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1

Virus-induced gene silencing, a post transcriptional gene silencing method.  

PubMed

Virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS) is one of the reverse genetics tools for analysis of gene function that uses viral vectors carrying a target gene fragment to produce dsRNA which trigger RNA-mediated gene silencing. There are a number of viruses which have been modified to silence the gene of interest effectively with a sequence-specific manner. Therefore, different types of methodologies have been advanced and modified for VIGS approach. Virus-derived inoculations are performed on host plants using different methods such as agro-infiltration and in vitro transcriptions. VIGS has many advantages compared to other loss-of-gene function approaches. The approach provides the generation of rapid phenotype and no need for plant transformation. The cost of VIGS experiment is relatively low, and large-scale analysis of screening studies can be achieved by the VIGS. However, there are still limitations of VIGS to be overcome. Nowadays, many virus-derived vectors are optimized to silence more than one host plant such as TRV-derived viral vectors which are used for Arabidopsis and Nicothiana benthamiana. By development of viral silencing systems monocot plants can also be targeted as silencing host in addition to dicotyledonous plants. For instance, Barley stripe mosaic virus (BSMV)-mediated VIGS allows silencing of barley and wheat genes. Here we summarize current protocols and recent modified viral systems to lead silencing of genes in different host species. PMID:19547658

Unver, Turgay; Budak, Hikmet

2009-01-01

2

A comparison of methods for successful triggering of gene silencing in Coprinus cinereus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Post-transcriptional gene-silencing methods (PTGS), including RNAi, are becoming increasingly pervasive in functional genomics.\\u000a To advance analysis of the recently sequenced Coprinus cinereus genome, a high throughput gene silencing method is essential. We have exploited the GFP reporter gene to evaluate and quantify\\u000a efficacy of three different silencing strategies. Modular constructs that encompassed antisense, untranslatable sense, and RNAi-mediating hairpin sequences, were

Mary N. Heneghan; Ana M. S. B. Costa; Michael P. Challen; Peter R. Mills; Andy Bailey; Gary D. Foster

2007-01-01

3

A virus-induced gene silencing method to study soybean cyst nematode parasitism in Glycine max  

PubMed Central

Background Bean pod mottle virus (BPMV) based virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS) vectors have been developed and used in soybean for the functional analysis of genes involved in disease resistance to foliar pathogens. However, BPMV-VIGS protocols for studying genes involved in disease resistance or symbiotic associations with root microbes have not been developed. Findings Here we describe a BPMV-VIGS protocol suitable for reverse genetic studies in soybean roots. We use this method for analyzing soybean genes involved in resistance to soybean cyst nematode (SCN). A detailed SCN screening pipeline is described. Conclusions The VIGS method described here provides a new tool to identify genes involved in soybean-nematode interactions. This method could be adapted to study genes associated with any root pathogenic or symbiotic associations. PMID:23830484

2013-01-01

4

RNAi induced gene silencing in crop improvement  

Microsoft Academic Search

The RNA silencing is one of the innovative and efficient molecular biology tools to harness the down-regulation of expression\\u000a of gene(s) specifically. To accomplish such selective modification of gene expression of a particular trait, homology dependent\\u000a gene silencing uses a stunning variety of gene silencing viz. co-suppression, post-transcriptional gene silencing, virus-induced\\u000a gene silencing etc. This family of diverse molecular phenomena

Subodh Kumar Sinha

2010-01-01

5

Gene Silencing Therapy Against Cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

Over the past 25 yr, gene silencing therapy derived from nucleic acid-based molecules has evolved from bench research to clinical\\u000a therapy. The recent discovery of RNA interference (RNAi), a mechanism by which double stranded RNAs mediate sequence-specific\\u000a gene silencing, provided a new tool in the fight against cancer. The application of RNAi technology in basic cancer research\\u000a will facilitate the

Chao-Zhong Song

6

An effective virus-based gene silencing method for functional genomics studies in common bean  

PubMed Central

Background Common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) is a crop of economic and nutritious importance in many parts of the world. The lack of genomic resources have impeded the advancement of common bean genomics and thereby crop improvement. Although concerted efforts from the "Phaseomics" consortium have resulted in the development of several genomic resources, functional studies have continued to lag due to the recalcitrance of this crop for genetic transformation. Results Here we describe the use of a bean pod mottle virus (BPMV)-based vector for silencing of endogenous genes in common bean as well as for protein expression. This BPMV-based vector was originally developed for use in soybean. It has been successfully employed for both protein expression and gene silencing in this species. We tested this vector for applications in common bean by targeting common bean genes encoding nodulin 22 and stearoyl-acyl carrier protein desaturase for silencing. Our results indicate that the BPMV vector can indeed be employed for reverse genetics studies of diverse biological processes in common bean. We also used the BPMV-based vector for expressing the green fluorescent protein (GFP) in common bean and demonstrate stable GFP expression in all common bean tissues where BPMV was detected. Conclusions The availability of this vector is an important advance for the common bean research community not only because it provides a rapid means for functional studies in common bean, but also because it does so without generating genetically modified plants. Here we describe the detailed methodology and provide essential guidelines for the use of this vector for both gene silencing and protein expression in common bean. The entire VIGS procedure can be completed in 4-5 weeks. PMID:21668993

2011-01-01

7

RNA-triggered gene silencing  

Microsoft Academic Search

Double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) has recently been shown to trigger sequence-specific gene silencing in a wide variety of organisms, including nematodes, plants, trypanosomes, fruit flies and planaria; meanwhile an as yet uncharacterized RNA trigger has been shown to induce DNA methylation in several different plant systems. In addition to providing a surprisingly effective set of tools to interfere selectively with gene

Andrew Fire

1999-01-01

8

Nickel and Epigenetic Gene Silencing  

PubMed Central

Insoluble nickel compounds are well-established human carcinogens. Occupational exposure to these compounds leads to increased incidence of lung and nasal cancer in nickel refinery workers. Apart from its weak mutagenic activity and hypoxia mimicking effect there is mounting experimental evidence indicating that epigenetic alteration plays an important role in nickel-induced carcinogenesis. Multiple epigenetic mechanisms have been identified to mediate nickel-induced gene silencing. Nickel ion is able to induce heterochromatinization by binding to DNA-histone complexes and initiating chromatin condensation. The enzymes required for establishing or removing epigenetic marks can be targeted by nickel, leading to altered DNA methylation and histone modification landscapes. The current review will focus on the epigenetic changes that contribute to nickel-induced gene silencing. PMID:24705264

Sun, Hong; Shamy, Magdy; Costa, Max

2013-01-01

9

Posttranscriptional gene silencing in nuclei  

PubMed Central

In plants, small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) with sequence homology to transcribed regions of genes can guide the sequence-specific degradation of corresponding mRNAs, leading to posttranscriptional gene silencing (PTGS). The current consensus is that siRNA-mediated PTGS occurs primarily in the cytoplasm where target mRNAs are localized and translated into proteins. However, expression of an inverted-repeat double-stranded RNA corresponding to the soybean FAD2-1A desaturase intron is sufficient to silence FAD2-1, implicating nuclear precursor mRNA (pre-mRNA) rather than cytosolic mRNA as the target of PTGS. Silencing FAD2-1 using intronic or 3?-UTR sequences does not affect transcription rates of the target genes but results in the strong reduction of target transcript levels in the nucleus. Moreover, siRNAs corresponding to pre-mRNA–specific sequences accumulate in the nucleus. In Arabidopsis, we find that two enzymes involved in PTGS, Dicer-like 4 and RNA-dependent RNA polymerase 6, are localized in the nucleus. Collectively, these results demonstrate that siRNA-directed RNA degradation can take place in the nucleus, suggesting the need for a more complex view of the subcellular compartmentation of PTGS in plants. PMID:21173264

Hoffer, Paul; Ivashuta, Sergey; Pontes, Olga; Vitins, Alexa; Pikaard, Craig; Mroczka, Andrew; Wagner, Nicholas; Voelker, Toni

2011-01-01

10

MGMT Gene Silencing and Benefit from Temozolomide in Glioblastoma  

Microsoft Academic Search

background Epigenetic silencing of the MGMT (O 6 -methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase) DNA- repair gene by promoter methylation compromises DNA repair and has been associated with longer survival in patients with glioblastoma who receive alkylating agents. methods We tested the relationship between MGMT silencing in the tumor and the survival of patients who were enrolled in a randomized trial comparing radiotherapy alone

Monika E. Hegi; Annie-Claire Diserens; Thierry Gorlia; Marie-France Hamou; Nicolas de Tribolet; Michael Weller; Johan M. Kros; Johannes A. Hainfellner; Warren Mason; Luigi Mariani; Jacoline E. C. Bromberg; Peter Hau; René O. Mirimanoff; J. Gregory Cairncross; Robert C. Janzer; Roger Stupp

2005-01-01

11

Antisense Gene Silencing: Therapy for Neurodegenerative Disorders?  

PubMed Central

Since the first reports that double-stranded RNAs can efficiently silence gene expression in C. elegans, the technology of RNA interference (RNAi) has been intensively exploited as an experimental tool to study gene function. With the subsequent discovery that RNAi could also be applied to mammalian cells, the technology of RNAi expanded from being a valuable experimental tool to being an applicable method for gene-specific therapeutic regulation, and much effort has been put into further refinement of the technique. This review will focus on how RNAi has developed over the years and how the technique is exploited in a pre-clinical and clinical perspective in relation to neurodegenerative disorders. PMID:24705213

Nielsen, Troels T.; Nielsen, J?rgen E.

2013-01-01

12

Virus-induced gene silencing in detached tomatoes and biochemical effects of phytoene desaturase gene silencing.  

PubMed

Virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS) is a technology that has rapidly emerged for gene function studies in plants. Many advances have been made in applying this technique in an increasing number of crops. Recently, VIGS has been successfully used to silence genes in tomato fruit through agroinfiltration of fruit attached to the plant. The phytoene desaturase (Pds) gene has been widely used as a reporter gene in VIGS experiments, although little is known about the changes that occur due to its silencing in plants. In this paper, we describe the efficient silencing of the Pds gene through the VIGS approach in detached tomato fruits, which makes the VIGS procedure even more versatile and applicable. After 16 days of agroinfiltration, approximately 75% of the tomatoes showed Pds silencing symptoms, although the distribution of silenced areas was variable among fruits. To study the potential effects caused by Pds silencing in detached tomatoes, carotenoids and other semi-polar secondary metabolites were analyzed using Liquid Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry. In addition, potential differences in primary metabolites were analyzed using Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry. The results indicated that the yellow phenotype observed in Pds-silenced fruit was mainly due to the lack of the red-colored lycopene and therefore to a more pronounced contribution of the yellow-orange carotenoids (lutein, violaxanthin, and zeaxanthin) to the final color of the fruits. Furthermore, the biochemical changes observed in Pds-silenced detached tomatoes suggested that carotenoid and other pathways, e.g. leading to alkaloids and flavonoids, might be affected by the silencing of this reporter gene, and this should be taken into consideration for future experimental designs. PMID:21377758

Romero, Irene; Tikunov, Yury; Bovy, Arnaud

2011-07-01

13

Efficiency of different strategies for gene silencing in Botrytis cinerea.  

PubMed

The generation of knock-out mutants in fungal pathogens by gene replacement and insertional mutagenesis is the classical method to validate virulence factors. An alternative strategy consists of silencing the candidate virulence gene by making use of the phenomenon of RNA interference (RNAi), adding features such as the possibility of generating knock-down mutants with variable expression levels of the target gene or the ability to simultaneously target multiple genes. Two different approaches have been assayed to generate knock-down mutants by RNAi in the phytopathogenic fungus Botrytis cinerea. In the first one, the single nitrate reductase gene in the B. cinerea genome, niaD, was silenced by transformation with a construct containing a 400-bp niaD fragment between two opposing promoters, so that a dsRNA fragment was generated. As an alternative approach, the mgfp4 gene coding for the green fluorescent protein (GFP) was silenced by transforming two different GFP-expressing strains of B. cinerea with a hairpin RNA (hpRNA)-expressing vector, containing two inverted copies of a 300-bp mgfp4 fragment separated by a spacer DNA. While the opposing dual-promoter strategy produced gene silencing in about half of the transformants assayed, the efficiency of the hpRNA-expressing vector was higher, inducing a decrease in GFP levels in more than 90 % of transformants. The degree of silencing achieved was high with both methods, but the hpRNA strategy resulted in a higher proportion of strongly silenced transformants. PMID:25293582

Espino, José; González, Mario; González, Celedonio; Brito, Nélida

2014-11-01

14

Reactivation Methylation-Silenced Genes by Polyphenols  

Cancer.gov

Hypermethylation of promoter CpG islands is an important mechanism to silence the expression of many tumor suppressors, DNA repair, and other genes in cancer. The long-term goal of this project is to study the inhibition and reversal of this process by dietary polyphenols for the purpose of prevention and treatment of cancer.

15

Gene Silencing in Crustaceans: From Basic Research to Biotechnologies  

PubMed Central

Gene silencing through RNA interference (RNAi) is gaining momentum for crustaceans, both in basic research and for commercial development. RNAi has proven instrumental in a growing number of crustacean species, revealing the functionality of novel crustacean genes essential among others to development, growth, metabolism and reproduction. Extensive studies have also been done on silencing of viral transcripts in crustaceans, contributing to the understanding of the defense mechanisms of crustaceans and strategies employed by viruses to overcome these. The first practical use of gene silencing in aquaculture industry has been recently achieved, through manipulation of a crustacean insulin-like androgenic gland hormone. This review summarizes the advancements in the use of RNAi in crustaceans, and assesses the advantages of this method, as well as the current hurdles that hinder its large-scale practice. PMID:24705266

Sagi, Amir; Manor, Rivka; Ventura, Tomer

2013-01-01

16

Virus-induced gene silencing in plant MAPK research.  

PubMed

Virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS) technology has become more and more widely used in various plant species for rapid screening of gene functions. VIGS does not require time-consuming tissue culture steps that are needed for stable transformation in most plant species and it can be used for studying gene function even in plants that are very difficult to stably transform. Furthermore, VIGS technology provides high gene silencing efficiency (up to 95 %) and specificity. Here, we describe a VIGS protocol that can be used for studying the functions of MAPKs and other genes in a wild tobacco species, Nicotiana attenuata. This method is also suitable for other Nicotiana species and tomato with minor modifications. PMID:24908121

Hettenhausen, Christian; Baldwin, Ian T; Wu, Jianqiang

2014-01-01

17

Functional genomic analysis of cotton genes with agrobacterium-mediated virus-induced gene silencing.  

PubMed

Cotton (Gossypium spp.) is one of the most agronomically important crops worldwide for its unique textile fiber production and serving as food and feed stock. Molecular breeding and genetic engineering of useful genes into cotton have emerged as advanced approaches to improve cotton yield, fiber quality, and resistance to various stresses. However, the understanding of gene functions and regulations in cotton is largely hindered by the limited molecular and biochemical tools. Here, we describe the method of an Agrobacterium infiltration-based virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS) assay to transiently silence endogenous genes in cotton at 2-week-old seedling stage. The genes of interest could be readily silenced with a consistently high efficiency. To monitor gene silencing efficiency, we have cloned cotton GrCla1 from G. raimondii, a homolog gene of Arabidopsis Cloroplastos alterados 1 (AtCla1) involved in chloroplast development, and inserted into a tobacco rattle virus (TRV) binary vector pYL156. Silencing of GrCla1 results in albino phenotype on the newly emerging leaves, serving as a visual marker for silencing efficiency. To further explore the possibility of using VIGS assay to reveal the essential genes mediating disease resistance to Verticillium dahliae, a fungal pathogen causing severe Verticillium wilt in cotton, we developed a seedling infection assay to inoculate cotton seedlings when the genes of interest are silenced by VIGS. The method we describe here could be further explored for functional genomic analysis of cotton genes involved in development and various biotic and abiotic stresses. PMID:23386302

Gao, Xiquan; Shan, Libo

2013-01-01

18

Virus-induced gene silencing in eggplant (Solanum melongena).  

PubMed

Eggplant (Solanum melongena) is an economically important vegetable requiring investigation into its various genomic functions. The current limitation in the investigation of genomic function in eggplant is the lack of effective tools available for conducting functional assays. Virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS) has played a critical role in the functional genetic analyses. In this paper, TRV-mediated VIGS was successfully elicited in eggplant. We first cloned the CDS sequence of PDS (PHYTOENE DESATURASE) in eggplant and then silenced the PDS gene. Photo-bleaching was shown on the newly-developed leaves four weeks after agroinoculation, indicating that VIGS can be used to silence genes in eggplant. To further illustrate the reliability of VIGS in eggplant, we selected Chl H, Su and CLA1 as reporters to elicit VIGS using the high-pressure spray method. Suppression of Chl H and Su led to yellow leaves, while the depletion of CLA1 resulted in albino. In conclusion, four genes, PDS, Chl H, Su (Sulfur), CLA1, were down-regulated significantly by VIGS, indicating that the VIGS system can be successfully applied in eggplant and is a reliable tool for the study of gene function. PMID:22268843

Liu, Haiping; Fu, Daqi; Zhu, Benzhong; Yan, Huaxue; Shen, Xiaoying; Zuo, Jinhua; Zhu, Yi; Luo, Yunbo

2012-06-01

19

Virus-induced gene silencing in ornamental plants.  

PubMed

Virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS) provides an attractive tool for high-throughput analysis of the functional effects of gene knockdown. Virus genomes are engineered to include fragments of target host genes, and the infected plant recognizes and silences the target genes as part of its viral defense mechanism. The consequences of gene inactivation, even of key metabolic, regulatory, or embryo-lethal genes, can thus be readily analyzed. A number of viral vectors have been developed for VIGS; one of the most frequently employed is based on tobacco rattle virus (TRV) due to its wide host range, efficiency, ease of application, and limited disease symptoms. TRV-based VIGS comprises two vectors. One (RNA2) includes a multiple cloning site into which fragments of target genes can be inserted. We have shown that the TRV/VIGS system can simultaneously silence as many as five independent genes. TRV is a mosaic-type virus, and silencing also occurs in a mosaic pattern. It is therefore desirable to have a reporter that can show where target genes have been silenced. The photobleaching induced by silencing phytoene desaturase (PDS) and the loss of purple pigmentation induced by silencing chalcone synthase (CHS) have successfully been used to indicate the location of coordinate silencing of other target genes. In this chapter, we outline our protocols for the use of VIGS for analysis of gene function, focusing particularly on the use of TRV with petunia and tomato. PMID:21533687

Jiang, Cai-Zhong; Chen, Jen-Chih; Reid, Michael

2011-01-01

20

Bacterial Cellular Engineering by Genome Editing and Gene Silencing  

PubMed Central

Genome editing is an important technology for bacterial cellular engineering, which is commonly conducted by homologous recombination-based procedures, including gene knockout (disruption), knock-in (insertion), and allelic exchange. In addition, some new recombination-independent approaches have emerged that utilize catalytic RNAs, artificial nucleases, nucleic acid analogs, and peptide nucleic acids. Apart from these methods, which directly modify the genomic structure, an alternative approach is to conditionally modify the gene expression profile at the posttranscriptional level without altering the genomes. This is performed by expressing antisense RNAs to knock down (silence) target mRNAs in vivo. This review describes the features and recent advances on methods used in genomic engineering and silencing technologies that are advantageously used for bacterial cellular engineering. PMID:24552876

Nakashima, Nobutaka; Miyazaki, Kentaro

2014-01-01

21

Mechanisms of Polycomb gene silencing: knowns and unknowns  

Microsoft Academic Search

Polycomb proteins form chromatin-modifying complexes that implement transcriptional silencing in higher eukaryotes. Hundreds of genes are silenced by Polycomb proteins, including dozens of genes that encode crucial developmental regulators in organisms ranging from plants to humans. Two main families of complexes, called Polycomb repressive complex 1 (PRC1) and PRC2, are targeted to repressed regions. Recent studies have advanced our understanding

Jeffrey A. Simon; Robert E. Kingston

2009-01-01

22

Paired termini stabilize antisense RNAs and enhance conditional gene silencing in Escherichia coli  

Microsoft Academic Search

Reliable methods for conditional gene silencing in bacteria have been elusive. To improve silencing by expressed antisense RNAs (asRNAs), we syste- matically altered several design parameters and targeted multiple reporter and essential genes in Escherichia coli. A paired termini (PT) design, where flanking inverted repeats create paired dsRNA termini, proved effective. PTasRNAs tar- geted against the ackA gene within the

Nobutaka Nakashima; Tomohiro Tamura; L. Good

2006-01-01

23

Epigenetic repeat-induced gene silencing (RIGS) in Arabidopsis  

Microsoft Academic Search

In several plant systems expression of structurally intact genes may be silenced epigenetically when a transgenic construct increases the copy number of DNA sequences. Here we report epigenetic silencing inArabidopsis lines containing transgenic inserts of defined genetic structure, all at the same genomic locus. These comprise an allelic series that includes a single copy of the primary insert, which carries

Farhah F. Assaad; Kerry Lee Tucker; Ethan R. Signer

1993-01-01

24

Novel Sexual-Cycle-Specific Gene Silencing in Aspergillus nidulans  

PubMed Central

We report a novel sexual-cycle-specific gene-silencing system in the genetic model Aspergillus nidulans. Duplication of the mating type matAHMG gene in this haploid organism triggers Mat-induced silencing (MatIS) of both endogenous and transgenic matA genes, eliminates function of the encoded SRY structural ortholog, and results in formation of barren fruiting bodies. MatIS is spatiotemporally restricted to the prezygotic stage of the sexual cycle and does not interfere with vegetative growth, asexual reproduction, differentiation of early sexual tissues, or fruiting body development. MatIS is reversible upon deletion of the matA transgene. In contrast to other sex-specific silencing phenomena, MatIS silencing has nearly 100% efficiency and appears to be independent of homologous duplicated DNA segments. Remarkably, transgene-derived matA RNA might be sufficient to induce MatIS. A unique feature of MatIS is that RNA-mediated silencing is RNA interference/Argonaute-independent and is restricted to the nucleus having the duplicated gene. The silencing phenomenon is recessive and does not spread between nuclei within the common cytoplasm of a multinucleate heterokaryon. Gene silencing induced by matA gene duplication emerges as a specific feature associated with matAHMG regulation during sexual development. PMID:23341415

Czaja, Wioletta; Miller, Karen Y.; Miller, Bruce L.

2013-01-01

25

Connections between Epigenetic Gene Silencing and Human Disease  

PubMed Central

Alterations in epigenetic gene regulation are associated with human disease. Here, we discuss connections between DNA methylation and histone methylation, providing examples in which defects in these processes are linked with disease. Mutations in genes encoding DNA methyltransferases and proteins that bind methylated cytosine residues cause changes in gene expression and alterations in the patterns of DNA methylation. These changes are associated with cancer and congenital diseases due to defects in imprinting. Gene silencing is also controlled through histone methylation. Altered levels of methyltransferases that modify lysine 27 of histone H3 (K27H3) and lysine 9 of histone H3 (K9H3) correlate with changes in Rb signaling and disruption of the cell cycle in cancer cells. The K27H3 mark recruits a Polycomb complex that is involved in regulating stem cell pluripotency, silencing of developmentally regulated genes, and controlling cancer progression. The K9H3 methyl mark recruits HP1, a structural protein that plays a role in heterochromatin formation, gene silencing, and viral latency. Cells exhibiting altered levels of HP1 are predicted to show a loss of silencing at genes regulating cancer progression. Gene silencing through K27H3 and K9H3 can involve histone deacetylation and DNA methylation, suggesting cross talk between epigenetic silencing systems through direct interactions among the various players. The reversible nature of these epigenetic modifications offers therapeutic possibilities for a wide spectrum of disease. PMID:17306846

Moss, Timothy J.; Wallrath, Lori L.

2007-01-01

26

Dicer finds a new partner in transcriptional gene silencing.  

PubMed

In a recent study in Molecular Cell, Colmenares et al. (2007) showed that fission yeast Dicer is physically and functionally associated with RNA-dependent RNA polymerase complex (RDRC), revealing a concerted mechanism in transcriptional gene silencing. PMID:17707223

Shiekhattar, Ramin

2007-08-17

27

Quantum dots to monitor RNAi delivery and improve gene silencing  

E-print Network

Quantum dots to monitor RNAi delivery and improve gene silencing Alice A. Chen1 , Austin M. Derfus2RNA delivery that combines unmodified siRNA with seminconductor quantum dots (QDs) as multi color biological

Bhatia, Sangeeta

28

Detection and investigation of transitive gene silencing in plants.  

PubMed

RNA-induced post-transcriptional silencing is a common tool in functional gene analysis and its application in crop improvement is widely investigated. However, its specificity might be impaired by off-target silencing as a result of transitivity. Generally transitivity is investigated by the detection of secondary siRNAs; however, these tests fail to demonstrate the siRNA's bioactivity. Here, we describe protocols to detect the occurrence of transitive silencing across an endogene by using a reporter GUS gene. In addition, we provide a setup to test the influence of a sequence of interest present in the primary target on the progression of transitivity. PMID:24478018

Vermeersch, Leen; De Winne, Nancy; Depicker, Ann

2014-01-01

29

Gene silencing by RNAi in mouse Sertoli cells  

PubMed Central

Background RNA interference (RNAi) is a valuable tool in the investigation of gene function. The purpose of this study was to examine the availability, target cell types and efficiency of RNAi in the mouse seminiferous epithelium. Methods The experimental model was based on transgenic mice expressing EGFP (enhanced green fluorescent protein). RNAi was induced by in vivo transfection of plasmid vectors encoding for short hairpin RNAs (shRNAs) targeting EGFP. shRNAs were transfected in vivo by microinjection into the seminiferous tubules via the rete testis followed by square wave electroporation. As a transfection reporter, expression of red fluorescent protein (HcRed 1) was used. Cell types, the efficiency of both transfections and RNAi were all evaluated. Results Sertoli cells were the main transfected cells. A reduction of about 40% in the level of EGFP protein was detected in cells successfully transfected both in vivo and in vitro. However, the efficiency of in vivo transfection was low. Conclusion In adult seminiferous epithelial cells, in vivo post-transcriptional gene silencing mediated by RNAi via shRNA is efficient in Sertoli cells. Similar levels of RNAi were detected both in vivo and in vitro. This also indicates that Sertoli cells have the necessary silencing machinery to repress the expression of endogenous genes via RNAi. PMID:18620581

Gonzalez-Gonzalez, Emilio; Lopez-Casas, Pedro P; del Mazo, Jesus

2008-01-01

30

Virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS) in Nicotiana benthamiana and tomato.  

PubMed

RNA interference (RNAi) is a highly specific gene-silencing phenomenon triggered by dsRNA. This silencing mechanism uses two major classes of RNA regulators: microRNAs, which are produced from non-protein coding genes and short interfering RNAs (siRNAs). Plants use RNAi to control transposons and to exert tight control over developmental processes such as flower organ formation and leaf development. Plants also use RNAi to defend themselves against infection by viruses. Consequently, many viruses have evolved suppressors of gene silencing to allow their successful colonization of their host. Virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS) is a method that takes advantage of the plant RNAi-mediated antiviral defense mechanism. In plants infected with unmodified viruses the mechanism is specifically targeted against the viral genome. However, with virus vectors carrying sequences derived from host genes, the process can be additionally targeted against the corresponding host mRNAs. VIGS has been adapted for high-throughput functional genomics in plants by using the plant pathogen Agrobacterium tumefaciens to deliver, via its Ti plasmid, a recombinant virus carrying the entire or part of the gene sequence targeted for silencing. Systemic virus spread and the endogenous plant RNAi machinery take care of the rest. dsRNAs corresponding to the target gene are produced and then cleaved by the ribonuclease Dicer into siRNAs of 21 to 24 nucleotides in length. These siRNAs ultimately guide the RNA-induced silencing complex (RISC) to degrade the target transcript. Different vectors have been employed in VIGS and one of the most frequently used is based on tobacco rattle virus (TRV). TRV is a bipartite virus and, as such, two different A. tumefaciens strains are used for VIGS. One carries pTRV1, which encodes the replication and movement viral functions while the other, pTRV2, harbors the coat protein and the sequence used for VIGS. Inoculation of Nicotiana benthamiana and tomato seedlings with a mixture of both strains results in gene silencing. Silencing of the endogenous phytoene desaturase (PDS) gene, which causes photobleaching, is used as a control for VIGS efficiency. It should be noted, however, that silencing in tomato is usually less efficient than in N. benthamiana. RNA transcript abundance of the gene of interest should always be measured to ensure that the target gene has efficiently been down-regulated. Nevertheless, heterologous gene sequences from N. benthamiana can be used to silence their respective orthologs in tomato and vice versa. PMID:19516240

Velásquez, André C; Chakravarthy, Suma; Martin, Gregory B

2009-01-01

31

A modular plasmid assembly kit for multigene expression, gene silencing and silencing rescue in plants.  

PubMed

The Golden Gate (GG) modular assembly approach offers a standardized, inexpensive and reliable way to ligate multiple DNA fragments in a pre-defined order in a single-tube reaction. We developed a GG based toolkit for the flexible construction of binary plasmids for transgene expression in plants. Starting from a common set of modules, such as promoters, protein tags and transcribed regions of interest, synthetic genes are assembled, which can be further combined to multigene constructs. As an example, we created T-DNA constructs encoding multiple fluorescent proteins targeted to distinct cellular compartments (nucleus, cytosol, plastids) and demonstrated simultaneous expression of all genes in Nicotiana benthamiana, Lotus japonicus and Arabidopsis thaliana. We assembled an RNA interference (RNAi) module for the construction of intron-spliced hairpin RNA constructs and demonstrated silencing of GFP in N. benthamiana. By combination of the silencing construct together with a codon adapted rescue construct into one vector, our system facilitates genetic complementation and thus confirmation of the causative gene responsible for a given RNAi phenotype. As proof of principle, we silenced a destabilized GFP gene (dGFP) and restored GFP fluorescence by expression of a recoded version of dGFP, which was not targeted by the silencing construct. PMID:24551083

Binder, Andreas; Lambert, Jayne; Morbitzer, Robert; Popp, Claudia; Ott, Thomas; Lahaye, Thomas; Parniske, Martin

2014-01-01

32

A Modular Plasmid Assembly Kit for Multigene Expression, Gene Silencing and Silencing Rescue in Plants  

PubMed Central

The Golden Gate (GG) modular assembly approach offers a standardized, inexpensive and reliable way to ligate multiple DNA fragments in a pre-defined order in a single-tube reaction. We developed a GG based toolkit for the flexible construction of binary plasmids for transgene expression in plants. Starting from a common set of modules, such as promoters, protein tags and transcribed regions of interest, synthetic genes are assembled, which can be further combined to multigene constructs. As an example, we created T-DNA constructs encoding multiple fluorescent proteins targeted to distinct cellular compartments (nucleus, cytosol, plastids) and demonstrated simultaneous expression of all genes in Nicotiana benthamiana, Lotus japonicus and Arabidopsis thaliana. We assembled an RNA interference (RNAi) module for the construction of intron-spliced hairpin RNA constructs and demonstrated silencing of GFP in N. benthamiana. By combination of the silencing construct together with a codon adapted rescue construct into one vector, our system facilitates genetic complementation and thus confirmation of the causative gene responsible for a given RNAi phenotype. As proof of principle, we silenced a destabilized GFP gene (dGFP) and restored GFP fluorescence by expression of a recoded version of dGFP, which was not targeted by the silencing construct. PMID:24551083

Binder, Andreas; Lambert, Jayne; Morbitzer, Robert; Popp, Claudia; Ott, Thomas; Lahaye, Thomas; Parniske, Martin

2014-01-01

33

RNA editing regulates transposon-mediated heterochromatic gene silencing.  

PubMed

Heterochromatin formation drives epigenetic mechanisms associated with silenced gene expression. Repressive heterochromatin is established through the RNA interference pathway, triggered by double-stranded RNAs (dsRNAs) that can be modified via RNA editing. However, the biological consequences of such modifications remain enigmatic. Here we show that RNA editing regulates heterochromatic gene silencing in Drosophila. We utilize the binding activity of an RNA-editing enzyme to visualize the in vivo production of a long dsRNA trigger mediated by Hoppel transposable elements. Using homologous recombination, we delete this trigger, dramatically altering heterochromatic gene silencing and chromatin architecture. Furthermore, we show that the trigger RNA is edited and that dADAR serves as a key regulator of chromatin state. Additionally, dADAR auto-editing generates a natural suppressor of gene silencing. Lastly, systemic differences in RNA editing activity generates interindividual variation in silencing state within a population. Our data reveal a global role for RNA editing in regulating gene expression. PMID:24201902

Savva, Yiannis A; Jepson, James E C; Chang, Yao-Jen; Whitaker, Rachel; Jones, Brian C; St Laurent, Georges; Tackett, Michael R; Kapranov, Philipp; Jiang, Nan; Du, Guyu; Helfand, Stephen L; Reenan, Robert A

2013-01-01

34

Simultaneous gene silencing of Bcl-2, XIAP and Survivin re-sensitizes pancreatic cancer cells towards apoptosis  

PubMed Central

Background Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma shows a distinct apoptosis resistance, which contributes significantly to the aggressive nature of this tumor and constrains the effectiveness of new therapeutic strategies. Apoptosis resistance is determined by the net balance of the cells pro-and anti-apoptotic "control mechanisms". Numerous dysregulated anti-apoptotic genes have been identified in pancreatic cancer and seem to contribute to the high anti-apoptotic buffering capacity. We aimed to compare the benefit of simultaneous gene silencing (SGS) of several candidate genes with conventional gene silencing of single genes. Methods From literature search we identified the anti-apoptotic genes XIAP, Survivin and Bcl-2 as commonly upregulated in pancreatic cancer. We performed SGS and silencing of single candidate genes using siRNA molecules in two pancreatic cancer cell lines. Effectiveness of SGS was assessed by qRT-PCR and western blotting. Apoptosis induction was measured by flow cytometry and caspase activation. Results Simultaneous gene silencing reduced expression of the three target genes effectively. Compared to silencing of a single target or control, SGS of these genes resulted in a significant higher induction of apoptosis in pancreatic cancer cells. Conclusions In the present study we performed a subliminal silencing of different anti-apoptotic target genes simultaneously. Compared to silencing of single target genes, SGS had a significant higher impact on apoptosis induction in pancreatic cancer cells. Thereby, we give further evidence for the concept of an anti-apoptotic buffering capacity of pancreatic cancer cells. PMID:20646298

2010-01-01

35

Development of Agrobacterium-mediated virus-induced gene silencing and performance evaluation of four marker genes in Gossypium barbadense.  

PubMed

Gossypiumbarbadense is a cultivated cotton species and possesses many desirable traits, including high fiber quality and resistance to pathogens, especially Verticilliumdahliae (a devastating pathogen of Gossypium hirsutum, the main cultivated species). These elite traits are difficult to be introduced into G. hirsutum through classical breeding methods. In addition, genetic transformation of G. barbadense has not been successfully performed. It is therefore important to develop methods for evaluating the function and molecular mechanism of genes in G. barbadense. In this study, we had successfully introduced a virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS) system into three cultivars of G. barbadense by inserting marker genes into the tobacco rattle virus (TRV) vector. After we optimized the VIGS conditions, including light intensity, photoperiod, seedling age and Agrobacterium strain, 100% of plants agroinfiltrated with the GaPDS silencing vector showed white colored leaves. Three other marker genes, GaCLA1, GaANS and GaANR, were employed to further test this VIGS system in G. barbadense. The transcript levels of the endogenous genes in the silenced plants were reduced by more than 99% compared to control plants; these plants presented phenotypic symptoms 2 weeks after inoculation. We introduced a fusing sequence fragment of GaPDS and GaANR gene silencing vectors into a single plant, which resulted in both photobleaching and brownish coloration. The extent of silencing in plants agroinfiltrated with fusing two-gene-silencing vector was consistent with plants harboring a single gene silencing vector. The development of this VIGS system should promote analysis of gene function in G. barbadense, and help to contribute desirable traits for breeding of G. barbadense and G. hirsutum. PMID:24023833

Pang, Jinhuan; Zhu, Yue; Li, Qing; Liu, Jinzhi; Tian, Yingchuan; Liu, Yule; Wu, Jiahe

2013-01-01

36

Virus-induced gene silencing and Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transient expression in Nicotiana tabacum.  

PubMed

Virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS) is a rapid method for transient silencing of plant genes. In this chapter, we describe the methodology for Tobacco rattle virus (TRV)-based VIGS in Nicotiana tabacum. In combination with subsequent co-expression of the tomato immune receptor Ve1 and the corresponding Verticillium effector Ave1 through Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transient transformation (agroinfiltration), we established a rapid system for assessing the requirement of candidate plant genes for Ve1-mediated immune signaling. PMID:24643561

Zhang, Zhao; Thomma, Bart P H J

2014-01-01

37

The Development and Application of a Multiple Gene Co-Silencing System Using Endogenous URA3 as a Reporter Gene in Ganoderma lucidum  

PubMed Central

Ganoderma lucidum is one of the most important medicinal mushrooms; however, molecular genetics research on this species has been limited due to a lack of reliable reverse genetic tools. In this study, the endogenous orotidine 5?-monophosphate decarboxylase gene (URA3) was cloned as a silencing reporter, and four gene-silencing methods using hairpin, sense, antisense, and dual promoter constructs, were introduced into G. lucidum through a simple electroporation procedure. A comparison and evaluation of silencing efficiency demonstrated that all of the four methods differentially suppressed the expression of URA3. Our data unequivocally indicate that the dual promoter silencing vector yields the highest rate of URA3 silencing compared with other vectors (up to 81.9%). To highlight the advantages of the dual promoter system, we constructed a co-silencing system based on the dual promoter method and succeeded in co-silencing URA3 and laccase in G. lucidum. The reduction of the mRNA levels of the two genes were correlated. Thus, the screening efficiency for RNAi knockdown of multiple genes may be improved by the co-silencing of an endogenous reporter gene. The molecular tools developed in this study should facilitate the isolation of genes and the characterization of the functions of multiple genes in this pharmaceutically important species, and these tools should be highly useful for the study of other basidiomycetes. PMID:22937087

Mu, Dashuai; Shi, Liang; Ren, Ang; Li, Mengjiao; Wu, Fengli; Jiang, Ailiang; Zhao, Mingwen

2012-01-01

38

Rapid analysis of Jatropha curcas gene functions by virus-induced gene silencing.  

PubMed

Jatropha curcas L. is a small, woody tree of the Euphorbiaceae family. This plant can grow on marginal land in the tropical and subtropical regions and produces seeds containing up to 30% oil. Several Asian countries have selected Jatropha for large scale planting as a biodiesel feedstock. Nevertheless, Jatropha also possesses several undesirable traits that may limit its wide adoption. An improved understanding of plant development and the regulation of fatty acid (FA) and triacylglyceride biosynthesis in Jatropha is particularly facilitative for the development of elite crops. Here, we show that a tobacco rattle virus (TRV) vector can trigger virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS) in Jatropha. Our optimized method produced robust and reliable gene silencing in plants agroinoculated with recombinant TRV harbouring Jatropha gene sequences. We used VIGS to investigate possible functions of 13 Jatropha genes of several functional categories, including FA biosynthesis, developmental regulation and toxin biosynthesis, etc. Based on the effects of VIGS on the FA composition of newly emerged leaves, we determined the function of several genes implicated in FA biosynthesis. Moreover, VIGS was able to discriminate independent functions of related gene family members. Our results show that VIGS can be used for high-throughput screening of Jatropha genes whose functions can be assayed in leaves. PMID:19906247

Ye, Jian; Qu, Jing; Bui, Ha Thi Ngoc; Chua, Nam-Hai

2009-12-01

39

Endogenous Tumor Suppression Mediated by PTEN Involves Survivin Gene Silencing  

PubMed Central

Endogenous tumor suppression provides a barrier against oncogenesis, but the molecular requirements of this process are not well understood. Here, we show that the dual specificity phosphatase PTEN, a gene almost universally altered in human tumors, silences the expression of survivin, an essential regulator of cell division and apoptosis in cancer. This pathway is independent of p53, involves active repression of survivin gene transcription, and is mediated by direct occupancy of the survivin promoter by FOXO1 and FOXO3a factors. Conditional deletion of PTEN in the mouse prostate causes deregulated induction of survivin before full-blown transformation in vivo, whereas expression of survivin and PTEN is inversely correlated in cancer patients. Therefore, silencing the survivin gene is an essential requirement of endogenous PTEN tumor suppression. PMID:19470765

Guha, Minakshi; Plescia, Janet; Leav, Irwin; Li, Jing; Languino, Lucia R.; Altieri, Dario C.

2009-01-01

40

Virus-induced gene silencing for Asteraceae--a reverse genetics approach for functional genomics in Gerbera hybrida.  

PubMed

Virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS) is a natural defence mechanism in plants which leads to sequence-specific degradation of viral RNA. For identifying gene functions, Tobacco rattle virus (TRV)-based VIGS has been applied for silencing of endogenous genes in many plant species. Gerbera hybrida (Asteraceae) has emerged as a novel model for studies in flower development and secondary metabolism. For this highly heterozygous species, functional studies have been conducted through reverse genetic methods by producing stable transgenic lines, which, however, is labour-intensive and time-consuming. For the development of TRV-based VIGS system for gerbera, and for the first time for an Asteraceaeous species, we screened several gerbera cultivars and optimized the agroinfiltration methods for efficient silencing. Gene fragments for gerbera phytoene desaturase (GPDS) and Mg-chelatase subunits (GChl-H and GChl-I), expressed from a TRV vector, induced silencing phenotypes in leaves, scapes, and involucral bracts indicating their feasibility as markers for green tissues. In addition, robust silencing symptoms were achieved in gerbera floral tissues by silencing the anthocyanin pathway gene for chalcone synthase (GCHS1) and a gerbera B-type MADS-box gene globosa (GGLO1), confirming the phenotypes previously observed in stable transgenic lines. Unexpectedly, photobleaching induced by GPDS and GChl-H or GChl-I silencing, or by the herbicide norflurazon, resulted in silencing of the polyketide synthase gene G2PS1, which has no apparent connections to carotenoid or chlorophyll biosynthesis. We have shown feasibility of VIGS for functional studies in gerbera, but our results also show that selection of the marker gene for silencing must be critically evaluated. PMID:22805353

Deng, Xianbao; Elomaa, Paula; Nguyen, Cuong X; Hytönen, Timo; Valkonen, Jari P T; Teeri, Teemu H

2012-10-01

41

Virus-induced gene silencing in transgenic plants: transgene silencing and reactivation associate with two patterns of transgene body methylation.  

PubMed

We used bisulfite sequencing to study the methylation of a viral transgene whose expression was silenced upon plum pox virus infection of the transgenic plant and its subsequent recovery as a consequence of so-called virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS). VIGS was associated with a general increase in the accumulation of small RNAs corresponding to the coding region of the viral transgene. After VIGS, the transgene promoter was not methylated and the coding region showed uneven methylation, with the 5' end being mostly unmethylated in the recovered tissue or mainly methylated at CG sites in regenerated silenced plants. The methylation increased towards the 3' end, which showed dense methylation in all three contexts (CG, CHG and CHH). This methylation pattern and the corresponding silenced status were maintained after plant regeneration from recovered silenced tissue and did not spread into the promoter region, but were not inherited in the sexual offspring. Instead, a new pattern of methylation was observed in the progeny plants consisting of disappearance of the CHH methylation, similar CHG methylation at the 3' end, and an overall increase in CG methylation in the 5' end. The latter epigenetic state was inherited over several generations and did not correlate with transgene silencing and hence virus resistance. These results suggest that the widespread CG methylation pattern found in body gene bodies located in euchromatic regions of plant genomes may reflect an older silencing event, and most likely these genes are no longer silenced. PMID:24916614

Zhao, Mingmin; San León, David; Delgadillo, Ma Otilia; García, Juan Antonio; Simón-Mateo, Carmen

2014-08-01

42

Analysis of developmental control genes using virus-induced gene silencing.  

PubMed

A consistent challenge in studying the evolution of developmental processes has been the problem of explicitly assessing the function of developmental control genes in diverse species. In recent years, virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS) has proved to be remarkably adaptable and efficient in silencing developmental control genes in species across the angiosperms. Here we describe proven protocols for Nicotiana benthamiana and Papaver somniferum, representing a core and basal eudicot species. PMID:23386295

Geuten, Koen; Viaene, Tom; Vekemans, Dries; Kourmpetli, Sofia; Drea, Sinead

2013-01-01

43

RIGS (Repeat-Induced Gene Silencing) in Arabidopsis is Transcriptional and Alters Chromatin Configuration  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have previously reported repeat-induced gene silencing (RIGS) in Arabidopsis, in which transgene expression may be silenced epigenetically when repeated sequences are present. Among an allelic series of lines comprising a primary transformant and various recombinant progeny carrying different numbers of drug resistance gene copies at the same locus, silencing was found to depend strictly on repeated sequences and to

Fei Ye; Ethan R. Signer

1996-01-01

44

Polymeric Nanoparticles for siRNA Delivery and Gene Silencing  

Microsoft Academic Search

Gene silencing using small interfering RNA (siRNA) has several potential therapeutic applications. In the present study, we investigated nanoparticles formulated using the biodegradable polymer, poly (D,L-lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA) for siRNA delivery. A cationic polymer, polyethylenimine (PEI), was incorporated in the PLGA matrix to improve siRNA encapsulation in PLGA nanoparticles. PLGA-PEI nanoparticles were formulated using double emulsion-solvent evaporation technique and characterized for

Yogesh Patil; Jayanth Panyam

2009-01-01

45

RNA-mediated gene silencing of superoxide dismutase (bcsod1) in Botrytis cinerea  

Microsoft Academic Search

Gene silencing is a powerful tool utilized for identification of gene function and analysis in plants, animals, and fungi. Here, we report the silencing of superoxide dismutase (bcsod1) in Botrytis cinerea through sense and antisense-mediated silencing mechanisms. Because superoxide dismutase (SOD) is a virulence factor, transformants were tested for phenotypic silencing in vitro and reduction in pathogenicity in planta. Plate-based

R. M. Patel; Kan van J. A. L; A. M. Bailey; G. D. Foster

2008-01-01

46

Nuclear RNAi maintains heritable gene silencing in Caenorhabditis elegans  

PubMed Central

RNA interference (RNAi) is heritable in Caenorhabditis elegans; the progeny of C. elegans exposed to dsRNA inherit the ability to silence genes that were targeted by RNAi in the previous generation. Here we investigate the mechanism of RNAi inheritance in C. elegans. We show that exposure of animals to dsRNA results in the heritable expression of siRNAs and the heritable deposition of histone 3 lysine 9 methylation (H3K9me) marks in progeny. siRNAs are detectable before the appearance of H3K9me marks, suggesting that chromatin marks are not directly inherited but, rather, reestablished in inheriting progeny. Interestingly, H3K9me marks appear more prominently in inheriting progeny than in animals directly exposed to dsRNA, suggesting that germ-line transmission of silencing signals may enhance the efficiency of siRNA-directed H3K9me. Finally, we show that the nuclear RNAi (Nrde) pathway maintains heritable RNAi silencing in C. elegans. The Argonaute (Ago) NRDE-3 associates with heritable siRNAs and, acting in conjunction with the nuclear RNAi factors NRDE-1, NRDE-2, and NRDE-4, promotes siRNA expression in inheriting progeny. These results demonstrate that siRNA expression is heritable in C. elegans and define an RNAi pathway that promotes the maintenance of RNAi silencing and siRNA expression in the progeny of animals exposed to dsRNA. PMID:22106253

Burton, Nick O.; Burkhart, Kirk B.; Kennedy, Scott

2011-01-01

47

Modification of Seed Oil Composition in Arabidopsis by Artificial microRNA-Mediated Gene Silencing  

PubMed Central

Various post transcriptional gene silencing strategies have been developed and exploited to study gene function or engineer disease resistance. The recently developed artificial microRNA strategy is an alternative method of effectively silencing target genes. The ?12-desaturase (FAD2), Fatty acid elongase (FAE1), and Fatty acyl-ACP thioesterase B (FATB) were targeted with amiR159b-based constructs in Arabidopsis thaliana to evaluate changes in oil composition when expressed with the seed-specific Brassica napus truncated napin (FP1) promoter. Fatty acid profiles from transgenic homozygous seeds reveal that the targeted genes were silenced. The down-regulation of the AtFAD-2 gene substantially increased oleic acid from the normal levels of ?15% to as high as 63.3 and reduced total PUFA content (18:2?9,12?+?18:3?9,12,15?+?20:2?11,14?+?20:3?11,14,17) from 46.8 to 4.8%. ?12-desaturase activity was reduced to levels as low as those in the null fad-2-1 and fad-2-2 mutants. Silencing of the FAE1 gene resulted in the reduction of eicosenoic acid (20:1?11) to 1.9 from 15.4% and silencing of FATB resulted in the reduction of palmitic acid (16:0) to 4.4% from 8.0%. Reduction in FATB activity is comparable with a FATB knock-out mutant. These results demonstrate for the first time amiR159b constructs targeted against three endogenous seed-expressed genes are clearly able to down-regulate and generate genotypic changes that are inherited stably over three generations. PMID:22866055

Belide, Srinivas; Petrie, James Robertson; Shrestha, Pushkar; Singh, Surinder Pal

2012-01-01

48

Endogenous Targets of Transcriptional Gene Silencing in Arabidopsis  

PubMed Central

Transcriptional gene silencing (TGS) frequently inactivates foreign genes integrated into plant genomes but very likely also suppresses an unknown subset of chromosomal information. Accordingly, RNA analysis of mutants impaired in silencing should uncover endogenous targets of this epigenetic regulation. We compared transcripts from wild-type Arabidopsis carrying a silent transgene with RNA from an isogenic transgene-expressing TGS mutant. Two cDNA clones were identified representing endogenous RNA expressed only in the mutant. The synthesis of these RNAs was found to be released in several mutants affected in TGS, implying that TGS in general and not a particular mutation controls the transcriptional activity of their templates. Detailed analysis revealed that the two clones are part of longer transcripts termed TSI (for transcriptionally silent information). Two major classes of related TSI transcripts were found in a mutant cDNA library. They are synthesized from repeats present in heterochromatic pericentromeric regions of Arabidopsis chromosomes. These repeats share sequence homology with the 3? terminal part of the putative retrotransposon Athila. However, the transcriptional activation does not include the transposon itself and does not promote its movement. There is no evidence for a general release of silencing from retroelements. Thus, foreign genes in plants encounter the epigenetic control normally directed, at least in part, toward a subset of pericentromeric repeats. PMID:10899982

Steimer, Andrea; Amedeo, Paolo; Afsar, Karin; Fransz, Paul; Scheid, Ortrun Mittelsten; Paszkowski, Jerzy

2000-01-01

49

Phylogenetic Comparison of Small RNA-triggered Transcriptional Gene Silencing*  

PubMed Central

The discovery of RNA interference has revealed complex roles for small RNAs in regulating gene expression and cellular physiology. Small RNAs have been demonstrated to be involved in post-transcriptional suppression of translation, targeted degradation of messenger RNAs, and transcriptional suppression via epigenetic modifications of histones and DNA. In fission yeast, RNAi mediates suppression of centromeric transcripts, whereas in plants, transcriptional gene silencing appears to be primarily an antiviral mechanism. In mammals, the well annotated functional role of RNAi is primarily post-transcriptional, but there is increasing evidence that this mechanism can also work to suppress or modulate gene transcription, although it is not clear what primary function this serves. We overview, compare, and contrast the transcriptional silencing pathways in yeast, plants, and mammals in this article. This minireview is intended to provide the reader with a framework of how the RNAi machinery appears to be universally involved in various aspects of transcriptional regulation with discussions of similarities and differences in the components and mechanisms of achieving transcriptional silencing. PMID:21730056

Zhang, Xizhe; Rossi, John J.

2011-01-01

50

RNA-Mediated Transcriptional Gene Silencing in Human Cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

The utilization of small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) represents a new paradigm in gene knockout technology. siRNAs can be used\\u000a to knockdown the expression of a particular gene by targeting the mRNA in a post-transcriptional manner. While there are a\\u000a plethora of reports applying siRNA-mediated post-transcriptional silencing (PTGS) therapeutically there are apparent limitations\\u000a such as the duration of the effect and

Kevin V. Morris

51

Characterization of Arabidopsis Genes Involved in Gene Silencing. Final Progress Report  

SciTech Connect

Enhancer of gene silencing 1 (egs1) is an Arabidopsis mutant that enhances post-transcriptional gene silencing of the rolB gene introduced by genetic engineering (transgene). The goal of our proposal was cloning EGS1 based on its map position. Although we screened more than 2000 chromosomes for recombination, we were unable to get closer than 2 cM to the gene. We experienced an unexpected tendency of the post-transcriptionally silenced transgene to switch to a more stable silenced state. This made it impossible to select egs1 homozygotes for map based cloning. This forced us to reconsider our cloning strategy. One possibility would have been to use a different transgene as the target of gene silencing. We tested two other transgenes. Both encoded proteins unrelated to the first but they were all expressed from the same type of promoter and they all had a similar tendency to become post-transcriptionally silenced. After screening over 80 F2 segregants from each cross between our egs1 mutant and Arabidopsis of the same ecotype homozygous for the new transgene, we were disappointed to find that the egs1 mutation did not enhance post-transcription silencing of the two new genes. In 80 plants we expected to have between 4 and 6 plants that were homozygous for the transgene and for the mutant egs1 allele. If egs1 mutations could enhance gene silencing of the new transgene, these plants would not express it. However all the double homozygotes still expressed the transgene. Therefore, we could not change the target transgene for mapping. This was the state of the cloning at the time for renewal of the grant in 1999. Because the selection of new meaningful recombinant plants had become extremely inefficient using the original rolB transgene, we abandoned the attempt at map based cloning and did not apply for further funding.

Grant, S. R.

1999-02-05

52

Virus-induced gene silencing in strawberry fruit.  

PubMed

Virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS) is a technology that exploits an RNA-mediated antiviral defense mechanism and which has great potential for use in plant reverse genetics. Recently, whole-genome studies and gene sequencing in plants have produced a massive amount of sequence information. A major challenge for plant biologists is to convert this sequence information into functional information. In this study, we demonstrate that VIGS can be used to determine gene functions in strawberry and that it is a powerful new tool for studying fruit ripening. The ABA synthetic gene FaNCED1, which can promote strawberry fruit ripening, was used as the reporter gene. In this chapter, we describe the use of TRV-mediated VIGS in strawberry fruit. PMID:23386306

Jia, Haifeng; Shen, Yuanyue

2013-01-01

53

siRNA-mediated gene silencing: a global genome view  

PubMed Central

The task of specific gene knockdown in vitro has been facilitated through the use of short interfering RNA (siRNA), which is now widely used for studying gene function, as well as for identifying and validating new drug targets. We explored the possibility of using siRNA for dissecting cellular pathways by siRNA-mediated gene silencing followed by gene expression profiling and systematic pathway analysis. We used siRNA to eliminate the Rb1 gene in human cells and determined the effects of Rb1 knockdown on the cell by using microarray-based gene expression profiling coupled with quantitative pathway analysis using the GenMapp and MappFinder software. Retinoblastoma protein is one of the key cell cycle regulators, which exerts its function through its interactions with E2F transcription factors. Rb1 knockdown affected G1/S and G2/M transitions of the cell cycle, DNA replication and repair, mitosis, and apoptosis, indicating that siRNA-mediated transient elimination of Rb1 mimics the control of cell cycle through Rb1 dissociation from E2F. Additionally, we observed significant effects on the processes of DNA damage response and epigenetic regulation of gene expression. Analysis of transcription factor binding sites was utilized to distinguish between putative direct targets and genes induced through other mechanisms. Our approach, which combines the use of siRNA-mediated gene silencing, mediated microarray screening and quantitative pathway analysis, can be used in functional genomics to elucidate the role of the target gene in intracellular pathways. The approach also holds significant promise for compound selection in drug discovery. PMID:15272085

Semizarov, Dimitri; Kroeger, Paul; Fesik, Stephen

2004-01-01

54

Small RNA-mediated gene silencing pathways in C. elegans.  

PubMed

Small RNA pathways, including the RNA interference (RNAi) pathway and the microRNA (miRNA) pathway, regulate gene expression, defend against transposable elements and viruses, and, in some organisms, guide genome rearrangements. The nematode Caenorhabditis elegans (C. elegans) has been at the forefront of small RNA research; not only were the first miRNAs and their function as regulators of gene expression discovered in C. elegans, but also double-stranded RNA-induced gene silencing by RNAi was discovered in this model organism. Since then, genetic and RNAi-mediated screens, candidate gene approaches, and biochemical studies have uncovered numerous factors in the small RNA pathways and painted a rich palette of interacting pathways. Here we review the different small RNAs that have been discovered in C. elegans and discuss our understanding of their biogenesis pathways and mechanisms of action. PMID:20227516

Fischer, Sylvia E J

2010-08-01

55

High-Throughput Selection of Effective RNAi Probes for Gene Silencing  

PubMed Central

RNA interference (RNAi) is a process of sequence-specific posttranscriptional gene silencing mediated by double-stranded RNA. RNAi has recently emerged as a powerful genetic tool to analyze gene function in mammalian cells. The power of this method is limited however, by the uncertainty in predicting the efficacy of small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) in silencing a gene. This has imposed serious limitations not only for small-scale but also for high-throughput RNAi screening initiatives in mammalian systems. We have developed a reliable and quantitative approach for the rapid and efficient identification of the most effective siRNA against any gene. The efficacy of siRNA sequences is monitored by their ability to reduce the expression of cognate target-reporter fusions with easily quantified readouts. Finally, using micro array-based cell transfections, we demonstrate an unlimited potential of this approach in high-throughput screens for identifying effective siRNA probes for silencing genes in mammalian systems. This approach is likely to have implications in the use of RNAi as a reverse genetic tool for analyzing mammalian gene function on a genome-wide scale. PMID:14525931

Kumar, Rajeev; Conklin, Douglas S.; Mittal, Vivek

2003-01-01

56

Novel vectors for retrotransposon-induced gene silencing in Magnaporthe oryzae  

Microsoft Academic Search

Here we report a novel system to induce RNA silencing in Magnaporthe\\u000a oryzae using the retrotransposon MAGGY. The gene-silencing vector pSilent-MG carries a MAGGY variant with a unique cloning site\\u000a in the 3? UTR region and a geneticin-resistance cassette as a selection marker. A gene-silencing assay with a GFP gene revealed\\u000a that pSilent-MG vectors induced gene silencing at a practical

Ba Van Vu; Masako Takino; Toshiki Murata; Hitoshi Nakayashiki

2011-01-01

57

An Efficient Fungal RNA-Silencing System Using the DsRed Reporter Gene  

Microsoft Academic Search

In filamentous fungi, RNA silencing is an attractive alternative to disruption experiments for the functional analysis of genes. We adapted the gene encoding the autofluorescent DsRed protein as a reporter to monitor the silencing process in fungal transformants. Using the cephalosporin C producer Acremonium chrysogenum, strains showing a high level of expression of the DsRed gene were constructed, resulting in

Danielle Janus; Birgit Hoff; Eckhard Hofmann; Ulrich Kuck

2007-01-01

58

Gene silencing in a polyploid homosporous fern: paleopolyploidy revisited.  

PubMed Central

Because of their high chromosome numbers, homosporous vascular plants were considered paleopolyploids until recent enzyme electrophoretic studies rejected this hypothesis by showing that they express only diploid numbers of isozymes. In polyploid sporophytes of the homosporous fern pelleae rufa, however, progressive diminution of phosphoglucoisomerase activities encoded by one ancestral genome culminates in tetraploid plants exhibiting a completely diploidized electrophoretic phenotype for this enzyme. The demonstration that such gene silencing can make a polyploid fern look isozymically like a diploid questions the validity of isozyme evidence for testing the paleopolyploid hypothesis and supports the proposed role of polyploidization followed by genetic diploidizaton in the evolutionary history of homosporous pteridohytes. Images PMID:11607154

Gastony, G J

1991-01-01

59

Gene silencing in parasites: current status and future prospects.  

