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1

A virus-induced gene silencing method to study soybean cyst nematode parasitism in Glycine max  

PubMed Central

Background Bean pod mottle virus (BPMV) based virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS) vectors have been developed and used in soybean for the functional analysis of genes involved in disease resistance to foliar pathogens. However, BPMV-VIGS protocols for studying genes involved in disease resistance or symbiotic associations with root microbes have not been developed. Findings Here we describe a BPMV-VIGS protocol suitable for reverse genetic studies in soybean roots. We use this method for analyzing soybean genes involved in resistance to soybean cyst nematode (SCN). A detailed SCN screening pipeline is described. Conclusions The VIGS method described here provides a new tool to identify genes involved in soybean-nematode interactions. This method could be adapted to study genes associated with any root pathogenic or symbiotic associations. PMID:23830484

2013-01-01

2

A systemic gene silencing method suitable for high throughput, reverse genetic analyses of gene function in fern gametophytes  

PubMed Central

Background Ceratopteris richardii is a useful experimental system for studying gametophyte development and sexual reproduction in plants. However, few tools for cloning mutant genes or disrupting gene function exist for this species. The feasibility of systemic gene silencing as a reverse genetics tool was examined in this study. Results Several DNA constructs targeting a Ceratopteris protoporphyrin IX magnesium chelatase (CrChlI) gene that is required for chlorophyll biosynthesis were each introduced into young gametophytes by biolistic delivery. Their transient expression in individual cells resulted in a colorless cell phenotype that affected most cells of the mature gametophyte, including the meristem and gametangia. The colorless phenotype was associated with a 7-fold decrease in the abundance of the endogenous transcript. While a construct designed to promote the transient expression of a CrChlI double stranded, potentially hairpin-forming RNA was found to be the most efficient in systemically silencing the endogenous gene, a plasmid containing the CrChlI cDNA insert alone was sufficient to induce silencing. Bombarded, colorless hermaphroditic gametophytes produced colorless embryos following self-fertilization, demonstrating that the silencing signal could be transmitted through gametogenesis and fertilization. Bombardment of young gametophytes with constructs targeting the Ceratopteris filamentous temperature sensitive (CrFtsZ) and uroporphyrin dehydrogenase (CrUrod) genes also produced the expected mutant phenotypes. Conclusion A method that induces the systemic silencing of target genes in the Ceratopteris gametophyte is described. It provides a simple, inexpensive and rapid means to test the functions of genes involved in gametophyte development, especially those involved in cellular processes common to all plants. PMID:15090074

Rutherford, George; Tanurdzic, Milos; Hasebe, Mitsuyasu; Banks, Jo Ann

2004-01-01

3

Methods for Virus-Induced Gene Silencing in Hexaploid Wheat using barley stripe mosaic virus vectors  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS) is a useful functional genomics tool for rapidly creating gene knockout phenotypes that can be used to infer gene function. Until recently, VIGS has only been possible in dicotyledonous plants. However, the development of vectors based on barley stripe mosaic vi...

4

RNAi induced gene silencing in crop improvement  

Microsoft Academic Search

The RNA silencing is one of the innovative and efficient molecular biology tools to harness the down-regulation of expression\\u000a of gene(s) specifically. To accomplish such selective modification of gene expression of a particular trait, homology dependent\\u000a gene silencing uses a stunning variety of gene silencing viz. co-suppression, post-transcriptional gene silencing, virus-induced\\u000a gene silencing etc. This family of diverse molecular phenomena

Subodh Kumar Sinha

2010-01-01

5

A systemic gene silencing method suitable for high throughput, reverse genetic analyses of gene function in fern gametophytes  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Ceratopteris richardii is a useful experimental system for studying gametophyte development and sexual reproduction in plants. However, few tools for cloning mutant genes or disrupting gene function exist for this species. The feasibility of systemic gene silencing as a reverse genetics tool was examined in this study. RESULTS: Several DNA constructs targeting a Ceratopteris protoporphyrin IX magnesium chelatase (CrChlI)

George Rutherford; Milos Tanurdzic; Mitsuyasu Hasebe; Jo Ann Banks

2004-01-01

6

An effective virus-based gene silencing method for functional genomics studies in common bean  

PubMed Central

Background Common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) is a crop of economic and nutritious importance in many parts of the world. The lack of genomic resources have impeded the advancement of common bean genomics and thereby crop improvement. Although concerted efforts from the "Phaseomics" consortium have resulted in the development of several genomic resources, functional studies have continued to lag due to the recalcitrance of this crop for genetic transformation. Results Here we describe the use of a bean pod mottle virus (BPMV)-based vector for silencing of endogenous genes in common bean as well as for protein expression. This BPMV-based vector was originally developed for use in soybean. It has been successfully employed for both protein expression and gene silencing in this species. We tested this vector for applications in common bean by targeting common bean genes encoding nodulin 22 and stearoyl-acyl carrier protein desaturase for silencing. Our results indicate that the BPMV vector can indeed be employed for reverse genetics studies of diverse biological processes in common bean. We also used the BPMV-based vector for expressing the green fluorescent protein (GFP) in common bean and demonstrate stable GFP expression in all common bean tissues where BPMV was detected. Conclusions The availability of this vector is an important advance for the common bean research community not only because it provides a rapid means for functional studies in common bean, but also because it does so without generating genetically modified plants. Here we describe the detailed methodology and provide essential guidelines for the use of this vector for both gene silencing and protein expression in common bean. The entire VIGS procedure can be completed in 4-5 weeks. PMID:21668993

2011-01-01

7

Applying gene silencing technology to contraception  

PubMed Central

Contents Population control of feral animals is often difficult, as it can be dangerous for the animals, labor intensive, and expensive. Therefore, a useful tool for control of animal populations would be a nonsurgical method to induce sterility. Our laboratories utilize methods aimed at targeting brain cells in vivo with vehicles that deliver a payload of either inhibitory RNAs or genes intended to correct cellular dysfunction. A useful framework for design of a new approach will be the combination of these methods with the intended goal to produce a technique that can be used to noninvasively sterilize cats and dogs. For this approach to succeed it has to meet several conditions: The target gene must be essential for fertility; the method must include a mechanism to effectively and specifically silence the gene of interest; the method of delivering the silencing agent must be minimally invasive, and finally, the silencing effect must be sustained for the lifespan of the target species, so that expansion of the population can be effectively prevented. In this article we discuss our work to develop gene silencing technology to induce sterility; we will use examples of our previous studies demonstrating that this approach is viable. These studies include: a) the use of viral vectors able to disrupt reproductive cyclicity when delivered to the regions of the brain involved in the control of reproduction, and b) experiments with viral vectors that are able to ameliorate neuronal disease when delivered systemically using a novel approach of gene therapy. PMID:23279544

Dissen, Gregory A.; Lomniczi, Alejandro; Boudreau, Ryan L.; Chen, Yong Hong; Davidson, Beverly L.; Ojeda, Sergio R.

2013-01-01

8

Applying gene silencing technology to contraception.  

PubMed

Population control of feral animals is often difficult, as it can be dangerous for the animals, labour intensive and expensive. Therefore, a useful tool for control of animal populations would be a non-surgical method to induce sterility. Our laboratories utilize methods aimed at targeting brain cells in vivo with vehicles that deliver a payload of either inhibitory RNAs or genes intended to correct cellular dysfunction. A useful framework for design of a new approach will be the combination of these methods with the intended goal to produce a technique that can be used to non-invasively sterilize cats and dogs. For this approach to succeed, it has to meet several conditions: the target gene must be essential for fertility; the method must include a mechanism to effectively and specifically silence the gene of interest; the method of delivering the silencing agent must be minimally invasive, and finally, the silencing effect must be sustained for the lifespan of the target species, so that expansion of the population can be effectively prevented. In this article, we discuss our work to develop gene silencing technology to induce sterility; we will use examples of our previous studies demonstrating that this approach is viable. These studies include (i) the use of viral vectors able to disrupt reproductive cyclicity when delivered to the regions of the brain involved in the control of reproduction and (ii) experiments with viral vectors that are able to ameliorate neuronal disease when delivered systemically using a novel approach of gene therapy. PMID:23279544

Dissen, G A; Lomniczi, A; Boudreau, R L; Chen, Y H; Davidson, B L; Ojeda, S R

2012-12-01

9

Gene silencing mechanisms in Phytophthora infestans  

E-print Network

Gene silencing mechanisms in Phytophthora infestans Ramesh Raju Vetukuri Faculty of Natural Cover: Confocal images of P.infestans mycelium structure #12;Gene silencing mechanisms in Phytophthora. This thesis focuses on the molecular basis of gene (RNA) silencing in P. infestans and the role it may have

10

RNA-triggered gene silencing  

Microsoft Academic Search

Double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) has recently been shown to trigger sequence-specific gene silencing in a wide variety of organisms, including nematodes, plants, trypanosomes, fruit flies and planaria; meanwhile an as yet uncharacterized RNA trigger has been shown to induce DNA methylation in several different plant systems. In addition to providing a surprisingly effective set of tools to interfere selectively with gene

Andrew Fire

1999-01-01

11

RNA-INDUCED GENE SILENCING IN PAPAYAS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

(ab) Agrobacterium leaf infiltration is a widely used method for inducing post-transcriptional gene silencing (PTGS) in Nicotiana benthamiana but has rarely been applied successfully in other species. Here we employed agrobacterium leaf infiltration to induce PTGS in ß-glucuronidase (GUS) transgenic...

12

Nickel and Epigenetic Gene Silencing  

PubMed Central

Insoluble nickel compounds are well-established human carcinogens. Occupational exposure to these compounds leads to increased incidence of lung and nasal cancer in nickel refinery workers. Apart from its weak mutagenic activity and hypoxia mimicking effect there is mounting experimental evidence indicating that epigenetic alteration plays an important role in nickel-induced carcinogenesis. Multiple epigenetic mechanisms have been identified to mediate nickel-induced gene silencing. Nickel ion is able to induce heterochromatinization by binding to DNA-histone complexes and initiating chromatin condensation. The enzymes required for establishing or removing epigenetic marks can be targeted by nickel, leading to altered DNA methylation and histone modification landscapes. The current review will focus on the epigenetic changes that contribute to nickel-induced gene silencing. PMID:24705264

Sun, Hong; Shamy, Magdy; Costa, Max

2013-01-01

13

Efficient programmable gene silencing by Cascade  

PubMed Central

Methods that permit controlled changes in the expression of genes are important tools for biological and medical research, and for biotechnological applications. Conventional methods are directed at individually changing each gene, its regulatory elements or its mRNA's translation rate. We demonstrate that the CRISPR-associated DNA-binding Cascade complex can be used for efficient, long-lasting and programmable gene silencing. When Cascade is targeted to a promoter sequence the transcription of the downstream gene is inhibited, resulting in dramatically reduced expression. The specificity of Cascade binding is provided by the integral crRNA component, which is easily designed to target virtually any stretch of DNA. Cascade targeted to the ORF sequence of the gene can also silence expression, albeit at lower efficiency. The system can be used to silence plasmid and chromosome targets, simultaneously target several genes and is active in different bacterial species and strains. The findings described here are an addition to the expanding range of CRISPR-based technologies and may be adapted to additional organisms and cell systems. PMID:25435544

Rath, Devashish; Amlinger, Lina; Hoekzema, Mirthe; Devulapally, Praneeth Reddy; Lundgren, Magnus

2015-01-01

14

Efficient programmable gene silencing by Cascade.  

PubMed

Methods that permit controlled changes in the expression of genes are important tools for biological and medical research, and for biotechnological applications. Conventional methods are directed at individually changing each gene, its regulatory elements or its mRNA's translation rate. We demonstrate that the CRISPR-associated DNA-binding Cascade complex can be used for efficient, long-lasting and programmable gene silencing. When Cascade is targeted to a promoter sequence the transcription of the downstream gene is inhibited, resulting in dramatically reduced expression. The specificity of Cascade binding is provided by the integral crRNA component, which is easily designed to target virtually any stretch of DNA. Cascade targeted to the ORF sequence of the gene can also silence expression, albeit at lower efficiency. The system can be used to silence plasmid and chromosome targets, simultaneously target several genes and is active in different bacterial species and strains. The findings described here are an addition to the expanding range of CRISPR-based technologies and may be adapted to additional organisms and cell systems. PMID:25435544

Rath, Devashish; Amlinger, Lina; Hoekzema, Mirthe; Devulapally, Praneeth Reddy; Lundgren, Magnus

2015-01-01

15

Targeted gene silencing to induce permanent sterility.  

PubMed

A non-surgical method to induce sterility would be a useful tool to control feral populations of animals. Our laboratories have experience with approaches aimed at targeting brain cells in vivo with vehicles that deliver a payload of either inhibitory RNAs or genes intended to correct cellular dysfunction. A combination/modification of these methods may provide a useful framework for the design of approaches that can be used to sterilize cats and dogs. For this approach to succeed, it has to meet several conditions: it needs to target a gene essential for fertility. It must involve a method that can selectively silence the gene of interest. It also needs to deliver the silencing agent via a minimally invasive method. Finally, the silencing effect needs to be sustained for many years, so that expansion of the targeted population can be effectively prevented. In this article, we discuss this subject and provide a succinct account of our previous experience with: (i) molecular reagents able to disrupt reproductive cyclicity when delivered to regions of the brain involved in the control of reproduction and (ii) molecular reagents able to ameliorate neuronal disease when delivered systemically using a novel approach of gene therapy. PMID:22827375

Dissen, G A; Lomniczi, A; Boudreau, R L; Chen, Y H; Davidson, B L; Ojeda, S R

2012-08-01

16

Targeted Gene Silencing to Induce Permanent Sterility  

PubMed Central

Contents A nonsurgical method to induce sterility would be a useful tool to control feral populations of animals. Our laboratories have experience with approaches aimed at targeting brain cells in vivo with vehicles that deliver a payload of either inhibitory RNAs or genes intended to correct cellular dysfunction. A combination/modification of these methods may provide a useful framework for the design of approaches that can be used to sterilize cats and dogs. For this approach to succeed it has to meet several conditions: It needs to target a gene essential for fertility. It must involve a method that can selectively silence the gene of interest. It also needs to deliver the silencing agent via a minimally invasive method. Finally, the silencing effect needs to be sustained for many years, so that expansion of the targeted population can be effectively prevented. In this article we discuss this subject and provide a succinct account of our previous experience with: a) molecular reagents able to disrupt reproductive cyclicity when delivered to regions of the brain involved in the control of reproduction, and b) molecular reagents able to ameliorate neuronal disease when delivered systemically using a novel approach of gene therapy. PMID:22827375

Dissen, Gregory A.; Lomniczi, Alejandro; Boudreau, Ryan L.; Chen, Yong Hong; Davidson, Beverly L.; Ojeda, Sergio R.

2012-01-01

17

MGMT Gene Silencing and Benefit from Temozolomide in Glioblastoma  

Microsoft Academic Search

background Epigenetic silencing of the MGMT (O 6 -methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase) DNA- repair gene by promoter methylation compromises DNA repair and has been associated with longer survival in patients with glioblastoma who receive alkylating agents. methods We tested the relationship between MGMT silencing in the tumor and the survival of patients who were enrolled in a randomized trial comparing radiotherapy alone

Monika E. Hegi; Annie-Claire Diserens; Thierry Gorlia; Marie-France Hamou; Nicolas de Tribolet; Michael Weller; Johan M. Kros; Johannes A. Hainfellner; Warren Mason; Luigi Mariani; Jacoline E. C. Bromberg; Peter Hau; René O. Mirimanoff; J. Gregory Cairncross; Robert C. Janzer; Roger Stupp

2005-01-01

18

Antisense Gene Silencing: Therapy for Neurodegenerative Disorders?  

PubMed Central

Since the first reports that double-stranded RNAs can efficiently silence gene expression in C. elegans, the technology of RNA interference (RNAi) has been intensively exploited as an experimental tool to study gene function. With the subsequent discovery that RNAi could also be applied to mammalian cells, the technology of RNAi expanded from being a valuable experimental tool to being an applicable method for gene-specific therapeutic regulation, and much effort has been put into further refinement of the technique. This review will focus on how RNAi has developed over the years and how the technique is exploited in a pre-clinical and clinical perspective in relation to neurodegenerative disorders. PMID:24705213

Nielsen, Troels T.; Nielsen, Jørgen E.

2013-01-01

19

Efficiency of different strategies for gene silencing in Botrytis cinerea.  

PubMed

The generation of knock-out mutants in fungal pathogens by gene replacement and insertional mutagenesis is the classical method to validate virulence factors. An alternative strategy consists of silencing the candidate virulence gene by making use of the phenomenon of RNA interference (RNAi), adding features such as the possibility of generating knock-down mutants with variable expression levels of the target gene or the ability to simultaneously target multiple genes. Two different approaches have been assayed to generate knock-down mutants by RNAi in the phytopathogenic fungus Botrytis cinerea. In the first one, the single nitrate reductase gene in the B. cinerea genome, niaD, was silenced by transformation with a construct containing a 400-bp niaD fragment between two opposing promoters, so that a dsRNA fragment was generated. As an alternative approach, the mgfp4 gene coding for the green fluorescent protein (GFP) was silenced by transforming two different GFP-expressing strains of B. cinerea with a hairpin RNA (hpRNA)-expressing vector, containing two inverted copies of a 300-bp mgfp4 fragment separated by a spacer DNA. While the opposing dual-promoter strategy produced gene silencing in about half of the transformants assayed, the efficiency of the hpRNA-expressing vector was higher, inducing a decrease in GFP levels in more than 90 % of transformants. The degree of silencing achieved was high with both methods, but the hpRNA strategy resulted in a higher proportion of strongly silenced transformants. PMID:25293582

Espino, José; González, Mario; González, Celedonio; Brito, Nélida

2014-11-01

20

Gene Silencing in Crustaceans: From Basic Research to Biotechnologies  

PubMed Central

Gene silencing through RNA interference (RNAi) is gaining momentum for crustaceans, both in basic research and for commercial development. RNAi has proven instrumental in a growing number of crustacean species, revealing the functionality of novel crustacean genes essential among others to development, growth, metabolism and reproduction. Extensive studies have also been done on silencing of viral transcripts in crustaceans, contributing to the understanding of the defense mechanisms of crustaceans and strategies employed by viruses to overcome these. The first practical use of gene silencing in aquaculture industry has been recently achieved, through manipulation of a crustacean insulin-like androgenic gland hormone. This review summarizes the advancements in the use of RNAi in crustaceans, and assesses the advantages of this method, as well as the current hurdles that hinder its large-scale practice. PMID:24705266

Sagi, Amir; Manor, Rivka; Ventura, Tomer

2013-01-01

21

Design of potential RNAi (miRNA and siRNA) molecules for Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) gene silencing by computational method.  

PubMed

The Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) is a virus that manifests itself in viral infection with fever, cough, shortness of breath, renal failure and severe acute pneumonia, which often result in a fatal outcome. MERS-CoV has been shown to spread between people who are in close contact. Transmission from infected patients to healthcare personnel has also been observed and is irredeemable with present technology. Genetic studies on MERS-CoV have shown that ORF 1ab encodes replicase polyproteins and play a foremost role in viral infection. Therefore, ORF 1ab replicase polyprotein may be used as suitable target for disease control. Viral activity can be controlled by RNA interference (RNAi) technology, a leading method for post transcriptional gene silencing in a sequence specific manner. However, there is a genetic inconsistency in different viral isolates; it is a great challenge to design potential RNAi (miRNA and siRNA) molecules which can silence the respective target genes rather than any other viral gene simultaneously. In current study four effective miRNA and five siRNA molecules for silencing of nine different strains of MERS-CoV were rationally designed and corroborated using computational methods, which might lead to knockdown the activity of virus. siRNA and miRNA molecules were predicted against ORF1ab gene of different strains of MERS-CoV as effective candidate using computational methods. Thus, this method may provide an insight for the chemical synthesis of antiviral RNA molecule for the treatment of MERS-CoV, at genomic level. PMID:25373633

Nur, Suza Mohammad; Hasan, Md Anayet; Amin, Mohammad Al; Hossain, Mehjabeen; Sharmin, Tahmina

2014-11-01

22

Functional genomic analysis of cotton genes with agrobacterium-mediated virus-induced gene silencing.  

PubMed

Cotton (Gossypium spp.) is one of the most agronomically important crops worldwide for its unique textile fiber production and serving as food and feed stock. Molecular breeding and genetic engineering of useful genes into cotton have emerged as advanced approaches to improve cotton yield, fiber quality, and resistance to various stresses. However, the understanding of gene functions and regulations in cotton is largely hindered by the limited molecular and biochemical tools. Here, we describe the method of an Agrobacterium infiltration-based virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS) assay to transiently silence endogenous genes in cotton at 2-week-old seedling stage. The genes of interest could be readily silenced with a consistently high efficiency. To monitor gene silencing efficiency, we have cloned cotton GrCla1 from G. raimondii, a homolog gene of Arabidopsis Cloroplastos alterados 1 (AtCla1) involved in chloroplast development, and inserted into a tobacco rattle virus (TRV) binary vector pYL156. Silencing of GrCla1 results in albino phenotype on the newly emerging leaves, serving as a visual marker for silencing efficiency. To further explore the possibility of using VIGS assay to reveal the essential genes mediating disease resistance to Verticillium dahliae, a fungal pathogen causing severe Verticillium wilt in cotton, we developed a seedling infection assay to inoculate cotton seedlings when the genes of interest are silenced by VIGS. The method we describe here could be further explored for functional genomic analysis of cotton genes involved in development and various biotic and abiotic stresses. PMID:23386302

Gao, Xiquan; Shan, Libo

2013-01-01

23

RNA Silencing Genes Control de Novo DNA Methylation  

E-print Network

RNA Silencing Genes Control de Novo DNA Methylation Simon W.-L. Chan,1 Daniel Zilberman,1 Zhixin double mutants cannot initiate DNA methylation and silencing and therefore flow- er late (2). De novo DNA at the SUPERMAN locus, did not affect the initiation of FWA silencing. However, four mutants--rna dependent rna

Jacobsen, Steve

24

Exploring plant genomes by RNA-induced gene silencing  

Microsoft Academic Search

The nucleotide sequences of several animal, plant and bacterial genomes are now known, but the functions of many of the proteins that they are predicted to encode remain unclear. RNA interference is a gene-silencing technology that is being used successfully to investigate gene function in several organisms — for example, Caenorhabditis elegans. We discuss here that RNA-induced gene silencing approaches

Christopher A. Helliwell; Peter M. Waterhouse

2003-01-01

25

Virus-induced gene silencing in eggplant (Solanum melongena).  

PubMed

Eggplant (Solanum melongena) is an economically important vegetable requiring investigation into its various genomic functions. The current limitation in the investigation of genomic function in eggplant is the lack of effective tools available for conducting functional assays. Virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS) has played a critical role in the functional genetic analyses. In this paper, TRV-mediated VIGS was successfully elicited in eggplant. We first cloned the CDS sequence of PDS (PHYTOENE DESATURASE) in eggplant and then silenced the PDS gene. Photo-bleaching was shown on the newly-developed leaves four weeks after agroinoculation, indicating that VIGS can be used to silence genes in eggplant. To further illustrate the reliability of VIGS in eggplant, we selected Chl H, Su and CLA1 as reporters to elicit VIGS using the high-pressure spray method. Suppression of Chl H and Su led to yellow leaves, while the depletion of CLA1 resulted in albino. In conclusion, four genes, PDS, Chl H, Su (Sulfur), CLA1, were down-regulated significantly by VIGS, indicating that the VIGS system can be successfully applied in eggplant and is a reliable tool for the study of gene function. PMID:22268843

Liu, Haiping; Fu, Daqi; Zhu, Benzhong; Yan, Huaxue; Shen, Xiaoying; Zuo, Jinhua; Zhu, Yi; Luo, Yunbo

2012-06-01

26

Bacterial cellular engineering by genome editing and gene silencing.  

PubMed

Genome editing is an important technology for bacterial cellular engineering, which is commonly conducted by homologous recombination-based procedures, including gene knockout (disruption), knock-in (insertion), and allelic exchange. In addition, some new recombination-independent approaches have emerged that utilize catalytic RNAs, artificial nucleases, nucleic acid analogs, and peptide nucleic acids. Apart from these methods, which directly modify the genomic structure, an alternative approach is to conditionally modify the gene expression profile at the posttranscriptional level without altering the genomes. This is performed by expressing antisense RNAs to knock down (silence) target mRNAs in vivo. This review describes the features and recent advances on methods used in genomic engineering and silencing technologies that are advantageously used for bacterial cellular engineering. PMID:24552876

Nakashima, Nobutaka; Miyazaki, Kentaro

2014-01-01

27

Chitosanase-based method for RNA isolation from cells transfected with chitosan/siRNA nanocomplexes for real-time RT-PCR in gene silencing  

PubMed Central

Chitosan, a well known natural cationic polysaccharide, has been successfully implemented in vitro and in vivo as a nonviral delivery system for both plasmid DNA and siRNA. While using chitosan/siRNA polyplexes to knock down specific targets, we have underestimated the effect of nucleic acids binding to chitosan when extracting RNA for subsequent quantitative PCR evaluation of silencing. In vitro transfection using chitosan/siRNA-based polyplexes reveals a very poor recovery of total RNA especially when using low cell numbers in 96 well plates. Here, we describe a method that dramatically enhances RNA extraction from chitosan/siRNA-treated cells by using an enzymatic treatment with a type III chitosanase. We show that chitosanase treatment prior to RNA extraction greatly enhances the yield and the integrity of extracted RNA. This method will therefore eliminate the bias associated with lower RNA yield and integrity when quantifying gene silencing of chitosan-based systems using quantitative real time PCR. PMID:20957169

Alameh, Mohamad; Jean, Myriam; DeJesus, Diogo; Buschmann, Michael D; Merzouki, Abderrazzak

2010-01-01

28

A universal transgene silencing method based on RNA interference.  

PubMed

Inducible gene expression systems have contributed significantly to the understanding of molecular regulatory networks. Here we describe a simple and powerful RNA interference-based method that can silence the expression of any transgene. We first used an IRES bicistronic lentiviral vector and showed that targeting the second cistron with a specific siRNA resulted in silencing of both transgenes. We then inserted a siRNA minimal target sequence in the 3'-untranslated region (3'-UTR) of a transgene and showed that the cognate siRNA delivered by a lentiviral vector led to the partial silencing of the transgene. The multimerization of this siRNA target sequence led to the highly efficient silencing of four different transgenes. This new method to silence transgene expression is more versatile than existing methods of conditional inactivation of gene expression, such as transcriptional switches or site-specific recombination. It is applicable to a wide variety of models including primary cells, terminally differentiated cells and transgenic animals. PMID:15249598

Mangeot, Philippe-Emmanuel; Cosset, François-Loïc; Colas, Pierre; Mikaelian, Ivan

2004-01-01

29

Selection of optimal combinations of target genes for therapeutic multi-gene silencing based on miRNA co-regulation.  

PubMed

Therapeutic gene silencing is a promising approach for treatment of cancer. Despite substantial efforts, however, only few such therapeutic methods have been clinically tested. The heterogeneity in gene expression profiles among malignant tissues and the dynamic control of gene expression in individual tumors makes identifying universal and effective targets a challenge. Further development of gene silencing therapy requires new approaches to comprehend and manage gene expression in cancer cells. In this study, we proposed and evaluated experimentally a new approach to design multi-gene silencing therapy. Using a simplified model of gene expression control, we show that genes commonly regulated by the same microRNA represent optimal combinations of targets for small hairpin RNA/small interfering RNA-based gene silencing. The proposed method of target gene selection and co-silencing can be explored as an algorithm for personalized cancer gene therapy. PMID:23618947

Malek, A; Gyorffy, B; Catapano, C V; Schäfer, R

2013-05-01

30

Tissue-specific gene silencing monitored in circulating RNA  

PubMed Central

Pharmacologic target gene modulation is the primary objective for RNA antagonist strategies and gene therapy. Here we show that mRNAs encoding tissue-specific gene transcripts can be detected in biological fluids and that RNAi-mediated target gene silencing in the liver and brain results in quantitative reductions in serum and cerebrospinal fluid mRNA levels, respectively. Further, administration of an anti-miRNA oligonucleotide resulted in decreased levels of the miRNA in circulation. Moreover, ectopic expression of an adenoviral transgene in the liver was quantified based on measurement of serum mRNA levels. This noninvasive method for monitoring tissue-specific RNA modulation could greatly advance the clinical development of RNA-based therapeutics. PMID:24355758

Sehgal, Alfica; Chen, Qingmin; Gibbings, Derrick; Sah, Dinah W.Y.; Bumcrot, David

2014-01-01

31

Virus-induced gene silencing in diverse maize lines using the Brome Mosaic virus-based silencing vector  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS) is a widely used tool for gene function studies in many plant species, though its use in monocots has been limited. Using a Brome mosaic virus (BMV) vector designed to silence the maize phytoene desaturase gene, a genetically diverse set of maize inbred lines was ...

32

Co-silencing the mirabilis antiviral protein permits virus-induced gene silencing in Mirabilis jalapa  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS) is an attractive and rapid technique for loss of function assay that can reveal the phenotype of embryo-lethal sequences and avoids the need for time consuming transformation and regeneration processes. Among various VIGS vectors that have been explored, the tobac...

33

Polycomb group proteins and heritable silencing of Drosophila Hox genes.  

PubMed

Early in Drosophila embryogenesis, transcriptional repressors encoded by Gap genes prevent the expression of particular combinations of Hox genes in each segment. During subsequent development, those Hox genes that were initially repressed in each segment remain off in all the descendent cells, even though the Gap repressors are no longer present. This phenomenon of heritable silencing depends on proteins of the Polycomb Group (PcG) and on cis-acting Polycomb response elements (PREs) in the Hox gene loci. We have removed individual PcG proteins from proliferating cells and then resupplied these proteins after a few or several cell generations. We show that most PcG proteins are required throughout development: when these proteins are removed, Hox genes become derepressed. However, we find that resupply of at least some PcG proteins can cause re-repression of Hox genes, provided that it occurs within a few cell generations of the loss of repression. These results suggest a functional distinction between transcriptional repression and heritable silencing: in at least some contexts, Hox genes can retain the capacity to be heritably silenced, despite being transcribed and replicated. We propose that silenced Hox genes bear a heritable, molecular mark that targets them for transcriptional repression. Some PcG proteins may be required to define and propagate this mark; others may function to repress the transcription of Hox genes that bear the mark. PMID:11222153

Beuchle, D; Struhl, G; Müller, J

2001-03-01

34

PIAS1 Regulates Breast Tumorigenesis through Selective Epigenetic Gene Silencing  

PubMed Central

Epigenetic gene silencing by histone modifications and DNA methylation is essential for cancer development. The molecular mechanism that promotes selective epigenetic changes during tumorigenesis is not understood. We report here that the PIAS1 SUMO ligase is involved in the progression of breast tumorigenesis. Elevated PIAS1 expression was observed in breast tumor samples. PIAS1 knockdown in breast cancer cells reduced the subpopulation of tumor-initiating cells, and inhibited breast tumor growth in vivo. PIAS1 acts by delineating histone modifications and DNA methylation to silence the expression of a subset of clinically relevant genes, including breast cancer DNA methylation signature genes such as cyclin D2 and estrogen receptor, and breast tumor suppressor WNT5A. Our studies identify a novel epigenetic mechanism that regulates breast tumorigenesis through selective gene silencing. PMID:24586797

Liu, Bin; Tahk, Samuel; Yee, Kathleen M.; Yang, Randy; Yang, Yonghui; Mackie, Ryan; Hsu, Cary; Chernishof, Vasili; O'Brien, Neil; Jin, Yusheng; Fan, Guoping; Lane, Timothy F.; Rao, Jianyu; Slamon, Dennis; Shuai, Ke

2014-01-01

35

Delivery of gene silencing agents for breast cancer therapy  

PubMed Central

The discovery of RNA interference has opened the door for the development of a new class of cancer therapeutics. Small inhibitory RNA oligos are being designed to specifically suppress expression of proteins that are traditionally considered nondruggable, and microRNAs are being evaluated to exert broad control of gene expression for inhibition of tumor growth. Since most naked molecules are not optimized for in vivo applications, the gene silencing agents need to be packaged into delivery vehicles in order to reach the target tissues as their destinations. Thus, the selection of the right delivery vehicles serves as a crucial step in the development of cancer therapeutics. The current review summarizes the status of gene silencing agents in breast cancer and recent development of candidate cancer drugs in clinical trials. Nanotechnology-based delivery vectors for the formulation and packaging of gene silencing agents are also described. PMID:23659575

2013-01-01

36

Development of Agrobacterium-mediated virus-induced gene silencing and performance evaluation of four marker genes in Gossypium barbadense.  

PubMed

Gossypiumbarbadense is a cultivated cotton species and possesses many desirable traits, including high fiber quality and resistance to pathogens, especially Verticilliumdahliae (a devastating pathogen of Gossypium hirsutum, the main cultivated species). These elite traits are difficult to be introduced into G. hirsutum through classical breeding methods. In addition, genetic transformation of G. barbadense has not been successfully performed. It is therefore important to develop methods for evaluating the function and molecular mechanism of genes in G. barbadense. In this study, we had successfully introduced a virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS) system into three cultivars of G. barbadense by inserting marker genes into the tobacco rattle virus (TRV) vector. After we optimized the VIGS conditions, including light intensity, photoperiod, seedling age and Agrobacterium strain, 100% of plants agroinfiltrated with the GaPDS silencing vector showed white colored leaves. Three other marker genes, GaCLA1, GaANS and GaANR, were employed to further test this VIGS system in G. barbadense. The transcript levels of the endogenous genes in the silenced plants were reduced by more than 99% compared to control plants; these plants presented phenotypic symptoms 2 weeks after inoculation. We introduced a fusing sequence fragment of GaPDS and GaANR gene silencing vectors into a single plant, which resulted in both photobleaching and brownish coloration. The extent of silencing in plants agroinfiltrated with fusing two-gene-silencing vector was consistent with plants harboring a single gene silencing vector. The development of this VIGS system should promote analysis of gene function in G. barbadense, and help to contribute desirable traits for breeding of G. barbadense and G. hirsutum. PMID:24023833

Pang, Jinhuan; Zhu, Yue; Li, Qing; Liu, Jinzhi; Tian, Yingchuan; Liu, Yule; Wu, Jiahe

2013-01-01

37

TGF-?1 Gene Silencing for Treating Liver Fibrosis  

PubMed Central

Small interfering RNA (siRNA) and short hairpin RNA (shRNA) targeting different regions of transforming growth factor ?1 (TGF-?1) mRNA were designed and the silencing effect was determined after transfection into immortalized rat liver stellate cells (HSC-T6). There was not only significant decrease in TGF-?1, tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase 1 (TIMP-1), ?-smooth muscle actin (?-SMA) and type I collagen after transfection with TGF-?1 siRNAs, but also synergism in gene silencing when siRNAs targeting two different start sites were used as a pool for transfection. The two siRNA sequences which efficiently inhibited TGF-?1 gene expression were converted to shRNAs via cloning into the pSilencer1.0. There was significant decrease in TGF-?1 and TIMP-1 when HSC-T6 cells were transfected with pshRNA targeting the same regions of TGF-?1 mRNA as siRNAs. Furthermore, TGF-?1 gene silencing in HSC-T6 cells significantly decreased the levels of inflammatory cykokines, such as tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-?) and interleukin-1 beta (IL-1?). In conclusion, both siRNA and shRNA showed sequence-specific and dose dependent TGF-?1 gene silencing, and has the potential to treat liver fibrosis. PMID:19388665

Cheng, Kun; Yang, Ningning; Mahato, Ram I.

2009-01-01

38

Phenotypic diversification by gene silencing in Phytophthora plant pathogens  

PubMed Central

Advances in genome sequencing technologies have enabled generation of unprecedented information on genome content and organization. Eukaryote genomes in particular may contain large populations of transposable elements (TEs) and other repeated sequences. Active TEs can result in insertional mutations, altered transcription levels and ectopic recombination of DNA. The genome of the oomycete plant pathogen, Phytophthora infestans, contains vast numbers of TE sequences. There are also hundreds of predicted disease-promoting effector proteins, predominantly located in TE-rich genomic regions. Expansion of effector gene families is also a genomic signature of related oomycetes such as P. sojae. Deep sequencing of small RNAs (sRNAs) from P. infestans has identified sRNAs derived from all families of transposons, highlighting the importance of RNA silencing for maintaining these genomic invaders in an inactive form. Small RNAs were also identified from specific effector encoding genes, possibly leading to RNA silencing of these genes and variation in pathogenicity and virulence toward plant resistance genes. Similar findings have also recently been made for the distantly related species, P. sojae. Small RNA “hotspots” originating from arrays of amplified gene sequences, or from genes displaying overlapping antisense transcription, were also identified in P. infestans. These findings suggest a major role for RNA silencing processes in the adaptability and diversification of these economically important plant pathogens. Here we review the latest progress and understanding of gene silencing in oomycetes with emphasis on transposable elements and sRNA-associated events. PMID:24563702

Vetukuri, Ramesh R; Åsman, Anna KM; Jahan, Sultana N; Avrova, Anna O; Whisson, Stephen C; Dixelius, Christina

2013-01-01

39

Structure and Gene-Silencing Mechanisms of Small Noncoding RNAs  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Small (19-31-nucleotides) noncoding RNAs were identified in the past 10 years for their distinct function in gene silencing. The best known gene-silencing phenomenon, RNA interference (RNAi), is triggered in a sequence-specific manner by endogenously produced or exogenously introduced small doubled-stranded RNAs. As knowledge of the structure and function of the RNAi machinery has expanded, this phenomenon has become a powerful tool for biochemical research; it has enormous potential for therapeutics. This chapter summarizes significant aspects of three major classes of small noncoding, regulatory RNAs: small interfering RNAs (siRNAs), microRNAs (miRNAs), and Piwi-interacting RNAs (piRNAs). Here, we focus on the biogenesis of these small RNAs, their structural features and coupled effectors as well as the mechanisms of each small regulatory RNA pathway which reveal fascinating ways by which gene silencing is controlled and fine-tuned at an epigenetic level.

Chu, Chia-Ying; Rana, Tariq M.

40

Virus-induced gene silencing in soybean and common bean.  

PubMed

Plant viral vectors are useful for transient gene expression as well as for downregulation of gene expression via virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS). When used in reverse genetics approaches, VIGS offers a convenient way of transforming genomic information into knowledge of gene function. Efforts to develop and improve plant viral vectors have expanded their applications and have led to substantial advances needed to facilitate gene function studies in major row crops. Here, we describe a DNA-based Bean pod mottle virus (BPMV) vector system for both gene expression and VIGS in soybean and common bean. PMID:23386301

Zhang, Chunquan; Whitham, Steven A; Hill, John H

2013-01-01

41

INDUCIBLE RNAi-MEDIATED GENE SILENCING USING NANOSTRUCTURED GENE DELIVERY ARRAYS  

SciTech Connect

RNA interference has become a powerful biological tool over the last decade. In this study, a tetracycline-inducible shRNA vector system was designed for silencing CFP expression and introduced alongside the yfp marker gene into Chinese hamster ovary cells using spatially indexed vertically aligned carbon nanofiber arrays (VACNFs) in a gene delivery process termed impalefection. The VACNF architecture provided simultaneous delivery of multiple genes, subsequent adherence and proliferation of interfaced cells, and repeated monitoring of single cells over time. 24 hours after nanofiber-mediated delivery, 53.1% 10.4% of the cells that expressed the yfp marker gene were also fully silenced by the inducible CFP-silencing shRNA vector. Additionally, efficient CFP-silencing was observed in single cells among a population of cells that remained CFP-expressing. This effective transient expression system enables rapid analysis of gene silencing effects using RNAi in single cells and cell populations.

Mann, David George James [ORNL; McKnight, Timothy E [ORNL; Mcpherson, Jackson [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Hoyt, Peter R [ORNL; Melechko, Anatoli Vasilievich [ORNL; Simpson, Michael L [ORNL; Sayler, Gary Steven [ORNL

2008-01-01

42

Gene silencing as an adaptive defence against viruses  

Microsoft Academic Search

Gene silencing was perceived initially as an unpredictable and inconvenient side effect of introducing transgenes into plants. It now seems that it is the consequence of accidentally triggering the plant's adaptive defence mechanism against viruses and transposable elements. This recently discovered mechanism, although mechanistically different, has a number of parallels with the immune system of mammals.

Peter M. Waterhouse; Ming-Bo Wang; Tony Lough

2001-01-01

43

Virus-Induced Gene Silencing in Hexaploid Wheat  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Functional genomics analysis in hexaploid wheat is greatly impeded by the genetic redundancy of polyploidy and the difficulties in generating large numbers of transgenic plants required in insertional mutagenesis strategies. Virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS), however, is a strategy for creating g...

44

Effects of silencing key genes in the capsanthin biosynthetic pathway on fruit color of detached pepper fruits.  

PubMed

BackgroundThere are many varieties of carotenoids in pepper fruits. Capsanthin is a red carotenoid that gives mature pepper fruits their red color. The red color in pepper fruits is regulated mainly by the genes capsanthin/capsorubin synthase(Ccs), phytoene synthase(Psy), lycopene-ß-cyclase(Lcyb) and ß-carotene hydroxylase(Crtz). There has been very limited research work related to the development and change in the red color during fruit formation and when a certain gene or several genes are deleted. In this paper, we constructed viral vectors, using the tobacco rattle virus (TRV), to carry the target gene to infect detached pepper fruits, and observed the fruits¿ color change. We used real-time quantitative PCR to analyze the gene silencing efficiency. At the same time, HPLC was used to determine the content of capsanthin and carotenoids that are associated with capsanthin synthesis when key genes in the pepper fruits were silenced.ResultsThese genes (Ccs, Psy, Lcyb and Crtz) were individually silenced through virus induced gene silencing (VIGS) technology, and pepper fruits from red fruit cultivars showed an orange or yellow color. When several genes were silenced simultaneously, the fruit also did not show the normal red color. Gene expression analysis by real-time quantitative PCR showed 70-80% efficiency of target gene silencing when using the VIGS method. HPLC analysis showed that the contents of carotenoids associated with capsanthin synthesis (e.g. ß-carotene, ß-cryptoxanthin or zeaxanthin) were decreased in varying degrees when silencing a gene or several genes together, however, the content of capsanthin reduced significantly. The synthesis of capsanthin was influenced either directly or indirectly when any key gene was silenced. The influence of the target genes on color changes in pepper fruits was confirmed via the targeted silencing of them.ConclusionsVIGS was a good method to study the molecular mechanism of pepper fruit color formation. By using virus induced gene silencing technology, capsanthin synthesis genes in pepper fruits were silenced individually or simultaneously, and pepper fruit color changes were observed. This provides a platform to further explore the molecular mechanism of pepper fruit color formation. PMID:25403855

Tian, Shi-Lin; Li, Li; Chai, Wei-Guo; Shah, Syed; Gong, Zhen-Hui

2014-11-18

45

Polycomb-Mediated Gene Silencing in Arabidopsis thaliana  

PubMed Central

Polycomb group (PcG) proteins are conserved chromatin regulators involved in the control of key developmental programs in eukaryotes. They collectively provide the transcriptional memory unique to each cell identity by maintaining transcriptional states of developmental genes. PcG proteins form multi-protein complexes, known as Polycomb repressive complex 1 (PRC1) and Polycomb repressive complex 2 (PRC2). PRC1 and PRC2 contribute to the stable gene silencing in part through catalyzing covalent histone modifications. Components of PRC1 and PRC2 are well conserved from plants to animals. PcG-mediated gene silencing has been extensively investigated in efforts to understand molecular mechanisms underlying developmental programs in eukaryotes. Here, we describe our current knowledge on PcG-mediated gene repression which dictates developmental programs by dynamic layers of regulatory activities, with an emphasis given to the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana. PMID:25410906

Kim, Dong-Hwan; Sung, Sibum

2014-01-01

46

Characterization of oncogene-silenced transgenic plants: implications for Agrobacterium biology and post-transcriptional gene silencing  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY Agrobacterium tumefaciens tumorigenesis is initiated by the horizontal transfer of a suite of oncogenes that alter hormone synthesis and sensitivity in infected plant cells. Transgenic plants silenced for the iaaM and ipt oncogenes are highly recalcitrant to tumorigenesis, and present a unique resource to elucidate funda- mental questions related to Agrobacterium biology and post- transcriptional gene silencing (PTGS). The

M. A. Escobar; E. L. Civerolo; V. S. Polito; K. A. Pinney; A. M. Dandekar

2003-01-01

47

Virus resistance and gene silencing: killing the messenger  

Microsoft Academic Search

On occassion, virus-derived transgenes in plants can be poorly expressed and yet provide excellent virus resistance, and transgene constructs designed to supplement the expression of endogenous genes can have the effect of co-suppressing themselves and the endogenous genes. These two phenomena appear to result from the same post-transcriptional silencing mechanism, which operates by targeted-RNA degradation. Recent research into RNA-mediated virus

Peter M Waterhouse; Neil A Smith; Ming-Bo Wang

1999-01-01

48

Functional Epigenomics Identifies Genes Frequently Silenced in Prostate Cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

In many cases, silencing of gene expression by CpG methylation is causally involved in carcinogenesis. Further- more, cancer-specific CpG methylation may serve as a tumor marker. In order to identify candidate genes for inactivation by CpG methylation in prostate cancer, the prostate cancer cell lines LNCaP, PC3, and Du-145 were treated with 5-aza-2V deoxycytidine and trichostatin A, which leads to

Dimitri Lodygin; Alexey Epanchintsev; Antje Menssen; Joachim Diebold; Heiko Hermeking

49

Construct design for efficient, effective and high-throughput gene silencing in plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Post-transcriptional silencing of plant genes using anti-sense or co-suppression constructs usually results in only a modest proportion of silenced individuals. Recent work has demonstrated the potential for constructs encoding self-complementary 'hairpin' RNA (hpRNA) to efficiently silence genes. In this study we examine design rules for efficient gene silencing, in terms of both the proportion of independent transgenic plants showing

S. Varsha Wesley; Christopher A. Helliwell; Neil A. Smith; MingBo Wang; Dean T. Rouse; Qing Liu; Paul S. Gooding; Surinder P. Singh; David Abbott; Peter A. Stoutjesdijk; Simon P. Robinson; Andrew P. Gleave; Allan G. Green; Peter M. Waterhouse

2001-01-01

50

Breaking the Silence: Protein Stabilization Uncovers Silenced Biosynthetic Gene Clusters in the Fungus Aspergillus nidulans  

PubMed Central

The genomes of filamentous fungi comprise numerous putative gene clusters coding for the biosynthesis of chemically and structurally diverse secondary metabolites (SMs), which are rarely expressed under laboratory conditions. Previous approaches to activate these genes were based primarily on artificially targeting the cellular protein synthesis apparatus. Here, we applied an alternative approach of genetically impairing the protein degradation apparatus of the model fungus Aspergillus nidulans by deleting the conserved eukaryotic csnE/CSN5 deneddylase subunit of the COP9 signalosome. This defect in protein degradation results in the activation of a previously silenced gene cluster comprising a polyketide synthase gene producing the antibiotic 2,4-dihydroxy-3-methyl-6-(2-oxopropyl)benzaldehyde (DHMBA). The csnE/CSN5 gene is highly conserved in fungi, and therefore, the deletion is a feasible approach for the identification of new SMs. PMID:23001671

Gerke, Jennifer; Bayram, Özgür; Feussner, Kirstin; Landesfeind, Manuel; Shelest, Ekaterina; Feussner, Ivo

2012-01-01

51

Breaking the silence: protein stabilization uncovers silenced biosynthetic gene clusters in the fungus Aspergillus nidulans.  

PubMed

The genomes of filamentous fungi comprise numerous putative gene clusters coding for the biosynthesis of chemically and structurally diverse secondary metabolites (SMs), which are rarely expressed under laboratory conditions. Previous approaches to activate these genes were based primarily on artificially targeting the cellular protein synthesis apparatus. Here, we applied an alternative approach of genetically impairing the protein degradation apparatus of the model fungus Aspergillus nidulans by deleting the conserved eukaryotic csnE/CSN5 deneddylase subunit of the COP9 signalosome. This defect in protein degradation results in the activation of a previously silenced gene cluster comprising a polyketide synthase gene producing the antibiotic 2,4-dihydroxy-3-methyl-6-(2-oxopropyl)benzaldehyde (DHMBA). The csnE/CSN5 gene is highly conserved in fungi, and therefore, the deletion is a feasible approach for the identification of new SMs. PMID:23001671

Gerke, Jennifer; Bayram, Ozgür; Feussner, Kirstin; Landesfeind, Manuel; Shelest, Ekaterina; Feussner, Ivo; Braus, Gerhard H

2012-12-01

52

INDUCIBLE RNAi-MEDIATED GENE SILENCING USING NANOSTRUCTURED GENE DELIVERY ARRAYS  

SciTech Connect

RNA interference has become a powerful biological tool over the last decade. In this study, a tetracycline-inducible shRNA vector system was designed for silencing CFP expression and delivered alongside the yfp marker gene into Chinese hamster ovary cells using impalefection on spatially indexed vertically aligned carbon nanofiber arrays (VACNFs). The VACNF architecture provided simultaneous delivery of multiple genes, subsequent adherence and proliferation of interfaced cells, and repeated monitoring of single cells over time. Following impalefection and tetracycline induction, 53.1% 10.4% of impalefected cells were fully silenced by the inducible CFP-silencing shRNA vector. Additionally, efficient CFP-silencing was observed in single cells among a population of cells that remained CFP-expressing. This effective transient expression system enables rapid analysis of gene silencing effects using RNAi in single cells and cell populations.

Mann, David George James [ORNL; McKnight, Timothy E [ORNL; Mcpherson, Jackson [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Hoyt, Peter R [ORNL; Melechko, Anatoli Vasilievich [ORNL; Simpson, Michael L [ORNL; Sayler, Gary Steven [ORNL

2008-01-01

53

STUDY OF GENE SILENCING IN RICE: A ROOT PREFERENTIAL GENE RCG2  

E-print Network

involved in the gene silencing of the YXB lines. DNA methylation analysis, northern blotting, RT-PCR and small RNA analysis supported the conclusion that PTGS and TGS are present in the silenced plants. Promoter analysis in silico and using promoter...

Shi, Xiangyu

2010-07-14

54

Gene silencing: a therapeutic approach to combat influenza virus infections.  

PubMed

ABSTRACT? Selective gene silencing technologies such as RNA interference (RNAi) and nucleic acid enzymes have shown therapeutic potential for treating viral infections. Influenza virus is one of the major public health concerns around the world and its management is challenging due to a rapid increase in antiviral resistance. Influenza vaccine also has its limitations due to the emergence of new strains that may escape the immunity developed by the previous year's vaccine. Antiviral drugs are the primary mode of prevention and control against a pandemic and there is an urgency to develop novel antiviral strategies against influenza virus. In this review, we discuss the potential utility of several gene silencing mechanisms and their prophylactic and therapeutic potential against the influenza virus. PMID:25598342

Khanna, Madhu; Saxena, Latika; Rajput, Roopali; Kumar, Binod; Prasad, Rajendra

2015-01-01

55

Silver nanoscale antisense drug delivery system for photoactivated gene silencing.  

PubMed

The unique photophysical properties of noble metal nanoparticles contribute to their potential as photoactivated drug delivery vectors. Here we demonstrate the synthesis and characterization of 60-80 nm silver nanoparticles (SNPs) decorated with thiol-terminated photolabile DNA oligonucleotides. In vitro assays and fluorescent confocal microscopy of treated cell cultures show efficient UV-wavelength photoactivation of surface-tethered caged ISIS2302 antisense oligonucleotides possessing internal photocleavable linkers. As a demonstration of the advantages of these novel nanocarriers, we investigate properties including: enhanced stability to nucleases, increased hybridization activity upon photorelease, and efficient cellular uptake as compared to commercial transfection vectors. Their potential as multicomponent delivery agents for oligonucleotide therapeutics is shown through regulation of ICAM-1 (Intracellular Adhesion Molecule-1) silencing. Our results suggest a means to achieve light-triggered, spatiotemporally controlled gene silencing via nontoxic silver nanocarriers, which hold promise as tailorable platforms for nanomedicine, gene expression studies, and genetic therapies. PMID:23473419

Brown, Paige K; Qureshi, Ammar T; Moll, Alyson N; Hayes, Daniel J; Monroe, W Todd

2013-04-23

56

Mobile gene silencing in Arabidopsis is regulated by hydrogen peroxide.  

PubMed

In plants and nematodes, RNAi can spread from cells from which it is initiated to other cells in the organism. The underlying mechanism controlling the mobility of RNAi signals is not known, especially in the case of plants. A genetic screen designed to recover plants impaired in the movement but not the production or effectiveness of the RNAi signal identified RCI3, which encodes a hydrogen peroxide (H2O2)-producing type III peroxidase, as a key regulator of silencing mobility in Arabidopsis thaliana. Silencing initiated in the roots of rci3 plants failed to spread into leaf tissue or floral tissue. Application of exogenous H2O2 reinstated the spread in rci3 plants and accelerated it in wild-type plants. The addition of catalase or MnO2, which breaks down H2O2, slowed the spread of silencing in wild-type plants. We propose that endogenous H2O2, under the control of peroxidases, regulates the spread of gene silencing by altering plasmodesmata permeability through remodelling of local cell wall structure, and may play a role in regulating systemic viral defence. PMID:25551023

Liang, Dacheng; White, Rosemary G; Waterhouse, Peter M

2014-01-01

57

Mobile gene silencing in Arabidopsis is regulated by hydrogen peroxide  

PubMed Central

In plants and nematodes, RNAi can spread from cells from which it is initiated to other cells in the organism. The underlying mechanism controlling the mobility of RNAi signals is not known, especially in the case of plants. A genetic screen designed to recover plants impaired in the movement but not the production or effectiveness of the RNAi signal identified RCI3, which encodes a hydrogen peroxide (H2O2)-producing type III peroxidase, as a key regulator of silencing mobility in Arabidopsis thaliana. Silencing initiated in the roots of rci3 plants failed to spread into leaf tissue or floral tissue. Application of exogenous H2O2 reinstated the spread in rci3 plants and accelerated it in wild-type plants. The addition of catalase or MnO2, which breaks down H2O2, slowed the spread of silencing in wild-type plants. We propose that endogenous H2O2, under the control of peroxidases, regulates the spread of gene silencing by altering plasmodesmata permeability through remodelling of local cell wall structure, and may play a role in regulating systemic viral defence. PMID:25551023

Liang, Dacheng

2014-01-01

58

170 gene silencing of bmprii in bovine granulosa cells.  

PubMed

Granulosa cells (GC) are important constituents of the follicular environment for oocyte competence acquisition. However, their functionality depends on oocyte-derived factors, such as GDF9 and BMP15, which act through BMPRII receptor signalling. Gene silencing using lipofection has been used as an important tool to investigate the role of cell genes and proteins. The aim of this study was to establish the ideal conditions for lipofection in bovine GC and starting from this protocol to establish a methodology for silencing of the BMPRII gene by RNA interference, and to use this strategy to study the functions of BMPRII in GDF9 signalling. GC were obtained from slaughterhouse ovaries by aspiration of follicles (2 to 6mm) and subsequently cultured in DMEM medium at 38.5°C and 5% CO2 in air. All data analyzes were performed by GraphPad Prism(®) version 5.0 software (GraphPad Software Inc., La Jolla, CA, USA), using one-way ANOVA followed by Tukey's test. For optimizing the conditions for lipofection, the GC were treated with different amounts of lipofection agents Lipofectamine(®) RNAiMAX (Invitrogen, Carlsbad, CA, USA; 1, 2, and 3µL) or Lipofectamine(TM) 2000 (Invitrogen; 1, 2, and 3µL) and the transfection indicators Siglo(®) (GE Healthcare, Waukesha, WI, USA; 30 to 100nM) or FUGW transgenic plasmid (100 to 900nM) during 24 and 48h. The highest efficiency of lipofection was observed at 24h of culture with 2?L of Lipofectamine™ 2000+100nM of Siglo(®). Based on these conditions, different concentrations of siBMPRII (100 to 500pM) were tested during 24h of culture and subsequently, different incubation times (0, 6, 12, 18, and 24h) with the best siRNA concentration in order to establish optimum conditions for gene silencing. GC were evaluated for the relative abundance of mRNA for BMPRII using PPIA and ?-actin as endogenous controls by real-time PCR. All concentrations provided similar and highly significant transcript reduction in comparison to control (P<0.001), so the lowest of them was adopted (100pM). For different incubation times with 100pM siBMPRII also a similar decrease was also seen, which was more significant at 24h (P<0.01). The best concentration (100pM) and incubation time (24h) with the siRNA were analysed by Western blotting, which confirmed the BMPRII reduction also at protein level (P<0.05). For functional evaluation, GC submitted or no to gene silencing were incubated with or without GDF9 (100ng) and assessed for expression of genes controlled by GDF9 through its BMPRII receptor (LHR, INHA, and INHBA), besides the CYP17 gene, a marker of potential theca cells contamination. LHR expression was reduced in silenced groups (P<0.05) and highly suppressed by GDF9 in non-silenced groups (P<0.001), while INHA and INHBA expression remained constant in the different groups (P>0.05), suggesting that the control of these genes in bovine does not behave as reported in other species. The lack of amplification CYP17 indicates the nonexistence of the contamination. In conclusion, this study allowed the establishment of an efficient methodology for the silencing of BMPRII by lipofection in bovine GC, which may be used as a tool for the functional study of BMPRII and potentially for other genes of interest. PMID:25472219

Cavallari de Castro, F; Cruz, M H C; Fernandes, H; Leal, C L V

2014-12-01

59

Initiation and maintenance of virus-induced gene silencing  

PubMed Central

The phytoene desaturase (PDS) gene of Nicotiana benthamiana was silenced in plants infected with potato virus X (PVX) vectors carrying PDS inserts, and a green fluorescent protein (GFP) transgene was silenced in plants infected with PVX-GFP. This virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS) is post-transcriptional and cytoplasmic because it is targeted against exons rather than introns of PDS RNA and against viral RNAs. Although PDS and GFP RNAs are most likely targeted through the same mechanism, the VIGS phenotypes differed in two respects. PDS mRNA was targeted by VIGS in all green tissue of the PVX-PDS-infected plant, whereas PVX-PDS was not affected. In contrast, VIGS of the GFP was targeted against PVX-GFP. Initially, VIGS of the GFP was initiated in all green tissues, as occurred with PDS VIGS. However, after 30 days of infection, the GFP VIGS was no longer initiated in newly emerging leaves, although it was maintained in tissue in which it had already been initiated. Based on these analyses, we propose a model for VIGS in which the initiation of VIGS is dependent on the virus and maintenance of it is virus independent. PMID:9634582

Ruiz, MT; Voinnet, O; Baulcombe, DC

1998-01-01

60

Optimized cDNA libraries for virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS) using tobacco rattle virus  

PubMed Central

Background Virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS) has emerged as a method for performing rapid loss-of-function experiments in plants. Despite its expanding use, the effect of host gene insert length and other properties on silencing efficiency have not been systematically tested. In this study, we probed the optimal properties of cDNA fragments of the phytoene desaturase (PDS) gene for efficient VIGS in Nicotiana benthamiana using tobacco rattle virus (TRV). Results NbPDS inserts of between 192 bp and 1304 bp led to efficient silencing as determined by analysis of leaf chlorophyll a levels. The region of the NbPDS cDNA used for silencing had a small effect on silencing efficiency with 5' and 3' located inserts performing more poorly than those from the middle. Silencing efficiency was reduced by the inclusion of a 24 bp poly(A) or poly(G) homopolymeric region. We developed a method for constructing cDNA libraries for use as a source of VIGS-ready constructs. Library construction involved the synthesis of cDNA on a solid phase support, digestion with RsaI to yield short cDNA fragments lacking poly(A) tails and suppression subtractive hybridization to enrich for differentially expressed transcripts. We constructed two cDNA libraries from methyl-jasmonate treated N. benthamiana roots and obtained 2948 ESTs. Thirty percent of the cDNA inserts were 401–500 bp in length and 99.5% lacked poly(A) tails. To test the efficiency of constructs derived from the VIGS-cDNA libraries, we silenced the nicotine biosynthetic enzyme, putrescine N-methyltransferase (PMT), with ten different VIGS-NbPMT constructs ranging from 122 bp to 517 bp. Leaf nicotine levels were reduced by more than 90% in all plants infected with the NbPMT constructs. Conclusion Based on the silencing of NbPDS and NbPMT, we suggest the following design guidelines for constructs in TRV vectors: (1) Insert lengths should be in the range of ~200 bp to ~1300 bp, (2) they should be positioned in the middle of the cDNA and (3) homopolymeric regions (i.e. poly(A/T) tails) should not be included. Our VIGS-cDNA library method, which incorporates these guidelines to produce sequenced, VIGS-ready cDNAs, will be useful for both fast-forward and reverse genetics experiments in TRV vectors. PMID:18211705

Liu, Enwu; Page, Jonathan E

2008-01-01

61

siRNA-mediated gene silencing: a global genome view  

PubMed Central

The task of specific gene knockdown in vitro has been facilitated through the use of short interfering RNA (siRNA), which is now widely used for studying gene function, as well as for identifying and validating new drug targets. We explored the possibility of using siRNA for dissecting cellular pathways by siRNA-mediated gene silencing followed by gene expression profiling and systematic pathway analysis. We used siRNA to eliminate the Rb1 gene in human cells and determined the effects of Rb1 knockdown on the cell by using microarray-based gene expression profiling coupled with quantitative pathway analysis using the GenMapp and MappFinder software. Retinoblastoma protein is one of the key cell cycle regulators, which exerts its function through its interactions with E2F transcription factors. Rb1 knockdown affected G1/S and G2/M transitions of the cell cycle, DNA replication and repair, mitosis, and apoptosis, indicating that siRNA-mediated transient elimination of Rb1 mimics the control of cell cycle through Rb1 dissociation from E2F. Additionally, we observed significant effects on the processes of DNA damage response and epigenetic regulation of gene expression. Analysis of transcription factor binding sites was utilized to distinguish between putative direct targets and genes induced through other mechanisms. Our approach, which combines the use of siRNA-mediated gene silencing, mediated microarray screening and quantitative pathway analysis, can be used in functional genomics to elucidate the role of the target gene in intracellular pathways. The approach also holds significant promise for compound selection in drug discovery. PMID:15272085

Semizarov, Dimitri; Kroeger, Paul; Fesik, Stephen

2004-01-01

62

RNAi triggered by specialized machinery silences developmental genes and retrotransposons  

PubMed Central

RNAi is a conserved mechanism in which small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) guide the degradation of cognate RNAs, but also promote heterochromatin assembly at repetitive DNA elements such as centromeric repeats1,2. However, the full extent of RNAi functions and its endogenous targets have not been explored. Here we show that in the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe, RNAi and heterochromatin factors cooperate to silence diverse loci, including sexual differentiation genes, genes encoding transmembrane proteins, and retrotransposons that are also targeted by the exosome RNA degradation machinery. In the absence of the exosome, transcripts are processed preferentially by the RNAi machinery, revealing siRNA clusters and corresponding increase in heterochromatin modifications across large domains containing genes and retrotransposons. We show that the generation of siRNAs and heterochromatin assembly by RNAi is triggered by a mechanism involving the canonical poly(A) polymerase Pla1 and an associated RNA surveillance factor Red1, which also activate the exosome. Remarkably, siRNA production and heterochromatin modifications at these target loci are regulated by environmental growth conditions, and by developmental signals that induce gene expression during sexual differentiation. Our analyses uncover interplay between RNAi and the exosome that is conserved in higher eukaryotes, and show that differentiation signals modulate RNAi silencing to regulate developmental genes. PMID:23151475

Yamanaka, Soichiro; Mehta, Sameet; Reyes-Turcu, Francisca E.; Zhuang, Fanglei; Fuchs, Ryan T.; Rong, Yikang; Robb, Gregory B.; Grewal, Shiv I. S.

