing. This finding suggests that gene activation was not generalized to all the cells, but rather was restricted to a clonal cell population that may contribute to the phenotypic variability observed in ICF syndrome. A slight increase in H3K27 monomethylation was observed both in heterochromatin and active euchromatin in ICF patients; however, no correlation between this modification and activation of heterochromatic genes was found.

Brun, Marie-Elisabeth; Lana, Erica; Rivals, Isabelle; Lefranc, Gerard; Sarda, Pierre; Claustres, Mireille; Megarbane, Andre; De Sario, Albertina

2011-01-01

242

HC-Pro silencing suppressor significantly alters the gene expression profile in tobacco leaves and flowers  

PubMed Central

Background RNA silencing is used in plants as a major defence mechanism against invasive nucleic acids, such as viruses. Accordingly, plant viruses have evolved to produce counter defensive RNA-silencing suppressors (RSSs). These factors interfere in various ways with the RNA silencing machinery in cells, and thereby disturb the microRNA (miRNA) mediated endogene regulation and induce developmental and morphological changes in plants. In this study we have explored these effects using previously characterized transgenic tobacco plants which constitutively express (under CaMV 35S promoter) the helper component-proteinase (HC-Pro) derived from a potyviral genome. The transcript levels of leaves and flowers of these plants were analysed using microarray techniques (Tobacco 4 × 44 k, Agilent). Results Over expression of HC-Pro RSS induced clear phenotypic changes both in growth rate and in leaf and flower morphology of the tobacco plants. The expression of 748 and 332 genes was significantly changed in the leaves and flowers, respectively, in the HC-Pro expressing transgenic plants. Interestingly, these transcriptome alterations in the HC-Pro expressing tobacco plants were similar as those previously detected in plants infected with ssRNA-viruses. Particularly, many defense-related and hormone-responsive genes (e.g. ethylene responsive transcription factor 1, ERF1) were differentially regulated in these plants. Also the expression of several stress-related genes, and genes related to cell wall modifications, protein processing, transcriptional regulation and photosynthesis were strongly altered. Moreover, genes regulating circadian cycle and flowering time were significantly altered, which may have induced a late flowering phenotype in HC-Pro expressing plants. The results also suggest that photosynthetic oxygen evolution, sugar metabolism and energy levels were significantly changed in these transgenic plants. Transcript levels of S-adenosyl-L-methionine (SAM) were also decreased in these plants, apparently leading to decreased transmethylation capacity. The proteome analysis using 2D-PAGE indicated significantly altered proteome profile, which may have been both due to altered transcript levels, decreased translation, and increased proteosomal/protease activity. Conclusion Expression of the HC-Pro RSS mimics transcriptional changes previously shown to occur in plants infected with intact viruses (e.g. Tobacco etch virus, TEV). The results indicate that the HC-Pro RSS contributes a significant part of virus-plant interactions by changing the levels of multiple cellular RNAs and proteins.

2011-01-01

243

Cellular internalization and gene silencing of siRNA polyplexes by cytocleavable cationic polyrotaxanes with tailored rigid backbones.  

PubMed

To achieve successful delivery of siRNA therapeutics, cytocleavable cationic polyrotaxanes (PRXs) composed of N,N-dimethylaminoethyl (DMAE) group-modified ?-cyclodextrins (CDs) that were threaded onto a poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) axis and capped with a bulky stopper using cytocleavable disulfide linkages (DMAE-PRX) were utilized as an siRNA carrier. DMAE-PRXs with various numbers of threading CDs and modified DMAE groups were synthesized, and the physicochemical properties, cellular internalization, and gene silencing activity of DMAE-PRX/siRNA were investigated to elucidate the relationship between its supramolecular structure and its function. When the numbers of modified DMAE groups were increased, the DMAE-PRXs formed closely associated polyplexes with siRNA and increased their polyanion exchange resistance. Additionally, the DMAE-PRXs with 52 threading CDs (52CD-PRXs) showed greater binding capabilities with siRNA and greater resistance to polyanion competition than 31CD-PRXs, indicating that the highly CD-threaded PRX structure in the 52CD-PRXs is superior in forming stable polyplexes with siRNA. Indeed, 52CD-PRX/siRNA showed greater intracellular uptake of siRNA than 31CD-PRX/siRNA with comparable numbers of DMAE groups. 52CD-PRX/siRNA successfully induced gene silencing of a targeted luciferase expressed in human cervical carcinoma without marked cytotoxicity and non-specific gene silencing. Although the gene silencing activities of DMAE-PRX/siRNA were comparable to those of linear poly(ethylenimine) (L-PEI), L-PEI showed cytotoxicity and non-specific gene silencing. Additionally, DMAE-PRXs with cytocleavable capabilities were found to enhance gene silencing, in comparison with non-cleavable DMAE-PRX. Thus, the cytocleavable cationic PRXs are suggested to be attractive supermolecules for the delivery of therapeutic siRNAs. PMID:23332177

Tamura, Atsushi; Yui, Nobuhiko

2013-03-01

244

Inhibition of lung metastasis by chemokine CCL17-mediated in vivo silencing of genes in CCR4+ Tregs  

PubMed Central

Despite significant attractiveness of anti-sense oligonucleotide/RNAi technology, its clinical application has been precluded by a lack of methods for targeted delivery and transduction of primary immune cells in vivo. Here, we devised a chemokine CCL17-based strategy (TARC-arp) that transiently silences expression of genes in immune cells by delivering inhibitory oligonucleotides via their chemokine receptors. In modeling studies using mice with established 4T1.2 breast cancer, we show that IL10 produced by CCR4+ cells, in particular FoxP3+ regulatory T cells (Tregs), plays an important role in lung metastasis. As such, TARC-arp-mediated silencing of IL-10 or FoxP3 in CCR4+ Tregs is sufficient to block lung metastasis. Thus, we provide a simple solution that circumvents the problems of RNAi use in vivo, indicating that a disease outcome can be successfully controlled by delivering inhibitory oligonucleotides with chemokines to inactivate a selective subset of immune cells.

Biragyn, Arya; Bodogai, Monica; Olkhanud, Purevdorj B.; Denny-Brown, Sinan R.; Puri, Nitin; Ayukawa, Koichi; Kanegasaki, Shiro; Hogaboam, Cory M.; Wejksza, Katarzyna; Lee-Chang, Catalina

2013-01-01

245

RNAi-mediated silencing of fungal acuD gene attenuates the virulence of Penicillium marneffei.  

PubMed

A number of pathogens, most of them intracellular, employ the glyoxylate cycle in order to ingest fatty acids as carbon sources as a way of coping with nutrient deprivation during the infection process. Isocitrate lyase, which is encoded by the pathogen's acuD gene, plays a pivotal role in the glyoxylate cycle, which has been implicated in fungal pathogenesis. In this study, the acuD gene of Penicillium marneffei was knocked down using siRNA expressed by a filamentous fungi expression system. The acuD siRNA reduced the acuD gene's mRNA and protein expression by 21.5 fold and 3.5 fold, respectively. When macrophages were infected with different transformants of P. marneffei, the knockdown of acuD expression with RNA interference was lethal to the pathogens. In addition, the secretion of tumor necrosis factor-alpha and interferon-gamma from the infected macrophages was reduced. Moreover, the RNAi-mediated silencing of acuD expression reduced the fungal burden in the nude mice infected with P. marneffei; inhibited the inflammatory response in the lungs, livers, and spleens during the chronic phase instead of the acute phase of infection; and thus prolonged survival of the infected animals. Collectively, our data indicate that the RNAi-mediated silencing of acuD expression could attenuate virulence of P. marneffei. The endogenous expression of the delivered siRNA vector could be used to evaluate the role of functional genes by continuous and stable expression of siRNA. PMID:24577002

Sun, Jiufeng; Li, Xiqing; Feng, Peiying; Zhang, Junmin; Xie, Zhi; Song, Erwei; Xi, Liyan

2014-02-01

246

Quaternized starch-based carrier for siRNA delivery: From cellular uptake to gene silencing.  

PubMed

RNAi therapeutics is a powerful tool for treating diseases by sequence-specific targeting of genes using siRNA. Since its discovery, the need for a safe and efficient delivery system for siRNA has increased. Here, we have developed and characterized a delivery platform for siRNA based on the natural polysaccharide starch in an attempt to address unresolved delivery challenges of RNAi. Modified potato starch (Q-starch) was successfully obtained by substitution with quaternary reagent, providing Q-starch with cationic properties. The results indicate that Q-starch was able to bind siRNA by self-assembly formation of complexes. For efficient and potent gene silencing we monitored the physical characteristics of the formed nanoparticles at increasing N/P molar ratios. The minimum ratio for complete entrapment of siRNA was 2. The resulting complexes, which were characterized by a small diameter (~30nm) and positive surface charge, were able to protect siRNA from enzymatic degradation. Q-starch/siRNA complexes efficiently induced P-glycoprotein (P-gp) gene silencing in the human ovarian adenocarcinoma cell line, NCI-ADR/Res (NAR), over expressing the targeted gene and presenting low toxicity. Additionally, Q-starch-based complexes showed high cellular uptake during a 24-hour study, which also suggested that intracellular siRNA delivery barriers governed the kinetics of siRNA transfection. In this study, we have devised a promising siRNA delivery vector based on a starch derivative for efficient and safe RNAi application. PMID:24794893

Amar-Lewis, Eliz; Azagury, Aharon; Chintakunta, Ramesh; Goldbart, Riki; Traitel, Tamar; Prestwood, Jackson; Landesman-Milo, Dalit; Peer, Dan; Kost, Joseph

2014-07-10

247

Frequent Epigenetic Silencing of the Folate-Metabolising Gene Cystathionine-Beta-Synthase in Gastrointestinal Cancer  

PubMed Central

Background Both gastric and colorectal cancers (CRC) are the most frequently occurring malignancies worldwide with the overall survival of these patients remains unsatisfied. Identification of tumor suppressor genes (TSG) silenced by promoter CpG methylation uncovers mechanisms of tumorigenesis and identifies new epigenetic biomarkers for early cancer detection and prognosis assessment. Cystathionine-beta-synthase (CBS) functions in the folate metabolism pathway, which is intricately linked to methylation of genomic DNA. Dysregulation of DNA methylation contributes substantially to cancer development. Methodology/Principal Findings To identify potential TSGs silenced by aberrant promoter methylation in CRC, we analyzed tumor and adjacent tissues from CRC cases using the Illumina Human Methylation45 BeadChip. We identified hypermethylation of the CBS gene in CRC samples, compared to adjacent tissues. Methylation and decreased mRNA expression of CBS were detected in most CRC cell lines by methylation-specific PCR and semiquantitative RT-PCR, as well as in gastric cancer. Treatment with 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine and/or trichostatin A reversed methylation and restored CBS mRNA expression indicating a direct effect. Aberrant methylation was further detected in 31% of primary CRCs (29 of 96) and 55% of gastric tumors (11 of 20). In contrast, methylation was seldom found in normal tissues adjacent to the tumor. CBS methylation was associated with KRAS mutations in primary CRCs (P?=?0.04, by ?2-test). However, no association was found between CBS methylation or KRAS mutations with cancer relapse/metastasis in Stage II CRC patients. Conclusion A novel finding from this study is that the folate metabolism enzyme CBS mRNA levels are frequently downregulated through CpG methylation of the CBS gene in gastric cancer and CRC, suggesting that CBS functions as a tumor suppressor gene. These findings warrant further study of CBS as an epigenetic biomarker for molecular diagnosis of gastrointestinal cancers.

Wang, Jian; Su, Xianwei; Ng, Ka Man; Qiu, Tian; Shan, Ling; Ling, Yun; Wang, Linfang; Cai, Jianqiang; Ying, Jianming

2012-01-01

248

RNAi Mediated curcin precursor gene silencing in Jatropha (Jatropha curcas L.).  

PubMed

Curcin, a type I ribosomal inhibiting protein-RIP, encoded by curcin precursor gene, is a phytotoxin present in Jatropha (Jatropha curcas L.). Here, we report designing of RNAi construct for the curcin precursor gene and further its genetic transformation of Jatropha to reduce its transcript expression. Curcin precursor gene was first cloned from Jatropha strain DARL-2 and part of the gene sequence was cloned in sense and antisense orientation separated by an intron sequence in plant expression binary vector pRI101 AN. The construction of the RNAi vector was confirmed by double digestion and nucleotide sequencing. The vector was then mobilized into Agrobacterium tumefaciens strain GV 3101 and used for tissue culture independent in planta transformation protocol optimized for Jatropha. Germinating seeds were injured with a needle before infection with Agrobacterium and then transferred to sterilized sand medium. The seedlings were grown for 90 days and genomic DNA was isolated from leaves for transgenic confirmation based on real time PCR with NPT II specific dual labeled probe. Result of the transgenic confirmation analysis revealed presence of the gene silencing construct in ten out of 30 tested seedlings. Further, quantitative transcript expression analysis of the curcin precursor gene revealed reduction in the transcript abundance by more than 98 % to undetectable level. The transgenic plants are being grown in containment for further studies on reduction in curcin protein content in Jatropha seeds. PMID:24574003

Patade, Vikas Yadav; Khatri, Deepti; Kumar, Kamal; Grover, Atul; Kumari, Maya; Gupta, Sanjay Mohan; Kumar, Devender; Nasim, Mohammed

2014-07-01

249

Virus-induced gene silencing unravels multiple transcription factors involved in floral growth and development in Phalaenopsis orchids  

PubMed Central

Orchidaceae, one of the largest angiosperm families, has significant commercial value. Isolation of genes involved in orchid floral development and morphogenesis, scent production, and colouration will advance knowledge of orchid flower formation and facilitate breeding new varieties to increase the commercial value. With high-throughput virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS), this study identified five transcription factors involved in various aspects of flower morphogenesis in the orchid Phalaenopsis equestris. These genes are PeMADS1, PeMADS7, PeHB, PebHLH, and PeZIP. Silencing PeMADS1 and PebHLH resulted in reduced flower size together with a pelaloid column containing petal-like epidermal cells and alterations of epidermal cell arrangement in lip lateral lobes, respectively. Silencing PeMADS7, PeHB, and PeZIP alone resulted in abortion of the first three fully developed flower buds of an inflorescence, which indicates the roles of the genes in late flower development. Furthermore, double silencing PeMADS1 and PeMADS6, C- and B-class MADS-box genes, respectively, produced a combinatorial phenotype with two genes cloned in separate vectors. Both PeMADS1 and PeMADS6 are required to ensure the normal development of the lip and column as well as the cuticle formation on the floral epidermal cell surface. Thus, VIGS allows for unravelling the interaction between two classes of MADS transcription factors for dictating orchid floral morphogenesis.

Chen, Hong-Hwa

2013-01-01

250

Virus-induced gene silencing unravels multiple transcription factors involved in floral growth and development in Phalaenopsis orchids.  

PubMed

Orchidaceae, one of the largest angiosperm families, has significant commercial value. Isolation of genes involved in orchid floral development and morphogenesis, scent production, and colouration will advance knowledge of orchid flower formation and facilitate breeding new varieties to increase the commercial value. With high-throughput virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS), this study identified five transcription factors involved in various aspects of flower morphogenesis in the orchid Phalaenopsis equestris. These genes are PeMADS1, PeMADS7, PeHB, PebHLH, and PeZIP. Silencing PeMADS1 and PebHLH resulted in reduced flower size together with a pelaloid column containing petal-like epidermal cells and alterations of epidermal cell arrangement in lip lateral lobes, respectively. Silencing PeMADS7, PeHB, and PeZIP alone resulted in abortion of the first three fully developed flower buds of an inflorescence, which indicates the roles of the genes in late flower development. Furthermore, double silencing PeMADS1 and PeMADS6, C- and B-class MADS-box genes, respectively, produced a combinatorial phenotype with two genes cloned in separate vectors. Both PeMADS1 and PeMADS6 are required to ensure the normal development of the lip and column as well as the cuticle formation on the floral epidermal cell surface. Thus, VIGS allows for unravelling the interaction between two classes of MADS transcription factors for dictating orchid floral morphogenesis. PMID:23956416

Hsieh, Ming-Hsien; Pan, Zhao-Jun; Lai, Pei-Han; Lu, Hsiang-Chia; Yeh, Hsin-Hung; Hsu, Chia-Chi; Wu, Wan-Lin; Chung, Mei-Chu; Wang, Shyh-Shyan; Chen, Wen-Huei; Chen, Hong-Hwa

2013-09-01

251

Synthesis and Gene Silencing Properties of siRNAs Containing Terminal Amide Linkages  

PubMed Central

The active components of the RNAi are 21 nucleotides long dsRNAs containing a 2 nucleotide overhang at the 3? end, carrying 5?-phosphate and 3?-hydroxyl groups (siRNAs). Structural analysis revealed that the siRNA is functionally bound at both ends to RISC. Terminal modifications are considered with interest as the introduction of chemical moieties interferes with the 3? overhang recognition by the PAZ domain and the 5?-phosphate recognition by the MID and PIWI domains of RISC. Herein, we report the synthesis of modified siRNAs containing terminal amide linkages by introducing hydroxyethylglycine PNA (hegPNA) moieties at 5?, and at 3? positions and on both terminals. Results of gene silencing studies highlight that some of these modifications are compatible with the RNAi machinery and markedly increase the resistance to serum-derived nucleases even after 24?h of incubation. Molecular docking simulations were attained to give at atomistic level a clearer picture of the effect of the most performing modifications on the interactions with the human Argonaute 2 PAZ, MID, and PIWI domains. This study adds another piece to the puzzle of the heterogeneous chemical modifications that can be attained to enhance the silencing efficiency of siRNAs.

Gaglione, Maria; Mercurio, M. Emilia; Mosca, Nicola; Novellino, Ettore; Messere, Anna

2014-01-01

252

Hypoxia potentiates microRNA-mediated gene silencing through posttranslational modification of Argonaute2.  

PubMed

Hypoxia contributes to the pathogenesis of various human diseases, including pulmonary artery hypertension (PAH), stroke, myocardial or cerebral infarction, and cancer. For example, acute hypoxia causes selective pulmonary artery (PA) constriction and elevation of pulmonary artery pressure. Chronic hypoxia induces structural and functional changes to the pulmonary vasculature, which resembles the phenotype of human PAH and is commonly used as an animal model of this disease. The mechanisms that lead to hypoxia-induced phenotypic changes have not been fully elucidated. Here, we show that hypoxia increases type I collagen prolyl-4-hydroxylase [C-P4H(I)], which leads to prolyl-hydroxylation and accumulation of Argonaute2 (Ago2), a critical component of the RNA-induced silencing complex (RISC). Hydroxylation of Ago2 is required for the association of Ago2 with heat shock protein 90 (Hsp90), which is necessary for the loading of microRNAs (miRNAs) into the RISC, and translocation to stress granules (SGs). We demonstrate that hydroxylation of Ago2 increases the level of miRNAs and increases the endonuclease activity of Ago2. In summary, this study identifies hypoxia as a mediator of the miRNA-dependent gene silencing pathway through posttranslational modification of Ago2, which might be responsible for cell survival or pathological responses under low oxygen stress. PMID:21969601

Wu, Connie; So, Jessica; Davis-Dusenbery, Brandi N; Qi, Hank H; Bloch, Donald B; Shi, Yang; Lagna, Giorgio; Hata, Akiko

2011-12-01

253

Hypoxia Potentiates MicroRNA-Mediated Gene Silencing through Posttranslational Modification of Argonaute2 ?  

PubMed Central

Hypoxia contributes to the pathogenesis of various human diseases, including pulmonary artery hypertension (PAH), stroke, myocardial or cerebral infarction, and cancer. For example, acute hypoxia causes selective pulmonary artery (PA) constriction and elevation of pulmonary artery pressure. Chronic hypoxia induces structural and functional changes to the pulmonary vasculature, which resembles the phenotype of human PAH and is commonly used as an animal model of this disease. The mechanisms that lead to hypoxia-induced phenotypic changes have not been fully elucidated. Here, we show that hypoxia increases type I collagen prolyl-4-hydroxylase [C-P4H(I)], which leads to prolyl-hydroxylation and accumulation of Argonaute2 (Ago2), a critical component of the RNA-induced silencing complex (RISC). Hydroxylation of Ago2 is required for the association of Ago2 with heat shock protein 90 (Hsp90), which is necessary for the loading of microRNAs (miRNAs) into the RISC, and translocation to stress granules (SGs). We demonstrate that hydroxylation of Ago2 increases the level of miRNAs and increases the endonuclease activity of Ago2. In summary, this study identifies hypoxia as a mediator of the miRNA-dependent gene silencing pathway through posttranslational modification of Ago2, which might be responsible for cell survival or pathological responses under low oxygen stress.

Wu, Connie; So, Jessica; Davis-Dusenbery, Brandi N.; Qi, Hank H.; Bloch, Donald B.; Shi, Yang; Lagna, Giorgio; Hata, Akiko

2011-01-01

254

CIAPIN1 gene silencing enhances chemosensitivity in a drug-resistant animal model in vivo  

PubMed Central

Overexpression of cytokine-induced apoptosis inhibitor 1 (CIAPIN1) contributes to multidrug resistance (MDR) in breast cancer. This study aimed to evaluate the potential of CIAPIN1 gene silencing by RNA interference (RNAi) as a treatment for drug-resistant breast cancer and to investigate the effect of CIAPIN1 on the drug resistance of breast cancer in vivo. We used lentivirus-vector-based RNAi to knock down CIAPIN1 in nude mice bearing MDR breast cancer tumors and found that lentivirus-vector-mediated silencing of CIAPIN1 could efficiently and significantly inhibit tumor growth when combined with chemotherapy in vivo. Furthermore, Western blot analysis showed that both CIAPIN1 and P-glycoprotein expression were efficiently downregulated, and P53 was upregulated, after RNAi. Therefore, we concluded that lentivirus-vector-mediated RNAi targeting of CIAPIN1 is a potential approach to reverse MDR of breast cancer. In addition, CIAPIN1 may participate in MDR of breast cancer by regulating P-glycoprotein and P53 expression.

Wang, X.M.; Gao, S.J.; Guo, X.F.; Sun, W.J.; Yan, Z.Q.; Wang, W.X.; Xu, Y.Q.; Lu, D.

2014-01-01

255

A silencer element in the cartilage oligomeric matrix protein gene regulates chondrocyte-specific expression.  