PubMed

Parasitic diseases cause important losses in public and veterinary health worldwide. Novel drugs, more reliable diagnostic techniques and vaccine candidates are urgently needed. Due to the complexity of parasites and the intricate relationship with their hosts, development of successful tools to fight parasites has been very limited to date. The growing information on individual parasite genomes is now allowing the use of a broader range of potential strategies to gain deeper insights into the host-parasite relationship and has increased the possibilities to develop molecular-based tools in the field of parasitology. Nevertheless, functional studies of respective genes are still scarce. The RNA interference phenomenon resulting in the regulation of protein expression through the specific degradation of defined mRNAs, and more specifically the possibility of artificially induce it, has shown to be a powerful tool for the investigation of proteins function in many organisms. Recent advances in the design and delivery of targeting molecules allow efficient and highly specific gene silencing in different types of parasites, pointing out this technology as a powerful tool for the identification of novel vaccine candidates or drug targets at the high-throughput level in the near future, and could enable researchers to functionally annotate parasite genomes. The aim of this review is to provide a comprehensive overview on the current advances and pitfalls in gene silencing mechanisms, techniques, applications and prospects in animal parasites. PMID:22520440

Manzano-Román, Raúl; Oleaga, Ana; Pérez-Sánchez, Ricardo; Siles-Lucas, Mar

2012-01-01

60

Noise and correlations in genes silenced by small RNA.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Many small regulatory RNAs have been identified in prokaryotes and eukaryotes in recent years. In many cases, RNA regulation is found in critical pathways. These include stress response and quorum sensing pathways in bacteria, and cell differentiation and programmed cell death in eukaryotes. In many cases, regulation by small RNA is used in switching off a response program as long as it is not required, allowing for a fast switching on when necessary. Clearly, accidental execution of such a program may bare grave consequences on the cell, and should be avoided. Here we analyze a stochastic model for gene regulation by the most abundant class of small RNA in bacteria. This class of small RNAs acts by base pairing with target mRNAs, silencing its translation and actively promoting its degradation. Importantly, the small RNA molecule is not recycled. Our model suggests that genes silenced by sRNA exhibits smooth noise, as opposed to the bursty noise characteristic to genes repressed at the level of transcription, with coupling between intrinsic noise and global, extrinsic fluctuations. In addition, we investigate how noise propagates through the indirect coupling between different targets of the same sRNA. These features are discussed in the context of circuits exhibiting multi-stability, where protein bursts have strong implications on spontaneous switching.

Hwa, Terence; Levine, Erel

2006-03-01

61

Epigenetic Activation and Silencing of the Gene that Encodes IFN-?  

PubMed Central

Transcriptional activation and repression of genes that are developmentally regulated or exhibit cell-type specific expression patterns is largely achieved by modifying the chromatin template at a gene locus. Complex formation of stable epigenetic histone marks, loss or gain of DNA methylation, alterations in chromosome conformation, and specific utilization of both proximal and distal transcriptional enhancers and repressors all contribute to this process. In addition, long non-coding RNAs are a new species of regulatory RNAs that either positively or negatively regulate transcription of target gene loci. IFN-? is a pro-inflammatory cytokine with critical functions in both innate and adaptive arms of the immune system. This review focuses on our current understanding of how the chromatin template is modified at the IFNG locus during developmental processes leading to its transcriptional activation and silencing. PMID:23720660

Aune, Thomas M.; Collins, Patrick L.; Collier, Sarah P.; Henderson, Melodie A.; Chang, Shaojing

2013-01-01

62

Virus-aided gene expression and silencing using TRV for functional analysis of floral scent-related genes.  

PubMed

Flower scent is a composite character determined by a complex mixture of low-molecular-weight volatile molecules. Despite the importance of floral fragrance, our knowledge on factors regulating these pathways remains sketchy. Virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS) and virus-aided gene expression (VAGE) are characterized by a simple inoculation procedure and rapid results as compared to transgenesis, allowing screening and characterization of scent-related genes. Here, we describe methods using TRV as a VIGS/VAGE vector for the characterization of scent-related genes, protein compartmentalization studies, and protein subcellular targeting. PMID:23386300

Spitzer-Rimon, Ben; Cna'ani, Alon; Vainstein, Alexander

2013-01-01

63

RNA silencing as a tool to uncover gene function and engineer novel traits in soybean.  

PubMed

RNA silencing refers collectively to diverse RNA-mediated pathways of nucleotide-sequence-specific inhibition of gene expression. It has been used to analyze gene function and engineer novel traits in various organisms. Here, we review the application of RNA silencing in soybean. To produce soybean lines, in which a particular gene is stably silenced, researchers have frequently used a transgene that transcribes inverted repeats of a target gene segment. Suppression of gene expression in developing soybean embryos has been one of the main focuses of metabolic engineering using transgene-induced silencing. Plants that have enhanced resistance against diseases caused by viruses or cyst nematode have also been produced. Meanwhile, Agrobacterium rhizogenes-mediated transformation has been used to induce RNA silencing in roots, which enabled analysis of the roles of gene products in nodulation or disease resistance. RNA silencing has also been induced using viral vectors, which is particularly useful for gene function analysis. So far, three viral vectors for virus-induced gene silencing have been developed for soybean. One of the features of the soybean genome is the presence of a large number of duplicated genes. Potential use of RNA silencing technology in combination with forward genetic approaches for analyzing duplicated genes is discussed. PMID:23136487

Kasai, Megumi; Kanazawa, Akira

2012-01-01

64

RNA silencing as a tool to uncover gene function and engineer novel traits in soybean  

PubMed Central

RNA silencing refers collectively to diverse RNA-mediated pathways of nucleotide-sequence-specific inhibition of gene expression. It has been used to analyze gene function and engineer novel traits in various organisms. Here, we review the application of RNA silencing in soybean. To produce soybean lines, in which a particular gene is stably silenced, researchers have frequently used a transgene that transcribes inverted repeats of a target gene segment. Suppression of gene expression in developing soybean embryos has been one of the main focuses of metabolic engineering using transgene-induced silencing. Plants that have enhanced resistance against diseases caused by viruses or cyst nematode have also been produced. Meanwhile, Agrobacterium rhizogenes-mediated transformation has been used to induce RNA silencing in roots, which enabled analysis of the roles of gene products in nodulation or disease resistance. RNA silencing has also been induced using viral vectors, which is particularly useful for gene function analysis. So far, three viral vectors for virus-induced gene silencing have been developed for soybean. One of the features of the soybean genome is the presence of a large number of duplicated genes. Potential use of RNA silencing technology in combination with forward genetic approaches for analyzing duplicated genes is discussed. PMID:23136487

Kasai, Megumi; Kanazawa, Akira

2012-01-01

65

Domains of gene silencing near the left end of chromosome III in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.  

PubMed Central

In Saccharomyces cerevisiae the HM loci and regions adjacent to the telomeres are transcriptionally silent. HML is situated 11 kb from the left telomere of chromosome III. I have systematically examined gene silencing along this 11-kb chromosomal region. I found that silencing extends at least 1.1 kb beyond HML, indicating that the HML E silencer acts on both sides. Moreover, I obtained evidence indicating that a 0.71-kb sequence near the E silencer acts as a barrier to the spread of silencing and coincides with the left boundary of the silent HML domain. I also showed that silencing at the telomere is limited to an approximately 2-kb domain. On the other hand, an approximately 7-kb region between HML and the telomere is not silenced by HML or the telomere. These results provide a clear example of organization of the eukaryotic genome into interspersed domains with distinct potentials for gene expression. PMID:11973296

Bi, Xin

2002-01-01

66

[Chitosan-siRNA complex nanoparticles for gene silencing].  

PubMed

Small interference RNA (siRNA) induced RNA interference (RNAi) technology has shown high specificity and high efficiency of silencing target gene expression, and it is becoming a promising candidate drug for the therapy of cancer and viral infection diseases. At present, the lack of safe and effective carrier materials and delivery systems of siRNA through extracellular and intracellular barriers still hampers the clinical application. In order to overcome this difficulty, we proposed using chitosan, naturally occurring polycation, to form complex siRNA against green fluorescence protein (siRNA-eGFP). The spherical and stable chitosan-siRNA nanoparticles with 83%-94% siRNA complex efficiency can be formulated under mild electrostatic interaction. The size and Zeta potential of nanoparticles were within the range of 90-180 nm and 10-30 mV, respectively. 80% cell viability could be maintained inthe course of incubating with chitosan-siRNA nanoparticles. Moreover, nearly 80% gene silencing efficiency of chitosan-siRNA nanoparticles was realized. PMID:20337033

Liu, Xiudong

2010-02-01

67

Efficient cloning system for construction of gene silencing vectors in Aspergillus niger  

Microsoft Academic Search

An approach based on Gateway recombination technology to efficiently construct silencing vectors was developed for use in\\u000a the biotechnologically important fungus Aspergillus niger. The transcription activator of xylanolytic and cellulolytic genes XlnR of A. niger was chosen as target for gene silencing. Silencing was based on the expression vector pXLNRir that was constructed and used\\u000a in co-transformation. From all the

José Miguel Oliveira; Douwe van der Veen; Leo H. de Graaff; Ling Qin

2008-01-01

68

Protocol: using virus-induced gene silencing to study the arbuscular mycorrhizal symbiosis in Pisum sativum  

PubMed Central

Virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS) is an alternative reverse genetics tool for silencing of genes in some plants, which are difficult to transform. The pea early-browning virus (PEBV) has been developed as a VIGS vector and used in pea for functional analysis of several genes. However, the available PEBV-VIGS protocols are inadequate for studying genes involved in the symbiosis with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF). Here we describe a PEBV-VIGS protocol suitable for reverse genetics studies in pea of genes involved in the symbiosis with AMF and show its effectiveness in silencing genes involved in the early and late stages of AMF symbiosis. PMID:21156044

2010-01-01

69

RNA interference in Entamoeba histolytica: implications for parasite biology and gene silencing.  

PubMed

Entamoeba histolytica is a major health threat to people in developing countries, where it causes invasive diarrhea and liver abscesses. The study of this important human pathogen has been hindered by a lack of tools for genetic manipulation. Recently, a number of genetic approaches based on variations of the RNAi method have been successfully developed and cloning of endogenous small-interfering RNAs from E. histolytica revealed an abundant population of small RNAs with an unusual 5´-polyphosphate structure. However, little is known about the implications of these findings to amebic biology or the mechanisms of gene silencing in this organism. In this article we review the literature relevant to RNAi in E. histolytica, discuss its implications for advances in gene silencing in this organism and outline potential future directions towards understanding the repertoire of RNAi and its impact on the biology of this deep-branching eukaryotic parasite. PMID:21162639

Zhang, Hanbang; Pompey, Justine M; Singh, Upinder

2011-01-01

70

A virus-induced gene silencing approach to understanding alkaloid metabolism in Catharanthus roseus  

PubMed Central

The anticancer agents vinblastine and vincristine are bisindole alkaloids derived from coupling vindoline and catharanthine, monoterpenoid indole alkaloids produced exclusively by Madagascar periwinkle (Catharanthus roseus) plants. Industrial production of vinblastine and vincristine currently relies on isolation from C. roseus leaves, a process that affords these compounds in 0.0003–0.01% yields. Metabolic engineering efforts to improve alkaloid content or provide alternative sources of the bisindole alkaloids ultimately rely on the isolation and characterization of the genes involved. Several vindoline biosynthetic genes have been isolated, and the cellular and subcellular organization of the corresponding enzymes has been well studied. However, due to the leaf-specific localization of vindoline biosynthesis, and the lack of production of this precursor in cell suspension and hairy root cultures of C. roseus, further elucidation of this pathway demands the development of reverse genetics approaches to assay gene function in planta. The bipartite pTRV vector system is a Tobacco Rattle Virus-based virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS) platform that has provided efficient and effective means to assay gene function in diverse plant systems. We have developed a VIGS method to investigate gene function in C. roseus plants using the pTRV vector system. The utility of this approach in understanding gene function in C. roseus leaves is demonstrated by silencing known vindoline biosynthetic genes previously characterized in vitro. PMID:21802100

Liscombe, David K.; O'Connor, Sarah E.

2011-01-01

71

RNA-DNA Interactions and DNA Methylation in PostTranscriptional Gene Silencing  

Microsoft Academic Search

Post-transcriptional gene silencing (PTGS) is a homology-dependent process that reduces cytoplasmic RNA levels. In several experimental systems, there is also an association of PTGS with methylation of DNA. To investigate this associ- ation, we used plants carrying a transgene encoding the green fluorescent protein (GFP). Gene silencing was induced using potato virus X RNA vectors carrying parts of the coding

Al Jones; Andrew J. Hamilton; Olivier Voinnet; Carole L. Thomas; Andrew J. Maule; David C. Baulcombe

1999-01-01

72

Identification and Characterization of a Transcriptional Silencer Upstream of the Human BRCA2 Gene  

Microsoft Academic Search

Expression of the breast cancer susceptibility tumor-suppressor protein BRCA2, a protein potentially involved in DNA recombination repair, is tightly regulated throughout development. We have identified a transcriptional silencer at the distal end of the human BRCA2 gene promoter. This silencer is involved in the negative regulation of the expression of this gene in breast cell lines tested but not in

Chakradhari Sharan; Angelika K. Parl; Pramod K. Singh; Gautam Chaudhuri

1999-01-01

73

DNA triplet repeats mediate heterochromatin-protein-1-sensitive variegated gene silencing  

Microsoft Academic Search

Gene repression is crucial to the maintenance of differentiated cell types in multicellular organisms, whereas aberrant silencing can lead to disease. The organization of DNA into chromatin and heterochromatin is implicated in gene silencing. In chromatin, DNA wraps around histones, creating nucleosomes. Further condensation of chromatin, associated with large blocks of repetitive DNA sequences, is known as heterochromatin. Position effect

Alexander Saveliev; Christopher Everett; Tammy Sharpe; Zoë Webster; Richard Festenstein

2003-01-01

74

Molecular mechanisms of RNA-triggered gene silencing machineries.  

PubMed

Gene silencing by RNA triggers is an ancient, evolutionarily conserved, and widespread phenomenon. This process, known as RNA interference (RNAi), occurs when double-stranded RNA helices induce cleavage of their complementary mRNAs. Because these RNA molecules can be introduced exogenously as small interfering RNAs (siRNAs), RNAi has become an everyday experimental tool in laboratory research. In addition, the number of RNA-based therapeutics that are currently in clinical trials for a variety of human diseases demonstrate the therapeutic potential of RNAi. In this Account, we focus on our current understanding of the structure and function of various classes of RNAi triggers and how this knowledge has contributed to our understanding of the biogenesis and catalytic functions of siRNA and microRNA in mammalian cells. Mechanistic studies to understand the structure and function of small RNAs that induce RNAi have illuminated broad functions of the ancient RNAi machinery in animals and plants. In addition, such studies have provided insight to identify endogenous physiological gene silencing RNA triggers that engage functional machineries similar to siRNAs. Several endogenous small RNA species have been identified: small noncoding RNAs (microRNAs), piwi-interacting RNAs (piRNAs), and endogenous siRNAs (endo-siRNAs). microRNAs are the most widespread class of small RNAs in mammalian cells. Despite their importance in biology and medicine, the molecular and cellular mechanisms of microRNA biogenesis and function are not fully understood. We provide an overview of the current understanding of how these molecules are synthesized within cells and how they act on gene targets. Interesting questions remain both for understanding the effects of modifications and editing on microRNAs and the interactions between microRNAs and other cellular RNAs such as long noncoding RNAs. PMID:22304792

Li, Zhonghan; Rana, Tariq M

2012-07-17

75

RNA silencing of lactate dehydrogenase gene in Rhizopus oryzae  

PubMed Central

Rhizopus oryzae is a filamentous fungus, belonging to the order Mucorales. It can ferment a wide range of carbohydrates hydrolyzed from lignocellulosic materials and even cellobiose to produce ethanol. However, R. oryzae also produces lactic acid as a major metabolite, which reduces the yield of ethanol. In this study, we show that significant reduction of lactic acid production could be achieved by short (25nt) synthetic siRNAs targeting the ldhA gene. The average yield of lactic acid production by R. oryzae during the batch fermentation process, where glucose had been used as a sole carbon source, diminished from 0.07gm/gm in wild type to 0.01gm/gm in silenced samples. In contrast, the average yield of ethanol production increased from 0.39gm/gm in wild type to 0.45gm/gm in silenced samples. These results show 85.7% (gm/gm) reduction in lactic acid production as compared with the wild type R. oryzae, while an increase of 15.4% (gm/gm) in ethanol yield. PMID:21769297

Gheinani, Ali Hashemi; Jahromi, Neda Haghayegh; Feuk-Lagerstedt, Elisabeth; Taherzadeh, Mohammad J

2011-01-01

76

RNAi-Mediated Gene silencing in Zebrafish Triggered by Convergent Transcription  

PubMed Central

RNAi based strategies to induce gene silencing are commonly employed in numerous model organisms but have not been extensively used in zebrafish. We found that introduction of transgenes containing convergent transcription units in zebrafish embryos induced stable transcriptional gene silencing (TGS) in cis and trans for reporter (mCherry) and endogenous (One-Eyed Pinhead (OEP) and miR-27a/b) genes. Convergent transcription enabled detection of both sense and antisense transcripts and silencing was suppressed upon Dicer knockdown, indicating processing of double stranded RNA. By ChIP analyses, increased silencing was accompanied by enrichment of the heterochromatin mark H3K9me3 in the two convergently arranged promoters and in the intervening reading frame. Our work demonstrates that convergent transcription can induce gene silencing in zebrafish providing another tool to create specific temporal and spatial control of gene expression. PMID:24909225

Andrews, Omozusi E.; Cha, Diana J.; Wei, Chunyao; Patton, James G.

2014-01-01

77

Virus-induced gene silencing in nicotiana benthamiana and other plant species.  

PubMed

Virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS) is an efficient tool for high throughput reverse genetic screens. VIGS engages the endogenous RNA-silencing machinery of the plant host, and can yield an 85-95% reduction of target transcripts. Gene silencing is rapid, target-specific, and does not require the creation of stable transformants. The technique has been used successfully in numerous Solanaceae species as well as in Arabidopsis, maize, and rice. Here we describe a protocol for conducting a VIGS screen in Nicotiana benthamiana using Tobacco Rattle Virus (TRV) based silencing vectors. This protocol can readily be adapted to many other model plant species. PMID:20931372

Hayward, Andrew; Padmanabhan, Meenu; Dinesh-Kumar, S P

2011-01-01

78

Cohesin and Polycomb Proteins Functionally Interact to Control Transcription at Silenced and Active Genes  

PubMed Central

Cohesin is crucial for proper chromosome segregation but also regulates gene transcription and organism development by poorly understood mechanisms. Using genome-wide assays in Drosophila developing wings and cultured cells, we find that cohesin functionally interacts with Polycomb group (PcG) silencing proteins at both silenced and active genes. Cohesin unexpectedly facilitates binding of Polycomb Repressive Complex 1 (PRC1) to many active genes, but their binding is mutually antagonistic at silenced genes. PRC1 depletion decreases phosphorylated RNA polymerase II and mRNA at many active genes but increases them at silenced genes. Depletion of cohesin reduces long-range interactions between Polycomb Response Elements in the invected-engrailed gene complex where it represses transcription. These studies reveal a previously unrecognized role for PRC1 in facilitating productive gene transcription and provide new insights into how cohesin and PRC1 control development. PMID:23818863

Schaaf, Cheri A.; Misulovin, Ziva; Gause, Maria; Koenig, Amanda; Gohara, David W.; Watson, Audrey; Dorsett, Dale

2013-01-01

79

Virus-induced gene silencing for comparative functional studies in Gladiolus hybridus.  

PubMed

Functional analysis of genes in gladiolus has previously been impractical due to the lack of an efficient stable genetic transformation method. However, virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS) is effective in some plants which are difficult to transform through other methods. Although the Tobacco rattle virus (TRV)-based VIGS system has been developed and used for verifying gene functions in diverse plants, an appropriate TRV-VIGS approach for gladiolus has not been established yet. In this report we describe the first use of the TRV-VIGS system for gene silencing in gladiolus. Vacuum infiltration of cormels and young plants with the GhPDS-VIGS vector effectively down-regulated the PHYTOENE DESATURASE ortholog GhPDS gene and also resulted in various degrees of photobleaching in Gladiolus hybridus. The reduction in GhPDS expression was tested after TRV-based vector infection using real-time RT-PCR. In addition, the progress of TRV infection was detected by fluorescence visualization using a pTRV2: CP-GFP vector. In conclusion, the TRV-mediated VIGS described here will be an effective gene function analysis mechanism in gladiolus. PMID:24170343

Zhong, Xionghui; Yuan, Xue; Wu, Ze; Khan, Muhammad Ali; Chen, Jin; Li, Xiaoxin; Gong, Benhe; Zhao, Yang; Wu, Jian; Wu, Chenyu; Yi, Mingfang

2014-02-01

80

Virus-induced gene silencing as a tool for functional analyses in the emerging model plant Aquilegia (columbine, Ranunculaceae)  

PubMed Central

Background The lower eudicot genus Aquilegia, commonly known as columbine, is currently the subject of extensive genetic and genomic research aimed at developing this taxon as a new model for the study of ecology and evolution. The ability to perform functional genetic analyses is a critical component of this development process and ultimately has the potential to provide insight into the genetic basis for the evolution of a wide array of traits that differentiate flowering plants. Aquilegia is of particular interest due to both its recent evolutionary history, which involves a rapid adaptive radiation, and its intermediate phylogenetic position between core eudicot (e.g., Arabidopsis) and grass (e.g., Oryza) model species. Results Here we demonstrate the effective use of a reverse genetic technique, virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS), to study gene function in this emerging model plant. Using Agrobacterium mediated transfer of tobacco rattle virus (TRV) based vectors, we induce silencing of PHYTOENE DESATURASE (AqPDS) in Aquilegia vulgaris seedlings, and ANTHOCYANIDIN SYNTHASE (AqANS) and the B-class floral organ identity gene PISTILLATA in A. vulgaris flowers. For all of these genes, silencing phenotypes are associated with consistent reduction in endogenous transcript levels. In addition, we show that silencing of AqANS has no effect on overall floral morphology and is therefore a suitable marker for the identification of silenced flowers in dual-locus silencing experiments. Conclusion Our results show that TRV-VIGS in Aquilegia vulgaris allows data to be rapidly obtained and can be reproduced with effective survival and silencing rates. Furthermore, this method can successfully be used to evaluate the function of early-acting developmental genes. In the future, data derived from VIGS analyses will be combined with large-scale sequencing and microarray experiments already underway in order to address both recent and ancient evolutionary questions. PMID:17430595

Gould, Billie; Kramer, Elena M

2007-01-01

81

Release from post-transcriptional gene silencing by cell proliferation in transgenic tobacco plants: possible mechanism for noninheritance of the silencing.  

PubMed Central

Transgenic tobacco plants that overproduce luciferase (Luc) frequently exhibit post-transcriptional gene silencing (PTGS) of luc. The silencing was observed over five generations and found not to be inherited but acquired by the next generation at a certain frequency. Luc imaging analysis of silenced plants revealed Luc activity only in proliferating tissues such as shoot meristem and developing flower. The luc gene expression has been recovered from silencing before development of germ cells, excluding a possible recovery from the PTGS at meiosis. A systemic silencing signal transferred from older tissue likely induces gene silencing of younger tissues in which cell proliferation has been completed. Only seeds maintained Luc activity, probably because of isolation from the silencing signal by a possible partition from the parent placenta. Calli newly induced from the leaf pieces of silenced plants recovered from the silencing and exhibited strong Luc activity similar to nonsilenced leaves, further indicating that the silencing cannot be maintained in proliferating cells. Thus release from PTGS in proliferating cells is a possible mechanism for noninheritance of silencing. PMID:11805069

Mitsuhara, Ichiro; Shirasawa-Seo, Naomi; Iwai, Takayoshi; Nakamura, Shigeo; Honkura, Ryoso; Ohashi, Yuko

2002-01-01

82

Assessing the tobacco-rattle-virus-based vectors system as an efficient gene silencing technique in Datura stramonium (Solanaceae).  

PubMed

Datura stramonium is a well-known medicinal plant, which is important for its alkaloids. There are intrinsic limitations for the natural production of alkaloids in plants; metabolic engineering methods can be effectively used to conquer these limitations. In order for this the genes involved in corresponding pathways need to be studied. Virus-Induced Gene Silencing is known as a functional genomics technique to knock-down expression of endogenous genes. In this study, we silenced phytoene desaturase as a marker gene in D. stramonium in a heterologous and homologous manner by tobacco-rattle-virus-based VIGS vectors. Recombinant TRV vector containing pds gene from D. stramonium (pTRV2-Dspds) was constructed and injected into seedlings. The plants injected with pTRV2-Dspds showed photobleaching 2 weeks after infiltration. Spectrophotometric analysis demonstrated that the amount of chlorophylls and carotenoids in leaves of the bleached plants decreased considerably compared to that of the control plants. Semi-Quantitative RT-PCR results also confirmed that the expression of pds gene in the silenced plants was significantly reduced in comparison with the control plants. The results showed that the viral vector was able to influence the levels of total alkaloid content in D. stramonium. Our results illustrated that TRV-based VIGS vectors are able to induce effective and reliable functional gene silencing in D. stramonium as an alternative tool for studying the genes of interest in this plant, such as the targeted genes in tropane alkaloid biosynthetic pathway. The present work is the first report of establishing VIGS as an efficient method for transient silencing of any gene of interest in D. stramonium. PMID:25070062

Eftekhariyan Ghamsari, Mohammad Reza; Karimi, Farah; Mousavi Gargari, Seyed Latif; Hosseini Tafreshi, Seyed Ali; Salami, Seyed Alireza

2014-12-01

83

Differential gene silencing induced by short interfering RNA in cultured pine cells associates with the cell cycle phase  

Microsoft Academic Search

The double-stranded short interfering RNA (siRNA) molecules can silence targeted genes through sequence-specific cleavage of the cognate RNA transcript. The rapid adoption of technologies based on this siRNA interference mechanism has been a widely used method to analyze gene function in plants, invertebrates, and mammalian systems. In order to understand the dynamics of siRNA-mediated gene inactivation during cell division, we

Wei Tang; Ronald J. Newton; Douglas A. Weidner

2006-01-01

84

Tobacco rattle virus mediates gene silencing in a plant parasitic root-knot nematode.  

PubMed

Root-knot nematodes (RKNs) are sedentary biotrophic parasites that induce the differentiation of root cells into feeding cells that provide the nematodes with the nutrients necessary for their development. The development of new control methods against RKNs relies greatly on the functional analysis of genes that are crucial for the development of the pathogen or the success of parasitism. In the absence of genetic transformation, RNA interference (RNAi) allows for phenotype analysis of nematode development and nematode establishment in its host after sequence-specific knock-down of the targeted genes. Strategies used to induce RNAi in RKNs are so far restricted to small-scale analyses. In the search for a new RNAi strategy amenable to large-scale screenings the possibility of using RNA viruses to produce the RNAi triggers in plants was tested. Tobacco rattle virus (TRV) was tested as a means to introduce double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) triggers into the feeding cells and to mediate RKN gene silencing. It was demonstrated that virus-inoculated plants can produce dsRNA and siRNA silencing triggers for delivery to the feeding nematodes. Interestingly, the knock-down of the targeted genes was observed in the progeny of the feeding nematodes, suggesting that continuous ingestion of dsRNA triggers could be used for the functional analysis of genes involved in early development. However, the heterogeneity in RNAi efficiency between TRV-inoculated plants appears as a limitation to the use of TRV-mediated silencing for the high-throughput functional analysis of the targeted nematode genes. PMID:19625337

Dubreuil, G; Magliano, M; Dubrana, M P; Lozano, J; Lecomte, P; Favery, B; Abad, P; Rosso, M N

2009-01-01

85

Virus-induced gene silencing can persist for more than 2 years and also be transmitted to progeny seedlings in Nicotiana benthamiana and tomato.  

PubMed

Virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS) is one of the commonly used RNA silencing methods in plant functional genomics. It is widely known that VIGS can occur for about 3 weeks. A few reports show that duration of VIGS can be prolonged for up to 3 months. Increasing the duration of endogenous gene silencing and developing a method for nonintegration-based persistent VIGS in progeny seedlings will widen the application of VIGS. We used three marker genes that provoke visible phenotypes in plants upon silencing to study persistence and transmittance of VIGS to progeny in two plant species, Nicotiana benthamiana and tomato. We used a Tobacco rattle virus (TRV)-based VIGS vector and showed that the duration of gene silencing by VIGS can occur for more than 2 years and that TRV is necessary for longer duration VIGS. Also, inoculation of TRV-VIGS constructs by both Agrodrench and leaf infiltration greatly increased the effectiveness and duration of VIGS. Our results also showed transmittance of VIGS to progeny seedlings via seeds. A longer silencing period will facilitate detailed study of target genes in plant development and stress tolerance. Further, the transmittance of VIGS to progeny will be useful in studying the effect of gene silencing in young seedlings. Our results provide a new dimension for the application of VIGS in plants. PMID:21265998

Senthil-Kumar, Muthappa; Mysore, Kirankumar S

2011-09-01

86

Functional characterization of a tyrosinase gene from the oomycete Saprolegnia parasitica by RNAi silencing.  

PubMed

Here we describe the first application of transient gene silencing in Saprolegnia parasitica, a pathogenic oomycete that infects a wide range of fish, amphibians, and crustaceans. A gene encoding a putative tyrosinase from S. parasitica, SpTyr, was selected to investigate the suitability of RNA-interference (RNAi) to functionally characterize genes of this economically important pathogen. Tyrosinase is a mono-oxygenase enzyme that catalyses the O-hydroxylation of monophenols and subsequent oxidation of O-diphenols to quinines. These enzymes are widely distributed in nature, and are involved in the melanin biosynthesis. Gene silencing was obtained by delivering in vitro synthesized SpTyr dsRNA into protoplasts. Expression analysis, tyrosinase activity measurements, and melanin content analysis confirmed silencing in individual lines. Silencing of SpTyr resulted in a decrease of tyrosinase activity between 38 % and 60 %, dependent on the level of SpTyr-expression achieved. The SpTyr-silenced lines displayed less pigmentation in developing sporangia and occasionally an altered morphology. Moreover, developing sporangia from individual silenced lines possessed a less electron dense cell wall when compared to control lines, treated with GFP-dsRNA. In conclusion, the tyrosinase gene of S. parasitica is required for melanin formation and transient gene silencing can be used to functionally characterize genes in S. parasitica. PMID:25088076

Saraiva, Marcia; de Bruijn, Irene; Grenville-Briggs, Laura; McLaggan, Debbie; Willems, Ariane; Bulone, Vincent; van West, Pieter

2014-07-01

87

Dissecting Epigenetic Silencing Complexity in the Mouse Lung Cancer Suppressor Gene Cadm1  

Microsoft Academic Search

Disease-oriented functional analysis of epigenetic factors and their regulatory mechanisms in aberrant silencing is a prerequisite for better diagnostics and therapy. Yet, the precise mechanisms are still unclear and complex, involving the interplay of several effectors including nucleosome positioning, DNA methylation, histone variants and histone modifications. We investigated the epigenetic silencing complexity in the tumor suppressor gene Cadm1 in mouse

Stella Marie Reamon-Buettner; Juergen Borlak

2012-01-01

88

Efficient Gene Silencing Mediated by Tobacco Rattle Virus in an Emerging Model Plant Physalis  

PubMed Central

The fruit of Physalis has a berry and a novelty called inflated calyx syndrome (ICS, also named the ‘Chinese lantern’). Elucidation of the underlying developmental mechanisms of fruit diversity demands an efficient gene functional inference platform. Here, we tested the application of the tobacco rattle virus (TRV)-mediated gene-silencing system in Physalis floridana. First, we characterized the putative gene of a phytoene desaturase in P. floridana (PfPDS). Infecting the leaves of the Physalis seedlings with the PfPDS-TRV vector resulted in a bleached plant, including the developing leaves, floral organs, ICS, berry, and seed. These results indicated that a local VIGS treatment can efficiently induce a systemic mutated phenotype. qRT-PCR analyses revealed that the bleaching extent correlated to the mRNA reduction of the endogenous PfPDS. Detailed comparisons of multiple infiltration and growth protocols allowed us to determine the optimal methodologies for VIGS manipulation in Physalis. We subsequently utilized this optimized VIGS methodology to downregulate the expression of two MADS-box genes, MPF2 and MPF3, and compared the resulting effects with gene-downregulation mediated by RNA interference (RNAi) methods. The VIGS-mediated gene knockdown plants were found to resemble the mutated phenotypes of floral calyx, fruiting calyx and pollen maturation of the RNAi transgenic plants for both MPF2 and MPF3. Moreover, the two MADS-box genes were appeared to have a novel role in the pedicel development in P. floridana. The major advantage of VIGS-based gene knockdown lies in practical aspects of saving time and easy manipulation as compared to the RNAi. Despite the lack of heritability and mosaic mutation phenotypes observed in some organs, the TRV-mediated gene silencing system provides an alternative efficient way to infer gene function in various developmental processes in Physalis, thus facilitating understanding of the genetic basis of the evolution and development of the morphological diversities within the Solanaceae. PMID:24454885

Zhang, Shaohua; He, Chaoying

2014-01-01

89

Efficient gene silencing mediated by tobacco rattle virus in an emerging model plant physalis.  

PubMed

The fruit of Physalis has a berry and a novelty called inflated calyx syndrome (ICS, also named the 'Chinese lantern'). Elucidation of the underlying developmental mechanisms of fruit diversity demands an efficient gene functional inference platform. Here, we tested the application of the tobacco rattle virus (TRV)-mediated gene-silencing system in Physalis floridana. First, we characterized the putative gene of a phytoene desaturase in P. floridana (PfPDS). Infecting the leaves of the Physalis seedlings with the PfPDS-TRV vector resulted in a bleached plant, including the developing leaves, floral organs, ICS, berry, and seed. These results indicated that a local VIGS treatment can efficiently induce a systemic mutated phenotype. qRT-PCR analyses revealed that the bleaching extent correlated to the mRNA reduction of the endogenous PfPDS. Detailed comparisons of multiple infiltration and growth protocols allowed us to determine the optimal methodologies for VIGS manipulation in Physalis. We subsequently utilized this optimized VIGS methodology to downregulate the expression of two MADS-box genes, MPF2 and MPF3, and compared the resulting effects with gene-downregulation mediated by RNA interference (RNAi) methods. The VIGS-mediated gene knockdown plants were found to resemble the mutated phenotypes of floral calyx, fruiting calyx and pollen maturation of the RNAi transgenic plants for both MPF2 and MPF3. Moreover, the two MADS-box genes were appeared to have a novel role in the pedicel development in P. floridana. The major advantage of VIGS-based gene knockdown lies in practical aspects of saving time and easy manipulation as compared to the RNAi. Despite the lack of heritability and mosaic mutation phenotypes observed in some organs, the TRV-mediated gene silencing system provides an alternative efficient way to infer gene function in various developmental processes in Physalis, thus facilitating understanding of the genetic basis of the evolution and development of the morphological diversities within the Solanaceae. PMID:24454885

Zhang, Ji-Si; Zhao, Jing; Zhang, Shaohua; He, Chaoying

2014-01-01

90

MBD2 contributes to developmental silencing of the human ?-globin gene  

PubMed Central

During erythroid development the embryonic ?-globin gene becomes silenced as erythropoiesis shifts from the yolk sac to the fetal liver where ?-globin gene expression predominates. Previous studies have shown that the ?-globin gene is autonomously silenced through promoter proximal cis-acting sequences in adult erythroid cells. We have shown a role for the methylcytosine binding domain protein 2 (MBD2) in the developmental silencing of the avian embryonic ?-globin and human fetal ?-globin genes. To determine the roles of MBD2 and DNA methylation in human ?-globin gene silencing, transgenic mice containing all sequences extending from the 5? hypersensitive site 5 (HS5) of the ?-globin locus LCR to the human ?-globin gene promoter were generated. These mice show correct developmental expression and autonomous silencing of the transgene. Either the absence of MBD2 or treatment with the DNA methyltransferase inhibitor 5-azacytidine increases ?-globin transgene expression by 15–20 fold in adult mice. Adult mice containing the entire human ?-globin locus also show an increase in expression of both the ?-globin gene transgene and endogenous ?Y and ?H1 genes in the absence of MBD2. These results indicate the human ?-globin gene is subject to multilayered silencing mediated in part by MBD2. PMID:21296012

Rupon, Jeremy W.; Wang, Shou Zhen; Gnanapragasam, Merlin; Labropoulos, Stefanos; Ginder, Gordon D.

2011-01-01

91

Histone deacetylases (HDACs) in XPC gene silencing and bladder cancer  

PubMed Central

Bladder cancer is one of the most common malignancies and causes hundreds of thousands of deaths worldwide each year. Bladder cancer is strongly associated with exposure to environmental carcinogens. It is believed that DNA damage generated by environmental carcinogens and their metabolites causes development of bladder cancer. Nucleotide excision repair (NER) is the major DNA repair pathway for repairing bulk DNA damage generated by most environmental carcinogens, and XPC is a DNA damage recognition protein required for initiation of the NER process. Recent studies demonstrate reduced levels of XPC protein in tumors for a majority of bladder cancer patients. In this work we investigated the role of histone deacetylases (HDACs) in XPC gene silencing and bladder cancer development. The results of our HDAC inhibition study revealed that the treatment of HTB4 and HTB9 bladder cancer cells with the HDAC inhibitor valproic acid (VPA) caused an increase in transcription of the XPC gene in these cells. The results of our chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) studies indicated that the VPA treatment caused increased binding of both CREB1 and Sp1 transcription factors at the promoter region of the XPC gene for both HTB4 and HTB9 cells. The results of our immunohistochemistry (IHC) staining studies further revealed a strong correlation between the over-expression of HDAC4 and increased bladder cancer occurrence (p < 0.001) as well as a marginal significance of increasing incidence of HDAC4 positivity seen with an increase in severity of bladder cancer (p = 0.08). In addition, the results of our caspase 3 activation studies demonstrated that prior treatment with VPA increased the anticancer drug cisplatin-induced activation of caspase 3 in both HTB4 and HTB9 cells. All of these results suggest that the HDACs negatively regulate transcription of the XPC gene in bladder cancer cells and contribute to the severity of bladder tumors. PMID:21507255

2011-01-01

92

Virus-induced gene silencing offers a functional genomics platform for studying plant cell wall formation.  

PubMed

Virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS) is a powerful genetic tool for rapid assessment of plant gene functions in the post-genomic era. Here, we successfully implemented a Tobacco Rattle Virus (TRV)-based VIGS system to study functions of genes involved in either primary or secondary cell wall formation in Nicotiana benthamiana plants. A 3-week post-VIGS time frame is sufficient to observe phenotypic alterations in the anatomical structure of stems and chemical composition of the primary and secondary cell walls. We used cell wall glycan-directed monoclonal antibodies to demonstrate that alteration of cell wall polymer synthesis during the secondary growth phase of VIGS plants has profound effects on the extractability of components from woody stem cell walls. Therefore, TRV-based VIGS together with cell wall component profiling methods provide a high-throughput gene discovery platform for studying plant cell wall formation from a bioenergy perspective. PMID:20522525

Zhu, Xiaohong; Pattathil, Sivakumar; Mazumder, Koushik; Brehm, Amanda; Hahn, Michael G; Dinesh-Kumar, S P; Joshi, Chandrashekhar P

2010-09-01

93

Small-Interfering RNA-Eluting Surfaces as a Novel Concept for Intravascular Local Gene Silencing  

PubMed Central

New drug-eluting stent (DES) methods have recently been demonstrated to improve outcomes of intravascular interventions. A novel technique is the design of gene-silencing stents that elute specific small-interfering RNAs (siRNAs) for better vascular wall regeneration. Although siRNAs used to alter gene expression have surpassed expectations in in vitro experiments, the functional and local delivery of siRNAs is still the major obstacle for the in vivo application of RNA interference. In this preliminary in vitro study we investigated a surface-immobilized siRNA delivery technique that would be readily adaptable for local intravascular applications in vivo. The transfection potency of gelatin coatings consisting of a specific siRNA complexed with polyethylenimine (PEI) was examined in primary human endothelial cells by flow cytometry and quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction. Several media conditions, such as the presence or absence of serum during cultivation, were investigated. Furthermore, different siRNA and PEI amounts, as well as nitrogen/phosphate ratios, were tested for their transfection efficiency. Gelatin coatings consisting of PEI and siRNA against an exemplary endothelial adhesion molecule receptor achieved a significant knockdown of around 70%. The transfection efficiency of the coatings was not influenced by the presence of serum. The results of this preliminary study support the expectation that this novel coating may be favorable for local in vivo gene silencing (for example, when immobilized on stents or balloons for percutanous transluminal coronary angioplasty). However, further animal experiments are needed to confirm the translation into clinical practice. This intriguing technology leads the way to more sophisticated and individualized coatings for the post-DES era, toward silencing of genes involved in the pathway of intimal hyperplasia. PMID:21792480

Nolte, Andrea; Walker, Tobias; Schneider, Martina; Kray, Oya; Avci-Adali, Meltem; Ziemer, Gerhard; Wendel, Hans Peter

2011-01-01

94

Heterologous virus-induced gene silencing as a promising approach in plant functional genomics.  

PubMed

VIGS (virus induced gene silencing) is considered as a powerful genomics tool for characterizing the function of genes in a few closely related plant species. The investigations have been carried out mainly in order to test if a pre-existing VIGS vector can serve as an efficient tool for gene silencing in a diverse array of plant species. Another route of investigation has been the constructing of new viral vectors to act in their hosts. Our approach was the creation of a heterologous system in which silencing of endogenous genes was achieved by sequences isolated from evolutionary remote species. In this study, we showed that a TRV-based vector cloned with sequences from a gymnosperm, Taxus baccata L. silenced the endogenous phytoene desaturase in an angiosperm, N. benthamiana. Our results showed that inserts of between 390 and 724 bp isolated from a conserved fragment of the Taxus PDS led to silencing of its homolog in tobacco. The real time analysis indicated that the expression of PDS was reduced 2.1- to 4.0-fold in pTRV-TbPDS infected plants compared with buffer treated plants. Once the best insert is identified and the conditions are optimized for heterologous silencing by pTRV-TbPDS in tobacco, then we can test if TRV can serve as an efficient silencing vector in Taxus. This strategy could also be used to silence a diverse array of genes from a wide range of species which have no VIGS protocol. The results also showed that plants silenced heterologously by the VIGS system a minimally affected with respect to plant growth which may be ideal for studying the genes that their complete loss of function may lead to decrease of plant growth or plant death. PMID:21655951

Hosseini Tafreshi, Seied Ali; Shariati, Mansour; Mofid, Mohammad Reza; Khayam Nekui, Mojtaba; Esmaeili, Abolghasem

2012-03-01

95

Exploring the specificity and mechanisms of siRNA-mediated gene silencing in mammalian cells  

E-print Network

Complementary short interfering RNAs (siRNAs) are routinely used to knockdown gene expression. siRNAs bind to their target sequence and guide transcript cleavage and subsequent degradation. This type of silencing is ...

Alemán, Lourdes Maria

2008-01-01

96

Gene silencing triggered by non-LTR retrotransposons in the female germline of Drosophila melanogaster.  

PubMed Central

Several studies have recently shown that the activity of some eukaryotic transposable elements is sensitive to the presence of homologous transgenes, suggesting the involvement of homology-dependent gene-silencing mechanisms in their regulation. Here we provide data indicating that two non-LTR retrotransposons of Drosophila melanogaster are themselves natural triggers of homology-dependent gene silencing. We show that, in the female germline of D. melanogaster, fragments from the R1 or from the I retrotransposons can mediate silencing of chimeric transcription units into which they are inserted. This silencing is probably mediated by sequence identity with endogenous copies of the retrotransposons because it does not occur with a fragment from the divergent R1 elements of Bombyx mori, and, when a fragment of I is used, it occurs only in females containing functional copies of the I element. This silencing is not accompanied by cosuppression of the endogenous gene homologous to the chimeric transcription unit, which contrasts to some other silencing mechanisms in Drosophila. These observations suggest that in the female germline of D. melanogaster the R1 and I retrotransposons may self-regulate their own activity and their copy number by triggering homology-dependent gene silencing. PMID:12807773

Robin, Stephanie; Chambeyron, Severine; Bucheton, Alain; Busseau, Isabelle

2003-01-01

97

Gene silencing and gene expression in phytopathogenic fungi using a plant virus vector.  

PubMed

RNA interference (RNAi) is a powerful approach for elucidating gene functions in a variety of organisms, including phytopathogenic fungi. In such fungi, RNAi has been induced by expressing hairpin RNAs delivered through plasmids, sequences integrated in fungal or plant genomes, or by RNAi generated in planta by a plant virus infection. All these approaches have some drawbacks ranging from instability of hairpin constructs in fungal cells to difficulties in preparing and handling transgenic plants to silence homologous sequences in fungi grown on these plants. Here we show that RNAi can be expressed in the phytopathogenic fungus Colletotrichum acutatum (strain C71) by virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS) without a plant intermediate, but by using the direct infection of a recombinant virus vector based on the plant virus, tobacco mosaic virus (TMV). We provide evidence that a wild-type isolate of TMV is able to enter C71 cells grown in liquid medium, replicate, and persist therein. With a similar approach, a recombinant TMV vector carrying a gene for the ectopic expression of the green fluorescent protein (GFP) induced the stable silencing of the GFP in the C. acutatum transformant line 10 expressing GFP derived from C71. The TMV-based vector also enabled C. acutatum to transiently express exogenous GFP up to six subcultures and for at least 2 mo after infection, without the need to develop transformation technology. With these characteristics, we anticipate this approach will find wider application as a tool in functional genomics of filamentous fungi. PMID:24594602

Mascia, Tiziana; Nigro, Franco; Abdallah, Alì; Ferrara, Massimo; De Stradis, Angelo; Faedda, Roberto; Palukaitis, Peter; Gallitelli, Donato

2014-03-18

98

Optimizing virus-induced gene silencing efficiency with Cymbidium mosaic virus in Phalaenopsis flower.  

PubMed

Virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS) is a good way to study floral gene functions of orchids, especially those with a long life cycle. To explore the applicability and improve viral silencing efficiency for application of Cymbidium mosaic virus (CymMV)-induced gene silencing, we examined several variables, including the optimal length of the DNA fragment, the effect of developmental maturation status of inflorescence, and suitable inoculation sites. A CymMV-based VIGS system can be used with orchids to silence genes including PeUFGT3, PeMADS5 and PeMADS6 and induce prominent phenotypes with silencing efficiency up to 95.8% reduction. The DNA fragment size used for silencing can be as small as 78-85 bp and still reach 61.5-95.8% reduction. The effect of cDNA location as a target in VIGS varies among genes because of non-target gene influence when using the 5' terminus of the coding region of both PeMADS5 and PeMADS6. Use of VIGS to knock down a B-class MADS-box gene (PeMADS6) in orchids with different maturation status of inflorescence allowed for observing discernable knockdown phenotypes in flowers. Furthermore, silencing effects with Agro-infiltration did not differ with both leaf and inflorescence injections, but injection in the leaf saved time and produced less damage to plants. We propose an optimized approach for VIGS using CymMV as a silencing vector for floral functional genomics in Phalaenopsis orchid with Agro-infiltration: (1) DNA fragment length about 80 bp, (2) a more mature status of inflorescence and (3) leaf injection. PMID:23352400

Hsieh, Ming-Hsien; Lu, Hsiang-Chia; Pan, Zhao-Jun; Yeh, Hsin-Hung; Wang, Shyh-Shyan; Chen, Wen-Huei; Chen, Hong-Hwa

2013-03-01

99

Identification and Characterization of a Transcriptional Silencer Upstream of the Human BRCA2 Gene  

PubMed Central

Expression of the breast cancer susceptibility tumor-suppressor protein BRCA2, a protein potentially involved in DNA recombination repair, is tightly regulated throughout development. We have identified a transcriptional silencer at the distal end of the human BRCA2 gene promoter. This silencer is involved in the negative regulation of the expression of this gene in breast cell lines tested but not in HeLa or HepG2 cells. The 221-base-pair silencer region is characterized by a full-length Alu-repeat. Presence of specific BRCA2 silencer-binding proteins in the breast cell extracts indicates the potential regulation of BRCA2 gene expression by these proteins. PMID:10558858

Sharan, Chakradhari; Hamilton, Nalo M.; Parl, Angelika K.; Singh, Pramod K.; Chaudhuri, Gautam

2011-01-01

100

Multiple small RNA pathways regulate the silencing of repeated and foreign genes in C. elegans  

PubMed Central

Gene segments from other organisms, such as viruses, are detected as foreign and targeted for silencing by RNAi pathways. A deep-sequencing map of the small RNA response to repeated transgenes introduced to Caenorhabditis elegans revealed that specific segments are targeted by siRNAs. Silencing of the foreign gene segments depends on an antiviral response that involves changes in active and silent chromatin modifications and altered levels of antisense siRNAs. Distinct Argonaute proteins target foreign genes for silencing or protection against silencing. We used a repeated transgene in a genome-wide screen to identify gene disruptions that enhance silencing of foreign genetic elements and identified 69 genes. These genes cluster in four groups based on overlapping sets of coexpressed genes, including a group of germline-expressed genes that are likely coregulated by the E2F transcription factor. Many of the gene inactivations enhance exogenous RNAi. About half of the 69 genes have roles in endogenous RNAi pathways that regulate diverse processes, including silencing of duplicated genes and transposons and chromosome segregation. Of these newly identified genes, several are required for siRNA biogenesis or stability in the oocyte-specific ERGO-1 pathway, including eri-12, encoding an interactor of the RNAi-defective protein RDE-10, and ntl-9/CNOT9, one of several CCR4/NOT complex genes that we identified. The conserved ARF-like small GTPase ARL-8 is required specifically for primary siRNA biogenesis or stability in the sperm-specific ALG-3/4 endogenous RNAi pathway. PMID:24352423

Fischer, Sylvia E.J.; Pan, Qi; Breen, Peter C.; Qi, Yan; Shi, Zhen; Zhang, Chi; Ruvkun, Gary

2013-01-01

101

Systemic gene silencing in plants triggered by fluorescent nanoparticle-delivered double-stranded RNA.  

PubMed

A cationic fluorescence nanoparticle efficiently enters plants with high transfection efficacy. Applying a mixture of G2/dsRNA to the model plant, Arabidopsis root, leads to significant reduction in the expression of important developmental genes and results in apparent phenotypes. This study reports a non-viral gene nanocarrier which triggers gene silencing in plants and leads to systemic phenotypes. PMID:25068243

Jiang, Li; Ding, Lian; He, Bicheng; Shen, Jie; Xu, Zejun; Yin, Meizhen; Zhang, Xiaolan

2014-09-01

102

Transgenesis by lentiviral vectors: Lack of gene silencing in mammalian embryonic stem cells and preimplantation embryos  

Microsoft Academic Search

The introduction of foreign genes into early mouse embryos and embryonic stem (ES) cells is invaluable for the analysis of gene function and regulation in the living animal. The use of vectors derived from retroviruses as gene transfer vehicles in this setting has had limited success because of silencing of transgene expression. Here, we show that vectors derived from lentiviruses,

Alexander Pfeifer; Masahito Ikawa; Yelena Dayn; Inder M. Verma

2002-01-01

103

Virus-induced gene silencing of Arabidopsis thaliana gene homologues in wheat identifies genes conferring improved drought tolerance.  

PubMed

In a non-model staple crop like wheat (Triticum aestivumI L.), functional validation of potential drought stress responsive genes identified in Arabidopsis could provide gene targets for breeding. Virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS) of genes of interest can overcome the inherent problems of polyploidy and limited transformation potential that hamper functional validation studies in wheat. In this study, three potential candidate genes shown to be involved in abiotic stress response pathways in Arabidopsis thaliana were selected for VIGS experiments in wheat. These include Era1 (enhanced response to abscisic acid), Cyp707a (ABA 8'-hydroxylase), and Sal1 (inositol polyphosphate 1-phosphatase). Gene homologues for these three genes were identified in wheat and cloned in the viral vector barley stripe mosaic virus (BSMV) in the antisense direction, followed by rub inoculation of BSMV viral RNA transcripts onto wheat plants. Quantitative real-time PCR showed that VIGS-treated wheat plants had significant reductions in target gene transcripts. When VIGS-treated plants generated for Era1 and Sal1 were subjected to limiting water conditions, they showed increased relative water content, improved water use efficiency, reduced gas exchange, and better vigour compared to water-stressed control plants inoculated with RNA from the empty viral vector (BSMV0). In comparison, the Cyp707a-silenced plants showed no improvement over BSMV0-inoculated plants under limited water condition. These results indicate that Era1 and Sal1 play important roles in conferring drought tolerance in wheat. Other traits affected by Era1 silencing were also studied. Delayed seed germination in Era1-silenced plants suggests this gene may be a useful target for developing resistance to pre-harvest sprouting. PMID:23364940

Manmathan, Harish; Shaner, Dale; Snelling, Jacob; Tisserat, Ned; Lapitan, Nora

2013-03-01

104

Effect of the silencing of the Ehcp112 gene on the in vitro virulence of Entamoeba histolytica  

PubMed Central

Background Entamoeba histolytica is an intestinal protozoan parasite that causes amoebiasis in humans, affecting up to 50 million people worldwide each year and causing 40,000 to 100,000 deaths annually. EhCP112 is a cysteine proteinase of E. histolytica able to disrupt cell monolayers and digest extracellular matrix proteins, it is secreted by trophozoites and it can be active in a wide range of temperature and pH. These characteristics have encouraged the use of EhCP112 in the design and production of possible vaccines against amoebiasis, obtaining promising results. Nevertheless, we have no conclusive information about the role of EhCP112 in the E. histolytica pathogenesis. Methods A set of three specific siRNA sequences were used to silence the Ehcp112 gene via the soaking system. Silencing was evaluated by Western blot using an antibody against the EhCP112 recombinant protein. Finally, we analyzed the protease activity, the phagocytosis rate and the ability to destroy MDCK cells of the EhCP112-silenced trophozoites. Results The highest silencing effect on EhCP112 was detected at 16 h of treatment; time enough to perform the in vitro virulence assays, which showed that EhCP112 silencing produces a significant reduction in cytolysis and phagocytosis of target cells, indicating the participation of this proteinase in these events. Conclusions EhCP112 is involved in the in vitro virulence of E. histolytica. PMID:23981435

2013-01-01

105

An Efficient Fungal RNA-Silencing System Using the DsRed Reporter Gene?  

PubMed Central

In filamentous fungi, RNA silencing is an attractive alternative to disruption experiments for the functional analysis of genes. We adapted the gene encoding the autofluorescent DsRed protein as a reporter to monitor the silencing process in fungal transformants. Using the cephalosporin C producer Acremonium chrysogenum, strains showing a high level of expression of the DsRed gene were constructed, resulting in red fungal colonies. Transfer of a hairpin-expressing vector carrying fragments of the DsRed gene allowed efficient silencing of DsRed expression. Monitoring of this process by Northern hybridization, real-time PCR quantification, and spectrofluorometric measurement of the DsRed protein confirmed that downregulation of gene expression can be observed at different expression levels. The usefulness of the DsRed silencing system was demonstrated by investigating cosilencing of DsRed together with pcbC, encoding the isopenicillin N synthase, an enzyme involved in cephalosporin C biosynthesis. Downregulation of pcbC can be detected easily by a bioassay measuring the antibiotic activity of individual strains. In addition, the presence of the isopenicillin N synthase was investigated by Western blot hybridization. All transformants having a colorless phenotype showed simultaneous downregulation of the pcbC gene, albeit at different levels. The RNA-silencing system presented here should be a powerful genetic tool for strain improvement and genome-wide analysis of this biotechnologically important filamentous fungus. PMID:17142377

Janus, Danielle; Hoff, Birgit; Hofmann, Eckhard; Kuck, Ulrich

2007-01-01

106

Mod5 protein binds to tRNA gene complexes and affects local transcriptional silencing  

PubMed Central

The tRNA gene-mediated (tgm) silencing of RNA polymerase II promoters is dependent on subnuclear clustering of the tRNA genes, but genetic analysis shows that the silencing requires additional mechanisms. We have identified proteins that bind tRNA gene transcription complexes and are required for tgm silencing but not required for gene clustering. One of the proteins, Mod5, is a tRNA modifying enzyme that adds an N6-isopentenyl adenosine modification at position 37 on a small number of tRNAs in the cytoplasm, although a subpopulation of Mod5 is also found in the nucleus. Recent publications have also shown that Mod5 has tumor suppressor characteristics in humans as well as confers drug resistance through prion-like misfolding in yeast. Here, we show that a subpopulation of Mod5 associates with tRNA gene complexes in the nucleolus. This association occurs and is required for tgm silencing regardless of whether the pre-tRNA transcripts are substrates for Mod5 modification. In addition, Mod5 is bound to nuclear pre-tRNA transcripts, although they are not substrates for the A37 modification. Lastly, we show that truncation of the tRNA transcript to remove the normal tRNA structure also alleviates silencing, suggesting that synthesis of intact pre-tRNAs is required for the silencing mechanism. These results are discussed in light of recent results showing that silencing near tRNA genes also requires chromatin modification. PMID:23898186

Pratt-Hyatt, Matthew; Pai, Dave A.; Haeusler, Rebecca A.; Wozniak, Glenn G.; Good, Paul D.; Miller, Erin L.; McLeod, Ian X.; Yates, John R.; Hopper, Anita K.; Engelke, David R.

2013-01-01

107

The silencing of the SWI/SNF subunit and anticancer gene BRM in Rhabdoid tumors  

PubMed Central

Rhabdoid sarcomas are highly malignant tumors that usually occur in young children. A key to the genesis of this tumor is the mutational loss of the BAF47 gene as well as the widespread epigenetic suppression of other key anticancer genes. The BRM gene is one such epigenetically silenced gene in Rhabdoid tumors. This gene codes for an ATPase catalytic subunit that shifts histones and opens the chromatin. We show that BRM is an epigenetically silenced gene in 10/11 Rhabdoid cell lines and in 70% of Rhabdoid tumors. Moreover, BRM can be induced by BAF47 re-expression and by Flavopiridol. By selective shRNAi knockdown of BRM, we show that BRM re-expression is necessary for growth inhibition by BAF47 re-expression or Flavopiridol application. Similar to lung cancer cell lines, we found that HDAC3, HDAC9, MEF2D and GATA3 controlled BRM silencing and that HDAC9 was overexpressed in Rhabdoid cancer cell lines. In primary BRM-deficient Rhabdoid tumors, HDAC9 was also found to be highly overexpressed. Two insertional BRM promoter polymorphisms contribute to BRM silencing, but only the -1321 polymorphism correlated with BRM silencing in Rhabdoid cell lines. To determine how these polymorphisms were tied to BRM silencing, we conducted ChIP assays and found that both HDAC9 and MEF2D bound to the BRM promoter at or near these polymorphic sites. Using BRM promoter swap experiments, we indirectly showed that both HDAC9 and MEF2D bound to these polymorphic sites. Together, these data show that the mechanism of BRM silencing contributes to the pathogenesis of Rhabdoid tumors and appears to be conserved among tumor types. PMID:24913006

Kahali, Bhaskar; Yu, Jinlong; Marquez, Stefanie B.; Thompson, Kenneth. W.; Liang, Shermi Y.; Lu, Li; Reisman, David

2014-01-01

108

Gene silencing of the tick protective antigens, Bm86, Bm91 and subolesin, in the one-host tick Boophilus microplus by RNA interference  

PubMed Central

The use of RNA interference (RNAi) to assess gene function has been demonstrated in several three-host tick species but adaptation of RNAi to the one-host tick, Boophilus microplus, has not been reported. We evaluated the application of RNAi in B. microplus and the effect of gene silencing on three tick-protective antigens: Bm86, Bm91 and subolesin. Gene-specific double-stranded (dsRNA) was injected into two tick stages, freshly molted unfed and engorged females, and specific gene silencing was confirmed by real time PCR. Gene silencing occurred in injected unfed females after they were allowed to feed. Injection of dsRNA into engorged females caused gene silencing in the subsequently oviposited eggs and larvae that hatched from these eggs, but not in adults that developed from these larvae. dsRNA injected into engorged females could be detected by quantitative real-time RT-PCR in eggs 14 days from the beginning of oviposition, demonstrating that unprocessed dsRNA was incorporated in the eggs. Eggs produced by engorged females injected with subolesin dsRNA were abnormal, suggesting that subolesin may play a role in embryonic development. The injection of dsRNA into engorged females to obtain gene-specific silencing in eggs and larvae is a novel method which can be used to study gene function in tick embryogenesis. PMID:17196597

Nijhof, Ard M.; Taoufik, Amar; de la Fuente, Jose; Kocan, Katherine M.; de Vries, Erik; Jongejan, Frans

2007-01-01

109

RNAi mediated gene silencing against betasatellite associated with Croton yellow vein mosaic begomovirus.  