2012-01-01

63

Synthetic versions of firefly luciferase and Renilla luciferase reporter genes that resist transgene silencing in sugarcane  

PubMed Central

Background Down-regulation or silencing of transgene expression can be a major hurdle to both molecular studies and biotechnology applications in many plant species. Sugarcane is particularly effective at silencing introduced transgenes, including reporter genes such as the firefly luciferase gene. Synthesizing transgene coding sequences optimized for usage in the host plant is one method of enhancing transgene expression and stability. Using specified design rules we have synthesised new coding sequences for both the firefly luciferase and Renilla luciferase reporter genes. We have tested these optimized versions for enhanced levels of luciferase activity and for increased steady state luciferase mRNA levels in sugarcane. Results The synthetic firefly luciferase (luc*) and Renilla luciferase (Renluc*) coding sequences have elevated G?+?C contents in line with sugarcane codon usage, but maintain 75% identity to the native firefly or Renilla luciferase nucleotide sequences and 100% identity to the protein coding sequences. Under the control of the maize pUbi promoter, the synthetic luc* and Renluc* genes yielded 60x and 15x higher luciferase activity respectively, over the native firefly and Renilla luciferase genes in transient assays on sugarcane suspension cell cultures. Using a novel transient assay in sugarcane suspension cells combining co-bombardment and qRT-PCR, we showed that synthetic luc* and Renluc* genes generate increased transcript levels compared to the native firefly and Renilla luciferase genes. In stable transgenic lines, the luc* transgene generated significantly higher levels of expression than the native firefly luciferase transgene. The fold difference in expression was highest in the youngest tissues. Conclusions We developed synthetic versions of both the firefly and Renilla luciferase reporter genes that resist transgene silencing in sugarcane. These transgenes will be particularly useful for evaluating the expression patterns conferred by existing and newly isolated promoters in sugarcane tissues. The strategies used to design the synthetic luciferase transgenes could be applied to other transgenes that are aggressively silenced in sugarcane. PMID:24708613

2014-01-01

64

Global Reactivation of Epigenetically Silenced Genes in Prostate Cancer  

PubMed Central

Transcriptional silencing associated with aberrant promoter hypermethylation is a common mechanism of inactivation of tumor suppressor genes in cancer cells. To globally profile the genes silenced by hypermethylation in prostate cancer, we screened a whole genome expression microarray for genes reactivated in the LNCaP, DU-145, PC-3 and MDA2b prostate tumor cell lines after treatment with the demethylating drug 5-aza-2 deoxycytidine and histone deacetylation inhibiting drug trichostatin A. A total of 2997 genes showed at least 2-fold upregulation of expression after drug treatment in at least one prostate tumor cell line. For validation we examined the first 45 genes, ranked by upregulation of expression, that had a typical CpG island and were known to be expressed in the normal cell counterpart. Two important findings were firstly that several genes known to be frequently hypermethylated in prostate cancer were apparent. Secondly, validation studies revealed eight novel genes hypermethylated in the prostate tumor cell lines, four of which were unmethylated in normal prostate cells and hypermethylated in primary prostate tumors (SLC15A3 66%, KRT7 54%, TACSTD2 17%, GADD45b 3%). Thus, we established the utility of our screen for genes hypermethylated in prostate cancer cells. One of the novel genes was TACSTD2/TROP2 a marker of human prostate basal cells with stem cell characteristics. TACSTD2 was unmethylated in prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia and may have utility in emerging methylation-based detection of prostate cancer tests. Further study of the hypermethylome will provide insight into the biology of the disease and facilitate translational studies in prostate cancer. PMID:20699414

Ibragimova, Ilsiya; de Cáceres, Inmaculada Ibáñez; Hoffman, Amanda M.; Potapova, Anna; Dulaimi, Essel; Al-Saleem, Tahseen; Hudes, Gary R.; Ochs, Michael F.; Cairns, Paul

2010-01-01

65

A VIRUS-INDUCED GENE SILENCING SYSTEM FOR THE ANALYSIS OF DISEASE RESISTANCE PATHWAYS IN WHEAT AND BARLEY  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Systems for virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS) that can rapidly and efficiently create gene knockout phenotypes, have proven to be very useful tools for the analysis of plant gene function. VIGS is a form of RNA-mediated gene silencing. All forms of RNA-mediated gene silencing involve the product...

66

Systematic identification of cis-silenced genes by trans complementation  

PubMed Central

A gene’s transcriptional output is the combined product of two inputs: diffusible factors in the cellular milieu acting in trans, and chromatin state acting in cis. Here, we describe a strategy for dissecting the relative contribution of cis versus trans mechanisms to gene regulation. Referred to as trans complementation, it entails fusing two disparate cell types and searching for genes differentially expressed between the two genomes of fused cells. Any differential expression can be causally attributed to cis mechanisms because the two genomes of fused cells share a single homogenized milieu in trans. This assay uncovered a state of transcriptional competency that we termed ‘occluded’ whereby affected genes are silenced by cis-acting mechanisms in a manner that blocks them from responding to the trans-acting milieu of the cell. Importantly, occluded genes in a given cell type tend to include master triggers of alternative cell fates. Furthermore, the occluded state is maintained during cell division and is extraordinarily stable under a wide range of physiological conditions. These results support the model that the occlusion of lineage-inappropriate genes is a key mechanism of cell fate restriction. The identification of occluded genes by our assay provides a hitherto unavailable functional readout of chromatin state that is distinct from and complementary to gene expression status. PMID:19050040

Lee, Jae Hyun; Bugarija, Branimir; Millan, Enrique J.; Walton, Noah M.; Gaetz, Jedidiah; Fernandes, Croydon J.; Yu, Wei-Hua; Mekel-Bobrov, Nitzan; Vallender, Tammy W.; Snyder, Gregory E.; Xiang, Andy Peng; Lahn, Bruce T.

2009-01-01

67

Chitosan hydrogel for localized gene silencing  

PubMed Central

Objective To achieve effective delivery of siRNA into target cells in vivo, we have developed a novel approach of siRNA delivery by using local drug delivery systems. Results The chitosan hydrogel (CH-HG) displayed a liquid-solid phase transition in a temperature-dependent manner and formed an endothermic hydrogel in tumor tissue after intra-tumoral injection. Additionally, we tested the extent of in vivo delivery following a single intra-tumoral injection of Alexa555 siRNA/CH-HG into A375SM-bearing mice. The Alexa555 siRNA demonstrated higher localization into tumor cells compared to control. The Alexa555 siRNA delivery extends to tumor cells outside of CH-HG and some tumor cells also infiltrated into CH-HG. For therapeutic proof-of-concept studies, CH-HG including TG2-targeted siRNA significantly inhibited tumor growth in melanoma (A375SM) and breast (MDA-MB231) tumor models compared to control (A375SM: 72% reduction and MDA-MB231: 92% reduction, p < 0.001). Experimental Design We prepared a CH-HG system loaded with siRNA to enhance localized therapeutic efficacy without risk for systemic side effects. Delivery of siRNA into CH-HG was confirmed by fluorescence microscopy. Antitumor efficacy was examined in mouse models of melanoma (A375SM) and breast (MDA-MD231) cancer. Conclusions This study developed a novel local delivery method for siRNA therapy using the CH-HG system. This approach could have broad applications for multiple localized diseases. PMID:21358280

Han, Hee Dong; Mora, Edna M; Roh, Ju Won; Nishimura, Masato; Lee, Sun Joo; Stone, Rebecca L; Bar-Eli, Menashe; Lopez-Berestein, Gabriel

2011-01-01

68

Noise and correlations in genes silenced by small RNA.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Many small regulatory RNAs have been identified in prokaryotes and eukaryotes in recent years. In many cases, RNA regulation is found in critical pathways. These include stress response and quorum sensing pathways in bacteria, and cell differentiation and programmed cell death in eukaryotes. In many cases, regulation by small RNA is used in switching off a response program as long as it is not required, allowing for a fast switching on when necessary. Clearly, accidental execution of such a program may bare grave consequences on the cell, and should be avoided. Here we analyze a stochastic model for gene regulation by the most abundant class of small RNA in bacteria. This class of small RNAs acts by base pairing with target mRNAs, silencing its translation and actively promoting its degradation. Importantly, the small RNA molecule is not recycled. Our model suggests that genes silenced by sRNA exhibits smooth noise, as opposed to the bursty noise characteristic to genes repressed at the level of transcription, with coupling between intrinsic noise and global, extrinsic fluctuations. In addition, we investigate how noise propagates through the indirect coupling between different targets of the same sRNA. These features are discussed in the context of circuits exhibiting multi-stability, where protein bursts have strong implications on spontaneous switching.

Hwa, Terence; Levine, Erel

2006-03-01

69

Highly efficient virus-induced gene silencing in apple and soybean by apple latent spherical virus vector and biolistic inoculation.  

PubMed

Virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS) is an effective tool for the analysis of the gene function in plants within a short time. However, in woody fruit tree like apple, some of Solanum crops, and soybean, it is generally difficult to inoculate virus vector by conventional inoculation methods. Here, we show efficient VIGS in apple and soybean by Apple latent spherical virus (ALSV) vector and biolistic inoculation. The plants inoculated with ALSV vectors by particle bombardment showed uniform silenced phenotypes of target genes within 2-3 weeks post inoculation. PMID:23386303

Yamagishi, Noriko; Yoshikawa, Nobuyuki

2013-01-01

70

RNAi Pathway Genes Are Resistant to Small RNA Mediated Gene Silencing in the Protozoan Parasite Entamoeba histolytica  

PubMed Central

The RNA interference pathway in the protist Entamoeba histolytica plays important roles in permanent gene silencing as well as in the regulation of virulence determinants. Recently, a novel RNA interference (RNAi)-based silencing technique was developed in this parasite that uses a gene endogenously silenced by small RNAs as a “trigger” to induce silencing of other genes that are fused to it. Fusion to a trigger gene induces the production of gene-specific antisense small RNAs, resulting in robust and permanent silencing of the cognate gene. This approach has silenced multiple genes including those involved in virulence and transcriptional regulation. We now demonstrate that all tested genes of the amebic RNAi pathway are unable to be silenced using the trigger approach, including Argonaute genes (Ago2-1, Ago2-2, and Ago2-3), RNaseIII, and RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRP). In all situations (except for RdRP), fusion to a trigger successfully induces production of gene-specific antisense small RNAs to the cognate gene. These small RNAs are capable of silencing a target gene in trans, indicating that they are functional; despite this, however, they cannot silence the RNAi pathway genes. Interestingly, when a trigger is fused to RdRP, small RNA induction to RdRP does not occur, a unique phenotype hinting that either RdRP is highly resistant to being a target of small RNAs or that small RNA generation may be controlled by RdRP. The inability of the small RNA pathway to silence RNAi genes in E. histolytica, despite the generation of functional small RNAs to these loci suggest that epigenetic factors may protect certain genomic loci and thus determine susceptibility to small RNA mediated silencing. PMID:25198343

Pompey, Justine M.; Morf, Laura; Singh, Upinder

2014-01-01

71

Nucleoprotein filament formation is the structural basis for bacterial protein H-NS gene silencing  

PubMed Central

H-NS is an abundant nucleoid-associated protein in bacteria that globally silences genes, including horizontally-acquired genes related to pathogenesis. Although it has been shown that H-NS has multiple modes of DNA-binding, which mode is employed in gene silencing is still unclear. Here, we report that in H-NS mutants that are unable to silence genes, are unable to form a rigid H-NS nucleoprotein filament. These results indicate that the H-NS nucleoprotein filament is crucial for its gene silencing function, and serves as the fundamental structural basis for gene silencing by H-NS and likely other H-NS-like bacterial proteins. PMID:22798986

Lim, Ci Ji; Lee, Sin Yi; Kenney, Linda J.; Yan, Jie

2012-01-01

72

Nucleoprotein filament formation is the structural basis for bacterial protein H-NS gene silencing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

H-NS is an abundant nucleoid-associated protein in bacteria that globally silences genes, including horizontally-acquired genes related to pathogenesis. Although it has been shown that H-NS has multiple modes of DNA-binding, which mode is employed in gene silencing is still unclear. Here, we report that in H-NS mutants that are unable to silence genes, are unable to form a rigid H-NS nucleoprotein filament. These results indicate that the H-NS nucleoprotein filament is crucial for its gene silencing function, and serves as the fundamental structural basis for gene silencing by H-NS and likely other H-NS-like bacterial proteins.

Lim, Ci Ji; Lee, Sin Yi; Kenney, Linda J.; Yan, Jie

2012-07-01

73

Virus-induced gene silencing for comparative functional studies in Gladiolus hybridus.  

PubMed

Functional analysis of genes in gladiolus has previously been impractical due to the lack of an efficient stable genetic transformation method. However, virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS) is effective in some plants which are difficult to transform through other methods. Although the Tobacco rattle virus (TRV)-based VIGS system has been developed and used for verifying gene functions in diverse plants, an appropriate TRV-VIGS approach for gladiolus has not been established yet. In this report we describe the first use of the TRV-VIGS system for gene silencing in gladiolus. Vacuum infiltration of cormels and young plants with the GhPDS-VIGS vector effectively down-regulated the PHYTOENE DESATURASE ortholog GhPDS gene and also resulted in various degrees of photobleaching in Gladiolus hybridus. The reduction in GhPDS expression was tested after TRV-based vector infection using real-time RT-PCR. In addition, the progress of TRV infection was detected by fluorescence visualization using a pTRV2: CP-GFP vector. In conclusion, the TRV-mediated VIGS described here will be an effective gene function analysis mechanism in gladiolus. PMID:24170343

Zhong, Xionghui; Yuan, Xue; Wu, Ze; Khan, Muhammad Ali; Chen, Jin; Li, Xiaoxin; Gong, Benhe; Zhao, Yang; Wu, Jian; Wu, Chenyu; Yi, Mingfang

2014-02-01

74

Cohesin and Polycomb Proteins Functionally Interact to Control Transcription at Silenced and Active Genes  

PubMed Central

Cohesin is crucial for proper chromosome segregation but also regulates gene transcription and organism development by poorly understood mechanisms. Using genome-wide assays in Drosophila developing wings and cultured cells, we find that cohesin functionally interacts with Polycomb group (PcG) silencing proteins at both silenced and active genes. Cohesin unexpectedly facilitates binding of Polycomb Repressive Complex 1 (PRC1) to many active genes, but their binding is mutually antagonistic at silenced genes. PRC1 depletion decreases phosphorylated RNA polymerase II and mRNA at many active genes but increases them at silenced genes. Depletion of cohesin reduces long-range interactions between Polycomb Response Elements in the invected-engrailed gene complex where it represses transcription. These studies reveal a previously unrecognized role for PRC1 in facilitating productive gene transcription and provide new insights into how cohesin and PRC1 control development. PMID:23818863

Schaaf, Cheri A.; Misulovin, Ziva; Gause, Maria; Koenig, Amanda; Gohara, David W.; Watson, Audrey; Dorsett, Dale

2013-01-01

75

Release from post-transcriptional gene silencing by cell proliferation in transgenic tobacco plants: possible mechanism for noninheritance of the silencing.  

PubMed Central

Transgenic tobacco plants that overproduce luciferase (Luc) frequently exhibit post-transcriptional gene silencing (PTGS) of luc. The silencing was observed over five generations and found not to be inherited but acquired by the next generation at a certain frequency. Luc imaging analysis of silenced plants revealed Luc activity only in proliferating tissues such as shoot meristem and developing flower. The luc gene expression has been recovered from silencing before development of germ cells, excluding a possible recovery from the PTGS at meiosis. A systemic silencing signal transferred from older tissue likely induces gene silencing of younger tissues in which cell proliferation has been completed. Only seeds maintained Luc activity, probably because of isolation from the silencing signal by a possible partition from the parent placenta. Calli newly induced from the leaf pieces of silenced plants recovered from the silencing and exhibited strong Luc activity similar to nonsilenced leaves, further indicating that the silencing cannot be maintained in proliferating cells. Thus release from PTGS in proliferating cells is a possible mechanism for noninheritance of silencing. PMID:11805069

Mitsuhara, Ichiro; Shirasawa-Seo, Naomi; Iwai, Takayoshi; Nakamura, Shigeo; Honkura, Ryoso; Ohashi, Yuko

2002-01-01

76

Reactivation of developmentally silenced globin genes by forced chromatin looping.  

PubMed

Distal enhancers commonly contact target promoters via chromatin looping. In erythroid cells, the locus control region (LCR) contacts ?-type globin genes in a developmental stage-specific manner to stimulate transcription. Previously, we induced LCR-promoter looping by tethering the self-association domain (SA) of Ldb1 to the ?-globin promoter via artificial zinc fingers. Here, we show that targeting the SA to a developmentally silenced embryonic globin gene in adult murine erythroblasts triggers its transcriptional reactivation. This activity depends on the LCR, consistent with an LCR-promoter looping mechanism. Strikingly, targeting the SA to the fetal ?-globin promoter in primary adult human erythroblasts increases ?-globin promoter-LCR contacts, stimulating transcription to approximately 85% of total ?-globin synthesis, with a reciprocal reduction in adult ?-globin expression. Our findings demonstrate that forced chromatin looping can override a stringent developmental gene expression program and suggest a novel approach to control the balance of globin gene transcription for therapeutic applications. PMID:25126789

Deng, Wulan; Rupon, Jeremy W; Krivega, Ivan; Breda, Laura; Motta, Irene; Jahn, Kristen S; Reik, Andreas; Gregory, Philip D; Rivella, Stefano; Dean, Ann; Blobel, Gerd A

2014-08-14

77

Investigating plasmodesmata genetics with virus-induced gene silencing and an agrobacterium-mediated GFP movement assay.  

PubMed

Plasmodesmata (PD) are channels that connect the cytoplasm of adjacent plant cells, permitting intercellular transport and communication. PD function and formation are essential to plant growth and development, but we still know very little about the genetic pathways regulating PD transport. Here, we present a method for assaying changes in the rate of PD transport following genetic manipulation. Gene expression in leaves is modified by virus-induced gene silencing. Seven to ten days after infection with Tobacco rattle virus carrying a silencing trigger, the gene(s) of interest is silenced in newly arising leaves. In these new leaves, individual cells are then transformed with Agrobacterium to express GFP, and the rate of GFP diffusion via PD is measured. By measuring GFP diffusion both within the epidermis and between the epidermis and mesophyll, the assay can be used to study the effects of silencing a gene(s) on PD transport in general, or transport through secondary PD specifically. Plant biologists working in several fields will find this assay useful, since PD transport impacts plant physiology, development, and defense. PMID:25287205

Brunkard, Jacob O; Burch-Smith, Tessa M; Runkel, Anne M; Zambryski, Patricia

2015-01-01

78

Release of Epigenetic Gene Silencing by Trans-Acting Mutations in Arabidopsis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Gene silencing in plants inactivates transgenes introduced into plants and\\/or endogenous homologous genes. This stable but potentially reversible loss of gene activity resembles epigenetic changes that occur in normal development. The stability of silencing implies the involvement of trans-acting components, although none of them have been identified so far. Here we report the finding of second-site mutations interfering with maintenance

Ortrun Mittelsten Scheid; Karin Afsar; Jerzy Paszkowski

1998-01-01

79

The Coat Protein of Turnip Crinkle Virus Suppresses Posttranscriptional Gene Silencing at an Early Initiation Step  

Microsoft Academic Search

Posttranscriptional gene silencing (PTGS), or RNA silencing, is a sequence-specific RNA degradation pro- cess that targets foreign RNA, including viral and transposon RNA for destruction. Several RNA plant viruses have been shown to encode suppressors of PTGS in order to survive this host defense. We report here that the coat protein (CP) of Turnip crinkle virus (TCV) strongly suppresses PTGS.

F. Qu; T. Ren; T. J. Morris

2003-01-01

80

SID-1 IS IMPLICATED IN SYSTEMIC GENE SILENCING IN THE HONEY BEE  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

RNA interference (RNAi) has become a powerful functional genomics tool that can be used to effectively silence gene expression. The implications for analysis of loss-of-function phenotypes through systemic or localized silencing are enormously significant in the application of this technology. The...

81

Dicer is required for chromosome segregation and gene silencing in fission yeast cells  

PubMed Central

RNA interference is a form of gene silencing in which the nuclease Dicer cleaves double-stranded RNA into small interfering RNAs. Here we report a role for Dicer in chromosome segregation of fission yeast. Deletion of the Dicer (dcr1+) gene caused slow growth, sensitivity to thiabendazole, lagging chromosomes during anaphase, and abrogated silencing of centromeric repeats. As Dicer in other species, Dcr1p degraded double-stranded RNA into ?23 nucleotide fragments in vitro, and dcr1? cells were partially rescued by expression of human Dicer, indicating evolutionarily conserved functions. Expression profiling demonstrated that dcr1+ was required for silencing of two genes containing a conserved motif. PMID:12482946

Provost, Patrick; Silverstein, Rebecca A.; Dishart, David; Walfridsson, Julian; Djupedal, Ingela; Kniola, Barbara; Wright, Anthony; Samuelsson, Bengt; Rådmark, Olof; Ekwall, Karl

2002-01-01

82

Increasing the amylose content of durum wheat through silencing of the SBEIIa genes  

PubMed Central

Background High amylose starch has attracted particular interest because of its correlation with the amount of Resistant Starch (RS) in food. RS plays a role similar to fibre with beneficial effects for human health, providing protection from several diseases such as colon cancer, diabetes, obesity, osteoporosis and cardiovascular diseases. Amylose content can be modified by a targeted manipulation of the starch biosynthetic pathway. In particular, the inactivation of the enzymes involved in amylopectin synthesis can lead to the increase of amylose content. In this work, genes encoding starch branching enzymes of class II (SBEIIa) were silenced using the RNA interference (RNAi) technique in two cultivars of durum wheat, using two different methods of transformation (biolistic and Agrobacterium). Expression of RNAi transcripts was targeted to the seed endosperm using a tissue-specific promoter. Results Amylose content was markedly increased in the durum wheat transgenic lines exhibiting SBEIIa gene silencing. Moreover the starch granules in these lines were deformed, possessing an irregular and deflated shape and being smaller than those present in the untransformed controls. Two novel granule bound proteins, identified by SDS-PAGE in SBEIIa RNAi lines, were investigated by mass spectrometry and shown to have strong homologies to the waxy proteins. RVA analysis showed new pasting properties associated with high amylose lines in comparison with untransformed controls. Finally, pleiotropic effects on other starch genes were found by semi-quantitative and Real-Time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Conclusion We have found that the silencing of SBEIIa genes in durum wheat causes obvious alterations in granule morphology and starch composition, leading to high amylose wheat. Results obtained with two different methods of transformation and in two durum wheat cultivars were comparable. PMID:20626919

2010-01-01

83

Induction of RNA interference in Caenorhabditis elegans by RNAs derived from plants exhibiting post-transcriptional gene silencing  

Microsoft Academic Search

The term 'gene silencing' refers to transcriptional and post-transcriptional control of gene expression. Related processes are found across kingdoms in plants and animals. We intended to test whether particular RNA constituents of a silenced plant can induce silencing in an animal. We generated Nicotiana benthamiana lines that expressed green fluorescent protein (GFP) from a transgene. Plants in which GFP expression

Alexandra Boutla; Kriton Kalantidis; Nektarios Tavernarakis; M ina Tsagris; Martin Tabler

2002-01-01

84

INTRODUCTION: Plant virus-based vectors carrying sequences homologous to endogenous genes trigger silencing through a homology-dependent RNA  

E-print Network

silencing through a homology-dependent RNA degradation mechanism. This phenomenon, called virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS), has been shown to be of great potential in plant reverse genetics. Advantage of VIGS over fluorescent pigment (GFP) and phytoene desaturase (PDS) as markers. VIGS (Virus-Induced Gene Silencing) Works

Gill, Kulvinder

85

A Vector Library for Silencing Central Carbon Metabolism Genes with Antisense RNAs in Escherichia coli  

PubMed Central

We describe here the construction of a series of 71 vectors to silence central carbon metabolism genes in Escherichia coli. The vectors inducibly express antisense RNAs called paired-terminus antisense RNAs, which have a higher silencing efficacy than ordinary antisense RNAs. By measuring mRNA amounts, measuring activities of target proteins, or observing specific phenotypes, it was confirmed that all the vectors were able to silence the expression of target genes efficiently. Using this vector set, each of the central carbon metabolism genes was silenced individually, and the accumulation of metabolites was investigated. We were able to obtain accurate information on ways to increase the production of pyruvate, an industrially valuable compound, from the silencing results. Furthermore, the experimental results of pyruvate accumulation were compared to in silico predictions, and both sets of results were consistent. Compared to the gene disruption approach, the silencing approach has an advantage in that any E. coli strain can be used and multiple gene silencing is easily possible in any combination. PMID:24212579

Ohno, Satoshi; Yoshikawa, Katsunori; Shimizu, Hiroshi; Tamura, Tomohiro

2014-01-01

86

Investigations of barley stripe mosaic virus as a gene silencing vector in barley roots and in Brachypodium distachyon and oat  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Gene silencing vectors based on Barley stripe mosaic virus (BSMV) are used extensively in cereals to study gene function, but nearly all studies have been limited to genes expressed in leaves of barley and wheat. However since many important aspects of plant biology are based on root-expressed genes we wanted to explore the potential of BSMV for silencing genes

Andrzej Pacak; Katrin Geisler; Bodil Jørgensen; Maria Barciszewska-Pacak; Lena Nilsson; Tom Hamborg Nielsen; Elisabeth Johansen; Mette Grønlund; Iver Jakobsen; Merete Albrechtsen

2010-01-01

87

Transgenerational gene silencing causes gain of virulence in a plant pathogen  

PubMed Central

Avirulence (Avr) genes of plant pathogens encode effector proteins that trigger immunity in plants carrying appropriate resistance (R) genes. The Phytophthora sojae Avr3a gene displays allelic variation in messenger RNA transcript levels. P. sojae strains with detectable Avr3a gene transcripts are avirulent on plants carrying the R-gene Rps3a, whereas strains lacking Avr3a mRNA escape detection by Rps3a and are virulent. Here we show non-Mendelian interactions between naturally occurring Avr3a alleles that result in transgenerational gene silencing, and we identify small RNA molecules of 25 nucleotides that are abundant in gene-silenced strains but not in strains with Avr3a mRNA. This example of transgenerational gene silencing is exceptional because it is naturally occurring and results in gain of virulence in a pathogenic organism. PMID:23322037

Qutob, Dinah; Patrick Chapman, B.; Gijzen, Mark

2013-01-01

88

Construction of hairpin RNA expressing vectors for RNA-mediated gene silencing in fungi  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

RNA-mediated gene silencing is one of the major tools for functional genomics in fungi and can be achieved by transformation with constructs that express hairpin (hp) RNA with sequences homologous to the target gene(s). To make an hpRNA expression construct, a portion of the target gene can be ampl...

89

Exploring the specificity and mechanisms of siRNA-mediated gene silencing in mammalian cells  

E-print Network

Complementary short interfering RNAs (siRNAs) are routinely used to knockdown gene expression. siRNAs bind to their target sequence and guide transcript cleavage and subsequent degradation. This type of silencing is ...

Alemán, Lourdes Maria

2008-01-01

90

siRNA-mediated gene silencing in vitro and in vivo  

Microsoft Academic Search

RNA interference is now established as an important biological strategy for gene silencing, but its application to mammalian cells has been limited by nonspecific inhibitory effects of long dsRNA on translation. Here, we describe a viral-mediated delivery mechanism that results in specific silencing of targeted genes through expression of small interfering RNA (siRNA). We establish proof of principle by markedly

Haibin Xia; Qinwen Mao; Henry L Paulson; Beverly L Davidson

2002-01-01

91

Therapeutic silencing of an endogenous gene by systemic administration of modified siRNAs  

Microsoft Academic Search

RNA interference (RNAi) holds considerable promise as a therapeutic approach to silence disease-causing genes, particularly those that encode so-called `non-druggable' targets that are not amenable to conventional therapeutics such as small molecules, proteins, or monoclonal antibodies. The main obstacle to achieving in vivo gene silencing by RNAi technologies is delivery. Here we show that chemically modified short interfering RNAs (siRNAs)

Jürgen Soutschek; Akin Akinc; Birgit Bramlage; Klaus Charisse; Rainer Constien; Mary Donoghue; Sayda Elbashir; Anke Geick; Philipp Hadwiger; Jens Harborth; Matthias John; Venkitasamy Kesavan; Gary Lavine; Rajendra K. Pandey; Timothy Racie; Kallanthottathil G. Rajeev; Ingo Röhl; Ivanka Toudjarska; Gang Wang; Silvio Wuschko; David Bumcrot; Victor Koteliansky; Stefan Limmer; Muthiah Manoharan; Hans-Peter Vornlocher

2004-01-01

92

Bmi1 cooperates with Dnmt1-associated protein 1 in gene silencing  

Microsoft Academic Search

Polycomb group (PcG) proteins are involved in gene silencing through chromatin modifications. Among polycomb repressive complexes (PRCs), PRC1 exhibits H2A-K119 ubiquitin E3 ligase activity. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying PRC1-mediated gene silencing remain largely obscure. In this study, we found that Bmi1 directly interacts with Dnmt-associated protein 1 (Dmap1), which has been characterized to associate with the maintenance DNA methyltransferase,

Masamitsu Negishi; Atsunori Saraya; Satoru Miyagi; Kenji Nagao; Yoshimasa Inagaki; Mitsuo Nishikawa; Shoji Tajima; Haruhiko Koseki; Hiroshi Tsuda; Yoshinari Takasaki; Hiromitsu Nakauchi; Atsushi Iwama

2007-01-01

93

A Calmodulin-Related Protein That Suppresses Posttranscriptional Gene Silencing in Plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Posttranscriptional gene silencing (PTGS) is an ancient eukaryotic regulatory mechanism in which a particular RNA sequence is targeted and destroyed. The helper component-proteinase (HC-Pro) of plant potyviruses suppresses PTGS in plants. Using a yeast two-hybrid system, we identified a calmodulin-related protein (termed rgs-CaM) that interacts with HC-Pro. Here we report that rgs-CaM, like HC-Pro itself, suppresses gene silencing. Our work

Radhamani Anandalakshmi; Rajendra Marathe; Xin Ge; J. M. Herr; Christopher Mau; Allison Mallory; Gail Pruss; Lewis Bowman; Vicki B. Vance

2000-01-01

94

Gene silencing and gene expression in phytopathogenic fungi using a plant virus vector.  

PubMed

RNA interference (RNAi) is a powerful approach for elucidating gene functions in a variety of organisms, including phytopathogenic fungi. In such fungi, RNAi has been induced by expressing hairpin RNAs delivered through plasmids, sequences integrated in fungal or plant genomes, or by RNAi generated in planta by a plant virus infection. All these approaches have some drawbacks ranging from instability of hairpin constructs in fungal cells to difficulties in preparing and handling transgenic plants to silence homologous sequences in fungi grown on these plants. Here we show that RNAi can be expressed in the phytopathogenic fungus Colletotrichum acutatum (strain C71) by virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS) without a plant intermediate, but by using the direct infection of a recombinant virus vector based on the plant virus, tobacco mosaic virus (TMV). We provide evidence that a wild-type isolate of TMV is able to enter C71 cells grown in liquid medium, replicate, and persist therein. With a similar approach, a recombinant TMV vector carrying a gene for the ectopic expression of the green fluorescent protein (GFP) induced the stable silencing of the GFP in the C. acutatum transformant line 10 expressing GFP derived from C71. The TMV-based vector also enabled C. acutatum to transiently express exogenous GFP up to six subcultures and for at least 2 mo after infection, without the need to develop transformation technology. With these characteristics, we anticipate this approach will find wider application as a tool in functional genomics of filamentous fungi. PMID:24594602

Mascia, Tiziana; Nigro, Franco; Abdallah, Alì; Ferrara, Massimo; De Stradis, Angelo; Faedda, Roberto; Palukaitis, Peter; Gallitelli, Donato

2014-03-18

95

Transgenesis by lentiviral vectors: Lack of gene silencing in mammalian embryonic stem cells and preimplantation embryos  

Microsoft Academic Search

The introduction of foreign genes into early mouse embryos and embryonic stem (ES) cells is invaluable for the analysis of gene function and regulation in the living animal. The use of vectors derived from retroviruses as gene transfer vehicles in this setting has had limited success because of silencing of transgene expression. Here, we show that vectors derived from lentiviruses,

Alexander Pfeifer; Masahito Ikawa; Yelena Dayn; Inder M. Verma

2002-01-01

96

Development of a gene silencing DNA vector derived from a broad host range geminivirus  

PubMed Central

Background Gene silencing is proving to be a powerful tool for genetic, developmental, and physiological analyses. The use of viral induced gene silencing (VIGS) offers advantages to transgenic approaches as it can be potentially applied to non-model systems for which transgenic techniques are not readily available. However, many VIGS vectors are derived from Gemini viruses that have limited host ranges. We present a new, unipartite vector that is derived from a curtovirus that has a broad host range and will be amenable to use in many non-model systems. Results The construction of a gene silencing vector derived from the geminivirus Beet curly top virus (BCTV), named pWSRi, is reported. Two versions of the vector have been developed to allow application by biolistic techniques or by agro-infiltration. We demonstrate its ability to silence nuclear genes including ribulose bisphosphate carboxylase small subunit (rbcS), transketolase, the sulfur allele of magnesium chelatase (ChlI), and two homeotic transcription factors in spinach or tomato by generating gene-specific knock-down phenotypes. Onset of phenotypes occurred 3 to 12 weeks post-inoculation, depending on the target gene, in organs that developed after the application. The vector lacks movement genes and we found no evidence for significant spread from the site of inoculation. However, viral amplification in inoculated tissue was detected and is necessary for systemic silencing, suggesting that signals generated from active viral replicons are efficiently transported within the plant. Conclusion The unique properties of the pWSRi vector, the ability to silence genes in meristem tissue, the separation of virus and silencing phenotypes, and the broad natural host range of BCTV, suggest that it will have wide utility. PMID:19573239

Golenberg, Edward M; Sather, D Noah; Hancock, Leandria C; Buckley, Kenneth J; Villafranco, Natalie M; Bisaro, David M

2009-01-01

97

Concurrent epigenetic silencing of wnt/?-catenin pathway inhibitor genes in B cell chronic lymphocytic leukaemia  

PubMed Central

Background The Wnt/?-catenin signalling is aberrantly activated in primary B cell chronic lymphocytic leukaemia (CLL). Epigenetic silencing of pathway inhibitor genes may be a mechanism for its activation. In this study, we investigated systematically and quantitatively the methylation status of 12 Wnt/?-catenin pathway inhibitor genes – CDH1, DACT1, DKK1, DKK2, DKK3, DKK4, SFRP1, SFRP2, SFRP3, SFRP4, SFRP5 and WIF1 – in the cell lines EHEB and MEC-1 as well as patient samples. Methods Quantification of DNA methylation was performed by means of bisulphite pyrosequencing and confirmed by bisulphite Sanger sequencing. Gene expression was analysed by qPCR using GAPDH as internal control. E-cadherin and ?-catenin protein quantification was carried out by microsphere-based immunoassays. Methylation differences observed between the patient and control groups were tested using generalised least squares models. Results For 10 genes, a higher methylation level was observed in tumour material. Only DKK4 exhibited similarly high methylation levels in both tumour and normal specimens, while DACT1 was always essentially unmethylated. However, also for these inhibitors, treatment of cells with the demethylating agent 5-aza-2´-deoxycytidine resulted in an induction of their expression, as shown by quantitative PCR, suggesting an indirect epigenetic control of activity. While the degree of demethylation and its transcriptional consequences differed between the genes, there was an overall high correlation of demethylation and increased activity. Protein expression studies revealed that no constitutive Wnt/?-catenin signalling occurred in the cell lines, which is in discrepancy with results from primary CLL. However, treatment with 5-aza-2´-deoxycytidine caused accumulation of ?-catenin. Simultaneously, E-cadherin expression was strongly induced, leading to the formation of a complex with ?-catenin and thus demonstrating its epigenetically regulated inhibition effect. Conclusions The results suggest an epigenetic silencing mechanism of the Wnt/?-catenin pathway inhibitor genes in CLL. Hypermethylation and silencing of functionally related genes may not be completely stochastic but result from the tumour epigenome reprogramming orchestrated by Polycomb-group repressive complexes. The data are of interest in the context of epigenetic-based therapy. PMID:22672427

2012-01-01

98

Developmental silencing and independency from E2F of apoptotic gene expression in postmitotic tissues.  

PubMed

The involvement of caspases in postmitotic cell death is controversial. Here we report that adult brain and heart are devoid of many key pro-apoptotic proteins due to a progressive postnatal silencing event involving a reduction of their transcript levels. E2F has been shown to control cell cycle progression and to be transcriptional activator of apoptotic genes. However, our data demonstrate that apoptotic gene expression in heart, brain and liver, as well as cardiac and neuronal apoptotic gene silencing during development, are E2F-independent events. Therefore, the genes regulating caspase-dependent cell death are expressed in embryonic organs in an E2F-independent manner and a developmental-related silencing event represses these genes in postmitotic adult tissues. PMID:18037375

Zhang, Jisheng; Bahi, Núria; Zubiaga, Ana M; Comella, Joan X; Llovera, Marta; Sanchis, Daniel

2007-12-22

99

HvCKX2 gene silencing by biolistic or Agrobacterium-mediated transformation in barley leads to different phenotypes  

PubMed Central

Background CKX genes encode cytokinin dehydrogenase enzymes (CKX), which metabolize cytokinins in plants and influence developmental processes. The genes are expressed in different tissues and organs during development; however, their exact role in barley is poorly understood. It has already been proven that RNA interference (RNAi)-based silencing of HvCKX1 decreased the CKX level, especially in those organs which showed the highest expression, i.e. developing kernels and roots, leading to higher plant productivity and higher mass of the roots [1]. The same type of RNAi construct was applied to silence HvCKX2 and analyze the function of the gene. Two cultivars of barley were transformed with the same silencing and selection cassettes by two different methods: biolistic and via Agrobacterium. Results The mean Agrobacterium-mediated transformation efficiency of Golden Promise was 3.47% (±2.82). The transcript level of HvCKX2 in segregating progeny of T1 lines was decreased to 34%. The reduction of the transcript in Agrobacterium-derived plants resulted in decreased CKX activity in the developing and developed leaves as well as in 7 DAP (days after pollination) spikes. The final phenotypic effect was increased productivity of T0 plants and T1 lines. Higher productivity was the result of the higher number of seeds and higher grain yield. It was also correlated with the higher 1000 grain weight, increased (by 7.5%) height of the plants and higher (from 0.5 to 2) numbers of spikes. The transformation efficiency of Golden Promise after biolistic transformation was more than twice as low compared to Agrobacterium. The transcript level in segregating progeny of T1 lines was decreased to 24%. Otherwise, the enzyme activity found in the leaves of the lines after biolistic transformation, especially in cv. Golden Promise, was very high, exceeding the relative level of the control lines. These unbalanced ratios of the transcript level and the activity of the CKX enzyme negatively affected kernel germination or anther development and as a consequence setting the seeds. The final phenotypic effect was the decreased productivity of T0 plants and T1 lines obtained via the biolistic silencing of HvCKX2. Conclusion The phenotypic result, which was higher productivity of silenced lines obtained via Agrobacterium, confirms the hypothesis that spatial and temporal differences in expression contributed to functional differentiation. The applicability of Agrobacterium-mediated transformation for gene silencing of developmentally regulated genes, like HvCKX2, was proven. Otherwise low productivity and disturbances in plant development of biolistic-silenced lines documented the unsuitability of the method. The possible reasons are discussed. PMID:23134638

2012-01-01

100

Virus-induced gene silencing of Arabidopsis thaliana gene homologues in wheat identifies genes conferring improved drought tolerance  

PubMed Central

In a non-model staple crop like wheat (Triticum aestivumI L.), functional validation of potential drought stress responsive genes identified in Arabidopsis could provide gene targets for breeding. Virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS) of genes of interest can overcome the inherent problems of polyploidy and limited transformation potential that hamper functional validation studies in wheat. In this study, three potential candidate genes shown to be involved in abiotic stress response pathways in Arabidopsis thaliana were selected for VIGS experiments in wheat. These include Era1 (enhanced response to abscisic acid), Cyp707a (ABA 8’-hydroxylase), and Sal1 (inositol polyphosphate 1-phosphatase). Gene homologues for these three genes were identified in wheat and cloned in the viral vector barley stripe mosaic virus (BSMV) in the antisense direction, followed by rub inoculation of BSMV viral RNA transcripts onto wheat plants. Quantitative real-time PCR showed that VIGS-treated wheat plants had significant reductions in target gene transcripts. When VIGS-treated plants generated for Era1 and Sal1 were subjected to limiting water conditions, they showed increased relative water content, improved water use efficiency, reduced gas exchange, and better vigour compared to water-stressed control plants inoculated with RNA from the empty viral vector (BSMV0). In comparison, the Cyp707a-silenced plants showed no improvement over BSMV0-inoculated plants under limited water condition. These results indicate that Era1 and Sal1 play important roles in conferring drought tolerance in wheat. Other traits affected by Era1 silencing were also studied. Delayed seed germination in Era1-silenced plants suggests this gene may be a useful target for developing resistance to pre-harvest sprouting. PMID:23364940

Lapitan, Nora

2013-01-01

101

Pharmacologic unmasking of epigenetically silenced tumor suppressor genes in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma  

Microsoft Academic Search

We performed a comprehensive survey of commonly inactivated tumor suppressor genes in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) based on functional reactivation of epigenetically silenced tumor suppressor genes by 5-aza-2?-deoxycytidine and trichostatin A using microarrays containing 12599 genes. Among 58 genes identified by this approach, 44 (76%) harbored dense CpG islands in the promoter regions. Thirteen of twenty-two tested gene promoters

Keishi Yamashita; Sunil Upadhyay; Motonobu Osada; Mohammad O Hoque; Yan Xiao; Masaki Mori; Fumiaki Sato; Stephen J Meltzer; David Sidransky

2002-01-01

102

Coat protein gene sequence analysis of potato virus X and potato virus Y: conserved regions to design gene silencing cassette.  

PubMed

Potato virus X(PVX) and Potato virus Y(PVY) are two of the three most prevalent viruses that cause significant yield declines in potato. Twenty-seven PVX and thirty-seven PVY accessions were analyzed for nucleotide sequence variation of the coat protein gene. The average and variance of genetic distance for PVX were estimated at 0.118 and 0.004 and 0.118 and 0.005 for PVY using the neighbour joining method. Results of phylogenetic trees and their certification via stepwise discriminant analysis led us to classify of PVX sequences in four groups and PVY sequences in three groups. One purpose of this project was to determine suitable conserved regions to make of gene silencing constructs. Length of identified conserved regions were enough to silence of the virus coat protein genes on infected plants, many of which were located consequently with short gap spacers. In this term, some of groups were divided into subgroups to obtain conserved regions under minimum length of25 nt, enough length to design specific diagnostic-primers. PMID:19102033

Darbani, Behrooz; Stewart, C Neal; Razban, H Ahmad; Noeparvar, Shahin

2007-10-01

103

Manipulation of Cell Physiology Enables Gene Silencing in Well-differentiated Airway Epithelia.  

PubMed

The application of RNA interference-based gene silencing to the airway surface epithelium holds great promise to manipulate host and pathogen gene expression for therapeutic purposes. However, well-differentiated airway epithelia display significant barriers to double-stranded small-interfering RNA (siRNA) delivery despite testing varied classes of nonviral reagents. In well-differentiated primary pig airway epithelia (PAE) or human airway epithelia (HAE) grown at the air-liquid interface (ALI), the delivery of a Dicer-substrate small-interfering RNA (DsiRNA) duplex against hypoxanthine-guanine phosphoribosyltransferase (HPRT) with several nonviral reagents showed minimal uptake and no knockdown of the target. In contrast, poorly differentiated cells (2-5-day post-seeding) exhibited significant oligonucleotide internalization and target knockdown. This finding suggested that during differentiation, the barrier properties of the epithelium are modified to an extent that impedes oligonucleotide uptake. We used two methods to overcome this inefficiency. First, we tested the impact of epidermal growth factor (EGF), a known enhancer of macropinocytosis. Treatment of the cells with EGF improved oligonucleotide uptake resulting in significant but modest levels of target knockdown. Secondly, we used the connectivity map (Cmap) database to correlate gene expression changes during small molecule treatments on various cells types with genes that change upon mucociliary differentiation. Several different drug classes were identified from this correlative assessment. Well-differentiated epithelia treated with DsiRNAs and LY294002, a PI3K inhibitor, significantly improved gene silencing and concomitantly reduced target protein levels. These novel findings reveal that well-differentiated airway epithelia, normally resistant to siRNA delivery, can be pretreated with small molecules to improve uptake of synthetic oligonucleotide and RNA interference (RNAi) responses.Molecular Therapy - Nucleic Acids (2012) 1, e41; doi:10.1038/mtna.2012.36; published online 28 August 2012. PMID:23344182

Krishnamurthy, Sateesh; Behlke, Mark A; Ramachandran, Shyam; Salem, Aliasger K; McCray, Paul B; Davidson, Beverly L

2012-01-01

104

Manipulation of Cell Physiology Enables Gene Silencing in Well-differentiated Airway Epithelia  

PubMed Central

The application of RNA interference-based gene silencing to the airway surface epithelium holds great promise to manipulate host and pathogen gene expression for therapeutic purposes. However, well-differentiated airway epithelia display significant barriers to double-stranded small-interfering RNA (siRNA) delivery despite testing varied classes of nonviral reagents. In well-differentiated primary pig airway epithelia (PAE) or human airway epithelia (HAE) grown at the air–liquid interface (ALI), the delivery of a Dicer-substrate small-interfering RNA (DsiRNA) duplex against hypoxanthine–guanine phosphoribosyltransferase (HPRT) with several nonviral reagents showed minimal uptake and no knockdown of the target. In contrast, poorly differentiated cells (2–5-day post-seeding) exhibited significant oligonucleotide internalization and target knockdown. This finding suggested that during differentiation, the barrier properties of the epithelium are modified to an extent that impedes oligonucleotide uptake. We used two methods to overcome this inefficiency. First, we tested the impact of epidermal growth factor (EGF), a known enhancer of macropinocytosis. Treatment of the cells with EGF improved oligonucleotide uptake resulting in significant but modest levels of target knockdown. Secondly, we used the connectivity map (Cmap) database to correlate gene expression changes during small molecule treatments on various cells types with genes that change upon mucociliary differentiation. Several different drug classes were identified from this correlative assessment. Well-differentiated epithelia treated with DsiRNAs and LY294002, a PI3K inhibitor, significantly improved gene silencing and concomitantly reduced target protein levels. These novel findings reveal that well-differentiated airway epithelia, normally resistant to siRNA delivery, can be pretreated with small molecules to improve uptake of synthetic oligonucleotide and RNA interference (RNAi) responses. PMID:23344182

Krishnamurthy, Sateesh; Behlke, Mark A; Ramachandran, Shyam; Salem, Aliasger K; McCray Jr, Paul B; Davidson, Beverly L

2012-01-01

105

RNAi mediated gene silencing against betasatellite associated with Croton yellow vein mosaic begomovirus.  

PubMed

Plant viruses encode suppressors of posttranscriptional gene silencing, an adaptive antiviral defense responses that confines virus infection. Previously, we identified single-stranded DNA satellite (also known as DNA-?) of ~1,350 nucleotides in length associated with Croton yellow vein mosaic begomovirus (CYVMV) in croton plants. The expression of genes from DNA-? requires the begomovirus for packaged, replication, insect transmission and movement in plants. The present study demonstrates the effect of the ?C1 gene on the silencing pathway as analysed by using both transgenic systems and transient Agrobacterium tumefaciens based delivery. Plants that carry an intron-hairpin construct covering the ?C1 gene accumulated cognate small-interfering RNAs and remained symptom-free after exposure to CYVMV and its satellite. These results suggest that ?C1 interferes with silencing mechanism. PMID:25086625

Sahu, Anurag Kumar; Marwal, Avinash; Nehra, Chitra; Choudhary, Devendra Kumar; Sharma, Pradeep; Gaur, Rajarshi Kumar

2014-11-01

106

Mammalian hyperplastic discs homolog EDD regulates microRNA-mediated gene silencing  

PubMed Central

SUMMARY MicroRNAs (miRNAs) regulate gene expression through translation repression and mRNA destabilization. However, the molecular mechanisms of miRNA silencing are still not well defined. Using a genetic screen in mouse embryonic stem (ES) cells, we identify mammalian hyperplastic discs protein EDD, a known E3 ubiquitin ligase, as a key component of the miRNA silencing pathway. ES cells deficient for EDD are defective in miRNA function and exhibit growth defects. We demonstrate that E3 ubiquitin ligase activity is dispensable for EDD function in miRNA silencing. Instead, EDD interacts with GW182 family proteins in the Argonaute-miRNA complexes. The PABC domain of EDD is essential for its silencing function. Through the PABC domain, EDD participates in miRNA silencing by recruiting downstream effectors. Among the PABC-interactors, DDX6 and Tob1/2 are both required and sufficient for silencing mRNA targets. Taken together, these data demonstrate a critical function for EDD in miRNA silencing. PMID:21726813

Su, Hong; Meng, Shuxia; Lu, Yanyan; Trombly, Melanie I.; Chen, Jian; Lin, Chengyi; Turk, Anita; Wang, Xiaozhong

2011-01-01

107

RNA interference: The story of gene silencing in plants and humans  

Microsoft Academic Search

RNA interference is an exciting field of functional genomics that can silence viral genes. This property of interfering RNA can be used to combat viral diseases of plants as well as animals and humans. It is a short sequence of nucleic acid that can bind to the mRNA of the gene and interferes the process of its expression. It is

Imran Ali; Tayyab Husnain; Sheikh Riazuddin

2008-01-01

108

Selective gene silencing in activated leukocytes by targeting siRNAs to the integrin lymphocyte  

E-print Network

and validating drug targets and poten- tially for therapy. Lymphocytes and other primary blood cellsRNAs, into cells to silence genes bear- ing complementary sequences. RNAi is a powerful tool to evaluate the role of specific genes in cellular and disease processes with potential applications for therapy (1, 2). Using si

Lieberman, Judy

109

Gene silencing in cancer cells using siRNA : genetic and functional studies  

E-print Network

Sequence-specific small interfering RNA (siRNA) duplexes can be used for gene silencing in mammalian cells and as mechanistic probes for determining gene function. Transfection of siRNA for specificity protein 1 (Sp1) in MCF-7 or ZR-75 cells...

Abdel Rahim, Ma'en Ahmad

2004-09-30

110

Identification of genes epigenetically silenced by CpG methylation in human gastric carcinoma  

Microsoft Academic Search

To identify novel methylation-silenced genes in gastric cancer, we carried out a genome-wide search for genes that are up-regulated after treatment with the demethylating agent, 5-aza-2?-deoxycytidine (5Aza-dC). When three gastric cancer cell lines (SNU-1,-601, and -719) were treated with 5Aza-dC, 143 genes were found to be upregulated by twofold or more using oligonucleotide microarrays. Six of these genes, i.e. TFPI2,

Chang Do Jee; Min A. Kim; Eun Ji Jung; Jin Kim; Woo Ho Kim

2009-01-01

111

Novel vaccination for allergy through gene silencing of CD40 using small interfering RNA.  

PubMed

Small interfering RNA (siRNA) is a potent means of inducing gene-specific silencing. Gene silencing strategies using siRNA have demonstrated therapeutic benefits in animal models of various diseases, and are currently in clinical trials. However, the utility of gene silencing as a treatment for allergic diseases has not yet been reported. In this study, we report a novel therapy for allergy through gene silencing of CD40, a critical costimulatory molecule and a key factor in allergic immune responses. Silencing CD40 resulted in generation of immunoregulatory dendritic cells (DCs). Administration of CD40 siRNA remarkably reduced nasal allergic symptoms and local eosinophil accumulation in the OVA-induced allergic mice. The OVA-specific T cell response was inhibited after the CD40 siRNA treatment. Additionally, anti-OVA specific IgE and production of IL-4 and IL-5 of T cells stimulated by OVA were significantly decreased in CD40 siRNA-treated mice. Furthermore, we demonstrated that the therapeutic effects by CD40 siRNA were associated with impaired Ag-presenting functions of DCs and B cells, and generation of regulatory T cells. The present study highlights a therapeutic potential of siRNA-based treatment for allergic diseases. PMID:18523314

Suzuki, Motohiko; Zheng, Xiufen; Zhang, Xusheng; Li, Mu; Vladau, Costin; Ichim, Thomas E; Sun, Hongtao; Min, Lisa R; Garcia, Bertha; Min, Wei-Ping

2008-06-15

112

Effects of connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) gene silencing on the radiosensitivity of glioblastoma  

PubMed Central

The effects of connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) gene silencing on the radiosensitivity of glioblastoma cells (GBM) were investigated. The lentivirus-mediated short hairpin RNA (shRNA) expression vector targeting CTGF was constructed and transinfected into U87MG human GBM cell line. The CTGF gene expression in U87MG cells was significantly down-regulated. After irradiation with 6 MV X-rays at a dose rate of 2.5 Gy/min, the clonogenicity, proliferation and migration of U87MG cells were assayed in vitro. The survival, proliferation and migration of U87MG cells were all remarkably inhibited by CTGF silencing (p < 0.05 vs control). Our results demonstrate that CTGF is important for GBM and CTGF gene silencing can be a potential tool to enhance the sensitivity of GBM to radiotherapy. PMID:25356109

Han, Na; Shahveranov, Allahverdi; Cheng, Yi; Qin, Kai; Yu, Shi-Ying; Zhang, Meng-Xian

2014-01-01

113

Efficient transformation and artificial miRNA gene silencing in Lemna minor.  

PubMed

Despite rapid doubling time, simple architecture and ease of metabolic labelling, a lack of genetic tools in the Lemnaceae (duckweed) has impeded the full implementation of this organism as a model for biological research. Here, we present technologies to facilitate high-throughput genetic studies in duckweed. We developed a fast and efficient method for producing Lemna minor stable transgenic fronds via Agrobacterium-mediated transformation and regeneration from tissue culture. Additionally, we engineered an artificial microRNA (amiRNA) gene silencing system. We identified a Lemna gibba endogenous miR166 precursor and used it as a backbone to produce amiRNAs. As a proof of concept we induced the silencing of CH42, a magnesium chelatase subunit, using our amiRNA platform. Expression of CH42 in transgenic L. minor fronds was significantly reduced, which resulted in reduction of chlorophyll pigmentation. The techniques presented here will enable tackling future challenges in the biology and biotechnology of Lemnaceae. PMID:24989135

Cantó-Pastor, A; Mollá-Morales, A; Ernst, E; Dahl, W; Zhai, J; Yan, Y; Meyers, B C; Shanklin, J; Martienssen, R

2015-01-01

114

A high-throughput virus-induced gene silencing protocol identifies genes involved in multi-stress tolerance  

PubMed Central

Background Understanding the function of a particular gene under various stresses is important for engineering plants for broad-spectrum stress tolerance. Although virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS) has been used to characterize genes involved in abiotic stress tolerance, currently available gene silencing and stress imposition methodology at the whole plant level is not suitable for high-throughput functional analyses of genes. This demands a robust and reliable methodology for characterizing genes involved in abiotic and multi-stress tolerance. Results Our methodology employs VIGS-based gene silencing in leaf disks combined with simple stress imposition and effect quantification methodologies for easy and faster characterization of genes involved in abiotic and multi-stress tolerance. By subjecting leaf disks from gene-silenced plants to various abiotic stresses and inoculating silenced plants with various pathogens, we show the involvement of several genes for multi-stress tolerance. In addition, we demonstrate that VIGS can be used to characterize genes involved in thermotolerance. Our results also showed the functional relevance of NtEDS1 in abiotic stress, NbRBX1 and NbCTR1 in oxidative stress; NtRAR1 and NtNPR1 in salinity stress; NbSOS1 and NbHSP101 in biotic stress; and NtEDS1, NbETR1, NbWRKY2 and NbMYC2 in thermotolerance. Conclusions In addition to widening the application of VIGS, we developed a robust, easy and high-throughput methodology for functional characterization of genes involved in multi-stress tolerance. PMID:24289810

2013-01-01

115

Systemic gene silencing in plants triggered by fluorescent nanoparticle-delivered double-stranded RNA  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A cationic fluorescence nanoparticle efficiently enters plants with high transfection efficacy. Applying a mixture of G2/dsRNA to the model plant, Arabidopsis root, leads to significant reduction in the expression of important developmental genes and results in apparent phenotypes. This study reports a non-viral gene nanocarrier which triggers gene silencing in plants and leads to systemic phenotypes.A cationic fluorescence nanoparticle efficiently enters plants with high transfection efficacy. Applying a mixture of G2/dsRNA to the model plant, Arabidopsis root, leads to significant reduction in the expression of important developmental genes and results in apparent phenotypes. This study reports a non-viral gene nanocarrier which triggers gene silencing in plants and leads to systemic phenotypes. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c4nr03481c

Jiang, Li; Ding, Lian; He, Bicheng; Shen, Jie; Xu, Zejun; Yin, Meizhen; Zhang, Xiaolan

2014-08-01

116

Host-induced gene silencing inhibits the biotrophic pathogen causing downy mildew of lettuce.  

PubMed

Host-induced gene silencing (HIGS) is an RNA interference-based approach in which small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) are produced in the host plant and subsequently move into the pathogen to silence pathogen genes. As a proof-of-concept, we generated stable transgenic lettuce plants expressing siRNAs targeting potentially vital genes of Bremia lactucae, a biotrophic oomycete that causes downy mildew, the most important disease of lettuce worldwide. Transgenic plants, expressing inverted repeats of fragments of either the Highly Abundant Message #34 (HAM34) or Cellulose Synthase (CES1) genes of B. lactucae, specifically suppressed expression of these genes, resulting in greatly reduced growth and inhibition of sporulation of B. lactucae. This demonstrates that HIGS can provide effective control of B. lactucae in lettuce; such control does not rely on ephemeral resistance conferred by major resistance genes and therefore offers new opportunities for durable control of diverse diseases in numerous crops. PMID:25487781

Govindarajulu, Manjula; Epstein, Lynn; Wroblewski, Tadeusz; Michelmore, Richard W

2014-12-01

117

Gene loss, silencing and activation in a newly synthesized wheat allotetraploid.  

PubMed Central

We analyzed the events that affect gene structure and expression in the early stages of allopolyploidy in wheat. The transcriptome response was studied by analyzing 3072 transcripts in the first generation of a synthetic allotetraploid (genome S(l)S(l)A(m)A(m)), which resembles tetraploid wheat (genome BBAA), and in its two diploid progenitors Aegilops sharonensis (S(l)S(l)) and Triticum monococcum ssp. aegilopoides (A(m)A(m)). The expression of 60 out of 3072 transcripts was reproducibly altered in the allotetraploid: 48 transcripts disappeared and 12 were activated. Transcript disappearance was caused by gene silencing or by gene loss. Gene silencing affected one or both homeologous loci and was associated in part with cytosine methylation. Gene loss or methylation had occurred already in the F(1) intergeneric hybrid or in the allotetraploid, depending on the locus. The silenced/lost genes included rRNA genes and genes involved in metabolism, disease resistance, and cell cycle regulation. The activated genes with a known function were all retroelements. These findings show that wide hybridization and chromosome doubling affect gene expression via genetic and epigenetic alterations immediately upon allopolyploid formation. These events contribute to the genetic diploidization of newly formed allopolyploids. PMID:11973318

Kashkush, Khalil; Feldman, Moshe; Levy, Avraham A

2002-01-01

118

Gene loss, silencing and activation in a newly synthesized wheat allotetraploid.  