PubMed

The molecular mechanisms by which mesenchymal cells differentiate into chondrocytes are poorly understood. The cartilage oligomeric matrix protein gene (COMP) encodes a noncollagenous extracellular matrix protein whose expression pattern correlates with chondrocyte differentiation and arthritis. We have used the COMP promoter as a model to identify regulatory sequences necessary for chondrocyte-specific expression and to identify cell type-specific proteins that bind these sequences. We have previously cloned 1.9 kilobases of the 5(') flanking promoter sequence of the murine COMP gene and by deletion analysis have identified two spatially distant chondrocyte-specific regulatory regions. One element is situated proximally (-125 to -75), and a second region is located distally (-1925 to -592) relative to the transcription start site. In the present study, we performed a finer deletion analysis of the region of the COMP promoter from -1925 to -592 and identified a silencer region situated between -1775 and -1725. This silencer binds sequence-specific protein complexes; the intensity of these complexes is greater in two different fibroblast cell lines (NIH3T3 and 10T1/2) than in chondrocytic RCS cells. Competition experiments localized the binding site of these protein complexes from -1775 to -1746; deletion of this 30-bp site results in a selective increase in COMP promoter activity in fibroblasts. Four tandem repeats of this 30-bp site are sufficient to confer negative transcriptional regulation on a heterologous promoter (SV40) in NIH3T3 fibroblasts. These results suggest that negative regulation of transcription is an important mechanism for chondrocyte-specific expression of the COMP gene. PMID:15183430

Issack, Paul S; Liu, Chuan-Ju; Prazak, Lisa; Di Cesare, Paul E

2004-07-01

256

Reductively-responsive siRNA-conjugated hydrogel nanoparticles for gene silencing  

PubMed Central

A critical need still remains for effective delivery of RNA interference (RNAi) therapeutics to target tissues and cells. Self-assembled lipid- and polymer-based systems have been most extensively explored for transfection with small interfering RNA (siRNA) in liver and cancer therapies. Safety and compatibility of materials implemented in delivery systems must be ensured to maximize therapeutic indices. Hydrogel nanoparticles of defined dimensions and compositions, prepared via a particle molding process that is a unique off-shoot of soft lithography known as PRINT (Particle Replication in Non-wetting Templates), were explored in these studies as delivery vectors. Initially, siRNA was encapsulated in particles through electrostatic association and physical entrapment. Dose-dependent gene silencing was elicited by PEGylated hydrogels at low siRNA doses without cytotoxicity. To prevent disassociation of cargo from particles after systemic administration or during post-fabrication processing for surface functionalization, a polymerizable siRNA pro-drug conjugate with a degradable, disulfide linkage was prepared. Triggered release of siRNA from the prodrug hydrogels was observed under a reducing environment while cargo retention and integrity were maintained under physiological conditions. Gene silencing efficiency and cytocompatibility were optimized by screening the amine content of the particles. When appropriate control siRNA cargos were loaded into hydrogels, gene knockdown was only encountered for hydrogels containing releasable, target-specific siRNAs, accompanied by minimal cell death. Further investigation into shape, size, and surface decoration of siRNA-conjugated hydrogels should enable efficacious targeted in vivo RNAi therapies.

Dunn, Stuart S.; Tian, Shaomin; Blake, Steven; Wang, Jin; Galloway, Ashley L.; Murphy, Andrew; Pohlhaus, Patrick D.; Rolland, Jason P.; Napier, Mary E.; DeSimone, Joseph M.

2012-01-01

257

Nanoparticle-mediated Gene Silencing Confers Radioprotection to Salivary Glands In Vivo  

PubMed Central

Radiation treatment of head and neck cancers causes irreversible damage of the salivary glands (SG). Here, we introduce a preclinical mouse model for small-interfering RNA (siRNA)-based gene silencing to provide protection of SG from radiation-induced apoptosis. Novel, pH-responsive nanoparticles complexed with siRNAs were introduced into mouse submandibular glands (SMG) by retroductal injection to modulate gene expression in vivo. To validate this approach, we first targeted Nkcc1, an ion transporter that is essential for saliva secretion. Nkcc1 siRNA delivery resulted in efficient knockdown, as quantified at the mRNA and the protein levels, and the functional result of Nkcc1 knockdown phenocopied the severe decrease in saliva secretion, characteristic of the systemic Nkcc1 gene knockout. To establish a strategy to prevent apoptotic cell loss due to radiation damage, siRNAs targeting the proapoptotic Pkc? gene were administered into SMG before ionizing radiation. Knockdown of Pkc? not only reduced the number of apoptotic cells during the acute phase of radiation damage, but also markedly improved saliva secretion at 3 months in irradiated animals, indicating that this treatment confers protection from hyposalivation. These results demonstrate that nanoparticle delivery of siRNAs targeting a proapoptotic gene is a localized, nonviral, and effective means of conferring radioprotection to the SGs.

Arany, Szilvia; Benoit, Danielle SW; Dewhurst, Stephen; Ovitt, Catherine E

2013-01-01

258

MicroRNA-mediated gene silencing modulates the UV-induced DNA-damage response  

PubMed Central

DNA damage provokes DNA repair, cell-cycle regulation and apoptosis. This DNA-damage response encompasses gene-expression regulation at the transcriptional and post-translational levels. We show that cellular responses to UV-induced DNA damage are also regulated at the post-transcriptional level by microRNAs. Survival and checkpoint response after UV damage was severely reduced on microRNA-mediated gene-silencing inhibition by knocking down essential components of the microRNA-processing pathway (Dicer and Ago2). UV damage triggered a cell-cycle-dependent relocalization of Ago2 into stress granules and various microRNA-expression changes. Ago2 relocalization required CDK activity, but was independent of ATM/ATR checkpoint signalling, whereas UV-responsive microRNA expression was only partially ATM/ATR independent. Both microRNA-expression changes and stress-granule formation were most pronounced within the first hours after genotoxic stress, suggesting that microRNA-mediated gene regulation operates earlier than most transcriptional responses. The functionality of the microRNA response is illustrated by the UV-inducible miR-16 that downregulates checkpoint-gene CDC25a and regulates cell proliferation. We conclude that microRNA-mediated gene regulation adds a new dimension to the DNA-damage response.

Pothof, Joris; Verkaik, Nicole S; van IJcken, Wilfred; Wiemer, Erik A C; Ta, Van T B; van der Horst, Gijsbertus T J; Jaspers, Nicolaas G J; van Gent, Dik C; Hoeijmakers, Jan H J; Persengiev, Stephan P

2009-01-01

259

Robust Hepatic Gene Silencing for Functional Studies Using Helper-Dependent Adenoviral Vectors  

PubMed Central

Abstract RNA interference is currently envisioned as the basis of gene function and drug target validation studies. This novel technology has the advantage of providing a remarkably faster tool for gene silencing than traditional transgenic animal methodologies. In vivo administration of short interfering RNA (siRNA) typically results in reduced target gene expression for approximately 1 week. Viral vectors offer the possibility to express constitutive levels of short hairpin RNA (shRNA) so that the effects of knocking down the target gene can be studied for a few weeks, rather than a few days. Helper-dependent vectors have a significant advantage over previous generations of adenoviral vectors because of their much higher cloning capacity, potential for long-term transgene expression, and enhanced safety profiles on administration in vivo. Therefore, this advanced type of vector is an excellent tool to carry out in vivo studies directed at constitutive expression of shRNA. Here we show it is possible to obtain more than 90% target gene knockdown in an animal model of type 2 diabetes for several weeks, thereby consolidating this technology as an alternative to generating liver-specific knockout animals.

Ruiz, Rafaela; Witting, Scott R.; Saxena, Romil

2009-01-01

260

Virus induced gene silencing of three putative prolyl 4-hydroxylases enhances plant growth in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum).  

PubMed

Proline hydroxylation is a major posttranslational modification of hydroxyproline-rich glycoproteins (HRGPs) that is catalyzed by prolyl 4-hydroxylases (P4Hs). HRGPs such as arabinogalactan proteins (AGPs) and extensios play significant roles on cell wall structure and function and their implication in cell division and expansion has been reported. We used tobacco rattle virus (TRV)-based virus induced gene silencing to investigate the role of three tomato P4Hs, out of ten present in the tomato genome, in growth and development. Eight-days old tomato seedlings were infected with the appropriate TRV vectors and plants were allowed to grow under standard conditions for 6 weeks. Lower P4H mRNA levels were associated with lower hydroxyproline content in root and shoot tissues indicating successful gene silencing. P4H-silenced plants had longer roots and shoots and larger leaves. The increased leaf area can be attributed to increased cell division as indicated by the higher leaf epidermal cell number in SlP4H1- and SlP4H9-silenced plants. In contrast, SlP4H7-silenced plants had larger leaves due to enhanced cell expansion. Western blot analysis revealed that silencing of SlP4H7 and SlP4H9 was associated with reduced levels of JIM8-bound AGP and JIM11-bound extensin epitopes, while silencing of SlP4H1 reduced only the levels of AGP proteins. Collectively these results show that P4Hs have significant and distinct roles in cell division and expansion of tomato leaves. PMID:24803411

Fragkostefanakis, Sotirios; Sedeek, Khalid E M; Raad, Maya; Zaki, Marwa Samir; Kalaitzis, Panagiotis

2014-07-01

261

Mammalian homologues of the Polycomb-group gene Enhancer of zeste mediate gene silencing in Drosophila heterochromatin and at S.cerevisiae telomeres  

Microsoft Academic Search

Gene silencing is required to stably maintain distinct patterns of gene expression during eukaryotic development and has been correlated with the induction of chromatin domains that restrict gene activity. We describe the isolation of human (EZH2) and mouse (Ezh1) homologues of the Drosophila Polycomb-group (Pc-G) gene Enhancer of zeste [E(z)], a crucial regulator of homeotic gene expression implicated in the

Götz Laible; Andrea Wolf; Rainer Dorn; Gunter Reuter; Corey Nislow; Angelika Lebersorger; Dan Popkin; Lorraine Pillus; Thomas Jenuwein

1997-01-01

262

RNA-Mediated Gene Silencing Signals Are Not Graft Transmissible from the Rootstock to the Scion in Greenhouse-Grown Apple Plants Malus sp  

PubMed Central

RNA silencing describes the sequence specific degradation of RNA targets. Silencing is a non-cell autonomous event that is graft transmissible in different plant species. The present study is the first report on systemic acquired dsRNA-mediated gene silencing of transgenic and endogenous gene sequences in a woody plant like apple. Transgenic apple plants overexpressing a hairpin gene construct of the gusA reporter gene were produced. These plants were used as rootstocks and grafted with scions of the gusA overexpressing transgenic apple clone T355. After grafting, we observed a reduction of the gusA gene expression in T355 scions in vitro, but not in T355 scions grown in the greenhouse. Similar results were obtained after silencing of the endogenous Mdans gene in apple that is responsible for anthocyanin biosynthesis. Subsequently, we performed grafting experiments with Mdans silenced rootstocks and red leaf scions of TNR31-35 in order to evaluate graft transmitted silencing of the endogenous Mdans. The results obtained suggested a graft transmission of silencing signals in in vitro shoots. In contrast, no graft transmission of dsRNA-mediated gene silencing signals was detectable in greenhouse-grown plants and in plants grown in an insect protection tent.

Flachowsky, Henryk; Trankner, Conny; Szankowski, Iris; Waidmann, Sascha; Hanke, Magda-Viola; Treutter, Dieter; Fischer, Thilo C.

2012-01-01

263

Activation of Silenced Cytokine Gene Promoters by the Synergistic Effect of TBP-TALE and VP64-TALE Activators  

PubMed Central

Recent work has shown that the combinatorial use of multiple TALE activators can selectively activate certain cellular genes in inaccessible chromatin regions. In this study, we aimed to interrogate the activation potential of TALEs upon transcriptionally silenced immune genes in the context of non-immune cells. We designed a unique strategy, in which a single TALE fused to the TATA-box binding protein (TBP-TALE) is coupled with multiple VP64-TALE activators. We found that our strategy is significantly more potent than multiple TALE activators alone in activating expression of IL-2 and GM-CSF in diverse cell origins in which both genes are otherwise completely silenced. Chromatin analysis revealed that the gene activation was due in part to displacement of a distinctly positioned nucleosome. These studies provide a novel epigenetic mechanism for artificial gene induction and have important implications for targeted cancer immunotherapy, DNA vaccine development, as well as rational design of TALE activators.

Anthony, Kim; More, Abhijit; Zhang, Xiaoliu

2014-01-01

264

Therapeutic potentials of gene silencing by RNA interference: principles, challenges, and new strategies.  

PubMed

During recent decades there have been remarkable advances in biology, in which one of the most important discoveries is RNA interference (RNAi). RNAi is a specific post-transcriptional regulatory pathway that can result in silencing gene functions. Efforts have been done to translate this new discovery into clinical applications for disease treatment. However, technical difficulties restrict the development of RNAi, including stability, off-target effects, immunostimulation and delivery problems. Researchers have attempted to surmount these barriers and improve the bioavailability and safety of RNAi-based therapeutics by optimizing the chemistry and structure of these molecules. This paper aimed to describe the principles of RNA interference, review the therapeutic potential in various diseases and discuss the new strategies for in vivo delivery of RNAi to overcome the challenges. PMID:24406620

Deng, Yan; Wang, Chi Chiu; Choy, Kwong Wai; Du, Quan; Chen, Jiao; Wang, Qin; Li, Lu; Chung, Tony Kwok Hung; Tang, Tao

2014-04-01

265

Targeting the IGF-1R signaling and mechanisms for epigenetic gene silencing in human multiple myeloma  

PubMed Central

Multiple myeloma (MM) is a B cell malignancy characterized by the expansion of clonal plasmablast/plasma cells within the bone-marrow. It is well established that the bone-marrow microenvironment has a pivotal role in providing critical cytokines and cell–cell interactions to support the growth and survival of the MM tumor clone. The pathogenesis of MM is, however, only fragmentarily understood. Detailed genomic analysis reveals a heterogeneous and complex pattern of structural and numerical chromosomal aberrations. In this review we will discuss some of the recent results on the functional role and potential clinical use of the IGF-1R, one of the major mediators of growth and survival for MM. We will also describe some of our results on epigenetic gene silencing in MM, as it may indeed constitute a novel basis for the understanding of tumor initiation and maintenance in MM and thus may change the current view on treatment strategies for MM.

Nilsson, Kenneth

2012-01-01

266

Cysteine Dioxygenase 1 Is a Tumor Suppressor Gene Silenced by Promoter Methylation in Multiple Human Cancers  

PubMed Central

The human cysteine dioxygenase 1 (CDO1) gene is a non-heme structured, iron-containing metalloenzyme involved in the conversion of cysteine to cysteine sulfinate, and plays a key role in taurine biosynthesis. In our search for novel methylated gene promoters, we have analyzed differential RNA expression profiles of colorectal cancer (CRC) cell lines with or without treatment of 5-aza-2?-deoxycytidine. Among the genes identified, the CDO1 promoter was found to be differentially methylated in primary CRC tissues with high frequency compared to normal colon tissues. In addition, a statistically significant difference in the frequency of CDO1 promoter methylation was observed between primary normal and tumor tissues derived from breast, esophagus, lung, bladder and stomach. Downregulation of CDO1 mRNA and protein levels were observed in cancer cell lines and tumors derived from these tissue types. Expression of CDO1 was tightly controlled by promoter methylation, suggesting that promoter methylation and silencing of CDO1 may be a common event in human carcinogenesis. Moreover, forced expression of full-length CDO1 in human cancer cells markedly decreased the tumor cell growth in an in vitro cell culture and/or an in vivo mouse model, whereas knockdown of CDO1 increased cell growth in culture. Our data implicate CDO1 as a novel tumor suppressor gene and a potentially valuable molecular marker for human cancer.

Brait, Mariana; Ling, Shizhang; Nagpal, Jatin K.; Chang, Xiaofei; Park, Hannah Lui; Lee, Juna; Okamura, Jun; Yamashita, Keishi; Sidransky, David; Kim, Myoung Sook

2012-01-01

267

Comprehensive protein-based artificial microRNA screens for effective gene silencing in plants.  

PubMed

Artificial microRNA (amiRNA) approaches offer a powerful strategy for targeted gene manipulation in any plant species. However, the current unpredictability of amiRNA efficacy has limited broad application of this promising technology. To address this, we developed epitope-tagged protein-based amiRNA (ETPamir) screens, in which target mRNAs encoding epitope-tagged proteins were constitutively or inducibly coexpressed in protoplasts with amiRNA candidates targeting single or multiple genes. This design allowed parallel quantification of target proteins and mRNAs to define amiRNA efficacy and mechanism of action, circumventing unpredictable amiRNA expression/processing and antibody unavailability. Systematic evaluation of 63 amiRNAs in 79 ETPamir screens for 16 target genes revealed a simple, effective solution for selecting optimal amiRNAs from hundreds of computational predictions, reaching ?100% gene silencing in plant cells and null phenotypes in transgenic plants. Optimal amiRNAs predominantly mediated highly specific translational repression at 5' coding regions with limited mRNA decay or cleavage. Our screens were easily applied to diverse plant species, including Arabidopsis thaliana, tobacco (Nicotiana benthamiana), tomato (Solanum lycopersicum), sunflower (Helianthus annuus), Catharanthus roseus, maize (Zea mays) and rice (Oryza sativa), and effectively validated predicted natural miRNA targets. These screens could improve plant research and crop engineering by making amiRNA a more predictable and manageable genetic and functional genomic technology. PMID:23645631

Li, Jian-Feng; Chung, Hoo Sun; Niu, Yajie; Bush, Jenifer; McCormack, Matthew; Sheen, Jen

2013-05-01

268

Inhibition of Androgen-Independent Growth of Prostate Cancer by siRNA- Mediated Androgen Receptor Gene Silencing.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

To determine if AR gene silencing in prostate cancer cells via RNA interference mechanism leads to disruption of androgen-independent progression. We generated a recombinant AAV for long-term expression of a hairpin-structured AR siRNA in vivo. Then we de...

B. Li

2008-01-01

269

HelF, a putative RNA helicase acts as a nuclear suppressor of RNAi but not antisense mediated gene silencing  

PubMed Central

We have identified a putative RNA helicase from Dictyostelium that is closely related to drh-1, the ‘dicer-related-helicase’ from Caenorhabditis elegans and that also has significant similarity to proteins from vertebrates and plants. Green fluorescent protein (GFP)-tagged HelF protein was localized in speckles in the nucleus. Disruption of the helF gene resulted in a mutant morphology in late development. When transformed with RNAi constructs, HelF? cells displayed enhanced RNA interference on four tested genes. One gene that could not be knocked-down in the wild-type background was efficiently silenced in the mutant. Furthermore, the efficiency of silencing in the wild-type was dramatically improved when helF was disrupted in a secondary transformation. Silencing efficiency depended on transcription levels of hairpin RNA and the threshold was dramatically reduced in HelF? cells. However, the amount of siRNA did not depend on hairpin transcription. HelF is thus a natural nuclear suppressor of RNA interference. In contrast, no improvement of gene silencing was observed when mutant cells were challenged with corresponding antisense constructs. This indicates that RNAi and antisense have distinct requirements even though they may share parts of their pathways.

2006-01-01

270

Silencing the myotrophin gene by RNA interference leads to the regression of cardiac hypertrophy.  

PubMed

Myotrophin-induced activation of NF-kappaB has been shown to be associated with cardiac hypertrophy (CH) that progresses to heart failure (HF). In the present study, we examined the cause-and-effect relationship between myotrophin and NF-kappaB activation using small hairpin RNA (shRNA) against myotrophin both in vitro (using neonatal rat myocytes) and in vivo [using myotrophin transgenic (Myo-Tg) mice, which overexpress myotrophin in the heart, develop CH, and gradually progress to HF]. Among several lentiviral vectors expressing myotrophin shRNAs, L-sh-109 showed the best silencing effect at both the mRNA (155.3 +/- 5.9 vs. 32.5 +/- 5.5, P < 0.001) and protein levels associated with a significant reduction of atrial natriuretic factor (ANF) and NF-kappaB. In vivo, when L-sh-109 was delivered directly into the hearts of 10-wk-old Myo-Tg mice, we observed a significant regression of cardiac mass (8.0 vs. 5.7 mg/g, P < 0.001) and myotrophin gene expression (54.5% over untreated Myo-Tg mice, P < 0.001) associated with a reduction in ANF and NF-kappaB signaling components. Our data suggest that using RNA interference to silence the myotrophin gene prevents NF-kappaB activation, associated with an attenuation of CH. This strategy could be an excellent therapeutic means for the treatment of CH and HF. PMID:19502558

Gupta, Sudhiranjan; Maitra, Ratan; Young, Dave; Gupta, Anasuya; Sen, Subha

2009-08-01

271

Reactivation of the Silenced Thyroid Hormone Receptor ? Gene Expression Delays Thyroid Tumor Progression  

PubMed Central

That a knock-in mouse harboring a dominant-negative thyroid hormone receptor (TR)-? (Thrb) mutation develops metastatic thyroid cancer strongly suggests the involvement of TR? in carcinogenesis. Epigenetic silencing of the THRB gene is common in human cancers. The aim of the present study was to determine how DNA methylation affected the expression of the THRB gene in differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC) and how reexpression of the THRB gene attenuated the cancer phenotypes. We used methylation-specific PCR to examine the expression and promoter methylation of the THRB gene in DTC tissues. Thyroid cancer cells with hypermethylated THRB were treated with the demethylating agents 5?-aza-2?-deoxycytidine (5?-aza-CdR) and zebularine to evaluate their impact on the cancer cell phenotypes. THRB mRNA expression in DTC was 90% lower than in normal controls, and this decrease was associated with a higher tumor/lymph node staging. The promoter methylation level of the THRB gene had a significant negative correlation with the expression level of the THRB gene. Treatment of FTC-236 cells with 5?-aza-CdR or zebularine induced reexpression of the THRB gene and inhibited cell proliferation and migration. FTC-236 cells stably expressing TR? exhibited lower cell proliferation and migration through inhibition of ?-catenin signaling pathways compared with FTC-236 without TR?. 5?-Aza-CdR also led to suppression of tumor growth in an in vivo xenograft model using FTC-236 cells consistent with the cell-based studies. These finding indicate that TR? is a tumor suppressor and could be tested as a potential therapeutic target.

Kim, Won Gu; Zhu, Xuguang; Kim, Dong Wook; Zhang, Lisa; Kebebew, Electron

2013-01-01

272

Characterization of the LOV1-mediated, victorin-induced, cell-death response with virus-induced gene silencing.  

PubMed

Victoria blight, caused by Cochliobolus victoriae, is a disease originally described on oat and recapitulated on Arabidopsis. C. victoriae pathogenesis depends upon production of the toxin victorin. In oat, victorin sensitivity is conferred by the Vb gene, which is genetically inseparable from the Pc2 resistance gene. Concurrently, in Arabidopsis, sensitivity is conferred by the LOCUS ORCHESTRATING VICTORIN EFFECTS1 (LOV1) gene. LOV1 encodes a nucleotide-binding site leucine-rich repeat protein, a type of protein commonly associated with disease resistance, and LOV1 "guards" the defense thioredoxin, TRX-h5. Expression of LOV1 and TRX-h5 in Nicotiana benthamiana is sufficient to confer victorin sensitivity. Virus-induced gene silencing was used to characterize victorin-induced cell death in N. benthamiana. We determined that SGT1 is required for sensitivity and involved in LOV1 protein accumulation. We screened a normalized cDNA library and identified six genes that, when silenced, suppressed LOV1-mediated, victorin-induced cell death and cell death induced by expression of the closely related RPP8 resistance gene: a mitochondrial phosphate transporter, glycolate oxidase, glutamine synthetase, glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase, and the P- and T-protein of the glycine decarboxylase complex. Silencing the latter four also inhibited cell death and disease resistance mediated by the PTO resistance gene. Together, these results provide evidence that the victorin response mediated by LOV1 is a defense response. PMID:23634836

Gilbert, Brian M; Wolpert, Thomas J

2013-08-01

273

Silencing of host basal defense response-related gene expression increases susceptibility of Nicotiana benthamiana to Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. michiganensis.  