PubMed

Plant viruses encode suppressors of posttranscriptional gene silencing, an adaptive antiviral defense responses that confines virus infection. Previously, we identified single-stranded DNA satellite (also known as DNA-?) of ~1,350 nucleotides in length associated with Croton yellow vein mosaic begomovirus (CYVMV) in croton plants. The expression of genes from DNA-? requires the begomovirus for packaged, replication, insect transmission and movement in plants. The present study demonstrates the effect of the ?C1 gene on the silencing pathway as analysed by using both transgenic systems and transient Agrobacterium tumefaciens based delivery. Plants that carry an intron-hairpin construct covering the ?C1 gene accumulated cognate small-interfering RNAs and remained symptom-free after exposure to CYVMV and its satellite. These results suggest that ?C1 interferes with silencing mechanism. PMID:25086625

Sahu, Anurag Kumar; Marwal, Avinash; Nehra, Chitra; Choudhary, Devendra Kumar; Sharma, Pradeep; Gaur, Rajarshi Kumar

2014-11-01

110

Promoter targeted small RNAs induce long-term transcriptional gene silencing in human cells.  

PubMed

Small RNAs targeted to gene promoters in human cells can mediate transcriptional gene silencing (TGS) by directing silent state epigenetic modifications to targeted loci. Many mechanistic details of this process remain poorly defined, and the ability to stably modulate gene expression in this manner has not been explored. Here we describe the mechanisms of establishment and maintenance of long-term transcriptional silencing of the human ubiquitin C gene (UbC). Sustained targeting of the UbC promoter with a small RNA for a minimum of 3 days resulted in long-term silencing which correlated with an early increase in histone methylation and a later increase in DNA methylation at the targeted locus. Transcriptional silencing of UbC required the presence of a promoter-associated RNA. The establishment and maintenance of the TGS were shown to require distinct protein factors. Argonaute 1 (Ago1), DNA methyltransferase 3a (DNMT3a) and histone deacetylase 1 (HDAC1) were required for the initiation of silencing, and DNA methyltransferase 1 (DNMT1) was necessary for maintenance. Taken together the data presented here highlight the cellular pathway with which noncoding RNAs interact to epigenetically regulate gene expression in human cells. PMID:19304753

Hawkins, Peter G; Santoso, Sharon; Adams, Christopher; Anest, Vasiliki; Morris, Kevin V

2009-05-01

111

Polyethyleneimine (PEI) mediated siRNA gene silencing in the Schistosoma mansoni snail host, Biomphalaria glabrata.  

PubMed

An in vivo, non-invasive technique for gene silencing by RNA interference (RNAi) in the snail, Biomphalaria glabrata, has been developed using cationic polymer polyethyleneimine (PEI) mediated delivery of long double-stranded (ds) and small interfering (si) RNA. Cellular delivery was evaluated and optimized by using a 'mock' fluorescent siRNA. Subsequently, we used the method to suppress expression of Cathepsin B (CathB) with either the corresponding siRNA or dsRNA of this transcript. In addition, the knockdown of peroxiredoxin (Prx) at both RNA and protein levels was achieved with the PEI-mediated soaking method. B. glabrata is an important snail host for the transmission of the parasitic digenean platyhelminth, Schistosoma mansoni that causes schistosomiasis in the neotropics. Progress is being made to realize the genome sequence of the snail and to uncover gene expression profiles and cellular pathways that enable the snail to either prevent or sustain an infection. Using PEI complexes, a convenient soaking method has been developed, enabling functional gene knockdown studies with either dsRNA or siRNA. The protocol developed offers a first whole organism method for host-parasite gene function studies needed to identify key mechanisms required for parasite development in the snail host, which ultimately are needed as points for disrupting this parasite mediated disease. PMID:21765961

Knight, Matty; Miller, Andre; Liu, Yijia; Scaria, Puthupparampil; Woodle, Martin; Ittiprasert, Wannaporn

2011-07-01

112

Polyethyleneimine (PEI) Mediated siRNA Gene Silencing in the Schistosoma mansoni Snail Host, Biomphalaria glabrata  

PubMed Central

An in vivo, non-invasive technique for gene silencing by RNA interference (RNAi) in the snail, Biomphalaria glabrata, has been developed using cationic polymer polyethyleneimine (PEI) mediated delivery of long double-stranded (ds) and small interfering (si) RNA. Cellular delivery was evaluated and optimized by using a ‘mock’ fluorescent siRNA. Subsequently, we used the method to suppress expression of Cathepsin B (CathB) with either the corresponding siRNA or dsRNA of this transcript. In addition, the knockdown of peroxiredoxin (Prx) at both RNA and protein levels was achieved with the PEI-mediated soaking method. B. glabrata is an important snail host for the transmission of the parasitic digenean platyhelminth, Schistosoma mansoni that causes schistosomiasis in the neotropics. Progress is being made to realize the genome sequence of the snail and to uncover gene expression profiles and cellular pathways that enable the snail to either prevent or sustain an infection. Using PEI complexes, a convenient soaking method has been developed, enabling functional gene knockdown studies with either dsRNA or siRNA. The protocol developed offers a first whole organism method for host-parasite gene function studies needed to identify key mechanisms required for parasite development in the snail host, which ultimately are needed as points for disrupting this parasite mediated disease. PMID:21765961

Knight, Matty; Miller, Andre; Liu, Yijia; Scaria, Puthupparampil; Woodle, Martin; Ittiprasert, Wannaporn

2011-01-01

113

Chalcone synthase as a reporter in virus-induced gene silencing studies of flower senescence  

Microsoft Academic Search

Agrobacterium-mediatedinfection of petunia (Petunia hybrida) plants with tobacco rattle virus (TRV) bearing fragments of Petuniagenes resulted in systemic infection and virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS) of the homologous host genes. Infection with TRV containing a phytoene desaturase (PDS) fragment resulted in reduced abundance of PDS transcripts and typical photobleaching of photosynthetic tissues. Infection with TRV containing a chalcone synthase (CHS) fragment

Jen-Chih Chen; Cai-Zhong Jiang; Timothy E. Gookin; Donald A. Hunter; David G. Clark; Michael S. Reid

2004-01-01

114

Lipid-like nanomaterials for simultaneous gene expression and silencing in vivo.  

PubMed

New lipid-like nanomaterials are developed to simultaneously regulate expression of multiple genes. Self-assembled nanoparticles are capable of efficiently encapsulating pDNA and siRNA. These nanoparticles are shown to induce simultaneous gene expression and silencing both in vitro and in vivo. PMID:24623658

Dong, Yizhou; Eltoukhy, Ahmed A; Alabi, Christopher A; Khan, Omar F; Veiseh, Omid; Dorkin, J Robert; Sirirungruang, Sasilada; Yin, Hao; Tang, Benjamin C; Pelet, Jeisa M; Chen, Delai; Gu, Zhen; Xue, Yuan; Langer, Robert; Anderson, Daniel G

2014-09-01

115

Histone H4 deacetylation plays a critical role in early gene silencing during neuronal apoptosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Silencing of normal gene expression occurs early in the apoptosis of neurons, well before the cell is committed to the death pathway, and has been extensively characterized in injured retinal ganglion cells. The causative mechanism of this widespread change in gene expression is unknown. We investigated whether an epigenetic change in active chromatin, specifically histone H4 deacetylation, was an

Heather R. Pelzel; Cassandra L. Schlamp; Robert W. Nickells

2010-01-01

116

Genomic screening for genes upregulated by demethylation revealed novel targets of epigenetic silencing in breast cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

Breast cancer arises through the accumulation of multiple genetic alterations and epigenetic changes such as methylation,\\u000a which silences gene expression in a variety of cancers. In the present study, we applied genomic screening to identify genes\\u000a upregulated by the demethylating agent 5-aza-2?-deoxycytidine (DAC) in a human breast cancer cell line (MCF7). We identified\\u000a 288 genes upregulated and 29 genes downregulated

Tomoko Fujikane; Noriko Nishikawa; Minoru Toyota; Hiromu Suzuki; Masanori Nojima; Reo Maruyama; Masami Ashida; Mutsumi Ohe-Toyota; Masahiro Kai; Toshihiko Nishidate; Yasushi Sasaki; Tousei Ohmura; Koichi Hirata; Takashi Tokino

2010-01-01

117

Escape from gene silencing in ICF syndrome: evidence for advanced replication time as a major determinant.  

PubMed

Chromosomal abnormalities associated with hypomethylation of classical satellite regions are characteristic for the ICF immunodeficiency syndrome. We, as well as others, have found that these effects derive from mutations in the DNMT3B DNA methyltransferase gene. Here we examine further the molecular phenotype of ICF cells and report several examples of extensive hypomethylation that are associated with advanced replication time, nuclease hypersensitivity and a variable escape from silencing for genes on the inactive X and Y chromosomes. Our analysis suggests that all genes on the inactive X chromosome may be extremely hypomethylated at their 5' CpG islands. Our studies of G6PD in one ICF female and SYBL1 in another ICF female provide the first examples of abnormal escape from X chromosome inactivation in untransformed human fibroblasts. XIST RNA localization is normal in these cells, arguing against an independent silencing role for this RNA in somatic cells. SYBL1 silencing is also disrupted on the Y chromosome in ICF male cells. Increased chromatin sensitivity to nuclease was found at all hypomethylated promoters examined, including those of silenced genes. The persistence of inactivation in these latter cases appears to depend critically on delayed replication of DNA because escape from silencing was only seen when replication was advanced to an active X-like pattern. PMID:11063717

Hansen, R S; Stöger, R; Wijmenga, C; Stanek, A M; Canfield, T K; Luo, P; Matarazzo, M R; D'Esposito, M; Feil, R; Gimelli, G; Weemaes, C M; Laird, C D; Gartler, S M

2000-11-01

118

Milestones in the development and applications of plant virus vector as gene silencing platforms.  

PubMed

One of the main post-genomics challenges facing scientists remains the identification of gene function in a large number of plant species. Plant viruses offer great potential in linking genes to phenotypes through epigenetic expression or knockdown of selected genes. The past decade has seen the development and ever increasing applications of a gene knockdown technique termed virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS). VIGS recapitulates an RNA-mediated antiviral defense mechanism, mediating a homology-based post-transcriptional degradation of selected plant RNAs, leading to a loss-of-function phenotype. Due to its rapidity and increasing number of virus vectors developed as gene silencing platforms, VIGS has become a powerful technology to determine the function of genes in an increasing number of crop species, where the routinely available transgenesis or mutagenesis approaches are often not amenable to large genomes and complex genetic backgrounds. PMID:22033699

Lacomme, Christophe

2014-01-01

119

Effects of connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) gene silencing on the radiosensitivity of glioblastoma  

PubMed Central

The effects of connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) gene silencing on the radiosensitivity of glioblastoma cells (GBM) were investigated. The lentivirus-mediated short hairpin RNA (shRNA) expression vector targeting CTGF was constructed and transinfected into U87MG human GBM cell line. The CTGF gene expression in U87MG cells was significantly down-regulated. After irradiation with 6 MV X-rays at a dose rate of 2.5 Gy/min, the clonogenicity, proliferation and migration of U87MG cells were assayed in vitro. The survival, proliferation and migration of U87MG cells were all remarkably inhibited by CTGF silencing (p < 0.05 vs control). Our results demonstrate that CTGF is important for GBM and CTGF gene silencing can be a potential tool to enhance the sensitivity of GBM to radiotherapy. PMID:25356109

Han, Na; Shahveranov, Allahverdi; Cheng, Yi; Qin, Kai; Yu, Shi-Ying; Zhang, Meng-Xian

2014-01-01

120

Dissection of Tomato Lycopene Biosynthesis through Virus-Induced Gene Silencing1[C][W][OPEN  

PubMed Central

Lycopene biosynthesis in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) fruits has been proposed to proceed through a poly-cis pathway catalyzed by phytoene synthase (PSY), two desaturases (phytoene desaturase [PDS] and ?-carotene desaturase [ZDS]), and two cis-trans isomerases (?-carotene isomerase [ZISO] and prolycopene isomerase [CrtISO]). The mechanism of action of these enzymes has been studied in Escherichia coli, but a systematic study of their in vivo function is lacking. We studied the function of nine candidate genes (PSY1, PSY2, PSY3, PDS, ZDS, ZISO, CrtISO, CrtISO-Like1, and CrtISO-Like2) using virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS) coupled to high-resolution liquid chromatography coupled with diode array detector and mass spectrometry, which allowed the identification and quantitation of 45 different carotenoid isomers, including linear xanthophylls. The data confirm the confinement of the VIGS signal to the silenced fruits and the similarity of the phenotypes of PSY1- and CrtISO-silenced fruits with those of the yellow flesh and tangerine mutants. Light was able to restore lycopene biosynthesis in ZISO-silenced fruits. Isomeric composition of fruits silenced at different metabolic steps suggested the existence of three functional units, comprising PSY1, PDS/ZISO, and ZDS/CrtISO, and responsible for the synthesis of 15-cis-phytoene, 9,9’-di-cis-?-carotene, and all-trans-lycopene, respectively. Silencing of a desaturase (PDS or ZDS) resulted in the induction of the isomerase in the same functional unit (ZISO or CrtISO, respectively). All-trans-?-carotene was detectable in nonsilenced fruits, greatly increased in ZDS-silenced ones, and disappeared in CrtISO-Like1-/CrtISO-Like2-silenced ones, suggesting the existence of a metabolic side branch, comprising this compound and initiated by the latter enzymes. PMID:24014574

Fantini, Elio; Falcone, Giulia; Frusciante, Sarah; Giliberto, Leonardo; Giuliano, Giovanni

2013-01-01

121

dsRNA-induced gene silencing in Moniliophthora perniciosa, the causal agent of witches' broom disease of cacao.  

PubMed

The genome sequence of the hemibiotrophic fungus Moniliophthora perniciosa revealed genes possibly participating in the RNAi machinery. Therefore, studies were performed in order to investigate the efficiency of gene silencing by dsRNA. We showed that the reporter gfp gene stably introduced into the fungus genome can be silenced by transfection of in vitro synthesized gfpdsRNA. In addition, successful dsRNA-induced silencing of endogenous genes coding for hydrophobins and a peroxiredoxin were also achieved. All genes showed a silencing efficiency ranging from 18% to 98% when compared to controls even 28d after dsRNA treatment, suggesting systemic silencing. Reduction of GFP fluorescence, peroxidase activity levels and survival responses to H(2)O(2) were consistent with the reduction of GFP and peroxidase mRNA levels, respectively. dsRNA transformation of M. perniciosa is shown here to efficiently promote genetic knockdown and can thus be used to assess gene function in this pathogen. PMID:19602443

Caribé dos Santos, A C; Sena, J A L; Santos, S C; Dias, C V; Pirovani, C P; Pungartnik, C; Valle, R R; Cascardo, J C M; Vincentz, M

2009-11-01

122

Gene loss, silencing and activation in a newly synthesized wheat allotetraploid.  

PubMed Central

We analyzed the events that affect gene structure and expression in the early stages of allopolyploidy in wheat. The transcriptome response was studied by analyzing 3072 transcripts in the first generation of a synthetic allotetraploid (genome S(l)S(l)A(m)A(m)), which resembles tetraploid wheat (genome BBAA), and in its two diploid progenitors Aegilops sharonensis (S(l)S(l)) and Triticum monococcum ssp. aegilopoides (A(m)A(m)). The expression of 60 out of 3072 transcripts was reproducibly altered in the allotetraploid: 48 transcripts disappeared and 12 were activated. Transcript disappearance was caused by gene silencing or by gene loss. Gene silencing affected one or both homeologous loci and was associated in part with cytosine methylation. Gene loss or methylation had occurred already in the F(1) intergeneric hybrid or in the allotetraploid, depending on the locus. The silenced/lost genes included rRNA genes and genes involved in metabolism, disease resistance, and cell cycle regulation. The activated genes with a known function were all retroelements. These findings show that wide hybridization and chromosome doubling affect gene expression via genetic and epigenetic alterations immediately upon allopolyploid formation. These events contribute to the genetic diploidization of newly formed allopolyploids. PMID:11973318

Kashkush, Khalil; Feldman, Moshe; Levy, Avraham A

2002-01-01

123

Post-transcriptional regulation of meiotic genes by a nuclear RNA silencing complex.  

PubMed

RNA is a central component of gene-silencing pathways that regulate diverse cellular processes. In the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe, an RNA-based mechanism represses meiotic gene expression during vegetative growth. This pathway depends on the zinc finger protein Red1, which is required to degrade meiotic mRNAs as well as to target histone H3 lysine 9 (H3K9) methylation, a repressive chromatin mark, to a subset of meiotic genes. However, the mechanism of Red1 function is unknown. Here we use affinity purification and mass spectrometry to identify a Red1-containing nuclear RNA silencing (NURS) complex. In addition to Red1, this complex includes the Mtl1, Red5, Ars2, Rmn1, and Iss10 proteins and associates with several other complexes that are involved in either signaling or mediating RNA silencing. By analyzing the effects of gene knockouts and inducible knockdown alleles, we show that NURS subunits regulate RNA degradation and H3K9 methylation at meiotic genes. We also identify roles for individual NURS subunits in interactions with Mmi1, an RNA-binding protein that marks meiotic RNAs for destruction, and the nuclear exosome RNA degradation complex. Finally, we show that the levels of H3K9 methylation at meiotic genes are not sufficient to restrict RNA polymerase II access or repress gene expression during vegetative growth. Our results demonstrate that Red1 partners with other proteins to silence meiotic gene expression at the post-transcriptional level. Conservation of a NURS-like complex in human cells suggests that this pathway plays an ancient and fundamental role in RNA silencing. PMID:24713849

Egan, Emily D; Braun, Craig R; Gygi, Steven P; Moazed, Danesh

2014-06-01

124

Dosage Compensation in the Mouse Balances Up-Regulation and Silencing of X-Linked Genes  

PubMed Central

Dosage compensation in mammals involves silencing of one X chromosome in XX females and requires expression, in cis, of Xist RNA. The X to be inactivated is randomly chosen in cells of the inner cell mass (ICM) at the blastocyst stage of development. Embryonic stem (ES) cells derived from the ICM of female mice have two active X chromosomes, one of which is inactivated as the cells differentiate in culture, providing a powerful model system to study the dynamics of X inactivation. Using microarrays to assay expression of X-linked genes in undifferentiated female and male mouse ES cells, we detect global up-regulation of expression (1.4- to 1.6-fold) from the active X chromosomes, relative to autosomes. We show a similar up-regulation in ICM from male blastocysts grown in culture. In male ES cells, up-regulation reaches 2-fold after 2–3 weeks of differentiation, thereby balancing expression between the single X and the diploid autosomes. We show that silencing of X-linked genes in female ES cells occurs on a gene-by-gene basis throughout differentiation, with some genes inactivating early, others late, and some escaping altogether. Surprisingly, by allele-specific analysis in hybrid ES cells, we also identified a subgroup of genes that are silenced in undifferentiated cells. We propose that X-linked genes are silenced in female ES cells by spreading of Xist RNA through the X chromosome territory as the cells differentiate, with silencing times for individual genes dependent on their proximity to the Xist locus. PMID:18076287

Lin, Hong; Gupta, Vibhor; VerMilyea, Matthew D; Falciani, Francesco; Lee, Jeannie T; O'Neill, Laura P; Turner, Bryan M

2007-01-01

125

Critical Role of Histone Methylation in Tumor Suppressor Gene Silencing in Colorectal Cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

The mechanism of DNA hypermethylation-associated tumor suppressor gene silencing in cancer remains incompletely understood. Here, we show by chromatin immunoprecipitation that for three genes (P16, MLH1, and the O6-methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase gene, MGMT), histone H3 Lys-9 methylation directly correlates and histone H3 Lys-9 acetylation inversely correlates with DNA methylation in three neoplastic cell lines. Treatment with the histone deacetylase inhibitor trichostatin

Yutaka Kondo; LanLan Shen; Jean-Pierre J. Issa

2003-01-01

126

Lentiviral Transduction of Human Postnatal Skeletal (Stromal, Mesenchymal) Stem Cells: In Vivo Transplantation and Gene Silencing  

Microsoft Academic Search

Systems for gene transfer and silencing in human skeletal stem cells (hSSCs, also stromal or mesenchymal stem cells) are important\\u000a for addressing critical issues in basic hSSC and skeletal biology and for developing gene therapy strategies for treatment\\u000a of skeletal diseases. Whereas recent studies have shown the efficacy of lentiviral transduction for gene transfer in hSSCs\\u000a in vitro, no study

S. Piersanti; B. Sacchetti; A. Funari; S. Di Cesare; D. Bonci; G. Cherubini; C. Peschle; M. Riminucci; P. Bianco; I. Saggio

2006-01-01

127

Lipid Nanoparticle Delivery of siRNA to Silence Neuronal Gene Expression in the Brain  

PubMed Central

Manipulation of gene expression in the brain is fundamental for understanding the function of proteins involved in neuronal processes. In this article, we show a method for using small interfering RNA (siRNA) in lipid nanoparticles (LNPs) to efficiently silence neuronal gene expression in cell culture and in the brain in vivo through intracranial injection. We show that neurons accumulate these LNPs in an apolipoprotein E–dependent fashion, resulting in very efficient uptake in cell culture (100%) with little apparent toxicity. In vivo, intracortical or intracerebroventricular (ICV) siRNA-LNP injections resulted in knockdown of target genes either in discrete regions around the injection site or in more widespread areas following ICV injections with no apparent toxicity or immune reactions from the LNPs. Effective targeted knockdown was demonstrated by showing that intracortical delivery of siRNA against GRIN1 (encoding GluN1 subunit of the NMDA receptor (NMDAR)) selectively reduced synaptic NMDAR currents in vivo as compared with synaptic AMPA receptor currents. Therefore, LNP delivery of siRNA rapidly manipulates expression of proteins involved in neuronal processes in vivo, possibly enabling the development of gene therapies for neurological disorders. PMID:24301867

Rungta, Ravi L; Choi, Hyun B; Lin, Paulo JC; Ko, Rebecca WY; Ashby, Donovan; Nair, Jay; Manoharan, Muthiah; Cullis, Pieter R; MacVicar, Brian A

2013-01-01

128

Post-transcriptional gene silencing of the gene encoding aldolase from soybean cyst nematode by transformed soybean roots.  

PubMed

Plant parasitic nematodes cause approximately 157 billion US dollars in losses worldwide annually. The soybean cyst nematode (SCN), Heterodera glycines, is responsible for an estimated one billion dollars in losses to the US farmer each year. A promising new approach for control of plant parasitic nematode control is gene silencing. We tested this approach by silencing the SCN gene HgALD, encoding fructose-1,6-diphosphate aldolase. This enzyme is important in the conversion of glucose into energy and may be especially important in actin-based motility during parasite invasion of its host. An RNAi construct targeted to silence HgALD was transformed into soybean roots of composite plants to examine its efficacy to reduce the development of females formed by SCN. The number of mature females on roots transformed with the RNAi construct designed to silence the HgALD gene was reduced by 58%. These results indicate that silencing the aldolase gene of SCN +can greatly decrease the number of female SCN reaching maturity, and it is a promising step towards broadening resistance of plants against plant-parasitic nematodes. PMID:23541467

Youssef, Reham M; Kim, Kyung-Hwan; Haroon, Sanaa A; Matthews, Benjamin F

2013-06-01

129

Tissue-specific gene silencing monitored in circulating RNA  

E-print Network

Pharmacologic target gene modulation is the primary objective for RNA antagonist strategies and gene therapy. Here we show that mRNAs encoding tissue-specific gene transcripts can be detected in biological fluids and that ...

Sehgal, Alfica

130

Mi2?-mediated silencing of the fetal ?-globin gene in adult erythroid cells.  

PubMed

An understanding of the human fetal to adult hemoglobin switch offers the potential to ameliorate ?-type globin gene disorders such as sickle cell anemia and ?-thalassemia through activation of the fetal ?-globin gene. Chromatin modifying complexes, including MBD2-NuRD and GATA-1/FOG-1/NuRD, play a role in ?-globin gene silencing, and Mi2? (CHD4) is a critical component of NuRD complexes. We observed that knockdown of Mi2? relieves ?-globin gene silencing in ?-YAC transgenic murine chemical inducer of dimerization hematopoietic cells and in CD34(+) progenitor-derived human primary adult erythroid cells. We show that independent of MBD2-NuRD and GATA-1/FOG-1/NuRD, Mi2? binds directly to and positively regulates both the KLF1 and BCL11A genes, which encode transcription factors critical for ?-globin gene silencing during ?-type globin gene switching. Remarkably, <50% knockdown of Mi2? is sufficient to significantly induce ?-globin gene expression without disrupting erythroid differentiation of primary human CD34(+) progenitors. These results indicate that Mi2? is a potential target for therapeutic induction of fetal hemoglobin. PMID:23444401

Amaya, Maria; Desai, Megha; Gnanapragasam, Merlin Nithya; Wang, Shou Zhen; Zu Zhu, Sheng; Williams, David C; Ginder, Gordon D

2013-04-25

131

DNA-intercalators Causing Rapid Re-expression of Methylated and Silenced Genes in Cancer Cells  

PubMed Central

Epigenetic inactivation of tumor-suppressor and other regulatory genes plays a critical role in carcinogenesis. Transcriptional silencing is often maintained by DNA methyl transferase (DNMT)-mediated hypermethylation of CpG islands in promoter DNA. Nucleoside analogs including azacytidine and decitabine have been used to inhibit DNMT and re-activate genes, and are clinically used. Their shortcomings include a short half-life and a slow onset of action due to required nucleotide incorporation during DNA replication, which may limit clinical utility. It might be useful to begin to identify lead compounds having novel properties, specifically distinct and fast-acting gene desilencing. We previously identified chemicals augmenting gene expression in multiple reporter systems. We now report that a subset of these compounds that includes quinacrine re-expresses epigenetically silenced genes implicated in carcinogenesis. p16, TFPI2, the cadherins E-cadherin and CDH13, and the secreted frizzle-related proteins (SFRPs) SFRP1 and SFRP5 were desilenced in cancer cell lines. These lead compounds were fast-acting: re-expression occurred by 12-24 hours. Reactivation of silenced genes was accompanied by depletion of DNMT1 at the promoters of activated genes and demethylation of DNA. A model compound, 5175328, induced changes more rapidly than decitabine. These gene desilencing agents belonged to a class of acridine compounds, intercalated into DNA, and inhibited DNMT1 activity in vitro. Although to define the mechanism would be outside the scope of this initial report, this class may re-activate silenced genes in part by intercalating into DNA and subsequently inhibiting full DNMT1 activity. Rapid mechanisms for chemical desilencing of methylated genes therefore exist. PMID:23593653

Hossain, M. Zulfiquer; Healey, Megan A.; Lee, Calvin; Poh, Weijie; Yerram, Sashidhar R.; Patel, Kalpesh; Azad, Nilofer S.; Herman, James G.; Kern, Scott E.

2013-01-01

132

Systemic RNAi mediated gene silencing in the anhydrobiotic nematode Panagrolaimus superbus  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Gene silencing by RNA interference (RNAi) is a powerful tool for functional genomics. Although RNAi was first described in Caenorhabditis elegans, several nematode species are unable to mount an RNAi response when exposed to exogenous double stranded RNA (dsRNA). These include the satellite model organisms Pristionchus pacificus and Oscheius tipulae. Available data also suggest that the RNAi pathway targeting

Adam J Shannon; Trevor Tyson; Ilona Dix; Jacqueline Boyd; Ann M Burnell

2008-01-01

133

Fox Chase researchers identify new mechanism used by cells to reverse silenced genes:  

Cancer.gov

Scientists at Fox Chase Cancer Center have discovered a new mechanism used by cells in the body to turn on silenced genes. This process is critical in preventing the development of cancer—suggesting the possibility of new therapies that might target the specific changes underlying the disease.

134

Huntington's disease protein contributes to RNA-mediated gene silencing through association  

E-print Network

Huntington's disease protein contributes to RNA-mediated gene silencing through association Avenue, New York, NY 10016; Laboratory of Neurotoxicology, National Institute of Mental Health, National by Stephen P. Goff, Columbia University College of Physicians and Surgeons, New York, NY, and approved May 21

Baker, Chris I.

135

Development and application of an efficient virus-induced gene silencing system in Nicotiana tabacum using geminivirus alphasatellite.  

PubMed

Virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS) is a recently developed technique for characterizing the function of plant genes by gene transcript suppression and is increasingly used to generate transient loss-of-function assays. Here we report that the 2mDNA1, a geminivirus satellite vector, can induce efficient gene silencing in Nicotiana tabacum with Tobacco curly shoot virus. We have successfully silenced the ?-glucuronidase (GUS) gene in GUS transgenic N. tabacum plants and the sulphur desaturase (Su) gene in five different N. tabacum cultivars. These pronounced and severe silencing phenotypes are persistent and ubiquitous. Once initiated in seedlings, the silencing phenotype lasted for the entire life span of the plants and silencing could be induced in a variety of tissues and organs including leaf, shoot, stem, root, and flower, and achieved at any growth stage. This system works well between 18-32 °C. We also silenced the NtEDS1 gene and demonstrated that NtEDS1 is essential for N gene mediated resistance against Tobacco mosaic virus in N. tabacum. The above results indicate that this system has great potential as a versatile VIGS system for routine functional analysis of genes in N. tabacum. PMID:21265040

Huang, Chang-jun; Zhang, Tong; Li, Fang-fang; Zhang, Xin-yue; Zhou, Xue-ping

2011-02-01

136

Virus-induced gene silencing as a tool for comparative functional studies in Thalictrum.  

PubMed

Perennial woodland herbs in the genus Thalictrum exhibit high diversity of floral morphology, including four breeding and two pollination systems. Their phylogenetic position, in the early-diverging eudicots, makes them especially suitable for exploring the evolution of floral traits and the fate of gene paralogs that may have shaped the radiation of the eudicots. A current limitation in evolution of plant development studies is the lack of genetic tools for conducting functional assays in key taxa spanning the angiosperm phylogeny. We first show that virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS) of a PHYTOENE DESATURASE ortholog (TdPDS) can be achieved in Thalictrum dioicum with an efficiency of 42% and a survival rate of 97%, using tobacco rattle virus (TRV) vectors. The photobleached leaf phenotype of silenced plants significantly correlates with the down-regulation of endogenous TdPDS (P<0.05), as compared to controls. Floral silencing of PDS was achieved in the faster flowering spring ephemeral T. thalictroides. In its close relative, T. clavatum, silencing of the floral MADS box gene AGAMOUS (AG) resulted in strong homeotic conversions of floral organs. In conclusion, we set forth our optimized protocol for VIGS by vacuum-infiltration of Thalictrum seedlings or dormant tubers as a reference for the research community. The three species reported here span the range of floral morphologies and pollination syndromes present in Thalictrum. The evidence presented on floral silencing of orthologs of the marker gene PDS and the floral homeotic gene AG will enable a comparative approach to the study of the evolution of flower development in this group. PMID:20706585

Di Stilio, Verónica S; Kumar, Rachana A; Oddone, Alessandra M; Tolkin, Theadora R; Salles, Patricia; McCarty, Kacie

2010-01-01

137

Chemokine receptor 4 gene silencing blocks neuroblastoma metastasis in vitro.  

PubMed

This study investigated the effects of small interfering RNA (siRNA)-mediated silencing of chemokine receptor 4 (CXCR4) on the invasion capacity of human neuroblastoma cell line SH-SY5Y in vitro. Three siRNAs targeting CXCR4 were chemically synthesized and individually transfected into SH-SY5Y cells. Expression of CXCR4 mRNA and protein was significantly suppressed in transfected cells by all three sequence-specific siRNAs compared with control groups. Furthermore, the invasion capacity of SH-SY5Y cells was significantly decreased following transfection with CXCR4-specific siRNA compared with the control groups. These data demonstrate that down-regulation of CXCR4 can inhibit in vitro invasion of neuroblastoma. PMID:25206760

Chen, Xin; Zhu, Yongjie; Han, Lulu; Lu, Hongting; Hao, Xiwei; Dong, Qian

2014-05-15

138

Specific HIV1 env gene silencing by small interfering RNAs in human peripheral blood mononuclear cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

RNA interference (RNAi) is triggered by the presence of a double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) in the cell, and results in the silencing of homologous gene expression by the specific degradation of an mRNA containing the same sequence. dsRNA-mediated RNAi can be used in a wide variety of eucaryotes to induce the sequence-specific inhibition of gene expression. Synthetic 21–23 nucleotide (nt) small

W-S Park; M Hayafune; N Miyano-Kurosaki; H Takaku

2003-01-01

139

P-Body Formation Is a Consequence, Not the Cause, of RNA-Mediated Gene Silencing  

Microsoft Academic Search

P bodies are cytoplasmic domains that contain proteins involved in diverse posttranscriptional processes, such as mRNA degradation, nonsense-mediated mRNA decay (NMD), translational repression, and RNA- mediated gene silencing. The localization of these proteins and their targets in P bodies raises the question of whether their spatial concentration in discrete cytoplasmic domains is required for posttranscriptional gene regulation. We show that

Ana Eulalio; Isabelle Behm-Ansmant; Daniel Schweizer; Elisa Izaurralde

2007-01-01

140

Design of Noninflammatory Synthetic siRNA Mediating Potent Gene Silencing in Vivo  

Microsoft Academic Search

Targeted silencing of disease-associated genes by synthetic short interfering RNA (siRNA) holds considerable promise as a novel therapeutic strategy. However, unmodified siRNA can be potent triggers of the innate immune response, particularly when associated with delivery vehicles that facilitate intracellular uptake. This represents a significant barrier to the therapeutic development of siRNA due to toxicity and off-target gene effects associated

Adam D. Judge; Gurneet Bola; Amy C. H. Lee; Ian MacLachlan

2006-01-01

141

Gene Silencing by RNA Interference in the White Rot Fungus Phanerochaete chrysosporium  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effectiveness of RNA interference (RNAi) is demonstrated in the lignin-degrading fungus Phanerochaete chrysosporium. The manganese-containing superoxide dismutase gene (MnSOD1) was used as the target for RNAi. The plasmid constructed for gene silencing contained a transcriptional unit for hairpin RNA expression. Significantly lower MnSOD expression at both the mRNA and protein activity levels was detected in RNAi transformants. Furthermore, even

Avi Matityahu; Yitzhak Hadar; Carlos G. Dosoretz; Paula A. Belinky

2008-01-01

142

Virus-induced gene silencing in the rapid cycling columbine Aquilegia coerulea "Origami".  

PubMed

Aquilegia Origami is an emerging model system for ecology and evolution, which has numerous genetic and genomic tools. Virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS) has been established as an effective approach to study gene function in Aquilegia. In the current protocol, we demonstrate VIGS using Agrobacterium strain GV3101 carrying tobacco rattle virus (TRV)-based constructs to infect Aquilegia coerulea "Origami" plants via vacuum infiltration. PMID:23386296

Sharma, Bharti; Kramer, Elena M

2013-01-01

143

DNA replication factor C1 mediates genomic stability and transcriptional gene silencing in Arabidopsis.  

PubMed

Genetic screening identified a suppressor of ros1-1, a mutant of REPRESSOR OF SILENCING1 (ROS1; encoding a DNA demethylation protein). The suppressor is a mutation in the gene encoding the largest subunit of replication factor C (RFC1). This mutation of RFC1 reactivates the unlinked 35S-NPTII transgene, which is silenced in ros1 and also increases expression of the pericentromeric Athila retrotransposons named transcriptional silent information in a DNA methylation-independent manner. rfc1 is more sensitive than the wild type to the DNA-damaging agent methylmethane sulphonate and to the DNA inter- and intra- cross-linking agent cisplatin. The rfc1 mutant constitutively expresses the G2/M-specific cyclin CycB1;1 and other DNA repair-related genes. Treatment with DNA-damaging agents mimics the rfc1 mutation in releasing the silenced 35S-NPTII, suggesting that spontaneously induced genomic instability caused by the rfc1 mutation might partially contribute to the released transcriptional gene silencing (TGS). The frequency of somatic homologous recombination is significantly increased in the rfc1 mutant. Interestingly, ros1 mutants show increased telomere length, but rfc1 mutants show decreased telomere length and reduced expression of telomerase. Our results suggest that RFC1 helps mediate genomic stability and TGS in Arabidopsis thaliana. PMID:20639449

Liu, Qian; Wang, Junguo; Miki, Daisuke; Xia, Ran; Yu, Wenxiang; He, Junna; Zheng, Zhimin; Zhu, Jian-Kang; Gong, Zhizhong

2010-07-01

144

Silencing of the glypican-3 gene affects the biological behavior of human hepatocellular carcinoma cells.  

PubMed

Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is one of the leading causes of cancer death in the world. The gene glypican-3 (GPC3) is reported to be a potential therapeutic target for HCC. In this study, we use RNA interference with lentiviral vectors to explore the effect of GPC3 silencing on the biological behavior of HCC cells and the potential role of the GPC3 protein in the activation of epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT), which relates to HCC cell invasion and migration. Our data suggest that GPC3 silencing leads to a decrease in HCC cell proliferation and to an increase in apoptosis. We demonstrated that GPC3 silencing regulates cell invasion and migration, most probably through the activation of the EMT cellular program. In conclusion, GPC3 is associated with the HCC cell biological behavior, while the relationship between GPC3 and EMT in tumorigenesis of HCC deserves future investigation. PMID:25270552

Qi, Xin-Hui; Wu, Di; Cui, Hui-Xia; Ma, Nan; Su, Jia; Wang, Yu-Tong; Jiang, You-Hong

2014-12-01

145

Disruption of Rpp1-mediated soybean rust immunity by virus-induced gene silencing.  

PubMed

Phakopsora pachyrhizi, a fungus that causes rust disease on soybean, has potential to impart significant yield loss and disrupt food security and animal feed production. Rpp1 is a soybean gene that confers immunity to soybean rust, and it is important to understand how it regulates the soybean defense system and to use this knowledge to protect commercial crops. It was previously discovered that some soybean proteins resembling transcription factors accumulate in the nucleus of Rpp1 soybeans. To determine if they contribute to immunity, Bean pod mottle virus was used to attenuate or silence the expression of their genes. Rpp1 plants subjected to virus-induced gene silencing exhibited reduced amounts of RNA for 5 of the tested genes, and the plants developed rust-like symptoms after subsequent inoculation with fungal spores. Symptoms were associated with the accumulation of rust fungal RNA and protein. Silenced plants also had reduced amounts of RNA for the soybean Myb84 transcription factor and soybean isoflavone O-methyltransferase, both of which are important to phenylpropanoid biosynthesis and lignin formation, crucial components of rust resistance. These results help resolve some of the genes that contribute to Rpp1-mediated immunity and improve upon the knowledge of the soybean defense system. It is possible that these genes could be manipulated to enhance rust resistance in otherwise susceptible soybean cultivars. PMID:24401541

Cooper, Bret; Campbell, Kimberly B; McMahon, Michael B; Luster, Douglas G

2013-01-01

146

Identification of NF1 as a silencer protein of the human adenine nucleotide translocase-2 gene.  

PubMed

The human adenine nucleotide translocase-2 (ANT2) promoter contains a silencer region that confers partial repression on the heterologous herpes simplex virus thymidine kinase (HSVtk) promoter [Barath, P., Albert-Fournier, B., Luciakova, K., Nelson, B.D. (1999) J. Biol. Chem.274, 3378-3384]. Two sequences in the silencer (Site-2 and Site-3) are protected in the DNase I assay in vitro, and one of these is a repeated GTCCTG element previously shown to act as the active repressor element. We have now purified the DNA binding protein, and identified it using MALDI-TOF MS as a 33-kDa member of the nuclear factor 1 (NF1) family of transcription factors. NF1 purified from rat liver and HeLa cell nuclei bind to both silencer Site-2 and Site-3, resulting in a DNase I footprint identical to that obtained with purified recombinant NF1. Furthermore, transient transfection experiments with reporter constructs containing mutated silencer Site-2 and/or Site-3 show that both sites contribute to repression of the HSVtk promoter. Finally, chromatin immunoprecipitation analysis reveals that NF1 is bound to both elements on the endogenous HeLa cell ANT2 promoter. Our data support the belief that NF1 acts as a repressor when bound to silencing Site-2 and Site-3 of the ANT2 gene. PMID:15096217

Barath, Peter; Poliakova, Daniela; Luciakova, Katarina; Nelson, B Dean

2004-05-01

147

Virus-induced gene silencing of jasmonate-induced direct defences, nicotine and trypsin proteinase-inhibitors in Nicotiana attenuata  

Microsoft Academic Search

Research into the molecular basis of plant-insect interactions is hampered by the inability to alter the expression of individual genes in plants growing under natural conditions. The ability of virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS) to silence the expression of two jasmonate-induced genes known to mediate the expression of two potent direct defences (nicotine and proteinase inhibitors) that are produced in differ-

Rainer Saedler; Ian T. Baldwin

2003-01-01

148

Multi-armed cationic cyclodextrin:poly(ethylene glycol) polyrotaxanes as efficient gene silencing vectors.  

PubMed

A family of branched polyrotaxanes (bPRTx(+)), threaded with multiple cationic ?-cyclodextrins (?-CDs) onto a multi-armed poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) core, were synthesized and studied as gene silencing vectors. These bPRTx(+) formed stable, positively charged complexes with diameters of 150-250 nm at N/P ratios as low as 2.5. The bPRTx(+) materials were shown to have gene-silencing efficiencies comparable to those of Lipofectamine 2000 (L2k) and bPEI, while displaying similar toxicity profiles. The unique structure of these polyrotaxanes allows them to effectively condense and complex siRNA into nanoparticles at much lower N/P ratios than L2k or bPEI. These findings suggest that bPRTx(+) may be useful materials for gene therapy applications. PMID:23042106

Kulkarni, Aditya; DeFrees, Kyle; Schuldt, Ryan A; Vlahu, Alexander; VerHeul, Ross; Hyun, Seok-Hee; Deng, Wei; Thompson, David H

2013-01-01

149

Global Role for Polyadenylation-Assisted Nuclear RNA Degradation in Posttranscriptional Gene Silencing?  

PubMed Central

Fission yeast Cid14, a component of the TRAMP (Cid14/Trf4-Air1-Mtr4 polyadenylation) complex, polyadenylates nuclear RNA and stimulates degradation by the exosome for RNA quality control. Here, we analyze patterns of global gene expression in cells lacking the Cid14 or the Dis3/Rpr44 subunit of the nuclear exosome. We found that transcripts from many genes induced during meiosis, including key regulators, accumulated in the absence of Cid14 or Dis3. Moreover, our data suggest that additional substrates include transcripts involved in heterochromatin assembly. Mutant cells lacking Cid14 and/or Dis3 accumulate transcripts corresponding to naturally silenced repeat elements within heterochromatic domains, reflecting defects in centromeric gene silencing and derepression of subtelomeric gene expression. We also uncover roles for Cid14 and Dis3 in maintaining the genomic integrity of ribosomal DNA. Our data indicate that polyadenylation-assisted nuclear RNA turnover functions in eliminating a variety of RNA targets to control diverse processes, such as heterochromatic gene silencing, meiotic differentiation, and maintenance of genomic integrity. PMID:18025105

Wang, Shao-Win; Stevenson, Abigail L.; Kearsey, Stephen E.; Watt, Stephen; Bähler, Jürg

2008-01-01

150

The Drosophila dorsal morphogen represses the tolloid gene by interacting with a silencer element.  

PubMed Central

The dorsal protein (DL) regulates the transcriptional activity of several genes that determine cell fate along the dorsoventral axis of the Drosophila melanogaster embryo. DL is present at high levels in ventral nuclei, where it activates some genes (twi and sna) and represses others (zen, dpp, and tld). DL shows homology to the Rel family of proteins and interacts with specific DNA sequences in the regulatory regions of its target genes. The distal portion of the zen gene acts as a silencer that can mediate the repression of a heterologous promoter in ventral regions of the embryo. It contains four DL binding sites which alone are sufficient for activation but not repression. Here we analyze the interaction of DL with another one of its repressed targets, the tolloid (tld) gene. Approximately 800 bp of 5'-flanking sequences upstream of the tld coding region were shown to drive an expression pattern indistinguishable from the wild-type pattern. A 423-bp fragment located within these sequences contains two DL binding sites and was shown to act as a silencer to mediate ventral repression. Point mutations in the sites abolish not only DNA binding but also ventral repression. We discuss a comparison of the DNA sequences from the zen and tld promoters and the possible mechanisms of transcriptional silencing. Images PMID:8264640

Kirov, N; Childs, S; O'Connor, M; Rushlow, C

1994-01-01

151

Nuclear RNAi contributes to the silencing of off-target genes and repetitive sequences in Caenorhabditis elegans.  

PubMed

Small RNAs recognize, bind, and regulate other complementary cellular RNAs. The introduction of small RNAs to eukaryotic cells frequently results in unintended silencing of related, but not identical, RNAs: a process termed off-target gene silencing. Off-target gene silencing is one of the major concerns during the application of small RNA-based technologies for gene discovery and the treatment of human disease. Off-target gene silencing is commonly thought to be due to inherent biochemical limitations of the RNAi machinery. Here we show that following the introduction of exogenous sources of double-stranded RNA, the nuclear RNAi pathway, but not its cytoplasmic counterparts, is the primary source of off-target silencing in Caenorhabditis elegans. In addition, we show that during the normal course of growth and development the nuclear RNAi pathway regulates repetitive gene families. Therefore, we speculate that RNAi off-target effects might not be "mistakes" but rather an intentional and genetically programmed aspect of small RNA-mediated gene silencing, which might allow small RNAs to silence rapidly evolving parasitic nucleic acids. Finally, reducing off-target effects by manipulating the nuclear RNAi pathway in vivo might improve the efficacy of small RNA-based technologies. PMID:24532782

Zhou, Xufei; Xu, Fei; Mao, Hui; Ji, Jiaojiao; Yin, Meng; Feng, Xuezhu; Guang, Shouhong

2014-05-01

152

Templated assembly of albumin-based nanoparticles for simultaneous gene silencing and magnetic resonance imaging  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this article, we address the design of innovative human serum albumin (HSA)-based nanoparticles loaded with silencing RNA and grafted with gadolinium complexes having average sizes ranging from ca. 50 to 150 nm according to the siRNA/HSA composition. The non-covalent siRNA/HSA assembly is formed on isobutyramide-modified mesoporous silica and the self-supported HSA-based nanoparticles are obtained following the silica template dissolution. These original protein particles provide simultaneous magnetic resonance imaging contrast enhancement and cellular in vitro gene silencing.In this article, we address the design of innovative human serum albumin (HSA)-based nanoparticles loaded with silencing RNA and grafted with gadolinium complexes having average sizes ranging from ca. 50 to 150 nm according to the siRNA/HSA composition. The non-covalent siRNA/HSA assembly is formed on isobutyramide-modified mesoporous silica and the self-supported HSA-based nanoparticles are obtained following the silica template dissolution. These original protein particles provide simultaneous magnetic resonance imaging contrast enhancement and cellular in vitro gene silencing. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Experimental details and supporting Fig. S1-S4. See DOI: 10.1039/c4nr02623c

Mertz, Damien; Affolter-Zbaraszczuk, Christine; Barthès, Julien; Cui, Jiwei; Caruso, Frank; Baumert, Thomas F.; Voegel, Jean-Claude; Ogier, Joelle; Meyer, Florent

2014-09-01

153

Dissecting functions of KATANIN and WRINKLED1 in cotton fiber development by virus-induced gene silencing.  

PubMed

Most of the world's natural fiber comes from cotton (Gossypium spp.), which is an important crop worldwide. Characterizing genes that regulate cotton yield and fiber quality is expected to benefit the sustainable production of natural fiber. Although a huge number of expressed sequence tag sequences are now available in the public database, large-scale gene function analysis has been hampered by the low-efficiency process of generating transgenic cotton plants. Tobacco rattle virus (TRV) has recently been reported to trigger virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS) in cotton leaves. Here, we extended the utility of this method by showing that TRV-VIGS can operate in reproductive organs as well. We used this method to investigate the function of KATANIN and WRINKLED1 in cotton plant development. Cotton plants with suppressed KATANIN expression produced shorter fibers and elevated weight ratio of seed oil to endosperm. By contrast, silencing of WRINKLED1 expression resulted in increased fiber length but reduced oil seed content, suggesting the possibility to increase fiber length by repartitioning carbon flow. Our results provide evidence that the TRV-VIGS system can be used for rapid functional analysis of genes involved in cotton fiber development. PMID:22837356

Qu, Jing; Ye, Jian; Geng, Yun-Feng; Sun, Yan-Wei; Gao, Shi-Qiang; Zhang, Bi-Pei; Chen, Wen; Chua, Nam-Hai

2012-10-01

154

[New perspective in the treatment of chronic myeloid leukemia? gene silencing therapy].  

PubMed

Chronic myeloid leukemia is an incurable white blood cell disease with slow progression which affects myeloid stem cells. In the course of chromosome 22 shortening a fusion oncogene arises whose product, a Bcr-Abl oncoprotein, is a continuously expressed tyrosine kinase protein. Beside the opportunity of chemotherapy, stem cell therapy and interferon-a therapy, the application of tyrosine kinase inhibitors also became widespread in the treatment of the disease. Patients bearing the T315I point mutation, however, show resistance against all tyrosine kinase inhibitors, which can be managed by dose escalation or the combination of therapies. The discovery of RNA interference or gene silencing put the therapeutic opportunity of CML in new light. The in vitro application of anti-bcr-abl siRNA showed promising results in the causal treatment of the disease, feasible for identification of new genes associated to the disease, but we do not have sufficient evidence for the safety and efficacy of this method in human therapy. PMID:22403758

Kiss-Tóth, Éva; Juhászné Szalai, Adrienn; Koska, Péter; Szebeni, János; Kiss-Tóth, Emõke; Barkai, László; Fodor, Bertalan

2012-03-01

155

Posttranscriptional gene silencing in plum pox virus resistant transgenic European plum containing the plum pox potyvirus coat protein gene  

Microsoft Academic Search

Transgenic plums containing the plum pox potyvirus coat protein (PPV-CP) gene were inoculated with PPV. Infection was monitored by evaluating symptoms, ELISA, and IC-RT-PCR. Transgenic clone C5 was highly resistant to PPV during four years of testing and displayed characteristics typical of post-transcriptional gene silencing (PTGS), including a high level of transgene transcription in the nucleus, low levels of transgene

Ralph Scorza; Ann Callahan; Laurene Levy; Vern Damsteegt; Kevin Webb; Michel Ravelonandro

2001-01-01

156

Agrobacterium Mediated Transient Gene Silencing (AMTS) in Stevia rebaudiana: Insights into Steviol Glycoside Biosynthesis Pathway  

PubMed Central

Background Steviol glycoside biosynthesis pathway has emerged as bifurcation from ent-kaurenoic acid, substrate of methyl erythritol phosphate pathway that also leads to gibberellin biosynthesis. However, the genetic regulation of steviol glycoside biosynthesis has not been studied. So, in present study RNA interference (RNAi) based Agrobacterium mediated transient gene silencing (AMTS) approach was followed. SrKA13H and three SrUGTs (SrUGT85C2, SrUGT74G1 and SrUGT76G1) genes encoding ent-kaurenoic acid-13 hydroxylase and three UDP glycosyltransferases of steviol glycoside biosynthesis pathway were silenced in Stevia rebaudiana to understand its molecular mechanism and association with gibberellins. Methodology/Principal Findings RNAi mediated AMTS of SrKA13H and three SrUGTs has significantly reduced the expression of targeted endogenous genes as well as total steviol glycoside accumulation. While gibberellins (GA3) content was significantly enhanced on AMTS of SrUGT85C2 and SrKA13H. Silencing of SrKA13H and SrUGT85C2 was found to block the metabolite flux of steviol glycoside pathway and shifted it towards GA3 biosynthesis. Further, molecular docking of three SrUGT proteins has documented highest affinity of SrUGT76G1 for the substrates of alternate pathways synthesizing steviol glycosides. This could be a plausible reason for maximum reduction in steviol glycoside content on silencing of SrUGT76G1 than other genes. Conclusions SrKA13H and SrUGT85C2 were identified as regulatory genes influencing carbon flux between steviol glycoside and gibberellin biosynthesis. This study has also documented the existence of alternate steviol glycoside biosynthesis route. PMID:24023961

Guleria, Praveen; Yadav, Sudesh Kumar

2013-01-01

157

A common telomeric gene silencing assay is affected by nucleotide metabolism.  

PubMed

Telomere-associated position-effect variegation (TPEV) in budding yeast has been used as a model for understanding epigenetic inheritance and gene silencing. A widely used assay to identify mutants with improper TPEV employs the URA3 gene at the telomere of chromosome VII-L that can be counterselected with 5-fluoroorotic acid (5-FOA). 5-FOA resistance has been inferred to represent lack of transcription of URA3 and therefore to represent heterochromatin-induced gene silencing. For two genes implicated in telomere silencing, POL30 and DOT1, we show that the URA3 telomere reporter assay does not reflect their role in heterochromatin formation. Rather, an imbalance in ribonucleotide reductase (RNR), which is induced by 5-FOA, and the specific promoter of URA3 fused to ADH4 at telomere VII-L are jointly responsible for the variegated phenotype. We conclude that metabolic changes caused by the drug employed and certain mutants being studied are incompatible with the use of certain prototrophic markers for TPEV. PMID:21474074

Rossmann, Marlies P; Luo, Weijun; Tsaponina, Olga; Chabes, Andrei; Stillman, Bruce

2011-04-01

158

Heat-induced release of epigenetic silencing reveals the concealed role of an imprinted plant gene.  

PubMed

Epigenetic mechanisms suppress the transcription of transposons and DNA repeats; however, this suppression can be transiently released under prolonged heat stress. Here we show that the Arabidopsis thaliana imprinted gene SDC, which is silent during vegetative growth due to DNA methylation, is activated by heat and contributes to recovery from stress. SDC activation seems to involve epigenetic mechanisms but not canonical heat-shock perception and signaling. The heat-mediated transcriptional induction of SDC occurs particularly in young developing leaves and is proportional to the level of stress. However, this occurs only above a certain window of absolute temperatures and, thus, resembles a thermal-sensing mechanism. In addition, the re-silencing kinetics during recovery can be entrained by repeated heat stress cycles, suggesting that epigenetic regulation in plants may conserve memory of stress experience. We further demonstrate that SDC contributes to the recovery of plant biomass after stress. We propose that transcriptional gene silencing, known to be involved in gene imprinting, is also co-opted in the specific tuning of SDC expression upon heat stress and subsequent recovery. It is therefore possible that dynamic properties of the epigenetic landscape associated with silenced or imprinted genes may contribute to regulation of their expression in response to environmental challenges. PMID:25411840

Sanchez, Diego H; Paszkowski, Jerzy

2014-11-01

159

Heat-Induced Release of Epigenetic Silencing Reveals the Concealed Role of an Imprinted Plant Gene  

PubMed Central

Epigenetic mechanisms suppress the transcription of transposons and DNA repeats; however, this suppression can be transiently released under prolonged heat stress. Here we show that the Arabidopsis thaliana imprinted gene SDC, which is silent during vegetative growth due to DNA methylation, is activated by heat and contributes to recovery from stress. SDC activation seems to involve epigenetic mechanisms but not canonical heat-shock perception and signaling. The heat-mediated transcriptional induction of SDC occurs particularly in young developing leaves and is proportional to the level of stress. However, this occurs only above a certain window of absolute temperatures and, thus, resembles a thermal-sensing mechanism. In addition, the re-silencing kinetics during recovery can be entrained by repeated heat stress cycles, suggesting that epigenetic regulation in plants may conserve memory of stress experience. We further demonstrate that SDC contributes to the recovery of plant biomass after stress. We propose that transcriptional gene silencing, known to be involved in gene imprinting, is also co-opted in the specific tuning of SDC expression upon heat stress and subsequent recovery. It is therefore possible that dynamic properties of the epigenetic landscape associated with silenced or imprinted genes may contribute to regulation of their expression in response to environmental challenges. PMID:25411840

Sanchez, Diego H.; Paszkowski, Jerzy

2014-01-01

160

CTCF demarcates chicken embryonic ?-globin gene autonomous silencing and contributes to adult stage-specific gene expression  

PubMed Central

Genomic loci composed of more than one gene are frequently subjected to differential gene expression, with the chicken ?-globin domain being a clear example. In the present study we aim to understand the globin switching mechanisms responsible for the epigenetic silencing of the embryonic ? gene and the transcriptional activation of the adult ?D and ?A genes at the genomic domain level. In early stages, we describe a physical contact between the embryonic ? gene and the distal 3? enhancer that is lost later during development. We show that such a level of regulation is achieved through the establishment of a DNA hypermethylation sub-domain that includes the embryonic gene and the adjacent genomic sequences. The multifunctional CCCTCC-binding factor (CTCF), which is located upstream of the ?D gene promoter, delimits this sub-domain and creates a transition between the inactive sub-domain and the active sub-domain, which includes the adult ?D gene. In avian-transformed erythroblast HD3 cells that are induced to differentiate, we found active DNA demethylation of the adult ?D promoter, coincident with the incorporation of 5-hydroxymethylcytosine (5hmC) and concomitant with adult gene transcriptional activation. These results suggest that autonomous silencing of the embryonic ? gene is needed to facilitate an optimal topological conformation of the domain. This model proposes that CTCF is contributing to a specific chromatin configuration that is necessary for differential ?-globin gene expression during development. PMID:23880533

Valdes-Quezada, Christian; Arriaga-Canon, Cristian; Fonseca-Guzmán, Yael; Guerrero, Georgina; Recillas-Targa, Félix

2013-01-01

161

Gene silencing by siRNAs and antisense oligonucleotides in the laboratory and the clinic  

PubMed Central

Synthetic nucleic acids are commonly used laboratory tools for modulating gene expression and have the potential to be widely used in the clinic. Progress towards nucleic acid drugs, however, has been slow and many challenges remain to be overcome before their full impact on patient care can be understood. Antisense oligonucleotides (ASOs) and small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) are the two most widely used strategies for silencing gene expression. We first describe these two approaches and contrast their relative strengths and weaknesses for laboratory applications. We then review the choices faced during development of clinical candidates and the current state of clinical trials. Attitudes towards clinical development of nucleic acid silencing strategies have repeatedly swung from optimism to depression during the past twenty years. Our goal is to provide the information needed to design robust studies with oligonucleotides, making use of the strengths of each oligonucleotide technology. PMID:22069063

Watts, Jonathan K.; Corey, David R.

2014-01-01

162

Dietary and genetic effects on age-related loss of gene silencing reveal epigenetic plasticity of chromatin repression during aging.  