PubMed

We analyzed the events that affect gene structure and expression in the early stages of allopolyploidy in wheat. The transcriptome response was studied by analyzing 3072 transcripts in the first generation of a synthetic allotetraploid (genome S(l)S(l)A(m)A(m)), which resembles tetraploid wheat (genome BBAA), and in its two diploid progenitors Aegilops sharonensis (S(l)S(l)) and Triticum monococcum ssp. aegilopoides (A(m)A(m)). The expression of 60 out of 3072 transcripts was reproducibly altered in the allotetraploid: 48 transcripts disappeared and 12 were activated. Transcript disappearance was caused by gene silencing or by gene loss. Gene silencing affected one or both homeologous loci and was associated in part with cytosine methylation. Gene loss or methylation had occurred already in the F(1) intergeneric hybrid or in the allotetraploid, depending on the locus. The silenced/lost genes included rRNA genes and genes involved in metabolism, disease resistance, and cell cycle regulation. The activated genes with a known function were all retroelements. These findings show that wide hybridization and chromosome doubling affect gene expression via genetic and epigenetic alterations immediately upon allopolyploid formation. These events contribute to the genetic diploidization of newly formed allopolyploids. PMID:11973318

Kashkush, Khalil; Feldman, Moshe; Levy, Avraham A

2002-04-01

119

Silencing of Host Genes Directed by Virus-Derived Short Interfering RNAs in Caenorhabditis elegans  

PubMed Central

Small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) processed from viral replication intermediates by RNase III-like enzyme Dicer guide sequence-specific antiviral silencing in fungi, plants, and invertebrates. In plants, virus-derived siRNAs (viRNAs) can target and silence cellular transcripts and, in some cases, are responsible for the induction of plant diseases. Currently it remains unclear whether viRNAs are also capable of modulating the expression of cellular genes in the animal kingdom, although animal virus-encoded microRNAs (miRNAs) are known to guide efficient silencing of host genes, thereby facilitating virus replication. In this report, we showed that viRNAs derived from a modified nodavirus triggered potent silencing of homologous cellular transcripts produced by the endogenous gene or transgene in the nematode worm Caenorhabditis elegans. Like that found in plants, virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS) in C. elegans also involves RRF-1, a worm RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRP) that is known to produce single-stranded secondary siRNAs in a Dicer-independent manner. We further demonstrated that VIGS in C. elegans is inheritable, suggesting that VIGS has the potential to generate profound epigenetic consequences in future generations. Altogether, these findings, for the first time, confirmed that viRNAs have the potential to modulate host gene expression in the animal kingdom. Most importantly, the success in uncoupling the trigger and the target of the antiviral silencing would allow for the exploration of novel features of virus-host interactions mediated by viRNAs in the animal kingdom. PMID:22896621

Guo, Xunyang; Li, Wan-Xiang

2012-01-01

120

Post-transcriptional regulation of meiotic genes by a nuclear RNA silencing complex  

PubMed Central

RNA is a central component of gene-silencing pathways that regulate diverse cellular processes. In the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe, an RNA-based mechanism represses meiotic gene expression during vegetative growth. This pathway depends on the zinc finger protein Red1, which is required to degrade meiotic mRNAs as well as to target histone H3 lysine 9 (H3K9) methylation, a repressive chromatin mark, to a subset of meiotic genes. However, the mechanism of Red1 function is unknown. Here we use affinity purification and mass spectrometry to identify a Red1-containing nuclear RNA silencing (NURS) complex. In addition to Red1, this complex includes the Mtl1, Red5, Ars2, Rmn1, and Iss10 proteins and associates with several other complexes that are involved in either signaling or mediating RNA silencing. By analyzing the effects of gene knockouts and inducible knockdown alleles, we show that NURS subunits regulate RNA degradation and H3K9 methylation at meiotic genes. We also identify roles for individual NURS subunits in interactions with Mmi1, an RNA-binding protein that marks meiotic RNAs for destruction, and the nuclear exosome RNA degradation complex. Finally, we show that the levels of H3K9 methylation at meiotic genes are not sufficient to restrict RNA polymerase II access or repress gene expression during vegetative growth. Our results demonstrate that Red1 partners with other proteins to silence meiotic gene expression at the post-transcriptional level. Conservation of a NURS-like complex in human cells suggests that this pathway plays an ancient and fundamental role in RNA silencing. PMID:24713849

Egan, Emily D.; Braun, Craig R.; Gygi, Steven P.; Moazed, Danesh

2014-01-01

121

Patented applications of gene silencing in plants: manipulation of traits and phytopathogen resistance.  

PubMed

RNA silencing is the name of a broad family of phenomena including RNA interference (RNAi) in animals and basal eukaryotes, quelling in fungi and posttranscriptional gene silencing (PTGS) in plants. PTGS is a fertile research field and since its discovery many applications have been developed related to plant breeding. This minireview summarizes those patents which apply engineered gene silencing to specific problems. The range of inventions is divided in two main sections: manipulation of traits and resistance to phytopathogens and pests. Subtopics like manipulation of tolerances to abiotic stress, alteration of lignin, biofactories, alkaloids biosynthesis and flowering time fall within the first section, and introduction of resistances to insects, nematodes, bacteria, virus and fungi can be found within the second one. PMID:21288194

Alvarez-Fernandez, Ruben

2010-11-01

122

Lipid Nanoparticle Delivery of siRNA to Silence Neuronal Gene Expression in the Brain  

PubMed Central

Manipulation of gene expression in the brain is fundamental for understanding the function of proteins involved in neuronal processes. In this article, we show a method for using small interfering RNA (siRNA) in lipid nanoparticles (LNPs) to efficiently silence neuronal gene expression in cell culture and in the brain in vivo through intracranial injection. We show that neurons accumulate these LNPs in an apolipoprotein E–dependent fashion, resulting in very efficient uptake in cell culture (100%) with little apparent toxicity. In vivo, intracortical or intracerebroventricular (ICV) siRNA-LNP injections resulted in knockdown of target genes either in discrete regions around the injection site or in more widespread areas following ICV injections with no apparent toxicity or immune reactions from the LNPs. Effective targeted knockdown was demonstrated by showing that intracortical delivery of siRNA against GRIN1 (encoding GluN1 subunit of the NMDA receptor (NMDAR)) selectively reduced synaptic NMDAR currents in vivo as compared with synaptic AMPA receptor currents. Therefore, LNP delivery of siRNA rapidly manipulates expression of proteins involved in neuronal processes in vivo, possibly enabling the development of gene therapies for neurological disorders. PMID:24301867

Rungta, Ravi L; Choi, Hyun B; Lin, Paulo JC; Ko, Rebecca WY; Ashby, Donovan; Nair, Jay; Manoharan, Muthiah; Cullis, Pieter R; MacVicar, Brian A

2013-01-01

123

Gene Silencing Mediated by Endogenous MicroRNAs under Heat Stress Conditions in Mammalian Cells  

PubMed Central

Heat shock, sudden change in temperature, triggers various responses in cells for protecting the cells from such a severe circumstance. Here we investigated gene silencing mediated by endogenous microRNAs (miRNAs) in mammalian cells exposed to a mild hyperthermia, by means of miRNA activity assay using a luciferase reporter gene as well as miRNA expression analysis using a DNA microarray. Our findings indicated that the gene silencing activities involving miRNAs were enhanced without increasing in their expression levels under heat-stress conditions. Additionally, the gene silencing activity appeared to be independent of the cytoprotective action involving heat shock proteins that are immediately activated in heat-shocked cells and that function as molecular chaperons for restoring heat-denatured proteins to normal proteins. Our current findings suggested the possibility that gene silencing involving endogenous miRNAs might play a subsidiary role in heat-shocked cells for an aggressive inhibition of the expression of heat-denatured proteins. PMID:25068899

Eda, Akiko; Takahashi, Masaki; Hohjoh, Hirohiko

2014-01-01

124

Post-transcriptional gene silencing of the gene encoding aldolase from soybean cyst nematode by transformed soybean roots.  

PubMed

Plant parasitic nematodes cause approximately 157 billion US dollars in losses worldwide annually. The soybean cyst nematode (SCN), Heterodera glycines, is responsible for an estimated one billion dollars in losses to the US farmer each year. A promising new approach for control of plant parasitic nematode control is gene silencing. We tested this approach by silencing the SCN gene HgALD, encoding fructose-1,6-diphosphate aldolase. This enzyme is important in the conversion of glucose into energy and may be especially important in actin-based motility during parasite invasion of its host. An RNAi construct targeted to silence HgALD was transformed into soybean roots of composite plants to examine its efficacy to reduce the development of females formed by SCN. The number of mature females on roots transformed with the RNAi construct designed to silence the HgALD gene was reduced by 58%. These results indicate that silencing the aldolase gene of SCN +can greatly decrease the number of female SCN reaching maturity, and it is a promising step towards broadening resistance of plants against plant-parasitic nematodes. PMID:23541467

Youssef, Reham M; Kim, Kyung-Hwan; Haroon, Sanaa A; Matthews, Benjamin F

2013-06-01

125

Tissue-specific gene silencing monitored in circulating RNA  

E-print Network

Pharmacologic target gene modulation is the primary objective for RNA antagonist strategies and gene therapy. Here we show that mRNAs encoding tissue-specific gene transcripts can be detected in biological fluids and that ...

Sehgal, Alfica

126

Protein-DNA interactions in the epsilon-globin gene silencer.  

PubMed

The developmental control of expression of the human epsilon-globin gene appears to be mediated, at least in part, by a transcriptional silencer in the DNA 5' to the cap site of this gene. We have used site-directed mutagenesis and DNA-protein binding assays to define the active motifs of this epsilon-globin silencer. DNase I foot-printing of the silencer region with K562 cell nuclear extracts defined a sequence, which we designate as the epsilon-globin silencer motif or epsilon GSM (epsilon -278 to -258 base pairs (bp)) containing a region (epsilon -270 to -258) with 90% homology to the yeast mating type silencer, ABF-1 (autonomous replicating sequence binding factor one) and which also overlaps at (epsilon -269 to -262) with the human YY1 consensus sequence, an element which mediates transcription repression and activation of viral, mouse, and human genes. The DNase I footprint extended 5' in the silencer region to include an inverted repeat of a six-nucleotide motif (epsilon -267 to -278 bp) which shares 5 of 6 bases with the GATA-1 consensus sequence. In gel mobility shift assays, two specific proteins (A and B) in nuclear extracts from erythroleukemia K562 cells bound to the DNase I-footprinted region. Protein B, associated with epsilon-globin silencer activity in vitro, required an intact epsilon GSM sequence for binding. Mutation of 5 bases within the epsilon GSM in an epsilon-globin promoter-containing fragment extending upstream to 1400 bp in transient transfection assays increased activity by 3.0-fold compared with the native sequence, suggesting that the silencer activity was mediated by the epsilon GSM sequence. We found that protein A could be displaced by a competitor containing the GATA-1 consensus sequence, suggesting that protein A is a GATA-like protein. The region from -267 to -271 within the epsilon GSM and GATA-1 homology region was important for binding of both proteins A and B. These data suggest that protein binding to the epsilon GSM and GATA motifs mediate the negative effect of the silencer on transcription, possibly via direct competition for binding to this DNA region. Recombinant yeast ABF-1 and human YY1 bound to the epsilon GSM. Mutating three bases (epsilon -259, -262, -264) in the epsilon GSM decreased the binding affinity of protein B and recombinant human YY1 but increased the binding affinity of recombinant yeast ABF-1. Furthermore, competitor containing the YY1 consensus sequence competed for protein B binding, whereas competitor containing a perfect yeast ABF-1 consensus sequence did not.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS) PMID:8429019

Peters, B; Merezhinskaya, N; Diffley, J F; Noguchi, C T

1993-02-15

127

A 72-base pair AT-rich DNA sequence element functions as a bacterial gene silencer.  

PubMed

We have previously demonstrated that sequential activation of the bacterial ilvIH-leuO-leuABCD gene cluster involves a promoter-relay mechanism. In the current study, we show that the final activation of the leuABCD operon is through a transcriptional derepression mechanism. The leuABCD operon is transcriptionally repressed by the presence of a 318-base pair AT-rich upstream element. LeuO is required for derepressing the repressed leuABCD operon. Deletion analysis of the repressive effect of the 318-bp element has led to the identification of a 72-bp AT-rich (78% A+T) DNA sequence element, AT4, which is capable of silencing a number of unrelated promoters in addition to the leuABCD promoter. AT4-mediated gene silencing is orientation-independent and occurs within a distance of 300 base pairs. Furthermore, an increased gene-silencing effect was observed with a tandemly repeated AT4 dimer. The possible mechanism of AT4-mediated gene silencing in bacteria is discussed. PMID:11121424

Chen, C C; Fang, M; Majumder, A; Wu, H Y

2001-03-23

128

BIOFILTRATION INCORPORATING GENE SILENCING TECHNOLOGY FOR THE PRODUCTION OF METHANOL FROM METHANE CONTAINING WASTE GASES  

EPA Science Inventory

I expect the proposed and revised approach will work, as there are multiple examples of plasmid-based gene silencing systems in nature (HOK/SOK is a perfect example). The challenge will be in developing a strong plasmid for use in methanotrophs. Potential to ...

129

Suppression of Gene Silencing: A General Strategy Used by Diverse DNA and RNA Viruses of Plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

In transgenic and nontransgenic plants, viruses are both initiators and targets of a defense mechanism that is similar to posttranscriptional gene silencing (PTGS). Recently, it was found that potyviruses and cucumoviruses encode pathogenicity determinants that suppress this defense mechanism. Here, we test diverse virus types for the ability to suppress PTGS. Nicotiana benthamiana exhibiting PTGS of a green fluorescent protein

Olivier Voinnet; Yvonne M. Pinto; David C. Baulcombe

1999-01-01

130

Epigenetic gene silencing in cancer – a mechanism for early oncogenic pathway addiction?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chromatin alterations have been associated with all stages of tumour formation and progression. The best characterized are epigenetically mediated transcriptional-silencing events that are associated with increases in DNA methylation — particularly at promoter regions of genes that regulate important cell functions. Recent evidence indicates that epigenetic changes might 'addict' cancer cells to altered signal-transduction pathways during the early stages of

Stephen B. Baylin; Joyce E. Ohm

2006-01-01

131

Transgene-based anthocyanin hyper-pigmentation as a visual reporter of gene silencing in plants  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

“Co-suppression” associated loss of flower pigmentation in transgenic petunia plants was one of the first clear indicators of the natural process of RNA-associated gene silencing in plants. We have been exploring the use of genetically engineered anthocyanin over-production in vegetative tissues as...

132

Fox Chase researchers identify new mechanism used by cells to reverse silenced genes:  

Cancer.gov

Scientists at Fox Chase Cancer Center have discovered a new mechanism used by cells in the body to turn on silenced genes. This process is critical in preventing the development of cancer—suggesting the possibility of new therapies that might target the specific changes underlying the disease.

133

Silencing of the TGF-?1 Gene Increases the Immunogenicity of Cells from Human Ovarian Carcinoma  

PubMed Central

Cells from many tumors produce transforming growth factor (TGF)-?which facilitates their escape from control by the immune system. We previously reported that non-immunogenic cells from either of two transplantable mouse tumors became effective as therapeutic tumor vaccines after lentivirus-mediated shRNA interference to ‘silence’the TGF-?1 gene. We now show that cells from in vitro cultured human ovarian carcinomas (OvC) make large amounts of TGF-?1 and that this can be prevented by ‘silencing’ the TGF-?1 gene. We further show that in vitro sensitization of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) in the presence of either mitomycin-treated OvC cells whose TGF-?1 gene was silenced or in vitro matured dendritic cells (DC) which had been pulsed with homogenates from OvC cells with silenced TGF-?1 generated a stronger Th1/Tc1 immune response to the respective WT OvC and also to the OvC antigens mesothelin and HE4 as measured by ELIspot assays. The percentage of interferon (IFN)-? and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-?-producing CD4+ and CD8+ T cells increased while there were fewer cells expressing markers characteristic for regulatory T cells or myeloid derived suppressor cells. Similar results were obtained when PBMC from a patient with OvC were sensitized to DC pulsed with homogenate from autologous TGF-?1-silenced tumor cells, and a cytolytic lymphocyte response was generated to autologous OvC cells. Our results support clinical evaluation of TGF-?1-silenced tumor vaccines for immunotherapy of OvC. PMID:22421944

Wei, Huafeng; Liu, Pu; Swisher, Elizabeth; Yip, Yuen Yee; Tse, Jee Hang; Agnew, Kathy; Hellström, Karl Erik; Hellström, Ingegerd

2012-01-01

134

Simultaneous silencing of endo-?-1,4 xylanase genes reveals their roles in the virulence of Magnaporthe oryzae.  

PubMed

Due to functional redundancy, it is often difficult to genetically analyse the biological function of fungal cell wall-degrading enzymes that belong to a gene family. To overcome this difficulty, we used RNAi to knock-down (KD) multiple xylanase genes to elucidate their roles in the pathogenicity of the blast fungus, Magnaporthe oryzae. To obtain the maximum average efficiency of gene silencing for the xylanase genes, we used the 'building blocks method', in which a 40 bp sequence was chosen from an endoxylanase gene, and 10 such sequences from 10 endoxylanases were combined to make an artificial RNAi trigger by synthetic DNA. Quantitative RT-PCR analysis revealed that the transcript levels of all the expressed xylanase genes were significantly reduced in KD mutants with the artificial RNAi trigger. Even though the KD mutants did not completely lose their pathogenicity to host plants, the number of lesions, rate of penetration and extent of infected cells were all reduced in KD mutant-infected leaves. The degree of pathogenicity reduction was associated with the silencing levels of xylanase mRNA and enzymatic activity in the KD mutants. Cytological analysis indicated that xylanases play significant roles in both vertical penetration and horizontal expansion of M. oryzae in infected plants. PMID:21696466

Nguyen, Quoc Bao; Itoh, Kenji; Van Vu, Ba; Tosa, Yukio; Nakayashiki, Hitoshi

2011-08-01

135

Gene-Silencing Antisense Oligomers Inhibit Acinetobacter Growth In Vitro and In Vivo  

PubMed Central

Background.?Peptide-conjugated phosphorodiamidate morpholino oligomers (PPMOs) are synthetic DNA/RNA analogues that silence expression of specific genes. We studied whether PPMOs targeted to essential genes in Acinetobacter lwoffii and Acinetobacter baumannii are active in vitro and in vivo. Methods.?PPMOs were evaluated in vitro using minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and viability assays, and in vivo using murine pulmonary infection models with intranasal PPMO treatment. Results.?MICs of PPMOs ranged from 0.1 to 64 µM (approximately 0.6–38 µg/mL). The most effective PPMO tested was (RXR)4-AcpP, which is targeted to acpP. (RXR)4-AcpP reduced viability of A. lwoffii and A. baumannii by >103 colony-forming units/mL at 5–8 times MIC. Mice treated with ?0.25 mg/kg of (RXR)4-AcpP survived longer and had less inflammation and bacterial lung burden than mice treated with a scrambled-sequence PPMO or phosphate-buffered saline. Treatment could be delayed after infection and still increase survival. Conclusions.?PPMOs targeted to essential genes of A. lwoffii and A. baumannii were bactericidal and had MICs in a clinically relevant range. (RXR)4-AcpP increased survival of mice infected with A. lwoffii or A. baumannii, even when initial treatment was delayed after infection. PPMOs could be a viable therapeutic approach in dealing with multidrug-resistant Acinetobacter species. PMID:24130069

Geller, Bruce L.; Marshall-Batty, Kimberly; Schnell, Frederick J.; McKnight, Mattie M.; Iversen, Patrick L.; Greenberg, David E.

2013-01-01

136

Virus-Induced Gene Silencing as a Tool for Comparative Functional Studies in Thalictrum  

PubMed Central

Perennial woodland herbs in the genus Thalictrum exhibit high diversity of floral morphology, including four breeding and two pollination systems. Their phylogenetic position, in the early-diverging eudicots, makes them especially suitable for exploring the evolution of floral traits and the fate of gene paralogs that may have shaped the radiation of the eudicots. A current limitation in evolution of plant development studies is the lack of genetic tools for conducting functional assays in key taxa spanning the angiosperm phylogeny. We first show that virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS) of a PHYTOENE DESATURASE ortholog (TdPDS) can be achieved in Thalictrum dioicum with an efficiency of 42% and a survival rate of 97%, using tobacco rattle virus (TRV) vectors. The photobleached leaf phenotype of silenced plants significantly correlates with the down-regulation of endogenous TdPDS (P<0.05), as compared to controls. Floral silencing of PDS was achieved in the faster flowering spring ephemeral T. thalictroides. In its close relative, T. clavatum, silencing of the floral MADS box gene AGAMOUS (AG) resulted in strong homeotic conversions of floral organs. In conclusion, we set forth our optimized protocol for VIGS by vacuum-infiltration of Thalictrum seedlings or dormant tubers as a reference for the research community. The three species reported here span the range of floral morphologies and pollination syndromes present in Thalictrum. The evidence presented on floral silencing of orthologs of the marker gene PDS and the floral homeotic gene AG will enable a comparative approach to the study of the evolution of flower development in this group. PMID:20706585

Di Stilio, Verónica S.; Kumar, Rachana A.; Oddone, Alessandra M.; Tolkin, Theadora R.; Salles, Patricia; McCarty, Kacie

2010-01-01

137

Virus-induced gene silencing as a tool for comparative functional studies in Thalictrum.  

PubMed

Perennial woodland herbs in the genus Thalictrum exhibit high diversity of floral morphology, including four breeding and two pollination systems. Their phylogenetic position, in the early-diverging eudicots, makes them especially suitable for exploring the evolution of floral traits and the fate of gene paralogs that may have shaped the radiation of the eudicots. A current limitation in evolution of plant development studies is the lack of genetic tools for conducting functional assays in key taxa spanning the angiosperm phylogeny. We first show that virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS) of a PHYTOENE DESATURASE ortholog (TdPDS) can be achieved in Thalictrum dioicum with an efficiency of 42% and a survival rate of 97%, using tobacco rattle virus (TRV) vectors. The photobleached leaf phenotype of silenced plants significantly correlates with the down-regulation of endogenous TdPDS (P<0.05), as compared to controls. Floral silencing of PDS was achieved in the faster flowering spring ephemeral T. thalictroides. In its close relative, T. clavatum, silencing of the floral MADS box gene AGAMOUS (AG) resulted in strong homeotic conversions of floral organs. In conclusion, we set forth our optimized protocol for VIGS by vacuum-infiltration of Thalictrum seedlings or dormant tubers as a reference for the research community. The three species reported here span the range of floral morphologies and pollination syndromes present in Thalictrum. The evidence presented on floral silencing of orthologs of the marker gene PDS and the floral homeotic gene AG will enable a comparative approach to the study of the evolution of flower development in this group. PMID:20706585

Di Stilio, Verónica S; Kumar, Rachana A; Oddone, Alessandra M; Tolkin, Theadora R; Salles, Patricia; McCarty, Kacie

2010-01-01

138

Design of Noninflammatory Synthetic siRNA Mediating Potent Gene Silencing in Vivo  

Microsoft Academic Search

Targeted silencing of disease-associated genes by synthetic short interfering RNA (siRNA) holds considerable promise as a novel therapeutic strategy. However, unmodified siRNA can be potent triggers of the innate immune response, particularly when associated with delivery vehicles that facilitate intracellular uptake. This represents a significant barrier to the therapeutic development of siRNA due to toxicity and off-target gene effects associated

Adam D. Judge; Gurneet Bola; Amy C. H. Lee; Ian MacLachlan

2006-01-01

139

Exonuclease-mediated degradation of nascent RNA silences genes linked to severe malaria.  

PubMed

Antigenic variation of the Plasmodium falciparum multicopy var gene family enables parasite evasion of immune destruction by host antibodies. Expression of a particular var subgroup, termed upsA, is linked to the obstruction of blood vessels in the brain and to the pathogenesis of human cerebral malaria. The mechanism determining upsA activation remains unknown. Here we show that an entirely new type of gene silencing mechanism involving an exonuclease-mediated degradation of nascent RNA controls the silencing of genes linked to severe malaria. We identify a novel chromatin-associated exoribonuclease, termed PfRNase II, that controls the silencing of upsA var genes by marking their transcription start site and intron-promoter regions leading to short-lived cryptic RNA. Parasites carrying a deficient PfRNase II gene produce full-length upsA var transcripts and intron-derived antisense long non-coding RNA. The presence of stable upsA var transcripts overcomes monoallelic expression, resulting in the simultaneous expression of both upsA and upsC type PfEMP1 proteins on the surface of individual infected red blood cells. In addition, we observe an inverse relationship between transcript levels of PfRNase II and upsA-type var genes in parasites from severe malaria patients, implying a crucial role of PfRNase II in severe malaria. Our results uncover a previously unknown type of post-transcriptional gene silencing mechanism in malaria parasites with repercussions for other organisms. Additionally, the identification of RNase II as a parasite protein controlling the expression of virulence genes involved in pathogenesis in patients with severe malaria may provide new strategies for reducing malaria mortality. PMID:25043062

Zhang, Qingfeng; Siegel, T Nicolai; Martins, Rafael M; Wang, Fei; Cao, Jun; Gao, Qi; Cheng, Xiu; Jiang, Lubin; Hon, Chung-Chau; Scheidig-Benatar, Christine; Sakamoto, Hiroshi; Turner, Louise; Jensen, Anja T R; Claes, Aurelie; Guizetti, Julien; Malmquist, Nicholas A; Scherf, Artur

2014-09-18

140

A cis element in the recombination activating gene locus regulates gene expression by counteracting a distant silencer.  

PubMed

We have identified a silencer and an antisilencing element that interact at a distance of 85 kilobases to regulate expression of the recombination activating genes Rag1 and Rag2 in thymocytes. Transgenic experiments showed that Rag promoter-proximal cis elements directed tissue-specific expression and that a Runx-dependent intergenic silencer suppressed expression in developing T cells. Deletion of the antisilencing element from the genomic Rag locus unmasked the intergenic silencer and abrogated Rag expression in developing CD4(+)CD8(+) T cells. We speculate that the Rag antisilencing element belongs to a class of cis elements that might be useful for genome diversification by activating genes encoded by otherwise silent transposable elements. PMID:15021880

Yannoutsos, Nikos; Barreto, Vasco; Misulovin, Ziva; Gazumyan, Anna; Yu, Wong; Rajewsky, Nikolaus; Peixoto, Bernardo R; Eisenreich, Thomas; Nussenzweig, Michel C

2004-04-01

141

Biological and clinical significance of epigenetic silencing of MARVELD1 gene in lung cancer.  

PubMed

Epigenetic silence in cancer frequently altered signal-transduction pathways during the early stages of tumor development. Recent progress in the field of cancer epigenetics has led to new opportunities for diagnosis and treatment of cancer. We previously demonstrated that novel identified nuclear factor MARVELD1 was widely expressed in human tissues, but down-regulated by promoter methylation in multiple cancers. This study was carried out to determine the biological and clinical significance of MARVELD1 gene silencing in lung cancer. Here, we found the reduced MARVELD1 expression significantly correlated with diagnostic histopathology and malignant degree of lung cancers. DNA hypermethylation and histone deacetylation synergistically inactivated MARVELD1 gene in lung cancer cells. Moreover, MARVELD1 modulated the efficiency of nonsense-mediated mRNA decay (NMD) through interaction with NMD core factor SMG1. The decreased MARVELD1 level in lung cancer reduces NMD efficiency through diminishing the association between NMD complex component UPF1/SMG1 and premature termination codons containing mRNA (PTC-mRNA). The results suggested that MARVELD1 silencing is an appealing diagnostic biomarker for lung cancer and epigenetic silencing of MARVELD1 gene links with the regulatory mechanism of NMD pathway in lung cancer, which may be required for tumorigenesis. PMID:25520033

Shi, Ming; Wang, Shan; Yao, Yuanfei; Li, Yiqun; Zhang, Hao; Han, Fang; Nie, Huan; Su, Jie; Wang, Zeyu; Yue, Lei; Cao, Jingyan; Li, Yu

2014-01-01

142

Biological and clinical significance of epigenetic silencing of MARVELD1 gene in lung cancer  

PubMed Central

Epigenetic silence in cancer frequently altered signal-transduction pathways during the early stages of tumor development. Recent progress in the field of cancer epigenetics has led to new opportunities for diagnosis and treatment of cancer. We previously demonstrated that novel identified nuclear factor MARVELD1 was widely expressed in human tissues, but down-regulated by promoter methylation in multiple cancers. This study was carried out to determine the biological and clinical significance of MARVELD1 gene silencing in lung cancer. Here, we found the reduced MARVELD1 expression significantly correlated with diagnostic histopathology and malignant degree of lung cancers. DNA hypermethylation and histone deacetylation synergistically inactivated MARVELD1 gene in lung cancer cells. Moreover, MARVELD1 modulated the efficiency of nonsense-mediated mRNA decay (NMD) through interaction with NMD core factor SMG1. The decreased MARVELD1 level in lung cancer reduces NMD efficiency through diminishing the association between NMD complex component UPF1/SMG1 and premature termination codons containing mRNA (PTC-mRNA). The results suggested that MARVELD1 silencing is an appealing diagnostic biomarker for lung cancer and epigenetic silencing of MARVELD1 gene links with the regulatory mechanism of NMD pathway in lung cancer, which may be required for tumorigenesis. PMID:25520033

Shi, Ming; Wang, Shan; Yao, Yuanfei; Li, Yiqun; Zhang, Hao; Han, Fang; Nie, Huan; Su, Jie; Wang, Zeyu; Yue, Lei; Cao, Jingyan; Li, Yu

2014-01-01

143

Gene silencing in Medicago truncatula roots using RNAi.  

PubMed

Medicago truncatula is used widely as a model system for studies of root symbioses, interactions with parasitic nematodes and fungal pathogens, as well as studies of development and secondary metabolism. In Medicago truncatula as well as other legumes, RNA interference (RNAi) coupled with Agrobacterium rhizogenes-mediated root transformation, has been used very successfully for analyses of gene function in roots. One of the major advantages of this approach is the ease and relative speed with which transgenic roots can be generated. There are several methods, both for the generation of the RNAi constructs and the root transformation. Here we provide details of an RNAi and root transformation protocol that has been used successfully in M. truncatula and which can be scaled up to enable the analysis of several hundred constructs. PMID:23996315

Floss, Daniela S; Schmitz, Alexa M; Starker, Colby G; Gantt, J Stephen; Harrison, Maria J

2013-01-01

144

Identification and characterization of a silencer regulatory element in the 3'-flanking region of the murine CD46 gene.  

PubMed Central

The murine membrane cofactor protein (CD46) gene is expressed exclusively in testis, in contrast to human CD46, which is expressed ubiquitously. To elucidate the mechanism of differential CD46 gene expression among species, we cloned entire murine CD46 genomic DNA and possible regulatory regions were placed in the flanking region of the luciferase reporter gene. The reporter gene assay revealed a silencing activity not in the promoter, but in the 3'-flanking region of the gene and the silencer-like element was identified within a 0.2-kb region between 0.6 and 0.8 kb downstream of the stop codon. This silencer-like element was highly similar to that of the pig MHC class-I gene. The introduction of a mutation into this putative silencer element of murine CD46 resulted in an abrogation of the silencing effect. Electrophoretic mobility-shift assay indicated the presence of the binding molecule(s) for this silencer sequence in murine cell lines and tissues. A size difference of the protein-silencer-element complex was observed depending upon the solubilizers used for preparation of the nuclear extracts. A mutated silencer sequence failed to interact with the binding molecules. The level of the binding factor was lower in the testicular germ cells compared with other organs. Thus the silencer element and its binding factor may play a role in transcriptional regulation of murine CD46 gene expression. These results imply that the effects of the CD46 silencer element encompass the innate immune and reproductive systems, and in mice may determine the testicular germ-cell-dominant expression of CD46. PMID:11023821

Nomura, M; Tsujimura, A; Begum, N A; Matsumoto, M; Wabiko, H; Toyoshima, K; Seya, T

2000-01-01

145

Spontaneous rDNA copy number variation modulates Sir2 levels and epigenetic gene silencing  

PubMed Central

We show that in budding yeast large rDNA deletions arise frequently and cause an increase in telomeric and mating-type gene silencing proportional to repeat loss. Paradoxically, this increase in silencing is correlated with a highly specific down-regulation of SIR2, which encodes a deacetylase enzyme required for silencing. These apparently conflicting observations suggest that a large nucleolar pool of Sir2 is released upon rDNA loss and made available for telomeric and HM silencing, as well as down-regulation of SIR2 itself. Indeed, we present evidence for a reduction in the fraction of Sir2 colocalizing with the nucleolar marker Nop1, and for SIR2 autoregulation. Despite a decrease in the fraction of nucleolar Sir2, and in overall Sir2 protein levels, short rDNA strains display normal rDNA silencing and a lifespan indistinguishable from wild type. These observations reveal an unexpectedly large clonal variation in rDNA cluster size and point to the existence of a novel regulatory circuit, sensitive to rDNA copy number, that balances nucleolar and nonnucleolar pools of Sir2 protein. PMID:15905408

Michel, Agnès H.; Kornmann, Benoît; Dubrana, Karine; Shore, David

2005-01-01

146

Targeted Gene Silencing in the Model Mushroom Coprinopsis cinerea (Coprinus cinereus) by Expression of Homologous Hairpin RNAs  

PubMed Central

The ink cap Coprinopsis cinerea is a model organism for studying fruiting body (mushroom) formation in homobasidiomycetes. Mutant screens and expression studies have implicated a number of genes in this developmental process. Functional analysis of these genes, however, is hampered by the lack of reliable reverse genetics tools for C. cinerea. Here, we report the applicability of gene targeting by RNA silencing for this organism. Efficient silencing of both an introduced GFP expression cassette and the endogenous cgl1 and cgl2 isogenes was achieved by expression of homologous hairpin RNAs. In latter case, silencing was the result of a hairpin construct containing solely cgl2 sequences, demonstrating the possibility of simultaneous silencing of whole gene families by a single construct. Expression of the hairpin RNAs reduced the mRNA levels of the target genes by at least 90%, as determined by quantitative real-time PCR. The reduced mRNA levels were accompanied by cytosine methylation of transcribed and nontranscribed DNA at both silencing and target loci in the case of constitutive high-level expression of the hairpin RNA but not in the case of transient expression. These results suggest the presence of both posttranscriptional and transcriptional gene silencing mechanisms in C. cinerea and demonstrate the applicability of targeted gene silencing as a powerful reverse genetics approach in this organism. PMID:16607020

Wälti, Martin A.; Villalba, Cristina; Buser, Reto M.; Grünler, Anke; Aebi, Markus; Künzler, Markus

2006-01-01

147

Disruption of Rpp1-mediated soybean rust immunity by virus-induced gene silencing  

PubMed Central

Phakopsora pachyrhizi, a fungus that causes rust disease on soybean, has potential to impart significant yield loss and disrupt food security and animal feed production. Rpp1 is a soybean gene that confers immunity to soybean rust, and it is important to understand how it regulates the soybean defense system and to use this knowledge to protect commercial crops. It was previously discovered that some soybean proteins resembling transcription factors accumulate in the nucleus of Rpp1 soybeans. To determine if they contribute to immunity, Bean pod mottle virus was used to attenuate or silence the expression of their genes. Rpp1 plants subjected to virus-induced gene silencing exhibited reduced amounts of RNA for 5 of the tested genes, and the plants developed rust-like symptoms after subsequent inoculation with fungal spores. Symptoms were associated with the accumulation of rust fungal RNA and protein. Silenced plants also had reduced amounts of RNA for the soybean Myb84 transcription factor and soybean isoflavone O-methyltransferase, both of which are important to phenylpropanoid biosynthesis and lignin formation, crucial components of rust resistance. These results help resolve some of the genes that contribute to Rpp1-mediated immunity and improve upon the knowledge of the soybean defense system. It is possible that these genes could be manipulated to enhance rust resistance in otherwise susceptible soybean cultivars. PMID:24401541

Cooper, Bret; Campbell, Kimberly B; McMahon, Michael B; Luster, Douglas G

2013-01-01

148

Gene silencing triggers polycomb repressive complex 2 recruitment to CpG islands genome wide.  

PubMed

Polycomb group (PcG) proteins are required for normal differentiation and development and are frequently deregulated in cancer. PcG proteins are involved in gene silencing; however, their role in initiation and maintenance of transcriptional repression is not well defined. Here, we show that knockout of the Polycomb repressive complex 2 (PRC2) does not lead to significant gene expression changes in mouse embryonic stem cells (mESCs) and that it is dispensable for initiating silencing of target genes during differentiation. Transcriptional inhibition in mESCs is sufficient to induce genome-wide ectopic PRC2 recruitment to endogenous PcG target genes found in other tissues. PRC2 binding analysis shows that it is restricted to nucleosome-free CpG islands (CGIs) of untranscribed genes. Our results show that it is the transcriptional state that governs PRC2 binding, and we propose that it binds by default to nontranscribed CGI genes to maintain their silenced state and to protect cell identity. PMID:24999238

Riising, Eva Madi; Comet, Itys; Leblanc, Benjamin; Wu, Xudong; Johansen, Jens Vilstrup; Helin, Kristian

2014-08-01

149

Gene silencing in the marine diatom Phaeodactylum tricornutum  

Microsoft Academic Search

Diatoms are a major but poorly understood phytoplankton group. The recent completion of two whole genome sequences has revealed that they contain unique combinations of genes, likely recruited during their history as secondary endo- symbionts, as well as by horizontal gene transfer from bacteria. A major limitation for the study of diatom biology and gene function is the lack of

Valentina De Riso; Raffaella Raniello; Florian Maumus; Alessandra Rogato; Chris Bowler; Angela Falciatore

2009-01-01

150

Multi-armed cationic cyclodextrin:poly(ethylene glycol) polyrotaxanes as efficient gene silencing vectors†  

PubMed Central

A family of branched polyrotaxanes (bPRTx+), threaded with multiple cationic ?-cyclodextrins (?-CDs) onto a multi-armed poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) core, were synthesized and studied as gene silencing vectors. These bPRTx+ formed stable, positively charged complexes with diameters of 150–250 nm at N/P ratios as low as 2.5. The bPRTx+ materials were shown to have gene-silencing efficiencies comparable to those of Lipofectamine 2000 (L2k) and bPEI, while displaying similar toxicity profiles. The unique structure of these polyrotaxanes allows them to effectively condense and complex siRNA into nanoparticles at much lower N/P ratios than L2k or bPEI. These findings suggest that bPRTx+ may be useful materials for gene therapy applications. PMID:23042106

Kulkarni, Aditya; DeFrees, Kyle; Schuldt, Ryan A.; Vlahu, Alexander; VerHeul, Ross; Hyun, Seok-Hee; Deng, Wei

2012-01-01

151

Nuclear RNAi contributes to the silencing of off-target genes and repetitive sequences in Caenorhabditis elegans.  

PubMed

Small RNAs recognize, bind, and regulate other complementary cellular RNAs. The introduction of small RNAs to eukaryotic cells frequently results in unintended silencing of related, but not identical, RNAs: a process termed off-target gene silencing. Off-target gene silencing is one of the major concerns during the application of small RNA-based technologies for gene discovery and the treatment of human disease. Off-target gene silencing is commonly thought to be due to inherent biochemical limitations of the RNAi machinery. Here we show that following the introduction of exogenous sources of double-stranded RNA, the nuclear RNAi pathway, but not its cytoplasmic counterparts, is the primary source of off-target silencing in Caenorhabditis elegans. In addition, we show that during the normal course of growth and development the nuclear RNAi pathway regulates repetitive gene families. Therefore, we speculate that RNAi off-target effects might not be "mistakes" but rather an intentional and genetically programmed aspect of small RNA-mediated gene silencing, which might allow small RNAs to silence rapidly evolving parasitic nucleic acids. Finally, reducing off-target effects by manipulating the nuclear RNAi pathway in vivo might improve the efficacy of small RNA-based technologies. PMID:24532782

Zhou, Xufei; Xu, Fei; Mao, Hui; Ji, Jiaojiao; Yin, Meng; Feng, Xuezhu; Guang, Shouhong

2014-05-01

152

Templated assembly of albumin-based nanoparticles for simultaneous gene silencing and magnetic resonance imaging  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this article, we address the design of innovative human serum albumin (HSA)-based nanoparticles loaded with silencing RNA and grafted with gadolinium complexes having average sizes ranging from ca. 50 to 150 nm according to the siRNA/HSA composition. The non-covalent siRNA/HSA assembly is formed on isobutyramide-modified mesoporous silica and the self-supported HSA-based nanoparticles are obtained following the silica template dissolution. These original protein particles provide simultaneous magnetic resonance imaging contrast enhancement and cellular in vitro gene silencing.In this article, we address the design of innovative human serum albumin (HSA)-based nanoparticles loaded with silencing RNA and grafted with gadolinium complexes having average sizes ranging from ca. 50 to 150 nm according to the siRNA/HSA composition. The non-covalent siRNA/HSA assembly is formed on isobutyramide-modified mesoporous silica and the self-supported HSA-based nanoparticles are obtained following the silica template dissolution. These original protein particles provide simultaneous magnetic resonance imaging contrast enhancement and cellular in vitro gene silencing. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Experimental details and supporting Fig. S1-S4. See DOI: 10.1039/c4nr02623c

Mertz, Damien; Affolter-Zbaraszczuk, Christine; Barthès, Julien; Cui, Jiwei; Caruso, Frank; Baumert, Thomas F.; Voegel, Jean-Claude; Ogier, Joelle; Meyer, Florent

2014-09-01

153

Thrombospondin-2 Gene Silencing in Human Aortic Smooth Muscle Cells Improves Cell Attachment  

PubMed Central

Background Despite decades of research, anastomotic intimal hyperplasia remains a major cause of delayed prosthetic arterial graft failure. Previously, we reported profound upregulation of Thrombospondin-2 (TSP-2) mRNA in neointimal smooth muscle cells following prosthetic arterial bypass graft placement. TSP-2 is an anti-angiogenic matricellular protein with specific functions yet unknown. In this study, we hypothesized that inhibition of TSP-2 in human aortic smooth muscle cells (HAoSMCs) would reduce cell proliferation and migration in-vitro, providing a therapeutic target to mitigate intimal hyperplasia. Study Design HAoSMCs were transfected with TSP-2 siRNA using a commercial transfection reagent. Gene silencing was evaluated using qRT-PCR. ELISA was used to measure TSP-2 protein levels in cell culture supernatants. Cell migration and proliferation were assessed using scratch wound assays and alamar blue assays respectively. Attachment assays were performed to assess the effect of TSP-2 silencing on HAoSMC adhesion to fibronectin. Results TSP-2 siRNA achieved consistent target gene silencing at 48 hours post-transfection in HAoSMCs. This single transfection allowed suppression of TSP-2 protein expression for over 30 days. TSP-2 gene silencing did not affect HAoSMC migration or proliferation. MMP-2 levels were also unaffected by changes in TSP-2 protein levels. However, HAoSMC attachment to fibronectin improved significantly in cells treated with TSP-2 siRNA. Conclusions siRNA-mediated TSP-2 silencing of human aortic HAoSMCs improved cell attachment but had no effect on cell migration or proliferation. The effect on cell attachment was unrelated to changes in MMP activity. PMID:21840228

Yoshida, Shunsuke; Nabzdyk, Christoph S; Pradhan, Leena; LoGerfo, Frank W

2011-01-01

154

Copy number loss or silencing of apoptosis-effector genes in cancer.  

PubMed

Cancer cells undergo a variety of DNA copy number gains and losses (CNV), raising two important questions related to cancer development: (i) Which genes are affected? (ii) And how do CNVs, that do not represent complete deletions but do represent gene-dosage alterations, impact cancer cell functions? Recent studies have indicated that CNVs in cancer can impact genes for regulatory proteins long known to be associated with cancer development, but less is understood about CNVs affecting effector genes. Also, we have recently indicated the likely importance of transcription factor binding site (TFBS) copies in effector genes, in regulating the transition from a proliferative to an apoptotic state. Here we report data-mining analyses that indicate that copies of apoptosis-effector genes are commonly lost in cancer development, in comparison to proliferation-effector genes, and when not, apoptosis effector genes have silenced chromatin structures. PMID:25307873

Mauro, James A; Butler, Shanitra N; Ramsamooj, Michael; Blanck, George

2015-01-01

155

Double-stranded RNA made in C. elegans neurons can enter the germline and cause transgenerational gene silencing.  

PubMed

An animal that can transfer gene-regulatory information from somatic cells to germ cells may be able to communicate changes in the soma from one generation to the next. In the worm Caenorhabditis elegans, expression of double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) in neurons can result in the export of dsRNA-derived mobile RNAs to other distant cells. Here, we show that neuronal mobile RNAs can cause transgenerational silencing of a gene of matching sequence in germ cells. Consistent with neuronal mobile RNAs being forms of dsRNA, silencing of target genes that are expressed either in somatic cells or in the germline requires the dsRNA-selective importer SID-1. In contrast to silencing in somatic cells, which requires dsRNA expression in each generation, silencing in the germline is heritable after a single generation of exposure to neuronal mobile RNAs. Although initiation of inherited silencing within the germline requires SID-1, a primary Argonaute RDE-1, a secondary Argonaute HRDE-1, and an RNase D homolog MUT-7, maintenance of inherited silencing is independent of SID-1 and RDE-1, but requires HRDE-1 and MUT-7. Inherited silencing can persist for >25 generations in the absence of the ancestral source of neuronal dsRNA. Therefore, our results suggest that sequence-specific regulatory information in the form of dsRNA can be transferred from neurons to the germline to cause transgenerational silencing. PMID:25646479

Devanapally, Sindhuja; Ravikumar, Snusha; Jose, Antony M

2015-02-17

156

Agrobacterium Mediated Transient Gene Silencing (AMTS) in Stevia rebaudiana: Insights into Steviol Glycoside Biosynthesis Pathway  

PubMed Central

Background Steviol glycoside biosynthesis pathway has emerged as bifurcation from ent-kaurenoic acid, substrate of methyl erythritol phosphate pathway that also leads to gibberellin biosynthesis. However, the genetic regulation of steviol glycoside biosynthesis has not been studied. So, in present study RNA interference (RNAi) based Agrobacterium mediated transient gene silencing (AMTS) approach was followed. SrKA13H and three SrUGTs (SrUGT85C2, SrUGT74G1 and SrUGT76G1) genes encoding ent-kaurenoic acid-13 hydroxylase and three UDP glycosyltransferases of steviol glycoside biosynthesis pathway were silenced in Stevia rebaudiana to understand its molecular mechanism and association with gibberellins. Methodology/Principal Findings RNAi mediated AMTS of SrKA13H and three SrUGTs has significantly reduced the expression of targeted endogenous genes as well as total steviol glycoside accumulation. While gibberellins (GA3) content was significantly enhanced on AMTS of SrUGT85C2 and SrKA13H. Silencing of SrKA13H and SrUGT85C2 was found to block the metabolite flux of steviol glycoside pathway and shifted it towards GA3 biosynthesis. Further, molecular docking of three SrUGT proteins has documented highest affinity of SrUGT76G1 for the substrates of alternate pathways synthesizing steviol glycosides. This could be a plausible reason for maximum reduction in steviol glycoside content on silencing of SrUGT76G1 than other genes. Conclusions SrKA13H and SrUGT85C2 were identified as regulatory genes influencing carbon flux between steviol glycoside and gibberellin biosynthesis. This study has also documented the existence of alternate steviol glycoside biosynthesis route. PMID:24023961

Guleria, Praveen; Yadav, Sudesh Kumar

2013-01-01

157

Heat-Induced Release of Epigenetic Silencing Reveals the Concealed Role of an Imprinted Plant Gene  

PubMed Central

Epigenetic mechanisms suppress the transcription of transposons and DNA repeats; however, this suppression can be transiently released under prolonged heat stress. Here we show that the Arabidopsis thaliana imprinted gene SDC, which is silent during vegetative growth due to DNA methylation, is activated by heat and contributes to recovery from stress. SDC activation seems to involve epigenetic mechanisms but not canonical heat-shock perception and signaling. The heat-mediated transcriptional induction of SDC occurs particularly in young developing leaves and is proportional to the level of stress. However, this occurs only above a certain window of absolute temperatures and, thus, resembles a thermal-sensing mechanism. In addition, the re-silencing kinetics during recovery can be entrained by repeated heat stress cycles, suggesting that epigenetic regulation in plants may conserve memory of stress experience. We further demonstrate that SDC contributes to the recovery of plant biomass after stress. We propose that transcriptional gene silencing, known to be involved in gene imprinting, is also co-opted in the specific tuning of SDC expression upon heat stress and subsequent recovery. It is therefore possible that dynamic properties of the epigenetic landscape associated with silenced or imprinted genes may contribute to regulation of their expression in response to environmental challenges. PMID:25411840

Sanchez, Diego H.; Paszkowski, Jerzy

2014-01-01

158

Global identification of genes targeted by DNMT3b for epigenetic silencing in lung cancer.  

PubMed

The maintenance cytosine DNA methyltransferase DNMT1 and de novo methyltransferase DNMT3b cooperate to establish aberrant DNA methylation and chromatin complexes to repress gene transcription during cancer development. The expression of DNMT3b was constitutively increased 5-20-fold in hTERT/CDK4-immortalized human bronchial epithelial cells (HBECs) before treatment with low doses of tobacco carcinogens. Overexpression of DNMT3b increased and accelerated carcinogen-induced transformation. Genome-wide profiling of transformed HBECs identified 143 DNMT3b-target genes, many of which were transcriptionally regulated by the polycomb repressive complex 2 (PRC2) complex and silenced through aberrant methylation in non-small-cell lung cancer cell lines. Two genes studied in detail, MAL and OLIG2, were silenced during transformation, initially through enrichment for H3K27me3 and H3K9me2, commonly methylated in lung cancer, and exert tumor suppressor effects in vivo through modulating cancer-related pathways. Re-expression of MAL and OLIG2 to physiological levels dramatically reduced the growth of lung tumor xenografts. Our results identify a key role for DNMT3b in the earliest stages of initiation and provide a comprehensive catalog of genes targeted for silencing by this methyltransferase in non-small-cell lung cancer. PMID:24469050

Teneng, I; Tellez, C S; Picchi, M A; Klinge, D M; Yingling, C M; Snider, A M; Liu, Y; Belinsky, S A

2015-01-29

159

Intravaginal gene silencing using biodegradable polymer nanoparticles densely loaded with small-interfering RNA  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Vaginal instillation of small-interfering RNA (siRNA) using liposomes has led to silencing of endogenous genes in the genital tract and protection against challenge from infectious disease. Although siRNA lipoplexes are easily formulated, several of the most effective transfection agents available commercially may be toxic to the mucosal epithelia and none are able to provide controlled or sustained release. Here, we demonstrate an alternative approach using nanoparticles composed entirely of FDA-approved materials. To render these materials effective for gene silencing, we developed novel approaches to load them with high amounts of siRNA. A single dose of siRNA-loaded nanoparticles to the mouse female reproductive tract caused efficient and sustained gene silencing. Knockdown of gene expression was observed proximal (in the vaginal lumen) and distal (in the uterine horns) to the site of topical delivery. In addition, nanoparticles penetrated deep into the epithelial tissue. This is the first report demonstrating that biodegradable polymer nanoparticles are effective delivery vehicles for siRNA to the vaginal mucosa.

Woodrow, Kim A.; Cu, Yen; Booth, Carmen J.; Saucier-Sawyer, Jennifer K.; Wood, Monica J.; Mark Saltzman, W.

2009-06-01

160

Heat-induced release of epigenetic silencing reveals the concealed role of an imprinted plant gene.  

PubMed

Epigenetic mechanisms suppress the transcription of transposons and DNA repeats; however, this suppression can be transiently released under prolonged heat stress. Here we show that the Arabidopsis thaliana imprinted gene SDC, which is silent during vegetative growth due to DNA methylation, is activated by heat and contributes to recovery from stress. SDC activation seems to involve epigenetic mechanisms but not canonical heat-shock perception and signaling. The heat-mediated transcriptional induction of SDC occurs particularly in young developing leaves and is proportional to the level of stress. However, this occurs only above a certain window of absolute temperatures and, thus, resembles a thermal-sensing mechanism. In addition, the re-silencing kinetics during recovery can be entrained by repeated heat stress cycles, suggesting that epigenetic regulation in plants may conserve memory of stress experience. We further demonstrate that SDC contributes to the recovery of plant biomass after stress. We propose that transcriptional gene silencing, known to be involved in gene imprinting, is also co-opted in the specific tuning of SDC expression upon heat stress and subsequent recovery. It is therefore possible that dynamic properties of the epigenetic landscape associated with silenced or imprinted genes may contribute to regulation of their expression in response to environmental challenges. PMID:25411840

Sanchez, Diego H; Paszkowski, Jerzy

2014-11-01

161

Highly Specific Gene Silencing by Artificial miRNAs in Rice  

PubMed Central

Background Endogenous microRNAs (miRNAs) are potent negative regulators of gene expression in plants and animals. Artificial miRNAs (amiRNAs)–designed to target one or several genes of interest–provide a new and highly specific approach for effective post-transcriptional gene silencing (PTGS) in plants. Methodology We devised an amiRNA-based strategy for both japonica and indica type strains of cultivated rice, Oryza sativa. Using an endogenous rice miRNA precursor and customized 21mers, we designed amiRNA constructs targeting three different genes (Pds, Spl11, and Eui1/CYP714D1). Upon constitutive expression of these amiRNAs in the varieties Nipponbare (japonica) and IR64 (indica), the targeted genes are down-regulated by amiRNA-guided cleavage of the transcripts, resulting in the expected mutant phenotypes. The effects are highly specific to the target gene, the transgenes are stably inherited and they remain effective in the progeny. Conclusion/Significance Our results not only show that amiRNAs can efficiently trigger gene silencing in a monocot crop, but also that amiRNAs can effectively modulate agronomically important traits in varieties used in modern breeding programs. We provide all software tools and a protocol for the design of rice amiRNA constructs, which can be easily adapted to other crops. The approach is suited for candidate gene validation, comparative functional genomics between different varieties, and for improvement of agronomic performance and nutritional value. PMID:18350165

Ossowski, Stephan; Weigel, Detlef; Hervé, Philippe

2008-01-01

162

Gene silencing in mammals by small interfering RNAs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Among the 3 billion base pairs of the human genome, there are ?30,000–40,000 protein-coding genes, but the function of at least half of them remains unknown. A new tool — short interfering RNAs (siRNAs) — has now been developed for systematically deciphering the functions and interactions of these thousands of genes. siRNAs are an intermediate of RNA interference, the process

Phillip A. Sharp; Michael T. McManus

2002-01-01

163

CTCF demarcates chicken embryonic ?-globin gene autonomous silencing and contributes to adult stage-specific gene expression  

PubMed Central

Genomic loci composed of more than one gene are frequently subjected to differential gene expression, with the chicken ?-globin domain being a clear example. In the present study we aim to understand the globin switching mechanisms responsible for the epigenetic silencing of the embryonic ? gene and the transcriptional activation of the adult ?D and ?A genes at the genomic domain level. In early stages, we describe a physical contact between the embryonic ? gene and the distal 3? enhancer that is lost later during development. We show that such a level of regulation is achieved through the establishment of a DNA hypermethylation sub-domain that includes the embryonic gene and the adjacent genomic sequences. The multifunctional CCCTCC-binding factor (CTCF), which is located upstream of the ?D gene promoter, delimits this sub-domain and creates a transition between the inactive sub-domain and the active sub-domain, which includes the adult ?D gene. In avian-transformed erythroblast HD3 cells that are induced to differentiate, we found active DNA demethylation of the adult ?D promoter, coincident with the incorporation of 5-hydroxymethylcytosine (5hmC) and concomitant with adult gene transcriptional activation. These results suggest that autonomous silencing of the embryonic ? gene is needed to facilitate an optimal topological conformation of the domain. This model proposes that CTCF is contributing to a specific chromatin configuration that is necessary for differential ?-globin gene expression during development. PMID:23880533

Valdes-Quezada, Christian; Arriaga-Canon, Cristian; Fonseca-Guzmán, Yael; Guerrero, Georgina; Recillas-Targa, Félix

2013-01-01

164

Bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells with Nogo-66 receptor gene silencing for repair of spinal cord injury  

PubMed Central

We hypothesized that RNA interference to silence Nogo-66 receptor gene expression in bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells before transplantation might further improve neurological function in rats with spinal cord transection injury. After 2 weeks, the number of neurons and BrdU-positive cells in the Nogo-66 receptor gene silencing group was higher than in the bone marrow mesenchymal stem cell group, and significantly greater compared with the model group. After 4 weeks, behavioral performance was significantly enhanced in the model group. After 8 weeks, the number of horseradish peroxidase-labeled nerve fibers was higher in the Nogo-66 receptor gene silencing group than in the bone marrow mesenchymal stem cell group, and significantly higher than in the model group. The newly formed nerve fibers and myelinated nerve fibers were detectable in the central transverse plane section in the bone marrow mesenchymal stem cell group and in the Nogo-66 receptor gene silencing group. PMID:25206893

Li, Zhiyuan; Zhang, Zhanxiu; Zhao, Lili; Li, Hui; Wang, Suxia; Shen, Yong

2014-01-01

165

Gene silencing by siRNAs and antisense oligonucleotides in the laboratory and the clinic  

PubMed Central

Synthetic nucleic acids are commonly used laboratory tools for modulating gene expression and have the potential to be widely used in the clinic. Progress towards nucleic acid drugs, however, has been slow and many challenges remain to be overcome before their full impact on patient care can be understood. Antisense oligonucleotides (ASOs) and small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) are the two most widely used strategies for silencing gene expression. We first describe these two approaches and contrast their relative strengths and weaknesses for laboratory applications. We then review the choices faced during development of clinical candidates and the current state of clinical trials. Attitudes towards clinical development of nucleic acid silencing strategies have repeatedly swung from optimism to depression during the past twenty years. Our goal is to provide the information needed to design robust studies with oligonucleotides, making use of the strengths of each oligonucleotide technology. PMID:22069063

Watts, Jonathan K.; Corey, David R.

2014-01-01

166

Bidirectional Transfer of RNAi between Honey Bee and Varroa destructor: Varroa Gene Silencing Reduces Varroa Population  

PubMed Central

The mite Varroa destructor is an obligatory ectoparasite of the honey bee (Apis mellifera) and is one of the major threats to apiculture worldwide. We previously reported that honey bees fed on double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) with a sequence homologous to that of the Israeli acute paralysis virus are protected from the viral disease. Here we show that dsRNA ingested by bees is transferred to the Varroa mite and from mite on to a parasitized bee. This cross-species, reciprocal exchange of dsRNA between bee and Varroa engendered targeted gene silencing in the latter, and resulted in an over 60% decrease in the mite population. Thus, transfer of gene-silencing-triggering molecules between this invertebrate host and its ectoparasite could lead to a conceptually novel approach to Varroa control. PMID:23308063

Kalev, Haim; Shafir, Sharoni; Sela, Ilan

2012-01-01

167

Promoter Targeting shRNA Suppresses HIV-1 Infection In vivo Through Transcriptional Gene Silencing  

PubMed Central

Despite prolonged and intensive application, combined antiretroviral therapy cannot eradicate human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-1 because it is harbored as a latent infection, surviving for long periods of time. Alternative approaches are required to overcome the limitations of current therapy. We have been developing a short interfering RNA (siRNA) gene silencing approach. Certain siRNAs targeting promoter regions of genes induce transcriptional gene silencing. We previously reported substantial transcriptional gene silencing of HIV-1 replication by an siRNA targeting the HIV-1 promoter in vitro. In this study, we show that this siRNA, expressed as a short hairpin RNA (shRNA) (shPromA-JRFL) delivered by lentiviral transduction of human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs), which are then used to reconstitute NOJ mice, is able to inhibit HIV-1 replication in vivo, whereas a three-base mismatched variant (shPromA-M2) does not. In shPromA-JRFL–treated mice, HIV-1 RNA in serum is significantly reduced, and the ratio of CD4+/CD8+ T cells is significantly elevated. Expression levels of the antisense RNA strand inversely correlates with HIV-1 RNA in serum. The silenced HIV-1 can be reactivated by T-cell activation in ex vivo cultures. HIV-1 suppression is not due to offtarget effects of shPromA-JRFL. These data provide “proof-of principle” that an shRNA targeting the HIV-1 promoter is able to suppress HIV-1 replication in vivo. PMID:24301868

Suzuki, Kazuo; Hattori, Shinichiro; Marks, Katherine; Ahlenstiel, Chantelle; Maeda, Yosuke; Ishida, Takaomi; Millington, Michelle; Boyd, Maureen; Symonds, Geoff; Cooper, David A; Okada, Seiji; Kelleher, Anthony D

2013-01-01

168

Posttranscriptional gene silencing in controlling viruses of the Tomato yellow leaf curl virus complex  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary.  Tomato yellow leaf curl disease (TYLCD) is caused by a group of geminiviruses that belong to the Tomato yellow leaf curl virus\\u000a (TYLCV) complex and are transmitted by the whitefly (Bemisia tabaci Genn.). The disease causes great yield losses in many countries throughout the Mediterranean region and the Middle East.\\u000a In this study, the efficacy of post-transcriptional gene silencing (PTGS)

M. K. Abhary; G. H. Anfoka; M. K. Nakhla; D. P. Maxwell

2006-01-01

169

Role of hPHF1 in H3K27 Methylation and Hox Gene Silencing  

Microsoft Academic Search

Received 29 August 2007\\/Returned for modification 29 October 2007\\/Accepted 7 December 2007 Polycomb group (PcG) proteins are required for maintaining the silent state of the homeotic genes and other important developmental regulators. The silencing function of the PcG proteins has been linked to their intrinsic histone modifying enzymatic activities. The EED-EZH2 complex, containing the core subunits EZH2, EED, SUZ12, and

Ru Cao; Hengbin Wang; Jin He; Hediye Erdjument-Bromage; Paul Tempst; Yi Zhang

2008-01-01

170

Development of lipid nanoparticle formulations of siRNA for hepatocyte gene silencing following subcutaneous administration.  