PubMed

Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. michiganensis is an actinomycete, causing bacterial wilt and canker disease of tomato (Solanum lycopersicum). We used virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS) to identify genes playing a role in host basal defense response to C. michiganensis subsp. michiganensis infection using Nicotiana benthamiana as a model plant. A preliminary VIGS screen comprising 160 genes from tomato known to be involved in defense-related signaling identified a set of 14 genes whose suppression led to altered host-pathogen interactions. Expression of each of these genes and three additional targets was then suppressed in larger-scale VIGS experiments and the effect of silencing on development of wilt disease symptoms and bacterial growth during an N. benthamiana-C. michiganensis subsp. michiganensis compatible interaction was determined. Disease susceptibility and in planta bacterial population size were enhanced by silencing genes encoding N. benthamiana homologs of ubiquitin activating enzyme, snakin-2, extensin-like protein, divinyl ether synthase, 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme A reductase 2, and Pto-like kinase. The identification of genes having a role in the host basal defense-response to C. michiganensis subsp. michiganensis advances our understanding of the plant responses activated by C. michiganensis subsp. michiganensis and raises possibilities for devising novel and effective molecular strategies to control bacterial canker and wilt in tomato. PMID:21062112

Balaji, Vasudevan; Sessa, Guido; Smart, Christine D

2011-03-01

274

Dickkopf-1 is an epigenetically silenced candidate tumor suppressor gene in medulloblastoma.  

PubMed

Medulloblastoma is a heterogeneous pediatric brain tumor with significant therapy-related morbidity, its five-year survival rates ranging from 30% to 70%. Improvement in diagnosis and therapy requires better understanding of medulloblastoma pathology. We used whole-genome microarray analysis to identify putative tumor suppressor genes silenced by epigenetic mechanisms in medulloblastoma. This analysis yielded 714 up-regulated genes in immortalized medulloblastoma cell line D283 on treatment with histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitor trichostatin A (TSA). Dickkopf-1 (DKK1), a Wnt antagonist, was found to be up-regulated on HDAC inhibition. We examined DKK1 expression in primary medulloblastoma cells and patient samples by reverse transcriptase PCR and found it to be significantly down-regulated relative to normal cerebellum. Transfection of a DKK1 gene construct into D283 cell lines suppressed medulloblastoma tumor growth in colony focus assays by 60% (P < 0.001). In addition, adenoviral vector-mediated expression of DKK1 in medulloblastoma cells increased apoptosis fourfold (P < 0.001). These data reveal that inappropriate histone modifications might deregulate DKK1 expression in medulloblastoma tumorigenesis and block its tumor-suppressive activity. PMID:17329407

Vibhakar, Rajeev; Foltz, Greg; Yoon, Jae-Geun; Field, Lorie; Lee, Hwahyung; Ryu, Gi-Yung; Pierson, Jessica; Davidson, Beverly; Madan, Anup

2007-04-01

275

Dickkopf-1 is an epigenetically silenced candidate tumor suppressor gene in medulloblastoma1  

PubMed Central

Medulloblastoma is a heterogeneous pediatric brain tumor with significant therapy-related morbidity, its five-year survival rates ranging from 30% to 70%. Improvement in diagnosis and therapy requires better understanding of medulloblastoma pathology. We used whole-genome microarray analysis to identify putative tumor suppressor genes silenced by epigenetic mechanisms in medulloblastoma. This analysis yielded 714 up-regulated genes in immortalized medulloblastoma cell line D283 on treatment with histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitor trichostatin A (TSA). Dickkopf-1 (DKK1), a Wnt antagonist, was found to be up-regulated on HDAC inhibition. We examined DKK1 expression in primary medulloblastoma cells and patient samples by reverse transcriptase PCR and found it to be significantly down-regulated relative to normal cerebellum. Transfection of a DKK1 gene construct into D283 cell lines suppressed medulloblastoma tumor growth in colony focus assays by 60% (P < 0.001). In addition, adenoviral vector– mediated expression of DKK1 in medulloblastoma cells increased apoptosis fourfold (P < 0.001). These data reveal that inappropriate histone modifications might deregulate DKK1 expression in medulloblastoma tumorigenesis and block its tumor-suppressive activity.

Vibhakar, Rajeev; Foltz, Greg; Yoon, Jae-geun; Field, Lorie; Lee, Hwahyung; Ryu, Gi-yung; Pierson, Jessica; Davidson, Beverly; Madan, Anup

2007-01-01

276

BRU1, a novel link between responses to DNA damage and epigenetic gene silencing in Arabidopsis  

PubMed Central

DNA repair associated with DNA replication is important for the conservation of genomic sequence information, whereas reconstitution of chromatin after replication sustains epigenetic information. We have isolated and characterized mutations in the BRU1 gene of Arabidopsis that suggest a novel link between these underlying maintenance mechanisms. Bru1 plants are highly sensitive to genotoxic stress and show stochastic release of transcriptional gene silencing. They also show increased intrachromosomal homologous recombination and constitutively activated expression of poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase-2 (AtPARP-2), the induction of which is associated with elevated DNA damage. Bru1 mutations affect the stability of heterochromatin organization but do not interfere with genome-wide DNA methylation. BRU1 encodes a novel nuclear protein with two predicted protein–protein interaction domains. The developmental abnormalities characteristic of bru1 mutant plants resemble those triggered by mutations in genes encoding subunits of chromatin assembly factor (CAF-1), the condensin complex, or MRE11. Comparison of bru1 with these mutants indicates cooperative roles in the replication and stabilization of chromatin structure, providing a novel link between chromatin replication, epigenetic inheritance, S-phase DNA damage checkpoints, and the regulation of meristem development.

Takeda, Shin; Tadele, Zerihun; Hofmann, Ingo; Probst, Aline V.; Angelis, Karel J.; Kaya, Hidetaka; Araki, Takashi; Mengiste, Tesfaye; Scheid, Ortrun Mittelsten; Shibahara, Kei-ichi; Scheel, Dierk; Paszkowski, Jerzy

2004-01-01

277

Polycation-functionalized nanoporous silicon particles for gene silencing on breast cancer cells.  

PubMed

Nanoporous silicon particles (pSi), with a pore size in the range of 20-60 nm, were modified with polyethyleneimine (PEI) to yield pSi-PEI particles, which were subsequently complexed with siRNA. Thus, pSi-PEI/siRNA particles were fabricated, with the PEI/siRNA nanocomplexes mainly anchored inside the nanopore of the pSi particles. These hybrid particles were used as carriers to deliver siRNA to human breast cancer cells. Due to the gradual degradation of the pSi matrix under physiological conditions, the PEI/siRNA nanocomplexes were released from the pore interior in a sustained manner. Physicochemical characterization revealed that the released PEI/siRNA nanocomplexes exhibited well-defined spherical shape and narrow particle size distribution between 15 and 30 nm. Gene knockdown against the ataxia telangiectasia mutated (ATM) cancer gene showed dramatic gene silencing efficacy. Moreover, comprehensive biocompatibility studies were performed for the pSi-PEI/siRNA particles both in vitro and in vivo and demonstrated that the pSi-PEI particles exhibited significantly enhanced biocompatibility. As a consequence, PEI-modified porous silicon particles may have substantial potential as safe and effective siRNA delivery systems. PMID:24103653

Zhang, Mingzhen; Xu, Rong; Xia, Xiaojun; Yang, Yong; Gu, Jianhua; Qin, Guoting; Liu, Xuewu; Ferrari, Mauro; Shen, Haifa

2014-01-01

278

LIM-domain proteins, LIMD1, Ajuba, and WTIP are required for microRNA-mediated gene silencing  

PubMed Central

In recent years there have been major advances with respect to the identification of the protein components and mechanisms of microRNA (miRNA) mediated silencing. However, the complete and precise repertoire of components and mechanism(s) of action remain to be fully elucidated. Herein we reveal the identification of a family of three LIM domain-containing proteins, LIMD1, Ajuba and WTIP (Ajuba LIM proteins) as novel mammalian processing body (P-body) components, which highlight a novel mechanism of miRNA-mediated gene silencing. Furthermore, we reveal that LIMD1, Ajuba, and WTIP bind to Ago1/2, RCK, Dcp2, and eIF4E in vivo, that they are required for miRNA-mediated, but not siRNA-mediated gene silencing and that all three proteins bind to the mRNA 5? m7GTP cap–protein complex. Mechanistically, we propose the Ajuba LIM proteins interact with the m7GTP cap structure via a specific interaction with eIF4E that prevents 4EBP1 and eIF4G interaction. In addition, these LIM-domain proteins facilitate miRNA-mediated gene silencing by acting as an essential molecular link between the translationally inhibited eIF4E-m7GTP-5?cap and Ago1/2 within the miRISC complex attached to the 3?-UTR of mRNA, creating an inhibitory closed-loop complex.

James, Victoria; Zhang, Yining; Foxler, Daniel E.; de Moor, Cornelia H.; Kong, Yi Wen; Webb, Thomas M.; Self, Tim J.; Feng, Yungfeng; Lagos, Dimitrios; Chu, Chia-Ying; Rana, Tariq M.; Morley, Simon J.; Longmore, Gregory D.; Bushell, Martin; Sharp, Tyson V.

2010-01-01

279

Active Chromatin Marks Are Retained on X Chromosomes Lacking Gene or Repeat Silencing Despite XIST/Xist Expression in Somatic Cell Hybrids  

PubMed Central

Background X-chromosome inactivation occurs early in mammalian development and results in the inactive X chromosome acquiring numerous hallmarks of heterochromatin. While XIST is a key player in the inactivation process, the method of action of this ncRNA is yet to be determined. Methodology/Principal Findings To assess which features of heterochromatin may be directly recruited by the expression and localization of the XIST RNA we have analyzed a mouse/human somatic cell hybrid in which expression of human and mouse XIST/Xist has been induced from the active X by demethylation. Such hybrids had previously been demonstrated to disconnect XIST/Xist expression from gene silencing and we confirm maintenance of X-linked gene expression, even close to the Xist locus, despite the localized expression of mouse Xist. Conclusions/Significance Loss of the active chromatin marks H3 acetylation and H3 lysine 4 methylation was not observed upon XIST/Xist expression, nor was there a gain of DNA methylation; thus these marks of facultative heterochromatin are not solely dependent upon Xist expression. Cot-1 holes, regions of depleted RNA hybridization with a Cot-1 probe, were observed upon Xist expression; however, these were at reduced frequency and intensity in these somatic cells. Domains of human Cot-1 transcription were observed corresponding to the human chromosomes in the somatic cell hybrids. The Cot-1 domain of the X was not reduced with the expression of XIST, which fails to localize to the human X chromosome in a mouse somatic cell background. The human inactive X in a mouse/human hybrid cell also shows delocalized XIST expression and an ongoing Cot-1 domain, despite X-linked gene silencing. These results are consistent with recent reports separating Cot-1 silencing from genic silencing, but also demonstrate repetitive element expression from an otherwise silent X chromosome in these hybrid cells.

Thorogood, Nancy P.; Brown, Carolyn J.

2010-01-01

280

Gene Silencing of 4-1BB by RNA Interference Inhibits Acute Rejection in Rats with Liver Transplantation  

PubMed Central

The 4-1BB signal pathway plays a key role in organ transplantation tolerance. In this study, we have investigated the effect of gene silencing of 4-1BB by RNA interference (RNAi) on the acute rejection in rats with liver transplantation. The recombination vector of lentivirus that contains shRNA targeting the 4-1BB gene (LV-sh4-1BB) was constructed. The liver transplantation was performed using the two-cuff technique. Brown-Norway (BN) recipient rats were infected by the recombinant LVs. The results showed that gene silencing of 4-1BB by RNAi downregulated the 4-1BB gene expression of the splenic lymphocytes in vitro, and the splenic lymphocytes isolated from the rats with liver transplantation. LV-sh4-1BB decreased the plasma levels of liver injury markers including AST, ALT, and BIL and also decreased the level of plasma IL-2 and IFN-? in recipient rats with liver transplantation. Lentivirus-mediated delivery of shRNA targeting 4-1BB gene prolonged the survival time of recipient and alleviated the injury of liver morphology in recipient rats with liver transplantation. In conclusion, our results demonstrate that gene silencing of 4-1BB by RNA interference inhibits the acute rejection in rats with liver transplantation.

Shi, Yang; Hu, Shuqun; Song, Qingwei; Yu, Shengcai; Zhou, Xiaojun; Yin, Jun; Qin, Lei; Qian, Haixin

2013-01-01

281

ICP0 Antagonizes ICP4-Dependent Silencing of the Herpes Simplex Virus ICP0 Gene  

PubMed Central

ICP0 is a regulatory protein that plays a critical role in the replication-latency balance of herpes simplex virus (HSV). Absence of ICP0 renders HSV prone to establish quiescent infections, and thus cellular repressor(s) are believed to silence HSV mRNA synthesis when ICP0 fails to accumulate. To date, an ICP0-antagonized repressor has not been identified that restricts HSV mRNA synthesis by more than 2-fold. We report the unexpected discovery that HSV's major transcriptional regulator, ICP4, meets the criteria of a bona fide ICP0-antagonized repressor of viral mRNA synthesis. Our study began when we noted a repressive activity that restricted ICP0 mRNA synthesis by up to 30-fold in the absence of ICP0. When ICP0 accumulated, the repressor only restricted ICP0 mRNA synthesis by 3-fold. ICP4 proved to be necessary and sufficient to repress ICP0 mRNA synthesis, and did so in an ICP4-binding-site-dependent manner. ICP4 co-immunoprecipitated with FLAG-tagged ICP0; thus, a physical interaction likely explains how ICP0 antagonizes ICP4's capacity to silence the ICP0 gene. These findings suggest that ICP0 mRNA synthesis is differentially regulated in HSV-infected cells by the virus-encoded repressor activity embedded in ICP4, and a virus-encoded antirepressor, ICP0. Bacteriophage ? relies on a similar repression-antirepression regulatory scheme to “decide” whether a given infection will be productive or silent. Therefore, our findings appear to add to the growing list of inexplicable similarities that point to a common evolutionary ancestry between the herpesviruses and tailed bacteriophage.

Liu, Mingyu; Rakowski, Brandon; Gershburg, Edward; Weisend, Carla M.; Lucas, Olivier; Schmidt, Edward E.; Halford, William P.

2010-01-01

282

Virus-induced gene silencing using a modified betasatellite: a potential candidate for functional genomics of crops.  

PubMed

Betasatellites are geminivirus-associated single-stranded DNA molecules that play an important role in symptom modulation. A VIGS vector was developed by modifying cotton leaf curl Multan betasatellite (CLCuMB). CLCuMB DNA was modified by replacing the ?C1 gene with a multiple cloning site. The silencing ability of the modified CLCuMB was investigated by cloning a fragment of a host gene (Su) or a reporter transgene (uidA) into the modified CLCuMB and co-agroinoculation with cotton leaf curl Multan virus, cotton leaf curl Kokhran virus, and ageratum enation virus, separately. The inoculated Nicotiana tabacum, N. benthamiana, Solanum lycopersicum, Arabidopsis thaliana and Gossypium hirsutum plants showed efficient silencing of the cognate genes. PMID:24610555

Kumar, Jitendra; Gunapati, Samatha; Kumar, Jitesh; Kumari, Anita; Kumar, Abhinav; Tuli, Rakesh; Singh, Sudhir P

2014-08-01

283

Inhibition of hepatitis B virus (HBV) gene expression and replication by HBx gene silencing in a hydrodynamic injection mouse model with a new clone of HBV genotype B  

PubMed Central

Background It has been suggested that different hepatitis B virus (HBV) genotypes may have distinct virological characteristics that correlate with clinical outcomes during antiviral therapy and the natural course of infection. Hydrodynamic injection (HI) of HBV in the mouse model is a useful tool for study of HBV replication in vivo. However, only HBV genotype A has been used for studies with HI. Methods We constructed 3 replication-competent clones containing 1.1, 1.2 and 1.3 fold overlength of a HBV genotype B genome and tested them both in vitro and in vivo. Moreover, A HBV genotype B clone based on the pAAV-MCS vector was constructed with the 1.3 fold HBV genome, resulting in the plasmid pAAV-HBV1.3B and tested by HI in C57BL/6 mice. Application of siRNA against HBx gene was tested in HBV genotype B HI mouse model. Results The 1.3 fold HBV clone showed higher replication and gene expression than the 1.1 and 1.2 fold HBV clones. Compared with pAAV-HBV1.2 (genotype A), the mice HI with pAAV-HBV1.3B showed higher HBsAg and HBeAg expression as well as HBV DNA replication level but a higher clearance rate. Application of two plasmids pSB-HBxi285 and pSR-HBxi285 expressing a small/short interfering RNA (siRNA) to the HBx gene in HBV genotype B HI mouse model, leading to an inhibition of HBV gene expression and replication. However, HBV gene expression may resume in some mice despite an initial delay, suggesting that transient suppression of HBV replication by siRNA may be insufficient to prevent viral spread, particularly if the gene silencing is not highly effective. Conclusions Taken together, the HI mouse model with a HBV genotype B genome was successfully established and showed different characteristics in vivo compared with the genotype A genome. The effectiveness of gene silencing against HBx gene determines whether HBV replication may be sustainably inhibited by siRNA in vivo.

2013-01-01

284

Intracellular gene transfer in action: Dual transcription and multiple silencings of nuclear and mitochondrial cox2 genes in legumes  

PubMed Central

The respiratory gene cox2, normally present in the mitochondrion, was previously shown to have been functionally transferred to the nucleus during flowering plant evolution, possibly during the diversification of legumes. To search for novel intermediate stages in the process of intracellular gene transfer and to assess the evolutionary timing and frequency of cox2 transfer, activation, and inactivation, we examined nuclear and mitochondrial (mt) cox2 presence and expression in over 25 legume genera and mt cox2 presence in 392 genera. Transfer and activation of cox2 appear to have occurred during recent legume evolution, more recently than previously inferred. Many intermediate stages of the gene transfer process are represented by cox2 genes in the studied legumes. Nine legumes contain intact copies of both nuclear and mt cox2, although transcripts could not be detected for some of these genes. Both cox2 genes are transcribed in seven legumes that are phylogenetically interspersed with species displaying only nuclear or mt cox2 expression. Inactivation of cox2 in each genome has taken place multiple times and in a variety of ways, including loss of detectable transcripts or transcript editing and partial to complete gene loss. Phylogenetic evidence shows about the same number (3–5) of separate inactivations of nuclear and mt cox2, suggesting that there is no selective advantage for a mt vs. nuclear location of cox2 in plants. The current distribution of cox2 presence and expression between the nucleus and mitochondrion in the studied legumes is probably the result of chance mutations silencing either cox2 gene.

Adams, Keith L.; Song, Keming; Roessler, Philip G.; Nugent, Jacqueline M.; Doyle, Jane L.; Doyle, Jeff J.; Palmer, Jeffrey D.

1999-01-01

285

Silencing of mitochondrial NADP{sup +}-dependent isocitrate dehydrogenase gene enhances glioma radiosensitivity  

SciTech Connect

Highlights: •Silencing of the IDPm gene enhances IR-induced autophagy in glioma cells. •Autophagy inhibition augmented apoptosis of irradiated glioma cells. •Results offer a redox-active therapeutic strategy for the treatment of cancer. -- Abstract: Reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels are elevated in organisms that have been exposed to ionizing radiation and are protagonists in the induction of cell death. Recently, we demonstrated that the control of mitochondrial redox balance and the cellular defense against oxidative damage are primary functions of mitochondrial NADP{sup +}-dependent isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDPm) via the supply of NADPH for antioxidant systems. In the present study, we report an autophagic response to ionizing radiation in A172 glioma cells transfected with small interfering RNA (siRNA) targeting the IDPm gene. Autophagy in A172 transfectant cells was associated with enhanced autophagolysosome formation and GFP–LC3 punctuation/aggregation. Furthermore, we found that the inhibition of autophagy by chloroquine augmented apoptotic cell death of irradiated A172 cells transfected with IDPm siRNA. Taken together, our data suggest that autophagy functions as a survival mechanism in A172 cells against ionizing radiation-induced apoptosis and the sensitizing effect of IDPm siRNA and autophagy inhibitor on the ionizing radiation-induced apoptotic cell death of glioma cells offers a novel redox-active therapeutic strategy for the treatment of cancer.

Kim, Sung Youl [School of Life Sciences and Biotechnology, College of Natural Sciences, Kyungpook National University, Taegu (Korea, Republic of)] [School of Life Sciences and Biotechnology, College of Natural Sciences, Kyungpook National University, Taegu (Korea, Republic of); Yoo, Young Hyun [Mitochondria Hub Regulation Center, Dong-A University College of Medicine, Busan (Korea, Republic of)] [Mitochondria Hub Regulation Center, Dong-A University College of Medicine, Busan (Korea, Republic of); Park, Jeen-Woo, E-mail: parkjw@knu.ac.kr [School of Life Sciences and Biotechnology, College of Natural Sciences, Kyungpook National University, Taegu (Korea, Republic of)] [School of Life Sciences and Biotechnology, College of Natural Sciences, Kyungpook National University, Taegu (Korea, Republic of)

2013-04-05

286

Stability and immunogenicity properties of the gene-silencing polypurine reverse Hoogsteen hairpins.  

PubMed

Gene silencing by either small-interference RNAs (siRNA) or antisense oligodeoxynucleotides (aODN) is widely used in biomedical research. However, their use as therapeutic agents is hindered by two important limitations: their low stability and the activation of the innate immune response. Recently, we developed a new type of molecule to decrease gene expression named polypurine reverse Hoogsteen hairpins (PPRHs) that bind to polypyrimidine targets in the DNA. Herein, stability experiments performed in mouse, human, and fetal calf serum and in PC3 cells revealed that the half-life of PPRHs is much longer than that of siRNAs in all cases. Usage of PPRHs with a nicked-circular structure increased the binding affinity to their target sequence and their half-life in FCS when bound to the target. Regarding the innate immune response, we determined that the levels of the transcription factors IRF3 and its phosphorylated form, as well as NF-?B were increased by siRNAs and not by PPRHs; that the expression levels of several proinflammatory cytokines including IL-6, TNF-?, IFN-?, IFN-ß, IL-1ß, and IL-18 were not significantly increased by PPRHs; and that the cleavage and activation of the proteolytic enzyme caspase-1 was not triggered by PPRHs. These determinations indicated that PPRHs, unlike siRNAs, do not activate the innate inflammatory response. PMID:24251728

Villalobos, Xenia; Rodríguez, Laura; Prévot, Jeanne; Oleaga, Carlota; Ciudad, Carlos J; Noé, Véronique

2014-01-01

287

Nuclear factor 1 regulates the distal silencer of the human PIT1/GHF1 gene.  

