Sample records for gene silencing method

  1. Virus-Induced Gene Silencing, a Post Transcriptional Gene Silencing Method

    PubMed Central

    Unver, Turgay; Budak, Hikmet

    2009-01-01

    Virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS) is one of the reverse genetics tools for analysis of gene function that uses viral vectors carrying a target gene fragment to produce dsRNA which trigger RNA-mediated gene silencing. There are a number of viruses which have been modified to silence the gene of interest effectively with a sequence-specific manner. Therefore, different types of methodologies have been advanced and modified for VIGS approach. Virus-derived inoculations are performed on host plants using different methods such as agro-infiltration and in vitro transcriptions. VIGS has many advantages compared to other loss-of-gene function approaches. The approach provides the generation of rapid phenotype and no need for plant transformation. The cost of VIGS experiment is relatively low, and large-scale analysis of screening studies can be achieved by the VIGS. However, there are still limitations of VIGS to be overcome. Nowadays, many virus-derived vectors are optimized to silence more than one host plant such as TRV-derived viral vectors which are used for Arabidopsis and Nicothiana benthamiana. By development of viral silencing systems monocot plants can also be targeted as silencing host in addition to dicotyledonous plants. For instance, Barley stripe mosaic virus (BSMV)-mediated VIGS allows silencing of barley and wheat genes. Here we summarize current protocols and recent modified viral systems to lead silencing of genes in different host species. PMID:19547658

  2. A novel method for the evaluation of virus-induced gene silencing efficiency.

    PubMed

    Li, C; Zhang, Z C; Ghebremariam, K M; Wang, L H; Wu, L; Liang, Y

    2014-01-01

    Virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS) is an important tool for studying gene function. However, a number of factors highly restrict the application of VIGS, such as unstable efficiency and tissue-specific silencing. We developed a novel evaluation method for improving the applicability of VIGS vectors. In this method, 4 indexes were defined and utilized to evaluate VIGS efficiency by silencing the endogenous phytoene desaturase (PDS) gene with a tobacco rattle virus-based VIGS vector. To illustrate the reliability of this evaluation method, we assessed the silencing efficiency of SpPDS and SpMPK1 in Solanum pimpinellifolium. The silencing results of SpPDS showed that an optical density at 600 nm of 2.0 was more suitable than 1.0 for VIGS in S. pimpinellifolium. This suggests that the proposed evaluation method is a valid technique for optimizing the VIGS system of plants. Moreover, the SpMPK1 gene was highly silenced in the 4th-9th leaves with a 50-95% reduction in transcription levels, further demonstrating that this method can be used to select highly silenced candidates for further experiments, particularly when the target gene shows no phenotypic change after being silenced. PMID:25501154

  3. Epigenetics--gene silencing.

    PubMed

    Lele, R D

    2009-01-01

    The discovery of the mechanism of RNA interference by ds RNA by Prof. Andrew Fire and Prof. Craig Mello in 1998, gave them the Nobel Prize in 2006. This discovery revealed a new mechanism for gene regulation through "gene silencing" at the transcriptional level (TGS) or at the post-transcriptional level (PTGS), which play a key role in many essential cellular processes. Today dsRNA is used as a powerful tool to experimentally elucidate the function of essentially any gene in a cell. The immense impact of the discovery of RNA interference (RNAi) on biomedical research and its novel medical applications in the future are reviewed in this article, with particular stress on therapeutic applications of radio-labeled antisense oligonucleotides (RASONs) for diagnosis and treatment of various cancers and neurodegenerative diseases by "gene silencing". Antisense oligonucleotides (ASONs) can also modulate alternative splicing which 74% of all human genes undergo. The most effective targeting strategy employs simultaneous blocking SnRNP binding sites and splice junctions. Correction of splicing by ASONs can be used to silence mutations causing aberrant splicing as in thalassemia, Duchenne muscular dystrophy and cystic fibrosis. PMID:19753761

  4. Aging: gene silencing or gene activation?

    PubMed

    Burzynski, Stanislaw R

    2005-01-01

    According to the author's theory of gene silencing, the key process in aging involves reduced expression of a number of genes. Silencing of genes has a complex mechanism, which involves methylation of DNA, histone modification and chromatin remodeling. In addition to deacetylation of the histones and methylation of DNA, recently described RNAi mechanism could initiate formation of silenced chromatin. Hypermethylation of the promoter will silence the gene. Genome-wide hypomethylation will induce genomic instability, amplification of oncogenes and also silencing of the genes through RNAi mechanism. Studies by different groups, conducted in yeast, worms, flies and mice, confirmed substantial changes in gene expression in aging. Among them, the most important was silencing of tumor suppressors and other genes involved in the control of cell cycle, apoptosis, detoxification, and cholesterol metabolism. There was also increased expression of the smaller group of oncogenes and other genes which are associated with typical diseases of old age. Caloric restriction normalizes expression of a substantial percentage of these genes. Animal studies confirmed importance of caloric restriction, which decreases signaling through the IGF-1/AKT pathway and expression of gene p53. These studies, however, cannot be directly applied to human aging. It is proposed that age management therapy should attempt to normalize gene expression in the older population to the level typical for young adults. This would require activation of silenced genes and normalization of overexpressed genes. Caloric restriction and exercise are helpful in decreasing the activity of important oncogenes and activation of silenced tumor suppressors, and may have a positive impact, not only on aging, but also on prevention of cancer. Dietary supplements containing phytochemicals should normalize increased expression of oncogenes. Examples are: genistein and EGCG, which effect signaling through the IGF-1/AKT pathway and resveratrol and limonen, which do so through the RAS pathway. A group of amino acid derivatives and organic acids of animal and human origin should activate silenced tumor suppressor genes (Aminocare A10, Aminocare Extra). Among them 3-phenylacetylamino-2, 6-piperidinedione intercalates specifically with DNA and protects sequences of tumor suppressor genes, which are vulnerable to the effects of carcinogens. Phenylacetate activates p53 and p21 through inhibition of methyltransferase and farnesylation of the RAS protein. Phenylbutyrate activates tumor suppressor genes through inhibition of histone deacetylation. Phenylacetylglutamine decreases genomic instability and expression of oncogenes and promotes apoptosis. The application of DNA microarray techniques to human studies should provide more information about differences in gene expression in different age groups and help design more effective age management regimens. PMID:15533642

  5. Applying gene silencing technology to contraception

    PubMed Central

    Dissen, Gregory A.; Lomniczi, Alejandro; Boudreau, Ryan L.; Chen, Yong Hong; Davidson, Beverly L.; Ojeda, Sergio R.

    2013-01-01

    Contents Population control of feral animals is often difficult, as it can be dangerous for the animals, labor intensive, and expensive. Therefore, a useful tool for control of animal populations would be a nonsurgical method to induce sterility. Our laboratories utilize methods aimed at targeting brain cells in vivo with vehicles that deliver a payload of either inhibitory RNAs or genes intended to correct cellular dysfunction. A useful framework for design of a new approach will be the combination of these methods with the intended goal to produce a technique that can be used to noninvasively sterilize cats and dogs. For this approach to succeed it has to meet several conditions: The target gene must be essential for fertility; the method must include a mechanism to effectively and specifically silence the gene of interest; the method of delivering the silencing agent must be minimally invasive, and finally, the silencing effect must be sustained for the lifespan of the target species, so that expansion of the population can be effectively prevented. In this article we discuss our work to develop gene silencing technology to induce sterility; we will use examples of our previous studies demonstrating that this approach is viable. These studies include: a) the use of viral vectors able to disrupt reproductive cyclicity when delivered to the regions of the brain involved in the control of reproduction, and b) experiments with viral vectors that are able to ameliorate neuronal disease when delivered systemically using a novel approach of gene therapy. PMID:23279544

  6. RNA-INDUCED GENE SILENCING IN PAPAYAS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    (ab) Agrobacterium leaf infiltration is a widely used method for inducing post-transcriptional gene silencing (PTGS) in Nicotiana benthamiana but has rarely been applied successfully in other species. Here we employed agrobacterium leaf infiltration to induce PTGS in ß-glucuronidase (GUS) transgenic...

  7. Gene Silencing by RNAi in Mammalian Cells.

    PubMed

    Ponthan, Frida; Yusoff, Narazah Mohd; Soria, Natalia Martinez; Heidenreich, Olaf; Coffey, Kelly

    2015-01-01

    This unit provides information how to use short interfering RNA (siRNA) for sequence-specific gene silencing in mammalian cells. Several methods for siRNA generation and optimization, as well as recommendations for cell transfection and transduction, are presented. © 2015 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc. PMID:26131850

  8. Posttranscriptional gene silencing in nuclei

    PubMed Central

    Hoffer, Paul; Ivashuta, Sergey; Pontes, Olga; Vitins, Alexa; Pikaard, Craig; Mroczka, Andrew; Wagner, Nicholas; Voelker, Toni

    2011-01-01

    In plants, small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) with sequence homology to transcribed regions of genes can guide the sequence-specific degradation of corresponding mRNAs, leading to posttranscriptional gene silencing (PTGS). The current consensus is that siRNA-mediated PTGS occurs primarily in the cytoplasm where target mRNAs are localized and translated into proteins. However, expression of an inverted-repeat double-stranded RNA corresponding to the soybean FAD2-1A desaturase intron is sufficient to silence FAD2-1, implicating nuclear precursor mRNA (pre-mRNA) rather than cytosolic mRNA as the target of PTGS. Silencing FAD2-1 using intronic or 3?-UTR sequences does not affect transcription rates of the target genes but results in the strong reduction of target transcript levels in the nucleus. Moreover, siRNAs corresponding to pre-mRNA–specific sequences accumulate in the nucleus. In Arabidopsis, we find that two enzymes involved in PTGS, Dicer-like 4 and RNA-dependent RNA polymerase 6, are localized in the nucleus. Collectively, these results demonstrate that siRNA-directed RNA degradation can take place in the nucleus, suggesting the need for a more complex view of the subcellular compartmentation of PTGS in plants. PMID:21173264

  9. Posttranscriptional gene silencing in nuclei.

    PubMed

    Hoffer, Paul; Ivashuta, Sergey; Pontes, Olga; Vitins, Alexa; Pikaard, Craig; Mroczka, Andrew; Wagner, Nicholas; Voelker, Toni

    2011-01-01

    In plants, small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) with sequence homology to transcribed regions of genes can guide the sequence-specific degradation of corresponding mRNAs, leading to posttranscriptional gene silencing (PTGS). The current consensus is that siRNA-mediated PTGS occurs primarily in the cytoplasm where target mRNAs are localized and translated into proteins. However, expression of an inverted-repeat double-stranded RNA corresponding to the soybean FAD2-1A desaturase intron is sufficient to silence FAD2-1, implicating nuclear precursor mRNA (pre-mRNA) rather than cytosolic mRNA as the target of PTGS. Silencing FAD2-1 using intronic or 3'-UTR sequences does not affect transcription rates of the target genes but results in the strong reduction of target transcript levels in the nucleus. Moreover, siRNAs corresponding to pre-mRNA-specific sequences accumulate in the nucleus. In Arabidopsis, we find that two enzymes involved in PTGS, Dicer-like 4 and RNA-dependent RNA polymerase 6, are localized in the nucleus. Collectively, these results demonstrate that siRNA-directed RNA degradation can take place in the nucleus, suggesting the need for a more complex view of the subcellular compartmentation of PTGS in plants. PMID:21173264

  10. Quantum dots to monitor RNAi delivery and improve gene silencing

    E-print Network

    Bhatia, Sangeeta

    Quantum dots to monitor RNAi delivery and improve gene silencing Alice A. Chen1 , Austin M. Derfus2 of transfection and purify homogenously- silenced subpopulations. Compared to alternative RNAi tracking methods interference (RNAi) has emerged as a powerful tool for studying gene function. Since the discovery of RNAi (1

  11. Efficient programmable gene silencing by Cascade.

    PubMed

    Rath, Devashish; Amlinger, Lina; Hoekzema, Mirthe; Devulapally, Praneeth Reddy; Lundgren, Magnus

    2015-01-01

    Methods that permit controlled changes in the expression of genes are important tools for biological and medical research, and for biotechnological applications. Conventional methods are directed at individually changing each gene, its regulatory elements or its mRNA's translation rate. We demonstrate that the CRISPR-associated DNA-binding Cascade complex can be used for efficient, long-lasting and programmable gene silencing. When Cascade is targeted to a promoter sequence the transcription of the downstream gene is inhibited, resulting in dramatically reduced expression. The specificity of Cascade binding is provided by the integral crRNA component, which is easily designed to target virtually any stretch of DNA. Cascade targeted to the ORF sequence of the gene can also silence expression, albeit at lower efficiency. The system can be used to silence plasmid and chromosome targets, simultaneously target several genes and is active in different bacterial species and strains. The findings described here are an addition to the expanding range of CRISPR-based technologies and may be adapted to additional organisms and cell systems. PMID:25435544

  12. Targeted Gene Silencing to Induce Permanent Sterility

    PubMed Central

    Dissen, Gregory A.; Lomniczi, Alejandro; Boudreau, Ryan L.; Chen, Yong Hong; Davidson, Beverly L.; Ojeda, Sergio R.

    2012-01-01

    Contents A nonsurgical method to induce sterility would be a useful tool to control feral populations of animals. Our laboratories have experience with approaches aimed at targeting brain cells in vivo with vehicles that deliver a payload of either inhibitory RNAs or genes intended to correct cellular dysfunction. A combination/modification of these methods may provide a useful framework for the design of approaches that can be used to sterilize cats and dogs. For this approach to succeed it has to meet several conditions: It needs to target a gene essential for fertility. It must involve a method that can selectively silence the gene of interest. It also needs to deliver the silencing agent via a minimally invasive method. Finally, the silencing effect needs to be sustained for many years, so that expansion of the targeted population can be effectively prevented. In this article we discuss this subject and provide a succinct account of our previous experience with: a) molecular reagents able to disrupt reproductive cyclicity when delivered to regions of the brain involved in the control of reproduction, and b) molecular reagents able to ameliorate neuronal disease when delivered systemically using a novel approach of gene therapy. PMID:22827375

  13. RNA silencing of rotavirus gene expression.

    PubMed

    Arias, Carlos F; Dector, Miguel A; Segovia, Lorenzo; López, Tomás; Camacho, Minerva; Isa, Pavel; Espinosa, Rafaela; López, Susana

    2004-06-01

    RNA interference (RNAi) is a double-stranded RNA (dsRNA)-triggered mechanism for suppressing gene expression, which is conserved in evolution and has emerged as a powerful tool to study gene function. Rotaviruses, the leading cause of severe diarrhea in young children, are formed by three concentric layers of protein, and a genome composed of 11 segments of dsRNA. Here, we show that the RNAi machinery can be triggered to silence rotavirus gene expression by sequence-specific short interfering RNAs (siRNAs). RNAi is also useful for the study of the virus-cell interactions, through the silencing of cellular genes that are potentially important for the replication of the virus. Interestingly, while the translation of mRNAs is readily stopped by the RNAi machinery, the viral transcripts involved in virus genome replication do not seem to be susceptible to RNAi. Since gene silencing by RNAi is very efficient and specific, this system could become a novel therapeutic approach for rotavirus and other virus infections, once efficient methods for in vivo delivery of siRNAs are developed. Although the use of RNAi as an antiviral therapeutic tool remains to be demonstrated, there is no doubt that this technology will influence drastically the way postgenomic virus research is conducted. PMID:15068879

  14. Efficient virus-induced gene silencing in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Burch-Smith, Tessa M; Schiff, Michael; Liu, Yule; Dinesh-Kumar, S P

    2006-09-01

    Virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS) is a plant RNA-silencing technique that uses viral vectors carrying a fragment of a gene of interest to generate double-stranded RNA, which initiates the silencing of the target gene. Several viral vectors have been developed for VIGS and they have been successfully used in reverse genetics studies of a variety of processes occurring in plants. This approach has not been widely adopted for the model dicotyledonous species Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana), possibly because, until now, there has been no easy protocol for effective VIGS in this species. Here, we show that a widely used tobacco rattle virus-based VIGS vector can be used for silencing genes in Arabidopsis ecotype Columbia-0. The protocol involves agroinfiltration of VIGS vectors carrying fragments of genes of interest into seedlings at the two- to three-leaf stage and requires minimal modification of existing protocols for VIGS with tobacco rattle virus vectors in other species like Nicotiana benthamiana and tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum). The method described here gives efficient silencing in Arabidopsis ecotype Columbia-0. We show that VIGS can be used to silence genes involved in general metabolism and defense and it is also effective at knocking down expression of highly expressed transgenes. A marker system to monitor the progress and efficiency of VIGS is also described. PMID:16815951

  15. Efficient Virus-Induced Gene Silencing in Arabidopsis1

    PubMed Central

    Burch-Smith, Tessa M.; Schiff, Michael; Liu, Yule; Dinesh-Kumar, S.P.

    2006-01-01

    Virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS) is a plant RNA-silencing technique that uses viral vectors carrying a fragment of a gene of interest to generate double-stranded RNA, which initiates the silencing of the target gene. Several viral vectors have been developed for VIGS and they have been successfully used in reverse genetics studies of a variety of processes occurring in plants. This approach has not been widely adopted for the model dicotyledonous species Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana), possibly because, until now, there has been no easy protocol for effective VIGS in this species. Here, we show that a widely used tobacco rattle virus-based VIGS vector can be used for silencing genes in Arabidopsis ecotype Columbia-0. The protocol involves agroinfiltration of VIGS vectors carrying fragments of genes of interest into seedlings at the two- to three-leaf stage and requires minimal modification of existing protocols for VIGS with tobacco rattle virus vectors in other species like Nicotiana benthamiana and tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum). The method described here gives efficient silencing in Arabidopsis ecotype Columbia-0. We show that VIGS can be used to silence genes involved in general metabolism and defense and it is also effective at knocking down expression of highly expressed transgenes. A marker system to monitor the progress and efficiency of VIGS is also described. PMID:16815951

  16. Artificial trans-Acting siRNAs Confer Consistent and Effective Gene Silencing

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. de la Luz Gutierrez-Nava; M. J. Aukerman; H. Sakai; S. V. Tingey; R. W. Williams

    2008-01-01

    Manipulating gene expression is critical to exploring gene function and a useful tool for altering commercial traits. Techniques such as hairpin-based RNA interference, virus-induced gene silencing, and artificial microRNAs take advantage of endog- enous posttranscriptional gene silencing pathways to block translation of designated transcripts. Here we present a novel gene silencing method utilizing artificial trans-acting small interfering RNAs in Arabidopsis

  17. Short hairpin RNA-mediated gene silencing.

    PubMed

    Lambeth, Luke S; Smith, Craig A

    2013-01-01

    Since the first application of RNA interference (RNAi) in mammalian cells, the expression of short hairpin RNAs (shRNAs) for targeted gene silencing has become a benchmark technology. Using plasmid and viral vectoring systems, the transcription of shRNA precursors that are effectively processed by the RNAi pathway can lead to potent gene knockdown. The past decade has seen continual advancement and improvement to the various strategies that can be used for shRNA delivery, and the use of shRNAs for clinical applications is well underway. Driving these developments has been the many benefits afforded by shRNA technologies, including the stable integration of expression constructs for long-term expression, infection of difficult-to-target cell lines and tissues using viral vectors, and the temporal control of shRNA transcription by inducible promoters. The use of different effector molecule formats, promoters, and vector types, has meant that experiments can be tailored to target specific cell types and minimize cellular toxicities. Through the application of combinatorial RNAi (co-RNAi), multiple shRNA delivery strategies can improve gene knockdown, permit multiple transcripts to be targeted simultaneously, and curtail the emergence of viral escape mutants. This chapter reviews the history, cellular processing, and various applications of shRNAs in mammalian systems, including options for effector molecule design, vector and promoter types, and methods for multiple shRNA delivery. PMID:23027054

  18. RNA-Dependent Gene Silencing and Epigenetics in Animals

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Martina Paulsen; Sascha Tierling; Stephanie Barth; Jörn Walter

    In animals noncoding RNAs are involved in a large variety of gene silencing mechanisms. These include post-transcriptional RNA interference (RNAi) that is mediated by small double-stranded RNAs and results in degradation of messenger RNAs as well as epigenetic silencing of genes. RNAi as a naturally occurring silencing mechanism has been well investigated in various eukaryotic organisms. Sequencing of the human

  19. Virus-Induced gene silencing in ornamental plants

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Virus-Induced Gene Silencing (VIGS) provides an attractive tool for high throughput analysis of the functional effects of gene knock-down. Virus genomes are engineered to include fragments of target host genes, and the infected plant recognizes and silences the target genes as part of its viral defe...

  20. Functional Genomic Analysis of Cotton Genes with Agrobacterium-Mediated Virus-Induced Gene Silencing

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Xiquan; Shan, Libo

    2015-01-01

    Cotton (Gossypium spp.) is one of the most agronomically important crops worldwide for its unique textile fiber production and serving as food and feed stock. Molecular breeding and genetic engineering of useful genes into cotton have emerged as advanced approaches to improve cotton yield, fiber quality, and resistance to various stresses. However, the understanding of gene functions and regulations in cotton is largely hindered by the limited molecular and biochemical tools. Here, we describe the method of an Agrobacterium infiltration-based virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS) assay to transiently silence endogenous genes in cotton at 2-week-old seedling stage. The genes of interest could be readily silenced with a consistently high efficiency. To monitor gene silencing efficiency, we have cloned cotton GrCla1 from G. raimondii, a homolog gene of Arabidopsis Cloroplastos alterados 1 (AtCla1) involved in chloroplast development, and inserted into a tobacco rattle virus (TRV) binary vector pYL156. Silencing of GrCla1 results in albino phenotype on the newly emerging leaves, serving as a visual marker for silencing efficiency. To further explore the possibility of using VIGS assay to reveal the essential genes mediating disease resistance to Verticillium dahliae, a fungal pathogen causing severe Verticillium wilt in cotton, we developed a seedling infection assay to inoculate cotton seedlings when the genes of interest are silenced by VIGS. The method we describe here could be further explored for functional genomic analysis of cotton genes involved in development and various biotic and abiotic stresses. PMID:23386302

  1. Evaluating the ability of the barley stripe mosaic virus-induced gene silencing system to simultaneously silence two wheat genes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS) is an important tool for rapid assessment of gene function in plants. The ability of the Barley Stripe Mosaic Virus (BSMV) VIGS system to simultaneously silence two genes was assessed by comparing the extent of down-regulation of the wheat PDS and SGT1 genes afte...

  2. Efficient Virus-Induced Gene Silencing in Arabidopsis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tessa M. Burch-Smith; Michael Schiff; Y ule Liu; S. P. Dinesh-Kumar

    2006-01-01

    Virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS) is a plant RNA-silencing technique that uses viral vectors carrying a fragment of a gene of interest to generate double-stranded RNA, which initiates the silencing of the target gene. Several viral vectors have been developed for VIGS and they have been successfully used in reverse genetics studies of a variety of processes occurring in plants. This

  3. Bacterial Cellular Engineering by Genome Editing and Gene Silencing

    PubMed Central

    Nakashima, Nobutaka; Miyazaki, Kentaro

    2014-01-01

    Genome editing is an important technology for bacterial cellular engineering, which is commonly conducted by homologous recombination-based procedures, including gene knockout (disruption), knock-in (insertion), and allelic exchange. In addition, some new recombination-independent approaches have emerged that utilize catalytic RNAs, artificial nucleases, nucleic acid analogs, and peptide nucleic acids. Apart from these methods, which directly modify the genomic structure, an alternative approach is to conditionally modify the gene expression profile at the posttranscriptional level without altering the genomes. This is performed by expressing antisense RNAs to knock down (silence) target mRNAs in vivo. This review describes the features and recent advances on methods used in genomic engineering and silencing technologies that are advantageously used for bacterial cellular engineering. PMID:24552876

  4. Conditional U1 Gene Silencing in Toxoplasma gondii

    PubMed Central

    Melatti, Carmen; Gow, Matthew; Wong, Eleanor H.; Heng, Joanne; Müller, Sylke; Blackman, Michael J.; Meissner, Markus

    2015-01-01

    The functional characterisation of essential genes in apicomplexan parasites, such as Toxoplasma gondii or Plasmodium falciparum, relies on conditional mutagenesis systems. Here we present a novel strategy based on U1 snRNP-mediated gene silencing. U1 snRNP is critical in pre-mRNA splicing by defining the exon-intron boundaries. When a U1 recognition site is placed into the 3’-terminal exon or adjacent to the termination codon, pre-mRNA is cleaved at the 3’-end and degraded, leading to an efficient knockdown of the gene of interest (GOI). Here we describe a simple method that combines endogenous tagging with DiCre-mediated positioning of U1 recognition sites adjacent to the termination codon of the GOI which leads to a conditional knockdown of the GOI upon rapamycin-induction. Specific knockdown mutants of the reporter gene GFP and several endogenous genes of T. gondii including the clathrin heavy chain gene 1 (chc1), the vacuolar protein sorting gene 26 (vps26), and the dynamin-related protein C gene (drpC) were silenced using this approach and demonstrate the potential of this technology. We also discuss advantages and disadvantages of this method in comparison to other technologies in more detail. PMID:26090798

  5. RNA-Dependent Gene Silencing and Epigenetics in Animals

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Martina Paulsen; Sascha Tierling; Stephanie Barth; Jörn Walter

    In animals noncoding RNAs are involved in a large variety of gene silencing mechanisms. These include post-transcriptional\\u000a RNA interference (RNAi) that is mediated by small double-stranded RNAs and results in degradation of messenger RNAs as well\\u000a as epigenetic silencing of genes. RNAi as a naturally occurring silencing mechanism has been well investigated in various\\u000a eukaryotic organisms. Sequencing of the human

  6. Transcriptional gene silencing as a tool for uncovering gene function in maize.

    PubMed

    Cigan, A Mark; Unger-Wallace, Erica; Haug-Collet, Kristin

    2005-09-01

    Transcriptional gene silencing has broad applications for studying gene function in planta. In maize, a large number of genes have been identified as tassel-preferred in their expression pattern, both by traditional genetic methods and by recent high-throughput expression profiling platforms. Approaches using RNA suppression may provide a rapid alternative means to identify genes directly related to pollen development in maize. The male fertility gene Ms45 and several anther-expressed genes of unknown function were used to evaluate the efficacy of generating male-sterile plants by transcriptional gene silencing. A high frequency of male-sterile plants was obtained by constitutively expressing inverted repeats (IR) of the Ms45 promoter. These sterile plants lacked MS45 mRNA due to transcriptional inactivity of the target promoter. Moreover, fertility was restored to these promoter IR-containing plants by expressing the Ms45 coding region using heterologous promoters. Transcriptional silencing of other anther-expressed genes also significantly affected male fertility phenotypes and led to increased methylation of the target promoter DNA sequences. These studies provide evidence of disruption of gene activity in monocots by RNA interference constructs directed against either native or transformed promoter regions. This approach not only enables the correlation of monocot anther-expressed genes with functions that are important for reproduction in maize, but may also provide a tool for studying gene function and identifying regulatory components unique to transcriptional gene control. PMID:16146530

  7. Small CTD Phosphatases Function in Silencing Neuronal Gene Expression

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michele Yeo; Soo-Kyung Lee; Bora Lee; Esmeralda C. Ruiz; Samuel L. Pfaff; Gordon N. Gill

    2005-01-01

    Neuronal gene transcription is repressed in non-neuronal cells by the repressor element 1 (RE-1)-silencing transcription factor\\/neuron-restrictive silencer factor (REST\\/NRSF) complex. To understand how this silencing is achieved, we examined a family of class-C RNA polymerase II (RNAPII) carboxyl-terminal domain (CTD) phosphatases [small CTD phosphatases (SCPs) 1 to 3], whose expression is restricted to non-neuronal tissues. We show that REST\\/NRSF recruits

  8. Novel RNA-based Strategies for Therapeutic Gene Silencing

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Christopher R Sibley; Yiqi Seow; Matthew JA Wood

    2010-01-01

    The past decade has seen intense scientific interest in non-coding RNAs. In particular, the discovery and subsequent exploitation of gene silencing via RNA interference (RNAi) has revolutionized the way in which gene expression is now studied and understood. It is now well established that post-transcriptional gene silencing (PTGS) by the microRNA (miRNA) and other RNAi-associated pathways represents an essential layer

  9. Emerging similarities in epigenetic gene silencing by long noncoding RNAs

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Takashi Nagano; Peter Fraser

    2009-01-01

    Long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) such as Xist, Air, and Kcnq1ot1 are required for epigenetic silencing of multiple genes in cis within large chromosomal domains, including distant genes located hundreds of kilobase pairs away. Recent evidence suggests\\u000a that all three of these lncRNAs are functional and that they silence gene expression, in part, through an intimate interaction\\u000a with chromatin. Here we

  10. Transgenic gene silencing strategies for virus control

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. G. Dietzgen; N. Mitter

    2006-01-01

    Co-suppression of transgenes and their homologous viral sequences by RNA silencing is a powerful strategy for achieving high-level\\u000a virus resistance in plants. This review provides a brief overview of RNA silencing mechanisms in plants and discusses important\\u000a transgene construct design features underpinning successful RNA silencing-mediated transgenic virus control. Application of\\u000a those strategies to protect horticultural and field crops from virus

  11. Gene overexpression and gene silencing in Birch using an Agrobacterium-mediated transient expression system.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yan; Wang, Yucheng; Wang, Chao

    2012-05-01

    As transient expression systems are effective methods for the functional characterization of genes, a transient gene expression and silencing system was developed for Betula platyphylla Suk (Chinese Birch). Firstly, the cinnamoyl-CoA reductase (CCR) gene and its promoter were isolated from Chinese Birch. The vectors for overexpression of CCR and RNAi-based silence of CCR were constructed and transformed into Agrobacterium, respectively. Overexpression and silence of the CCR gene were respectively, performed on Birch seedlings using an Agrobacterium-mediated transient expression system. The expression levels of CCR were determined using real-time PCR. The results showed that the transcripts of CCR notably increased in the Birch plants transformed with the CCR overexpression construct, and notably decreased in plants transformed with the silencing construct when compared with nontransgenic plants. These studies confirmed that this transient genetic transformation system works well on Birch plants, and can be used for the functional characterization of genes and protein production in Birch. PMID:22203479

  12. Effect of Nanoparticle Conjugation on Gene Silencing by RNA Interference

    E-print Network

    Singh, Neetu

    RNA interference (RNAi) is a cellular process whereby the silencing of a particular gene is mediated by short RNAs (siRNAs). Although siRNAs have great therapeutic potential, cellular delivery has been a challenge. ...

  13. Histone deacetylase inhibitors reverse gene silencing in Friedreich's ataxia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David Herman; Kai Jenssen; Ryan Burnett; Elisabetta Soragni; Susan L Perlman; Joel M Gottesfeld

    2006-01-01

    Expansion of GAA·TTC triplets within an intron in FXN (the gene encoding frataxin) leads to transcription silencing, forming the molecular basis for the neurodegenerative disease Friedreich's ataxia. Gene silencing at expanded FXN alleles is accompanied by hypoacetylation of histones H3 and H4 and trimethylation of histone H3 at Lys9, observations that are consistent with a heterochromatin-mediated repression mechanism. We describe

  14. RNAi-mediated gene silencing in non-human primates

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tracy S. Zimmermann; Amy C. H. Lee; Akin Akinc; Birgit Bramlage; David Bumcrot; Matthew N. Fedoruk; Jens Harborth; James A. Heyes; Lloyd B. Jeffs; Matthias John; Adam D. Judge; Kieu Lam; Kevin McClintock; Lubomir V. Nechev; Lorne R. Palmer; Timothy Racie; Ingo Röhl; Stephan Seiffert; Sumi Shanmugam; Vandana Sood; Jürgen Soutschek; Ivanka Toudjarska; Amanda J. Wheat; Ed Yaworski; William Zedalis; Victor Koteliansky; Muthiah Manoharan; Hans-Peter Vornlocher; Ian MacLachlan

    2006-01-01

    The opportunity to harness the RNA interference (RNAi) pathway to silence disease-causing genes holds great promise for the development of therapeutics directed against targets that are otherwise not addressable with current medicines. Although there are numerous examples of in vivo silencing of target genes after local delivery of small interfering RNAs (siRNAs), there remain only a few reports of RNAi-mediated

  15. In vivo chromatin accessibility correlates with gene silencing in Drosophila.

    PubMed Central

    Boivin, A; Dura, J M

    1998-01-01

    Gene silencing by heterochromatin is a well-known phenomenon that, in Drosophila, is called position effect variegation (PEV). The long-held hypothesis that this gene silencing is associated with an altered chromatin structure received direct support only recently. Another gene-silencing phenomenon in Drosophila, although similar in its phenotype of variegation, has been shown to be associated with euchromatic sequences and is dependent on developmental regulators of the Polycomb group (Pc-G) of gene products. One model proposes that the Pc-G products may cause a local heterochromatinization that maintains a repressed state of transcription of their target genes. Here, we test these models by measuring the accessibility of white or miniwhite sequences, in different contexts, to the Escherichia coli dam DNA methyltransferase in vivo. We present evidence that PEV and Pc-G-mediated repression mechanisms, although based on different protein factors, may indeed involve similar higher-order chromatin structure. PMID:9832530

  16. Virus induced gene silencing of Arabidopsis gene homologues in wheat identify genes conferring improved drought tolerance

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In a non-model staple crop like wheat, functional validation of potential drought stress responsive genes identified in Arabidopsis could provide gene targets for wheat breeding. Virus induced gene silencing (VIGS) of genes of interest can overcome the inherent problems of polyploidy and limited tra...

  17. Co-silencing the mirabilis antiviral protein permits virus-induced gene silencing in Mirabilis jalapa

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS) is an attractive and rapid technique for loss of function assay that can reveal the phenotype of embryo-lethal sequences and avoids the need for time consuming transformation and regeneration processes. Among various VIGS vectors that have been explored, the tobac...

  18. A modular plasmid assembly kit for multigene expression, gene silencing and silencing rescue in plants.

    PubMed

    Binder, Andreas; Lambert, Jayne; Morbitzer, Robert; Popp, Claudia; Ott, Thomas; Lahaye, Thomas; Parniske, Martin

    2014-01-01

    The Golden Gate (GG) modular assembly approach offers a standardized, inexpensive and reliable way to ligate multiple DNA fragments in a pre-defined order in a single-tube reaction. We developed a GG based toolkit for the flexible construction of binary plasmids for transgene expression in plants. Starting from a common set of modules, such as promoters, protein tags and transcribed regions of interest, synthetic genes are assembled, which can be further combined to multigene constructs. As an example, we created T-DNA constructs encoding multiple fluorescent proteins targeted to distinct cellular compartments (nucleus, cytosol, plastids) and demonstrated simultaneous expression of all genes in Nicotiana benthamiana, Lotus japonicus and Arabidopsis thaliana. We assembled an RNA interference (RNAi) module for the construction of intron-spliced hairpin RNA constructs and demonstrated silencing of GFP in N. benthamiana. By combination of the silencing construct together with a codon adapted rescue construct into one vector, our system facilitates genetic complementation and thus confirmation of the causative gene responsible for a given RNAi phenotype. As proof of principle, we silenced a destabilized GFP gene (dGFP) and restored GFP fluorescence by expression of a recoded version of dGFP, which was not targeted by the silencing construct. PMID:24551083

  19. Delivery of gene silencing agents for breast cancer therapy

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    The discovery of RNA interference has opened the door for the development of a new class of cancer therapeutics. Small inhibitory RNA oligos are being designed to specifically suppress expression of proteins that are traditionally considered nondruggable, and microRNAs are being evaluated to exert broad control of gene expression for inhibition of tumor growth. Since most naked molecules are not optimized for in vivo applications, the gene silencing agents need to be packaged into delivery vehicles in order to reach the target tissues as their destinations. Thus, the selection of the right delivery vehicles serves as a crucial step in the development of cancer therapeutics. The current review summarizes the status of gene silencing agents in breast cancer and recent development of candidate cancer drugs in clinical trials. Nanotechnology-based delivery vectors for the formulation and packaging of gene silencing agents are also described. PMID:23659575

  20. PIAS1 Regulates Breast Tumorigenesis through Selective Epigenetic Gene Silencing

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Bin; Tahk, Samuel; Yee, Kathleen M.; Yang, Randy; Yang, Yonghui; Mackie, Ryan; Hsu, Cary; Chernishof, Vasili; O'Brien, Neil; Jin, Yusheng; Fan, Guoping; Lane, Timothy F.; Rao, Jianyu; Slamon, Dennis; Shuai, Ke

    2014-01-01

    Epigenetic gene silencing by histone modifications and DNA methylation is essential for cancer development. The molecular mechanism that promotes selective epigenetic changes during tumorigenesis is not understood. We report here that the PIAS1 SUMO ligase is involved in the progression of breast tumorigenesis. Elevated PIAS1 expression was observed in breast tumor samples. PIAS1 knockdown in breast cancer cells reduced the subpopulation of tumor-initiating cells, and inhibited breast tumor growth in vivo. PIAS1 acts by delineating histone modifications and DNA methylation to silence the expression of a subset of clinically relevant genes, including breast cancer DNA methylation signature genes such as cyclin D2 and estrogen receptor, and breast tumor suppressor WNT5A. Our studies identify a novel epigenetic mechanism that regulates breast tumorigenesis through selective gene silencing. PMID:24586797

  1. Development of Agrobacterium-Mediated Virus-Induced Gene Silencing and Performance Evaluation of Four Marker Genes in Gossypium barbadense

    PubMed Central

    Pang, Jinhuan; Zhu, Yue; Li, Qing; Liu, Jinzhi; Tian, Yingchuan; Liu, Yule; Wu, Jiahe

    2013-01-01

    Gossypiumbarbadense is a cultivated cotton species and possesses many desirable traits, including high fiber quality and resistance to pathogens, especially Verticilliumdahliae (a devastating pathogen of Gossypium hirsutum, the main cultivated species). These elite traits are difficult to be introduced into G. hirsutum through classical breeding methods. In addition, genetic transformation of G. barbadense has not been successfully performed. It is therefore important to develop methods for evaluating the function and molecular mechanism of genes in G. barbadense. In this study, we had successfully introduced a virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS) system into three cultivars of G. barbadense by inserting marker genes into the tobacco rattle virus (TRV) vector. After we optimized the VIGS conditions, including light intensity, photoperiod, seedling age and Agrobacterium strain, 100% of plants agroinfiltrated with the GaPDS silencing vector showed white colored leaves. Three other marker genes, GaCLA1, GaANS and GaANR, were employed to further test this VIGS system in G. barbadense. The transcript levels of the endogenous genes in the silenced plants were reduced by more than 99% compared to control plants; these plants presented phenotypic symptoms 2 weeks after inoculation. We introduced a fusing sequence fragment of GaPDS and GaANR gene silencing vectors into a single plant, which resulted in both photobleaching and brownish coloration. The extent of silencing in plants agroinfiltrated with fusing two-gene-silencing vector was consistent with plants harboring a single gene silencing vector. The development of this VIGS system should promote analysis of gene function in G. barbadense, and help to contribute desirable traits for breeding of G. barbadense and G. hirsutum. PMID:24023833

  2. Artificial trans-acting siRNAs confer consistent and effective gene silencing.

    PubMed

    de la Luz Gutiérrez-Nava, Maria; Aukerman, Milo J; Sakai, Hajime; Tingey, Scott V; Williams, Robert W

    2008-06-01

    Manipulating gene expression is critical to exploring gene function and a useful tool for altering commercial traits. Techniques such as hairpin-based RNA interference, virus-induced gene silencing, and artificial microRNAs take advantage of endogenous posttranscriptional gene silencing pathways to block translation of designated transcripts. Here we present a novel gene silencing method utilizing artificial trans-acting small interfering RNAs in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana). Replacing the endogenous small interfering RNAs encoded in the TAS1c gene with sequences from the FAD2 gene silenced FAD2 activity to levels comparable to the fad2-1 null allele in nearly all transgenic events. Interestingly, exchanging the endogenous miR173 target sequence in TAS1c with an miR167 target sequence led to variable, inefficient silencing of FAD2, suggesting a specific requirement for the miR173 trigger for production of small interfering RNAs from the TAS1c locus. PMID:18441221

  3. Heparanase Gene Silencing, Tumor Invasiveness, Angiogenesis, and Metastasis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Evgeny Edovitsky; Michael Elkin; Eyal Zcharia; Tamar Peretz; Israel Vlodavsky

    2004-01-01

    Background: Heparanase is an endoglycosidase that de- grades heparan sulfate, the main polysaccharide constituent of the extracellular matrix and basement membrane. Ex- pression of the heparanase gene is associated with the inva- sive, angiogenic, and metastatic potential of diverse malig- nant tumors and cell lines. We used gene-silencing strategies to evaluate the role of heparanase in malignancy and to explore

  4. Homoeologous gene silencing in tissue cultured wheat callus

    PubMed Central

    Bottley, Andrew; Chapman, Natalie H; Koebner, Robert MD

    2008-01-01

    Background In contrast to diploids, most polyploid plant species, which include the hexaploid bread wheat, possess an additional layer of epigenetic complexity. Several studies have demonstrated that polyploids are affected by homoeologous gene silencing, a process in which sub-genomic genomic copies are selectively transcriptionally inactivated. This form of silencing can be tissue specific and may be linked to developmental or stress responses. Results Evidence was sought as to whether the frequency of homoeologous silencing in in vitro cultured wheat callus differ from that in differentiated organs, given that disorganized cells are associated with a globally lower level of DNA methylation. Using a reverse transcription PCR (RT-PCR) single strand conformation polymorphism (SSCP) platform to detect the pattern of expression of 20 homoeologous sets of single-copy genes known to be affected by this form of silencing in the root and/or leaf, we observed no silencing in any of the wheat callus tissue tested. Conclusion Our results suggest that much of the homoeologous silencing observed in differentiated tissues is probably under epigenetic control, rather than being linked to genomic instability arising from allopolyploidization. This study reinforces the notion of plasticity in the wheat epi-genome. PMID:18928533

  5. Structure and Gene-Silencing Mechanisms of Small Noncoding RNAs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chu, Chia-Ying; Rana, Tariq M.