PubMed

Recently developed lipid nanoparticle (LNP) formulations of siRNA have proven to be effective agents for hepatocyte gene silencing following intravenous administration with at least three LNP-siRNA formulations in clinical trials. The aim of this work was to develop LNP-siRNA systems for hepatocyte gene silencing that can be administered subcutaneously (s.c.). Three parameters were investigated, namely LNP size, residence time of the polyethylene glycol (PEG)-lipid coating and the influence of hepatocyte-specific targeting ligands. LNP sizes were varied over the range of 30 to 115nm in diameter and PEG-lipid that dissociates rapidly (PEG-DMG) and slowly (PEG-DSG) were employed. In mice, results show that large (~80nm) LNP exhibited limited accumulation in the liver and poor Factor VII (FVII) gene silencing at 1mg siRNA/kg body weight. Conversely, small (~30nm) LNP systems showed maximal liver accumulation yet still had minimal activity. Interestingly, intermediate size (~45nm) LNP containing PEG-DSG exhibited nearly equivalent liver accumulation as the smaller systems following s.c. administration but reduced FVII levels by 80% at 1mg siRNA/kg body weight. Smaller systems (~35nm diameter) containing either PEG-DMG or PEG-DSG were less active; however addition of 0.5mol.% of a GalNAc-PEG lipid to these smaller systems improved activity to levels similar to that observed for the ~45nm diameter systems. In summary, this work shows that appropriately designed LNP-siRNA systems can result in effective hepatocyte gene silencing following s.c administration. PMID:25285610

Chen, Sam; Tam, Yuen Yi C; Lin, Paulo J C; Leung, Alex K K; Tam, Ying K; Cullis, Pieter R

2014-12-28

171

Multimeric small interfering ribonucleic acid for highly efficient sequence-specific gene silencing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Small interfering RNA (siRNA) with 19-21 base pairs has been recently recognized as a new therapeutic agent for effectively silencing a specific gene on a post-transcription level. For siRNA therapeutics, safe and efficient delivery issues are significant hurdles to clinical applications. Here we present a new class of biologically active siRNA structure based on chemically self-crosslinked and multimerized siRNA through cleavable disulphide linkages. The multimerized siRNA can produce more stable and compact polyelectrolyte complexes with less cytotoxic cationic carriers than naked siRNA because of substantially increased charge densities and the presence of flexible chemical linkers in the backbone. The cleavable and multimerized siRNA shows greatly enhanced gene-silencing efficiencies in vitro and in vivo through a target-messenger-RNA-specific RNA interference processing without significantly eliciting immune induction. This study demonstrates that the multimerized siRNA structure complexed with selected cationic condensing agents can serve as potential gene-silencing therapeutics for treating various diseases.

Mok, Hyejung; Lee, Soo Hyeon; Park, Ji Won; Park, Tae Gwan

2010-03-01

172

siRNA delivery with chitosan nanoparticles: Molecular properties favoring efficient gene silencing.  

PubMed

Chitosan has gained increasing interest for siRNA delivery. Although chitosan covers a family of structurally different polysaccharides, most siRNA delivery studies have been performed with conventional partially N-acetylated chitosans. Herein, the purpose was to identify fundamental chitosan molecular properties favoring siRNA delivery and efficient gene silencing in mammalian cells. Nanoparticles were prepared from well-defined chitosans of various chemical compositions, degrees of polymerization (DP(n)) and chain architectures. Structure-activity relationships were determined by the cellular uptake of siRNA and the knockdown efficiency at mRNA and protein levels. Additionally, the nanoparticle cytotoxicity was evaluated on the basis of cellular metabolic activity and membrane integrity. Our results show that the most efficient gene silencing was achieved using fully de-N-acetylated chitosans with intermediate chain lengths (DP(n) 100-300). These chitosans mediated efficient siRNA delivery at low siRNA concentrations and, in several cell lines, potent long-term silencing of both exogenous and endogenous target genes, with minimal cytotoxicity. PMID:22119955

Malmo, Jostein; Sørgård, Hanne; Vårum, Kjell M; Strand, Sabina P

2012-03-10

173

Genome-Wide DNA Methylation Indicates Silencing of Tumor Suppressor Genes in Uterine Leiomyoma  

PubMed Central

Background Uterine leiomyomas, or fibroids, represent the most common benign tumor of the female reproductive tract. Fibroids become symptomatic in 30% of all women and up to 70% of African American women of reproductive age. Epigenetic dysregulation of individual genes has been demonstrated in leiomyoma cells; however, the in vivo genome-wide distribution of such epigenetic abnormalities remains unknown. Principal Findings We characterized and compared genome-wide DNA methylation and mRNA expression profiles in uterine leiomyoma and matched adjacent normal myometrial tissues from 18 African American women. We found 55 genes with differential promoter methylation and concominant differences in mRNA expression in uterine leiomyoma versus normal myometrium. Eighty percent of the identified genes showed an inverse relationship between DNA methylation status and mRNA expression in uterine leiomyoma tissues, and the majority of genes (62%) displayed hypermethylation associated with gene silencing. We selected three genes, the known tumor suppressors KLF11, DLEC1, and KRT19 and verified promoter hypermethylation, mRNA repression and protein expression using bisulfite sequencing, real-time PCR and western blot. Incubation of primary leiomyoma smooth muscle cells with a DNA methyltransferase inhibitor restored KLF11, DLEC1 and KRT19 mRNA levels. Conclusions These results suggest a possible functional role of promoter DNA methylation-mediated gene silencing in the pathogenesis of uterine leiomyoma in African American women. PMID:22428009

Navarro, Antonia; Yin, Ping; Monsivais, Diana; Lin, Simon M.; Du, Pan; Wei, Jian-Jun; Bulun, Serdar E.

2012-01-01

174

Survivin gene silencing sensitizes prostate cancer cells to selenium growth inhibition  

PubMed Central

Background Prostate cancer is a leading cause of cancer-related death in men worldwide. Survivin is a member of the inhibitor of apoptosis (IAP) protein family that is expressed in the majority of human tumors including prostate cancer, but is barely detectable in terminally differentiated normal cells. Downregulation of survivin could sensitize prostate cancer cells to chemotherapeutic agents in vitro and in vivo. Selenium is an essential trace element. Several studies have shown that selenium compounds inhibit the growth of prostate cancer cells. The objective of this study is to investigate whether survivin gene silencing in conjunction with selenium treatment could enhance the therapeutic efficacy for prostate cancer and to elucidate the underlying mechanisms. Methods Expression of survivin was analyzed in a collection of normal and malignant prostatic tissues by immunohistochemical staining. In vitro studies were conducted in PC-3M, C4-2B, and 22Rv1 prostate cancer cells. The effect of selenium on survivin expression was analyzed by Western blotting and semi-quantitative RT-PCR. Survivin gene knockdown was carried out by transfecting cells with a short hairpin RNA (shRNA) designed against survivin. Cell proliferation was quantitated by the 3-(4,5-Dimethylthiazol-2-yl)- 2,5-Diphenyltetrazolium Bromide (MTT) assay and apoptosis by propidium iodide staining followed by flow cytometry analysis. Finally, in vivo tumor growth assay was performed by establishing PC-3M xenograft in nude mice and monitoring tumor growth following transfection and treatment. Results We found that survivin was undetectable in normal prostatic tissues but was highly expressed in prostate cancers. Survivin knockdown or selenium treatment inhibited the growth of prostate cancer cells, but the selenium effect was modest. In contrast to what have been observed in other cell lines, selenium treatment had little or no effect on survivin expression in several androgen-independent prostate cancer cell lines. Survivin knockdown sensitized these cells to selenium growth inhibition and apoptosis induction. In nude mice bearing PC-3M xenografts, survivin knockdown synergizes with selenium in inhibiting tumor growth. Conclusions Selenium could inhibit the growth of hormone-refractory prostate cancer cells both in vitro and in vivo, but the effects were modest. The growth inhibition was not mediated by downregulating survivin expression. Survivin silencing greatly enhanced the growth inhibitory effects of selenium. PMID:20698994

2010-01-01

175

Efficient gene silencing by delivery of locked nucleic acid antisense oligonucleotides, unassisted by transfection reagents  

Microsoft Academic Search

For the past 15-20 years, the intracellular delivery and silencing activity of oligodeoxynucleotides have been essentially completely dependent on the use of a delivery technology (e.g. lipofection). We have developed a method (called 'gymnosis') that does not require the use of any transfection reagent or any additives to serum whatsoever, but rather takes advantage of the normal growth properties of

C. A. Stein; J. Bo Hansen; Johnathan Lai; SiJian Wu; Anatoliy Voskresenskiy; A. Hog; Jesper Worm; Maj Hedtjarn; Naira Souleimanian; Paul Miller; Harris S. Soifer; Daniella Castanotto; Luba Benimetskaya; H. Orum; Troels Koch

2010-01-01

176

Gene Silencing by RNA Interference in the White Rot Fungus Phanerochaete chrysosporium?  

PubMed Central

The effectiveness of RNA interference (RNAi) is demonstrated in the lignin-degrading fungus Phanerochaete chrysosporium. The manganese-containing superoxide dismutase gene (MnSOD1) was used as the target for RNAi. The plasmid constructed for gene silencing contained a transcriptional unit for hairpin RNA expression. Significantly lower MnSOD expression at both the mRNA and protein activity levels was detected in RNAi transformants. Furthermore, even though P. chrysosporium possesses three copies of the MnSOD gene, this RNAi construct was sufficient to decrease the enzymatic activity by as much as 70% relative to control levels. Implementation of the RNAi technique in P. chrysosporium provides an alternative genetic tool for studies of gene function, particularly of essential genes or gene families. PMID:18606804

Matityahu, Avi; Hadar, Yitzhak; Dosoretz, Carlos G.; Belinky, Paula A.

2008-01-01

177

Functional gene silencing mediated by chitosan/siRNA nanocomplexes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Chitosan/siRNA nanoparticles to knock down FHL2 gene expression were reported in this work. The physicochemical properties such as particle size, surface charge, morphology and complex stability of chitosan nanoparticle-incorporated siRNA were evaluated. Nanoparticles which were formulated with chitosan/siRNA exhibited irregular, lamellar and dendritic structures with a hydrodynamic radius size of about 148 nm and net positive charges with zeta-potential value of 58.5 mV. The knockdown effect of the chitosan/siRNA nanoparticles on gene expression in FHL2 over-expressed human colorectal cancer Lovo cells was investigated. The result showed that FHL2 siRNA formulated within chitosan nanoparticles could knock down about 69.6% FHL2 gene expression, which is very similar to the 68.8% reduced gene expression when siRNA was transfected with liposome Lipofectamine. Western analysis further showed significant FHL-2 protein expression reduced by the chitosan/siRNA nanoparticles. The results also showed that blocking FHL2 expression by siRNA could also inhibit the growth and proliferation of human colorectal cancer Lovo cells. The current results demonstrated that chitosan-based siRNA nanoparticles were a very efficient delivery system for siRNA in vivo as previously reported.

Ji, A. M.; Su, D.; Che, O.; Li, W. S.; Sun, L.; Zhang, Z. Y.; Yang, B.; Xu, F.

2009-10-01

178

Gene silencing in Caenorhabditis elegans by transitive RNA interference  

Microsoft Academic Search

When a cell is exposed to double-stranded RNA (dsRNA), mRNA from the homologous gene is selectively degraded by a process called RNA interference (RNAi). Here, we provide evidence that dsRNA is amplified in Caenorhabditis elegans to ensure a robust RNAi response. Our data suggest a model in which mRNA targeted by RNAi functions as a template for 5 to 3

MATTHEW N. ALDER; SHALE DAMES; JEFFREY GAUDET; SUSAN E. MANGO

2003-01-01

179

Supporting information for 6-Thioguanine Reactivates Epigenetically Silenced Genes in  

E-print Network

'-AGAAAACACATCCAGGGTCCG-3' 27. Sequence Name: RT-LSD1-S 5'-TCGCTACACGGCTTCAGGATG-3' 28. Sequence Name: RT-LSD1-AS 5 of LSD1 gene in HEK-293T cells. GAPDH was used as an internal control for real-time RT-PCR analysis blot analysis of DNMT1 with whole-cell extracts from HEK-293T cells after LSD1 siRNA knockdown. (C

Jacobsen, Steve

180

Characterisation of PAUSE-1, a powerful silencer in the human plasminogen activator inhibitor type 2 gene promoter  

PubMed Central

Plasminogen activator inhibitor type 2 (PAI-2) is a serine protease inhibitor traditionally regarded as a regulator of fibrinolysis and extracellular matrix degradation. More recently, PAI-2 has been implicated in diverse processes such as keratinocyte differentiation, cell death and viral pathogenesis. The PAI-2 promoter tightly regulates PAI-2 gene expression in a cell-specific manner and this control is mediated, in part, by the upstream silencer element, PAUSE-1. Here we have defined PAUSE-1 and investigated its activity as a silencer. A series of mutations were generated within the PAUSE-1 element and analysed for transcription factor binding and transcriptional silencing activity. These studies have defined the minimal functional PAUSE-1 element as TCTNxAGAN3T4, where x = 0, 2 or 4. Examination of related elements present in other promoters, such as the human IFN? promoter, suggests that PAUSE-1 is a member of a family of universal silencers with the consensus sequence TCTNxAGA. UV crosslinking analyses determined that the PAUSE-1 binding protein was ?67 kDa. Insertion of PAUSE-1 into the heterologous (SV40) or the minimal PAI-2 promoters silenced transcription by 2.5-fold. These data show that PAUSE-1 acts as a powerful silencer of PAI-2 gene transcription and is likely to be important in the silencing of other genes as well. PMID:11574673

Ogbourne, Steven M.; Antalis, Toni M.

2001-01-01

181

High capacity nanoporous silicon carrier for systemic delivery of gene silencing therapeutics.  

PubMed

Gene silencing agents such as small interfering RNA (siRNA) and microRNA offer the promise to modulate expression of almost every gene for the treatment of human diseases including cancer. However, lack of vehicles for effective systemic delivery to the disease organs has greatly limited their in vivo applications. In this study, we developed a high capacity polycation-functionalized nanoporous silicon (PCPS) platform comprised of nanoporous silicon microparticles functionalized with arginine-polyethyleneimine inside the nanopores for effective delivery of gene silencing agents. Incubation of MDA-MB-231 human breast cancer cells with PCPS loaded with STAT3 siRNA (PCPS/STAT3) or GRP78 siRNA (PCPS/GRP78) resulted in 91 and 83% reduction of STAT3 and GRP78 gene expression in vitro. Treatment of cells with a microRNA-18a mimic in PCPS (PCPS/miR-18) knocked down 90% expression of the microRNA-18a target gene ATM. Systemic delivery of PCPS/STAT3 siRNA in murine model of MDA-MB-231 breast cancer enriched particles in tumor tissues and reduced STAT3 expression in cancer cells, causing significant reduction of cancer stem cells in the residual tumor tissue. At the therapeutic dosage, PCPS/STAT3 siRNA did not trigger acute immune response in FVB mice, including changes in serum cytokines, chemokines, and colony-stimulating factors. In addition, weekly dosing of PCPS/STAT3 siRNA for four weeks did not cause signs of subacute toxicity based on changes in body weight, hematology, blood chemistry, and major organ histology. Collectively, the results suggest that we have developed a safe vehicle for effective delivery of gene silencing agents. PMID:24131405

Shen, Jianliang; Xu, Rong; Mai, Junhua; Kim, Han-Cheon; Guo, Xiaojing; Qin, Guoting; Yang, Yong; Wolfram, Joy; Mu, Chaofeng; Xia, Xiaojun; Gu, Jianhua; Liu, Xuewu; Mao, Zong-Wan; Ferrari, Mauro; Shen, Haifa

2013-11-26

182

High Capacity Nanoporous Silicon Carrier for Systemic Delivery of Gene Silencing Therapeutics  

PubMed Central

Gene silencing agents such as small interfering RNA (siRNA) and microRNA offer the promise to modulate expression of almost every gene for the treatment of human diseases including cancer. However, lack of vehicles for effective systemic delivery to the disease organs has greatly limited their in vivo applications. In this study, we developed a high capacity polycation-functionalized nanoporous silicon (PCPS) platform comprised of nanoporous silicon microparticles functionalized with arginine-polyethyleneimine inside the nanopores for effective delivery of gene silencing agents. Incubation of MDA-MB-231 human breast cancer cells with PCPS loaded with STAT3 siRNA (PCPS/STAT3) or GRP78 siRNA (PCPS/GRP78) resulted in 91% and 83% reduction of STAT3 and GRP78 gene expression in vitro. Treatment of cells with a microRNA-18a mimic in PCPS (PCPS/miR-18) knocked down 90% expression of the microRNA-18a target gene ATM. Systemic delivery of PCPS/STAT3 siRNA in murine model of MDA-MB-231 breast cancer enriched particles in tumor tissues and reduced STAT3 expression in cancer cells, causing significant reduction of cancer stem cells in the residual tumor tissue. At the therapeutic dosage, PCPS/STAT3 siRNA did not trigger acute immune response in FVB mice, including changes in serum cytokines, chemokines and colony-stimulating factors. In addition, weekly dosing of PCPS/STAT3 siRNA for four weeks did not cause signs of sub-acute toxicity based on changes in body weight, hematology, blood chemistry, and major organ histology. Collectively, the results suggest that we have developed a safe vehicle for effective delivery of gene silencing agents. PMID:24131405

Kim, Han-Cheon; Guo, Xiaojing; Qin, Guoting; Yang, Yong; Wolfram, Joy; Mu, Chaofeng; Xia, Xiaojun; Gu, Jianhua; Liu, Xuewu; Mao, Zong-Wan; Ferrari, Mauro; Shen, Haifa

2013-01-01

183

Bottlenecks in Development of Retinal Therapeutic Post-Transcriptional Gene Silencing Agents  

PubMed Central

Development of post-transcriptional gene silencing (PTGS) agents for therapeutic purposes is an immense challenge in modern biology. Established technologies used to knockdown a specific target RNA and its cognate protein: antisense, ribozyme, RNAi, all conditionally depend upon an initial, critical annealing event of the PTGS ligand to a target RNA. In this review we address the nature of the bottlenecks, emphasizing the biocomplexity of target RNA structure, that currently limit PTGS therapeutic development. We briefly review existing and emerging technologies designed to release these constraints to realize the potential of PTGS agents in gene based therapies. PMID:17976683

Sullivan, Jack M.; Yau, Edwin H.; Taggart, R. Thomas; Butler, Mark C.; Kolniak, Tiffany A.

2011-01-01

184

Panspecies small-molecule disruptors of heterochromatin-mediated transcriptional gene silencing.  

PubMed

Heterochromatin underpins gene repression, genome integrity, and chromosome segregation. In the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe, conserved protein complexes effect heterochromatin formation via RNA interference-mediated recruitment of a histone H3 lysine 9 methyltransferase to cognate chromatin regions. To identify small molecules that inhibit heterochromatin formation, we performed an in vivo screen for loss of silencing of a dominant selectable kanMX reporter gene embedded within fission yeast centromeric heterochromatin. Two structurally unrelated compounds, HMS-I1 and HMS-I2, alleviated kanMX silencing and decreased repressive H3K9 methylation levels at the transgene. The decrease in methylation caused by HMS-I1 and HMS-I2 was observed at all loci regulated by histone methylation, including centromeric repeats, telomeric regions, and the mating-type locus, consistent with inhibition of the histone deacetylases (HDACs) Clr3 and/or Sir2. Chemical-genetic epistasis and expression profiles revealed that both compounds affect the activity of the Clr3-containing Snf2/HDAC repressor complex (SHREC). In vitro HDAC assays revealed that HMS-I1 and HMS-I2 inhibit Clr3 HDAC activity. HMS-I1 also alleviated transgene reporter silencing by heterochromatin in Arabidopsis and a mouse cell line, suggesting a conserved mechanism of action. HMS-I1 and HMS-I2 bear no resemblance to known inhibitors of chromatin-based activities and thus represent novel chemical probes for heterochromatin formation and function. PMID:25487573

Castonguay, Emilie; White, Sharon A; Kagansky, Alexander; St-Cyr, Daniel J; Castillo, Araceli G; Brugger, Christiane; White, Rachel; Bonilla, Carolina; Spitzer, Michaela; Earnshaw, William C; Schalch, Thomas; Ekwall, Karl; Tyers, Mike; Allshire, Robin C

2015-02-15

185

Panspecies Small-Molecule Disruptors of Heterochromatin-Mediated Transcriptional Gene Silencing  

PubMed Central

Heterochromatin underpins gene repression, genome integrity, and chromosome segregation. In the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe, conserved protein complexes effect heterochromatin formation via RNA interference-mediated recruitment of a histone H3 lysine 9 methyltransferase to cognate chromatin regions. To identify small molecules that inhibit heterochromatin formation, we performed an in vivo screen for loss of silencing of a dominant selectable kanMX reporter gene embedded within fission yeast centromeric heterochromatin. Two structurally unrelated compounds, HMS-I1 and HMS-I2, alleviated kanMX silencing and decreased repressive H3K9 methylation levels at the transgene. The decrease in methylation caused by HMS-I1 and HMS-I2 was observed at all loci regulated by histone methylation, including centromeric repeats, telomeric regions, and the mating-type locus, consistent with inhibition of the histone deacetylases (HDACs) Clr3 and/or Sir2. Chemical-genetic epistasis and expression profiles revealed that both compounds affect the activity of the Clr3-containing Snf2/HDAC repressor complex (SHREC). In vitro HDAC assays revealed that HMS-I1 and HMS-I2 inhibit Clr3 HDAC activity. HMS-I1 also alleviated transgene reporter silencing by heterochromatin in Arabidopsis and a mouse cell line, suggesting a conserved mechanism of action. HMS-I1 and HMS-I2 bear no resemblance to known inhibitors of chromatin-based activities and thus represent novel chemical probes for heterochromatin formation and function. PMID:25487573

Castonguay, Emilie; White, Sharon A.; Kagansky, Alexander; St-Cyr, Daniel J.; Castillo, Araceli G.; Brugger, Christiane; White, Rachel; Bonilla, Carolina; Spitzer, Michaela; Earnshaw, William C.; Schalch, Thomas; Ekwall, Karl

2014-01-01

186

Gene silencing of HIV chemokine receptors using ribozymes and single-stranded antisense RNA  

PubMed Central

The chemokine receptors CXCR4 and CCR5 are required for HIV-1 to enter cells, and the progression of HIV-1 infection to AIDS involves a switch in the co-receptor usage of the virus from CCR5 to CXCR4. These receptors therefore make attractive candidates for therapeutic intervention, and we have investigated the silencing of their genes by using ribozymes and single-stranded antisense RNAs. In the present study, we demonstrate using ribozymes that a depletion of CXCR4 and CCR5 mRNAs can be achieved simultaneously in human PBMCs (peripheral blood mononuclear cells), cells commonly used by the virus for infection and replication. Ribozyme activity leads to an inhibition of the cell-surface expression of both CCR5 and CXCR4, resulting in a significant inhibition of HIV-1 replication when PBMCs are challenged with the virus. In addition, we show that small single-stranded antisense RNAs can also be used to silence CCR5 and CXCR4 genes when delivered to PBMCs. This silencing is caused by selective degradation of receptor mRNAs. PMID:16293105

Qureshi, Amer; Zheng, Richard; Parlett, Terry; Shi, Xiaoju; Balaraman, Priyadhashini; Cheloufi, Sihem; Murphy, Brendan; Guntermann, Christine; Eagles, Peter

2005-01-01

187

RNA-Mediated Silencing in Algae: Biological Roles and Tools for Analysis of Gene Function ?  

PubMed Central

Algae are a large group of aquatic, typically photosynthetic, eukaryotes that include species from very diverse phylogenetic lineages, from those similar to land plants to those related to protist parasites. The recent sequencing of several algal genomes has provided insights into the great complexity of these organisms. Genomic information has also emphasized our lack of knowledge of the functions of many predicted genes, as well as the gene regulatory mechanisms in algae. Core components of the machinery for RNA-mediated silencing show widespread distribution among algal lineages, but they also seem to have been lost entirely from several species with relatively small nuclear genomes. Complex sets of endogenous small RNAs, including candidate microRNAs and small interfering RNAs, have now been identified by high-throughput sequencing in green, red, and brown algae. However, the natural roles of RNA-mediated silencing in algal biology remain poorly understood. Limited evidence suggests that small RNAs may function, in different algae, in defense mechanisms against transposon mobilization, in responses to nutrient deprivation and, possibly, in the regulation of recently evolved developmental processes. From a practical perspective, RNA interference (RNAi) is becoming a promising tool for assessing gene function by sequence-specific knockdown. Transient gene silencing, triggered with exogenously synthesized nucleic acids, and/or stable gene repression, involving genome-integrated transgenes, have been achieved in green algae, diatoms, yellow-green algae, and euglenoids. The development of RNAi technology in conjunction with system level “omics” approaches may provide the tools needed to advance our understanding of algal physiological and metabolic processes. PMID:21803865

Cerutti, Heriberto; Ma, Xinrong; Msanne, Joseph; Repas, Timothy

2011-01-01

188

siRNA mediated gene silencing in Fusarium sp. HKF15 for overproduction of bikaverin.  

PubMed

Fusarium sp. HKF15 is an isolate from effluent treatment plant which produces bikaverin. Bikaverin is a polyketide having antitumor and antibiotic potential. Acetyl coenzyme A is a common precursor for bikaverin as well as carotenoids and gibberellins. A polyketide synthase gene bik1 is responsible for bikaverin production whereas, hydroxymethyl glutaryl coenzyme A reductase (hmgR) and farnesyl pyrophosphate synthase (fpps) are carotenoid and gibberellin pathway genes. Aim of this study was assessing siRNA mediated gene silencing for bikaverin overproduction with down-regulation of carotenoid and gibberellin pathway. HKF15 protoplasts derived from glucose grown culture were treated with 200pmolml(-1)hmgR and fpps siRNAs separately. Along with down-regulation of target genes, there was 2.4-fold increase in bik1 gene expression. The silencing was effective till 48h with a 41% increase in bikaverin production. The study proposes a strategy for manipulation of physiology towards desired secondary metabolite overproduction. PMID:24636053

Deshmukh, Radhika; Purohit, Hemant J

2014-04-01

189

Wilms tumour suppressor, WT1, suppresses epigenetic silencing of the beta-catenin gene.  

PubMed

The mammalian kidney is derived from progenitor cells in intermediate mesoderm. During embryogenesis, progenitor cells expressing the Wilms tumour suppressor gene, WT1, are induced to differentiate in response to WNT signals from the ureteric bud. In hereditary Wilms tumours, clonal loss of WT1 precludes the beta-catenin pathway response and leads to precancerous nephrogenic rests. We hypothesized that WT1 normally primes progenitor cells for differentiation by suppressing the enhancer of zeste2 gene (EZH2), involved in epigenetic silencing of differentiation genes. In human mesenchymal stem cells (amMSC), we show that exogenous WT1B represses EZH2 transcription. This leads to a dramatic decrease in the repressive lysine27 tri-methylation mark on histone H3 that silences beta-catenin gene expression. As a result, amMSC acquire responsiveness to WNT9b and increase expression of genes that mark the onset of nephron differentiation. Our observations suggest that bi-allelic loss of WT1 sustains the inhibitory histone methylation state that characterizes Wilms tumours. PMID:25331950

Akpa, Murielle M; Iglesias, Diana M; Chu, Lee Lee; Cybulsky, Marta; Bravi, Cristina; Goodyer, Paul

2014-10-20

190

Arabidopsis SGS2 and SGS3 Genes Are Required for Posttranscriptional Gene Silencing and Natural Virus Resistance  

Microsoft Academic Search

Posttranscriptional gene silencing (PTGS) in plants results from the degradation of mRNAs and shows phenomenological similarities with quelling in fungi and RNAi in animals. Here, we report the isolation of sgs2 and sgs3 Arabidopsis mutants impaired in PTGS. We establish a mechanistic link between PTGS, quelling, and RNAi since the Arabidopsis SGS2 protein is similar to an RNA-dependent RNA polymerase

Philippe Mourrain; Christophe Béclin; Taline Elmayan; Frank Feuerbach; Christian Godon; Jean-Benoit Morel; David Jouette; Anne-Marie Lacombe; Snezana Nikic; Nathalie Picault; Karine Rémoué; Mathieu Sanial; Truy-Anh Vo; Hervé Vaucheret

2000-01-01

191

Silencing genes encoding omega-3 fatty acid desaturase alters seed size and accumulation of Bean pod mottle virus in soybean.  

PubMed

Omega-3 fatty acid desaturase (FAD3)-catalyzed conversion of linoleic acid to linolenic acid (18:3) is an important step for the biosynthesis of fatty acids as well as the phytohormone jasmonic acid (JA) in plants. We report that silencing three microsomal isoforms of GmFAD3 enhanced the accumulation of Bean pod mottle virus (BPMV) in soybean. The GmFAD3-silenced plants also accumulated higher levels of JA, even though they contained slightly reduced levels of 18:3. Consequently, the GmFAD3-silenced plants expressed JA-responsive pathogenesis-related genes constitutively and exhibited enhanced susceptibility to virulent Pseudomonas syringae. Increased accumulation of BPMV in GmFAD3-silenced plants was likely associated with their JA levels, because exogenous JA application also increased BPMV accumulation. The JA-derived increase in BPMV levels was likely not due to repression of salicylic acid (SA)-derived signaling because the GmFAD3-silenced plants were enhanced in SA-dependent defenses. Furthermore, neither exogenous SA application nor silencing the SA-synthesizing phenylalanine ammonia lyase gene altered BPMV levels in soybean. In addition to the altered defense responses, the GmFAD3-silenced plants also produced significantly larger and heavier seed. Our results indicate that loss of GmFAD3 enhances JA accumulation and, thereby, susceptibility to BPMV in soybean. PMID:21117867

Singh, Ajay Kumar; Fu, Da-Qi; El-Habbak, Mohamed; Navarre, Duroy; Ghabrial, Said; Kachroo, Aardra

2011-04-01

192

Tissue-specific gene silencing mediated by a naturally occurring chalcone synthase gene cluster in Glycine max.  

PubMed

Chalcone synthase, a key regulatory enzyme in the flavonoid pathway, constitutes an eight-member gene family in Glycine max (soybean). Three of the chalcone synthase (CHS) gene family members are arranged as inverted repeats in a 10-kb region, corresponding to the I locus (inhibitor). Spontaneous mutations of a dominant allele (I or i(i)) to a recessive allele (i) have been shown to delete promoter sequences, paradoxically increasing total CHS transcript levels and resulting in black seed coats. However, it is not known which of the gene family members contribute toward pigmentation and how this locus affects CHS expression in other tissues. We investigated the unusual nature of the I locus using four pairs of isogenic lines differing with respect to alleles of the I locus. RNA gel blots using a generic open reading frame CHS probe detected similar CHS transcript levels in stems, roots, leaves, young pods, and cotyledons of the yellow and black isolines but not in the seed coats, which is consistent with the dominant I and i(i) alleles mediating CHS gene silencing in a tissue-specific manner. Using real-time RT-PCR, a variable pattern of expression of CHS genes in different tissues was demonstrated. However, increase in pigmentation in the black seed coats was associated with release of the silencing effect specifically on CHS7/CHS8, which occurred at all stages of seed coat development. These expression changes were linked to structural changes taking place at the I locus, shown to encompass a much wider region of at least 27 kb, comprising two identical 10.91-kb stretches of CHS gene duplications. The suppressive effect of this 27-kb I locus in a specific tissue of the G. max plant represents a unique endogenous gene silencing mechanism. PMID:15064367

Tuteja, Jigyasa H; Clough, Steven J; Chan, Wan-Ching; Vodkin, Lila O

2004-04-01

193

RNAi Dynamics in Juvenile Fasciola spp. Liver Flukes Reveals the Persistence of Gene Silencing In Vitro  

PubMed Central

Background Fasciola spp. liver fluke cause pernicious disease in humans and animals. Whilst current control is unsustainable due to anthelmintic resistance, gene silencing (RNA interference, RNAi) has the potential to contribute to functional validation of new therapeutic targets. The susceptibility of juvenile Fasciola hepatica to double stranded (ds)RNA-induced RNAi has been reported. To exploit this we probe RNAi dynamics, penetrance and persistence with the aim of building a robust platform for reverse genetics in liver fluke. We describe development of standardised RNAi protocols for a commercially-available liver fluke strain (the US Pacific North West Wild Strain), validated via robust transcriptional silencing of seven virulence genes, with in-depth experimental optimisation of three: cathepsin L (FheCatL) and B (FheCatB) cysteine proteases, and a ?-class glutathione transferase (Fhe?GST). Methodology/Principal Findings Robust transcriptional silencing of targets in both F. hepatica and Fasciola gigantica juveniles is achievable following exposure to long (200–320 nt) dsRNAs or 27 nt short interfering (si)RNAs. Although juveniles are highly RNAi-susceptible, they display slower transcript and protein knockdown dynamics than those reported previously. Knockdown was detectable following as little as 4h exposure to trigger (target-dependent) and in all cases silencing persisted for ?25 days following long dsRNA exposure. Combinatorial silencing of three targets by mixing multiple long dsRNAs was similarly efficient. Despite profound transcriptional suppression, we found a significant time-lag before the occurrence of protein suppression; Fhe?GST and FheCatL protein suppression were only detectable after 9 and 21 days, respectively. Conclusions/Significance In spite of marked variation in knockdown dynamics, we find that a transient exposure to long dsRNA or siRNA triggers robust RNAi penetrance and persistence in liver fluke NEJs supporting the development of multiple-throughput phenotypic screens for control target validation. RNAi persistence in fluke encourages in vivo studies on gene function using worms exposed to RNAi-triggers prior to infection. PMID:25254508

McVeigh, Paul; McCammick, Erin M.; McCusker, Paul; Morphew, Russell M.; Mousley, Angela; Abidi, Abbas; Saifullah, Khalid M.; Muthusamy, Raman; Gopalakrishnan, Ravikumar; Spithill, Terry W.; Dalton, John P.; Brophy, Peter M.; Marks, Nikki J.; Maule, Aaron G.

2014-01-01

194

Resistance to curly top viruses through virus induced gene silencing  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Curly top disease, caused by viruses of the genus Curtovirus, and transmitted by the beet leafhopper (Circulifer tenellus), has resulted in losses for western U.S. agriculture for over a century. No control methods have been developed that economically, effectively and reliably prevent losses in tom...

195

Genome-wide unmasking of epigenetically silenced genes in lung adenocarcinoma from smokers and never smokers.  

PubMed

Lung cancer in never smokers (NS) shows striking demographic, clinicopathological and molecular distinctions from the disease in smokers (S). Studies on selected genetic and epigenetic alterations in lung cancer identified that the frequency and profile of some abnormalities significantly differ by smoking status. This study compared the transcriptome of lung adenocarcinoma cell lines derived from S (n = 3) and NS (n = 3) each treated with vehicle (control), histone deacetylation inhibitor (trichostatin A) or DNA methylation inhibitor (5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine). Among 122 genes reexpressed following 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine but not trichostatin A treatment in two or more cell lines (including 32 genes in S-only and 12 NS-only), methylation was validated for 80% (98/122 genes). After methylation analysis of 20 normal tissue samples and 14 additional non-small cell lung cancer cell lines (total 20), 39 genes frequently methylated in normal (>20%, 4/20) and 21 genes rarely methylated in non-small cell lung cancer (?10%, 2/20) were excluded. The prevalence for methylation of the remaining 38 genes in lung adenocarcinomas from S (n = 97) and NS (n = 75) ranged from 8-89% and significantly differs between S and NS for CPEB1, CST6, EMILIN2, LAYN and MARVELD3 (P < 0.05). Furthermore, methylation of EMILIN2, ROBO3 and IGDCC4 was more prevalent in advanced (Stage II-IV, n = 61) than early (Stage I, n = 110) tumors. Knockdown of MARVELD3, one of the novel epigenetically silenced genes, by small interfering RNA significantly reduced anchorage-independent growth of lung cancer cells (P < 0.001). Collectively, this study has identified multiple, novel, epigenetically silenced genes in lung cancer and provides invaluable resources for the development of diagnostic and prognostic biomarkers. PMID:24398667

Tessema, Mathewos; Yingling, Christin M; Liu, Yushi; Tellez, Carmen S; Van Neste, Leander; Baylin, Stephen S; Belinsky, Steven A

2014-06-01

196

Human DDX6 effects miRNA-mediated gene silencing via direct binding to CNOT1.  

PubMed

MicroRNAs (miRNAs) play critical roles in a variety of biological processes through widespread effects on protein synthesis. Upon association with the miRNA-induced silencing complex (miRISC), miRNAs repress target mRNA translation and accelerate mRNA decay. Degradation of the mRNA is initiated by shortening of the poly(A) tail by the CCR4-NOT deadenylase complex followed by the removal of the 5' cap structure and exonucleolytic decay of the mRNA. Here, we report a direct interaction between the large scaffolding subunit of CCR4-NOT, CNOT1, with the translational repressor and decapping activator protein, DDX6. DDX6 binds to a conserved CNOT1 subdomain in a manner resembling the interaction of the translation initiation factor eIF4A with eIF4G. Importantly, mutations that disrupt the DDX6-CNOT1 interaction impair miRISC-mediated gene silencing in human cells. Thus, CNOT1 facilitates recruitment of DDX6 to miRNA-targeted mRNAs, placing DDX6 as a downstream effector in the miRNA silencing pathway. PMID:25035296

Rouya, Christopher; Siddiqui, Nadeem; Morita, Masahiro; Duchaine, Thomas F; Fabian, Marc R; Sonenberg, Nahum

2014-09-01

197

The SUMO E3 Ligase Siz2 Exerts a Locus-Dependent Effect on Gene Silencing in Saccharomyces cerevisiae  

PubMed Central

In the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, the two silent mating-type loci and subtelomeric regions are subjected to a well-characterized form of gene silencing. Establishment of silencing involves the formation of a distinct chromatin state that is refractory to transcription. This structure is established by the action of silent information regulator proteins (Sir2, Sir3, and Sir4) that bind to nucleosomes and initiate the deacetylation of multiple lysine residues in histones H3 and H4. Sir2 protein is a conserved histone deacetylase that is critical for mating-type and telomeric silencing, as well as a Sir3/4-independent form of silencing observed within the ribosomal DNA (rDNA) repeat locus. We report here that sumoylation plays an important role in regulating gene silencing. We show that increased dosage of SIZ2, a SUMO (small ubiquitin-related modifier) ligase, is antagonistic to gene silencing and that this effect is enhanced by mutation of ESC1, whose product is involved in tethering telomeres to the nuclear periphery. We present evidence indicating that an elevated SIZ2 dosage causes reduced binding of Sir2 protein to telomeres. These data support the idea that sumoylation of specific substrates at the nuclear periphery regulates the availability of Sir2 protein at telomeres. PMID:22345352

Pasupala, Nagesh; Easwaran, Sreesankar; Hannan, Abdul; Shore, David

2012-01-01

198

A direct mixed-body boundary element method for packed silencers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Bulk-reacting sound absorbing materials are often used in packed silencers to reduce broadband noise. A bulk-reacting material is characterized by a complex mean density and a complex speed of sound. These two material properties can be measured by the two-cavity method or calculated by empirical formulas. Modeling the entire silencer domain with a bulk-reacting lining will involve two different acoustic media, air and the bulk-reacting material. Traditionally, the interior silencer domain is divided into different zones and a multi-domain boundary element method (BEM) may be applied to solve the problem. However, defining different zones and matching the elements along each interface is tedious, especially when the zones are intricately connected. In this paper, a direct mixed-body boundary element method is used to model a packed silencer without subdividing it into different zones. This is achieved by summing up all the integral equations in different zones and then adding the hypersingular integral equations at interfaces. Several test cases, including a packed expansion chamber with and without an absorbing center bullet, and a parallel baffle silencer, are studied. Numerical results for the prediction of transmission loss (TL) are compared to experimental data. copyright 2002 Acoustical Society of America.

Wu, T. W.; Cheng, C. Y. R.; Zhang, P.

2002-06-01

199

Nanogyroids Incorporating Multivalent Lipids: Enhanced Membrane Charge Density and Pore Forming Ability for Gene Silencing  

PubMed Central

The self-assembly of a custom-synthesized pentavalent cationic lipid (MVL5) and glycerol monooleate (GMO) with small interfering RNA (siRNA) results in the formation of a double-gyroid bicontinuous inverted cubic phase with co-localized lipid/siRNA domains as shown by synchrotron X-ray scattering and fluorescence microscopy. The high charge density (due to MVL5) and positive Gaussian modulus of the GMO-containing membranes confer optimal electrostatic and elastic properties for endosomal escape, enabling efficient siRNA delivery and effective, specific gene silencing. PMID:21612245

Leal, Cecília; Ewert, Kai K.; Shirazi, Rahau S.; Bouxsein, Nathan F.; Safinya, Cyrus R.

2011-01-01

200

New Aspects of Gene-Silencing for the Treatment of Cardiovascular Diseases  

PubMed Central

Coronary heart disease (CHD), mainly caused by atherosclerosis, represents the single leading cause of death in industrialized countries. Besides the classical interventional therapies new applications for treatment of vascular wall pathologies are appearing on the horizon. RNA interference (RNAi) represents a novel therapeutic strategy due to sequence-specific gene-silencing through the use of small interfering RNA (siRNA). The modulation of gene expression by short RNAs provides a powerful tool to theoretically silence any disease-related or disease-promoting gene of interest. In this review we outline the RNAi mechanisms, the currently used delivery systems and their possible applications to the cardiovascular system. Especially, the optimization of the targeting and transfection procedures could enhance the efficiency of siRNA delivery drastically and might open the way to clinical applicability. The new findings of the last years may show the techniques to new innovative therapies and could probably play an important role in treating CHD in the future. PMID:24276320

Koenig, Olivia; Walker, Tobias; Perle, Nadja; Zech, Almuth; Neumann, Bernd; Schlensak, Christian; Wendel, Hans-Peter; Nolte, Andrea

2013-01-01

201

Alkylation of template strand of coding region causes effective gene silencing  

PubMed Central

We recently developed a new type of pyrrole (Py)–imidazole (Im) polyamide–tetrahydrocyclopropabenzindolone (CBI) conjugate with an indole linker as a stable sequence-specific alkylating agent. In this study, we investigated the gene silencing activities of polyamides A, B and C, which selectively alkylate specific sequences in the promoter region, non-coding strand and coding strand, respectively, of the green fluorescent protein (GFP) gene. GFP vectors were transfected into human colon carcinoma cells (HCT116), and the cells were treated with 100 nM of the polyamides for 24 h. Fluorescence microscopy indicated that a significant reduction of GFP fluorescence was only observed in the cells that were treated with polyamide C. In clear contrast, polyamides A and B did not show such activity. Moreover, real-time PCR demonstrated selective reduction of the expression of GFP mRNA following treatment with polyamide C. These results suggest that alkylating Py–Im polyamides that target the coding strand represent a novel approach for sequence-specific gene silencing. PMID:16500890

Shinohara, Ken-ichi; Sasaki, Shunta; Minoshima, Masafumi; Bando, Toshikazu; Sugiyama, Hiroshi

2006-01-01

202

Epigenetic silencing of a foreign gene in nuclear transformants of Chlamydomonas.  

PubMed Central

The unstable expression of introduced genes poses a serious problem for the application of transgenic technology in plants. In transformants of the unicellular green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, expression of a eubacterial aadA gene, conferring spectinomycin resistance, is transcriptionally suppressed by a reversible epigenetic mechanism(s). Variations in the size and frequency of colonies surviving on different concentrations of spectinomycin as well as the levels of transcriptional activity of the introduced transgene(s) suggest the existence of intermediate expression states in genetically identical cells. Gene silencing does not correlate with methylation of the integrated DNA and does not involve large alterations in its chromatin structure, as revealed by digestion with restriction endonucleases and DNase I. Transgene repression is enhanced by lower temperatures, similar to position effect variegation in Drosophila. By analogy to epigenetic phenomena in several eukaryotes, our results suggest a possible role for (hetero)chromatic chromosomal domains in transcriptional inactivation. PMID:9212467

Cerutti, H; Johnson, A M; Gillham, N W; Boynton, J E

1997-01-01

203

Virus-induced gene silencing as a tool for functional genomics in a legume species: VIGS in pea  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS) is an attractive reverse-genetics tool for studies of gene function. However, efficient VIGS has only been accomplished in a few plant species. In order to extend the application of VIGS, we examined whether a VIGS vector based on Pea early browning virus (PEBV) would produce recognizable phenotypes in Pisum sativum. A plasmid vector of PEBV

Gabriela D. Constantin; Britta N. Krath; Stuart A. MacFarlane; Mogens Nicolaisen; Ida Elisabeth Johansen; Ole S. Lund

2004-01-01

204

Effect of Amino Acid Subsititution in Set1 on Histone H3 Methylation and Gene Silencing in Saaccharomyces Cerevisiae  

E-print Network

to histone proteins can change how accessible chromosomal DNA is to protein complexes that act on DNA. DNA sequences that are inaccessible are called silent chromatin and regions that can’t be transcribed are subject to “gene silencing.” Proper gene...

Chateau, Morgan

2008-08-24

205

A lentivirus-based system to functionally silence genes in primary mammalian cells, stem cells and transgenic mice by RNA interference  

Microsoft Academic Search

RNA interference (RNAi) has recently emerged as a specific and efficient method to silence gene expression in mammalian cells either by transfection of short interfering RNAs (siRNAs; ref. 1) or, more recently, by transcription of short hairpin RNAs (shRNAs) from expression vectors and retroviruses2-10. But the resistance of important cell types to transduction by these approaches, both in vitro and

Douglas A. Rubinson; Christopher P. Dillon; Adam V. Kwiatkowski; Claudia Sievers; Lili Yang; Johnny Kopinja; Dina L Rooney; Mingdi Zhang; Melanie M Ihrig; Michael T McManus; Frank B Gertler; Martin L Scott; Luk Van Parijs

2003-01-01

206

Palmitic acid-conjugated 21-nucleotide siRNA enhances gene-silencing activity.  

PubMed

Short interfering RNA (siRNA) technology is a powerful tool for suppressing gene expression in mammalian cells. In this study, we focused on the development of siRNAs conjugated with palmitic acid at the 5'-end of the sense strand (C16-siRNAs) using our novel synthesis strategy in order to improve the potency of siRNA. The C16-siRNAs exhibited enhanced nuclease stability. In addition, they showed potent gene-silencing efficacy against exogenous Renilla luciferase in HeLa cells compared with a nonmodified siRNA in the presence of Lipofectamine 2000. The C16-siRNAs also had a more potent inhibitory effect on Renilla luciferase activity than the other siRNA conjugated with lipids at the 5'-end and the 3'-end by palmitoyl conjugation. For further improvement, the gene silencing potency of the C16-siRNAs against the endogenous vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) gene in HeLa cells was investigated. In this investigation, the siRNAs were prepared not only with the normal RNA sequence but also coupled with an inverted thymidine (idT) at the 3'-ends of both the sense and antisense strands (siRNA-idT), including palmitic acid conjugations at the 5'-end of the sense strand, to improve stability. The C16-siRNA including idT modifications exhibited a significantly greater inhibitory effect on the VEGF gene in the presence of Lipofectamine 2000. It is noteworthy that C16-siRNA-idT demonstrated long-term gene-silencing efficacy of up to 5 days. Interestingly, the C16-siRNAs, including that with idT modifications, exhibited strong RNAi potency in the absence of any transfection reagents, although only at high concentrations. Both the C16-siRNAs and C16-siRNA-idT induced a high level of membrane permeability in HeLa cells. Our developed C16-siRNAs, particularly C16-siRNA-idT, are thus among the promising candidates for a new generation of modified siRNAs that can solve the many problems associated with siRNA technology. PMID:21985606

Kubo, Takanori; Yanagihara, Kazuyoshi; Takei, Yoshifumi; Mihara, Keichiro; Morita, Yasuhiro; Seyama, Toshio

2011-12-01

207

Transcriptional silencing of N-Myc downstream-regulated gene 1 (NDRG1) in metastatic colon cancer cell line SW620  

Microsoft Academic Search

N-Myc downstream-regulated gene 1 (NDRG1) plays vital roles in tumor metastasis suppression and is frequently silenced in\\u000a metastatic colon cancers. NDRG1 is silenced in a highly metastatic colon cancer cell line SW620. The objective of this study\\u000a was to investigate the potential mechanisms involved in silencing of the NDRG1 gene. SW480 and SW620 are two colon cancer\\u000a cell lines established

Qian Li; Hong Chen

2011-01-01

208

Angiotensinogen Gene Silencing Reduces Markers of Lipid Accumulation and Inflammation in Cultured Adipocytes  

PubMed Central

Inflammatory adipokines secreted from adipose tissue are major contributors to obesity-associated inflammation and other metabolic dysfunctions. We and others have recently documented the contribution of adipose tissue renin-angiotensin system to the pathogenesis of obesity, inflammation, and insulin resistance. We hypothesized that adipocyte-derived angiotensinogen (Agt) plays a critical role in adipogenesis and/or lipogenesis as well as inflammation. This was tested using 3T3-L1 adipocytes, stably transfected with Agt-shRNA or scrambled Sc-shRNA as a control. Transfected preadipocytes were differentiated and used to investigate the role of adipose Agt through microarray and PCR analyses and adipokine profiling. As expected, Agt gene silencing significantly reduced the expression of Agt and its hormone product angiotensin II (Ang II), as well as lipid accumulation in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. Microarray studies identified several genes involved in lipid metabolism and inflammatory pathways which were down-regulated by Agt gene inactivation, such as glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase 1 (Gpd1), serum amyloid A 3 (Saa3), nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain containing 1 (Nod1), and signal transducer and activator of transcription 1 (Stat1). Mouse adipogenesis PCR arrays revealed lower expression levels of adipogenic/lipogenic genes such as peroxisome proliferator activated receptor gamma (PPAR?), sterol regulatory element binding transcription factor 1 (Srebf1), adipogenin (Adig), and fatty acid binding protein 4 (Fabp4). Further, silencing of Agt gene significantly lowered expression of pro-inflammatory adipokines including interleukin-6 (IL-6), tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-?), and monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1). In conclusion, this study directly demonstrates critical effects of Agt in adipocyte metabolism and inflammation and further support a potential role for adipose Agt in the pathogenesis of obesity-associated metabolic alterations. PMID:23483012

Carroll, Wenting X.; Kalupahana, Nishan S.; Booker, Suzanne L.; Siriwardhana, Nalin; LeMieux, Monique; Saxton, Arnold M.; Moustaid-Moussa, Naima

2013-01-01

209

Cellular internalization and gene silencing of siRNA polyplexes by cytocleavable cationic polyrotaxanes with tailored rigid backbones.  

PubMed

To achieve successful delivery of siRNA therapeutics, cytocleavable cationic polyrotaxanes (PRXs) composed of N,N-dimethylaminoethyl (DMAE) group-modified ?-cyclodextrins (CDs) that were threaded onto a poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) axis and capped with a bulky stopper using cytocleavable disulfide linkages (DMAE-PRX) were utilized as an siRNA carrier. DMAE-PRXs with various numbers of threading CDs and modified DMAE groups were synthesized, and the physicochemical properties, cellular internalization, and gene silencing activity of DMAE-PRX/siRNA were investigated to elucidate the relationship between its supramolecular structure and its function. When the numbers of modified DMAE groups were increased, the DMAE-PRXs formed closely associated polyplexes with siRNA and increased their polyanion exchange resistance. Additionally, the DMAE-PRXs with 52 threading CDs (52CD-PRXs) showed greater binding capabilities with siRNA and greater resistance to polyanion competition than 31CD-PRXs, indicating that the highly CD-threaded PRX structure in the 52CD-PRXs is superior in forming stable polyplexes with siRNA. Indeed, 52CD-PRX/siRNA showed greater intracellular uptake of siRNA than 31CD-PRX/siRNA with comparable numbers of DMAE groups. 52CD-PRX/siRNA successfully induced gene silencing of a targeted luciferase expressed in human cervical carcinoma without marked cytotoxicity and non-specific gene silencing. Although the gene silencing activities of DMAE-PRX/siRNA were comparable to those of linear poly(ethylenimine) (L-PEI), L-PEI showed cytotoxicity and non-specific gene silencing. Additionally, DMAE-PRXs with cytocleavable capabilities were found to enhance gene silencing, in comparison with non-cleavable DMAE-PRX. Thus, the cytocleavable cationic PRXs are suggested to be attractive supermolecules for the delivery of therapeutic siRNAs. PMID:23332177

Tamura, Atsushi; Yui, Nobuhiko

2013-03-01

210

In Vivo Evaluation of Candidate Allele-specific Mutant Huntingtin Gene Silencing Antisense Oligonucleotides.  

PubMed

Huntington disease (HD) is a dominant, genetic neurodegenerative disease characterized by progressive loss of voluntary motor control, psychiatric disturbance, and cognitive decline, for which there is currently no disease-modifying therapy. HD is caused by the expansion of a CAG tract in the huntingtin (HTT) gene. The mutant HTT protein (muHTT) acquires toxic functions, and there is significant evidence that muHTT lowering would be therapeutically efficacious. However, the wild-type HTT protein (wtHTT) serves vital functions, making allele-specific muHTT lowering strategies potentially safer than nonselective strategies. CAG tract expansion is associated with single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) that can be targeted by gene silencing reagents such as antisense oligonucleotides (ASOs) to accomplish allele-specific muHTT lowering. Here we evaluate ASOs targeted to HD-associated SNPs in acute in vivo studies including screening, distribution, duration of action and dosing, using a humanized mouse model of HD, Hu97/18, that is heterozygous for the targeted SNPs. We have identified four well-tolerated lead ASOs that potently and selectively silence muHTT at a broad range of doses throughout the central nervous system for 16 weeks or more after a single intracerebroventricular (ICV) injection. With further validation, these ASOs could provide a therapeutic option for individuals afflicted with HD. PMID:25101598

Southwell, Amber L; Skotte, Niels H; Kordasiewicz, Holly B; Ostergaard, Michael E; Watt, Andrew T; Carroll, Jeffrey B; Doty, Crystal N; Villanueva, Erika B; Petoukhov, Eugenia; Vaid, Kuljeet; Xie, Yuanyun; Freier, Susan M; Swayze, Eric E; Seth, Punit P; Bennett, Clarence Frank; Hayden, Michael R

2014-12-01

211

RNAi-Mediated Gene Silencing in a Gonad Organ Culture to Study Sex Determination Mechanisms in Sea Turtle  

PubMed Central

The autosomal Sry-related gene, Sox9, encodes a transcription factor, which performs an important role in testis differentiation in mammals. In several reptiles, Sox9 is differentially expressed in gonads, showing a significant upregulation during the thermo-sensitive period (TSP) at the male-promoting temperature, consistent with the idea that SOX9 plays a central role in the male pathway. However, in spite of numerous studies, it remains unclear how SOX9 functions during this event. In the present work, we developed an RNAi-based method for silencing Sox9 in an in vitro gonad culture system for the sea turtle, Lepidochelys olivacea. Gonads were dissected as soon as the embryos entered the TSP and were maintained in organ culture. Transfection of siRNA resulted in the decrease of both Sox9 mRNA and protein. Furthermore, we found coordinated expression patterns for Sox9 and the anti-Müllerian hormone gene, Amh, suggesting that SOX9 could directly or indirectly regulate Amh expression, as it occurs in mammals. These results demonstrate an in vitro method to knockdown endogenous genes in gonads from a sea turtle, which represents a novel approach to investigate the roles of important genes involved in sex determination or differentiation pathways in species with temperature-dependent sex determination. PMID:24705165

Sifuentes-Romero, Itzel; Merchant-Larios, Horacio; Milton, Sarah L.; Moreno-Mendoza, Norma; Díaz-Hernández, Verónica; García-Gasca, Alejandra

2013-01-01

212

Expression profiling of DNA methylation-mediated epigenetic gene-silencing factors in breast cancer  

PubMed Central

Background DNA methylation mediates gene silencing primarily by inducing repressive chromatin architecture via a common theme of interaction involving methyl-CpG binding (MBD) proteins, histone modifying enzymes and chromatin remodelling complexes. Hence, targeted inhibition of MBD protein function is now considered a potential therapeutic alternative for thwarting DNA hypermethylation prompted neoplastic progress. We have analyzed the gene and protein expression level of the principal factors responsible for gene silencing, that is, DNMT and MBD proteins in MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cell lines after treatment with various epigenetic drugs. Results Our study reveals that the epigenetic modulators affect the expression levels at both transcript and protein levels as well as encourage growth arrest and apoptosis in MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 cells. AZA, TSA, SFN, and SAM inhibit cell growth in MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 cell lines in a dose-dependent manner, that is, with increasing concentrations of drugs the cell viability gradually decreases. All the epigenetic modulators promote apoptotic cell death, as is evident form increased chromatin condensation which is a distinct characteristic of apoptotic cells. From FACS analysis, it is also clear that these drugs induce G2-M arrest and apoptosis in breast cancer cells. Further, transcript and protein level expression of MBDs and DNMTs is also affected - after treatment with epigenetic drugs; the level of transcripts/mRNA of MBDs and DNMTs has consistently increased in general. The increase in level of gene expression is substantiated at the protein level also where treated cells show higher expression of DNMT1, DNMT3A, DNMT3B, and MBD proteins in comparison to untreated cells. In case of tissue samples, the expression of different DNMTs is tissue stage-specific. DNMT1 exhibits significantly higher expression in the metastatic stage, whereas, DNMT3A and DNMT3B have higher expression in the primary stage in comparison to the metastatic samples. Conclusion The epigenetic modulators AZA, TSA, SFN, and SAM may provide opportunities for cancer prevention by regulating the components of epigenetic gene-silencing machinery especially DNMTs and MBDs. PMID:25478034

2014-01-01

213

Virus-induced gene silencing unravels multiple transcription factors involved in floral growth and development in Phalaenopsis orchids  

PubMed Central

Orchidaceae, one of the largest angiosperm families, has significant commercial value. Isolation of genes involved in orchid floral development and morphogenesis, scent production, and colouration will advance knowledge of orchid flower formation and facilitate breeding new varieties to increase the commercial value. With high-throughput virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS), this study identified five transcription factors involved in various aspects of flower morphogenesis in the orchid Phalaenopsis equestris. These genes are PeMADS1, PeMADS7, PeHB, PebHLH, and PeZIP. Silencing PeMADS1 and PebHLH resulted in reduced flower size together with a pelaloid column containing petal-like epidermal cells and alterations of epidermal cell arrangement in lip lateral lobes, respectively. Silencing PeMADS7, PeHB, and PeZIP alone resulted in abortion of the first three fully developed flower buds of an inflorescence, which indicates the roles of the genes in late flower development. Furthermore, double silencing PeMADS1 and PeMADS6, C- and B-class MADS-box genes, respectively, produced a combinatorial phenotype with two genes cloned in separate vectors. Both PeMADS1 and PeMADS6 are required to ensure the normal development of the lip and column as well as the cuticle formation on the floral epidermal cell surface. Thus, VIGS allows for unravelling the interaction between two classes of MADS transcription factors for dictating orchid floral morphogenesis. PMID:23956416

Chen, Hong-Hwa

2013-01-01

214

Heterochromatin-mediated gene silencing facilitates the diversification of olfactory neurons.  

PubMed

An astounding property of the nervous system is its cellular diversity. This diversity, which was initially realized by morphological and electrophysiological differences, is ultimately produced by variations in gene-expression programs. In most cases, these variations are determined by external cues. However, a growing number of neuronal types have been identified in which inductive signals cannot explain the few but decisive transcriptional differences that cause cell diversification. Here, we show that heterochromatic silencing, which we find is governed by histone methyltransferases G9a (KMT1C) and GLP (KMT1D), is essential for stochastic and singular olfactory receptor (OR) expression. Deletion of G9a and GLP dramatically reduces the complexity of the OR transcriptome, resulting in transcriptional domination by a few ORs and loss of singularity in OR expression. Thus, our data suggest that, in addition to its previously known functions, heterochromatin creates an epigenetic platform that affords stochastic, mutually exclusive gene choices and promotes cellular diversity. PMID:25437545

Lyons, David B; Magklara, Angeliki; Goh, Tracie; Sampath, Srihari C; Schaefer, Anne; Schotta, Gunnar; Lomvardas, Stavros

2014-11-01

215

Heterochromatin-mediated gene silencing facilitates the diversification of olfactory neurons  

PubMed Central

SUMMARY An astounding property of the nervous system is its cellular diversity. This diversity, which was initially realized by morphological and electrophysiological differences, is ultimately produced by variations in gene expression programs. In most cases these variations are determined by external cues. However, a growing number of neuronal types have been identified in which inductive signals cannot explain the few but decisive transcriptional differences that cause cell diversification. Here, we show that heterochromatic silencing, which we find is governed by histone methyltransferases G9a (KMT1C) and GLP (KMT1D), is essential for stochastic and singular OR expression. Deletion of G9a and GLP dramatically reduces the complexity of the OR transcriptome, resulting in transcriptional domination by a few ORs and loss of singularity in OR expression. Thus, in addition to its previously known functions, our data suggest that heterochromatin creates an epigenetic platform that affords stochastic, mutually exclusive gene choices and promotes cellular diversity. PMID:25437545

Lyons, David B.; Magklara, Angeliki; Goh, Tracie; Sampath, Srihari; Schaefer, Anne; Schotta, Gunnar; Lomvardas, Stavros

2014-01-01

216

Post-transcriptional gene silencing of root-knot nematode in transformed soybean roots.  