PubMed

Here we report the characterization of 12 kb genomic DNA upstream of the human PIT1/GHF1 promoter. Different regions involved in the modulation of human PIT1/GHF1 gene expression were defined by transient transfection studies. Two regions, one proximal (-7.1/-2. 3) and one distal (-11.8/-10.9), presented an enhancer activity in pituitary cells when placed upstream of the SV40 promoter. The 0.9 kb distal region was analysed further and found to decrease the basal transcriptional activity of the human PIT1/GHF1 minimal promoter, indicating that this region behaves as a silencer for its own promoter. Three Pit-1/GHF-1-binding sites and two ubiquitous nuclear factor 1 (NF-1)-binding sites were identified by DNase I footprinting in the distal regulatory region. Deletion analysis indicated that NF-1 or NF-1-related protein(s) participate in the down-regulation of human PIT1/GHF1 gene expression by interacting with an NF-1-binding site within the distal regulatory region. PMID:9639565

Rajas, F; Delhase, M; De La Hoya, M; Verdood, P; Castrillo, J L; Hooghe-Peters, E L

1998-07-01

288

Variables and Strategies in Development of Therapeutic Post-Transcriptional Gene Silencing Agents  

PubMed Central

Post-transcriptional gene silencing (PTGS) agents such as ribozymes, RNAi and antisense have substantial potential for gene therapy of human retinal degenerations. These technologies are used to knockdown a specific target RNA and its cognate protein. The disease target mRNA may be a mutant mRNA causing an autosomal dominant retinal degeneration or a normal mRNA that is overexpressed in certain diseases. All PTGS technologies depend upon the initial critical annealing event of the PTGS ligand to the target RNA. This event requires that the PTGS agent is in a conformational state able to support hybridization and that the target have a large and accessible single-stranded platform to allow rapid annealing, although such platforms are rare. We address the biocomplexity that currently limits PTGS therapeutic development with particular emphasis on biophysical variables that influence cellular performance. We address the different strategies that can be used for development of PTGS agents intended for therapeutic translation. These issues apply generally to the development of PTGS agents for retinal, ocular, or systemic diseases. This review should assist the interested reader to rapidly appreciate critical variables in PTGS development and facilitate initial design and testing of such agents against new targets of clinical interest.

Sullivan, Jack M.; Yau, Edwin H.; Kolniak, Tiffany A.; Sheflin, Lowell G.; Taggart, R. Thomas; Abdelmaksoud, Heba E.

2011-01-01

289

SAM domain polymerization links subnuclear clustering of PRC1 to gene silencing.  

PubMed

The Polycomb-group (PcG) repressive complex-1 (PRC1) forms microscopically visible clusters in nuclei; however, the impact of this cluster formation on transcriptional regulation and the underlying mechanisms that regulate this process remain obscure. Here, we report that the sterile alpha motif (SAM) domain of a PRC1 core component Phc2 plays an essential role for PRC1 clustering through head-to-tail macromolecular polymerization, which is associated with stable target binding of PRC1/PRC2 and robust gene silencing activity. We propose a role for SAM domain polymerization in this repression by two distinct mechanisms: first, through capturing and/or retaining PRC1 at the PcG targets, and second, by strengthening the interactions between PRC1 and PRC2 to stabilize transcriptional repression. Our findings reveal a regulatory mechanism mediated by SAM domain polymerization for PcG-mediated repression of developmental loci that enables a robust yet reversible gene repression program during development. PMID:24091011

Isono, Kyoichi; Endo, Takaho A; Ku, Manching; Yamada, Daisuke; Suzuki, Rie; Sharif, Jafar; Ishikura, Tomoyuki; Toyoda, Tetsuro; Bernstein, Bradley E; Koseki, Haruhiko

2013-09-30

290

HIGS: Host-Induced Gene Silencing in the Obligate Biotrophic Fungal Pathogen Blumeria graminis[W][OA  

PubMed Central

Powdery mildew fungi are obligate biotrophic pathogens that only grow on living hosts and cause damage in thousands of plant species. Despite their agronomical importance, little direct functional evidence for genes of pathogenicity and virulence is currently available because mutagenesis and transformation protocols are lacking. Here, we show that the accumulation in barley (Hordeum vulgare) and wheat (Triticum aestivum) of double-stranded or antisense RNA targeting fungal transcripts affects the development of the powdery mildew fungus Blumeria graminis. Proof of concept for host-induced gene silencing was obtained by silencing the effector gene Avra10, which resulted in reduced fungal development in the absence, but not in the presence, of the matching resistance gene Mla10. The fungus could be rescued from the silencing of Avra10 by the transient expression of a synthetic gene that was resistant to RNA interference (RNAi) due to silent point mutations. The results suggest traffic of RNA molecules from host plants into B. graminis and may lead to an RNAi-based crop protection strategy against fungal pathogens.

Nowara, Daniela; Gay, Alexandra; Lacomme, Christophe; Shaw, Jane; Ridout, Christopher; Douchkov, Dimitar; Hensel, Gotz; Kumlehn, Jochen; Schweizer, Patrick

2010-01-01

291

A Sexual Shift Induced by Silencing of a Single Insulin-Like Gene in Crayfish: Ovarian Upregulation and Testicular Degeneration  

PubMed Central

In sequential hermaphrodites, intersexuality occurs naturally, usually as a transition state during sexual re-differentiation processes. In crustaceans, male sexual differentiation is controlled by the male-specific androgenic gland (AG). An AG-specific insulin-like gene, previously identified in the red-claw crayfish Cherax quadricarinatus (designated Cq-IAG), was found in this study to be the prominent transcript in an AG cDNA subtractive library. In C. quadricarinatus, sexual plasticity is exhibited by intersex individuals in the form of an active male reproductive system and male secondary sex characters, along with a constantly arrested ovary. This intersexuality was exploited to follow changes caused by single gene silencing, accomplished via dsRNA injection. Cq-IAG silencing induced dramatic sex-related alterations, including male feature feminization, a reduction in sperm production, extensive testicular degeneration, expression of the vitellogenin gene, and accumulation of yolk proteins in the developing oocytes. Upon silencing of the gene, AG cells hypertrophied, possibly to compensate for low hormone levels, as reflected in the poor production of the insulin-like hormone (and revealed by immunohistochemistry). These results demonstrate both the functionality of Cq-IAG as an androgenic hormone-encoding gene and the dependence of male gonad viability on the Cq-IAG product. This study is the first to provide evidence that silencing an insulin-like gene in intersex C. quadricarinatus feminizes male-related phenotypes. These findings, moreover, contribute to the understanding of the regulation of sexual shifts, whether naturally occurring in sequential hermaphrodites or abnormally induced by endocrine disruptors found in the environment, and offer insight into an unusual gender-related link to the evolution of insulins.

Rosen, Ohad; Manor, Rivka; Weil, Simy; Gafni, Ohad; Linial, Assaf; Aflalo, Eliahu D.; Ventura, Tomer; Sagi, Amir

2010-01-01

292

NF-?B Regulation of YY1 Inhibits Skeletal Myogenesis through Transcriptional Silencing of Myofibrillar Genes? †  

PubMed Central

NF-?B signaling is implicated as an important regulator of skeletal muscle homeostasis, but the mechanisms by which this transcription factor contributes to muscle maturation and turnover remain unclear. To gain insight into these mechanisms, gene expression profiling was examined in C2C12 myoblasts devoid of NF-?B activity. Interestingly, even in proliferating myoblasts, the absence of NF-?B caused the pronounced induction of several myofibrillar genes, suggesting that NF-?B functions as a negative regulator of late-stage muscle differentiation. Although several myofibrillar promoters contain predicted NF-?B binding sites, functional analysis using the troponin-I2 gene as a model revealed that NF-?B-mediated repression does not occur through direct DNA binding. In the search for an indirect mediator, the transcriptional repressor YinYang1 (YY1) was identified. While inducers of NF-?B stimulated YY1 expression in multiple cell types, genetic ablation of the RelA/p65 subunit of NF-?B in both cultured cells and adult skeletal muscle correlated with reduced YY1 transcripts and protein. NF-?B regulation of YY1 occurred at the transcriptional level, mediated by direct binding of the p50/p65 heterodimer complex to the YY1 promoter. Furthermore, YY1 was found associated with multiple myofibrillar promoters in C2C12 myoblasts containing NF-?B activity. Based on these results, we propose that NF-?B regulation of YY1 and transcriptional silencing of myofibrillar genes represent a new mechanism by which NF-?B functions in myoblasts to modulate skeletal muscle differentiation.

Wang, Huating; Hertlein, Erin; Bakkar, Nadine; Sun, Hao; Acharyya, Swarnali; Wang, Jingxin; Carathers, Micheal; Davuluri, Ramana; Guttridge, Denis C.

2007-01-01

293

Characterization of the gene Mre11 and evidence of silencing after polyploidization in Triticum.  

PubMed

The MRE11 protein is a component of the highly conserved MRN complex, along with RAD50 and NBS1. This complex is crucial in the repair of breaks in double stranded DNA, and is involved in many other cell processes. The present paper reports the molecular characterization of Mre11 gene in all three genomes of wheat, making use of the diploid species Triticum monococcum (genome A) and Aegilops Tauschii (genome D), the tetraploid T. turgidum (genomes A and B), and the hexaploid T. aestivum (genomes A, B and D). The genomic sequences characterized ranged from 4,662 to 4,766 bp in length; the cDNA corresponding to the processed mRNA was 2,440-2,510 bp long. In all cases, Mre11 coded for a highly conserved protein of 699 amino acids with a structure involving 22 exons. Mre11 expression was determined by real-time PCR in all the species analysed. The tetraploid species showed an expression similar to that of the diploid Ae. tauschii and lower than that of T. monococcum. Stronger expression was detected in the hexaploid T. aestivum. The SSCP technique was modified by introducing fluorescent labelling to the procedure in order to analyse the expression of the different Mre11 genes (i.e., those belonging to the different genomes) in the polyploid species. In both polyploids, the Mre11 gene belonging to the B genome was the least expressed. This probably reflects a first step in the process of silencing duplicate genes after polyploidization. PMID:17262197

de Bustos, Alfredo; Pérez, Ruth; Jouve, Nicolás

2007-04-01

294

Epigenetic silencing of genes and microRNAs within the imprinted Dlk1-Dio3 region at human chromosome 14.32 in giant cell tumor of bone  

PubMed Central

Background Growing evidence exists that the neoplastic stromal cell population (GCTSC) within giant cell tumors (GCT) originates from mesenchymal stem cells (MSC). In a previous study we identified a microRNA signature that differentiates between these cell types. Five differentially expressed microRNAs are located within the Dlk1-Dio3 region on chromosome 14. Aberrant regulation within this region is known to influence cell growth, differentiation and the development of cancer. The aim of this study was to elucidate the involvement of deregulations within the Dlk1-Dio3 region in GCT pathogenesis. Methods Quantitative gene and microRNA expression analyses were performed on GCTSCs and MSCs with or without treatment with epigenetic modifiers. Methylation analysis of differentially methylated regions was performed by bisulfite sequencing. Results In addition to microRNA silencing we detected a significant downregulation of Dlk1, Meg3 and Meg8 in GCTSCs compared to MSCs. DNA methylation analyses of the Meg3-DMR and IG-DMR revealed a frequent hypermethylation within the IG-DMR in GCTs. Epigenetic modification could restore expression of some but not all analyzed genes and microRNAs suggesting further regulatory mechanisms. Conclusion Epigenetic silencing of genes and microRNAs within the Dlk1-Dio3 region is a common event in GCTSCs, in part mediated by hypermethylation within the IG-DMR. The identified genes, micro RNAs and microRNA target genes might be valuable targets for the development of improved strategies for GCT diagnosis and therapy.

2014-01-01

295

Gene Silencing in Skin After Deposition of Self-Delivery siRNA With a Motorized Microneedle Array Device  

PubMed Central

Despite the development of potent siRNAs that effectively target genes responsible for skin disorders, translation to the clinic has been hampered by inefficient delivery through the stratum corneum barrier and into the live cells of the epidermis. Although hypodermic needles can be used to transport siRNA through the stratum corneum, this approach is limited by pain caused by the injection and the small volume of tissue that can be accessed by each injection. The use of microneedle arrays is a less painful method for siRNA delivery, but restricted payload capacity limits this approach to highly potent molecules. To address these challenges, a commercially available motorized microneedle array skin delivery device was evaluated. This device combines the positive elements of both hypodermic needles and microneedle array technologies with little or no pain to the patient. Application of fluorescently tagged self-delivery (sd)-siRNA to both human and murine skin resulted in distribution throughout the treated skin. In addition, efficient silencing (78% average reduction) of reporter gene expression was achieved in a transgenic fluorescent reporter mouse skin model. These results indicate that this device effectively delivers functional sd-siRNA with an efficiency that predicts successful clinical translation.

Hickerson, Robyn P; Wey, Winston C; Rimm, David L; Speaker, Tycho; Suh, Susie; Flores, Manuel A; Gonzalez-Gonzalez, Emilio; Leake, Devin; Contag, Christopher H; Kaspar, Roger L

2013-01-01

296

Gene Silencing in Skin After Deposition of Self-Delivery siRNA With a Motorized Microneedle Array Device.  

PubMed

Despite the development of potent siRNAs that effectively target genes responsible for skin disorders, translation to the clinic has been hampered by inefficient delivery through the stratum corneum barrier and into the live cells of the epidermis. Although hypodermic needles can be used to transport siRNA through the stratum corneum, this approach is limited by pain caused by the injection and the small volume of tissue that can be accessed by each injection. The use of microneedle arrays is a less painful method for siRNA delivery, but restricted payload capacity limits this approach to highly potent molecules. To address these challenges, a commercially available motorized microneedle array skin delivery device was evaluated. This device combines the positive elements of both hypodermic needles and microneedle array technologies with little or no pain to the patient. Application of fluorescently tagged self-delivery (sd)-siRNA to both human and murine skin resulted in distribution throughout the treated skin. In addition, efficient silencing (78% average reduction) of reporter gene expression was achieved in a transgenic fluorescent reporter mouse skin model. These results indicate that this device effectively delivers functional sd-siRNA with an efficiency that predicts successful clinical translation.Molecular Therapy-Nucleic Acids (2013) 2, e129; doi:10.1038/mtna.2013.56; published online 22 October 2013. PMID:24150576

Hickerson, Robyn P; Wey, Winston C; Rimm, David L; Speaker, Tycho; Suh, Susie; Flores, Manuel A; Gonzalez-Gonzalez, Emilio; Leake, Devin; Contag, Christopher H; Kaspar, Roger L

2013-01-01

297

Virus-induced gene-silencing in wheat spikes and grains and its application in functional analysis of HMW-GS-encoding genes  

PubMed Central

Background The Barley stripe mosaic virus (BSMV)-based vector has been developed and used for gene silencing in barley and wheat seedlings to assess gene functions in pathogen- or insect-resistance, but conditions for gene silencing in spikes and grains have not been evaluated. In this study, we explored the feasibility of using BSMV for gene silencing in wheat spikes or grains. Results Apparent photobleaching on the spikes infected with BSMV:PDS at heading stage was observed after13 days post inoculation (dpi), and persisted until 30dpi, while the spikes inoculated with BSMV:00 remained green during the same period. Grains of BSMV:PDS infected spikes also exhibited photobleaching. Molecular analysis indicated that photobleached spikes or grains resulted from the reduction of endogenous PDS transcript abundances, suggesting that BSMV:PDS was able to induce PDS silencing in wheat spikes and grains. Inoculation onto wheat spikes from heading to flowering stage was optimal for efficient silencing of PDS in wheat spikes. Furthermore, we used the BSMV-based system to reduce the transcript level of 1Bx14, a gene encoding for High-molecular-weight glutenin subunit 1Bx14 (HMW-GS 1Bx14), by 97?% in the grains of the BSMV:1Bx14 infected spikes at 15dpi, compared with that in BSMV:00 infected spikes, and the reduction persisted until at least 25 dpi. The amount of the HMW-GS 1Bx14 was also detectably decreased. The percentage of glutenin macropolymeric proteins in total proteins was significantly reduced in the grains of 1Bx14-silenced plants as compared with that in the grains of BSMV:00 infected control plants, indicating that HMW-GS 1Bx14 is one of major components participating in the formation of glutenin macropolymers in wheat grains. Conclusion This is one of the first reports of successful application of BSMV-based virus-induced-gene-silencing (VIGS) for gene knockdown in wheat spikes and grains and its application in functional analysis of the 1Bx14 gene. The established BSMV-VIGS system will be very useful in future research on functional analysis of genes contributing to grain quality and the metabolic networks in developing seeds of wheat.

2012-01-01

298

Oligoamine analogues in combination with 2-difluoromethylornithine synergistically induce re-expression of aberrantly silenced tumour-suppressor genes  

PubMed Central

Epigenetic gene silencing is an important mechanism in the initiation and progression of cancer. Abnormal DNA CpG island hypermethylation and histone modifications are involved in aberrant silencing of tumour-suppressor genes. LSD1 (lysine-specific demethylase 1) was the first enzyme identified to specifically demethylate H3K4 (Lys4 of histone H3). Methylated H3K4 is an important mark associated with transcriptional activation. The flavin adenine dinucleotide-binding amine oxidase domain of LSD1 is homologous with two polyamine oxidases, SMO (spermine oxidase) and APAO (N1-acetylpolyamine oxidase). We have demonstrated previously that long-chain polyamine analogues, the oligoamines, are inhibitors of LSD1. In the present paper we report the synergistic effects of specific oligoamines in combination with DFMO (2-difluoromethylornithine), an inhibitor of ornithine decarboxylase, in human colorectal cancer cells. DFMO treatment depletes natural polyamines and increases the uptake of exogenous polyamines. The combination of oligoamines and DFMO results in a synergistic re-expression of aberrantly silenced tumour-suppressor genes, including SFRP2 (secreted frizzled-related protein 2), which encodes a Wnt signalling pathway antagonist and plays an anti-tumorigenic role in colorectal cancer. The treatment-induced re-expression of SFRP2 is associated with increased H3K4me2 (di-methyl H3K4) in the gene promoter. The combination of LSD1-inhibiting oligoamines and DFMO represents a novel approach to epigenetic therapy of cancer.

Wu, Yu; Steinbergs, Nora; Murray-Stewart, Tracy; Marton, Laurence J.; Casero, Robert A.

2011-01-01

299

A virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS) system for functional genomics in the parasitic plant Striga hermonthica  

PubMed Central

Background Striga hermonthica is a hemiparasitic weed that infects cereals in Sub Sahara Africa (SSA) resulting in up to 100% grain yield loss. This significant loss in grain yields is a major contributor to food insecurity and poverty in the region. Current strategies to control the parasite are costly, unavailable and remain unpracticed by small-scale farmers, underscoring the need for more economical and sustainable control strategies. Development of resistant germplasm is the most sustainable strategy in the control of S. hermonthica, but is constrained by paucity of resistance genes for introduction into crop germplasm. RNA interference (RNAi) has potential for developing host-derived resistance against S. hermonthica by transformation of host crops with RNAi sequences targeted at critical Striga genes. The application of RNAi in management of S. hermonthica is however constrained by lack of efficient high throughput screening protocols for the candidate genes for silencing, as well as sub optimal delivery of siRNAs into the parasite. In comparison to stable transformation, viral induced gene silencing (VIGS) is a rapid and powerful tool for plant functional genomics and provides an easy and effective strategy in screening for putative candidate genes to target through RNAi. In addition, VIGS allows for a secondary amplification of the RNAi signal increasing the siRNA threshold and facilitates siRNA transport through viral movement proteins. We tested the efficiency of the Tobacco rattle virus (TRV1 and TRV2) VIGS vectors in silencing S. hermonthica phytoene desaturase (PDS) gene through agrodrench and agro-infiltration. Results We report the validation of VIGS in S. hermonthica using a silencing cassette generated from TRV with a PDS gene insert. Agro-infiltrated and agro-drenched S. hermonthica leaves showed photo-bleaching phenotypes typical for PDS silencing within 7 and 14 days post infection respectively. In both cases S. hermonthica plants recovered from photo-bleaching effects within 28 days post inoculation. The transformation efficiency of the VIGS protocol in S. hermonthica was (60?±?2.9)%. Conclusion These results demonstrate that the TRV-VIGS system work in S. hermonthica and can be used for candidate gene validation for their role in the parasite development and parasitism, with the ultimate goal of developing resistant transgenic maize.

2014-01-01

300

CATMA, a comprehensive genome-scale resource for silencing and transcript profiling of Arabidopsis genes  

PubMed Central

Background The Complete Arabidopsis Transcript MicroArray (CATMA) initiative combines the efforts of laboratories in eight European countries [1] to deliver gene-specific sequence tags (GSTs) for the Arabidopsis research community. The CATMA initiative offers the power and flexibility to regularly update the GST collection according to evolving knowledge about the gene repertoire. These GST amplicons can easily be reamplified and shared, subsets can be picked at will to print dedicated arrays, and the GSTs can be cloned and used for other functional studies. This ongoing initiative has already produced approximately 24,000 GSTs that have been made publicly available for spotted microarray printing and RNA interference. Results GSTs from the CATMA version 2 repertoire (CATMAv2, created in 2002) were mapped onto the gene models from two independent Arabidopsis nuclear genome annotation efforts, TIGR5 and PSB-EuGène, to consolidate a list of genes that were targeted by previously designed CATMA tags. A total of 9,027 gene models were not tagged by any amplified CATMAv2 GST, and 2,533 amplified GSTs were no longer predicted to tag an updated gene model. To validate the efficacy of GST mapping criteria and design rules, the predicted and experimentally observed hybridization characteristics associated to GST features were correlated in transcript profiling datasets obtained with the CATMAv2 microarray, confirming the reliability of this platform. To complete the CATMA repertoire, all 9,027 gene models for which no GST had yet been designed were processed with an adjusted version of the Specific Primer and Amplicon Design Software (SPADS). A total of 5,756 novel GSTs were designed and amplified by PCR from genomic DNA. Together with the pre-existing GST collection, this new addition constitutes the CATMAv3 repertoire. It comprises 30,343 unique amplified sequences that tag 24,202 and 23,009 protein-encoding nuclear gene models in the TAIR6 and EuGène genome annotations, respectively. To cover the remaining untagged genes, we identified 543 additional GSTs using less stringent design criteria and designed 990 sequence tags matching multiple members of gene families (Gene Family Tags or GFTs) to cover any remaining untagged genes. These latter 1,533 features constitute the CATMAv4 addition. Conclusion To update the CATMA GST repertoire, we designed 7,289 additional sequence tags, bringing the total number of tagged TAIR6-annotated Arabidopsis nuclear protein-coding genes to 26,173. This resource is used both for the production of spotted microarrays and the large-scale cloning of hairpin RNA silencing vectors. All information about the resulting updated CATMA repertoire is available through the CATMA database http://www.catma.org.