PubMed

During aging, changes in chromatin state that alter gene transcription have been postulated to result in expression of genes that are normally silenced, leading to deleterious age-related effects on cellular physiology. Despite the prevalence of this hypothesis, it is primarily in yeast that loss of gene silencing with age has been well documented. We use a novel position effect variegation (PEV) reporter in Drosophila melanogaster to show that age-related loss of repressive heterochromatin is associated with loss of gene silencing in metazoans and is affected by Sir2, as it is in yeast. The life span-extending intervention, calorie restriction (CR), delays the age-related loss of gene silencing, indicating that loss of gene silencing is a component of normal aging. Diet switch experiments show that such flies undergo a rapid change in their level of gene silencing, demonstrating the epigenetic plasticity of chromatin during aging and highlighting the potential role of diet and metabolism in chromatin maintenance, Thus, diet and related interventions may be of therapeutic importance for age-related diseases, such as cancer. PMID:24243774

Jiang, Nan; Du, Guyu; Tobias, Ethan; Wood, Jason G; Whitaker, Rachel; Neretti, Nicola; Helfand, Stephen L

2013-11-01

163

Dietary and genetic effects on age-related loss of gene silencing reveal epigenetic plasticity of chromatin repression during aging  

PubMed Central

During aging, changes in chromatin state that alter gene transcription have been postulated to result in expression of genes that are normally silenced, leading to deleterious age-related effects on cellular physiology. Despite the prevalence of this hypothesis, it is primarily in yeast that loss of gene silencing with age has been well documented. We use a novel position effect variegation (PEV) reporter in Drosophila melanogaster to show that age-related loss of repressive heterochromatin is associated with loss of gene silencing in metazoans and is affected by Sir2, as it is in yeast. The life span-extending intervention, calorie restriction (CR), delays the age-related loss of gene silencing, indicating that loss of gene silencing is a component of normal aging. Diet switch experiments show that such flies undergo a rapid change in their level of gene silencing, demonstrating the epigenetic plasticity of chromatin during aging and highlighting the potential role of diet and metabolism in chromatin maintenance, Thus, diet and related interventions may be of therapeutic importance for age-related diseases, such as cancer. PMID:24243774

Jiang, Nan; Du, Guyu; Tobias, Ethan; Wood, Jason G.; Whitaker, Rachel; Neretti, Nicola; Helfand, Stephen L.

2013-01-01

164

Silencing the ap65 gene reduces adherence to vaginal epithelial cells by Trichomonas vaginalis.  

PubMed

Host parasitism by Trichomonas vaginalis is complex and in part mediated by adherence to vaginal epithelial cells (VECs). Four trichomonad surface proteins bind VECs as adhesins, and AP65 is a major adhesin with sequence identity to an enzyme of the hydrogenosome organelle that is involved in energy generation. In order to perform genetic analysis and assess the role of AP65 in T. vaginalis adherence, we silenced expression of ap65 using antisense RNA. The gene for ap65 was inserted into the vector pBS-neo in sense and antisense orientations to generate plasmids pBS-neoS (S) and pBS-neoAS (AS), respectively. Trichomonads were then transfected with S and AS plasmids for selection of stable transfectants using Geneticin, and the presence of plasmid in transfectants was confirmed by polymerase chain reaction of the neo gene. Reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction and Northern blot analysis showed decreased amounts of ap65 transcript in AS transfected parasites. Growth kinetics of the antisense-transfected and wild type organisms were similar, suggesting that silencing AP65 did not affect overall energy generation for growth. Immunoblot analysis using monoclonal antibody (mAb) to AP65 of AS transfectants showed decreased amounts of AP65 when compared to wild type or S transfectants. Not unexpectedly, this corresponded to decreased amounts of AP65 bound to VECs in a functional ligand assay. Reduction in parasite surface expression of AP65 was related to lower levels of adherence to VECs by AS-transfectants compared to control organisms. Antisense silencing of ap65 was not alleviated by growth of trichomonads in high iron, which up-regulates transcription of ap65. Our work reaffirms the role for AP65 as an adhesin, and in addition, we demonstrate antisense RNA gene silencing in T. vaginalis to study the contribution of specific genes in pathogenesis. PMID:15306014

Mundodi, V; Kucknoor, A S; Klumpp, D J; Chang, T-H; Alderete, J F

2004-08-01

165

Posttranscriptional gene silencing in controlling viruses of the Tomato yellow leaf curl virus complex  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary.  Tomato yellow leaf curl disease (TYLCD) is caused by a group of geminiviruses that belong to the Tomato yellow leaf curl virus\\u000a (TYLCV) complex and are transmitted by the whitefly (Bemisia tabaci Genn.). The disease causes great yield losses in many countries throughout the Mediterranean region and the Middle East.\\u000a In this study, the efficacy of post-transcriptional gene silencing (PTGS)

M. K. Abhary; G. H. Anfoka; M. K. Nakhla; D. P. Maxwell

2006-01-01

166

Fertile Hypomorphic ARGONAUTE (ago1) Mutants Impaired in PostTranscriptional Gene Silencing and Virus Resistance  

Microsoft Academic Search

Transgene-induced post-transcriptional gene silencing (PTGS) results from specific degradation of RNAs that are ho- mologous with the transgene transcribed sequence. This phenomenon, also known as cosuppression in plants and quelling in fungi, resembles RNA interference (RNAi) in animals. Indeed, cosuppression\\/quelling\\/RNAi require related PAZ\\/PIWI proteins (AGO1\\/QDE-2\\/RDE-1), indicating that these mechanisms are related. Unlike Neurospora crassa qde-2 and Caenorhabditis elegans rde-1 mutants,

Jean-Benoit Morel; Christian Godon; Philippe Mourrain; Christophe Béclin; Stéphanie Boutet; Frank Feuerbach; Florence Proux; Hervé Vaucheret

2002-01-01

167

Functional gene silencing mediated by chitosan/siRNA nanocomplexes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Chitosan/siRNA nanoparticles to knock down FHL2 gene expression were reported in this work. The physicochemical properties such as particle size, surface charge, morphology and complex stability of chitosan nanoparticle-incorporated siRNA were evaluated. Nanoparticles which were formulated with chitosan/siRNA exhibited irregular, lamellar and dendritic structures with a hydrodynamic radius size of about 148 nm and net positive charges with zeta-potential value of 58.5 mV. The knockdown effect of the chitosan/siRNA nanoparticles on gene expression in FHL2 over-expressed human colorectal cancer Lovo cells was investigated. The result showed that FHL2 siRNA formulated within chitosan nanoparticles could knock down about 69.6% FHL2 gene expression, which is very similar to the 68.8% reduced gene expression when siRNA was transfected with liposome Lipofectamine. Western analysis further showed significant FHL-2 protein expression reduced by the chitosan/siRNA nanoparticles. The results also showed that blocking FHL2 expression by siRNA could also inhibit the growth and proliferation of human colorectal cancer Lovo cells. The current results demonstrated that chitosan-based siRNA nanoparticles were a very efficient delivery system for siRNA in vivo as previously reported.

Ji, A. M.; Su, D.; Che, O.; Li, W. S.; Sun, L.; Zhang, Z. Y.; Yang, B.; Xu, F.

2009-10-01

168

Developmental Cell Silencing of Germline-Expressed Genes  

E-print Network

and Molecular Genetics, University of Colorado School of Medicine, Aurora, CO 80045, USA 2The Genome Institute 3Department of Genetics Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO 63108, USA 4The Wellcome Trust in all somatic lineages from a single individual and between different individuals. At least 685 genes

Davis, Richard E.

169

The Arabidopsis DCP2 gene is required for proper mRNA turnover and prevents transgene silencing in Arabidopsis.  

PubMed

Post-transcriptional gene silencing often limits the over-expression of transgenes in transgenic plants. It involves RNA-DEPENDENT RNA POLYMERASE?6 (RDR6), which recognizes aberrant transcripts, such as inaccurately processed or uncapped mRNA, and triggers silencing of target transcripts. Here, we describe the isolation and characterization of an Arabidopsis mutant displaying increased transgene silencing (its1). Reduced accumulation of transgene mRNA in the its1 mutant background was accompanied by accumulation of transgene-specific siRNAs and was overcome by potyvirus infection. We therefore speculated that ITS1 is a suppressor of post-transcriptional gene silencing. Map-based cloning and subsequent complementation revealed that ITS1 encodes DECAPPING?2 (DCP2), which is crucial for decapping, a prerequisite for mRNA degradation. In agreement with the proposed function of DCP2, we found a reduced accumulation of uncapped mRNA in the its1 mutant. Furthermore, silencing in the its1 mutant was dependent on RDR6 function, suggesting that reduced decapping leads to accumulation of aberrant capped mRNA. Hence, we provide evidence for a class of aberrant mRNA that accumulates upon impaired mRNA decapping and triggers post-transcriptional gene silencing in Arabidopsis. As DCP2 knockouts cause post-embryo lethality, we isolated a hypomorphic dcp2 allele, providing insights into mRNA degradation and its interplay with post-transcriptional gene silencing. PMID:22639932

Thran, Moritz; Link, Katrin; Sonnewald, Uwe

2012-11-01

170

Effective gene silencing in a microsporidian parasite associated with honeybee (Apis mellifera) colony declines.  

PubMed

Honeybee colonies are vulnerable to parasites and pathogens ranging from viruses to vertebrates. An increasingly prevalent disease of managed honeybees is caused by the microsporidian Nosema ceranae. Microsporidia are basal fungi and obligate parasites with much-reduced genomic and cellular components. A recent genome-sequencing effort for N. ceranae indicated the presence of machinery for RNA silencing in this species, suggesting that RNA interference (RNAi) might be exploited to regulate Nosema gene expression within bee hosts. Here we used controlled laboratory experiments to show that double-stranded RNA homologous to specific N. ceranae ADP/ATP transporter genes can specifically and differentially silence transcripts encoding these proteins. This inhibition also affects Nosema levels and host physiology. Gene silencing could be mediated solely by Nosema or in concert with known systemic RNAi mechanisms in their bee hosts. These results are novel for the microsporidia and provide a possible avenue for controlling a disease agent implicated in severe honeybee colony losses. Moreover, since microsporidia are pathogenic in several known veterinary and human diseases, this advance may have broader applications in the future for disease control. PMID:20622131

Paldi, Nitzan; Glick, Eitan; Oliva, Maayan; Zilberberg, Yaron; Aubin, Lucie; Pettis, Jeffery; Chen, Yanping; Evans, Jay D

2010-09-01

171

Secondary RNA Structure and its Role in RNA Interference to Silence the Respiratory Syncytial Virus Fusion Protein Gene  

Microsoft Academic Search

RNA interference (RNAi) is a post-transcriptional, gene silencing mechanism which uses small interfering RNA molecules (siRNA)\\u000a for gene silencing. Respiratory Syncytial Virus (RSV) is an important respiratory pathogen of medical significance that causes\\u000a high mortality in infants. The fusion (F) protein of RSV is a good target for therapeutic purposes as it is primarily responsible\\u000a for penetration of the virus

Komal Vig; Nuruddeen Lewis; Eddie G. Moore; Shreekumar Pillai; Vida A. Dennis; Shree R. Singh

2009-01-01

172

CASPASE 2-MEDIATED TUMOR SUPPRESSION INVOLVES SURVIVIN GENE SILENCING  

PubMed Central

One of the pivotal functions of endogenous tumor suppression is to oppose aberrant cell survival, but the molecular requirements of this process are not completely understood. Here, we show that caspase 2, a death effector with largely unknown functions, represses transcription of the survivin gene, a general regulator of cell division and cytoprotection in tumors. This pathway involves caspase 2 proteolytic cleavage of the NF?B activator, RIP1. In turn, loss of RIP1 abolishes transcription of NF?B target genes, including survivin, resulting in deregulated mitotic transitions, enhanced apoptosis, and suppression of tumorigenicity, in vivo. Therefore, caspase 2 functions as an endogenous inhibitor of NF?B-dependent cell survival, and this mechanism may contribute to tumor suppression in humans. PMID:19935698

Guha, Minakshi; Xia, Fang; Raskett, Christopher M.; Altieri, Dario C.

2009-01-01

173

Structure And Gene Silencing Activities of Monovalent And Pentavalent Cationic Lipid Vectors Complexed With Sirna  

SciTech Connect

Small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) of 19-25 bp mediate the cleavage of complementary mRNA, leading to post-transcriptional gene silencing. We examined cationic lipid (CL)-mediated delivery of siRNA into mammalian cells and made comparisons to CL-based DNA delivery. The effect of lipid composition and headgroup charge on the biophysical and biological properties of CL-siRNA vectors was determined. X-ray diffraction revealed that CL-siRNA complexes exhibited lamellar and inverted hexagonal phases, qualitatively similar to CL-DNA complexes, but also formed other nonlamellar structures. Surprisingly, optimally formulated inverted hexagonal 1,2-dioleoyl-3-trimethylammonium-propane (DOTAP)/1,2-dioleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphatidylethanolamine (DOPE) CL-siRNA complexes exhibited high toxicity and much lower target-specific gene silencing than lamellar CL-siRNA complexes even though optimally formulated, inverted hexagonal CL-DNA complexes show high transfection efficiency in cell culture. We further found that efficient silencing required cationic lipid/nucleic acid molar charge ratios (chg) nearly an order of magnitude larger than those yielding efficiently transfecting CL-DNA complexes. This second unexpected finding has implications for cell toxicity. Multivalent lipids (MVLs) require a smaller number of cationic lipids at a given chg of the complex. Consistent with this observation, the pentavalent lipid MVL5 exhibited lower toxicity and superior silencing efficiency over a large range in both the lipid composition and chg when compared to monovalent DOTAP. Most importantly, MVL5 achieved much higher total knockdown of the target gene in CL-siRNA complex regimes where toxicity was low. This property of CL-siRNA complexes contrasts to CL-DNA complexes, where the optimized transfection efficiencies of multivalent and monovalent lipids are comparable.

Bouxsein, N.F.; McAllister, C.S.; Ewert, K.K.; Samuel, C.E.; Safinya, C.R.; /UC, Santa Barbara

2007-07-03

174

Lsh Participates in DNA Methylation and Silencing of Stem Cell Genes  

PubMed Central

Transcriptional control of stem cell genes is a critical step in differentiation of embryonic stem cells and in reprogramming of somatic cells into stem cells. Here we report that Lsh, a regulator of repressive chromatin at retrotransposons also plays an important role in silencing of stem cell specific genes such as Oct4. We found that CpG methylation is gained during in vitro differentiation of several stem cell specific genes (in 11 out of 12 promoter regions) and thus appears to be a common epigenetic mark. Lsh depletion prevents complete silencing of stem cell gene expression and moreover promotes the maintenance of stem cell characteristics in culture. Lsh is required for establishment of DNA methylation patterns at stem cell genes during differentiation in part by regulating access of Dnmt3b to its genomic targets. Our results indicate that Lsh is involved in the control of stem cell genes and suggests that Lsh is an important epigenetic modulator during early stem cell differentiation. PMID:19650037

Xi, Sichuan; Geiman, Theresa M.; Briones, Victorino; Tao, Yong Guang; Xu, Hong; Muegge, Kathrin

2012-01-01

175

High capacity nanoporous silicon carrier for systemic delivery of gene silencing therapeutics.  

PubMed

Gene silencing agents such as small interfering RNA (siRNA) and microRNA offer the promise to modulate expression of almost every gene for the treatment of human diseases including cancer. However, lack of vehicles for effective systemic delivery to the disease organs has greatly limited their in vivo applications. In this study, we developed a high capacity polycation-functionalized nanoporous silicon (PCPS) platform comprised of nanoporous silicon microparticles functionalized with arginine-polyethyleneimine inside the nanopores for effective delivery of gene silencing agents. Incubation of MDA-MB-231 human breast cancer cells with PCPS loaded with STAT3 siRNA (PCPS/STAT3) or GRP78 siRNA (PCPS/GRP78) resulted in 91 and 83% reduction of STAT3 and GRP78 gene expression in vitro. Treatment of cells with a microRNA-18a mimic in PCPS (PCPS/miR-18) knocked down 90% expression of the microRNA-18a target gene ATM. Systemic delivery of PCPS/STAT3 siRNA in murine model of MDA-MB-231 breast cancer enriched particles in tumor tissues and reduced STAT3 expression in cancer cells, causing significant reduction of cancer stem cells in the residual tumor tissue. At the therapeutic dosage, PCPS/STAT3 siRNA did not trigger acute immune response in FVB mice, including changes in serum cytokines, chemokines, and colony-stimulating factors. In addition, weekly dosing of PCPS/STAT3 siRNA for four weeks did not cause signs of subacute toxicity based on changes in body weight, hematology, blood chemistry, and major organ histology. Collectively, the results suggest that we have developed a safe vehicle for effective delivery of gene silencing agents. PMID:24131405

Shen, Jianliang; Xu, Rong; Mai, Junhua; Kim, Han-Cheon; Guo, Xiaojing; Qin, Guoting; Yang, Yong; Wolfram, Joy; Mu, Chaofeng; Xia, Xiaojun; Gu, Jianhua; Liu, Xuewu; Mao, Zong-Wan; Ferrari, Mauro; Shen, Haifa

2013-11-26

176

Silencing of Nicotiana benthamiana Neuroblastoma-Amplified Gene causes ER stress and cell death  

PubMed Central

Background Neuroblastoma Amplified Gene (NAG) was identified as a gene co-amplified with the N-myc gene, whose genomic amplification correlates with poor prognosis of neuroblastoma. Later it was found that NAG is localized in endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and is a component of the syntaxin 18 complex that is involved in Golgi-to-ER retrograde transport in human cells. Homologous sequences of NAG are found in plant databases, but its function in plant cells remains unknown. Results Nicotiana benthamania Neuroblastoma-Amplified Gene (NbNAG) encodes a protein of 2,409 amino acids that contains the secretory pathway Sec39 domain and is mainly localized in the ER. Silencing of NbNAG by virus-induced gene silencing resulted in growth arrest and acute plant death with morphological markers of programmed cell death (PCD), which include chromatin fragmentation and modification of mitochondrial membrane potential. NbNAG deficiency caused induction of ER stress genes, disruption of the ER network, and relocation of bZIP28 transcription factor from the ER membrane to the nucleus, similar to the phenotypes of tunicamycin-induced ER stress in a plant cell. NbNAG silencing caused defects in intracellular transport of diverse cargo proteins, suggesting that a blocked secretion pathway by NbNAG deficiency causes ER stress and programmed cell death. Conclusions These results suggest that NAG, a conserved protein from yeast to mammals, plays an essential role in plant growth and development by modulating protein transport pathway, ER stress response and PCD. PMID:23621803

2013-01-01

177

Highly Efficient Virus-induced Gene Silencing (VIGS) in California Poppy (Eschscholzia californica): An Evaluation of VIGS as a Strategy to Obtain Functional Data from Non-model Plants  

PubMed Central

Background and Aims Eschscholzia californica (California poppy) is an emerging model plant for ‘evo–devo’ studies from the basal eudicot clade of Papaveraceae. California poppy has a relatively small genome, a short life cycle and, most importantly, it is amenable for transformation. However, since this transformation protocol is time consuming, virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS) was evaluated as a fast method to obtain functional data for California poppy genes. Methods Commercially available California poppy plants were infiltrated with Agrobacterium tumefaciens carrying the tobacco rattle virus plasmids pTRV1 and pTRV2. pTRV2 contained part of the eschscholzia Phytoene Desaturase (EcPDS) gene whose loss of function results in photobleaching of the green parts of the plant and in a lack of floral coloration. The degree and duration of these symptoms was evaluated for vegetative rosettes and plants in flower. Key Results It is shown that VIGS is able to effectively down-regulate the EcPDS gene in eschscholzia. Various degrees of silencing were observed starting <2 weeks after infiltration with Agrobacterium tumefaciens in 92 % of the plants. Tissue with silencing symptoms also showed complete or strong reduction of EcPDS transcripts. Strong silencing resulted in almost completely white petals, fruits, shoots and leaves. Plants with a strong degree of silencing will eventually die off; however, others are able to produce EcPDS gene product even after a strong initial silencing and will recover. Silencing was found to be not always systemic, but was often restricted to certain organs or parts of organs. Conclusions VIGS is an effective, fast and transient method to down-regulate gene expression in eschscholzia. It serves well to detect prominent phenotypes which may become obvious even if some target gene transcript remains in the plant tissue. However, subtle phenotypes will be more difficult to detect, as extremely strong silencing effects occur in <10 % of all flowers from infected plants. PMID:17616562

Wege, Stefanie; Scholz, Andrea; Gleissberg, Stefan; Becker, Annette

2007-01-01

178

Reduced expression of DACT2 promotes hepatocellular carcinoma progression: involvement of methylation-mediated gene silencing  

PubMed Central

Background Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is one of the most aggressive malignancies in humans, and its prognosis is generally poor even after surgery. Many advances have been made to understand the pathogenesis of HCC; however, the molecular mechanisms that lead to hepatocarcinogenesis and progression are still not clearly understood. Methods The expression of DACT2 in specimens from 30 paired HCCs and an additional 61 HCC patients after liver transplantation was evaluated by quantitative RT-PCR and immunohistochemical analysis. We investigated the methylation status of the DACT2 promoter region. We also analyzed the alterations of the cell cycle, migration and invasion after DACT2 knockdown. Results The expression level of DACT2 was significantly lower in HCC tissues than in non-cancerous tissues. Reduced DACT2 expression was associated with large tumor size. DACT2 transcripts were at low levels in hypermethylated liver cancer cells and were restored by exposure to a demethylating agent. Reduced expression of DACT2 in MHCC97L cells induced G1/S arrest, increased cell proliferation, and promoted cell invasion. Conclusions Our study suggests that DACT2 is silenced by promoter hypermethylation, and reduced DACT2 can promote liver cancer progression. DACT2 may serve as a novel tumor suppressor gene in HCC. PMID:23496880

2013-01-01

179

The C. elegans CSR-1 Argonaute pathway counteracts epigenetic silencing to promote germline gene expression  

PubMed Central

SUMMARY Organisms can develop adaptive sequence-specific immunity by re-expressing pathogen-specific small RNAs that guide gene silencing. For example, the C. elegans PIWI-Argonaute/piRNA pathway recruits RNA-dependent RNA polymerase RdRP to foreign sequences to amplify a trans-generational small RNA-induced epigenetic silencing signal (termed RNAe). Here we provide evidence that in addition to an adaptive memory of silenced sequences, C. elegans can also develop an opposing adaptive memory of expressed/self mRNAs. We refer to this mechanism, which can prevent or reverse RNAe as RNA-induced epigenetic gene activation (RNAa). We show that CSR-1, which engages RdRP-amplified small RNAs complementary to germline-expressed mRNAs, is required for RNAa. We show that a transgene with RNAa activity also exhibits accumulation of cognate CSR-1 small RNAs. Our findings suggest that C. elegans adaptively acquires and maintains a trans-generational CSR-1 memory that recognizes and protects self mRNAs, allowing piRNAs to recognize foreign sequences innately, without need for prior exposure. PMID:24360782

Seth, Meetu; Shirayama, Masaki; Gu, Weifeng; Ishidate, Takao; Conte, Darryl; Mello, Craig C.

2014-01-01

180

Silencing of the Il2 gene transcription is regulated by epigenetic changes in anergic T cells  

PubMed Central

Anergy is induced in T cells as a consequence of a partial or suboptimal stimulation. Anergic T cells become unresponsive and fail to proliferate and produce cytokines. We had previously shown that in anergic CD4+ T cells, Ikaros participates in the transcriptional repression of the Il2 gene by recruiting histone deacetylases that cause core histone deacetylation at the Il2 promoter. Here we show that deacetylation at the Il2 promoter is the initial step in a process that leads to the stable silencing of the Il2 gene transcription in anergic T cells. We have found that anergy-induced deacetylation of the Il2 promoter permits binding of the histone methyl-transferase Suv39H1, which trimethylates lysine-9 of histone-3 (Me3H3-K9). Furthermore, the establishment of the Me3H3-K9 mark allows the recruitment of the heterochromatin protein HP-1, allowing the silenced Il2 loci to reposition close to heterochromatin-rich regions. Our results indicate that silencing of Il2 transcription in anergic T cells is attained through a series of epigenetic changes that involve the establishment of repressive marks and the subsequent nuclear repositioning of the Il2 loci, which become juxtaposed to transcriptionally silent regions. This mechanism may account for the stable nature of the inhibition of IL-2 production in anergic cells. PMID:22684523

Bandyopadhyay, Sanmay; Montagna, Cristina; Macian, Fernando

2013-01-01

181

The C. elegans CSR-1 argonaute pathway counteracts epigenetic silencing to promote germline gene expression.  

PubMed

Organisms can develop adaptive sequence-specific immunity by reexpressing pathogen-specific small RNAs that guide gene silencing. For example, the C. elegans PIWI-Argonaute/piwi-interacting RNA (piRNA) pathway recruits RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRP) to foreign sequences to amplify a transgenerational small-RNA-induced epigenetic silencing signal (termed RNAe). Here, we provide evidence that, in addition to an adaptive memory of silenced sequences, C. elegans can also develop an opposing adaptive memory of expressed/self-mRNAs. We refer to this mechanism, which can prevent or reverse RNAe, as RNA-induced epigenetic gene activation (RNAa). We show that CSR-1, which engages RdRP-amplified small RNAs complementary to germline-expressed mRNAs, is required for RNAa. We show that a transgene with RNAa activity also exhibits accumulation of cognate CSR-1 small RNAs. Our findings suggest that C. elegans adaptively acquires and maintains a transgenerational CSR-1 memory that recognizes and protects self-mRNAs, allowing piRNAs to recognize foreign sequences innately, without the need for prior exposure PMID:24360782

Seth, Meetu; Shirayama, Masaki; Gu, Weifeng; Ishidate, Takao; Conte, Darryl; Mello, Craig C

2013-12-23

182

RNA-Mediated Silencing in Algae: Biological Roles and Tools for Analysis of Gene Function ?  

PubMed Central

Algae are a large group of aquatic, typically photosynthetic, eukaryotes that include species from very diverse phylogenetic lineages, from those similar to land plants to those related to protist parasites. The recent sequencing of several algal genomes has provided insights into the great complexity of these organisms. Genomic information has also emphasized our lack of knowledge of the functions of many predicted genes, as well as the gene regulatory mechanisms in algae. Core components of the machinery for RNA-mediated silencing show widespread distribution among algal lineages, but they also seem to have been lost entirely from several species with relatively small nuclear genomes. Complex sets of endogenous small RNAs, including candidate microRNAs and small interfering RNAs, have now been identified by high-throughput sequencing in green, red, and brown algae. However, the natural roles of RNA-mediated silencing in algal biology remain poorly understood. Limited evidence suggests that small RNAs may function, in different algae, in defense mechanisms against transposon mobilization, in responses to nutrient deprivation and, possibly, in the regulation of recently evolved developmental processes. From a practical perspective, RNA interference (RNAi) is becoming a promising tool for assessing gene function by sequence-specific knockdown. Transient gene silencing, triggered with exogenously synthesized nucleic acids, and/or stable gene repression, involving genome-integrated transgenes, have been achieved in green algae, diatoms, yellow-green algae, and euglenoids. The development of RNAi technology in conjunction with system level “omics” approaches may provide the tools needed to advance our understanding of algal physiological and metabolic processes. PMID:21803865

Cerutti, Heriberto; Ma, Xinrong; Msanne, Joseph; Repas, Timothy

2011-01-01

183

RNAi-mediated Gene Silencing of Mutant Myotilin Improves Myopathy in LGMD1A Mice  

PubMed Central

Recent progress suggests gene therapy may one day be an option for treating some forms of limb girdle muscular dystrophy (LGMD). Nevertheless, approaches targeting LGMD have so far focused on gene replacement strategies for recessive forms of the disease. In contrast, no attempts have been made to develop molecular therapies for any of the eight dominantly inherited forms of LGMD. Importantly, the emergence of RNA interference (RNAi) therapeutics in the last decade provided new tools to combat dominantly inherited LGMDs with molecular therapy. In this study, we describe the first RNAi-based, preclinical gene therapy approach for silencing a gene associated with dominant LGMD. To do this, we developed adeno-associated viral vectors (AAV6) carrying designed therapeutic microRNAs targeting mutant myotilin (MYOT), which is the underlying cause of LGMD type 1A (LGMD1A). Our best MYOT-targeted microRNA vector (called miMYOT) significantly reduced mutant myotilin mRNA and soluble protein expression in muscles of LGMD1A mice (the TgT57I model) both 3 and 9 months after delivery, demonstrating short- and long-term silencing effects. This MYOT gene silencing subsequently decreased deposition of MYOT-seeded intramuscular protein aggregates, which is the hallmark feature of LGMD1A. Histological improvements were accompanied by significant functional correction, as miMYOT-treated animals showed increased muscle weight and improved specific force in the gastrocnemius, which is one of the most severely affected muscles in TgT57I mice and patients with dominant myotilin mutations. These promising results in a preclinical model of LGMD1A support the further development of RNAi-based molecular therapy as a prospective treatment for LGMD1A. Furthermore, this study sets a foundation that may be refined and adapted to treat other dominant LGMD and related disorders. PMID:24781192

Liu, Jian; Wallace, Lindsay M; Garwick-Coppens, Sara E; Sloboda, Darcee D; Davis, Carol S; Hakim, Chady H; Hauser, Michael A; Brooks, Susan V; Mendell, Jerry R; Harper, Scott Q

2014-01-01

184

Investigations of barley stripe mosaic virus as a gene silencing vector in barley roots and in Brachypodium distachyon and oat  

PubMed Central

Background Gene silencing vectors based on Barley stripe mosaic virus (BSMV) are used extensively in cereals to study gene function, but nearly all studies have been limited to genes expressed in leaves of barley and wheat. However since many important aspects of plant biology are based on root-expressed genes we wanted to explore the potential of BSMV for silencing genes in root tissues. Furthermore, the newly completed genome sequence of the emerging cereal model species Brachypodium distachyon as well as the increasing amount of EST sequence information available for oat (Avena species) have created a need for tools to study gene function in these species. Results Here we demonstrate the successful BSMV-mediated virus induced gene silencing (VIGS) of three different genes in barley roots, i.e. the barley homologues of the IPS1, PHR1, and PHO2 genes known to participate in Pi uptake and reallocation in Arabidopsis. Attempts to silence two other genes, the Pi transporter gene HvPht1;1 and the endo-?-1,4-glucanase gene HvCel1, in barley roots were unsuccessful, probably due to instability of the plant gene inserts in the viral vector. In B. distachyon leaves, significant silencing of the PHYTOENE DESATURASE (BdPDS) gene was obtained as shown by photobleaching as well as quantitative RT-PCR analysis. On the other hand, only very limited silencing of the oat AsPDS gene was observed in both hexaploid (A. sativa) and diploid (A. strigosa) oat. Finally, two modifications of the BSMV vector are presented, allowing ligation-free cloning of DNA fragments into the BSMV-? component. Conclusions Our results show that BSMV can be used as a vector for gene silencing in barley roots and in B. distachyon leaves and possibly roots, opening up possibilities for using VIGS to study cereal root biology and to exploit the wealth of genome information in the new cereal model plant B. distachyon. On the other hand, the silencing induced by BSMV in oat seemed too weak to be of practical use. The new BSMV vectors modified for ligation-free cloning will allow rapid insertion of plant gene fragments for future experiments. PMID:21118486

2010-01-01

185

Systemic RNAi mediated gene silencing in the anhydrobiotic nematode Panagrolaimus superbus  

PubMed Central

Background Gene silencing by RNA interference (RNAi) is a powerful tool for functional genomics. Although RNAi was first described in Caenorhabditis elegans, several nematode species are unable to mount an RNAi response when exposed to exogenous double stranded RNA (dsRNA). These include the satellite model organisms Pristionchus pacificus and Oscheius tipulae. Available data also suggest that the RNAi pathway targeting exogenous dsRNA may not be fully functional in some animal parasitic nematodes. The genus Panagrolaimus contains bacterial feeding nematodes which occupy a diversity of niches ranging from polar, temperate and semi-arid soils to terrestrial mosses. Thus many Panagrolaimus species are adapted to tolerate freezing and desiccation and are excellent systems to study the molecular basis of environmental stress tolerance. We investigated whether Panagrolaimus is susceptible to RNAi to determine whether this nematode could be used in large scale RNAi studies in functional genomics. Results We studied two species: Panagrolaimus sp. PS1159 and Panagrolaimus superbus. Both nematode species displayed embryonic lethal RNAi phenotypes following ingestion of Escherichia coli expressing dsRNA for the C. elegans embryonic lethal genes Ce-lmn-1 and Ce-ran-4. Embryonic lethal RNAi phenotypes were also obtained in both species upon ingestion of dsRNA for the Panagrolaimus genes ef1b and rps-2. Single nematode RT-PCR showed that a significant reduction in mRNA transcript levels occurred for the target ef1b and rps-2 genes in RNAi treated Panagrolaimus sp. 1159 nematodes. Visible RNAi phenotypes were also observed when P. superbus was exposed to dsRNA for structural genes encoding contractile proteins. All RNAi phenotypes were highly penetrant, particularly in P. superbus. Conclusion This demonstration that Panagrolaimus is amenable to RNAi by feeding will allow the development of high throughput methods of RNAi screening for P. superbus. This greatly enhances the utility of this nematode as a model system for the study of the molecular biology of anhydrobiosis and cryobiosis and as a possible satellite model nematode for comparative and functional genomics. Our data also identify another nematode infraorder which is amenable to RNAi and provide additional information on the diversity of RNAi phenotypes in nematodes. PMID:18565215

Shannon, Adam J; Tyson, Trevor; Dix, Ilona; Boyd, Jacqueline; Burnell, Ann M

2008-01-01

186

Transgene-induced silencing of the zoosporogenesis-specific NIFC gene cluster of Phytophthora infestans involves chromatin alterations.  

PubMed

Clustered within the genome of the oomycete phytopathogen Phytophthora infestans are four genes encoding spore-specific nuclear LIM interactor-interacting factors (NIF proteins, a type of transcriptional regulator) that are moderately conserved in DNA sequence. NIFC1, NIFC2, and NIFC3 are zoosporogenesis-induced and grouped within 4 kb, and 20 kb away resides a sporulation-induced form, NIFS. To test the function of the NIFC family, plasmids expressing full-length hairpin constructs of NIFC1 or NIFC2 were stably transformed into P. infestans. This triggered silencing of the cognate gene in about one-third of transformants, and all three NIFC genes were usually cosilenced. However, NIFS escaped silencing despite its high sequence similarity to the NIFC genes. Silencing of the three NIFC genes impaired zoospore cyst germination by 60% but did not affect other aspects of the life cycle. Silencing was transcriptional based on nuclear run-on assays and associated with tighter chromatin packing based on nuclease accessibility experiments. The chromatin alterations extended a few hundred nucleotides beyond the boundaries of the transcribed region of the NIFC cluster and were not associated with increased DNA methylation. A plasmid expressing a short hairpin RNA having sequence similarity only to NIFC1 silenced both that gene and an adjacent member of the gene cluster, likely due to the expansion of a heterochromatic domain from the targeted locus. These data help illuminate the mechanism of silencing in Phytophthora and suggest that caution should be used when interpreting silencing experiments involving closely spaced genes. PMID:17483289

Judelson, Howard S; Tani, Shuji

2007-07-01

187

Re-expression of methylation-induced tumor suppressor gene silencing is associated with the state of histone modification in gastric cancer cell lines  

PubMed Central

AIM: To identify the relationship between DNA hyper-methylation and histone modification at a hyperme-thylated, silenced tumor suppressor gene promoter in human gastric cancer cell lines and to elucidate whether alteration of DNA methylation could affect histone modification. METHODS: We used chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) assay to assess the status of histone acetylation and methylation in promoter regions of the p16 and mutL homolog 1 (MLH1) genes in 2 gastric cancer cell lines, SGC-7901 and MGC-803. We used methylation-specific PCR (MSP) to evaluate the effect of 5-Aza-2’-deoxycytidine (5-Aza-dC), trichostatin A (TSA) or their combination treatment on DNA methylation status. We used RT-PCR to determine whether alterations of histone modification status after 5-Aza-dC and TSA treatment are reflected in gene expression. RESULTS: For the p16 and MLH1 genes in two cell lines, silenced loci associated with DNA hypermethylation were characterized by histone H3-K9 hypoacetylation and hypermethylation and histone H3-K4 hypomethylation. Treatment with TSA resulted in moderately increased histone H3-K9 acetylation at the silenced loci with no effect on histone H3-K9 methylation and minimal effects on gene expression. In contrast, treatment with 5-Aza-dC rapidly reduced histone H3-K9 methylation at the silenced loci and resulted in reactivation of the two genes. Combined treatment with 5-Aza-dC and TSA was synergistic in reactivating gene expression at the loci showing DNA hypermethylation. Similarly, histone H3-K4 methylation was not affected after TSA treatment, and increased moderately at the silenced loci after 5-Aza-dC treatment. CONCLUSION: Hypermethylation of DNA in promoter CpG islands is related to transcriptional silencing of tumor suppressor genes. Histone H3-K9 methylation in different regions of the promoters studied correlates with DNA methylation status of each gene in gastric cancer cells. However, histone H3-K9 acetylation and H3-K4 methylation inversely correlate with DNA methylation status of each gene in gastric cancer cells. Alteration of DNA methylation affects histone modification. PMID:18069755

Meng, Chun-Feng; Zhu, Xin-Jiang; Peng, Guo; Dai, Dong-Qiu

2007-01-01

188

Silencing of CHD5 Gene by Promoter Methylation in Leukemia  

PubMed Central

Chromodomain helicase DNA binding protein 5 (CHD5) was previously proposed to function as a potent tumor suppressor by acting as a master regulator of a tumor-suppressive network. CHD5 is down-regulated in several cancers, including leukemia and is responsible for tumor generation and progression. However, the mechanism of CHD5 down-regulation in leukemia is largely unknown. In this study, quantitative reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction and western blotting analyses revealed that CHD5 was down-regulated in human leukemia cell lines and samples. Luciferase reporter assays showed that most of the baseline regulatory activity was localized from 500 to 200 bp upstream of the transcription start site. Bisulfite DNA sequencing of the identified regulatory element revealed that the CHD5 promoter was hypermethylated in human leukemia cells and samples. Thus, CHD5 expression was inversely correlated with promoter DNA methylation in these samples. Treatment with DNA methyltransferase inhibitor 5-aza-2?-deoxycytidine (DAC) activates CHD5 expression in human leukemia cell lines. In vitro luciferase reporter assays demonstrated that methylation of the CHD5 promoter repressed its promoter activity. Furthermore, a chromatin immunoprecipitation assay combined with qualitative PCR identified activating protein 2 (AP2) as a potential transcription factor involved in CHD5 expression and indicated that treatment with DAC increases the recruitment of AP2 to the CHD5 promoter. In vitro transcription-factor activity studies showed that AP2 over-expression was able to activate CHD5 promoter activity. Our findings indicate that repression of CHD5 gene expression in human leukemia is mediated in part by DNA methylation of its promoter. PMID:24454811

Zhao, Rui; Meng, Fanyi; Wang, Nisha; Ma, Wenli; Yan, Qitao

2014-01-01

189

RNAi Dynamics in Juvenile Fasciola spp. Liver Flukes Reveals the Persistence of Gene Silencing In Vitro  

PubMed Central

Background Fasciola spp. liver fluke cause pernicious disease in humans and animals. Whilst current control is unsustainable due to anthelmintic resistance, gene silencing (RNA interference, RNAi) has the potential to contribute to functional validation of new therapeutic targets. The susceptibility of juvenile Fasciola hepatica to double stranded (ds)RNA-induced RNAi has been reported. To exploit this we probe RNAi dynamics, penetrance and persistence with the aim of building a robust platform for reverse genetics in liver fluke. We describe development of standardised RNAi protocols for a commercially-available liver fluke strain (the US Pacific North West Wild Strain), validated via robust transcriptional silencing of seven virulence genes, with in-depth experimental optimisation of three: cathepsin L (FheCatL) and B (FheCatB) cysteine proteases, and a ?-class glutathione transferase (Fhe?GST). Methodology/Principal Findings Robust transcriptional silencing of targets in both F. hepatica and Fasciola gigantica juveniles is achievable following exposure to long (200–320 nt) dsRNAs or 27 nt short interfering (si)RNAs. Although juveniles are highly RNAi-susceptible, they display slower transcript and protein knockdown dynamics than those reported previously. Knockdown was detectable following as little as 4h exposure to trigger (target-dependent) and in all cases silencing persisted for ?25 days following long dsRNA exposure. Combinatorial silencing of three targets by mixing multiple long dsRNAs was similarly efficient. Despite profound transcriptional suppression, we found a significant time-lag before the occurrence of protein suppression; Fhe?GST and FheCatL protein suppression were only detectable after 9 and 21 days, respectively. Conclusions/Significance In spite of marked variation in knockdown dynamics, we find that a transient exposure to long dsRNA or siRNA triggers robust RNAi penetrance and persistence in liver fluke NEJs supporting the development of multiple-throughput phenotypic screens for control target validation. RNAi persistence in fluke encourages in vivo studies on gene function using worms exposed to RNAi-triggers prior to infection. PMID:25254508

McVeigh, Paul; McCammick, Erin M.; McCusker, Paul; Morphew, Russell M.; Mousley, Angela; Abidi, Abbas; Saifullah, Khalid M.; Muthusamy, Raman; Gopalakrishnan, Ravikumar; Spithill, Terry W.; Dalton, John P.; Brophy, Peter M.; Marks, Nikki J.; Maule, Aaron G.

2014-01-01

190

Efficient Gene Silencing by Self-Assembled Complexes of siRNA and Symmetrical Fatty Acid Amides of Spermine.  

PubMed

Gene silencing by siRNA (synthetic dsRNA of 21-25 nucleotides) is a well established biological tool in gene expression studies and has a promising therapeutic potential for difficult-to-treat diseases. Five fatty acids of various chain length and oxidation state (C12:0, C18:0, C18:1, C18:2, C22:1) were conjugated to the naturally occurring polyamine, spermine, and evaluated for siRNA delivery and gene knock-down. siRNA delivery could not be related directly to gene silencing efficiency as N4,N9-dierucoyl spermine resulted in higher siRNA delivery compared to N4,N9-dioleoyl spermine. GFP silencing in HeLa cells showed that the unsaturated fatty acid amides are more efficient than saturated fatty acid amides, with N4,N9-dioleoyl spermine resulting in the most efficient gene silencing in the presence of serum. The alamarBlue cell viability assay showed that fatty acid amides of spermine have good viability (75%-85% compared to control) except N4,N9-dilauroyl spermine which resulted in low cell viability. These results prove that unsaturated fatty acid amides of spermine are efficient, non-toxic, non-viral vectors for siRNA mediated gene silencing. PMID:24310492

Metwally, Abdelkader A; Pourzand, Charareh; Blagbrough, Ian S

2011-01-01

191

Human DDX6 effects miRNA-mediated gene silencing via direct binding to CNOT1.  

PubMed

MicroRNAs (miRNAs) play critical roles in a variety of biological processes through widespread effects on protein synthesis. Upon association with the miRNA-induced silencing complex (miRISC), miRNAs repress target mRNA translation and accelerate mRNA decay. Degradation of the mRNA is initiated by shortening of the poly(A) tail by the CCR4-NOT deadenylase complex followed by the removal of the 5' cap structure and exonucleolytic decay of the mRNA. Here, we report a direct interaction between the large scaffolding subunit of CCR4-NOT, CNOT1, with the translational repressor and decapping activator protein, DDX6. DDX6 binds to a conserved CNOT1 subdomain in a manner resembling the interaction of the translation initiation factor eIF4A with eIF4G. Importantly, mutations that disrupt the DDX6-CNOT1 interaction impair miRISC-mediated gene silencing in human cells. Thus, CNOT1 facilitates recruitment of DDX6 to miRNA-targeted mRNAs, placing DDX6 as a downstream effector in the miRNA silencing pathway. PMID:25035296

Rouya, Christopher; Siddiqui, Nadeem; Morita, Masahiro; Duchaine, Thomas F; Fabian, Marc R; Sonenberg, Nahum

2014-09-01

192

A Single dicer Gene Is Required for Efficient Gene Silencing Associated with Two Classes of Small Antisense RNAs in Mucor circinelloides? †  

PubMed Central

RNA silencing in the zygomycete Mucor circinelloides exhibits uncommon features, such as induction by self-replicative sense transgenes and the accumulation of two size classes of antisense small interfering RNAs (siRNAs). To investigate whether this silencing phenomenon follows the rules of a canonical RNA-silencing mechanism, we used hairpin RNA (hpRNA)-producing constructs as silencing triggers and analyzed the efficiency and stability of silencing in different genetic backgrounds. We show here that the dsRNA-induced silencing mechanism is also associated with the accumulation of two sizes of antisense siRNAs and that this mechanism is not mediated by the previously known dcl-1 (dicer-like) gene, which implies the existence of an additional dicer gene. An M. circinelloides dcl-2 gene was cloned and characterized, and the corresponding null mutant was generated by gene replacement. This mutant is severely impaired in the silencing mechanism induced by self-replicative sense or inverted-repeat transgenes, providing the first genetic evidence of a canonical silencing mechanism in this class of fungus and pointing to a role for dcl-2 in the mechanism. Moreover, a functional dcl-2 gene is required for the normal accumulation of the two sizes of antisense RNAs, as deduced from the analysis of dcl-2? transformants containing hpRNA-expressing plasmids. In addition to its critical role in transgene-induced silencing, the dcl-2 gene seems to play a role in the control of vegetative development, since the dcl-2 null mutants showed a significant decrease in their production of asexual spores. PMID:19666782

de Haro, Juan P.; Calo, Silvia; Cervantes, Maria; Nicolas, Francisco E.; Torres-Martinez, Santiago; Ruiz-Vazquez, Rosa M.

2009-01-01

193

The SUMO E3 Ligase Siz2 Exerts a Locus-Dependent Effect on Gene Silencing in Saccharomyces cerevisiae  

PubMed Central

In the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, the two silent mating-type loci and subtelomeric regions are subjected to a well-characterized form of gene silencing. Establishment of silencing involves the formation of a distinct chromatin state that is refractory to transcription. This structure is established by the action of silent information regulator proteins (Sir2, Sir3, and Sir4) that bind to nucleosomes and initiate the deacetylation of multiple lysine residues in histones H3 and H4. Sir2 protein is a conserved histone deacetylase that is critical for mating-type and telomeric silencing, as well as a Sir3/4-independent form of silencing observed within the ribosomal DNA (rDNA) repeat locus. We report here that sumoylation plays an important role in regulating gene silencing. We show that increased dosage of SIZ2, a SUMO (small ubiquitin-related modifier) ligase, is antagonistic to gene silencing and that this effect is enhanced by mutation of ESC1, whose product is involved in tethering telomeres to the nuclear periphery. We present evidence indicating that an elevated SIZ2 dosage causes reduced binding of Sir2 protein to telomeres. These data support the idea that sumoylation of specific substrates at the nuclear periphery regulates the availability of Sir2 protein at telomeres. PMID:22345352

Pasupala, Nagesh; Easwaran, Sreesankar; Hannan, Abdul; Shore, David

2012-01-01

194

White as a Reporter Gene to Detect Transcriptional Silencers Specifying Position-Specific Gene Expression during Drosophila Melanogaster Eye Development  

PubMed Central

The white(+) gene was used as a reporter to detect transcriptional silencer activity in the Drosophila genome. Changes in the spatial expression pattern of white were scored in the adult eye as nonuniform patterns of pigmentation. Thirty-six independent P[lacW] transposant lines were collected. These represent 12 distinct pigmentation patterns and probably 21 loci. The spatial pigmentation pattern is due to cis-acting suppression of white(+) expression, and the suppression probably depends on cell position rather than cell type. The mechanism of suppression differs from inactivation by heterochromatin. In addition, activation of lacZ in P[lacW] occurs also in specific patterns in imaginal discs and embryos in many of the lines. The expression patterns of white(+) and lacZ may reflect the activity of regulatory elements belonging to an endogenous gene near each P[lacW] insertion site. We speculate that these putative POSE (position-specific expression) genes may have a role in pattern formation of the eye as well as other imaginal structures. Three of the loci identified are optomotor-blind, engrailed and invected. teashirt is also implicated as a candidate gene. We propose that this ``silencer trap'' may be an efficient way of identifying genes involved in imaginal pattern formation. PMID:8582614

Sun, Y. H.; Tsai, C. J.; Green, M. M.; Chao, J. L.; Yu, C. T.; Jaw, T. J.; Yeh, J. Y.; Bolshakov, V. N.

1995-01-01

195

Multisubunit RNA Polymerases IV and V: Purveyors of Non-Coding RNA for Plant Gene Silencing  

SciTech Connect

In all eukaryotes, nuclear DNA-dependent RNA polymerases I, II and III synthesize the myriad RNAs that are essential for life. Remarkably, plants have evolved two additional multisubunit RNA polymerases, RNA polymerases IV and V, which orchestrate non-coding RNA-mediated gene silencing processes affecting development, transposon taming, antiviral defence and allelic crosstalk. Biochemical details concerning the templates and products of RNA polymerases IV and V are lacking. However, their subunit compositions reveal that they evolved as specialized forms of RNA polymerase II, which provides the unique opportunity to study the functional diversification of a eukaryotic RNA polymerase family.

Haag, Jeremy R.; Pikaard, Craig S.

2011-08-01

196

Ascaris suum: RNAi mediated silencing of enolase gene expression in infective larvae.  

PubMed

Ascaris suum is an important parasite of pigs that causes tremendous economic losses globally to agriculture and animal husbandry annually. RNA interference (RNAi) technology has been described as a successful and useful approach for the elucidation of gene function in parasitic nematodes. In the present study, RNAi was used to silence the expression of a gene encoding enolase in A. suum by soaking infective larvae in double-stranded RNA derived from an EST (representing As-enol-1) selected from an A. suum infective larvae-specific cDNA library. The mRNA levels of RNAi-treated larvae were examined by Reverse-Transcription PCR (RT-PCR) analysis. The survival of RNAi-treated larvae was compared with larvae treated with dsRNA-free culture medium. The effect of enolase depletion on the development of A. suum larvae was assessed by infecting BALB/c mice with RNAi-treated larvae. The results showed that enolase gene expression was silenced completely and the survival rate of the RNAi-treated nematodes was reduced by 20.11% (P<0.01) after soaking for 72 h. Although no significant difference was detected in the numbers of larvae recovered from the liver and lungs of infected mice 4 days post infection, RNAi knockdown of the A. suum enolase mRNA led to significant shorter larvae, indicating that loss of enolase expression may cause delays in larval development. PMID:20691683

Chen, Ning; Xu, Min-Jun; Nisbet, Alasdair J; Huang, Cui-Qin; Lin, Rui-Qing; Yuan, Zi-Guo; Song, Hui-Qun; Zhu, Xing-Quan

2011-01-01

197

Comparison of VEGF gene silencing efficiencies of chitosan and protamine complexes containing shRNA.  

PubMed

VEGF is an angiogenic factor promoting the proliferation and migration of endothelial cells. Inhibition of VEGF by RNAi mechanism is one of the novel and the most important strategies in antiangiogenesis therapy. In this study, the tumor silencing efficiency of ternary complexes after addition of protamine to chitosan complexes containing VEGF targeting shRNA was investigated. Besides chitosan, protamine is an effective gene delivery material. Binary and ternary complexes consisting of chitosan, protamine, and shRNA were prepared to target VEGF, their morphology, size, and zeta potential of the complexes being measured. The average size of the complexes was between 173 and 284?nm and zeta potential was between +10 and 16?mV. In the ternary complexes, size decreased as the chitosan ratio increased; however, its molecular weight had no effect on the size of complexes. HeLa, HEK293, and MCF-7 cell lines were used for in vitro transfection. VEGF was assayed by ELISA. A higher silencing effect was obtained using ternary complexes. Transgene expression was increased by adding protamine to chitosan complexes. Gene inhibition values in cell lines followed the rank HEK293>HeLa>MCF-7. The addition of protamine to the chitosan/shRNA (VEGF) complexes increased the knockdown of VEGF genes in the cell lines, and no cytotoxicity was found after the complexes had been incorporated into the cells. PMID:24890139

Erdem-Çakmak, Fulden; Ozba?-Turan, Suna; Salva, Emine; Akbu?a, Jülide

2014-11-01

198

New Aspects of Gene-Silencing for the Treatment of Cardiovascular Diseases  

PubMed Central

Coronary heart disease (CHD), mainly caused by atherosclerosis, represents the single leading cause of death in industrialized countries. Besides the classical interventional therapies new applications for treatment of vascular wall pathologies are appearing on the horizon. RNA interference (RNAi) represents a novel therapeutic strategy due to sequence-specific gene-silencing through the use of small interfering RNA (siRNA). The modulation of gene expression by short RNAs provides a powerful tool to theoretically silence any disease-related or disease-promoting gene of interest. In this review we outline the RNAi mechanisms, the currently used delivery systems and their possible applications to the cardiovascular system. Especially, the optimization of the targeting and transfection procedures could enhance the efficiency of siRNA delivery drastically and might open the way to clinical applicability. The new findings of the last years may show the techniques to new innovative therapies and could probably play an important role in treating CHD in the future. PMID:24276320

Koenig, Olivia; Walker, Tobias; Perle, Nadja; Zech, Almuth; Neumann, Bernd; Schlensak, Christian; Wendel, Hans-Peter; Nolte, Andrea

2013-01-01

199

Effect of Amino Acid Subsititution in Set1 on Histone H3 Methylation and Gene Silencing in Saaccharomyces Cerevisiae  

E-print Network

to histone proteins can change how accessible chromosomal DNA is to protein complexes that act on DNA. DNA sequences that are inaccessible are called silent chromatin and regions that can’t be transcribed are subject to “gene silencing.” Proper gene...

Chateau, Morgan

2008-08-24

200

Receptor-interacting protein 2 gene silencing attenuates allergic airway inflammation.  

PubMed

Persistent activation of NF-?B has been associated with the development of asthma. Receptor-interacting protein 2 (Rip2) is a transcriptional product of NF-?B activation. It is an adaptor protein with serine/threonine kinase activity and has been shown to positively regulate NF-?B activity. We investigated potential protective effects of Rip2 gene silencing using small interfering RNA (siRNA) in an OVA-induced mouse asthma model. Rip2 protein level was found to be upregulated in allergic airway inflammation. A potent and selective Rip2 siRNA given intratracheally knocked down Rip2 expression in OVA-challenged lungs and reduced OVA-induced increases in total and eosinophil counts, and IL-4, IL-5, IL-13, IL-1?, IL-33, and eotaxin levels in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid. Rip2 silencing blocked OVA-induced inflammatory cell infiltration and mucus hypersecretion as observed in lung sections, and mRNA expression of ICAM-1, VCAM-1, E-selectin, RANTES, IL-17, IL-33, thymic stromal lymphopoietin, inducible NO synthase, and MUC5ac in lung tissues. In addition, elevation of serum OVA-specific IgE level in mouse asthma model was markedly suppressed by Rip2 siRNA, together with reduced IL-4, IL-5, and IL-13 production in lymph node cultures. Furthermore, Rip2 siRNA-treated mice produced significantly less airway hyperresponsiveness induced by methacholine. Mechanistically, Rip2 siRNA was found to enhance cytosolic level of I?B? and block p65 nuclear translocation and DNA-binding activity in lung tissues from OVA-challenged mice. Taken together, our findings clearly show that knockdown of Rip2 by gene silencing ameliorates experimental allergic airway inflammation, probably via interruption of NF-?B activity, confirming Rip2 a novel therapeutic target for the treatment of allergic asthma. PMID:23918989

Goh, Fera Y; Cook, Katrina L T P; Upton, Nadine; Tao, Lin; Lah, Lin Chin; Leung, Bernard P; Wong, W S Fred

2013-09-01

201

A lentivirus-based system to functionally silence genes in primary mammalian cells, stem cells and transgenic mice by RNA interference  

Microsoft Academic Search

RNA interference (RNAi) has recently emerged as a specific and efficient method to silence gene expression in mammalian cells either by transfection of short interfering RNAs (siRNAs; ref. 1) or, more recently, by transcription of short hairpin RNAs (shRNAs) from expression vectors and retroviruses2-10. But the resistance of important cell types to transduction by these approaches, both in vitro and

Douglas A. Rubinson; Christopher P. Dillon; Adam V. Kwiatkowski; Claudia Sievers; Lili Yang; Johnny Kopinja; Dina L Rooney; Mingdi Zhang; Melanie M Ihrig; Michael T McManus; Frank B Gertler; Martin L Scott; Luk Van Parijs

2003-01-01

202

Heterochromatic genes undergo epigenetic changes and escape silencing in immunodeficiency, centromeric instability, facial anomalies (ICF) syndrome.  

PubMed

Immunodeficiency, Centromeric Instability, Facial Anomalies (ICF) syndrome is a rare autosomal recessive disorder that is characterized by a marked immunodeficiency, severe hypomethylation of the classical satellites 2 and 3 associated with disruption of constitutive heterochromatin, and facial anomalies. Sixty percent of ICF patients have mutations in the DNMT3B (DNA methyltransferase 3B) gene, encoding a de novo DNA methyltransferase. In the present study, we have shown that, in ICF lymphoblasts and peripheral blood, juxtacentromeric heterochromatic genes undergo dramatic changes in DNA methylation, indicating that they are bona fide targets of the DNMT3B protein. DNA methylation in heterochromatic genes dropped from about 80% in normal cells to approximately 30% in ICF cells. Hypomethylation was observed in five ICF patients and was associated with activation of these silent genes. Although DNA hypomethylation occurred in all the analyzed heterochromatic genes and in all the ICF patients, gene expression was restricted to some genes, every patient having his own group of activated genes. Histone modifications were preserved in ICF patients. Heterochromatic genes were associated with histone modifications that are typical of inactive chromatin: they had low acetylation on H3 and H4 histones and were slightly enriched in H3K9Me(3), both in ICF and controls. This was also the case for those heterochromatic genes that escaped silencing. This finding suggests that gene activation was not generalized to all the cells, but rather was restricted to a clonal cell population that may contribute to the phenotypic variability observed in ICF syndrome. A slight increase in H3K27 monomethylation was observed both in heterochromatin and active euchromatin in ICF patients; however, no correlation between this modification and activation of heterochromatic genes was found. PMID:21559330

Brun, Marie-Elisabeth; Lana, Erica; Rivals, Isabelle; Lefranc, Gérard; Sarda, Pierre; Claustres, Mireille; Mégarbané, André; De Sario, Albertina

2011-01-01

203

The use of nano-sized acicular material, sliding friction, and antisense DNA oligonucleotides to silence bacterial genes  

PubMed Central

Viable bacterial cells impaled with a single particle of a nano-sized acicular material formed when a mixture containing the cells and the material was exposed to a sliding friction field between polystyrene and agar gel; hereafter, we refer to these impaled cells as penetrons. We have used nano-sized acicular material to establish a novel method for bacterial transformation. Here, we generated penetrons that carried antisense DNA adsorbed on nano-sized acicular material (?-sepiolite) by providing sliding friction onto the surface of agar gel; we then investigated whether penetron formation was applicable to gene silencing techniques. Antisense DNA was artificially synthesized as 15 or 90mer DNA oligonucleotides based on the sequences around the translation start codon of target mRNAs. Mixtures of bacterial cells with antisense DNA adsorbed on ?-sepiolite were stimulated by sliding friction on the surface of agar gel for 60 s. Upon formation of Escherichia coli penetrons, ?-lactamase and ?-galactosidase expression was evaluated by counting the numbers of colonies formed on LB agar containing ampicillin and by measuring ?-galactosidase activity respectively. The numbers of ampicillin resistant colonies and the ?-galactosidase activity derived from penetrons bearing antisense DNA (90mer) was repressed to 15% and 25%, respectively, of that of control penetrons which lacked antisense DNA. Biphenyl metabolite, ring cleavage yellow compound produced by Pseudomonas pseudoalcaligenes penetron treated with antisense oligonucleotide DNA targeted to bphD increased higher than that lacking antisense DNA. This result indicated that expression of bphD in P. pseudoalcaligenes penetrons was repressed by antisense DNA that targeted bphD mRNA. Sporulation rates of Bacillus subtilis penetrons treated with antisense DNA (15mer) targeted to spo0A decreased to 24.4% relative to penetrons lacking antisense DNA. This novel method of gene silencing has substantial promise for elucidation of gene function in bacterial species that have been refractory to experimental introduction of exogenous DNA.