PubMed

RNAi constructs targeted to four different genes were examined to determine their efficacy to reduce galls formed by Meloidogyne incognita in soybean roots. These genes have high similarity with essential soybean cyst nematode (Heterodera glycines) and Caenorhabditis elegans genes. Transformed roots were challenged with M. incognita. Two constructs, targeted to genes encoding tyrosine phosphatase (TP) and mitochondrial stress-70 protein precursor (MSP), respectively, strongly interfered with M. incognita gall formation. The number of galls formed on roots transformed with constructs targeting the M. incognita TP and MSP genes was reduced by 92% and 94.7%, respectively. The diameter of M. incognita inside these transformed roots was 5.4 and 6.5 times less than the diameter of M. incognita found inside control plants transformed with the empty vector. These results indicate that silencing the genes encoding TP and MSP can greatly decrease gall formation and shows a promising solution for broadening resistance of plants against this plant-parasitic nematode. PMID:20599433

Ibrahim, Heba M M; Alkharouf, Nadim W; Meyer, Susan L F; Aly, Mohammed A M; Gamal El-Din, Abd El Kader Y; Hussein, Ebtissam H A; Matthews, Benjamin F

2011-01-01

217

RNAi Mediated curcin precursor gene silencing in Jatropha (Jatropha curcas L.).  

PubMed

Curcin, a type I ribosomal inhibiting protein-RIP, encoded by curcin precursor gene, is a phytotoxin present in Jatropha (Jatropha curcas L.). Here, we report designing of RNAi construct for the curcin precursor gene and further its genetic transformation of Jatropha to reduce its transcript expression. Curcin precursor gene was first cloned from Jatropha strain DARL-2 and part of the gene sequence was cloned in sense and antisense orientation separated by an intron sequence in plant expression binary vector pRI101 AN. The construction of the RNAi vector was confirmed by double digestion and nucleotide sequencing. The vector was then mobilized into Agrobacterium tumefaciens strain GV 3101 and used for tissue culture independent in planta transformation protocol optimized for Jatropha. Germinating seeds were injured with a needle before infection with Agrobacterium and then transferred to sterilized sand medium. The seedlings were grown for 90 days and genomic DNA was isolated from leaves for transgenic confirmation based on real time PCR with NPT II specific dual labeled probe. Result of the transgenic confirmation analysis revealed presence of the gene silencing construct in ten out of 30 tested seedlings. Further, quantitative transcript expression analysis of the curcin precursor gene revealed reduction in the transcript abundance by more than 98% to undetectable level. The transgenic plants are being grown in containment for further studies on reduction in curcin protein content in Jatropha seeds. PMID:24574003

Patade, Vikas Yadav; Khatri, Deepti; Kumar, Kamal; Grover, Atul; Kumari, Maya; Gupta, Sanjay Mohan; Kumar, Devender; Nasim, Mohammed

2014-07-01

218

Quaternized starch-based carrier for siRNA delivery: from cellular uptake to gene silencing.  

PubMed

RNAi therapeutics is a powerful tool for treating diseases by sequence-specific targeting of genes using siRNA. Since its discovery, the need for a safe and efficient delivery system for siRNA has increased. Here, we have developed and characterized a delivery platform for siRNA based on the natural polysaccharide starch in an attempt to address unresolved delivery challenges of RNAi. Modified potato starch (Q-starch) was successfully obtained by substitution with quaternary reagent, providing Q-starch with cationic properties. The results indicate that Q-starch was able to bind siRNA by self-assembly formation of complexes. For efficient and potent gene silencing we monitored the physical characteristics of the formed nanoparticles at increasing N/P molar ratios. The minimum ratio for complete entrapment of siRNA was 2. The resulting complexes, which were characterized by a small diameter (~30 nm) and positive surface charge, were able to protect siRNA from enzymatic degradation. Q-starch/siRNA complexes efficiently induced P-glycoprotein (P-gp) gene silencing in the human ovarian adenocarcinoma cell line, NCI-ADR/Res (NAR), over expressing the targeted gene and presenting low toxicity. Additionally, Q-starch-based complexes showed high cellular uptake during a 24-hour study, which also suggested that intracellular siRNA delivery barriers governed the kinetics of siRNA transfection. In this study, we have devised a promising siRNA delivery vector based on a starch derivative for efficient and safe RNAi application. PMID:24794893

Amar-Lewis, Eliz; Azagury, Aharon; Chintakunta, Ramesh; Goldbart, Riki; Traitel, Tamar; Prestwood, Jackson; Landesman-Milo, Dalit; Peer, Dan; Kost, Joseph

2014-07-10

219

De Novo Transcriptome Sequence Assembly and Analysis of RNA Silencing Genes of Nicotiana benthamiana  

PubMed Central

Background Nicotiana benthamiana has been widely used for transient gene expression assays and as a model plant in the study of plant-microbe interactions, lipid engineering and RNA silencing pathways. Assembling the sequence of its transcriptome provides information that, in conjunction with the genome sequence, will facilitate gaining insight into the plant’s capacity for high-level transient transgene expression, generation of mobile gene silencing signals, and hyper-susceptibility to viral infection. Methodology/Results RNA-seq libraries from 9 different tissues were deep sequenced and assembled, de novo, into a representation of the transcriptome. The assembly, of16GB of sequence, yielded 237,340 contigs, clustering into 119,014 transcripts (unigenes). Between 80 and 85% of reads from all tissues could be mapped back to the full transcriptome. Approximately 63% of the unigenes exhibited a match to the Solgenomics tomato predicted proteins database. Approximately 94% of the Solgenomics N. benthamiana unigene set (16,024 sequences) matched our unigene set (119,014 sequences). Using homology searches we identified 31 homologues that are involved in RNAi-associated pathways in Arabidopsis thaliana, and show that they possess the domains characteristic of these proteins. Of these genes, the RNA dependent RNA polymerase gene, Rdr1, is transcribed but has a 72 nt insertion in exon1 that would cause premature termination of translation. Dicer-like 3 (DCL3) appears to lack both the DEAD helicase motif and second dsRNA binding motif, and DCL2 and AGO4b have unexpectedly high levels of transcription. Conclusions The assembled and annotated representation of the transcriptome and list of RNAi-associated sequences are accessible at www.benthgenome.com alongside a draft genome assembly. These genomic resources will be very useful for further study of the developmental, metabolic and defense pathways of N. benthamiana and in understanding the mechanisms behind the features which have made it such a well-used model plant. PMID:23555698

Nakasugi, Kenlee; Crowhurst, Ross N.; Bally, Julia; Wood, Craig C.; Hellens, Roger P.; Waterhouse, Peter M.

2013-01-01

220

Integrated Analysis of Dysregulated miRNA-gene Expression in HMGA2-silenced Retinoblastoma Cells  

PubMed Central

Retinoblastoma (RB) is a primary childhood eye cancer. HMGA2 shows promise as a molecule for targeted therapy. The involvement of miRNAs in genome-level molecular dys-regulation in HMGA2-silenced RB cells is poorly understood. Through miRNA expression microarray profiling, and an integrated array analysis of the HMGA2-silenced RB cells, the dysregulated miRNAs and the miRNA-target relationships were modelled. Loop network analysis revealed a regulatory association between the transcription factor (SOX5) and the deregulated miRNAs (miR-29a, miR-9*, miR-9-3). Silencing of HMGA2 deregulated the vital oncomirs (miR-7, miR-331, miR-26a, miR-221, miR-17~92 and miR-106b?25) in RB cells. From this list, the role of the miR-106b?25 cluster was examined further for its expression in primary RB tumor tissues (n = 20). The regulatory targets of miR-106b?25 cluster namely p21 (cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor) and BIM (pro-apoptotic gene) were elevated, and apoptotic cell death was observed, in RB tumor cells treated with the specific antagomirs of the miR-106b?25 cluster. Thus, suppression of miR-106b?25 cluster controls RB tumor growth. Taken together, HMGA2 mediated anti-tumor effect present in RB is, in part, mediated through the miR-106b?25 cluster. PMID:25232279

Venkatesan, Nalini; Deepa, PR; Vasudevan, Madavan; Khetan, Vikas; Reddy, Ashwin M; Krishnakumar, Subramanian

2014-01-01

221

Epigenetic reprogramming during wound healing: loss of polycomb-mediated silencing may enable upregulation of repair genes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tissue repair is a complex process that requires wound-edge cells to proliferate and migrate, which in turn necessitates induction of a large repair transcriptome. Epigenetic modifications have emerged as crucial regulators of gene expression. Here, we ask whether epigenetic reprogramming might contribute to the concerted induction of repair genes by wound-edge cells. Polycomb group proteins (PcGs) co-operatively silence genes by

Tanya Shaw; Paul Martin

2009-01-01

222

Dual effects of duplex RNA harboring 5'-terminal triphosphate on gene silencing and RIG-I mediated innate immune response.  

PubMed

Duplex RNA harboring the 5'-terminal triphosphate RNA is hypothesized to not only execute selective gene silencing via RNA interference, but also induce type I interferon (IFN) through activation of the retinoic acid inducible gene I (RIG-I). We evaluated gene silencing efficacy of the shRNA containing 5'-triphosphate (3p-shRNA) targeting the hepatitis C virus (HCV) RNA genome in hepatic cells. Gene silencing efficacy of the 3p-shRNA was diminished due to the presence of the 5'-triphosphate moiety in shRNA, whereas the shRNA counterpart without 5'-triphosphate (HO-shRNA) showed a strong antiviral activity without significant induction of type I IFN in the cells. 3p-shRNA was observed to be a better activator of the RIG-I signaling than the HO-shRNA with an elevated induction of type I IFN in cells that express RIG-I. Taken together, we suggest that competition for the duplex RNA bearing 5'-triphosphate between RIG-I and RNA interference factors may compromise efficacy of selective gene silencing. PMID:25490387

Baek, Si Eun; Kim, Hyoseon; Kim, Kyung Bo; Yoon, Soojin; Choe, Jungwoo; Suh, Wonhee; Jeong, Yong-Joo; Cho, Yo Han; Kim, Dong-Eun

2015-01-01

223

RNA-Mediated Gene Silencing Signals Are Not Graft Transmissible from the Rootstock to the Scion in Greenhouse-Grown Apple Plants Malus sp  

PubMed Central

RNA silencing describes the sequence specific degradation of RNA targets. Silencing is a non-cell autonomous event that is graft transmissible in different plant species. The present study is the first report on systemic acquired dsRNA-mediated gene silencing of transgenic and endogenous gene sequences in a woody plant like apple. Transgenic apple plants overexpressing a hairpin gene construct of the gusA reporter gene were produced. These plants were used as rootstocks and grafted with scions of the gusA overexpressing transgenic apple clone T355. After grafting, we observed a reduction of the gusA gene expression in T355 scions in vitro, but not in T355 scions grown in the greenhouse. Similar results were obtained after silencing of the endogenous Mdans gene in apple that is responsible for anthocyanin biosynthesis. Subsequently, we performed grafting experiments with Mdans silenced rootstocks and red leaf scions of TNR31-35 in order to evaluate graft transmitted silencing of the endogenous Mdans. The results obtained suggested a graft transmission of silencing signals in in vitro shoots. In contrast, no graft transmission of dsRNA-mediated gene silencing signals was detectable in greenhouse-grown plants and in plants grown in an insect protection tent. PMID:22949844

Flachowsky, Henryk; Tränkner, Conny; Szankowski, Iris; Waidmann, Sascha; Hanke, Magda-Viola; Treutter, Dieter; Fischer, Thilo C.

2012-01-01

224

Xenopus furry contributes to release of microRNA gene silencing.  

PubMed

A transcriptional corepressor, Xenopus furry (Xfurry), is expressed in the chordamesodermal region and induces secondary dorsal axes when overexpressed on the ventral side of the embryo. The N-terminal furry domain functions as a repressor, and the C-terminal leucine zipper (LZ) motifs /coiled-coil structure, found only in vertebrate homologs, contributes to the nuclear localization. The engrailed repressor (enR)+LZ repressor construct, which has properties similar to Xfurry, induced several chordamesodermal genes. In contrast, an antisense morpholino oligonucleotide, Xfurry-MO, and the activating construct, herpes simplex virus protein (VP16)+LZ, had effects opposite those of Xfurry overexpression. Because blocking protein synthesis with cycloheximide superinduced several Xfurry transcriptional targets, and because expression of enR+LZ induced such genes under cycloheximide treatment, we analyzed the role of an Xfurry transcriptional target, microRNA miR-15. Cycloheximide reduced the expression of primary miR-15 (pri-miR-15), whereas miR-15 reduced the expression of genes superinduced by cycloheximide treatment. These results show that Xfurry regulates chordamesodermal genes by contributing to repression of pretranscriptional gene silencing by miR-15. PMID:20974966

Goto, Toshiyasu; Fukui, Akimasa; Shibuya, Hiroshi; Keller, Ray; Asashima, Makoto

2010-11-01

225

Gene silencing in vitro and in vivo using intronic microRNAs.  

PubMed

MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small, single-stranded noncoding RNAs important in many biological processes through posttranscriptional modification of complementary intracellular messenger RNAs (mRNAs). MiRNAs have been reported to induce RNA interference (RNAi), by utilizing the miRNA-induced silencing complex (miRISC) to target mRNAs. They were first discovered in Caenorhabditis elegans as native RNA fragments that modulate a wide range of genetic regulatory pathways during embryonic development, and are now recognized as small gene silencers transcribed from the noncoding regions of a genome. In humans, nearly 97 % of the genome is noncoding DNA and changes in these sequences are frequently noted to manifest in clinical and circumstantial malfunction; for example, type 2 myotonic dystrophy and fragile X syndrome were found to be associated with miRNAs derived from introns. Intronic miRNA (mirtrons) is a class of miRNAs derived from the processing of non-protein-coding regions of gene transcripts. The intronic miRNAs differ uniquely from previously described intergenic miRNAs in the requirement of RNA polymerase (Pol)-II and spliceosomal components for its biogenesis. Several kinds of intronic miRNAs have been identified in C. elegans, mouse, and human cells; however, their functions and applications have not been reported. It is notable that there are different, but still highly conserved, mirtrons in mammalian than in invertebrates, and could be an indication that mirtrons are an evolutionary precursor to existing miRNA biogenesis pathways. Here, we show that intron-derived miRNA is not only able to induce RNAi in mammalian cells but also in fish, chicken embryos, and adult mice cells, demonstrating the evolutionary preservation of this gene regulation system in vivo. These miRNA-mediated animal models provide artificial means to reproduce the mechanisms of miRNA-induced disease in vivo and will shed further light on miRNA-related therapies. PMID:25319661

Deng, Jia Han; Deng, Peter; Lin, Shi-Lung; Ying, Shao-Yao

2015-01-01

226

CIAPIN1 gene silencing enhances chemosensitivity in a drug-resistant animal model in vivo  

PubMed Central

Overexpression of cytokine-induced apoptosis inhibitor 1 (CIAPIN1) contributes to multidrug resistance (MDR) in breast cancer. This study aimed to evaluate the potential of CIAPIN1 gene silencing by RNA interference (RNAi) as a treatment for drug-resistant breast cancer and to investigate the effect of CIAPIN1 on the drug resistance of breast cancer in vivo. We used lentivirus-vector-based RNAi to knock down CIAPIN1 in nude mice bearing MDR breast cancer tumors and found that lentivirus-vector-mediated silencing of CIAPIN1 could efficiently and significantly inhibit tumor growth when combined with chemotherapy in vivo. Furthermore, Western blot analysis showed that both CIAPIN1 and P-glycoprotein expression were efficiently downregulated, and P53 was upregulated, after RNAi. Therefore, we concluded that lentivirus-vector-mediated RNAi targeting of CIAPIN1 is a potential approach to reverse MDR of breast cancer. In addition, CIAPIN1 may participate in MDR of breast cancer by regulating P-glycoprotein and P53 expression. PMID:24676475

Wang, X.M.; Gao, S.J.; Guo, X.F.; Sun, W.J.; Yan, Z.Q.; Wang, W.X.; Xu, Y.Q.; Lu, D.

2014-01-01

227

Synthesis and Gene Silencing Properties of siRNAs Containing Terminal Amide Linkages  

PubMed Central

The active components of the RNAi are 21 nucleotides long dsRNAs containing a 2 nucleotide overhang at the 3? end, carrying 5?-phosphate and 3?-hydroxyl groups (siRNAs). Structural analysis revealed that the siRNA is functionally bound at both ends to RISC. Terminal modifications are considered with interest as the introduction of chemical moieties interferes with the 3? overhang recognition by the PAZ domain and the 5?-phosphate recognition by the MID and PIWI domains of RISC. Herein, we report the synthesis of modified siRNAs containing terminal amide linkages by introducing hydroxyethylglycine PNA (hegPNA) moieties at 5?, and at 3? positions and on both terminals. Results of gene silencing studies highlight that some of these modifications are compatible with the RNAi machinery and markedly increase the resistance to serum-derived nucleases even after 24?h of incubation. Molecular docking simulations were attained to give at atomistic level a clearer picture of the effect of the most performing modifications on the interactions with the human Argonaute 2 PAZ, MID, and PIWI domains. This study adds another piece to the puzzle of the heterogeneous chemical modifications that can be attained to enhance the silencing efficiency of siRNAs. PMID:24791003

Gaglione, Maria; Mercurio, M. Emilia; Mosca, Nicola; Novellino, Ettore; Messere, Anna

2014-01-01

228

Activation of Silenced Cytokine Gene Promoters by the Synergistic Effect of TBP-TALE and VP64-TALE Activators  

PubMed Central

Recent work has shown that the combinatorial use of multiple TALE activators can selectively activate certain cellular genes in inaccessible chromatin regions. In this study, we aimed to interrogate the activation potential of TALEs upon transcriptionally silenced immune genes in the context of non-immune cells. We designed a unique strategy, in which a single TALE fused to the TATA-box binding protein (TBP-TALE) is coupled with multiple VP64-TALE activators. We found that our strategy is significantly more potent than multiple TALE activators alone in activating expression of IL-2 and GM-CSF in diverse cell origins in which both genes are otherwise completely silenced. Chromatin analysis revealed that the gene activation was due in part to displacement of a distinctly positioned nucleosome. These studies provide a novel epigenetic mechanism for artificial gene induction and have important implications for targeted cancer immunotherapy, DNA vaccine development, as well as rational design of TALE activators. PMID:24755922

Anthony, Kim; More, Abhijit; Zhang, Xiaoliu

2014-01-01

229

Cholinergic and non-cholinergic functions of two acetylcholinesterase genes revealed by gene-silencing in Tribolium castaneum  

PubMed Central

We compared biological functions of two acetylcholinesterase genes (TcAce1 and TcAce2) in Tribolium castaneum, a globally distributed major pest of stored grain products and an emerging model organism, by using RNA interference. Although both genes expressed at all developmental stages and mainly in the brain, the transcript level of TcAce1 was 1.2- to 8.7-fold higher than that of TcAce2, depending on developmental stages. Silencing TcAce1 in 20-day larvae led to 100% mortality within two weeks after eclosion and increased larval susceptibilities to anticholinesterase insecticides. In contrast, silencing TcAce2 did not show insect mortality and significantly affect insecticide susceptibility, but delayed insect development and reduced female egg-laying and egg hatching. These results demonstrate for the first time that TcAce1 plays a major role in cholinergic functions and is the target of anticholinesterase insecticides, whereas TcAce2 plays an important, non-cholinergic role in female reproduction, embryo development, and growth of offspring. PMID:22371826

Lu, Yanhui; Park, Yoonseong; Gao, Xiwu; Zhang, Xin; Yao, Jianxiu; Pang, Yuan-Ping; Jiang, Haobo; Zhu, Kun Yan

2012-01-01

230

Elongator Complex Influences Telomeric Gene Silencing and DNA Damage Response by Its Role in Wobble Uridine tRNA Modification  

PubMed Central

Elongator complex is required for formation of the side chains at position 5 of modified nucleosides 5-carbamoylmethyluridine (ncm5U34), 5-methoxycarbonylmethyluridine (mcm5U34), and 5-methoxycarbonylmethyl-2-thiouridine (mcm5s2U34) at wobble position in tRNA. These modified nucleosides are important for efficient decoding during translation. In a recent publication, Elongator complex was implicated to participate in telomeric gene silencing and DNA damage response by interacting with proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA). Here we show that elevated levels of tRNALyss2UUU, tRNAGlns2UUG, and tRNAGlus2UUC, which in a wild-type background contain the mcm5s2U nucleoside at position 34, suppress the defects in telomeric gene silencing and DNA damage response observed in the Elongator mutants. We also found that the reported differences in telomeric gene silencing and DNA damage response of various elp3 alleles correlated with the levels of modified nucleosides at U34. Defects in telomeric gene silencing and DNA damage response are also observed in strains with the tuc2? mutation, which abolish the formation of the 2-thio group of the mcm5s2U nucleoside in tRNALysmcm5s2UUU, tRNAGlnmcm5s2UUG, and tRNAGlumcm5s2UUC. These observations show that Elongator complex does not directly participate in telomeric gene silencing and DNA damage response, but rather that modified nucleosides at U34 are important for efficient expression of gene products involved in these processes. Consistent with this notion, we found that expression of Sir4, a silent information regulator required for assembly of silent chromatin at telomeres, was decreased in the elp3? mutants. PMID:21912530

Chen, Changchun; Huang, Bo; Eliasson, Mattias; Rydén, Patrik; Byström, Anders S.

2011-01-01

231

Multifunctional quantum-dot-based siRNA delivery for HPV18 E6 gene silence and intracellular imaging.  

PubMed

The functional quantum dots (QDs) were specifically designed to overcome barriers in siRNA delivery such as siRNA protection, cellular penetration, endosomal release, carrier unpacking, intracellular transport and gene silencing. In this paper, two l-arginine-functional-modi?ed CdSe/ZnSe QDs were synthesized as siRNA carriers to silence HPV18 E6 gene in HeLa cells. Using such constructs, these QDs showed significantly low cellular cytotoxicity and good siRNA protection. Flow cytometric and confocal microscopic analyses confirmed that the QDs delivered siRNA into HeLa cells efficiently. Importantly, superior gene silencing efficiency was achieved as evaluated by Reverse Transcription-PCR (RT-PCR) and Western blotting and HeLa cells growth was inhibited in xCELLigence installation analysis and MTT assay when treated with QD-siRNA complexes. Interestingly, the QDs coated with ?-CD-l-Arg showed optimized property compared with those coated with l-Arg. Furthermore, these QDs complexes could also be used as nanocrystal probing agents, allowing real-time tracking and localization of QDs during delivery and transfection. The properties and capabilities of these QDs showed that amino acid-modi?ed QDs could be used as useful siRNA carriers to effectively silence a target gene as well as fluorescence probes to analyze intracellular imaging in vivo. PMID:21784514

Li, Jin-Ming; Zhao, Mei-Xia; Su, Hua; Wang, Yuan-Yuan; Tan, Cai-Ping; Ji, Liang-Nian; Mao, Zong-Wan

2011-11-01

232

Inducible gene silencing in podocytes: a new tool for studying glomerular function.  

PubMed

Glomerular filtration is one of the primary functions of the kidney. Podocytes, a highly specialized cell type found in glomeruli, are believed to play a critical role in that function. Null mutations of genes expressed in podocytes like WT1, nephrin, and NEPH1 result in an embryo and perinatal lethal phenotype and therefore do not allow the functional analysis of these genes in the adult kidney. Here is describes the generation of a model that will allow such studies. We have engineered transgenic mice in which the disruption of targeted genes can be induced in a temporally controlled fashion in podocytes. For this, a transgene encoding the mutated estrogen receptor-Cre recombinase fusion protein was introduced into the mouse genome. Animals were crossed with Z/AP reporter mice to test for efficient and inducible recombination. We found that, after injection of inducer drug tamoxifen, Cre fusion protein translocates to the nuclei of podocytes, where it becomes active and mediates recombination of DNA carrying loxP target sequences. These animals provide for the first time a tool for silencing genes selectively in podocytes of adult animals. PMID:12595517

Bugeon, Laurence; Danou, Aliki; Carpentier, David; Langridge, Paul; Syed, Nelofer; Dallman, Margaret J

2003-03-01

233

Cysteine Dioxygenase 1 Is a Tumor Suppressor Gene Silenced by Promoter Methylation in Multiple Human Cancers  

PubMed Central

The human cysteine dioxygenase 1 (CDO1) gene is a non-heme structured, iron-containing metalloenzyme involved in the conversion of cysteine to cysteine sulfinate, and plays a key role in taurine biosynthesis. In our search for novel methylated gene promoters, we have analyzed differential RNA expression profiles of colorectal cancer (CRC) cell lines with or without treatment of 5-aza-2?-deoxycytidine. Among the genes identified, the CDO1 promoter was found to be differentially methylated in primary CRC tissues with high frequency compared to normal colon tissues. In addition, a statistically significant difference in the frequency of CDO1 promoter methylation was observed between primary normal and tumor tissues derived from breast, esophagus, lung, bladder and stomach. Downregulation of CDO1 mRNA and protein levels were observed in cancer cell lines and tumors derived from these tissue types. Expression of CDO1 was tightly controlled by promoter methylation, suggesting that promoter methylation and silencing of CDO1 may be a common event in human carcinogenesis. Moreover, forced expression of full-length CDO1 in human cancer cells markedly decreased the tumor cell growth in an in vitro cell culture and/or an in vivo mouse model, whereas knockdown of CDO1 increased cell growth in culture. Our data implicate CDO1 as a novel tumor suppressor gene and a potentially valuable molecular marker for human cancer. PMID:23028699

Brait, Mariana; Ling, Shizhang; Nagpal, Jatin K.; Chang, Xiaofei; Park, Hannah Lui; Lee, Juna; Okamura, Jun; Yamashita, Keishi; Sidransky, David; Kim, Myoung Sook

2012-01-01

234

LINE-1 activation and epigenetic silencing of suppressor genes in cancer  

PubMed Central

The ability of active retrotransposon elements to move within the host genome and alter gene expression with subsequent phenotypic variation led to their initial discovery. In recent years it has become apparent that these elements can also modulate host gene expression independently of their transposition activity. Many retrotransposons maintain endogenous promoter motifs that can potentially drive expression of adjacent DNA modules. Similarly to transposition dependent dysregulation, these proto-promoters can progress disease states when active. Indeed aberrant activation of retrotransposon derived promoters in cancer can lead to transcription of oncogenic isoforms of cellular genes. Here we propose that activation of promoters of transposable elements in cancer can also drive transcription of long non-coding RNAs whose expression leads to silencing of linked tumor suppressor genes. Such transcription driven by aberrantly active transposable elements in cancer can lead to a characteristic reprogramming of epigenetic profiles, thus extending the potential molecular mechanisms whereby retrotransposons can directly contribute to cancer development and subsequent progression. PMID:24251074

Tufarelli, Cristina; Cruickshanks, Hazel A; Meehan, Richard R

2013-01-01

235

Distinctive profiles of small RNA couple inverted repeat-induced post-transcriptional gene silencing with endogenous RNA silencing pathways in Arabidopsis.  

PubMed

The experimental induction of RNA silencing in plants often involves expression of transgenes encoding inverted repeat (IR) sequences to produce abundant dsRNAs that are processed into small RNAs (sRNAs). These sRNAs are key mediators of post-transcriptional gene silencing (PTGS) and determine its specificity. Despite its application in agriculture and broad utility in plant research, the mechanism of IR-PTGS is incompletely understood. We generated four sets of 60 Arabidopsis plants, each containing IR transgenes expressing different configurations of uidA and CHALCONE Synthase (At-CHS) gene fragments. Levels of PTGS were found to depend on the orientation and position of the fragment in the IR construct. Deep sequencing and mapping of sRNAs to corresponding transgene-derived and endogenous transcripts identified distinctive patterns of differential sRNA accumulation that revealed similarities among sRNAs associated with IR-PTGS and endogenous sRNAs linked to uncapped mRNA decay. Detailed analyses of poly-A cleavage products from At-CHS mRNA confirmed this hypothesis. We also found unexpected associations between sRNA accumulation and the presence of predicted open reading frames in the trigger sequence. In addition, strong IR-PTGS affected the prevalence of endogenous sRNAs, which has implications for the use of PTGS for experimental or applied purposes. PMID:25344399

Wroblewski, Tadeusz; Matvienko, Marta; Piskurewicz, Urszula; Xu, Huaqin; Martineau, Belinda; Wong, Joan; Govindarajulu, Manjula; Kozik, Alexander; Michelmore, Richard W

2014-12-01

236

Laser-Activated Gene Silencing via Gold Nanoshell-siRNA Conjugates.  

PubMed

The temporal and spatial control over the delivery of materials such as siRNA into cells remains a significant technical challenge. We demonstrate the pulsed near-infrared (NIR) laser-dependent release of siRNA from coated 40 nm gold nanoshells. Tat-lipid coating mediates the cellular uptake of the nanomaterial at picomolar concentration, while spatiotemporal silencing of a reporter gene (green fluorescence protein) was studied using photomasking. The NIR laser-induced release of siRNA from the nanoshells is found to be power- and time-dependent, through surface-linker bond cleavage, while the escape of the siRNA from endosomes occurs above a critical pulse energy attributed to local heating and cavitation. NIR laser-controlled drug release from functional nanomaterials should facilitate more sophisticated developmental biology and therapeutic studies. PMID:19527019

Braun, Gary B; Pallaoro, Alessia; Wu, Guohui; Missirlis, Dimitris; Zasadzinski, Joseph A; Tirrell, Matthew; Reich, Norbert O

2009-07-28

237

Mammalian homologues of the Polycomb-group gene Enhancer of zeste mediate gene silencing in Drosophila heterochromatin and at S. cerevisiae telomeres.  

PubMed Central

Gene silencing is required to stably maintain distinct patterns of gene expression during eukaryotic development and has been correlated with the induction of chromatin domains that restrict gene activity. We describe the isolation of human (EZH2) and mouse (Ezh1) homologues of the Drosophila Polycomb-group (Pc-G) gene Enhancer of zeste [E(z)], a crucial regulator of homeotic gene expression implicated in the assembly of repressive protein complexes in chromatin. Mammalian homologues of E(z) are encoded by two distinct loci in mouse and man, and the two murine Ezh genes display complementary expression profiles during mouse development. The E(z) gene family reveals a striking functional conservation in mediating gene repression in eukaryotic chromatin: extra gene copies of human EZH2 or Drosophila E(z) in transgenic flies enhance position effect variegation of the heterochromatin-associated white gene, and expression of either human EZH2 or murine Ezh1 restores gene repression in Saccharomyces cerevisiae mutants that are impaired in telomeric silencing. Together, these data provide a functional link between Pc-G-dependent gene repression and inactive chromatin domains, and indicate that silencing mechanism(s) may be broadly conserved in eukaryotes. PMID:9214638

Laible, G; Wolf, A; Dorn, R; Reuter, G; Nislow, C; Lebersorger, A; Popkin, D; Pillus, L; Jenuwein, T

1997-01-01

238

Novel oligoamine analogues inhibit lysine-specific demethylase 1 (LSD1) and induce re-expression of epigenetically silenced genes  

PubMed Central

Purpose Abnormal DNA CpG island hypermethylation and transcriptionally repressive histone modifications are associated with the aberrant silencing of tumor suppressor genes. Lysine methylation is a dynamic, enzymatically-controlled process. Lysine-specific demethylase 1 (LSD1) has recently been identified as a histone lysine demethylase. LSD1 specifically catalyzes demethylation of mono- and dimethyl-lysine 4 of histone 3, key positive chromatin marks associated with transcriptional activation. We hypothesized that a novel class of oligoamine analogues would effectively inhibit LSD1 and thus cause the re-expression of aberrantly silenced genes. Experimental Design Human colorectal cancer cells were treated with the oligoamines and changes in mono- and dimethyl-lysine 4 of histone 3 (H3K4) and other chromatin marks were monitored. In addition, treated cells were evaluated for the re-expression of the aberrantly silenced secreted frizzled-related proteins (SFRPs) Wnt signaling pathway antagonist genes. Finally, the effects of the LSD1 inhibitors were evaluated in an in vivo xenograft model. Results Treatment of HCT116 human colon adenocarcinoma cells in vitro resulted in increased H3K4 methylation and re-expression of silenced SFRP genes. This re-expression is also accompanied by a decrease in H3K9me2 repressive mark. Importantly, co-treatment with low doses of oligoamines and a DNA methyltransferase (DNMT) inhibitor highly induces the re-expression of the aberrantly silenced SFRP2 gene and results in significant inhibition of the growth of established tumors in a human colon tumor model in vivo. Conclusions The use of LSD1-inhibiting oligoamine analogues in combination with DNMT inhibitors represents a highly promising and novel approach for epigenetic therapy of cancer. PMID:19934284

Huang, Yi; Stewart, Tracy Murray; Wu, Yu; Baylin, Stephen B.; Marton, Laurence J.; Perkins, Brandy; Jones, Richard J.; Woster, Patrick M.; Casero, Robert A.

2009-01-01

239

Gene silencing following siRNA delivery to skin via coated steel microneedles: In vitro and in vivo proof-of-concept.  

PubMed

The development of siRNA-based gene silencing therapies has significant potential for effectively treating debilitating genetic, hyper-proliferative or malignant skin conditions caused by aberrant gene expression. To be efficacious and widely accepted by physicians and patients, therapeutic siRNAs must access the viable skin layers in a stable and functional form, preferably without painful administration. In this study we explore the use of minimally-invasive steel microneedle devices to effectively deliver siRNA into skin. A simple, yet precise microneedle coating method permitted reproducible loading of siRNA onto individual microneedles. Following recovery from the microneedle surface, lamin A/C siRNA retained full activity, as demonstrated by significant reduction in lamin A/C mRNA levels and reduced lamin A/C protein in HaCaT keratinocyte cells. However, lamin A/C siRNA pre-complexed with a commercial lipid-based transfection reagent (siRNA lipoplex) was less functional following microneedle coating. As Accell-modified "self-delivery" siRNA targeted against CD44 also retained functionality after microneedle coating, this form of siRNA was used in subsequent in vivo studies, where gene silencing was determined in a transgenic reporter mouse skin model. Self-delivery siRNA targeting the reporter (luciferase/GFP) gene was coated onto microneedles and delivered to mouse footpad. Quantification of reporter mRNA and intravital imaging of reporter expression in the outer skin layers confirmed functional in vivo gene silencing following microneedle delivery of siRNA. The use of coated metal microneedles represents a new, simple, minimally-invasive, patient-friendly and potentially self-administrable method for the delivery of therapeutic nucleic acids to the skin. PMID:23313112

Chong, Rosalind H E; Gonzalez-Gonzalez, Emilio; Lara, Maria F; Speaker, Tycho J; Contag, Christopher H; Kaspar, Roger L; Coulman, Sion A; Hargest, Rachel; Birchall, James C

2013-03-28

240

Gene silencing following siRNA delivery to skin via coated steel microneedles: in vitro and in vivo proof-of-concept  

PubMed Central

The development of siRNA-based gene silencing therapies has significant potential for effectively treating debilitating genetic, hyper-proliferative or malignant skin conditions caused by aberrant gene expression. To be efficacious and widely accepted by physicians and patients, therapeutic siRNAs must access the viable skin layers in a stable and functional form, preferably without painful administration. In this study we explore the use of minimally-invasive steel microneedle devices to effectively deliver siRNA into skin. A simple, yet precise microneedle coating method permitted reproducible loading of siRNA onto individual microneedles. Following recovery from the microneedle surface, lamin A/C siRNA retained full activity, as demonstrated by significant reduction in lamin A/C mRNA levels and reduced lamin A/C protein in HaCaT keratinocyte cells. However, lamin A/C siRNA pre-complexed with a commercial lipid-based transfection reagent (siRNA lipoplex) was less functional following microneedle coating. As Accell-modified “self-delivery” siRNA targeted against CD44 also retained functionality after microneedle coating, this form of siRNA was used in subsequent in vivo studies, where gene silencing was determined in a transgenic reporter mouse skin model. Self-delivery siRNA targeting the reporter (luciferase/GFP) gene was coated onto microneedles and delivered to mouse footpad. Quantification of reporter mRNA and intravital imaging of reporter expression in the outer skin layers confirmed functional in vivo gene silencing following microneedle delivery of siRNA. The use of coated metal microneedles represents a new, simple, minimally-invasive, patient-friendly and potentially self-administrable method for the delivery of therapeutic nucleic acids to the skin. PMID:23313112

Chong, Rosalind H.E.; Gonzalez-Gonzalez, Emilio; Lara, Maria F.; Speaker, Tycho J.; Contag, Christopher H.; Kaspar, Roger L.; Coulman, Sion A.; Hargest, Rachel; Birchall, James C.

2013-01-01

241

Selective silencing of gene target expression by siRNA expression plasmids in human cervical cancer cells.  

PubMed

RNA interference is a natural mechanism to silence post-transcriptional gene expression in eukaryotic cells in which microRNAs act to cleave or halt the translation of target mRNAs at specific target sequences. Mature microRNAs, 19-25 nucleotides in length, mediate their effect at the mRNA level by inhibiting translation, or inducing cleavage of the mRNA target. This process is directed by the degree of complementary nucleotides between the microRNAs and the target mRNA; perfect complementary base pairing induces cleavage of mRNA, whereas several mismatches lead to translational arrest. Biological effects of microRNAs can be manipulated through the use of small interference RNAs (siRNAs) generated by chemical synthesis, or by cloning in molecular vectors. The cloning of a DNA insert in a molecular vector that will be transcribed into the corresponding siRNAs is an approach that has been developed using siRNA expression plasmids. These vectors contain DNA inserts designed with software to generate highly efficient siRNAs which will assemble into RNA-induced silencing complexes (RISC), and silence the target mRNA. In addition, the DNA inserts may be contained in cloning cassettes, and introduced in other molecular vectors. In this chapter we describe an attractive technology platform to silence cellular gene expression using specific siRNA expression plasmids, and evaluate its biological effect on target gene expression in human cervical cancer cells. PMID:25348304

Peralta-Zaragoza, Oscar; De-la-O-Gómez, Faustino; Deas, Jessica; Fernández-Tilapa, Gloria; Fierros-Zárate, Geny Del Socorro; Gómez-Cerón, Claudia; Burguete-García, Ana; Torres-Poveda, Kirvis; Bermúdez-Morales, Victor Hugo; Rodríguez-Dorantes, Mauricio; Pérez-Plasencia, Carlos; Madrid-Marina, Vicente

2015-01-01

242

Identification of genes epigenetically silenced by CpG methylation in human gastric carcinoma.  

PubMed

To identify novel methylation-silenced genes in gastric cancer, we carried out a genome-wide search for genes that are up-regulated after treatment with the demethylating agent, 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine (5Aza-dC). When three gastric cancer cell lines (SNU-1,-601, and -719) were treated with 5Aza-dC, 143 genes were found to be upregulated by twofold or more using oligonucleotide microarrays. Six of these genes, i.e. TFPI2, GPX3, GPX1, IGFBP6, IRF7 and DMRT1, showed promoter hypermethylation in one or more gastric cancer cell lines, but were unmethylated in normal gastric mucosa by bisulphite sequencing and methylation-specific PCR analysis. The following percentages of these genes were found to be aberrantly methylated in gastric cancer samples; TFPI2 (80.9%), GPX3 (30.1%), DMRT1 (46.9%), GPX1 (16.7%), IGFBP6 (22.6%) and IRF7 (32.1%). Interestingly, the survival of patients possessing methylated alleles of TFPI2 (123/152, 80.9%) was poorer than that of patients with unmethylated alleles (p=0.023). Multivariate analysis confirmed that TFPI2 methylation is a significant and independent prognostic factor in gastric carcinoma. Furthermore, altered TFPI2 expression, as demonstrated by immunohistochemistry in 566 consecutive gastric cancer tissues, was found to be significantly associated with sex (p=0.003), WHO classification (p<0.001), and a mixed subtype by Lauren's classification (p<0.001). Thus, the present study identified several novel genes, which were methylated in gastric cancer and among them, methylation of TFPI2 was an unfavourable prognostic marker. PMID:19195878

Jee, Chang Do; Kim, Min A; Jung, Eun Ji; Kim, Jin; Kim, Woo Ho

2009-05-01

243

Senataxin Plays an Essential Role with DNA Damage Response Proteins in Meiotic Recombination and Gene Silencing  

PubMed Central

Senataxin, mutated in the human genetic disorder ataxia with oculomotor apraxia type 2 (AOA2), plays an important role in maintaining genome integrity by coordination of transcription, DNA replication, and the DNA damage response. We demonstrate that senataxin is essential for spermatogenesis and that it functions at two stages in meiosis during crossing-over in homologous recombination and in meiotic sex chromosome inactivation (MSCI). Disruption of the Setx gene caused persistence of DNA double-strand breaks, a defect in disassembly of Rad51 filaments, accumulation of DNA:RNA hybrids (R-loops), and ultimately a failure of crossing-over. Senataxin localised to the XY body in a Brca1-dependent manner, and in its absence there was incomplete localisation of DNA damage response proteins to the XY chromosomes and ATR was retained on the axial elements of these chromosomes, failing to diffuse out into chromatin. Furthermore persistence of RNA polymerase II activity, altered ubH2A distribution, and abnormal XY-linked gene expression in Setx?/? revealed an essential role for senataxin in MSCI. These data support key roles for senataxin in coordinating meiotic crossing-over with transcription and in gene silencing to protect the integrity of the genome. PMID:23593030

Becherel, Olivier J.; Yeo, Abrey J.; Stellati, Alissa; Heng, Evelyn Y. H.; Luff, John; Suraweera, Amila M.; Woods, Rick; Fleming, Jean; Carrie, Dianne; McKinney, Kristine; Xu, Xiaoling; Deng, Chuxia; Lavin, Martin F.

2013-01-01

244

Cationic Lipid-Nucleic Acid Complexes for Gene Delivery And Silencing: Pathways And Mechanisms for Plasmid Dna And Sirna  

SciTech Connect

Motivated by the promises of gene therapy, there is great interest in developing non-viral lipid-based vectors for therapeutic applications due to their low immunogenicity, low toxicity, ease of production, and the potential of transferring large pieces of DNA into cells. In fact, cationic liposome (CL) based vectors are among the prevalent synthetic carriers of nucleic acids (NAs) currently used in gene therapy clinical trials worldwide. These vectors are studied both for gene delivery with CL-DNA complexes and gene silencing with CL-siRNA (short interfering RNA) complexes. However, their transfection efficiencies and silencing efficiencies remain low compared to those of engineered viral vectors. This reflects the currently poor understanding of transfection-related mechanisms at the molecular and self-assembled levels, including a lack of knowledge about interactions between membranes and double stranded NAs and between CL-NA complexes and cellular components. In this review we describe our recent efforts to improve the mechanistic understanding of transfection by CL-NA complexes, which will help to design optimal lipid-based carriers of DNA and siRNA for therapeutic gene delivery and gene silencing.

Ewert, K.K.; Zidovska, A.; Ahmad, A.; Bouxsein, N.F.; Evans, H.M.; McAllister, C.S.; Samuel, C.E.; Safinya, C.R.; /SLAC

2012-07-17

245

Gene Silencing of 4-1BB by RNA Interference Inhibits Acute Rejection in Rats with Liver Transplantation  

PubMed Central

The 4-1BB signal pathway plays a key role in organ transplantation tolerance. In this study, we have investigated the effect of gene silencing of 4-1BB by RNA interference (RNAi) on the acute rejection in rats with liver transplantation. The recombination vector of lentivirus that contains shRNA targeting the 4-1BB gene (LV-sh4-1BB) was constructed. The liver transplantation was performed using the two-cuff technique. Brown-Norway (BN) recipient rats were infected by the recombinant LVs. The results showed that gene silencing of 4-1BB by RNAi downregulated the 4-1BB gene expression of the splenic lymphocytes in vitro, and the splenic lymphocytes isolated from the rats with liver transplantation. LV-sh4-1BB decreased the plasma levels of liver injury markers including AST, ALT, and BIL and also decreased the level of plasma IL-2 and IFN-? in recipient rats with liver transplantation. Lentivirus-mediated delivery of shRNA targeting 4-1BB gene prolonged the survival time of recipient and alleviated the injury of liver morphology in recipient rats with liver transplantation. In conclusion, our results demonstrate that gene silencing of 4-1BB by RNA interference inhibits the acute rejection in rats with liver transplantation. PMID:23484089

Shi, Yang; Hu, Shuqun; Song, Qingwei; Yu, Shengcai; Zhou, Xiaojun; Yin, Jun; Qin, Lei; Qian, Haixin

2013-01-01

246

Dissecting Functions of KATANIN and WRINKLED1 in Cotton Fiber Development by Virus-Induced Gene Silencing1[C][W][OA  

PubMed Central

Most of the world’s natural fiber comes from cotton (Gossypium spp.), which is an important crop worldwide. Characterizing genes that regulate cotton yield and fiber quality is expected to benefit the sustainable production of natural fiber. Although a huge number of expressed sequence tag sequences are now available in the public database, large-scale gene function analysis has been hampered by the low-efficiency process of generating transgenic cotton plants. Tobacco rattle virus (TRV) has recently been reported to trigger virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS) in cotton leaves. Here, we extended the utility of this method by showing that TRV-VIGS can operate in reproductive organs as well. We used this method to investigate the function of KATANIN and WRINKLED1 in cotton plant development. Cotton plants with suppressed KATANIN expression produced shorter fibers and elevated weight ratio of seed oil to endosperm. By contrast, silencing of WRINKLED1 expression resulted in increased fiber length but reduced oil seed content, suggesting the possibility to increase fiber length by repartitioning carbon flow. Our results provide evidence that the TRV-VIGS system can be used for rapid functional analysis of genes involved in cotton fiber development. PMID:22837356

Qu, Jing; Ye, Jian; Geng, Yun-Feng; Sun, Yan-Wei; Gao, Shi-Qiang; Zhang, Bi-Pei; Chen, Wen; Chua, Nam-Hai

2012-01-01

247

HIGS: Host-Induced Gene Silencing in the Obligate Biotrophic Fungal Pathogen Blumeria graminis[W][OA  

PubMed Central

Powdery mildew fungi are obligate biotrophic pathogens that only grow on living hosts and cause damage in thousands of plant species. Despite their agronomical importance, little direct functional evidence for genes of pathogenicity and virulence is currently available because mutagenesis and transformation protocols are lacking. Here, we show that the accumulation in barley (Hordeum vulgare) and wheat (Triticum aestivum) of double-stranded or antisense RNA targeting fungal transcripts affects the development of the powdery mildew fungus Blumeria graminis. Proof of concept for host-induced gene silencing was obtained by silencing the effector gene Avra10, which resulted in reduced fungal development in the absence, but not in the presence, of the matching resistance gene Mla10. The fungus could be rescued from the silencing of Avra10 by the transient expression of a synthetic gene that was resistant to RNA interference (RNAi) due to silent point mutations. The results suggest traffic of RNA molecules from host plants into B. graminis and may lead to an RNAi-based crop protection strategy against fungal pathogens. PMID:20884801

Nowara, Daniela; Gay, Alexandra; Lacomme, Christophe; Shaw, Jane; Ridout, Christopher; Douchkov, Dimitar; Hensel, Götz; Kumlehn, Jochen; Schweizer, Patrick

2010-01-01

248

Differential regulation of the human nidogen gene promoter region by a novel cell-type-specific silencer element.  

PubMed Central

Transfection analyses of the human nidogen promoter region in nidogen-producing fibroblasts from adult skin revealed multiple positive and negative cis-acting elements controlling nidogen gene expression. Characterization of the positive regulatory domains by gel mobility-shift assays and co-transfection studies in Drosophila SL2 cells unequivocally demonstrated that Sp1-like transcription factors are essential for a high expression of the human nidogen gene. Analysis of the negative regulatory domains identified a novel silencer element between nt -1333 and -1322, which is bound by a distinct nuclear factor, by using extracts from adult but not from embryonal fibroblasts. In embryonal fibroblasts, which express significantly higher amounts of nidogen mRNA as compared with adult fibroblasts, this inhibitory nidogen promoter region did not affect nidogen and SV40 promoter activities. The silencer element seems to be active only in nidogen-producing cells. Therefore this regulatory element might function in vivo to limit nidogen gene expression in response to external stimuli. However, none of the identified regulatory elements, including the silencer, contribute significantly to cell-specific expression of the human nidogen gene. Instead we provide evidence that gene expression in epidermal keratinocytes that are not producing nidogen is repressed by methylation-specific and chromatin-dependent mechanisms. PMID:10024509

Zedlacher, M; Schmoll, M; Zimmermann, K; Horstkorte, O; Nischt, R

1999-01-01

249

A Sexual Shift Induced by Silencing of a Single Insulin-Like Gene in Crayfish: Ovarian Upregulation and Testicular Degeneration  

PubMed Central

In sequential hermaphrodites, intersexuality occurs naturally, usually as a transition state during sexual re-differentiation processes. In crustaceans, male sexual differentiation is controlled by the male-specific androgenic gland (AG). An AG-specific insulin-like gene, previously identified in the red-claw crayfish Cherax quadricarinatus (designated Cq-IAG), was found in this study to be the prominent transcript in an AG cDNA subtractive library. In C. quadricarinatus, sexual plasticity is exhibited by intersex individuals in the form of an active male reproductive system and male secondary sex characters, along with a constantly arrested ovary. This intersexuality was exploited to follow changes caused by single gene silencing, accomplished via dsRNA injection. Cq-IAG silencing induced dramatic sex-related alterations, including male feature feminization, a reduction in sperm production, extensive testicular degeneration, expression of the vitellogenin gene, and accumulation of yolk proteins in the developing oocytes. Upon silencing of the gene, AG cells hypertrophied, possibly to compensate for low hormone levels, as reflected in the poor production of the insulin-like hormone (and revealed by immunohistochemistry). These results demonstrate both the functionality of Cq-IAG as an androgenic hormone-encoding gene and the dependence of male gonad viability on the Cq-IAG product. This study is the first to provide evidence that silencing an insulin-like gene in intersex C. quadricarinatus feminizes male-related phenotypes. These findings, moreover, contribute to the understanding of the regulation of sexual shifts, whether naturally occurring in sequential hermaphrodites or abnormally induced by endocrine disruptors found in the environment, and offer insight into an unusual gender-related link to the evolution of insulins. PMID:21151555

Rosen, Ohad; Manor, Rivka; Weil, Simy; Gafni, Ohad; Linial, Assaf; Aflalo, Eliahu D.; Ventura, Tomer; Sagi, Amir

2010-01-01

250

Virus-induced gene-silencing in wheat spikes and grains and its application in functional analysis of HMW-GS-encoding genes  

PubMed Central

Background The Barley stripe mosaic virus (BSMV)-based vector has been developed and used for gene silencing in barley and wheat seedlings to assess gene functions in pathogen- or insect-resistance, but conditions for gene silencing in spikes and grains have not been evaluated. In this study, we explored the feasibility of using BSMV for gene silencing in wheat spikes or grains. Results Apparent photobleaching on the spikes infected with BSMV:PDS at heading stage was observed after13 days post inoculation (dpi), and persisted until 30dpi, while the spikes inoculated with BSMV:00 remained green during the same period. Grains of BSMV:PDS infected spikes also exhibited photobleaching. Molecular analysis indicated that photobleached spikes or grains resulted from the reduction of endogenous PDS transcript abundances, suggesting that BSMV:PDS was able to induce PDS silencing in wheat spikes and grains. Inoculation onto wheat spikes from heading to flowering stage was optimal for efficient silencing of PDS in wheat spikes. Furthermore, we used the BSMV-based system to reduce the transcript level of 1Bx14, a gene encoding for High-molecular-weight glutenin subunit 1Bx14 (HMW-GS 1Bx14), by 97?% in the grains of the BSMV:1Bx14 infected spikes at 15dpi, compared with that in BSMV:00 infected spikes, and the reduction persisted until at least 25 dpi. The amount of the HMW-GS 1Bx14 was also detectably decreased. The percentage of glutenin macropolymeric proteins in total proteins was significantly reduced in the grains of 1Bx14-silenced plants as compared with that in the grains of BSMV:00 infected control plants, indicating that HMW-GS 1Bx14 is one of major components participating in the formation of glutenin macropolymers in wheat grains. Conclusion This is one of the first reports of successful application of BSMV-based virus-induced-gene-silencing (VIGS) for gene knockdown in wheat spikes and grains and its application in functional analysis of the 1Bx14 gene. The established BSMV-VIGS system will be very useful in future research on functional analysis of genes contributing to grain quality and the metabolic networks in developing seeds of wheat. PMID:22882902

2012-01-01

251

Methylation-mediated gene silencing as biomarkers of gastric cancer: A review  

PubMed Central

Despite a decline in the overall incidence of gastric cancer (GC), the disease remains the second most common cause of cancer-related death worldwide and is thus a significant global health problem. The best means of improving the survival of GC patients is to screen for and treat early lesions. However, GC is often diagnosed at an advanced stage and is associated with a poor prognosis. Current diagnostic and therapeutic strategies have not been successful in decreasing the global burden of the disease; therefore, the identification of reliable biomarkers for an early diagnosis, predictive markers of recurrence and survival and markers of drug sensitivity and/or resistance is urgently needed. The initiation and progression of GC depends not only on genetic alterations but also epigenetic changes, such as DNA methylation and histone modification. Aberrant DNA methylation is the most well-defined epigenetic change in human cancers and is associated with inappropriate gene silencing. Therefore, an increasing number of genes methylated at the promoter region have been targeted as possible biomarkers for different purposes, including early detection, classification, the assessment of the tumor prognosis, the development of therapeutic strategies and patient follow-up. This review article summarizes the current understanding and recent evidence regarding DNA methylation markers in GC with a focus on the clinical potential of these markers. PMID:25232236

Nakamura, Jun; Tanaka, Tomokazu; Kitajima, Yoshihiko; Noshiro, Hirokazu; Miyazaki, Kohji

2014-01-01

252

Silencing of mitochondrial NADP{sup +}-dependent isocitrate dehydrogenase gene enhances glioma radiosensitivity  

SciTech Connect

Highlights: •Silencing of the IDPm gene enhances IR-induced autophagy in glioma cells. •Autophagy inhibition augmented apoptosis of irradiated glioma cells. •Results offer a redox-active therapeutic strategy for the treatment of cancer. -- Abstract: Reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels are elevated in organisms that have been exposed to ionizing radiation and are protagonists in the induction of cell death. Recently, we demonstrated that the control of mitochondrial redox balance and the cellular defense against oxidative damage are primary functions of mitochondrial NADP{sup +}-dependent isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDPm) via the supply of NADPH for antioxidant systems. In the present study, we report an autophagic response to ionizing radiation in A172 glioma cells transfected with small interfering RNA (siRNA) targeting the IDPm gene. Autophagy in A172 transfectant cells was associated with enhanced autophagolysosome formation and GFP–LC3 punctuation/aggregation. Furthermore, we found that the inhibition of autophagy by chloroquine augmented apoptotic cell death of irradiated A172 cells transfected with IDPm siRNA. Taken together, our data suggest that autophagy functions as a survival mechanism in A172 cells against ionizing radiation-induced apoptosis and the sensitizing effect of IDPm siRNA and autophagy inhibitor on the ionizing radiation-induced apoptotic cell death of glioma cells offers a novel redox-active therapeutic strategy for the treatment of cancer.

Kim, Sung Youl [School of Life Sciences and Biotechnology, College of Natural Sciences, Kyungpook National University, Taegu (Korea, Republic of)] [School of Life Sciences and Biotechnology, College of Natural Sciences, Kyungpook National University, Taegu (Korea, Republic of); Yoo, Young Hyun [Mitochondria Hub Regulation Center, Dong-A University College of Medicine, Busan (Korea, Republic of)] [Mitochondria Hub Regulation Center, Dong-A University College of Medicine, Busan (Korea, Republic of); Park, Jeen-Woo, E-mail: parkjw@knu.ac.kr [School of Life Sciences and Biotechnology, College of Natural Sciences, Kyungpook National University, Taegu (Korea, Republic of)] [School of Life Sciences and Biotechnology, College of Natural Sciences, Kyungpook National University, Taegu (Korea, Republic of)

2013-04-05

253

Histone H1 Is Dispensable for Methylation-Associated Gene Silencing in Ascobolus immersus and Essential for Long Life Span  

PubMed Central

A gene encoding a protein that shows sequence similarity with the histone H1 family only was cloned in Ascobolus immersus. The deduced peptide sequence presents the characteristic three-domain structure of metazoan linker histones, with a central globular region, an N-terminal tail, and a long positively charged C-terminal tail. By constructing an artificial duplication of this gene, named H1, it was possible to methylate and silence it by the MIP (methylation induced premeiotically) process. This resulted in the complete loss of the Ascobolus H1 histone. Mutant strains lacking H1 displayed normal methylation-associated gene silencing, underwent MIP, and showed the same methylation-associated chromatin modifications as did wild-type strains. However, they displayed an increased accessibility of micrococcal nuclease to chromatin, whether DNA was methylated or not, and exhibited a hypermethylation of the methylated genome compartment. These features are taken to imply that Ascobolus H1 histone is a ubiquitous component of chromatin which plays no role in methylation-associated gene silencing. Mutant strains lacking histone H1 reproduced normally through sexual crosses and displayed normal early vegetative growth. However, between 6 and 13 days after germination, they abruptly and consistently stopped growing, indicating that Ascobolus H1 histone is necessary for long life span. This constitutes the first observation of a physiologically important phenotype associated with the loss of H1. PMID:10594009

Barra, Jose L.; Rhounim, Laïla; Rossignol, Jean-Luc; Faugeron, Godeleine

2000-01-01

254

Histone deacetylase inhibitor LBH589 reactivates silenced estrogen receptor alpha (ER) gene expression without loss of DNA hypermethylation.  

PubMed

Our previous studies demonstrated that inhibition of histone deacetylases (HDACs) by trichostatin A reactivates estrogen receptor alpha (ER) gene expression in ER-negative breast cancer cells. Here, we use the clinically relevant HDAC inhibitor, LBH589 (LBH) to explore the roles of HDAC in ER gene silencing. In the ER-negative human breast cancer lines, MDA-MB-231 and MDA-MB-435, treatment with LBH for 24 hours restored ER mRNA and protein expression without a concomitant demethylation of the CpG island at the ER promoter. The expression of ER mRNA was sustained at least 96 hours after withdrawal of LBH treatment. Restoration of ER expression by LBH enhanced 4-hydroxy-tamoxifen sensitivity in MDA-MB-231 cells. The molecular mechanisms by which LBH reactivated silenced ER gene in MDA-MB-231 cells were examined with emphasis on chromatin structure reorganization. By chromatin immunoprecipitation analysis, LBH treatment released DNMT1, HDAC1, and the H3 lysine 9 (H3-K9) methyltransferase SUV39H 1 from the ER promoter. Such changes were associated with an active chromatin formation manifested as accumulation of acetylated histones H3 and H4, a decrease in methylated H3-K9, and an impaired binding of heterochromatin protein 1 (HP1 alpha) at the promoter. Our findings suggest that HDAC inhibitors could restore expression of the silenced ER gene by reorganizing the heterochromatin-associated proteins without alteration in promoter DNA hypermethylation. PMID:17172825

Zhou, Qun; Atadja, Peter; Davidson, Nancy E

2007-01-01

255

Gene silencing H-NS paralogue StpA forms a rigid protein filament along DNA that blocks DNA accessibility  

PubMed Central

Nucleoid-associated proteins are bacterial proteins that are responsible for chromosomal DNA compaction and global gene regulation. One such protein is Escherichia coli Histone-like nucleoid structuring protein (H-NS) which functions as a global gene silencer. Whereas the DNA-binding mechanism of H-NS is well-characterized, its paralogue, StpA which is also able to silence genes is less understood. Here we show that StpA is similar to H-NS in that it is able to form a rigid filament along DNA. In contrast to H-NS, the StpA filament interacts with a naked DNA segment to cause DNA bridging which results in simultaneous stiffening and bridging of DNA. DNA accessibility is effectively blocked after the formation of StpA filament on DNA, suggesting rigid filament formation is the important step in promoting gene silencing. We also show that >1?mM magnesium promotes higher order DNA condensation, suggesting StpA may also play a role in chromosomal DNA packaging. PMID:22187157

Lim, Ci Ji; Whang, Yixun R.; Kenney, Linda J.; Yan, Jie

2012-01-01

256

A virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS) system for functional genomics in the parasitic plant Striga hermonthica  

PubMed Central

Background Striga hermonthica is a hemiparasitic weed that infects cereals in Sub Sahara Africa (SSA) resulting in up to 100% grain yield loss. This significant loss in grain yields is a major contributor to food insecurity and poverty in the region. Current strategies to control the parasite are costly, unavailable and remain unpracticed by small-scale farmers, underscoring the need for more economical and sustainable control strategies. Development of resistant germplasm is the most sustainable strategy in the control of S. hermonthica, but is constrained by paucity of resistance genes for introduction into crop germplasm. RNA interference (RNAi) has potential for developing host-derived resistance against S. hermonthica by transformation of host crops with RNAi sequences targeted at critical Striga genes. The application of RNAi in management of S. hermonthica is however constrained by lack of efficient high throughput screening protocols for the candidate genes for silencing, as well as sub optimal delivery of siRNAs into the parasite. In comparison to stable transformation, viral induced gene silencing (VIGS) is a rapid and powerful tool for plant functional genomics and provides an easy and effective strategy in screening for putative candidate genes to target through RNAi. In addition, VIGS allows for a secondary amplification of the RNAi signal increasing the siRNA threshold and facilitates siRNA transport through viral movement proteins. We tested the efficiency of the Tobacco rattle virus (TRV1 and TRV2) VIGS vectors in silencing S. hermonthica phytoene desaturase (PDS) gene through agrodrench and agro-infiltration. Results We report the validation of VIGS in S. hermonthica using a silencing cassette generated from TRV with a PDS gene insert. Agro-infiltrated and agro-drenched S. hermonthica leaves showed photo-bleaching phenotypes typical for PDS silencing within 7 and 14 days post infection respectively. In both cases S. hermonthica plants recovered from photo-bleaching effects within 28 days post inoculation. The transformation efficiency of the VIGS protocol in S. hermonthica was (60?±?2.9)%. Conclusion These results demonstrate that the TRV-VIGS system work in S. hermonthica and can be used for candidate gene validation for their role in the parasite development and parasitism, with the ultimate goal of developing resistant transgenic maize. PMID:24932208

2014-01-01

257

SiO2 nanoparticles biocompatibility and their potential for gene delivery and silencing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Despite the extensive use of silica nanoparticles (SiO2NPs) in many fields, the results about their potential toxicity are still controversial. In this work, we have performed a systematic in vitro study to assess the biological impact of SiO2NPs, by investigating 3 different sizes (25, 60 and 115 nm) and 2 surface charges (positive and negative) of the nanoparticles in 5 cell lines (3 in adherence and 2 in suspension). We analyzed the cellular uptake and distribution of the NPs along with their possible effects on cell viability, membrane integrity and generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Experimental results show that all the investigated SiO2NPs do not induce detectable cytotoxic effects (up to 2.5 nM concentration) in all cell lines, and that cellular uptake is mediated by an endocytic process strongly dependent on the particle size and independent of its original surface charge, due to protein corona effects. Once having assessed the biocompatibility of SiO2NPs, we have evaluated their potential in gene delivery, showing their ability to silence specific protein expression. The results of this work indicate that monodisperse and stable SiO2NPs are not toxic, revealing their promising potential in various biomedical applications.Despite the extensive use of silica nanoparticles (SiO2NPs) in many fields, the results about their potential toxicity are still controversial. In this work, we have performed a systematic in vitro study to assess the biological impact of SiO2NPs, by investigating 3 different sizes (25, 60 and 115 nm) and 2 surface charges (positive and negative) of the nanoparticles in 5 cell lines (3 in adherence and 2 in suspension). We analyzed the cellular uptake and distribution of the NPs along with their possible effects on cell viability, membrane integrity and generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Experimental results show that all the investigated SiO2NPs do not induce detectable cytotoxic effects (up to 2.5 nM concentration) in all cell lines, and that cellular uptake is mediated by an endocytic process strongly dependent on the particle size and independent of its original surface charge, due to protein corona effects. Once having assessed the biocompatibility of SiO2NPs, we have evaluated their potential in gene delivery, showing their ability to silence specific protein expression. The results of this work indicate that monodisperse and stable SiO2NPs are not toxic, revealing their promising potential in various biomedical applications. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c1nr11269d

Malvindi, Maria Ada; Brunetti, Virgilio; Vecchio, Giuseppe; Galeone, Antonio; Cingolani, Roberto; Pompa, Pier Paolo

2012-01-01

258

Gene silencing of EREG mediated by DNA methylation and histone modification in human gastric cancers.  