Sclep, Gert; Allemeersch, Joke; Liechti, Robin; De Meyer, Bjorn; Beynon, Jim; Bhalerao, Rishikesh; Moreau, Yves; Nietfeld, Wilfried; Renou, Jean-Pierre; Reymond, Philippe; Kuiper, Martin TR; Hilson, Pierre

2007-01-01

301

SMILE silencing and PMA activation gene networks in HeLa cells: comparison with kidney transplantation gene networks.  

PubMed

Recent findings indicated that the SMILE gene may be involved in kidney graft operational tolerance in human. This gene was found to be up-regulated in blood from patients with a well functioning kidney transplant in the absence of immunosuppression compared to other transplanted recipients with clinically different status. A microarray study of SMILE knock-down and phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA) activation in HeLa cells was herein compared to our earlier analysis based on microarray data of kidney allograft tolerance and rejection in humans and in a rat model of allograft transplantation to determine possible new genes and gene networks involved in kidney transplantation. The nearest neighbors at the intersection of the SMILE knock-down network with the human tolerance/rejection networks are shown to be NPHS1 and ARRB2, the former (Nephrin) being involved in kidney podocyte function, and the decrease of the latter (Arrestin ?2) being recently shown to be involved in monocyte activation during acute kidney allograft rejection in rat. Moreover, another one of the neighbors at the intersection of SMILE network and tolerance/rejection networks is XBP-1, that we report previously to be increased, at a transcript level, after ER stress in SMILE silenced cells. Finally, in this study, we also show that topological properties (both local and global) of joint SMILE knock-down network-tolerance/rejection networks and joint PMA activation network-tolerance/rejection networks in rat and human are essentially different, likely due to the inherent nature of the gene SMILE and the mitogen PMA, that do not act the same way on genes and do not interfere the same way on networks. We also show that interestingly SMILE networks contain more feed-forward loop (FFL) motifs and thus SMILE calls for a more fine-tuned genetic regulation. PMID:22134986

Racapé, M; Bragazzi, N; Sivozhelezov, V; Danger, R; Pechkova, E; Duong Van Huyen, J P; Soulillou, J P; Brouard, S; Nicolini, C

2012-06-01

302

The mechanics of miRNA-mediated gene silencing: a look under the hood of miRISC.  

PubMed

Since their discovery almost two decades ago, microRNAs (miRNAs) have been shown to function by post-transcriptionally regulating protein accumulation. Understanding how miRNAs silence targeted mRNAs has been the focus of intensive research. Multiple models have been proposed, with few mechanistic details having been worked out. However, the past few years have witnessed a quantum leap forward in our understanding of the molecular mechanics of miRNA-mediated gene silencing. In this review we describe recent discoveries, with an emphasis on how miRISC post-transcriptionally controls gene expression by inhibiting translation and/or initiating mRNA decay, and how trans-acting factors control miRNA action. PMID:22664986

Fabian, Marc R; Sonenberg, Nahum

2012-06-01

303

Hydroxyproline-based DNA mimics provide an efficient gene silencing in vitro and in vivo  

PubMed Central

To be effective, antisense molecules should be stable in biological fluids, non-toxic, form stable and specific duplexes with target RNAs and readily penetrate through cell membranes without non-specific effects on cell function. We report herein that negatively charged DNA mimics representing chiral analogues of peptide nucleic acids with a constrained trans-4-hydroxy-N-acetylpyrrolidine-2-phosphonate backbone (pHypNAs) meet these criteria. To demonstrate this, we compared silencing potency of these compounds with that of previously evaluated as efficient gene knockdown molecules hetero-oligomers consisting of alternating phosphono-PNA monomers and PNA-like monomers based on trans-4-hydroxy-L-proline (HypNA-pPNAs). Antisense potential of pHypNA mimics was confirmed in a cell-free translation assay with firefly luciferase as well as in a living cell assay with green fluorescent protein. In both cases, the pHypNA antisense oligomers provided a specific knockdown of a target protein production. Confocal microscopy showed that pHypNAs, when transfected into living cells, demonstrated efficient cellular uptake with distribution in the cytosol and nucleus. Also, the high potency of pHypNAs for down-regulation of Ras-like GTPase Ras-dva in Xenopus embryos was demonstrated in comparison with phosphorodiamidate morpholino oligomers. Therefore, our data suggest that pHypNAs are novel antisense agents with potential widespread in vitro and in vivo applications in basic research involving live cells and intact organisms.

Efimov, Vladimir A.; Birikh, Klara R.; Staroverov, Dmitri B.; Lukyanov, Sergei A.; Tereshina, Maria B.; Zaraisky, Andrey G.; Chakhmakhcheva, Oksana G.

2006-01-01

304

Hydrophobicity of methylated DNA as a possible mechanism for gene silencing.  

PubMed

AFM images show that chromatin reconstituted on methylated DNA (meDNA) is compacted when imaged under water. Chromatin reconstituted on unmethylated DNA is less compacted and less sensitive to hydration. These differences must reflect changes in the physical properties of DNA on methylation, but prior studies have not revealed large differences between methylated and unmethylated DNA. Quasi-elastic light scattering studies of solutions of methylated and unmethylated DNA support this view. In contrast, AFM images of molecules at a water/solid interface yield a persistence length that nearly doubles (to 92.5 ± 4 nm) when 9% of the total DNA is methylated. This increase in persistence length is accompanied by a decrease in contour length, suggesting that a significant fraction of the meDNA changes into the stiffer A form as the more hydrophobic meDNA is dehydrated at the interface. This suggests a simple mechanism for gene silencing as the stiffer meDNA is more difficult to remove from nucleosomes. PMID:23196865

Kaur, Parminder; Plochberger, Birgit; Costa, Peter; Cope, Stephanie M; Vaiana, Sara M; Lindsay, Stuart

2012-12-01

305

TNF-? gene silencing using polymerized siRNA/thiolated glycol chitosan nanoparticles for rheumatoid arthritis.  

PubMed

Among various proinflammatory cytokines involved in the pathogenesis of rheumatoid arthritis (RA), tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-? plays a pivotal role in the release of other cytokines and induction of chronic inflammation. Even though siRNA has the therapeutic potential, they have a challenge to be delivered into the target cells because of their poor stability in physiological fluids. Herein, we design a nanocomplex of polymerized siRNA (poly-siRNA) targeting TNF-? with thiolated glycol chitosan (tGC) polymers for the treatment of RA. Poly-siRNA is prepared through self-polymerization of thiol groups at the 5' end of sense and antisense strand of siRNA and encapsulated into tGC polymers, resulting in poly-siRNA-tGC nanoparticles (psi-tGC-NPs) with an average diameter of 370?nm. In the macrophage culture system, psi-tGC-NPs exhibit rapid cellular uptake and excellent in vitro TNF-? gene silencing efficacy. Importantly, psi-tGC-NPs show the high accumulation at the arthritic joint sites in collagen-induced arthritis (CIA) mice. Treatment monitoring data obtained by the matrix metalloproteinase 3-specific nanoprobe and microcomputed tomography show that intravenous injection of psi-tGC-NPs significantly inhibits inflammation and bone erosion in CIA mice, comparable to methotrexate (5?mg/kg). Therefore, the availability of psi-tGC-NP therapy that target specific cytokines may herald new era in the treatment of RA. PMID:24145554

Lee, So Jin; Lee, Aeju; Hwang, Seung Rim; Park, Jong-Sung; Jang, Jiyeon; Huh, Myung Sook; Jo, Dong-Gyu; Yoon, Soo-Young; Byun, Youngro; Kim, Sun Hwa; Kwon, Ick Chan; Youn, Inchan; Kim, Kwangmeyung

2014-02-01

306

Spatial and Temporal Silencing of the Human Maternal UBE3A gene  

PubMed Central

Angelman syndrome (AS) is characterized by severe cognitive disruption, seizures, difficulty speaking and ataxia. Nearly all cases are attributed to the disruption or absence of the imprinted maternal copy of UBE3A, transcribing an E3-type ubiquitin ligase. Much of what is known about the molecular and biochemical changes in the CNS associated with AS has been obtained through this murine model. This widely used mouse model created by a null mutation of the maternal UBE3A gene recapitulates the major phenotypes characteristic of AS patients. The imprinting of maternal UBE3A was originally believed to be brain region specific; however recent reports using the AS mouse model have revealed a more wide-spread absence of the protein. The present study is the first to determine that the Ube3a protein ablation seen in the AS mouse model is also characteristic of AS patients and the silencing of the paternal UBE3A allele appears to be lifelong.

Daily, Jennifer; Smith, Amanda G.; Weeber, Edwin J.

2012-01-01

307

Inadvertent gene silencing of argininosuccinate synthase (bcass1) in Botrytis cinerea by the pLOB1 vector system.  

PubMed

For several years, researchers working on the plant pathogen Botrytis cinerea and a number of other related fungi have routinely used the pLOB1 vector system, based on hygromycin resistance, under the control of the Aspergillus nidulans oliC promoter and what was reported to be the beta-tubulin (tubA) terminator. Recently, it has been demonstrated that this vector contains a 446-bp portion of the B. cinerea argininosuccinate synthase gene (bcass1) rather than the tubA terminator. As argininosuccinate synthase is essential for the production of L-arginine, inadvertent gene silencing of bcass1 may result in partial L-arginine auxotrophy and, indeed, may lead to altered phenotypes in planta. In this article, we report our findings relating to possible problems arising from this incorrect plasmid construction. As an absolute baseline, gene disruption of bcass1 was carried out and generated a strict auxotroph, unable to grow without exogenous arginine supplementation. The knockout displayed an alteration in host range in planta, showing a reduction in pathogenicity on strawberries, French bean leaves and tomatoes, but maintained wild-type growth on grape, which is in accordance with the reported arginine availability in such tissues. Deliberate gene silencing of bcass1 mirrored these effects, with strongly silenced lines showing reduced virulence. The degree of silencing as seen by partial auxotrophy was correlated with an observed reduction in virulence. We also showed that inadvertent silencing of bcass1 is possible when using the pLOB1 vector or derivatives thereof. Partial arginine auxotrophy and concomitant reductions in virulence were triggered in approximately 6% of transformants obtained when expressing enhanced green fluorescent protein, luciferase, monomeric red fluorescent protein or beta-glucuronidase using the pLOB1-based expression system, which inadvertently contains 446 bp of the bcass1 coding sequence. We recommend the testing of transformants obtained using this vector system for arginine auxotrophy in order to provide assurance that any observed effects on the development or virulence are a result of the desired genetic alteration rather than accidental bcass1 silencing. PMID:20696000

Patel, Risha M; Van Kan, Jan A L; Bailey, Andy M; Foster, Gary D

2010-09-01

308

RNA Interference of Soybean Isoflavone Synthase Genes Leads to Silencing in Tissues Distal to the Transformation Site and to Enhanced Susceptibility to Phytophthora sojae1  

PubMed Central

Isoflavones are thought to play diverse roles in plant-microbe interactions and are also potentially important to human nutrition and medicine. Isoflavone synthase (IFS) is a key enzyme for the formation of the isoflavones. Here, we examined the consequences of RNAi silencing of genes for this enzyme in soybean (Glycine max). Soybean cotyledon tissues were transformed with Agrobacterium rhizogenes carrying an RNAi silencing construct designed to silence expression of both copies of IFS genes. Approximately 50% of emerging roots were transformed with the RNAi construct, and most transformed roots exhibited >95% silencing of isoflavone accumulation. Silencing of IFS was also demonstrated throughout the entire cotyledon (in tissues distal to the transformation site) both by high-performance liquid chromatography analysis of isoflavones and by real-time reverse transcription-PCR. This distal silencing led to a nearly complete suppression of mRNA accumulation for both the IFS1 and IFS2 genes and of isoflavone accumulations induced by wounding or treatment with the cell wall glucan elicitor from Phytophthora sojae. Preformed isoflavone conjugates were not reduced in distal tissues, suggesting little turnover of these stored isoflavone pools. Distal silencing was established within just 5 d of transformation and was highly efficient for a 3- to 4-d period, after which it was no longer apparent in most experiments. Silencing of IFS was effective in at least two genotypes and led to enhanced susceptibility to P. sojae, disrupting both R gene-mediated resistance in roots and nonrace-specific resistance in cotyledon tissues. The soybean cotyledon system, already a model system for defense signal-response and cell-to-cell signaling, may provide a convenient and effective system for functional analysis of plant genes through gene silencing.

Subramanian, Senthil; Graham, Madge Y.; Yu, Oliver; Graham, Terrence L.

2005-01-01

309

Efficient silencing of EGFP reporter gene with siRNA delivered by asymmetrical N4,N9-diacyl spermines.  

PubMed

It is important to obtain structure-activity relationship (SAR) data across cationic lipids for the self-assembly and nonviral intracellular delivery of siRNA. The aims of this work are to carry out a SAR study on the efficiency of asymmetrical N(4),N(9)-diacyl spermines in siRNA delivery and EGFP reporter gene silencing, with comparisons to selected mixtures composed of symmetrical N(4),N(9)-diacyl spermines. Another important aim of these studies is to quantify the changes in cell viability, assayed with alamarBlue, as a function of lipid structure. Therefore, we have designed, synthesized, purified, and assayed novel cationic lipids that are asymmetrical lipopolyamines based on spermine. Flow cytometry and fluorescence microscopy in an EGFP stably transfected HeLa cell line, measuring both delivery of fluorescently tagged siRNAs and silencing the EGFP signal, allowed quantitation of the differences between asymmetrical cationic lipids, mixtures of their symmetrical counterparts, and comparison with commercial nonviral delivery agents. Intracellular delivery of siRNA and gene silencing by siRNA differ with different hydrophobic domains. In these asymmetrical N(4),N(9)-diacyl spermines, lipids that enhance siRNA uptake do not necessarily enhance siRNA-induced inhibition of gene expression: C18 and longer saturated chains promote uptake, while more unsaturated C18 chains promote gene silencing. These properties are efficiently demonstrated in a new nontoxic cationic lipid siRNA vector, N(4)-linoleoyl-N(9)-oleoyl-1,12-diamino-4,9-diazadodecane (LinOS), which is also shown to be comparable with or superior to TransIT-TKO and Lipofectamine 2000. PMID:22129427

Metwally, Abdelkader A; Reelfs, Olivier; Pourzand, Charareh; Blagbrough, Ian S

2012-07-01

310

Essential role of obscurin in cardiac myofibrillogenesis and hypertrophic response: evidence from small interfering RNA-mediated gene silencing  

Microsoft Academic Search

Obscurin is a recently identified giant multidomain muscle protein (?800 kDa) whose structural and regulatory functions remain\\u000a to be defined. The goal of this study was to examine the effect of obscurin gene silencing induced by RNA interference on\\u000a the dynamics of myofibrillogenesis and hypertrophic response to phenylephrine in cultured rat cardiomyocytes. We found that\\u000a that the adenoviral transfection of short

Andrei B. Borisov; Sarah B. Sutter; Aikaterini Kontrogianni-Konstantopoulos; Robert J. Bloch; Margaret V. Westfall; Mark W. Russell

2006-01-01

311

Exploring sRNA-mediated gene silencing mechanisms using artificial small RNAs derived from a natural RNA scaffold in Escherichia coli  

PubMed Central

An artificial small RNA (afsRNA) scaffold was designed from an Escherichia coli sRNA, SibC. Using the lacZ reporter system, the gene silencing effects of afsRNAs were examined to explore the sRNA-mediated gene-silencing mechanisms in E. coli. Substitution of the original target recognition sequence with a new sequence recognizing lacZ mRNA led to effective reduction of lacZ gene expression. Single-strandedness of the target recognition sequences in the scaffold was essential for effective gene silencing. The target recognition sequence was shortened to 10 nt without significant loss of gene silencing, although this minimal length was limited to a specific target mRNA sequence. In cases where afsRNAs had mismatched (forming internal loops) or unmatched (forming bulges) regions in the middle of the target recognition sequence, internal loop-forming afsRNAs were more effective in gene silencing than those that formed bulges. Unexpectedly, gene silencing by afsRNA was not decreased but increased on hfq disruption in E. coli, particularly when interactions between afsRNA and mRNA were weak, suggesting that Hfq is possibly involved in destabilization of the RNA–RNA duplex, rather than enhancement of base pairing.

Park, Hongmarn; Bak, Geunu; Kim, Sun Chang; Lee, Younghoon

2013-01-01

312

In vivo trans-specific gene silencing in fungal cells by in planta expression of a double-stranded RNA  

PubMed Central

Background Self-complementary RNA transcripts form a double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) that triggers a sequence-specific mRNA degradation, in a process known as RNA interference (RNAi), leading to gene silencing. In vascular plants, RNAi molecules trafficking occur between cells and systemically throughout the plant. RNAi signals can spread systemically throughout a plant, even across graft junctions from transgenic to non-transgenic stocks. There is also a great interest in applying RNAi to pathogenic fungi. Specific inhibition of gene expression by RNAi has been shown to be suitable for a multitude of phytopathogenic filamentous fungi. However, double-stranded (ds)RNA/small interfering (si)RNA silencing effect has not been observed in vivo. Results This study demonstrates for the first time the in vivo interference phenomenon in the pathogenic fungus Fusarium verticillioides, in which expression of an individual fungal transgene was specifically abolished by inoculating mycelial cells in transgenic tobacco plants engineered to express siRNAs from a dsRNA corresponding to the particular transgene. Conclusion The results provide a powerful tool for further studies on molecular plant-microbe and symbiotic interactions. From a biotechnological perspective, silencing of fungal genes by generating siRNAs in the host provides a novel strategy for the development of broad fungi-resistance strategies in plants and other organisms.

2010-01-01

313

Targeted gene silencing in mouse germ cells by insertion of a homologous DNA into a piRNA generating locus  

PubMed Central

In germ cells, early embryos, and stem cells of animals, PIWI-interacting RNAs (piRNAs) have an important role in silencing retrotransposons, which are vicious genomic parasites, through transcriptional and post-transcriptional mechanisms. To examine whether the piRNA pathway can be used to silence genes of interest in germ cells, we have generated knock-in mice in which a foreign DNA fragment was inserted into a region generating pachytene piRNAs. The knock-in sequence was transcribed, and the resulting RNA was processed to yield piRNAs in postnatal testes. When reporter genes possessing a sequence complementary to portions of the knock-in sequence were introduced, they were greatly repressed after the time of pachytene piRNA generation. This repression mainly occurred at the post-transcriptional level, as degradation of the reporter RNAs was accelerated. Our results show that the piRNA pathway can be used as a tool for sequence-specific gene silencing in germ cells and support the idea that the piRNA generating regions serve as traps for retrotransposons, enabling the host cell to generate piRNAs against active retrotransposons.

Yamamoto, Yasuhiro; Watanabe, Toshiaki; Hoki, Yuko; Shirane, Kenjiro; Li, Yufeng; Ichiiyanagi, Kenji; Kuramochi-Miyagawa, Satomi; Toyoda, Atsushi; Fujiyama, Asao; Oginuma, Masayuki; Suzuki, Hitomi; Sado, Takashi; Nakano, Toru; Sasaki, Hiroyuki

2013-01-01

314

Insights into the kinetics of siRNA-mediated gene silencing from live-cell and live-animal bioluminescent imaging  

Microsoft Academic Search

Small interfering RNA (siRNA) molecules are potent effectors of post-transcriptional gene silencing. Using noninvasive bioluminescent imaging and a mathematical model of siRNA delivery and function, the effects of target-specific and treatment-specific parameters on siRNA-mediated gene silencing are monitored in cells stably expressing the firefly luciferase protein. In vitro, luciferase protein levels recover to pre-treatment values within ,1 week in rapidly

Derek W. Bartlett; Mark E. Davis

2006-01-01

315

Influence of Cationic Lipid Composition on Gene Silencing Properties of Lipid Nanoparticle Formulations of siRNA in Antigen-Presenting Cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lipid nanoparticles (LNPs) are currently the most effective in vivo delivery systems for silencing target genes in hepatocytes employing small interfering RNA. Antigen-presenting cells (APCs) are also potential targets for LNP siRNA. We examined the uptake, intracellular trafficking, and gene silencing potency in primary bone marrow macrophages (bmM?) and dendritic cells of siRNA formulated in LNPs containing four different ionizable

Genc Basha; Tatiana I Novobrantseva; Nicole Rosin; Yuen Yi C Tam; Ismail M Hafez; Matthew K Wong; Tsukasa Sugo; Vera M Ruda; June Qin; Boris Klebanov; Marco Ciufolini; Akin Akinc; Ying K Tam; Michael J Hope; Pieter R Cullis

2011-01-01

316

High-efficiency silencing of a ?-glucuronidase gene in rice is correlated with repetitive transgene structure but is independent of DNA methylation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two transgenic callus lines of rice, stably expressing a ß-glucuronidase (GUS) gene, were supertransformed with a set of constructs designed to silence the resident GUS gene. An inverted-repeat (i\\/r) GUS construct, designed to produce mRNA with self-complementarity, was much more effective than simple sense and antisense constructs at inducing silencing. Supertransforming rice calluses with a direct-repeat (d\\/r) construct, although not

Ming-Bo Wang; Peter M. Waterhouse

2000-01-01

317

Functional analysis of a melanin biosynthetic gene using RNAi-mediated gene silencing in Rosellinia necatrix.  

PubMed

Rosellinia necatrix causes white root rot in a wide range of fruit trees and persists for extended periods as pseudosclerotia on root debris. However, the pathogenesis of this disease has yet to be clarified. The functions of endogeneous target genes have not been determined because of the inefficiency in genetic transformation. In this study, the function of a melanin biosynthetic gene was determined to examine its role in morphology and virulence. A polyketide synthase gene (termed as RnPKS1) in the R. necatrix genome is homologous to the 1,8-dihydroxynaphthalene (DHN) melanin biosynthetic gene of Colletotrichum lagenarium. Melanin-deficient strains of R. necatrix were obtained by RNA interference-mediated knockdown of RnPKS1. The virulence of these strains was not significantly reduced compared with the parental melanin-producing strain. However, knockdown strains failed to develop pseudosclerotia and were degraded sooner in soil than the parental strain. Microscopic observations of albino conidiomata produced by knockdown strains revealed that melanization is involved in synnema integrity. These results suggest that melanin is not necessary for R. necatrix pathogenesis but is involved in survival through morphogenesis. This is the first report on the functional analysis of an endogenous target gene in R. necatrix. PMID:24742836

Shimizu, Takeo; Ito, Tsutae; Kanematsu, Satoko

2014-04-01

318

Cloning and characterization of three chemosensory proteins from Spodoptera exigua and effects of gene silencing on female survival and reproduction.  