    Small (19-31-nucleotides) noncoding RNAs were identified in the past 10 years for their distinct function in gene silencing. The best known gene-silencing phenomenon, RNA interference (RNAi), is triggered in a sequence-specific manner by endogenously produced or exogenously introduced small doubled-stranded RNAs. As knowledge of the structure and function of the RNAi machinery has expanded, this phenomenon has become a powerful tool for biochemical research; it has enormous potential for therapeutics. This chapter summarizes significant aspects of three major classes of small noncoding, regulatory RNAs: small interfering RNAs (siRNAs), microRNAs (miRNAs), and Piwi-interacting RNAs (piRNAs). Here, we focus on the biogenesis of these small RNAs, their structural features and coupled effectors as well as the mechanisms of each small regulatory RNA pathway which reveal fascinating ways by which gene silencing is controlled and fine-tuned at an epigenetic level.

  6. Down-Regulation of Gene Expression by RNA-Induced Gene Silencing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Travella, Silvia; Keller, Beat

    Down-regulation of endogenous genes via post-transcriptional gene silencing (PTGS) is a key to the characterization of gene function in plants. Many RNA-based silencing mechanisms such as post-transcriptional gene silencing, co-suppression, quelling, and RNA interference (RNAi) have been discovered among species of different kingdoms (plants, fungi, and animals). One of the most interesting discoveries was RNAi, a sequence-specific gene-silencing mechanism initiated by the introduction of double-stranded RNA (dsRNA), homologous in sequence to the silenced gene, which triggers degradation of mRNA. Infection of plants with modified viruses can also induce RNA silencing and is referred to as virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS). In contrast to insertional mutagenesis, these emerging new reverse genetic approaches represent a powerful tool for exploring gene function and for manipulating gene expression experimentally in cereal species such as barley and wheat. We examined how RNAi and VIGS have been used to assess gene function in barley and wheat, including molecular mechanisms involved in the process and available methodological elements, such as vectors, inoculation procedures, and analysis of silenced phenotypes.

  7. Rationale for developing new virus vectors to analyze gene function in grasses through virus-induced gene silencing.

    PubMed

    Ramanna, Hema; Ding, Xin Shun; Nelson, Richard S

    2013-01-01

    The exploding availability of genome and EST-based sequences from grasses requires a technology that allows rapid functional analysis of the multitude of genes that these resources provide. There are several techniques available to determine a gene's function. For gene knockdown studies, silencing through RNAi is a powerful tool. Gene silencing can be accomplished through stable transformation or transient expression of a fragment of a target gene sequence. Stable transformation in rice, maize, and a few other species, although routine, remains a relatively low-throughput process. Transformation in other grass species is difficult and labor-intensive. Therefore, transient gene silencing methods including Agrobacterium-mediated and virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS) have great potential for researchers studying gene function in grasses. VIGS in grasses already has been used to determine the function of genes during pathogen challenge and plant development. It also can be used in moderate-throughput reverse genetics screens to determine gene function. However, the number of viruses modified to serve as silencing vectors in grasses is limited, and the silencing phenotype induced by these vectors is not optimal: the phenotype being transient and with moderate penetration throughout the tissue. Here, we review the most recent information available for VIGS in grasses and summarize the strengths and weaknesses in current virus-grass host systems. We describe ways to improve current virus vectors and the potential of other grass-infecting viruses for VIGS studies. This work is necessary because VIGS for the foreseeable future remains a higher throughput and more rapid system to evaluate gene function than stable transformation. PMID:23386292

  8. The Development and Application of a Multiple Gene Co-Silencing System Using Endogenous URA3 as a Reporter Gene in Ganoderma lucidum

    PubMed Central

    Mu, Dashuai; Shi, Liang; Ren, Ang; Li, Mengjiao; Wu, Fengli; Jiang, Ailiang; Zhao, Mingwen

    2012-01-01

    Ganoderma lucidum is one of the most important medicinal mushrooms; however, molecular genetics research on this species has been limited due to a lack of reliable reverse genetic tools. In this study, the endogenous orotidine 5?-monophosphate decarboxylase gene (URA3) was cloned as a silencing reporter, and four gene-silencing methods using hairpin, sense, antisense, and dual promoter constructs, were introduced into G. lucidum through a simple electroporation procedure. A comparison and evaluation of silencing efficiency demonstrated that all of the four methods differentially suppressed the expression of URA3. Our data unequivocally indicate that the dual promoter silencing vector yields the highest rate of URA3 silencing compared with other vectors (up to 81.9%). To highlight the advantages of the dual promoter system, we constructed a co-silencing system based on the dual promoter method and succeeded in co-silencing URA3 and laccase in G. lucidum. The reduction of the mRNA levels of the two genes were correlated. Thus, the screening efficiency for RNAi knockdown of multiple genes may be improved by the co-silencing of an endogenous reporter gene. The molecular tools developed in this study should facilitate the isolation of genes and the characterization of the functions of multiple genes in this pharmaceutically important species, and these tools should be highly useful for the study of other basidiomycetes. PMID:22937087

  9. Virus-induced gene silencing in soybean and common bean.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Chunquan; Whitham, Steven A; Hill, John H

    2013-01-01

    Plant viral vectors are useful for transient gene expression as well as for downregulation of gene expression via virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS). When used in reverse genetics approaches, VIGS offers a convenient way of transforming genomic information into knowledge of gene function. Efforts to develop and improve plant viral vectors have expanded their applications and have led to substantial advances needed to facilitate gene function studies in major row crops. Here, we describe a DNA-based Bean pod mottle virus (BPMV) vector system for both gene expression and VIGS in soybean and common bean. PMID:23386301

  10. INDUCIBLE RNAi-MEDIATED GENE SILENCING USING NANOSTRUCTURED GENE DELIVERY ARRAYS

    SciTech Connect

    Mann, David George James [ORNL; McKnight, Timothy E [ORNL; Mcpherson, Jackson [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Hoyt, Peter R [ORNL; Melechko, Anatoli Vasilievich [ORNL; Simpson, Michael L [ORNL; Sayler, Gary Steven [ORNL

    2008-01-01

    RNA interference has become a powerful biological tool over the last decade. In this study, a tetracycline-inducible shRNA vector system was designed for silencing CFP expression and introduced alongside the yfp marker gene into Chinese hamster ovary cells using spatially indexed vertically aligned carbon nanofiber arrays (VACNFs) in a gene delivery process termed impalefection. The VACNF architecture provided simultaneous delivery of multiple genes, subsequent adherence and proliferation of interfaced cells, and repeated monitoring of single cells over time. 24 hours after nanofiber-mediated delivery, 53.1% 10.4% of the cells that expressed the yfp marker gene were also fully silenced by the inducible CFP-silencing shRNA vector. Additionally, efficient CFP-silencing was observed in single cells among a population of cells that remained CFP-expressing. This effective transient expression system enables rapid analysis of gene silencing effects using RNAi in single cells and cell populations.

  11. Virus-Induced Gene Silencing in Hexaploid Wheat

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Functional genomics analysis in hexaploid wheat is greatly impeded by the genetic redundancy of polyploidy and the difficulties in generating large numbers of transgenic plants required in insertional mutagenesis strategies. Virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS), however, is a strategy for creating g...

  12. Tobacco rattle virus-based virus-induced gene silencing in Nicotiana benthamiana.

    PubMed

    Senthil-Kumar, Muthappa; Mysore, Kirankumar S

    2014-07-01

    Tobacco rattle virus (TRV)-based virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS) is widely used in various plant species to downregulate the expression of a target plant gene. TRV is a bipartite, positive-strand RNA virus with the TRV1 and TRV2 genomes. To induce post-transcriptional gene silencing (PTGS), the TRV2 genome is genetically modified to carry a fragment of the target gene and delivered into the plant (along with the TRV1 genome) by agroinoculation. TRV1- and TRV2-carrying Agrobacterium strains are then co-inoculated into 3-week-old plant leaves by one of three methods: a needleless syringe, the agrodrench method or by pricking with a toothpick. Target gene silencing occurs in the newly developed noninoculated leaves within 2-3 weeks of TRV inoculation. The TRV-VIGS protocol described here takes only 4 weeks to implement, and it is faster and easier to perform than other gene silencing techniques that are currently available. Although we use Nicotiana benthamiana as an example, the protocol is adaptable to other plant species. PMID:24901739

  13. Efficient gene silencing in mesenchymal stem cells by substrate-mediated RNA interference.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Shan-Hui; Huang, Guo-Shiang; Ho, Tung-Tso; Feng, Fuh

    2014-11-01

    We described a novel substrate-mediated RNA interference (RNAi) technology to investigate the effect of neural crest marker expression on the multipotency of human gingival fibroblasts (HGFs). HGFs showed significantly higher neural and chondrogenic differentiation potentials compared with adult bone-marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells and stem cells from human exfoliated deciduous teeth. By sending target-specific RNAi agents with the conventional vehicle (PolyFect), we observed that the multipotency of HGFs was closely associated with the expression of neural crest marker gene Forkhead box D3 (FoxD3). Using the novel chitosan substrate-mediated method, we successfully delivered short-hairpin RNA constructs to HGFs grown on chitosan without the use of conventional vehicles. The delivery efficiency measured by flow cytometry showed a 10-fold increase for HGFs on chitosan versus those on culture dish, and the cell viability was >95%. Moreover, HGFs with FoxD3 gene knockdown did not form spheroids on chitosan. Based on this working principle, we further selected the gene-silenced population from HGFs. The nonsilenced HGFs showed much higher neural differentiation ability with the nestin expression 40-fold greater than FoxD3-silenced population after induction, suggesting the feasibility of the method to silence genes. The new substrate-mediated gene silencing platform that combines the use of substrate and RNAi can be used to clarify the functions of important genes without suffering the toxicity. PMID:24624901

  14. An intronic silencer of the mouse perforin gene.

    PubMed

    Youn, Byung-Soo; Lim, Chae Lyul; Shin, Man Kyun; Hill, Jams M; Kwon, Byoung S

    2002-02-28

    We have previously shown that the perforin gene locus is comprised of eight DNase I hypersensitive sites (DHS). Seven (DHS I-DHS VII) of them were CTL-specific whereas one (DHS VIII) in the second intron was expressed in a wide range of cell types. DHS VIII was highly AT-rich (75%) and was comprised of multiple sets of high mobility group (HMG)-I/Y binding site, two potential Special AT-rich Binding protein (SATB-1)-binding sites, and a long stretch of CTAT repeats, indicating that DHS VIII may relate to nuclear matrix-associated region (MAR). When DHS VIII was inserted into the perforin promoter-driven luciferase gene, it silenced the reporter gene transcription in CTLL-R8 cells in an orientation- and distance-independent manner. Moreover, this silencing effect was also observed in other promoters in a variety of non-CTL cell lines, suggesting that DHS VIII exerted a global silencing effect. Deletion analysis and gel-shift assays indicated that the silencing effect was mediated by the CTAT repeats and its binding protein called CTAT repeats-binding protein (CRBP). PMID:11911476

  15. Breaking the Silence: Protein Stabilization Uncovers Silenced Biosynthetic Gene Clusters in the Fungus Aspergillus nidulans

    PubMed Central

    Gerke, Jennifer; Bayram, Özgür; Feussner, Kirstin; Landesfeind, Manuel; Shelest, Ekaterina; Feussner, Ivo

    2012-01-01

    The genomes of filamentous fungi comprise numerous putative gene clusters coding for the biosynthesis of chemically and structurally diverse secondary metabolites (SMs), which are rarely expressed under laboratory conditions. Previous approaches to activate these genes were based primarily on artificially targeting the cellular protein synthesis apparatus. Here, we applied an alternative approach of genetically impairing the protein degradation apparatus of the model fungus Aspergillus nidulans by deleting the conserved eukaryotic csnE/CSN5 deneddylase subunit of the COP9 signalosome. This defect in protein degradation results in the activation of a previously silenced gene cluster comprising a polyketide synthase gene producing the antibiotic 2,4-dihydroxy-3-methyl-6-(2-oxopropyl)benzaldehyde (DHMBA). The csnE/CSN5 gene is highly conserved in fungi, and therefore, the deletion is a feasible approach for the identification of new SMs. PMID:23001671

  16. Breaking the silence: protein stabilization uncovers silenced biosynthetic gene clusters in the fungus Aspergillus nidulans.

    PubMed

    Gerke, Jennifer; Bayram, Ozgür; Feussner, Kirstin; Landesfeind, Manuel; Shelest, Ekaterina; Feussner, Ivo; Braus, Gerhard H

    2012-12-01

    The genomes of filamentous fungi comprise numerous putative gene clusters coding for the biosynthesis of chemically and structurally diverse secondary metabolites (SMs), which are rarely expressed under laboratory conditions. Previous approaches to activate these genes were based primarily on artificially targeting the cellular protein synthesis apparatus. Here, we applied an alternative approach of genetically impairing the protein degradation apparatus of the model fungus Aspergillus nidulans by deleting the conserved eukaryotic csnE/CSN5 deneddylase subunit of the COP9 signalosome. This defect in protein degradation results in the activation of a previously silenced gene cluster comprising a polyketide synthase gene producing the antibiotic 2,4-dihydroxy-3-methyl-6-(2-oxopropyl)benzaldehyde (DHMBA). The csnE/CSN5 gene is highly conserved in fungi, and therefore, the deletion is a feasible approach for the identification of new SMs. PMID:23001671

  17. Silencers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kurze, U.; Riedel, E.

    Large size silencers are attached to the intake and exhaust of large industrial plants, e.g. forced ventilation systems for mining industry, intake of cooling towers (Fig. 11.1) or flue gas stacks of power plants to protect the neighbourhood from plant noise. Large silencers are also required for ventilation openings of rooms with high internal sound pressure levels, e.g. industrial production halls or subway ventilation ducts.

  18. GENE SILENCING. Epigenetic silencing by the HUSH complex mediates position-effect variegation in human cells.

    PubMed

    Tchasovnikarova, Iva A; Timms, Richard T; Matheson, Nicholas J; Wals, Kim; Antrobus, Robin; Göttgens, Berthold; Dougan, Gordon; Dawson, Mark A; Lehner, Paul J

    2015-06-26

    Forward genetic screens in Drosophila melanogaster for modifiers of position-effect variegation have revealed the basis of much of our understanding of heterochromatin. We took an analogous approach to identify genes required for epigenetic repression in human cells. A nonlethal forward genetic screen in near-haploid KBM7 cells identified the HUSH (human silencing hub) complex, comprising three poorly characterized proteins, TASOR, MPP8, and periphilin; this complex is absent from Drosophila but is conserved from fish to humans. Loss of HUSH components resulted in decreased H3K9me3 both at endogenous genomic loci and at retroviruses integrated into heterochromatin. Our results suggest that the HUSH complex is recruited to genomic loci rich in H3K9me3, where subsequent recruitment of the methyltransferase SETDB1 is required for further H3K9me3 deposition to maintain transcriptional silencing. PMID:26022416

  19. The effects of nanofiber diameter and orientation on siRNA uptake and gene silencing.

    PubMed

    Yau, Winifred Wing Yiu; Long, Hongyan; Gauthier, Nils C; Chan, Jerry Kok Yen; Chew, Sing Yian

    2015-01-01

    While substrate topography influences cell behavior, RNA interference (RNAi) has also emerged as a potent method for understanding and directing cell fate. However, the effects of substrate topography on RNAi remain poorly understood. Here, we report the influence of nanofiber architecture on siRNA-mediated gene-silencing in human somatic and stem cells. The respective model cells, human dermal fibroblasts (HDFs) and mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), were cultured onto aligned or randomly oriented electrospun poly(?-caprolactone) fibers of different average diameters (300 nm, 700 nm and 1.3 ?m). In HDFs, decreasing fiber diameter from 1.3 ?m to 300 nm improved Glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) and Collagen-I silencing efficiencies by ? 3.8 and ?4.4 folds respectively (p < 0.05) while the effective siRNA uptake pathway was altered from clathrin-dependent endocytosis to macropinocytosis. In MSCs, aligned fibers generated significantly higher level of gene silencing of RE-1 silencing transcription factor (REST) and green fluorescent protein (GFP) (?1.6 and ?1.5 folds respectively, p < 0.05), than randomly-oriented fibers. Aligned fiber topography facilitated functional siRNA uptake through clathrin-mediated endocytosis and membrane fusion. Taken together, our results demonstrated a promising role of three-dimensional fibrous scaffolds in modulating siRNA-mediated gene-silencing and established the critical synergistic role of these substrates in modulating cellular behavior by RNAi. PMID:25453941

  20. INDUCIBLE RNAi-MEDIATED GENE SILENCING USING NANOSTRUCTURED GENE DELIVERY ARRAYS

    SciTech Connect

    Mann, David George James [ORNL; McKnight, Timothy E [ORNL; Mcpherson, Jackson [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Hoyt, Peter R [ORNL; Melechko, Anatoli Vasilievich [ORNL; Simpson, Michael L [ORNL; Sayler, Gary Steven [ORNL

    2008-01-01

    RNA interference has become a powerful biological tool over the last decade. In this study, a tetracycline-inducible shRNA vector system was designed for silencing CFP expression and delivered alongside the yfp marker gene into Chinese hamster ovary cells using impalefection on spatially indexed vertically aligned carbon nanofiber arrays (VACNFs). The VACNF architecture provided simultaneous delivery of multiple genes, subsequent adherence and proliferation of interfaced cells, and repeated monitoring of single cells over time. Following impalefection and tetracycline induction, 53.1% 10.4% of impalefected cells were fully silenced by the inducible CFP-silencing shRNA vector. Additionally, efficient CFP-silencing was observed in single cells among a population of cells that remained CFP-expressing. This effective transient expression system enables rapid analysis of gene silencing effects using RNAi in single cells and cell populations.

  1. Analysis of developmental control genes using virus-induced gene silencing.

    PubMed

    Geuten, Koen; Viaene, Tom; Vekemans, Dries; Kourmpetli, Sofia; Drea, Sinead

    2013-01-01

    A consistent challenge in studying the evolution of developmental processes has been the problem of explicitly assessing the function of developmental control genes in diverse species. In recent years, virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS) has proved to be remarkably adaptable and efficient in silencing developmental control genes in species across the angiosperms. Here we describe proven protocols for Nicotiana benthamiana and Papaver somniferum, representing a core and basal eudicot species. PMID:23386295

  2. Gene silencing assessment for genes from recalcitrant or poorly studied plant species

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Takahiro Kamoi; Colin Charles Eady; Shinsuke Imai

    2008-01-01

    We have developed an efficient system of assessing the ability of a gene silencing cassette to silence transcripts from recalcitrant\\u000a or poorly studied plant species by using a model plant as a host for the gene of interest. Tobacco plants transgenic for Lachrymatory\\u000a Factor Synthase (LFS) enzyme activity from onion were first produced by introducing a CaMV 35S-onion-lfs gene construct.

  3. Virus-induced gene silencing in transgenic plants: transgene silencing and reactivation associate with two patterns of transgene body methylation.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Mingmin; San León, David; Delgadillo, Ma Otilia; García, Juan Antonio; Simón-Mateo, Carmen

    2014-08-01

    We used bisulfite sequencing to study the methylation of a viral transgene whose expression was silenced upon plum pox virus infection of the transgenic plant and its subsequent recovery as a consequence of so-called virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS). VIGS was associated with a general increase in the accumulation of small RNAs corresponding to the coding region of the viral transgene. After VIGS, the transgene promoter was not methylated and the coding region showed uneven methylation, with the 5' end being mostly unmethylated in the recovered tissue or mainly methylated at CG sites in regenerated silenced plants. The methylation increased towards the 3' end, which showed dense methylation in all three contexts (CG, CHG and CHH). This methylation pattern and the corresponding silenced status were maintained after plant regeneration from recovered silenced tissue and did not spread into the promoter region, but were not inherited in the sexual offspring. Instead, a new pattern of methylation was observed in the progeny plants consisting of disappearance of the CHH methylation, similar CHG methylation at the 3' end, and an overall increase in CG methylation in the 5' end. The latter epigenetic state was inherited over several generations and did not correlate with transgene silencing and hence virus resistance. These results suggest that the widespread CG methylation pattern found in body gene bodies located in euchromatic regions of plant genomes may reflect an older silencing event, and most likely these genes are no longer silenced. PMID:24916614

  4. STUDY OF GENE SILENCING IN RICE: A ROOT PREFERENTIAL GENE RCG2 

    E-print Network

    Shi, Xiangyu

    2010-07-14

    involved in the gene silencing of the YXB lines. DNA methylation analysis, northern blotting, RT-PCR and small RNA analysis supported the conclusion that PTGS and TGS are present in the silenced plants. Promoter analysis in silico and using promoter...

  5. Sticky overhangs enhance siRNA-mediated gene silencing

    PubMed Central

    Bolcato-Bellemin, Anne-Laure; Bonnet, Marie-Elise; Creusat, Gaëlle; Erbacher, Patrick; Behr, Jean-Paul

    2007-01-01

    siRNA delivery to cells offers a convenient and powerful means of gene silencing that bypasses several barriers met by gene delivery. However, nonviral vectors, and especially polymers, form looser complexes with siRNA than with plasmid DNA. As a consequence, exchange of siRNA for larger polymeric anions such as proteoglycans found outside cells and at their surface may occur and lower delivery. We show here that making siRNAs “gene-like,” via short complementary A5–8/T5–8 3? overhangs, increases complex stability, and hence RNase protection and gene silencing in vitro up to 10-fold. After decomplexation in the cytoplasm, sticky siRNA (ssiRNA) concatemers fall apart. ssiRNAs are therefore not inducing antiviral responses, as shown by the absence of IFN-? production. Finally, transfection experiments in the mouse lung show that ssiRNA should be particularly suited to silencing with linear polyethylenimine in vivo. PMID:17913877

  6. Modification of Seed Oil Composition in Arabidopsis by Artificial microRNA-Mediated Gene Silencing.

    PubMed

    Belide, Srinivas; Petrie, James Robertson; Shrestha, Pushkar; Singh, Surinder Pal

    2012-01-01

    Various post transcriptional gene silencing strategies have been developed and exploited to study gene function or engineer disease resistance. The recently developed artificial microRNA strategy is an alternative method of effectively silencing target genes. The ?12-desaturase (FAD2), Fatty acid elongase (FAE1), and Fatty acyl-ACP thioesterase B (FATB) were targeted with amiR159b-based constructs in Arabidopsisthaliana to evaluate changes in oil composition when expressed with the seed-specific Brassica napus truncated napin (FP1) promoter. Fatty acid profiles from transgenic homozygous seeds reveal that the targeted genes were silenced. The down-regulation of the AtFAD-2 gene substantially increased oleic acid from the normal levels of ?15% to as high as 63.3 and reduced total PUFA content (18:2(?9,12)?+?18:3(?9,12,15)?+?20:2(?11,14)?+?20:3(?11,14,17)) from 46.8 to 4.8%. ?12-desaturase activity was reduced to levels as low as those in the null fad-2-1 and fad-2-2 mutants. Silencing of the FAE1 gene resulted in the reduction of eicosenoic acid (20:1(?11)) to 1.9 from 15.4% and silencing of FATB resulted in the reduction of palmitic acid (16:0) to 4.4% from 8.0%. Reduction in FATB activity is comparable with a FATB knock-out mutant. These results demonstrate for the first time amiR159b constructs targeted against three endogenous seed-expressed genes are clearly able to down-regulate and generate genotypic changes that are inherited stably over three generations. PMID:22866055

  7. Modification of Seed Oil Composition in Arabidopsis by Artificial microRNA-Mediated Gene Silencing

    PubMed Central

    Belide, Srinivas; Petrie, James Robertson; Shrestha, Pushkar; Singh, Surinder Pal

    2012-01-01

    Various post transcriptional gene silencing strategies have been developed and exploited to study gene function or engineer disease resistance. The recently developed artificial microRNA strategy is an alternative method of effectively silencing target genes. The ?12-desaturase (FAD2), Fatty acid elongase (FAE1), and Fatty acyl-ACP thioesterase B (FATB) were targeted with amiR159b-based constructs in Arabidopsis thaliana to evaluate changes in oil composition when expressed with the seed-specific Brassica napus truncated napin (FP1) promoter. Fatty acid profiles from transgenic homozygous seeds reveal that the targeted genes were silenced. The down-regulation of the AtFAD-2 gene substantially increased oleic acid from the normal levels of ?15% to as high as 63.3 and reduced total PUFA content (18:2?9,12?+?18:3?9,12,15?+?20:2?11,14?+?20:3?11,14,17) from 46.8 to 4.8%. ?12-desaturase activity was reduced to levels as low as those in the null fad-2-1 and fad-2-2 mutants. Silencing of the FAE1 gene resulted in the reduction of eicosenoic acid (20:1?11) to 1.9 from 15.4% and silencing of FATB resulted in the reduction of palmitic acid (16:0) to 4.4% from 8.0%. Reduction in FATB activity is comparable with a FATB knock-out mutant. These results demonstrate for the first time amiR159b constructs targeted against three endogenous seed-expressed genes are clearly able to down-regulate and generate genotypic changes that are inherited stably over three generations. PMID:22866055

  8. Tetracycline nanoparticles as antibacterial and gene-silencing agents.

    PubMed

    Shimanovich, Ulyana; Lipovsky, Anat; Eliaz, Dror; Zigdon, Sally; Knowles, Tuomas P J; Nitzan, Yeshayahu; Michaeli, Shulamit; Gedanken, Aharon

    2015-04-01

    The spread of antibiotic-resistant bacteria and parasites calls for the development of new therapeutic strategies with could potentially reverse this trend. Here, a proposal is presented to exploit a sonochemical method to restore the antibiotic activity of tetracycline (TTCL) against resistant bacteria by converting the antibiotic into a nanoparticulate form. The demonstrated sonochemical method allows nanoscale TTCL assembly to be driven by supramolecular hydrogen bond formation, with no further modification to the antibiotic's chemical structure. It is shown that tetracycline nanoparticles (TTCL NPs) can act as antibacterial agents, both against TTCL sensitive and against resistant bacterial strains. Moreover, the synthesized antibiotic nanoparticles (NPs) can act as effective gene-silencing agents through the use of a TTCL repressor in Trypanosome brucei parasites. It is demonstrated that the NPs are nontoxic to human cells and T. brucei parasites and are able to release their monomer components in an active form in a manner that results in enhanced antimicrobial activity relative to a homogeneous solution of the precursor monomer. As the TTCL NPs are biocompatible and biodegradable, sonochemical formation of TTCL NPs represents a new promising approach for generation of pharmaceutically active nanomaterials. PMID:25425122

  9. Simultaneous silencing of multiple genes in the apple scab fungus, Venturia inaequalis, by expression of RNA with chimeric inverted repeats.

    PubMed

    Fitzgerald, Anna; Van Kan, Jan A L; Plummer, Kim M

    2004-10-01

    RNA-mediated gene silencing has been demonstrated in plants, animals, and more recently in filamentous fungi. Here, we report high frequency, RNA-mediated gene silencing in the apple scab fungus, Venturia inaequalis. The green fluorescent protein (GFP) transgene was silenced in a GFP-expressing transformant. An endogenous gene, trihydroxynaphthalene reductase (THN), involved in melanin biosynthesis, was also silenced. Silencing of these two genes resulted in obvious phenotypes in vitro. High frequency gene silencing was achieved using hairpin constructs for the GFP or the THN genes transferred by Agrobacterium (71 and 61%, respectively). THN-silenced transformants exhibited a distinctive light brown phenotype and maintained the ability to infect apple. Of significance was the simultaneous silencing of the two genes from a single chimeric, inverted repeat hairpin construct. Silencing of both genes with this construct occurred at a frequency of 51% of all the transformants. All 125 colonies silenced for the GFP gene were also silenced for THN. As THN and GFP silenced transformants have readily detectable phenotypes, the genes have utility as markers for gene silencing. Simultaneous, multiple gene silencing, utilising such marker genes, will enable the development of high through-put screening for functional genomics. This chimeric technology will be particularly valuable when linked with silenced genes that have no obvious phenotype in vitro. PMID:15341918

  10. The role of green fluorescent protein (GFP) in transgenic plants to reduce gene silencing phenomena.

    PubMed

    El-Shemy, Hany A; Khalafalla, Mutasim M; Ishimoto, Masao

    2009-01-01

    The green fluorescent protein (GFP) of jellyfish (Aequorea victoria) has significant advantages over other reporter genes, because expression can be detected in living cells without any substrates. Recently, epigenetic phenomena are important to consider in plant biotechnology experiments for elucidate unknown mechanism. Therefore, soybean immature cotyledons were generated embryogenesis cells and engineered with two different gene constructs (pHV and pHVS) using gene gun method. Both constructs contain a gene conferring resistance to hygromycin (hpt) as a selective marker and a modified glycinin (11S globulin) gene (V3-1) as a target. However, sGFP(S65T) as a reporter gene was used only in pHVS as a reporter gene for study the relation between using sGFP(S65T) and gene silencing phenomena. Fluorescence microscopic was used for screening after the selection of hygromycin, identified clearly the expression of sGFP(S65T) in the transformed soybean embryos bombarded with the pHVS construct. Protein analysis was used to detect gene expression overall seeds using SDS-PAGE. Percentage of gene down regulation was highly in pHV construct compared with pHVS. Thus, sGFP(S65T ) as a reporter gene in vector system may be play useful role for transgenic evaluation and avoid gene silencing in plants for the benefit of plant transformation system. PMID:19193961

  11. Silencers in abdominal-B, a homeotic Drosophila gene.

    PubMed Central

    Busturia, A; Bienz, M

    1993-01-01

    Homeotic genes determine the developmental fates of cells. Restriction of their expression along the body axis is of prime importance for normal development. We searched for cis-regulatory sequences within Abdominal-B (Abd-B), a homeotic Drosophila gene, by testing genomic Abd-B fragments for their ability to confer beta-galactosidase (beta-gal) expression in transformed embryos. One of the Abd-B fragments, called IAB5, mediates a beta-gal pattern restricted along the body axis to the Abd-B expression domain. Alterations of the IAB5 pattern in gap mutants provide evidence that the protein products of the gap genes hunchback, Krüppel and knirps act as repressors through IAB5. The anterior Abd-B expression limit is apparently determined by Krüppel repression, whereas the knirps repressor may be responsible for the graded Abd-B expression within the Abd-B domain. IAB5 and two other fragments called MCP and FAB show region-specific silencing activity: they suppress at a distance beta-gal expression mediated by a linked heterologous enhancer. Silencing requires hunchback as well as Polycomb function and evidently provides maintenance of Abd-B expression limits throughout embryogenesis. We conclude that transcriptional repression is a key mechanism operating at multiple levels to control Abd-B expression. The striking similarities between the control of Abd-B and of Ultrabithorax, another homeotic Drosophila gene, may point to a universal principle underlying homeotic gene regulation. Images PMID:8096812

  12. Global reactivation of epigenetically silenced genes in prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    Ibragimova, Ilsiya; Ibáñez de Cáceres, Inmaculada; Hoffman, Amanda M; Potapova, Anna; Dulaimi, Essel; Al-Saleem, Tahseen; Hudes, Gary R; Ochs, Michael F; Cairns, Paul

    2010-09-01

    Transcriptional silencing associated with aberrant promoter hypermethylation is a common mechanism of inactivation of tumor suppressor genes in cancer cells. To globally profile the genes silenced by hypermethylation in prostate cancer, we screened a whole genome expression microarray for genes reactivated in the LNCaP, DU-145, PC-3, and MDA2b prostate tumor cell lines after treatment with the demethylating drug 5-aza-2-deoxycytidine and the histone deacetylation-inhibiting drug trichostatin A. A total of 2,997 genes showed at least 2-fold upregulation of expression after drug treatment in at least one prostate tumor cell line. For validation, we examined the first 45 genes, ranked by upregulation of expression, which had a typical CpG island and were known to be expressed in the normal cell counterpart. Two important findings were, first, that several genes known to be frequently hypermethylated in prostate cancer were apparent, and, second, that validation studies revealed eight novel genes hypermethylated in the prostate tumor cell lines, four of which were unmethylated in normal prostate cells and hypermethylated in primary prostate tumors (SLC15A3, 66%; KRT7, 54%; TACSTD2, 17%; GADD45b, 3%). Thus, we established the utility of our screen for genes hypermethylated in prostate cancer cells. One of the novel genes was TACSTD2/TROP2, a marker of human prostate basal cells with stem cell characteristics. TACSTD2 was unmethylated in prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia and may have utility in emerging methylation-based prostate cancer tests. Further study of the hypermethylome will provide insight into the biology of the disease and facilitate translational studies in prostate cancer. PMID:20699414

  13. Silencing of Aphid Genes by dsRNA Feeding from Plants

    PubMed Central

    Maffei, Massimo E.; Ridout, Christopher J.; Hogenhout, Saskia A.

    2011-01-01

    Background RNA interference (RNAi) is a valuable reverse genetics tool to study gene function in various organisms, including hemipteran insects such as aphids. Previous work has shown that RNAi-mediated knockdown of pea aphid (Acyrthosiphon pisum) genes can be achieved through direct injection of double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) or small-interfering RNAs (siRNA) into the pea aphid hemolymph or by feeding these insects on artificial diets containing the small RNAs. Methodology/Principal Findings In this study, we have developed the plant-mediated RNAi technology for aphids to allow for gene silencing in the aphid natural environment and minimize handling of these insects during experiments. The green peach aphid M. persicae was selected because it has a broad plant host range that includes the model plants Nicotiana benthamiana and Arabidopsis thaliana for which transgenic materials can relatively quickly be generated. We targeted M. persicae Rack1, which is predominantly expressed in the gut, and M. persicae C002 (MpC002), which is predominantly expressed in the salivary glands. The aphids were fed on N. benthamiana leaf disks transiently producing dsRNA corresponding to these genes and on A. thaliana plants stably producing the dsRNAs. MpC002 and Rack-1 expression were knocked down by up to 60% on transgenic N. benthamiana and A. thaliana. Moreover, silenced M. persicae produced less progeny consistent with these genes having essential functions. Conclusions/Significance Similar levels of gene silencing were achieved in our plant-mediated RNAi approach and published silencing methods for aphids. Furthermore, the N. benthamiana leaf disk assay can be developed into a screen to assess which genes are essential for aphid survival on plants. Our results also demonstrate the feasibility of the plant-mediated RNAi approach for aphid control. PMID:21998682

  14. Virus-aided gene expression and silencing using TRV for functional analysis of floral scent-related genes.

    PubMed

    Spitzer-Rimon, Ben; Cna'ani, Alon; Vainstein, Alexander

    2013-01-01

    Flower scent is a composite character determined by a complex mixture of low-molecular-weight volatile molecules. Despite the importance of floral fragrance, our knowledge on factors regulating these pathways remains sketchy. Virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS) and virus-aided gene expression (VAGE) are characterized by a simple inoculation procedure and rapid results as compared to transgenesis, allowing screening and characterization of scent-related genes. Here, we describe methods using TRV as a VIGS/VAGE vector for the characterization of scent-related genes, protein compartmentalization studies, and protein subcellular targeting. PMID:23386300

  15. Efficiency of gene silencing in Arabidopsis: direct inverted repeats vs. transitive RNAi vectors.

    SciTech Connect

    Filichkin, Sergei A [Oregon State University, Corvallis; DiFazio, Steven P [West Virginia University; Brunner, Amy M [Oregon State University, Virginia Tech. University; Davis, John M [University of Florida; Yang, Zamin Koo [ORNL; Kalluri, Udaya C [ORNL; Arias, Renee S [Oregon State University, Corvallis; Etherington, Elizabeth [Oregon State University, Corvallis; Tuskan, Gerald A [ORNL; Strauss, S [Oregon State University

    2007-01-01

    We investigated the efficiency of RNA interference (RNAi) in Arabidopsis using transitive and homologous inverted repeat (hIR) vectors. hIR constructs carry self-complementary intron-spliced fragments of the target gene whereas transitive vectors have the target sequence fragment adjacent to an intron-spliced, inverted repeat of heterologous origin. Both transitive and hIR constructs facilitated specific and heritable silencing in the three genes studied (AP1, ETTIN and TTG1). Both types of vectors produced a phenotypic series that phenocopied reduction of function mutants for the respective target gene. The hIR yielded up to fourfold higher proportions of events with strongly manifested reduction of function phenotypes compared to transitive RNAi. We further investigated the efficiency and potential off-target effects of AP1 silencing by both types of vectors using genome-scale microarrays and quantitative RT-PCR. The depletion of AP1 transcripts coincided with reduction of function phenotypic changes among both hIR and transitive lines and also showed similar expression patterns among differentially regulated genes. We did not detect significant silencing directed against homologous potential off-target genes when constructs were designed with minimal sequence similarity. Both hIR and transitive methods are useful tools in plant biotechnology and genomics. The choice of vector will depend on specific objectives such as cloning throughput, number of events and degree of suppression required.

  16. Systematic identification of cis-silenced genes by trans complementation

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jae Hyun; Bugarija, Branimir; Millan, Enrique J.; Walton, Noah M.; Gaetz, Jedidiah; Fernandes, Croydon J.; Yu, Wei-Hua; Mekel-Bobrov, Nitzan; Vallender, Tammy W.; Snyder, Gregory E.; Xiang, Andy Peng; Lahn, Bruce T.

    2009-01-01

    A gene’s transcriptional output is the combined product of two inputs: diffusible factors in the cellular milieu acting in trans, and chromatin state acting in cis. Here, we describe a strategy for dissecting the relative contribution of cis versus trans mechanisms to gene regulation. Referred to as trans complementation, it entails fusing two disparate cell types and searching for genes differentially expressed between the two genomes of fused cells. Any differential expression can be causally attributed to cis mechanisms because the two genomes of fused cells share a single homogenized milieu in trans. This assay uncovered a state of transcriptional competency that we termed ‘occluded’ whereby affected genes are silenced by cis-acting mechanisms in a manner that blocks them from responding to the trans-acting milieu of the cell. Importantly, occluded genes in a given cell type tend to include master triggers of alternative cell fates. Furthermore, the occluded state is maintained during cell division and is extraordinarily stable under a wide range of physiological conditions. These results support the model that the occlusion of lineage-inappropriate genes is a key mechanism of cell fate restriction. The identification of occluded genes by our assay provides a hitherto unavailable functional readout of chromatin state that is distinct from and complementary to gene expression status. PMID:19050040

  17. Gene silencing in a polyploid homosporous fern: paleopolyploidy revisited.

    PubMed Central

    Gastony, G J

    1991-01-01

    Because of their high chromosome numbers, homosporous vascular plants were considered paleopolyploids until recent enzyme electrophoretic studies rejected this hypothesis by showing that they express only diploid numbers of isozymes. In polyploid sporophytes of the homosporous fern pelleae rufa, however, progressive diminution of phosphoglucoisomerase activities encoded by one ancestral genome culminates in tetraploid plants exhibiting a completely diploidized electrophoretic phenotype for this enzyme. The demonstration that such gene silencing can make a polyploid fern look isozymically like a diploid questions the validity of isozyme evidence for testing the paleopolyploid hypothesis and supports the proposed role of polyploidization followed by genetic diploidizaton in the evolutionary history of homosporous pteridohytes. Images PMID:11607154

  18. Highly efficient virus-induced gene silencing in apple and soybean by apple latent spherical virus vector and biolistic inoculation.

    PubMed

    Yamagishi, Noriko; Yoshikawa, Nobuyuki

    2013-01-01

    Virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS) is an effective tool for the analysis of the gene function in plants within a short time. However, in woody fruit tree like apple, some of Solanum crops, and soybean, it is generally difficult to inoculate virus vector by conventional inoculation methods. Here, we show efficient VIGS in apple and soybean by Apple latent spherical virus (ALSV) vector and biolistic inoculation. The plants inoculated with ALSV vectors by particle bombardment showed uniform silenced phenotypes of target genes within 2-3 weeks post inoculation. PMID:23386303

  19. Virus-induced gene silencing of N gene in tobacco by apple latent spherical virus vectors.

    PubMed

    Li, Chunjiang; Yoshikawa, Nobuyuki

    2015-01-01

    Virus infections induce an RNA-mediated defense that targets viral RNAs in a nucleotide sequence-specific manner in plants, commonly referred to as virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS). When the virus carries sequences of plant genes, it triggers virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS) and results in the degradation of mRNA of endogenous homologous gene. VIGS has been shown to have great potential as a reverse-genetics tool for studying of gene functions in plants, and it has several advantages over other functional genomics approaches. Here, we describe VIGS of N gene in tobacco cv. Xanthi nc by ALSV vectors containing fragments of N gene from Nicotiana glutinosa. PMID:25287507

  20. RNAi-mediated gene silencing in tick synganglia: A proof of concept study

    PubMed Central

    Karim, Shahid; Kenny, Bronwyn; Troiano, Emily; Mather, Thomas N

    2008-01-01

    Background Progress in generating comprehensive EST libraries and genome sequencing is setting the stage for reverse genetic approaches to gene function studies in the blacklegged tick (Ixodes scapularis). However, proving that RNAi can work in nervous tissue has been problematic. Developing an ability to manipulate gene expression in the tick synganglia likely would accelerate understanding of tick neurobiology. Here, we assess gene silencing by RNA interference in the adult female black-legged tick synganglia. Results Tick ?-Actin and Na+-K+-ATPase were chosen as targets because both genes express in all tick tissues including synganglia. This allowed us to deliver dsRNA in the unfed adult female ticks and follow a) uptake of dsRNA and b) gene disruption in synganglia. In vitro assays demonstrated total disruption of both tick ?-Actin and Na+-K+-ATPase in the synganglia, salivary glands and midguts. When dsRNA was microinjected in unfed adult female ticks, nearly all exhibited target gene disruption in the synganglia once ticks were partially blood fed. Conclusion Abdominal injection of dsRNA into unfed adult female ticks appears to silence target gene expression even in the tick synganglia. The ability of dsRNA to cross the blood-brain barrier in ticks suggests that RNAi should prove to be a useful method for dissecting function of synganglia genes expressing specific neuropeptides in order to better assess their role in tick biology. PMID:18366768

  1. A virus-induced gene silencing approach to understanding alkaloid metabolism in Catharanthus roseus

    PubMed Central

    Liscombe, David K.; O’Connor, Sarah E.