PubMed

Epiregulin (EREG) induces cell growth by binding to the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR). Expression of EREG affects sensitivity to cetuximab a chimeric monoclonal antibody that inhibits the EGFR signaling pathway. The mechanism through which EREG is regulated is largely unknown, but a methyl-array study previously performed by our group revealed that EREG is methylated in gastric cancer cells. In this study, we found that EREG gene expression was low in 7 out of 11 gastric cancer cells and this downregulation was mediated by aberrant CpG methylation of the EREG promoter. Treatment with 5-aza-CdR restored EREG expression and demethylated CpG sites in the EREG promoter. Compared with DNA methyltransferase 1 (DNMT1), knock-down of DNA methyltransferase 3b (DNMT3b) significantly increased the expression of EREG and led to the demethylation of specific CpG sites in the EREG promoter, suggesting that DNMT3b primarily regulates CpG methylation and silencing of the EREG gene. EREG methylation was observed in 30% (4/13) of human primary gastric tumor tissues we evaluated. In addition to DNA methylation, results from a chromatin immunoprecipitation assay demonstrated that transcriptional levels of EREG were associated with the enrichment of active histone marks (H3K4me3 and AcH3) and of a repressive mark (H3K27me2). Treatment with 5-aza-CdR dynamically increased the low occupancy of H3K4me3 and AcH3, while decreasing the high enrichment of H3K27me2, indicating that dynamic histone modifications contribute to EREG regulation in addition to DNA methylation. Finally, the combination of 5-aza-CdR and cetuximab exerted a synergistic anti-proliferative effect on gastric cancer cells. Taken together, the results of our study showed for the first time that EREG is epigenetically silenced in gastric cancer cells by aberrant DNA methylation and histone modification. PMID:22508389

Yun, Jiyeon; Song, Sang-Hyun; Park, Jinah; Kim, Hwang-Phill; Yoon, Young-Kwang; Lee, Kyung-Hun; Han, Sae-Won; Oh, Do-Youn; Im, Seock-Ah; Bang, Yung-Jue; Kim, Tae-You

2012-07-01

259

Rapid Determination of Gene Function by Virus-Induced Gene Silencing in Wheat and Barley  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The cereal crops are essential components to the human and animal food supply. Solutions to many of the problems challenging cereal production will require identification of genes responsible for particular traits. Unfortunately, the process of identifying gene function is very slow and complex in ...

260

Rapid Determination of Gene Function by Virus-induced Gene Silencing in Wheat and Barley  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The cereal crops are essential components to the human and animal food supply. Solutions to many of the problems challenging cereal production will require identification of genes responsible for particular traits. Unfortunately, the process of identifying gene function is very slow and complex in...

261

Transient silencing of the grapevine gene VvPGIP1 by agroinfiltration with a construct for RNA interference.  

PubMed

Grapevine is an economically important crop, and the recent completion of its genome makes it possible to study the function of specific genes through reverse genetics. However, the analysis of gene function by RNA interference (RNAi) in grapevine is difficult, because the generation of stable transgenic plants has low efficiency and is time consuming. Recently, transient expression of genes in grapevine leaves has been obtained by Agrobacterium tumefaciens infiltration (agroinfiltration). We therefore tested the possibility to silence grapevine genes by agroinfiltration of RNAi constructs. A construct to express a double strand RNA (dsRNA) corresponding to the defense-related gene VvPGIP1, encoding a polygalacturonase-inhibiting protein (PGIP), was obtained and transiently expressed by agroinfiltration in leaves of grapevine plants grown in vitro. Expression of VvPGIP1 and accumulation of PGIP activity were strongly induced by infiltration with control bacteria, but not with bacteria carrying the dsRNA construct, indicating that the gene was efficiently silenced. In contrast, expression of another defense-related gene, VST1, encoding a stilbene synthase, was unaffected by the dsRNA construct. We have therefore demonstrated the possibility of transient down-regulation of grapevine genes by agroinfiltration of constructs for the expression of dsRNA. This system can be employed to evaluate the effectiveness of constructs that can be subsequently used to generate stable RNAi transgenic plants. PMID:21932028

Bertazzon, Nadia; Raiola, Alessandro; Castiglioni, Carla; Gardiman, Massimo; Angelini, Elisa; Borgo, Michele; Ferrari, Simone

2012-01-01

262

Exploring sRNA-mediated gene silencing mechanisms using artificial small RNAs derived from a natural RNA scaffold in Escherichia coli  

PubMed Central

An artificial small RNA (afsRNA) scaffold was designed from an Escherichia coli sRNA, SibC. Using the lacZ reporter system, the gene silencing effects of afsRNAs were examined to explore the sRNA-mediated gene-silencing mechanisms in E. coli. Substitution of the original target recognition sequence with a new sequence recognizing lacZ mRNA led to effective reduction of lacZ gene expression. Single-strandedness of the target recognition sequences in the scaffold was essential for effective gene silencing. The target recognition sequence was shortened to 10 nt without significant loss of gene silencing, although this minimal length was limited to a specific target mRNA sequence. In cases where afsRNAs had mismatched (forming internal loops) or unmatched (forming bulges) regions in the middle of the target recognition sequence, internal loop-forming afsRNAs were more effective in gene silencing than those that formed bulges. Unexpectedly, gene silencing by afsRNA was not decreased but increased on hfq disruption in E. coli, particularly when interactions between afsRNA and mRNA were weak, suggesting that Hfq is possibly involved in destabilization of the RNA–RNA duplex, rather than enhancement of base pairing. PMID:23393193

Park, Hongmarn; Bak, Geunu; Kim, Sun Chang; Lee, Younghoon

2013-01-01

263

Aberrant promoter methylation and silencing of the POU2F3 gene in cervical cancer.  

PubMed

POU2F3 (OCT11, Skn-1a) is a keratinocyte-specific POU transcription factor whose expression is tied to squamous epithelial stratification. It is also a candidate tumor suppressor gene in cervical cancer (CC) because it lies in a critical loss of heterozygosity region on 11q23.3 in that cancer, and its expression is lost in more than 50% of CC tumors and cell lines. We now report that the loss of POU2F3 expression is tied to the hypermethylation of CpG islands in the POU2F3 promoter. Bisulfite sequencing analysis revealed that methylation of specific CpG sites (-287 to -70 bp) correlated with POU2F3 expression, which could be reactivated with a demethylating agent. Combined bisulfite restriction analysis revealed aberrant methylation of the POU2F3 promoter in 18 of 46 (39%) cervical tumors but never in normal epithelium. POU2F3 expression was downregulated and inversely correlated with promoter hypermethylation in 10 out of 11 CC cell lines. Immunohistochemical analysis on a cervical tissue microarray detected POU2F3 protein in the epithelium above the basal layer. As the disease progressed, expression also decreased, especially in invasive squamous cell cancer (70% loss). Thus, aberrant DNA methylation of the CpG island in POU2F3 promoter appears to play a key role in silencing this gene expression in human CC. The results suggested that POU2F3 might be one of the CC-related tumor suppressor genes, which are disrupted by both epigenetic and genetic mechanisms. PMID:16607278

Zhang, Z; Huettner, P C; Nguyen, L; Bidder, M; Funk, M C; Li, J; Rader, J S

2006-08-31

264

EZH2 mediates epigenetic silencing of neuroblastoma suppressor genes CASZ1, CLU, RUNX3 and NGFR  

PubMed Central

Neuroblastoma (NB) is the most common extracranial pediatric solid tumor with an undifferentiated status and generally poor prognosis, but the basis for these characteristics remains unknown. In this study, we show that upregulation of the Polycomb complex histone methytransferase EZH2, which limits differentiation in many tissues, is critical to maintain the undifferentiated state and poor prognostic status of NB by epigenetic repression of multiple tumor suppressor genes. We identified this role for EZH2 by examining the regulation of CASZ1, a recently identified NB tumor suppressor gene whose ectopic restoration inhibits NB cell growth and induces differentiation. Reducing EZH2 expression by RNAi-mediated knockdown or pharmacological inhibiton with 3-deazaneplanocin A (DZNep) increased CASZ1 expression, inhibited NB cell growth and induced neurite extension. Similarly, EZH2?/? mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) displayed 3-fold higher levels of CASZ1 mRNA compared to EZH2+/+ MEFs. In cells with increased expression of CASZ1, treatment with HDAC inhibitors decreased expression of EZH2 and the Polycomb complex component SUZ12. Under steady-state conditions H3K27me3 and PRC2 components bound to the CASZ1 gene were enriched, but this enrichment was decreased after HDAC inhibitor treatment. We determined that the tumor suppressors CLU, NGFR and RUNX3 were also directly repressed by EZH2 like CASZ1 in NB cells. Together, our findings establish that aberrant upregulation of EZH2 in NB cells silences several tumor suppressors, which contribute to the genesis and maintenance of the undifferentiated phenotype of NB tumors. PMID:22068036

Wang, Chunxi; Liu, Zhihui; Woo, Chan-Wook; Li, Zhijie; Wang, Lifeng; Wei, Jun S.; Marquez, Victor E.; Bates, Susan E.; Jin, Qihuang; Khan, Javed; Ge, Kai; Thiele, Carol J.

2012-01-01

265

Transcriptional regulation of the rat platelet factor 4 gene: interaction between an enhancer/silencer domain and the GATA site.  

PubMed Central

We used various segments of the 5' upstream region of the rat platelet factor 4 (PF4) gene coupled to the human growth hormone gene and heterologous promoters to identify domains which are critical for tissue-specific expression. Transient expression experiments with rat bone marrow cells and other cell lines revealed a complex interplay between a core promoter domain from -97 to the transcriptional start site and an enhancer/silencer domain from -448 to -112. The core promoter contains a GATA site at -31 to -28 whose mutation to TATA or AATA decreases tissue specificity and moderately affects expression in megakaryocytes as well as a positively acting subdomain from -97 to -83 whose removal decreases overall transcription without affecting tissue specificity. The enhancer/silencer domain possesses three positively acting subdomains from -380 to -362, -270 to -257, and -137 to -120 as well as a negatively acting subdomain at -184 to -151 which is able to reduce overall transcription but has no effect on tissue specificity. The subdomain from -380 to -362 is most critical in restricting gene expression driven either by the PF4 promoter or by a heterologous promoter to the megakaryocytic lineage. The subdomains from -270 to -257 and -137 to -120 function together with the subdomain from -380 to -362 to somewhat increase tissue specificity. Simultaneous mutation of the GATA site and deletion of either the whole enhancer/silencer domain or the subdomain from -380 to -362 or -137 to -120 reduce transcription in megakaryocytes by 10- to 30-fold. On the basis of the above-described results, we propose that the megakaryocyte-specific enhancer/silencer domain and the GATA site are responsible for high-level expression of the PF4 gene in a lineage-specific manner. Images PMID:1944279

Ravid, K; Doi, T; Beeler, D L; Kuter, D J; Rosenberg, R D

1991-01-01

266

Prolonged gene silencing by siRNA/chitosan-g-deoxycholic acid polyplexes loaded within biodegradable polymer nanoparticles.  

PubMed

Recently, small interfering RNA (siRNA) has received much attention for therapeutic applications; however, low transfection efficiency and intrinsic instability limit effective gene silencing. Here we show a new approach based on the incorporation of siRNA/polyelectrolyte complexes into biodegradable poly(d,l-lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) nanoparticles to stabilize siRNA within a hydrophobic solid matrix for prolonged gene silencing. To solubilize siRNA in organic media, chitosan oligosaccharides grafted with deoxycholic acids are synthesized and complexed with siRNA, generating a self-assembled polyelectrolyte complex of 123.9 ± 56.8 nm in diameter. The complex is mixed with PLGA solution and emulsified in water to prepare siRNA-loaded PLGA nanoparticles having a diameter of about 230 nm. The excellent structural stability of the prepared nanoparticles leads to efficient cellular uptake followed by effective gene silencing even in the presence of serum proteins. These results suggest that the encapsulation of siRNA into biodegradable polymer matrix can be an effective means of improving the structural stability of siRNA for prolonged therapeutic efficacy. PMID:22800573

Lee, Jeong Yu; Lee, Soo Hyeon; Oh, Mi Hwa; Kim, Jee Seon; Park, Tae Gwan; Nam, Yoon Sung

2012-09-10

267

Chemically defined polyethylene glycol siRNA conjugates with enhanced gene silencing effect.  

PubMed

The therapeutic application of siRNA suffers from poor bioavailability caused by rapid degradation and elimination. The covalent attachment of PEG is a universal concept to increase molecular size and enhance the pharmacokinetic properties of biomacromolecules. We devised a facile approach for attachment of PEG molecules with a defined molecular weight, and successful purification of the resulting conjugates. We directly conjugated structurally defined PEG chains with twelve ethylene glycol units to the 3'-terminal hydroxyl group of both sense and antisense strands via an aminoalkyl linker. The conjugates were easily purified by HPLC and successful PEGylation and molecule integrity were confirmed by ESI-MS. The evaluation of in vitro gene knockdown of two different targets in MCF-7 breast cancer cells showed stable pharmacologic activity when combined with a standard transfection reagent. Sense strand PEGylation even increased the silencing potency of a CRCX4-siRNA which had modest activity in its wild-type form. The results indicate that PEG chains at the 3'-terminus of both strands of siRNA are well tolerated by the RNAi effector. The attachment of short, chemically defined PEG chains is a feasible approach to improve the pharmacokinetic properties of siRNA, and can be combined with other targeted and untargeted delivery vehicles. PMID:24613624

Gaziova, Zuzana; Baumann, Volker; Winkler, Anna-Maria; Winkler, Johannes

2014-04-01

268

Induction of alloimmune tolerance in heart transplantation through gene silencing of TLR adaptors.  

PubMed

Toll-like receptors (TLRs) activate biochemical pathways that evoke activation of innate immunity, which leads to dendritic cell (DC) maturation and initiation of adaptive immune responses that provoke allograft rejection. We aimed to prolong allograft survival by selectively inhibiting expression of the common adaptors of TLR signaling, namely MyD88 and TRIF, using siRNA. In vitro we demonstrated that blocking expression of MyD88 and TRIF led to reduced DC maturation. In vivo treatment of recipients with MyD88 and TRIF siRNA significantly prolonged allograft survival in the BALB/c > C57BL6 cardiac transplant model. Moreover, the combination of MyD88 and TRIF siRNA along with a low dose of rapamycin further extended the allograft survival (88.8 ± 7.1 days). Tissue histopathology demonstrated an overall reduction in lymphocyte interstitium infiltration, vascular obstruction and hemorrhage in mice treated with MyD88 and TRIF siRNA vector plus rapamycin. Furthermore, treatment was associated with an increase in the numbers of CD4(+) CD25(+) FoxP3(+) regulatory T cells and Th2 deviation. To our knowledge, this study is the first demonstration of prolonging the survival of allogeneic heart grafts through gene silencing of TLR signaling adaptors, highlighting the therapeutic potential of siRNA in clinical transplantation. PMID:22823145

Zhang, X; Beduhn, M; Zheng, X; Lian, D; Chen, D; Li, R; Siu, L K S; Marleau, A; French, P W; Ichim, T E; Min, W-P

2012-10-01

269

Targeted gene silencing of TLR4 using liposomal nanoparticles for preventing liver ischemia reperfusion injury.  

PubMed

RNAi-based therapy is a promising strategy for the prevention of ischemia-reperfusion injury (IRI). However, systemic administration of small interfering RNA (siRNA) may cause globally nonspecific targeting of all tissues, which impedes clinical use. Here we report a hepatocyte-specific delivery system for the treatment of liver IRI, using galactose-conjugated liposome nanoparticles (Gal-LipoNP). Heptocyte-specific targeting was validated by selective?in vivo?delivery as observed by increased Gal-LipoNP accumulation and gene silencing in the liver. Gal-LipoNP TLR4 siRNA treatment resulted in a significant decrease of serum alanine transferase (ALT) and aspartate transaminase (AST) in a hepatic IRI model. Histopathology displayed an overall reduction of the injury area in the Gal-LipoNP TLR4 siRNA treated mice. Additionally, neutrophil accumulation and lipid peroxidase-mediated tissue injury, detected by MPO, MDA and ROS respectively, were attenuated after Gal-LipoNP TLR4 siRNA treatment. Moreover, therapeutic effects of Gal-LipoNP TLR4 siRNA were associated with suppression of the inflammatory cytokines IL-1 and TNF-?. Taken together, this study is the first demonstration of liver IRI treatment using liver-specific siRNA delivery. PMID:21794086

Jiang, N; Zhang, X; Zheng, X; Chen, D; Zhang, Y; Siu, L K S; Xin, H-B; Li, R; Zhao, H; Riordan, N; Ichim, T E; Quan, D; Jevnikar, A M; Chen, G; Min, W

2011-09-01

270

Hydrophobicity of methylated DNA as a possible mechanism for gene silencing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

AFM images show that chromatin reconstituted on methylated DNA (meDNA) is compacted when imaged under water. Chromatin reconstituted on unmethylated DNA is less compacted and less sensitive to hydration. These differences must reflect changes in the physical properties of DNA on methylation, but prior studies have not revealed large differences between methylated and unmethylated DNA. Quasi-elastic light scattering studies of solutions of methylated and unmethylated DNA support this view. In contrast, AFM images of molecules at a water/solid interface yield a persistence length that nearly doubles (to 92.5 ± 4 nm) when 9% of the total DNA is methylated. This increase in persistence length is accompanied by a decrease in contour length, suggesting that a significant fraction of the meDNA changes into the stiffer A form as the more hydrophobic meDNA is dehydrated at the interface. This suggests a simple mechanism for gene silencing as the stiffer meDNA is more difficult to remove from nucleosomes.

Kaur, Parminder; Plochberger, Birgit; Costa, Peter; Cope, Stephanie M.; Vaiana, Sara M.; Lindsay, Stuart

2012-12-01

271

Chemically defined polyethylene glycol siRNA conjugates with enhanced gene silencing effect  

PubMed Central

The therapeutic application of siRNA suffers from poor bioavailability caused by rapid degradation and elimination. The covalent attachment of PEG is a universal concept to increase molecular size and enhance the pharmacokinetic properties of biomacromolecules. We devised a facile approach for attachment of PEG molecules with a defined molecular weight, and successful purification of the resulting conjugates. We directly conjugated structurally defined PEG chains with twelve ethylene glycol units to the 3?-terminal hydroxyl group of both sense and antisense strands via an aminoalkyl linker. The conjugates were easily purified by HPLC and successful PEGylation and molecule integrity were confirmed by ESI-MS. The evaluation of in vitro gene knockdown of two different targets in MCF-7 breast cancer cells showed stable pharmacologic activity when combined with a standard transfection reagent. Sense strand PEGylation even increased the silencing potency of a CRCX4-siRNA which had modest activity in its wild-type form. The results indicate that PEG chains at the 3?-terminus of both strands of siRNA are well tolerated by the RNAi effector. The attachment of short, chemically defined PEG chains is a feasible approach to improve the pharmacokinetic properties of siRNA, and can be combined with other targeted and untargeted delivery vehicles. PMID:24613624

Gaziova, Zuzana; Baumann, Volker; Winkler, Anna-Maria; Winkler, Johannes

2014-01-01

272

Chemical probes identify a role for histone deacetylase 3 in Friedreich’s ataxia gene silencing  

PubMed Central

SUMMARY We recently identified a novel class of pimelic diphenylamide histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors that show promise as therapeutics in the neurodegenerative diseases Friedreich’s ataxia (FRDA) and Huntington’s disease. Here we describe chemical approaches to identify the HDAC enzyme target of these inhibitors. Incubation of a trifunctional activity-based probe with a panel of class I and class II recombinant HDAC enzymes, followed by click chemistry addition of a fluorescent dye and gel electrophoresis, identifies HDAC3 as a unique high-affinity target of the probe. Photoaffinity labeling in a nuclear extract prepared from human lymphoblasts with the trifunctional probe, followed by biotin addition through click chemistry, streptavidin enrichment and western blotting also identifies HDAC3 as the preferred cellular target of the inhibitor. Additional inhibitors with different HDAC specificity profiles were synthesized and results from transcription experiments in FRDA cells point to a unique role for HDAC3 in gene silencing in Friedreich’s ataxia. PMID:19778726

Xu, Chunping; Soragni, Elisabetta; Chou, C. James; Herman, David; Plasterer, Heather L.; Rusche, James R.; Gottesfeld, Joel M.

2010-01-01

273

Protective effect of caffeine against high sugar-induced transcription of microRNAs and consequent gene silencing: A study using lenses of galactosemic mice  

PubMed Central

Purpose Previous studies have shown that caffeine prevents the formation of cataracts induced by a high-galactose diet and consequent oxidative stress. The objective of this study was to investigate if this protective effect is reflected in the attenuation of the transcription of microRNAs (miRNAs) known to induce apoptosis and cell death by gene silencing. Methods Young CD-1 mice were fed either a normal laboratory diet or a diet containing 25% galactose with or without 1% caffeine. One week later, the animals were euthanized, and the lenses isolated and promptly processed for RNA isolation and subsequent preparation of cDNAs by reverse transcriptase reaction. Mature miRNA (miR)-specific cDNAs were then quantified with PCR in a 96-well microRNA-specific cassette using an ABI7900HT PCR machine. Results As expected from previous studies, the lenses were positive for all 84 miRs corresponding to the miRNA probes present in the cassette wells. However, the levels of at least 19 miRs were significantly elevated in galactosemic lenses compared to those in the normal lenses. The majority are proapoptotic. Such elevation was inhibited by caffeine. This has been demonstrated for the first time. Conclusions Since aberrant elevation of miRNAs silences various genes and consequently deactivates protein translation, and since caffeine downregulates such aberration, the beneficial effect of caffeine could be attributed to its ability to suppress elevation of toxic miRs and consequent gene silencing. PMID:23441122

Kovtun, Svitlana

2013-01-01

274

The anti-aging gene KLOTHO is a novel target for epigenetic silencing in human cervical carcinoma  

PubMed Central

Background Klotho was originally characterized as an anti-aging gene that predisposed Klotho-deficient mice to a premature aging-like syndrome. Recently, KLOTHO was reported to function as a secreted Wnt antagonist and as a tumor suppressor. Epigenetic gene silencing of secreted Wnt antagonists is considered a common event in a wide range of human malignancies. Abnormal activation of the canonical Wnt pathway due to epigenetic deregulation of Wnt antagonists is thought to play a crucial role in cervical tumorigenesis. In this study, we examined epigenetic silencing of KLOTHO in human cervical carcinoma. Results Loss of KLOTHO mRNA was observed in several cervical cancer cell lines and in invasive carcinoma samples, but not during the early, preinvasive phase of primary cervical tumorigenesis. KLOTHO mRNA was restored after treatment with either the DNA demethylating agent 2'-deoxy-5-azacytidine or histone deacetylase inhibitor trichostatin A. Methylation-specific PCR and bisulfite genomic sequencing analysis of the promoter region of KLOTHO revealed CpG hypermethylation in non-KLOTHO-expressing cervical cancer cell lines and in 41% (9/22) of invasive carcinoma cases. Histone deacetylation was also found to be the major epigenetic silencing mechanism for KLOTHO in the SiHa cell line. Ectopic expression of the secreted form of KLOTHO restored anti-Wnt signaling and anti-clonogenic activity in the CaSki cell line including decreased active ?-catenin levels, suppression of T-cell factor/?-catenin target genes, such as c-MYC and CCND1, and inhibition of colony growth. Conclusions Epigenetic silencing of KLOTHO may occur during the late phase of cervical tumorigenesis, and consequent functional loss of KLOTHO as the secreted Wnt antagonist may contribute to aberrant activation of the canonical Wnt pathway in cervical carcinoma. PMID:20482749

2010-01-01

275

THE USE OF NANOPARTICLE-MEDIATED TARGETED GENE SILENCING AND DRUG DELIVERY TO OVERCOME TUMOR DRUG RESISTANCE  

PubMed Central

Overexpression of drug efflux transporters such as P-glycoprotein (P-gp) enables cancer cells to develop resistance to multiple anticancer drugs. Functional inhibitors of P-gp have shown promising efficacy in early clinical trials, but their long-term safety is yet to be established. A novel approach to overcome drug resistance is to use siRNA-mediated RNA interference to silence the expression of the efflux transporter. Because P-gp plays an important role in the physiological regulation of endogenous and xenobiotic compounds in the body, it is important to deliver P-gp targeted siRNA and anticancer drug specifically to tumor cells. Further, for optimal synergy, both the drug and siRNA may need to be temporally colocalized in the tumor cells. In the current study, we investigated the effectiveness of simultaneous and targeted delivery of anticancer drug, paclitaxel, along with P-gp targeted siRNA, using poly(D,L-lactide-co-glycolide) nanoparticles to overcome tumor drug resistance. Nanoparticles were surface functionalized with biotin for active tumor targeting. Dual agent nanoparticles encapsulating the combination of paclitaxel and P-gp targeted siRNA showed significantly higher cytotoxicity in vitro than nanoparticles loaded with paclitaxel alone. Enhanced therapeutic efficacy of dual agent nanoparticles could be correlated with effective silencing of the MDR1 gene that encodes for P-gp and with increased accumulation of paclitaxel in drug-resistant tumor cells. In vivo studies in a mouse model of drug-resistant tumor demonstrated significantly greater inhibition of tumor growth following treatment with biotin-functionalized nanoparticles encapsulating both paclitaxel and P-gp targeted siRNA at a paclitaxel dose that was ineffective in the absence of gene silencing. These results suggest that that the combination of P-gp gene silencing and cytotoxic drug delivery using targeted nanoparticles can overcome tumor drug resistance. PMID:19800114

Patil, Yogesh; Swaminathan, Suresh; Sadhukha, Tanmoy; Ma, Linan; Panyam, Jayanth

2009-01-01

276

Virus infection triggers widespread silencing of host genes by a distinct class of endogenous siRNAs in Arabidopsis.  

PubMed

Antiviral immunity controlled by RNA interference (RNAi) in plants and animals is thought to specifically target only viral RNAs by the virus-derived small interfering RNAs (siRNAs). Here we show that activation of antiviral RNAi in Arabidopsis plants is accompanied by the production of an abundant class of endogenous siRNAs mapped to the exon regions of more than 1,000 host genes and rRNA. These virus-activated siRNAs (vasiRNAs) are predominantly 21 nucleotides long with an approximately equal ratio of sense and antisense strands. Genetically, vasiRNAs are distinct from the known plant endogenous siRNAs characterized to date and instead resemble viral siRNAs by requiring Dicer-like 4 and RNA-dependent RNA polymerase 1 (RDR1) for biogenesis. However, loss of exoribonuclease4/thylene-insensitive5 enhances vasiRNA biogenesis and virus resistance without altering the biogenesis of viral siRNAs. We show that vasiRNAs are active in directing widespread silencing of the target host genes and that Argonaute-2 binds to and is essential for the silencing activity of vasiRNAs. Production of vasiRNAs is readily detectable in Arabidopsis after infection by viruses from two distinct supergroups of plant RNA virus families and is targeted for inhibition by the silencing suppressor protein 2b of Cucumber mosaic virus. These findings reveal RDR1 production of Arabidopsis endogenous siRNAs and identify production of vasiRNAs to direct widespread silencing of host genes as a conserved response of plants to infection by diverse viruses. A possible function for vasiRNAs to confer broad-spectrum antiviral activity distinct to the virus-specific antiviral RNAi by viral siRNAs is discussed. PMID:25201959

Cao, Mengji; Du, Peng; Wang, Xianbing; Yu, Yun-Qi; Qiu, Yan-Hong; Li, Wanxiang; Gal-On, Amit; Zhou, Changyong; Li, Yi; Ding, Shou-Wei

2014-10-01

277

Virus infection triggers widespread silencing of host genes by a distinct class of endogenous siRNAs in Arabidopsis  

PubMed Central

Antiviral immunity controlled by RNA interference (RNAi) in plants and animals is thought to specifically target only viral RNAs by the virus-derived small interfering RNAs (siRNAs). Here we show that activation of antiviral RNAi in Arabidopsis plants is accompanied by the production of an abundant class of endogenous siRNAs mapped to the exon regions of more than 1,000 host genes and rRNA. These virus-activated siRNAs (vasiRNAs) are predominantly 21 nucleotides long with an approximately equal ratio of sense and antisense strands. Genetically, vasiRNAs are distinct from the known plant endogenous siRNAs characterized to date and instead resemble viral siRNAs by requiring Dicer-like 4 and RNA-dependent RNA polymerase 1 (RDR1) for biogenesis. However, loss of EXORIBONUCLEASE4/THYLENE-INSENSITIVE5 enhances vasiRNA biogenesis and virus resistance without altering the biogenesis of viral siRNAs. We show that vasiRNAs are active in directing widespread silencing of the target host genes and that Argonaute-2 binds to and is essential for the silencing activity of vasiRNAs. Production of vasiRNAs is readily detectable in Arabidopsis after infection by viruses from two distinct supergroups of plant RNA virus families and is targeted for inhibition by the silencing suppressor protein 2b of Cucumber mosaic virus. These findings reveal RDR1 production of Arabidopsis endogenous siRNAs and identify production of vasiRNAs to direct widespread silencing of host genes as a conserved response of plants to infection by diverse viruses. A possible function for vasiRNAs to confer broad-spectrum antiviral activity distinct to the virus-specific antiviral RNAi by viral siRNAs is discussed. PMID:25201959

Cao, Mengji; Du, Peng; Wang, Xianbing; Yu, Yun-Qi; Qiu, Yan-Hong; Li, Wanxiang; Gal-On, Amit; Zhou, Changyong; Li, Yi; Ding, Shou-Wei

2014-01-01

278

A complex array of DNA-binding proteins required for pairing-sensitive silencing by a polycomb group response element from the Drosophila engrailed gene.  

PubMed Central

Regulatory DNA from the Drosophila gene engrailed causes silencing of a linked reporter gene (mini-white) in transgenic Drosophila. This silencing is strengthened in flies homozygous for the transgene and has been called "pairing-sensitive silencing." The pairing-sensitive silencing activities of a large fragment (2.6 kb) and a small subfragment (181 bp) were explored. Since pairing-sensitive silencing is often associated with Polycomb group response elements (PREs), we tested the activities of each of these engrailed fragments in a construct designed to detect PRE activity in embryos. Both fragments were found to behave as PREs in a bxd-Ubx-lacZ reporter construct, while the larger fragment showed additional silencing capabilities. Using the mini-white reporter gene, a 139-bp minimal pairing-sensitive element (PSE) was defined. DNA mobility-shift assays using Drosophila nuclear extracts suggested that there are eight protein-binding sites within this 139-bp element. Mutational analysis showed that at least five of these sites are important for pairing-sensitive silencing. One of the required sites is for the Polycomb group protein Pleiohomeotic and another is GAGAG, a sequence bound by the proteins GAGA factor and Pipsqueak. The identity of the other proteins is unknown. These data suggest a surprising degree of complexity in the DNA-binding proteins required for PSE function. PMID:11973310

Americo, Jeffrey; Whiteley, Mary; Brown, J Lesley; Fujioka, Miki; Jaynes, James B; Kassis, Judith A

2002-01-01

279

A High Throughput Barley Stripe Mosaic Virus Vector for Virus Induced Gene Silencing in Monocots and Dicots  

PubMed Central

Barley stripe mosaic virus (BSMV) is a single-stranded RNA virus with three genome components designated alpha, beta, and gamma. BSMV vectors have previously been shown to be efficient virus induced gene silencing (VIGS) vehicles in barley and wheat and have provided important information about host genes functioning during pathogenesis as well as various aspects of genes functioning in development. To permit more effective use of BSMV VIGS for functional genomics experiments, we have developed an Agrobacterium delivery system for BSMV and have coupled this with a ligation independent cloning (LIC) strategy to mediate efficient cloning of host genes. Infiltrated Nicotiana benthamiana leaves provided excellent sources of virus for secondary BSMV infections and VIGS in cereals. The Agro/LIC BSMV VIGS vectors were able to function in high efficiency down regulation of phytoene desaturase (PDS), magnesium chelatase subunit H (ChlH), and plastid transketolase (TK) gene silencing in N. benthamiana and in the monocots, wheat, barley, and the model grass, Brachypodium distachyon. Suppression of an Arabidopsis orthologue cloned from wheat (TaPMR5) also interfered with wheat powdery mildew (Blumeria graminis f. sp. tritici) infections in a manner similar to that of the A. thaliana PMR5 loss-of-function allele. These results imply that the PMR5 gene has maintained similar functions across monocot and dicot families. Our BSMV VIGS system provides substantial advantages in expense, cloning efficiency, ease of manipulation and ability to apply VIGS for high throughput genomics studies. PMID:22031834

Yan, Lijie; Jackson, Andrew O.; Liu, Zhiyong; Han, Chenggui; Yu, Jialin; Li, Dawei

2011-01-01

280

A novel in vivo siRNA delivery system specifically targeting dendritic cells and silencing CD40 genes for immunomodulation.  

PubMed

Translation of small interfering RNA (siRNA)-based approaches into practical therapeutics is limited because of lack of an effective and cell-specific delivery system. Herein, we present a new method of selectively delivering siRNA to dendritic cells (DCs) in vivo using CD40 siRNA-containing immunoliposomes (siILs) that were decorated with DC-specific DEC-205 mAb. Administration of CD40 siILs resulted in DC-specific cell targeting in vitro and in vivo. On treatment with CD40 siILs, the expression of CD40 in DCs, as well allostimulatory activity was inhibited. In vivo administration resulted in selective siRNA uptake into immune organs and functional immune modulation as assessed using a model antigen. In conclusion, this is the first demonstration of DC-specific siRNA delivery and gene silencing in vivo, which highlights the potential of DC-mediated immune modulation and the feasibility of siRNA-based clinical therapy. PMID:19164600

Zheng, Xiufen; Vladau, Costin; Zhang, Xusheng; Suzuki, Motohiko; Ichim, Thomas E; Zhang, Zhu-Xu; Li, Mu; Carrier, Ewa; Garcia, Bertha; Jevnikar, Anthony M; Min, Wei-Ping

2009-03-19

281

Virus induced gene silencing of a gene repressing flowering in sugar beet.  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Exposure to a prolonged cold period during winter is necessary for flowering in the next spring in many biennial plants - a process termed vernalization. We have described BvFL1, a vernalization gene in sugar beet (Beta vulgaris), which is a repressor of flowering that is downregulated in response ...

282

In Vivo Analysis of Aicda Gene Regulation: A Critical Balance between Upstream Enhancers and Intronic Silencers Governs Appropriate Expression  

PubMed Central

The Aicda gene encodes activation-induced cytidine deaminase (AID). Aicda is strongly transcribed in activated B cells to diversify immunoglobulin genes, but expressed at low levels in various other cells in response to physiological or pathological stimuli. AID’s mutagenic nature has been shown to be involved in tumor development. Here, we used a transgenic strategy with bacterial artificial chromosomes (BACs) to examine the in vivo functions of Aicda regulatory elements, which cluster in two regions: in the first intron (region 2), and approximately 8-kb upstream of the transcription start site (region 4). Deleting either of these regions completely abolished the expression of Aicda-BAC reporters, demonstrating these elements’ critical roles. Furthermore, we found that selectively deleting two C/EBP-binding sites in region 4 inactivated the enhancer activity of the region despite the presence of intact NF-?B-, STAT6- and Smad-binding sites. On the other hand, selectively deleting E2F- and c-Myb-binding sites in region 2 increased the frequency of germinal-center B cells in which the Aicda promoter was active, indicating that E2F and c-Myb act as silencers in vivo. Interestingly, the silencer deletion did not cause ectopic activation of the Aicda promoter, indicating that Aicda activation requires enhancer-specific stimulation. In summary, precise regulation of the Aicda promoter appears to depend on a coordinated balance of activities between enhancer and silencer elements. PMID:23613851

Huong, Le Thi; Kobayashi, Maki; Nakata, Mikiyo; Shioi, Go; Miyachi, Hitoshi; Honjo, Tasuku; Nagaoka, Hitoshi

2013-01-01

283

In vivo analysis of Aicda gene regulation: a critical balance between upstream enhancers and intronic silencers governs appropriate expression.  

PubMed

The Aicda gene encodes activation-induced cytidine deaminase (AID). Aicda is strongly transcribed in activated B cells to diversify immunoglobulin genes, but expressed at low levels in various other cells in response to physiological or pathological stimuli. AID's mutagenic nature has been shown to be involved in tumor development. Here, we used a transgenic strategy with bacterial artificial chromosomes (BACs) to examine the in vivo functions of Aicda regulatory elements, which cluster in two regions: in the first intron (region 2), and approximately 8-kb upstream of the transcription start site (region 4). Deleting either of these regions completely abolished the expression of Aicda-BAC reporters, demonstrating these elements' critical roles. Furthermore, we found that selectively deleting two C/EBP-binding sites in region 4 inactivated the enhancer activity of the region despite the presence of intact NF-?B-, STAT6- and Smad-binding sites. On the other hand, selectively deleting E2F- and c-Myb-binding sites in region 2 increased the frequency of germinal-center B cells in which the Aicda promoter was active, indicating that E2F and c-Myb act as silencers in vivo. Interestingly, the silencer deletion did not cause ectopic activation of the Aicda promoter, indicating that Aicda activation requires enhancer-specific stimulation. In summary, precise regulation of the Aicda promoter appears to depend on a coordinated balance of activities between enhancer and silencer elements. PMID:23613851

Huong, Le Thi; Kobayashi, Maki; Nakata, Mikiyo; Shioi, Go; Miyachi, Hitoshi; Honjo, Tasuku; Nagaoka, Hitoshi

2013-01-01

284

An Alpha Motif at Tas3C Terminus Mediates RITS Cis Spreading and Promotes Heterochromatic Gene Silencing  

SciTech Connect

RNA interference (RNAi) plays a pivotal role in the formation of heterochromatin at the fission yeast centromeres. The RNA-induced transcriptional silencing (RITS) complex, composed of heterochromatic small interfering RNAs (siRNAs), the siRNA-binding protein Ago1, the chromodomain protein Chp1, and the Ago1/Chp1-interacting protein Tas3, provides a physical tether between the RNAi and heterochromatin assembly pathways. Here, we report the structural and functional characterization of a C-terminal Tas3 {alpha}-helical motif (TAM), which self-associates into a helical polymer and is required for cis spreading of RITS in centromeric DNA regions. Site-directed mutations of key residues within the hydrophobic monomer-monomer interface disrupt Tas3-TAM polymeric self-association in vitro and result in loss of gene silencing, spreading of RITS, and a dramatic reduction in centromeric siRNAs in vivo. These results demonstrate that, in addition to the chromodomain of Chp1 and siRNA-loaded Ago1, Tas3 self-association is required for RITS spreading and efficient heterochromatic gene silencing at centromeric repeat regions.

Li, H.; Motamedi, M; Yip, C; Wang, Z; Walz, T; Patel, D; Moazed, D

2009-01-01

285

Enhanced cellular uptake and gene silencing activity of siRNA molecules mediated by chitosan-derivative nanocomplexes.  

PubMed

The RNA interference (RNAi) constitutes a conservative mechanism in eukaryotic cells that induces silencing of target genes. In mammalians, the RNAi is triggered by siRNA (small interfering RNA) molecules. Due to its potential in silencing specific genes, the siRNA has been considered a potential alternative for the treatment of genetic and acquired diseases. However, the siRNA therapy has been limited by its low stability and rapid degradation in presence of nucleases, low cellular uptake, and immune response activation. In order to overcome these drawbacks, we propose the synthesis and characterization of non-viral delivery systems using chitosan derivatives to obtain siRNA complexes (polyplexes). The non-viral delivery systems synthesized included PEG-g-OCs (oligochitosan) and PEG-g-Cs (chitosan medium molecular weight). Both systems allowed the formation of siRNA polyplexes, increased the stability of siRNA in the presence of nucleases, enhanced cellular internalization, and showed low toxicity in the A549 cell line. Finally, the complexes obtained with the PEG-g-OCs system showed silencing activity in a GFP model in the cell line A549 in comparison with naked siRNA. PMID:25063077

Guzman-Villanueva, Diana; El-Sherbiny, Ibrahim M; Vlassov, Alexander V; Herrera-Ruiz, Dea; Smyth, Hugh D C

2014-10-01

286

Silencing of a metaphase I-specific gene results in a phenotype similar to that of the Pairing homeologous 1 (Ph1) gene mutations  

PubMed Central

Although studied extensively since 1958, the molecular mode of action of the Pairing homeologous 1 (Ph1) gene is still unknown. In polyploid wheat, the diploid-like chromosome pairing is principally controlled by the Ph1 gene via preventing homeologous chromosome pairing (HECP). Here, we report a candidate Ph1 gene (C-Ph1) present in the Ph1 locus, transient as well as stable silencing of which resulted in a phenotype characteristic of the Ph1 gene mutants, including HECP, multivalent formation, and disrupted chromosome alignment on the metaphase I (MI) plate. Despite a highly conserved DNA sequence, the C-Ph1 gene homeologues showed a dramatically different structure and expression pattern, with only the 5B copy showing MI-specific expression, further supporting our claim for the Ph1 gene. In agreement with the previous reports about the Ph1 gene, the predicted protein of the 5A copy of the C-Ph1 gene is truncated, and thus perhaps less effective. The 5D copy is expressed around the onset of meiosis; thus, it may function during the earlier stages of chromosome pairing. Along with alternate splicing, the predicted protein of the 5B copy is different from the protein of the other two copies because of an insertion. These structural and expression differences among the homeologues concurred with the previous observations about Ph1 gene function. Stable RNAi silencing of the wheat gene in Arabidopsis showed multivalents and centromere clustering during meiosis I. PMID:25232038

Bhullar, Ramanjot; Nagarajan, Ragupathi; Bennypaul, Harvinder; Sidhu, Gaganpreet K.; Sidhu, Gaganjot; Rustgi, Sachin; von Wettstein, Diter; Gill, Kulvinder S.

2014-01-01

287

Identification of novel pepper genes involved in Bax- or INF1-mediated cell death responses by high-throughput virus-induced gene silencing.  

PubMed

Hot pepper is one of the economically important crops in Asia. A large number of gene sequences, including expressed sequence tag (EST) and genomic sequences are publicly available. However, it is still a daunting task to determine gene function due to difficulties in genetic modification of a pepper plants. Here, we show the application of the virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS) repression for the study of 459 pepper ESTs selected as non-host pathogen-induced cell death responsive genes from pepper microarray experiments in Nicotiana benthamiana. Developmental abnormalities in N. benthamiana plants are observed in the 32 (7%) pepper ESTs-silenced plants. Aberrant morphological phenotypes largely comprised of three groups: stunted, abnormal leaf, and dead. In addition, by employing the combination of VIGS and Agrobacterium-mediated transient assays, we identified novel pepper ESTs that involved in Bax or INF1-mediated cell death responses. Silencing of seven pepper ESTs homologs suppressed Bax or INF1-induced cell death, five of which suppressed both cell death responses in N. benthamiana. The genes represented by these five ESTs encode putative proteins with functions in endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and lipid signaling. The genes represented by the other two pepper ESTs showing only Bax-mediated cell death inhibition encode a CCCH-type zinc finger protein containing an ankyrin-repeat domain and a probable calcium-binding protein, CML30-like. Taken together, we effectively isolated novel pepper clones that are involved in hypersensitive response (HR)-like cell death using VIGS, and identified silenced clones that have different responses to Bax and INF1 exposure, indicating separate signaling pathways for Bax- and INF1-mediated cell death. PMID:24256816

Lee, Jeong Hee; Kim, Young Cheol; Choi, Doil; Park, Jeong Mee

2013-01-01

288

Identification of Novel Pepper Genes Involved in Bax- or INF1-Mediated Cell Death Responses by High-Throughput Virus-Induced Gene Silencing  

PubMed Central

Hot pepper is one of the economically important crops in Asia. A large number of gene sequences, including expressed sequence tag (EST) and genomic sequences are publicly available. However, it is still a daunting task to determine gene function due to difficulties in genetic modification of a pepper plants. Here, we show the application of the virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS) repression for the study of 459 pepper ESTs selected as non-host pathogen-induced cell death responsive genes from pepper microarray experiments in Nicotiana benthamiana. Developmental abnormalities in N. benthamiana plants are observed in the 32 (7%) pepper ESTs-silenced plants. Aberrant morphological phenotypes largely comprised of three groups: stunted, abnormal leaf, and dead. In addition, by employing the combination of VIGS and Agrobacterium-mediated transient assays, we identified novel pepper ESTs that involved in Bax or INF1-mediated cell death responses. Silencing of seven pepper ESTs homologs suppressed Bax or INF1-induced cell death, five of which suppressed both cell death responses in N. benthamiana. The genes represented by these five ESTs encode putative proteins with functions in endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and lipid signaling. The genes represented by the other two pepper ESTs showing only Bax-mediated cell death inhibition encode a CCCH-type zinc finger protein containing an ankyrin-repeat domain and a probable calcium-binding protein, CML30-like. Taken together, we effectively isolated novel pepper clones that are involved in hypersensitive response (HR)-like cell death using VIGS, and identified silenced clones that have different responses to Bax and INF1 exposure, indicating separate signaling pathways for Bax- and INF1-mediated cell death. PMID:24256816

Lee, Jeong Hee; Kim, Young Cheol; Choi, Doil; Park, Jeong Mee

2013-01-01

289

MiR-23a/-24-induced gene silencing results in mesothelial cell integration of pancreatic cancer.  

PubMed

Background:Invasion of the surrounding tissue is part of the metastatic cascade. Here, we examined the invasion of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) cells into the mesothelial barrier and identified the related microRNA (miRNA) expression profiles.Methods:The interactions between PDAC cells and mesothelial monolayers were characterised and quantified using a specific time-lapse videomicroscopy assay. Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma cells were further evaluated using the adhesion assay, and miRNA, mRNA and protein expressions were determined using microarray, q-RT-PCR and western blots, respectively. These data were correlated with in vivo dissemination scores.Results:Two groups of PDAC cell lines were distinguished by their integration capacity into the mesothelial monolayer using mean elongation factors (MEFs). Adhesion assays showed a concordant relation between adhesive properties and integration capacity. The distant metastases scores were reverse correlated with MEFs. Microarray analysis of these groups revealed that miR-23a and/or miR-24 target for FZD5, HNF1B and/or TMEM92, respectively, and that they are significantly deregulated.Conclusions:MiR-23a and/or miR-24 overexpression leads to gene silencing of FZD5, TMEM92 and/or HNF1B. Their downregulation induces deregulated expression and degradation of E-cadherin and ?-catenin causing destabilisation of the cadherin/catenin complex, and altered the expression of Wnt-related genes. We propose a molecular (epi)genetic mechanism by which increased EMT-like cell shape transformation and integration into mesothelial monolayers of PDAC cells can be observed.British Journal of Cancer advance online publication, 25 November 2014; doi:10.1038/bjc.2014.587 www.bjcancer.com. PMID:25422915

Listing, H; Mardin, W A; Wohlfromm, S; Mees, S T; Haier, J

2014-11-25

290

RNAi-induced K-Ras gene silencing suppresses growth of EC9706 cells and enhances chemotherapy sensitivity of esophageal cancer.  

PubMed

To analyze the growth, proliferation, apoptosis, invasiveness and chemotherapy sensitivity of EC9706 cells after K-Ras gene silencing, an expression carrier pSilencer-siK-Ras was constructed, and the EC9706 cell line was transfected using a liposome technique. Six groups were established: Control, siRNA NC (transfected with empty vector pSilencer2.1); Ras siRNA (transfected with pSilencer-siK-Ras2); Paclitaxel; Paclitaxel + siRNA NC; and Ras siRNA +Paclitaxel. After the treatment, RT-PCR, Western blotting, MTT assay, flow cytometry and the Transwell technique were used to assess expression of K-Ras mRNA and protein in EC9706 cells, as well as cell growth, proliferation, apoptosis and invasiveness. The effect of Paclitaxel chemotherapy was also tested. pSilencer-siK-Ras2 effectively down-regulated expression of K-Ras mRNA and protein in EC9706 cells, growth being significantly inhibited. Flow cytometry indicated obvious apoptosis of cells in the experimental group, with arrest in the G1 phase; cell migration ability was also reduced. After pSilencer-siK-Ras2 transfection or the addition of Paclitaxel, EC9706 cells were suppressed to different extents; the suppressive effect was strengthened by combined treatment. The results suggested that RNAi-induced K-Ras gene silencing could enhance chemotherapy sensitivity of esophageal cancer. PMID:23464485

Wang, Xin-Jie; Zheng, Yu-Ling; Fan, Qing-Xia; Zhang, Xu-Dong

2012-01-01

291

Intended transcriptional silencing with siRNA results in gene repression through sequence-specific off-targeting  

PubMed Central

Transcriptional gene silencing has been reported with siRNA targeting the promoter region of genes. We tested several siRNAs directed against the human VEGF promoter. Of these, siVFp(?992) exhibited ?50% suppression of VEGF production in two human cell lines. To determine the specificity of this siRNA-mediated suppression, plasmids were prepared to express a luciferase reporter under the control of VEGF promoters featuring wild-type, mutated, or deleted target sequences. siRNA transfection assays established sequence-specific inhibition of luciferase from the reporter plasmid featuring the wild-type VEGF promoter. However, siVFp(?992) also suppressed the luciferase expression from the plasmids with mutated or deleted target sites, suggesting that silencing was due to a sequence-specific off-target phenomenon, and this was supported by subsequent microarray and bioinformatics analyses. To determine if our concerns regarding the specificity of promoter targeting siRNAs were relevant to other systems where RNA-mediated transcriptional silencing had been previously reported, we tested a published small RNA sequence directed to the HIVSF2-LTR promoter. siRNA transfection assays performed in human cells expressing a luciferase reporter gene under the control of the HIVSF2-LTR promoter revealed significant suppression whether the target sequence was intact or mutated, or when the entire HIVSF2-LTR was replaced by an irrelevant promoter. These data stress the need to examine target specificity when conducting investigations into transcriptional gene regulation with siRNA. PMID:20026621

Moses, Joshua; Goodchild, Amber; Rivory, Laurent P.

2010-01-01

292

Gene Silencing by Gold Nanoshell-Mediated Delivery and Laser-Triggered Release of Antisense Oligonucleotide and siRNA  

PubMed Central

The approach of RNA interference (RNAi)- using antisense DNA or RNA oligonucleotides to silence activity of a specific pathogenic gene transcript and reduce expression of the encoded protein- is very useful in dissecting genetic function and holds significant promise as a molecular therapeutic. A major obstacle in achieving gene silencing with RNAi technology is the systemic delivery of therapeutic oligonucleotides. Here we demonstrate an engineered gold nanoshell (NS)-based therapeutic oligonucleotide delivery vehicle, designed to release its cargo on demand upon illumination with a near-infrared (NIR) laser. A poly(L)lysine peptide (PLL) epilayer covalently attached to the NS surface (NS-PLL) is used to capture intact, single-stranded antisense DNA oligonucleotides, or alternatively, double-stranded short-interfering RNA (siRNA) molecules. Controlled release of the captured therapeutic oligonucleotides in each case is accomplished by continuous wave NIR laser irradiation at 800 nm, near the resonance wavelength of the nanoshell. Fluorescently tagged oligonucleotides were used to monitor the time-dependent release process and light-triggered endosomal release. A green fluorescent protein (GFP)-expressing human lung cancer H1299 cell line was used to determine cellular uptake and gene silencing mediated by the NS-PLL carrying GFP gene-specific single-stranded DNA antisense oligonucleotide (AON-GFP), or a double-stranded siRNA (siRNA-GFP), in vitro. Light-triggered delivery resulted in ? 47% and ?49% downregulation of the targeted GFP expression by AON-GFP and siRNA-GFP, respectively. Cytotoxicity induced by both the NS-PLL delivery vector and by laser irradiation is minimal, as demonstrated by a XTT cell proliferation assay. PMID:22862291

Huschka, Ryan; Barhoumi, Aoune; Liu, Qing; Roth, Jack A.; Ji, Lin; Halas, Naomi J.

2013-01-01

293

Chitosan-hyaluronic acid nanoparticles for gene silencing: the role of hyaluronic acid on the nanoparticles' formation and activity.  

PubMed

Hyaluronic acid (HA) has been described as a biocompatibility enhancer for gene delivery systems; however, the mechanistic implications of its inclusion on the formation and activity of such systems and subsequent gene release are poorly understood. To better understand these issues, we describe herein the preparation and characterization of chitosan and chitosan-hyaluronic acid nanoparticles (CS and CS:HA NPs) for gene silencing. Different formulations were prepared by ionotropic gelation and evaluated for their physicochemical properties and biological activities in A549-Luc cells. Inclusion of HA to CS NPs resulted in a comparable silencing activity with Lipofectamine RNAiMAX (?85% of luciferase knockdown) and significantly improved cell viability compared with CS NPs. As depicted by isothermal titration calorimetry, HA competed with siRNA for CS binding, lowering CS-siRNA binding strength by 25%. This suggests that besides improving cell biocompatibility of CS NPs, HA might also promote their gene release by loosening the CS-siRNA binding. PMID:23274155

Al-Qadi, Sonia; Alatorre-Meda, Manuel; Zaghloul, Eman M; Taboada, Pablo; Remunán-López, Carmen

2013-03-01

294

Epigenetic silencing of genes and microRNAs within the imprinted Dlk1-Dio3 region at human chromosome 14.32 in giant cell tumor of bone  

PubMed Central

Background Growing evidence exists that the neoplastic stromal cell population (GCTSC) within giant cell tumors (GCT) originates from mesenchymal stem cells (MSC). In a previous study we identified a microRNA signature that differentiates between these cell types. Five differentially expressed microRNAs are located within the Dlk1-Dio3 region on chromosome 14. Aberrant regulation within this region is known to influence cell growth, differentiation and the development of cancer. The aim of this study was to elucidate the involvement of deregulations within the Dlk1-Dio3 region in GCT pathogenesis. Methods Quantitative gene and microRNA expression analyses were performed on GCTSCs and MSCs with or without treatment with epigenetic modifiers. Methylation analysis of differentially methylated regions was performed by bisulfite sequencing. Results In addition to microRNA silencing we detected a significant downregulation of Dlk1, Meg3 and Meg8 in GCTSCs compared to MSCs. DNA methylation analyses of the Meg3-DMR and IG-DMR revealed a frequent hypermethylation within the IG-DMR in GCTs. Epigenetic modification could restore expression of some but not all analyzed genes and microRNAs suggesting further regulatory mechanisms. Conclusion Epigenetic silencing of genes and microRNAs within the Dlk1-Dio3 region is a common event in GCTSCs, in part mediated by hypermethylation within the IG-DMR. The identified genes, micro RNAs and microRNA target genes might be valuable targets for the development of improved strategies for GCT diagnosis and therapy. PMID:25005035

2014-01-01

295

Frequent long-range epigenetic silencing of protocadherin gene clusters on chromosome 5q31 in Wilms' tumor.  

PubMed

Wilms' tumour (WT) is a pediatric tumor of the kidney that arises via failure of the fetal developmental program. The absence of identifiable mutations in the majority of WTs suggests the frequent involvement of epigenetic aberrations in WT. We therefore conducted a genome-wide analysis of promoter hypermethylation in WTs and identified hypermethylation at chromosome 5q31 spanning 800 kilobases (kb) and more than 50 genes. The methylated genes all belong to alpha-, beta-, and gamma-protocadherin (PCDH) gene clusters (Human Genome Organization nomenclature PCDHA@, PCDHB@, and PCDHG@, respectively). This demonstrates that long-range epigenetic silencing (LRES) occurs in developmental tumors as well as in adult tumors. Bisulfite polymerase chain reaction analysis showed that PCDH hypermethylation is a frequent event found in all Wilms' tumor subtypes. Hypermethylation is concordant with reduced PCDH expression in tumors. WT precursor lesions showed no PCDH hypermethylation, suggesting that de novo PCDH hypermethylation occurs during malignant progression. Discrete boundaries of the PCDH domain are delimited by abrupt changes in histone modifications; unmethylated genes flanking the LRES are associated with permissive marks which are absent from methylated genes within the domain. Silenced genes are marked with non-permissive histone 3 lysine 9 dimethylation. Expression analysis of embryonic murine kidney and differentiating rat metanephric mesenchymal cells demonstrates that Pcdh expression is developmentally regulated and that Pcdhg@ genes are expressed in blastemal cells. Importantly, we show that PCDHs negatively regulate canonical Wnt signalling, as short-interfering RNA-induced reduction of PCDHG@ encoded proteins leads to elevated beta-catenin protein, increased beta-catenin/T-cell factor (TCF) reporter activity, and induction of Wnt target genes. Conversely, over-expression of PCDHs suppresses beta-catenin/TCF-reporter activity and also inhibits colony formation and growth of cancer cells in soft agar. Thus PCDHs are candidate tumor suppressors that modulate regulatory pathways critical in development and disease, such as canonical Wnt signaling. PMID:19956686

Dallosso, Anthony R; Hancock, Anne L; Szemes, Marianna; Moorwood, Kim; Chilukamarri, Laxmi; Tsai, Hsin-Hao; Sarkar, Abby; Barasch, Jonathan; Vuononvirta, Raisa; Jones, Chris; Pritchard-Jones, Kathy; Royer-Pokora, Brigitte; Lee, Sean Bong; Owen, Ceris; Malik, Sally; Feng, Yi; Frank, Marcus; Ward, Andrew; Brown, Keith W; Malik, Karim

2009-11-01

296

Frequent Long-Range Epigenetic Silencing of Protocadherin Gene Clusters on Chromosome 5q31 in Wilms' Tumor  

PubMed Central

Wilms' tumour (WT) is a pediatric tumor of the kidney that arises via failure of the fetal developmental program. The absence of identifiable mutations in the majority of WTs suggests the frequent involvement of epigenetic aberrations in WT. We therefore conducted a genome-wide analysis of promoter hypermethylation in WTs and identified hypermethylation at chromosome 5q31 spanning 800 kilobases (kb) and more than 50 genes. The methylated genes all belong to ?-, ?-, and ?-protocadherin (PCDH) gene clusters (Human Genome Organization nomenclature PCDHA@, PCDHB@, and PCDHG@, respectively). This demonstrates that long-range epigenetic silencing (LRES) occurs in developmental tumors as well as in adult tumors. Bisulfite polymerase chain reaction analysis showed that PCDH hypermethylation is a frequent event found in all Wilms' tumor subtypes. Hypermethylation is concordant with reduced PCDH expression in tumors. WT precursor lesions showed no PCDH hypermethylation, suggesting that de novo PCDH hypermethylation occurs during malignant progression. Discrete boundaries of the PCDH domain are delimited by abrupt changes in histone modifications; unmethylated genes flanking the LRES are associated with permissive marks which are absent from methylated genes within the domain. Silenced genes are marked with non-permissive histone 3 lysine 9 dimethylation. Expression analysis of embryonic murine kidney and differentiating rat metanephric mesenchymal cells demonstrates that Pcdh expression is developmentally regulated and that Pcdhg@ genes are expressed in blastemal cells. Importantly, we show that PCDHs negatively regulate canonical Wnt signalling, as short-interfering RNA–induced reduction of PCDHG@ encoded proteins leads to elevated ?-catenin protein, increased ?-catenin/T-cell factor (TCF) reporter activity, and induction of Wnt target genes. Conversely, over-expression of PCDHs suppresses ?-catenin/TCF-reporter activity and also inhibits colony formation and growth of cancer cells in soft agar. Thus PCDHs are candidate tumor suppressors that modulate regulatory pathways critical in development and disease, such as canonical Wnt signaling. PMID:19956686

Dallosso, Anthony R.; Hancock, Anne L.; Szemes, Marianna; Moorwood, Kim; Chilukamarri, Laxmi; Tsai, Hsin-Hao; Sarkar, Abby; Barasch, Jonathan; Vuononvirta, Raisa; Jones, Chris; Pritchard-Jones, Kathy; Royer-Pokora, Brigitte; Lee, Sean Bong; Owen, Ceris; Malik, Sally; Feng, Yi; Frank, Marcus; Ward, Andrew; Brown, Keith W.; Malik, Karim

2009-01-01

297

Efficacious gene silencing in serum and significant apoptotic activity induction by survivin downregulation mediated by new cationic gemini tocopheryl lipids.  