2014-01-01

204

A single Argonaute gene is required for induction of RNA silencing antiviral defense and promotes viral RNA recombination  

PubMed Central

Dicer gene dcl2, required for the RNA silencing antiviral defense response in the chestnut blight fungus Cryphonectria parasitica, is inducible upon mycovirus infection and promotes viral RNA recombination. We now report that the antiviral defense response requires only one of the four C. parasitica Argonaute-like protein genes, agl2. The agl2 gene is required for the virus-induced increase in dcl2 transcript accumulation. Agl2 and dcl2 transcripts accumulated to much higher levels in response to hairpin RNA production or infection by a mutant CHV1-EP713 hypovirus lacking the suppressor of RNA silencing p29 than to wild-type CHV1-EP713. Similar results were obtained for an agl2-promoter/EGFP-reporter construct, indicating that p29-mediated repression of agl2 transcript accumulation is promoter-dependent. Significantly, the agl2 deletion mutant exhibited stable maintenance of non-viral sequences in recombinant hypovirus RNA virus vectors and the absence of hypovirus-defective interfering (DI) RNA production. These results establish a key role for an Argonaute gene in the induction of an RNA silencing antiviral defense response and the promotion of viral RNA recombination. They also provide evidence for a mechanism by which a virus-encoded RNA silencing suppressor represses the transcriptional induction of an RNA silencing component. PMID:19822766

Sun, Qihong; Choi, Gil H.; Nuss, Donald L.

2009-01-01

205

Angiotensinogen Gene Silencing Reduces Markers of Lipid Accumulation and Inflammation in Cultured Adipocytes  

PubMed Central

Inflammatory adipokines secreted from adipose tissue are major contributors to obesity-associated inflammation and other metabolic dysfunctions. We and others have recently documented the contribution of adipose tissue renin-angiotensin system to the pathogenesis of obesity, inflammation, and insulin resistance. We hypothesized that adipocyte-derived angiotensinogen (Agt) plays a critical role in adipogenesis and/or lipogenesis as well as inflammation. This was tested using 3T3-L1 adipocytes, stably transfected with Agt-shRNA or scrambled Sc-shRNA as a control. Transfected preadipocytes were differentiated and used to investigate the role of adipose Agt through microarray and PCR analyses and adipokine profiling. As expected, Agt gene silencing significantly reduced the expression of Agt and its hormone product angiotensin II (Ang II), as well as lipid accumulation in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. Microarray studies identified several genes involved in lipid metabolism and inflammatory pathways which were down-regulated by Agt gene inactivation, such as glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase 1 (Gpd1), serum amyloid A 3 (Saa3), nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain containing 1 (Nod1), and signal transducer and activator of transcription 1 (Stat1). Mouse adipogenesis PCR arrays revealed lower expression levels of adipogenic/lipogenic genes such as peroxisome proliferator activated receptor gamma (PPAR?), sterol regulatory element binding transcription factor 1 (Srebf1), adipogenin (Adig), and fatty acid binding protein 4 (Fabp4). Further, silencing of Agt gene significantly lowered expression of pro-inflammatory adipokines including interleukin-6 (IL-6), tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-?), and monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1). In conclusion, this study directly demonstrates critical effects of Agt in adipocyte metabolism and inflammation and further support a potential role for adipose Agt in the pathogenesis of obesity-associated metabolic alterations. PMID:23483012

Carroll, Wenting X.; Kalupahana, Nishan S.; Booker, Suzanne L.; Siriwardhana, Nalin; LeMieux, Monique; Saxton, Arnold M.; Moustaid-Moussa, Naima

2013-01-01

206

The Chp1-Tas3 core is a multifunctional platform critical for gene silencing by RITS  

PubMed Central

RNA interference (RNAi) is critical for the assembly of heterochromatin at fission yeast centromeres. Central to this process is the RNA-induced Initiation of Transcriptional gene Silencing (RITS) complex, which physically anchors small non-coding RNAs to chromatin. RITS includes Ago1, the chromodomain protein Chp1, and Tas3, which bridges between Chp1 and Ago1. Chp1 is a large protein with, apart from its chromodomain, no recognizable domains. Here we describe how the structured C-terminal half of Chp1 binds the Tas3 N-terminal domain, revealing Chp1's tight embrace of Tas3. The structure also reveals a PIN domain at the C-terminal tip of Chp1 that controls subtelomeric transcripts through a post-transcriptional mechanism. We suggest that the Chp1-Tas3 complex provides a solid and versatile platform to recruit both RNAi-dependent and RNAi-independent gene-silencing pathways for locus-specific regulation of heterochromatin. PMID:22081013

Schalch, Thomas; Job, Godwin; Shanker, Sreenath; Partridge, Janet F.; Joshua-Tor, Leemor

2011-01-01

207

Inhibition of lung metastasis by chemokine CCL17-mediated in vivo silencing of genes in CCR4+ Tregs  

PubMed Central

Despite significant attractiveness of anti-sense oligonucleotide/RNAi technology, its clinical application has been precluded by a lack of methods for targeted delivery and transduction of primary immune cells in vivo. Here, we devised a chemokine CCL17-based strategy (TARC-arp) that transiently silences expression of genes in immune cells by delivering inhibitory oligonucleotides via their chemokine receptors. In modeling studies using mice with established 4T1.2 breast cancer, we show that IL10 produced by CCR4+ cells, in particular FoxP3+ regulatory T cells (Tregs), plays an important role in lung metastasis. As such, TARC-arp-mediated silencing of IL-10 or FoxP3 in CCR4+ Tregs is sufficient to block lung metastasis. Thus, we provide a simple solution that circumvents the problems of RNAi use in vivo, indicating that a disease outcome can be successfully controlled by delivering inhibitory oligonucleotides with chemokines to inactivate a selective subset of immune cells. PMID:23603860

Biragyn, Arya; Bodogai, Monica; Olkhanud, Purevdorj B.; Denny-Brown, Sinan R.; Puri, Nitin; Ayukawa, Koichi; Kanegasaki, Shiro; Hogaboam, Cory M.; Wejksza, Katarzyna; Lee-Chang, Catalina

2013-01-01

208

An RNA-seq transcriptome analysis of histone modifiers and RNA silencing genes in soybean during floral initiation process.  

PubMed

Epigenetics has been recognised to play vital roles in many plant developmental processes, including floral initiation through the epigenetic regulation of gene expression. The histone modifying proteins that mediate these modifications involve the SET domain-containing histone methyltransferases, JmjC domain-containing demethylase, acetylases and deacetylases. In addition, RNA interference (RNAi)-associated genes are also involved in epigenetic regulation via RNA-directed DNA methylation and post-transcriptional gene silencing. Soybean, a major crop legume, requires a short day to induce flowering. How histone modifications regulate the plant response to external cues that initiate flowering is still largely unknown. Here, we used RNA-seq to address the dynamics of transcripts that are potentially involved in the epigenetic programming and RNAi mediated gene silencing during the floral initiation of soybean. Soybean is a paleopolyploid that has been subjected to at least two rounds of whole genome duplication events. We report that the expanded genomic repertoire of histone modifiers and RNA silencing genes in soybean includes 14 histone acetyltransferases, 24 histone deacetylases, 47 histone methyltransferases, 15 protein arginine methyltransferases, 24 JmjC domain-containing demethylases and 47 RNAi-associated genes. To investigate the role of these histone modifiers and RNA silencing genes during floral initiation, we compared the transcriptional dynamics of the leaf and shoot apical meristem at different time points after a short-day treatment. Our data reveal that the extensive activation of genes that are usually involved in the epigenetic programming and RNAi gene silencing in the soybean shoot apical meristem are reprogrammed for floral development following an exposure to inductive conditions. PMID:24147010

Liew, Lim Chee; Singh, Mohan B; Bhalla, Prem L

2013-01-01

209

Development of Self-Compatible B. rapa by RNAi-Mediated S Locus Gene Silencing  

PubMed Central

The self-incompatibility (SI) system is genetically controlled by a single polymorphic locus known as the S-locus in the Brassicaceae. Pollen rejection occurs when the stigma and pollen share the same S-haplotype. Recognition of S-haplotype specificity has recently been shown to involve at least two S-locus genes, S-receptor kinase (SRK) and S-locus protein 11 or S locus Cysteine-rich (SP11/SCR) protein. Here, we examined the function of S60, one SP11/SCR allele of B. rapa cv. Osome, using a RNAi-mediated gene silencing approach. The transgenic RNAi lines were highly self-compatible, and this trait was stable in subsequent generations, even after crossing with other commercial lines. These findings also suggested that the resultant self-compatibility could be transferred to commercial cultivars with the desired performances in B. rapa. PMID:23145180

Jung, Hee-Jeong; Jung, Hyo-Jin; Ahmed, Nasar Uddin; Park, Jong-In; Kang, Kwon-Kyoo; Hur, Yoonkang; Lim, Yong-Pyo; Nou, Ill-Sup

2012-01-01

210

Post-transcriptional gene silencing of root-knot nematode in transformed soybean roots.  

PubMed

RNAi constructs targeted to four different genes were examined to determine their efficacy to reduce galls formed by Meloidogyne incognita in soybean roots. These genes have high similarity with essential soybean cyst nematode (Heterodera glycines) and Caenorhabditis elegans genes. Transformed roots were challenged with M. incognita. Two constructs, targeted to genes encoding tyrosine phosphatase (TP) and mitochondrial stress-70 protein precursor (MSP), respectively, strongly interfered with M. incognita gall formation. The number of galls formed on roots transformed with constructs targeting the M. incognita TP and MSP genes was reduced by 92% and 94.7%, respectively. The diameter of M. incognita inside these transformed roots was 5.4 and 6.5 times less than the diameter of M. incognita found inside control plants transformed with the empty vector. These results indicate that silencing the genes encoding TP and MSP can greatly decrease gall formation and shows a promising solution for broadening resistance of plants against this plant-parasitic nematode. PMID:20599433

Ibrahim, Heba M M; Alkharouf, Nadim W; Meyer, Susan L F; Aly, Mohammed A M; Gamal El-Din, Abd El Kader Y; Hussein, Ebtissam H A; Matthews, Benjamin F

2011-01-01

211

RNAi Mediated curcin precursor gene silencing in Jatropha (Jatropha curcas L.).  

PubMed

Curcin, a type I ribosomal inhibiting protein-RIP, encoded by curcin precursor gene, is a phytotoxin present in Jatropha (Jatropha curcas L.). Here, we report designing of RNAi construct for the curcin precursor gene and further its genetic transformation of Jatropha to reduce its transcript expression. Curcin precursor gene was first cloned from Jatropha strain DARL-2 and part of the gene sequence was cloned in sense and antisense orientation separated by an intron sequence in plant expression binary vector pRI101 AN. The construction of the RNAi vector was confirmed by double digestion and nucleotide sequencing. The vector was then mobilized into Agrobacterium tumefaciens strain GV 3101 and used for tissue culture independent in planta transformation protocol optimized for Jatropha. Germinating seeds were injured with a needle before infection with Agrobacterium and then transferred to sterilized sand medium. The seedlings were grown for 90 days and genomic DNA was isolated from leaves for transgenic confirmation based on real time PCR with NPT II specific dual labeled probe. Result of the transgenic confirmation analysis revealed presence of the gene silencing construct in ten out of 30 tested seedlings. Further, quantitative transcript expression analysis of the curcin precursor gene revealed reduction in the transcript abundance by more than 98% to undetectable level. The transgenic plants are being grown in containment for further studies on reduction in curcin protein content in Jatropha seeds. PMID:24574003

Patade, Vikas Yadav; Khatri, Deepti; Kumar, Kamal; Grover, Atul; Kumari, Maya; Gupta, Sanjay Mohan; Kumar, Devender; Nasim, Mohammed

2014-07-01

212

Virus-induced gene silencing unravels multiple transcription factors involved in floral growth and development in Phalaenopsis orchids  

PubMed Central

Orchidaceae, one of the largest angiosperm families, has significant commercial value. Isolation of genes involved in orchid floral development and morphogenesis, scent production, and colouration will advance knowledge of orchid flower formation and facilitate breeding new varieties to increase the commercial value. With high-throughput virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS), this study identified five transcription factors involved in various aspects of flower morphogenesis in the orchid Phalaenopsis equestris. These genes are PeMADS1, PeMADS7, PeHB, PebHLH, and PeZIP. Silencing PeMADS1 and PebHLH resulted in reduced flower size together with a pelaloid column containing petal-like epidermal cells and alterations of epidermal cell arrangement in lip lateral lobes, respectively. Silencing PeMADS7, PeHB, and PeZIP alone resulted in abortion of the first three fully developed flower buds of an inflorescence, which indicates the roles of the genes in late flower development. Furthermore, double silencing PeMADS1 and PeMADS6, C- and B-class MADS-box genes, respectively, produced a combinatorial phenotype with two genes cloned in separate vectors. Both PeMADS1 and PeMADS6 are required to ensure the normal development of the lip and column as well as the cuticle formation on the floral epidermal cell surface. Thus, VIGS allows for unravelling the interaction between two classes of MADS transcription factors for dictating orchid floral morphogenesis. PMID:23956416

Chen, Hong-Hwa

2013-01-01

213

Virus-induced gene silencing unravels multiple transcription factors involved in floral growth and development in Phalaenopsis orchids.  

PubMed

Orchidaceae, one of the largest angiosperm families, has significant commercial value. Isolation of genes involved in orchid floral development and morphogenesis, scent production, and colouration will advance knowledge of orchid flower formation and facilitate breeding new varieties to increase the commercial value. With high-throughput virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS), this study identified five transcription factors involved in various aspects of flower morphogenesis in the orchid Phalaenopsis equestris. These genes are PeMADS1, PeMADS7, PeHB, PebHLH, and PeZIP. Silencing PeMADS1 and PebHLH resulted in reduced flower size together with a pelaloid column containing petal-like epidermal cells and alterations of epidermal cell arrangement in lip lateral lobes, respectively. Silencing PeMADS7, PeHB, and PeZIP alone resulted in abortion of the first three fully developed flower buds of an inflorescence, which indicates the roles of the genes in late flower development. Furthermore, double silencing PeMADS1 and PeMADS6, C- and B-class MADS-box genes, respectively, produced a combinatorial phenotype with two genes cloned in separate vectors. Both PeMADS1 and PeMADS6 are required to ensure the normal development of the lip and column as well as the cuticle formation on the floral epidermal cell surface. Thus, VIGS allows for unravelling the interaction between two classes of MADS transcription factors for dictating orchid floral morphogenesis. PMID:23956416

Hsieh, Ming-Hsien; Pan, Zhao-Jun; Lai, Pei-Han; Lu, Hsiang-Chia; Yeh, Hsin-Hung; Hsu, Chia-Chi; Wu, Wan-Lin; Chung, Mei-Chu; Wang, Shyh-Shyan; Chen, Wen-Huei; Chen, Hong-Hwa

2013-09-01

214

RNAi-mediated silencing of fungal acuD gene attenuates the virulence of Penicillium marneffei.  

PubMed

A number of pathogens, most of them intracellular, employ the glyoxylate cycle in order to ingest fatty acids as carbon sources as a way of coping with nutrient deprivation during the infection process. Isocitrate lyase, which is encoded by the pathogen's acuD gene, plays a pivotal role in the glyoxylate cycle, which has been implicated in fungal pathogenesis. In this study, the acuD gene of Penicillium marneffei was knocked down using siRNA expressed by a filamentous fungi expression system. The acuD siRNA reduced the acuD gene's mRNA and protein expression by 21.5 fold and 3.5 fold, respectively. When macrophages were infected with different transformants of P. marneffei, the knockdown of acuD expression with RNA interference was lethal to the pathogens. In addition, the secretion of tumor necrosis factor-alpha and interferon-gamma from the infected macrophages was reduced. Moreover, the RNAi-mediated silencing of acuD expression reduced the fungal burden in the nude mice infected with P. marneffei; inhibited the inflammatory response in the lungs, livers, and spleens during the chronic phase instead of the acute phase of infection; and thus prolonged survival of the infected animals. Collectively, our data indicate that the RNAi-mediated silencing of acuD expression could attenuate virulence of P. marneffei. The endogenous expression of the delivered siRNA vector could be used to evaluate the role of functional genes by continuous and stable expression of siRNA. PMID:24577002

Sun, Jiufeng; Li, Xiqing; Feng, Peiying; Zhang, Junmin; Xie, Zhi; Song, Erwei; Xi, Liyan

2014-02-01

215

De Novo Transcriptome Sequence Assembly and Analysis of RNA Silencing Genes of Nicotiana benthamiana  

PubMed Central

Background Nicotiana benthamiana has been widely used for transient gene expression assays and as a model plant in the study of plant-microbe interactions, lipid engineering and RNA silencing pathways. Assembling the sequence of its transcriptome provides information that, in conjunction with the genome sequence, will facilitate gaining insight into the plant’s capacity for high-level transient transgene expression, generation of mobile gene silencing signals, and hyper-susceptibility to viral infection. Methodology/Results RNA-seq libraries from 9 different tissues were deep sequenced and assembled, de novo, into a representation of the transcriptome. The assembly, of16GB of sequence, yielded 237,340 contigs, clustering into 119,014 transcripts (unigenes). Between 80 and 85% of reads from all tissues could be mapped back to the full transcriptome. Approximately 63% of the unigenes exhibited a match to the Solgenomics tomato predicted proteins database. Approximately 94% of the Solgenomics N. benthamiana unigene set (16,024 sequences) matched our unigene set (119,014 sequences). Using homology searches we identified 31 homologues that are involved in RNAi-associated pathways in Arabidopsis thaliana, and show that they possess the domains characteristic of these proteins. Of these genes, the RNA dependent RNA polymerase gene, Rdr1, is transcribed but has a 72 nt insertion in exon1 that would cause premature termination of translation. Dicer-like 3 (DCL3) appears to lack both the DEAD helicase motif and second dsRNA binding motif, and DCL2 and AGO4b have unexpectedly high levels of transcription. Conclusions The assembled and annotated representation of the transcriptome and list of RNAi-associated sequences are accessible at www.benthgenome.com alongside a draft genome assembly. These genomic resources will be very useful for further study of the developmental, metabolic and defense pathways of N. benthamiana and in understanding the mechanisms behind the features which have made it such a well-used model plant. PMID:23555698

Nakasugi, Kenlee; Crowhurst, Ross N.; Bally, Julia; Wood, Craig C.; Hellens, Roger P.; Waterhouse, Peter M.

2013-01-01

216

Gene silencing of SLC5A8 identified by genome-wide methylation profiling in lung cancer  

PubMed Central

Background Aberrant DNA hypermethylation has been implicated as a component of an epigenetic mechanism that silences genes in cancers. Methods We performed a genome-wide search to identify differentially methylated loci between 26 tumor and adjacent non-tumor paired tissues from same lung cancer patients using restriction landmark genomic scanning (RLGS) analysis. Among 229 loci which were hypermethylated in lung tumors as compared to adjacent non-tumor tissues, solute carrier family 5, member 8 (SLC5A8) was one of the hypermethylated genes, and known as a tumor suppressor gene which is silenced by epigenetic changes in various tumors. We investigated the significance of DNA methylation in SLC5A8 expression in lung cancer cell lines, and 23 paired tumor and adjacent non-tumor lung tissues by reverse transcription-PCR (RT-PCR), quantitative methylation specific PCR (QMSP) and bisulfite modified DNA sequencing analyses. Results Reduced or lost expression of SLC5A8 was observed in 39.1% (9/23) of the tumor tissues as compared with paired adjacent non-tumor tissues. Bisulfite sequencing results of lung cancer cell lines and tissues which did not express SLC5A8 showed a densely methylated promoter region of SLC5A8. SLC5A8 was reactivated by treatment with DNA methyltransferase inhibitor, 5-Aza and/or HDAC inhibitor, trichostatin A (TSA) in lung cancer cell lines, which did not express SLC5A8. Hypermethylation was detected at the promoter region of SLC5A8 in primary lung tumor tissues as compared with adjacent non-tumor tissues (14/23, 60.9%). Conclusion These results suggest that DNA methylation in the SLC5A8 promoter region may suppress the expression of SLC5A8 in lung tumor. PMID:23273563

Park, Jong Y.; Kim, Donghwa; Yang, Mihi; Park, Hyun Y.; Lee, Sang Haak; Rincon, Maria; Kreahling, Jenny; Plass, Christoph; Smiraglia, Dominic J.; Tockman, Melvyn S.; Kim, Seung Joon

2013-01-01

217

Integrated Analysis of Dysregulated miRNA-gene Expression in HMGA2-silenced Retinoblastoma Cells  

PubMed Central

Retinoblastoma (RB) is a primary childhood eye cancer. HMGA2 shows promise as a molecule for targeted therapy. The involvement of miRNAs in genome-level molecular dys-regulation in HMGA2-silenced RB cells is poorly understood. Through miRNA expression microarray profiling, and an integrated array analysis of the HMGA2-silenced RB cells, the dysregulated miRNAs and the miRNA-target relationships were modelled. Loop network analysis revealed a regulatory association between the transcription factor (SOX5) and the deregulated miRNAs (miR-29a, miR-9*, miR-9-3). Silencing of HMGA2 deregulated the vital oncomirs (miR-7, miR-331, miR-26a, miR-221, miR-17~92 and miR-106b?25) in RB cells. From this list, the role of the miR-106b?25 cluster was examined further for its expression in primary RB tumor tissues (n = 20). The regulatory targets of miR-106b?25 cluster namely p21 (cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor) and BIM (pro-apoptotic gene) were elevated, and apoptotic cell death was observed, in RB tumor cells treated with the specific antagomirs of the miR-106b?25 cluster. Thus, suppression of miR-106b?25 cluster controls RB tumor growth. Taken together, HMGA2 mediated anti-tumor effect present in RB is, in part, mediated through the miR-106b?25 cluster. PMID:25232279

Venkatesan, Nalini; Deepa, PR; Vasudevan, Madavan; Khetan, Vikas; Reddy, Ashwin M; Krishnakumar, Subramanian

2014-01-01

218

RNA-directed transcriptional gene silencing in plants can be inherited independently of the RNA trigger and requires Met1 for maintenance  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: The association between DNA methylation and gene silencing has long been recognized; however, signals that initiate de novo methylation are largely unknown. In plants, recognition of RNAs that are inducers of posttranscriptional gene silencing (PTGS) can result in sequence-specific DNA methylation, and the aim of this work was to investigate whether heritable epigenetic changes can occur by this mechanism

Louise Jones; Frank Ratcliff; David C Baulcombe

2001-01-01

219

Silencing of Cited2 and Akap12 genes in radiation-induced rat osteosarcomas.  

PubMed

We have previously studied genomic copy number changes and global gene expression patterns in rat osteosarcomas (OS) induced by the bone-seeking alpha emitter (238)Pu by comparative genomic hybridization (CGH) and oligonucleotide microarray analyses, respectively. Among the previously identified genes that were down-regulated in radiation-induced rat OS tumors, Cited2 (Cbp/p300-interacting transactivator, with Glu/Asp-rich carboxy-terminal domain, 2) and Akap12 (a kinase anchoring protein, also known as src-suppressed C-kinase substrate, SSeCKS) genes mapped to the most frequently lost regions on chromosome 1p. In the present study, relative copy number losses of Cited2 and Akap12 genes were observed in 8 of 15 (53%) and 10 of 15 (67%) tumors by quantitative PCR analysis. Loss of Cited2 and Akap12 in the tumors was confirmed at the levels of mRNA and protein expression by quantitative RT-PCR and immunoblot analyses, respectively. These results indicate that Cited2 and Akap12 are silenced in radiation-induced OS, and therefore are novel candidate tumor-suppressor genes of this tumor. PMID:19825367

Daino, Kazuhiro; Roch-Lefevre, Sandrine; Ugolin, Nicolas; Altmeyer-Morel, Sandrine; Guilly, Marie-Noëlle; Chevillard, Sylvie

2009-12-18

220

hpRNA-Mediated Targeting of the Arabidopsis FAD2 Gene Gives Highly Efficient and Stable Silencing  

PubMed Central

The endogenous ?12-desaturase gene (FAD2) in Arabidopsis was targeted for silencing using seed-specific cosuppression (CS), hairpin (HP) RNA (hpRNA), and intron-spliced HP (iHP) constructs. The iHP construct, incorporating the 120-bp 3?-untranslated region of the FAD2 gene, gave the highest degree of silencing. In some iHP lines ?12-desaturase activity was reduced to levels as low as those in the null fad2-1 mutant, and every primary transformant showed a pronounced reduction in FAD2 activity. One highly silenced iHP line was propagated for five generations and showed no reversion or diminution in its degree of silencing. About 75% of plants transformed with the HP construct, targeting the FAD2 coding region, gave dramatically reduced ?12-desaturase activity, whereas approximately 50% of plants transformed with the CS construct, containing the same coding region sequence, showed silencing at a much less profound level. In all three types of constructs, the degree of silencing was increased when the transgenes were homozygous, but this was much more pronounced for the CS constructs. All three types of construct could give a single locus that was capable of effective silencing, but in the one such CS line where this was the case, the locus had a complex insertion pattern. This is consistent with the concept that posttranscriptional gene silencing is induced by double-stranded, or self-complementary, RNA that is formed in cases of CS by complex insertion patterns at a single locus and that the most effective way of generating profoundly silenced plants is by the use of constructs that encode hpRNAs. Furthermore, these results demonstrate for the first time, to our knowledge, that iHP constructs targeted against an endogenous seed-expressed gene are clearly able to generate phenotypic changes that are inherited stably over several generations, making this approach a reliable technique for genetic modification of seed quality and possibly other traits in agricultural plants. PMID:12177485

Stoutjesdijk, Peter A.; Singh, Surinder P.; Liu, Qing; Hurlstone, Clive J.; Waterhouse, Peter A.; Green, Allan G.

2002-01-01

221

Transcriptional gene silencing of HIV-1 through promoter targeted RNA is highly specific  

PubMed Central

We have previously reported induction of transcriptional gene silencing (TGS) of HIV-1 by short hairpin RNA (shRNA) expressed in MOLT-4 cells. The shRNA (termed shPromA) targets the highly conserved tandem NF?B binding sequences of the HIV-1 promoter. Recent articles have reported that TGS mediated by promoter-targeted siRNAs was exclusively the result of sequence non-specific off-target effects. Specifically, several mismatched siRNAs to the target promoter sequences were reported to also induce significant TGS, suggesting TGS was a consequence of off-target effects. Here, following extensive investigation, we report that shPromA induces sequence specific transcriptional silencing in HIV-1 infection in MOLT-4 cells, while four shRNA variants, mismatched by 2–3 nucleotides, fail to suppress viral replication. We confirm similar levels of shRNA expression from the U6 promoter and the presence of processed/cleaved siRNAs for each construct in transduced MOLT-4 cells. HIV-1 sequence specific shPromA does not suppress HIV-2, which has an alternate NF?B binding sequence. As a result of the unique sequence targeted, shPromA does not induce downregulation of other NF?B driven genes, either at the mRNA or protein level. Furthermore, we confirmed shPromA does not have sequence non-specific off-target effects through unaltered expression of CD4, CXCR4 and CCR5, which are used for viral entry. Additionally, shPromA does not alter PKR, IFN levels, and three downstream mediators of IFN? response genes. Our data clearly shows that shPromA achieved highly specific TGS of HIV-1, demonstrating that effective TGS can be induced with minimal off-target effects. PMID:21955498

Ishida, Takaomi; Yamagishi, Makoto; Ahlenstiel, Chantelle; Swaminathan, Sanjay; Marks, Katharine; Murray, Daniel; McCartney, Erin M; Beard, Michael R; Alexander, Marina; Purcell, Damian FJ; Cooper, David A; Watanabe, Toshiki; Kelleher, Anthony D

2011-01-01

222

Hypoxia Potentiates MicroRNA-Mediated Gene Silencing through Posttranslational Modification of Argonaute2 ?  

PubMed Central

Hypoxia contributes to the pathogenesis of various human diseases, including pulmonary artery hypertension (PAH), stroke, myocardial or cerebral infarction, and cancer. For example, acute hypoxia causes selective pulmonary artery (PA) constriction and elevation of pulmonary artery pressure. Chronic hypoxia induces structural and functional changes to the pulmonary vasculature, which resembles the phenotype of human PAH and is commonly used as an animal model of this disease. The mechanisms that lead to hypoxia-induced phenotypic changes have not been fully elucidated. Here, we show that hypoxia increases type I collagen prolyl-4-hydroxylase [C-P4H(I)], which leads to prolyl-hydroxylation and accumulation of Argonaute2 (Ago2), a critical component of the RNA-induced silencing complex (RISC). Hydroxylation of Ago2 is required for the association of Ago2 with heat shock protein 90 (Hsp90), which is necessary for the loading of microRNAs (miRNAs) into the RISC, and translocation to stress granules (SGs). We demonstrate that hydroxylation of Ago2 increases the level of miRNAs and increases the endonuclease activity of Ago2. In summary, this study identifies hypoxia as a mediator of the miRNA-dependent gene silencing pathway through posttranslational modification of Ago2, which might be responsible for cell survival or pathological responses under low oxygen stress. PMID:21969601

Wu, Connie; So, Jessica; Davis-Dusenbery, Brandi N.; Qi, Hank H.; Bloch, Donald B.; Shi, Yang; Lagna, Giorgio; Hata, Akiko

2011-01-01

223

Post-transcriptional gene silencing by RNA interference in non-mammalian vertebrate systems: where do we stand?  

PubMed

RNA interference (RNAi), the process by which double stranded RNA induces the silencing of endogenous genes through the degradation of its correspondent messenger RNA, has been used for post-transcriptional gene silencing allowing scientists to better understand gene function, becoming a powerful tool in reverse genetics for in vivo and in vitro systems. Successful results in vivo have been obtained from invertebrate animal models, whereas vertebrate systems have been limited primarily to mammalian models and cell lines. Nevertheless, exciting results have also been reported from non-mammalian vertebrate models, such as the knock-down of endogenous genes in Xenopus tadpoles by a construct containing both a Xenopus-specific shRNA sequence and the human Ago2 (which is a key enzyme in the RNAi silencing complex), or the design of a novel vector expressing a miRNA driven by a tissue-specific promoter in zebrafish, and the use of an avian retroviral vector to deliver miRNA and shRNA in chicken embryos proving to be effective in knocking-down endogenous genes with a long lasting effect, to mention some examples. Whether dsRNA is able to initiate a specific RNAi response, or all the factors required for RNAi are present in non-mammalian vertebrates, are still questions which remain to be answered. Further progress in understanding natural RNAi mechanisms in non-mammalian vertebrates will help scientists to overcome difficulties and improve this gene silencing technology. There is no doubt that in few years RNAi silencing approaches will become the tool of choice to knock-down genes in all groups of non-mammalian vertebrates, fulfilling different purposes, from basic research to animal therapeutics and drug discovery. PMID:21930237

Sifuentes-Romero, Itzel; Milton, Sarah L; García-Gasca, Alejandra

2011-01-01

224

Effects of cyclooxygenase?2 gene silencing on the biological behavior of SKOV3 ovarian cancer cells.  

PubMed

The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of plasmid-mediated RNA interference targeting of cyclooxygenase?2 (COX?2) on the biological behaviors of SKOV3 human ovarian cancer cells and to analyze the function of COX?2 in carcinogenesis and development of ovarian cancer. A COX?2 small hairpin (sh)RNA sequence was designed and synthesized and pGPU6?COX?2?shRNA plasmids were constructed. The recombinant vector plasmids were stably transfected into SKOV3 cells. The mRNA and protein expression of COX?2 was subsequently analyzed by quantitative polymerase chain reaction and western blot analysis, respectively. MTT and colony formation assays were used to detect the cellular proliferation ability and flow cytometry was performed to detect phase changes in the cell cycle. Finally, a Transwell assay was used to detect cell invasion. The SKOV3 cells, transfected with recombinant vector plasmids, and control cells, were injected into nude mice and the tumor emergence time, volume and weight were measured. The impact of COX?2 gene silencing on the growth of xenograft tumors in nude mice was analyzed. Following transfection of the pGPU6?COX?2?shRNA plasmid, in vitro analyses indicated that the shRNA efficiently suppressed the mRNA and protein expression of COX?2. COX?2 gene silencing significantly inhibited the proliferation and invasion ability of SKOV3 cells, leading to cell cycle arrest in G1. The tumor formation time in the interference group was significantly prolonged, and the tumor volume and weight were significantly decreased, as compared with the control group. Plasmid?mediated shRNA was shown to effectively silence COX?2 expression in SKOV3 ovarian cancer cells. It was identified that COX?2 functioned in regulating proliferation, cell cycle and invasion of ovarian cancer cells. These findings provided a theoretical basis for determining the function of COX?2 in the development of ovarian cancer and suggested that COX?2 may be an effective target for gene therapy and clinical applications. PMID:25335121

Guo, Feng-Jun; Tian, Jing-Yan; Jin, Yue-Mei; Wang, Ling; Yang, Rui-Qi; Cui, Man-Hua

2015-01-01

225

Effects of cyclooxygenase-2 gene silencing on the biological behavior of SKOV3 ovarian cancer cells  

PubMed Central

The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of plasmid-mediated RNA interference targeting of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) on the biological behaviors of SKOV3 human ovarian cancer cells and to analyze the function of COX-2 in carcinogenesis and development of ovarian cancer. A COX-2 small hairpin (sh)RNA sequence was designed and synthesized and pGPU6-COX-2-shRNA plasmids were constructed. The recombinant vector plasmids were stably transfected into SKOV3 cells. The mRNA and protein expression of COX-2 was subsequently analyzed by quantitative polymerase chain reaction and western blot analysis, respectively. MTT and colony formation assays were used to detect the cellular proliferation ability and flow cytometry was performed to detect phase changes in the cell cycle. Finally, a Transwell assay was used to detect cell invasion. The SKOV3 cells, transfected with recombinant vector plasmids, and control cells, were injected into nude mice and the tumor emergence time, volume and weight were measured. The impact of COX-2 gene silencing on the growth of xenograft tumors in nude mice was analyzed. Following transfection of the pGPU6-COX-2-shRNA plasmid, in vitro analyses indicated that the shRNA efficiently suppressed the mRNA and protein expression of COX-2. COX-2 gene silencing significantly inhibited the proliferation and invasion ability of SKOV3 cells, leading to cell cycle arrest in G1. The tumor formation time in the interference group was significantly prolonged, and the tumor volume and weight were significantly decreased, as compared with the control group. Plasmid-mediated shRNA was shown to effectively silence COX-2 expression in SKOV3 ovarian cancer cells. It was identified that COX-2 functioned in regulating proliferation, cell cycle and invasion of ovarian cancer cells. These findings provided a theoretical basis for determining the function of COX-2 in the development of ovarian cancer and suggested that COX-2 may be an effective target for gene therapy and clinical applications. PMID:25335121

GUO, FENG-JUN; TIAN, JING-YAN; JIN, YUE-MEI; WANG, LING; YANG, RUI-QI; CUI, MAN-HUA

2015-01-01

226

RNA-Mediated Gene Silencing Signals Are Not Graft Transmissible from the Rootstock to the Scion in Greenhouse-Grown Apple Plants Malus sp  

PubMed Central

RNA silencing describes the sequence specific degradation of RNA targets. Silencing is a non-cell autonomous event that is graft transmissible in different plant species. The present study is the first report on systemic acquired dsRNA-mediated gene silencing of transgenic and endogenous gene sequences in a woody plant like apple. Transgenic apple plants overexpressing a hairpin gene construct of the gusA reporter gene were produced. These plants were used as rootstocks and grafted with scions of the gusA overexpressing transgenic apple clone T355. After grafting, we observed a reduction of the gusA gene expression in T355 scions in vitro, but not in T355 scions grown in the greenhouse. Similar results were obtained after silencing of the endogenous Mdans gene in apple that is responsible for anthocyanin biosynthesis. Subsequently, we performed grafting experiments with Mdans silenced rootstocks and red leaf scions of TNR31-35 in order to evaluate graft transmitted silencing of the endogenous Mdans. The results obtained suggested a graft transmission of silencing signals in in vitro shoots. In contrast, no graft transmission of dsRNA-mediated gene silencing signals was detectable in greenhouse-grown plants and in plants grown in an insect protection tent. PMID:22949844

Flachowsky, Henryk; Trankner, Conny; Szankowski, Iris; Waidmann, Sascha; Hanke, Magda-Viola; Treutter, Dieter; Fischer, Thilo C.

2012-01-01

227

Virus induced gene silencing of three putative prolyl 4-hydroxylases enhances plant growth in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum).  

PubMed

Proline hydroxylation is a major posttranslational modification of hydroxyproline-rich glycoproteins (HRGPs) that is catalyzed by prolyl 4-hydroxylases (P4Hs). HRGPs such as arabinogalactan proteins (AGPs) and extensios play significant roles on cell wall structure and function and their implication in cell division and expansion has been reported. We used tobacco rattle virus (TRV)-based virus induced gene silencing to investigate the role of three tomato P4Hs, out of ten present in the tomato genome, in growth and development. Eight-days old tomato seedlings were infected with the appropriate TRV vectors and plants were allowed to grow under standard conditions for 6 weeks. Lower P4H mRNA levels were associated with lower hydroxyproline content in root and shoot tissues indicating successful gene silencing. P4H-silenced plants had longer roots and shoots and larger leaves. The increased leaf area can be attributed to increased cell division as indicated by the higher leaf epidermal cell number in SlP4H1- and SlP4H9-silenced plants. In contrast, SlP4H7-silenced plants had larger leaves due to enhanced cell expansion. Western blot analysis revealed that silencing of SlP4H7 and SlP4H9 was associated with reduced levels of JIM8-bound AGP and JIM11-bound extensin epitopes, while silencing of SlP4H1 reduced only the levels of AGP proteins. Collectively these results show that P4Hs have significant and distinct roles in cell division and expansion of tomato leaves. PMID:24803411

Fragkostefanakis, Sotirios; Sedeek, Khalid E M; Raad, Maya; Zaki, Marwa Samir; Kalaitzis, Panagiotis

2014-07-01

228

Activation of Silenced Cytokine Gene Promoters by the Synergistic Effect of TBP-TALE and VP64-TALE Activators  

PubMed Central

Recent work has shown that the combinatorial use of multiple TALE activators can selectively activate certain cellular genes in inaccessible chromatin regions. In this study, we aimed to interrogate the activation potential of TALEs upon transcriptionally silenced immune genes in the context of non-immune cells. We designed a unique strategy, in which a single TALE fused to the TATA-box binding protein (TBP-TALE) is coupled with multiple VP64-TALE activators. We found that our strategy is significantly more potent than multiple TALE activators alone in activating expression of IL-2 and GM-CSF in diverse cell origins in which both genes are otherwise completely silenced. Chromatin analysis revealed that the gene activation was due in part to displacement of a distinctly positioned nucleosome. These studies provide a novel epigenetic mechanism for artificial gene induction and have important implications for targeted cancer immunotherapy, DNA vaccine development, as well as rational design of TALE activators. PMID:24755922

Anthony, Kim; More, Abhijit; Zhang, Xiaoliu

2014-01-01

229

Cholinergic and non-cholinergic functions of two acetylcholinesterase genes revealed by gene-silencing in Tribolium castaneum  

PubMed Central

We compared biological functions of two acetylcholinesterase genes (TcAce1 and TcAce2) in Tribolium castaneum, a globally distributed major pest of stored grain products and an emerging model organism, by using RNA interference. Although both genes expressed at all developmental stages and mainly in the brain, the transcript level of TcAce1 was 1.2- to 8.7-fold higher than that of TcAce2, depending on developmental stages. Silencing TcAce1 in 20-day larvae led to 100% mortality within two weeks after eclosion and increased larval susceptibilities to anticholinesterase insecticides. In contrast, silencing TcAce2 did not show insect mortality and significantly affect insecticide susceptibility, but delayed insect development and reduced female egg-laying and egg hatching. These results demonstrate for the first time that TcAce1 plays a major role in cholinergic functions and is the target of anticholinesterase insecticides, whereas TcAce2 plays an important, non-cholinergic role in female reproduction, embryo development, and growth of offspring. PMID:22371826

Lu, Yanhui; Park, Yoonseong; Gao, Xiwu; Zhang, Xin; Yao, Jianxiu; Pang, Yuan-Ping; Jiang, Haobo; Zhu, Kun Yan

2012-01-01

230

Silencing of galectin-3 changes the gene expression and augments the sensitivity of gastric cancer cells to chemotherapeutic agents.  

PubMed

Galectin-3 is known to modulate cell proliferation and apoptosis and is highly expressed in human cancers, but its function in gastric cancer is still controversial. Here, we examined the role of galectin-3 in gastric cancer cells by silencing it with synthetic double-stranded siRNA. After silencing of galectin-3, cell numbers decreased and cell shape changed. Galectin-3 siRNA treatment also induced G(1) arrest. DNA microarray analysis was used to assess changes in gene expression following galectin-3 silencing. We found that silencing of galectin-3 caused changes in gene expression. RT-PCR and real-time PCR were utilized for validation of the changes found in microarray studies. Western blot analysis confirmed changes in the expression of proteins of interest: cyclin D1, survivin, XIAP, XAF, PUMA, and GADD45alpha. Generally, it tended to increase the expression of several pro-apoptotic genes, and to decrease the expression of cell cycle progressive genes. We also confirmed that changes in the expression of these genes were caused by galectin-3 overexpression. Finally, we demonstrated that silencing of galectin-3 enhanced apoptosis induction with chemotherapeutic agents by further reducing the expression of anti-apoptotic and/or cell survival molecules such as survivin, cyclin D1, and XIAP, and increasing the expression of pro-apoptotic XAF-1. We conclude that galectin-3 is involved in cancer progression and malignancy by modulating the expression of several relevant genes, and inhibition of galectin-3 may be an approach to improve chemotherapy of gastric cancers. PMID:19843071

Cheong, Teak-Chin; Shin, Ji-Young; Chun, Kyung-Hee

2010-01-01

231

Comprehensive protein-based artificial microRNA screens for effective gene silencing in plants.  

PubMed

Artificial microRNA (amiRNA) approaches offer a powerful strategy for targeted gene manipulation in any plant species. However, the current unpredictability of amiRNA efficacy has limited broad application of this promising technology. To address this, we developed epitope-tagged protein-based amiRNA (ETPamir) screens, in which target mRNAs encoding epitope-tagged proteins were constitutively or inducibly coexpressed in protoplasts with amiRNA candidates targeting single or multiple genes. This design allowed parallel quantification of target proteins and mRNAs to define amiRNA efficacy and mechanism of action, circumventing unpredictable amiRNA expression/processing and antibody unavailability. Systematic evaluation of 63 amiRNAs in 79 ETPamir screens for 16 target genes revealed a simple, effective solution for selecting optimal amiRNAs from hundreds of computational predictions, reaching ?100% gene silencing in plant cells and null phenotypes in transgenic plants. Optimal amiRNAs predominantly mediated highly specific translational repression at 5' coding regions with limited mRNA decay or cleavage. Our screens were easily applied to diverse plant species, including Arabidopsis thaliana, tobacco (Nicotiana benthamiana), tomato (Solanum lycopersicum), sunflower (Helianthus annuus), Catharanthus roseus, maize (Zea mays) and rice (Oryza sativa), and effectively validated predicted natural miRNA targets. These screens could improve plant research and crop engineering by making amiRNA a more predictable and manageable genetic and functional genomic technology. PMID:23645631

Li, Jian-Feng; Chung, Hoo Sun; Niu, Yajie; Bush, Jenifer; McCormack, Matthew; Sheen, Jen

2013-05-01

232

Selection and validation of optimal siRNA target sites for RNAi-mediated gene silencing.  

PubMed

RNA interference (RNAi)-mediated gene silencing has become a valuable tool for functional studies, reverse genomics, and drug discoveries. One major challenge of using RNAi is to identify the most effective short interfering RNAs (siRNAs) sites of a given gene. Although several published bioinformatic prediction models have proven useful, the process to select and validate optimal siRNA sites for a given gene remains empirical and laborious. Here, we developed a fluorescence-based selection system using a retroviral vector backbone, namely pSOS, which was based on the premise that candidate siRNAs would knockdown the chimeric transcript between GFP and target gene. The expression of siRNA was driven by the opposing convergent H1 and U6 promoters. This configuration simplifies the cloning of duplex siRNA oligonucleotide cassettes. We demonstrated that GFP signal reduction was closely correlated with siRNA knockdown efficiency of human beta-catenin, as well as with the inhibition of beta-catenin/Tcf4 signaling activity. The pSOS should not only facilitate the selection and validation of candidate siRNA sites, but also provide efficient delivery tools of siRNAs via viral vectors in mammalian cells. Thus, the pSOS system represents an efficient and user-friendly strategy to select and validate siRNA target sites. PMID:17449199

Luo, Qing; Kang, Quan; Song, Wen-Xin; Luu, Hue H; Luo, Xiaoji; An, Naili; Luo, Jinyong; Deng, Zhong-Liang; Jiang, Wei; Yin, Hong; Chen, Jin; Sharff, Katie A; Tang, Ni; Bennett, Erwin; Haydon, Rex C; He, Tong-Chuan

2007-06-15

233

Cysteine Dioxygenase 1 Is a Tumor Suppressor Gene Silenced by Promoter Methylation in Multiple Human Cancers  

PubMed Central

The human cysteine dioxygenase 1 (CDO1) gene is a non-heme structured, iron-containing metalloenzyme involved in the conversion of cysteine to cysteine sulfinate, and plays a key role in taurine biosynthesis. In our search for novel methylated gene promoters, we have analyzed differential RNA expression profiles of colorectal cancer (CRC) cell lines with or without treatment of 5-aza-2?-deoxycytidine. Among the genes identified, the CDO1 promoter was found to be differentially methylated in primary CRC tissues with high frequency compared to normal colon tissues. In addition, a statistically significant difference in the frequency of CDO1 promoter methylation was observed between primary normal and tumor tissues derived from breast, esophagus, lung, bladder and stomach. Downregulation of CDO1 mRNA and protein levels were observed in cancer cell lines and tumors derived from these tissue types. Expression of CDO1 was tightly controlled by promoter methylation, suggesting that promoter methylation and silencing of CDO1 may be a common event in human carcinogenesis. Moreover, forced expression of full-length CDO1 in human cancer cells markedly decreased the tumor cell growth in an in vitro cell culture and/or an in vivo mouse model, whereas knockdown of CDO1 increased cell growth in culture. Our data implicate CDO1 as a novel tumor suppressor gene and a potentially valuable molecular marker for human cancer. PMID:23028699

Brait, Mariana; Ling, Shizhang; Nagpal, Jatin K.; Chang, Xiaofei; Park, Hannah Lui; Lee, Juna; Okamura, Jun; Yamashita, Keishi; Sidransky, David; Kim, Myoung Sook

2012-01-01

234

Multifunctional quantum-dot-based siRNA delivery for HPV18 E6 gene silence and intracellular imaging.  

PubMed

The functional quantum dots (QDs) were specifically designed to overcome barriers in siRNA delivery such as siRNA protection, cellular penetration, endosomal release, carrier unpacking, intracellular transport and gene silencing. In this paper, two l-arginine-functional-modi?ed CdSe/ZnSe QDs were synthesized as siRNA carriers to silence HPV18 E6 gene in HeLa cells. Using such constructs, these QDs showed significantly low cellular cytotoxicity and good siRNA protection. Flow cytometric and confocal microscopic analyses confirmed that the QDs delivered siRNA into HeLa cells efficiently. Importantly, superior gene silencing efficiency was achieved as evaluated by Reverse Transcription-PCR (RT-PCR) and Western blotting and HeLa cells growth was inhibited in xCELLigence installation analysis and MTT assay when treated with QD-siRNA complexes. Interestingly, the QDs coated with ?-CD-l-Arg showed optimized property compared with those coated with l-Arg. Furthermore, these QDs complexes could also be used as nanocrystal probing agents, allowing real-time tracking and localization of QDs during delivery and transfection. The properties and capabilities of these QDs showed that amino acid-modi?ed QDs could be used as useful siRNA carriers to effectively silence a target gene as well as fluorescence probes to analyze intracellular imaging in vivo. PMID:21784514

Li, Jin-Ming; Zhao, Mei-Xia; Su, Hua; Wang, Yuan-Yuan; Tan, Cai-Ping; Ji, Liang-Nian; Mao, Zong-Wan

2011-11-01

235

Erasure of histone acetylation by Arabidopsis HDA6 mediates large-scale gene silencing in nucleolar dominance  

PubMed Central

Nucleolar dominance describes the silencing of one parental set of ribosomal RNA (rRNA) genes in a genetic hybrid, an epigenetic phenomenon that occurs on a scale second only to X-chromosome inactivation in mammals. An RNA interference (RNAi) knockdown screen revealed that the predicted Arabidopsis histone deacetylase, HDA6, is required for rRNA gene silencing in nucleolar dominance. In vivo, derepression of silenced rRNA genes upon knockdown of HDA6 is accompanied by nucleolus organizer region (NOR) decondensation, loss of promoter cytosine methylation, and replacement of histone H3 Lys 9 (H3K9) dimethylation with H3K4 trimethylation, H3K9 acetylation, H3K14 acetylation, and histone H4 tetra-acetylation. Consistent with these in vivo results, purified HDA6 deacetylates lysines modified by histone acetyltransferases whose substrates include H3K14, H4K5, and H4K12. HDA6 localizes, in part, to the nucleolus, supporting a model whereby HDA6 erases histone acetylation as a key step in an epigenetic switch mechanism that silences rRNA genes through concerted histone and DNA modifications. PMID:16648464

Earley, Keith; Lawrence, Richard J.; Pontes, Olga; Reuther, Rachel; Enciso, Angel J.; Silva, Manuela; Neves, Nuno; Gross, Michael; Viegas, Wanda; Pikaard, Craig S.

2006-01-01

236

INTRODUCTION: Plant virus-based vectors carrying sequences homologous to endogenous genes trigger silencing through a homology-dependent RNA  

E-print Network

other approaches, such as T-DNA or transposon tagging, include the circumvention of plant transformation fluorescent pigment (GFP) and phytoene desaturase (PDS) as markers. VIGS (Virus-Induced Gene Silencing) Works. Inoculations were done at two leaf stage and boot stage. Fig.4. GFP expression in root tissue Control 7 Days

Gill, Kulvinder

237

Elucidation of the Mechanism of Gene Silencing using Small Interferin RNA: DNA Hybrid Molecules  

SciTech Connect

The recent discovery that short hybrid RNA:DNA molecules (siHybrids) induce long-term silencing of gene expression in mammalian cells conflicts with the currently hypothesized mechanisms explaining the action of small, interfering RNA (siRNA). As a first step to elucidating the mechanism for this effect, we set out to quantify the delivery of siHybrids and determine their cellular localization in mammalian cells. We then tracked the segregation of the siHybrids into daughter cells after cell division. Markers for siHybrid delivery were shown to enter cells with and without the use of a transfection agent. Furthermore, delivery without transfection agent only occurred after a delay of 2-4 hours, suggesting a degradation process occurring in the cell culture media. Therefore, we studied the effects of nucleases and backbone modifications on the stability of siHybrids under cell culture conditions.

Dugan, L

2006-02-08

238

Illuminating the gateway of gene silencing: perspective of RNA interference technology in clinical therapeutics.  

PubMed

A novel laboratory revolution for disease therapy, the RNA interference (RNAi) technology, has adopted a new era of molecular research as the next generation "Gene-targeted prophylaxis." In this review, we have focused on the chief technological challenges associated with the efforts to develop RNAi-based therapeutics that may guide the biomedical researchers. Many non-curable maladies, like neurodegenerative diseases and cancers have effectively been cured using this technology. Rapid advances are still in progress for the development of RNAi-based technologies that will be having a major impact on medical research. We have highlighted the recent discoveries associated with the phenomenon of RNAi, expression of silencing molecules in mammals along with the vector systems used for disease therapeutics. PMID:21947958

Sindhu, Annu; Arora, Pooja; Chaudhury, Ashok

2012-07-01

239

Reactivation of the Silenced Thyroid Hormone Receptor ? Gene Expression Delays Thyroid Tumor Progression  

PubMed Central

That a knock-in mouse harboring a dominant-negative thyroid hormone receptor (TR)-? (Thrb) mutation develops metastatic thyroid cancer strongly suggests the involvement of TR? in carcinogenesis. Epigenetic silencing of the THRB gene is common in human cancers. The aim of the present study was to determine how DNA methylation affected the expression of the THRB gene in differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC) and how reexpression of the THRB gene attenuated the cancer phenotypes. We used methylation-specific PCR to examine the expression and promoter methylation of the THRB gene in DTC tissues. Thyroid cancer cells with hypermethylated THRB were treated with the demethylating agents 5?-aza-2?-deoxycytidine (5?-aza-CdR) and zebularine to evaluate their impact on the cancer cell phenotypes. THRB mRNA expression in DTC was 90% lower than in normal controls, and this decrease was associated with a higher tumor/lymph node staging. The promoter methylation level of the THRB gene had a significant negative correlation with the expression level of the THRB gene. Treatment of FTC-236 cells with 5?-aza-CdR or zebularine induced reexpression of the THRB gene and inhibited cell proliferation and migration. FTC-236 cells stably expressing TR? exhibited lower cell proliferation and migration through inhibition of ?-catenin signaling pathways compared with FTC-236 without TR?. 5?-Aza-CdR also led to suppression of tumor growth in an in vivo xenograft model using FTC-236 cells consistent with the cell-based studies. These finding indicate that TR? is a tumor suppressor and could be tested as a potential therapeutic target. PMID:23183175

Kim, Won Gu; Zhu, Xuguang; Kim, Dong Wook; Zhang, Lisa; Kebebew, Electron

2013-01-01

240

Distinctive profiles of small RNA couple inverted repeat-induced post-transcriptional gene silencing with endogenous RNA silencing pathways in Arabidopsis  

PubMed Central

The experimental induction of RNA silencing in plants often involves expression of transgenes encoding inverted repeat (IR) sequences to produce abundant dsRNAs that are processed into small RNAs (sRNAs). These sRNAs are key mediators of post-transcriptional gene silencing (PTGS) and determine its specificity. Despite its application in agriculture and broad utility in plant research, the mechanism of IR-PTGS is incompletely understood. We generated four sets of 60 Arabidopsis plants, each containing IR transgenes expressing different configurations of uidA and CHALCONE SYNTHASE (At-CHS) gene fragments. Levels of PTGS were found to depend on the orientation and position of the fragment in the IR construct. Deep sequencing and mapping of sRNAs to corresponding transgene-derived and endogenous transcripts identified distinctive patterns of differential sRNA accumulation that revealed similarities among sRNAs associated with IR-PTGS and endogenous sRNAs linked to uncapped mRNA decay. Detailed analyses of poly-A cleavage products from At-CHS mRNA confirmed this hypothesis. We also found unexpected associations between sRNA accumulation and the presence of predicted open reading frames in the trigger sequence. In addition, strong IR-PTGS affected the prevalence of endogenous sRNAs, which has implications for the use of PTGS for experimental or applied purposes. PMID:25344399

Matvienko, Marta; Piskurewicz, Urszula; Xu, Huaqin; Martineau, Belinda; Wong, Joan; Govindarajulu, Manjula; Kozik, Alexander; Michelmore, Richard W.

2014-01-01

241

Distinctive profiles of small RNA couple inverted repeat-induced post-transcriptional gene silencing with endogenous RNA silencing pathways in Arabidopsis.  

PubMed

The experimental induction of RNA silencing in plants often involves expression of transgenes encoding inverted repeat (IR) sequences to produce abundant dsRNAs that are processed into small RNAs (sRNAs). These sRNAs are key mediators of post-transcriptional gene silencing (PTGS) and determine its specificity. Despite its application in agriculture and broad utility in plant research, the mechanism of IR-PTGS is incompletely understood. We generated four sets of 60 Arabidopsis plants, each containing IR transgenes expressing different configurations of uidA and CHALCONE SYNTHASE (At-CHS) gene fragments. Levels of PTGS were found to depend on the orientation and position of the fragment in the IR construct. Deep sequencing and mapping of sRNAs to corresponding transgene-derived and endogenous transcripts identified distinctive patterns of differential sRNA accumulation that revealed similarities among sRNAs associated with IR-PTGS and endogenous sRNAs linked to uncapped mRNA decay. Detailed analyses of poly-A cleavage products from At-CHS mRNA confirmed this hypothesis. We also found unexpected associations between sRNA accumulation and the presence of predicted open reading frames in the trigger sequence. In addition, strong IR-PTGS affected the prevalence of endogenous sRNAs, which has implications for the use of PTGS for experimental or applied purposes. PMID:25344399

Wroblewski, Tadeusz; Matvienko, Marta; Piskurewicz, Urszula; Xu, Huaqin; Martineau, Belinda; Wong, Joan; Govindarajulu, Manjula; Kozik, Alexander; Michelmore, Richard W

2014-12-01

242

Muscle cell atrophy induced by HSP gene silencing was counteracted by HSP overexpression  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Heat shock proteins (HSP), as molecular chaperones, are known to assist protein quality control under various stresses. Although overexpression of HSP70 was found to contribute to muscle size retention under an unloading condition, it remains largely unclarified whether muscle atrophy is induced by active suppression of HSP expression. In this study, we pre-treated Hsp70 siRNA to rat L6 cells for the HSP gene silencing, and determined myotube diameter, HSP72 expression and anabolic and catabolic signaling activities in the absence or presence of triterpene celastrol (CEL), the HSP70 inducer. Relative to a negative control (NC), muscle cell diameter was reduced 0.89-fold in the siRNA-treated group, increased 1.2-fold in the CEL-treated group and retained at the size of NC in the siRNA+CEL group. HSP72 expression was decreased 0.35-fold by siRNA whereas the level was increased 6- to 8-fold in the CEL and siRNA+CEL groups. Expression of FoxO3 and atrogin-1 was increased 1.8- to 4.8-fold by siRNA, which was abolished by CEL treatment. Finally, phosphorylation of Akt1, S6K and ERK1/2 was not affected by siRNA, but was elevated 2- to 6-fold in the CEL and siRNA+CEL groups. Taken together, HSP downregulation by Hsp gene silencing led to muscle cell atrophy principally via increases in catabolic activities and that such anti-atrophic effect was counteracted by HSP overexpression.

Choi, Inho; Lee, Joo-Hee; Nikawa, Takeshi; Gwag, Taesik; Park, Kyoungsook; Park, Junsoo

243

Characterization of the LOV1-mediated, victorin-induced, cell-death response with virus-induced gene silencing.  