PubMed

Insect chemosensory proteins (CSPs) are supposed to transport hydrophobic chemicals to receptors on sensory neurons. However, CSPs are broadly expressed in various insect tissues, suggesting their involvement in the physiological processes beyond chemoreception. So, the exact physiological roles of CSPs in insects still need to be unraveled. In this study, three full-length of CSP genes from Spodoptera exigua have been cloned and characterized. The deduced amino acid sequences of SexiCSP1, SexiCSP2 and SexiCSP3 revealed open reading frames of 128, 128 and 126 amino acids, respectively, with four conserved cysteine residues. The expression patterns of the three SexiCSPs were further investigated by real-time PCR. Three SexiCSPs were expressed in antennae, heads, legs, wings, thoraxes, abdomens, testes and ovaries, with the highest expression level in female and male antennae. Furthermore, all three SexiCSPs mRNA were distributed extensively in the tested development stages with the highest expression level in pupae. RNAi-based gene silencing study resulted in a dramatic reduction of corresponding mRNA in female S. exigua after injection with dsRNA of all three SexiCSPs. Consequentially, 42.5% of mortalities, 68.3% (compare to DEPC water injected control) and 71.4% (compare to uninjected control) oviposition inhibition, and significantly effected egg hatching were observed in the female S. exigua injected with dsSexiCSP3 as compared to control treatments. On the other hand, dsSexiCSP1 and dsSexiCSP2 injected female adults did not show effects on survival and reproduction. Our study confirms the utility of RNAi approach to functional characterization of CSP genes in S. exigua and provides a starting point for further studies on female survival and reproduction in this insect. It also reveals the potential pest controlling method, as insect behavior regulation agent that disrupts the expression of chemosensory proteins. PMID:22475511

Gong, L; Luo, Q; Rizwan-ul-Haq, M; Hu, M-Y

2012-10-01

319

The anti-aging gene KLOTHO is a novel target for epigenetic silencing in human cervical carcinoma  

PubMed Central

Background Klotho was originally characterized as an anti-aging gene that predisposed Klotho-deficient mice to a premature aging-like syndrome. Recently, KLOTHO was reported to function as a secreted Wnt antagonist and as a tumor suppressor. Epigenetic gene silencing of secreted Wnt antagonists is considered a common event in a wide range of human malignancies. Abnormal activation of the canonical Wnt pathway due to epigenetic deregulation of Wnt antagonists is thought to play a crucial role in cervical tumorigenesis. In this study, we examined epigenetic silencing of KLOTHO in human cervical carcinoma. Results Loss of KLOTHO mRNA was observed in several cervical cancer cell lines and in invasive carcinoma samples, but not during the early, preinvasive phase of primary cervical tumorigenesis. KLOTHO mRNA was restored after treatment with either the DNA demethylating agent 2'-deoxy-5-azacytidine or histone deacetylase inhibitor trichostatin A. Methylation-specific PCR and bisulfite genomic sequencing analysis of the promoter region of KLOTHO revealed CpG hypermethylation in non-KLOTHO-expressing cervical cancer cell lines and in 41% (9/22) of invasive carcinoma cases. Histone deacetylation was also found to be the major epigenetic silencing mechanism for KLOTHO in the SiHa cell line. Ectopic expression of the secreted form of KLOTHO restored anti-Wnt signaling and anti-clonogenic activity in the CaSki cell line including decreased active ?-catenin levels, suppression of T-cell factor/?-catenin target genes, such as c-MYC and CCND1, and inhibition of colony growth. Conclusions Epigenetic silencing of KLOTHO may occur during the late phase of cervical tumorigenesis, and consequent functional loss of KLOTHO as the secreted Wnt antagonist may contribute to aberrant activation of the canonical Wnt pathway in cervical carcinoma.

2010-01-01

320

THE USE OF NANOPARTICLE-MEDIATED TARGETED GENE SILENCING AND DRUG DELIVERY TO OVERCOME TUMOR DRUG RESISTANCE  

PubMed Central

Overexpression of drug efflux transporters such as P-glycoprotein (P-gp) enables cancer cells to develop resistance to multiple anticancer drugs. Functional inhibitors of P-gp have shown promising efficacy in early clinical trials, but their long-term safety is yet to be established. A novel approach to overcome drug resistance is to use siRNA-mediated RNA interference to silence the expression of the efflux transporter. Because P-gp plays an important role in the physiological regulation of endogenous and xenobiotic compounds in the body, it is important to deliver P-gp targeted siRNA and anticancer drug specifically to tumor cells. Further, for optimal synergy, both the drug and siRNA may need to be temporally colocalized in the tumor cells. In the current study, we investigated the effectiveness of simultaneous and targeted delivery of anticancer drug, paclitaxel, along with P-gp targeted siRNA, using poly(D,L-lactide-co-glycolide) nanoparticles to overcome tumor drug resistance. Nanoparticles were surface functionalized with biotin for active tumor targeting. Dual agent nanoparticles encapsulating the combination of paclitaxel and P-gp targeted siRNA showed significantly higher cytotoxicity in vitro than nanoparticles loaded with paclitaxel alone. Enhanced therapeutic efficacy of dual agent nanoparticles could be correlated with effective silencing of the MDR1 gene that encodes for P-gp and with increased accumulation of paclitaxel in drug-resistant tumor cells. In vivo studies in a mouse model of drug-resistant tumor demonstrated significantly greater inhibition of tumor growth following treatment with biotin-functionalized nanoparticles encapsulating both paclitaxel and P-gp targeted siRNA at a paclitaxel dose that was ineffective in the absence of gene silencing. These results suggest that that the combination of P-gp gene silencing and cytotoxic drug delivery using targeted nanoparticles can overcome tumor drug resistance.

Patil, Yogesh; Swaminathan, Suresh; Sadhukha, Tanmoy; Ma, Linan; Panyam, Jayanth

2009-01-01

321

Posttranscriptional gene silencing and virus resistance in Nicotiana benthamiana expressing a Grapevine virus A minireplicon  

Microsoft Academic Search

Grapevine virus A (GVA) is closely associated with the economically important rugose-wood disease of grapevine. In an attempt to develop GVA\\u000a resistance, we made a GFP-tagged GVA-minireplicon and utilized it as a tool to consistently activate RNA silencing. Launching\\u000a the GVA-minireplicon by agroinfiltration delivery resulted in a strong RNA silencing response. In light of this finding, we\\u000a produced transgenic Nicotiana

Marina Brumin; Svetlana Stukalov; Sabrina Haviv; Mookkan Muruganantham; Yoni Moskovitz; Ozgur Batuman; Annie Fenigstein; Munir Mawassi

2009-01-01

322

Directional gene silencing induced by a complex subtelomeric satellite from Drosophila  

Microsoft Academic Search

.   The telomeric regions in Drosophila cause transcriptional silencing of integrated transgenes. A complex satellite has recently been identified in the subterminal\\u000a region of the left arm of chromosome 2 that is a good candidate for the source of the observed telomeric silencing, because\\u000a genetically marked transposable elements that have inserted into this subtelomeric array show repression and variegation of

Elena Kurenova; Larry Champion; Harald Biessmann; James M. Mason

1998-01-01

323

Heterologous expression of plant virus genes that suppress post-transcriptional gene silencing results in suppression of RNA interference in Drosophila cells  

PubMed Central

Background RNA interference (RNAi) in animals and post-transcriptional gene silencing (PTGS) in plants are related phenomena whose functions include the developmental regulation of gene expression and protection from transposable elements and viruses. Plant viruses respond by expressing suppressor proteins that interfere with the PTGS system. Results Here we demonstrate that both transient and constitutive expression of the Tobacco etch virus HC-Pro silencing suppressor protein, which inhibits the maintenance of PTGS in plants, prevents dsRNA-induced RNAi of a lacZ gene in cultured Drosophila cells. Northern blot analysis of the RNA present in Drosophila cells showed that HC-Pro prevented degradation of lacZ RNA during RNAi but that there was accumulation of the short (23nt) RNA species associated with RNAi. A mutant HC-Pro that does not suppress PTGS in plants also does not affect RNAi in Drosophila. Similarly, the Cucumber mosaic virus 2b protein, which inhibits the systemic spread of PTGS in plants, does not suppress RNAi in Drosophila cells. In addition, we have used the Drosophila system to demonstrate that the 16K cysteine-rich protein of Tobacco rattle virus, which previously had no known function, is a silencing suppressor protein. Conclusion These results indicate that at least part of the process of RNAi in Drosophila and PTGS in plants is conserved, and that plant virus silencing suppressor proteins may be useful tools to investigate the mechanism of RNAi.

Reavy, Brian; Dawson, Sheila; Canto, Tomas; MacFarlane, Stuart A

2004-01-01

324

Construction of efficient and effective transformation vectors for palmitoyl-acyl carrier protein thioesterase gene silencing in oil palm  

PubMed Central

Palm oil obtained from E. guineensis Jacq. Tenera is known to have about 44% of palmitic acid (C16:0). Palmitoyl-Acyl Carrier Protein Thioesterase (PATE) is one of the key enzymes involved in plastidial fatty acid biosynthesis; and it determines the level of the C16:0 assimilation in oilseeds. This enzyme's activity in oil palm is responsible for high (> 44 % in E. guineensis Jacq. Tenera and 25 % in E. oleifera) content of C16:0 in its oil. By post-transcriptional PATE gene silencing, C16:0 content can be minimized for nutritional value improvement of the palm oil. The objective of this study was the construction of novel transformation vectors for PATE gene silencing. Six different transformation vectors targeted against PATE gene were constructed using 619 bp long PATE gene (5' region) fragment (from GenBank AF507115). In one set of three transformation vectors, PATE gene fragment was fused with CaMV 35S promoter in antisense, intron-spliced inverted repeat (ISIR), and inverted repeat (IR) orientations to generate antisense mRNA and hair-pin RNAs (hpRNA). In another set of three transformation vectors with same design, CaMV 35S was replaced with Oil palm mesocarp tissue-specific promoter (MSP). The expression cassette of antisense, ISIR, and IR of PATE gene fragments were constructed in primary cloning vector, pHANNIBAL or its derivative/s. Finally, all 6 expression cassettes were sub-cloned into pCAMBIA 1301 which contains the Hygromycinr and the GUS reporter genes for transformant selection and transformation detection respectively. The results of the RE analyses of the constructs and sequence analyses of PATE and MSP shows and confirms the orientation, size and locations of all the components from constructs. We hypothesize that 4 (pISIRPATE-PC, pIRPATE-PC, pMISIRPATE-PC and pMIRPATE-PC) out of 6 transformation vectors constructed in this study will be efficient and effective in palmitoyl-ACP thioesterase gene silencing in oil palm. Abbreviations antiPATE - Antisense Palmitoyl-acyl carrier protein thioesterase, BCV - Binary cloning vector, cDNA - Complementary deoxyribonucleic acid, hpRNA - hair-pin RNA, ihpRNA - intron containing hair-pin RNA, IR - inverted repeat, ISIR - intron-spliced inverted repeat, MCS - Multiple cloning site, MSP - Oil palm mesocarp tissue-specific promoter, nt - Nucleotide/s, PATE - Palmitoyl-acyl carrier protein thioesterase, PCR - Polymerase chain reaction, PCV - Primary cloning vector, pDNA - Plasmid deoxyribonucleic acid, PTGS - Post-transcriptional gene silencing, RE - Restriction enzyme.

Bhore, Subhash Janardhan; Shah, Farida Habib

2011-01-01

325

A cluster of disease resistance genes in Arabidopsis is coordinately regulated by transcriptional activation and RNA silencing.  

PubMed

The RPP5 (for recognition of Peronospora parasitica 5) locus in the Arabidopsis thaliana Columbia strain contains a cluster of paralogous disease Resistance (R) genes that play important roles in innate immunity. Among the R genes in this locus, RPP4 confers resistance to two races of the fungal pathogen Hyaloperonospora parasitica, while activation of SNC1 (for suppressor of npr1-1, constitutive 1) results in the resistance to another race of H. parasitica and to pathovars of the bacterial pathogen Pseudomonas syringae through the accumulation of salicylic acid (SA). Here, we demonstrate that other Columbia RPP5 locus R genes can be induced by transgenic overexpression of SNC1, which itself is regulated by a positive amplification loop involving SA accumulation. We also show that small RNA species that can target RPP5 locus R genes are produced in wild-type plants and that these R genes can be cosuppressed in transgenic plants overexpressing SNC1. Steady state expression levels of SNC1 increase in some mutants (dcl4-4, ago1-36, and upf1-5) defective in RNA silencing as well as in transgenic plants expressing the P1/Helper Component-Protease viral suppressor of RNA silencing. However, steady state levels of small RNA species do not change in mutants that upregulate SNC1. These data indicate many Columbia RPP5 locus R genes can be coordinately regulated both positively and negatively and suggest that the RPP5 locus is poised to respond to pathogens that disturb RNA silencing. PMID:17890374

Yi, Hankuil; Richards, Eric J

2007-09-01

326

Inhibition of lysine-specific demethylase 1 by polyamine analogues results in reexpression of aberrantly silenced genes.  

PubMed

Epigenetic chromatin modification is a major regulator of eukaryotic gene expression, and aberrant epigenetic silencing of gene expression contributes to tumorigenesis. Histone modifications include acetylation, phosphorylation, and methylation, resulting in a combination of histone marks known collectively as the histone code. The chromatin marks at a given promoter determine, in part, whether specific promoters are in an open/active conformation or closed/repressed conformation. Dimethyl-lysine 4 histone H3 (H3K4me2) is a transcription-activating chromatin mark at gene promoters, and demethylation of this mark by the lysine-specific demethylase 1 (LSD1), a homologue of polyamine oxidases, may broadly repress gene expression. We now report that novel biguanide and bisguanidine polyamine analogues are potent inhibitors of LSD1. These analogues inhibit LSD1 in human colon carcinoma cells and affect a reexpression of multiple, aberrantly silenced genes important in the development of colon cancer, including members of the secreted frizzle-related proteins (SFRPs) and the GATA family of transcription factors. Furthermore, we demonstrate by chromatin immunoprecipitation analysis that the reexpression is concurrent with increased H3K4me2 and acetyl-H3K9 marks, decreased H3K9me1 and H3K9me2 repressive marks. We thus define important new agents for reversing aberrant repression of gene transcription. PMID:17463086

Huang, Yi; Greene, Eriko; Murray Stewart, Tracy; Goodwin, Andrew C; Baylin, Stephen B; Woster, Patrick M; Casero, Robert A

2007-05-01

327

A High Throughput Barley Stripe Mosaic Virus Vector for Virus Induced Gene Silencing in Monocots and Dicots  

PubMed Central

Barley stripe mosaic virus (BSMV) is a single-stranded RNA virus with three genome components designated alpha, beta, and gamma. BSMV vectors have previously been shown to be efficient virus induced gene silencing (VIGS) vehicles in barley and wheat and have provided important information about host genes functioning during pathogenesis as well as various aspects of genes functioning in development. To permit more effective use of BSMV VIGS for functional genomics experiments, we have developed an Agrobacterium delivery system for BSMV and have coupled this with a ligation independent cloning (LIC) strategy to mediate efficient cloning of host genes. Infiltrated Nicotiana benthamiana leaves provided excellent sources of virus for secondary BSMV infections and VIGS in cereals. The Agro/LIC BSMV VIGS vectors were able to function in high efficiency down regulation of phytoene desaturase (PDS), magnesium chelatase subunit H (ChlH), and plastid transketolase (TK) gene silencing in N. benthamiana and in the monocots, wheat, barley, and the model grass, Brachypodium distachyon. Suppression of an Arabidopsis orthologue cloned from wheat (TaPMR5) also interfered with wheat powdery mildew (Blumeria graminis f. sp. tritici) infections in a manner similar to that of the A. thaliana PMR5 loss-of-function allele. These results imply that the PMR5 gene has maintained similar functions across monocot and dicot families. Our BSMV VIGS system provides substantial advantages in expense, cloning efficiency, ease of manipulation and ability to apply VIGS for high throughput genomics studies.

Yan, Lijie; Jackson, Andrew O.; Liu, Zhiyong; Han, Chenggui; Yu, Jialin; Li, Dawei

2011-01-01

328

ss-siRNAs allele selectively inhibit ataxin-3 expression: multiple mechanisms for an alternative gene silencing strategy  

PubMed Central

Single-stranded silencing RNAs (ss-siRNAs) provide an alternative approach to gene silencing. ss-siRNAs combine the simplicity and favorable biodistribution of antisense oligonucleotides with robust silencing through RNA interference (RNAi). Previous studies reported potent and allele-selective inhibition of human huntingtin expression by ss-siRNAs that target the expanded CAG repeats within the mutant allele. Mutant ataxin-3, the genetic cause of Machado–Joseph Disease, also contains an expanded CAG repeat. We demonstrate here that ss-siRNAs are allele-selective inhibitors of ataxin-3 expression and then redesign ss-siRNAs to optimize their selectivity. We find that both RNAi-related and non-RNAi-related mechanisms affect gene expression by either blocking translation or affecting alternative splicing. These results have four broad implications: (i) ss-siRNAs will not always behave similarly to analogous RNA duplexes; (ii) the sequences surrounding CAG repeats affect allele-selectivity of anti-CAG oligonucleotides; (iii) ss-siRNAs can function through multiple mechanisms and; and (iv) it is possible to use chemical modification to optimize ss-siRNA properties and improve their potential for drug discovery.

Liu, Jing; Yu, Dongbo; Aiba, Yuichiro; Pendergraff, Hannah; Swayze, Eric E.; Lima, Walt F.; Hu, Jiaxin; Prakash, Thazha P.; Corey, David R.

2013-01-01

329

In Vivo Analysis of Aicda Gene Regulation: A Critical Balance between Upstream Enhancers and Intronic Silencers Governs Appropriate Expression  

PubMed Central

The Aicda gene encodes activation-induced cytidine deaminase (AID). Aicda is strongly transcribed in activated B cells to diversify immunoglobulin genes, but expressed at low levels in various other cells in response to physiological or pathological stimuli. AID’s mutagenic nature has been shown to be involved in tumor development. Here, we used a transgenic strategy with bacterial artificial chromosomes (BACs) to examine the in vivo functions of Aicda regulatory elements, which cluster in two regions: in the first intron (region 2), and approximately 8-kb upstream of the transcription start site (region 4). Deleting either of these regions completely abolished the expression of Aicda-BAC reporters, demonstrating these elements’ critical roles. Furthermore, we found that selectively deleting two C/EBP-binding sites in region 4 inactivated the enhancer activity of the region despite the presence of intact NF-?B-, STAT6- and Smad-binding sites. On the other hand, selectively deleting E2F- and c-Myb-binding sites in region 2 increased the frequency of germinal-center B cells in which the Aicda promoter was active, indicating that E2F and c-Myb act as silencers in vivo. Interestingly, the silencer deletion did not cause ectopic activation of the Aicda promoter, indicating that Aicda activation requires enhancer-specific stimulation. In summary, precise regulation of the Aicda promoter appears to depend on a coordinated balance of activities between enhancer and silencer elements.

Huong, Le Thi; Kobayashi, Maki; Nakata, Mikiyo; Shioi, Go; Miyachi, Hitoshi; Honjo, Tasuku; Nagaoka, Hitoshi

2013-01-01

330

Efficient virus-induced gene silencing in apple, pear and Japanese pear using Apple latent spherical virus vectors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  Virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS) is an effective technology for the analysis of gene functions in plants. Though there\\u000a are many reports on virus vectors for VIGS in plants, no VIGS vectors available for Rosaceae fruit trees were reported so far. We present an effective VIGS system in apple, pear, and Japanese pear using Apple latent spherical virus (ALSV) vectors.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Results  Inoculation

Shintarou Sasaki; Noriko Yamagishi; Nobuyuki Yoshikawa

2011-01-01

331

Click-modified anandamide siRNA enables delivery and gene silencing in neuronal and immune cells.  

PubMed

Click chemistry of alkyne-modified RNA with different receptor ligand azides was used to prepare 3'-folate, 3'-cholesterol, and, as a new entity, 3'-anandamide-modified RNA in high yields and excellent purity. The anandamide-modified RNA shows surprisingly high transfection properties and enables the delivery of siRNA even into difficult-to-transfect RBL-2H3 cells which model neuronal uptake. Furthermore, the system was employed in human immune cells (BJAB), demonstrating silencing effects similar to those of a cationic, benchmark transfection reagent. In addition, the anandamide conjugates were found to be nontoxic. The reported chemistry and the described properties of the anandamide siRNA extend the possibilities of using siRNA-based gene silencing in neuronal and immune cells. PMID:22812910

Willibald, Julian; Harder, Johannes; Sparrer, Konstantin; Conzelmann, Karl-Klaus; Carell, Thomas

2012-08-01

332

Silencing of the PiAvr3a effector-encoding gene from Phytophthora infestans by transcriptional fusion to a short interspersed element.  

PubMed

Phytophthora infestans is the notorious oomycete causing late blight of potato and tomato. A large proportion of the P. infestans genome is composed of transposable elements, the activity of which may be controlled by RNA silencing. Accumulation of small RNAs is one of the hallmarks of RNA silencing. Here we demonstrate the presence of small RNAs corresponding to the sequence of a short interspersed retrotransposable element (SINE) suggesting that small RNAs might be involved in silencing of SINEs in P. infestans. This notion was exploited to develop novel tools for gene silencing in P. infestans by engineering transcriptional fusions of the PiAvr3a gene, encoding an RXLR avirulence effector, to the infSINEm retroelement. Transgenic P. infestans lines expressing either 5'-infSINEm::PiAvr3a-3' or 5'-PiAvr3a::SINEm-3' chimeric transcripts initially exhibited partial silencing of PiAvr3a. Over time, PiAvr3a either recovered wild type transcript levels in some lines, or became fully silenced in others. Introduction of an inverted repeat construct was also successful in yielding P. infestans transgenic lines silenced for PiAvr3a. In contrast, constructs expressing antisense or aberrant RNA transcripts failed to initiate silencing of PiAvr3a. Lines exhibiting the most effective silencing of PiAvr3a were either weakly or non-pathogenic on susceptible potato cv. Bintje. This study expands the repertoire of reverse genetics tools available for P. infestans research, and provides insights into a possible mode of variation in effector expression through spread of silencing from adjacent retroelements. PMID:22115441

Vetukuri, Ramesh R; Tian, Zhendong; Avrova, Anna O; Savenkov, Eugene I; Dixelius, Christina; Whisson, Stephen C

2011-12-01

333

RNA binding properties of novel gene silencing pyrrole-imidazole polyamides.  