    2011-01-01

    The anticancer agents vinblastine and vincristine are bisindole alkaloids derived from coupling vindoline and catharanthine, monoterpenoid indole alkaloids produced exclusively by Madagascar periwinkle (Catharanthus roseus) plants. Industrial production of vinblastine and vincristine currently relies on isolation from C. roseus leaves, a process that affords these compounds in 0.0003–0.01% yields. Metabolic engineering efforts to improve alkaloid content or provide alternative sources of the bisindole alkaloids ultimately rely on the isolation and characterization of the genes involved. Several vindoline biosynthetic genes have been isolated, and the cellular and subcellular organization of the corresponding enzymes has been well studied. However, due to the leaf-specific localization of vindoline biosynthesis, and the lack of production of this precursor in cell suspension and hairy root cultures of C. roseus, further elucidation of this pathway demands the development of reverse genetics approaches to assay gene function in planta. The bipartite pTRV vector system is a Tobacco Rattle Virus-based virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS) platform that has provided efficient and effective means to assay gene function in diverse plant systems. We have developed a VIGS method to investigate gene function in C. roseus plants using the pTRV vector system. The utility of this approach in understanding gene function in C. roseus leaves is demonstrated by silencing known vindoline biosynthetic genes previously characterized in vitro. PMID:21802100

  2. RNAi-Mediated Gene silencing in Zebrafish Triggered by Convergent Transcription

    PubMed Central

    Andrews, Omozusi E.; Cha, Diana J.; Wei, Chunyao; Patton, James G.

    2014-01-01

    RNAi based strategies to induce gene silencing are commonly employed in numerous model organisms but have not been extensively used in zebrafish. We found that introduction of transgenes containing convergent transcription units in zebrafish embryos induced stable transcriptional gene silencing (TGS) in cis and trans for reporter (mCherry) and endogenous (One-Eyed Pinhead (OEP) and miR-27a/b) genes. Convergent transcription enabled detection of both sense and antisense transcripts and silencing was suppressed upon Dicer knockdown, indicating processing of double stranded RNA. By ChIP analyses, increased silencing was accompanied by enrichment of the heterochromatin mark H3K9me3 in the two convergently arranged promoters and in the intervening reading frame. Our work demonstrates that convergent transcription can induce gene silencing in zebrafish providing another tool to create specific temporal and spatial control of gene expression. PMID:24909225

  3. Cohesin and Polycomb Proteins Functionally Interact to Control Transcription at Silenced and Active Genes

    PubMed Central

    Schaaf, Cheri A.; Misulovin, Ziva; Gause, Maria; Koenig, Amanda; Gohara, David W.; Watson, Audrey; Dorsett, Dale

    2013-01-01

    Cohesin is crucial for proper chromosome segregation but also regulates gene transcription and organism development by poorly understood mechanisms. Using genome-wide assays in Drosophila developing wings and cultured cells, we find that cohesin functionally interacts with Polycomb group (PcG) silencing proteins at both silenced and active genes. Cohesin unexpectedly facilitates binding of Polycomb Repressive Complex 1 (PRC1) to many active genes, but their binding is mutually antagonistic at silenced genes. PRC1 depletion decreases phosphorylated RNA polymerase II and mRNA at many active genes but increases them at silenced genes. Depletion of cohesin reduces long-range interactions between Polycomb Response Elements in the invected-engrailed gene complex where it represses transcription. These studies reveal a previously unrecognized role for PRC1 in facilitating productive gene transcription and provide new insights into how cohesin and PRC1 control development. PMID:23818863

  4. Virus-induced gene silencing as a tool for functional analyses in the emerging model plant Aquilegia (columbine, Ranunculaceae)

    PubMed Central

    Gould, Billie; Kramer, Elena M

    2007-01-01

    Background The lower eudicot genus Aquilegia, commonly known as columbine, is currently the subject of extensive genetic and genomic research aimed at developing this taxon as a new model for the study of ecology and evolution. The ability to perform functional genetic analyses is a critical component of this development process and ultimately has the potential to provide insight into the genetic basis for the evolution of a wide array of traits that differentiate flowering plants. Aquilegia is of particular interest due to both its recent evolutionary history, which involves a rapid adaptive radiation, and its intermediate phylogenetic position between core eudicot (e.g., Arabidopsis) and grass (e.g., Oryza) model species. Results Here we demonstrate the effective use of a reverse genetic technique, virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS), to study gene function in this emerging model plant. Using Agrobacterium mediated transfer of tobacco rattle virus (TRV) based vectors, we induce silencing of PHYTOENE DESATURASE (AqPDS) in Aquilegia vulgaris seedlings, and ANTHOCYANIDIN SYNTHASE (AqANS) and the B-class floral organ identity gene PISTILLATA in A. vulgaris flowers. For all of these genes, silencing phenotypes are associated with consistent reduction in endogenous transcript levels. In addition, we show that silencing of AqANS has no effect on overall floral morphology and is therefore a suitable marker for the identification of silenced flowers in dual-locus silencing experiments. Conclusion Our results show that TRV-VIGS in Aquilegia vulgaris allows data to be rapidly obtained and can be reproduced with effective survival and silencing rates. Furthermore, this method can successfully be used to evaluate the function of early-acting developmental genes. In the future, data derived from VIGS analyses will be combined with large-scale sequencing and microarray experiments already underway in order to address both recent and ancient evolutionary questions. PMID:17430595

  5. Assessing the tobacco-rattle-virus-based vectors system as an efficient gene silencing technique in Datura stramonium (Solanaceae).

    PubMed

    Eftekhariyan Ghamsari, Mohammad Reza; Karimi, Farah; Mousavi Gargari, Seyed Latif; Hosseini Tafreshi, Seyed Ali; Salami, Seyed Alireza

    2014-12-01

    Datura stramonium is a well-known medicinal plant, which is important for its alkaloids. There are intrinsic limitations for the natural production of alkaloids in plants; metabolic engineering methods can be effectively used to conquer these limitations. In order for this the genes involved in corresponding pathways need to be studied. Virus-Induced Gene Silencing is known as a functional genomics technique to knock-down expression of endogenous genes. In this study, we silenced phytoene desaturase as a marker gene in D. stramonium in a heterologous and homologous manner by tobacco-rattle-virus-based VIGS vectors. Recombinant TRV vector containing pds gene from D. stramonium (pTRV2-Dspds) was constructed and injected into seedlings. The plants injected with pTRV2-Dspds showed photobleaching 2 weeks after infiltration. Spectrophotometric analysis demonstrated that the amount of chlorophylls and carotenoids in leaves of the bleached plants decreased considerably compared to that of the control plants. Semi-Quantitative RT-PCR results also confirmed that the expression of pds gene in the silenced plants was significantly reduced in comparison with the control plants. The results showed that the viral vector was able to influence the levels of total alkaloid content in D. stramonium. Our results illustrated that TRV-based VIGS vectors are able to induce effective and reliable functional gene silencing in D. stramonium as an alternative tool for studying the genes of interest in this plant, such as the targeted genes in tropane alkaloid biosynthetic pathway. The present work is the first report of establishing VIGS as an efficient method for transient silencing of any gene of interest in D. stramonium. PMID:25070062

  6. Short interfering RNA-mediated gene silencing in Globodera pallida and Meloidogyne incognita infective stage juveniles.

    PubMed

    Dalzell, Johnathan J; McMaster, Steven; Fleming, Colin C; Maule, Aaron G

    2010-01-01

    The analysis of gene function through RNA interference (RNAi)-based reverse genetics in plant parasitic nematodes (PPNs) remains inexplicably reliant on the use of long double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) silencing triggers; a practice inherently disadvantageous due to the introduction of superfluous dsRNA sequence, increasing chances of aberrant or off-target gene silencing through interactions between nascent short interfering RNAs (siRNAs) and non-cognate mRNA targets. Recently, we have shown that non-nematode, long dsRNAs have a propensity to elicit profound impacts on the phenotype and migrational abilities of both root knot and cyst nematodes. This study presents, to our knowledge for the first time, gene-specific knockdown of FMRFamide-like peptide (flp) transcripts, using discrete 21bp siRNAs in potato cyst nematode Globodera pallida, and root knot nematode Meloidogyne incognita infective (J2) stage juveniles. Both knockdown at the transcript level through quantitative (q)PCR analysis and functional data derived from migration assay, indicate that siRNAs targeting certain areas of the FMRFamide-like peptide (FLP) transcripts are potent and specific in the silencing of gene function. In addition, we present a method of manipulating siRNA activity through the management of strand thermodynamics. Initial evaluation of strand thermodynamics as a determinant of RNA-Induced Silencing Complex (RISC) strand selection (inferred from knockdown efficacy) in the siRNAs presented here suggested that the purported influence of 5' stand stability on guide incorporation may be somewhat promiscuous. However, we have found that on strategically incorporating base mismatches in the sense strand of a G. pallida-specific siRNA, we could specifically increase or decrease the knockdown of its target (specific to the antisense strand), presumably through creating more favourable thermodynamic profiles for incorporation of either the sense (non-target-specific) or antisense (target-specific) strand into a cleavage-competent RISC. Whilst the efficacy of similar approaches to siRNA modification has been demonstrated in the context of Drosophila whole-cell lysate preparations and in mammalian cell cultures, it remained to be seen how these sense strand mismatches may impact on gene silencing in vivo, in relation to different targets and in different sequence contexts. This work presents the first application of such an approach in a whole organism; initial results show promise. PMID:19651131

  7. Functional characterization of a tyrosinase gene from the oomycete Saprolegnia parasitica by RNAi silencing

    PubMed Central

    Saraiva, Marcia; de Bruijn, Irene; Grenville-Briggs, Laura; McLaggan, Debbie; Willems, Ariane; Bulone, Vincent; van West, Pieter

    2014-01-01

    Here we describe the first application of transient gene silencing in Saprolegnia parasitica, a pathogenic oomycete that infects a wide range of fish, amphibians, and crustaceans. A gene encoding a putative tyrosinase from S. parasitica, SpTyr, was selected to investigate the suitability of RNA-interference (RNAi) to functionally characterize genes of this economically important pathogen. Tyrosinase is a mono-oxygenase enzyme that catalyses the O-hydroxylation of monophenols and subsequent oxidation of O-diphenols to quinines. These enzymes are widely distributed in nature, and are involved in the melanin biosynthesis. Gene silencing was obtained by delivering in vitro synthesized SpTyr dsRNA into protoplasts. Expression analysis, tyrosinase activity measurements, and melanin content analysis confirmed silencing in individual lines. Silencing of SpTyr resulted in a decrease of tyrosinase activity between 38 % and 60 %, dependent on the level of SpTyr-expression achieved. The SpTyr-silenced lines displayed less pigmentation in developing sporangia and occasionally an altered morphology. Moreover, developing sporangia from individual silenced lines possessed a less electron dense cell wall when compared to control lines, treated with GFP-dsRNA. In conclusion, the tyrosinase gene of S. parasitica is required for melanin formation and transient gene silencing can be used to functionally characterize genes in S. parasitica. PMID:25088076

  8. Potent Vaccine Therapy with Dendritic Cells Genetically Modified by the Gene-Silencing-Resistant Retroviral Vector GCDNsap

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tsukasa Nabekura; Makoto Otsu; Toshiro Nagasawa; Hiromitsu Nakauchi; Masafumi Onodera

    2006-01-01

    Dendritic cells (DCs) genetically modified to express tumor-associated antigens (TAAs) would be promising tools in cancer immunotherapy. However, the use of retroviral vectors for such modifications is still a challenge because of low transduction efficiency and gene silencing in DCs. We have established an efficient method to prepare such DCs by in vitro differentiation of hematopoietic progenitor cells transduced with

  9. RNAi-mediated silencing of a novel Ascaris suum gene expression in infective larvae

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. J. Xu; N. Chen; H. Q. Song; R. Q. Lin; C. Q. Huang; Z. G. Yuan; X. Q. Zhu

    2010-01-01

    In the present study, the potential of RNA interference (RNAi) as a gene silencing tool and the resultant effects on Ascaris suum larval development was examined by targeting a gene (represented by the EST 06G09) specifically expressed in the infective\\u000a larvae of A. suum. BALB\\/c mice were infected with RNAi-treated larvae. The results showed that the target gene was silenced

  10. CmC(A\\/T)GG DNA methylation in mature B cell lymphoma gene silencing

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Cindy Sue Malone; Maurine D. Miner; Jeanette R. Doerr; James P. Jackson; Steven E. Jacobsen; Randolph Wall; Michael Teitell

    2001-01-01

    DNA methylation has been linked to gene silencing in cancer. Primary effusion lymphoma (PEL) and myeloma are lymphoid malignancies that arise from terminally differentiated B cells. Interestingly, PEL do not express immunoglobulins or most B lineage-specific genes. The B cell-specific B29 (IgbyCD79b) gene is silenced in PEL and some myelomas but is expressed in other normal and malignant B cells.

  11. Efficient gene silencing mediated by tobacco rattle virus in an emerging model plant physalis.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ji-Si; Zhao, Jing; Zhang, Shaohua; He, Chaoying

    2014-01-01

    The fruit of Physalis has a berry and a novelty called inflated calyx syndrome (ICS, also named the 'Chinese lantern'). Elucidation of the underlying developmental mechanisms of fruit diversity demands an efficient gene functional inference platform. Here, we tested the application of the tobacco rattle virus (TRV)-mediated gene-silencing system in Physalis floridana. First, we characterized the putative gene of a phytoene desaturase in P. floridana (PfPDS). Infecting the leaves of the Physalis seedlings with the PfPDS-TRV vector resulted in a bleached plant, including the developing leaves, floral organs, ICS, berry, and seed. These results indicated that a local VIGS treatment can efficiently induce a systemic mutated phenotype. qRT-PCR analyses revealed that the bleaching extent correlated to the mRNA reduction of the endogenous PfPDS. Detailed comparisons of multiple infiltration and growth protocols allowed us to determine the optimal methodologies for VIGS manipulation in Physalis. We subsequently utilized this optimized VIGS methodology to downregulate the expression of two MADS-box genes, MPF2 and MPF3, and compared the resulting effects with gene-downregulation mediated by RNA interference (RNAi) methods. The VIGS-mediated gene knockdown plants were found to resemble the mutated phenotypes of floral calyx, fruiting calyx and pollen maturation of the RNAi transgenic plants for both MPF2 and MPF3. Moreover, the two MADS-box genes were appeared to have a novel role in the pedicel development in P. floridana. The major advantage of VIGS-based gene knockdown lies in practical aspects of saving time and easy manipulation as compared to the RNAi. Despite the lack of heritability and mosaic mutation phenotypes observed in some organs, the TRV-mediated gene silencing system provides an alternative efficient way to infer gene function in various developmental processes in Physalis, thus facilitating understanding of the genetic basis of the evolution and development of the morphological diversities within the Solanaceae. PMID:24454885

  12. Efficient Gene Silencing Mediated by Tobacco Rattle Virus in an Emerging Model Plant Physalis

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Shaohua; He, Chaoying

    2014-01-01

    The fruit of Physalis has a berry and a novelty called inflated calyx syndrome (ICS, also named the ‘Chinese lantern’). Elucidation of the underlying developmental mechanisms of fruit diversity demands an efficient gene functional inference platform. Here, we tested the application of the tobacco rattle virus (TRV)-mediated gene-silencing system in Physalis floridana. First, we characterized the putative gene of a phytoene desaturase in P. floridana (PfPDS). Infecting the leaves of the Physalis seedlings with the PfPDS-TRV vector resulted in a bleached plant, including the developing leaves, floral organs, ICS, berry, and seed. These results indicated that a local VIGS treatment can efficiently induce a systemic mutated phenotype. qRT-PCR analyses revealed that the bleaching extent correlated to the mRNA reduction of the endogenous PfPDS. Detailed comparisons of multiple infiltration and growth protocols allowed us to determine the optimal methodologies for VIGS manipulation in Physalis. We subsequently utilized this optimized VIGS methodology to downregulate the expression of two MADS-box genes, MPF2 and MPF3, and compared the resulting effects with gene-downregulation mediated by RNA interference (RNAi) methods. The VIGS-mediated gene knockdown plants were found to resemble the mutated phenotypes of floral calyx, fruiting calyx and pollen maturation of the RNAi transgenic plants for both MPF2 and MPF3. Moreover, the two MADS-box genes were appeared to have a novel role in the pedicel development in P. floridana. The major advantage of VIGS-based gene knockdown lies in practical aspects of saving time and easy manipulation as compared to the RNAi. Despite the lack of heritability and mosaic mutation phenotypes observed in some organs, the TRV-mediated gene silencing system provides an alternative efficient way to infer gene function in various developmental processes in Physalis, thus facilitating understanding of the genetic basis of the evolution and development of the morphological diversities within the Solanaceae. PMID:24454885

  13. Ectopic pairing of homologous DNA and post-transcriptional gene silencing in transgenic plants

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David C Baulcombe; James J English

    1996-01-01

    Recent studies indicate that co-suppression and other types of post-transcriptional gene silencing in plants are initiated by homology-dependent pairing of transgene sequences. Once initiated, the silencing mechanism acts in the cytoplasm to prevent accumulation of all RNAs with homology to the transgene.

  14. The Coat Protein of Turnip Crinkle Virus Suppresses Posttranscriptional Gene Silencing at an Early Initiation Step

    Microsoft Academic Search

    F. Qu; T. Ren; T. J. Morris

    2003-01-01

    Posttranscriptional gene silencing (PTGS), or RNA silencing, is a sequence-specific RNA degradation pro- cess that targets foreign RNA, including viral and transposon RNA for destruction. Several RNA plant viruses have been shown to encode suppressors of PTGS in order to survive this host defense. We report here that the coat protein (CP) of Turnip crinkle virus (TCV) strongly suppresses PTGS.

  15. Hairpin RNAs and Retrotransposon LTRs Effect RNAi and Chromatin-Based Gene Silencing

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Vera Schramke; Robin Allshire

    2003-01-01

    The expression of short hairpin RNAs in several organisms silences gene expression by targeted mRNA degradation. This RNA interference (RNAi) pathway can also affect the genome, as DNA methylation arises at loci homologous to the target RNA in plants. We demonstrate in fission yeast that expression of a synthetic hairpin RNA is sufficient to silence the homologous locus in trans

  16. Increasing the amylose content of durum wheat through silencing of the SBEIIa genes

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background High amylose starch has attracted particular interest because of its correlation with the amount of Resistant Starch (RS) in food. RS plays a role similar to fibre with beneficial effects for human health, providing protection from several diseases such as colon cancer, diabetes, obesity, osteoporosis and cardiovascular diseases. Amylose content can be modified by a targeted manipulation of the starch biosynthetic pathway. In particular, the inactivation of the enzymes involved in amylopectin synthesis can lead to the increase of amylose content. In this work, genes encoding starch branching enzymes of class II (SBEIIa) were silenced using the RNA interference (RNAi) technique in two cultivars of durum wheat, using two different methods of transformation (biolistic and Agrobacterium). Expression of RNAi transcripts was targeted to the seed endosperm using a tissue-specific promoter. Results Amylose content was markedly increased in the durum wheat transgenic lines exhibiting SBEIIa gene silencing. Moreover the starch granules in these lines were deformed, possessing an irregular and deflated shape and being smaller than those present in the untransformed controls. Two novel granule bound proteins, identified by SDS-PAGE in SBEIIa RNAi lines, were investigated by mass spectrometry and shown to have strong homologies to the waxy proteins. RVA analysis showed new pasting properties associated with high amylose lines in comparison with untransformed controls. Finally, pleiotropic effects on other starch genes were found by semi-quantitative and Real-Time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Conclusion We have found that the silencing of SBEIIa genes in durum wheat causes obvious alterations in granule morphology and starch composition, leading to high amylose wheat. Results obtained with two different methods of transformation and in two durum wheat cultivars were comparable. PMID:20626919

  17. Histone deacetylases (HDACs) in XPC gene silencing and bladder cancer

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Bladder cancer is one of the most common malignancies and causes hundreds of thousands of deaths worldwide each year. Bladder cancer is strongly associated with exposure to environmental carcinogens. It is believed that DNA damage generated by environmental carcinogens and their metabolites causes development of bladder cancer. Nucleotide excision repair (NER) is the major DNA repair pathway for repairing bulk DNA damage generated by most environmental carcinogens, and XPC is a DNA damage recognition protein required for initiation of the NER process. Recent studies demonstrate reduced levels of XPC protein in tumors for a majority of bladder cancer patients. In this work we investigated the role of histone deacetylases (HDACs) in XPC gene silencing and bladder cancer development. The results of our HDAC inhibition study revealed that the treatment of HTB4 and HTB9 bladder cancer cells with the HDAC inhibitor valproic acid (VPA) caused an increase in transcription of the XPC gene in these cells. The results of our chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) studies indicated that the VPA treatment caused increased binding of both CREB1 and Sp1 transcription factors at the promoter region of the XPC gene for both HTB4 and HTB9 cells. The results of our immunohistochemistry (IHC) staining studies further revealed a strong correlation between the over-expression of HDAC4 and increased bladder cancer occurrence (p < 0.001) as well as a marginal significance of increasing incidence of HDAC4 positivity seen with an increase in severity of bladder cancer (p = 0.08). In addition, the results of our caspase 3 activation studies demonstrated that prior treatment with VPA increased the anticancer drug cisplatin-induced activation of caspase 3 in both HTB4 and HTB9 cells. All of these results suggest that the HDACs negatively regulate transcription of the XPC gene in bladder cancer cells and contribute to the severity of bladder tumors. PMID:21507255

  18. Identification of SAS4 and SAS5, two genes that regulate silencing in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed Central

    Xu, E Y; Kim, S; Replogle, K; Rine, J; Rivier, D H

    1999-01-01

    In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, chromatin-mediated silencing inactivates transcription of the genes at the HML and HMR cryptic mating-type loci and genes near telomeres. Mutations in the Rap1p and Abf1p binding sites of the HMR-E silencer (HMRa-e**) result in a loss of silencing at HMR. We characterized a collection of 15 mutations that restore the alpha-mating phenotype to MATalpha HMRa-e** strains. These mutations defined three complementation groups, two new groups and one group that corresponded to the previously identified SAS2 gene. We cloned the genes that complemented members of the new groups and identified two previously uncharacterized genes, which we named SAS4 and SAS5. Neither SAS4 nor SAS5 was required for viability. Null alleles of SAS4 and SAS5 restored SIR4-dependent silencing at HMR, establishing that each is a regulator of silencing. Null alleles of SAS4 and SAS5 bypassed the role of the Abf1p binding site of the HMR-E silencer but not the role of the ACS or Rap1p binding site. Previous analysis indicated that SAS2 is homologous to a human gene that is a site of recurring translocations involved in acute myeloid leukemia. Similarly, SAS5 is a member of a gene family that included two human genes that are the sites of recurring translocations involved in acute myeloid leukemia. PMID:10471696

  19. Gene Overexpression and RNA Silencing Tools for the Genetic Manipulation of the S-(+)-Abscisic Acid Producing Ascomycete Botrytis cinerea

    PubMed Central

    Ding, Zhong-Tao; Zhang, Zhi; Luo, Di; Zhou, Jin-Yan; Zhong, Juan; Yang, Jie; Xiao, Liang; Shu, Dan; Tan, Hong

    2015-01-01

    The phytopathogenic ascomycete Botrytis cinerea produces several secondary metabolites that have biotechnical significance and has been particularly used for S-(+)-abscisic acid production at the industrial scale. To manipulate the expression levels of specific secondary metabolite biosynthetic genes of B. cinerea with Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation system, two expression vectors (pCBh1 and pCBg1 with different selection markers) and one RNA silencing vector, pCBSilent1, were developed with the In-Fusion assembly method. Both expression vectors were highly effective in constitutively expressing eGFP, and pCBSilent1 effectively silenced the eGFP gene in B. cinerea. Bcaba4, a gene suggested to participate in ABA biosynthesis in B. cinerea, was then targeted for gene overexpression and RNA silencing with these reverse genetic tools. The overexpression of bcaba4 dramatically induced ABA formation in the B. cinerea wild type strain Bc-6, and the gene silencing of bcaba4 significantly reduced ABA-production in an ABA-producing B. cinerea strain. PMID:25955649

  20. Prolonged efficiency of siRNA-mediated gene silencing in primary cultures of human preadipocytes and adipocytes

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Mi-Jeong; Pickering, R. Taylor; Puri, Vishwajeet

    2013-01-01

    Objective Primary human preadipocytes and differentiated adipocytes in culture are valuable cell culture systems to study adipogenesis and adipose function in relation to human adipose biology. To use these systems for mechanistic studies, we studied siRNA-mediated knockdown of genes for its effectiveness. Design and Methods Methods were developed to effectively deliver siRNA to for gene silencing in primary preadipocytes isolated from human subcutaneous adipose tissue and newly-differentiated adipocytes. Expression level of genes and proteins was measured using quantitative RT-PCR and western blotting. Lipid droplet morphology was observed using microscopy and glycerol release was quantified as a measure of lipolysis. Results siRNA-mediated knockdown of genes in primary human preadipocytes resulted in prolonged silencing effects, suppressing genes throughout the process of their differentiation. In newly differentiated adipocytes, siRNA-mediated gene knockdown allowed proteins to stay depleted for at least 5 days. It was possible to re-express a protein after its siRNA-mediated depletion. Importantly, siRNA transfected human adipocytes remained metabolically active, responding to ?-adrenergic stimulation to increase lipolysis. Conclusions Our study describes the methods of gene silencing in primary cultures of human preadipocytes and adipocytes and their prolonged effectiveness. PMID:24307633

  1. A Vector Library for Silencing Central Carbon Metabolism Genes with Antisense RNAs in Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    Ohno, Satoshi; Yoshikawa, Katsunori; Shimizu, Hiroshi; Tamura, Tomohiro

    2014-01-01

    We describe here the construction of a series of 71 vectors to silence central carbon metabolism genes in Escherichia coli. The vectors inducibly express antisense RNAs called paired-terminus antisense RNAs, which have a higher silencing efficacy than ordinary antisense RNAs. By measuring mRNA amounts, measuring activities of target proteins, or observing specific phenotypes, it was confirmed that all the vectors were able to silence the expression of target genes efficiently. Using this vector set, each of the central carbon metabolism genes was silenced individually, and the accumulation of metabolites was investigated. We were able to obtain accurate information on ways to increase the production of pyruvate, an industrially valuable compound, from the silencing results. Furthermore, the experimental results of pyruvate accumulation were compared to in silico predictions, and both sets of results were consistent. Compared to the gene disruption approach, the silencing approach has an advantage in that any E. coli strain can be used and multiple gene silencing is easily possible in any combination. PMID:24212579

  2. Tobacco Rattle Virus Vector: A Rapid and Transient Means of Silencing Manduca sexta Genes by Plant Mediated RNA Interference

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Pavan; Pandit, Sagar Subhash; Baldwin, Ian T.

    2012-01-01

    Background RNAi can be achieved in insect herbivores by feeding them host plants stably transformed to express double stranded RNA (dsRNA) of selected midgut-expressed genes. However, the development of stably transformed plants is a slow and laborious process and here we developed a rapid, reliable and transient method. We used viral vectors to produce dsRNA in the host plant Nicotiana attenuata to transiently silence midgut genes of the plant's lepidopteran specialist herbivore, Manduca sexta. To compare the efficacy of longer, undiced dsRNA for insect gene silencing, we silenced N. attenuata's dicer genes (NaDCL1- 4) in all combinations in a plant stably transformed to express dsRNA targeting an insect gene. Methodology/Principal Findings Stable transgenic N. attenuata plants harboring a 312 bp fragment of MsCYP6B46 in an inverted repeat orientation (ir-CYP6B46) were generated to produce CYP6B46 dsRNA. After consuming these plants, transcripts of CYP6B46 were significantly reduced in M. sexta larval midguts. The same 312 bp cDNA was cloned in an antisense orientation into a TRV vector and Agro-infiltrated into N. attenuata plants. When larvae ingested these plants, similar reductions in CYP6B46 transcripts were observed without reducing transcripts of the most closely related MsCYP6B45. We used this transient method to rapidly silence the expression of two additional midgut-expressed MsCYPs. CYP6B46 transcripts were further reduced in midguts, when the larvae fed on ir-CYP6B46 plants transiently silenced for two combinations of NaDCLs (DCL1/3/4 and DCL2/3/4) and contained higher concentrations of longer, undiced CYP6B46 dsRNA. Conclusions Both stable and transient expression of CYP6B46 dsRNA in host plants provides a specific and robust means of silencing this gene in M. sexta larvae, but the transient system is better suited for high throughput analyses. Transiently silencing NaDCLs in ir-CYP6B46 plants increased the silencing of MsCYP6B46, suggested that insect's RNAi machinery is more efficient with longer lengths of ingested dsRNA. PMID:22312445

  3. RNA-mediated RNA degradation in transgene- and virus-induced gene silencing.

    PubMed

    Metzlaff, Michael

    2002-10-01

    In the 'RNA world' hypothesis it is postulated that RNA was the first genetic molecule. Recent discoveries in gene silencing research on plants, fungi and animals show that RNA indeed plays a key role not only in controlling invading nucleic acids, like viruses and transposable elements, but also in regulating the expression of transgenes and endogenous genes. Double-stranded RNAs were identified to be the triggering structures for the induction of a specific and highly efficient RNA silencing system, in which enzyme complexes, like Dicer and RISC, facilitate as 'molecular machines' the processing of dsRNA into characteristic small RNA species. RNA silencing can be transmitted rapidly from silenced to non-silenced cells by short and long distance signaling. There is evidence that at least one component of the signal is a specific, degradation-resistant RNA. PMID:12452426

  4. Different roles for RNA silencing and RNA processing components in virus recovery and virus-induced gene silencing in plants.

    PubMed

    Ma, Xiaofang; Nicole, Marie-Claude; Meteignier, Louis-Valentin; Hong, Ni; Wang, Guoping; Moffett, Peter

    2015-02-01

    A major antiviral mechanism in plants is mediated by RNA silencing, which relies on the cleavage of viral dsRNA into virus-derived small interfering RNAs (vsiRNAs) by DICER-like enzymes. Members of the Argonaute (AGO) family of endonucleases then use these vsiRNA as guides to target viral RNA. This can result in a phenomenon known as recovery, whereby the plant silences viral gene expression and recovers from viral symptoms. Endogenous mRNAs can also be targeted by vsiRNAs in a phenomenon known as virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS). Although related to other RNA silencing mechanisms, it has not been established if recovery and VIGS are mediated by the same molecular mechanisms. We used tobacco rattle virus (TRV) carrying a fragment of the phytoene desaturase (PDS) gene (TRV-PDS) or expressing green fluorescent protein (TRV-GFP) as readouts for VIGS and recovery, respectively, in Arabidopsis ago mutants. Our results demonstrated roles for AGO2 and AGO4 in susceptibility to TRV, whereas VIGS of endogenous genes appeared to be largely mediated by AGO1. However, recovery appeared to be mediated by different components, as all the aforementioned mutants were able to recover from TRV-GFP inoculation. TRV RNAs from recovered plants associated less with ribosomes, suggesting that recovery involves translational repression of viral transcripts. Translationally repressed RNAs often accumulate in RNA processing bodies (PBs), where they are eventually processed by decapping enzymes. Consistent with this, we found that viral recovery induced increased PB formation and that a decapping mutant (DCP2) showed increased VIGS and virus RNA accumulation, indicating an important role for PBs in eliminating viral RNA. PMID:25385769

  5. Hairpin RNAs and Retrotransposon LTRs Effect RNAi and Chromatin-Based Gene Silencing 

    E-print Network

    Schramke, Vera; Allshire, Robin C

    2003-01-01

    The expression of short hairpin RNAs in several organisms silences gene expression by targeted mRNA degradation. This RNA interference (RNAi) pathway can also affect the genome, as DNA methylation arises at loci homologous to the target RNA...

  6. Exploring the specificity and mechanisms of siRNA-mediated gene silencing in mammalian cells

    E-print Network

    Alemán, Lourdes Maria

    2008-01-01

    Complementary short interfering RNAs (siRNAs) are routinely used to knockdown gene expression. siRNAs bind to their target sequence and guide transcript cleavage and subsequent degradation. This type of silencing is ...

  7. NLRP3 Gene Silencing Ameliorates Diabetic Cardiomyopathy in a Type 2 Diabetes Rat Model

    PubMed Central

    Luo, Beibei; Li, Bo; Wang, Wenke; Liu, Xiangjuan; Xia, Yanfei; Zhang, Cheng; Zhang, Mingxiang; Zhang, Yun; An, Fengshuang

    2014-01-01

    Background Nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain-like receptor protein 3 (NLRP3) inflammasome is associated with metabolic disorder and cell death, which are important triggers in diabetic cardiomyopathy (DCM). We aimed to explore whether NLRP3 inflammasome activation contributes to DCM and the mechanism involved. Methods Type 2 diabetic rat model was induced by high fat diet and low dose streptozotocin. The characteristics of type 2 DCM were evaluated by metabolic tests, echocardiography and histopathology. Gene silencing therapy was used to investigate the role of NLRP3 in the pathogenesis of DCM. High glucose treated H9c2 cardiomyocytes were used to determine the mechanism by which NLRP3 modulated the DCM. The cell death in vitro was detected by TUNEL and EthD-III staining. TXNIP-siRNA and pharmacological inhibitors of ROS and NF-kB were used to explore the mechanism of NLRP3 inflammasome activation. Results Diabetic rats showed severe metabolic disorder, cardiac inflammation, cell death, disorganized ultrastructure, fibrosis and excessive activation of NLRP3, apoptosis-associated speck-like protein containing a caspase recruitment domain (ASC), pro-caspase-1, activated caspase-1 and mature interleukin-1? (IL-1?). Evidence for pyroptosis was found in vivo, and the caspase-1 dependent pyroptosis was found in vitro. Silencing of NLRP3 in vivo did not attenuate systemic metabolic disturbances. However, NLRP3 gene silencing therapy ameliorated cardiac inflammation, pyroptosis, fibrosis and cardiac function. Silencing of NLRP3 in H9c2 cardiomyocytes suppressed pyroptosis under high glucose. ROS inhibition markedly decreased nuclear factor-kB (NF-kB) phosphorylation, thioredoxin interacting/inhibiting protein (TXNIP), NLRP3 inflammasome, and mature IL-1? in high glucose treated H9c2 cells. Inhibition of NF-kB reduced the activation of NLRP3 inflammasome. TXNIP-siRNA decreased the activation of caspase-1 and IL-1?. Conclusion NLRP3 inflammasome contributed to the development of DCM. NF-?B and TXNIP mediated the ROS-induced caspase-1 and IL-1? activation, which are the effectors of NLRP3 inflammasome. NLRP3 gene silencing may exert a protective effect on DCM. PMID:25136835

  8. Heterologous virus-induced gene silencing as a promising approach in plant functional genomics.

    PubMed

    Hosseini Tafreshi, Seied Ali; Shariati, Mansour; Mofid, Mohammad Reza; Khayam Nekui, Mojtaba; Esmaeili, Abolghasem

    2012-03-01

    VIGS (virus induced gene silencing) is considered as a powerful genomics tool for characterizing the function of genes in a few closely related plant species. The investigations have been carried out mainly in order to test if a pre-existing VIGS vector can serve as an efficient tool for gene silencing in a diverse array of plant species. Another route of investigation has been the constructing of new viral vectors to act in their hosts. Our approach was the creation of a heterologous system in which silencing of endogenous genes was achieved by sequences isolated from evolutionary remote species. In this study, we showed that a TRV-based vector cloned with sequences from a gymnosperm, Taxus baccata L. silenced the endogenous phytoene desaturase in an angiosperm, N. benthamiana. Our results showed that inserts of between 390 and 724 bp isolated from a conserved fragment of the Taxus PDS led to silencing of its homolog in tobacco. The real time analysis indicated that the expression of PDS was reduced 2.1- to 4.0-fold in pTRV-TbPDS infected plants compared with buffer treated plants. Once the best insert is identified and the conditions are optimized for heterologous silencing by pTRV-TbPDS in tobacco, then we can test if TRV can serve as an efficient silencing vector in Taxus. This strategy could also be used to silence a diverse array of genes from a wide range of species which have no VIGS protocol. The results also showed that plants silenced heterologously by the VIGS system a minimally affected with respect to plant growth which may be ideal for studying the genes that their complete loss of function may lead to decrease of plant growth or plant death. PMID:21655951

  9. Therapeutic silencing of an endogenous gene by systemic administration of modified siRNAs

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jürgen Soutschek; Akin Akinc; Birgit Bramlage; Klaus Charisse; Rainer Constien; Mary Donoghue; Sayda Elbashir; Anke Geick; Philipp Hadwiger; Jens Harborth; Matthias John; Venkitasamy Kesavan; Gary Lavine; Rajendra K. Pandey; Timothy Racie; Kallanthottathil G. Rajeev; Ingo Röhl; Ivanka Toudjarska; Gang Wang; Silvio Wuschko; David Bumcrot; Victor Koteliansky; Stefan Limmer; Muthiah Manoharan; Hans-Peter Vornlocher

    2004-01-01

    RNA interference (RNAi) holds considerable promise as a therapeutic approach to silence disease-causing genes, particularly those that encode so-called `non-druggable' targets that are not amenable to conventional therapeutics such as small molecules, proteins, or monoclonal antibodies. The main obstacle to achieving in vivo gene silencing by RNAi technologies is delivery. Here we show that chemically modified short interfering RNAs (siRNAs)

  10. Gene silencing and gene expression in phytopathogenic fungi using a plant virus vector.

    PubMed

    Mascia, Tiziana; Nigro, Franco; Abdallah, Alì; Ferrara, Massimo; De Stradis, Angelo; Faedda, Roberto; Palukaitis, Peter; Gallitelli, Donato

    2014-03-18

    RNA interference (RNAi) is a powerful approach for elucidating gene functions in a variety of organisms, including phytopathogenic fungi. In such fungi, RNAi has been induced by expressing hairpin RNAs delivered through plasmids, sequences integrated in fungal or plant genomes, or by RNAi generated in planta by a plant virus infection. All these approaches have some drawbacks ranging from instability of hairpin constructs in fungal cells to difficulties in preparing and handling transgenic plants to silence homologous sequences in fungi grown on these plants. Here we show that RNAi can be expressed in the phytopathogenic fungus Colletotrichum acutatum (strain C71) by virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS) without a plant intermediate, but by using the direct infection of a recombinant virus vector based on the plant virus, tobacco mosaic virus (TMV). We provide evidence that a wild-type isolate of TMV is able to enter C71 cells grown in liquid medium, replicate, and persist therein. With a similar approach, a recombinant TMV vector carrying a gene for the ectopic expression of the green fluorescent protein (GFP) induced the stable silencing of the GFP in the C. acutatum transformant line 10 expressing GFP derived from C71. The TMV-based vector also enabled C. acutatum to transiently express exogenous GFP up to six subcultures and for at least 2 mo after infection, without the need to develop transformation technology. With these characteristics, we anticipate this approach will find wider application as a tool in functional genomics of filamentous fungi. PMID:24594602

  11. Factors affecting susceptibility to RNA interference in Haemonchus contortus and in vivo silencing of an H11 aminopeptidase gene

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Buddhini Samarasinghe; David P. Knox; Collette Britton

    2011-01-01

    Gene silencing by RNA interference (RNAi) has been applied very successfully to Caenorhabditiselegans to study gene function but has proven less effective in parasitic nematodes. In the sheep gastrointestinal nematode Haemonchuscontortus, previous studies demonstrated reproducible silencing of ?-tubulin but not of other genes targeted. Here we aimed to examine whether the level of target transcript or site of gene expression

  12. Multiple small RNA pathways regulate the silencing of repeated and foreign genes in C. elegans

    PubMed Central

    Fischer, Sylvia E.J.; Pan, Qi; Breen, Peter C.; Qi, Yan; Shi, Zhen; Zhang, Chi; Ruvkun, Gary

    2013-01-01

    Gene segments from other organisms, such as viruses, are detected as foreign and targeted for silencing by RNAi pathways. A deep-sequencing map of the small RNA response to repeated transgenes introduced to Caenorhabditis elegans revealed that specific segments are targeted by siRNAs. Silencing of the foreign gene segments depends on an antiviral response that involves changes in active and silent chromatin modifications and altered levels of antisense siRNAs. Distinct Argonaute proteins target foreign genes for silencing or protection against silencing. We used a repeated transgene in a genome-wide screen to identify gene disruptions that enhance silencing of foreign genetic elements and identified 69 genes. These genes cluster in four groups based on overlapping sets of coexpressed genes, including a group of germline-expressed genes that are likely coregulated by the E2F transcription factor. Many of the gene inactivations enhance exogenous RNAi. About half of the 69 genes have roles in endogenous RNAi pathways that regulate diverse processes, including silencing of duplicated genes and transposons and chromosome segregation. Of these newly identified genes, several are required for siRNA biogenesis or stability in the oocyte-specific ERGO-1 pathway, including eri-12, encoding an interactor of the RNAi-defective protein RDE-10, and ntl-9/CNOT9, one of several CCR4/NOT complex genes that we identified. The conserved ARF-like small GTPase ARL-8 is required specifically for primary siRNA biogenesis or stability in the sperm-specific ALG-3/4 endogenous RNAi pathway. PMID:24352423

  13. Small Silencing RNAs: Upon injection of gene for purple color, the flower became veriegated

    E-print Network

    Dever, Jennifer A.

    using double stranded RNA Figure 21.3 Gene silencing by dsRNA is called RNA interference (RNAi) RNAi different than antisense inhibition of gene expression · RNAi works with double- stranded RNA, not with antisense strand only · RNAi works catalytically ­ tiny amount needs to be added to decrease gene expression

  14. Short hairpin RNA-induced myostatin gene silencing in caprine myoblast cells in vitro.

    PubMed

    Tripathi, Ajai K; Ramani, Umed V; Patel, Amrutlal K; Rank, Dharamshibhai N; Joshi, Chaitanya G

    2013-01-01

    Myostatin (MSTN) belongs to the transforming growth factor (TGF)-? superfamily and is a potent negative regulator of skeletal muscle development and growth. Dysfunction of MSTN gene either by natural mutation or induced through genetic manipulation (knockout or knockdown) has been reported to increase the remarkable muscle mass in mammalian species. RNA interference (RNAi) is the most promising method for inhibition of gene expression that can be utilized for MSTN gene knockdown by developing short hairpin RNA (shRNA) construct against it. We utilized three antisense RNA expressing vectors with six constructs to knockdown MSTN gene in in vitro caprine myoblast cell culture system. We observed that all six shRNA constructs were successful in MSTN silencing with efficiency ranging from 7 to 46 % by quantitative real-time PCR and up to 19 % by western blotting. The significant upregulation of interferon response gene OAS1 (5- to 11-fold) in cells transfected with shRNA constructs were indicative of induction of interferon response. This RNAi-based method of increasing muscle mass could provide an alternative strategy to gene knockout methods for improving the production traits and economic properties of livestock. PMID:23271624

  15. Transcriptional silencing of heterologous anther promoters in maize: a genetic method to replace detasseling for seed production.