PubMed

Nonviral gene delivery offers cationic liposomes as promising instruments for the delivery of double-stranded RNA (ds RNA) molecules for successful sequence-specific gene silencing (RNA interference). The efficient delivery of siRNA (small interfering RNA) to cells while avoiding unexpected side effects is an important prerequisite for the exploitation of the power of this excellent tool. We present here six new tocopherol based cationic gemini lipids, which induce substantial gene knockdown without any obvious cytotoxicity. All the efficient coliposomal formulations derived from each of these geminis and a helper lipid, dioleoylphosphatidylethanolamine (DOPE), were well characterized using physical methods such as atomic force microscopy (AFM) and dynamic light scattering (DLS). Zeta potential measurements were conducted to estimate the surface charge of these formulations. Flow cytometric analysis showed that the optimized coliposomal formulations could transfect anti-GFP siRNA efficiently in three different GFP expressing cell lines, viz., HEK 293T, HeLa, and Caco-2, significantly better than a potent commercial standard Lipofectamine 2000 (L2K) both in the absence and in the presence of serum (FBS). Notably, the knockdown activity of coliposomes of gemini lipids was not affected even in the presence of serum (10% and 50% FBS) while it dropped down for L2K significantly. Observations under a fluorescence microscope, RT-PCR, and Western blot analysis substantiated the flow cytometry results. The efficient cellular entry of labeled siRNA in GFP expressing cells as evidenced from confocal microscopy put forward these gemini lipids among the potent lipidic carriers for siRNA. The efficient transfection capabilities were also profiled in a more relevant fashion while performing siRNA transfections against survivin (an anti-apoptotic protein) which induced substantial apoptosis. Furthermore, the survivin downregulation improved the therapeutic efficacy levels of an anticancer drug, doxorubicin, significantly. In short, the new tocopherol based gemini lipids appear to be highly promising for achieving siRNA mediated gene knockdown in various cell lines. PMID:25438085

Kumar, Krishan; Maiti, Bappa; Kondaiah, Paturu; Bhattacharya, Santanu

2015-02-01

298

Efficient gene silencing in lungs and liver using imidazole-modified chitosan as a nanocarrier for small interfering RNA.  

PubMed

Despite high specificity and potency, small interfering RNA (siRNA)-based therapeutics have been limited by their poor biostability and intracellular penetration. Thus, effective nanocarriers that can protect and efficiently deliver siRNA to target cells in vivo are needed. Here we report on the efficiency of imidazole-modified chitosan (chitosan-imidazole-4-acetic acid [IAA])-siRNA nanoparticles to mediate gene silencing after administration via either intravenous (i.v.) or intranasal (i.n.) routes. Poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG)ylated nanoparticles for i.v. delivery demonstrated significant knockdown of glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) enzyme in both lung and liver at as low as 1 mg/kg siRNA dose. In addition, the efficient, dose-dependent silencing of apolipoprotein B in the liver was also shown. For i.n. delivery, significant silencing of GAPDH protein expression was seen in the lungs with only 0.5 mg/kg/day siRNA delivered over 3 consecutive days. In summary, imidazole-modified chitosan-IAA nanoparticles are potentially effective carriers for siRNA delivery. PMID:20565242

Ghosn, Bilal; Singh, Ankur; Li, Mu; Vlassov, Alexander V; Burnett, Chris; Puri, Nitin; Roy, Krishnendu

2010-06-01

299

Gene Therapy for Neuropathic Pain by Silencing of TNF-? Expression with Lentiviral Vectors Targeting the Dorsal Root Ganglion in Mice  

PubMed Central

Neuropathic pain can be a debilitating condition. Many types of drugs that have been used to treat neuropathic pain have only limited efficacy. Recent studies indicate that pro-inflammatory mediators including tumor necrosis factor ? (TNF-?) are involved in the pathogenesis of neuropathic pain. In the present study, we engineered a gene therapy strategy to relieve neuropathic pain by silencing TNF-? expression in the dorsal root ganglion (DRG) using lentiviral vectors expressing TNF short hairpin RNA1-4 (LV-TNF-shRNA1-4) in mice. First, based on its efficacy in silencing TNF-? in vitro, we selected shRNA3 to construct LV-TNF-shRNA3 for in vivo study. We used L5 spinal nerve transection (SNT) mice as a neuropathic pain model. These animals were found to display up-regulated mRNA expression of activating transcription factor 3 (ATF3) and neuropeptide Y (NPY), injury markers, and interleukin (IL)-6, an inflammatory cytokine in the ipsilateral L5 DRG. Injection of LV-TNF-shRNA3 onto the proximal transected site suppressed significantly the mRNA levels of ATF3, NPY and IL-6, reduced mechanical allodynia and neuronal cell death of DRG neurons. These results suggest that lentiviral-mediated silencing of TNF-? in DRG relieves neuropathic pain and reduces neuronal cell death, and may constitute a novel therapeutic option for neuropathic pain. PMID:24642694

Ogawa, Nobuhiro; Kawai, Hiromichi; Terashima, Tomoya; Kojima, Hideto; Oka, Kazuhiro; Chan, Lawrence; Maegawa, Hiroshi

2014-01-01

300

A mobile signal transported over a long distance induces systemic transcriptional gene silencing in a grafted partner  

PubMed Central

Transcriptional gene silencing (TGS) can be induced by promoter-targeted small interfering RNA (siRNA). Long-distance transmission of TGS by viral infection in plants has been reported. However, systemic TGS has not been observed in the case of using an inverted repeat transgene as the silencing trigger. Here it is reported that a mobile signal, presumably the siRNA, produced from a hairpin structure transgene controlled by a companion cell-specific promoter can also induce transmissible TGS in both a modified agroinfiltration and a grafting system. Although the transmissible TGS occurred only in cells located in the vicinity of a leaf vein in the scion, very strong silencing was observed in the root system, especially the lateral roots, including the root apical meristem. The transmissible TGS was maintained through tissue culture and subsequently inherited by the progeny. The results suggest the potential application of mobile promoter-targeting siRNA in horticulture for improvement of plant cultivars by grafting. PMID:21652532

Bai, Songling; Kasai, Atsushi; Yamada, Kaori; Harada, Takeo

2011-01-01

301

Silencing of the EPHB3 tumor-suppressor gene in human colorectal cancer through decommissioning of a transcriptional enhancer  

PubMed Central

The protein tyrosine kinase Ephrin type-B receptor 3 (EPHB3) counteracts tumor-cell dissemination by regulating intercellular adhesion and repulsion and acts as tumor/invasion suppressor in colorectal cancer. This protective mechanism frequently collapses at the adenoma–carcinoma transition due to EPHB3 transcriptional silencing. Here, we identify a transcriptional enhancer at the EPHB3 gene that integrates input from the intestinal stem-cell regulator achaete-scute family basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor 2 (ASCL2), Wnt/?-catenin, MAP kinase, and Notch signaling. EPHB3 enhancer activity is highly variable in colorectal carcinoma cells and precisely reflects EPHB3 expression states, suggesting that enhancer dysfunction underlies EPHB3 silencing. Interestingly, low Notch activity parallels reduced EPHB3 expression in colorectal carcinoma cell lines and poorly differentiated tumor-tissue specimens. Restoring Notch activity reestablished enhancer function and EPHB3 expression. Although essential for intestinal stem-cell maintenance and adenoma formation, Notch activity seems dispensable in colorectal carcinomas. Notch activation even promoted growth arrest and apoptosis of colorectal carcinoma cells, attenuated their self-renewal capacity in vitro, and blocked tumor growth in vivo. Higher levels of Notch activity also correlated with longer disease-free survival of colorectal cancer patients. In summary, our results uncover enhancer decommissioning as a mechanism for transcriptional silencing of the EPHB3 tumor suppressor and argue for an antitumorigenic function of Notch signaling in advanced colorectal cancer. PMID:24707046

Jägle, Sabine; Rönsch, Kerstin; Timme, Sylvia; Andrlová, Hana; Bertrand, Miriam; Jäger, Marcel; Proske, Amelie; Schrempp, Monika; Yousaf, Afsheen; Michoel, Tom; Zeiser, Robert; Werner, Martin; Lassmann, Silke; Hecht, Andreas

2014-01-01

302

New Generation of Artificial MicroRNA and Synthetic Trans-Acting Small Interfering RNA Vectors for Efficient Gene Silencing in Arabidopsis1[W][OPEN  

PubMed Central

Artificial microRNAs (amiRNAs) and synthetic trans-acting small interfering RNAs (syn-tasiRNAs) are used for small RNA-based, specific gene silencing or knockdown in plants. Current methods to generate amiRNA or syn-tasiRNA constructs are not well adapted for cost-effective, large-scale production or for multiplexing to specifically suppress multiple targets. Here, we describe simple, fast, and cost-effective methods with high-throughput capability to generate amiRNA and multiplexed syn-tasiRNA constructs for efficient gene silencing in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) and other plant species. amiRNA or syn-tasiRNA inserts resulting from the annealing of two overlapping and partially complementary oligonucleotides are ligated directionally into a zero background BsaI/ccdB-based expression vector. BsaI/ccdB vectors for amiRNA or syn-tasiRNA cloning and expression contain a modified version of Arabidopsis MIR390a or TAS1c precursors, respectively, in which a fragment of the endogenous sequence was substituted by a ccdB cassette flanked by two BsaI sites. Several amiRNA and syn-tasiRNA sequences designed to target one or more endogenous genes were validated in transgenic plants that (1) exhibited the expected phenotypes predicted by loss of target gene function, (2) accumulated high levels of accurately processed amiRNAs or syn-tasiRNAs, and (3) had reduced levels of the corresponding target RNAs. PMID:24647477

Carbonell, Alberto; Takeda, Atsushi; Fahlgren, Noah; Johnson, Simon C.; Cuperus, Josh T.; Carrington, James C.

2014-01-01

303

Methylation of the Thyroid-stimulating Hormone Receptor Gene in Epithelial Thyroid Tumors: A Marker of Malignancy and a Cause of Gene Silencing1  

Microsoft Academic Search

Thyroid-stimulating hormone receptor (TSHR) expression is frequently silenced in epithelial thyroid cancers associated with decreased or absent TSH-promoted iodine uptake. To study the underlying molecular mech- anism of decreased TSHR expression, we examined the methylation status of the TSHR gene promoter by sequencing bisulfite-treated DNA from thyroid tumors. After identification of methylated sites by sequencing bisulfite-treated DNA, we used methylation-specific

Mingzhao Xing; Henning Usadel; Yoram Cohen; Yutaka Tokumaru; Zhongmin Guo; William B. Westra; Betty C. Tong; Giovanni Tallini; Robert Udelsman; Joseph A. Califano; Paul W. Ladenson; David Sidransky

2003-01-01

304

Gene silencing results in instability of antibody production in transgenic plants.  

PubMed

The stability of antibody and Fab expression was assessed in five different homozygous transgenic Arabidopsis lines. Each of these lines showed silencing of the transgenes that encode the antibody polypeptides, leading to instability of antibody production. However, each line had a different and specific instability profile. The characteristic variation in the level of antibody accumulation in each line as a function of developmental stage indicated that the T-DNA integration pattern played a role in triggering silencing, and also that the history and the integration position of simple transgene loci can influence the susceptibility to epigenetic silencing. In different lines with low antibody accumulation levels, methylation was found either in the promoter alone, in both the promoter and the transcribed region, in the transcribed region only, or in the transcribed region and downstream sequences. In conclusion, our data suggest that epigenetic effects result in different transgene expression profiles in each of the five Arabidopsis lines analyzed. PMID:9928938

De Neve, M; De Buck, S; De Wilde, C; Van Houdt, H; Strobbe, I; Jacobs, A; Van Montagu; Depicker, A

1999-01-01

305

MSLN Gene Silencing Has an Anti-Malignant Effect on Cell Lines Overexpressing Mesothelin Deriving from Malignant Pleural Mesothelioma  

PubMed Central

Genes involved in the carcinogenetic mechanisms underlying malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM) are still poorly characterized. So far, mesothelin (MSLN) has aroused the most interest. It encodes for a membrane glycoprotein, frequently over-expressed in various malignancies such as MPM, and ovarian and pancreatic cancers. It has been proposed as a diagnostic and immunotherapeutic target with promising results. However, an alternative therapeutic approach seems to rise, whereby synthetic molecules, such as antisense oligonucleotides, could be used to inhibit MSLN activity. To date, such a gene-level inhibition has been attempted in two studies only, both on pancreatic and ovarian carcinoma cell lines, with the use of silencing RNA approaches. With regard to MPM, only one cell line (H2373) has been employed to study the effects of MSLN depletion. Indeed, the knowledge on the role of MSLN in MPM needs expanding. Accordingly, we investigated the expression of MSLN in a panel of three MPM cell lines, i.e. NCI-H28, Mero-14, and IstMes2; one non-MPM cell line was used as reference (Met5A). MSLN knock-down experiments on MSLN-overexpressing cells were also performed through silencing RNA (siRNA) to verify whether previous findings could be generalized to a different set of cell cultures. In agreement with previous studies, transient MSLN-silencing caused decreased proliferation rate and reduced invasive capacity and sphere formation in MSLN-overexpressing Mero-14 cells. Moreover, MSLN-siRNA combined with cisplatin, triggered a marked increase in apoptosis and a decrease in proliferation as compared to cells treated with each agent alone, thereby suggesting a sensitizing effect of siRNA towards cisplatin. In summary, our findings confirm that MSLN should be considered a key molecular target for novel gene-based targeted therapies of cancer. PMID:24465798

Melaiu, Ombretta; Stebbing, Justin; Lombardo, Ylenia; Bracci, Elisa; Uehara, Norihisa; Bonotti, Alessandra; Cristaudo, Alfonso; Foddis, Rudy; Mutti, Luciano; Barale, Roberto; Gemignani, Federica

2014-01-01

306

Silencing of CXCR7 gene represses growth and invasion and induces apoptosis in colorectal cancer through ERK and ?-arrestin pathways.  

PubMed

The CXC chemokine receptor 7 (CXCR7) has been reported to be involved in cell growth, metastasis and apoptosis in certain cancers. However, the function and molecular mechanisms of CXCR7 in human colorectal cancer (CRC) are still undefined. In the present study, sixty-eight cases of CRC tissues and corresponding adjacent non-cancer tissues (ANCT) were collected, and the expression of CXCR7 was assessed using immunohistochemistry (IHC) in biopsy samples. Furthermore, CXCR7 gene was silenced by small hairpin RNA-mediated lentiviral vector (Lv-shCXCR7), by transfection into human CRC cells (SW480 and HT-29). The levels of p-ERK, ?-arrestin, proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA), matrix metallopeptidase-2 (MMP-2) and caspase-3 (CAS-3) were detected by western blotting. Cell proliferative activities and invasive capability were respectively measured by MTT and Transwell assays. Cell apoptosis was analyzed by flow cytometry. The results demonstrated that CXCR7 expression was significantly upregulated in CRC tissues compared with the ANCT (54.4 vs. 36.8%, P=0.041), and correlated with Dukes staging and depth of invasion (P=0.007; P=0.002). Silencing of CXCR7 gene suppressed cell proliferation and invasion, and induced cell apoptosis in CRC cells with decreased expression of p-ERK, ?-arrestin, PCNA and MMP-2 but increased expression of CAS-3. The tumor volumes in the SW480 subcutaneous tumor models treated with Lv-shCXCR7 were significantly smaller than those of the negative control (NC) and PBS groups (P<0.01). In conclusion, our findings indicate that upregulation of CXCR7 expression is associated with tumor invasion, and silencing of the CXCR7 gene represses the development of CRC cells through ERK and ?-arrestin pathways, suggesting that CXCR7 may serve as a potential therapeutic target for the treatment of CRC. PMID:25051350

Li, Xin-Xiang; Zheng, Hong-Tu; Huang, Li-Yong; Shi, De-Bing; Peng, Jun-Jie; Liang, Lei; Cai, San-Jun

2014-10-01

307

Efficient intracellular delivery and multiple-target gene silencing triggered by tripodal RNA based nanoparticles: A promising approach in liver-specific RNAi delivery.  

PubMed

RNA interference (RNAi) triggering oligonucleotides in unconventional structural format can offer advantages over conventional small interfering RNA (siRNA), enhanced cellular delivery and improved target gene silencing. With this concept, we present a well-defined tripodal-interfering RNA (tiRNA) structure that can induce simultaneous silencing of multiple target genes with improved potency. The tiRNA structure, formed by the complementary association of three single-stranded RNA units, was optimized for improved gene silencing efficacy. When combined with cationic polymers such as linear polyethyleneimine (PEI), tiRNA assembled to form a stable nano-structured complex through electrostatic interactions and induced stronger RNAi response over conventional siRNA-PEI complex. In combination with a liver-targeting delivery system, tripodal nucleic acid structure demonstrated enhanced fluorescent accumulation in mouse liver compared to standard duplex nucleic acid format. Tripodal RNA structure complexed with galactose-modified PEI could generate effective RNAi-mediated gene silencing effect on experimental mice models. Our studies demonstrate that optimized tiRNA structural format with appropriate polymeric carriers have immense potential to become an RNAi-based platform suitable for multi-target gene silencing. PMID:25251899

Sajeesh, S; Lee, Tae Yeon; Kim, Joon Ki; Son, Da Seul; Hong, Sun Woo; Kim, Soohyun; Yun, Wan Soo; Kim, Soyoun; Chang, Chanil; Li, Chiang; Lee, Dong-Ki

2014-12-28

308

Small RNA interference-mediated gene silencing of heparanase abolishes the invasion, metastasis and angiogenesis of gastric cancer cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Heparanase facilitates the invasion and metastasis of cancer cells, and is over-expressed in many kinds of malignancies. Our studies indicated that heparanase was frequently expressed in advanced gastric cancers. The aim of this study is to determine whether silencing of heparanase expression can abolish the malignant characteristics of gastric cancer cells. METHODS: Three heparanase-specific small interfering RNA (siRNAs) were

Liduan Zheng; Guosong Jiang; Hong Mei; Jiarui Pu; Jihua Dong; Xiaohua Hou; Qiangsong Tong

2010-01-01

309

Silencing of the Host Factor eIF(iso)4E Gene Confers Plum Pox Virus Resistance in Plum  

PubMed Central

Plum pox virus (PPV) causes the most economically-devastating viral disease in Prunus species. Unfortunately, few natural resistance genes are available for the control of PPV. Recessive resistance to some potyviruses is associated with mutations of eukaryotic translation initiation factor 4E (eIF4E) or its isoform eIF(iso)4E. In this study, we used an RNA silencing approach to manipulate the expression of eIF4E and eIF(iso)4E towards the development of PPV resistance in Prunus species. The eIF4E and eIF(iso)4E genes were cloned from plum (Prunus domestica L.). The sequence identity between plum eIF4E and eIF(iso)4E coding sequences is 60.4% at the nucleotide level and 52.1% at the amino acid level. Quantitative real-time RT-PCR analysis showed that these two genes have a similar expression pattern in different tissues. Transgenes allowing the production of hairpin RNAs of plum eIF4E or eIF(iso)4E were introduced into plum via Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. Gene expression analysis confirmed specific reduced expression of eIF4E or eIF(iso)4E in the transgenic lines and this was associated with the accumulation of siRNAs. Transgenic plants were challenged with PPV-D strain and resistance was evaluated by measuring the concentration of viral RNA. Eighty-two percent of the eIF(iso)4E silenced transgenic plants were resistant to PPV, while eIF4E silenced transgenic plants did not show PPV resistance. Physical interaction between PPV-VPg and plum eIF(iso)4E was confirmed. In contrast, no PPV-VPg/eIF4E interaction was observed. These results indicate that eIF(iso)4E is involved in PPV infection in plum, and that silencing of eIF(iso)4E expression can lead to PPV resistance in Prunus species. PMID:23382802

Wang, Xinhua; Kohalmi, Susanne E.; Svircev, Antonet; Wang, Aiming; Sanfaçon, Hélène; Tian, Lining

2013-01-01

310

Silencing the HaHR3 Gene by Transgenic Plant-mediated RNAi to Disrupt Helicoverpa armigera Development  

PubMed Central

RNA interference (RNAi) caused by exogenous double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) has developed into a powerful technique in functional genomics, and to date it is widely used to down-regulate crucial physiology-related genes to control pest insects. A molt-regulating transcription factor gene, HaHR3, of cotton bollworm (Helicoverpa armigera) was selected as the target gene. Four different fragments covering the coding sequence (CDS) of HaHR3 were cloned into vector L4440 to express dsRNAs in Escherichia coli. The most effective silencing fragment was then cloned into a plant over-expression vector to express a hairpin RNA (hpRNA) in transgenic tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum). When H. armigera larvae were fed the E. coli or transgenic plants, the HaHR3 mRNA and protein levels dramatically decreased, resulting developmental deformity and larval lethality. The results demonstrate that both recombinant bacteria and transgenic plants could induce HaHR3 silence to disrupt H. armigera development, transgenic plant-mediated RNAi is emerging as a powerful approach for controlling insect pests. PMID:23630449

Xiong, Yehui; Zeng, Hongmei; Zhang, Yuliang; Xu, Dawei; Qiu, Dewen

2013-01-01

311

Silencing of Molt-Regulating Transcription Factor Gene, CiHR3, Affects Growth and Development of Sugarcane Stem Borer, Chilo infuscatellus  

PubMed Central

RNA interference (RNAi) is a technology for conducting functional genomic studies and a potential tool for crop protection against insect pests. Development of reliable methods for production and delivery of double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) is the major challenge for efficient pest control. In this study, Chilo infuscatellus Snellen (Crambidae: Lepidoptera) was fed with CiHR3 dsRNA expressed in bacteria or synthesized in vitro. The dsRNA ingested by C. infuscatellus successfully triggered silencing of the molt-regulating transcription factor CiHR3, an important gene for insect growth and development, and caused significant abnormalities and weight loss in insects within seven days of treatment. This study is an ideal example of feeding-based RNAi mediated by dsRNA expressed in bacteria or synthesized in vitro. The results also suggested that feeding-based RNA interference is a potential method for the management of C. infuscatellus. PMID:23427912

Zhang, Yu-liang; Zhang, Shu-zhen; Kulye, Mahesh; Wu, Su-ran; Yu, Nai-tong; Wang, Jian-hua; Zeng, Hong-mei; Liu, Zhi-xin

2012-01-01

312

Silencing of molt-regulating transcription factor gene, CiHR3, affects growth and development of sugarcane stem borer, Chilo infuscatellus.  

PubMed

RNA interference (RNAi) is a technology for conducting functional genomic studies and a potential tool for crop protection against insect pests. Development of reliable methods for production and delivery of double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) is the major challenge for efficient pest control. In this study, Chilo infuscatellus Snellen (Crambidae: Lepidoptera) was fed with CiHR3 dsRNA expressed in bacteria or synthesized in vitro. The dsRNA ingested by C. infuscatellus successfully triggered silencing of the molt-regulating transcription factor CiHR3, an important gene for insect growth and development, and caused significant abnormalities and weight loss in insects within seven days of treatment. This study is an ideal example of feeding-based RNAi mediated by dsRNA expressed in bacteria or synthesized in vitro. The results also suggested that feeding-based RNA interference is a potential method for the management of C. infuscatellus. PMID:23427912

Zhang, Yu-liang; Zhang, Shu-zhen; Kulye, Mahesh; Wu, Su-ran; Yu, Nai-tong; Wang, Jian-hua; Zeng, Hong-mei; Liu, Zhi-xin

2012-01-01

313

Silencing of PNPLA6, the neuropathy target esterase (NTE) codifying gene, alters neurodifferentiation of human embryonal carcinoma stem cells (NT2).  

PubMed

Neuropathy target esterase (NTE) is a protein involved in the development of a polyneuropathy caused by exposure to certain organophosphorus compounds. In vivo and in vitro studies have also associated NTE with embryonic development since NTE null mice embryos are non-viable, and silencing the NTE-codifying gene (Pnpla6) in mouse embryonic stem cells strongly alters the differentiation of vascular and nervous systems. In this paper, human embryonal carcinoma stem cells human-derived NTera2/D1 (hNT2) are used as an in vitro neurodifferentiation model to determine whether PNPLA6 silencing is able to alter the differentiation process. In control cultures, PNPLA6 mRNA levels increased in parallel with other neuroectodermal markers during neurodifferentiation. PNPLA6 silencing with specific interference RNA reached a 97% decrease in gene expression 3days after transfection and with a maximum reduction in NTE enzymatic activity (50%), observed on day 4. Silencing PNPLA6 showed an 80% decrease in quantifiable neuronal cells after 13days in vitro (DIV) compared to controls and absence of different neuronal markers after 66DIV. Microarray data analysis of the PNPLA6-silenced cells showed alterations in several developmental processes, mainly neurogenesis and epithelium tube morphogenesis. PNPLA6 silencing also led to a reduction in electrical activity and an altered neuronal phenotype. This work is the first proof supporting the hypothesis that NTE plays a role in human early neurodevelopment using a human cell differentiation model. PMID:25255935

Pamies, D; Bal-Price, A; Fabbri, M; Gribaldo, L; Scelfo, B; Harris, G; Collotta, A; Vilanova, E; Sogorb, M A

2014-09-26

314

Identification of a class of human cancer germline genes with transcriptional silencing refractory to the hypomethylating drug 5-aza-2?-deoxycytidine.  

PubMed Central

Bona fide germline genes have expression restricted to the germ cells of the gonads. Testis-specific germline development-associated genes can become activated in cancer cells and can potentially drive the oncogenic process and serve as therapeutic/biomarker targets; such germline genes are referred to as cancer/testis genes. Many cancer/testis genes are silenced via hypermethylation of CpG islands in their associated transcriptional control regions and become activated upon treatment with DNA hypomethylating agents; such hypomethylation-induced activation of cancer/testis genes provides a potential combination approach to augment immunotherapeutics. Thus, understanding cancer/testis gene regulation is of increasing clinical importance. Previously studied cancer/testis gene activation has focused on X chromosome encoded cancer/testis genes. Here we find that a sub-set of non-X encoded cancer/testis genes are silenced in non-germline cells via a mechanism that is refractory to epigenetic dysregulation, including treatment with the hypomethylating agent 5-aza-2?-deoxycytidine and the histone deacetylase inhibitor tricostatin A. These findings formally indicate that there is a sub-group of the clinically important cancer/testis genes that are unlikely to be activated in clinical therapeutic approaches using hypomethylating agents and it indicates a unique transcriptional silencing mechanism for germline genes in non-germline cells that might provide a target mechanism for new clinical therapies.

Almatrafi, Ahmed; Feichtinger, Julia; Vernon, Ellen G.; Escobar, Natalia Gomez; Wakeman, Jane A.; Larcombe, Lee D.; McFarlane, Ramsay J.

2014-01-01

315

Virus-induced gene silencing reveals control of reactive oxygen species accumulation and salt tolerance in tomato by ?-aminobutyric acid metabolic pathway.  

PubMed

?-Aminobutyric acid (GABA) accumulates in many plant species in response to environmental stress. However, the physiological function of GABA or its metabolic pathway (GABA shunt) in plants remains largely unclear. Here, the genes, including glutamate decarboxylases (SlGADs), GABA?transaminases (SlGABA-Ts) and succinic semialdehyde dehydrogenase (SlSSADH), controlling three steps of the metabolic pathway of GABA, were studied through virus-induced gene silencing approach in tomato. Silencing of SlGADs (GABA biosynthetic genes) and SlGABA-Ts (GABA catabolic genes) led to increased accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) as well as salt sensitivity under 200?mm NaCl treatment. Targeted quantitative analysis of metabolites revealed that GABA decreased and increased in the SlGADs- and SlGABA-Ts-silenced plants, respectively, whereas succinate (the final product of GABA metabolism) decreased in both silenced plants. Contrarily, SlSSADH-silenced plants, also defective in GABA degradation process, showed dwarf phenotype, curled leaves and enhanced accumulation of ROS in normal conditions, suggesting the involvement of a bypath for succinic semialdehyde catabolism to ?-hydroxybutyrate as reported previously in Arabidopsis, were less sensitive to salt stress. These results suggest that GABA shunt is involved in salt tolerance of tomato, probably by affecting the homeostasis of metabolites such as succinate and ?-hydroxybutyrate and subsequent ROS accumulation under salt stress. PMID:25074245

Bao, Hexigeduleng; Chen, Xianyang; Lv, Sulian; Jiang, Ping; Feng, Juanjuan; Fan, Pengxiang; Nie, Lingling; Li, Yinxin

2015-03-01

316

Graft-Transmitted siRNA Signal from the Root Induces Visual Manifestation of Endogenous Post-Transcriptional Gene Silencing in the Scion  

PubMed Central

In plants, post-transcriptional gene silencing (PTGS) spreads systemically, being transmitted from the silenced stock to the scion expressing the corresponding transgene. It has been reported that a graft-transmitted siRNA signal can also induce PTGS of an endogenous gene, but this was done by top-grafting using silenced stock. In the present study involving grafting of Nicotiana benthamiana, we found that PTGS of an endogenous gene, glutamate-1-semialdehyde aminotransferase (GSA), which acts as a visible marker of RNAi via inhibition of chlorophyll synthesis, was manifested along the veins of newly developed leaves in the wild-type scion by the siRNA signal synthesized only in companion cells of the rootstock. PMID:21347381

Kasai, Atsushi; Bai, Songling; Li, Tianzhong; Harada, Takeo

2011-01-01

317

R-loops Associated with Triplet Repeat Expansions Promote Gene Silencing in Friedreich Ataxia and Fragile X Syndrome  

PubMed Central

Friedreich ataxia (FRDA) and Fragile X syndrome (FXS) are among 40 diseases associated with expansion of repeated sequences (TREDs). Although their molecular pathology is not well understood, formation of repressive chromatin and unusual DNA structures over repeat regions were proposed to play a role. Our study now shows that RNA/DNA hybrids (R-loops) form in patient cells on expanded repeats of endogenous FXN and FMR1 genes, associated with FRDA and FXS. These transcription-dependent R-loops are stable, co-localise with repressive H3K9me2 chromatin mark and impede RNA Polymerase II transcription in patient cells. We investigated the interplay between repressive chromatin marks and R-loops on the FXN gene. We show that decrease in repressive H3K9me2 chromatin mark has no effect on R-loop levels. Importantly, increasing R-loop levels by treatment with DNA topoisomerase inhibitor camptothecin leads to up-regulation of repressive chromatin marks, resulting in FXN transcriptional silencing. This provides a direct molecular link between R-loops and the pathology of TREDs, suggesting that R-loops act as an initial trigger to promote FXN and FMR1 silencing. Thus R-loops represent a common feature of nucleotide expansion disorders and provide a new target for therapeutic interventions. PMID:24787137

Groh, Matthias; Lufino, Michele M. P.; Wade-Martins, Richard; Gromak, Natalia

2014-01-01

318

RNAi Silencing of the HaHMG-CoA Reductase Gene Inhibits Oviposition in the Helicoverpa armigera Cotton Bollworm  

PubMed Central

RNA interference (RNAi) has considerable promise for developing novel pest control techniques, especially because of the threat of the development of resistance against current strategies. For this purpose, the key is to select pest control genes with the greatest potential for developing effective pest control treatments. The present study demonstrated that the 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase (HMG-CoA reductase; HMGR) gene is a potential target for insect control using RNAi. HMGR is a key enzyme in the mevalonate pathway in insects. A complete cDNA encoding full length HMGR (encoding an 837-aa protein) was cloned from Helicoverpa armigera (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae). The HaHMGR (H. armigera HMGR) knockdown using systemic RNAi in vivo inhibited the fecundity of the females, effectively inhibited ovipostion, and significantly reduced vitellogenin (Vg) mRNA levels. Moreover, the oviposition rate of the female moths was reduced by 98% by silencing HaHMGR compared to the control groups. One-pair experiments showed that both the proportions of valid mating and fecundity were zero. Furthermore, the HaHMGR-silenced females failed to lay eggs (approximate 99% decrease in oviposition) in the semi-field cage performance. The present study demonstrated the potential implications for developing novel pest management strategies using HaHMGR RNAi in the control of H. armigera and other insect pests. PMID:23844078

Wang, Zhijian; Dong, Yongcheng; Desneux, Nicolas; Niu, Changying

2013-01-01

319

Cytoplasmic and nuclear quality control and turnover of single-stranded RNA modulate post-transcriptional gene silencing in plants  

PubMed Central

Eukaryotic RNA quality control (RQC) uses both endonucleolytic and exonucleolytic degradation to eliminate dysfunctional RNAs. In addition, endogenous and exogenous RNAs are degraded through post-transcriptional gene silencing (PTGS), which is triggered by the production of double-stranded (ds)RNAs and proceeds through short-interfering (si)RNA-directed ARGONAUTE-mediated endonucleolytic cleavage. Compromising cytoplasmic or nuclear 5?–3? exoribonuclease function enhances sense-transgene (S)-PTGS in Arabidopsis, suggesting that these pathways compete for similar RNA substrates. Here, we show that impairing nonsense-mediated decay, deadenylation or exosome activity enhanced S-PTGS, which requires host RNA-dependent RNA polymerase 6 (RDR6/SGS2/SDE1) and SUPPRESSOR OF GENE SILENCING 3 (SGS3) for the transformation of single-stranded RNA into dsRNA to trigger PTGS. However, these RQC mutations had no effect on inverted-repeat–PTGS, which directly produces hairpin dsRNA through transcription. Moreover, we show that these RQC factors are nuclear and cytoplasmic and are found in two RNA degradation foci in the cytoplasm: siRNA-bodies and processing-bodies. We propose a model of single-stranded RNA tug-of-war between RQC and S-PTGS that ensures the correct partitioning of RNA substrates among these RNA degradation pathways. PMID:23482394

Moreno, Ana Beatriz; Martínez de Alba, Angel Emilio; Bardou, Florian; Crespi, Martin D.; Vaucheret, Hervé; Maizel, Alexis; Mallory, Allison C.

2013-01-01

320

Carcinogenic nickel silences gene expression by chromatin condensation and DNA methylation: a new model for epigenetic carcinogens.  

PubMed Central

A transgenic gpt+ Chinese hamster cell line (G12) was found to be susceptible to carcinogenic nickel-induced inactivation of gpt expression without mutagenesis or deletion of the transgene. Many nickel-induced 6-thioguanine-resistant variants spontaneously reverted to actively express gpt, as indicated by both reversion assays and direct enzyme measurements. Since reversion was enhanced in many of the nickel-induced variant cell lines following 24-h treatment with the demethylating agent 5-azacytidine, the involvement of DNA methylation in silencing gpt expression was suspected. This was confirmed by demonstrations of increased DNA methylation, as well as by evidence indicating condensed chromatin and heterochromatinization of the gpt integration site in 6-thioguanine-resistant cells. Upon reversion to active gpt expression, DNA methylation and condensation are lost. We propose that DNA condensation and methylation result in heterochromatinization of the gpt sequence with subsequent inheritance of the now silenced gene. This mechanism is supported by direct evidence showing that acute nickel treatment of cultured cells, and of isolated nuclei in vitro, can indeed facilitate gpt sequence-specific chromatin condensation. Epigenetic mechanisms have been implicated in the actions of some nonmutagenic carcinogens, and DNA methylation changes are now known to be important in carcinogenesis. This paper further supports the emerging theory that nickel is a human carcinogen that can alter gene expression by enhanced DNA methylation and compaction, rather than by mutagenic mechanisms. PMID:7537850

Lee, Y W; Klein, C B; Kargacin, B; Salnikow, K; Kitahara, J; Dowjat, K; Zhitkovich, A; Christie, N T; Costa, M

1995-01-01

321

pHg/pSILBA? vector system for efficient gene silencing in homobasidiomycetes: optimization of ihpRNA – triggering in the mycorrhizal fungus Laccaria bicolor  

PubMed Central

Summary pSILBA? silencing vector was constructed for efficient RNA silencing triggering in the model mycorrhizal fungus Laccaria bicolor. This cloning vector carries the Agaricus bisporus gpdII promoter, two multiple cloning sites separated by a L. bicolor nitrate reductase intron and the Aspergillus nidulans trpC terminator. pSILBA? allows an easy oriented two?step PCR cloning of hairpin sequences to be expressed in basidiomycetes. With one further cloning step into pHg, a pCAMBIA1300?based binary vector carrying a hygromycin resistance cassette, the pHg/pSILBA? plasmid is used for Agrobacterium?mediated transformation. The pHg/pSILBA? system results in predominantly single integrations of RNA silencing triggering T?DNAs in the fungal genome and the integration sites of the transgenes can be resolved by plasmid rescue. pSILBA? construct and two other pSILBA plasmid variants (pSILBA and pSILBA?) were evaluated for their capacity to silence Laccaria nitrate reductase gene. While all pSILBA variants tested resulted in up to 65–76% of transformants with reduced growth on nitrate, pSILBA? produced the highest number (65%) of strongly affected fungal strains. The strongly silenced phenotype was shown to correlate with T?DNA integration in transcriptionally active genomic sites. pHg/pSILBA? was shown to produce T?DNAs with minimum CpG methylation in transgene promoter regions which assures the maximum silencing trigger production in Laccaria. Methylation of the target endogene was only slight in RNA silencing triggered with constructs carrying an intronic spacer hairpin sequence. The silencing capacity of the pHg/pSILBA? was further tested with Laccaria inositol?1,4,5?triphosphate 5?phosphatase gene. Besides its use in silencing triggering, the herein described plasmid system can also be used for transgene expression in Laccaria. pHg/pSILBA? silencing system is optimized for L. bicolor but it should be highly useful also for other homobasidiomycetes, group of fungi currently lacking molecular tools for RNA silencing. PMID:21255319

Kemppainen, Minna J.; Pardo, Alejandro G.

2010-01-01

322

RNA Silencing in Plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a RNA silencing-related mechanisms have been documented in almost all living organisms and RNA silencing is now used as board\\u000a term to describe the vast array of related processes involving RNA–RNA, RNA–DNA, RNA–protein or protein–protein interactions\\u000a that ultimately result in the repression of gene expression. In plants, the parallel RNA silencing pathways have evolved to\\u000a extraordinary levels of complexity and diversity,

A. Eamens; S. J. Curtin; P. M. Waterhouse

323

A novel role for Xist RNA in the formation of a repressive nuclear compartment into which genes are recruited when silenced  

PubMed Central

During early mammalian female development, one of the two X chromosomes becomes inactivated. Although X-chromosome coating by Xist RNA is essential for the initiation of X inactivation, little is known about how this signal is transformed into transcriptional silencing. Here we show that exclusion of RNA Polymerase II and transcription factors from the Xist RNA-coated X chromosome represents the earliest event following Xist RNA accumulation described so far in differentiating embryonic stem (ES) cells. Paradoxically, exclusion of the transcription machinery occurs before gene silencing is complete. However, examination of the three-dimensional organization of X-linked genes reveals that, when transcribed, they are always located at the periphery of, or outside, the Xist RNA domain, in contact with the transcription machinery. Upon silencing, genes shift to a more internal location, within the Xist RNA compartment devoid of transcription factors. Surprisingly, the appearance of this compartment is not dependent on the A-repeats of the Xist transcript, which are essential for gene silencing. However, the A-repeats are required for the relocation of genes into the Xist RNA silent domain. We propose that Xist RNA has multiple functions: A-repeat-independent creation of a transcriptionally silent nuclear compartment; and A-repeat-dependent induction of gene repression, which is associated with their translocation into this silent domain. PMID:16912274

Chaumeil, Julie; Le Baccon, Patricia; Wutz, Anton; Heard, Edith

2006-01-01

324

A novel murrel Channa striatus mitochondrial manganese superoxide dismutase: gene silencing, SOD activity, superoxide anion production and expression.  

PubMed

We have reported the molecular characterization including gene silencing, superoxide activity, superoxide anion production, gene expression and molecular characterization of a mitochondrial manganese superoxide dismutase (mMnSOD) from striped murrel Channa striatus (named as CsmMnSOD). The CsmMnSOD polypeptide contains 225 amino acids with a molecular weight of 25 kDa and a theoretical isoelectric point of 8.3. In the N-terminal region, CsmMnSOD carries a mitochondrial targeting sequence and a superoxide dismutases (SOD) Fe domain (28-109), and in C-terminal region, it carries another SOD Fe domain (114-220). The CsmMnSOD protein sequence shared significant similarity with its homolog of MnSOD from rock bream Oplegnathus fasciatus (96%). The phylogenetic analysis showed that the CsmMnSOD fell in the clade of fish mMnSOD group. The monomeric structure of CsmMnSOD possesses 9 ?-helices (52.4%), 3 ?-sheets (8.8%) and 38.8% random coils. The highest gene expression was noticed in liver, and its expression was inducted with fungal (Aphanomyces invadans) and bacterial (Aeromonas hydrophila) infections. The gene silencing results show that the fish that received dsRNA exhibited significant (P < 0.05) changes in expression when compared to their non-injected and fish physiological saline-injected controls. The SOD activity shows that the activity increases with the spread of infection and decreases once the molecule controls the pathogen. The capacity of superoxide anion production was determined by calculating the granular blood cell count during infection in murrel. It shows that the infection influenced the superoxide radical production which plays a major role in killing the pathogens. Overall, this study indicated the defense potentiality of CsmMnSOD; however, further research is necessary to explore its capability at protein level. PMID:25183231

Arockiaraj, Jesu; Palanisamy, Rajesh; Bhatt, Prasanth; Kumaresan, Venkatesh; Gnanam, Annie J; Pasupuleti, Mukesh; Kasi, Marimuthu

2014-12-01

325

Aberrant silencing of imprinted genes on chromosome 12qF1 in mouse induced pluripotent stem cells  

PubMed Central

Summary Induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) have been generated by enforced expression of defined sets of transcription factors in somatic cells. It remains controversial whether iPSCs are molecularly and functionally equivalent to blastocyst-derived embryonic stem cells (ESCs). By comparing genetically identical mouse ESCs and iPSCs, we show here that the overall mRNA and miRNA expression patterns of these cell types are indistinguishable with the exception of a few transcripts and miRNAs encoded on chromosome 12qF1. Specifically, maternally expressed imprinted genes in the Dlk1-Dio3 cluster including Gtl2, Rian and Mirg as well as a larger number of miRNAs encoded within this region were aberrantly silenced in the majority of iPSC clones, irrespective of their cell type of origin. Consistent with a developmental role of the Dlk1-Dio3 gene cluster, iPSC clones with repressed Gtl2 contributed poorly to chimeras and failed to support the development of entirely iPSC-derived animals (“all-iPSC mice”). In contrast, iPSC clones with normal expression levels of these genes contributed to high-grade chimeras and generated viable all-iPSC mice. Importantly, treatment of an iPSC clone that had silenced Dlk1-Dio3 and failed to give rise to all-iPSC animals with a histone deacetylase inhibitor reactivated the locus and rescued its ability to support full-term development of exclusively iPSC-derived mice. Thus, the expression state of a single imprinted gene cluster distinguishes most murine iPSCs from ESCs and allows for the prospective identification of iPSC clones that have the full development potential of ESCs. PMID:20418860

Stadtfeld, Matthias; Apostolou, Effie; Akutsu, Hidenori; Fukuda, Atsushi; Follett, Patricia; Natesan, Sridaran; Kono, Tomohiro; Shioda, Toshi; Hochedlinger, Konrad

2013-01-01

326

Virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS) as a reverse genetic tool to study development of symbiotic root nodules.  

PubMed

Virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS) can provide a shortcut to plants with altered expression of specific genes. Here, we report that VIGS of the Nodule inception gene (Nin) can alter the nodulation phenotype and Nin gene expression in Pisum sativum. PsNin was chosen as target because of the distinct non-nodulating phenotype of nin mutants in P. sativum, Lotus japonicus, and Medicago truncatula. The vector based on Pea early browning virus (PEBV) was engineered to carry one of three nonoverlapping fragments (PsNinA, PsNinB, and PsNinC) derived from the PsNin cDNA. Vector inoculation was mediated by agroinfiltration and, 2 weeks later, a Rhizobium leguminosarum bv. viceae culture was added in order to induce root nodulation. At this time point, it was estimated that systemic silencing was established because leaves of reference plants inoculated with PEBV carrying a fragment of Phytoene desaturase displayed photo bleaching. Three weeks after Rhizobium spp. application, plants inoculated with a control vector nodulated normally, whereas nodulation was almost eliminated in plants inoculated with a vector carrying PsNinA and PsNinC. For plants inoculated with a vector carrying PsNinB, nodulation was reduced by at least 45%. Down-regulation of PsNin transcripts in plants inoculated with vectors carrying PsNin cDNA fragments was confirmed and these plants displayed a relative increase in the root/shoot ratio, as expected if nitrogen fixation had been impaired. PMID:18624636

Constantin, G D; Grønlund, M; Johansen, I E; Stougaard, J; Lund, O S

2008-06-01

327

The Repressor Element 1-Silencing Transcription Factor Regulates Heart-Specific Gene Expression Using Multiple Chromatin-Modifying Complexes?  

PubMed Central

Cardiac hypertrophy is associated with a dramatic change in the gene expression profile of cardiac myocytes. Many genes important during development of the fetal heart but repressed in the adult tissue are reexpressed, resulting in gross physiological changes that lead to arrhythmias, cardiac failure, and sudden death. One transcription factor thought to be important in repressing the expression of fetal genes in the adult heart is the transcriptional repressor REST (repressor element 1-silencing transcription factor). Although REST has been shown to repress several fetal cardiac genes and inhibition of REST function is sufficient to induce cardiac hypertrophy, the molecular mechanisms employed in this repression are not known. Here we show that continued REST expression prevents increases in the levels of the BNP (Nppb) and ANP (Nppa) genes, encoding brain and atrial natriuretic peptides, in adult rat ventricular myocytes in response to endothelin-1 and that inhibition of REST results in increased expression of these genes in H9c2 cells. Increased expression of Nppb and Nppa correlates with increased histone H4 acetylation and histone H3 lysine 4 methylation of promoter-proximal regions of these genes. Furthermore, using deletions of individual REST repression domains, we show that the combined activities of two domains of REST are required to efficiently repress transcription of the Nppb gene; however, a single repression domain is sufficient to repress the Nppa gene. These data provide some of the first insights into the molecular mechanism that may be important for the changes in gene expression profile seen in cardiac hypertrophy. PMID:17371849

Bingham, Andrew J.; Ooi, Lezanne; Kozera, Lukasz; White, Edward; Wood, Ian C.

2007-01-01

328

Systematic mapping of occluded genes by cell fusion reveals prevalence and stability of cis-mediated silencing in somatic cells  

PubMed Central

Both diffusible factors acting in trans and chromatin components acting in cis are implicated in gene regulation, but the extent to which either process causally determines a cell's transcriptional identity is unclear. We recently used cell fusion to define a class of silent genes termed “cis-silenced” (or “occluded”) genes, which remain silent even in the presence of trans-acting transcriptional activators. We further showed that occlusion of lineage-inappropriate genes plays a critical role in maintaining the transcriptional identities of somatic cells. Here, we present, for the first time, a comprehensive map of occluded genes in somatic cells. Specifically, we mapped occluded genes in mouse fibroblasts via fusion to a dozen different rat cell types followed by whole-transcriptome profiling. We found that occluded genes are highly prevalent and stable in somatic cells, representing a sizeable fraction of silent genes. Occluded genes are also highly enriched for important developmental regulators of alternative lineages, consistent with the role of occlusion in safeguarding cell identities. Alongside this map, we also present whole-genome maps of DNA methylation and eight other chromatin marks. These maps uncover a complex relationship between chromatin state and occlusion. Furthermore, we found that DNA methylation functions as the memory of occlusion in a subset of occluded genes, while histone deacetylation contributes to the implementation but not memory of occlusion. Our data suggest that the identities of individual cell types are defined largely by the occlusion status of their genomes. The comprehensive reference maps reported here provide the foundation for future studies aimed at understanding the role of occlusion in development and disease. PMID:24310002

Looney, Timothy J.; Zhang, Li; Chen, Chih-Hsin; Lee, Jae Hyun; Chari, Sheila; Mao, Frank Fuxiang; Pelizzola, Mattia; Zhang, Lu; Lister, Ryan; Baker, Samuel W.; Fernandes, Croydon J.; Gaetz, Jedidiah; Foshay, Kara M.; Clift, Kayla L.; Zhang, Zhenyu; Li, Wei-Qiang; Vallender, Eric J.; Wagner, Ulrich; Qin, Jane Yuxia; Michelini, Katelyn J.; Bugarija, Branimir; Park, Donghyun; Aryee, Emmanuel; Stricker, Thomas; Zhou, Jie; White, Kevin P.; Ren, Bing; Schroth, Gary P.; Ecker, Joseph R.; Xiang, Andy Peng; Lahn, Bruce T.

2014-01-01

329

Barley stripe mosaic virus-induced gene silencing (BSMV-IGS) as a tool for functional analysis of barley genes potentially involved in nonhost resistance.  

PubMed

Barley is an alternative host for the rice blast fungus Magnaporthe oryzae but is resistant to Magnaporthe species associated with the grass genera Pennisetum and Digitaria. The latter cases are examples for nonhost resistance which confers effective and durable protection to plants against a broad spectrum of pathogens. Comparative transcript profiling of host and nonhost interaction revealed an early and pronounced change in gene expression in epidermal tissue of barley infected with a Magnaporthe nonhost isolate. Interestingly, this set of genes did not overlap considerably with the transcriptional response of barley against nonhost rust or powdery mildew isolates. For a functional testing of candidate genes a combined approach of virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS) and subsequent pathogen challenge was established. As anticipated, VIGS-mediated down-regulation of Mlo-transcripts led to higher resistance against Blumeria graminis f.sp. hordei and enhanced susceptibility against M. oryzae. PMID:21586898

Delventhal, Rhoda; Zellerhoff, Nina; Schaffrath, Ulrich

2011-06-01

330

Rapid, Cell-Based Toxicity Screen of Potentially Therapeutic Post-Transcriptional Gene Silencing Agents  

PubMed Central

Post-transcriptional gene silencing (PTGS) agents such as antisense, ribozymes and RNA interference (RNAi) have great potential as therapeutics for a variety of eye diseases including retinal and macular degenerations, glaucoma, corneal degenerations, inflammatory and viral conditions. Despite their great potential and over thirty years of academic and corporate research only a single PTGS agent is currently approved for human therapy for a single disease. Substantial challenges exist to achieving both efficacious and safe PTGS agents. Efficacy, as measured in specific target mRNA and protein knockdown, depends upon a number of complex factors including the identification of rare regions of target mRNA accessibility, cellular colocalization of the PTGS agent in sufficient concentration with the target mRNA, and stability of the PTGS agent in the target cells in which it is delivered or expressed. Safety is commonly measured by lack of cytotoxicity or other deleterious cellular responses in cells in which the PTGS agent is delivered or expressed. To relieve major bottlenecks in RNA drug discovery novel, efficient, inexpensive, and rapid tools are needed to facilitate lead identification of the most efficacious PTGS agent, rational optimization of efficacy of the lead agent, and lead agent safety determinations. We have developed a technological platform using cell culture expression systems that permits lead identification and efficacy optimization of PTGS agents against arbitrary disease target mRNAs under relatively high throughput conditions. Here, we extend the technology platform to include PTGS safety determinations in cultured human cells that are expected to represent the common cellular housekeeping microenvironment. We developed a high throughput screening (HTS) cytotoxicity assay in 96-well plate format based around the SYTOX Green dye which is excluded from healthy viable cells and becomes substantially fluorescent only after entering cells and binding to nuclear DNA. In this format we can test a number of PTGS agents for cellular toxicity relative to control elements. We also developed a HTS 96-well plate assay that allows us to assess the impact of any given PTGS agent on stimulating a variety of common cellular stress signaling pathways (e.g. CRE, SRE, AP-1, NF?B, Myc, and NFAT) that could indicate possible deleterious effects of PTGS agents either dependent or independent of base pairing complementarity with target mRNAs. To this end we exploited the secreted alkaline phosphatase (SEAP) Pathway Profiling System where the expression of the secreted reporter protein is coupled to transcriptional activation of a variety of promoter elements involved in common cell signaling pathways. We found that a variety of lead hammerhead ribozyme (hhRz) and short hairpin (shRNA) expression constructs did not exert cytotoxicity in human cells when driven by highly active RNA Pol-III promoters. We also found that most of the cell signaling pathways tested (CRE, SRE, Myc, and NFAT) did not significantly couple through upregulation to expression of the set of PTGS agents tested. AP-1 and NF?B upregulation both appear to couple to the expression of some PTGS agents which likely reflect the known properties of these pathways to be stimulated by abundant small structured RNAs. PMID:21256844

Kolniak, Tiffany A.; Sullivan, Jack M.

2011-01-01

331

Antisense 2'-Deoxy, 2'-Fluroarabino Nucleic Acids (2'F-ANAs) Oligonucleotides: In Vitro Gymnotic Silencers of Gene Expression Whose Potency Is Enhanced by Fatty Acids.  

PubMed

Gymnosis is the process of the delivery of antisense oligodeoxynucleotides to cells, in the absence of any carriers or conjugation, that produces sequence-specific gene silencing. While gymnosis was originally demonstrated using locked nucleic acid (LNA) gapmers, 2'-deoxy-2'fluroarabinonucleic acid (2'F-ANA) phosphorothioate gapmer oligonucleotides (oligos) when targeted to the Bcl-2 and androgen receptor (AR) mRNAs in multiple cell lines in tissue culture, are approximately as effective at silencing of Bcl-2 expression as the iso-sequential LNA congeners. In LNCaP prostate cancer cells, gymnotic silencing of the AR by a 2'F-ANA phosphorothioate gapmer oligo led to downstream silencing of cellular prostate-specific antigen (PSA) expression even in the presence of the androgenic steroid R1881 (metribolone), which stabilizes cytoplasmic levels of the AR. Furthermore, gymnotic silencing occurs in the absence of serum, and silencing by both LNA and 2'F-ANA oligos is augmented in serum-free (SF) media in some cell lines when they are treated with oleic acid and a variety of ?-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (?-6 PUFAs), but not by an aliphatic (palmitic) fatty acid. These results significantly expand our understanding of and ability to successfully manipulate the cellular delivery of single-stranded DNA molecules in vitro.Molecular Therapy - Nucleic Acids (2012) 1, e43; doi:10.1038/mtna.2012.35; advance online publication 18 September 2012. PMID:23344235

Souleimanian, Naira; Deleavey, Glen F; Soifer, Harris; Wang, Sijian; Tiemann, Katrin; Damha, Masad J; Stein, Cy A

2012-01-01

332

Silencing SlELP2L, a tomato Elongator complex protein 2-like gene, inhibits leaf growth, accelerates leaf, sepal senescence, and produces dark-green fruit.  

PubMed

The multi-subunit complex Elongator interacts with elongating RNA polymerase II (RNAPII) and is thought to facilitate transcription through histone acetylation. Elongator is highly conserved in eukaryotes, yet has multiple kingdom-specific functions in diverse organisms. Recent genetic studies performed in Arabidopsis have demonstrated that Elongator functions in plant growth and development, and in response to biotic and abiotic stress. However, little is known about its roles in other plant species. Here, we study the function of an Elongator complex protein 2-like gene in tomato, here designated as SlELP2L, through RNAi-mediated gene silencing. Silencing SlELP2L in tomato inhibits leaf growth, accelerates leaf and sepal senescence, and produces dark-green fruit with reduced GA and IAA contents in leaves, and increased chlorophyll accumulation in pericarps. Gene expression analysis indicated that SlELP2L-silenced plants had reduced transcript levels of ethylene- and ripening-related genes during fruit ripening with slightly decreased carotenoid content in fruits, while the expression of DNA methyltransferase genes was up-regulated, indicating that SlELP2L may modulate DNA methylation in tomato. Besides, silencing SlELP2L increases ABA sensitivity in inhibiting seedling growth. These results suggest that SlELP2L plays important roles in regulating plant growth and development, as well as in response to ABA in tomato. PMID:25573793

Zhu, Mingku; Li, Yali; Chen, Guoping; Ren, Lijun; Xie, Qiaoli; Zhao, Zhiping; Hu, Zongli

2015-01-01

333

Increased Expression of Chitinase 3-Like 1 in Aorta of Patients with Atherosclerosis and Suppression of Atherosclerosis in Apolipoprotein E-Knockout Mice by Chitinase 3-Like 1 Gene Silencing  

PubMed Central

Introduction. The purpose of this study was to investigate the changes of chitinase 3-like 1 (CHI3L1) in the aorta of patients with coronary atherosclerosis and to determine whether inhibition of CHI3L1 by lentivirus-mediated RNA interference could stabilize atherosclerotic plaques in apolipoprotein E-knockout (ApoE?/?) mice. Methods. We collected discarded aortic specimens from patients undergoing coronary artery bypass graft surgery and renal arterial tissues from kidney donors. A lentivirus carrying small interfering RNA targeting the expression of CHI3L1 was constructed. Fifty ApoE?/? mice were divided into control group and CHI3L1 gene silenced group. A constrictive collar was placed around carotid artery to induce plaques formation. Then lentivirus was transfected into carotid plaques. Results. We found that CHI3L1 was overexpressed in aorta of patients with atherosclerosis and its expression was correlated with the atherosclerotic risk factors. After lentivirus transduction, mRNA and protein expression of CHI3L1 were attenuated in carotid plaques, leading to reduced plaque content of lipids and macrophages, and increased plaque content of collagen and smooth muscle cells. Moreover, CHI3L1 gene silencing downregulated the expression of local proinflammatory mediators. Conclusions. CHI3L1 is overexpressed in aorta from patients with atherosclerosis and the lentivirus-mediated CHI3L1 gene silencing could represent a new strategy to inhibit plaques progression. PMID:24729664

Gong, Zushun; Xing, Shanshan; Zheng, Fei; Xing, Qichong

2014-01-01

334

Production of dsRNA Sequences in the Host Plant Is Not Sufficient to Initiate Gene Silencing in the Colonizing Oomycete Pathogen Phytophthora parasitica  

PubMed Central

Species of the oomycete genus Phytophthora are destructive pathogens, causing extensive losses in agricultural crops and natural ecosystems. A potential disease control approach is the application of RNA silencing technology which has proven to be effective in improving plant resistance against a wide range of pests including parasitic plants, nematodes, insects and fungi. In this study, we tested the potential application of RNA silencing in improving plant disease resistance against oomycete pathogens. The endogenous P. parasitica gene PnPMA1 and the reporter gene GFP were used to evaluate the potential application of host induced gene silencing (HIGS). The GFP-expressing P. parasitica efficiently colonized Arabidopsis thaliana lines stably expressing GFP dsRNA and showed no obvious decrease in GFP signal intensity. Quantitative RT-PCR analyses showed no significant reductions in the abundance of GFP and PnPMA1 transcripts in P. parasitica during colonization of A. thaliana lines stably expressing GFP and PnPMA1 dsRNAs, respectively. Neither GFP siRNAs nor PnPMA1 siRNAs produced by transgenic plants were detected in P. parasitica re-isolated from infected tissues by Northern blot analyses. Phenotypic characterization of zoospores released from infected plant roots expressing PnPMA1 dsRNA showed no motility changes compared with those from wild-type plants. Similar results were obtained by analysis of zoospores released from sporulating hyphae of P. parasitica re-isolated from PnPMA1 dsRNA-expressing plant roots. Thus, the ectopic expression of dsRNA sequences in the host plant is not sufficient to initiate silencing of homologous genes in the colonizing oomycete pathogen, and this may be due to a number of different reasons including the absence of genetic machinery required for uptake of silencing signals in particular dsRNAs which are essential for environmental RNA silencing. PMID:22140518

Zhang, Meixiang; Wang, Qinhu; Xu, Ke; Meng, Yuling; Quan, Junli; Shan, Weixing

2011-01-01

335

Development of a luciferase-based reporter of transcriptional gene silencing that enables bidirectional mutant screening in Arabidopsis thaliana  

PubMed Central

Background Cytosine methylation is an important chromatin modification that maintains genome integrity and regulates gene expression through transcriptional gene silencing. Major players in de novo methylation guided by siRNAs (known as RNA-directed DNA methylation, or RdDM), maintenance methylation, and active demethylation have been identified in Arabidopsis. However, active demethylation only occurs at a subset of RdDM loci, raising the question of how the homeostasis of DNA methylation is achieved at most RdDM loci. To identify factors that regulate the levels of cytosine methylation, we aimed to establish a transgenic reporter system that allows for forward genetic screens in Arabidopsis. Results We introduced a dual 35 S promoter (d35S) driven luciferase reporter, LUCH, into Arabidopsis and isolated a line with a moderate level of luciferase activity. LUCH produced transgene-specific 24 nucleotide siRNAs and its d35S contained methylated cytosine in CG, CHG and CHH contexts. Treatment of the transgenic line with an inhibitor of cytosine methylation de-repressed luciferase activity. Mutations in several components of the RdDM pathway but not the maintenance methylation genes resulted in reduced d35S methylation, especially CHH methylation, and de-repression of luciferase activity. A mutation in MOM1, which is known to cooperate with RdDM to silence transposons, reduced d35S DNA methylation and de-repressed LUCH expression. A mutation in ROS1, a cytosine demethylation enzyme, increased d35S methylation and reduced LUCH expression. Conclusion We developed a luciferase-based reporter, LUCH, which reports both DNA methylation directed by small RNAs and active demethylation by ROS1 in Arabidopsis. The moderate basal level of LUCH expression allows for bi-directional genetic screens that dissect the mechanisms of DNA methylation as well as demethylation. PMID:22676624

2012-01-01

336

Aberrant silencing of imprinted genes on chromosome 12qF1 in mouse induced pluripotent stem cells.  