PubMed

Pyrrole-imidazole (PI) polyamides are a novel group of gene-silencing compounds, which bind to a minor groove of double stranded (ds)DNA in a sequence-specific manner. To explore the RNA binding properties of PI polyamides targeting rat transforming growth factor-?1 (TGF-?1 Polyamide) and influenza A virus (PA polyamide), we designed dsRNAs with an identical sequence to the target DNA and analyzed RNA binding properties of the polyamide. Biacore assay showed fast binding of TGF-?1 Polyamide to the dsRNA, whereas mismatch polyamide did not bind to the dsRNA. Dissociation equilibrium constant (KD) value was 6.7×10(-7) of the target dsRNA. These results indicate that PI polyamide could bind to RNA with a 2 log lower binding affinity than its DNA-binding affinity. We designed a PI polyamide targeting the panhandle stem region of influenza A virus. KD value of the PI polyamide to dsRNA targeting influenza A virus was 4.6×10(-7). Gel-shift assay showed that TGF-?1 and PA polyamides bound to the appropriate dsDNA, whereas these PI polyamides did not show obvious gel-shift with the appropriate dsRNA. Structural modeling suggests that PI polyamide binds to the appropriate B-form dsDNA in the minor groove, whereas it does not fit in the minor groove to dsRNA. Thus PI polyamides have a lower binding affinity with target dsRNA than they do with dsDNA. The distinct binding properties of PI polyamides to dsRNA and dsDNA may be associated with differences of secondary structure and chemical binding properties between target RNA and DNA. PMID:23628892

Iguchi, Akifumi; Fukuda, Noboru; Takahashi, Teruyuki; Watanabe, Takayoshi; Matsuda, Hiroyuki; Nagase, Hiroki; Bando, Toshikazu; Sugiyama, Hiroshi; Shimizu, Kazufumi

2013-01-01

334

Allele-Specific Gene Silencing in Two Mouse Models of Autosomal Dominant Skeletal Myopathy  

PubMed Central

We explored the potential of mutant allele-specific gene silencing (ASGS) in providing therapeutic benefit in two established mouse models of the autosomal dominantly-inherited muscle disorders, Malignant Hyperthermia (MH) and Central Core Disease (CCD). Candidate ASGS siRNAs were designed and validated for efficacy and specificity on ryanodine receptor (RyR1) cDNA mini-constructs expressed in HEK293 cells using RT-PCR- and confocal microscopy-based assays. In vivo delivery of the most efficacious identified siRNAs into flexor digitorum brevis (FDB) muscles was achieved by injection/electroporation of footpads of 4–6 month old heterozygous Ryr1Y524S/+ (YS/+) and Ryr1I4895T/+ (IT/+) knock-in mice, established mouse models of MH with cores and CCD, respectively. Treatment of IT/+ mice resulted in a modest rescue of deficits in the maximum rate (?38% rescue) and magnitude (?78%) of ligand-induced Ca2+ release that occurred in the absence of a change in the magnitude of electrically-evoked Ca2+ release. Compared to the difference between the caffeine sensitivity of Ca2+ release in FDB fibers from YS/+ and WT mice treated with SCR siRNA (EC50: 1.1 mM versus 4.4 mM, respectively), caffeine sensitivity was normalized in FDB fibers from YS/+ mice following 2 (EC50: 2.8 mM) and 4 week (EC50: 6.6 mM) treatment with YS allele-specific siRNA. Moreover, the temperature-dependent increase in resting Ca2+ observed in FDB fibers from YS/+ mice was normalized to WT levels after 2 weeks of treatment with YS allele-specific siRNA. As determined by quantitative real time PCR, the degree of functional rescue in YS/+ and IT/+ mice correlated well with the relative increase in fractional WT allele expression.

Loy, Ryan E.; Lueck, John D.; Mostajo-Radji, Mohammed A.; Carrell, Ellie M.; Dirksen, Robert T.

2012-01-01

335

Cationic amphiphilic macromolecule (CAM)-lipid complexes for efficient siRNA gene silencing.  

PubMed

The accumulated evidence has shown that lipids and polymers each have distinct advantages as carriers for siRNA delivery. Composite materials comprising both lipids and polymers may present improved properties that combine the advantage of each. Cationic amphiphilic macromolecules (CAMs) containing a hydrophobic alkylated mucic acid segment and a hydrophilic poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) tail were non-covalently complexed with two lipids, 1,2-dioleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphoethanolamine (DOPE) and 1,2-dioleoyl-3-trimethylammonium-propane (DOTAP), to serve as a siRNA delivery vehicle. By varying the weight ratio of CAM to lipid, cationic complexes with varying compositions were obtained in aqueous media and their properties evaluated. CAM-lipid complex sizes were relatively independent of composition, ranging from 100 to 200nm, and zeta potentials varied from 10 to 30mV. Transmission electron microscopy confirmed the spherical morphology of the complexes. The optimal N/P ratio was 50 as determined by electrophoretic mobility shift assay. The ability to achieve gene silencing was evaluated by anti-luciferase siRNA delivery to a U87-luciferase cell line. Several weight ratios of CAM-lipid complexes were found to have similar delivery efficiency compared to the gold standard, Lipofectamine. Isothermal titration calorimetry revealed that siRNA binds more tightly at pH=7.4 than pH=5 to CAM-lipid (1:10 w/w). Further intracellular trafficking studies monitored the siRNA escape from the endosomes at 24h following transfection of cells. The findings in the paper indicate that CAM-lipid complexes can serve as a novel and efficient siRNA delivery vehicle. PMID:24727076

Gu, Li; Nusblat, Leora M; Tishbi, Nasim; Noble, Sarah C; Pinson, Chaya M; Mintzer, Evan; Roth, Charles M; Uhrich, Kathryn E

2014-06-28

336

In situ characterization of Cymbidium Ringspot Tombusvirus infection-induced posttranscriptional gene silencing in Nicotiana benthamiana.  

PubMed

In plants, posttranscriptional gene silencing (PTGS) is an ancient and effective defense mechanism against viral infection. A number of viruses encode proteins that suppress virus-activated PTGS. The p19 protein of tombusviruses is a potent PTGS suppressor which interferes with the onset of PTGS-generated systemic signaling and is not required for viral replication or for viral movement in Nicotiana benthamiana. This unique feature of p19 suppressor allowed us to analyze the mechanism of PTGS-based host defense and its viral suppression without interfering with other viral functions. In contrast to the necrotic symptoms caused by wild-type tombusvirus, the infection of p19-defective mutant virus results in the development of a typical PTGS-associated recovery phenotype in N. benthamiana. In this report we show the effect of PTGS on the viral infection process for N. benthamiana infected with either wild-type Cymbidium Ringspot Tombusvirus (CymRSV) or a p19-defective mutant (Cym19stop). In situ analyses of different virus-derived products revealed that PTGS is not able to reduce accumulation of virus in primary infected cells regardless of the presence of p19 PTGS suppressor. We also showed that both CymRSV and Cym19stop viruses move systemically in the vasculature, with similar efficiencies. However, in contrast to the uniform accumulation of CymRSV throughout systemically infected leaves, the presence of Cym19stop virus was confined to and around the vascular bundles. These results suggest that the role of p19 is to prevent the onset of mobile signal-induced systemic PTGS ahead of the viral infection front, leading to generalized infection. PMID:12719602

Havelda, Zoltán; Hornyik, Csaba; Crescenzi, Aniello; Burgyán, József

2003-05-01

337

Dual promoter regulation of death-associated protein kinase gene leads to differentially silenced transcripts by methylation in cancer  

PubMed Central

Death-associated protein kinase (DAPK), a mediator of apoptotic systems, is silenced by promoter hypermethylation in lung and breast tumors. This gene has a CpG island extending 2500 bp from the translational start site; however, studies characterizing its transcriptional regulation have not been conducted. Two transcripts for DAPK were identified that code for a single protein, while being regulated by two promoters. The previously identified DAPK transcript designated as exon 1 transcript was expressed at levels 3-fold greater than the alternate exon 1b transcript. Deletion constructs of promoter 1 identified a 332 bp region containing a functional CP2-binding site important for expression of the exon 1 transcript. While moderate reporter activity was seen in promoter 2, the region comprising intron 1 and containing a HNF3B-binding site sustained expression of the alternate transcript. Sequencing the DAPK CpG island in tumor cell lines revealed dense, but heterogenous methylation of CpGs that blocked access of the CP2 and HNF3B proteins that in turn, was associated with loss of transcription that was restored by treatment with 5-aza-2?-deoxycytidine. Prevalences were similar for methylation of promoter 1 and 2 and intron 1 in lung tumors, but significantly greater in promoter 2 and intron 1 in breast tumors, indicative of tissue-specific differences in silencing these two transcripts. These studies show for the first time dual promoter regulation of DAPK, a tumor suppressor gene silenced in many cancers, and substantiate the importance of screening for silencing of both transcripts in tumors.

Pulling, Leah C.; Grimes, Marcie J.; Damiani, Leah A.; Juri, Daniel E.; Do, Kieu; Tellez, Carmen S.; Belinsky, Steven A.

2009-01-01

338

Effective Silencing of Sry Gene with RNA Interference in Developing Mouse Embryos Resulted in Feminization of XY Gonad  

PubMed Central

Delivering siRNA or shRNA into the developing embryos is still a main challenge to use of RNAi in mammalian systems. Here we analyze several factors influencing RNAi-mediated silencing of Sry gene, which is a tightly controlled spatiotemporal expressed gene and only shortly expressed in developing mouse embryo gonad. A Sry gene-specific shRNAs expression vector (pSilencer4.1/Sry565) was constructed. The shRNA constructs were mixed with polyethylenimines (PEIs) to form a complex and then injected into pregnant mice though tail vein. Our results showed that Sry gene was downregulated significantly in developing embryos. Further study revealed that knocking-down of Sry expression resulted in feminization of gonad development in mouse embryos and the expression level of Sox9 and Wt1 gene was also significantly changed by downregulation of Sry. The transfection efficiency is associated with the amount of plasmid DNA injection, injection time, injection speed, and volume. Our studies suggest that transplacental RNAi could be implemented by tail vein injection of plasmid vector into pregnant mice.

Wu, Ning; Yu, Ai-Bing; Zhu, Hua-Bin; Lin, Xiu-Kun

2012-01-01

339

Host-induced gene silencing of cytochrome P450 lanosterol C14?-demethylase-encoding genes confers strong resistance to Fusarium species.  

PubMed

Head blight, which is caused by mycotoxin-producing fungi of the genus Fusarium, is an economically important crop disease. We assessed the potential of host-induced gene silencing targeting the fungal cytochrome P450 lanosterol C-14?-demethylase (CYP51) genes, which are essential for ergosterol biosynthesis, to restrict fungal infection. In axenic cultures of Fusarium graminearum, in vitro feeding of CYP3RNA, a 791-nt double-stranded (ds)RNA complementary to CYP51A, CYP51B, and CYP51C, resulted in growth inhibition [half-maximum growth inhibition (IC50) = 1.2 nM] as well as altered fungal morphology, similar to that observed after treatment with the azole fungicide tebuconazole, for which the CYP51 enzyme is a target. Expression of the same dsRNA in Arabidopsis and barley rendered susceptible plants highly resistant to fungal infection. Microscopic analysis revealed that mycelium formation on CYP3RNA-expressing leaves was restricted to the inoculation sites, and that inoculated barley caryopses were virtually free of fungal hyphae. This inhibition of fungal growth correlated with in planta production of siRNAs corresponding to the targeted CYP51 sequences, as well as highly efficient silencing of the fungal CYP51 genes. The high efficiency of fungal inhibition suggests that host-induced gene-silencing targeting of the CYP51 genes is an alternative to chemical treatments for the control of devastating fungal diseases. PMID:24218613

Koch, Aline; Kumar, Neelendra; Weber, Lennart; Keller, Harald; Imani, Jafargholi; Kogel, Karl-Heinz

2013-11-26

340

Host-induced gene silencing of wheat leaf rust fungus Puccinia triticina pathogenicity genes mediated by the Barley stripe mosaic virus.  

PubMed

Rust fungi are devastating plant pathogens and several Puccinia species have a large economic impact on wheat production worldwide. Disease protection, mostly offered by introgressed host-resistance genes, is often race-specific and rapidly overcome by newly-emerging virulent strains. Extensive new genomic resources have identified vital pathogenicity genes but their study is hampered because of the biotrophic life styles of rust fungi. In cereals, Barley stripe mosaic virus (BSMV)-induced RNAi has emerged as a useful tool to study loss-of-function phenotypes of candidate genes. Expression of pathogen-derived gene fragments in this system can be used to obtain in planta-generated silencing of corresponding genes inside biotrophic pathogens, a technique termed host-induced gene silencing (HIGS). Here we test the effectiveness of BSMV-mediated HIGS in the wheat leaf rust fungus Puccinia triticina (Pt) by targeting three predicted pathogenicity genes, a MAPK, a cyclophilin, and a calcineurin regulatory subunit. Inoculation of BSMV RNAi constructs generated fungal gene-specific siRNA molecules in systemic leaves of wheat plant. Subsequent Pt inoculation resulted in a suppressed disease phenotype and a reduction in endogenous transcript levels of the targeted fungal genes indicating translocation of siRNA molecules from host to fungal cells. Efficiency of this host-generated trans-specific RNAi was enhanced by using BSMV silencing vectors defective in coat protein coupled with introducing fungal gene sequences simultaneously in sense and antisense orientation. The disease suppression indicated the likely involvement of these fungal genes in pathogenicity. This study demonstrates that BSMV-mediated in planta-generated RNAi is an effective strategy for functional genomics in rust fungi. PMID:23417582

Panwar, Vinay; McCallum, Brent; Bakkeren, Guus

2013-04-01

341

The use of gene activated matrix to mediate effective SMAD2 gene silencing against hypertrophic scar.  

PubMed

Hypertrophic scar (HS) originates from the over-expression of transforming growth factor ? (TGF-?) and downstream SMAD2. With attempts to rectify HS by RNA interference (RNAi) against SMAD2, we report the design of plasmid DNA encoding SMAD2 siRNA (pSUPER-SMAD2), and identify the optimal siRNA sequence toward maximal RNAi efficiency. To realize effective and sustained RNAi, we developed gene activated matrix (GAM) based on porous atelocollagen scaffold and embedded trimethyl chitosan-cysteine (TMCC)/pSUPER-SMAD2 polyplexes for promoting cell growth and gene transfection. The GAM exhibited porosity higher than 80%, pore size of 200-250 ?m, desired mechanical strength, and sustained pSUPER-SMAD2 release profiles. Normal skin fibroblasts (NSFs) and hypertrophic scar fibroblasts (HSFs) were allowed to infiltrate and proliferate in GAM; at the meantime they were transfected with TMCC/pSUPER-SMAD2 polyplexes to display remarkably reduced SMAD2 levels that lasted for up to 10 days, consequently inhibiting the over-production of type I and type III collagen. We further unraveled the notably higher transfection levels of GAM in three-dimensional (3D) than in 2D environment, which was attributed to the improved cell-matrix interactions that promote cell proliferation and polyplex internalization. This highly safe and effective GAM may serve as a promising candidate towards HS treatment. PMID:24388384

Yin, Lichen; Zhao, Xin; Ji, Shizhao; He, Chunbai; Wang, Guangyi; Tang, Cui; Gu, Shaohua; Yin, Chunhua

2014-03-01

342

A segmented Rayleigh-Ritz method for predicting sound transmission in a dissipative exhaust silencer of arbitrary cross-section  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Dissipative vehicle exhaust silencers often have cross-sectional geometries that defy straightforward analytical solution of the acoustic eigenproblem; some kind of solution is, however, required as a part of the basis for computational silencer design methods. As a useful alternative to some of the more widely used numerical schemes such as finite element methods, a "segmented Rayleigh-Ritz" formulation is described here. It has the advantages of being simple in concept and implementation, and making very modest computational demands. It has obvious drawbacks in terms of a loss of accuracy in computing the eigenvalues and eigenfunctions, though these can be minimized by an appropriate choice of trial functions, segmentation geometry and number of segments. A trial function is proposed here, for the fundamental mode in an oval-section silencer. Favourable comparisons are made between the predicted and measured axial attenuation rate and phase speed.

Cummings, A.

1995-10-01

343

Identification of Novel Pepper Genes Involved in Bax- or INF1-Mediated Cell Death Responses by High-Throughput Virus-Induced Gene Silencing  

PubMed Central

Hot pepper is one of the economically important crops in Asia. A large number of gene sequences, including expressed sequence tag (EST) and genomic sequences are publicly available. However, it is still a daunting task to determine gene function due to difficulties in genetic modification of a pepper plants. Here, we show the application of the virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS) repression for the study of 459 pepper ESTs selected as non-host pathogen-induced cell death responsive genes from pepper microarray experiments in Nicotiana benthamiana. Developmental abnormalities in N. benthamiana plants are observed in the 32 (7%) pepper ESTs-silenced plants. Aberrant morphological phenotypes largely comprised of three groups: stunted, abnormal leaf, and dead. In addition, by employing the combination of VIGS and Agrobacterium-mediated transient assays, we identified novel pepper ESTs that involved in Bax or INF1-mediated cell death responses. Silencing of seven pepper ESTs homologs suppressed Bax or INF1-induced cell death, five of which suppressed both cell death responses in N. benthamiana. The genes represented by these five ESTs encode putative proteins with functions in endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and lipid signaling. The genes represented by the other two pepper ESTs showing only Bax-mediated cell death inhibition encode a CCCH-type zinc finger protein containing an ankyrin-repeat domain and a probable calcium-binding protein, CML30-like. Taken together, we effectively isolated novel pepper clones that are involved in hypersensitive response (HR)-like cell death using VIGS, and identified silenced clones that have different responses to Bax and INF1 exposure, indicating separate signaling pathways for Bax- and INF1-mediated cell death.

Lee, Jeong Hee; Kim, Young Cheol; Choi, Doil; Park, Jeong Mee

2013-01-01

344

Pck1 Gene Silencing in the Liver Improves Glycemia Control, Insulin Sensitivity, and Dyslipidemia in db/db Mice  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE—Cytosolic phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK-C; encoded by Pck1) catalyzes the first committed step in gluconeogenesis. Extensive evidence demonstrates a direct correlation between PEPCK-C activity and glycemia control. Therefore, we aimed to evaluate the metabolic impact and their underlying mechanisms of knocking down hepatic PEPCK-C in a type 2 diabetic model. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS—PEPCK-C gene targeting was achieved using adenovirus-transduced RNAi. The study assessed several clinical symptoms of diabetes and insulin signaling in peripheral tissues, in addition to changes in gene expression, protein, and metabolites in the liver. Liver bioenergetics was also evaluated. RESULTS—Treatment resulted in reduced PEPCK-C mRNA and protein. After treatment, improved glycemia and insulinemia, lower triglyceride, and higher total and HDL cholesterol were measured. Unsterified fatty acid accumulation was observed in the liver, in the absence of de novo lipogenesis. Despite hepatic lipidosis, treatment resulted in improved insulin signaling in the liver, muscle, and adipose tissue. O2 consumption measurements in isolated hepatocytes demonstrated unaltered mitochondrial function and a consequent increased cellular energy charge. Key regulatory factors (FOXO1, hepatocyte nuclear factor-4?, and peroxisome proliferator–activated receptor-? coactivator [PGC]-1?) and enzymes (G6Pase) implicated in gluconeogenesis were downregulated after treatment. Finally, the levels of Sirt1, a redox-state sensor that modulates gluconeogenesis through PGC-1?, were diminished. CONCLUSIONS—Our observations indicate that silencing PEPCK-C has direct impact on glycemia control and energy metabolism and provides new insights into the potential significance of the enzyme as a therapeutic target for the treatment of diabetes.

Gomez-Valades, Alicia G.; Mendez-Lucas, Andres; Vidal-Alabro, Anna; Blasco, Francese X.; Chillon, Miguel; Bartrons, Ramon; Bermudez, Jordi; Perales, Jose C.

2008-01-01

345

Influence of Cationic Lipid Composition on Gene Silencing Properties of Lipid Nanoparticle Formulations of siRNA in Antigen-Presenting Cells  

PubMed Central

Lipid nanoparticles (LNPs) are currently the most effective in vivo delivery systems for silencing target genes in hepatocytes employing small interfering RNA. Antigen-presenting cells (APCs) are also potential targets for LNP siRNA. We examined the uptake, intracellular trafficking, and gene silencing potency in primary bone marrow macrophages (bmM?) and dendritic cells of siRNA formulated in LNPs containing four different ionizable cationic lipids namely DLinDAP, DLinDMA, DLinK-DMA, and DLinKC2-DMA. LNPs containing DLinKC2-DMA were the most potent formulations as determined by their ability to inhibit the production of GAPDH target protein. Also, LNPs containing DLinKC2-DMA were the most potent intracellular delivery agents as indicated by confocal studies of endosomal versus cytoplamic siRNA location using fluorescently labeled siRNA. DLinK-DMA and DLinKC2-DMA formulations exhibited improved gene silencing potencies relative to DLinDMA but were less toxic. In vivo results showed that LNP siRNA systems containing DLinKC2-DMA are effective agents for silencing GAPDH in APCs in the spleen and peritoneal cavity following systemic administration. Gene silencing in APCs was RNAi mediated and the use of larger LNPs resulted in substantially reduced hepatocyte silencing, while similar efficacy was maintained in APCs. These results are discussed with regard to the potential of LNP siRNA formulations to treat immunologically mediated diseases.

Basha, Genc; Novobrantseva, Tatiana I; Rosin, Nicole; Tam, Yuen Yi C; Hafez, Ismail M; Wong, Matthew K; Sugo, Tsukasa; Ruda, Vera M; Qin, June; Klebanov, Boris; Ciufolini, Marco; Akinc, Akin; Tam, Ying K; Hope, Michael J; Cullis, Pieter R

2011-01-01

346

Influence of cationic lipid composition on gene silencing properties of lipid nanoparticle formulations of siRNA in antigen-presenting cells.  

PubMed

Lipid nanoparticles (LNPs) are currently the most effective in vivo delivery systems for silencing target genes in hepatocytes employing small interfering RNA. Antigen-presenting cells (APCs) are also potential targets for LNP siRNA. We examined the uptake, intracellular trafficking, and gene silencing potency in primary bone marrow macrophages (bmM?) and dendritic cells of siRNA formulated in LNPs containing four different ionizable cationic lipids namely DLinDAP, DLinDMA, DLinK-DMA, and DLinKC2-DMA. LNPs containing DLinKC2-DMA were the most potent formulations as determined by their ability to inhibit the production of GAPDH target protein. Also, LNPs containing DLinKC2-DMA were the most potent intracellular delivery agents as indicated by confocal studies of endosomal versus cytoplamic siRNA location using fluorescently labeled siRNA. DLinK-DMA and DLinKC2-DMA formulations exhibited improved gene silencing potencies relative to DLinDMA but were less toxic. In vivo results showed that LNP siRNA systems containing DLinKC2-DMA are effective agents for silencing GAPDH in APCs in the spleen and peritoneal cavity following systemic administration. Gene silencing in APCs was RNAi mediated and the use of larger LNPs resulted in substantially reduced hepatocyte silencing, while similar efficacy was maintained in APCs. These results are discussed with regard to the potential of LNP siRNA formulations to treat immunologically mediated diseases. PMID:21971424

Basha, Genc; Novobrantseva, Tatiana I; Rosin, Nicole; Tam, Yuen Yi C; Hafez, Ismail M; Wong, Matthew K; Sugo, Tsukasa; Ruda, Vera M; Qin, June; Klebanov, Boris; Ciufolini, Marco; Akinc, Akin; Tam, Ying K; Hope, Michael J; Cullis, Pieter R

2011-12-01

347

Silencing of the XAF1 gene by promoter hypermethylation in cancer cells and reactivation to TRAIL-sensitization by IFN-?  