    PubMed

    Cigan, A Mark; Haug-Collet, Kristin; Clapp, Joshua

    2014-09-01

    The promoter of the maize male fertility gene ZmMs45, and other anther-specific maize promoters, was previously shown to be transcriptionally silenced by constitutively expressed promoter-inverted repeat RNAs (pIRs). In addition, ZmMS45pIR-mediated male sterility was reversed by co-expression of Ms45 transcribed by promoters not targeted by pIR RNA silencing. In this report, male fertility was restored to ms45 maize by fusing non-maize inflorescence promoters to the ZmMS45 coding region. This complementation assay also established that these rice or Arabidopsis promoters, when expressed as pIRs, functioned to silence sequence identical promoters. These observations were exploited to develop a genetic method to replace maize detasseling during hybrid seed production. In this system, the ZmMS45 coding region was fused to one of two dissimilar non-maize promoters to generate paired sets of ms45 recessive inbred parents which could be self-pollinated and maintained independently. Linked to each unique Ms45 gene was a non-maize pIR which targeted the promoter transcribing the Ms45 copy contained in the paired inbred parent plant. A cross of these pairs brings the dissimilar pIR cassettes together and resulted in silencing both transformed copies of Ms45. The net result uncovers the ms45 allele carried by the inbreds yielding male sterile progeny. The application of heterologous promoters and transcriptional silencing in plants provides an alternative to post-transcriptional gene silencing as a means to restore and silence gene function in plants. PMID:24966130

  16. Virus-induced gene silencing of Arabidopsis thaliana gene homologues in wheat identifies genes conferring improved drought tolerance.

    PubMed

    Manmathan, Harish; Shaner, Dale; Snelling, Jacob; Tisserat, Ned; Lapitan, Nora

    2013-03-01

    In a non-model staple crop like wheat (Triticum aestivumI L.), functional validation of potential drought stress responsive genes identified in Arabidopsis could provide gene targets for breeding. Virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS) of genes of interest can overcome the inherent problems of polyploidy and limited transformation potential that hamper functional validation studies in wheat. In this study, three potential candidate genes shown to be involved in abiotic stress response pathways in Arabidopsis thaliana were selected for VIGS experiments in wheat. These include Era1 (enhanced response to abscisic acid), Cyp707a (ABA 8'-hydroxylase), and Sal1 (inositol polyphosphate 1-phosphatase). Gene homologues for these three genes were identified in wheat and cloned in the viral vector barley stripe mosaic virus (BSMV) in the antisense direction, followed by rub inoculation of BSMV viral RNA transcripts onto wheat plants. Quantitative real-time PCR showed that VIGS-treated wheat plants had significant reductions in target gene transcripts. When VIGS-treated plants generated for Era1 and Sal1 were subjected to limiting water conditions, they showed increased relative water content, improved water use efficiency, reduced gas exchange, and better vigour compared to water-stressed control plants inoculated with RNA from the empty viral vector (BSMV0). In comparison, the Cyp707a-silenced plants showed no improvement over BSMV0-inoculated plants under limited water condition. These results indicate that Era1 and Sal1 play important roles in conferring drought tolerance in wheat. Other traits affected by Era1 silencing were also studied. Delayed seed germination in Era1-silenced plants suggests this gene may be a useful target for developing resistance to pre-harvest sprouting. PMID:23364940

  17. Effect of the silencing of the Ehcp112 gene on the in vitro virulence of Entamoeba histolytica

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Entamoeba histolytica is an intestinal protozoan parasite that causes amoebiasis in humans, affecting up to 50 million people worldwide each year and causing 40,000 to 100,000 deaths annually. EhCP112 is a cysteine proteinase of E. histolytica able to disrupt cell monolayers and digest extracellular matrix proteins, it is secreted by trophozoites and it can be active in a wide range of temperature and pH. These characteristics have encouraged the use of EhCP112 in the design and production of possible vaccines against amoebiasis, obtaining promising results. Nevertheless, we have no conclusive information about the role of EhCP112 in the E. histolytica pathogenesis. Methods A set of three specific siRNA sequences were used to silence the Ehcp112 gene via the soaking system. Silencing was evaluated by Western blot using an antibody against the EhCP112 recombinant protein. Finally, we analyzed the protease activity, the phagocytosis rate and the ability to destroy MDCK cells of the EhCP112-silenced trophozoites. Results The highest silencing effect on EhCP112 was detected at 16 h of treatment; time enough to perform the in vitro virulence assays, which showed that EhCP112 silencing produces a significant reduction in cytolysis and phagocytosis of target cells, indicating the participation of this proteinase in these events. Conclusions EhCP112 is involved in the in vitro virulence of E. histolytica. PMID:23981435

  18. C(A T)GG DNA methylation in mature B cell lymphoma gene silencing

    E-print Network

    Jacobsen, Steve

    Cm C(A T)GG DNA methylation in mature B cell lymphoma gene silencing Cindy Sue Malone*, Maurine D revealed two types of DNA meth- ylation in silenced B29 promoters: at conventional CpG and at CC(A T)GG B29 promoter sites. The pattern of methylated CpG (mCpG) and CmC(A T)GG B29 promoter methylation observed

  19. The silencing of the SWI/SNF subunit and anticancer gene BRM in Rhabdoid tumors.

    PubMed

    Kahali, Bhaskar; Yu, Jinlong; Marquez, Stefanie B; Thompson, Kenneth W; Liang, Shermi Y; Lu, Li; Reisman, David

    2014-05-30

    Rhabdoid sarcomas are highly malignant tumors that usually occur in young children. A key to the genesis of this tumor is the mutational loss of the BAF47 gene as well as the widespread epigenetic suppression of other key anticancer genes. The BRM gene is one such epigenetically silenced gene in Rhabdoid tumors. This gene codes for an ATPase catalytic subunit that shifts histones and opens the chromatin. We show that BRM is an epigenetically silenced gene in 10/11 Rhabdoid cell lines and in 70% of Rhabdoid tumors. Moreover, BRM can be induced by BAF47 re-expression and by Flavopiridol. By selective shRNAi knockdown of BRM, we show that BRM re-expression is necessary for growth inhibition by BAF47 re-expression or Flavopiridol application. Similar to lung cancer cell lines, we found that HDAC3, HDAC9, MEF2D and GATA3 controlled BRM silencing and that HDAC9 was overexpressed in Rhabdoid cancer cell lines. In primary BRM-deficient Rhabdoid tumors, HDAC9 was also found to be highly overexpressed. Two insertional BRM promoter polymorphisms contribute to BRM silencing, but only the -1321 polymorphism correlated with BRM silencing in Rhabdoid cell lines. To determine how these polymorphisms were tied to BRM silencing, we conducted ChIP assays and found that both HDAC9 and MEF2D bound to the BRM promoter at or near these polymorphic sites. Using BRM promoter swap experiments, we indirectly showed that both HDAC9 and MEF2D bound to these polymorphic sites. Together, these data show that the mechanism of BRM silencing contributes to the pathogenesis of Rhabdoid tumors and appears to be conserved among tumor types. PMID:24913006

  20. The silencing of the SWI/SNF subunit and anticancer gene BRM in Rhabdoid tumors

    PubMed Central

    Kahali, Bhaskar; Yu, Jinlong; Marquez, Stefanie B.; Thompson, Kenneth. W.; Liang, Shermi Y.; Lu, Li; Reisman, David

    2014-01-01

    Rhabdoid sarcomas are highly malignant tumors that usually occur in young children. A key to the genesis of this tumor is the mutational loss of the BAF47 gene as well as the widespread epigenetic suppression of other key anticancer genes. The BRM gene is one such epigenetically silenced gene in Rhabdoid tumors. This gene codes for an ATPase catalytic subunit that shifts histones and opens the chromatin. We show that BRM is an epigenetically silenced gene in 10/11 Rhabdoid cell lines and in 70% of Rhabdoid tumors. Moreover, BRM can be induced by BAF47 re-expression and by Flavopiridol. By selective shRNAi knockdown of BRM, we show that BRM re-expression is necessary for growth inhibition by BAF47 re-expression or Flavopiridol application. Similar to lung cancer cell lines, we found that HDAC3, HDAC9, MEF2D and GATA3 controlled BRM silencing and that HDAC9 was overexpressed in Rhabdoid cancer cell lines. In primary BRM-deficient Rhabdoid tumors, HDAC9 was also found to be highly overexpressed. Two insertional BRM promoter polymorphisms contribute to BRM silencing, but only the -1321 polymorphism correlated with BRM silencing in Rhabdoid cell lines. To determine how these polymorphisms were tied to BRM silencing, we conducted ChIP assays and found that both HDAC9 and MEF2D bound to the BRM promoter at or near these polymorphic sites. Using BRM promoter swap experiments, we indirectly showed that both HDAC9 and MEF2D bound to these polymorphic sites. Together, these data show that the mechanism of BRM silencing contributes to the pathogenesis of Rhabdoid tumors and appears to be conserved among tumor types. PMID:24913006

  1. Functional characterization of Nicotiana benthamiana homologs of peanut water deficit-induced genes by virus-induced gene silencing.

    PubMed

    Senthil-Kumar, M; Govind, Geetha; Kang, Li; Mysore, Kirankumar S; Udayakumar, M

    2007-02-01

    Determining the functional role of genes that are differentially regulated during a stress response is challenging. In this study, few water deficit-induced genes from peanut were characterized in Nicotiana benthamiana using virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS) and their relevance for stress adaptation was validated. Twenty-five cDNA clones from peanut water deficit stress-induced cDNA library that had more than 50% nucleotide similarity with N. benthamiana or tomato homologs were selected. VIGS in peanut is not yet feasible and therefore we characterized these 25 genes in N. benthamiana. Increased membrane damage was seen under water deficit stress in most of the silenced plants signifying that many of these stress-induced genes are important to confer drought tolerance. Among the genes tested, silencing by homolog of flavonol 3-O-glucosyltransferase (F3OGT), homolog of alcohol dehydrogenase, homologous to salt inducible protein, and homolog of heat shock protein 70 showed more visible wilting symptoms compared with the control plants during water deficit stress. Interestingly, down-regulation of two genes, homologous to aspartic proteinase 2, and homolog of Jumonji class of transcription factor showed relative drought tolerant phenotypes. F3OGT silenced plants showed more wilting symptoms, membrane damage and chlorophyll degradation than any other silenced plants during water deficit. Our results demonstrate that VIGS approach can be used to characterize and assess the functional relevance of water deficit stress-induced cDNAs in a heterologous species. PMID:16924536

  2. Ascaris suum: RNAi mediated silencing of enolase gene expression in infective larvae

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ning Chen; Min-Jun Xu; Alasdair J. Nisbet; Cui-Qin Huang; Rui-Qing Lin; Zi-Guo Yuan; Hui-Qun Song; Xing-Quan Zhu

    2011-01-01

    Ascaris suum is an important parasite of pigs that causes tremendous economic losses globally to agriculture and animal husbandry annually. RNA interference (RNAi) technology has been described as a successful and useful approach for the elucidation of gene function in parasitic nematodes. In the present study, RNAi was used to silence the expression of a gene encoding enolase in A.

  3. Global Effects on Gene Expression in Fission Yeast by Silencing and RNA Interference Machineries

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Klavs R. Hansen; Gavin Burns; Juan Mata; Thomas A. Volpe; Robert A. Martienssen; Jurg Bahler; Genevieve Thon

    2005-01-01

    Histone modifications influence gene expression in complex ways. The RNA interference (RNAi) machinery can repress transcription by recruiting histone-modifying enzymes to chromatin, although it is not clear whether this is a general mechanism for gene silencing or whether it requires repeated sequences such as long terminal repeats (LTRs). We analyzed the global effects of the Clr3 and Clr6 histone deacetylases,

  4. Gene silencing in cancer cells using siRNA : genetic and functional studies

    E-print Network

    Abdel Rahim, Ma'en Ahmad

    2004-09-30

    Sequence-specific small interfering RNA (siRNA) duplexes can be used for gene silencing in mammalian cells and as mechanistic probes for determining gene function. Transfection of siRNA for specificity protein 1 (Sp1) in MCF-7 or ZR-75 cells...

  5. he hype surrounding RNA interfer-ence (RNAi) `gene-silencing' technol-

    E-print Network

    Cai, Long

    T he hype surrounding RNA interfer- ence (RNAi) `gene-silencing' technol- ogy has both academic labs and biotech companies firmly in its grip. RNAi is lauded as a powerful approach to gene controlRNAiitselfasatherapeutic. Until relatively recently, RNAi was the preserveofthosestudyingplantsandinverte- brates

  6. Virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS) in Cysticapnos vesicaria, a zygomorphic-flowered Papaveraceae (Ranunculales, basal eudicots)

    PubMed Central

    Hidalgo, Oriane; Bartholmes, Conny; Gleissberg, Stefan

    2012-01-01

    Background and Aims Studies of evolutionary diversification in the basal eudicot family Papaveraceae, such as the transition from actinomorphy to zygomorphy, are hampered by the lack of comparative functional studies. So far, gene silencing methods are only available in the actinomorphic species Eschscholzia californica and Papaver somniferum. This study addresses the amenability of Cysticapnos vesicaria, a derived fumitory with zygomorphic flowers, to virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS), and describes vegetative and reproductive traits in this species. Methods VIGS-mediated downregulation of the C. vesicaria PHYTOENE DESATURASE gene (CvPDS) and of the FLORICAULA gene CvFLO was carried out using Agrobacterium tumefaciens transfer of Tobacco rattle virus (TRV)-based vectors. Wild-type and vector-treated plants were characterized using reverse transcription–PCR (RT–PCR), in situ hybridization, and macroscopic and scanning electron microscopic imaging. Key Results Cysticapnos vesicaria germinates rapidly, can be grown at high density, has a short life cycle and is self-compatible. Inoculation of C. vesicaria with a CvPDS-VIGS vector resulted in strong photobleaching of green parts and reduction of endogenous CvPDS transcript levels. Gene silencing persisted during inflorescence development until fruit set. Inoculation of plants with CvFLO-VIGS affected floral phyllotaxis, symmetry and floral organ identities. Conclusions The high penetrance, severity and stability of pTRV-mediated silencing, including the induction of meristem-related phenotypes, make C. vesicaria a very promising new focus species for evolutionary–developmental (evo–devo) studies in the Papaveraceae. This now enables comparative studies of flower symmetry, inflorescence determinacy and other traits that diversified in the Papaveraceae. PMID:22307568

  7. Phenotype-based clustering of glycosylation-related genes by RNAi-mediated gene silencing.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto-Hino, Miki; Yoshida, Hideki; Ichimiya, Tomomi; Sakamura, Sho; Maeda, Megumi; Kimura, Yoshinobu; Sasaki, Norihiko; Aoki-Kinoshita, Kiyoko F; Kinoshita-Toyoda, Akiko; Toyoda, Hidenao; Ueda, Ryu; Nishihara, Shoko; Goto, Satoshi

    2015-06-01

    Glycan structures are synthesized by a series of reactions conducted by glycosylation-related (GR) proteins such as glycosyltransferases, glycan-modifying enzymes, and nucleotide-sugar transporters. For example, the common core region of glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) is sequentially synthesized by peptide-O-xylosyltransferase, ?1,4-galactosyltransferase I, ?1,3-galactosyltransferase II, and ?1,3-glucuronyltransferase. This raises the possibility that functional impairment of GR proteins involved in synthesis of the same glycan might result in the same phenotypic abnormality. To examine this possibility, comprehensive silencing of genes encoding GR and proteoglycan core proteins was conducted in Drosophila. Drosophila GR candidate genes (125) were classified into five functional groups for synthesis of GAGs, N-linked, O-linked, Notch-related, and unknown glycans. Spatiotemporally regulated silencing caused a range of malformed phenotypes that fell into three types: extra veins, thick veins, and depigmentation. The clustered phenotypes reflected the biosynthetic pathways of GAGs, Fringe-dependent glycan on Notch, and glycans placed at or near nonreducing ends (herein termed terminal domains of glycans). Based on the phenotypic clustering, CG33145 was predicted to be involved in formation of terminal domains. Our further analysis showed that CG33145 exhibited galactosyltransferase activity in synthesis of terminal N-linked glycans. Phenotypic clustering, therefore, has potential for the functional prediction of novel GR genes. PMID:25940448

  8. Virus-induced gene silencing is an effective tool for assaying gene function in the basal eudicot species Papaver somniferum (opium poppy).

    PubMed

    Hileman, Lena C; Drea, Sinéad; Martino, Gemma; Litt, Amy; Irish, Vivian F

    2005-10-01

    Virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS) is an attractive method for assaying gene function in species that are resistant to conventional genetic approaches. However, VIGS has been shown to be effective in only a few, closely related plant species. Tobacco rattle virus (TRV), a bipartite RNA virus, has a wide host range and so in principle could serve as an efficient vector for VIGS in a diverse array of plant species. Here we show that a vector based on TRV sequences is effective at silencing the endogenous phytoene desaturase (PapsPDS) gene in Papaver somniferum (opium poppy). We show that this vector does not compromise the growth or reproduction of poppy and the plants did not display viral symptoms. The silencing of PapsPDS resulted in a significant reduction in PapsPDS mRNA and a concomitant photobleached phenotype. The ability to rapidly assay gene function in P. somniferum will be valuable in manipulation of the opiate pathway in this pharmaceutically important species. We suggest that our vacuum infiltration method used to deliver TRV-based vectors into poppy is a promising approach for expanding VIGS to diverse angiosperm species in which traditional delivery methods fail to induce VIGS. Furthermore, these studies demonstrate the utility of TRV-VIGS for probing gene function in a basal eudicot species that is phylogenetically distant from model plant species. PMID:16212610

  9. Artificial MiRNA Knockdown of Platelet Glycoprotein lb?: A Tool for Platelet Gene Silencing

    PubMed Central

    Thijs, Tim; Broos, Katleen; Soenen, Stefaan J.; Vandenbulcke, Aline; Vanhoorelbeke, Karen

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, candidate genes and proteins implicated in platelet function have been identified by various genomic approaches. To elucidate their exact role, we aimed to develop a method to apply miRNA interference in platelet progenitor cells by using GPIb? as a proof-of-concept target protein. After in silico and in vitro screening of siRNAs targeting GPIb? (siGPIBAs), we developed artificial miRNAs (miGPIBAs), which were tested in CHO cells stably expressing GPIb-IX complex and megakaryoblastic DAMI cells. Introduction of siGPIBAs in CHO GPIb-IX cells resulted in 44 to 75% and up to 80% knockdown of GPIb? expression using single or combined siRNAs, respectively. Conversion of siGPIBAs to miGPIBAs resulted in reduced silencing efficiency, which could however be circumvented by tandem integration of two hairpins targeting different regions of GPIBA mRNA where 72% GPIb? knockdown was achieved. CHO GPIb-IX cells transfected with the miGPIBA construct displayed a significant decrease in their ability to aggregate characterized by lower aggregate numbers and size compared to control CHO GPIb-IX cells. More importantly, we successfully silenced GPIb? in differentiating megakaryoblastic DAMI cells that exhibited morphological changes associated with actin organization. In conclusion, we here report the successful use of miRNA technology to silence a platelet protein in megakaryoblastic cells and demonstrate its usefulness in functional assays. Hence, we believe that artificial miRNAs are suitable tools to unravel the role of a protein of interest in stem cells, megakaryocytes and platelets, thereby expanding their application to novel fields of basic and translational research. PMID:26176854

  10. Effects of connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) gene silencing on the radiosensitivity of glioblastoma

    PubMed Central

    Han, Na; Shahveranov, Allahverdi; Cheng, Yi; Qin, Kai; Yu, Shi-Ying; Zhang, Meng-Xian

    2014-01-01

    The effects of connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) gene silencing on the radiosensitivity of glioblastoma cells (GBM) were investigated. The lentivirus-mediated short hairpin RNA (shRNA) expression vector targeting CTGF was constructed and transinfected into U87MG human GBM cell line. The CTGF gene expression in U87MG cells was significantly down-regulated. After irradiation with 6 MV X-rays at a dose rate of 2.5 Gy/min, the clonogenicity, proliferation and migration of U87MG cells were assayed in vitro. The survival, proliferation and migration of U87MG cells were all remarkably inhibited by CTGF silencing (p < 0.05 vs control). Our results demonstrate that CTGF is important for GBM and CTGF gene silencing can be a potential tool to enhance the sensitivity of GBM to radiotherapy. PMID:25356109

  11. Virus-induced gene silencing of the alkaloid-producing basal eudicot model plant Eschscholzia californica (California Poppy).

    PubMed

    Tekleyohans, Dawit G; Lange, Sabrina; Becker, Annette

    2013-01-01

    Eschscholzia californica (California poppy), a member of the basal eudicot family of the Papaveraceae, is an important species to study alkaloid biosynthesis and the effect of alkaloids on plant metabolism. More recently, it has also been developed as a model system to study the evolution of plant morphogenesis. While progress has been made towards establishing methods for generating genetically modified cell culture lines, transcriptome data and gene expression analysis, the stable transformation and subsequent regeneration of transgenic plants has proven extremely time consuming and difficult. Here, we describe in detail a method to transiently down regulate expression of a target gene by virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS) and the subsequent analysis of the VIGS treated plants. VIGS in E. californica allows for the study of gene function within 2 to 3 weeks after inoculation, and the method proves very efficient, enabling the rapid analysis of gene functions. PMID:23386297

  12. A high-throughput virus-induced gene silencing protocol identifies genes involved in multi-stress tolerance

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Understanding the function of a particular gene under various stresses is important for engineering plants for broad-spectrum stress tolerance. Although virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS) has been used to characterize genes involved in abiotic stress tolerance, currently available gene silencing and stress imposition methodology at the whole plant level is not suitable for high-throughput functional analyses of genes. This demands a robust and reliable methodology for characterizing genes involved in abiotic and multi-stress tolerance. Results Our methodology employs VIGS-based gene silencing in leaf disks combined with simple stress imposition and effect quantification methodologies for easy and faster characterization of genes involved in abiotic and multi-stress tolerance. By subjecting leaf disks from gene-silenced plants to various abiotic stresses and inoculating silenced plants with various pathogens, we show the involvement of several genes for multi-stress tolerance. In addition, we demonstrate that VIGS can be used to characterize genes involved in thermotolerance. Our results also showed the functional relevance of NtEDS1 in abiotic stress, NbRBX1 and NbCTR1 in oxidative stress; NtRAR1 and NtNPR1 in salinity stress; NbSOS1 and NbHSP101 in biotic stress; and NtEDS1, NbETR1, NbWRKY2 and NbMYC2 in thermotolerance. Conclusions In addition to widening the application of VIGS, we developed a robust, easy and high-throughput methodology for functional characterization of genes involved in multi-stress tolerance. PMID:24289810

  13. Position-Dependent Methylation and Transcriptional Silencing of Transgenes in Inverted T-DNA Repeats: Implications for Posttranscriptional Silencing of Homologous Host Genes in Plants

    Microsoft Academic Search

    MAIKE STAM; ADA VITERBO; JOSEPH N. M. MOL; JAN M. KOOTER

    1998-01-01

    Posttranscriptional silencing of chalcone synthase (Chs) genes in petunia transformants occurs by intro- ducing T-DNAs that contain a promoter-driven or promoterless Chs transgene. With the constructs we used, silencing occurs only by T-DNA loci which are composed of two or more T-DNA copies that are arranged as inverted repeats (IRs). Since we are interested in the mechanism by which these

  14. Postintegrative Gene Silencing within the Sleeping Beauty Transposition System

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Brian S. Garrison; Stephen R. Yant; Jacob Giehm Mikkelsen; Mark A. Kay

    2007-01-01

    Received 22 March 2007\\/Returned for modification 6 June 2007\\/Accepted 2 October 2007 The Sleeping Beauty (SB) transposon represents an important vehicle for in vivo gene delivery because it can efficiently and stably integrate into mammalian genomes. In this report, we examined transposon expression in human cells using a novel nonselective fluorescence-activated cell sorter-based method and discovered that SB integrates 20

  15. Paramutation of tobacco transgenes by small RNA-mediated transcriptional gene silencing

    PubMed Central

    K?ížová, Kate?ina; Lunerová, Jana; Fulne?ek, Jaroslav; Depicker, Anna

    2011-01-01

    It has been well established that trans-acting small RNAs guide promoter methylation leading to its inactivation and gene silencing at the transcriptional level (TGS). Here we addressed the question of the influence of the locus structure and epigenetic modifications of the target locus on its susceptibility for being paramutated by trans-acting small RNA molecules. Silencing was induced by crossing a 35S promoter silencer locus 271 with two different 35S-driven transgene loci, locus 2 containing a highly expressed single copy gene and locus 1 containing an inverted posttranscriptionally silenced (PTGS) repeat of this gene. Three generations of exposure to RNA signals from the 271 locus were required to complete silencing and methylation of the 35S promoter within locus 2. Segregating methylated locus 2 epialleles were obtained only from the third generation of hybrids, and this methylation was not correlated with silencing. Strikingly, only one generation was required for the PTGS locus 1 to acquire complete TGS and 35S promoter methylation. In this case, paramutated locus 1 epialleles bearing methylated and inactive 35S promoters segregated already from the first generation of hybrids. The results support the hypothesis that PTGS loci containing a palindrome structure and methylation in the coding region are more sensitive to paramutation by small RNAs and exhibit a strong tendency to formation of meiotically transmissible TGS epialleles. These features contrast with a non-methylated single copy transgenic locus that required several generations of contact with RNA silencing molecules to become imprinted in a stable epiallele. PMID:21521939

  16. Post-transcriptional regulation of meiotic genes by a nuclear RNA silencing complex

    PubMed Central

    Egan, Emily D.; Braun, Craig R.; Gygi, Steven P.; Moazed, Danesh

    2014-01-01

    RNA is a central component of gene-silencing pathways that regulate diverse cellular processes. In the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe, an RNA-based mechanism represses meiotic gene expression during vegetative growth. This pathway depends on the zinc finger protein Red1, which is required to degrade meiotic mRNAs as well as to target histone H3 lysine 9 (H3K9) methylation, a repressive chromatin mark, to a subset of meiotic genes. However, the mechanism of Red1 function is unknown. Here we use affinity purification and mass spectrometry to identify a Red1-containing nuclear RNA silencing (NURS) complex. In addition to Red1, this complex includes the Mtl1, Red5, Ars2, Rmn1, and Iss10 proteins and associates with several other complexes that are involved in either signaling or mediating RNA silencing. By analyzing the effects of gene knockouts and inducible knockdown alleles, we show that NURS subunits regulate RNA degradation and H3K9 methylation at meiotic genes. We also identify roles for individual NURS subunits in interactions with Mmi1, an RNA-binding protein that marks meiotic RNAs for destruction, and the nuclear exosome RNA degradation complex. Finally, we show that the levels of H3K9 methylation at meiotic genes are not sufficient to restrict RNA polymerase II access or repress gene expression during vegetative growth. Our results demonstrate that Red1 partners with other proteins to silence meiotic gene expression at the post-transcriptional level. Conservation of a NURS-like complex in human cells suggests that this pathway plays an ancient and fundamental role in RNA silencing. PMID:24713849

  17. Lipid Nanoparticle Delivery of siRNA to Silence Neuronal Gene Expression in the Brain

    PubMed Central

    Rungta, Ravi L; Choi, Hyun B; Lin, Paulo JC; Ko, Rebecca WY; Ashby, Donovan; Nair, Jay; Manoharan, Muthiah; Cullis, Pieter R; MacVicar, Brian A

    2013-01-01

    Manipulation of gene expression in the brain is fundamental for understanding the function of proteins involved in neuronal processes. In this article, we show a method for using small interfering RNA (siRNA) in lipid nanoparticles (LNPs) to efficiently silence neuronal gene expression in cell culture and in the brain in vivo through intracranial injection. We show that neurons accumulate these LNPs in an apolipoprotein E–dependent fashion, resulting in very efficient uptake in cell culture (100%) with little apparent toxicity. In vivo, intracortical or intracerebroventricular (ICV) siRNA-LNP injections resulted in knockdown of target genes either in discrete regions around the injection site or in more widespread areas following ICV injections with no apparent toxicity or immune reactions from the LNPs. Effective targeted knockdown was demonstrated by showing that intracortical delivery of siRNA against GRIN1 (encoding GluN1 subunit of the NMDA receptor (NMDAR)) selectively reduced synaptic NMDAR currents in vivo as compared with synaptic AMPA receptor currents. Therefore, LNP delivery of siRNA rapidly manipulates expression of proteins involved in neuronal processes in vivo, possibly enabling the development of gene therapies for neurological disorders. PMID:24301867

  18. Silencing shrimp white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) genes by siRNA.

    PubMed

    Xu, Jianyang; Han, Fang; Zhang, Xiaobo

    2007-02-01

    White spot syndrome virus (WSSV) is a major shrimp pathogen causing large economic losses all over the world. So far, however, there is no efficient approach to control this virus. RNA interference (RNAi), which has been applied to silence virus genes in eukaryotic organisms. In this investigation, a specific 21bp short interfering RNA (vp28-siRNA) targeting a major envelope protein gene (vp28) of WSSV was used to induce gene silencing in vivo in Penaeus japonicus shrimp. It was found that the transcription and expression of vp28 gene were silenced by the sequence-specific vp28-siRNA. However, the RNAi effect disappeared or significantly weakened even if one-nucleotide mutation existed in the vp28-siRNA. As revealed by quantitative PCR, the vp28-siRNA caused a significant reduction in viral DNA production of WSSV-infected shrimp. When treated with the vp28-siRNA, WSSV-infected shrimp had a reduced mortality rate. After three injections of the vp28-siRNA, the virus was completely eradicated from WSSV-infected shrimp. These findings suggest that RNAi is capable of silencing sequence-specific genes of WSSV and might constitute a new therapeutic strategy for WSSV infection in shrimp. PMID:17011052

  19. Systematic knockdown of morphine pathway enzymes in opium poppy using virus-induced gene silencing.

    PubMed

    Wijekoon, Champa P; Facchini, Peter J

    2012-03-01

    Opium poppy (Papaver somniferum) remains the sole commercial source for several pharmaceutical alkaloids including the narcotic analgesics codeine and morphine, and the semi-synthetic drugs oxycodone, buprenorphine and naltrexone. Although most of the biosynthetic genes have been identified, the post-transcriptional regulation of the morphinan alkaloid pathway has not been determined. We have used virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS) as a functional genomics tool to investigate the regulation of morphine biosynthesis via a systematic reduction in enzyme levels responsible for the final six steps in the pathway. Specific gene silencing was confirmed at the transcript level by real-time quantitative PCR (polymerase chain reaction), and at the protein level by immunoblot analysis using antibodies raised against salutaridine synthase (SalSyn), salutaridine reductase (SalR), salutaridine 7-O-acetyltransferase (SalAT), thebaine 6-O-demethylase (T6ODM), codeinone reductase (COR), and codeine O-demethylase (CODM). In some cases, silencing a specific biosynthetic gene resulted in a predictable accumulation of the substrate for the corresponding enzyme. Reduced SalSyn, SalR, T6ODM and CODM protein levels correlated with lower morphine levels and a substantial increase in the accumulation of reticuline, salutaridine, thebaine and codeine, respectively. In contrast, the silencing of genes encoding SalAT and COR resulted in the accumulation of salutaridine and reticuline, respectively, which are not the corresponding enzymatic substrates. The silencing of alkaloid biosynthetic genes using VIGS confirms the physiological function of enzymes previously characterized in vitro, provides insight into the biochemical regulation of morphine biosynthesis, and demonstrates the immense potential for metabolic engineering in opium poppy. PMID:22098111

  20. Gene dosage induction of silencing directed against an Arabidopsis Myb transgene in tobacco

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    An unexpected reduction in petal pigmentation on petunia plants genetically engineered for enhanced flower color was one of the first experimental demonstrations of the natural process of RNA-associated gene silencing. The obvious visual nature of such alterations to pigment patterns of transgenic ...

  1. Effect of Nanoparticle Conjugation on Gene Silencing by RNA Interference Neetu Singh,

    E-print Network

    Bhatia, Sangeeta

    challenge have started bearing fruit.2­9 A plethora of cationic polymers (including lipidsRNAs and covalent coupling of siRNAs with polymers or nanoparticles have been shown to be effective in delivering siEffect of Nanoparticle Conjugation on Gene Silencing by RNA Interference Neetu Singh, Amit Agrawal

  2. Soilborne viruses: advances in virus movement, virus induced gene silencing, and engineered resistance

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jeanmarie Verchot-Lubicz

    2003-01-01

    Until recently soilborne plant viruses were considered important only because they are causative agents for agricultural diseases. In recent years, soilborne plant viruses have played a significant role in advancing research into mechanisms of plasmodesmata transport, gene silencing, and engineered resistance to plant pathogens. Three different mechanisms by which viruses move through plasmodesmata have been identified using dianthoviruses, nepoviruses, and

  3. Gene silencing in X-chromosome inactivation: advances in understanding facultative heterochromatin formation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Anton Wutz

    2011-01-01

    In female mammals, one of the two X chromosomes is silenced for dosage compensation between the sexes. X-chromosome inactivation is initiated in early embryogenesis by the Xist RNA that localizes to the inactive X chromosome. During development, the inactive X chromosome is further modified, a specialized form of facultative heterochromatin is formed and gene repression becomes stable and independent of

  4. Systemic RNAi mediated gene silencing in the anhydrobiotic nematode Panagrolaimus superbus

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Adam J Shannon; Trevor Tyson; Ilona Dix; Jacqueline Boyd; Ann M Burnell

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Gene silencing by RNA interference (RNAi) is a powerful tool for functional genomics. Although RNAi was first described in Caenorhabditis elegans, several nematode species are unable to mount an RNAi response when exposed to exogenous double stranded RNA (dsRNA). These include the satellite model organisms Pristionchus pacificus and Oscheius tipulae. Available data also suggest that the RNAi pathway targeting

  5. Epigenetic gene silencing in cancer – a mechanism for early oncogenic pathway addiction?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Stephen B. Baylin; Joyce E. Ohm

    2006-01-01

    Chromatin alterations have been associated with all stages of tumour formation and progression. The best characterized are epigenetically mediated transcriptional-silencing events that are associated with increases in DNA methylation — particularly at promoter regions of genes that regulate important cell functions. Recent evidence indicates that epigenetic changes might 'addict' cancer cells to altered signal-transduction pathways during the early stages of

  6. Transgene-based anthocyanin hyper-pigmentation as a visual reporter of gene silencing in plants

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    “Co-suppression” associated loss of flower pigmentation in transgenic petunia plants was one of the first clear indicators of the natural process of RNA-associated gene silencing in plants. We have been exploring the use of genetically engineered anthocyanin over-production in vegetative tissues as...

  7. Two Chloroplastic Viroids Induce the Accumulation of Small RNAs Associated with Posttranscriptional Gene Silencing

    PubMed Central

    Martínez de Alba, A. E.; Flores, R.; Hernández, C.

    2002-01-01

    In plants, posttranscriptional gene silencing (PTGS) has been reported for cytoplasmic RNAs from endogenous nuclear genes, transgenes, viruses, and, recently, for a viroid with nuclear replication and accumulation. However, phenomena of this kind have not been described for mitochondrial or chloroplastic RNAs. Here we show that viroids that replicate and accumulate in the chloroplast are also targets of PTGS and this process may control viroid titer. PMID:12438638

  8. Two chloroplastic viroids induce the accumulation of small RNAs associated with posttranscriptional gene silencing.

    PubMed

    Martínez de Alba, A E; Flores, R; Hernández, C

    2002-12-01

    In plants, posttranscriptional gene silencing (PTGS) has been reported for cytoplasmic RNAs from endogenous nuclear genes, transgenes, viruses, and, recently, for a viroid with nuclear replication and accumulation. However, phenomena of this kind have not been described for mitochondrial or chloroplastic RNAs. Here we show that viroids that replicate and accumulate in the chloroplast are also targets of PTGS and this process may control viroid titer. PMID:12438638

  9. Gene Silencing by RNA Interference in the White Rot Fungus Phanerochaete chrysosporium

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Avi Matityahu; Yitzhak Hadar; Carlos G. Dosoretz; Paula A. Belinky

    2008-01-01

    The effectiveness of RNA interference (RNAi) is demonstrated in the lignin-degrading fungus Phanerochaete chrysosporium. The manganese-containing superoxide dismutase gene (MnSOD1) was used as the target for RNAi. The plasmid constructed for gene silencing contained a transcriptional unit for hairpin RNA expression. Significantly lower MnSOD expression at both the mRNA and protein activity levels was detected in RNAi transformants. Furthermore, even

  10. Virus-induced gene silencing in the rapid cycling columbine Aquilegia coerulea "Origami".

    PubMed

    Sharma, Bharti; Kramer, Elena M

    2013-01-01

    Aquilegia Origami is an emerging model system for ecology and evolution, which has numerous genetic and genomic tools. Virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS) has been established as an effective approach to study gene function in Aquilegia. In the current protocol, we demonstrate VIGS using Agrobacterium strain GV3101 carrying tobacco rattle virus (TRV)-based constructs to infect Aquilegia coerulea "Origami" plants via vacuum infiltration. PMID:23386296

  11. Virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS) of genes expressed in root, leaf, and meiotic tissues of wheat.