PubMed

Induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) have been generated by enforced expression of defined sets of transcription factors in somatic cells. It remains controversial whether iPSCs are molecularly and functionally equivalent to blastocyst-derived embryonic stem (ES) cells. By comparing genetically identical mouse ES cells and iPSCs, we show here that their overall messenger RNA and microRNA expression patterns are indistinguishable with the exception of a few transcripts encoded within the imprinted Dlk1-Dio3 gene cluster on chromosome 12qF1, which were aberrantly silenced in most of the iPSC clones. Consistent with a developmental role of the Dlk1-Dio3 gene cluster, these iPSC clones contributed poorly to chimaeras and failed to support the development of entirely iPSC-derived animals ('all-iPSC mice'). In contrast, iPSC clones with normal expression of the Dlk1-Dio3 cluster contributed to high-grade chimaeras and generated viable all-iPSC mice. Notably, treatment of an iPSC clone that had silenced Dlk1-Dio3 with a histone deacetylase inhibitor reactivated the locus and rescued its ability to support full-term development of all-iPSC mice. Thus, the expression state of a single imprinted gene cluster seems to distinguish most murine iPSCs from ES cells and allows for the prospective identification of iPSC clones that have the full development potential of ES cells. PMID:20418860

Stadtfeld, Matthias; Apostolou, Effie; Akutsu, Hidenori; Fukuda, Atsushi; Follett, Patricia; Natesan, Sridaran; Kono, Tomohiro; Shioda, Toshi; Hochedlinger, Konrad

2010-05-13

337

Mature-stem expression of a silencing-resistant sucrose isomerase gene drives isomaltulose accumulation to high levels in sugarcane.  

PubMed

Isomaltulose (IM) is a natural isomer of sucrose. It is widely approved as a food with properties including slower digestion, lower glycaemic index and low cariogenicity, which can benefit consumers. Availability is currently limited by the cost of fermentative conversion from sucrose. Transgenic sugarcane plants with developmentally-controlled expression of a silencing-resistant gene encoding a vacuole-targeted IM synthase were tested under field conditions typical of commercial sugarcane cultivation. High yields of IM were obtained, up to 483 mm or 81% of total sugars in whole-cane juice from plants aged 13 months. Using promoters from sugarcane to drive expression preferentially in the sugarcane stem, IM levels were consistent between stalks and stools within a transgenic line and across consecutive vegetative field generations of tested high-isomer lines. Germination and early growth of plants from setts were unaffected by IM accumulation, up to the tested level around 500 mm in flanking stem internodes. These are the highest yields ever achieved of value-added materials through plant metabolic engineering. The sugarcane stem promoters are promising for strategies to achieve even higher IM levels and for other applications in sugarcane molecular improvement. Silencing-resistant transgenes are critical to deliver the potential of these promoters in practical sugarcane improvement. At the IM levels now achieved in field-grown sugarcane, direct production of IM in plants is feasible at a cost approaching that of sucrose, which should make the benefits of IM affordable on a much wider scale. PMID:23297683

Mudge, Stephen R; Basnayake, Shiromi W V; Moyle, Richard L; Osabe, Kenji; Graham, Michael W; Morgan, Terence E; Birch, Robert G

2013-05-01

338

The high mobility group A2 protein epigenetically silences the Cdh1 gene during epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition  

PubMed Central

The loss of the tumour suppressor E-cadherin (Cdh1) is a key event during tumourigenesis and epithelial–mesenchymal transition (EMT). Transforming growth factor-? (TGF?) triggers EMT by inducing the expression of non-histone chromatin protein High Mobility Group A2 (HMGA2). We have previously shown that HMGA2, together with Smads, regulate a network of EMT-transcription factors (EMT-TFs) like Snail1, Snail2, ZEB1, ZEB2 and Twist1, most of which are well-known repressors of the Cdh1 gene. In this study, we show that the Cdh1 promoter is hypermethylated and epigenetically silenced in our constitutive EMT cell model, whereby HMGA2 is ectopically expressed in mammary epithelial NMuMG cells and these cells are highly motile and invasive. Furthermore, HMGA2 remodels the chromatin to favour binding of de novo DNA methyltransferase 3A (DNMT3A) to the Cdh1 promoter. E-cadherin expression could be restored after treatment with the DNA de-methylating agent 5-aza-2?-deoxycytidine. Here, we describe a new epigenetic role for HMGA2, which follows the actions that HMGA2 initiates via the EMT-TFs, thus achieving sustained silencing of E-cadherin expression and promoting tumour cell invasion. PMID:25492890

Tan, E-Jean; Kahata, Kaoru; Idås, Oskar; Thuault, Sylvie; Heldin, Carl-Henrik; Moustakas, Aristidis

2015-01-01

339

656. Development of Viral Vectors To Mediate Neuron-Specific Gene Silencing  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ability to manipulate gene expression in specific cell types within the brain is a fundamental requirement for successful gene therapy and studies of gene function. Adenovirus, Adeno-associated virus and Lentivirus based vectors have all proved to be excellent tools for the targeted overexpression of genes in neurons. The targeted knockdown of gene expression however, is more complicated and historically

Colin P. Glover; Alison S. Bienemann; Beverly L. Davidson; James B. Uney

2005-01-01

340

Potato Snakin-1 Gene Silencing Affects Cell Division, Primary Metabolism, and Cell Wall Composition1[W  

PubMed Central

Snakin-1 (SN1) is an antimicrobial cysteine-rich peptide isolated from potato (Solanum tuberosum) that was classified as a member of the Snakin/Gibberellic Acid Stimulated in Arabidopsis protein family. In this work, a transgenic approach was used to study the role of SN1 in planta. Even when overexpressing SN1, potato lines did not show remarkable morphological differences from the wild type; SN1 silencing resulted in reduced height, which was accompanied by an overall reduction in leaf size and severe alterations of leaf shape. Analysis of the adaxial epidermis of mature leaves revealed that silenced lines had 70% to 90% increases in mean cell size with respect to wild-type leaves. Consequently, the number of epidermal cells was significantly reduced in these lines. Confocal microscopy analysis after agroinfiltration of Nicotiana benthamiana leaves showed that SN1-green fluorescent protein fusion protein was localized in plasma membrane, and bimolecular fluorescence complementation assays revealed that SN1 self-interacted in vivo. We further focused our study on leaf metabolism by applying a combination of gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and spectrophotometric techniques. These targeted analyses allowed a detailed examination of the changes occurring in 46 intermediate compounds from primary metabolic pathways and in seven cell wall constituents. We demonstrated that SN1 silencing affects cell division, leaf primary metabolism, and cell wall composition in potato plants, suggesting that SN1 has additional roles in growth and development beyond its previously assigned role in plant defense. PMID:22080603

Nahirñak, Vanesa; Almasia, Natalia Inés; Fernandez, Paula Virginia; Hopp, Horacio Esteban; Estevez, José Manuel; Carrari, Fernando; Vazquez-Rovere, Cecilia

2012-01-01

341

Comprehensive Protein-Based Artificial MicroRNA Screens for Effective Gene Silencing in Plants[W  

PubMed Central

Artificial microRNA (amiRNA) approaches offer a powerful strategy for targeted gene manipulation in any plant species. However, the current unpredictability of amiRNA efficacy has limited broad application of this promising technology. To address this, we developed epitope-tagged protein-based amiRNA (ETPamir) screens, in which target mRNAs encoding epitope-tagged proteins were constitutively or inducibly coexpressed in protoplasts with amiRNA candidates targeting single or multiple genes. This design allowed parallel quantification of target proteins and mRNAs to define amiRNA efficacy and mechanism of action, circumventing unpredictable amiRNA expression/processing and antibody unavailability. Systematic evaluation of 63 amiRNAs in 79 ETPamir screens for 16 target genes revealed a simple, effective solution for selecting optimal amiRNAs from hundreds of computational predictions, reaching ?100% gene silencing in plant cells and null phenotypes in transgenic plants. Optimal amiRNAs predominantly mediated highly specific translational repression at 5? coding regions with limited mRNA decay or cleavage. Our screens were easily applied to diverse plant species, including Arabidopsis thaliana, tobacco (Nicotiana benthamiana), tomato (Solanum lycopersicum), sunflower (Helianthus annuus), Catharanthus roseus, maize (Zea mays) and rice (Oryza sativa), and effectively validated predicted natural miRNA targets. These screens could improve plant research and crop engineering by making amiRNA a more predictable and manageable genetic and functional genomic technology. PMID:23645631

Li, Jian-Feng; Chung, Hoo Sun; Niu, Yajie; Bush, Jenifer; McCormack, Matthew; Sheen, Jen

2013-01-01

342

Silencing of the CaCP Gene Delays Salt- and Osmotic-Induced Leaf Senescence in Capsicum annuum L.  

PubMed Central

Cysteine proteinases have been known to participate in developmental processes and in response to stress in plants. Our present research reported that a novel CP gene, CaCP, was involved in leaf senescence in pepper (Capsicum annuum L.). The full-length CaCP cDNA is comprised of 1316 bp, contains 1044 nucleotides in open reading frame (ORF), and encodes a 347 amino acid protein. The deduced protein belongs to the papain-like cysteine proteases (CPs) superfamily, containing a highly conserved ERFNIN motif, a GCNGG motif and a conserved catalytic triad. This protein localized to the vacuole of plant cells. Real-time quantitative PCR analysis revealed that the expression level of CaCP gene was dramatically higher in leaves and flowers than that in roots, stems and fruits. Moreover, CaCP transcripts were induced upon during leaf senescence. CaCP expression was upregulated by plant hormones, especially salicylic acid. CaCP was also significantly induced by abiotic and biotic stress treatments, including high salinity, mannitol and Phytophthora capsici. Loss of function of CaCP using the virus-induced gene-silencing technique in pepper plants led to enhanced tolerance to salt- and osmotic-induced stress. Taken together, these results suggest that CaCP is a senescence-associated gene, which is involved in developmental senescence and regulates salt- and osmotic-induced leaf senescence in pepper. PMID:24823878

Xiao, Huai-Juan; Yin, Yan-Xu; Chai, Wei-Guo; Gong, Zhen-Hui

2014-01-01

343

Silencing Abnormal Wing Disc Gene of the Asian Citrus Psyllid, Diaphorina citri Disrupts Adult Wing Development and Increases Nymph Mortality  

PubMed Central

Huanglongbing (HLB) causes considerable economic losses to citrus industries worldwide. Its management depends on controlling of the Asian citrus Psyllid (ACP), the vector of the bacterium, Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus (CLas), the causal agent of HLB. Silencing genes by RNA interference (RNAi) is a promising tool to explore gene functions as well as control pests. In the current study, abnormal wing disc (awd) gene associated with wing development in insects is used to interfere with the flight of psyllids. Our study showed that transcription of awd is development-dependent and the highest level was found in the last instar (5th) of the nymphal stage. Micro-application (topical application) of dsRNA to 5th instar of nymphs caused significant nymphal mortality and adult wing-malformation. These adverse effects in ACP were positively correlated with the amounts of dsRNA used. A qRT-PCR analysis confirmed the dsRNA-mediated transcriptional down-regulation of the awd gene. Significant down-regulation was required to induce a wing-malformed phenotype. No effect was found when dsRNA-gfp was used, indicating the specific effect of dsRNA-awd. Our findings suggest a role for awd in ACP wing development and metamorphosis. awd could serve as a potential target for insect management either via direct application of dsRNA or by producing transgenic plants expressing dsRNA-awd. These strategies will help to mitigate HLB by controlling ACP. PMID:23734251

El-Hawary, Ibrahim; Gowda, Siddarame; Killiny, Nabil

2013-01-01

344

Virus-induced gene silencing is a versatile tool for unraveling the functional relevance of multiple abiotic-stress-responsive genes in crop plants.  

PubMed

Virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS) is an effective tool for gene function analysis in plants. Over the last decade, VIGS has been successfully used as both a forward and reverse genetics technique for gene function analysis in various model plants, as well as crop plants. With the increased identification of differentially expressed genes under various abiotic stresses through high-throughput transcript profiling, the application of VIGS is expected to be important in the future for functional characterization of a large number of genes. In the recent past, VIGS was proven to be an elegant tool for functional characterization of genes associated with abiotic stress responses. In this review, we provide an overview of how VIGS is used in different crop species to characterize genes associated with drought-, salt-, oxidative- and nutrient-deficiency-stresses. We describe the examples from studies where abiotic stress related genes are characterized using VIGS. In addition, we describe the major advantages of VIGS over other currently available functional genomics tools. We also summarize the recent improvements, limitations and future prospects of using VIGS as a tool for studying plant responses to abiotic stresses. PMID:25071806

Ramegowda, Venkategowda; Mysore, Kirankumar S; Senthil-Kumar, Muthappa

2014-01-01

345

A developmentally regulated lipocalin-like gene is overexpressed in Tomato yellow leaf curl virus-resistant tomato plants upon virus inoculation, and its silencing abolishes resistance.  

PubMed

To discover genes involved in tomato resistance to Tomato yellow leaf curl virus (TYLCV), we previously compared cDNA libraries from susceptible (S) and resistant (R) tomato lines. Among the genes preferentially expressed in R plants and upregulated by TYLCV infection was a gene encoding a lipocalin-like protein. This gene was termed Solanum lycopersicum virus resistant/susceptible lipocalin (SlVRSLip). The SlVRSLip structural gene sequence of R and S plants was identical. SlVRSLip was expressed in leaves during a 15-day window starting about 40 days after sowing (20 days after planting). SlVRSLip was upregulated by Bemisia tabaci (the TYLCV vector) feeding on R plant leaves, and even more strongly upregulated following whitefly-mediated TYLCV inoculation. Silencing of SlVRSLip in R plants led to the collapse of resistance upon TYLCV inoculation and to a necrotic response along the stem and petioles accompanied by ROS production. Contrary to previously identified tomato lipocalin gene DQ222981, SlVRSLip was not regulated by cold, nor was it regulated by heat or salt. The expression of SlVRSLip was inhibited in R plants in which the hexose transporter gene LeHT1 was silenced. In contrast, the expression of LeHT1 was not inhibited in SlVRSLip-silenced R plants. Hence, in the hierarchy of the gene network conferring TYLCV resistance, SlVRSLip is downstream of LeHT1. Silencing of another gene involved in resistance, a Permease-I like protein, did not affect the expression of SlVRSLip and LeHT1; expression of the Permease was not affected by silencing SlVRSLip or LeHT1, suggesting that it does not belong to the same network. The triple co-silencing of SlVRSLip, LeHT1 and Permease provoked an immediate cessation of growth of R plants upon infection and the accumulation of large amounts of virus. SlVRSLip is the first lipocalin-like gene shown to be involved in resistance to a plant virus. PMID:22843056

Sade, Dagan; Eybishtz, Assaf; Gorovits, Rena; Sobol, Iris; Czosnek, Henryk

2012-10-01

346

AGO2 and SETDB1 cooperate in promoter-targeted transcriptional silencing of the androgen receptor gene  

PubMed Central

In mammals, RNA interference is primarily a post-transcriptional mechanism. Evidence has accumulated for additional role in transcriptional gene silencing (TGS) but the question for a good paradigm for small interfering antigene RNA (agRNA)-induced chromatin modification remains unanswered. Here, we show that SETDB1, a histone H3-lysine 9 (H3K9)-specific methyltransferase, cooperates with Argonaute-2 (AGO2) and plays an essential role in agRNA-induced TGS. The androgen receptor (AR) gene was transcriptionally silenced by agRNA targeted to its promoter, and we show that this repression was mitigated by knockdown of SETDB1 or AGO2. Chromatin immunoprecipitation demonstrated that agRNA-driven AGO2 was first targeted to the AR promoter, followed by SETDB1. SIN3A and HDAC1/2, the components of the SIN3-HDAC complex, immunoprecipitated with SETDB1, and localized at the agRNA-targeted promoter. Agreeing with the presence of SETDB1, trimethyl-H3K9 was enriched in the AR promoter. Both EZH2 and trimethyl-H3K27 were also present in the targeted locus; accordingly, EZH2 immunoprecipitated with SETDB1. DNA methylation level was not significantly changed, suggesting the absence of de novo methylating activity in agRNA-induced AR promoter. Our results demonstrate that SETDB1, together with AGO2, plays an essential role in TGS through recruiting chromatin remodeler and/or other modifiers, consequently creating a repressive chromatin milieu at the targeted promoter. PMID:25183519

Cho, Sunwha; Park, Jung Sun; Kang, Yong-Kook

2014-01-01

347

AGO2 and SETDB1 cooperate in promoter-targeted transcriptional silencing of the androgen receptor gene.  

PubMed

In mammals, RNA interference is primarily a post-transcriptional mechanism. Evidence has accumulated for additional role in transcriptional gene silencing (TGS) but the question for a good paradigm for small interfering antigene RNA (agRNA)-induced chromatin modification remains unanswered. Here, we show that SETDB1, a histone H3-lysine 9 (H3K9)-specific methyltransferase, cooperates with Argonaute-2 (AGO2) and plays an essential role in agRNA-induced TGS. The androgen receptor (AR) gene was transcriptionally silenced by agRNA targeted to its promoter, and we show that this repression was mitigated by knockdown of SETDB1 or AGO2. Chromatin immunoprecipitation demonstrated that agRNA-driven AGO2 was first targeted to the AR promoter, followed by SETDB1. SIN3A and HDAC1/2, the components of the SIN3-HDAC complex, immunoprecipitated with SETDB1, and localized at the agRNA-targeted promoter. Agreeing with the presence of SETDB1, trimethyl-H3K9 was enriched in the AR promoter. Both EZH2 and trimethyl-H3K27 were also present in the targeted locus; accordingly, EZH2 immunoprecipitated with SETDB1. DNA methylation level was not significantly changed, suggesting the absence of de novo methylating activity in agRNA-induced AR promoter. Our results demonstrate that SETDB1, together with AGO2, plays an essential role in TGS through recruiting chromatin remodeler and/or other modifiers, consequently creating a repressive chromatin milieu at the targeted promoter. PMID:25183519

Cho, Sunwha; Park, Jung Sun; Kang, Yong-Kook

2014-12-16

348

In vivo gene silencing following non-invasive siRNA delivery into the skin using a novel topical formulation.  

PubMed

Therapeutics based on short interfering RNAs (siRNAs), which act by inhibiting the expression of target transcripts, represent a novel class of potent and highly specific next-generation treatments for human skin diseases. Unfortunately, the intrinsic barrier properties of the skin combined with the large size and negative charge of siRNAs make epidermal delivery of these macromolecules quite challenging. To help evaluate the in vivo activity of these therapeutics and refine delivery strategies we generated an innovative reporter mouse model that predominantly expresses firefly luciferase (luc2p) in the paw epidermis - the region of murine epidermis that most closely models the tissue architecture of human skin. Combining this animal model with state-of-the-art live animal imaging techniques, we have developed a real-time in vivo analysis work-flow that has allowed us to compare and contrast the efficacies of a wide range nucleic acid-based gene silencing reagents in the skin of live animals. While inhibition was achieved with all of the reagents tested, only the commercially available "self-delivery" modified Accell-siRNAs (Dharmacon) produced potent and sustained in vivo gene silencing. Together, these findings highlight just how informative reliable reporter mouse models can be when assessing novel therapeutics in vivo. Using this work-flow, we developed a novel clinically-relevant topical formulation that facilitates non-invasive epidermal delivery of unmodified and "self-delivery" siRNAs. Remarkably, a sustained >40% luc2p inhibition was observed after two 1-hour treatments with Accell-siRNAs in our topical formulation. Importantly, our ability to successfully deliver siRNA molecules topically brings these novel RNAi-based therapeutics one-step closer to clinical use. PMID:25449884

Hegde, Vikas; Hickerson, Robyn P; Nainamalai, Sitheswaran; Campbell, Paul A; Smith, Frances J D; McLean, W H Irwin; Leslie Pedrioli, Deena M

2014-12-28

349

In vivo gene silencing following non-invasive siRNA delivery into the skin using a novel topical formulation  

PubMed Central

Therapeutics based on short interfering RNAs (siRNAs), which act by inhibiting the expression of target transcripts, represent a novel class of potent and highly specific next-generation treatments for human skin diseases. Unfortunately, the intrinsic barrier properties of the skin combined with the large size and negative charge of siRNAs make epidermal delivery of these macromolecules quite challenging. To help evaluate the in vivo activity of these therapeutics and refine delivery strategies we generated an innovative reporter mouse model that predominantly expresses firefly luciferase (luc2p) in the paw epidermis — the region of murine epidermis that most closely models the tissue architecture of human skin. Combining this animal model with state-of-the-art live animal imaging techniques, we have developed a real-time in vivo analysis work-flow that has allowed us to compare and contrast the efficacies of a wide range nucleic acid-based gene silencing reagents in the skin of live animals. While inhibition was achieved with all of the reagents tested, only the commercially available “self-delivery” modified Accell-siRNAs (Dharmacon) produced potent and sustained in vivo gene silencing. Together, these findings highlight just how informative reliable reporter mouse models can be when assessing novel therapeutics in vivo. Using this work-flow, we developed a novel clinically-relevant topical formulation that facilitates non-invasive epidermal delivery of unmodified and “self-delivery” siRNAs. Remarkably, a sustained > 40% luc2p inhibition was observed after two 1-hour treatments with Accell-siRNAs in our topical formulation. Importantly, our ability to successfully deliver siRNA molecules topically brings these novel RNAi-based therapeutics one-step closer to clinical use. PMID:25449884

Hegde, Vikas; Hickerson, Robyn P.; Nainamalai, Sitheswaran; Campbell, Paul A.; Smith, Frances J.D.; McLean, W.H. Irwin; Leslie Pedrioli, Deena M.

2014-01-01

350

Silencing of skeletal metastasis-associated genes impairs migration of breast cancer cells and reduces osteolytic bone lesions.  

PubMed

Bone sialoprotein (BSP) and osteopontin (OPN) are important factors in the metastasis of breast cancer, which were examined as targets for antineoplastic therapy by siRNA. In addition, the effect of gene silencing on their transcription factor Runx2 and their interaction partners integrin ?(3) and matrix metalloproteinase 2 was studied. The effect of siRNAs directed against these genes was assessed by monitoring expression levels followed by functional assays in cell culture as well as skeletal metastases caused by human MDA-MB-231(luc) breast cancer cells in nude rats. Upon silencing of the targets, cell migration was profoundly impaired (p < 0.001 for BSP-siRNA), but the impact on proliferation was low. Systemic administration by osmotic mini-pumps of BSP-siRNA but not OPN-siRNA decreased osteolytic lesions (p = 0.067). Extraosseous tumour growth was not affected. As an alternative approach, non-viral, polymeric based formulations of siRNAs in nanoparticles (NP) were developed. Locoregional administration of the two siRNAs targeting OPN and BSP encapsulated in these biodegradable NP reduced skeletal lesions even more efficiently (p = 0.03). Compared to systemic administration, this treatment caused not only a more pronounced anti-osteolytic effect at a 25-fold lower total siRNA dose, but also had a slight reducing effect on tumour incidence (p = 0.095). In conclusion, the siRNA treatment had a small effect on cellular proliferation but a significant efficacy against migration of and osteolysis induced by MDA-MB-231 cells. Our data underline that siRNA mediated knockdown is a powerful tool for identifying targets for pharmacological intervention. In addition, encapsulation of siRNA into biodegradable NP is a strategy, which promises well for using siRNA. PMID:22407340

Reufsteck, Christina; Lifshitz-Shovali, Rinat; Zepp, Michael; Bäuerle, Tobias; Kübler, Dieter; Golomb, Gershon; Berger, Martin R

2012-06-01

351

Tumor-specific silencing of COPZ2 gene encoding coatomer protein complex subunit ? 2 renders tumor cells dependent on its paralogous gene COPZ1.  

PubMed

Anticancer drugs are effective against tumors that depend on the molecular target of the drug. Known targets of cytotoxic anticancer drugs are involved in cell proliferation; drugs acting on such targets are ineffective against nonproliferating tumor cells, survival of which leads to eventual therapy failure. Function-based genomic screening identified the coatomer protein complex ?1 (COPZ1) gene as essential for different tumor cell types but not for normal cells. COPZ1 encodes a subunit of coatomer protein complex 1 (COPI) involved in intracellular traffic and autophagy. The knockdown of COPZ1, but not of COPZ2 encoding isoform coatomer protein complex ?2, caused Golgi apparatus collapse, blocked autophagy, and induced apoptosis in both proliferating and nondividing tumor cells. In contrast, inhibition of normal cell growth required simultaneous knockdown of both COPZ1 and COPZ2. COPZ2 (but not COPZ1) was down-regulated in the majority of tumor cell lines and in clinical samples of different cancer types. Reexpression of COPZ2 protected tumor cells from killing by COPZ1 knockdown, indicating that tumor cell dependence on COPZ1 is the result of COPZ2 silencing. COPZ2 displays no tumor-suppressive activities, but it harbors microRNA 152, which is silenced in tumor cells concurrently with COPZ2 and acts as a tumor suppressor in vitro and in vivo. Silencing of microRNA 152 in different cancers and the ensuing down-regulation of its host gene COPZ2 offer a therapeutic opportunity for proliferation-independent selective killing of tumor cells by COPZ1-targeting agents. PMID:21746916

Shtutman, Michael; Baig, Mirza; Levina, Elina; Hurteau, Gregory; Lim, Chang-Uk; Broude, Eugenia; Nikiforov, Mikhail; Harkins, Timothy T; Carmack, C Steven; Ding, Ye; Wieland, Felix; Buttyan, Ralph; Roninson, Igor B

2011-07-26

352

Tumor-specific silencing of COPZ2 gene encoding coatomer protein complex subunit ?2 renders tumor cells dependent on its paralogous gene COPZ1  

PubMed Central

Anticancer drugs are effective against tumors that depend on the molecular target of the drug. Known targets of cytotoxic anticancer drugs are involved in cell proliferation; drugs acting on such targets are ineffective against nonproliferating tumor cells, survival of which leads to eventual therapy failure. Function-based genomic screening identified the coatomer protein complex ?1 (COPZ1) gene as essential for different tumor cell types but not for normal cells. COPZ1 encodes a subunit of coatomer protein complex 1 (COPI) involved in intracellular traffic and autophagy. The knockdown of COPZ1, but not of COPZ2 encoding isoform coatomer protein complex ?2, caused Golgi apparatus collapse, blocked autophagy, and induced apoptosis in both proliferating and nondividing tumor cells. In contrast, inhibition of normal cell growth required simultaneous knockdown of both COPZ1 and COPZ2. COPZ2 (but not COPZ1) was down-regulated in the majority of tumor cell lines and in clinical samples of different cancer types. Reexpression of COPZ2 protected tumor cells from killing by COPZ1 knockdown, indicating that tumor cell dependence on COPZ1 is the result of COPZ2 silencing. COPZ2 displays no tumor-suppressive activities, but it harbors microRNA 152, which is silenced in tumor cells concurrently with COPZ2 and acts as a tumor suppressor in vitro and in vivo. Silencing of microRNA 152 in different cancers and the ensuing down-regulation of its host gene COPZ2 offer a therapeutic opportunity for proliferation-independent selective killing of tumor cells by COPZ1-targeting agents. PMID:21746916

Shtutman, Michael; Baig, Mirza; Levina, Elina; Hurteau, Gregory; Lim, Chang-uk; Broude, Eugenia; Nikiforov, Mikhail; Harkins, Timothy T.; Carmack, C. Steven; Ding, Ye; Wieland, Felix; Buttyan, Ralph; Roninson, Igor B.

2011-01-01

353

Physical methods for gene transfer.  

PubMed

The key impediment to the successful application of gene therapy in clinics is not the paucity of therapeutic genes. It is rather the lack of nontoxic and efficient strategies to transfer therapeutic genes into target cells. Over the past few decades, considerable progress has been made in gene transfer technologies, and thus far, three different delivery systems have been developed with merits and demerits characterizing each system. Viral and chemical methods of gene transfer utilize specialized carrier to overcome membrane barrier and facilitate gene transfer into cells. Physical methods, on the other hand, utilize various forms of mechanical forces to enforce gene entry into cells. Starting in 1980s, physical methods have been introduced as alternatives to viral and chemical methods to overcome various extra- and intracellular barriers that limit the amount of DNA reaching the intended cells. Accumulating evidence suggests that it is quite feasible to directly translocate genes into cytoplasm or even nuclei of target cells by means of mechanical force, bypassing endocytosis, a common pathway for viral and nonviral vectors. Indeed, several methods have been developed, and the majority of them share the same underlying mechanism of gene transfer, i.e., physically created transient pores in cell membrane through which genes get into cells. Here, we provide an overview of the current status and future research directions in the field of physical methods of gene transfer. PMID:25620006

Alsaggar, Mohammad; Liu, Dexi

2015-01-01

354

Changes in Oleic Acid Content of Transgenic Soybeans by Antisense RNA Mediated Posttranscriptional Gene Silencing  

PubMed Central

The Delta-12 oleate desaturase gene (FAD2-1), which converts oleic acid into linoleic acid, is the key enzyme determining the fatty acid composition of seed oil. In this study, we inhibited the expression of endogenous Delta-12 oleate desaturase GmFad2-1b gene by using antisense RNA in soybean Williams 82. By employing the soybean cotyledonary-node method, a part of the cDNA of soybean GmFad2-1b 801?bp was cloned for the construction of a pCAMBIA3300 vector under the soybean seed promoter BCSP. Leaf painting, LibertyLink strip, PCR, Southern blot, qRT-PCR, and fatty acid analysis were used to detect the insertion and expression of GmFad2-1b in the transgenic soybean lines. The results indicate that the metabolically engineered plants exhibited a significant increase in oleic acid (up to 51.71%) and a reduction in palmitic acid (to <3%) in their seed oil content. No structural differences were observed between the fatty acids of the transgenic and the nontransgenic oil extracts. PMID:25197629

Zhang, Ling; Yang, Xiang-dong; Zhang, Yuan-yu; Yang, Jing; Qi, Guang-xun; Guo, Dong-quan; Xing, Guo-jie; Yao, Yao; Xu, Wen-jing; Li, Hai-yun; Li, Qi-yun; Dong, Ying-shan

2014-01-01

355

Virus-induced gene silencing in soybean seeds and the emergence stage of soybean plants with Apple latent spherical virus vectors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS) has great potential as a reverse-genetics tool in plant genomics. In this study, we examined\\u000a the potential of VIGS in soybean seeds and the emergence stage of soybean plants using Apple latent spherical virus (ALSV) vectors. Inoculation of an ALSV vector (soyPDS-ALSV) carrying a fragment of the soybean phytoene desaturase (soyPDS) gene into soybean seedlings resulted

Noriko Yamagishi; Nobuyuki Yoshikawa

2009-01-01

356

Silencing of Gm FAD3 gene by siRNA leads to low ?-linolenic acids (18:3) of fad3 -mutant phenotype in soybean [ Glycine max (Merr.)  

Microsoft Academic Search

RNA interference (RNAi) has been recently employed as an effective experimental tool for both basic and applied biological\\u000a studies in various organisms including plants. RNAi deploys small RNAs, mainly small interfering RNAs (siRNAs), to mediate\\u000a the degradation of mRNA for regulating gene expression in plants. Here we report an efficient siRNA-mediated gene silencing\\u000a of the omega-3 fatty acid desaturase (FAD3)

Teresita Flores; Olga Karpova; Xiujuan Su; Peiyu Zeng; Kristin Bilyeu; David A. Sleper; Henry T. Nguyen; Zhanyuan J. Zhang

2008-01-01

357

Carrier-free cellular uptake and the gene-silencing activity of the lipophilic siRNAs is strongly affected by the length of the linker between siRNA and lipophilic group  

PubMed Central

The conjugation of siRNA to molecules, which can be internalized into the cell via natural transport mechanisms, can result in the enhancement of siRNA cellular uptake. Herein, the carrier-free cellular uptake of nuclease-resistant anti-MDR1 siRNA equipped with lipophilic residues (cholesterol, lithocholic acid, oleyl alcohol and litocholic acid oleylamide) attached to the 5?-end of the sense strand via oligomethylene linker of various length was investigated. A convenient combination of H-phosphonate and phosphoramidite methods was developed for the synthesis of 5?-lipophilic conjugates of siRNAs. It was found that lipophilic siRNA are able to effectively penetrate into HEK293, HepG2 and KB-8-5 cancer cells when used in a micromolar concentration range. The efficiency of the uptake is dependent upon the type of lipophilic moiety, the length of the linker between the moiety and the siRNA and cell type. Among all the conjugates tested, the cholesterol-conjugated siRNAs with linkers containing from 6 to 10 carbon atoms demonstrate the optimal uptake and gene silencing properties: the shortening of the linker reduces the efficiency of the cellular uptake of siRNA conjugates, whereas the lengthening of the linker facilitates the uptake but retards the gene silencing effect and decreases the efficiency of the silencing. PMID:22080508

Petrova, Natalya S.; Chernikov, Ivan V.; Meschaninova, Mariya I.; Dovydenko, IIya S.; Venyaminova, Aliya G.; Zenkova, Marina A.; Vlassov, Valentin V.; Chernolovskaya, Elena L.

2012-01-01

358

The post-transcriptional gene silencing machinery functions independently of DNA methylation to repress a LINE1-like retrotransposon in Neurospora crassa.  

PubMed

Post-transcriptional gene silencing (PTGS) involving small interfering RNA (siRNA)-directed degradation of RNA transcripts and transcriptional silencing via DNA methylation have each been proposed as mechanisms of genome defence against invading nucleic acids, such as transposons and viruses. Furthermore, recent data from plants indicates that many transposons are silenced via a combination of the two mechanisms, and siRNAs can direct methylation of transposon sequences. We investigated the contribution of DNA methylation and the PTGS pathway to transposon control in the filamentous fungus Neurospora crassa. We found that repression of the LINE1-like transposon, Tad, requires the Argonaute protein QDE2 and Dicer, each of which are required for transgene-induced PTGS (quelling) in N.crassa. Interestingly, unlike quelling, the RNA-dependent RNA polymerase QDE1 and the RecQ DNA helicase QDE3 were not required for Tad control, suggesting the existence of specialized silencing pathways for diverse kinds of repetitive elements. In contrast, Tad elements were not significantly methylated and the DIM2 DNA methyltransferase, responsible for all known DNA methylation in Neurospora, had no effect on Tad control. Thus, an RNAi-related transposon silencing mechanism operates during the vegetative phase of N.crassa that is independent of DNA methylation, highlighting a major difference between this organism and other methylation-proficient species. PMID:15767281

Nolan, Tony; Braccini, Laura; Azzalin, Gianluca; De Toni, Arianna; Macino, Giuseppe; Cogoni, Carlo

2005-01-01

359

New wind in the sails: improving the agronomic value of crop plants through RNAi-mediated gene silencing.  

PubMed

RNA interference (RNAi) has emerged as a powerful genetic tool for scientific research over the past several years. It has been utilized not only in fundamental research for the assessment of gene function, but also in various fields of applied research, such as human and veterinary medicine and agriculture. In plants, RNAi strategies have the potential to allow manipulation of various aspects of food quality and nutritional content. In addition, the demonstration that agricultural pests, such as insects and nematodes, can be killed by exogenously supplied RNAi targeting their essential genes has raised the possibility that plant predation can be controlled by lethal RNAi signals generated in planta. Indeed, recent evidence argues that this strategy, called host-induced gene silencing (HIGS), is effective against sucking insects and nematodes; it also has been shown to compromise the growth and development of pathogenic fungi, as well as bacteria and viruses, on their plant hosts. Here, we review recent studies that reveal the enormous potential RNAi strategies hold not only for improving the nutritive value and safety of the food supply, but also for providing an environmentally friendly mechanism for plant protection. PMID:25040343

Koch, Aline; Kogel, Karl-Heinz

2014-09-01

360

Cationic Lipid–Nucleic Acid Complexes for Gene Delivery and Silencing: Pathways and Mechanisms for Plasmid DNA and siRNA  

PubMed Central

Motivated by the promises of gene therapy, there is a large interest in developing non-viral lipid-based vectors for therapeutic applications due to their nonimmunogenicity, low toxicity, ease of production, and the potential of transferring large pieces of DNA into cells. In fact, cationic lipid (CL) based vectors are among the prevalent synthetic carriers of nucleic acids (NAs) currently used in human clinical gene therapy trials worldwide. These vectors are studied both for gene delivery with CL–DNA complexes and gene silencing with CL–siRNA (short-interfering RNA) complexes. However, their transfection efficiencies and silencing efficiencies remain low compared to those of engineered viral vectors. This reflects the currently poor understanding of transfection-related mechanisms at the molecular and self-assembled levels, including a lack of knowledge about interactions between membranes and double stranded NAs and between CL–NA complexes and cellular components. In this review, we describe our recent efforts to improve the mechanistic understanding of transfection by CL–NA complexes, which will help to design optimal lipid-based carriers of DNA and siRNA for therapeutic gene delivery and gene silencing. PMID:21504103

Ewert, Kai K.; Zidovska, Alexandra; Ahmad, Ayesha; Bouxsein, Nathan F.; Evans, Heather M.; McAllister, Christopher S.; Samuel, Charles E.; Safinya, Cyrus R.

2013-01-01

361

A Visual Reporter System for Virus-Induced Gene Silencing in Tomato Fruit Based on Anthocyanin Accumulation1[C][W  

PubMed Central

Virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS) is a powerful tool for reverse genetics in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum). However, the irregular distribution of the effects of VIGS hampers the identification and quantification of nonvisual phenotypes. To overcome this limitation, a visually traceable VIGS system was developed for fruit, comprising two elements: (1) a transgenic tomato line (Del/Ros1) expressing Antirrhinum majus Delila and Rosea1 transcription factors under the control of the fruit-specific E8 promoter, showing a purple-fruited, anthocyanin-rich phenotype; and (2) a modified tobacco rattle virus VIGS vector incorporating partial Rosea1 and Delila sequences, which was shown to restore the red-fruited phenotype upon agroinjection in Del/Ros1 plants. Dissection of silenced areas for subsequent chemometric analysis successfully identified the relevant metabolites underlying gene function for three tomato genes, phytoene desaturase, TomloxC, and SlODO1, used for proof of concept. The C-6 aldehydes derived from lipid 13-hydroperoxidation were found to be the volatile compounds most severely affected by TomloxC silencing, whereas geranial and 6-methyl-5-hepten-2-one were identified as the volatiles most severely reduced by phytoene desaturase silencing in ripening fruit. In a third example, silencing of SlODO1, a tomato homolog of the ODORANT1 gene encoding a myb transcription factor, which regulates benzenoid metabolism in petunia (Petunia hybrida) flowers, resulted in a sharp accumulation of benzaldehyde in tomato fruit. Together, these results indicate that fruit VIGS, enhanced by anthocyanin monitoring, can be a powerful tool for reverse genetics in the study of the metabolic networks operating during fruit ripening. PMID:19429602

Orzaez, Diego; Medina, Aurora; Torre, Sara; Fernández-Moreno, Josefina Patricia; Rambla, José Luis; Fernández-del-Carmen, Asun; Butelli, Eugenio; Martin, Cathie; Granell, Antonio

2009-01-01

362

Phytobacterial Type III Effectors HopX1, HopAB1 and HopF2 Enhance Sense-Post-Transcriptional Gene Silencing Independently of Plant R Gene-Effector Recognition  

PubMed Central

Plant- and animal-pathogenic bacteria deploy a variable arsenal of type III effector proteins (T3EP) to manipulate host defense. Specific biochemical functions and molecular or subcellular targets have been demonstrated or proposed for a growing number of T3EP but remain unknown for the majority of them. Here, we show that transient expression of genes coding certain bacterial T3EP (HopAB1, HopX1, and HopF2), which did not elicit hypersensitive response (HR) in transgenic green fluorescent protein (GFP) Nicotiana benthamiana 16C line, enhanced the sense post-transcriptional gene silencing (S-PTGS) triggered by agrodelivery of a GFP-expressing cassette and the silencing enhancement could be blocked by two well-known viral silencing suppressors. Further analysis using genetic truncations and site-directed mutations showed that the receptor recognition domains of HopAB1 and HopX1 are not involved in enhancing silencing Our studies provide new evidence that phytobacterial pathogen T3EP manipulate the plant small interfering RNA pathways by enhancing silencing efficiency in the absence of effector-triggered immunity signaling and suggest that phytopathogenic bacterial effectors affect host RNA silencing in yet other ways than previously described. PMID:21469938

Sarris, Panagiotis F.; Gao, Shang; Karademiris, Konstantinos; Jin, Hailing; Kalantidis, Kriton; Panopoulos, Nickolas J.

2013-01-01

363

Dnmt3a1 upregulates transcription of distinct genes and targets chromosomal gene clusters for epigenetic silencing in mouse embryonic stem cells.  

PubMed

Dnmt3a1 and Dnmt3a2 are two de novo DNA methyltransferases expressed in mouse embryonic stem cells (mESCs). They differ in that a 219-amino-acid (aa) amino (N)-terminal noncatalytic domain is present only in Dnmt3a1. Here, we examined the unique functions of Dnmt3a1 in mESCs by targeting the coding sequence of the Dnmt3a1 N-terminal domain tagged with enhanced green fluorescent protein (GFP) for insertion into the mouse Rosa26 locus. Using these targeted cells (GFP-3a1Nter), we showed that Dnmt3a1 was efficiently recruited to the silenced Oct3/4 and activated Vtn (vitronectin) gene promoters via its unique N-terminal domain. This recruitment affected the two genes in contrasting ways, compromising Oct3/4 gene promoter DNA methylation to prevent consolidation of the silent state while significantly reducing Vtn transcription. We used this negative effect of the Dnmt3a1 N-terminal domain to investigate the extent of transcriptional regulation by Dnmt3a1 in mESCs by using microarrays. A small group of all-trans retinoic acid (tRA)-inducible genes had lower transcript levels in GFP-3a1Nter cells than in wild-type mESCs. Intriguingly, this group included genes that are important for fetal nutrition, placenta development, and metabolic functions and is enriched for a distinct set of imprinted genes. We also identified a larger group of genes that showed higher transcript levels in the GFP-3a1Nter-expressing cells than in wild-type mESCs, including pluripotency factors and key regulators of primordial germ cell differentiation. Thus, Dnmt3a1 in mESCs functions primarily as a negative and to a lesser extent as a positive regulator of transcription. Our findings suggest that Dnmt3a1 positively affects transcription of specific genes at the promoter level and targets chromosomal domains to epigenetically silence gene clusters in mESCs. PMID:21262766

Kotini, Andriana G; Mpakali, Anastasia; Agalioti, Theodora

2011-04-01

364

Chemical genomic screening for methylation-silenced genes in gastric cancer cell lines using 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine treatment and oligonucleotide microarray.  

PubMed

To identify novel methylation-silenced genes in gastric cancers, we carried out a chemical genomic screening, a genome-wide search for genes upregulated by treatment with a demethylating agent, 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine (5-aza-dC). After 5-aza-dC treatment of a gastric cancer cell line (AGS) 579 genes were upregulated 16-fold or more, using an oligonucleotide microarray with 39,000 genes. From these genes, we selected 44 known genes on autosomes whose silencing in gastric cancer has not been reported. Thirty-two of these had CpG islands (CGI) in their putative promoter regions, and all of the CGI were methylated in AGS, giving an estimated number of 421+/-75 (95% confidence interval) methylation-silenced genes. Additionally, we analyzed the methylation status of 16 potential tumor-related genes with promoter CGI that were upregulated four-fold or more, and 14 of these were methylated in AGS. Methylation status of the 32 randomly selected and 16 potential tumor-related genes was analyzed in 10 primary gastric cancers, and 42 genes (ABHD9, ADFP, ALDH1A3, ANXA5, AREG, BDNF, BMP7, CAV1, CDH2, CLDN3, CTSL, EEF1A2, F2R, FADS1, FSD1, FST, FYN, GPR54, GREM1, IGFBP3, IGFBP7, IRS2, KISS1, MARK1, MLF1, MSX1, MTSS1, NT5E, PAX6, PLAGL1, PLAU, PPIC, RBP4, RORA, SCRN1, TBX3, TFAP2C, TNFSF9, ULBP2, WIF1, ZNF177 and ZNF559) were methylated in at least one primary gastric cancer. A metastasis suppressor gene, MTSS1, was located in a genomic region with frequent loss of heterozygosity (8q22), and was expressed abundantly in the normal gastric mucosa, suggesting its role in gastric carcinogenesis. (Cancer Sci 2006; 97: 64 -71). PMID:16367923

Yamashita, Satoshi; Tsujino, Yoshimi; Moriguchi, Kazuki; Tatematsu, Masae; Ushijima, Toshikazu

2006-01-01

365

Evaluation of DNA fragments covering the entire genome of a monopartite begomovirus for induction of viral resistance in transgenic plants via gene silencing.  

PubMed

Tomato-infecting begomoviruses, a member of whitefly-transmitted geminivirus, cause the most devastating virus disease complex of cultivated tomato crops in the tropical and subtropical regions. Numerous strategies have been used to engineer crops for their resistance to geminiviruses. However, nearly all have concentrated on engineering the replication-associated gene (Rep), but not on a comprehensive evaluation of the entire virus genome. In this study, Tomato leaf curl Taiwan virus (ToLCTWV), a predominant tomato-infecting begomovirus in Taiwan, was subjected to the investigation of the viral gene fragments conferring resistance to geminiviruses in transgenic plants. Ten transgenic constructs covering the entire ToLCTWV genome were fused to a silencer DNA, the middle half of N gene of Tomato spot wilt virus (TSWV), to induce gene silencing and these constructs were transformed into Nicotiana benthamiana plants. Two constructs derived from IRC1 (intergenic region flanked with 5' end Rep) and C2 (partial C2 ORF) were able to render resistance to ToLCTWV in transgenic N. benthamiana plants. Transgenic plants transformed with two other constructs, C2C3 (overlapping region of C2 and C3 ORFs) and Rep2 (3' end of the C1 ORF), significantly delayed the symptom development. Detection of siRNA confirmed that the mechanism of resistance was via gene silencing. This study demonstrated for the first time the screening of the entire genome of a monopartite begomovirus to discover viral DNA fragments that might be suitable for conferring virus resistance, and which could be potential candidates for developing transgenic plants with durable and broad-spectrum resistance to a DNA virus via a gene silencing approach. PMID:21597979

Lin, Ching-Yi; Tsai, Wen-Shi; Ku, Hsin-Mei; Jan, Fuh-Jyh

2012-04-01

366

Conditional silencing of the Escherichia coli pykF gene results from artificial convergent transcription protected from Rho-dependent termination.  

PubMed

PykF is one of two pyruvate kinases in Escherichia coli K-12. lambdaP(L) was convergently integrated into the chromosome of the MG1655 strain, downstream of pykF, face-to-face with its native promoter. In the presence of lambdacIts857, efficient pykF ts-silencing was achieved when the 5'-terminus of the P(L)-originated antisense RNA (asRNA), consisting of the rrnG-AT sequence, converted elongation complexes of RNA polymerase to a form resistant to Rho-dependent transcription termination. pykF silencing was detected by the following features: (a) impaired growth of the strain when pykA was also disrupted and when using ribose as a non-phosphotransferase system-transporting carbon source; (b) a pattern of reduced synthesis of the full-sized pykF mRNA, mediated by reverse transcription PCR, and (c) a significant decrease in PykF activity. The advantages of anti-terminated convergent transcription were clearly manifested in the strains where the rho_a-terminator was inserted specifically to interrupt asRNA synthesis. Most likely, the target gene was silenced by transcriptional interference due to collisions between converging RNA polymerases, although, strictly, the role of cis-asRNA effects could not be excluded. While details of the mechanisms have yet to be determined, anti-terminated convergent transcription is a promising new technique for silencing other target genes. PMID:20068353

Krylov, Alexander A; Airich, Larisa G; Kiseleva, Evgeniya M; Minaeva, Natalia I; Biryukova, Irina V; Mashko, Sergey V

2010-01-01

367

Silencing the HaAK gene by transgenic plant-mediated RNAi impairs larval growth of Helicoverpa armigera.  

PubMed

Insect pests have caused noticeable economic losses in agriculture, and the heavy use of insecticide to control pests not only brings the threats of insecticide resistance but also causes the great pollution to foods and the environment. Transgenic plants producing double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) directed against insect genes have been is currently developed for protection against insect pests. In this study, we used this technology to silence the arginine kinase (AK) gene of Helicoverpa armigera (HaAK), encoding a phosphotransferase that plays a critical role in cellular energy metabolism in invertebrate. Transgenic Arabidopsis plants producing HaAK dsRNA were generated by Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. The maximal mortality rate of 55% was reached when H. armigera first-instar larvae were fed with transgenic plant leaves for 3 days, which was dramatically higher than the 18% mortality recorded in the control group. Moreover, the ingestion of transgenic plants significantly retarded larval growth, and the transcript levels of HaAK were also knocked down by up to 52%. The feeding bioassays further indicated that the inhibition efficiency was correlated with the integrity and concentration of the produced HaAK dsRNA in transgenic plants. These results strongly show that the resistance to H. armigera was improved in transgenic Arabidopsis plants, suggesting that the RNAi targeting of AK has the potential for the control of insect pests. PMID:25552931

Liu, Feng; Wang, Xiao-Dong; Zhao, Yi-Ying; Li, Yan-Jun; Liu, Yong-Chang; Sun, Jie

2015-01-01

368

Silencing the HaAK Gene by Transgenic Plant-Mediated RNAi Impairs Larval Growth of Helicoverpa armigera  

PubMed Central

Insect pests have caused noticeable economic losses in agriculture, and the heavy use of insecticide to control pests not only brings the threats of insecticide resistance but also causes the great pollution to foods and the environment. Transgenic plants producing double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) directed against insect genes have been is currently developed for protection against insect pests. In this study, we used this technology to silence the arginine kinase (AK) gene of Helicoverpa armigera (HaAK), encoding a phosphotransferase that plays a critical role in cellular energy metabolism in invertebrate. Transgenic Arabidopsis plants producing HaAK dsRNA were generated by Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. The maximal mortality rate of 55% was reached when H. armigera first-instar larvae were fed with transgenic plant leaves for 3 days, which was dramatically higher than the 18% mortality recorded in the control group. Moreover, the ingestion of transgenic plants significantly retarded larval growth, and the transcript levels of HaAK were also knocked down by up to 52%. The feeding bioassays further indicated that the inhibition efficiency was correlated with the integrity and concentration of the produced HaAK dsRNA in transgenic plants. These results strongly show that the resistance to H. armigera was improved in transgenic Arabidopsis plants, suggesting that the RNAi targeting of AK has the potential for the control of insect pests. PMID:25552931

Liu, Feng; Wang, Xiao-Dong; Zhao, Yi-Ying; Li, Yan-Jun; Liu, Yong-Chang; Sun, Jie

2015-01-01

369

Chitosan Hydrogel as siRNA vector for prolonged gene silencing  

PubMed Central

Background The periodontitis is one of the most prevalent diseases with alveolar resorption in adult people and is the main cause of the tooth loss. To investigate the possibility for protecting the loss of alveolar bone in periodontal diseases, a RNAi-based therapeutic strategy is applied for silencing RANK signaling using thermosensitive chitosan hydrogel as siRNA reservoir and vector. Results The thermosensitive chitosan hydrogel was formed from solution (PH = 7.2, at 4°C) at 37°C within 8 minutes. The degradation rates of hydrogel were ~50% and 5% (W remaining/W beginning) in the presence and absence of lysozyme, respectively, over a period of 20 days. The concurrent cumulative in vitro release of Cy3-labeled siRNA from the hydrogel was 50% and 17% over 14 days, with or without lysozyme digestion, respectively. High cell viability (>88%) was maintained for cells treated with hydrogel loaded with RANK specific siRNA and RANK knockdown was prolonged for up to 9 days when cells were incubated with siRNA/hydrogel complex. In vivo release of siRNA was investigated in a subcutaneous delivery setup in mice. The fluorescent signal from siRNA within hydrogel was remained for up to 14 days compared to less than one day for siRNA alone. Conclusions Chitosan hydrogel can potentially serve as a suitable reservoir and vector for local sustained delivery of siRNA in potential therapy. PMID:24946934

2014-01-01

370

Aberrant silencing of the endocrine peptide gene tachykinin-1 in gastric cancer  

SciTech Connect

Tachykinin-1 (TAC1) is the precursor protein for neuroendocrine peptides, including substance P, and is centrally involved in gastric secretion, motility, mucosal immunity, and cell proliferation. Here we report aberrant silencing of TAC1 in gastric cancer (GC) by promoter hypermethylation. TAC1 methylation and mRNA expression in 47 primary GCs and 41 noncancerous gastric mucosae (NLs) were analyzed by utilizing real-time quantitative PCR-based assays. TAC1 methylation was more prevalent in GCs than in NLs: 21 (45%) of 47 GCs versus 6 (15%) of 41 NLs (p < 0.01). Microsatellite instability was also associated with TAC1 methylation in GCs. There was no significant association between TAC1 methylation and age, gender, stage, histological differentiation, or the presence of Helicobacter pylori. TAC1 mRNA was markedly downregulated in GCs relative to NLs. 5-Aza-2'-deoxycytidine-induced demethylation of the TAC1 promoter resulted in TAC1 mRNA upregulation. Further studies are indicated to elucidate the functional involvement of TAC1 in gastric carcinogenesis.

David, Stefan; Kan, Takatsugu; Cheng, Yulan; Agarwal, Rachana; Jin, Zhe [Department of Medicine, Division of Gastroenterology, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, 1503 E. Jefferson Street Office 108, Baltimore, MA 21287 (United States); Mori, Yuriko [Department of Medicine, Division of Gastroenterology, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, 1503 E. Jefferson Street Office 108, Baltimore, MA 21287 (United States)], E-mail: ymori3@jhmi.edu

2009-01-16

371

B7-H3 expression in breast cancer and upregulation of VEGF through gene silence  

PubMed Central

B7-H3, a novel member of the B7 family, was previously known as a regulatory ligand regulating T-cell-mediated immune response, and in recent years it was found to take a significant role in various cancers. In some tumor types, high expression of B7-H3 had been linked to a poor prognosis, whereas in other cancers the opposite effect had been observed. The precise role of B7-H3 in tumor immunity is unclear, and further investigations are needed. In the present study, we studied the expression of B7-H3 in the pathologic specimens of 221 patients treated for breast cancer by immunohistochemistry. Strong B7-H3 expression was found in cancer tissues from 80.55% patients, and B7-H3 expression had a negative relation with vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) expression, microvascular density for CD34, and tumor size. Furthermore, through lipopolysaccharide-mediated delivery of stable short hairpin ribonucleic acid we observed that silencing of B7-H3 could increase the transcription and secreting of VEGF in breast cancer cell line MCF-7. In summary, the present study demonstrated that B7-H3 suppressed tumor growth through inhibiting VEGF expression. These results increased knowledge of the nonimmunological role of B7-H3 protein and provided novel insights into great biological functions and a putative therapeutic target in breast cancer. PMID:25378933

Sun, Jing; Guo, Yun-Di; Li, Xiao-Ning; Zhang, Yang-Qin; Gu, Li; Wu, Ping-Ping; Bai, Guang-Hui; Xiao, Yang

2014-01-01

372

Global methylation silencing of clustered proto-cadherin genes in cervical cancer: serving as diagnostic markers comparable to HPV  

PubMed Central

Epigenetic remodeling of cell adhesion genes is a common phenomenon in cancer invasion. This study aims to investigate global methylation of cell adhesion genes in cervical carcinogenesis and to apply them in early detection of cancer from cervical scraping. Genome-wide methylation array was performed on an investigation cohort, including 16 cervical intraepithelial neoplasia 3 (CIN3) and 20 cervical cancers (CA) versus 12 each of normal, inflammation and CIN1 as controls. Twelve members of clustered proto-cadherin (PCDH) genes were collectively methylated and silenced, which were validated in cancer cells of the cervix, endometrium, liver, head and neck, breast, and lung. In an independent cohort including 107 controls, 66 CIN1, 85 CIN2/3, and 38 CA, methylated PCDHA4 and PCDHA13 were detected in 2.8%, 24.2%, 52.9%, and 84.2% (P < 10?25), and 2.8%, 24.2%, 50.6%, and 94.7% (P < 10?29), respectively. In diagnosis of CIN2 or more severe lesion of the cervix, a combination test of methylated PCDHA4 or PCDHA13 from cervical scraping had a sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value of 74.8%, 80.3%, 73%, and 81.8%, respectively. Testing of this combination from cervical scraping is equally sensitive but more specific than human papillomavirus (HPV) test in diagnosis of CIN2 or more severe lesions. The study disclosed a collective methylation of PCDH genes in cancer of cervix and other sites. At least two of them can be promising diagnostic markers for cervical cancer noninferior to HPV. PMID:25418975

Wang, Kai-Hung; Lin, Cuei-Jyuan; Liu, Chou-Jen; Liu, Dai-Wei; Huang, Rui-Lan; Ding, Dah-Ching; Weng, Ching-Feng; Chu, Tang-Yuan

2015-01-01

373

Manipulation of saponin biosynthesis by RNA interference-mediated silencing of ?-amyrin synthase gene expression in soybean.  

PubMed

Soybean seeds contain substantial amount of diverse triterpenoid saponins that influence the seed quality, although little is known about the physiologic functions of saponins in plants. We now describe the modification of saponin biosynthesis by RNA interference (RNAi)-mediated gene silencing targeted to ?-amyrin synthase, a key enzyme in the synthesis of a common aglycon of soybean saponins. We identified two putative ?-amyrin synthase genes in soybean that manifested distinct expression patterns with regard to developmental stage and tissue specificity. Given that one of these genes, GmBAS1, was expressed at a much higher level than the other (GmBAS2) in various tissues including the developing seeds, we constructed two RNAi vectors that encode self-complementary hairpin RNAs corresponding to the distinct regions of GmBAS1 under the control of a seed-specific promoter derived from the soybean gene for the ?' subunit of the seed storage protein ?-conglycinin. These vectors were introduced independently into soybean. Six independent transgenic lines exhibited a stable reduction in seed saponin content, with the extent of saponin deficiency correlating with the ?-amyrin synthase mRNA depletion. Although some transgenic lines produced seeds almost devoid of saponins, no abnormality in their growth was apparent and the antioxidant activity of their seeds was similar to that of control seeds. These results suggest that saponins are not required for seed development and survival, and that soybean seeds may therefore be amenable to the modification of triterpenoid saponin content and composition through molecular biologic approaches. PMID:21630021

Takagi, Kyoko; Nishizawa, Keito; Hirose, Aya; Kita, Akiko; Ishimoto, Masao

2011-10-01

374

Gene-silencing reveals the functional significance of pheromone biosynthesis activating neuropeptide receptor (PBAN-R) in a male moth  

PubMed Central

The role of pheromone biosynthesis activating neuropeptide (PBAN) in the regulation of pheromone biosynthesis of several female moth species is well elucidated, but its role in the males has been a mystery for over two decades since its discovery from both male and female central nervous systems. In previous studies we have identified the presence of the gene transcript for the PBAN-G-protein coupled receptor (PBAN-R) in Helicoverpa armigera male hair-pencil-aedaegus complexes (male complexes), a tissue structurally homologous to the female pheromone gland. Moreover, we showed that this transcript is up-regulated during pupal-adult development, analogous to its regulation in the female pheromone-glands, thereby indicating a likely functional gene. Here we argue in favor of PBAN’s role in regulating the free fatty-acid components (myristic, palmitic, stearic, and oleic acids) and alcohol components (hexadecanol, cis-11 hexadecanol, and octadecanol) in male complexes. We demonstrate the diel periodicity in levels of male components, with peak titers occurring during the 7th–9th h in the scotophase, coincident with female pheromone production. In addition, we show significant stimulation of component levels by synthetic HezPBAN. Furthermore, we confirm PBAN’s function in this tissue through knockdown of the PBAN-R gene using RNAi-mediated gene-silencing. Injections of PBAN-R dsRNA into the male hemocoel significantly inhibited levels of the various male components by 58%–74%. In conclusion, through gain and loss of function we revealed the functionality of the PBAN-R and the key components that are up-regulated by PBAN. PMID:20837549

Bober, Rachel; Rafaeli, Ada

2010-01-01

375

Motor Responses and Weight Gaining in Neonates through Use of Two Methods of Earmuff and Receiving Silence in NICU  

PubMed Central

Background and Aims. With technological advances in NICUs the survival rate of preterm infants has been increased. Because NICU environment is a potent source of stress for infants, its modification is an essential measure to decrease infants' morbidity. The purposes of this study were to compare the effects of wearing earmuff and provision silence for infants on their motor responses and gaining weight. Methods. In a randomized clinical trial 96 preterm infants were enrolled. Their motor responses were evaluated for two consecutive days in the morning and afternoon shifts, in the groups of earmuff and silence, and at similar time points in the control group. Also their weight was measured at days 1 and 10. Results. In the two intervention groups, means of motor responses in infants were significantly less than in the control group, and weight gain of infants was more than the control group. However weight gain was more pronounced in the earmuff group. Conclusion. Both interventions led to decreasing number of motor responses and improvement of weight gain pattern, but these effects were more pronounced in earmuff group; thus because implementation of silence in NICUs has many barriers, it is suggested to use earmuff for preterm infants in these units. This trial obtained IRCT registration number IRCT2012092010812N2. PMID:25614898

Abdeyazdan, Z.; Ghasemi, S.; Marofi, M.; Berjis, N.

2014-01-01

376

Molecular Cloning and Functional Characterization of the Lycopene ?-Cyclase Gene via Virus-Induced Gene Silencing and Its Expression Pattern in Nicotiana tabacum  

PubMed Central

Lycopene ?-cyclase (?-LCY) is a key enzyme that catalyzes the synthesis of ?-branch carotenoids through the cyclization of lycopene. Two cDNA molecules encoding ?-LCY (designated Nt?-LCY1 and Nt?-LCY2) were cloned from Nicotiana tabacum. Nt?-LCY1 and Nt?-LCY2 are encoded by two distinct genes with different evolutionary origins, one originating from the tobacco progenitor, Nicotiana sylve