PubMed Central

Background XIAP-associated factor 1 (XAF1) is a putative tumor suppressor that exerts its proapoptotic effects through both caspase-dependent and – independent means. Loss of XAF1 expression through promoter methylation has been implicated in the process of tumorigenesis in a variety of cancers. In this report, we investigated the role of basal xaf1 promoter methylation in xaf1 expression and assessed the responsiveness of cancer cell lines to XAF1 induction by IFN-?. Methods We used the conventional bisulfite DNA modification and sequencing method to determine the methylation status in the CpG sites of xaf1 promoter in glioblastoma (SF539, SF295), neuroblastoma (SK-N-AS) and cervical carcinoma (HeLa) cells. We analysed the status and incidence of basal xaf1 promoter methylation in xaf1 expression in non-treated cells as well as under a short or long exposure to IFN-?. Stable XAF1 glioblastoma knock-down cell lines were established to characterize the direct implication of XAF1 in IFN-?-mediated sensitization to TRAIL-induced cell death. Results We found a strong variability in xaf1 promoter methylation profile and responsiveness to IFN-? across the four cancer cell lines studied. At the basal level, aberrant promoter methylation was linked to xaf1 gene silencing. After a short exposure, the IFN-?-mediated reactivation of xaf1 gene expression was related to the degree of basal promoter methylation. However, in spite of continued promoter hypermethylation, we find that IFN-? induced a transient xaf1 expression, that in turn, was followed by promoter demethylation upon a prolonged exposure. Importantly, we demonstrated for the first time that IFN-?-mediated reactivation of endogenous XAF1 plays a critical role in TRAIL-induced cell death since XAF1 knock-down cell lines completely lost their IFN-?-mediated TRAIL sensitivity. Conclusion Together, these results suggest that promoter demethylation is not the sole factor determining xaf1 gene induction under IFN-? treatment. Furthermore, our study provides evidence that XAF1 is a crucial interferon-stimulated gene (ISG) mediator of IFN-induced sensitization to TRAIL in cancer.

Micali, O Cristina; Cheung, Herman H; Plenchette, Stephanie; Hurley, Sandra L; Liston, Peter; LaCasse, Eric C; Korneluk, Robert G

2007-01-01

348

Silencing of a single gene in tomato plants resistant to Tomato yellow leaf curl virus renders them susceptible to the virus.  

PubMed

A reverse-genetics approach was applied to identify genes involved in Tomato yellow leaf curl virus (TYLCV) resistance, taking advantage of two tomato inbred lines from the same breeding program-one susceptible (S), one resistant (R-that used Solanum habrochaites as the source of resistance. cDNA libraries from inoculated and non-inoculated R and S plants were compared, postulating that genes preferentially expressed in the R line may be part of the network sustaining resistance to TYLCV. Further, we assumed that silencing genes located at important nodes of the network would lead to collapse of resistance. Approximately 70 different cDNAs representing genes preferentially expressed in R plants were isolated and their genes identified by comparison with public databases. A Permease I-like protein gene encoding a transmembranal transporter was further studied: it was preferentially expressed in R plants and its expression was enhanced several-fold following TYLCV inoculation. Silencing of the Permease gene of R plants using Tobacco rattle virus-induced gene silencing led to loss of resistance, expressed as development of disease symptoms typical of infected susceptible plants and accumulation of large amounts of virus. Silencing of another membrane protein gene preferentially expressed in R plants, Pectin methylesterase, previously shown to be involved in Tobacco mosaic virus translocation, did not lead to collapse of resistance of R plants. Thus, silencing of a single gene can lead to collapse of resistance, but not every gene preferentially expressed in the R line has the same effect, upon silencing, on resistance. PMID:19533378

Eybishtz, Assaf; Peretz, Yuval; Sade, Dagan; Akad, Fouad; Czosnek, Henryk

2009-09-01

349

H3K9me-Independent Gene Silencing in Fission Yeast Heterochromatin by Clr5 and Histone Deacetylases  

PubMed Central

Nucleosomes in heterochromatic regions bear histone modifications that distinguish them from euchromatic nucleosomes. Among those, histone H3 lysine 9 methylation (H3K9me) and hypoacetylation have been evolutionarily conserved and are found in both multicellular eukaryotes and single-cell model organisms such as fission yeast. In spite of numerous studies, the relative contributions of the various heterochromatic histone marks to the properties of heterochromatin remain largely undefined. Here, we report that silencing of the fission yeast mating-type cassettes, which are located in a well-characterized heterochromatic region, is hardly affected in cells lacking the H3K9 methyltransferase Clr4. We document the existence of a pathway parallel to H3K9me ensuring gene repression in the absence of Clr4 and identify a silencing factor central to this pathway, Clr5. We find that Clr5 controls gene expression at multiple chromosomal locations in addition to affecting the mating-type region. The histone deacetylase Clr6 acts in the same pathway as Clr5, at least for its effects in the mating-type region, and on a subset of other targets, notably a region recently found to be prone to neo-centromere formation. The genomic targets of Clr5 also include Ste11, a master regulator of sexual differentiation. Hence Clr5, like the multi-functional Atf1 transcription factor which also modulates chromatin structure in the mating-type region, controls sexual differentiation and genome integrity at several levels. Globally, our results point to histone deacetylases as prominent repressors of gene expression in fission yeast heterochromatin. These deacetylases can act in concert with, or independently of, the widely studied H3K9me mark to influence gene silencing at heterochromatic loci.

Hansen, Klavs R.; Hazan, Idit; Shanker, Sreenath; Watt, Stephen; Verhein-Hansen, Janne; Bahler, Jurg; Martienssen, Robert A.; Partridge, Janet F.; Cohen, Amikam; Thon, Genevieve

2011-01-01

350

Nanoparticle Based Galectin-1 Gene Silencing, Implications in Methamphetamine Regulation of HIV-1 Infection in Monocyte Derived Macrophages  

PubMed Central

Galectin-1, an adhesion molecule, is expressed in macrophages and implicated in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-1) viral adsorption. In this study, we investigated the effects of methamphetamine on galectin-1 production in human monocyte derived macrophages (MDM) and the role of galectin-1 in methamphetamine potentiation of HIV-1 infection. Herein we show that levels of galectin-1 gene and protein expression are significantly increased by meth-amphetamine. Furthermore, concomitant incubation of MDM with galectin-1 and methamphetamine facilitates HIV-1 infection compared to galectin-1 alone or methamphetamine alone. We utilized a nanotechnology approach that uses gold nanorod (GNR)-galectin-1 siRNA complexes (nanoplexes) to inhibit gene expression for galectin-1. Nanoplexes significantly silenced gene expression for galectin-1 and reversed the effects of methamphetamine on galectin-1 gene expression. Moreover, the effects of methamphetamine on HIV-1 infection were attenuated in the presence of the nanoplex in MDM.

Law, Wing Cheung; Mahajan, Supriya D.; Aalinkeel, Ravikumar; Nair, Bindukumar; Sykes, Donald E.; Yong, Ken-Tye; Hui, Rui; Prasad, Paras N.; Schwartz, Stanley A.

2012-01-01

351

A selfish gene chastened: Tribolium castaneum Medea M4 is silenced by a complementary gene.  

PubMed

Maternal-effect dominant embryonic arrest (Medea) of Tribolium castaneum are autosomal factors that act maternally to cause the death of any progeny that do not inherit them. This selfish behavior is thought to result from a maternally expressed poison and zygotically expressed antidote. Medea factors and the hybrid incompatibility factor, H, have a negative interaction consistent with complementary genes of the Dobzhansky-Muller model for post-zygotic isolation. This negative interaction may result from H suppression of Medea zygotic antidote, leaving zygotes incompletely protected from maternal poison. I report here a test of the hypothesis that H also suppresses the Medea maternal poison. Viable F1 females were generated from a cross of Medea M4 strain males to H strain females. These females, heterozygous for both M4 and H, failed to express M4 maternal lethal activity when crossed to their male sibs. Transmission of non-M4 homologues from these females was confirmed using a dominant transgenic enhanced green fluorescent protein eye color marker, tightly linked in cis to M4. M4 beetles, lacking H, were selected from the F2 population. Female descendants of these clearly expressed M4 maternal lethal activity, indicating restoration of this activity after H was segregated away. I conclude that H, or a factor tightly linked to H, suppresses Medea M4 maternal poison. PMID:24715654

Thomson, M Scott

2014-04-01

352

Gene therapy for neuropathic pain by silencing of TNF-? expression with lentiviral vectors targeting the dorsal root ganglion in mice.  

PubMed

Neuropathic pain can be a debilitating condition. Many types of drugs that have been used to treat neuropathic pain have only limited efficacy. Recent studies indicate that pro-inflammatory mediators including tumor necrosis factor ? (TNF-?) are involved in the pathogenesis of neuropathic pain. In the present study, we engineered a gene therapy strategy to relieve neuropathic pain by silencing TNF-? expression in the dorsal root ganglion (DRG) using lentiviral vectors expressing TNF short hairpin RNA1-4 (LV-TNF-shRNA1-4) in mice. First, based on its efficacy in silencing TNF-? in vitro, we selected shRNA3 to construct LV-TNF-shRNA3 for in vivo study. We used L5 spinal nerve transection (SNT) mice as a neuropathic pain model. These animals were found to display up-regulated mRNA expression of activating transcription factor 3 (ATF3) and neuropeptide Y (NPY), injury markers, and interleukin (IL)-6, an inflammatory cytokine in the ipsilateral L5 DRG. Injection of LV-TNF-shRNA3 onto the proximal transected site suppressed significantly the mRNA levels of ATF3, NPY and IL-6, reduced mechanical allodynia and neuronal cell death of DRG neurons. These results suggest that lentiviral-mediated silencing of TNF-? in DRG relieves neuropathic pain and reduces neuronal cell death, and may constitute a novel therapeutic option for neuropathic pain. PMID:24642694

Ogawa, Nobuhiro; Kawai, Hiromichi; Terashima, Tomoya; Kojima, Hideto; Oka, Kazuhiro; Chan, Lawrence; Maegawa, Hiroshi

2014-01-01

353

Silencing of the EPHB3 tumor-suppressor gene in human colorectal cancer through decommissioning of a transcriptional enhancer.  

PubMed

The protein tyrosine kinase Ephrin type-B receptor 3 (EPHB3) counteracts tumor-cell dissemination by regulating intercellular adhesion and repulsion and acts as tumor/invasion suppressor in colorectal cancer. This protective mechanism frequently collapses at the adenoma-carcinoma transition due to EPHB3 transcriptional silencing. Here, we identify a transcriptional enhancer at the EPHB3 gene that integrates input from the intestinal stem-cell regulator achaete-scute family basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor 2 (ASCL2), Wnt/?-catenin, MAP kinase, and Notch signaling. EPHB3 enhancer activity is highly variable in colorectal carcinoma cells and precisely reflects EPHB3 expression states, suggesting that enhancer dysfunction underlies EPHB3 silencing. Interestingly, low Notch activity parallels reduced EPHB3 expression in colorectal carcinoma cell lines and poorly differentiated tumor-tissue specimens. Restoring Notch activity reestablished enhancer function and EPHB3 expression. Although essential for intestinal stem-cell maintenance and adenoma formation, Notch activity seems dispensable in colorectal carcinomas. Notch activation even promoted growth arrest and apoptosis of colorectal carcinoma cells, attenuated their self-renewal capacity in vitro, and blocked tumor growth in vivo. Higher levels of Notch activity also correlated with longer disease-free survival of colorectal cancer patients. In summary, our results uncover enhancer decommissioning as a mechanism for transcriptional silencing of the EPHB3 tumor suppressor and argue for an antitumorigenic function of Notch signaling in advanced colorectal cancer. PMID:24707046

Jägle, Sabine; Rönsch, Kerstin; Timme, Sylvia; Andrlová, Hana; Bertrand, Miriam; Jäger, Marcel; Proske, Amelie; Schrempp, Monika; Yousaf, Afsheen; Michoel, Tom; Zeiser, Robert; Werner, Martin; Lassmann, Silke; Hecht, Andreas

2014-04-01

354

Transcriptional Silencing of Transposons by Piwi and Maelstrom and Its Impact on Chromatin State and Gene Expression  

PubMed Central

Summary Eukaryotic genomes are colonized by transposons whose uncontrolled activity causes genomic instability. The piRNA pathway silences transposons in animal gonads, yet how this is achieved molecularly remains controversial. Here, we show that the HMG protein Maelstrom is essential for Piwi-mediated silencing in Drosophila. Genome-wide assays revealed highly correlated changes in RNA polymerase II recruitment, nascent RNA output, and steady-state RNA levels of transposons upon loss of Piwi or Maelstrom. Our data demonstrate piRNA-mediated trans-silencing of hundreds of transposon copies at the transcriptional level. We show that Piwi is required to establish heterochromatic H3K9me3 marks on transposons and their genomic surroundings. In contrast, loss of Maelstrom affects transposon H3K9me3 patterns only mildly yet leads to increased heterochromatin spreading, suggesting that Maelstrom acts downstream of or in parallel to H3K9me3. Our work illustrates the widespread influence of transposons and the piRNA pathway on chromatin patterns and gene expression.

Sienski, Grzegorz; Donertas, Derya; Brennecke, Julius

2012-01-01

355

High-throughput virus-induced gene-silencing approach to assess the functional relevance of a moisture stress-induced cDNA homologous to lea4.  

PubMed

The abiotic stress-responsive cDNA database and their expression profiles suggest that stress genes are many and diverse. However, characterization and validation of their functional significance has been a constraint to assessing their role in imparting tolerance. Virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS) is a potential option for assessing the functional significance of stress genes. Here the effectiveness of VIGS to silence the expression of an ABA-responsive lea4 (late embryogenic abundant) gene involved in stress tolerance is documented. In the present study, low moisture-stress protocols were developed in such a way that the plants experienced the desired stress level when silencing the target stress gene using VIGS was at a maximum. The functional relevance of a groundnut (Arachis hypogaea) subtracted-stress cDNA clone putative lea4 was examined by VIGS in tomato. A 400 bp fragment of lea4 was cloned into tobacco rattle virus-based VIGS vector to trigger post-transcriptional gene silencing by Agrobacterium-mediated inoculation in tomato plants. In silenced plants only lea4 transcripts showed a substantial decline, whereas the expression of other known stress-responsive genes such as apx (ascorbate peroxidase) and elip (early light-induced protein) were unaltered. Under moderate moisture stress, the silenced plants showed enhanced susceptibility as measured by cell viability, superoxide radical activity, and cell osmotic adjustment. This approach illustrates the potential benefits of VIGS in identifying functional relevance of low moisture stress-responsive genes. It is also demonstrated that heterologous probes with a fairly high degree of homology to the native genes can be used to study the functional relevance of stress-responsive genes using VIGS. PMID:16798849

Senthil-Kumar, M; Udayakumar, M

2006-01-01

356

Citrus tristeza virus-based RNAi in citrus plants induces gene silencing in Diaphorina citri, a phloem-sap sucking insect vector of citrus greening disease (Huanglongbing).  

PubMed

A transient expression vector based on Citrus tristeza virus (CTV) is unusually stable. Because of its stability it is being considered for use in the field to control Huanglongbing (HLB), which is caused by Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus (CLas) and vectored by Asian citrus psyllid, Diaphorina citri. In the absence of effective control strategies for CLas, emphasis has been on control of D. citri. Coincident cohabitation in phloem tissue by CLas, D. citri and CTV was exploited to develop a novel method to mitigate HLB through RNA interference (RNAi). Since CTV has three RNA silencing suppressors, it was not known if CTV-based vector could induce RNAi in citrus. Yet, expression of sequences targeting citrus phytoene desaturase gene by CTV-RNAi resulted in photo-bleaching phenotype. CTV-RNAi vector, engineered with truncated abnormal wing disc (Awd) gene of D. citri, induced altered Awd expression when silencing triggers ingested by feeding D. citri nymphs. Decreased Awd in nymphs resulted in malformed-wing phenotype in adults and increased adult mortality. This impaired ability of D. citri to fly would potentially limit the successful vectoring of CLas bacteria between citrus trees in the grove. CTV-RNAi vector would be relevant for fast-track screening of candidate sequences for RNAi-mediated pest control. PMID:24572372

Hajeri, Subhas; Killiny, Nabil; El-Mohtar, Choaa; Dawson, William O; Gowda, Siddarame

2014-04-20

357

Targeted transfection increases siRNA uptake and gene silencing of primary endothelial cells in vitro--a quantitative study.  

PubMed

Applications of small-interfering RNA (siRNA) call for specific and efficient delivery of siRNA into particular cell types. We developed a novel, non-viral targeting system to deliver siRNA specifically into inflammation-activated endothelial cells. This was achieved by conjugating the cationic amphiphilic lipid SAINT to antibodies recognizing the inflammatory cell adhesion molecule E-selectin. These anti-E-selectin-SAINT lipoplexes (SAINTarg) maintained antigen recognition capacity of the parental antibody in vitro, and ex vivo in human kidney tissue slices subjected to inflammatory conditions. Regular SAINT mediated transfection resulted in efficient gene silencing in human microvascular endothelial cells (HMEC-1) and conditionally immortalized glomerular endothelial cells (ciGEnC). However, primary human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) transfected poorly, a phenomenon that we could quantitatively correlate with a cell-type specific capacity to facilitate siRNA uptake. Importantly, SAINTarg increased siRNA uptake and transfection specificity for activated endothelial cells. Transfection with SAINTarg delivered significantly more siRNA into activated HUVEC, compared to transfection with non-targeted SAINT. The enhanced uptake of siRNA was corroborated by improved silencing of both gene- and protein expression of VE-cadherin in activated HUVEC, indicating that SAINTarg delivered functionally active siRNA into endothelial cells. The obtained results demonstrate a successful design of a small nucleotide carrier system with improved and specific siRNA delivery into otherwise difficult-to-transfect primary endothelial cells, which in addition reduced considerably the amount of siRNA needed for gene silencing. PMID:19766679

Asgeirsdóttir, Sigridur A; Talman, Eduard G; de Graaf, Inge A; Kamps, Jan A A M; Satchell, Simon C; Mathieson, Peter W; Ruiters, Marcel H J; Molema, Grietje

2010-01-25

358

New Generation of Artificial MicroRNA and Synthetic Trans-Acting Small Interfering RNA Vectors for Efficient Gene Silencing in Arabidopsis1[W][OPEN  

PubMed Central

Artificial microRNAs (amiRNAs) and synthetic trans-acting small interfering RNAs (syn-tasiRNAs) are used for small RNA-based, specific gene silencing or knockdown in plants. Current methods to generate amiRNA or syn-tasiRNA constructs are not well adapted for cost-effective, large-scale production or for multiplexing to specifically suppress multiple targets. Here, we describe simple, fast, and cost-effective methods with high-throughput capability to generate amiRNA and multiplexed syn-tasiRNA constructs for efficient gene silencing in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) and other plant species. amiRNA or syn-tasiRNA inserts resulting from the annealing of two overlapping and partially complementary oligonucleotides are ligated directionally into a zero background BsaI/ccdB-based expression vector. BsaI/ccdB vectors for amiRNA or syn-tasiRNA cloning and expression contain a modified version of Arabidopsis MIR390a or TAS1c precursors, respectively, in which a fragment of the endogenous sequence was substituted by a ccdB cassette flanked by two BsaI sites. Several amiRNA and syn-tasiRNA sequences designed to target one or more endogenous genes were validated in transgenic plants that (1) exhibited the expected phenotypes predicted by loss of target gene function, (2) accumulated high levels of accurately processed amiRNAs or syn-tasiRNAs, and (3) had reduced levels of the corresponding target RNAs.

Carbonell, Alberto; Takeda, Atsushi; Fahlgren, Noah; Johnson, Simon C.; Cuperus, Josh T.; Carrington, James C.

2014-01-01

359

Silencing the HaHR3 Gene by Transgenic Plant-mediated RNAi to Disrupt Helicoverpa armigera Development  

PubMed Central

RNA interference (RNAi) caused by exogenous double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) has developed into a powerful technique in functional genomics, and to date it is widely used to down-regulate crucial physiology-related genes to control pest insects. A molt-regulating transcription factor gene, HaHR3, of cotton bollworm (Helicoverpa armigera) was selected as the target gene. Four different fragments covering the coding sequence (CDS) of HaHR3 were cloned into vector L4440 to express dsRNAs in Escherichia coli. The most effective silencing fragment was then cloned into a plant over-expression vector to express a hairpin RNA (hpRNA) in transgenic tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum). When H. armigera larvae were fed the E. coli or transgenic plants, the HaHR3 mRNA and protein levels dramatically decreased, resulting developmental deformity and larval lethality. The results demonstrate that both recombinant bacteria and transgenic plants could induce HaHR3 silence to disrupt H. armigera development, transgenic plant-mediated RNAi is emerging as a powerful approach for controlling insect pests.

Xiong, Yehui; Zeng, Hongmei; Zhang, Yuliang; Xu, Dawei; Qiu, Dewen

2013-01-01

360

Bioenergetics and Gene Silencing Approaches for Unraveling Nucleotide Recognition by the Human EIF2C2/Ago2 PAZ Domain  

PubMed Central

Gene silencing and RNA interference are major cellular processes that control gene expression via the cleavage of target mRNA. Eukaryotic translation initiation factor 2C2 (EIF2C2, Argonaute protein 2, Ago2) is considered to be the major player of RNAi as it is the core component of RISC complexes. While a considerable amount of research has focused on RNA interference and its associated mechanisms, the nature and mechanisms of nucleotide recognition by the PAZ domain of EIF2C2/Ago2 have not yet been characterized. Here, we demonstrate that the EIF2C2/Ago2 PAZ domain has an inherent lack of binding to adenine nucleotides, a feature that highlights the poor binding of 3?-adenylated RNAs with the PAZ domain as well as the selective high trimming of the 3?-ends of miRNA containing adenine nucleotides. We further show that the PAZ domain selectively binds all ribonucleotides (except adenosine), whereas it poorly recognizes deoxyribonucleotides. In this context, the modification of dTMP to its ribonucleotide analogue gave a drastic improvement of binding enthalpy and, hence, binding affinity. Additionally, higher in vivo gene silencing efficacy was correlated with the stronger PAZ domain binders. These findings provide new insights into the nature of the interactions of the EIF2C2/Ago2 PAZ domain.

Kandeel, Mahmoud; Al-Taher, Abdullah; Nakashima, Remi; Sakaguchi, Tomoya; Kandeel, Ali; Nagaya, Yuki; Kitamura, Yoshiaki; Kitade, Yukio

2014-01-01

361

TMS1, a Novel Proapoptotic Caspase Recruitment Domain Protein, Is a Target of Methylation-induced Gene Silencing in Human Breast Cancers1  

Microsoft Academic Search

Gene silencing associated with aberrant methylation of promoter re- gion CpG islands is an acquired epigenetic alteration that serves as an alternative to genetic defects in the inactivation of tumor suppressor and other genes in human cancers. The hypothesis that aberrant methylation plays a direct causal role in carcinogenesis hinges on the question of whether aberrant methylation is sufficient to

Kerry E. Conway; Beth B. McConnell; Claire E. Bowring; Carlton D. Donald; Stephen T. Warren; Paula M. Vertino

2000-01-01

362