    PubMed

    Bennypaul, Harvinder S; Mutti, Jasdeep S; Rustgi, Sachin; Kumar, Neeraj; Okubara, Patricia A; Gill, Kulvinder S

    2012-03-01

    Barley stripe mosaic virus (BSMV)-based virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS) is an effective strategy for rapid functional analysis of genes in wheat leaves, but its utility to transiently express genes, and silencing in other tissues including root, flower, and developing grains, has not been demonstrated in monocots. We monitored green fluorescent protein (GFP) expression to demonstrate the utility of BSMV as a transient expression vector and silenced genes in various wheat tissues to expand VIGS utility to characterize tissue-specific genes. An antisense construct designed for coronatine insensitive1 (COI1) showed an 85% decrease in COI1 transcript level in roots accompanied by a 26% reduction in root length. Similarly, silencing of seed-specific granule-bound starch synthase by antisense and hairpin constructs resulted in up to 82% reduction in amylose content of the developing grains. VIGS of meiosis-specific genes demonstrated by silencing wheat homologue of disrupted meiosis cDNA1 (DMC1) by an antisense construct resulted in a 75-80% reduction in DMC1 transcript level accompanied by an average of 37.2 univalents at metaphase I. The virus-based transient GFP expression was observed in the leaf, phloem, and root cortex at 10-17 days post-inoculation. A novel observation was made that 8-11% of the first selfed generation progeny showed VIGS inheritance and that this proportion increased to 53-72% in the second and to 90-100% in the third generations. No viral symptoms were observed in the progeny, making it possible to study agronomic traits by VIGS. VIGS inheritance is particularly useful to study genes expressing during seed germination or other stages of early plant growth. PMID:21935674

  12. Functional cooperation between HP1 and DNMT1 mediates gene silencing

    PubMed Central

    Smallwood, Andrea; Estève, Pierre-Olivier; Pradhan, Sriharsa; Carey, Michael

    2007-01-01

    Mammalian euchromatic gene silencing results from the combined repressive effects of histone and DNA methyltransferases. Little is known of the mechanism by which these enzymes cooperate to induce silencing. Here we show that mammalian HP1 family members mediate communication between histone and DNA methyltransferases. In vitro, methylation of histone 3 Lys 9 by G9a creates a binding platform for HP1?, ?, and ?. DNMT1 interacts with HP1 resulting in increased DNA methylation on DNA and chromatin templates in vitro. The functional and physical interaction can be recapitulated in vivo. Binding of GAL4-HP1 to a reporter construct is sufficient to induce repression and DNA methylation in DNMT1 wild-type but not DNMT1-null cells. Additionally, silencing of the Survivin gene coincides with recruitment of G9a and HP1 in DNMT1 wild-type but not null cells. We conclude that direct interactions between HP1 and DNMT1 mediate silencing of euchromatic genes. PMID:17470536

  13. Gene silencing in Medicago truncatula roots using RNAi.

    PubMed

    Floss, Daniela S; Schmitz, Alexa M; Starker, Colby G; Gantt, J Stephen; Harrison, Maria J

    2013-01-01

    Medicago truncatula is used widely as a model system for studies of root symbioses, interactions with parasitic nematodes and fungal pathogens, as well as studies of development and secondary metabolism. In Medicago truncatula as well as other legumes, RNA interference (RNAi) coupled with Agrobacterium rhizogenes-mediated root transformation, has been used very successfully for analyses of gene function in roots. One of the major advantages of this approach is the ease and relative speed with which transgenic roots can be generated. There are several methods, both for the generation of the RNAi constructs and the root transformation. Here we provide details of an RNAi and root transformation protocol that has been used successfully in M. truncatula and which can be scaled up to enable the analysis of several hundred constructs. PMID:23996315

  14. Disruption of Rpp1-mediated soybean rust immunity by virus-induced gene silencing

    PubMed Central

    Cooper, Bret; Campbell, Kimberly B; McMahon, Michael B; Luster, Douglas G

    2013-01-01

    Phakopsora pachyrhizi, a fungus that causes rust disease on soybean, has potential to impart significant yield loss and disrupt food security and animal feed production. Rpp1 is a soybean gene that confers immunity to soybean rust, and it is important to understand how it regulates the soybean defense system and to use this knowledge to protect commercial crops. It was previously discovered that some soybean proteins resembling transcription factors accumulate in the nucleus of Rpp1 soybeans. To determine if they contribute to immunity, Bean pod mottle virus was used to attenuate or silence the expression of their genes. Rpp1 plants subjected to virus-induced gene silencing exhibited reduced amounts of RNA for 5 of the tested genes, and the plants developed rust-like symptoms after subsequent inoculation with fungal spores. Symptoms were associated with the accumulation of rust fungal RNA and protein. Silenced plants also had reduced amounts of RNA for the soybean Myb84 transcription factor and soybean isoflavone O-methyltransferase, both of which are important to phenylpropanoid biosynthesis and lignin formation, crucial components of rust resistance. These results help resolve some of the genes that contribute to Rpp1-mediated immunity and improve upon the knowledge of the soybean defense system. It is possible that these genes could be manipulated to enhance rust resistance in otherwise susceptible soybean cultivars. PMID:24401541

  15. Global effects on gene expression in fission yeast by silencing and RNA interference machineries.

    PubMed

    Hansen, Klavs R; Burns, Gavin; Mata, Juan; Volpe, Thomas A; Martienssen, Robert A; Bähler, Jürg; Thon, Geneviève

    2005-01-01

    Histone modifications influence gene expression in complex ways. The RNA interference (RNAi) machinery can repress transcription by recruiting histone-modifying enzymes to chromatin, although it is not clear whether this is a general mechanism for gene silencing or whether it requires repeated sequences such as long terminal repeats (LTRs). We analyzed the global effects of the Clr3 and Clr6 histone deacetylases, the Clr4 methyltransferase, the zinc finger protein Clr1, and the RNAi proteins Dicer, RdRP, and Argonaute on the transcriptome of Schizosaccharomyces pombe (fission yeast). The clr mutants derepressed similar subsets of genes, many of which also became transcriptionally activated in cells that were exposed to environmental stresses such as nitrogen starvation. Many genes that were repressed by the Clr proteins clustered in extended regions close to the telomeres. Surprisingly few genes were repressed by both the silencing and RNAi machineries, with transcripts from centromeric repeats and Tf2 retrotransposons being notable exceptions. We found no correlation between repression by RNAi and proximity to LTRs, and the wtf family of repeated sequences seems to be repressed by histone deacetylation independent of RNAi. Our data indicate that the RNAi and Clr proteins show only a limited functional overlap and that the Clr proteins play more global roles in gene silencing. PMID:15632061

  16. Dynamic and reversibility of heterochromatic gene silencing in human disease

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Giuseppe ZARDO; Francesco FAZI; Lorena TRAVAGLINI; Clara NERVI

    2005-01-01

    In eukaryotic organisms cellular fate and tissue specific gene expression are regulated by the activity of proteins known as transcription factors that by interacting with specific DNA sequences direct the activation or repression of target genes. The post genomic era has shown that transcription factors are not the unique key regulators of gene expression. Epigenetic mechanisms such as DNA methylation,

  17. Endogenous, Tissue-Specific Short Interfering RNAs Silence the Chalcone Synthase Gene Family in Glycine max Seed Coats

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jigyasa H. Tuteja; Gracia Zabala; Kranthi Varala; Matthew Hudson; Lila O. Vodkin

    2009-01-01

    Two dominant alleles of the I locus in Glycine max silence nine chalcone synthase (CHS) genes to inhibit function of the flavonoid pathway in the seed coat. We describe here the intricacies of this naturally occurring silencing mechanism based on results from small RNA gel blots and high-throughput sequencing of small RNA populations. The two dominant alleles of the I

  18. Multi-armed cationic cyclodextrin:poly(ethylene glycol) polyrotaxanes as efficient gene silencing vectors†

    PubMed Central

    Kulkarni, Aditya; DeFrees, Kyle; Schuldt, Ryan A.; Vlahu, Alexander; VerHeul, Ross; Hyun, Seok-Hee; Deng, Wei

    2012-01-01

    A family of branched polyrotaxanes (bPRTx+), threaded with multiple cationic ?-cyclodextrins (?-CDs) onto a multi-armed poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) core, were synthesized and studied as gene silencing vectors. These bPRTx+ formed stable, positively charged complexes with diameters of 150–250 nm at N/P ratios as low as 2.5. The bPRTx+ materials were shown to have gene-silencing efficiencies comparable to those of Lipofectamine 2000 (L2k) and bPEI, while displaying similar toxicity profiles. The unique structure of these polyrotaxanes allows them to effectively condense and complex siRNA into nanoparticles at much lower N/P ratios than L2k or bPEI. These findings suggest that bPRTx+ may be useful materials for gene therapy applications. PMID:23042106

  19. Nuclear RNAi contributes to the silencing of off-target genes and repetitive sequences in Caenorhabditis elegans.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Xufei; Xu, Fei; Mao, Hui; Ji, Jiaojiao; Yin, Meng; Feng, Xuezhu; Guang, Shouhong

    2014-05-01

    Small RNAs recognize, bind, and regulate other complementary cellular RNAs. The introduction of small RNAs to eukaryotic cells frequently results in unintended silencing of related, but not identical, RNAs: a process termed off-target gene silencing. Off-target gene silencing is one of the major concerns during the application of small RNA-based technologies for gene discovery and the treatment of human disease. Off-target gene silencing is commonly thought to be due to inherent biochemical limitations of the RNAi machinery. Here we show that following the introduction of exogenous sources of double-stranded RNA, the nuclear RNAi pathway, but not its cytoplasmic counterparts, is the primary source of off-target silencing in Caenorhabditis elegans. In addition, we show that during the normal course of growth and development the nuclear RNAi pathway regulates repetitive gene families. Therefore, we speculate that RNAi off-target effects might not be "mistakes" but rather an intentional and genetically programmed aspect of small RNA-mediated gene silencing, which might allow small RNAs to silence rapidly evolving parasitic nucleic acids. Finally, reducing off-target effects by manipulating the nuclear RNAi pathway in vivo might improve the efficacy of small RNA-based technologies. PMID:24532782

  20. Global role for polyadenylation-assisted nuclear RNA degradation in posttranscriptional gene silencing.

    PubMed

    Wang, Shao-Win; Stevenson, Abigail L; Kearsey, Stephen E; Watt, Stephen; Bähler, Jürg

    2008-01-01

    Fission yeast Cid14, a component of the TRAMP (Cid14/Trf4-Air1-Mtr4 polyadenylation) complex, polyadenylates nuclear RNA and stimulates degradation by the exosome for RNA quality control. Here, we analyze patterns of global gene expression in cells lacking the Cid14 or the Dis3/Rpr44 subunit of the nuclear exosome. We found that transcripts from many genes induced during meiosis, including key regulators, accumulated in the absence of Cid14 or Dis3. Moreover, our data suggest that additional substrates include transcripts involved in heterochromatin assembly. Mutant cells lacking Cid14 and/or Dis3 accumulate transcripts corresponding to naturally silenced repeat elements within heterochromatic domains, reflecting defects in centromeric gene silencing and derepression of subtelomeric gene expression. We also uncover roles for Cid14 and Dis3 in maintaining the genomic integrity of ribosomal DNA. Our data indicate that polyadenylation-assisted nuclear RNA turnover functions in eliminating a variety of RNA targets to control diverse processes, such as heterochromatic gene silencing, meiotic differentiation, and maintenance of genomic integrity. PMID:18025105

  1. Copy number loss or silencing of apoptosis-effector genes in cancer.

    PubMed

    Mauro, James A; Butler, Shanitra N; Ramsamooj, Michael; Blanck, George

    2015-01-01

    Cancer cells undergo a variety of DNA copy number gains and losses (CNV), raising two important questions related to cancer development: (i) Which genes are affected? (ii) And how do CNVs, that do not represent complete deletions but do represent gene-dosage alterations, impact cancer cell functions? Recent studies have indicated that CNVs in cancer can impact genes for regulatory proteins long known to be associated with cancer development, but less is understood about CNVs affecting effector genes. Also, we have recently indicated the likely importance of transcription factor binding site (TFBS) copies in effector genes, in regulating the transition from a proliferative to an apoptotic state. Here we report data-mining analyses that indicate that copies of apoptosis-effector genes are commonly lost in cancer development, in comparison to proliferation-effector genes, and when not, apoptosis effector genes have silenced chromatin structures. PMID:25307873

  2. Templated assembly of albumin-based nanoparticles for simultaneous gene silencing and magnetic resonance imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mertz, Damien; Affolter-Zbaraszczuk, Christine; Barthès, Julien; Cui, Jiwei; Caruso, Frank; Baumert, Thomas F.; Voegel, Jean-Claude; Ogier, Joelle; Meyer, Florent

    2014-09-01

    In this article, we address the design of innovative human serum albumin (HSA)-based nanoparticles loaded with silencing RNA and grafted with gadolinium complexes having average sizes ranging from ca. 50 to 150 nm according to the siRNA/HSA composition. The non-covalent siRNA/HSA assembly is formed on isobutyramide-modified mesoporous silica and the self-supported HSA-based nanoparticles are obtained following the silica template dissolution. These original protein particles provide simultaneous magnetic resonance imaging contrast enhancement and cellular in vitro gene silencing.In this article, we address the design of innovative human serum albumin (HSA)-based nanoparticles loaded with silencing RNA and grafted with gadolinium complexes having average sizes ranging from ca. 50 to 150 nm according to the siRNA/HSA composition. The non-covalent siRNA/HSA assembly is formed on isobutyramide-modified mesoporous silica and the self-supported HSA-based nanoparticles are obtained following the silica template dissolution. These original protein particles provide simultaneous magnetic resonance imaging contrast enhancement and cellular in vitro gene silencing. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Experimental details and supporting Fig. S1-S4. See DOI: 10.1039/c4nr02623c

  3. Analysis of the siRNA-Mediated Gene Silencing Process Targeting Three Homologous Genes Controlling Soybean Seed Oil Quality

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Sha; Yin, Xiaoyan; Spollen, William; Zhang, Ning; Xu, Dong; Schoelz, James; Bilyeu, Kristin; Zhang, Zhanyuan J.

    2015-01-01

    In the past decade, RNA silencing has gained significant attention because of its success in genomic scale research and also in the genetic improvement of crop plants. However, little is known about the molecular basis of siRNA processing in association with its target transcript. To reveal this process for improving hpRNA-mediated gene silencing in crop plants, the soybean GmFAD3 gene family was chosen as a test model. We analyzed RNAi mutant soybean lines in which three members of the GmFAD3 gene family were silenced. The silencing levels of FAD3A, FAD3B and FAD3C were correlated with the degrees of sequence homology between the inverted repeat of hpRNA and the GmFAD3 transcripts in the RNAi lines. Strikingly, transgenes in two of the three RNAi lines were heavily methylated, leading to a dramatic reduction of hpRNA-derived siRNAs. Small RNAs corresponding to the loop portion of the hairpin transcript were detected while much lower levels of siRNAs were found outside of the target region. siRNAs generated from the 318-bp inverted repeat were found to be diced much more frequently at stem sequences close to the loop and associated with the inferred cleavage sites on the target transcripts, manifesting “hot spots”. The top candidate hpRNA-derived siRNA share certain sequence features with mature miRNA. This is the first comprehensive and detailed study revealing the siRNA-mediated gene silencing mechanism in crop plants using gene family GmFAD3 as a test model. PMID:26061033

  4. Identification and Characterization of Plant Genes Involved in Agrobacterium -Mediated Plant Transformation by Virus-Induced Gene Silencing

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ajith Anand; Zarir Vaghchhipawala; Choong-Min Ryu; Li Kang; Keri Wang; Olga del-Pozo; Gregory B. Martin; Kirankumar S. Mysore

    2007-01-01

    Genetic transformation of plant cells by Agrobacterium tu- mefaciens represents a unique case of trans-kingdom sex re- quiring the involvement of both bacterial virulence proteins and plant-encoded proteins. We have developed in planta and leaf-disk assays in Nicotiana benthamiana for identifying plant genes involved in Agrobacterium-mediated plant trans- formation using virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS) as a genomics tool. VIGS was

  5. Systematic identification of cis-silenced genes by trans complementation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jae Hyun Lee; Branimir Bugarija; Enrique J. Millan; Noah M. Walton; Jedidiah Gaetz; Croydon J. Fernandes; Wei-Hua Yu; Nitzan Mekel-Bobrov; Tammy W. Vallender; Gregory E. Snyder; Andy Peng Xiang; Bruce T. Lahn

    2009-01-01

    A gene's transcriptional output is the combined product of two inputs: diffusible factors in the cellular milieu acting in trans, and chromatin state acting in cis. Here, we describe a strategy for dissecting the relative con- tribution of cis versus trans mechanisms to gene regulation. Referred to as trans complementation, it entails fusing two disparate cell types and searching for

  6. A brief history of RNAi: the silence of the genes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    George L. Sen; Helen M. Blau

    2006-01-01

    The use of the RNA interference (RNAi) pathway to eliminate gene products has greatly facili- tated the understanding of gene function. Behind this remarkable pathway is an intricate network of proteins that ensures the degradation of the target mRNA. In this review, we explore the history of RNAi as well as highlighting recent discoveries.—Sen, G. L., Blau, H. M. A

  7. Virus-induced gene silencing-based functional verification of six genes associated with vernalization in wheat.

    PubMed

    Feng, Ya-Lan; Wang, Ke-Tao; Ma, Chao; Zhao, Yong-Ying; Yin, Jun

    2015-03-20

    Vernalization requirement is an important characteristic in crop breeding. Wheat is a widely grown crop in the world that possesses enormous economic significance. To better understand the gene networks in vernalization process, we performed a high-throughput RNA sequencing analysis comparing the transcriptomes of spring and winter wheat cultivars, with and without vernalization (unpublished data). In this study, we selected six unigenes (CL14010, CL12788, CL176, Unigene 16777, CL8746 and Unigene10196) from our transcriptome analysis based on their expression differences to further characterize their function. Transient silencing of the six unigenes individually were achieved through virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS) using BSMV vector. The period from germination to spike differentiation were recorded and compared between plants underwent VIGS silencing and the control. Our result showed that VIGS of the six unigenes significantly shortened the period from seedling to double ridge (DR) stage. Resulting in SD period ranging from 59.8 ± 0.60 to 65.8 ± 0.48 days, compared to 85.0 ± 0.73 days in the control. The results indicated that these six unigenes function as suppressors in vernalization process and silence or down-regulation of these genes promoted flower development in wheat. Further characterization of these six unigenes and their function in vernalization and flowering control is needed. PMID:25707852

  8. Analysis by virus induced gene silencing of the expression of two proline biosynthetic pathway genes in Nicotiana benthamiana under stress conditions.

    PubMed

    Ku, Hsin-Mei; Hu, Chi-Chieh; Chang, Hui-Ju; Lin, Yu-Tsung; Jan, Fuh-Jyh; Chen, Chien-Teh

    2011-10-01

    Proline accumulation is responsible for stress adaptation in many plants. To distinguish the involvement of two proline synthetic pathways, the virus induced gene silencing (VIGS) system that silenced the expression of genes encoding ?(1)-pyrroline-5-carboxylate synthetase (P5CS; EC:1.5.1.12) and ornithine-?-aminotransferase (OAT; EC 2.6.1.13) was performed, separately or concomitantly, in four-week-old Nicotiana benthamiana. Leaf discs of VIGS-treated tobacco were subjected to the treatment of drought, abscisic acid (ABA), or polyethylene glycol (PEG). The treated leaf discs were then collected for the determination of mRNA, chlorophyll, proline and polyamine level. Under drought stress or PEG treatment, most proline accumulation was inhibited in P5CS-silenced plants and only a small portion was inhibited in OAT-silenced plants under drought stress and no inhibition was observed under PEG treatment. Under ABA treatment, proline accumulation was inhibited completely in P5CS-silenced plants but unaffected in OAT-silenced plants. The degradation of chlorophyll was enhanced in P5CS-silenced plants but retarded in OAT-silenced plants under PEG treatment. Under ABA treatment, the degradation of chlorophyll was unaffected in both P5CS-silenced and OAT-silenced plants. The increase of polyamine level was unaffected in P5CS-silenced plants but increased in OAT-silenced plants under PEG treatment. Under ABA treatment, the increase of polyamine level was unaffected in P5CS-silenced plants but the polyamine level was increased later in OAT-silenced plants. Therefore, P5CS plays a major role in proline accumulation under drought, PEG, or ABA treatment, while OAT plays a minor role in drought or PEG treatment and does not participate in ABA treatment. OAT appears to have a close relationship with the regulation of polyamine levels in PEG and ABA treatments. PMID:21831656

  9. Agrobacterium Mediated Transient Gene Silencing (AMTS) in Stevia rebaudiana: Insights into Steviol Glycoside Biosynthesis Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Guleria, Praveen; Yadav, Sudesh Kumar

    2013-01-01

    Background Steviol glycoside biosynthesis pathway has emerged as bifurcation from ent-kaurenoic acid, substrate of methyl erythritol phosphate pathway that also leads to gibberellin biosynthesis. However, the genetic regulation of steviol glycoside biosynthesis has not been studied. So, in present study RNA interference (RNAi) based Agrobacterium mediated transient gene silencing (AMTS) approach was followed. SrKA13H and three SrUGTs (SrUGT85C2, SrUGT74G1 and SrUGT76G1) genes encoding ent-kaurenoic acid-13 hydroxylase and three UDP glycosyltransferases of steviol glycoside biosynthesis pathway were silenced in Stevia rebaudiana to understand its molecular mechanism and association with gibberellins. Methodology/Principal Findings RNAi mediated AMTS of SrKA13H and three SrUGTs has significantly reduced the expression of targeted endogenous genes as well as total steviol glycoside accumulation. While gibberellins (GA3) content was significantly enhanced on AMTS of SrUGT85C2 and SrKA13H. Silencing of SrKA13H and SrUGT85C2 was found to block the metabolite flux of steviol glycoside pathway and shifted it towards GA3 biosynthesis. Further, molecular docking of three SrUGT proteins has documented highest affinity of SrUGT76G1 for the substrates of alternate pathways synthesizing steviol glycosides. This could be a plausible reason for maximum reduction in steviol glycoside content on silencing of SrUGT76G1 than other genes. Conclusions SrKA13H and SrUGT85C2 were identified as regulatory genes influencing carbon flux between steviol glycoside and gibberellin biosynthesis. This study has also documented the existence of alternate steviol glycoside biosynthesis route. PMID:24023961

  10. Transcriptional Gene Silencing (TGS) via the RNAi Machinery in HIV-1 Infections

    PubMed Central

    Sampey, Gavin C; Guendel, Irene; Das, Ravi; Jaworski, Elizabeth; Klase, Zachary; Narayanan, Aarthi; Kehn-Hall, Kylene; Kashanchi, Fatah

    2012-01-01

    Gene silencing via non-coding RNA, such as siRNA and miRNA, can occur at the transcriptional, post-transcriptional, and translational stages of expression. Transcriptional gene silencing (TGS) involving the RNAi machinery generally occurs through DNA methylation, as well as histone post-translational modifications, and corresponding remodeling of chromatin around the target gene into a heterochromatic state. The mechanism by which mammalian TGS occurs includes the recruitment of RNA-induced initiation of transcriptional gene silencing (RITS) complexes, DNA methyltransferases (DNMTs), and other chromatin remodelers. Additionally, virally infected cells encoding miRNAs have also been shown to manipulate the host cell RNAi machinery to induce TGS at the viral genome, thereby establishing latency. Furthermore, the introduction of exogenous siRNA and shRNA into infected cells that target integrated viral promoters can greatly suppress viral transcription via TGS. Here we examine the latest findings regarding mammalian TGS, specifically focusing on HIV-1 infected cells, and discuss future avenues of exploration in this field. PMID:24832229

  11. Heat-Induced Release of Epigenetic Silencing Reveals the Concealed Role of an Imprinted Plant Gene

    PubMed Central

    Sanchez, Diego H.; Paszkowski, Jerzy

    2014-01-01

    Epigenetic mechanisms suppress the transcription of transposons and DNA repeats; however, this suppression can be transiently released under prolonged heat stress. Here we show that the Arabidopsis thaliana imprinted gene SDC, which is silent during vegetative growth due to DNA methylation, is activated by heat and contributes to recovery from stress. SDC activation seems to involve epigenetic mechanisms but not canonical heat-shock perception and signaling. The heat-mediated transcriptional induction of SDC occurs particularly in young developing leaves and is proportional to the level of stress. However, this occurs only above a certain window of absolute temperatures and, thus, resembles a thermal-sensing mechanism. In addition, the re-silencing kinetics during recovery can be entrained by repeated heat stress cycles, suggesting that epigenetic regulation in plants may conserve memory of stress experience. We further demonstrate that SDC contributes to the recovery of plant biomass after stress. We propose that transcriptional gene silencing, known to be involved in gene imprinting, is also co-opted in the specific tuning of SDC expression upon heat stress and subsequent recovery. It is therefore possible that dynamic properties of the epigenetic landscape associated with silenced or imprinted genes may contribute to regulation of their expression in response to environmental challenges. PMID:25411840

  12. Heat-induced release of epigenetic silencing reveals the concealed role of an imprinted plant gene.

    PubMed

    Sanchez, Diego H; Paszkowski, Jerzy

    2014-11-01

    Epigenetic mechanisms suppress the transcription of transposons and DNA repeats; however, this suppression can be transiently released under prolonged heat stress. Here we show that the Arabidopsis thaliana imprinted gene SDC, which is silent during vegetative growth due to DNA methylation, is activated by heat and contributes to recovery from stress. SDC activation seems to involve epigenetic mechanisms but not canonical heat-shock perception and signaling. The heat-mediated transcriptional induction of SDC occurs particularly in young developing leaves and is proportional to the level of stress. However, this occurs only above a certain window of absolute temperatures and, thus, resembles a thermal-sensing mechanism. In addition, the re-silencing kinetics during recovery can be entrained by repeated heat stress cycles, suggesting that epigenetic regulation in plants may conserve memory of stress experience. We further demonstrate that SDC contributes to the recovery of plant biomass after stress. We propose that transcriptional gene silencing, known to be involved in gene imprinting, is also co-opted in the specific tuning of SDC expression upon heat stress and subsequent recovery. It is therefore possible that dynamic properties of the epigenetic landscape associated with silenced or imprinted genes may contribute to regulation of their expression in response to environmental challenges. PMID:25411840

  13. Global identification of genes targeted by DNMT3b for epigenetic silencing in lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Teneng, I; Tellez, C S; Picchi, M A; Klinge, D M; Yingling, C M; Snider, A M; Liu, Y; Belinsky, S A

    2015-01-29

    The maintenance cytosine DNA methyltransferase DNMT1 and de novo methyltransferase DNMT3b cooperate to establish aberrant DNA methylation and chromatin complexes to repress gene transcription during cancer development. The expression of DNMT3b was constitutively increased 5-20-fold in hTERT/CDK4-immortalized human bronchial epithelial cells (HBECs) before treatment with low doses of tobacco carcinogens. Overexpression of DNMT3b increased and accelerated carcinogen-induced transformation. Genome-wide profiling of transformed HBECs identified 143 DNMT3b-target genes, many of which were transcriptionally regulated by the polycomb repressive complex 2 (PRC2) complex and silenced through aberrant methylation in non-small-cell lung cancer cell lines. Two genes studied in detail, MAL and OLIG2, were silenced during transformation, initially through enrichment for H3K27me3 and H3K9me2, commonly methylated in lung cancer, and exert tumor suppressor effects in vivo through modulating cancer-related pathways. Re-expression of MAL and OLIG2 to physiological levels dramatically reduced the growth of lung tumor xenografts. Our results identify a key role for DNMT3b in the earliest stages of initiation and provide a comprehensive catalog of genes targeted for silencing by this methyltransferase in non-small-cell lung cancer. PMID:24469050

  14. Dietary and genetic effects on age-related loss of gene silencing reveal epigenetic plasticity of chromatin repression during aging

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Nan; Du, Guyu; Tobias, Ethan; Wood, Jason G.; Whitaker, Rachel; Neretti, Nicola; Helfand, Stephen L.

    2013-01-01

    During aging, changes in chromatin state that alter gene transcription have been postulated to result in expression of genes that are normally silenced, leading to deleterious age-related effects on cellular physiology. Despite the prevalence of this hypothesis, it is primarily in yeast that loss of gene silencing with age has been well documented. We use a novel position effect variegation (PEV) reporter in Drosophila melanogaster to show that age-related loss of repressive heterochromatin is associated with loss of gene silencing in metazoans and is affected by Sir2, as it is in yeast. The life span-extending intervention, calorie restriction (CR), delays the age-related loss of gene silencing, indicating that loss of gene silencing is a component of normal aging. Diet switch experiments show that such flies undergo a rapid change in their level of gene silencing, demonstrating the epigenetic plasticity of chromatin during aging and highlighting the potential role of diet and metabolism in chromatin maintenance, Thus, diet and related interventions may be of therapeutic importance for age-related diseases, such as cancer. PMID:24243774

  15. Bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells with Nogo-66 receptor gene silencing for repair of spinal cord injury

    PubMed Central

    Li, Zhiyuan; Zhang, Zhanxiu; Zhao, Lili; Li, Hui; Wang, Suxia; Shen, Yong

    2014-01-01

    We hypothesized that RNA interference to silence Nogo-66 receptor gene expression in bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells before transplantation might further improve neurological function in rats with spinal cord transection injury. After 2 weeks, the number of neurons and BrdU-positive cells in the Nogo-66 receptor gene silencing group was higher than in the bone marrow mesenchymal stem cell group, and significantly greater compared with the model group. After 4 weeks, behavioral performance was significantly enhanced in the model group. After 8 weeks, the number of horseradish peroxidase-labeled nerve fibers was higher in the Nogo-66 receptor gene silencing group than in the bone marrow mesenchymal stem cell group, and significantly higher than in the model group. The newly formed nerve fibers and myelinated nerve fibers were detectable in the central transverse plane section in the bone marrow mesenchymal stem cell group and in the Nogo-66 receptor gene silencing group. PMID:25206893

  16. PostTranscriptional Gene Silencing of the p23 Silencing Suppressor of Citrus tristeza virus Confers Resistance to the Virus in Transgenic Mexican Lime

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Carmen Fagoaga; Carmelo López; Alfonso Hermoso de Mendoza; Pedro Moreno; Luis Navarro; Ricardo Flores; Leandro Peña

    2006-01-01

    Previously, we have shown that most Mexican limes (Citrus aurantifolia (Christ.) Swing.) expressing the p23 gene of Citrus tristeza virus (CTV) exhibit aberrations resembling viral leaf symptoms. Here we report that five independent transgenic lines having normal\\u000a phenotype displayed characteristics typical of post-transcriptional gene silencing (PTGS): multiple copies of the transgene,\\u000a low levels of the corresponding mRNA, methylation of the

  17. hpRNA-Mediated Targeting of the Arabidopsis FAD2 Gene Gives Highly Efficient and Stable Silencing

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Peter A. Stoutjesdijk; Surinder P. Singh; Qing Liu; Clive J. Hurlstone; Peter A. Waterhouse; Allan G. Green

    2002-01-01

    The endogenous 12-desaturase gene (FAD2) in Arabidopsis was targeted for silencing using seed-specific cosuppression (CS), hairpin (HP) RNA (hpRNA), and intron-spliced HP (iHP) constructs. The iHP construct, incorporating the 120-bp 3-untranslated region of the FAD2 gene, gave the highest degree of silencing. In some iHP lines 12-desaturase activity was reduced to levels as low as those in the null fad2-1

  18. Identification of a functional silencer element involved in neuron-specific expression of the synapsin I gene.

    PubMed Central

    Li, L; Suzuki, T; Mori, N; Greengard, P

    1993-01-01

    We have identified a functional silencer element (positions -231 to -211) in the human synapsin I gene that selectively represses its transcription in nonneuronal cells. Transfection experiments using synapsin I-luciferase constructs show that site-specific mutations or deletion of this silencer sequence results in expression of the reporter gene in nonneuronal cells. Moreover, the silencer element is capable of conferring repression on a heterologous promoter in nonneuronal cells. Gel-shift assays reveal the presence of a sequence-specific synapsin I silencer-binding protein in nonneuronal cell extracts but not in neuronal cell extracts. Mutagenesis studies of the silencer sequence demonstrate that formation of the specific silencer-protein complex in vitro correlates well with repression of transcription in vivo. These data indicate that the interaction between synapsin I silencer and its binding protein is involved in tissue-specific expression of the synapsin I gene. In addition, our results suggest the existence of at least one additional cis-acting element within the promoter-proximal region (positions -233 to +20) that also contributes to the neuron-specific expression of the synapsin I gene. Images PMID:8381968

  19. Molecular Mechanisms Mediating Methylation-Dependent Silencing of Ribosomal Gene Transcription

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Raffaella Santoro; Ingrid Grummt

    2001-01-01

    Epigenetic control mechanisms silence about half of ribosomal RNA genes (rDNA) in metabolically active cells. In the mouse, 40% of rDNA repeats are methylated and can be activated by 5-azacytidine treatment. In exploring the effect of methylation on rDNA transcription, we found that methylation of a single CpG dinucleotide within the upstream control element of the rDNA promoter (at ?133)

  20. The Chp1–Tas3 core is a multifunctional platform critical for gene silencing by RITS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Thomas Schalch; Godwin Job; Sreenath Shanker; Janet F Partridge; Leemor Joshua-Tor

    2011-01-01

    RNA interference (RNAi) is critical for the assembly of heterochromatin at Schizosaccharomyces pombe centromeres. Central to this process is the RNA-induced initiation of transcriptional gene silencing (RITS) complex, which physically anchors small noncoding RNAs to chromatin. RITS includes Ago1, the chromodomain protein Chp1, and Tas3, which forms a bridge between Chp1 and Ago1. Chp1 is a large protein with no

  1. Intravaginal gene silencing using biodegradable polymer nanoparticles densely loaded with small-interfering RNA

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kim A. Woodrow; Yen Cu; Carmen J. Booth; Jennifer K. Saucier-Sawyer; Monica J. Wood; W. Mark Saltzman

    2009-01-01

    Vaginal instillation of small-interfering RNA (siRNA) using liposomes has led to silencing of endogenous genes in the genital tract and protection against challenge from infectious disease. Although siRNA lipoplexes are easily formulated, several of the most effective transfection agents available commercially may be toxic to the mucosal epithelia and none are able to provide controlled or sustained release. Here, we

  2. Posttranscriptional gene silencing in controlling viruses of the Tomato yellow leaf curl virus complex

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. K. Abhary; G. H. Anfoka; M. K. Nakhla; D. P. Maxwell

    2006-01-01

    Summary.  Tomato yellow leaf curl disease (TYLCD) is caused by a group of geminiviruses that belong to the Tomato yellow leaf curl virus\\u000a (TYLCV) complex and are transmitted by the whitefly (Bemisia tabaci Genn.). The disease causes great yield losses in many countries throughout the Mediterranean region and the Middle East.\\u000a In this study, the efficacy of post-transcriptional gene silencing (PTGS)

  3. Highly Efficient Virus-induced Gene Silencing (VIGS) in California Poppy (Eschscholzia californica): An Evaluation of VIGS as a Strategy to Obtain Functional Data from Non-model Plants

    PubMed Central

    Wege, Stefanie; Scholz, Andrea; Gleissberg, Stefan; Becker, Annette

    2007-01-01

    Background and Aims Eschscholzia californica (California poppy) is an emerging model plant for ‘evo–devo’ studies from the basal eudicot clade of Papaveraceae. California poppy has a relatively small genome, a short life cycle and, most importantly, it is amenable for transformation. However, since this transformation protocol is time consuming, virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS) was evaluated as a fast method to obtain functional data for California poppy genes. Methods Commercially available California poppy plants were infiltrated with Agrobacterium tumefaciens carrying the tobacco rattle virus plasmids pTRV1 and pTRV2. pTRV2 contained part of the eschscholzia Phytoene Desaturase (EcPDS) gene whose loss of function results in photobleaching of the green parts of the plant and in a lack of floral coloration. The degree and duration of these symptoms was evaluated for vegetative rosettes and plants in flower. Key Results It is shown that VIGS is able to effectively down-regulate the EcPDS gene in eschscholzia. Various degrees of silencing were observed starting <2 weeks after infiltration with Agrobacterium tumefaciens in 92 % of the plants. Tissue with silencing symptoms also showed complete or strong reduction of EcPDS transcripts. Strong silencing resulted in almost completely white petals, fruits, shoots and leaves. Plants with a strong degree of silencing will eventually die off; however, others are able to produce EcPDS gene product even after a strong initial silencing and will recover. Silencing was found to be not always systemic, but was often restricted to certain organs or parts of organs. Conclusions VIGS is an effective, fast and transient method to down-regulate gene expression in eschscholzia. It serves well to detect prominent phenotypes which may become obvious even if some target gene transcript remains in the plant tissue. However, subtle phenotypes will be more difficult to detect, as extremely strong silencing effects occur in <10 % of all flowers from infected plants. PMID:17616562

  4. Genome-Wide DNA Methylation Indicates Silencing of Tumor Suppressor Genes in Uterine Leiomyoma

    PubMed Central

    Navarro, Antonia; Yin, Ping; Monsivais, Diana; Lin, Simon M.; Du, Pan; Wei, Jian-Jun; Bulun, Serdar E.

    2012-01-01

    Background Uterine leiomyomas, or fibroids, represent the most common benign tumor of the female reproductive tract. Fibroids become symptomatic in 30% of all women and up to 70% of African American women of reproductive age. Epigenetic dysregulation of individual genes has been demonstrated in leiomyoma cells; however, the in vivo genome-wide distribution of such epigenetic abnormalities remains unknown. Principal Findings We characterized and compared genome-wide DNA methylation and mRNA expression profiles in uterine leiomyoma and matched adjacent normal myometrial tissues from 18 African American women. We found 55 genes with differential promoter methylation and concominant differences in mRNA expression in uterine leiomyoma versus normal myometrium. Eighty percent of the identified genes showed an inverse relationship between DNA methylation status and mRNA expression in uterine leiomyoma tissues, and the majority of genes (62%) displayed hypermethylation associated with gene silencing. We selected three genes, the known tumor suppressors KLF11, DLEC1, and KRT19 and verified promoter hypermethylation, mRNA repression and protein expression using bisulfite sequencing, real-time PCR and western blot. Incubation of primary leiomyoma smooth muscle cells with a DNA methyltransferase inhibitor restored KLF11, DLEC1 and KRT19 mRNA levels. Conclusions These results suggest a possible functional role of promoter DNA methylation-mediated gene silencing in the pathogenesis of uterine leiomyoma in African American women. PMID:22428009

  5. Target Genes of Neuron-Restrictive Silencer Factor Are Abnormally Up-Regulated in Human Myotilinopathy

    PubMed Central

    Barrachina, Marta; Moreno, Jesús; Juvés, Salvador; Moreno, Dolores; Olivé, Montse; Ferrer, Isidre

    2007-01-01

    Myotilinopathy is a subgroup of myofibrillar myopathies caused by mutations in the myotilin gene in which there is aggregation of abnormal cytoskeletal proteins and ubiquitin. We report here on the accumulation of neuron-related proteins such as ubiquitin carboxy-terminal hydrolase L1 (UCHL1), synaptosomal-associated protein 25, synaptophysin, and ?-internexin in aberrant protein aggregates in myotilinopathy. We have determined that the neuron-restrictive silencer factor (NRSF)/RE1 silencing transcription factor (REST), a transcription factor expressed in non-neuronal tissues repressing the expression of several neuronal genes, is reduced in myotilinopathies. Moreover, NRSF transfection reduces UCHL1, synaptosomal-associated protein 25, synaptophysin, and ?-internexin mRNA levels in DMS53 cells, whereas short interferring NRSF transfection increases UCHL1 and synaptophysin mRNA levels in U87-MG cells. Chromatin immunoprecipitation assays have shown that NRSF interacts with the UCHL1 promoter in U87-MG and HeLa cells. In silico analysis of the UCHL1 gene promoter sequence using the MatInspector software has predicted three potential neuron-restrictive silencer elements (NRSEs): NRSE1 located in the complementary DNA chain and NRSE2 and NRSE3 in intron 1, in the coding and complementary chains, respectively. Together, these findings show, for the first time, abnormal regulation of NRSF/REST as a mechanism associated with the aberrant expression of selected neuron-related proteins, which in turn accumulate in abnormal protein aggregates, in myotilinopathy. PMID:17823282

  6. Survivin gene silencing sensitizes prostate cancer cells to selenium growth inhibition

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Prostate cancer is a leading cause of cancer-related death in men worldwide. Survivin is a member of the inhibitor of apoptosis (IAP) protein family that is expressed in the majority of human tumors including prostate cancer, but is barely detectable in terminally differentiated normal cells. Downregulation of survivin could sensitize prostate cancer cells to chemotherapeutic agents in vitro and in vivo. Selenium is an essential trace element. Several studies have shown that selenium compounds inhibit the growth of prostate cancer cells. The objective of this study is to investigate whether survivin gene silencing in conjunction with selenium treatment could enhance the therapeutic efficacy for prostate cancer and to elucidate the underlying mechanisms. Methods Expression of survivin was analyzed in a collection of normal and malignant prostatic tissues by immunohistochemical staining. In vitro studies were conducted in PC-3M, C4-2B, and 22Rv1 prostate cancer cells. The effect of selenium on survivin expression was analyzed by Western blotting and semi-quantitative RT-PCR. Survivin gene knockdown was carried out by transfecting cells with a short hairpin RNA (shRNA) designed against survivin. Cell proliferation was quantitated by the 3-(4,5-Dimethylthiazol-2-yl)- 2,5-Diphenyltetrazolium Bromide (MTT) assay and apoptosis by propidium iodide staining followed by flow cytometry analysis. Finally, in vivo tumor growth assay was performed by establishing PC-3M xenograft in nude mice and monitoring tumor growth following transfection and treatment. Results We found that survivin was undetectable in normal prostatic tissues but was highly expressed in prostate cancers. Survivin knockdown or selenium treatment inhibited the growth of prostate cancer cells, but the selenium effect was modest. In contrast to what have been observed in other cell lines, selenium treatment had little or no effect on survivin expression in several androgen-independent prostate cancer cell lines. Survivin knockdown sensitized these cells to selenium growth inhibition and apoptosis induction. In nude mice bearing PC-3M xenografts, survivin knockdown synergizes with selenium in inhibiting tumor growth. Conclusions Selenium could inhibit the growth of hormone-refractory prostate cancer cells both in vitro and in vivo, but the effects were modest. The growth inhibition was not mediated by downregulating survivin expression. Survivin silencing greatly enhanced the growth inhibitory effects of selenium. PMID:20698994

  7. Locus-Specific Ribosomal RNA Gene Silencing in Nucleolar Dominance

    E-print Network

    Pikaard, Craig

    . The transgenes were accurately transcribed in all independent transgenic Arabidopsis thaliana lines tested. thaliana lines as ovule parents with A. lyrata to form F1 hybrids, a new system for the study of nucleolar in the control of nucleolar dominance. In Brassica or Arabidopsis allopolyploid hybrids, underdominant rRNA genes

  8. Autophagy modulates miRNA-mediated gene silencing and selectively degrades AIN-1/GW182 in C. elegans

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Peipei; Zhang, Hong

    2013-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) post-transcriptionally repress gene expression via the miRNA-induced silencing complex (miRISC), which includes miRNA, Argonaute and a GW182 family member. Here we show that in Caenorhabditis elegans, miRNA-mediated gene silencing is modulated by macroautophagy, a lysosome-mediated degradation process. Loss of autophagy activity suppresses developmental defects caused by partially impaired silencing of miRNA targets including the let-7 family and lsy-6. The C. elegans GW182 homolog AIN-1 is itself selectively degraded by autophagy and colocalizes with the p62 homolog SQST-1 in autophagy mutants. Thus, autophagy activity modulates miRNA-mediated gene silencing and degrades a core miRISC component. PMID:23619095

  9. Structure And Gene Silencing Activities of Monovalent And Pentavalent Cationic Lipid Vectors Complexed With Sirna

    SciTech Connect

    Bouxsein, N.F.; McAllister, C.S.; Ewert, K.K.; Samuel, C.E.; Safinya, C.R.; /UC, Santa Barbara

    2007-07-03

    Small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) of 19-25 bp mediate the cleavage of complementary mRNA, leading to post-transcriptional gene silencing. We examined cationic lipid (CL)-mediated delivery of siRNA into mammalian cells and made comparisons to CL-based DNA delivery. The effect of lipid composition and headgroup charge on the biophysical and biological properties of CL-siRNA vectors was determined. X-ray diffraction revealed that CL-siRNA complexes exhibited lamellar and inverted hexagonal phases, qualitatively similar to CL-DNA complexes, but also formed other nonlamellar structures. Surprisingly, optimally formulated inverted hexagonal 1,2-dioleoyl-3-trimethylammonium-propane (DOTAP)/1,2-dioleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphatidylethanolamine (DOPE) CL-siRNA complexes exhibited high toxicity and much lower target-specific gene silencing than lamellar CL-siRNA complexes even though optimally formulated, inverted hexagonal CL-DNA complexes show high transfection efficiency in cell culture. We further found that efficient silencing required cationic lipid/nucleic acid molar charge ratios (chg) nearly an order of magnitude larger than those yielding efficiently transfecting CL-DNA complexes. This second unexpected finding has implications for cell toxicity. Multivalent lipids (MVLs) require a smaller number of cationic lipids at a given chg of the complex. Consistent with this observation, the pentavalent lipid MVL5 exhibited lower toxicity and superior silencing efficiency over a large range in both the lipid composition and chg when compared to monovalent DOTAP. Most importantly, MVL5 achieved much higher total knockdown of the target gene in CL-siRNA complex regimes where toxicity was low. This property of CL-siRNA complexes contrasts to CL-DNA complexes, where the optimized transfection efficiencies of multivalent and monovalent lipids are comparable.