PubMed

Victoria blight, caused by Cochliobolus victoriae, is a disease originally described on oat and recapitulated on Arabidopsis. C. victoriae pathogenesis depends upon production of the toxin victorin. In oat, victorin sensitivity is conferred by the Vb gene, which is genetically inseparable from the Pc2 resistance gene. Concurrently, in Arabidopsis, sensitivity is conferred by the LOCUS ORCHESTRATING VICTORIN EFFECTS1 (LOV1) gene. LOV1 encodes a nucleotide-binding site leucine-rich repeat protein, a type of protein commonly associated with disease resistance, and LOV1 "guards" the defense thioredoxin, TRX-h5. Expression of LOV1 and TRX-h5 in Nicotiana benthamiana is sufficient to confer victorin sensitivity. Virus-induced gene silencing was used to characterize victorin-induced cell death in N. benthamiana. We determined that SGT1 is required for sensitivity and involved in LOV1 protein accumulation. We screened a normalized cDNA library and identified six genes that, when silenced, suppressed LOV1-mediated, victorin-induced cell death and cell death induced by expression of the closely related RPP8 resistance gene: a mitochondrial phosphate transporter, glycolate oxidase, glutamine synthetase, glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase, and the P- and T-protein of the glycine decarboxylase complex. Silencing the latter four also inhibited cell death and disease resistance mediated by the PTO resistance gene. Together, these results provide evidence that the victorin response mediated by LOV1 is a defense response. PMID:23634836

Gilbert, Brian M; Wolpert, Thomas J

2013-08-01

244

Induction and maintenance of DNA methylation in plant promoter sequences by apple latent spherical virus-induced transcriptional gene silencing  

PubMed Central

Apple latent spherical virus (ALSV) is an efficient virus-induced gene silencing vector in functional genomics analyses of a broad range of plant species. Here, an Agrobacterium-mediated inoculation (agroinoculation) system was developed for the ALSV vector, and virus-induced transcriptional gene silencing (VITGS) is described in plants infected with the ALSV vector. The cDNAs of ALSV RNA1 and RNA2 were inserted between the cauliflower mosaic virus 35S promoter and the NOS-T sequences in a binary vector pCAMBIA1300 to produce pCALSR1 and pCALSR2-XSB or pCALSR2-XSB/MN. When these vector constructs were agroinoculated into Nicotiana benthamiana plants with a construct expressing a viral silencing suppressor, the infection efficiency of the vectors was 100%. A recombinant ALSV vector carrying part of the 35S promoter sequence induced transcriptional gene silencing of the green fluorescent protein gene in a line of N. benthamiana plants, resulting in the disappearance of green fluorescence of infected plants. Bisulfite sequencing showed that cytosine residues at CG and CHG sites of the 35S promoter sequence were highly methylated in the silenced generation zero plants infected with the ALSV carrying the promoter sequence as well as in progeny. The ALSV-mediated VITGS state was inherited by progeny for multiple generations. In addition, induction of VITGS of an endogenous gene (chalcone synthase-A) was demonstrated in petunia plants infected with an ALSV vector carrying the native promoter sequence. These results suggest that ALSV-based vectors can be applied to study DNA methylation in plant genomes, and provide a useful tool for plant breeding via epigenetic modification.

Kon, Tatsuya; Yoshikawa, Nobuyuki

2014-01-01

245

Gene silencing in the spider mite Tetranychus urticae : dsRNA and siRNA parental silencing of the Distal-less gene  

Microsoft Academic Search

A major prerequisite to understanding the evolution of developmental programs includes an appreciation of gene function in\\u000a a comparative context. RNA interference (RNAi) represents a powerful method for reverse genetics analysis of gene function.\\u000a However, RNAi protocols exist for only a handful of arthropod species. To extend functional analysis in basal arthropods,\\u000a we developed a RNAi protocol for the two-spotted

Abderrahman Khila; Miodrag Grbi?

2007-01-01

246

The NuRD complex cooperates with DNMTs to maintain silencing of key colorectal tumor suppressor genes.  

PubMed

Many tumor suppressor genes (TSGs) are silenced through synergistic layers of epigenetic regulation including abnormal DNA hypermethylation of promoter CpG islands, repressive chromatin modifications and enhanced nucleosome deposition over transcription start sites. The protein complexes responsible for silencing of many of such TSGs remain to be identified. Our previous work demonstrated that multiple silenced TSGs in colorectal cancer cells can be partially reactivated by DNA demethylation in cells disrupted for the DNA methyltransferases 1 and 3B (DNMT1 and 3B) or by DNMT inhibitors (DNMTi). Herein, we used proteomic and functional genetic approaches to identify additional proteins that cooperate with DNMTs in silencing these key silenced TSGs in colon cancer cells. We discovered that DNMTs and the core components of the NuRD (Mi-2/nucleosome remodeling and deacetylase) nucleosome remodeling complex, chromo domain helicase DNA-binding protein 4 (CHD4) and histone deacetylase 1 (HDAC1) occupy the promoters of several of these hypermethylated TSGs and physically and functionally interact to maintain their silencing. Consistent with this, we find an inverse relationship between expression of HDAC1 and 2 and these TSGs in a large panel of primary colorectal tumors. We demonstrate that DNMTs and NuRD cooperate to maintain the silencing of several negative regulators of the WNT and other signaling pathways. We find that depletion of CHD4 is synergistic with DNMT inhibition in reducing the viability of colon cancer cells in correlation with reactivation of TSGs, suggesting that their combined inhibition may be beneficial for the treatment of colon cancer. Since CHD4 has ATPase activity, our data identify CHD4 as a potentially novel drug target in cancer. PMID:23708667

Cai, Y; Geutjes, E-J; de Lint, K; Roepman, P; Bruurs, L; Yu, L-R; Wang, W; van Blijswijk, J; Mohammad, H; de Rink, I; Bernards, R; Baylin, S B

2014-04-24

247

The NuRD complex cooperates with DNMTs to maintain silencing of key colorectal tumor suppressor genes  

PubMed Central

Many tumor suppressor genes (TSGs) are silenced through synergistic layers of epigenetic regulation including abnormal DNA hypermethylation of promoter CpG islands, repressive chromatin modifications and enhanced nucleosome deposition over transcription start sites. The protein complexes responsible for silencing of many of such TSGs remain to be identified. Our previous work demonstrated that multiple silenced TSGs in colorectal cancer cells can be partially reactivated by DNA demethylation in cells disrupted for the DNA methyltransferases 1 and 3B (DNMT1 and 3B) or by DNMT inhibitors (DNMTi). Herein, we used proteomic and functional genetic approaches to identify additional proteins that cooperate with DNMTs in silencing these key silenced TSGs in colon cancer cells. We discovered that DNMTs and the core components of the NuRD (Mi-2/nucleosome remodeling and deacetylase) nucleosome remodeling complex, chromo domain helicase DNA-binding protein 4 (CHD4) and histone deacetylase 1 (HDAC1) occupy the promoters of several of these hypermethylated TSGs and physically and functionally interact to maintain their silencing. Consistent with this, we find an inverse relationship between expression of HDAC1 and 2 and these TSGs in a large panel of primary colorectal tumors. We demonstrate that DNMTs and NuRD cooperate to maintain the silencing of several negative regulators of the WNT and other signaling pathways. We find that depletion of CHD4 is synergistic with DNMT inhibition in reducing the viability of colon cancer cells in correlation with reactivation of TSGs, suggesting that their combined inhibition may be beneficial for the treatment of colon cancer. Since CHD4 has ATPase activity, our data identify CHD4 as a potentially novel drug target in cancer. PMID:23708667

Cai, Y; Geutjes, E-J; de Lint, K; Roepman, P; Bruurs, L; Yu, L-R; Wang, W; van Blijswijk, J; Mohammad, H; de Rink, I; Bernards, R; Baylin, SB

2013-01-01

248

Gene silencing using the recessive rice bacterial blight resistance gene xa13 as a new paradigm in plant breeding.  

PubMed

Resistant germplasm resources are valuable for developing resistant varieties in agricultural production. However, recessive resistance genes are usually overlooked in hybrid breeding. Compared with dominant traits, however, they may confer resistance to different pathogenic races or pest biotypes with different mechanisms of action. The recessive rice bacterial blight resistance gene xa13, also involved in pollen development, has been cloned and its resistance mechanism has been recently characterized. This report describes the conversion of bacterial blight resistance mediated by the recessive xa13 gene into a dominant trait to facilitate its use in a breeding program. This was achieved by knockdown of the corresponding dominant allele Xa13 in transgenic rice using recently developed artificial microRNA technology. Tissue-specific promoters were used to exclude most of the expression of artificial microRNA in the anther to ensure that Xa13 functioned normally during pollen development. A battery of highly bacterial blight resistant transgenic plants with normal seed setting rates were acquired, indicating that highly specific gene silencing had been achieved. Our success with xa13 provides a paradigm that can be adapted to other recessive resistance genes. PMID:22218673

Li, Changyan; Wei, Jing; Lin, Yongjun; Chen, Hao

2012-05-01

249

Untangling the relationships between DNA repair pathways by silencing more than 20 DNA repair genes in human stable clones  

Microsoft Academic Search

Much effort has long been devoted to unraveling the coordinated cellular response to genotoxic insults. In view of the difficulty of obtaining human biological samples of homogeneous origin, I have established a set of stable human clones where one DNA repair gene has been stably silenced by means of RNA interference. I used pEBVsiRNA plasmids that greatly enhance long-term gene

D. S. F. Biard

2007-01-01

250

Transformation of the US bread wheat 'Butte 86' and silencing of omega-5 gliadin genes.  

PubMed

Complex groups of proteins determine the unique functional properties of wheat flour and are sometimes responsible for food intolerances and allergies in individuals that consume wheat products. Transgenic approaches can be used to explore the functions of different flour proteins, but are limited to the few wheat cultivars that can be transformed and also by the lack of detailed information about genes and proteins expressed in grain from those cultivars. The US bread wheat Butte 86 has been extensively characterized and a comprehensive proteome map was developed in which flour proteins were distinguished by mass spectrometry and associated with specific gene sequences. Here, this information has been used to design an RNA interference construct to silence the expression of genes encoding omega gliadins that trigger the food allergy wheat-dependent exercise-induced anaphylaxis (WDEIA). The construct was introduced into immature embryos from Butte 86 using biolistics and bialaphos-resistant plants were regenerated. Stable transformation and inheritance of the transgene were confirmed by PCR. Analysis of proteins in grain from transgenic plants demonstrated that the omega-5 gliadins were either absent or substantially reduced relative to non-transformed controls. The ability to genetically transform Butte 86 makes it possible to alter flour composition in a targeted manner in a commercial US wheat cultivar and should accelerate future research on flour quality and immunogenic potential. PMID:21844700

Altenbach, Susan B; Allen, Paul V

2011-01-01

251

Role of histone modifications and early termination in pervasive transcription and antisense-mediated gene silencing in yeast  

PubMed Central

Most genomes, including yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, are pervasively transcribed producing numerous non-coding RNAs, many of which are unstable and eliminated by nuclear or cytoplasmic surveillance pathways. We previously showed that accumulation of PHO84 antisense RNA (asRNA), in cells lacking the nuclear exosome component Rrp6, is paralleled by repression of sense transcription in a process dependent on the Hda1 histone deacetylase (HDAC) and the H3K4 histone methyl transferase Set1. Here we investigate this process genome-wide and measure the whole transcriptome of various histone modification mutants in a ?rrp6 strain using tiling arrays. We confirm widespread occurrence of potentially antisense-dependent gene regulation and identify three functionally distinct classes of genes that accumulate asRNAs in the absence of Rrp6. These classes differ in whether the genes are silenced by the asRNA and whether the silencing is HDACs and histone methyl transferase-dependent. Among the distinguishing features of asRNAs with regulatory potential, we identify weak early termination by Nrd1/Nab3/Sen1, extension of the asRNA into the open reading frame promoter and dependence of the silencing capacity on Set1 and the HDACs Hda1 and Rpd3 particularly at promoters undergoing extensive chromatin remodelling. Finally, depending on the efficiency of Nrd1/Nab3/Sen1 early termination, asRNA levels are modulated and their capability of silencing is changed. PMID:24497191

Castelnuovo, Manuele; Zaugg, Judith B.; Guffanti, Elisa; Maffioletti, Andrea; Camblong, Jurgi; Xu, Zhenyu; Clauder-Munster, Sandra; Steinmetz, Lars M.; Luscombe, Nicholas M.; Stutz, Francoise

2014-01-01

252

Role of histone modifications and early termination in pervasive transcription and antisense-mediated gene silencing in yeast.  

PubMed

Most genomes, including yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, are pervasively transcribed producing numerous non-coding RNAs, many of which are unstable and eliminated by nuclear or cytoplasmic surveillance pathways. We previously showed that accumulation of PHO84 antisense RNA (asRNA), in cells lacking the nuclear exosome component Rrp6, is paralleled by repression of sense transcription in a process dependent on the Hda1 histone deacetylase (HDAC) and the H3K4 histone methyl transferase Set1. Here we investigate this process genome-wide and measure the whole transcriptome of various histone modification mutants in a ?rrp6 strain using tiling arrays. We confirm widespread occurrence of potentially antisense-dependent gene regulation and identify three functionally distinct classes of genes that accumulate asRNAs in the absence of Rrp6. These classes differ in whether the genes are silenced by the asRNA and whether the silencing is HDACs and histone methyl transferase-dependent. Among the distinguishing features of asRNAs with regulatory potential, we identify weak early termination by Nrd1/Nab3/Sen1, extension of the asRNA into the open reading frame promoter and dependence of the silencing capacity on Set1 and the HDACs Hda1 and Rpd3 particularly at promoters undergoing extensive chromatin remodelling. Finally, depending on the efficiency of Nrd1/Nab3/Sen1 early termination, asRNA levels are modulated and their capability of silencing is changed. PMID:24497191

Castelnuovo, Manuele; Zaugg, Judith B; Guffanti, Elisa; Maffioletti, Andrea; Camblong, Jurgi; Xu, Zhenyu; Clauder-Münster, Sandra; Steinmetz, Lars M; Luscombe, Nicholas M; Stutz, Françoise

2014-04-01

253

LIM-domain proteins, LIMD1, Ajuba, and WTIP are required for microRNA-mediated gene silencing  

PubMed Central

In recent years there have been major advances with respect to the identification of the protein components and mechanisms of microRNA (miRNA) mediated silencing. However, the complete and precise repertoire of components and mechanism(s) of action remain to be fully elucidated. Herein we reveal the identification of a family of three LIM domain-containing proteins, LIMD1, Ajuba and WTIP (Ajuba LIM proteins) as novel mammalian processing body (P-body) components, which highlight a novel mechanism of miRNA-mediated gene silencing. Furthermore, we reveal that LIMD1, Ajuba, and WTIP bind to Ago1/2, RCK, Dcp2, and eIF4E in vivo, that they are required for miRNA-mediated, but not siRNA-mediated gene silencing and that all three proteins bind to the mRNA 5? m7GTP cap–protein complex. Mechanistically, we propose the Ajuba LIM proteins interact with the m7GTP cap structure via a specific interaction with eIF4E that prevents 4EBP1 and eIF4G interaction. In addition, these LIM-domain proteins facilitate miRNA-mediated gene silencing by acting as an essential molecular link between the translationally inhibited eIF4E-m7GTP-5?cap and Ago1/2 within the miRISC complex attached to the 3?-UTR of mRNA, creating an inhibitory closed-loop complex. PMID:20616046

James, Victoria; Zhang, Yining; Foxler, Daniel E.; de Moor, Cornelia H.; Kong, Yi Wen; Webb, Thomas M.; Self, Tim J.; Feng, Yungfeng; Lagos, Dimitrios; Chu, Chia-Ying; Rana, Tariq M.; Morley, Simon J.; Longmore, Gregory D.; Bushell, Martin; Sharp, Tyson V.

2010-01-01

254

Gene Silencing of 4-1BB by RNA Interference Inhibits Acute Rejection in Rats with Liver Transplantation  

PubMed Central

The 4-1BB signal pathway plays a key role in organ transplantation tolerance. In this study, we have investigated the effect of gene silencing of 4-1BB by RNA interference (RNAi) on the acute rejection in rats with liver transplantation. The recombination vector of lentivirus that contains shRNA targeting the 4-1BB gene (LV-sh4-1BB) was constructed. The liver transplantation was performed using the two-cuff technique. Brown-Norway (BN) recipient rats were infected by the recombinant LVs. The results showed that gene silencing of 4-1BB by RNAi downregulated the 4-1BB gene expression of the splenic lymphocytes in vitro, and the splenic lymphocytes isolated from the rats with liver transplantation. LV-sh4-1BB decreased the plasma levels of liver injury markers including AST, ALT, and BIL and also decreased the level of plasma IL-2 and IFN-? in recipient rats with liver transplantation. Lentivirus-mediated delivery of shRNA targeting 4-1BB gene prolonged the survival time of recipient and alleviated the injury of liver morphology in recipient rats with liver transplantation. In conclusion, our results demonstrate that gene silencing of 4-1BB by RNA interference inhibits the acute rejection in rats with liver transplantation. PMID:23484089

Shi, Yang; Hu, Shuqun; Song, Qingwei; Yu, Shengcai; Zhou, Xiaojun; Yin, Jun; Qin, Lei; Qian, Haixin

2013-01-01

255

Intracellular gene transfer in action: Dual transcription and multiple silencings of nuclear and mitochondrial cox2 genes in legumes  

PubMed Central

The respiratory gene cox2, normally present in the mitochondrion, was previously shown to have been functionally transferred to the nucleus during flowering plant evolution, possibly during the diversification of legumes. To search for novel intermediate stages in the process of intracellular gene transfer and to assess the evolutionary timing and frequency of cox2 transfer, activation, and inactivation, we examined nuclear and mitochondrial (mt) cox2 presence and expression in over 25 legume genera and mt cox2 presence in 392 genera. Transfer and activation of cox2 appear to have occurred during recent legume evolution, more recently than previously inferred. Many intermediate stages of the gene transfer process are represented by cox2 genes in the studied legumes. Nine legumes contain intact copies of both nuclear and mt cox2, although transcripts could not be detected for some of these genes. Both cox2 genes are transcribed in seven legumes that are phylogenetically interspersed with species displaying only nuclear or mt cox2 expression. Inactivation of cox2 in each genome has taken place multiple times and in a variety of ways, including loss of detectable transcripts or transcript editing and partial to complete gene loss. Phylogenetic evidence shows about the same number (3–5) of separate inactivations of nuclear and mt cox2, suggesting that there is no selective advantage for a mt vs. nuclear location of cox2 in plants. The current distribution of cox2 presence and expression between the nucleus and mitochondrion in the studied legumes is probably the result of chance mutations silencing either cox2 gene. PMID:10570164

Adams, Keith L.; Song, Keming; Roessler, Philip G.; Nugent, Jacqueline M.; Doyle, Jane L.; Doyle, Jeff J.; Palmer, Jeffrey D.

1999-01-01

256

ICP0 antagonizes ICP4-dependent silencing of the herpes simplex virus ICP0 gene.  

PubMed

ICP0 is a regulatory protein that plays a critical role in the replication-latency balance of herpes simplex virus (HSV). Absence of ICP0 renders HSV prone to establish quiescent infections, and thus cellular repressor(s) are believed to silence HSV mRNA synthesis when ICP0 fails to accumulate. To date, an ICP0-antagonized repressor has not been identified that restricts HSV mRNA synthesis by more than 2-fold. We report the unexpected discovery that HSV's major transcriptional regulator, ICP4, meets the criteria of a bona fide ICP0-antagonized repressor of viral mRNA synthesis. Our study began when we noted a repressive activity that restricted ICP0 mRNA synthesis by up to 30-fold in the absence of ICP0. When ICP0 accumulated, the repressor only restricted ICP0 mRNA synthesis by 3-fold. ICP4 proved to be necessary and sufficient to repress ICP0 mRNA synthesis, and did so in an ICP4-binding-site-dependent manner. ICP4 co-immunoprecipitated with FLAG-tagged ICP0; thus, a physical interaction likely explains how ICP0 antagonizes ICP4's capacity to silence the ICP0 gene. These findings suggest that ICP0 mRNA synthesis is differentially regulated in HSV-infected cells by the virus-encoded repressor activity embedded in ICP4, and a virus-encoded antirepressor, ICP0. Bacteriophage lambda relies on a similar repression-antirepression regulatory scheme to "decide" whether a given infection will be productive or silent. Therefore, our findings appear to add to the growing list of inexplicable similarities that point to a common evolutionary ancestry between the herpesviruses and tailed bacteriophage. PMID:20098619

Liu, Mingyu; Rakowski, Brandon; Gershburg, Edward; Weisend, Carla M; Lucas, Olivier; Schmidt, Edward E; Halford, William P

2010-01-01

257

ICP0 Antagonizes ICP4-Dependent Silencing of the Herpes Simplex Virus ICP0 Gene  

PubMed Central

ICP0 is a regulatory protein that plays a critical role in the replication-latency balance of herpes simplex virus (HSV). Absence of ICP0 renders HSV prone to establish quiescent infections, and thus cellular repressor(s) are believed to silence HSV mRNA synthesis when ICP0 fails to accumulate. To date, an ICP0-antagonized repressor has not been identified that restricts HSV mRNA synthesis by more than 2-fold. We report the unexpected discovery that HSV's major transcriptional regulator, ICP4, meets the criteria of a bona fide ICP0-antagonized repressor of viral mRNA synthesis. Our study began when we noted a repressive activity that restricted ICP0 mRNA synthesis by up to 30-fold in the absence of ICP0. When ICP0 accumulated, the repressor only restricted ICP0 mRNA synthesis by 3-fold. ICP4 proved to be necessary and sufficient to repress ICP0 mRNA synthesis, and did so in an ICP4-binding-site-dependent manner. ICP4 co-immunoprecipitated with FLAG-tagged ICP0; thus, a physical interaction likely explains how ICP0 antagonizes ICP4's capacity to silence the ICP0 gene. These findings suggest that ICP0 mRNA synthesis is differentially regulated in HSV-infected cells by the virus-encoded repressor activity embedded in ICP4, and a virus-encoded antirepressor, ICP0. Bacteriophage ? relies on a similar repression-antirepression regulatory scheme to “decide” whether a given infection will be productive or silent. Therefore, our findings appear to add to the growing list of inexplicable similarities that point to a common evolutionary ancestry between the herpesviruses and tailed bacteriophage. PMID:20098619

Liu, Mingyu; Rakowski, Brandon; Gershburg, Edward; Weisend, Carla M.; Lucas, Olivier; Schmidt, Edward E.; Halford, William P.

2010-01-01

258

A targeted gene expression system using the tryptophan repressor in zebrafish shows no silencing in subsequent generations.  

PubMed

The ability to visualize and manipulate cell fate and gene expression in specific cell populations has made gene expression systems valuable tools in developmental biology studies. Here, we describe a new system that uses the E. coli tryptophan repressor and its upstream activation sequence (TrpR/tUAS) to drive gene expression in stable zebrafish transgenic lines and in mammalian cells. We show that TrpR/tUAS transgenes are not silenced in subsequent generations of zebrafish, which is a major improvement over some of the existing systems, such as Gal4/gUAS and the Q-system. TrpR transcriptional activity can be tuned by mutations in its DNA-binding domain, or silenced by Gal80 when fused to the Gal4 activation domain. In cases in which more than one cell population needs to be manipulated, TrpR/tUAS can be used in combination with other, existing systems. PMID:24550120

Suli, Arminda; Guler, Ali D; Raible, David W; Kimelman, David

2014-03-01

259

Structural features of GmIRCHS, candidate of the I gene inhibiting seed coat pigmentation in soybean: implications for inducing endogenous RNA silencing of chalcone synthase genes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Most commercial soybean varieties have yellow seeds due to loss of pigmentation in the seed coat. The I gene inhibits pigmentation over the entire seed coat, resulting in a uniform yellow color of mature harvested seeds. We previously\\u000a demonstrated that the inhibition of seed coat pigmentation by the I gene results from post-transcriptional gene silencing (PTGS) of chalcone synthase (CHS)

Atsushi Kasai; Kosuke Kasai; Setsuzo Yumoto; Mineo Senda

2007-01-01

260

HIGS: Host-Induced Gene Silencing in the Obligate Biotrophic Fungal Pathogen Blumeria graminis[W][OA  

PubMed Central

Powdery mildew fungi are obligate biotrophic pathogens that only grow on living hosts and cause damage in thousands of plant species. Despite their agronomical importance, little direct functional evidence for genes of pathogenicity and virulence is currently available because mutagenesis and transformation protocols are lacking. Here, we show that the accumulation in barley (Hordeum vulgare) and wheat (Triticum aestivum) of double-stranded or antisense RNA targeting fungal transcripts affects the development of the powdery mildew fungus Blumeria graminis. Proof of concept for host-induced gene silencing was obtained by silencing the effector gene Avra10, which resulted in reduced fungal development in the absence, but not in the presence, of the matching resistance gene Mla10. The fungus could be rescued from the silencing of Avra10 by the transient expression of a synthetic gene that was resistant to RNA interference (RNAi) due to silent point mutations. The results suggest traffic of RNA molecules from host plants into B. graminis and may lead to an RNAi-based crop protection strategy against fungal pathogens. PMID:20884801

Nowara, Daniela; Gay, Alexandra; Lacomme, Christophe; Shaw, Jane; Ridout, Christopher; Douchkov, Dimitar; Hensel, Gotz; Kumlehn, Jochen; Schweizer, Patrick

2010-01-01

261

Transcription factor AP4 modulates reversible and epigenetic silencing of the Cd4 gene.  

PubMed

CD4 coreceptor expression is negatively regulated through activity of the Cd4 silencer in CD4(-)CD8(-) double-negative (DN) thymocytes and CD8(+) cytotoxic lineage T cells. Whereas Cd4 silencing is reversed during transition from DN to CD4(+)CD8(+) double-positive stages, it is maintained through heritable epigenetic processes following its establishment in mature CD8(+) T cells. We previously demonstrated that the Runx family of transcription factors is required for Cd4 silencing both in DN thymocytes and CD8(+) T cells. However, additional factors that cooperate with Runx proteins in the process of Cd4 silencing remain unknown. To identify collaborating factors, we used microarray and RNAi-based approaches and found the basic helix-loop-helix ZIP transcription factor AP4 to have an important role in Cd4 regulation. AP4 interacts with Runx1 in cells in which Cd4 is silenced, and is required for Cd4 silencing in immature DN thymocytes through binding to the proximal enhancer. Furthermore, although AP4-deficient CD8(+) T cells appeared to normally down-regulate CD4 expression, AP4 deficiency significantly increased the frequency of CD4-expressing effector/memory CD8(+) T cells in mice harboring point mutations in the Cd4 silencer. Our results suggest that AP4 contributes to Cd4 silencing both in DN and CD8(+) T cells by enforcing checkpoints for appropriate timing of CD4 expression and its epigenetic silencing. PMID:21873191

Egawa, Takeshi; Littman, Dan R

2011-09-01

262

Transcription factor AP4 modulates reversible and epigenetic silencing of the Cd4 gene  

PubMed Central

CD4 coreceptor expression is negatively regulated through activity of the Cd4 silencer in CD4–CD8– double-negative (DN) thymocytes and CD8+ cytotoxic lineage T cells. Whereas Cd4 silencing is reversed during transition from DN to CD4+CD8+ double-positive stages, it is maintained through heritable epigenetic processes following its establishment in mature CD8+ T cells. We previously demonstrated that the Runx family of transcription factors is required for Cd4 silencing both in DN thymocytes and CD8+ T cells. However, additional factors that cooperate with Runx proteins in the process of Cd4 silencing remain unknown. To identify collaborating factors, we used microarray and RNAi-based approaches and found the basic helix–loop–helix ZIP transcription factor AP4 to have an important role in Cd4 regulation. AP4 interacts with Runx1 in cells in which Cd4 is silenced, and is required for Cd4 silencing in immature DN thymocytes through binding to the proximal enhancer. Furthermore, although AP4-deficient CD8+ T cells appeared to normally down-regulate CD4 expression, AP4 deficiency significantly increased the frequency of CD4-expressing effector/memory CD8+ T cells in mice harboring point mutations in the Cd4 silencer. Our results suggest that AP4 contributes to Cd4 silencing both in DN and CD8+ T cells by enforcing checkpoints for appropriate timing of CD4 expression and its epigenetic silencing. PMID:21873191

Egawa, Takeshi; Littman, Dan R.

2011-01-01

263

A Sexual Shift Induced by Silencing of a Single Insulin-Like Gene in Crayfish: Ovarian Upregulation and Testicular Degeneration  

PubMed Central

In sequential hermaphrodites, intersexuality occurs naturally, usually as a transition state during sexual re-differentiation processes. In crustaceans, male sexual differentiation is controlled by the male-specific androgenic gland (AG). An AG-specific insulin-like gene, previously identified in the red-claw crayfish Cherax quadricarinatus (designated Cq-IAG), was found in this study to be the prominent transcript in an AG cDNA subtractive library. In C. quadricarinatus, sexual plasticity is exhibited by intersex individuals in the form of an active male reproductive system and male secondary sex characters, along with a constantly arrested ovary. This intersexuality was exploited to follow changes caused by single gene silencing, accomplished via dsRNA injection. Cq-IAG silencing induced dramatic sex-related alterations, including male feature feminization, a reduction in sperm production, extensive testicular degeneration, expression of the vitellogenin gene, and accumulation of yolk proteins in the developing oocytes. Upon silencing of the gene, AG cells hypertrophied, possibly to compensate for low hormone levels, as reflected in the poor production of the insulin-like hormone (and revealed by immunohistochemistry). These results demonstrate both the functionality of Cq-IAG as an androgenic hormone-encoding gene and the dependence of male gonad viability on the Cq-IAG product. This study is the first to provide evidence that silencing an insulin-like gene in intersex C. quadricarinatus feminizes male-related phenotypes. These findings, moreover, contribute to the understanding of the regulation of sexual shifts, whether naturally occurring in sequential hermaphrodites or abnormally induced by endocrine disruptors found in the environment, and offer insight into an unusual gender-related link to the evolution of insulins. PMID:21151555

Rosen, Ohad; Manor, Rivka; Weil, Simy; Gafni, Ohad; Linial, Assaf; Aflalo, Eliahu D.; Ventura, Tomer; Sagi, Amir

2010-01-01

264

Variables and Strategies in Development of Therapeutic Post-Transcriptional Gene Silencing Agents  

PubMed Central

Post-transcriptional gene silencing (PTGS) agents such as ribozymes, RNAi and antisense have substantial potential for gene therapy of human retinal degenerations. These technologies are used to knockdown a specific target RNA and its cognate protein. The disease target mRNA may be a mutant mRNA causing an autosomal dominant retinal degeneration or a normal mRNA that is overexpressed in certain diseases. All PTGS technologies depend upon the initial critical annealing event of the PTGS ligand to the target RNA. This event requires that the PTGS agent is in a conformational state able to support hybridization and that the target have a large and accessible single-stranded platform to allow rapid annealing, although such platforms are rare. We address the biocomplexity that currently limits PTGS therapeutic development with particular emphasis on biophysical variables that influence cellular performance. We address the different strategies that can be used for development of PTGS agents intended for therapeutic translation. These issues apply generally to the development of PTGS agents for retinal, ocular, or systemic diseases. This review should assist the interested reader to rapidly appreciate critical variables in PTGS development and facilitate initial design and testing of such agents against new targets of clinical interest. PMID:21785698

Sullivan, Jack M.; Yau, Edwin H.; Kolniak, Tiffany A.; Sheflin, Lowell G.; Taggart, R. Thomas; Abdelmaksoud, Heba E.

2011-01-01

265

Highly efficient gene silencing activity of siRNA embedded in a nanostructured gyroid cubic lipid matrix  

PubMed Central

RNA interference (RNAi) is an evolutionarily conserved sequence-specific post-transcriptional gene silencing pathway with wide-ranging applications in functional genomics, therapeutics, and biotechnology. Cationic liposome-small interfering RNA (CL-siRNA) complexes have emerged as vectors of choice for delivery of siRNA, which mediates RNAi. However, siRNA delivery by CL-siRNA complexes is often inefficient and accompanied by lipid toxicity. We report the development of CL-siRNA complexes with a novel cubic phase nanostructure, which exhibit efficient silencing at low toxicity. The inverse bicontinuous gyroid cubic nanostructure was unequivocally derived by synchrotron X-ray scattering, while fluorescence microscopy revealed co-localization of lipid and siRNA in complexes. We attribute the efficient silencing to enhanced fusion of complex and endosomal membranes, facilitated by the cubic phase membrane’s positive Gaussian modulus which may enable spontaneous formation of transient pores. The findings underscore the importance of understanding membrane-mediated interactions between CL-siRNA complex nanostructure and cell components in developing CL-based gene silencing vectors. PMID:21028803

Leal, Cecilia; Bouxsein, Nathan F.; Ewert, Kai K.; Safinya, Cyrus R.

2010-01-01

266

The Gene Silencing Transcription Factor REST Represses miR-132 Expression in Hippocampal Neurons Destined to Die.  

PubMed

The gene silencing transcription factor REST [repressor element 1 silencing transcription factor]/NRSF (neuron-restrictive silencer factor) actively represses a large array of coding and noncoding neuron-specific genes important to synaptic plasticity including miR-132. miR-132 is a neuron-specific microRNA and plays a pivotal role in synaptogenesis, synaptic plasticity and structural remodeling. However, a role for miR-132 in neuronal death is not, as yet, well-delineated. Here we show that ischemic insults promote REST binding and epigenetic remodeling at the miR-132 promoter and silencing of miR-132 expression in selectively vulnerable hippocampal CA1 neurons. REST occupancy was not altered at the miR-9 or miR-124a promoters despite the presence of repressor element 1 sites, indicating REST target specificity. Ischemia induced a substantial decrease in two marks of active gene transcription, dimethylation of lysine 4 on core histone 3 (H3K4me2) and acetylation of lysine 9 on H3 (H3K9ac) at the miR-132 promoter. RNAi-mediated depletion of REST in vivo blocked ischemia-induced loss of miR-132 in insulted hippocampal neurons, consistent with a causal relation between activation of REST and silencing of miR-132. Overexpression of miR-132 in primary cultures of hippocampal neurons or delivered directly into the CA1 of living rats by means of the lentiviral expression system prior to induction of ischemia afforded robust protection against ischemia-induced neuronal death. These findings document a previously unappreciated role for REST-dependent repression of miR-132 in the neuronal death associated with global ischemia and identify a novel therapeutic target for amelioration of the neurodegeneration and cognitive deficits associated with ischemic stroke. PMID:25108103

Hwang, Jee-Yeon; Kaneko, Naoki; Noh, Kyung-Min; Pontarelli, Fabrizio; Zukin, R Suzanne

2014-10-01

267

Effectiveness of gene silencing induced by viral vectors based on Citrus leaf blotch virus is different in Nicotiana benthamiana and citrus plants.  

PubMed

Virus induced gene silencing (VIGS) is an effective technology for gene function analysis in plants. We assessed the VIGS effectiveness in Nicotiana benthamiana and citrus plants of different Citrus leaf blotch virus (CLBV)-based vectors, using insets of the phytoene desaturase (pds) gene. While in N. benthamiana the silencing phenotype was induced only by the construct carrying a 58-nt pds hairpin, in citrus plants all the constructs induced the silencing phenotype. Differences in the generation of secondary small interfering RNAs in both species are believed to be responsible for differential host-species effects. The ability of CLBV-based vectors to silence different endogenous citrus genes was further confirmed. Since CLBV-based vectors are known to be stable and induce VIGS in successive flushes for several months, these vectors provide an important genomic tool and it is expected that they will be useful to analyze gene function by reverse genetics in the long-lived citrus plants. PMID:25010281

Agüero, Jesus; Vives, María del Carmen; Velázquez, Karelia; Pina, José Antonio; Navarro, Luis; Moreno, Pedro; Guerri, Jose

2014-07-01

268

SiO2 nanoparticles biocompatibility and their potential for gene delivery and silencing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Despite the extensive use of silica nanoparticles (SiO2NPs) in many fields, the results about their potential toxicity are still controversial. In this work, we have performed a systematic in vitro study to assess the biological impact of SiO2NPs, by investigating 3 different sizes (25, 60 and 115 nm) and 2 surface charges (positive and negative) of the nanoparticles in 5 cell lines (3 in adherence and 2 in suspension). We analyzed the cellular uptake and distribution of the NPs along with their possible effects on cell viability, membrane integrity and generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Experimental results show that all the investigated SiO2NPs do not induce detectable cytotoxic effects (up to 2.5 nM concentration) in all cell lines, and that cellular uptake is mediated by an endocytic process strongly dependent on the particle size and independent of its original surface charge, due to protein corona effects. Once having assessed the biocompatibility of SiO2NPs, we have evaluated their potential in gene delivery, showing their ability to silence specific protein expression. The results of this work indicate that monodisperse and stable SiO2NPs are not toxic, revealing their promising potential in various biomedical applications.Despite the extensive use of silica nanoparticles (SiO2NPs) in many fields, the results about their potential toxicity are still controversial. In this work, we have performed a systematic in vitro study to assess the biological impact of SiO2NPs, by investigating 3 different sizes (25, 60 and 115 nm) and 2 surface charges (positive and negative) of the nanoparticles in 5 cell lines (3 in adherence and 2 in suspension). We analyzed the cellular uptake and distribution of the NPs along with their possible effects on cell viability, membrane integrity and generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Experimental results show that all the investigated SiO2NPs do not induce detectable cytotoxic effects (up to 2.5 nM concentration) in all cell lines, and that cellular uptake is mediated by an endocytic process strongly dependent on the particle size and independent of its original surface charge, due to protein corona effects. Once having assessed the biocompatibility of SiO2NPs, we have evaluated their potential in gene delivery, showing their ability to silence specific protein expression. The results of this work indicate that monodisperse and stable SiO2NPs are not toxic, revealing their promising potential in various biomedical applications. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c1nr11269d

Malvindi, Maria Ada; Brunetti, Virgilio; Vecchio, Giuseppe; Galeone, Antonio; Cingolani, Roberto; Pompa, Pier Paolo

2012-01-01

269

Oligoamine analogues in combination with 2-difluoromethylornithine synergistically induce re-expression of aberrantly silenced tumour-suppressor genes  

PubMed Central

Epigenetic gene silencing is an important mechanism in the initiation and progression of cancer. Abnormal DNA CpG island hypermethylation and histone modifications are involved in aberrant silencing of tumour-suppressor genes. LSD1 (lysine-specific demethylase 1) was the first enzyme identified to specifically demethylate H3K4 (Lys4 of histone H3). Methylated H3K4 is an important mark associated with transcriptional activation. The flavin adenine dinucleotide-binding amine oxidase domain of LSD1 is homologous with two polyamine oxidases, SMO (spermine oxidase) and APAO (N1-acetylpolyamine oxidase). We have demonstrated previously that long-chain polyamine analogues, the oligoamines, are inhibitors of LSD1. In the present paper we report the synergistic effects of specific oligoamines in combination with DFMO (2-difluoromethylornithine), an inhibitor of ornithine decarboxylase, in human colorectal cancer cells. DFMO treatment depletes natural polyamines and increases the uptake of exogenous polyamines. The combination of oligoamines and DFMO results in a synergistic re-expression of aberrantly silenced tumour-suppressor genes, including SFRP2 (secreted frizzled-related protein 2), which encodes a Wnt signalling pathway antagonist and plays an anti-tumorigenic role in colorectal cancer. The treatment-induced re-expression of SFRP2 is associated with increased H3K4me2 (di-methyl H3K4) in the gene promoter. The combination of LSD1-inhibiting oligoamines and DFMO represents a novel approach to epigenetic therapy of cancer. PMID:22132744

Wu, Yu; Steinbergs, Nora; Murray-Stewart, Tracy; Marton, Laurence J.; Casero, Robert A.

2011-01-01

270

CATMA, a comprehensive genome-scale resource for silencing and transcript profiling of Arabidopsis genes  

PubMed Central

Background The Complete Arabidopsis Transcript MicroArray (CATMA) initiative combines the efforts of laboratories in eight European countries [1] to deliver gene-specific sequence tags (GSTs) for the Arabidopsis research community. The CATMA initiative offers the power and flexibility to regularly update the GST collection according to evolving knowledge about the gene repertoire. These GST amplicons can easily be reamplified and shared, subsets can be picked at will to print dedicated arrays, and the GSTs can be cloned and used for other functional studies. This ongoing initiative has already produced approximately 24,000 GSTs that have been made publicly available for spotted microarray printing and RNA interference. Results GSTs from the CATMA version 2 repertoire (CATMAv2, created in 2002) were mapped onto the gene models from two independent Arabidopsis nuclear genome annotation efforts, TIGR5 and PSB-EuGène, to consolidate a list of genes that were targeted by previously designed CATMA tags. A total of 9,027 gene models were not tagged by any amplified CATMAv2 GST, and 2,533 amplified GSTs were no longer predicted to tag an updated gene model. To validate the efficacy of GST mapping criteria and design rules, the predicted and experimentally observed hybridization characteristics associated to GST features were correlated in transcript profiling datasets obtained with the CATMAv2 microarray, confirming the reliability of this platform. To complete the CATMA repertoire, all 9,027 gene models for which no GST had yet been designed were processed with an adjusted version of the Specific Primer and Amplicon Design Software (SPADS). A total of 5,756 novel GSTs were designed and amplified by PCR from genomic DNA. Together with the pre-existing GST collection, this new addition constitutes the CATMAv3 repertoire. It comprises 30,343 unique amplified sequences that tag 24,202 and 23,009 protein-encoding nuclear gene models in the TAIR6 and EuGène genome annotations, respectively. To cover the remaining untagged genes, we identified 543 additional GSTs using less stringent design criteria and designed 990 sequence tags matching multiple members of gene families (Gene Family Tags or GFTs) to cover any remaining untagged genes. These latter 1,533 features constitute the CATMAv4 addition. Conclusion To update the CATMA GST repertoire, we designed 7,289 additional sequence tags, bringing the total number of tagged TAIR6-annotated Arabidopsis nuclear protein-coding genes to 26,173. This resource is used both for the production of spotted microarrays and the large-scale cloning of hairpin RNA silencing vectors. All information about the resulting updated CATMA repertoire is available through the CATMA database http://www.catma.org. PMID:17945016

Sclep, Gert; Allemeersch, Joke; Liechti, Robin; De Meyer, Bjorn; Beynon, Jim; Bhalerao, Rishikesh; Moreau, Yves; Nietfeld, Wilfried; Renou, Jean-Pierre; Reymond, Philippe; Kuiper, Martin TR; Hilson, Pierre

2007-01-01

271

High-Stearic and High-Oleic Cottonseed Oils Produced by Hairpin RNA-Mediated PostTranscriptional Gene Silencing  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have genetically modified the fatty acid composition of cottonseed oil using the recently developed technique of hairpin RNA-mediated gene silencing to down-regulate the seed expression of two key fatty acid desaturase genes, ghSAD-1- encoding stearoyl-acyl-carrier protein 9-desaturase and ghFAD2-1-encoding oleoyl-phosphatidylcholine 6-desaturase. Hairpin RNA-encoding gene constructs (HP) targeted against either ghSAD-1 or ghFAD2-1 were transformed into cotton (Gossypium hirsutum cv

Qing Liu; Surinder P. Singh; Allan G. Green

2002-01-01

272

STUDY OF GENE SILENCING IN RICE: A ROOT PREFERENTIAL GENE RCG2  

E-print Network

). A single transgene locus, 271, can trigger both TGS and PTGS by simultaneously producing dsRNA corresponding to both promoter and transcribed sequences (Mourrain et al., 2007). Additionally, mutation of Argonaute, a gene that is involved in PTGS...). A single transgene locus, 271, can trigger both TGS and PTGS by simultaneously producing dsRNA corresponding to both promoter and transcribed sequences (Mourrain et al., 2007). Additionally, mutation of Argonaute, a gene that is involved in PTGS...

Shi, Xiangyu

2010-07-14

273

Efficient silencing of EGFP reporter gene with siRNA delivered by asymmetrical N4,N9-diacyl spermines.  

PubMed

It is important to obtain structure-activity relationship (SAR) data across cationic lipids for the self-assembly and nonviral intracellular delivery of siRNA. The aims of this work are to carry out a SAR study on the efficiency of asymmetrical N(4),N(9)-diacyl spermines in siRNA delivery and EGFP reporter gene silencing, with comparisons to selected mixtures composed of symmetrical N(4),N(9)-diacyl spermines. Another important aim of these studies is to quantify the changes in cell viability, assayed with alamarBlue, as a function of lipid structure. Therefore, we have designed, synthesized, purified, and assayed novel cationic lipids that are asymmetrical lipopolyamines based on spermine. Flow cytometry and fluorescence microscopy in an EGFP stably transfected HeLa cell line, measuring both delivery of fluorescently tagged siRNAs and silencing the EGFP signal, allowed quantitation of the differences between asymmetrical cationic lipids, mixtures of their symmetrical counterparts, and comparison with commercial nonviral delivery agents. Intracellular delivery of siRNA and gene silencing by siRNA differ with different hydrophobic domains. In these asymmetrical N(4),N(9)-diacyl spermines, lipids that enhance siRNA uptake do not necessarily enhance siRNA-induced inhibition of gene expression: C18 and longer saturated chains promote uptake, while more unsaturated C18 chains promote gene silencing. These properties are efficiently demonstrated in a new nontoxic cationic lipid siRNA vector, N(4)-linoleoyl-N(9)-oleoyl-1,12-diamino-4,9-diazadodecane (LinOS), which is also shown to be comparable with or superior to TransIT-TKO and Lipofectamine 2000. PMID:22129427

Metwally, Abdelkader A; Reelfs, Olivier; Pourzand, Charareh; Blagbrough, Ian S

2012-07-01

274

Essential role of obscurin in cardiac myofibrillogenesis and hypertrophic response: evidence from small interfering RNA-mediated gene silencing  

Microsoft Academic Search

Obscurin is a recently identified giant multidomain muscle protein (?800 kDa) whose structural and regulatory functions remain\\u000a to be defined. The goal of this study was to examine the effect of obscurin gene silencing induced by RNA interference on\\u000a the dynamics of myofibrillogenesis and hypertrophic response to phenylephrine in cultured rat cardiomyocytes. We found that\\u000a that the adenoviral transfection of short

Andrei B. Borisov; Sarah B. Sutter; Aikaterini Kontrogianni-Konstantopoulos; Robert J. Bloch; Margaret V. Westfall; Mark W. Russell

2006-01-01

275

Manipulation of saponin biosynthesis by RNA interference-mediated silencing of ?-amyrin synthase gene expression in soybean  

Microsoft Academic Search

Soybean seeds contain substantial amount of diverse triterpenoid saponins that influence the seed quality, although little\\u000a is known about the physiologic functions of saponins in plants. We now describe the modification of saponin biosynthesis by\\u000a RNA interference (RNAi)-mediated gene silencing targeted to ?-amyrin synthase, a key enzyme in the synthesis of a common aglycon\\u000a of soybean saponins. We identified two

Kyoko Takagi; Keito Nishizawa; Aya Hirose; Akiko Kita; Masao Ishimoto

276

TNF-? gene silencing using polymerized siRNA/thiolated glycol chitosan nanoparticles for rheumatoid arthritis.  

PubMed

Among various proinflammatory cytokines involved in the pathogenesis of rheumatoid arthritis (RA), tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-? plays a pivotal role in the release of other cytokines and induction of chronic inflammation. Even though siRNA has the therapeutic potential, they have a challenge to be delivered into the target cells because of their poor stability in physiological fluids. Herein, we design a nanocomplex of polymerized siRNA (poly-siRNA) targeting TNF-? with thiolated glycol chitosan (tGC) polymers for the treatment of RA. Poly-siRNA is prepared through self-polymerization of thiol groups at the 5' end of sense and antisense strand of siRNA and encapsulated into tGC polymers, resulting in poly-siRNA-tGC nanoparticles (psi-tGC-NPs) with an average diameter of 370?nm. In the macrophage culture system, psi-tGC-NPs exhibit rapid cellular uptake and excellent in vitro TNF-? gene silencing efficacy. Importantly, psi-tGC-NPs show the high accumulation at the arthritic joint sites in collagen-induced arthritis (CIA) mice. Treatment monitoring data obtained by the matrix metalloproteinase 3-specific nanoprobe and microcomputed tomography show that intravenous injection of psi-tGC-NPs significantly inhibits inflammation and bone erosion in CIA mice, comparable to methotrexate (5?mg/kg). Therefore, the availability of psi-tGC-NP therapy that target specific cytokines may herald new era in the treatment of RA. PMID:24145554

Lee, So Jin; Lee, Aeju; Hwang, Seung Rim; Park, Jong-Sung; Jang, Jiyeon; Huh, Myung Sook; Jo, Dong-Gyu; Yoon, Soo-Young; Byun, Youngro; Kim, Sun Hwa; Kwon, Ick Chan; Youn, Inchan; Kim, Kwangmeyung

2014-02-01

277

Spatial and Temporal Silencing of the Human Maternal UBE3A gene  

PubMed Central

Angelman syndrome (AS) is characterized by severe cognitive disruption, seizures, difficulty speaking and ataxia. Nearly all cases are attributed to the disruption or absence of the imprinted maternal copy of UBE3A, transcribing an E3-type ubiquitin ligase. Much of what is known about the molecular and biochemical changes in the CNS associated with AS has been obtained through this murine model. This widely used mouse model created by a null mutation of the maternal UBE3A gene recapitulates the major phenotypes characteristic of AS patients. The imprinting of maternal UBE3A was originally believed to be brain region specific; however recent reports using the AS mouse model have revealed a more wide-spread absence of the protein. The present study is the first to determine that the Ube3a protein ablation seen in the AS mouse model is also characteristic of AS patients and the silencing of the paternal UBE3A allele appears to be lifelong. PMID:22560727

Daily, Jennifer; Smith, Amanda G.; Weeber, Edwin J.

2012-01-01

278

Spatial and temporal silencing of the human maternal UBE3A gene.  

PubMed

Angelman syndrome (AS) is characterized by severe cognitive disruption, seizures, difficulty speaking and ataxia. Nearly all cases are attributed to the disruption or absence of the imprinted maternal copy of UBE3A, transcribing an E3-type ubiquitin ligase. Much of what is known about the molecular and biochemical changes in the CNS associated with AS has been obtained through this murine model. This widely used mouse model created by a null mutation of the maternal UBE3A gene recapitulates the major phenotypes characteristic of AS patients. The imprinting of maternal UBE3A was originally believed to be brain region specific; however recent reports using the AS mouse model have revealed a more wide-spread absence of the protein. The present study is the first to determine that the Ube3a protein ablation seen in the AS mouse model is also characteristic of AS patients and the silencing of the paternal UBE3A allele appears to be lifelong. PMID:22560727

Daily, Jennifer; Smith, Amanda G; Weeber, Edwin J

2012-11-01

279

si-RNA-Mediated Silencing of ADRBK1 Gene Attenuates Breast Cancer Cell Proliferation.  

PubMed

Abstract Breast cancer is the most prominent cause of cancer-related deaths among women worldwide. It has been found that genetic mutations play distinct roles in the onset and progression of breast cancer. Androgenic, beta, receptor kinase 1 (ADRBK1) has been reported to possess oncogenic characteristics vital for cancer cell viability. This study was designed to investigate the effects of small interference RNA (si-RNA)-mediated ADRBK1 knockdown on breast cancer cell growth in vitro. High-expression levels of ADRBK1 were observed in all tested breast cancer cell lines (MDA-MB-231, MCF-7, T-47D, and BT-474). ADRBK1 si-RNA was delivered to breast cancer cells using lentivirus delivery system. Depletion of ADRBK1 significantly attenuated the cell viability and colony-formation ability. Flow cytometry analysis further demonstrated that ADRBK1 silencing led to MDA-MB-231 cell arrest in the G0/G1 phase. Collectively, these results indicate that knockdown of ADRBK1 gene has detrimental effects on breast cancer cell growth, which may be a potential therapeutic approach for the treatment of breast cancer. PMID:25279970

Zhang, Chen; Chen, Xianzhen; Li, Yongxin; S W A, Himaya; Wu, Jie; Shi, Xiujuan; Liu, Xiaoqing; Kim, Sekwon

2014-10-01

280

Functional analysis of a melanin biosynthetic gene using RNAi-mediated gene silencing in Rosellinia necatrix.  

PubMed

Rosellinia necatrix causes white root rot in a wide range of fruit trees and persists for extended periods as pseudosclerotia on root debris. However, the pathogenesis of this disease has yet to be clarified. The functions of endogeneous target genes have not been determined because of the inefficiency in genetic transformation. In this study, the function of a melanin biosynthetic gene was determined to examine its role in morphology and virulence. A polyketide synthase gene (termed as RnPKS1) in the R. necatrix genome is homologous to the 1,8-dihydroxynaphthalene (DHN) melanin biosynthetic gene of Colletotrichum lagenarium. Melanin-deficient strains of R. necatrix were obtained by RNA interference-mediated knockdown of RnPKS1. The virulence of these strains was not significantly reduced compared with the parental melanin-producing strain. However, knockdown strains failed to develop pseudosclerotia and were degraded sooner in soil than the parental strain. Microscopic observations of albino conidiomata produced by knockdown strains revealed that melanization is involved in synnema integrity. These results suggest that melanin is not necessary for R. necatrix pathogenesis but is involved in survival through morphogenesis. This is the first report on the functional analysis of an endogenous target gene in R. necatrix. PMID:24742836

Shimizu, Takeo; Ito, Tsutae; Kanematsu, Satoko

2014-04-01

281

Insights into the kinetics of siRNA-mediated gene silencing from live-cell and live-animal bioluminescent imaging  

Microsoft Academic Search

Small interfering RNA (siRNA) molecules are potent effectors of post-transcriptional gene silencing. Using noninvasive bioluminescent imaging and a mathematical model of siRNA delivery and function, the effects of target-specific and treatment-specific parameters on siRNA-mediated gene silencing are monitored in cells stably expressing the firefly luciferase protein. In vitro, luciferase protein levels recover to pre-treatment values within ,1 week in rapidly

Derek W. Bartlett; Mark E. Davis

2006-01-01

282

Selective silencing of viral gene expression in HPV-positive human cervical carcinoma cells treated with siRNA, a primer of RNA interference  

Microsoft Academic Search

Selective silencing of mammalian gene expression has recently been achieved using short interfering RNA (siRNA). Synthetic siRNA targets homologous mRNA for degradation and the process is highly efficient. Here we demonstrate siRNA silencing of pathogenic viral gene expression. As a well characterized model we chose cervical carcinoma cells positive for human papillomavirus type 16. Over 90% of human cervical cancers

Ming Jiang; Jo Milner

2002-01-01

283

Apple latent spherical virus vectors for reliable and effective virus-induced gene silencing among a broad range of plants including tobacco, tomato, Arabidopsis thaliana, cucurbits, and legumes  

SciTech Connect

Apple latent spherical virus (ALSV) vectors were evaluated for virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS) of endogenous genes among a broad range of plant species. ALSV vectors carrying partial sequences of a subunit of magnesium chelatase (SU) and phytoene desaturase (PDS) genes induced highly uniform knockout phenotypes typical of SU and PDS inhibition on model plants such as tobacco and Arabidopsis thaliana, and economically important crops such as tomato, legume, and cucurbit species. The silencing phenotypes persisted throughout plant growth in these plants. In addition, ALSV vectors could be successfully used to silence a meristem gene, proliferating cell nuclear antigen and disease resistant N gene in tobacco and RCY1 gene in A. thaliana. As ALSV infects most host plants symptomlessly and effectively induces stable VIGS for long periods, the ALSV vector is a valuable tool to determine the functions of interested genes among a broad range of plant species.

Igarashi, Aki; Yamagata, Kousuke; Sugai, Tomokazu; Takahashi, Yukari; Sugawara, Emiko; Tamura, Akihiro [Plant Pathology Laboratory, Faculty of Agriculture, Iwate University, Morioka 020-8550 (Japan); Yaegashi, Hajime [The United Graduate School of Agricultural Sciences, Iwate University, Morioka 020-8550 (Japan); Yamagishi, Noriko [Plant Pathology Laboratory, Faculty of Agriculture, Iwate University, Morioka 020-8550 (Japan); Takahashi, Tsubasa [The 21st Century Center of Excellence Program, Iwate University, Morioka 020-8550 (Japan); Isogai, Masamichi [Plant Pathology Laboratory, Faculty of Agriculture, Iwate University, Morioka 020-8550 (Japan); Takahashi, Hideki [Department of Life Science, Graduate School of Agricultural Science, Tohoku University, Sendai 981-8555 (Japan); Yoshikawa, Nobuyuki, E-mail: yoshikawa@iwate-u.ac.j [Plant Pathology Laboratory, Faculty of Agriculture, Iwate University, Morioka 020-8550 (Japan); The United Graduate School of Agricultural Sciences, Iwate University, Morioka 020-8550 (Japan); The 21st Century Center of Excellence Program, Iwate University, Morioka 020-8550 (Japan)

2009-04-10

284

Construction of efficient and effective transformation vectors for palmitoyl-acyl carrier protein thioesterase gene silencing in oil palm  

PubMed Central

Palm oil obtained from E. guineensis Jacq. Tenera is known to have about 44% of palmitic acid (C16:0). Palmitoyl-Acyl Carrier Protein Thioesterase (PATE) is one of the key enzymes involved in plastidial fatty acid biosynthesis; and it determines the level of the C16:0 assimilation in oilseeds. This enzyme's activity in oil palm is responsible for high (> 44 % in E. guineensis Jacq. Tenera and 25 % in E. oleifera) content of C16:0 in its oil. By post-transcriptional PATE gene silencing, C16:0 content can be minimized for nutritional value improvement of the palm oil. The objective of this study was the construction of novel transformation vectors for PATE gene silencing. Six different transformation vectors targeted against PATE gene were constructed using 619 bp long PATE gene (5' region) fragment (from GenBank AF507115). In one set of three transformation vectors, PATE gene fragment was fused with CaMV 35S promoter in antisense, intron-spliced inverted repeat (ISIR), and inverted repeat (IR) orientations to generate antisense mRNA and hair-pin RNAs (hpRNA). In another set of three transformation vectors with same design, CaMV 35S was replaced with Oil palm mesocarp tissue-specific promoter (MSP). The expression cassette of antisense, ISIR, and IR of PATE gene fragments were constructed in primary cloning vector, pHANNIBAL or its derivative/s. Finally, all 6 expression cassettes were sub-cloned into pCAMBIA 1301 which contains the Hygromycinr and the GUS reporter genes for transformant selection and transformation detection respectively. The results of the RE analyses of the constructs and sequence analyses of PATE and MSP shows and confirms the orientation, size and locations of all the components from constructs. We hypothesize that 4 (pISIRPATE-PC, pIRPATE-PC, pMISIRPATE-PC and pMIRPATE-PC) out of 6 transformation vectors constructed in this study will be efficient and effective in palmitoyl-ACP thioesterase gene silencing in oil palm. Abbreviations antiPATE - Antisense Palmitoyl-acyl carrier protein thioesterase, BCV - Binary cloning vector, cDNA - Complementary deoxyribonucleic acid, hpRNA - hair-pin RNA, ihpRNA - intron containing hair-pin RNA, IR - inverted repeat, ISIR - intron-spliced inverted repeat, MCS - Multiple cloning site, MSP - Oil palm mesocarp tissue-specific promoter, nt - Nucleotide/s, PATE - Palmitoyl-acyl carrier protein thioesterase, PCR - Polymerase chain reaction, PCV - Primary cloning vector, pDNA - Plasmid deoxyribonucleic acid, PTGS - Post-transcriptional gene silencing, RE - Restriction enzyme. PMID:21738318

Bhore, Subhash Janardhan; Shah, Farida Habib

2011-01-01

285

THE USE OF NANOPARTICLE-MEDIATED TARGETED GENE SILENCING AND DRUG DELIVERY TO OVERCOME TUMOR DRUG RESISTANCE  

PubMed Central

Overexpression of drug efflux transporters such as P-glycoprotein (P-gp) enables cancer cells to develop resistance to multiple anticancer drugs. Functional inhibitors of P-gp have shown promising efficacy in early clinical trials, but their long-term safety is yet to be established. A novel approach to overcome drug resistance is to use siRNA-mediated RNA interference to silence the expression of the efflux transporter. Because P-gp plays an important role in the physiological regulation of endogenous and xenobiotic compounds in the body, it is important to deliver P-gp targeted siRNA and anticancer drug specifically to tumor cells. Further, for optimal synergy, both the drug and siRNA may need to be temporally colocalized in the tumor cells. In the current study, we investigated the effectiveness of simultaneous and targeted delivery of anticancer drug, paclitaxel, along with P-gp targeted siRNA, using poly(D,L-lactide-co-glycolide) nanoparticles to overcome tumor drug resistance. Nanoparticles were surface functionalized with biotin for active tumor targeting. Dual agent nanoparticles encapsulating the combination of paclitaxel and P-gp targeted siRNA showed significantly higher cytotoxicity in vitro than nanoparticles loaded with paclitaxel alone. Enhanced therapeutic efficacy of dual agent nanoparticles could be correlated with effective silencing of the MDR1 gene that encodes for P-gp and with increased accumulation of paclitaxel in drug-resistant tumor cells. In vivo studies in a mouse model of drug-resistant tumor demonstrated significantly greater inhibition of tumor growth following treatment with biotin-functionalized nanoparticles encapsulating both paclitaxel and P-gp targeted siRNA at a paclitaxel dose that was ineffective in the absence of gene silencing. These results suggest that that the combination of P-gp gene silencing and cytotoxic drug delivery using targeted nanoparticles can overcome tumor drug resistance. PMID:19800114

Patil, Yogesh; Swaminathan, Suresh; Sadhukha, Tanmoy; Ma, Linan; Panyam, Jayanth

2009-01-01

286

Virus infection triggers widespread silencing of host genes by a distinct class of endogenous siRNAs in Arabidopsis  

PubMed Central

Antiviral immunity controlled by RNA interference (RNAi) in plants and animals is thought to specifically target only viral RNAs by the virus-derived small interfering RNAs (siRNAs). Here we show that activation of antiviral RNAi in Arabidopsis plants is accompanied by the production of an abundant class of endogenous siRNAs mapped to the exon regions of more than 1,000 host genes and rRNA. These virus-activated siRNAs (vasiRNAs) are predominantly 21 nucleotides long with an approximately equal ratio of sense and antisense strands. Genetically, vasiRNAs are distinct from the known plant endogenous siRNAs characterized to date and instead resemble viral siRNAs by requiring Dicer-like 4 and RNA-dependent RNA polymerase 1 (RDR1) for biogenesis. However, loss of EXORIBONUCLEASE4/THYLENE-INSENSITIVE5 enhances vasiRNA biogenesis and virus resistance without altering the biogenesis of viral siRNAs. We show that vasiRNAs are active in directing widespread silencing of the target host genes and that Argonaute-2 binds to and is essential for the silencing activity of vasiRNAs. Production of vasiRNAs is readily detectable in Arabidopsis after infection by viruses from two distinct supergroups of plant RNA virus families and is targeted for inhibition by the silencing suppressor protein 2b of Cucumber mosaic virus. These findings reveal RDR1 production of Arabidopsis endogenous siRNAs and identify production of vasiRNAs to direct widespread silencing of host genes as a conserved response of plants to infection by diverse viruses. A possible function for vasiRNAs to confer broad-spectrum antiviral activity distinct to the virus-specific antiviral RNAi by viral siRNAs is discussed. PMID:25201959

Cao, Mengji; Du, Peng; Wang, Xianbing; Yu, Yun-Qi; Qiu, Yan-Hong; Li, Wanxiang; Gal-On, Amit; Zhou, Changyong; Li, Yi; Ding, Shou-Wei

2014-01-01

287

Virus infection triggers widespread silencing of host genes by a distinct class of endogenous siRNAs in Arabidopsis.  

PubMed

Antiviral immunity controlled by RNA interference (RNAi) in plants and animals is thought to specifically target only viral RNAs by the virus-derived small interfering RNAs (siRNAs). Here we show that activation of antiviral RNAi in Arabidopsis plants is accompanied by the production of an abundant class of endogenous siRNAs mapped to the exon regions of more than 1,000 host genes and rRNA. These virus-activated siRNAs (vasiRNAs) are predominantly 21 nucleotides long with an approximately equal ratio of sense and antisense strands. Genetically, vasiRNAs are distinct from the known plant endogenous siRNAs characterized to date and instead resemble viral siRNAs by requiring Dicer-like 4 and RNA-dependent RNA polymerase 1 (RDR1) for biogenesis. However, loss of EXORIBONUCLEASE4/THYLENE-INSENSITIVE5 enhances vasiRNA biogenesis and virus resistance without altering the biogenesis of viral siRNAs. We show that vasiRNAs are active in directing widespread silencing of the target host genes and that Argonaute-2 binds to and is essential for the silencing activity of vasiRNAs. Production of vasiRNAs is readily detectable in Arabidopsis after infection by viruses from two distinct supergroups of plant RNA virus families and is targeted for inhibition by the silencing suppressor protein 2b of Cucumber mosaic virus. These findings reveal RDR1 production of Arabidopsis endogenous siRNAs and identify production of vasiRNAs to direct widespread silencing of host genes as a conserved response of plants to infection by diverse viruses. A possible function for vasiRNAs to confer broad-spectrum antiviral activity distinct to the virus-specific antiviral RNAi by viral siRNAs is discussed. PMID:25201959

Cao, Mengji; Du, Peng; Wang, Xianbing; Yu, Yun-Qi; Qiu, Yan-Hong; Li, Wanxiang; Gal-On, Amit; Zhou, Changyong; Li, Yi; Ding, Shou-Wei

2014-10-01

288

A Truncated Form of the Human CAF-1 p150 Subunit Impairs the Maintenance of Transcriptional Gene Silencing in Mammalian Cells  

PubMed Central

Chromatin assembly factor 1 (CAF-1) is a protein complex formed of three subunits, p150, p60, and p48, conserved from the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae to humans, which can promote nucleosome assembly onto newly replicated DNA. In S. cerevisiae, deletion of the genes encoding any of the three CAF-1 subunits (cac? mutants), although nonlethal, results in a silencing defect of genes packaged into heterochromatin. Here we report on a mammalian cell model that we devised to monitor gene silencing and its reversal in a quantitative manner. This model relies on the use of a cell line stably transfected with a reporter gene in a silenced state. Reversal of reporter gene silencing was achieved upon treatment of the cells with 5-azacytidine, which resulted in the demethylation of the reporter gene copies. We show that expression of a cDNA for the human p150 CAF-1 subunit harboring 5? truncations, but not that of a cDNA encoding the full-length p150 CAF-1 subunit, increases by more than 500-fold the frequency at which transcriptional silencing of the reporter gene copies is reversed in these cells. Reversal of gene silencing is dependent upon expression of a truncated protein, possibly acting as a dominant negative mutant of the wild-type CAF-1, is associated with alterations in chromatin structure as measured by an endonuclease sensitivity assay and is not associated with detectable changes in the methylation status of the silenced genes. These results suggest that the role of CAF-1 in the epigenetic control of gene expression has been conserved between yeast and mammals, despite the lack of DNA methylation in yeast chromatin. PMID:11238931

Tchenio, Thierry; Casella, Jean-Francois; Heidmann, Thierry

2001-01-01

289

BOB.1-positive Classical Hodgkin's Lymphoma Carries Hypermethylation of Its Promoter as Epigenetic Marker of Gene-silencing Memory  

PubMed Central

Analysis of archival formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded (FFPE) pathological specimens of three case of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-positive diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) and three cases of classical Hodgkin lymphoma (CHL) revealed that hypermethylation of the BOB.1 gene promoter was exclusively observed in CHL. A discrepancy was observed, however, between the methylation status of the BOB.1 gene promoter and its expression in the EBV-positive mixed cellular CHL (MCCHL). Since MCCHL lacks the typical B-cell phenotype even in the presence of abundant BOB.1 transcription factors, functional activity of BOB.1 may be lost or reduced by a mechanism other than epigenetic gene silencing. When some tumor-suppressor gene products have lost their biological function, impact or significance of derepression of such genes may be little. Therefore, when interpreting immunohistochemical results for diagnostic or research purposes, it must be borne in mind that apparent positive immunostaining can merely be the result of chromatin remodeling and that such transient expression often has little functional significance. Any apparent positive immunohistochemical result needs to be interpreted carefully with the help of the hypermethylation status as a molecular marker of gene silencing memory. PMID:25320409

Watanabe, Takafumi; Kitazawa, Riko; Mizuno, Yosuke; Kuwahara, Natsumi; Ito, Chizu; Sugita, Atsuro; Haraguchi, Ryuma; Kitazawa, Sohei

2014-01-01

290

A High Throughput Barley Stripe Mosaic Virus Vector for Virus Induced Gene Silencing in Monocots and Dicots  

PubMed Central

Barley stripe mosaic virus (BSMV) is a single-stranded RNA virus with three genome components designated alpha, beta, and gamma. BSMV vectors have previously been shown to be efficient virus induced gene silencing (VIGS) vehicles in barley and wheat and have provided important information about host genes functioning during pathogenesis as well as various aspects of genes functioning in development. To permit more effective use of BSMV VIGS for functional genomics experiments, we have developed an Agrobacterium delivery system for BSMV and have coupled this with a ligation independent cloning (LIC) strategy to mediate efficient cloning of host genes. Infiltrated Nicotiana benthamiana leaves provided excellent sources of virus for secondary BSMV infections and VIGS in cereals. The Agro/LIC BSMV VIGS vectors were able to function in high efficiency down regulation of phytoene desaturase (PDS), magnesium chelatase subunit H (ChlH), and plastid transketolase (TK) gene silencing in N. benthamiana and in the monocots, wheat, barley, and the model grass, Brachypodium distachyon. Suppression of an Arabidopsis orthologue cloned from wheat (TaPMR5) also interfered with wheat powdery mildew (Blumeria graminis f. sp. tritici) infections in a manner similar to that of the A. thaliana PMR5 loss-of-function allele. These results imply that the PMR5 gene has maintained similar functions across monocot and dicot families. Our BSMV VIGS system provides substantial advantages in expense, cloning efficiency, ease of manipulation and ability to apply VIGS for high throughput genomics studies. PMID:22031834

Yan, Lijie; Jackson, Andrew O.; Liu, Zhiyong; Han, Chenggui; Yu, Jialin; Li, Dawei

2011-01-01

291

Protective effect of caffeine against high sugar-induced transcription of microRNAs and consequent gene silencing: A study using lenses of galactosemic mice  

PubMed Central

Purpose Previous studies have shown that caffeine prevents the formation of cataracts induced by a high-galactose diet and consequent oxidative stress. The objective of this study was to investigate if this protective effect is reflected in the attenuation of the transcription of microRNAs (miRNAs) known to induce apoptosis and cell death by gene silencing. Methods Young CD-1 mice were fed either a normal laboratory diet or a diet containing 25% galactose with or without 1% caffeine. One week later, the animals were euthanized, and the lenses isolated and promptly processed for RNA isolation and subsequent preparation of cDNAs by reverse transcriptase reaction. Mature miRNA (miR)-specific cDNAs were then quantified with PCR in a 96-well microRNA-specific cassette using an ABI7900HT PCR machine. Results As expected from previous studies, the lenses were positive for all 84 miRs corresponding to the miRNA probes present in the cassette wells. However, the levels of at least 19 miRs were significantly elevated in galactosemic lenses compared to those in the normal lenses. The majority are proapoptotic. Such elevation was inhibited by caffeine. This has been demonstrated for the first time. Conclusions Since aberrant elevation of miRNAs silences various genes and consequently deactivates protein translation, and since caffeine downregulates such aberration, the beneficial effect of caffeine could be attributed to its ability to suppress elevation of toxic miRs and consequent gene silencing. PMID:23441122

Kovtun, Svitlana

2013-01-01

292

Comparison and implementation of the various numerical methods used for calculating transmission loss in silencer systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Issues concerning the design and use of large-scale silencers are more prevalent today then ever before. With the increased use of large industrial machinery (such as gas turbines) and the increase in public awareness and concern for noise control, the desire to be able to properly design silencers for specific applications is increasing. Even today, most silencer design is performed

S. Bilawchuk; K. R. Fyfe

2003-01-01

293

Tomato leaf curl virus satellite DNA as a gene silencing vector activated by helper virus infection  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tomato leaf curl virus (TLCV) satellite DNA (sat-DNA) constructs containing functional segments of the cauliflower mosaic virus (CaMV) 35S promoter, replicate in tobacco in the presence of helper TLCV and silence GUS activity in transgenic tobacco plants containing a CaMV 35S-GUS expression cassette. We have analysed these plants for evidence of the hallmarks of silencing. The GUS transcript was not

Dongmei Li; Seyed Ali Akbar Behjatnia; Ian Barry Dry; Amanda Ruth Walker; John Wesley Randles; Mohammad Ali Rezaian

2008-01-01

294

Host-induced gene silencing of wheat leaf rust fungus Puccinia triticina pathogenicity genes mediated by the Barley stripe mosaic virus.  

PubMed

Rust fungi are devastating plant pathogens and several Puccinia species have a large economic impact on wheat production worldwide. Disease protection, mostly offered by introgressed host-resistance genes, is often race-specific and rapidly overcome by newly-emerging virulent strains. Extensive new genomic resources have identified vital pathogenicity genes but their study is hampered because of the biotrophic life styles of rust fungi. In cereals, Barley stripe mosaic virus (BSMV)-induced RNAi has emerged as a useful tool to study loss-of-function phenotypes of candidate genes. Expression of pathogen-derived gene fragments in this system can be used to obtain in planta-generated silencing of corresponding genes inside biotrophic pathogens, a technique termed host-induced gene silencing (HIGS). Here we test the effectiveness of BSMV-mediated HIGS in the wheat leaf rust fungus Puccinia triticina (Pt) by targeting three predicted pathogenicity genes, a MAPK, a cyclophilin, and a calcineurin regulatory subunit. Inoculation of BSMV RNAi constructs generated fungal gene-specific siRNA molecules in systemic leaves of wheat plant. Subsequent Pt inoculation resulted in a suppressed disease phenotype and a reduction in endogenous transcript levels of the targeted fungal genes indicating translocation of siRNA molecules from host to fungal cells. Efficiency of this host-generated trans-specific RNAi was enhanced by using BSMV silencing vectors defective in coat protein coupled with introducing fungal gene sequences simultaneously in sense and antisense orientation. The disease suppression indicated the likely involvement of these fungal genes in pathogenicity. This study demonstrates that BSMV-mediated in planta-generated RNAi is an effective strategy for functional genomics in rust fungi. PMID:23417582

Panwar, Vinay; McCallum, Brent; Bakkeren, Guus

2013-04-01

295

Silencing of a metaphase I-specific gene results in a phenotype similar to that of the Pairing homeologous 1 (Ph1) gene mutations.  

PubMed

Although studied extensively since 1958, the molecular mode of action of the Pairing homeologous 1 (Ph1) gene is still unknown. In polyploid wheat, the diploid-like chromosome pairing is principally controlled by the Ph1 gene via preventing homeologous chromosome pairing (HECP). Here, we report a candidate Ph1 gene (C-Ph1) present in the Ph1 locus, transient as well as stable silencing of which resulted in a phenotype characteristic of the Ph1 gene mutants, including HECP, multivalent formation, and disrupted chromosome alignment on the metaphase I (MI) plate. Despite a highly conserved DNA sequence, the C-Ph1 gene homeologues showed a dramatically different structure and expression pattern, with only the 5B copy showing MI-specific expression, further supporting our claim for the Ph1 gene. In agreement with the previous reports about the Ph1 gene, the predicted protein of the 5A copy of the C-Ph1 gene is truncated, and thus perhaps less effective. The 5D copy is expressed around the onset of meiosis; thus, it may function during the earlier stages of chromosome pairing. Along with alternate splicing, the predicted protein of the 5B copy is different from the protein of the other two copies because of an insertion. These structural and expression differences among the homeologues concurred with the previous observations about Ph1 gene function. Stable RNAi silencing of the wheat gene in Arabidopsis showed multivalents and centromere clustering during meiosis I. PMID:25232038

Bhullar, Ramanjot; Nagarajan, Ragupathi; Bennypaul, Harvinder; Sidhu, Gaganpreet K; Sidhu, Gaganjot; Rustgi, Sachin; von Wettstein, Diter; Gill, Kulvinder S

2014-09-30

296

Silencing of a metaphase I-specific gene results in a phenotype similar to that of the Pairing homeologous 1 (Ph1) gene mutations  

PubMed Central

Although studied extensively since 1958, the molecular mode of action of the Pairing homeologous 1 (Ph1) gene is still unknown. In polyploid wheat, the diploid-like chromosome pairing is principally controlled by the Ph1 gene via preventing homeologous chromosome pairing (HECP). Here, we report a candidate Ph1 gene (C-Ph1) present in the Ph1 locus, transient as well as stable silencing of which resulted in a phenotype characteristic of the Ph1 gene mutants, including HECP, multivalent formation, and disrupted chromosome alignment on the metaphase I (MI) plate. Despite a highly conserved DNA sequence, the C-Ph1 gene homeologues showed a dramatically different structure and expression pattern, with only the 5B copy showing MI-specific expression, further supporting our claim for the Ph1 gene. In agreement with the previous reports about the Ph1 gene, the predicted protein of the 5A copy of the C-Ph1 gene is truncated, and thus perhaps less effective. The 5D copy is expressed around the onset of meiosis; thus, it may function during the earlier stages of chromosome pairing. Along with alternate splicing, the predicted protein of the 5B copy is different from the protein of the other two copies because of an insertion. These structural and expression differences among the homeologues concurred with the previous observations about Ph1 gene function. Stable RNAi silencing of the wheat gene in Arabidopsis showed multivalents and centromere clustering during meiosis I. PMID:25232038

Bhullar, Ramanjot; Nagarajan, Ragupathi; Bennypaul, Harvinder; Sidhu, Gaganpreet K.; Sidhu, Gaganjot; Rustgi, Sachin; von Wettstein, Diter; Gill, Kulvinder S.

2014-01-01

297

Silencing of Abcd1 and Abcd2 genes sensitizes astrocytes for inflammation: implication for X-adrenoleukodystrophy*  

PubMed Central

X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy is a metabolic disorder arising from a mutation/deletion in the ABCD1 gene, leading to a defect in the peroxisomal adrenoleukodystrophy protein (ALDP), which inhibits the oxidation of very long chain fatty acids (VLCFAs). Thus, these VLCFAs accumulate. In a cerebral form of ALD (cALD), VLCFA accumulation induces neuroinflammation that leads to loss of oligodendrocytes and myelin, which ultimately shortens the lifespan. To establish a relationship between the metabolic disease and inflammatory disease induction, we document that small interfering RNA (siRNA)-mediated silencing of Abcd1 (ALDP) and Abcd2 [adrenoleukodystrophy-related protein (ALDRP)] genes in mice primary astrocyte cultures resulted in accumulation of VLCFA and induction of an inflammatory response characteristic of human cALD. Correction of the metabolic defect using monoenoic FAs in Abcd1/Abcd2-silenced cultured astrocytes decreased inducible nitric oxide synthase and inflammatory cytokine expression, suggesting a link between VLCFA accumulation and inflammation. The inflammatory response was found to be mediated by transcription factors NF-?B, AP-1, and C/EBP in Abcd1/Abcd2-silenced mouse primary astrocytes. Although mechanisms of VLCFA-mediated induction of the inflammatory response have been investigated here in vitro, the in vivo mediators remain elusive. Our data represent the first study to suggest a direct link between the accumulation of VLCFA and the induction of inflammatory mediators. PMID:18723473

Singh, Jaspreet; Khan, Mushfiquddin; Singh, Inderjit

2009-01-01

298

Host-induced gene silencing of cytochrome P450 lanosterol C14?-demethylase-encoding genes confers strong resistance to Fusarium species.  

PubMed

Head blight, which is caused by mycotoxin-producing fungi of the genus Fusarium, is an economically important crop disease. We assessed the potential of host-induced gene silencing targeting the fungal cytochrome P450 lanosterol C-14?-demethylase (CYP51) genes, which are essential for ergosterol biosynthesis, to restrict fungal infection. In axenic cultures of Fusarium graminearum, in vitro feeding of CYP3RNA, a 791-nt double-stranded (ds)RNA complementary to CYP51A, CYP51B, and CYP51C, resulted in growth inhibition [half-maximum growth inhibition (IC50) = 1.2 nM] as well as altered fungal morphology, similar to that observed after treatment with the azole fungicide tebuconazole, for which the CYP51 enzyme is a target. Expression of the same dsRNA in Arabidopsis and barley rendered susceptible plants highly resistant to fungal infection. Microscopic analysis revealed that mycelium formation on CYP3RNA-expressing leaves was restricted to the inoculation sites, and that inoculated barley caryopses were virtually free of fungal hyphae. This inhibition of fungal growth correlated with in planta production of siRNAs corresponding to the targeted CYP51 sequences, as well as highly efficient silencing of the fungal CYP51 genes. The high efficiency of fungal inhibition suggests that host-induced gene-silencing targeting of the CYP51 genes is an alternative to chemical treatments for the control of devastating fungal diseases. PMID:24218613

Koch, Aline; Kumar, Neelendra; Weber, Lennart; Keller, Harald; Imani, Jafargholi; Kogel, Karl-Heinz

2013-11-26

299

Identification of Novel Pepper Genes Involved in Bax- or INF1-Mediated Cell Death Responses by High-Throughput Virus-Induced Gene Silencing  

PubMed Central

Hot pepper is one of the economically important crops in Asia. A large number of gene sequences, including expressed sequence tag (EST) and genomic sequences are publicly available. However, it is still a daunting task to determine gene function due to difficulties in genetic modification of a pepper plants. Here, we show the application of the virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS) repression for the study of 459 pepper ESTs selected as non-host pathogen-induced cell death responsive genes from pepper microarray experiments in Nicotiana benthamiana. Developmental abnormalities in N. benthamiana plants are observed in the 32 (7%) pepper ESTs-silenced plants. Aberrant morphological phenotypes largely comprised of three groups: stunted, abnormal leaf, and dead. In addition, by employing the combination of VIGS and Agrobacterium-mediated transient assays, we identified novel pepper ESTs that involved in Bax or INF1-mediated cell death responses. Silencing of seven pepper ESTs homologs suppressed Bax or INF1-induced cell death, five of which suppressed both cell death responses in N. benthamiana. The genes represented by these five ESTs encode putative proteins with functions in endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and lipid signaling. The genes represented by the other two pepper ESTs showing only Bax-mediated cell death inhibition encode a CCCH-type zinc finger protein containing an ankyrin-repeat domain and a probable calcium-binding protein, CML30-like. Taken together, we effectively isolated novel pepper clones that are involved in hypersensitive response (HR)-like cell death using VIGS, and identified silenced clones that have different responses to Bax and INF1 exposure, indicating separate signaling pathways for Bax- and INF1-mediated cell death. PMID:24256816

Lee, Jeong Hee; Kim, Young Cheol; Choi, Doil; Park, Jeong Mee

2013-01-01

300

A gene-rich, transcriptionally active environment and the pre-deposition of repressive marks are predictive of susceptibility to KRAB/KAP1-mediated silencing  

PubMed Central

Background KRAB-ZFPs (Krüppel-associated box domain-zinc finger proteins) are vertebrate-restricted transcriptional repressors encoded in the hundreds by the mouse and human genomes. They act via an essential cofactor, KAP1, which recruits effectors responsible for the formation of facultative heterochromatin. We have recently shown that KRAB/KAP1 can mediate long-range transcriptional repression through heterochromatin spreading, but also demonstrated that this process is at times countered by endogenous influences. Method To investigate this issue further we used an ectopic KRAB-based repressor. This system allowed us to tether KRAB/KAP1 to hundreds of euchromatic sites within genes, and to record its impact on gene expression. We then correlated this KRAB/KAP1-mediated transcriptional effect to pre-existing genomic and chromatin structures to identify specific characteristics making a gene susceptible to repression. Results We found that genes that were susceptible to KRAB/KAP1-mediated silencing carried higher levels of repressive histone marks both at the promoter and over the transcribed region than genes that were insensitive. In parallel, we found a high enrichment in euchromatic marks within both the close and more distant environment of these genes. Conclusion Together, these data indicate that high levels of gene activity in the genomic environment and the pre-deposition of repressive histone marks within a gene increase its susceptibility to KRAB/KAP1-mediated repression. PMID:21791101

2011-01-01

301

The use of gene activated matrix to mediate effective SMAD2 gene silencing against hypertrophic scar.  

PubMed

Hypertrophic scar (HS) originates from the over-expression of transforming growth factor ? (TGF-?) and downstream SMAD2. With attempts to rectify HS by RNA interference (RNAi) against SMAD2, we report the design of plasmid DNA encoding SMAD2 siRNA (pSUPER-SMAD2), and identify the optimal siRNA sequence toward maximal RNAi efficiency. To realize effective and sustained RNAi, we developed gene activated matrix (GAM) based on porous atelocollagen scaffold and embedded trimethyl chitosan-cysteine (TMCC)/pSUPER-SMAD2 polyplexes for promoting cell growth and gene transfection. The GAM exhibited porosity higher than 80%, pore size of 200-250 ?m, desired mechanical strength, and sustained pSUPER-SMAD2 release profiles. Normal skin fibroblasts (NSFs) and hypertrophic scar fibroblasts (HSFs) were allowed to infiltrate and proliferate in GAM; at the meantime they were transfected with TMCC/pSUPER-SMAD2 polyplexes to display remarkably reduced SMAD2 levels that lasted for up to 10 days, consequently inhibiting the over-production of type I and type III collagen. We further unraveled the notably higher transfection levels of GAM in three-dimensional (3D) than in 2D environment, which was attributed to the improved cell-matrix interactions that promote cell proliferation and polyplex internalization. This highly safe and effective GAM may serve as a promising candidate towards HS treatment. PMID:24388384

Yin, Lichen; Zhao, Xin; Ji, Shizhao; He, Chunbai; Wang, Guangyi; Tang, Cui; Gu, Shaohua; Yin, Chunhua

2014-03-01

302

Reactivation of a silenced H19 gene in human rhabdomyosarcoma by demethylation of DNA but not by histone hyperacetylation  

PubMed Central

Background The active copy of the imprinted gene H19 is turned off by inappropriate methylation in several pediatric tumors including Wilms' Tumour and embryonal rhabdomyosarcoma. H19 controls in cis the linked Insulin-like Growth Factor 2 (IGF2) gene, encoding an important growth factor. Recent work has suggested that methylation of a gene may lead to deacetylation of its associated histones and that silenced genes can be reactivated by increasing histone acetylation levels. Results Treatment of a rhabdomyosarcoma cell line which has a silent, methylated H19 gene with histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors under conditions which gave maximal hyperacetylation of histone 4, both globally and at the H19 gene itself could not reactivate H19 or affect the active Insulin-like Growth Factor 2 (IGF2) gene, but caused clear up-regulation of the Tissue-type Plasminogen Activator (TPA) gene, a non-imprinted gene known to respond to changes in histone acetylation. In contrast, mild treatment of the cells with the methylation inhibitor 5-AzaC-2'-deoxycytidine (AzaC) on its own was able to reactivate H19. Combining AzaC treatment with HDAC inhibitors gave a reduced rather than enhanced reactivation. These findings were confirmed in mouse primary liver and kidney explants which maintain normal imprinting, where we also found that the silent Igf2 gene could not be reactivated by HDAC inhibitors. Conclusion These results suggest that DNA methylation rather than histone acetylation is the primary determinant of silencing of H19 in rhabdomyosarcoma. PMID:12234381

Lynch, Catherine A; Tycko, Benjamin; Bestor, Timothy H; Walsh, Colum P

2002-01-01

303

Cationic amphiphilic macromolecule (CAM)-lipid complexes for efficient siRNA gene silencing.  

PubMed

The accumulated evidence has shown that lipids and polymers each have distinct advantages as carriers for siRNA delivery. Composite materials comprising both lipids and polymers may present improved properties that combine the advantage of each. Cationic amphiphilic macromolecules (CAMs) containing a hydrophobic alkylated mucic acid segment and a hydrophilic poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) tail were non-covalently complexed with two lipids, 1,2-dioleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphoethanolamine (DOPE) and 1,2-dioleoyl-3-trimethylammonium-propane (DOTAP), to serve as a siRNA delivery vehicle. By varying the weight ratio of CAM to lipid, cationic complexes with varying compositions were obtained in aqueous media and their properties evaluated. CAM-lipid complex sizes were relatively independent of composition, ranging from 100 to 200nm, and zeta potentials varied from 10 to 30mV. Transmission electron microscopy confirmed the spherical morphology of the complexes. The optimal N/P ratio was 50 as determined by electrophoretic mobility shift assay. The ability to achieve gene silencing was evaluated by anti-luciferase siRNA delivery to a U87-luciferase cell line. Several weight ratios of CAM-lipid complexes were found to have similar delivery efficiency compared to the gold standard, Lipofectamine. Isothermal titration calorimetry revealed that siRNA binds more tightly at pH=7.4 than pH=5 to CAM-lipid (1:10 w/w). Further intracellular trafficking studies monitored the siRNA escape from the endosomes at 24h following transfection of cells. The findings in the paper indicate that CAM-lipid complexes can serve as a novel and efficient siRNA delivery vehicle. PMID:24727076

Gu, Li; Nusblat, Leora M; Tishbi, Nasim; Noble, Sarah C; Pinson, Chaya M; Mintzer, Evan; Roth, Charles M; Uhrich, Kathryn E

2014-06-28

304

RNAi-induced K-Ras gene silencing suppresses growth of EC9706 cells and enhances chemotherapy sensitivity of esophageal cancer.  

PubMed

To analyze the growth, proliferation, apoptosis, invasiveness and chemotherapy sensitivity of EC9706 cells after K-Ras gene silencing, an expression carrier pSilencer-siK-Ras was constructed, and the EC9706 cell line was transfected using a liposome technique. Six groups were established: Control, siRNA NC (transfected with empty vector pSilencer2.1); Ras siRNA (transfected with pSilencer-siK-Ras2); Paclitaxel; Paclitaxel + siRNA NC; and Ras siRNA +Paclitaxel. After the treatment, RT-PCR, Western blotting, MTT assay, flow cytometry and the Transwell technique were used to assess expression of K-Ras mRNA and protein in EC9706 cells, as well as cell growth, proliferation, apoptosis and invasiveness. The effect of Paclitaxel chemotherapy was also tested. pSilencer-siK-Ras2 effectively down-regulated expression of K-Ras mRNA and protein in EC9706 cells, growth being significantly inhibited. Flow cytometry indicated obvious apoptosis of cells in the experimental group, with arrest in the G1 phase; cell migration ability was also reduced. After pSilencer-siK-Ras2 transfection or the addition of Paclitaxel, EC9706 cells were suppressed to different extents; the suppressive effect was strengthened by combined treatment. The results suggested that RNAi-induced K-Ras gene silencing could enhance chemotherapy sensitivity of esophageal cancer. PMID:23464485

Wang, Xin-Jie; Zheng, Yu-Ling; Fan, Qing-Xia; Zhang, Xu-Dong

2012-01-01

305

Observing Silence  

Microsoft Academic Search

The interpretation of silence depends on meanings that are negotiated in a particular social and cultural location, or place and space. Silence is an under- theorized and under-researched aspect of adult learning. The complexities and salience of silence in teaching and learning, methodological issues around observing and researching silence are explored. Theoretical Framework The ambiguity in the title of the

Paul Armstrong

306

Nanoparticle Based Galectin-1 Gene Silencing, Implications in Methamphetamine Regulation of HIV-1 Infection in Monocyte Derived Macrophages  

PubMed Central

Galectin-1, an adhesion molecule, is expressed in macrophages and implicated in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-1) viral adsorption. In this study, we investigated the effects of methamphetamine on galectin-1 production in human monocyte derived macrophages (MDM) and the role of galectin-1 in methamphetamine potentiation of HIV-1 infection. Herein we show that levels of galectin-1 gene and protein expression are significantly increased by meth-amphetamine. Furthermore, concomitant incubation of MDM with galectin-1 and methamphetamine facilitates HIV-1 infection compared to galectin-1 alone or methamphetamine alone. We utilized a nanotechnology approach that uses gold nanorod (GNR)-galectin-1 siRNA complexes (nanoplexes) to inhibit gene expression for galectin-1. Nanoplexes significantly silenced gene expression for galectin-1 and reversed the effects of methamphetamine on galectin-1 gene expression. Moreover, the effects of methamphetamine on HIV-1 infection were attenuated in the presence of the nanoplex in MDM. PMID:22689223

Law, Wing Cheung; Mahajan, Supriya D.; Aalinkeel, Ravikumar; Nair, Bindukumar; Sykes, Donald E.; Yong, Ken-Tye; Hui, Rui; Prasad, Paras N.; Schwartz, Stanley A.

2012-01-01

307

Biodegradable nanocapsules as siRNA carriers for mutant K-Ras gene silencing of human pancreatic carcinoma cells.  

PubMed

The application of small interfering RNA (siRNA)-based RNA interference (RNAi) for cancer gene therapy has attracted great attention. Gene therapy is a promising strategy for cancer treatment because it is relatively non-invasive and has a higher therapeutic specificity than chemotherapy. However, without the use of safe and efficient carriers, siRNAs cannot effectively penetrate the cell membranes and RNAi is impeded. In this work, cationic poly(lactic acid) (CPLA)-based degradable nanocapsules (NCs) are utilized as novel carriers of siRNA for effective gene silencing of pancreatic cancer cells. These CPLA-NCs can readily form nanoplexes with K-Ras siRNA and over 90% transfection efficiency is achieved using the nanoplexes. Cell viability studies show that the nanoparticles are highly biocompatible and non-toxic, indicating that CPLA-NC is a promising potential candidate for gene therapy in a clinical setting. PMID:23427041

Lin, Guimiao; Hu, Rui; Law, Wing-Cheung; Chen, Chih-Kuang; Wang, Yucheng; Li Chin, Hui; Nguyen, Quoc Toan; Lai, Cheng Kee; Yoon, Ho Sup; Wang, Xiaomei; Xu, Gaixia; Ye, Ling; Cheng, Chong; Yong, Ken-Tye

2013-08-26

308

Citrus tristeza virus-based RNAi in citrus plants induces gene silencing in Diaphorina citri, a phloem-sap sucking insect vector of citrus greening disease (Huanglongbing).  

PubMed

A transient expression vector based on Citrus tristeza virus (CTV) is unusually stable. Because of its stability it is being considered for use in the field to control Huanglongbing (HLB), which is caused by Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus (CLas) and vectored by Asian citrus psyllid, Diaphorina citri. In the absence of effective control strategies for CLas, emphasis has been on control of D. citri. Coincident cohabitation in phloem tissue by CLas, D. citri and CTV was exploited to develop a novel method to mitigate HLB through RNA interference (RNAi). Since CTV has three RNA silencing suppressors, it was not known if CTV-based vector could induce RNAi in citrus. Yet, expression of sequences targeting citrus phytoene desaturase gene by CTV-RNAi resulted in photo-bleaching phenotype. CTV-RNAi vector, engineered with truncated abnormal wing disc (Awd) gene of D. citri, induced altered Awd expression when silencing triggers ingested by feeding D. citri nymphs. Decreased Awd in nymphs resulted in malformed-wing phenotype in adults and increased adult mortality. This impaired ability of D. citri to fly would potentially limit the successful vectoring of CLas bacteria between citrus trees in the grove. CTV-RNAi vector would be relevant for fast-track screening of candidate sequences for RNAi-mediated pest control. PMID:24572372

Hajeri, Subhas; Killiny, Nabil; El-Mohtar, Choaa; Dawson, William O; Gowda, Siddarame

2014-04-20

309

Enhanced Gene Silencing in Cells Cured of Persistent Virus Infection by RNA Interference?  

PubMed Central

We compared HEp-2-derived cells cured of persistent poliovirus infection by RNA interference (RNAi) with parental cells, to investigate possible changes in the efficiency of RNAi. Lower levels of poliovirus replication were observed in cured cells, possibly facilitating virus silencing by antiviral small interfering RNAs (siRNAs). However, green fluorescent protein (GFP) produced from a measles virus vector and also GFP and luciferase produced from plasmids that do not replicate in human cells were more effectively silenced by specific siRNAs in cured than in control cells. Thus, cells displaying enhanced silencing were selected during curing by RNAi. Our results strongly suggest that the RNAi machinery of cured cells is more efficient than that of parental cells. PMID:20392843

Pelletier, Isabelle; Saulnier, Aure; Brisac, Cynthia; Jegouic, Sophie; Vabret, Nicolas; Tangy, Frederic; Blondel, Bruno; Colbere-Garapin, Florence

2010-01-01

310

Identification of the virulence factors and suppressors of posttranscriptional gene silencing encoded by Ageratum yellow vein virus, a monopartite begomovirus.  

PubMed

Ageratum yellow vein disease (AYVD) is caused by the association of a Tomato leaf curl Java betasatellite [Indonesia:Indonesia 1:2003] (ToLCJB-[ID:ID1:03]) with a begomovirus component. Our previous results demonstrated that ToLCJB-[ID:ID:03] is essential for induction of leaf curl symptoms in plants and transgene expression of its betaC1 gene in Nicotiana benthamiana plants induces virus-like symptoms. Here we show that Ageratum yellow vein virus-Indonesia [Indonesia: Tomato] (AYVV-ID[ID:Tom]) alone could systemically infect the plants and induced upward leaf curl symptoms. ToLCJB-[ID:ID1:03] was required, in addition to AYVV-ID[ID:Tom], for induction of severe downward leaf curl disease in N. benthamiana plants. However, DNAbeta01fsbetaC1, which encompasses a frameshift mutation, did not induce severe symptoms in N. benthamiana when co-inoculated with AYVV-ID[ID:Tom]. The infectivity analysis of AYVV-ID[ID:Tom] and its associated betasatellite encoded genes using Potato virus X (PVX) vector were carried out in N. benthamiana, indicate that the V2 and betaC1 genes are symptom determinants. We have identified the DNA encoded V2 and its betasatellite, ToLCJB-[ID:ID1:03], encoded betaC1 proteins as efficient silencing suppressors of posttranscriptional gene silencing (PTGS) by using an Agrobacterium co-infiltration or heterologous PVX vector assays. However, the results also showed weak suppression of gene silencing activities for C2 and C4 induced by GFP and mRNA associated with GFP was detected. Furthermore, confocal imaging analysis of ToLCJB-[ID:ID1:03] betaC1 in the epidermal cells of N. benthamiana shows that this protein is accumulated towards the periphery of the cell and around the nucleus, however, V2 accumulated in the cell cytoplasm, C4 associated with plasma membrane and C2 exclusively targeted into nucleus. In this study, we identified as many as four distinct suppressors of RNA silencing encoded by AYVV-ID[ID:Tom] and its cognate betasatellite in the family Geminiviridae, counteracting innate antiviral response. PMID:20079777

Sharma, P; Ikegami, M; Kon, T

2010-04-01

311

Gene Therapy for Neuropathic Pain by Silencing of TNF-? Expression with Lentiviral Vectors Targeting the Dorsal Root Ganglion in Mice  

PubMed Central

Neuropathic pain can be a debilitating condition. Many types of drugs that have been used to treat neuropathic pain have only limited efficacy. Recent studies indicate that pro-inflammatory mediators including tumor necrosis factor ? (TNF-?) are involved in the pathogenesis of neuropathic pain. In the present study, we engineered a gene therapy strategy to relieve neuropathic pain by silencing TNF-? expression in the dorsal root ganglion (DRG) using lentiviral vectors expressing TNF short hairpin RNA1-4 (LV-TNF-shRNA1-4) in mice. First, based on its efficacy in silencing TNF-? in vitro, we selected shRNA3 to construct LV-TNF-shRNA3 for in vivo study. We used L5 spinal nerve transection (SNT) mice as a neuropathic pain model. These animals were found to display up-regulated mRNA expression of activating transcription factor 3 (ATF3) and neuropeptide Y (NPY), injury markers, and interleukin (IL)-6, an inflammatory cytokine in the ipsilateral L5 DRG. Injection of LV-TNF-shRNA3 onto the proximal transected site suppressed significantly the mRNA levels of ATF3, NPY and IL-6, reduced mechanical allodynia and neuronal cell death of DRG neurons. These results suggest that lentiviral-mediated silencing of TNF-? in DRG relieves neuropathic pain and reduces neuronal cell death, and may constitute a novel therapeutic option for neuropathic pain. PMID:24642694

Ogawa, Nobuhiro; Kawai, Hiromichi; Terashima, Tomoya; Kojima, Hideto; Oka, Kazuhiro; Chan, Lawrence; Maegawa, Hiroshi

2014-01-01

312

Silencing of the EPHB3 tumor-suppressor gene in human colorectal cancer through decommissioning of a transcriptional enhancer  

PubMed Central

The protein tyrosine kinase Ephrin type-B receptor 3 (EPHB3) counteracts tumor-cell dissemination by regulating intercellular adhesion and repulsion and acts as tumor/invasion suppressor in colorectal cancer. This protective mechanism frequently collapses at the adenoma–carcinoma transition due to EPHB3 transcriptional silencing. Here, we identify a transcriptional enhancer at the EPHB3 gene that integrates input from the intestinal stem-cell regulator achaete-scute family basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor 2 (ASCL2), Wnt/?-catenin, MAP kinase, and Notch signaling. EPHB3 enhancer activity is highly variable in colorectal carcinoma cells and precisely reflects EPHB3 expression states, suggesting that enhancer dysfunction underlies EPHB3 silencing. Interestingly, low Notch activity parallels reduced EPHB3 expression in colorectal carcinoma cell lines and poorly differentiated tumor-tissue specimens. Restoring Notch activity reestablished enhancer function and EPHB3 expression. Although essential for intestinal stem-cell maintenance and adenoma formation, Notch activity seems dispensable in colorectal carcinomas. Notch activation even promoted growth arrest and apoptosis of colorectal carcinoma cells, attenuated their self-renewal capacity in vitro, and blocked tumor growth in vivo. Higher levels of Notch activity also correlated with longer disease-free survival of colorectal cancer patients. In summary, our results uncover enhancer decommissioning as a mechanism for transcriptional silencing of the EPHB3 tumor suppressor and argue for an antitumorigenic function of Notch signaling in advanced colorectal cancer. PMID:24707046

Jagle, Sabine; Ronsch, Kerstin; Timme, Sylvia; Andrlova, Hana; Bertrand, Miriam; Jager, Marcel; Proske, Amelie; Schrempp, Monika; Yousaf, Afsheen; Michoel, Tom; Zeiser, Robert; Werner, Martin; Lassmann, Silke; Hecht, Andreas

2014-01-01

313

Silencing of the EPHB3 tumor-suppressor gene in human colorectal cancer through decommissioning of a transcriptional enhancer.  

PubMed

The protein tyrosine kinase Ephrin type-B receptor 3 (EPHB3) counteracts tumor-cell dissemination by regulating intercellular adhesion and repulsion and acts as tumor/invasion suppressor in colorectal cancer. This protective mechanism frequently collapses at the adenoma-carcinoma transition due to EPHB3 transcriptional silencing. Here, we identify a transcriptional enhancer at the EPHB3 gene that integrates input from the intestinal stem-cell regulator achaete-scute family basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor 2 (ASCL2), Wnt/?-catenin, MAP kinase, and Notch signaling. EPHB3 enhancer activity is highly variable in colorectal carcinoma cells and precisely reflects EPHB3 expression states, suggesting that enhancer dysfunction underlies EPHB3 silencing. Interestingly, low Notch activity parallels reduced EPHB3 expression in colorectal carcinoma cell lines and poorly differentiated tumor-tissue specimens. Restoring Notch activity reestablished enhancer function and EPHB3 expression. Although essential for intestinal stem-cell maintenance and adenoma formation, Notch activity seems dispensable in colorectal carcinomas. Notch activation even promoted growth arrest and apoptosis of colorectal carcinoma cells, attenuated their self-renewal capacity in vitro, and blocked tumor growth in vivo. Higher levels of Notch activity also correlated with longer disease-free survival of colorectal cancer patients. In summary, our results uncover enhancer decommissioning as a mechanism for transcriptional silencing of the EPHB3 tumor suppressor and argue for an antitumorigenic function of Notch signaling in advanced colorectal cancer. PMID:24707046

Jägle, Sabine; Rönsch, Kerstin; Timme, Sylvia; Andrlová, Hana; Bertrand, Miriam; Jäger, Marcel; Proske, Amelie; Schrempp, Monika; Yousaf, Afsheen; Michoel, Tom; Zeiser, Robert; Werner, Martin; Lassmann, Silke; Hecht, Andreas

2014-04-01

314

Epigenetic silencing of genes and microRNAs within the imprinted Dlk1-Dio3 region at human chromosome 14.32 in giant cell tumor of bone  

PubMed Central

Background Growing evidence exists that the neoplastic stromal cell population (GCTSC) within giant cell tumors (GCT) originates from mesenchymal stem cells (MSC). In a previous study we identified a microRNA signature that differentiates between these cell types. Five differentially expressed microRNAs are located within the Dlk1-Dio3 region on chromosome 14. Aberrant regulation within this region is known to influence cell growth, differentiation and the development of cancer. The aim of this study was to elucidate the involvement of deregulations within the Dlk1-Dio3 region in GCT pathogenesis. Methods Quantitative gene and microRNA expression analyses were performed on GCTSCs and MSCs with or without treatment with epigenetic modifiers. Methylation analysis of differentially methylated regions was performed by bisulfite sequencing. Results In addition to microRNA silencing we detected a significant downregulation of Dlk1, Meg3 and Meg8 in GCTSCs compared to MSCs. DNA methylation analyses of the Meg3-DMR and IG-DMR revealed a frequent hypermethylation within the IG-DMR in GCTs. Epigenetic modification could restore expression of some but not all analyzed genes and microRNAs suggesting further regulatory mechanisms. Conclusion Epigenetic silencing of genes and microRNAs within the Dlk1-Dio3 region is a common event in GCTSCs, in part mediated by hypermethylation within the IG-DMR. The identified genes, micro RNAs and microRNA target genes might be valuable targets for the development of improved strategies for GCT diagnosis and therapy. PMID:25005035

2014-01-01

315

Geminivirus AL2 protein induces expression of, and interacts with, a calmodulin-like gene, an endogenous regulator of gene silencing.  

PubMed

RNA silencing is an innate cellular response involved in antiviral defense. Arabidopsis calmodulin-like protein 39 (At-rgsCaM) is related to known regulators of RNA silencing in tomato and Nicotiana tabacum. Geminivirus AL2 protein functions to suppress post-transcriptional and transcriptional gene silencing, possibly through induction of an endogenous regulator. In support of this, the At-rgsCaM promoter responds to Tomato golden mosaic virus (TGMV) AL2 in protoplasts and geminivirus infection increases rgsCaM expression in Arabidopsis and Nicotiana benthamiana. Further, over-expression of rgsCaM leads to increased susceptibility to infection, as a consequence of increased viral DNA loads. It has been shown that rgsCaM may target silencing suppressors of RNA viruses for degradation via the autophagy pathway. This interaction occurs within the cytoplasm, but AL2 interacts with rgsCaM in the nucleus. It is tempting to speculate that AL2 may act to sequester rgsCaM in the nucleus to prevent targeting of AL2 for degradation. PMID:25010276

Yong Chung, Ho; Lacatus, Gabriela; Sunter, Garry

2014-07-01

316

Silencing of the Host Factor eIF(iso)4E Gene Confers Plum Pox Virus Resistance in Plum  

PubMed Central

Plum pox virus (PPV) causes the most economically-devastating viral disease in Prunus species. Unfortunately, few natural resistance genes are available for the control of PPV. Recessive resistance to some potyviruses is associated with mutations of eukaryotic translation initiation factor 4E (eIF4E) or its isoform eIF(iso)4E. In this study, we used an RNA silencing approach to manipulate the expression of eIF4E and eIF(iso)4E towards the development of PPV resistance in Prunus species. The eIF4E and eIF(iso)4E genes were cloned from plum (Prunus domestica L.). The sequence identity between plum eIF4E and eIF(iso)4E coding sequences is 60.4% at the nucleotide level and 52.1% at the amino acid level. Quantitative real-time RT-PCR analysis showed that these two genes have a similar expression pattern in different tissues. Transgenes allowing the production of hairpin RNAs of plum eIF4E or eIF(iso)4E were introduced into plum via Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. Gene expression analysis confirmed specific reduced expression of eIF4E or eIF(iso)4E in the transgenic lines and this was associated with the accumulation of siRNAs. Transgenic plants were challenged with PPV-D strain and resistance was evaluated by measuring the concentration of viral RNA. Eighty-two percent of the eIF(iso)4E silenced transgenic plants were resistant to PPV, while eIF4E silenced transgenic plants did not show PPV resistance. Physical interaction between PPV-VPg and plum eIF(iso)4E was confirmed. In contrast, no PPV-VPg/eIF4E interaction was observed. These results indicate that eIF(iso)4E is involved in PPV infection in plum, and that silencing of eIF(iso)4E expression can lead to PPV resistance in Prunus species. PMID:23382802

Wang, Xinhua; Kohalmi, Susanne E.; Svircev, Antonet; Wang, Aiming; Sanfacon, Helene; Tian, Lining

2013-01-01

317

AUGMENTATION OF EFFECTS OF INTERFERON-STIMULATED GENES BY REVERSAL OF EPIGENETIC SILENCING: POTENTIAL APPLICATION TO MELANOMA  

PubMed Central

Increased expression of genes, silenced by methylation of their promoters, could have relevance for increasing effects of not only interferons (IFNs) but also APO2L/TRAIL, cytotoxics and immunotherapeutics for melanoma and other malignancies. A resistant melanoma cell line, A375, lacked APO2L/TRAIL or apoptosis induction by either IFN-?2 or IFN-?. However, apoptosis was induced by IFNs in A375 cells by 5-aza, 2?deoxycytidine, evaluated based upon the postulate that promoter methylation might be silencing pro-apopoptotic IFN-stimulated genes (ISGs). RASSF1A, commonly methylated at high frequency in many tumors including melanoma, which we discovered to be also an IFN-regulated gene, was increased by 5-Aza-dC. RASSF1A was important in enhancing apoptotic effects of not only IFNs and APO2L/TRAIL but also cisplatin. Unraveling epigenetic regulatory mechanisms, as yet only partially identified, will result in new biological insights and improved strategies for therapeutic use of IFNs or ISGs such as APO2L/TRAIL. PMID:17689283

Borden, Ernest C.

2009-01-01

318

Bioenergetics and Gene Silencing Approaches for Unraveling Nucleotide Recognition by the Human EIF2C2/Ago2 PAZ Domain  

PubMed Central

Gene silencing and RNA interference are major cellular processes that control gene expression via the cleavage of target mRNA. Eukaryotic translation initiation factor 2C2 (EIF2C2, Argonaute protein 2, Ago2) is considered to be the major player of RNAi as it is the core component of RISC complexes. While a considerable amount of research has focused on RNA interference and its associated mechanisms, the nature and mechanisms of nucleotide recognition by the PAZ domain of EIF2C2/Ago2 have not yet been characterized. Here, we demonstrate that the EIF2C2/Ago2 PAZ domain has an inherent lack of binding to adenine nucleotides, a feature that highlights the poor binding of 3?-adenylated RNAs with the PAZ domain as well as the selective high trimming of the 3?-ends of miRNA containing adenine nucleotides. We further show that the PAZ domain selectively binds all ribonucleotides (except adenosine), whereas it poorly recognizes deoxyribonucleotides. In this context, the modification of dTMP to its ribonucleotide analogue gave a drastic improvement of binding enthalpy and, hence, binding affinity. Additionally, higher in vivo gene silencing efficacy was correlated with the stronger PAZ domain binders. These findings provide new insights into the nature of the interactions of the EIF2C2/Ago2 PAZ domain. PMID:24788663

Kandeel, Mahmoud; Al-Taher, Abdullah; Nakashima, Remi; Sakaguchi, Tomoya; Kandeel, Ali; Nagaya, Yuki; Kitamura, Yoshiaki; Kitade, Yukio

2014-01-01

319

Virus-induced gene silencing of pea CHLI and CHLD affects tetrapyrrole biosynthesis, chloroplast development and the primary metabolic network.  

PubMed

The first committed and highly regulated step of chlorophyll biosynthesis is the insertion of Mg(2+) into protoporphyrin IX, which is catalyzed by Mg chelatase that consists of CHLH, CHLD and CHLI subunits. In this study, CHLI and CHLD genes were suppressed by virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS-CHLI and VIGS-CHLD) in pea (Pisum sativum), respectively. VIGS-CHLI and VIGS-CHLD plants both showed yellow leaf phenotypes with the reduced Mg chelatase activity and the inactivated synthesis of 5-aminolevulinic acid. The lower chlorophyll accumulation correlated with undeveloped thylakoid membranes, altered chloroplast nucleoid structure, malformed antenna complexes and compromised photosynthesis capacity in the yellow leaf tissues of the VIGS-CHLI and VIGS-CHLD plants. Non-enzymatic antioxidant contents and the activities of antioxidant enzymes were altered in response to enhanced accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in the chlorophyll deficient leaves of VIGS-CHLI and VIGS-CHLD plants. Furthermore, the results of metabolite profiling indicate a tight correlation between primary metabolic pathways and Mg chelatase activity. We also found that CHLD induces a feedback-regulated change of the transcription of photosynthesis-associated nuclear genes. CHLD and CHLI silencing resulted in a rapid reduction of photosynthetic proteins. Taken together, Mg chelatase is not only a key regulator of tetrapyrrole biosynthesis but its activity also correlates with ROS homeostasis, primary interorganellar metabolism and retrograde signaling in plant cells. PMID:23416492

Luo, Tao; Luo, Sha; Araújo, Wagner L; Schlicke, Hagen; Rothbart, Maxi; Yu, Jing; Fan, Tingting; Fernie, Alisdair R; Grimm, Bernhard; Luo, Meizhong

2013-04-01

320

A sustained and pancellular reversal of gamma-globin gene silencing in adult human erythroid precursor cells.  

PubMed

We systematically compared cytokine-mediated increases or decreases in proliferation with globin gene and protein expression in adult human erythroblasts. Despite their opposite effects on growth, stem cell factor (SCF) and transforming growth factor beta (TGF-B) had synergistic effects with respect to fetal hemoglobin (HbF): average HbF/HbF + adult hemoglobin (HbA) ratio in erythropoietin (EPO) = 1.4 +/- 1.0%; EPO + TGF-B = 10.8 +/- 1.9%; EPO + SCF = 19.1 +/- 6.2%; and EPO + SCF + TGF-B (EST) = 39.3 +/- 6.3%. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) revealed significant increases in gamma-globin transcripts that were balanced by reduced beta-globin transcripts. Single-cell quantitative PCR demonstrated a complete reversal of gamma-globin gene silencing with detectable gamma-globin mRNA in more than 95% of the cells. Immunostaining with HbF antibodies also showed a pancellular distribution in EST (96.2 +/- 0.01% HbF positive) compared with a heterocellular distribution in EPO (42.9 +/- 0.01% HbF positive). As shown here for the first time, a robust and pancellular reversal of gamma-globin gene silencing among hemoglobinized erythroblasts from adult humans may be achieved in the absence of hereditary mutation or direct genomic manipulation. PMID:15367428

Bhanu, Natarajan V; Trice, Tiffany A; Lee, Y Terry; Gantt, Nicole M; Oneal, Patricia; Schwartz, Joseph D; Noel, Pierre; Miller, Jeffery L

2005-01-01

321

PHD domain-mediated E3 ligase activity directs intramolecular sumoylation of an adjacent bromodomain required for gene silencing.  

PubMed

Tandem PHD and bromodomains are often found in chromatin-associated proteins and have been shown to cooperate in gene silencing. Each domain can bind specifically modified histones: the mechanisms of cooperation between these domains are unknown. We show that the PHD domain of the KAP1 corepressor functions as an intramolecular E3 ligase for sumoylation of the adjacent bromodomain. The RING finger-like structure of the PHD domain is required for both Ubc9 binding and sumoylation and directs modification to specific lysine residues in the bromodomain. Sumoylation is required for KAP1-mediated gene silencing and functions by directly recruiting the SETDB1 histone methyltransferase and the CHD3/Mi2 component of the NuRD complex via SUMO-interacting motifs. Sumoylated KAP1 stimulates the histone methyltransferase activity of SETDB1. These data provide a mechanistic explanation for the cooperation of PHD and bromodomains in gene regulation and describe a function of the PHD domain as an intramolecular E3 SUMO ligase. PMID:18082607

Ivanov, Alexey V; Peng, Hongzhuang; Yurchenko, Vyacheslav; Yap, Kyoko L; Negorev, Dmitri G; Schultz, David C; Psulkowski, Elyse; Fredericks, William J; White, David E; Maul, Gerd G; Sadofsky, Moshe J; Zhou, Ming-Ming; Rauscher, Frank J

2007-12-14

322

Identification of guanine nucleotide-binding protein ?-7 as an epigenetically silenced gene in head and neck cancer by gene expression profiling  

PubMed Central

Silencing of tumor suppressor genes plays a vital role in head and neck carcinogenesis. Aberrant hypermethylation in the promoter region of some known or putative tumor suppressor genes occurs frequently during the development of various types of cancer including head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC). In this study we used an expanded mRNA expression profiling approach followed by microarray expression analysis to identify epigenetically inactivated genes in HNSCC. Two HNSCC cell lines were treated with 5-aza-2?-deoxycytidine followed by microarray analysis to identify epigenetically silenced genes in HNSCC. We found 1,960, 614 and 427 genes were upregulated in the HNSCC cell lines JHU-012, JHU-011 and the combination of both cell lines, respectively. HNSCC tumor and normal mucosal samples were used for gene profiling by a 47K mRNA gene expression array and we found 7,140 genes were downregulated in HNSCC tumors compared to normal mucosa, as determined by microarray analysis, and were integrated with cell line data. Integrative analysis defined 126 candidate genes, of which only seven genes showed differential methylation in tumors and no methylation in normal mucosa after bisulfite sequencing. Following validation by QMSP, one gene, guanine nucleotide-binding protein ?-7 (GNG7), was confirmed to be highly methylated in tumors and unmethylated in normal mucosal and salivary rinse samples demonstrating cancer-specific methylation in HNSCC tissues. TXNIP and TUSC2 were partially methylated in tumors and normal salivary rinses but unmethylated in normal mucosa. We concluded that GNG7 is a highly specific promoter methylated gene associated with HNSCC. In addition, TXNIP and TUSC2 are also potential biomarkers for HNSCC. PMID:23403885

DEMOKAN, SEMRA; CHUANG, ALICE Y.; CHANG, XIAOFEI; KHAN, TANBIR; SMITH, IAN M.; PATTANI, KAVITA M.; DASGUPTA, SANTANU; BEGUM, SHAHNAZ; KHAN, ZUBAIR; LIEGEOIS, NANETTE J.; WESTRA, WILLIAM H.; SIDRANSKY, DAVID; KOCH, WAYNE; CALIFANO, JOSEPH A.

2013-01-01

323

Emerging technologies / Technologies naissantes The role of viroids in gene silencing: the model  

E-print Network

not deepen the flower colour as expected. In- stead, flowers showed varied pigmentation, with some com: In plants, RNA silencing plays important roles in antiviral defense, host genome integrity and development. The ability of viroids, which are small circular RNAs that infect higher plants and cause significant economic

Perreault, Jean-Pierre

324

High-Stearic and High-Oleic Cottonseed Oils Produced by Hairpin RNA-Mediated Post-Transcriptional Gene Silencing1  

PubMed Central

We have genetically modified the fatty acid composition of cottonseed oil using the recently developed technique of hairpin RNA-mediated gene silencing to down-regulate the seed expression of two key fatty acid desaturase genes, ghSAD-1-encoding stearoyl-acyl-carrier protein ?9-desaturase and ghFAD2-1-encoding oleoyl-phosphatidylcholine ?6-desaturase. Hairpin RNA-encoding gene constructs (HP) targeted against either ghSAD-1 or ghFAD2-1 were transformed into cotton (Gossypium hirsutum cv Coker 315). The resulting down-regulation of the ghSAD-1 gene substantially increased stearic acid from the normal levels of 2% to 3% up to as high as 40%, and silencing of the ghFAD2-1 gene resulted in greatly elevated oleic acid content, up to 77% compared with about 15% in seeds of untransformed plants. In addition, palmitic acid was significantly lowered in both high-stearic and high-oleic lines. Similar fatty acid composition phenotypes were also achieved by transformation with conventional antisense constructs targeted against the same genes, but at much lower frequencies than were achieved with the HP constructs. By intercrossing the high-stearic and high-oleic genotypes, it was possible to simultaneously down-regulate both ghSAD-1 and ghFAD2-1 to the same degree as observed in the individually silenced parental lines, demonstrating for the first time, to our knowledge, that duplex RNA-induced posttranslational gene silencing in independent genes can be stacked without any diminution in the degree of silencing. The silencing of ghSAD-1 and/or ghFAD2-1 to various degrees enables the development of cottonseed oils having novel combinations of palmitic, stearic, oleic, and linoleic contents that can be used in margarines and deep frying without hydrogenation and also potentially in high-value confectionery applications. PMID:12177486

Liu, Qing; Singh, Surinder P.; Green, Allan G.