  10. Polycomb protein EED is required for silencing of pluripotency genes upon ESC differentiation.

    PubMed

    Obier, Nadine; Lin, Qiong; Cauchy, Pierre; Hornich, Vroni; Zenke, Martin; Becker, Matthias; Müller, Albrecht M

    2015-02-01

    Eed (embryonic ectoderm development) is a core component of the Polycomb Repressive Complex 2 (PRC2) which catalyzes the methylation of histone H3 lysine 27 (H3K27). Trimethylated H3K27 (H3K27me3) can act as a signal for PRC1 recruitment in the process of gene silencing and chromatin condensation. Previous studies with Eed KO ESCs revealed a failure to down-regulate a limited list of pluripotency factors in differentiating ESCs. Our aim was to analyze the consequences of Eed KO for ESC differentiation. To this end we first analyzed ESC differentiation in the absence of Eed and employed in silico data to assess pluripotency gene expression and H3K27me3 patterns. We linked these data to expression analyses of wildtype and Eed KO ESCs. We observed that in wildtype ESCs a subset of pluripotency genes including Oct4, Nanog, Sox2 and Oct4 target genes progressively gain H3K27me3 during differentiation. These genes remain expressed in differentiating Eed KO ESCs. This suggests that the deregulation of a limited set of pluripotency factors impedes ESC differentiation. Global analyses of H3K27me3 and Oct4 ChIP-seq data indicate that in ESCs the binding of Oct4 to promoter regions is not a general predictor for PRC2-mediated silencing during differentiation. However, motif analyses suggest a binding of Oct4 together with Sox2 and Nanog at promoters of genes that are PRC2-dependently silenced during differentiation. In summary, our data further characterize Eed function in ESCs by showing that Eed/PRC2 is essential for the onset of ESC differentiation. PMID:25134795

  11. Panspecies Small-Molecule Disruptors of Heterochromatin-Mediated Transcriptional Gene Silencing

    PubMed Central

    Castonguay, Emilie; White, Sharon A.; Kagansky, Alexander; St-Cyr, Daniel J.; Castillo, Araceli G.; Brugger, Christiane; White, Rachel; Bonilla, Carolina; Spitzer, Michaela; Earnshaw, William C.; Schalch, Thomas; Ekwall, Karl

    2014-01-01

    Heterochromatin underpins gene repression, genome integrity, and chromosome segregation. In the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe, conserved protein complexes effect heterochromatin formation via RNA interference-mediated recruitment of a histone H3 lysine 9 methyltransferase to cognate chromatin regions. To identify small molecules that inhibit heterochromatin formation, we performed an in vivo screen for loss of silencing of a dominant selectable kanMX reporter gene embedded within fission yeast centromeric heterochromatin. Two structurally unrelated compounds, HMS-I1 and HMS-I2, alleviated kanMX silencing and decreased repressive H3K9 methylation levels at the transgene. The decrease in methylation caused by HMS-I1 and HMS-I2 was observed at all loci regulated by histone methylation, including centromeric repeats, telomeric regions, and the mating-type locus, consistent with inhibition of the histone deacetylases (HDACs) Clr3 and/or Sir2. Chemical-genetic epistasis and expression profiles revealed that both compounds affect the activity of the Clr3-containing Snf2/HDAC repressor complex (SHREC). In vitro HDAC assays revealed that HMS-I1 and HMS-I2 inhibit Clr3 HDAC activity. HMS-I1 also alleviated transgene reporter silencing by heterochromatin in Arabidopsis and a mouse cell line, suggesting a conserved mechanism of action. HMS-I1 and HMS-I2 bear no resemblance to known inhibitors of chromatin-based activities and thus represent novel chemical probes for heterochromatin formation and function. PMID:25487573

  12. Splicing factor Spf30 assists exosome-mediated gene silencing in fission yeast.

    PubMed

    Bernard, Pascal; Drogat, Julie; Dheur, Sonia; Genier, Sylvie; Javerzat, Jean-Paul

    2010-03-01

    Heterochromatin assembly in fission yeast relies on the processing of cognate noncoding RNAs by both the RNA interference and the exosome degradation pathways. Recent evidence indicates that splicing factors facilitate the cotranscriptional processing of centromeric transcripts into small interfering RNAs (siRNAs). In contrast, how the exosome contributes to heterochromatin assembly and whether it also relies upon splicing factors were unknown. We provide here evidence that fission yeast Spf30 is a splicing factor involved in the exosome pathway of heterochromatin silencing. Spf30 and Dis3, the main exosome RNase, colocalize at centromeric heterochromatin and euchromatic genes. At the centromeres, Dis3 helps recruiting Spf30, whose deficiency phenocopies the dis3-54 mutant: heterochromatin is impaired, as evidenced by reduced silencing and the accumulation of polyadenylated centromeric transcripts, but the production of siRNAs appears to be unaffected. Consistent with a direct role, Spf30 binds centromeric transcripts and locates at the centromeres in an RNA-dependent manner. We propose that Spf30, bound to nascent centromeric transcripts, perhaps with other splicing factors, assists their processing by the exosome. Splicing factor intercession may thus be a common feature of gene silencing pathways. PMID:20028739

  13. Polycomb silencing of the Drosophila 4E-BP gene regulates imaginal disc cell growth

    PubMed Central

    Mason-Suares, Heather; Tie, Feng; Yan, Christopher; Harte, Peter J.

    2015-01-01

    Polycomb group (PcG) proteins are best known for their role in maintaining stable, mitotically heritable silencing of the homeotic (HOX) genes during development. In addition to loss of homeotic gene silencing, some PcG mutants also have small imaginal discs. These include mutations in E(z), Su(z)12, esc and escl, which encode Polycomb Repressive Complex 2 (PRC2) subunits. The cause of this phenotype is not known, but the human homologs of PRC2 subunits have been shown to play a role in cell proliferation, are over-expressed in many tumors, and appear to be required for tumor proliferation. Here we show that the small imaginal disc phenotype arises, at least in part, from a cell growth defect. In homozygous E(z) mutants, imaginal disc cells are smaller than cells in normally proliferating discs. We show that the Thor gene, which encodes eIF4E-Binding Protein (4E-BP), the evolutionarily conserved inhibitor of cap-dependent translation and potent inhibitor of cell growth, is involved in the development of this phenotype. The Thor promoter region contains DNA binding motifs for transcription factors found in well-characterized Polycomb Response Elements (PREs), including PHO/PHOL, GAGA Factor, and others, suggesting that Thor may be a direct target of Polycomb silencing. We present chromatin immunoprecipitation evidence that PcG proteins are bound to the Thor 5’ region in vivo. The Thor gene is normally repressed in imaginal discs, but Thor mRNA and 4E-BP protein levels are elevated in imaginal discs of PRC2 subunit mutant larvae. Deletion of the Thor gene in E(z) mutants partially restores imaginal disc size toward wild-type and results in an increase in the fraction of larvae that pupariate. These results thus suggest that PcG proteins can directly modulate cell growth in Drosophila, in part by regulating Thor expression. PMID:23523430

  14. RNAi-mediated Gene Silencing of Mutant Myotilin Improves Myopathy in LGMD1A Mice

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Jian; Wallace, Lindsay M; Garwick-Coppens, Sara E; Sloboda, Darcée D; Davis, Carol S; Hakim, Chady H; Hauser, Michael A; Brooks, Susan V; Mendell, Jerry R; Harper, Scott Q

    2014-01-01

    Recent progress suggests gene therapy may one day be an option for treating some forms of limb girdle muscular dystrophy (LGMD). Nevertheless, approaches targeting LGMD have so far focused on gene replacement strategies for recessive forms of the disease. In contrast, no attempts have been made to develop molecular therapies for any of the eight dominantly inherited forms of LGMD. Importantly, the emergence of RNA interference (RNAi) therapeutics in the last decade provided new tools to combat dominantly inherited LGMDs with molecular therapy. In this study, we describe the first RNAi-based, preclinical gene therapy approach for silencing a gene associated with dominant LGMD. To do this, we developed adeno-associated viral vectors (AAV6) carrying designed therapeutic microRNAs targeting mutant myotilin (MYOT), which is the underlying cause of LGMD type 1A (LGMD1A). Our best MYOT-targeted microRNA vector (called miMYOT) significantly reduced mutant myotilin mRNA and soluble protein expression in muscles of LGMD1A mice (the TgT57I model) both 3 and 9 months after delivery, demonstrating short- and long-term silencing effects. This MYOT gene silencing subsequently decreased deposition of MYOT-seeded intramuscular protein aggregates, which is the hallmark feature of LGMD1A. Histological improvements were accompanied by significant functional correction, as miMYOT-treated animals showed increased muscle weight and improved specific force in the gastrocnemius, which is one of the most severely affected muscles in TgT57I mice and patients with dominant myotilin mutations. These promising results in a preclinical model of LGMD1A support the further development of RNAi-based molecular therapy as a prospective treatment for LGMD1A. Furthermore, this study sets a foundation that may be refined and adapted to treat other dominant LGMD and related disorders. PMID:24781192

  15. Dendrimers as Carriers for siRNA Delivery and Gene Silencing: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Weizhe; He, Ziying

    2013-01-01

    RNA interference (RNAi) was first literaturally reported in 1998 and has become rapidly a promising tool for therapeutic applications in gene therapy. In a typical RNAi process, small interfering RNAs (siRNA) are used to specifically downregulate the expression of the targeted gene, known as the term “gene silencing.” One key point for successful gene silencing is to employ a safe and efficient siRNA delivery system. In this context, dendrimers are emerging as potential nonviral vectors to deliver siRNA for RNAi purpose. Dendrimers have attracted intense interest since their emanating research in the 1980s and are extensively studied as efficient DNA delivery vectors in gene transfer applications, due to their unique features based on the well-defined and multivalent structures. Knowing that DNA and RNA possess a similar structure in terms of nucleic acid framework and the electronegative nature, one can also use the excellent DNA delivery properties of dendrimers to develop effective siRNA delivery systems. In this review, the development of dendrimer-based siRNA delivery vectors is summarized, focusing on the vector features (siRNA delivery efficiency, cytotoxicity, etc.) of different types of dendrimers and the related investigations on structure-activity relationship to promote safe and efficient siRNA delivery system. PMID:24288498

  16. Sense Transgene-Induced Post-Transcriptional Gene Silencing in Tobacco Compromises the Splicing of Endogenous Counterpart Genes

    PubMed Central

    Shin, Mi-Rae; Natsuume, Masaya; Matsumoto, Takashi; Hanaoka, Mitsumasa; Imai, Misaki; Iijima, Ken; Oka, Shin-ichiro; Adachi, Eri; Kodama, Hiroaki

    2014-01-01

    Sense transgene-induced post-transcriptional gene silencing (S-PTGS) is thought to be a type of RNA silencing in which ARGONAUTE1 directs the small interfering RNA (siRNA)-mediated cleavage of a target mRNA in the cytoplasm. Here, we report that the altered splicing of endogenous counterpart genes is a main cause for the reduction of their mature mRNA levels. After the S-PTGS of a tobacco endoplasmic reticulum ?-3 fatty acid desaturase (NtFAD3) gene, 3?-truncated, polyadenylated endo-NtFAD3 transcripts and 5?-truncated, intron-containing endo-NtFAD3 transcripts were detected in the total RNA fraction. Although transcription proceeded until the last exon of the endogenous NtFAD3 gene, intron-containing NtFAD3 transcripts accumulated in the nucleus of the S-PTGS plants. Several intron-containing NtFAD3 transcripts harboring most of the exon sequences were generated when an endogenous silencing suppressor gene, rgs-CaM, was overexpressed in the S-PTGS plants. These intron-containing NtFAD3 splice variants were generated in the presence of NtFAD3 siRNAs that are homologous to the nucleotide sequences of these splice variants. The results of this study indicate that the inhibition of endo-NtFAD3 gene expression is primarily directed via the alteration of splicing and not by cytoplasmic slicer activity. Our results suggest that the transgene and intron-containing endogenous counterpart genes are differentially suppressed in S-PTGS plants. PMID:24586294

  17. Silencing potential of viral derived RNAi constructs in Tomato leaf curl virus-AC4 gene suppression in tomato.

    PubMed

    Praveen, Shelly; Ramesh, S V; Mishra, Anil K; Koundal, Vikas; Palukaitis, Peter

    2010-02-01

    We investigated viral gene suppression in an infected tomato, by transforming it with RNA inhibition (RNAi) constructs derived from same viral gene. To develop RNAi constructs, conserved sequences ranging from 21 to 200 nt of the viral target AC4 gene of various viruses causing the tomato leaf curl disease were chosen. The double-stranded (ds)RNA producing constructs carry the sense and antisense portions of these sequences and are separated by different introns behind a constitutive promoter. We compared the levels of suppression of the viral target gene by transforming four different RNAi constructs with varied arm length of dsRNA. Gene silencing levels of the viral target gene were found to be directly proportional to the arm length of the dsRNA. We observed that dsRNA derived from longer arm-length constructs generating a pool of siRNAs that were more effective in targeting gene silencing. After transformation, one of the RNAi construct having a 21 nt arm-length produced aberrant phenotypes. These phenotypic anomalies may be due to unintended ('off-target') host transcript silencing. The unintended host transcript silencing showed modest reversion in the presence of the viral target gene. The findings presented here suggest that the arm length of dsRNA capable of producing a pool of diced siRNAs is more efficient in gene silencing, the effect of off-targeting siRNA is minimized in a pool, and off-targeting silencing can be minimized in the presence of target gene. PMID:19548101

  18. Native microRNA loop sequences can improve short hairpin RNA processing for virus gene silencing in animal cells

    PubMed Central

    Hinton, Tracey M; Wise, Terry G; Cottee, Pauline A; Doran, Timothy J

    2008-01-01

    Introduction of small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) into cells results in transitory silencing of target genes with complementary sequence. Incorporating siRNAs into short-hairpin RNAs (shRNAs) or microRNA-adapted shRNAs (shRNAmir) is a popular tool for targeted gene silencing. shRNAmirs mimicking endogenous pre-microRNAs (unprocessed hairpin microRNAs) are more difficult to design and result in longer RNA molecules. The use of microRNA (miRNA) loop sequences in shRNAs as an alternative to an entire pre-microRNA structure on silencing efficiency has not been studied extensively. This report shows that loop sequences derived from native miRNAs improves the efficiency of silencing due to the processing of the shRNAs into mature siRNAs. PMID:19771239

  19. RNAi Dynamics in Juvenile Fasciola spp. Liver Flukes Reveals the Persistence of Gene Silencing In Vitro

    PubMed Central

    McVeigh, Paul; McCammick, Erin M.; McCusker, Paul; Morphew, Russell M.; Mousley, Angela; Abidi, Abbas; Saifullah, Khalid M.; Muthusamy, Raman; Gopalakrishnan, Ravikumar; Spithill, Terry W.; Dalton, John P.; Brophy, Peter M.; Marks, Nikki J.; Maule, Aaron G.

    2014-01-01

    Background Fasciola spp. liver fluke cause pernicious disease in humans and animals. Whilst current control is unsustainable due to anthelmintic resistance, gene silencing (RNA interference, RNAi) has the potential to contribute to functional validation of new therapeutic targets. The susceptibility of juvenile Fasciola hepatica to double stranded (ds)RNA-induced RNAi has been reported. To exploit this we probe RNAi dynamics, penetrance and persistence with the aim of building a robust platform for reverse genetics in liver fluke. We describe development of standardised RNAi protocols for a commercially-available liver fluke strain (the US Pacific North West Wild Strain), validated via robust transcriptional silencing of seven virulence genes, with in-depth experimental optimisation of three: cathepsin L (FheCatL) and B (FheCatB) cysteine proteases, and a ?-class glutathione transferase (Fhe?GST). Methodology/Principal Findings Robust transcriptional silencing of targets in both F. hepatica and Fasciola gigantica juveniles is achievable following exposure to long (200–320 nt) dsRNAs or 27 nt short interfering (si)RNAs. Although juveniles are highly RNAi-susceptible, they display slower transcript and protein knockdown dynamics than those reported previously. Knockdown was detectable following as little as 4h exposure to trigger (target-dependent) and in all cases silencing persisted for ?25 days following long dsRNA exposure. Combinatorial silencing of three targets by mixing multiple long dsRNAs was similarly efficient. Despite profound transcriptional suppression, we found a significant time-lag before the occurrence of protein suppression; Fhe?GST and FheCatL protein suppression were only detectable after 9 and 21 days, respectively. Conclusions/Significance In spite of marked variation in knockdown dynamics, we find that a transient exposure to long dsRNA or siRNA triggers robust RNAi penetrance and persistence in liver fluke NEJs supporting the development of multiple-throughput phenotypic screens for control target validation. RNAi persistence in fluke encourages in vivo studies on gene function using worms exposed to RNAi-triggers prior to infection. PMID:25254508

  20. Peptide nanofiber complexes with siRNA for deep brain gene silencing by stereotactic neurosurgery.

    PubMed

    Mazza, Mariarosa; Hadjidemetriou, Marilena; de Lázaro, Irene; Bussy, Cyrill; Kostarelos, Kostas

    2015-02-24

    Peptide nanofibers (PNFs) are one-dimensional assemblies of amphiphilic peptides in a cylindrical geometry. We postulated that peptide nanofibers (PNFs) can provide the tools for genetic intervention and be used for delivery of siRNA, as they can be engineered with positively charged amino acids that can electrostatically bind siRNA. The aim of this work was to investigate the use of PNFs as vectors for siRNA delivery providing effective gene knockdown. We designed a surfactant-like peptide (palmitoyl-GGGAAAKRK) able to self-assemble into PNFs and demonstrated that complexes of PNF:siRNA are uptaken intracellularly and increase the residence time of siRNA in the brain after intracranial administration. The biological activity of the complexes was investigated in vitro by analyzing the down-regulation of the expression of a targeted protein (BCL2), as well as induction of apoptosis, as well as in vivo by analyzing the relative gene expression upon stereotactic administration into a deep rat brain structure (the subthalamic nucleus). Gene expression levels of BCL2 mRNA showed that PNF:siBCL2 constructs were able to silence the target BCL2 in specific loci of the brain. Silencing of the BCL2 gene resulted in ablation of neuronal cell populations, indicating that genetic interventions by PNF:siRNA complexes may lead to novel treatment strategies of CNS pathologies. PMID:25574683

  1. Epigenetic silencing of neurofilament genes promotes an aggressive phenotype in breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Calmon, Marilia Freitas; Jeschke, Jana; Zhang, Wei; Dhir, Mashaal; Siebenkäs, Cornelia; Herrera, Alexander; Tsai, Hsing-Chen; O'Hagan, Heather M; Pappou, Emmanouil P; Hooker, Craig M; Fu, Tao; Schuebel, Kornel E; Gabrielson, Edward; Rahal, Paula; Herman, James G; Baylin, Stephen B; Ahuja, Nita

    2015-07-01

    Neurofilament heavy polypeptide (NEFH) has recently been identified as a candidate DNA hypermethylated gene within the functional breast cancer hypermethylome. NEFH exists in a complex with neurofilament medium polypeptide (NEFM) and neurofilament light polypeptide (NEFL) to form neurofilaments, which are structural components of the cytoskeleton in mature neurons. Recent studies reported the deregulation of these proteins in several malignancies, suggesting that neurofilaments may have a role in other cell types as well. Using a comprehensive approach, we studied the epigenetic inactivation of neurofilament genes in breast cancer and the functional significance of this event. We report that DNA methylation-associated silencing of NEFH, NEFL, and NEFM in breast cancer is frequent, cancer-specific, and correlates with clinical features of disease progression. DNA methylation-mediated inactivation of these genes occurs also in multiple other cancer histologies including pancreas, gastric, and colon. Restoration of NEFH function, the major subunit of the neurofilament complex, reduces proliferation and growth of breast cancer cells and arrests them in Go/G1 phase of the cell cycle along with a reduction in migration and invasion. These findings suggest that DNA methylation-mediated silencing of the neurofilament genes NEFH, NEFM, and NEFL are frequent events that may contribute to the progression of breast cancer and possibly other malignancies. PMID:25985363

  2. Gene silencing without DNA. rna-mediated cross-protection between viruses

    PubMed Central

    Ratcliff, FG; MacFarlane, SA; Baulcombe, DC

    1999-01-01

    Previously, it was shown that the upper leaves of plants infected with nepoviruses and caulimoviruses are symptom free and contain reduced levels of virus. These leaves are said to be recovered. Recovery is associated with RNA-mediated cross-protection against secondary virus infection. Here, by analyzing plants infected with viruses that are quite distinct from the nepovirus or caulimovirus groups, we demonstrate that this RNA-mediated defense is a general response to virus infection. Upon infection with a tobravirus, plants exhibited RNA-mediated cross-protection and recovery, as occurs in nepovirus-infected plants. However, upon infection with a potexvirus, plants exhibited RNA-mediated cross-protection without recovery. In both instances, a transient gene expression assay showed that RNA-mediated cross-protection was functionally equivalent to post-transcriptional gene silencing. Combined, these data provide direct evidence that post-transcriptional gene silencing of nuclear genes is a manifestation of a natural defense mechanism that is induced by a wide range of viruses. PMID:10402423

  3. Independent Chromatin Binding of ARGONAUTE4 and SPT5L\\/KTF1 Mediates Transcriptional Gene Silencing

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Jordan Rowley; Maria I. Avrutsky; Christopher J. Sifuentes; Ligia Pereira; Andrzej T. Wierzbicki

    2011-01-01

    Eukaryotic genomes contain significant amounts of transposons and repetitive DNA elements, which, if transcribed, can be detrimental to the organism. Expression of these elements is suppressed by establishment of repressive chromatin modifications. In Arabidopsis thaliana, they are silenced by the siRNA–mediated transcriptional gene silencing pathway where long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) produced by RNA Polymerase V (Pol V) guide ARGONAUTE4 (AGO4)

  4. Analysis by virus induced gene silencing of the expression of two proline biosynthetic pathway genes in Nicotiana benthamiana under stress conditions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hsin-Mei Ku; Chi-Chieh Hu; Hui-Ju Chang; Yu-Tsung Lin; Fuh-Jyh Jan; Chien-Teh Chen

    2011-01-01

    Proline accumulation is responsible for stress adaptation in many plants. To distinguish the involvement of two proline synthetic pathways, the virus induced gene silencing (VIGS) system that silenced the expression of genes encoding ?1-pyrroline-5-carboxylate synthetase (P5CS; EC:1.5.1.12) and ornithine-?-aminotransferase (OAT; EC 2.6.1.13) was performed, separately or concomitantly, in four-week-old Nicotiana benthamiana. Leaf discs of VIGS-treated tobacco were subjected to the

  5. Chromatin-Mediated Reversible Silencing of Sense-Antisense Gene Pairs in Embryonic Stem Cells Is Consolidated upon Differentiation.

    PubMed

    Loos, Friedemann; Loda, Agnese; van Wijk, Louise; Grootegoed, J Anton; Gribnau, Joost

    2015-07-15

    Genome-wide gene expression studies have indicated that the eukaryotic genome contains many gene pairs showing overlapping sense and antisense transcription. Regulation of these coding and/or noncoding gene pairs involves intricate regulatory mechanisms. In the present study, we utilized an enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP)-tagged reporter plasmid cis linked to a doxycycline-inducible antisense promoter, generating antisense transcription that fully overlaps EGFP, to study the mechanism and dynamics of gene silencing after induction of noncoding antisense transcription in undifferentiated and differentiating mouse embryonic stem cells (ESCs). We found that EGFP silencing is reversible in ESCs but is locked into a stable state upon ESC differentiation. Reversible silencing in ESCs is chromatin dependent and is associated with accumulation of trimethylated lysine 36 on histone H3 (H3K36me3) at the EGFP promoter region. In differentiating ESCs, antisense transcription-induced accumulation of H3K36me3 was associated with an increase in CpG methylation at the EGFP promoter. Repression of the sense promoter was affected by small-molecule inhibitors which interfere with DNA methylation and histone demethylation pathways. Our results indicate a general mechanism for silencing of fully overlapping sense-antisense gene pairs involving antisense transcription-induced accumulation of H3K36me3 at the sense promoter, resulting in reversible silencing of the sense partner, which is stabilized during ESC differentiation by CpG methylation. PMID:25963662

  6. White as a Reporter Gene to Detect Transcriptional Silencers Specifying Position-Specific Gene Expression during Drosophila Melanogaster Eye Development

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Y. H.; Tsai, C. J.; Green, M. M.; Chao, J. L.; Yu, C. T.; Jaw, T. J.; Yeh, J. Y.; Bolshakov, V. N.

    1995-01-01

    The white(+) gene was used as a reporter to detect transcriptional silencer activity in the Drosophila genome. Changes in the spatial expression pattern of white were scored in the adult eye as nonuniform patterns of pigmentation. Thirty-six independent P[lacW] transposant lines were collected. These represent 12 distinct pigmentation patterns and probably 21 loci. The spatial pigmentation pattern is due to cis-acting suppression of white(+) expression, and the suppression probably depends on cell position rather than cell type. The mechanism of suppression differs from inactivation by heterochromatin. In addition, activation of lacZ in P[lacW] occurs also in specific patterns in imaginal discs and embryos in many of the lines. The expression patterns of white(+) and lacZ may reflect the activity of regulatory elements belonging to an endogenous gene near each P[lacW] insertion site. We speculate that these putative POSE (position-specific expression) genes may have a role in pattern formation of the eye as well as other imaginal structures. Three of the loci identified are optomotor-blind, engrailed and invected. teashirt is also implicated as a candidate gene. We propose that this ``silencer trap'' may be an efficient way of identifying genes involved in imaginal pattern formation. PMID:8582614

  7. High-stearic and High-oleic cottonseed oils produced by hairpin RNA-mediated post-transcriptional gene silencing.

    PubMed

    Liu, Qing; Singh, Surinder P; Green, Allan G

    2002-08-01

    We have genetically modified the fatty acid composition of cottonseed oil using the recently developed technique of hairpin RNA-mediated gene silencing to down-regulate the seed expression of two key fatty acid desaturase genes, ghSAD-1-encoding stearoyl-acyl-carrier protein Delta 9-desaturase and ghFAD2-1-encoding oleoyl-phosphatidylcholine omega 6-desaturase. Hairpin RNA-encoding gene constructs (HP) targeted against either ghSAD-1 or ghFAD2-1 were transformed into cotton (Gossypium hirsutum cv Coker 315). The resulting down-regulation of the ghSAD-1 gene substantially increased stearic acid from the normal levels of 2% to 3% up to as high as 40%, and silencing of the ghFAD2-1 gene resulted in greatly elevated oleic acid content, up to 77% compared with about 15% in seeds of untransformed plants. In addition, palmitic acid was significantly lowered in both high-stearic and high-oleic lines. Similar fatty acid composition phenotypes were also achieved by transformation with conventional antisense constructs targeted against the same genes, but at much lower frequencies than were achieved with the HP constructs. By intercrossing the high-stearic and high-oleic genotypes, it was possible to simultaneously down-regulate both ghSAD-1 and ghFAD2-1 to the same degree as observed in the individually silenced parental lines, demonstrating for the first time, to our knowledge, that duplex RNA-induced posttranslational gene silencing in independent genes can be stacked without any diminution in the degree of silencing. The silencing of ghSAD-1 and/or ghFAD2-1 to various degrees enables the development of cottonseed oils having novel combinations of palmitic, stearic, oleic, and linoleic contents that can be used in margarines and deep frying without hydrogenation and also potentially in high-value confectionery applications. PMID:12177486

  8. A lentivirus-based system to functionally silence genes in primary mammalian cells, stem cells and transgenic mice by RNA interference

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Douglas A. Rubinson; Christopher P. Dillon; Adam V. Kwiatkowski; Claudia Sievers; Lili Yang; Johnny Kopinja; Dina L Rooney; Mingdi Zhang; Melanie M Ihrig; Michael T McManus; Frank B Gertler; Martin L Scott; Luk Van Parijs

    2003-01-01

    RNA interference (RNAi) has recently emerged as a specific and efficient method to silence gene expression in mammalian cells either by transfection of short interfering RNAs (siRNAs; ref. 1) or, more recently, by transcription of short hairpin RNAs (shRNAs) from expression vectors and retroviruses2-10. But the resistance of important cell types to transduction by these approaches, both in vitro and

  9. A Pre- and Co-Knockdown of RNAseT Enzyme, Eri-1, Enhances the Efficiency of RNAi Induced Gene Silencing in Caenorhabditis elegans

    PubMed Central

    Jadiya, Pooja; Nazir, Aamir

    2014-01-01

    Background The approach of RNAi mediated gene knockdown, employing exogenous dsRNA, is being beneficially exploited in various fields of functional genomics. The immense utility of the approach came to fore from studies with model system C. elegans, but quickly became applicable with varied research models ranging from in vitro to various in vivo systems. Previously, there have been reports on the refractoriness of the neuronal cells to RNAi mediated gene silencing following which several modulators like eri-1 and lin-15 were described in C. elegans which, when present, would negatively impact the gene knockdown. Methodology/Principal Findings Taking a clue from these findings, we went on to screen hypothesis-driven- methodologies towards exploring the efficiency in the process of RNAi under various experimental conditions, wherein these genes would be knocked down preceding to, or concurrently with, the knocking down of a gene of interest. For determining the efficiency of gene knockdown, we chose to study visually stark phenotypes of uncoordinated movement, dumpy body morphology and blistered cuticle obtained by knocking down of genes unc-73, dpy-9 and bli-3 respectively, employing the RNAi-by-feeding protocol in model system C. elegans. Conclusions/Significance Our studies led to a very interesting outcome as the results reveal that amongst various methods tested, pre-incubation with eri-1 dsRNA synthesizing bacteria followed by co-incubation with eri-1 and gene-of-interest dsRNA synthesizing bacteria leads to the most efficient gene silencing as observed by the analysis of marker phenotypes. This provides an approach for effectively employing RNAi induced gene silencing while working with different genetic backgrounds including transgenic and mutant strains. PMID:24475317

  10. Enhanced Wound Healing, Kinase and Stem Cell Marker Expression in Diabetic Organ-Cultured Human Corneas Upon MMP-10 and Cathepsin F Gene Silencing

    PubMed Central

    Saghizadeh, Mehrnoosh; Epifantseva, Irina; Hemmati, David M.; Ghiam, Chantelle A.; Brunken, William J.; Ljubimov, Alexander V.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose. Diabetic corneas overexpress proteinases including matrix metalloproteinase-10 (M10) and cathepsin F (CF). Our purpose was to assess if silencing M10 and CF in organ-cultured diabetic corneas using recombinant adenovirus (rAV)-driven small hairpin RNA (rAV-sh) would normalize slow wound healing, and diabetic and stem cell marker expression. Methods. Sixteen pairs of organ-cultured autopsy human diabetic corneas (four per group) were treated with rAV-sh. Proteinase genes were silenced either separately, together, or both, in combination (Combo) with rAV-driven c-met gene overexpression. Fellow control corneas received rAV-EGFP. Quantitative RT-PCR confirmed small hairpin RNA (shRNA) silencing effect. Ten days after transfection, 5-mm epithelial wounds were made with n-heptanol and healing time recorded. Diabetic, signaling, and putative stem cell markers were studied by immunofluorescence of corneal cryostat sections. Results. Proteinase silencing reduced epithelial wound healing time versus rAV–enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) control (23% for rAV-shM10, 31% for rAV-shCF, and 36% for rAV-shM10 + rAV-shCF). Combo treatment was even more efficient (55% reduction). Staining patterns of diabetic markers (?3?1 integrin and nidogen-1), and of activated epidermal growth factor receptor and its signaling target activated Akt were normalized upon rAV-sh treatment. Combo treatment also restored normal staining for activated p38. All treatments, especially the combined ones, increased diabetes-altered staining for putative limbal stem cell markers, ?Np63?, ABCG2, keratins 15 and 17, and laminin ?3 chain. Conclusions. Small hairpin RNA silencing of proteinases overexpressed in diabetic corneas enhanced corneal epithelial and stem cell marker staining and accelerated wound healing. Combined therapy with c-met overexpression was even more efficient. Specific corneal gene therapy has a potential for treating diabetic keratopathy. PMID:24255036

  11. Virus induced gene silencing (VIGS) for functional analysis of wheat genes involved in Zymoseptoria tritici susceptibility and resistance.

    PubMed

    Lee, Wing-Sham; Rudd, Jason J; Kanyuka, Kostya

    2015-06-01

    Virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS) has emerged as a powerful reverse genetic technology in plants supplementary to stable transgenic RNAi and, in certain species, as a viable alternative approach for gene functional analysis. The RNA virus Barley stripe mosaic virus (BSMV) was developed as a VIGS vector in the early 2000s and since then it has been used to study the function of wheat genes. Several variants of BSMV vectors are available, with some requiring in vitro transcription of infectious viral RNA, while others rely on in planta production of viral RNA from DNA-based vectors delivered to plant cells either by particle bombardment or Agrobacterium tumefaciens. We adapted the latest generation of binary BSMV VIGS vectors for the identification and study of wheat genes of interest involved in interactions with Zymoseptoria tritici and here present detailed and the most up-to-date protocols. PMID:26092793

  12. Suppression of RNA Silencing by a Geminivirus Nuclear Protein, AC2, Correlates with Transactivation of Host Genes

    PubMed Central

    Trinks, Daniela; Rajeswaran, R.; Shivaprasad, P. V.; Akbergenov, Rashid; Oakeley, Edward J.; Veluthambi, K.; Hohn, Thomas; Pooggin, Mikhail M.

    2005-01-01

    Bipartite geminiviruses encode a small protein, AC2, that functions as a transactivator of viral transcription and a suppressor of RNA silencing. A relationship between these two functions had not been investigated before. We characterized both of these functions for AC2 from Mungbean yellow mosaic virus-Vigna (MYMV). When transiently expressed in plant protoplasts, MYMV AC2 strongly transactivated the viral promoter; AC2 was detected in the nucleus, and a split nuclear localization signal (NLS) was mapped. In a model Nicotiana benthamiana plant, in which silencing can be triggered biolistically, AC2 reduced local silencing and prevented its systemic spread. Mutations in the AC2 NLS or Zn finger or deletion of its activator domain abolished both these effects, suggesting that suppression of silencing by AC2 requires transactivation of host suppressor(s). In line with this, in Arabidopsis protoplasts, MYMV AC2 or its homologue from African cassava mosaic geminivirus coactivated >30 components of the plant transcriptome, as detected with Affymetrix ATH1 GeneChips. Several corresponding promoters cloned from Arabidopsis were strongly induced by both AC2 proteins. These results suggest that silencing suppression and transcription activation by AC2 are functionally connected and that some of the AC2-inducible host genes discovered here may code for components of an endogenous network that controls silencing. PMID:15681452

  13. A single Argonaute gene is required for induction of RNA silencing antiviral defense and promotes viral RNA recombination

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Qihong; Choi, Gil H.; Nuss, Donald L.

    2009-01-01

    Dicer gene dcl2, required for the RNA silencing antiviral defense response in the chestnut blight fungus Cryphonectria parasitica, is inducible upon mycovirus infection and promotes viral RNA recombination. We now report that the antiviral defense response requires only one of the four C. parasitica Argonaute-like protein genes, agl2. The agl2 gene is required for the virus-induced increase in dcl2 transcript accumulation. Agl2 and dcl2 transcripts accumulated to much higher levels in response to hairpin RNA production or infection by a mutant CHV1-EP713 hypovirus lacking the suppressor of RNA silencing p29 than to wild-type CHV1-EP713. Similar results were obtained for an agl2-promoter/EGFP-reporter construct, indicating that p29-mediated repression of agl2 transcript accumulation is promoter-dependent. Significantly, the agl2 deletion mutant exhibited stable maintenance of non-viral sequences in recombinant hypovirus RNA virus vectors and the absence of hypovirus-defective interfering (DI) RNA production. These results establish a key role for an Argonaute gene in the induction of an RNA silencing antiviral defense response and the promotion of viral RNA recombination. They also provide evidence for a mechanism by which a virus-encoded RNA silencing suppressor represses the transcriptional induction of an RNA silencing component. PMID:19822766

  14. SUVR2 is involved in transcriptional gene silencing by associating with SNF2-related chromatin-remodeling proteins in Arabidopsis

    PubMed Central

    Han, Yong-Feng; Dou, Kun; Ma, Ze-Yang; Zhang, Su-Wei; Huang, Huan-Wei; Li, Lin; Cai, Tao; Chen, She; Zhu, Jian-Kang; He, Xin-Jian

    2014-01-01

    The SU(VAR)3-9-like histone methyltransferases usually catalyze repressive histone H3K9 methylation and are involved in transcriptional gene silencing in eukaryotic organisms. We identified a putative SU(VAR)3-9-like histone methyltransferase SUVR2 by a forward genetic screen and demonstrated that it is involved in transcriptional gene silencing at genomic loci targeted by RNA-directed DNA methylation (RdDM). We found that SUVR2 has no histone methyltransferase activity and the conserved catalytic sites of SUVR2 are dispensable for the function of SUVR2 in transcriptional silencing. SUVR2 forms a complex with its close homolog SUVR1 and associate with three previously uncharacterized SNF2-related chromatin-remodeling proteins CHR19, CHR27, and CHR28. SUVR2 was previously thought to be a component in the RdDM pathway. We demonstrated that SUVR2 contributes to transcriptional gene silencing not only at a subset of RdDM target loci but also at many RdDM-independent target loci. Our study suggests that the involvement of SUVR2 in transcriptional gene silencing is related to nucleosome positioning mediated by its associated chromatin-remodeling proteins. PMID:25420628

  15. Disruption of plant carotenoid biosynthesis through virus-induced gene silencing affects oviposition behaviour of the butterfly Pieris rapae.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Si-Jun; Snoeren, Tjeerd A L; Hogewoning, Sander W; van Loon, Joop J A; Dicke, Marcel

    2010-05-01

    Optical plant characteristics are important cues to plant-feeding insects. In this article, we demonstrate for the first time that silencing the phytoene desaturase (PDS) gene, encoding a key enzyme in plant carotenoid biosynthesis, affects insect oviposition site selection behaviour. Virus-induced gene silencing employing tobacco rattle virus was used to knock down endogenous PDS expression in three plant species (Arabidopsis thaliana, Brassica nigra and Nicotiana benthamiana) by its heterologous gene sequence from Brassica oleracea. We investigated the consequences of the silencing of PDS on oviposition behaviour by Pieris rapae butterflies on Arabidopsis and Brassica plants; first landing of the butterflies on Arabidopsis plants (to eliminate an effect of contact cues); first landing on Arabidopsis plants enclosed in containers (to eliminate an effect of volatiles); and caterpillar growth on Arabidopsis plants. Our results show unambiguously that P. rapae has an innate ability to visually discriminate between green and variegated green-whitish plants. Caterpillar growth was significantly lower on PDS-silenced than on empty vector control plants. This study presents the first analysis of PDS function in the interaction with an herbivorous insect. We conclude that virus-induced gene silencing is a powerful tool for investigating insect-plant interactions in model and nonmodel plants. PMID:20298487

  16. A direct mixed-body boundary element method for packed silencers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, T. W.; Cheng, C. Y. R.; Zhang, P.

    2002-06-01

    Bulk-reacting sound absorbing materials are often used in packed silencers to reduce broadband noise. A bulk-reacting material is characterized by a complex mean density and a complex speed of sound. These two material properties can be measured by the two-cavity method or calculated by empirical formulas. Modeling the entire silencer domain with a bulk-reacting lining will involve two different acoustic media, air and the bulk-reacting material. Traditionally, the interior silencer domain is divided into different zones and a multi-domain boundary element method (BEM) may be applied to solve the problem. However, defining different zones and matching the elements along each interface is tedious, especially when the zones are intricately connected. In this paper, a direct mixed-body boundary element method is used to model a packed silencer without subdividing it into different zones. This is achieved by summing up all the integral equations in different zones and then adding the hypersingular integral equations at interfaces. Several test cases, including a packed expansion chamber with and without an absorbing center bullet, and a parallel baffle silencer, are studied. Numerical results for the prediction of transmission loss (TL) are compared to experimental data. copyright 2002 Acoustical Society of America.

  17. Silencing of Taxol-Sensitizer Genes in Cancer Cells: Lack of Sensitization Effects

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Shang-Lang; Chao, Chuck C.-K.

    2015-01-01

    A previous genome-wide screening analysis identified a panel of genes that sensitize the human non-small-cell lung carcinoma cell line NCI-H1155 to taxol. However, whether the identified genes sensitize other cancer cells to taxol has not been examined. Here, we silenced the taxol-sensitizer genes identified (acrbp, atp6v0d2, fgd4, hs6st2, psma6, and tubgcp2) in nine other cancer cell types (including lung, cervical, ovarian, and hepatocellular carcinoma cell lines) that showed reduced cell viability in the presence of a sub-lethal concentration of taxol. Surprisingly, none of the genes studied increased sensitivity to taxol in the tested panel of cell lines. As observed in H1155 cells, SKOV3 cells displayed induction of five of the six genes studied in response to a cell killing dose of taxol. The other cell types were much less responsive to taxol. Notably, four of the five inducible taxol-sensitizer genes tested (acrbp, atp6v0d2, psma6, and tubgcp2) were upregulated in a taxol-resistant ovarian cancer cell line. These results indicate that the previously identified taxol-sensitizer loci are not conserved genetic targets involved in inhibiting cell proliferation in response to taxol. Our findings also suggest that regulation of taxol-sensitizer genes by taxol may be critical for acquired cell resistance to the drug. PMID:26086592

  18. RNAi-Mediated Gene Silencing in a Gonad Organ Culture to Study Sex Determination Mechanisms in Sea Turtle

    PubMed Central

    Sifuentes-Romero, Itzel; Merchant-Larios, Horacio; Milton, Sarah L.; Moreno-Mendoza, Norma; Díaz-Hernández, Verónica; García-Gasca, Alejandra

    2013-01-01

    The autosomal Sry-related gene, Sox9, encodes a transcription factor, which performs an important role in testis differentiation in mammals. In several reptiles, Sox9 is differentially expressed in gonads, showing a significant upregulation during the thermo-sensitive period (TSP) at the male-promoting temperature, consistent with the idea that SOX9 plays a central role in the male pathway. However, in spite of numerous studies, it remains unclear how SOX9 functions during this event. In the present work, we developed an RNAi-based method for silencing Sox9 in an in vitro gonad culture system for the sea turtle, Lepidochelys olivacea. Gonads were dissected as soon as the embryos entered the TSP and were maintained in organ culture. Transfection of siRNA resulted in the decrease of both Sox9 mRNA and protein. Furthermore, we found coordinated expression patterns for Sox9 and the anti-Müllerian hormone gene, Amh, suggesting that SOX9 could directly or indirectly regulate Amh expression, as it occurs in mammals. These results demonstrate an in vitro method to knockdown endogenous genes in gonads from a sea turtle, which represents a novel approach to investigate the roles of important genes involved in sex determination or differentiation pathways in species with temperature-dependent sex determination. PMID:24705165

  19. Poly(aminoether)-gold nanorod assemblies for shRNA plasmid-induced gene silencing.

    PubMed

    Ramos, James; Rege, Kaushal

    2013-11-01

    Gold nanorods (GNRs) have emerged as promising nanomaterials for biosensing, imaging, photothermal hyperthermia treatments, and therapeutic delivery for several diseases. We generated poly(aminoether)-GNR nanoassemblies using a layer-by-layer deposition approach based on the 1,4C-1,4Bis polymer from a library recently synthesized in our laboratory. Subtoxic concentrations of 1,4C-1,4Bis-GNR nanoassemblies were employed to deliver expression vectors that express shRNA ("shRNA plasmid") against firefly luciferase gene to knock down expression of the protein constitutively expressed in prostate cancer cells. The role of hydrodynamic size and zeta potential in determining nanoassembly mediated luciferase silencing was investigated. Finally, the theranostic potential of 1,4C-1,4Bis-GNR nanoassemblies was demonstrated using live cell two-photon induced luminescence bioimaging. Our results indicate that poly(aminoether)-GNR nanoassemblies are a promising theranostic platform for delivery of therapeutic payloads capable of simultaneous gene silencing and bioimaging. PMID:24066795

  20. In vivo evaluation of candidate allele-specific mutant huntingtin gene silencing antisense oligonucleotides.

    PubMed

    Southwell, Amber L; Skotte, Niels H; Kordasiewicz, Holly B; Østergaard, Michael E; Watt, Andrew T; Carroll, Jeffrey B; Doty, Crystal N; Villanueva, Erika B; Petoukhov, Eugenia; Vaid, Kuljeet; Xie, Yuanyun; Freier, Susan M; Swayze, Eric E; Seth, Punit P; Bennett, Clarence Frank; Hayden, Michael R

    2014-12-01

    Huntington disease (HD) is a dominant, genetic neurodegenerative disease characterized by progressive loss of voluntary motor control, psychiatric disturbance, and cognitive decline, for which there is currently no disease-modifying therapy. HD is caused by the expansion of a CAG tract in the huntingtin (HTT) gene. The mutant HTT protein (muHTT) acquires toxic functions, and there is significant evidence that muHTT lowering would be therapeutically efficacious. However, the wild-type HTT protein (wtHTT) serves vital functions, making allele-specific muHTT lowering strategies potentially safer than nonselective strategies. CAG tract expansion is associated with single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) that can be targeted by gene silencing reagents such as antisense oligonucleotides (ASOs) to accomplish allele-specific muHTT lowering. Here we evaluate ASOs targeted to HD-associated SNPs in acute in vivo studies including screening, distribution, duration of action and dosing, using a humanized mouse model of HD, Hu97/18, that is heterozygous for the targeted SNPs. We have identified four well-tolerated lead ASOs that potently and selectively silence muHTT at a broad range of doses throughout the central nervous system for 16 weeks or more after a single intracerebroventricular (ICV) injection. With further validation, these ASOs could provide a therapeutic option for individuals afflicted with HD. PMID:25101598

  1. An RNA-Seq Transcriptome Analysis of Histone Modifiers and RNA Silencing Genes in Soybean during Floral Initiation Process

    PubMed Central

    Liew, Lim Chee; Singh, Mohan B.; Bhalla, Prem L.