2002-01-01

325

Genetically Encoded Light-Activated Transcription for Spatio-Temporal Control of Gene Expression and Gene Silencing in Mammalian Cells  

PubMed Central

Photocaging provides a method to spatially and temporally control biological function and gene expression with high resolution. Proteins can be photochemically controlled through the site-specific installation of caging groups on amino acid side chains that are essential for protein function. The photocaging of a synthetic gene network using unnatural amino acid mutagenesis in mammalian cells was demonstrated with an engineered bacteriophage RNA polymerase. A caged T7 RNA polymerase was expressed in cells with an expanded genetic code and used in the photochemical activation of genes under control of an orthogonal T7 promoter, demonstrating tight spatial and temporal control. The synthetic gene expression system was validated with two reporter genes (luciferase and EGFP) and applied to the light-triggered transcription of short hairpin RNA constructs for the induction of RNA interference. PMID:23931657

Hemphill, James; Chou, Chungjung; Chin, Jason W.; Deiters, Alexander

2014-01-01

326

Silencing defense pathways in Arabidopsis by heterologous gene sequences from Brassica oleracea enhances the performance of a specialist and a generalist herbivorous insect.  

PubMed

The jasmonic acid (JA) signaling pathway and defensive secondary metabolites such as glucosinolates are generally considered to play central roles in the defense of brassicaceous plants against herbivorous insects. To determine the function of specific plant genes in plant-insect interactions, signaling or biosynthetic mutants are needed. However, mutants are not yet available for brassicaceous plants other than Arabidopsis thaliana, e.g., cabbage (Brassica oleracea). We employed virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS) by using tobacco rattle virus (TRV) to knock down the endogenous expression of lipoxygenase (LOX), an upstream enzyme of the JA pathway and thioglucoside glucohydrolase: myrosinase (TGG1/TGG2), a hydrolytic enzyme that catalyzes the release of defensive volatile products originating from glucosinolates, in Arabidopsis thaliana. This was done by using the heterologous gene sequences from B. oleracea. Silencing these genes in A. thaliana plants is efficient and specific. Only 18 nucleotides with 100% identity between the trigger (BoMYR) and the target (AtTGG1/2) sequence are sufficient to achieve gene silencing. LOX-silenced plants showed significantly reduced AtLOX2 transcript accumulation after Pieris rapae larval feeding. TGG-silenced plants exhibited significantly lower TGG1/TGG2 transcript levels only after shorter larval feeding. The inhibition of TGG1/TGG2 transcript accumulation via gene silencing may be overruled by longer larval feeding. Specialist P. rapae larvae developed significantly better on both types of silenced plants than on empty vector (EV) control plants, while generalist Mamestra brassicae larvae developed significantly better on the TGG1/TGG2 silenced plants than on EV control plants. This shows that not only the generalist herbivore but also the Brassicaceae-specialist P. rapae is negatively affected by the ability of brassicaceous plants to produce their specific secondary metabolites, i.e., glucosinolates. Our results demonstrate the important roles of AtLOX2 and AtTGG1/TGG2 genes, which were silenced by heterologous gene sequences from B. oleracea BoLOX and BoMYR, in A. thaliana resistance to the specialist P. rapae and the generalist M. brassicae. PMID:21691809

Zheng, Si-Jun; Zhang, Peng-Jun; van Loon, Joop J A; Dicke, Marcel

2011-08-01

327

Arabidopsis Histone Deacetylase HDA6 Is Required for Maintenance of Transcriptional Gene Silencing and Determines Nuclear Organization of rDNA Repeats  

Microsoft Academic Search

Histone acetylation and deacetylation are connected with transcriptional activation and silencing in many eukaryotic organisms. Gene families for enzymes that accomplish these modifications show a surprising multiplicity in sequence and expression levels, suggesting a high specificity for different targets. We show that mutations in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) HDA6, a putative class I histone deacetylase gene, result in loss of transcriptional

Aline V. Probst; Mathilde Fagard; Florence Proux; Philippe Mourrain; Stephanie Boutet; Keith Earley; Richard J. Lawrence; Craig S. Pikaard; Jane Murfett; Ortrun Mittelsten Scheid

2004-01-01

328

Liver-specific silencing of the human gene encoding succinyl-CoA: 3-ketoacid CoA transferase.  

PubMed

The human succinyl-CoA: 3-ketoacid CoA transferase (SCOT) gene encodes the ketolytic enzyme that functions in the mitochondrial matrix. The activation of acetoacetate to acetoacetyl-CoA by SCOT is essential for the use of ketone bodies as an energy source. The ketolytic capacity of tissues is proportional to their level of SCOT activity. Normal hepatocytes, the site of ketone body synthesis, have no detectable SCOT protein. The absence of SCOT in hepatocytes is an important element in energy metabolism, suppressing ketolysis in the liver. To study the tissue-specific silencing of SCOT expression, we analyzed the promoter function of SCOT gene in three different human cell lines. Immunoblot analysis showed that SCOT protein was detectable in HeLa cervical cancer cells and Chang liver cells. However, SCOT protein was not detected in HepG2 hepatoma cells and liver tissues, indicating that HepG2 hepatoma cells maintain the characteristics of liver cells in the ketone body metabolism. Luciferase reporter assays in HeLa and Chang liver cells showed that the 361-bp proximal region of the SCOT gene was responsible for the basal promoter activity and contained two GC boxes, each of which was bound in vitro by Sp1, a ubiquitously expressed transcription factor. These results suggest that these GC boxes may be important for SCOT gene expression. Moreover, the region between -2168 and -361 appeared to inhibit the SCOT promoter activity in HepG2 cells. Thus, liver-specific silencing of the SCOT gene expression may be mediated in part by its 5'-flanking sequence. PMID:18648183

Orii, Kenji E; Fukao, Toshiyuki; Song, Xiang-Qian; Mitchell, Grant A; Kondo, Naomi

2008-07-01

329

R-loops Associated with Triplet Repeat Expansions Promote Gene Silencing in Friedreich Ataxia and Fragile X Syndrome  

PubMed Central

Friedreich ataxia (FRDA) and Fragile X syndrome (FXS) are among 40 diseases associated with expansion of repeated sequences (TREDs). Although their molecular pathology is not well understood, formation of repressive chromatin and unusual DNA structures over repeat regions were proposed to play a role. Our study now shows that RNA/DNA hybrids (R-loops) form in patient cells on expanded repeats of endogenous FXN and FMR1 genes, associated with FRDA and FXS. These transcription-dependent R-loops are stable, co-localise with repressive H3K9me2 chromatin mark and impede RNA Polymerase II transcription in patient cells. We investigated the interplay between repressive chromatin marks and R-loops on the FXN gene. We show that decrease in repressive H3K9me2 chromatin mark has no effect on R-loop levels. Importantly, increasing R-loop levels by treatment with DNA topoisomerase inhibitor camptothecin leads to up-regulation of repressive chromatin marks, resulting in FXN transcriptional silencing. This provides a direct molecular link between R-loops and the pathology of TREDs, suggesting that R-loops act as an initial trigger to promote FXN and FMR1 silencing. Thus R-loops represent a common feature of nucleotide expansion disorders and provide a new target for therapeutic interventions. PMID:24787137

Groh, Matthias; Lufino, Michele M. P.; Wade-Martins, Richard; Gromak, Natalia

2014-01-01

330

RNAi Silencing of the HaHMG-CoA Reductase Gene Inhibits Oviposition in the Helicoverpa armigera Cotton Bollworm  

PubMed Central

RNA interference (RNAi) has considerable promise for developing novel pest control techniques, especially because of the threat of the development of resistance against current strategies. For this purpose, the key is to select pest control genes with the greatest potential for developing effective pest control treatments. The present study demonstrated that the 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase (HMG-CoA reductase; HMGR) gene is a potential target for insect control using RNAi. HMGR is a key enzyme in the mevalonate pathway in insects. A complete cDNA encoding full length HMGR (encoding an 837-aa protein) was cloned from Helicoverpa armigera (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae). The HaHMGR (H. armigera HMGR) knockdown using systemic RNAi in vivo inhibited the fecundity of the females, effectively inhibited ovipostion, and significantly reduced vitellogenin (Vg) mRNA levels. Moreover, the oviposition rate of the female moths was reduced by 98% by silencing HaHMGR compared to the control groups. One-pair experiments showed that both the proportions of valid mating and fecundity were zero. Furthermore, the HaHMGR-silenced females failed to lay eggs (approximate 99% decrease in oviposition) in the semi-field cage performance. The present study demonstrated the potential implications for developing novel pest management strategies using HaHMGR RNAi in the control of H. armigera and other insect pests. PMID:23844078

Wang, Zhijian; Dong, Yongcheng; Desneux, Nicolas; Niu, Changying

2013-01-01

331

R-loops associated with triplet repeat expansions promote gene silencing in Friedreich ataxia and fragile X syndrome.  

PubMed

Friedreich ataxia (FRDA) and Fragile X syndrome (FXS) are among 40 diseases associated with expansion of repeated sequences (TREDs). Although their molecular pathology is not well understood, formation of repressive chromatin and unusual DNA structures over repeat regions were proposed to play a role. Our study now shows that RNA/DNA hybrids (R-loops) form in patient cells on expanded repeats of endogenous FXN and FMR1 genes, associated with FRDA and FXS. These transcription-dependent R-loops are stable, co-localise with repressive H3K9me2 chromatin mark and impede RNA Polymerase II transcription in patient cells. We investigated the interplay between repressive chromatin marks and R-loops on the FXN gene. We show that decrease in repressive H3K9me2 chromatin mark has no effect on R-loop levels. Importantly, increasing R-loop levels by treatment with DNA topoisomerase inhibitor camptothecin leads to up-regulation of repressive chromatin marks, resulting in FXN transcriptional silencing. This provides a direct molecular link between R-loops and the pathology of TREDs, suggesting that R-loops act as an initial trigger to promote FXN and FMR1 silencing. Thus R-loops represent a common feature of nucleotide expansion disorders and provide a new target for therapeutic interventions. PMID:24787137

Groh, Matthias; Lufino, Michele M P; Wade-Martins, Richard; Gromak, Natalia

2014-05-01

332

Silencing of human polycomb target genes is associated with methylation of histone H3 Lys 27  

Microsoft Academic Search

Polycomb group (PcG) complexes 2 and 3 are involved in transcriptional silencing. These complexes contain a histone lysine methyltransferase (HKMT) activity that targets different lysine residues on histones H1 or H3 in vitro. However, it is not known if these histones are methylation targets in vivo because the human PRC2\\/3 complexes have not been studied in the context of a

Antonis Kirmizis; Stephanie M. Bartley; Andrei Kuzmichev; Raphael Margueron; Danny Reinberg; Roland Green; Peggy J. Farnham

2004-01-01

333

Identification of 27 5' CpG islands aberrantly methylated and 13 genes silenced in human pancreatic cancers.  

PubMed

Aberrantly methylated DNA fragments were searched for in human pancreatic cancers, using the genome scanning technique: methylation-sensitive-representational difference analysis (MS-RDA). MS-RDA isolated 111 DNA fragments derived from CpG islands (CGIs), and 35 of them were from CGIs in the 5' regions of known genes. Methylation-specific PCR (MSP) of the CGIs in seven pancreatic cancer cell lines and two pancreatic ductal epithelial cell lines showed that 27 CGIs in the 5' regions were aberrantly methylated in at least one of the cancer cell lines. Quantitative reverse-transcription-PCR analysis showed that downstream genes of all the CGIs were either not expressed or only very weakly expressed in cancer cell lines with the aberrant methylation. In the pancreatic ductal epithelial cell lines, 18 genes were expressed at various levels, and nine genes were not expressed at all. Treatment of a cancer cell line with a demethylating agent, 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine, restored the expression of 13 genes, RASGRF2, ADAM23, NEF3, NKX2-8, HAND1, EGR4, PRG2, FBN2, CDH2, TLL1, NPTX1, NTSR1 and THBD, showing their silencing by methylation of their 5' CGIs. MSP of 24 primary pancreatic cancers showed that all these genes, except for THBD, were methylated in at least one cancer. Some of those were suggested to be potentially involved in pancreatic cancer development and progression. PMID:15467763

Hagihara, Atsushi; Miyamoto, Kazuaki; Furuta, Junichi; Hiraoka, Nobuyoshi; Wakazono, Kuniko; Seki, Shuichi; Fukushima, Shoji; Tsao, Ming-Sound; Sugimura, Takashi; Ushijima, Toshikazu

2004-11-11

334

A novel murrel Channa striatus mitochondrial manganese superoxide dismutase: gene silencing, SOD activity, superoxide anion production and expression.  

PubMed

We have reported the molecular characterization including gene silencing, superoxide activity, superoxide anion production, gene expression and molecular characterization of a mitochondrial manganese superoxide dismutase (mMnSOD) from striped murrel Channa striatus (named as CsmMnSOD). The CsmMnSOD polypeptide contains 225 amino acids with a molecular weight of 25 kDa and a theoretical isoelectric point of 8.3. In the N-terminal region, CsmMnSOD carries a mitochondrial targeting sequence and a superoxide dismutases (SOD) Fe domain (28-109), and in C-terminal region, it carries another SOD Fe domain (114-220). The CsmMnSOD protein sequence shared significant similarity with its homolog of MnSOD from rock bream Oplegnathus fasciatus (96 %). The phylogenetic analysis showed that the CsmMnSOD fell in the clade of fish mMnSOD group. The monomeric structure of CsmMnSOD possesses 9 ?-helices (52.4 %), 3 ?-sheets (8.8 %) and 38.8 % random coils. The highest gene expression was noticed in liver, and its expression was inducted with fungal (Aphanomyces invadans) and bacterial (Aeromonas hydrophila) infections. The gene silencing results show that the fish that received dsRNA exhibited significant (P < 0.05) changes in expression when compared to their non-injected and fish physiological saline-injected controls. The SOD activity shows that the activity increases with the spread of infection and decreases once the molecule controls the pathogen. The capacity of superoxide anion production was determined by calculating the granular blood cell count during infection in murrel. It shows that the infection influenced the superoxide radical production which plays a major role in killing the pathogens. Overall, this study indicated the defense potentiality of CsmMnSOD; however, further research is necessary to explore its capability at protein level. PMID:25183231

Arockiaraj, Jesu; Palanisamy, Rajesh; Bhatt, Prasanth; Kumaresan, Venkatesh; Gnanam, Annie J; Pasupuleti, Mukesh; Kasi, Marimuthu

2014-12-01

335

Rapid, Cell-Based Toxicity Screen of Potentially Therapeutic Post-Transcriptional Gene Silencing Agents  

PubMed Central

Post-transcriptional gene silencing (PTGS) agents such as antisense, ribozymes and RNA interference (RNAi) have great potential as therapeutics for a variety of eye diseases including retinal and macular degenerations, glaucoma, corneal degenerations, inflammatory and viral conditions. Despite their great potential and over thirty years of academic and corporate research only a single PTGS agent is currently approved for human therapy for a single disease. Substantial challenges exist to achieving both efficacious and safe PTGS agents. Efficacy, as measured in specific target mRNA and protein knockdown, depends upon a number of complex factors including the identification of rare regions of target mRNA accessibility, cellular colocalization of the PTGS agent in sufficient concentration with the target mRNA, and stability of the PTGS agent in the target cells in which it is delivered or expressed. Safety is commonly measured by lack of cytotoxicity or other deleterious cellular responses in cells in which the PTGS agent is delivered or expressed. To relieve major bottlenecks in RNA drug discovery novel, efficient, inexpensive, and rapid tools are needed to facilitate lead identification of the most efficacious PTGS agent, rational optimization of efficacy of the lead agent, and lead agent safety determinations. We have developed a technological platform using cell culture expression systems that permits lead identification and efficacy optimization of PTGS agents against arbitrary disease target mRNAs under relatively high throughput conditions. Here, we extend the technology platform to include PTGS safety determinations in cultured human cells that are expected to represent the common cellular housekeeping microenvironment. We developed a high throughput screening (HTS) cytotoxicity assay in 96-well plate format based around the SYTOX Green dye which is excluded from healthy viable cells and becomes substantially fluorescent only after entering cells and binding to nuclear DNA. In this format we can test a number of PTGS agents for cellular toxicity relative to control elements. We also developed a HTS 96-well plate assay that allows us to assess the impact of any given PTGS agent on stimulating a variety of common cellular stress signaling pathways (e.g. CRE, SRE, AP-1, NF?B, Myc, and NFAT) that could indicate possible deleterious effects of PTGS agents either dependent or independent of base pairing complementarity with target mRNAs. To this end we exploited the secreted alkaline phosphatase (SEAP) Pathway Profiling System where the expression of the secreted reporter protein is coupled to transcriptional activation of a variety of promoter elements involved in common cell signaling pathways. We found that a variety of lead hammerhead ribozyme (hhRz) and short hairpin (shRNA) expression constructs did not exert cytotoxicity in human cells when driven by highly active RNA Pol-III promoters. We also found that most of the cell signaling pathways tested (CRE, SRE, Myc, and NFAT) did not significantly couple through upregulation to expression of the set of PTGS agents tested. AP-1 and NF?B upregulation both appear to couple to the expression of some PTGS agents which likely reflect the known properties of these pathways to be stimulated by abundant small structured RNAs. PMID:21256844

Kolniak, Tiffany A.; Sullivan, Jack M.

2011-01-01

336

Systematic mapping of occluded genes by cell fusion reveals prevalence and stability of cis-mediated silencing in somatic cells  

PubMed Central

Both diffusible factors acting in trans and chromatin components acting in cis are implicated in gene regulation, but the extent to which either process causally determines a cell's transcriptional identity is unclear. We recently used cell fusion to define a class of silent genes termed “cis-silenced” (or “occluded”) genes, which remain silent even in the presence of trans-acting transcriptional activators. We further showed that occlusion of lineage-inappropriate genes plays a critical role in maintaining the transcriptional identities of somatic cells. Here, we present, for the first time, a comprehensive map of occluded genes in somatic cells. Specifically, we mapped occluded genes in mouse fibroblasts via fusion to a dozen different rat cell types followed by whole-transcriptome profiling. We found that occluded genes are highly prevalent and stable in somatic cells, representing a sizeable fraction of silent genes. Occluded genes are also highly enriched for important developmental regulators of alternative lineages, consistent with the role of occlusion in safeguarding cell identities. Alongside this map, we also present whole-genome maps of DNA methylation and eight other chromatin marks. These maps uncover a complex relationship between chromatin state and occlusion. Furthermore, we found that DNA methylation functions as the memory of occlusion in a subset of occluded genes, while histone deacetylation contributes to the implementation but not memory of occlusion. Our data suggest that the identities of individual cell types are defined largely by the occlusion status of their genomes. The comprehensive reference maps reported here provide the foundation for future studies aimed at understanding the role of occlusion in development and disease. PMID:24310002

Looney, Timothy J.; Zhang, Li; Chen, Chih-Hsin; Lee, Jae Hyun; Chari, Sheila; Mao, Frank Fuxiang; Pelizzola, Mattia; Zhang, Lu; Lister, Ryan; Baker, Samuel W.; Fernandes, Croydon J.; Gaetz, Jedidiah; Foshay, Kara M.; Clift, Kayla L.; Zhang, Zhenyu; Li, Wei-Qiang; Vallender, Eric J.; Wagner, Ulrich; Qin, Jane Yuxia; Michelini, Katelyn J.; Bugarija, Branimir; Park, Donghyun; Aryee, Emmanuel; Stricker, Thomas; Zhou, Jie; White, Kevin P.; Ren, Bing; Schroth, Gary P.; Ecker, Joseph R.; Xiang, Andy Peng; Lahn, Bruce T.

2014-01-01

337

Systematic mapping of occluded genes by cell fusion reveals prevalence and stability of cis-mediated silencing in somatic cells.  

PubMed

Both diffusible factors acting in trans and chromatin components acting in cis are implicated in gene regulation, but the extent to which either process causally determines a cell's transcriptional identity is unclear. We recently used cell fusion to define a class of silent genes termed "cis-silenced" (or "occluded") genes, which remain silent even in the presence of trans-acting transcriptional activators. We further showed that occlusion of lineage-inappropriate genes plays a critical role in maintaining the transcriptional identities of somatic cells. Here, we present, for the first time, a comprehensive map of occluded genes in somatic cells. Specifically, we mapped occluded genes in mouse fibroblasts via fusion to a dozen different rat cell types followed by whole-transcriptome profiling. We found that occluded genes are highly prevalent and stable in somatic cells, representing a sizeable fraction of silent genes. Occluded genes are also highly enriched for important developmental regulators of alternative lineages, consistent with the role of occlusion in safeguarding cell identities. Alongside this map, we also present whole-genome maps of DNA methylation and eight other chromatin marks. These maps uncover a complex relationship between chromatin state and occlusion. Furthermore, we found that DNA methylation functions as the memory of occlusion in a subset of occluded genes, while histone deacetylation contributes to the implementation but not memory of occlusion. Our data suggest that the identities of individual cell types are defined largely by the occlusion status of their genomes. The comprehensive reference maps reported here provide the foundation for future studies aimed at understanding the role of occlusion in development and disease. PMID:24310002

Looney, Timothy J; Zhang, Li; Chen, Chih-Hsin; Lee, Jae Hyun; Chari, Sheila; Mao, Frank Fuxiang; Pelizzola, Mattia; Zhang, Lu; Lister, Ryan; Baker, Samuel W; Fernandes, Croydon J; Gaetz, Jedidiah; Foshay, Kara M; Clift, Kayla L; Zhang, Zhenyu; Li, Wei-Qiang; Vallender, Eric J; Wagner, Ulrich; Qin, Jane Yuxia; Michelini, Katelyn J; Bugarija, Branimir; Park, Donghyun; Aryee, Emmanuel; Stricker, Thomas; Zhou, Jie; White, Kevin P; Ren, Bing; Schroth, Gary P; Ecker, Joseph R; Xiang, Andy Peng; Lahn, Bruce T

2014-02-01

338

An atypical component of RNA-directed DNA methylation machinery has both DNA methylation-dependent and -independent roles in locus-specific transcriptional gene silencing  

PubMed Central

RNA-directed DNA methylation (RdDM) is an important de novo DNA methylation pathway in plants. RdDM mediates the transcriptional silencing of many endogenous genomic loci, most of which are transposon related. A forward genetics screen identified DTF1 (DNA-binding transcription factor 1) as a new component for RdDM in Arabidopsis. Loss-of-function mutations in DTF1 release the transcriptional silencing of RdDM target loci and reduce the accumulation of 24-nt small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) from some of the targets. Interestingly, in the dtf1 mutant plants, the release of transcriptional gene silencing at solo-LTR is accompanied by decreased siRNA accumulation but not by reduced DNA methylation. These results suggest that DTF1 is an atypical component of RdDM and has both DNA methylation-dependent and -independent roles in transcriptional gene silencing. We suggest that besides DNA methylation, siRNAs may cause some other uncharacterized epigenetic modifications that lead to transcriptional gene silencing. PMID:22064704

Liu, Jun; Bai, Ge; Zhang, Cuijun; Chen, Wei; Zhou, Jinxing; Zhang, Suwei; Chen, Qing; Deng, Xin; He, Xin-Jian; Zhu, Jian-Kang

2011-01-01

339

[Reversal of resistance to adriamycin in human breast cancer cell line MCF-7/ADM by silencing AEG-1 gene and its mechanism].  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of AEG-1 gene silencing on the chemoresistance of human breast cancer cell line MCF-7/ADM and its possible mechanism. MCF-7/ADM cells were incubated in the medium containing adriamycin (ADM). The recombinant pLKO.1-shAEG-1 plasmid was constructed to silence AEG-1 expression in human breast cancer MCF-7/ADM cells. MTT assay was employed to detect the anti-tumor effect of ADM on MCF-7/ADM cells, and IC50 value of ADM was calculated according to MTT. Flow cytometry was used to determine the apoptosis. Western blot was used to analyze the expression levels of AEG-1, p-Akt, p-MDM2, p-Bad, p53 and MDR1. The result showed MCF-7/ADM had a significantly higher expression level of AEG-1 compared with that of MCF-7 (P < 0.05), however, the expression of AEG-1 was decreased after AEG-1 gene silencing. The IC50 value of ADM in shAEG-1 group was significantly lower than that in shcontrol group. AEG-1 gene silencing induced cell apoptosis and enhanced the pro-apoptotic effect of ADM on MCF-7/ADM cells. After AEG-1 gene silencing, the phosphorylation of Akt, MDM2 and Bad was inhibited (P < 0.05), the protein levels of p53 and MDR1 were up-regulated (P < 0.05) and down-regulated (P < 0.05) respectively, compared with control. In conclusion, the results suggest that AEG-1 gene silencing can reverse the ADM resistance in human breast cancer cell line MCF-7/ADM by means of inducing apoptosis and down-regulating the protein level of MDR1. PMID:25332010

Yuan, Lei; Shi, Ran-Ran; Rao, Shu-Mei; Song, Jin-Ling; Cui, Ming-Chen

2014-10-25

340

Characterization of white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei integrin ? and its role in immunomodulation by dsRNA-mediated gene silencing.  

PubMed

The full sequence of white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei integrin ? (LV-B) is 2879bp which encodes 787 amino acids (aa) of the open reading frame (ORF). The mature protein (764 aa) contains (1) an extracellular domain (ED) of 692 aa, (2) a transmembrane domain (TD) of 23 aa, and (3) a cytoplasmic domain (CD) of 49 aa. The cloned LV-B grouped together with crayfish Pacifastacus leniusculus integrin ? (PL-B1), but was far away from vertebrate integrin ?1, ?3, ?5, ?6, ?7, and ?8, and another L. vannamei integrin ? (LV). A Southern blot analysis indicated that the cloned LV-B was a single copy of genomic DNA. LV-B mRNA was expressed in all tissues, and was highly expressed in haemocytes. LV-B was downregulated in shrimp 24 and 96h after having received white spot syndrome virus (WSSV). LV-B expression by haemocytes of shrimp was higher in the postmoult (A and B) stage, and lower in the premoult (D2/D3) stage. LV-B expression was significantly higher by shrimp reared in 2.5‰ and 5‰ salinities. Shrimp injected with integrin ? dsRNA showed gene silencing of integrin ? after 36h. LV-B-silenced shrimp showed decreased hyaline cells (HCs), granular cells (GCs, including semi-granular cells), the total haemocyte count (THC), respiratory bursts (RBs), and lysozyme activity, but showed increased RB/HC, superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity/HC, and the phenoloxidase (PO) activity/GC. LV-B-silenced shrimp showed upregulated expressions of lipopolysaccharide- and ?-glucan-binding protein (LGBP), peroxinectin (PX), prophenoloxidase I (proPO I), proPO II, proPO-activating enzyme (ppA), ?2-macroglobulin (?2-M), cytMnSOD, mtMnSOD, and heat shock protein 70 (HSP70). It was concluded that integrin ? plays important roles in proPO activation, phagocytosis, and the antioxidant system for immunomodulation in shrimp. PMID:23376419

Lin, Yong-Chin; Chen, Jiann-Chu; Chen, Yu-Yuan; Liu, Chun-Hung; Cheng, Winton; Hsu, Chih-Hung; Tsui, Wen-Ching

2013-06-01

341

Mungbean yellow mosaic virus (MYMV) AC4 suppresses post-transcriptional gene silencing and an AC4 hairpin RNA gene reduces MYMV DNA accumulation in transgenic tobacco.  

PubMed

Mungbean yellow mosaic virus (MYMV) is a legume-infecting geminivirus that causes yellow mosaic disease in blackgram, mungbean, soybean, Frenchbean and mothbean. AC4/C4, which is nested completely within the Rep gene, is less conserved among geminiviruses. Much less is known about its role in viral pathogenesis other than its known role in the suppression of host-mediated gene silencing. Transient expression of MYMV AC4 by agroinfiltration suppressed post-transcriptional gene silencing in Nicotiana benthamiana 16c expressing green fluorescence protein, at a level comparable to MYMV TrAP expression. AC4 full-length gene and an inverted repeat of AC4 (comprising the full-length AC4 sequence in sense and antisense orientations with an intervening intron) which makes a hairpin RNA (hpRNA) upon transcription were introduced into tobacco by Agrobacterium-mediated leaf disc transformation. Leaf discs of the transgenic plants were agroinoculated with partial dimers of MYMV and used to study the effect of the AC4-sense and AC4 hpRNA genes on MYMV DNA accumulation. Leaf discs of two transgenic plants that express the AC4-sense gene displayed an increase in MYMV DNA accumulation. Leaf discs of six transgenic plants containing the AC4 hpRNA gene accumulated small-interfering RNAs (siRNAs) specific to AC4, and upon agroinoculation with MYMV they exhibited a severe reduction in the accumulation of MYMV DNA. Thus, the MYMV AC4 hpRNA gene has emerged as a good candidate to engineer resistance against MYMV in susceptible plants. PMID:23417222

Sunitha, Sukumaran; Shanmugapriya, Gnanasekaran; Balamani, Veluthambi; Veluthambi, Karuppannan

2013-06-01

342

Development of a Virus-Induced Gene-Silencing System for Hexaploid Wheat and Its Use in Functional Analysis of the Lr21-Mediated Leaf Rust Resistance Pathway  

Microsoft Academic Search

Virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS) is an important tool for the analysis of gene function in plants. In VIGS, viruses engineered to carry sequences derived from plant gene transcripts activate the host's sequence-specific RNA degradation system. This mechanism targets the RNAs of the viral genome for degradation, and as the virus contains transcribed plant sequence, homologous host mRNAs are also targeted

Steven R. Scofield; Li Huang; Amanda S. Brandt; Bikram S. Gill

2005-01-01

343

Nanoparticle-delivered VEGF-silencing cassette and suicide gene expression cassettes inhibit colon carcinoma growth in vitro and in vivo  

Microsoft Academic Search

The strategies for tumor-specific expression of suicide genes and target tumor angiogenesis have been tested in tumors. However,\\u000a the anti-tumor efficacy of the combination of these two strategies, particularly, delivering suicide gene and anti-angiogenesis\\u000a agent by nanoparticles, has not yet been evaluated in colon carcinoma. We constructed a cassette to silence VEGF-A expression\\u000a and express a fused yCDglyTK gene driven

Aimin Leng; Jing Yang; Ting Liu; Jianfang Cui; Xiu-hua Li; Yanan Zhu; Ting Xiong; Yuxiang Chen

344

Tobacco mosaic virus 126-kDa protein increases the susceptibility of Nicotiana tabacum to other viruses and its dosage affects virus-induced gene silencing.  

PubMed

The Tobacco mosaic virus (TMV) 126-kDa protein is a suppressor of RNA silencing previously shown to delay the silencing of transgenes in Nicotiana tabacum and N. benthamiana. Here, we demonstrate that expression of a 126-kDa protein-green fluorescent protein (GFP) fusion (126-GFP) in N. tabacum increases susceptibility to a broad assortment of viruses, including Alfalfa mosaic virus, Brome mosaic virus, Tobacco rattle virus (TRV), and Potato virus X. Given its ability to enhance TRV infection in tobacco, we tested the effect of 126-GFP expression on TRV-mediated virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS) and demonstrate that this protein can enhance silencing phenotypes. To explain these results, we examined the poorly understood effect of suppressor dosage on the VIGS response and demonstrated that enhanced VIGS corresponds to the presence of low levels of suppressor protein. A mutant version of the 126-kDa protein, inhibited in its ability to suppress silencing, had a minimal effect on VIGS, suggesting that the suppressor activity of the 126-kDa protein is indeed responsible for the observed dosage effects. These findings illustrate the sensitivity of host plants to relatively small changes in suppressor dosage and have implications for those interested in enhancing silencing phenotypes in tobacco and other species through VIGS. PMID:18986250

Harries, Phillip A; Palanichelvam, Karuppaiah; Bhat, Sumana; Nelson, Richard S

2008-12-01

345

Development of a luciferase-based reporter of transcriptional gene silencing that enables bidirectional mutant screening in Arabidopsis thaliana  

PubMed Central

Background Cytosine methylation is an important chromatin modification that maintains genome integrity and regulates gene expression through transcriptional gene silencing. Major players in de novo methylation guided by siRNAs (known as RNA-directed DNA methylation, or RdDM), maintenance methylation, and active demethylation have been identified in Arabidopsis. However, active demethylation only occurs at a subset of RdDM loci, raising the question of how the homeostasis of DNA methylation is achieved at most RdDM loci. To identify factors that regulate the levels of cytosine methylation, we aimed to establish a transgenic reporter system that allows for forward genetic screens in Arabidopsis. Results We introduced a dual 35 S promoter (d35S) driven luciferase reporter, LUCH, into Arabidopsis and isolated a line with a moderate level of luciferase activity. LUCH produced transgene-specific 24 nucleotide siRNAs and its d35S contained methylated cytosine in CG, CHG and CHH contexts. Treatment of the transgenic line with an inhibitor of cytosine methylation de-repressed luciferase activity. Mutations in several components of the RdDM pathway but not the maintenance methylation genes resulted in reduced d35S methylation, especially CHH methylation, and de-repression of luciferase activity. A mutation in MOM1, which is known to cooperate with RdDM to silence transposons, reduced d35S DNA methylation and de-repressed LUCH expression. A mutation in ROS1, a cytosine demethylation enzyme, increased d35S methylation and reduced LUCH expression. Conclusion We developed a luciferase-based reporter, LUCH, which reports both DNA methylation directed by small RNAs and active demethylation by ROS1 in Arabidopsis. The moderate basal level of LUCH expression allows for bi-directional genetic screens that dissect the mechanisms of DNA methylation as well as demethylation. PMID:22676624

2012-01-01

346

SiRNAs conjugated with aromatic compounds induce RISC-mediated antisense strand selection and strong gene-silencing activity  

SciTech Connect

Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer SiRNAs conjugated with aromatic compounds (Ar-siRNAs) at 5 Prime -sense strand were synthesized. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Ar-siRNAs increased resistance against nuclease degradation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Ar-siRNAs were thermodynamically stable compared with the unmodified siRNA. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer High levels of cellular uptake and cytoplasmic localization were found. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Strong gene-silencing efficacy was exhibited in the Ar-siRNAs. -- Abstract: Short interference RNA (siRNA) is a powerful tool for suppressing gene expression in mammalian cells. In this study, we focused on the development of siRNAs conjugated with aromatic compounds in order to improve the potency of RNAi and thus to overcome several problems with siRNAs, such as cellular delivery and nuclease stability. The siRNAs conjugated with phenyl, hydroxyphenyl, naphthyl, and pyrenyl derivatives showed strong resistance to nuclease degradation, and were thermodynamically stable compared with unmodified siRNA. A high level of membrane permeability in HeLa cells was also observed. Moreover, these siRNAs exhibited enhanced RNAi efficacy, which exceeded that of locked nucleic acid (LNA)-modified siRNAs, against exogenous Renilla luciferase in HeLa cells. In particular, abundant cytoplasmic localization and strong gene-silencing efficacy were found in the siRNAs conjugated with phenyl and hydroxyphenyl derivatives. The novel siRNAs conjugated with aromatic compounds are promising candidates for a new generation of modified siRNAs that can solve many of the problems associated with RNAi technology.

Kubo, Takanori, E-mail: kubo-t@yasuda-u.ac.jp [Faculty of Pharmacy, Yasuda Women's University, 6-13-1 Yasuhigashi, Asaminami-ku, Hiroshima 731-0153 (Japan)] [Faculty of Pharmacy, Yasuda Women's University, 6-13-1 Yasuhigashi, Asaminami-ku, Hiroshima 731-0153 (Japan); Yanagihara, Kazuyoshi [Faculty of Pharmacy, Yasuda Women's University, 6-13-1 Yasuhigashi, Asaminami-ku, Hiroshima 731-0153 (Japan) [Faculty of Pharmacy, Yasuda Women's University, 6-13-1 Yasuhigashi, Asaminami-ku, Hiroshima 731-0153 (Japan); Division of Genetics, National Cancer Center Research Institute, 5-1-1 Tsukiji, Chuo-ku, Tokyo 104-0045 (Japan); Takei, Yoshifumi [Department of Biochemistry, Nagoya University Graduate School of Medicine, 65 Tsurumi-cho, Showa-ku, Nagoya 466-8550 (Japan)] [Department of Biochemistry, Nagoya University Graduate School of Medicine, 65 Tsurumi-cho, Showa-ku, Nagoya 466-8550 (Japan); Mihara, Keichiro [Department of Hematology and Oncology, Research Institute for Radiation Biology and Medicine, Hiroshima University, 1-2-3 Kasumi, Minami-ku, Hiroshima 734-8553 (Japan)] [Department of Hematology and Oncology, Research Institute for Radiation Biology and Medicine, Hiroshima University, 1-2-3 Kasumi, Minami-ku, Hiroshima 734-8553 (Japan); Sato, Yuichiro; Seyama, Toshio [Faculty of Pharmacy, Yasuda Women's University, 6-13-1 Yasuhigashi, Asaminami-ku, Hiroshima 731-0153 (Japan)] [Faculty of Pharmacy, Yasuda Women's University, 6-13-1 Yasuhigashi, Asaminami-ku, Hiroshima 731-0153 (Japan)

2012-10-05

347

E-Cadherin Is Transcriptionally Activated via Suppression of ZEB1 Transcriptional Repressor by Small RNA-Mediated Gene Silencing  

PubMed Central

RNA activation has been reported to be induced by small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) that act on the promoters of several genes containing E-cadherin. In this study, we present an alternative mechanism of E-cadherin activation in human PC-3 cells by siRNAs previously reported to possess perfect-complementary sequences to E-cadherin promoter. We found that activation of E-cadherin can be also induced via suppression of ZEB1, which is a transcriptional repressor of E-cadherin, by seed-dependent silencing mechanism of these siRNAs. The functional seed-complementary sites of the siRNAs were found in the coding region in addition to the 3? untranslated region of ZEB1 mRNA. Promoter analyses indicated that E-boxes, which are ZEB1-binding sites, in the upstream promoter region are indispensable for E-cadherin transcription by the siRNAs. Thus, the results caution against ignoring siRNA seed-dependent silencing effects in genome-wide transcriptional regulation. In addition, members of miR-302/372/373/520 family, which have the same seed sequences with one of the siRNAs containing perfect-complementarity to E-cadherin promoter, are also found to activate E-cadherin transcription. Thus, E-cadherin could be upregulated by the suppression of ZEB1 transcriptional repressor by miRNAs in vivo. PMID:22205962

Mazda, Minami; Nishi, Kenji; Naito, Yuki; Ui-Tei, Kumiko

2011-01-01

348

Mature-stem expression of a silencing-resistant sucrose isomerase gene drives isomaltulose accumulation to high levels in sugarcane.  

PubMed

Isomaltulose (IM) is a natural isomer of sucrose. It is widely approved as a food with properties including slower digestion, lower glycaemic index and low cariogenicity, which can benefit consumers. Availability is currently limited by the cost of fermentative conversion from sucrose. Transgenic sugarcane plants with developmentally-controlled expression of a silencing-resistant gene encoding a vacuole-targeted IM synthase were tested under field conditions typical of commercial sugarcane cultivation. High yields of IM were obtained, up to 483 mm or 81% of total sugars in whole-cane juice from plants aged 13 months. Using promoters from sugarcane to drive expression preferentially in the sugarcane stem, IM levels were consistent between stalks and stools within a transgenic line and across consecutive vegetative field generations of tested high-isomer lines. Germination and early growth of plants from setts were unaffected by IM accumulation, up to the tested level around 500 mm in flanking stem internodes. These are the highest yields ever achieved of value-added materials through plant metabolic engineering. The sugarcane stem promoters are promising for strategies to achieve even higher IM levels and for other applications in sugarcane molecular improvement. Silencing-resistant transgenes are critical to deliver the potential of these promoters in practical sugarcane improvement. At the IM levels now achieved in field-grown sugarcane, direct production of IM in plants is feasible at a cost approaching that of sucrose, which should make the benefits of IM affordable on a much wider scale. PMID:23297683

Mudge, Stephen R; Basnayake, Shiromi W V; Moyle, Richard L; Osabe, Kenji; Graham, Michael W; Morgan, Terence E; Birch, Robert G

2013-05-01

349

Epigenetic Silencing of the Circadian Clock Gene CRY1 is Associated with an Indolent Clinical Course in Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia  

PubMed Central

Disruption of circadian rhythm is believed to play a critical role in cancer development. Cryptochrome 1 (CRY1) is a core component of the mammalian circadian clock and we have previously shown its deregulated expression in a subgroup of patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL). Using real-time RT-PCR in a cohort of 76 CLL patients and 35 normal blood donors we now demonstrate that differential CRY1 mRNA expression in high-risk (HR) CD38+/immunoglobulin variable heavy chain gene (IgVH) unmutated patients as compared to low-risk (LR) CD38?/IgVH mutated patients can be attributed to down-modulation of CRY1 in LR CLL cases. Analysis of the DNA methylation profile of the CRY1 promoter in a subgroup of 57 patients revealed that CRY1 expression in LR CLL cells is silenced by aberrant promoter CpG island hypermethylation. The methylation pattern of the CRY1 promoter proved to have high prognostic impact in CLL where aberrant promoter methylation predicted a favourable outcome. CRY1 mRNA transcript levels did not change over time in the majority of patients where sequential samples were available for analysis. We also compared the CRY1 expression in CLL with other lymphoid malignancies and observed epigenetic silencing of CRY1 in a patient with B cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (B-ALL). PMID:22470559

Hanoun, Maher; Eisele, Lewin; Suzuki, Masako; Greally, John M.; Huttmann, Andreas; Aydin, Semra; Scholtysik, Rene; Klein-Hitpass, Ludger; Duhrsen, Ulrich; Durig, Jan

2012-01-01

350

Potato Snakin-1 Gene Silencing Affects Cell Division, Primary Metabolism, and Cell Wall Composition1[W  

PubMed Central

Snakin-1 (SN1) is an antimicrobial cysteine-rich peptide isolated from potato (Solanum tuberosum) that was classified as a member of the Snakin/Gibberellic Acid Stimulated in Arabidopsis protein family. In this work, a transgenic approach was used to study the role of SN1 in planta. Even when overexpressing SN1, potato lines did not show remarkable morphological differences from the wild type; SN1 silencing resulted in reduced height, which was accompanied by an overall reduction in leaf size and severe alterations of leaf shape. Analysis of the adaxial epidermis of mature leaves revealed that silenced lines had 70% to 90% increases in mean cell size with respect to wild-type leaves. Consequently, the number of epidermal cells was significantly reduced in these lines. Confocal microscopy analysis after agroinfiltration of Nicotiana benthamiana leaves showed that SN1-green fluorescent protein fusion protein was localized in plasma membrane, and bimolecular fluorescence complementation assays revealed that SN1 self-interacted in vivo. We further focused our study on leaf metabolism by applying a combination of gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and spectrophotometric techniques. These targeted analyses allowed a detailed examination of the changes occurring in 46 intermediate compounds from primary metabolic pathways and in seven cell wall constituents. We demonstrated that SN1 silencing affects cell division, leaf primary metabolism, and cell wall composition in potato plants, suggesting that SN1 has additional roles in growth and development beyond its previously assigned role in plant defense. PMID:22080603

Nahirnak, Vanesa; Almasia, Natalia Ines; Fernandez, Paula Virginia; Hopp, Horacio Esteban; Estevez, Jose Manuel; Carrari, Fernando; Vazquez-Rovere, Cecilia

2012-01-01

351

RNAi Silencing of Genes for Elicitation or Biosynthesis of 5-Deoxyisoflavonoids Suppresses Race-Specific Resistance and Hypersensitive Cell Death in Phytophthora sojae Infected Tissues1[OA  

PubMed Central

Isoflavonoids are thought to play an important role in soybean (Glycine max) resistance to Phytophthora sojae. This was addressed by silencing two genes for their biosynthesis and a third gene controlling their elicitation. Silencing of genes for isoflavone synthase (IFS) or chalcone reductase (CHR) was achieved in soybean roots through an Agrobacterium rhizogenes-mediated RNAi approach. Effectiveness of silencing was followed both by quantitative reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction and high-performance liquid chromatography analyses. Silencing either IFS or CHR led to a breakdown of Rps-mediated resistance to race 1 of P. sojae in ‘W79’ (Rps 1c) or ‘W82’ (Rps 1k) soybean. Loss of resistance was accompanied by suppression of hypersensitive (HR) cell death in both cultivars and suppression of cell death-associated activation of hydrogen peroxide and peroxidase. The various results suggest that the 5-deoxyisoflavonoids play a critical role in the establishment of cell death and race-specific resistance. The P. sojae cell wall glucan elicitor, a potent elicitor of 5-deoxyisoflavonoids, triggered a cell death response in roots that was also suppressed by silencing either CHR or IFS. Furthermore, silencing of the elicitor-releasing endoglucanase (PR-2) led to a loss of HR cell death and race-specific resistance to P. sojae and also to a loss of isoflavone and cell death responses to cell wall glucan elicitor. Taken together, these results suggest that in situ release of active fragments from a general resistance elicitor (pathogen-associated molecular pattern) is necessary for HR cell death in soybean roots carrying resistance genes at the Rps 1 locus, and that this cell death response is mediated through accumulations of the 5-deoxyisoflavones. PMID:17416637

Graham, Terrence L.; Graham, Madge Y.; Subramanian, Senthil; Yu, Oliver

2007-01-01

352

Production of dsRNA Sequences in the Host Plant Is Not Sufficient to Initiate Gene Silencing in the Colonizing Oomycete Pathogen Phytophthora parasitica  

PubMed Central

Species of the oomycete genus Phytophthora are destructive pathogens, causing extensive losses in agricultural crops and natural ecosystems. A potential disease control approach is the application of RNA silencing technology which has proven to be effective in improving plant resistance against a wide range of pests including parasitic plants, nematodes, insects and fungi. In this study, we tested the potential application of RNA silencing in improving plant disease resistance against oomycete pathogens. The endogenous P. parasitica gene PnPMA1 and the reporter gene GFP were used to evaluate the potential application of host induced gene silencing (HIGS). The GFP-expressing P. parasitica efficiently colonized Arabidopsis thaliana lines stably expressing GFP dsRNA and showed no obvious decrease in GFP signal intensity. Quantitative RT-PCR analyses showed no significant reductions in the abundance of GFP and PnPMA1 transcripts in P. parasitica during colonization of A. thaliana lines stably expressing GFP and PnPMA1 dsRNAs, respectively. Neither GFP siRNAs nor PnPMA1 siRNAs produced by transgenic plants were detected in P. parasitica re-isolated from infected tissues by Northern blot analyses. Phenotypic characterization of zoospores released from infected plant roots expressing PnPMA1 dsRNA showed no motility changes compared with those from wild-type plants. Similar results were obtained by analysis of zoospores released from sporulating hyphae of P. parasitica re-isolated from PnPMA1 dsRNA-expressing plant roots. Thus, the ectopic expression of dsRNA sequences in the host plant is not sufficient to initiate silencing of homologous genes in the colonizing oomycete pathogen, and this may be due to a number of different reasons including the absence of genetic machinery required for uptake of silencing signals in particular dsRNAs which are essential for environmental RNA silencing. PMID:22140518

Zhang, Meixiang; Wang, Qinhu; Xu, Ke; Meng, Yuling; Quan, Junli; Shan, Weixing

2011-01-01

353

The collagen prolyl hydroxylases are novel transcriptionally silenced genes in lymphoma  

PubMed Central

Background: Prolyl hydroxylation is a post-translational modification that affects the structure, stability and function of proteins including collagen by catalysing hydroxylation of proline to hydroxyproline through action of collagen prolyl hydroxylases3 (C-P3H) and 4 (C-P4H). Three C-P3Hs (nomenclature was amended according to approval by the HGNC symbols and names at (http://www.genenames.org) and Entrez database at (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/gene) leucineproline-enriched proteoglycan (leprecan) 1 (Lepre1), leprecan-like 1 (Leprel1), leprecan-like 2 (Leprel2) and two paralogs Cartilage-Related Protein (CRTAP) and leprecan-like 4 (Leprel4) are found in humans. The C-P4Hs are tetrameric proteins comprising a variable ? subunit, encoded by the P4HA1, P4HA2 and P4HA3 genes and a constant ? subunit encoded by P4HB. Methods: We used RT–PCR, qPCR, pyrosequencing, methylation-specific PCR, western blotting and immunohistochemistry to investigate expression and regulation of the C-P3H and C-P4H genes in B lymphomas and normal bone marrow. Results: C-P3H and C-P4H are downregulated in lymphoma. Down-regulation is associated with methylation in the CpG islands and is detected in almost all common types of B-cell lymphoma, but the CpG islands are unmethylated or methylated at lower levels in DNA isolated from normal bone marrow and lymphoblastoid cell lines. Methylation of multiple C-P3H and C-P4H genes is present in some lymphomas, particularly Burkitt's lymphoma. Conclusions: Methylation of C-P3H and C-P4H is common in B lymphomas and may have utility in differentiating disease subtypes. PMID:22955849

Hatzimichael, E; Lo Nigro, C; Lattanzio, L; Syed, N; Shah, R; Dasoula, A; Janczar, K; Vivenza, D; Monteverde, M; Merlano, M; Papoudou-Bai, A; Bai, M; Schmid, P; Stebbing, J; Bower, M; Dyer, M J S; Karran, L E; ElguetaKarstegl, C; Farrell, P J; Thompson, A; Briasoulis, E; Crook, T

2012-01-01

354

Silencing Abnormal Wing Disc Gene of the Asian Citrus Psyllid, Diaphorina citri Disrupts Adult Wing Development and Increases Nymph Mortality  

PubMed Central

Huanglongbing (HLB) causes considerable economic losses to citrus industries worldwide. Its management depends on controlling of the Asian citrus Psyllid (ACP), the vector of the bacterium, Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus (CLas), the causal agent of HLB. Silencing genes by RNA interference (RNAi) is a promising tool to explore gene functions as well as control pests. In the current study, abnormal wing disc (awd) gene associated with wing development in insects is used to interfere with the flight of psyllids. Our study showed that transcription of awd is development-dependent and the highest level was found in the last instar (5th) of the nymphal stage. Micro-application (topical application) of dsRNA to 5th instar of nymphs caused significant nymphal mortality and adult wing-malformation. These adverse effects in ACP were positively correlated with the amounts of dsRNA used. A qRT-PCR analysis confirmed the dsRNA-mediated transcriptional down-regulation of the awd gene. Significant down-regulation was required to induce a wing-malformed phenotype. No effect was found when dsRNA-gfp was used, indicating the specific effect of dsRNA-awd. Our findings suggest a role for awd in ACP wing development and metamorphosis. awd could serve as a potential target for insect management either via direct application of dsRNA or by producing transgenic plants expressing dsRNA-awd. These strategies will help to mitigate HLB by controlling ACP. PMID:23734251

El-Hawary, Ibrahim; Gowda, Siddarame; Killiny, Nabil

2013-01-01

355

Copy number and orientation determine the susceptibility of a gene to silencing by nearby heterochromatin in Drosophila  

SciTech Connect

The classical phenomenon of position-effect variegation (PEV) is the mosaic expression that occurs when a chromosomal rearrangements moves a euchromatic gene near heterochromatin. A striking feature of this phenomenon is that genes far away from the junction with heterochromatin can be affected, as if the heterochromatic state {open_quotes}spreads.{close_quotes} We have investigated classical PEV of a Drosophila brown transgene affected by a heterochromatic junction {approximately} 60 kb away. PEV was enhanced when the transgene was locally duplicated using P transposase. Successive rounds of P transpose mutagenesis and phenotypic selection produced a series of PEV alleles with differences in phenotype that depended on transgene copy number and orientation. As for other examples of classical PEV, nearby heterochromatin was required for gene silencing. Modifications of classical PEV by alterations at a single site are unexpected, and these observations contradict models for spreading that invoke propagation of heterochromatin along the chromosome. Rather, our results support a model in which local alterations affect the affinity of a gene region for nearby heterochromatin via homology-based pairing, suggesting an alternative explanation for this 65-year-old phenomenon. 63 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab.

Sabl, J.F. [Univ. of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States)]|[Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, Seattle, WA (United States); Henikoff, S. [Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, Seattle, WA (United States)]|[Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Seattle, WA (United States)

1996-02-01

356

Silencing of the CaCP Gene Delays Salt- and Osmotic-Induced Leaf Senescence in Capsicum annuum L.  

PubMed Central

Cysteine proteinases have been known to participate in developmental processes and in response to stress in plants. Our present research reported that a novel CP gene, CaCP, was involved in leaf senescence in pepper (Capsicum annuum L.). The full-length CaCP cDNA is comprised of 1316 bp, contains 1044 nucleotides in open reading frame (ORF), and encodes a 347 amino acid protein. The deduced protein belongs to the papain-like cysteine proteases (CPs) superfamily, containing a highly conserved ERFNIN motif, a GCNGG motif and a conserved catalytic triad. This protein localized to the vacuole of plant cells. Real-time quantitative PCR analysis revealed that the expression level of CaCP gene was dramatically higher in leaves and flowers than that in roots, stems and fruits. Moreover, CaCP transcripts were induced upon during leaf senescence. CaCP expression was upregulated by plant hormones, especially salicylic acid. CaCP was also significantly induced by abiotic and biotic stress treatments, including high salinity, mannitol and Phytophthora capsici. Loss of function of CaCP using the virus-induced gene-silencing technique in pepper plants led to enhanced tolerance to salt- and osmotic-induced stress. Taken together, these results suggest that CaCP is a senescence-associated gene, which is involved in developmental senescence and regulates salt- and osmotic-induced leaf senescence in pepper. PMID:24823878

Xiao, Huai-Juan; Yin, Yan-Xu; Chai, Wei-Guo; Gong, Zhen-Hui

2014-01-01

357

Virus-induced gene silencing is a versatile tool for unraveling the functional relevance of multiple abiotic-stress-responsive genes in crop plants.  

PubMed

Virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS) is an effective tool for gene function analysis in plants. Over the last decade, VIGS has been successfully used as both a forward and reverse genetics technique for gene function analysis in various model plants, as well as crop plants. With the increased identification of differentially expressed genes under various abiotic stresses through high-throughput transcript profiling, the application of VIGS is expected to be important in the future for functional characterization of a large number of genes. In the recent past, VIGS was proven to be an elegant tool for functional characterization of genes associated with abiotic stress responses. In this review, we provide an overview of how VIGS is used in different crop species to characterize genes associated with drought-, salt-, oxidative- and nutrient-deficiency-stresses. We describe the examples from studies where abiotic stress related genes are characterized using VIGS. In addition, we describe the major advantages of VIGS over other currently available functional genomics tools. We also summarize the recent improvements, limitations and future prospects of using VIGS as a tool for studying plant responses to abiotic stresses. PMID:25071806

Ramegowda, Venkategowda; Mysore, Kirankumar S; Senthil-Kumar, Muthappa

2014-01-01

358

Kidney Function After In Vivo Gene Silencing of Uncoupling Protein-2 in Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Rats  

PubMed Central

Kidney uncoupling protein 2 (UCP-2) increases in streptozotocin-induced diabetes, resulting in mitochondria uncoupling, i.e., increased oxygen consumption unrelated to active transport. The present study aimed to investigate the role of UCP-2 for normal and diabetic kidney function utilizing small interference RNA (siRNA) to reduce protein expression. Diabetic animals had increased glomerular filtration rate and kidney oxygen consumption, resulting in decreased oxygen tension and transported sodium per consumed oxygen. UCP-2 protein levels decreased 2 and 50% after UCP-2 siRNA administration in control and diabetic animals respectively. Kidney function was unaffected by in vivo siRNA-mediated gene silencing of UCP-2. The reason for the lack of effect of reducing UCP-2 is presently unknown but may involve compensatory mitochondrial uncoupling by the adenosine nucleotide transporter. PMID:22879036

Welch, William J.; Wilcox, Christopher S.; Palm, Fredrik

2014-01-01

359

A developmentally regulated lipocalin-like gene is overexpressed in Tomato yellow leaf curl virus-resistant tomato plants upon virus inoculation, and its silencing abolishes resistance.  

PubMed

To discover genes involved in tomato resistance to Tomato yellow leaf curl virus (TYLCV), we previously compared cDNA libraries from susceptible (S) and resistant (R) tomato lines. Among the genes preferentially expressed in R plants and upregulated by TYLCV infection was a gene encoding a lipocalin-like protein. This gene was termed Solanum lycopersicum virus resistant/susceptible lipocalin (SlVRSLip). The SlVRSLip structural gene sequence of R and S plants was identical. SlVRSLip was expressed in leaves during a 15-day window starting about 40 days after sowing (20 days after planting). SlVRSLip was upregulated by Bemisia tabaci (the TYLCV vector) feeding on R plant leaves, and even more strongly upregulated following whitefly-mediated TYLCV inoculation. Silencing of SlVRSLip in R plants led to the collapse of resistance upon TYLCV inoculation and to a necrotic response along the stem and petioles accompanied by ROS production. Contrary to previously identified tomato lipocalin gene DQ222981, SlVRSLip was not regulated by cold, nor was it regulated by heat or salt. The expression of SlVRSLip was inhibited in R plants in which the hexose transporter gene LeHT1 was silenced. In contrast, the expression of LeHT1 was not inhibited in SlVRSLip-silenced R plants. Hence, in the hierarchy of the gene network conferring TYLCV resistance, SlVRSLip is downstream of LeHT1. Silencing of another gene involved in resistance, a Permease-I like protein, did not affect the expression of SlVRSLip and LeHT1; expression of the Permease was not affected by silencing SlVRSLip or LeHT1, suggesting that it does not belong to the same network. The triple co-silencing of SlVRSLip, LeHT1 and Permease provoked an immediate cessation of growth of R plants upon infection and the accumulation of large amounts of virus. SlVRSLip is the first lipocalin-like gene shown to be involved in resistance to a plant virus. PMID:22843056

Sade, Dagan; Eybishtz, Assaf; Gorovits, Rena; Sobol, Iris; Czosnek, Henryk

2012-10-01

360

RNA interference-mediated gene silencing of vascular endothelial growth factor in colon cancer cells  

PubMed Central

AIM: To inhibit the expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) in colon cancer cell line by RNA interference (RNAi). METHODS: Followed the service of E-RNAi, we designed and constructed two kinds of shRNA expression vectors aiming at the VEGF gene, then transfected them into colon cancer HT29 cells by lipofectamineTM 2000. The level of VEGF mRNA was investigated by RT-PCR and Northern blotting. The protein expression of VEGF was observed by immunofluoresence staining and Western blotting. RESULTS: We got two kinds of VEGF specific shRNA expression vectors which could efficiently inhibit the expression of VEGF in HT29 cells. RT-PCR, Northern blotting, immunofluoresence staining and Western blotting showed that inhibition rate for VEGF expression was up to 42%, 89%, 73% and 82%, respectively. CONCLUSION: The expression of VEGF can be inhibited by RNA interference in HT29 cells. PMID:17879399

Li, Tie-Jun; Song, Jian-Ning; Kang, Kai; Tong, Shu-Sheng; Hu, Zan-Lan; He, Tong-Chuan; Zhang, Bing-Qiang; Zhang, Cai-Quan

2007-01-01