    2013-01-01

    Epigenetics has been recognised to play vital roles in many plant developmental processes, including floral initiation through the epigenetic regulation of gene expression. The histone modifying proteins that mediate these modifications involve the SET domain-containing histone methyltransferases, JmjC domain-containing demethylase, acetylases and deacetylases. In addition, RNA interference (RNAi)-associated genes are also involved in epigenetic regulation via RNA-directed DNA methylation and post-transcriptional gene silencing. Soybean, a major crop legume, requires a short day to induce flowering. How histone modifications regulate the plant response to external cues that initiate flowering is still largely unknown. Here, we used RNA-seq to address the dynamics of transcripts that are potentially involved in the epigenetic programming and RNAi mediated gene silencing during the floral initiation of soybean. Soybean is a paleopolyploid that has been subjected to at least two rounds of whole genome duplication events. We report that the expanded genomic repertoire of histone modifiers and RNA silencing genes in soybean includes 14 histone acetyltransferases, 24 histone deacetylases, 47 histone methyltransferases, 15 protein arginine methyltransferases, 24 JmjC domain-containing demethylases and 47 RNAi-associated genes. To investigate the role of these histone modifiers and RNA silencing genes during floral initiation, we compared the transcriptional dynamics of the leaf and shoot apical meristem at different time points after a short-day treatment. Our data reveal that the extensive activation of genes that are usually involved in the epigenetic programming and RNAi gene silencing in the soybean shoot apical meristem are reprogrammed for floral development following an exposure to inductive conditions. PMID:24147010

  2. HC-Pro silencing suppressor significantly alters the gene expression profile in tobacco leaves and flowers

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background RNA silencing is used in plants as a major defence mechanism against invasive nucleic acids, such as viruses. Accordingly, plant viruses have evolved to produce counter defensive RNA-silencing suppressors (RSSs). These factors interfere in various ways with the RNA silencing machinery in cells, and thereby disturb the microRNA (miRNA) mediated endogene regulation and induce developmental and morphological changes in plants. In this study we have explored these effects using previously characterized transgenic tobacco plants which constitutively express (under CaMV 35S promoter) the helper component-proteinase (HC-Pro) derived from a potyviral genome. The transcript levels of leaves and flowers of these plants were analysed using microarray techniques (Tobacco 4 × 44 k, Agilent). Results Over expression of HC-Pro RSS induced clear phenotypic changes both in growth rate and in leaf and flower morphology of the tobacco plants. The expression of 748 and 332 genes was significantly changed in the leaves and flowers, respectively, in the HC-Pro expressing transgenic plants. Interestingly, these transcriptome alterations in the HC-Pro expressing tobacco plants were similar as those previously detected in plants infected with ssRNA-viruses. Particularly, many defense-related and hormone-responsive genes (e.g. ethylene responsive transcription factor 1, ERF1) were differentially regulated in these plants. Also the expression of several stress-related genes, and genes related to cell wall modifications, protein processing, transcriptional regulation and photosynthesis were strongly altered. Moreover, genes regulating circadian cycle and flowering time were significantly altered, which may have induced a late flowering phenotype in HC-Pro expressing plants. The results also suggest that photosynthetic oxygen evolution, sugar metabolism and energy levels were significantly changed in these transgenic plants. Transcript levels of S-adenosyl-L-methionine (SAM) were also decreased in these plants, apparently leading to decreased transmethylation capacity. The proteome analysis using 2D-PAGE indicated significantly altered proteome profile, which may have been both due to altered transcript levels, decreased translation, and increased proteosomal/protease activity. Conclusion Expression of the HC-Pro RSS mimics transcriptional changes previously shown to occur in plants infected with intact viruses (e.g. Tobacco etch virus, TEV). The results indicate that the HC-Pro RSS contributes a significant part of virus-plant interactions by changing the levels of multiple cellular RNAs and proteins. PMID:21507209

  3. Virus-induced gene silencing unravels multiple transcription factors involved in floral growth and development in Phalaenopsis orchids

    PubMed Central

    Hsieh, Ming-Hsien; Pan, Zhao-Jun; Lai, Pei-Han; Lu, Hsiang-Chia; Yeh, Hsin-Hung; Hsu, Chia-Chi; Wu, Wan-Lin; Chung, Mei-Chu; Wang, Shyh-Shyan; Chen, Wen-Huei; Chen, Hong-Hwa

    2013-01-01

    Orchidaceae, one of the largest angiosperm families, has significant commercial value. Isolation of genes involved in orchid floral development and morphogenesis, scent production, and colouration will advance knowledge of orchid flower formation and facilitate breeding new varieties to increase the commercial value. With high-throughput virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS), this study identified five transcription factors involved in various aspects of flower morphogenesis in the orchid Phalaenopsis equestris. These genes are PeMADS1, PeMADS7, PeHB, PebHLH, and PeZIP. Silencing PeMADS1 and PebHLH resulted in reduced flower size together with a pelaloid column containing petal-like epidermal cells and alterations of epidermal cell arrangement in lip lateral lobes, respectively. Silencing PeMADS7, PeHB, and PeZIP alone resulted in abortion of the first three fully developed flower buds of an inflorescence, which indicates the roles of the genes in late flower development. Furthermore, double silencing PeMADS1 and PeMADS6, C- and B-class MADS-box genes, respectively, produced a combinatorial phenotype with two genes cloned in separate vectors. Both PeMADS1 and PeMADS6 are required to ensure the normal development of the lip and column as well as the cuticle formation on the floral epidermal cell surface. Thus, VIGS allows for unravelling the interaction between two classes of MADS transcription factors for dictating orchid floral morphogenesis. PMID:23956416

  4. Virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS) in plants: an overview of target species and the virus-derived vector systems.

    PubMed

    Lange, Matthias; Yellina, Aravinda L; Orashakova, Svetlana; Becker, Annette

    2013-01-01

    The analysis of gene functions in non-model plant species is often hampered by the fact that stable genetic transformation to downregulate gene expression is laborious and time-consuming, or, for some species, even not achievable. Virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS) can serve as an alternative to mutant collections or stable transgenic plants to allow the characterization of gene functions in a wide range of angiosperm species, albeit in a transient way. VIGS vector systems have been developed from both RNA and DNA plant viral sources to specifically silence target genes in plants. VIGS is nowadays widely used in plant genetics for gene knockdown due to its ease of use and the short time required to generating phenotypes. Here, we summarize successfully targeted eudicot and monocot plant species along with their specific VIGS vector systems which are already available for researchers. PMID:23386291

  5. Heterochromatin-mediated gene silencing facilitates the diversification of olfactory neurons.

    PubMed

    Lyons, David B; Magklara, Angeliki; Goh, Tracie; Sampath, Srihari C; Schaefer, Anne; Schotta, Gunnar; Lomvardas, Stavros

    2014-11-01

    An astounding property of the nervous system is its cellular diversity. This diversity, which was initially realized by morphological and electrophysiological differences, is ultimately produced by variations in gene-expression programs. In most cases, these variations are determined by external cues. However, a growing number of neuronal types have been identified in which inductive signals cannot explain the few but decisive transcriptional differences that cause cell diversification. Here, we show that heterochromatic silencing, which we find is governed by histone methyltransferases G9a (KMT1C) and GLP (KMT1D), is essential for stochastic and singular olfactory receptor (OR) expression. Deletion of G9a and GLP dramatically reduces the complexity of the OR transcriptome, resulting in transcriptional domination by a few ORs and loss of singularity in OR expression. Thus, our data suggest that, in addition to its previously known functions, heterochromatin creates an epigenetic platform that affords stochastic, mutually exclusive gene choices and promotes cellular diversity. PMID:25437545

  6. Heterochromatin-mediated gene silencing facilitates the diversification of olfactory neurons

    PubMed Central

    Lyons, David B.; Magklara, Angeliki; Goh, Tracie; Sampath, Srihari; Schaefer, Anne; Schotta, Gunnar; Lomvardas, Stavros

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY An astounding property of the nervous system is its cellular diversity. This diversity, which was initially realized by morphological and electrophysiological differences, is ultimately produced by variations in gene expression programs. In most cases these variations are determined by external cues. However, a growing number of neuronal types have been identified in which inductive signals cannot explain the few but decisive transcriptional differences that cause cell diversification. Here, we show that heterochromatic silencing, which we find is governed by histone methyltransferases G9a (KMT1C) and GLP (KMT1D), is essential for stochastic and singular OR expression. Deletion of G9a and GLP dramatically reduces the complexity of the OR transcriptome, resulting in transcriptional domination by a few ORs and loss of singularity in OR expression. Thus, in addition to its previously known functions, our data suggest that heterochromatin creates an epigenetic platform that affords stochastic, mutually exclusive gene choices and promotes cellular diversity. PMID:25437545

  7. A homogenization method used to predict the performance of silencers containing parallel splitters.

    PubMed

    Nennig, Benoit; Binois, Remy; Perrey-Debain, Emmanuel; Dauchez, Nicolas

    2015-06-01

    An analytical model based on a homogenization process is used to predict and understand the behavior of finite length splitter/baffle-type silencers inserted axially into a rigid rectangular duct. Such silencers consist of a succession of parallel baffles made of porous material and airways inserted axially into a rigid duct. The pore network of the porous material in the baffle and the larger pores due to the airway can be considered as a double porosity (DP) medium with well-separated pore sizes. This scale separation leads by homogenization to the DP model, widely used in the porous material community. This alternative approach based on a homogenization process sheds physical insight into the attenuation mechanisms taking place in the silencer. Numerical comparisons with a reference method are used to show that the theory provides good results as long as the pressure wave in the silencer airways propagates as a plane wave parallel to the duct axis. The explicit expression of the axial wavenumber in the DP medium is used to derive an explicit expression for the optimal resistivity value of the porous material, ensuring the best dissipation for a given silencer geometry. PMID:26093412

  8. Integrated Analysis of Dysregulated miRNA-gene Expression in HMGA2-silenced Retinoblastoma Cells

    PubMed Central

    Venkatesan, Nalini; Deepa, PR; Vasudevan, Madavan; Khetan, Vikas; Reddy, Ashwin M; Krishnakumar, Subramanian

    2014-01-01

    Retinoblastoma (RB) is a primary childhood eye cancer. HMGA2 shows promise as a molecule for targeted therapy. The involvement of miRNAs in genome-level molecular dys-regulation in HMGA2-silenced RB cells is poorly understood. Through miRNA expression microarray profiling, and an integrated array analysis of the HMGA2-silenced RB cells, the dysregulated miRNAs and the miRNA-target relationships were modelled. Loop network analysis revealed a regulatory association between the transcription factor (SOX5) and the deregulated miRNAs (miR-29a, miR-9*, miR-9-3). Silencing of HMGA2 deregulated the vital oncomirs (miR-7, miR-331, miR-26a, miR-221, miR-17~92 and miR-106b?25) in RB cells. From this list, the role of the miR-106b?25 cluster was examined further for its expression in primary RB tumor tissues (n = 20). The regulatory targets of miR-106b?25 cluster namely p21 (cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor) and BIM (pro-apoptotic gene) were elevated, and apoptotic cell death was observed, in RB tumor cells treated with the specific antagomirs of the miR-106b?25 cluster. Thus, suppression of miR-106b?25 cluster controls RB tumor growth. Taken together, HMGA2 mediated anti-tumor effect present in RB is, in part, mediated through the miR-106b?25 cluster. PMID:25232279

  9. Xenopus furry contributes to release of microRNA gene silencing.

    PubMed

    Goto, Toshiyasu; Fukui, Akimasa; Shibuya, Hiroshi; Keller, Ray; Asashima, Makoto

    2010-11-01

    A transcriptional corepressor, Xenopus furry (Xfurry), is expressed in the chordamesodermal region and induces secondary dorsal axes when overexpressed on the ventral side of the embryo. The N-terminal furry domain functions as a repressor, and the C-terminal leucine zipper (LZ) motifs /coiled-coil structure, found only in vertebrate homologs, contributes to the nuclear localization. The engrailed repressor (enR)+LZ repressor construct, which has properties similar to Xfurry, induced several chordamesodermal genes. In contrast, an antisense morpholino oligonucleotide, Xfurry-MO, and the activating construct, herpes simplex virus protein (VP16)+LZ, had effects opposite those of Xfurry overexpression. Because blocking protein synthesis with cycloheximide superinduced several Xfurry transcriptional targets, and because expression of enR+LZ induced such genes under cycloheximide treatment, we analyzed the role of an Xfurry transcriptional target, microRNA miR-15. Cycloheximide reduced the expression of primary miR-15 (pri-miR-15), whereas miR-15 reduced the expression of genes superinduced by cycloheximide treatment. These results show that Xfurry regulates chordamesodermal genes by contributing to repression of pretranscriptional gene silencing by miR-15. PMID:20974966

  10. Xenopus furry contributes to release of microRNA gene silencing

    PubMed Central

    Goto, Toshiyasu; Fukui, Akimasa; Shibuya, Hiroshi; Keller, Ray; Asashima, Makoto

    2010-01-01

    A transcriptional corepressor, Xenopus furry (Xfurry), is expressed in the chordamesodermal region and induces secondary dorsal axes when overexpressed on the ventral side of the embryo. The N-terminal furry domain functions as a repressor, and the C-terminal leucine zipper (LZ) motifs /coiled-coil structure, found only in vertebrate homologs, contributes to the nuclear localization. The engrailed repressor (enR)+LZ repressor construct, which has properties similar to Xfurry, induced several chordamesodermal genes. In contrast, an antisense morpholino oligonucleotide, Xfurry-MO, and the activating construct, herpes simplex virus protein (VP16)+LZ, had effects opposite those of Xfurry overexpression. Because blocking protein synthesis with cycloheximide superinduced several Xfurry transcriptional targets, and because expression of enR+LZ induced such genes under cycloheximide treatment, we analyzed the role of an Xfurry transcriptional target, microRNA miR-15. Cycloheximide reduced the expression of primary miR-15 (pri-miR-15), whereas miR-15 reduced the expression of genes superinduced by cycloheximide treatment. These results show that Xfurry regulates chordamesodermal genes by contributing to repression of pretranscriptional gene silencing by miR-15. PMID:20974966

  11. Silencing of Cited2 and Akap12 genes in radiation-induced rat osteosarcomas

    SciTech Connect

    Daino, Kazuhiro, E-mail: k_daino@nirs.go.jp [LCE/iRCM/DSV/CEA, route du Panorama, BP 6, 92265 Fontenay-aux-Roses Cedex (France)] [LCE/iRCM/DSV/CEA, route du Panorama, BP 6, 92265 Fontenay-aux-Roses Cedex (France); Roch-Lefevre, Sandrine [LDB/SRBE/DRPH/IRSN, 31, avenue de la Division Leclerc, BP 17, 92262 Fontenay-aux-Roses Cedex (France)] [LDB/SRBE/DRPH/IRSN, 31, avenue de la Division Leclerc, BP 17, 92262 Fontenay-aux-Roses Cedex (France); Ugolin, Nicolas; Altmeyer-Morel, Sandrine; Guilly, Marie-Noelle; Chevillard, Sylvie [LCE/iRCM/DSV/CEA, route du Panorama, BP 6, 92265 Fontenay-aux-Roses Cedex (France)] [LCE/iRCM/DSV/CEA, route du Panorama, BP 6, 92265 Fontenay-aux-Roses Cedex (France)

    2009-12-18

    We have previously studied genomic copy number changes and global gene expression patterns in rat osteosarcomas (OS) induced by the bone-seeking alpha emitter {sup 238}Pu by comparative genomic hybridization (CGH) and oligonucleotide microarray analyses, respectively. Among the previously identified genes that were down-regulated in radiation-induced rat OS tumors, Cited2 (Cbp/p300-interacting transactivator, with Glu/Asp-rich carboxy-terminal domain, 2) and Akap12 (a kinase anchoring protein, also known as src-suppressed C-kinase substrate, SSeCKS) genes mapped to the most frequently lost regions on chromosome 1p. In the present study, relative copy number losses of Cited2 and Akap12 genes were observed in 8 of 15 (53%) and 10 of 15 (67%) tumors by quantitative PCR analysis. Loss of Cited2 and Akap12 in the tumors was confirmed at the levels of mRNA and protein expression by quantitative RT-PCR and immunoblot analyses, respectively. These results indicate that Cited2 and Akap12 are silenced in radiation-induced OS, and therefore are novel candidate tumor-suppressor genes of this tumor.

  12. Activation of Silenced Cytokine Gene Promoters by the Synergistic Effect of TBP-TALE and VP64-TALE Activators

    PubMed Central

    Anthony, Kim; More, Abhijit; Zhang, Xiaoliu

    2014-01-01

    Recent work has shown that the combinatorial use of multiple TALE activators can selectively activate certain cellular genes in inaccessible chromatin regions. In this study, we aimed to interrogate the activation potential of TALEs upon transcriptionally silenced immune genes in the context of non-immune cells. We designed a unique strategy, in which a single TALE fused to the TATA-box binding protein (TBP-TALE) is coupled with multiple VP64-TALE activators. We found that our strategy is significantly more potent than multiple TALE activators alone in activating expression of IL-2 and GM-CSF in diverse cell origins in which both genes are otherwise completely silenced. Chromatin analysis revealed that the gene activation was due in part to displacement of a distinctly positioned nucleosome. These studies provide a novel epigenetic mechanism for artificial gene induction and have important implications for targeted cancer immunotherapy, DNA vaccine development, as well as rational design of TALE activators. PMID:24755922

  13. Epigenetically silenced microRNAs in gastric cancer: Functional analysis and identification of their target genes.

    PubMed

    Bae, Jin-Han; Kang, Myoung Joo; Yang, Kwang-Mo; Kim, Tae-Oh; Yi, Joo Mi

    2015-08-01

    microRNAs (miRNAs), which are small non?coding RNA molecules, can participate in diverse biological functions and act as oncogenes or tumor suppressors by inhibiting target gene expression. The alteration of miRNA expression is observed in many types of human cancers and has been implicated in carcinogenesis. Since miRNAs have been known to be downregulated in most cancer types, there is growing evidence that several miRNAs are downregulated by DNA hypermethylation. Here, we determined that MIR219.2, MIR663b and MIR1237 were transcriptionally silenced by DNA hypermethylation in human gastric cancer cell lines. Moreover, we demonstrated the functional roles of these epigenetically silenced miRNAs by ectopically expressing them in gastric cancer cells, which caused the suppression of growth and proliferation. In addition, wound closure, cell migration, and invasion were significantly reduced in AGS cells following transfection with MIR219.2, MIR663b or MIR1237 mimics. Notably, epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT)-associated proteins were decreased in response to ectopic expression of these miRNAs, supporting the notion that these miRNAs have a tumor-suppressive effect in gastric cancer. We finally predicted the targets of these miRNAs and identified several candidate genes, the expression levels of which were significantly downregulated by ectopic expression of MIR219.2, MIR663b or MIR1237 mimics in the gastric cancer cell lines. Our study provides strong evidence that these miRNAs are transcriptionally regulated by DNA methylation in gastric cancer and have tumor-suppressive roles by decreasing the mesenchymal traits in cancer as well as by targeting cancer-associated genes. PMID:26043902

  14. Virus induced gene silencing of three putative prolyl 4-hydroxylases enhances plant growth in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum).

    PubMed

    Fragkostefanakis, Sotirios; Sedeek, Khalid E M; Raad, Maya; Zaki, Marwa Samir; Kalaitzis, Panagiotis

    2014-07-01

    Proline hydroxylation is a major posttranslational modification of hydroxyproline-rich glycoproteins (HRGPs) that is catalyzed by prolyl 4-hydroxylases (P4Hs). HRGPs such as arabinogalactan proteins (AGPs) and extensios play significant roles on cell wall structure and function and their implication in cell division and expansion has been reported. We used tobacco rattle virus (TRV)-based virus induced gene silencing to investigate the role of three tomato P4Hs, out of ten present in the tomato genome, in growth and development. Eight-days old tomato seedlings were infected with the appropriate TRV vectors and plants were allowed to grow under standard conditions for 6 weeks. Lower P4H mRNA levels were associated with lower hydroxyproline content in root and shoot tissues indicating successful gene silencing. P4H-silenced plants had longer roots and shoots and larger leaves. The increased leaf area can be attributed to increased cell division as indicated by the higher leaf epidermal cell number in SlP4H1- and SlP4H9-silenced plants. In contrast, SlP4H7-silenced plants had larger leaves due to enhanced cell expansion. Western blot analysis revealed that silencing of SlP4H7 and SlP4H9 was associated with reduced levels of JIM8-bound AGP and JIM11-bound extensin epitopes, while silencing of SlP4H1 reduced only the levels of AGP proteins. Collectively these results show that P4Hs have significant and distinct roles in cell division and expansion of tomato leaves. PMID:24803411

  15. Silencing LRH-1 in colon cancer cell lines impairs proliferation and alters gene expression programs

    PubMed Central

    Bayrer, James R.; Mukkamala, Sridevi; Sablin, Elena P.; Webb, Paul; Fletterick, Robert J.

    2015-01-01

    Colorectal cancers (CRCs) account for nearly 10% of all cancer deaths in industrialized countries. Recent evidence points to a central role for the nuclear receptor liver receptor homolog-1 (LRH-1) in intestinal tumorigenesis. Interaction of LRH-1 with the Wnt/?-catenin pathway, highly active in a critical subpopulation of CRC cells, underscores the importance of elucidating LRH-1’s role in this disease. Reduction of LRH-1 diminishes tumor burden in murine models of CRC; however, it is not known whether LRH-1 is required for tumorigenesis, for proliferation, or for both. In this work, we address this question through shRNA-mediated silencing of LRH-1 in established CRC cell lines. LRH-1 mRNA knockdown results in significantly impaired proliferation in a cell line highly expressing the receptor and more modest impairment in a cell line with moderate LRH-1 expression. Cell-cycle analysis shows prolongation of G0/G1 with LRH-1 silencing, consistent with LRH-1 cell-cycle influences in other tissues. Cluster analysis of microarray gene expression demonstrates significant genome wide alterations with major effects in cell-cycle regulation, signal transduction, bile acid and cholesterol metabolism, and control of apoptosis. This study demonstrates a critical proproliferative role for LRH-1 in established colon cancer cell lines. LRH-1 exerts its effects via multiple signaling networks. Our results suggest that selected CRC patients could benefit from LRH-1 inhibitors. PMID:25675535

  16. Synthesis and Gene Silencing Properties of siRNAs Containing Terminal Amide Linkages

    PubMed Central

    Gaglione, Maria; Mercurio, M. Emilia; Mosca, Nicola; Novellino, Ettore; Messere, Anna

    2014-01-01

    The active components of the RNAi are 21 nucleotides long dsRNAs containing a 2 nucleotide overhang at the 3? end, carrying 5?-phosphate and 3?-hydroxyl groups (siRNAs). Structural analysis revealed that the siRNA is functionally bound at both ends to RISC. Terminal modifications are considered with interest as the introduction of chemical moieties interferes with the 3? overhang recognition by the PAZ domain and the 5?-phosphate recognition by the MID and PIWI domains of RISC. Herein, we report the synthesis of modified siRNAs containing terminal amide linkages by introducing hydroxyethylglycine PNA (hegPNA) moieties at 5?, and at 3? positions and on both terminals. Results of gene silencing studies highlight that some of these modifications are compatible with the RNAi machinery and markedly increase the resistance to serum-derived nucleases even after 24?h of incubation. Molecular docking simulations were attained to give at atomistic level a clearer picture of the effect of the most performing modifications on the interactions with the human Argonaute 2 PAZ, MID, and PIWI domains. This study adds another piece to the puzzle of the heterogeneous chemical modifications that can be attained to enhance the silencing efficiency of siRNAs. PMID:24791003

  17. Quantitative proteomic analysis of wheat grain proteins reveals differential effects of silencing of omega-5 gliadin genes in transgenic lines

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Novel wheat lines with altered flour compositions can be used to decipher the roles of specific gluten proteins in flour quality. Grain proteins from transgenic wheat lines in which genes encoding the omega-5 gliadins were silenced by RNA interference (RNAi) were analyzed in detail by quantitative 2...

  18. Differential Roles of AC2 and AC4 of Cassava Geminiviruses in Mediating Synergism and Suppression of Posttranscriptional Gene Silencing

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ramachandran Vanitharani; Padmanabhan Chellappan; Justin S. Pita; C. M. Fauquet

    2004-01-01

    Posttranscriptional gene silencing (PTGS) in plants is a natural defense mechanism against virus infection. In mixed infections, virus synergism is proposed to result from suppression of the host defense mechanism by the viruses. Synergistic severe mosaic disease caused by simultaneous infection with isolates of the Cam- eroon strain of African cassava mosaic virus (ACMV-(CM)) and East African cassava mosaic Cameroon

  19. Cysteine Dioxygenase 1 Is a Tumor Suppressor Gene Silenced by Promoter Methylation in Multiple Human Cancers

    PubMed Central

    Brait, Mariana; Ling, Shizhang; Nagpal, Jatin K.; Chang, Xiaofei; Park, Hannah Lui; Lee, Juna; Okamura, Jun; Yamashita, Keishi; Sidransky, David; Kim, Myoung Sook

    2012-01-01

    The human cysteine dioxygenase 1 (CDO1) gene is a non-heme structured, iron-containing metalloenzyme involved in the conversion of cysteine to cysteine sulfinate, and plays a key role in taurine biosynthesis. In our search for novel methylated gene promoters, we have analyzed differential RNA expression profiles of colorectal cancer (CRC) cell lines with or without treatment of 5-aza-2?-deoxycytidine. Among the genes identified, the CDO1 promoter was found to be differentially methylated in primary CRC tissues with high frequency compared to normal colon tissues. In addition, a statistically significant difference in the frequency of CDO1 promoter methylation was observed between primary normal and tumor tissues derived from breast, esophagus, lung, bladder and stomach. Downregulation of CDO1 mRNA and protein levels were observed in cancer cell lines and tumors derived from these tissue types. Expression of CDO1 was tightly controlled by promoter methylation, suggesting that promoter methylation and silencing of CDO1 may be a common event in human carcinogenesis. Moreover, forced expression of full-length CDO1 in human cancer cells markedly decreased the tumor cell growth in an in vitro cell culture and/or an in vivo mouse model, whereas knockdown of CDO1 increased cell growth in culture. Our data implicate CDO1 as a novel tumor suppressor gene and a potentially valuable molecular marker for human cancer. PMID:23028699

  20. Short germ insects utilize both the ancestral and derived mode of Polycomb group-mediated epigenetic silencing of Hox genes.

    PubMed

    Matsuoka, Yuji; Bando, Tetsuya; Watanabe, Takahito; Ishimaru, Yoshiyasu; Noji, Sumihare; Popadi?, Aleksandar; Mito, Taro

    2015-01-01

    In insect species that undergo long germ segmentation, such as Drosophila, all segments are specified simultaneously at the early blastoderm stage. As embryogenesis progresses, the expression boundaries of Hox genes are established by repression of gap genes, which is subsequently replaced by Polycomb group (PcG) silencing. At present, however, it is not known whether patterning occurs this way in a more ancestral (short germ) mode of embryogenesis, where segments are added gradually during posterior elongation. In this study, two members of the PcG family, Enhancer of zeste (E(z)) and Suppressor of zeste 12 (Su(z)12), were analyzed in the short germ cricket, Gryllus bimaculatus. Results suggest that although stepwise negative regulation by gap and PcG genes is present in anterior members of the Hox cluster, it does not account for regulation of two posterior Hox genes, abdominal-A (abd-A) and Abdominal-B (Abd-B). Instead, abd-A and Abd-B are predominantly regulated by PcG genes, which is the mode present in vertebrates. These findings suggest that an intriguing transition of the PcG-mediated silencing of Hox genes may have occurred during animal evolution. The ancestral bilaterian state may have resembled the current vertebrate mode of regulation, where PcG-mediated silencing of Hox genes occurs before their expression is initiated and is responsible for the establishment of individual expression domains. Then, during insect evolution, the repression by transcription factors may have been acquired in anterior Hox genes of short germ insects, while PcG silencing was maintained in posterior Hox genes. PMID:25948756

  1. Short germ insects utilize both the ancestral and derived mode of Polycomb group-mediated epigenetic silencing of Hox genes

    PubMed Central

    Matsuoka, Yuji; Bando, Tetsuya; Watanabe, Takahito; Ishimaru, Yoshiyasu; Noji, Sumihare; Popadi?, Aleksandar; Mito, Taro

    2015-01-01

    In insect species that undergo long germ segmentation, such as Drosophila, all segments are specified simultaneously at the early blastoderm stage. As embryogenesis progresses, the expression boundaries of Hox genes are established by repression of gap genes, which is subsequently replaced by Polycomb group (PcG) silencing. At present, however, it is not known whether patterning occurs this way in a more ancestral (short germ) mode of embryogenesis, where segments are added gradually during posterior elongation. In this study, two members of the PcG family, Enhancer of zeste (E(z)) and Suppressor of zeste 12 (Su(z)12), were analyzed in the short germ cricket, Gryllus bimaculatus. Results suggest that although stepwise negative regulation by gap and PcG genes is present in anterior members of the Hox cluster, it does not account for regulation of two posterior Hox genes, abdominal-A (abd-A) and Abdominal-B (Abd-B). Instead, abd-A and Abd-B are predominantly regulated by PcG genes, which is the mode present in vertebrates. These findings suggest that an intriguing transition of the PcG-mediated silencing of Hox genes may have occurred during animal evolution. The ancestral bilaterian state may have resembled the current vertebrate mode of regulation, where PcG-mediated silencing of Hox genes occurs before their expression is initiated and is responsible for the establishment of individual expression domains. Then, during insect evolution, the repression by transcription factors may have been acquired in anterior Hox genes of short germ insects, while PcG silencing was maintained in posterior Hox genes. PMID:25948756

  2. Silencing of host basal defense response-related gene expression increases susceptibility of Nicotiana benthamiana to Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. michiganensis.

    PubMed

    Balaji, Vasudevan; Sessa, Guido; Smart, Christine D

    2011-03-01

    Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. michiganensis is an actinomycete, causing bacterial wilt and canker disease of tomato (Solanum lycopersicum). We used virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS) to identify genes playing a role in host basal defense response to C. michiganensis subsp. michiganensis infection using Nicotiana benthamiana as a model plant. A preliminary VIGS screen comprising 160 genes from tomato known to be involved in defense-related signaling identified a set of 14 genes whose suppression led to altered host-pathogen interactions. Expression of each of these genes and three additional targets was then suppressed in larger-scale VIGS experiments and the effect of silencing on development of wilt disease symptoms and bacterial growth during an N. benthamiana-C. michiganensis subsp. michiganensis compatible interaction was determined. Disease susceptibility and in planta bacterial population size were enhanced by silencing genes encoding N. benthamiana homologs of ubiquitin activating enzyme, snakin-2, extensin-like protein, divinyl ether synthase, 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme A reductase 2, and Pto-like kinase. The identification of genes having a role in the host basal defense-response to C. michiganensis subsp. michiganensis advances our understanding of the plant responses activated by C. michiganensis subsp. michiganensis and raises possibilities for devising novel and effective molecular strategies to control bacterial canker and wilt in tomato. PMID:21062112

  3. Quantifying the sequence–function relation in gene silencing by bacterial small RNAs

    PubMed Central

    Hao, Yue; Zhang, Zhongge J.; Erickson, David W.; Huang, Min; Huang, Yingwu; Li, Junbai; Hwa, Terence; Shi, Hualin

    2011-01-01

    Sequence–function relations for small RNA (sRNA)-mediated gene silencing were quantified for the sRNA RyhB and some of its mRNA targets in Escherichia coli. Numerous mutants of RyhB and its targets were generated and their in vivo functions characterized at various levels of target and RyhB expression. Although a core complementary region is required for repression by RyhB, variations in the complementary sequences of the core region gave rise to a continuum of repression strengths, correlated exponentially with the computed free energy of RyhB-target duplex formation. Moreover, sequence variations in the linker region known to interact with the RNA chaperone Hfq also gave rise to a continuum of repression strengths, correlated exponentially with the computed energy cost of keeping the linker region open. These results support the applicability of the thermodynamic model in predicting sRNA–mRNA interaction and suggest that sequences at these locations may be used to fine-tune the degree of repression. Surprisingly, a truncated RyhB without the Hfq-binding region is found to repress multiple targets of the wild-type RyhB effectively, both in the presence and absence of Hfq, even though the former is required for the activity of wild-type RyhB itself. These findings challenge the commonly accepted model concerning the function of Hfq in gene silencing—both in providing stability to the sRNAs and in catalyzing the target mRNAs to take on active conformations—and raise the intriguing question of why many endogenous sRNAs subject their functions to Hfq-dependences. PMID:21742981

  4. Induction and maintenance of DNA methylation in plant promoter sequences by apple latent spherical virus-induced transcriptional gene silencing

    PubMed Central

    Kon, Tatsuya; Yoshikawa, Nobuyuki

    2014-01-01

    Apple latent spherical virus (ALSV) is an efficient virus-induced gene silencing vector in functional genomics analyses of a broad range of plant species. Here, an Agrobacterium-mediated inoculation (agroinoculation) system was developed for the ALSV vector, and virus-induced transcriptional gene silencing (VITGS) is described in plants infected with the ALSV vector. The cDNAs of ALSV RNA1 and RNA2 were inserted between the cauliflower mosaic virus 35S promoter and the NOS-T sequences in a binary vector pCAMBIA1300 to produce pCALSR1 and pCALSR2-XSB or pCALSR2-XSB/MN. When these vector constructs were agroinoculated into Nicotiana benthamiana plants with a construct expressing a viral silencing suppressor, the infection efficiency of the vectors was 100%. A recombinant ALSV vector carrying part of the 35S promoter sequence induced transcriptional gene silencing of the green fluorescent protein gene in a line of N. benthamiana plants, resulting in the disappearance of green fluorescence of infected plants. Bisulfite sequencing showed that cytosine residues at CG and CHG sites of the 35S promoter sequence were highly methylated in the silenced generation zero plants infected with the ALSV carrying the promoter sequence as well as in progeny. The ALSV-mediated VITGS state was inherited by progeny for multiple generations. In addition, induction of VITGS of an endogenous gene (chalcone synthase-A) was demonstrated in petunia plants infected with an ALSV vector carrying the native promoter sequence. These results suggest that ALSV-based vectors can be applied to study DNA methylation in plant genomes, and provide a useful tool for plant breeding via epigenetic modification. PMID:25426109

  5. dsRNA-mediated gene silencing in cultured Drosophila cells: a tissue culture model for the analysis of RNA interference

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Natasha J. Caplen; Jamie Fleenor; Andrew Fire; Richard A. Morgan

    2000-01-01

    RNA interference (RNAi) is a form of post-transcriptional gene silencing that has been described in a number of plant, nematode, protozoan, and invertebrate species. RNAi is characterized by a number of features: induction by double stranded RNA (dsRNA), a high degree of specificity, remarkable potency and spread across cell boundaries, and a sustained down-regulation of the target gene. Previous studies

  6. Methylation Hot Spots in the 5' Flanking Region Denote Silencing of the 06-Methylguanine-DNA Methyltransferase Gene

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Xllin C. Qian; Thomas P. Brent

    The mechanismwhereby the DNA repair protein O@-methylguaalne DNA methyltransferase(MGMT) is silenced in repair-deficient(Mer) human tumor cells is unknown. The role of methylation of the 5' CpG island in MGMT gene suppression is controversial. Although we previ ously showed by restriction enzyme analysis that CpG methylatlon in this region was associated with gene suppression, methylation at such sites was generally Incomplete,

  7. Untangling the relationships between DNA repair pathways by silencing more than 20 DNA repair genes in human stable clones

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. S. F. Biard

    2007-01-01

    Much effort has long been devoted to unraveling the coordinated cellular response to genotoxic insults. In view of the difficulty of obtaining human biological samples of homogeneous origin, I have established a set of stable human clones where one DNA repair gene has been stably silenced by means of RNA interference. I used pEBVsiRNA plasmids that greatly enhance long-term gene

  8. Transient RNAi based gene silencing of glutathione synthetase reduces glutathione content in Camellia sinensis (L.) O. Kuntze somatic embryos

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. Mohanpuria; N. K. Rana; S. K. Yadav

    2008-01-01

    We report on gene silencing of glutathione synthetase (GSHS) that reduces reduced glutathione (GSH) content in somatic embryos\\u000a of Camellia sinensis L. Using degenerate primers with cDNA of Camellia sinensis, a 457 bp GSHS gene fragment was cloned through polymerase chain reaction. This fragment was used in making ihpRNA. For this it was cloned\\u000a in sense at AscI and SwaI

  9. Gene silencing in the spider mite Tetranychus urticae : dsRNA and siRNA parental silencing of the Distal-less gene

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Abderrahman Khila; Miodrag Grbi?

    2007-01-01

    A major prerequisite to understanding the evolution of developmental programs includes an appreciation of gene function in\\u000a a comparative context. RNA interference (RNAi) represents a powerful method for reverse genetics analysis of gene function.\\u000a However, RNAi protocols exist for only a handful of arthropod species. To extend functional analysis in basal arthropods,\\u000a we developed a RNAi protocol for the two-spotted

  10. Systematic silencing of benzylisoquinoline alkaloid biosynthetic genes reveals the major route to papaverine in opium poppy.

    PubMed

    Desgagné-Penix, Isabel; Facchini, Peter J

    2012-10-01

    Papaverine, a major benzylisoquinoline alkaloid in opium poppy (Papaver somniferum), is used as a vasodilator and antispasmodic. Conversion of the initial intermediate (S)-norcoclaurine to papaverine involves 3'-hydroxylation, four O-methylations and dehydrogenation. However, our understanding of papaverine biosynthesis remains controversial more than a century after an initial scheme was proposed. In vitro assays and in vivo labeling studies have been insufficient to establish the sequence of conversions, the potential role of the intermediate (S)-reticuline, and the enzymes involved. We used virus-induced gene silencing in opium poppy to individually suppress the expression of six genes with putative roles in papaverine biosynthesis. Suppression of the gene encoding coclaurine N-methyltransferase dramatically increased papaverine levels at the expense of N-methylated alkaloids, indicating that the main biosynthetic route to papaverine proceeds via N-desmethylated compounds rather than through (S)-reticuline. Suppression of genes encoding (S)-3'-hydroxy-N-methylcoclaurine 4-O-methyltransferase and norreticuline 7-O-methyltransferase, which accept certain N-desmethylated alkaloids, reduced papaverine content. In contrast, suppression of genes encoding N-methylcoclaurine 3'-hydroxylase or reticuline 7-O-methyltransferase, which are specific for N-methylated alkaloids, did not affect papaverine levels. Suppression of norcoclaurine 6-O-methyltransferase transcript levels significantly suppressed total alkaloid accumulation, implicating (S)-coclaurine as a key branch-point intermediate. The differential detection of N-desmethylated compounds in response to suppression of specific genes highlights the primary route to papaverine. PMID:22725256

  11. LIM-domain proteins, LIMD1, Ajuba, and WTIP are required for microRNA-mediated gene silencing.

    PubMed

    James, Victoria; Zhang, Yining; Foxler, Daniel E; de Moor, Cornelia H; Kong, Yi Wen; Webb, Thomas M; Self, Tim J; Feng, Yungfeng; Lagos, Dimitrios; Chu, Chia-Ying; Rana, Tariq M; Morley, Simon J; Longmore, Gregory D; Bushell, Martin; Sharp, Tyson V

    2010-07-13

    In recent years there have been major advances with respect to the identification of the protein components and mechanisms of microRNA (miRNA) mediated silencing. However, the complete and precise repertoire of components and mechanism(s) of action remain to be fully elucidated. Herein we reveal the identification of a family of three LIM domain-containing proteins, LIMD1, Ajuba and WTIP (Ajuba LIM proteins) as novel mammalian processing body (P-body) components, which highlight a novel mechanism of miRNA-mediated gene silencing. Furthermore, we reveal that LIMD1, Ajuba, and WTIP bind to Ago1/2, RCK, Dcp2, and eIF4E in vivo, that they are required for miRNA-mediated, but not siRNA-mediated gene silencing and that all three proteins bind to the mRNA 5' m(7)GTP cap-protein complex. Mechanistically, we propose the Ajuba LIM proteins interact with the m(7)GTP cap structure via a specific interaction with eIF4E that prevents 4EBP1 and eIF4G interaction. In addition, these LIM-domain proteins facilitate miRNA-mediated gene silencing by acting as an essential molecular link between the translationally inhibited eIF4E-m(7)GTP-5(')cap and Ago1/2 within the miRISC complex attached to the 3'-UTR of mRNA, creating an inhibitory closed-loop complex. PMID:20616046

  12. Selective silencing of gene target expression by siRNA expression plasmids in human cervical cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Peralta-Zaragoza, Oscar; De-la-O-Gómez, Faustino; Deas, Jessica; Fernández-Tilapa, Gloria; Fierros-Zárate, Geny Del Socorro; Gómez-Cerón, Claudia; Burguete-García, Ana; Torres-Poveda, Kirvis; Bermúdez-Morales, Victor Hugo; Rodríguez-Dorantes, Mauricio; Pérez-Plasencia, Carlos; Madrid-Marina, Vicente

    2015-01-01

    RNA interference is a natural mechanism to silence post-transcriptional gene expression in eukaryotic cells in which microRNAs act to cleave or halt the translation of target mRNAs at specific target sequences. Mature microRNAs, 19-25 nucleotides in length, mediate their effect at the mRNA level by inhibiting translation, or inducing cleavage of the mRNA target. This process is directed by the degree of complementary nucleotides between the microRNAs and the target mRNA; perfect complementary base pairing induces cleavage of mRNA, whereas several mismatches lead to translational arrest. Biological effects of microRNAs can be manipulated through the use of small interference RNAs (siRNAs) generated by chemical synthesis, or by cloning in molecular vectors. The cloning of a DNA insert in a molecular vector that will be transcribed into the corresponding siRNAs is an approach that has been developed using siRNA expression plasmids. These vectors contain DNA inserts designed with software to generate highly efficient siRNAs which will assemble into RNA-induced silencing complexes (RISC), and silence the target mRNA. In addition, the DNA inserts may be contained in cloning cassettes, and introduced in other molecular vectors. In this chapter we describe an attractive technology platform to silence cellular gene expression using specific siRNA expression plasmids, and evaluate its biological effect on target gene expression in human cervical cancer cells. PMID:25348304

  13. Silencing the epidermal growth factor receptor gene with RNAi may be developed as a potential therapy for non small cell lung cancer

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Min; Zhang, Xin; Bai, Chun-Xue; Song, Xian-Rang; Chen, Jie; Gao, Lei; Hu, Jie; Hong, Qun-Ying; West, Malcolm J; Wei, Ming Q

    2005-01-01

    Lung cancer has emerged as a leading cause of cancer death in the world. Non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) accounts for 75–80% of all lung cancers. Current therapies are ineffective, thus new approaches are needed to improve the therapeutic ratio. Double stranded RNA (dsRNA) -mediated RNA interference (RNAi) has shown promise in gene silencing, the potential of which in developing new methods for the therapy of NSCLC needs to be tested. We report here RNAi induced effective silencing of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) gene, which is over expressed in NSCLC. NSCLC cell lines A549 and SPC-A1 were transfected with sequence- specific dsRNA as well as various controls. Immune fluorescent labeling and flow cytometry were used to monitor the reduction in the production of EGFR protein. Quantitative reverse-transcriptase PCR was used to detect the level of EGFR mRNA. Cell count, colony assay, scratch assay, MTT assay in vitro and tumor growth assay in athymic nude mice in vivo were used to assess the functional effects of EGFR silencing on tumor cell growth and proliferation. Our data showed transfection of NSCLC cells with dsRNA resulted in sequence specific silencing of EGFR with 71.31% and 71.78 % decreases in EGFR protein production and 37.04% and 54.92% in mRNA transcription in A549 and SPC-A1 cells respectively. The decrease in EGFR protein production caused significant growth inhibition, i.e.: reducing the total cell numbers by 85.0% and 78.3 %, and colony forming numbers by 63.3% and 66.8%. These effects greatly retarded the migration of NSCLC cells by more than 80% both at 24 h and at 48 h, and enhanced chemo-sensitivity to cisplatin by four-fold in A549 cells and seven-fold in SPC-A1. Furthermore, dsRNA specific for EGFR inhibited tumor growth in vivo both in size by 75.06 % and in weight by 73.08 %. Our data demonstrate a new therapeutic effect of sequence specific suppression of EGFR gene expression by RNAi, enabling inhibition of tumor proliferation and growth. However, in vivo use of dsRNA for gene transfer to tumor cells would be limited because dsRNA would be quickly degraded once delivered in vivo. We thus tested a new bovine lentiviral vector and showed lentivector-mediated RNAi effects were efficient and specific. Combining RNAi with this gene delivery system may enable us to develop RNAi for silencing EGFR into an effective therapy for NSCLC. PMID:15987532

  14. Cationic Lipid-Nucleic Acid Complexes for Gene Delivery And Silencing: Pathways And Mechanisms for Plasmid Dna And Sirna

    SciTech Connect

    Ewert, K.K.; Zidovska, A.; Ahmad, A.; Bouxsein, N.F.; Evans, H.M.; McAllister, C.S.; Samuel, C.E.; Safinya, C.R.; /SLAC

    2012-07-17

    Motivated by the promises of gene therapy, there is great interest in developing non-viral lipid-based vectors for therapeutic applications due to their low immunogenicity, low toxicity, ease of production, and the potential of transferring large pieces of DNA into cells. In fact, cationic liposome (CL) based vectors are among the prevalent synthetic carriers of nucleic acids (NAs) currently used in gene therapy clinical trials worldwide. These vectors are studied both for gene delivery with CL-DNA complexes and gene silencing with CL-siRNA (short interfering RNA) complexes. However, their transfection efficiencies and silencing efficiencies remain low compared to those of engineered viral vectors. This reflects the currently poor understanding of transfection-related mechanisms at the molecular and self-assembled levels, including a lack of knowledge about interactions between membranes and double stranded NAs and between CL-NA complexes and cellular components. In this review we describe our recent efforts to improve the mechanistic understanding of transfection by CL-NA complexes, which will help to design optimal lipid-based carriers of DNA and siRNA for therapeutic gene delivery and gene silencing.

  15. Polycation-functionalized nanoporous silicon particles for gene silencing on breast cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Mingzhen; Xu, Rong; Xia, Xiaojun; Yang, Yong; Gu, Jianhua; Qin, Guoting; Liu, Xuewu; Ferrari, Mauro; Shen, Haifa

    2014-01-01

    Nanoporous silicon particles (pSi), with a pore size in the range of 20-60 nm, were modified with polyethyleneimine (PEI) to yield pSi-PEI particles, which were subsequently complexed with siRNA. Thus, pSi-PEI/siRNA particles were fabricated, with the PEI/siRNA nanocomplexes mainly anchored inside the nanopore of the pSi particles. These hybrid particles were used as carriers to deliver siRNA to human breast cancer cells. Due to the gradual degradation of the pSi matrix under physiological conditions, the PEI/siRNA nanocomplexes were released from the pore interior in a sustained manner. Physicochemical characterization revealed that the released PEI/siRNA nanocomplexes exhibited well-defined spherical shape and narrow particle size distribution between 15 and 30 nm. Gene knockdown against the ataxia telangiectasia mutated (ATM) cancer gene showed dramatic gene silencing efficacy. Moreover, comprehensive biocompatibility studies were performed for the pSi-PEI/siRNA particles both in vitro and in vivo and demonstrated that the pSi-PEI particles exhibited significantly enhanced biocompatibility. As a consequence, PEI-modified porous silicon particles may have substantial potential as safe and effective siRNA delivery systems. PMID:24103653

  16. Chitosan/interfering RNA nanoparticle mediated gene silencing in disease vector mosquito larvae.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xin; Mysore, Keshava; Flannery, Ellen; Michel, Kristin; Severson, David W; Zhu, Kun Yan; Duman-Scheel, Molly

    2015-01-01

    Vector mosquitoes inflict more human suffering than any other organism-and kill more than one million people each year. The mosquito genome projects facilitated research in new facets of mosquito biology, including functional genetic studies in the primary African malaria vector Anopheles gambiae and the dengue and yellow fever vector Aedes aegypti. RNA interference- (RNAi-) mediated gene silencing has been used to target genes of interest in both of these disease vector mosquito species. Here, we describe a procedure for preparation of chitosan/interfering RNA nanoparticles that are combined with food and ingested by larvae. This technically straightforward, high-throughput, and relatively inexpensive methodology, which is compatible with long double stranded RNA (dsRNA) or small interfering RNA (siRNA) molecules, has been used for the successful knockdown of a number of different genes in A. gambiae and A. aegypti larvae. Following larval feedings, knockdown, which is verified through qRT-PCR or in situ hybridization, can persist at least through the late pupal stage. This methodology may be applicable to a wide variety of mosquito and other insect species, including agricultural pests, as well as other non-model organisms. In addition to its utility in the research laboratory, in the future, chitosan, an inexpensive, non-toxic and biodegradable polymer, could potentially be utilized in the field. PMID:25867635

  17. Transformation of the US bread wheat 'Butte 86' and silencing of omega-5 gliadin genes.

    PubMed

    Altenbach, Susan B; Allen, Paul V

    2011-01-01

    Complex groups of proteins determine the unique functional properties of wheat flour and are sometimes responsible for food intolerances and allergies in individuals that consume wheat products. Transgenic approaches can be used to explore the functions of different flour proteins, but are limited to the few wheat cultivars that can be transformed and also by the lack of detailed information about genes and proteins expressed in grain from those cultivars. The US bread wheat Butte 86 has been extensively characterized and a comprehensive proteome map was developed in which flour proteins were distinguished by mass spectrometry and associated with specific gene sequences. Here, this information has been used to design an RNA interference construct to silence the expression of genes encoding omega gliadins that trigger the food allergy wheat-dependent exercise-induced anaphylaxis (WDEIA). The construct was introduced into immature embryos from Butte 86 using biolistics and bialaphos-resistant plants were regenerated. Stable transformation and inheritance of the transgene were confirmed by PCR. Analysis of proteins in grain from transgenic plants demonstrated that the omega-5 gliadins were either absent or substantially reduced relative to non-transformed controls. The ability to genetically transform Butte 86 makes it possible to alter flour composition in a targeted manner in a commercial US wheat cultivar and should accelerate future research on flour quality and immunogenic potential. PMID:21844700

  18. Fertile hypomorphic ARGONAUTE (ago1) mutants impaired in post-transcriptional gene silencing and virus resistance.

    PubMed

    Morel, Jean-Benoit; Godon, Christian; Mourrain, Philippe; Béclin, Christophe; Boutet, Stéphanie; Feuerbach, Frank; Proux, Florence; Vaucheret, Hervé

    2002-03-01

    Transgene-induced post-transcriptional gene silencing (PTGS) results from specific degradation of RNAs that are homologous with the transgene transcribed sequence. This phenomenon, also known as cosuppression in plants and quelling in fungi, resembles RNA interference (RNAi) in animals. Indeed, cosuppression/quelling/RNAi require related PAZ/PIWI proteins (AGO1/QDE-2/RDE-1), indicating that these mechanisms are related. Unlike Neurospora crassa qde-2 and Caenorhabditis elegans rde-1 mutants, which are morphologically normal, the 24 known Arabidopsis ago1 mutants display severe developmental abnormalities and are sterile. Here, we report the isolation of hypomorphic ago1 mutants, including fertile ones. We show that these hypomorphic ago1 mutants are defective for PTGS, like null sgs2, sgs3, and ago1 mutants, suggesting that PTGS is more sensitive than development to perturbations in AGO1. Conversely, a mutation in ZWILLE/PINHEAD, another member of the Arabidopsis AGO1 gene family, affects development but not PTGS. Similarly, mutations in ALG-1 and ALG-2, two members of the C. elegans RDE-1 gene family, affect development but not RNAi, indicating that the control of PTGS/RNAi and development by PAZ/PIWI proteins can be uncoupled. Finally, we show that hypomorphic ago1 mutants are hypersensitive to virus infection, confirming the hypothesis that in plants PTGS is a mechanism of defense against viruses. PMID:11910010

  19. A visual reporter system for virus-induced gene silencing in tomato fruit based on anthocyanin accumulation.

    PubMed

    Orzaez, Diego; Medina, Aurora; Torre, Sara; Fernández-Moreno, Josefina Patricia; Rambla, José Luis; Fernández-Del-Carmen, Asun; Butelli, Eugenio; Martin, Cathie; Granell, Antonio

    2009-07-01

    Virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS) is a powerful tool for reverse genetics in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum). However, the irregular distribution of the effects of VIGS hampers the identification and quantification of nonvisual phenotypes. To overcome this limitation, a visually traceable VIGS system was developed for fruit, comprising two elements: (1) a transgenic tomato line (Del/Ros1) expressing Antirrhinum majus Delila and Rosea1 transcription factors under the control of the fruit-specific E8 promoter, showing a purple-fruited, anthocyanin-rich phenotype; and (2) a modified tobacco rattle virus VIGS vector incorporating partial Rosea1 and Delila sequences, which was shown to restore the red-fruited phenotype upon agroinjection in Del/Ros1 plants. Dissection of silenced areas for subsequent chemometric analysis successfully identified the relevant metabolites underlying gene function for three tomato genes, phytoene desaturase, TomloxC, and SlODO1, used for proof of concept. The C-6 aldehydes derived from lipid 13-hydroperoxidation were found to be the volatile compounds most severely affected by TomloxC silencing, whereas geranial and 6-methyl-5-hepten-2-one were identified as the volatiles most severely reduced by phytoene desaturase silencing in ripening fruit. In a third example, silencing of SlODO1, a tomato homolog of the ODORANT1 gene encoding a myb transcription factor, which regulates benzenoid metabolism in petunia (Petunia hybrida) flowers, resulted in a sharp accumulation of benzaldehyde in tomato fruit. Together, these results indicate that fruit VIGS, enhanced by anthocyanin monitoring, can be a powerful tool for reverse genetics in the study of the metabolic networks operating during fruit ripening. PMID:19429602

  20. Structural features of GmIRCHS, candidate of the I gene inhibiting seed coat pigmentation in soybean: implications for inducing endogenous RNA silencing of chalcone synthase genes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Atsushi Kasai; Kosuke Kasai; Setsuzo Yumoto; Mineo Senda

    2007-01-01

    Most commercial soybean varieties have yellow seeds due to loss of pigmentation in the seed coat. The I gene inhibits pigmentation over the entire seed coat, resulting in a uniform yellow color of mature harvested seeds. We previously\\u000a demonstrated that the inhibition of seed coat pigmentation by the I gene results from post-transcriptional gene silencing (PTGS) of chalcone synthase (CHS)

  1. Expression of geminiviral AC2 RNA silencing suppressor changes sugar and jasmonate responsive gene expression in transgenic tobacco plants

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background RNA-silencing is a conserved gene regulation and surveillance machinery, which in plants, is also used as major defence mechanism against viruses. Various virus-specific dsRNA structures are recognized by the silencing machinery leading to degradation of the viral RNAs or, as in case of begomoviruses, to methylation of their DNA genomes. Viruses produce specific RNA silencing suppressor (RSS) proteins to prevent these host defence mechanisms, and as these interfere with the silencing machinery they also disturb the endogenous silencing reactions. In this paper, we describe how expression of AC2 RSS, derived from African cassava mosaic geminivirus changes transcription profile in tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) leaves and in flowers. Results Expression of AC2 RSS in transgenic tobacco plants induced clear phenotypic changes both in leaves and in flowers. Transcriptomes of these plants were strongly altered, with total of 1118 and 251 differentially expressed genes in leaves and flowers, respectively. The three most up-regulated transcript groups were related to stress, cell wall modifications and signalling, whereas the three most down-regulated groups were related to translation, photosynthesis and transcription. It appears that many of the gene expression alterations appeared to be related to enhanced biosynthesis of jasmonate and ethylene, and consequent enhancement of the genes and pathways that are regulated by these hormones, or to the retrograde signalling caused by the reduced photosynthetic activity and sugar metabolism. Comparison of these results to a previous transcriptional profiling of HC-Pro RSS-expressing plants revealed that some of same genes were induced by both RSSs, but their expression levels were typically higher in AC2 than in HC-Pro RSS expressing plants. All in all, a large number of transcript alterations were found to be specific to each of the RSS expressing transgenic plants. Conclusions AC2 RSS in transgenic tobacco plants interferes with the silencing machinery. It causes stress and defence reactions for instance via induction of the jasmonate and ethylene biosynthesis, and by consequent gene expression alteration regulated by these hormones. The changed sugar metabolism may cause significant down-regulation of genes encoding ribosomal proteins, thus reducing the general translation level. PMID:23130567

  2. A Sexual Shift Induced by Silencing of a Single Insulin-Like Gene in Crayfish: Ovarian Upregulation and Testicular Degeneration

    PubMed Central

    Rosen, Ohad; Manor, Rivka; Weil, Simy; Gafni, Ohad; Linial, Assaf; Aflalo, Eliahu D.; Ventura, Tomer; Sagi, Amir

    2010-01-01

    In sequential hermaphrodites, intersexuality occurs naturally, usually as a transition state during sexual re-differentiation processes. In crustaceans, male sexual differentiation is controlled by the male-specific androgenic gland (AG). An AG-specific insulin-like gene, previously identified in the red-claw crayfish Cherax quadricarinatus (designated Cq-IAG), was found in this study to be the prominent transcript in an AG cDNA subtractive library. In C. quadricarinatus, sexual plasticity is exhibited by intersex individuals in the form of an active male reproductive system and male secondary sex characters, along with a constantly arrested ovary. This intersexuality was exploited to follow changes caused by single gene silencing, accomplished via dsRNA injection. Cq-IAG silencing induced dramatic sex-related alterations, including male feature feminization, a reduction in sperm production, extensive testicular degeneration, expression of the vitellogenin gene, and accumulation of yolk proteins in the developing oocytes. Upon silencing of the gene, AG cells hypertrophied, possibly to compensate for low hormone levels, as reflected in the poor production of the insulin-like hormone (and revealed by immunohistochemistry). These results demonstrate both the functionality of Cq-IAG as an androgenic hormone-encoding gene and the dependence of male gonad viability on the Cq-IAG product. This study is the first to provide evidence that silencing an insulin-like gene in intersex C. quadricarinatus feminizes male-related phenotypes. These findings, moreover, contribute to the understanding of the regulation of sexual shifts, whether naturally occurring in sequential hermaphrodites or abnormally induced by endocrine disruptors found in the environment, and offer insight into an unusual gender-related link to the evolution of insulins. PMID:21151555

  3. Stability and immunogenicity properties of the gene-silencing polypurine reverse Hoogsteen hairpins.

    PubMed

    Villalobos, Xenia; Rodríguez, Laura; Prévot, Jeanne; Oleaga, Carlota; Ciudad, Carlos J; Noé, Véronique

    2014-01-01

    Gene silencing by either small-interference RNAs (siRNA) or antisense oligodeoxynucleotides (aODN) is widely used in biomedical research. However, their use as therapeutic agents is hindered by two important limitations: their low stability and the activation of the innate immune response. Recently, we developed a new type of molecule to decrease gene expression named polypurine reverse Hoogsteen hairpins (PPRHs) that bind to polypyrimidine targets in the DNA. Herein, stability experiments performed in mouse, human, and fetal calf serum and in PC3 cells revealed that the half-life of PPRHs is much longer than that of siRNAs in all cases. Usage of PPRHs with a nicked-circular structure increased the binding affinity to their target sequence and their half-life in FCS when bound to the target. Regarding the innate immune response, we determined that the levels of the transcription factors IRF3 and its phosphorylated form, as well as NF-?B were increased by siRNAs and not by PPRHs; that the expression levels of several proinflammatory cytokines including IL-6, TNF-?, IFN-?, IFN-ß, IL-1ß, and IL-18 were not significantly increased by PPRHs; and that the cleavage and activation of the proteolytic enzyme caspase-1 was not triggered by PPRHs. These determinations indicated that PPRHs, unlike siRNAs, do not activate the innate inflammatory response. PMID:24251728

  4. Methylation-mediated gene silencing as biomarkers of gastric cancer: a review.

    PubMed

    Nakamura, Jun; Tanaka, Tomokazu; Kitajima, Yoshihiko; Noshiro, Hirokazu; Miyazaki, Kohji

    2014-09-14

    Despite a decline in the overall incidence of gastric cancer (GC), the disease remains the second most common cause of cancer-related death worldwide and is thus a significant global health problem. The best means of improving the survival of GC patients is to screen for and treat early lesions. However, GC is often diagnosed at an advanced stage and is associated with a poor prognosis. Current diagnostic and therapeutic strategies have not been successful in decreasing the global burden of the disease; therefore, the identification of reliable biomarkers for an early diagnosis, predictive markers of recurrence and survival and markers of drug sensitivity and/or resistance is urgently needed. The initiation and progression of GC depends not only on genetic alterations but also epigenetic changes, such as DNA methylation and histone modification. Aberrant DNA methylation is the most well-defined epigenetic change in human cancers and is associated with inappropriate gene silencing. Therefore, an increasing number of genes methylated at the promoter region have been targeted as possible biomarkers for different purposes, including early detection, classification, the assessment of the tumor prognosis, the development of therapeutic strategies and patient follow-up. This review article summarizes the current understanding and recent evidence regarding DNA methylation markers in GC with a focus on the clinical potential of these markers. PMID:25232236

  5. Silencing of mitochondrial NADP{sup +}-dependent isocitrate dehydrogenase gene enhances glioma radiosensitivity

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Sung Youl [School of Life Sciences and Biotechnology, College of Natural Sciences, Kyungpook National University, Taegu (Korea, Republic of)] [School of Life Sciences and Biotechnology, College of Natural Sciences, Kyungpook National University, Taegu (Korea, Republic of); Yoo, Young Hyun [Mitochondria Hub Regulation Center, Dong-A University College of Medicine, Busan (Korea, Republic of)] [Mitochondria Hub Regulation Center, Dong-A University College of Medicine, Busan (Korea, Republic of); Park, Jeen-Woo, E-mail: parkjw@knu.ac.kr [School of Life Sciences and Biotechnology, College of Natural Sciences, Kyungpook National University, Taegu (Korea, Republic of)] [School of Life Sciences and Biotechnology, College of Natural Sciences, Kyungpook National University, Taegu (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-04-05

    Highlights: •Silencing of the IDPm gene enhances IR-induced autophagy in glioma cells. •Autophagy inhibition augmented apoptosis of irradiated glioma cells. •Results offer a redox-active therapeutic strategy for the treatment of cancer. -- Abstract: Reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels are elevated in organisms that have been exposed to ionizing radiation and are protagonists in the induction of cell death. Recently, we demonstrated that the control of mitochondrial redox balance and the cellular defense against oxidative damage are primary functions of mitochondrial NADP{sup +}-dependent isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDPm) via the supply of NADPH for antioxidant systems. In the present study, we report an autophagic response to ionizing radiation in A172 glioma cells transfected with small interfering RNA (siRNA) targeting the IDPm gene. Autophagy in A172 transfectant cells was associated with enhanced autophagolysosome formation and GFP–LC3 punctuation/aggregation. Furthermore, we found that the inhibition of autophagy by chloroquine augmented apoptotic cell death of irradiated A172 cells transfected with IDPm siRNA. Taken together, our data suggest that autophagy functions as a survival mechanism in A172 cells against ionizing radiation-induced apoptosis and the sensitizing effect of IDPm siRNA and autophagy inhibitor on the ionizing radiation-induced apoptotic cell death of glioma cells offers a novel redox-active therapeutic strategy for the treatment of cancer.

  6. Non-coding transcripts in the H19 imprinting control region mediate gene silencing in transgenic Drosophila

    PubMed Central

    Schoenfelder, Stefan; Smits, Guillaume; Fraser, Peter; Reik, Wolf; Paro, Renato

    2007-01-01

    The imprinting control region (ICR) upstream of H19 is the key regulatory element conferring monoallelic expression on H19 and Igf2 (insulin-like growth factor 2). Epigenetic marks in the ICR regulate its interaction with the chromatin protein CCCTC-binding factor and with other control factors to coordinate gene silencing in the imprinting cluster. Here, we show that the H19 ICR is biallelically transcribed, producing both sense and antisense RNAs. We analyse the function of the non-coding transcripts in a Drosophila transgenic system in which the H19 upstream region silences the expression of a reporter gene. We show that knockdown of H19 ICR non-coding RNA (ncRNA) by RNA interference leads to the loss of reporter gene silencing. Our results are, to the best of our knowledge, the first to show that ncRNAs in the H19 ICR are functionally significant, and also indicate that they have a role in regulating gene expression and perhaps epigenetic marks at the H19/Igf2 locus. PMID:17948025

  7. Transient silencing of the grapevine gene VvPGIP1 by agroinfiltration with a construct for RNA interference.

    PubMed

    Bertazzon, Nadia; Raiola, Alessandro; Castiglioni, Carla; Gardiman, Massimo; Angelini, Elisa; Borgo, Michele; Ferrari, Simone

    2012-01-01

    Grapevine is an economically important crop, and the recent completion of its genome makes it possible to study the function of specific genes through reverse genetics. However, the analysis of gene function by RNA interference (RNAi) in grapevine is difficult, because the generation of stable transgenic plants has low efficiency and is time consuming. Recently, transient expression of genes in grapevine leaves has been obtained by Agrobacterium tumefaciens infiltration (agroinfiltration). We therefore tested the possibility to silence grapevine genes by agroinfiltration of RNAi constructs. A construct to express a double strand RNA (dsRNA) corresponding to the defense-related gene VvPGIP1, encoding a polygalacturonase-inhibiting protein (PGIP), was obtained and transiently expressed by agroinfiltration in leaves of grapevine plants grown in vitro. Expression of VvPGIP1 and accumulation of PGIP activity were strongly induced by infiltration with control bacteria, but not with bacteria carrying the dsRNA construct, indicating that the gene was efficiently silenced. In contrast, expression of another defense-related gene, VST1, encoding a stilbene synthase, was unaffected by the dsRNA construct. We have therefore demonstrated the possibility of transient down-regulation of grapevine genes by agroinfiltration of constructs for the expression of dsRNA. This system can be employed to evaluate the effectiveness of constructs that can be subsequently used to generate stable RNAi transgenic plants. PMID:21932028

  8. Rapid Determination of Gene Function by Virus-induced Gene Silencing in Wheat and Barley

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The cereal crops are essential components to the human and animal food supply. Solutions to many of the problems challenging cereal production will require identification of genes responsible for particular traits. Unfortunately, the process of identifying gene function is very slow and complex in...

  9. Virus-induced gene silencing of soybean rust resistance genes in Glycine tomentella

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Soybean rust, incited by the fungal pathogen Phakopsora pachyrhizi, is a serious foliar soybean disease capable of causing major economic yield loss. Specific resistance to P. pachyrhizi is known and single dominant genes have been identified in soybean (Rpp1-4), but these genes have been deemed ine...

  10. Disruption of the plant gene MOM releases transcriptional silencing of methylated genes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Paolo Amedeo; Yoshiki Habu; Karin Afsar; Ortrun Mittelsten Scheid; Jerzy Paszkowski

    2000-01-01

    Epigenetic modifications change transcription patterns in multicellular organisms to achieve tissue-specific gene expression and inactivate alien DNA such as transposons or transgenes. In plants and animals, DNA methylation is involved in heritability and flexibility of epigenetic states, although its function is far from clear. We have isolated an Arabidopsis gene, MOM, whose product is required for the maintenance of transcriptional

  11. Manipulation of saponin biosynthesis by RNA interference-mediated silencing of ?-amyrin synthase gene expression in soybean

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kyoko Takagi; Keito Nishizawa; Aya Hirose; Akiko Kita; Masao Ishimoto

    Soybean seeds contain substantial amount of diverse triterpenoid saponins that influence the seed quality, although little\\u000a is known about the physiologic functions of saponins in plants. We now describe the modification of saponin biosynthesis by\\u000a RNA interference (RNAi)-mediated gene silencing targeted to ?-amyrin synthase, a key enzyme in the synthesis of a common aglycon\\u000a of soybean saponins. We identified two

  12. Non-coding transcripts in the H19 imprinting control region mediate gene silencing in transgenic Drosophila

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Stefan Schoenfelder; Guillaume Smits; Peter Fraser; Wolf Reik; Renato Paro

    2007-01-01

    The imprinting control region (ICR) upstream of H19 is the key regulatory element conferring monoallelic expression on H19 and Igf2 (insulin-like growth factor 2). Epigenetic marks in the ICR regulate its interaction with the chromatin protein CCCTC-binding factor and with other control factors to coordinate gene silencing in the imprinting cluster. Here, we show that the H19 ICR is biallelically

  13. Patterning of Virus-Infected Glycine max Seed Coat Is Associated with Suppression of Endogenous Silencing of Chalcone Synthase Genes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mineo Senda; Chikara Masuta; Shizen Ohnishi; Kazunori Goto; Atsushi Kasai; Teruo Sano; Jin-Sung Hong; Stuart MacFarlaned

    2004-01-01

    Most commercial Glycine max (soybean) varieties have yellow seeds because of loss of pigmentation in the seed coat. It has been suggested that inhibition of seed coat pigmentation in yellow G. max may be controlled by homology-dependent silencing of chalcone synthase (CHS) genes. Our analysis of CHS mRNA and short-interfering RNAs provide clear evidence that the inhibition of seed coat

  14. In vivo trans-specific gene silencing in fungal cells by in planta expression of a double-stranded RNA

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Self-complementary RNA transcripts form a double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) that triggers a sequence-specific mRNA degradation, in a process known as RNA interference (RNAi), leading to gene silencing. In vascular plants, RNAi molecules trafficking occur between cells and systemically throughout the plant. RNAi signals can spread systemically throughout a plant, even across graft junctions from transgenic to non-transgenic stocks. There is also a great interest in applying RNAi to pathogenic fungi. Specific inhibition of gene expression by RNAi has been shown to be suitable for a multitude of phytopathogenic filamentous fungi. However, double-stranded (ds)RNA/small interfering (si)RNA silencing effect has not been observed in vivo. Results This study demonstrates for the first time the in vivo interference phenomenon in the pathogenic fungus Fusarium verticillioides, in which expression of an individual fungal transgene was specifically abolished by inoculating mycelial cells in transgenic tobacco plants engineered to express siRNAs from a dsRNA corresponding to the particular transgene. Conclusion The results provide a powerful tool for further studies on molecular plant-microbe and symbiotic interactions. From a biotechnological perspective, silencing of fungal genes by generating siRNAs in the host provides a novel strategy for the development of broad fungi-resistance strategies in plants and other organisms. PMID:20356372

  15. Transcriptional Gene Silencing Mediated by a Plastid Inner Envelope Phosphoenolpyruvate/Phosphate Translocator CUE1 in Arabidopsis1[OA

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Jie; Ren, Xiaozhi; Cao, Rui; Liu, Jun; Gong, Zhizhong

    2009-01-01

    Mutations in REPRESSOR OF SILENCING1 (ROS1) lead to the transcriptional gene silencing (TGS) of ProRD29A:LUC (LUCIFERASE) and Pro35S:NPTII (Neomycin Phosphotransferase II) reporter genes. We performed a genetic screen to find suppressors of ros1 that identified two mutant alleles in the Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) CHLOROPHYLL A/B BINDING PROTEIN UNDEREXPRESSED1 (CUE1) gene, which encodes a plastid inner envelope phosphoenolpyruvate/phosphate translocator. The cue1 mutations released the TGS of Pro35S:NPTII and the transcriptionally silent endogenous locus TRANSCRIPTIONAL SILENCING INFORMATION in a manner that was independent of DNA methylation but dependent on chromatin modification. The cue1 mutations did not affect the TGS of ProRD29A:LUC in ros1, which was dependent on RNA-directed DNA methylation. It is possible that signals from chloroplasts help to regulate the epigenetic status of a subset of genomic loci in the nucleus. PMID:19515789

  16. Chemically defined polyethylene glycol siRNA conjugates with enhanced gene silencing effect

    PubMed Central

    Gaziova, Zuzana; Baumann, Volker; Winkler, Anna-Maria; Winkler, Johannes

    2014-01-01

    The therapeutic application of siRNA suffers from poor bioavailability caused by rapid degradation and elimination. The covalent attachment of PEG is a universal concept to increase molecular size and enhance the pharmacokinetic properties of biomacromolecules. We devised a facile approach for attachment of PEG molecules with a defined molecular weight, and successful purification of the resulting conjugates. We directly conjugated structurally defined PEG chains with twelve ethylene glycol units to the 3?-terminal hydroxyl group of both sense and antisense strands via an aminoalkyl linker. The conjugates were easily purified by HPLC and successful PEGylation and molecule integrity were confirmed by ESI-MS. The evaluation of in vitro gene knockdown of two different targets in MCF-7 breast cancer cells showed stable pharmacologic activity when combined with a standard transfection reagent. Sense strand PEGylation even increased the silencing potency of a CRCX4-siRNA which had modest activity in its wild-type form. The results indicate that PEG chains at the 3?-terminus of both strands of siRNA are well tolerated by the RNAi effector. The attachment of short, chemically defined PEG chains is a feasible approach to improve the pharmacokinetic properties of siRNA, and can be combined with other targeted and untargeted delivery vehicles. PMID:24613624

  17. Functional Characterization of the Nuclear Localization Signal for a Suppressor of Posttranscriptional Gene Silencing

    PubMed Central

    Dong, Xiangli; van Wezel, Rene; Stanley, John; Hong, Yiguo

    2003-01-01

    The nucleus-localized C2 protein of Tomato yellow leaf curl virus-China (TYLCV-C) is an active suppressor of posttranscriptional gene silencing (PTGS). Consistently, infection with TYLCV-C resulted in PTGS arrest in plants. The C2 protein possesses a functional, arginine-rich nuclear localization signal within the basic amino acid-rich region 17KVQHRIAKKTTRRRR31. When expressed from potato virus X, C2-RRRR31DVGG (in which the four consecutive arginine residues 28RRRR31 were replaced with DVGG) that had been tagged with a green fluorescent protein (GFP) failed to transport GFP into nuclei and was dysfunctional in inducing necrosis and suppressing PTGS in plants. Amino acid substitution mutants C2-K17D-GFP, C2-HR21DV-GFP, and C2-KK25DI-GFP localized to nuclei and produced necrosis, but only C2-K17D-GFP suppressed PTGS. The N-terminal portions C21-31 and C217-31 fused in frame to GFP were capable of targeting GFP to nuclei, but neither caused necrosis nor affected PTGS. Our data establish that nuclear localization is likely required for C2 protein to function in C2-mediated induction of necrosis and suppression of PTGS, which may follow diverse pathways in plants. Possible mechanisms of how the C2 protein involves these biological functions are discussed. PMID:12768021

  18. Comparison of approaches for efficient gene silencing induced by microRNA-based short hairpin RNA and indicator gene expression.

    PubMed

    Shan, Z X; Lin, Q X; Deng, C Y; Zhou, Z L; Tan, H H; Fu, Y H; Li, X H; Zhu, J N; Mai, L P; Kuang, S J; Lin, S G; Yu, X Y

    2010-04-01

    MicroRNA-based short hairpin RNAs (shRNAs) are natural inducers of RNA interference and have been increasingly used in shRNA expression strategies. In the present study, we compared the efficiencies of exogenous green fluorescence protein (GFP) and endogenous glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) knockdown and red fluorescent protein (RFP) indicator expression mediated by three differently designed plasmids. RFP was introduced either at the 5' end, at the 3' end of the human mir155-based target gene (TG) (e.g., GFP or GAPDH) shRNA expression cassette (EC), or at the 3' end of the chimeric intron-containing TG shRNA EC. Comparisons with the control vector showed an obvious reduction of GFP or GAPDH expression with the various shRNA expression plasmids (P < 0.05). When RFP was located at the 5' end or at the 3' end of the TG shRNA EC, RFP expression was low; whereas when RFP was connected with the chimeric intron-containing TG shRNA EC, RFP expression was high. Taken together, this study demonstrated an efficient plasmid design for both TG silencing induced by microRNA-based shRNA and indicator gene expression in vitro. PMID:19603286

  19. THE USE OF NANOPARTICLE-MEDIATED TARGETED GENE SILENCING AND DRUG DELIVERY TO OVERCOME TUMOR DRUG RESISTANCE

    PubMed Central

    Patil, Yogesh; Swaminathan, Suresh; Sadhukha, Tanmoy; Ma, Linan; Panyam, Jayanth

    2009-01-01

    Overexpression of drug efflux transporters such as P-glycoprotein (P-gp) enables cancer cells to develop resistance to multiple anticancer drugs. Functional inhibitors of P-gp have shown promising efficacy in early clinical trials, but their long-term safety is yet to be established. A novel approach to overcome drug resistance is to use siRNA-mediated RNA interference to silence the expression of the efflux transporter. Because P-gp plays an important role in the physiological regulation of endogenous and xenobiotic compounds in the body, it is important to deliver P-gp targeted siRNA and anticancer drug specifically to tumor cells. Further, for optimal synergy, both the drug and siRNA may need to be temporally colocalized in the tumor cells. In the current study, we investigated the effectiveness of simultaneous and targeted delivery of anticancer drug, paclitaxel, along with P-gp targeted siRNA, using poly(D,L-lactide-co-glycolide) nanoparticles to overcome tumor drug resistance. Nanoparticles were surface functionalized with biotin for active tumor targeting. Dual agent nanoparticles encapsulating the combination of paclitaxel and P-gp targeted siRNA showed significantly higher cytotoxicity in vitro than nanoparticles loaded with paclitaxel alone. Enhanced therapeutic efficacy of dual agent nanoparticles could be correlated with effective silencing of the MDR1 gene that encodes for P-gp and with increased accumulation of paclitaxel in drug-resistant tumor cells. In vivo studies in a mouse model of drug-resistant tumor demonstrated significantly greater inhibition of tumor growth following treatment with biotin-functionalized nanoparticles encapsulating both paclitaxel and P-gp targeted siRNA at a paclitaxel dose that was ineffective in the absence of gene silencing. These results suggest that that the combination of P-gp gene silencing and cytotoxic drug delivery using targeted nanoparticles can overcome tumor drug resistance. PMID:19800114

  20. Virus infection triggers widespread silencing of host genes by a distinct class of endogenous siRNAs in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Cao, Mengji; Du, Peng; Wang, Xianbing; Yu, Yun-Qi; Qiu, Yan-Hong; Li, Wanxiang; Gal-On, Amit; Zhou, Changyong; Li, Yi; Ding, Shou-Wei

    2014-10-01

    Antiviral immunity controlled by RNA interference (RNAi) in plants and animals is thought to specifically target only viral RNAs by the virus-derived small interfering RNAs (siRNAs). Here we show that activation of antiviral RNAi in Arabidopsis plants is accompanied by the production of an abundant class of endogenous siRNAs mapped to the exon regions of more than 1,000 host genes and rRNA. These virus-activated siRNAs (vasiRNAs) are predominantly 21 nucleotides long with an approximately equal ratio of sense and antisense strands. Genetically, vasiRNAs are distinct from the known plant endogenous siRNAs characterized to date and instead resemble viral siRNAs by requiring Dicer-like 4 and RNA-dependent RNA polymerase 1 (RDR1) for biogenesis. However, loss of exoribonuclease4/thylene-insensitive5 enhances vasiRNA biogenesis and virus resistance without altering the biogenesis of viral siRNAs. We show that vasiRNAs are active in directing widespread silencing of the target host genes and that Argonaute-2 binds to and is essential for the silencing activity of vasiRNAs. Production of vasiRNAs is readily detectable in Arabidopsis after infection by viruses from two distinct supergroups of plant RNA virus families and is targeted for inhibition by the silencing suppressor protein 2b of Cucumber mosaic virus. These findings reveal RDR1 production of Arabidopsis endogenous siRNAs and identify production of vasiRNAs to direct widespread silencing of host genes as a conserved response of plants to infection by diverse viruses. A possible function for vasiRNAs to confer broad-spectrum antiviral activity distinct to the virus-specific antiviral RNAi by viral siRNAs is discussed. PMID:25201959

  1. Virus infection triggers widespread silencing of host genes by a distinct class of endogenous siRNAs in Arabidopsis

    PubMed Central

    Cao, Mengji; Du, Peng; Wang, Xianbing; Yu, Yun-Qi; Qiu, Yan-Hong; Li, Wanxiang; Gal-On, Amit; Zhou, Changyong; Li, Yi; Ding, Shou-Wei

    2014-01-01

    Antiviral immunity controlled by RNA interference (RNAi) in plants and animals is thought to specifically target only viral RNAs by the virus-derived small interfering RNAs (siRNAs). Here we show that activation of antiviral RNAi in Arabidopsis plants is accompanied by the production of an abundant class of endogenous siRNAs mapped to the exon regions of more than 1,000 host genes and rRNA. These virus-activated siRNAs (vasiRNAs) are predominantly 21 nucleotides long with an approximately equal ratio of sense and antisense strands. Genetically, vasiRNAs are distinct from the known plant endogenous siRNAs characterized to date and instead resemble viral siRNAs by requiring Dicer-like 4 and RNA-dependent RNA polymerase 1 (RDR1) for biogenesis. However, loss of EXORIBONUCLEASE4/THYLENE-INSENSITIVE5 enhances vasiRNA biogenesis and virus resistance without altering the biogenesis of viral siRNAs. We show that vasiRNAs are active in directing widespread silencing of the target host genes and that Argonaute-2 binds to and is essential for the silencing activity of vasiRNAs. Production of vasiRNAs is readily detectable in Arabidopsis after infection by viruses from two distinct supergroups of plant RNA virus families and is targeted for inhibition by the silencing suppressor protein 2b of Cucumber mosaic virus. These findings reveal RDR1 production of Arabidopsis endogenous siRNAs and identify production of vasiRNAs to direct widespread silencing of host genes as a conserved response of plants to infection by diverse viruses. A possible function for vasiRNAs to confer broad-spectrum antiviral activity distinct to the virus-specific antiviral RNAi by viral siRNAs is discussed. PMID:25201959

  2. Host-induced gene silencing of wheat leaf rust fungus Puccinia triticina pathogenicity genes mediated by the Barley stripe mosaic virus.

    PubMed

    Panwar, Vinay; McCallum, Brent; Bakkeren, Guus

    2013-04-01

    Rust fungi are devastating plant pathogens and several Puccinia species have a large economic impact on wheat production worldwide. Disease protection, mostly offered by introgressed host-resistance genes, is often race-specific and rapidly overcome by newly-emerging virulent strains. Extensive new genomic resources have identified vital pathogenicity genes but their study is hampered because of the biotrophic life styles of rust fungi. In cereals, Barley stripe mosaic virus (BSMV)-induced RNAi has emerged as a useful tool to study loss-of-function phenotypes of candidate genes. Expression of pathogen-derived gene fragments in this system can be used to obtain in planta-generated silencing of corresponding genes inside biotrophic pathogens, a technique termed host-induced gene silencing (HIGS). Here we test the effectiveness of BSMV-mediated HIGS in the wheat leaf rust fungus Puccinia triticina (Pt) by targeting three predicted pathogenicity genes, a MAPK, a cyclophilin, and a calcineurin regulatory subunit. Inoculation of BSMV RNAi constructs generated fungal gene-specific siRNA molecules in systemic leaves of wheat plant. Subsequent Pt inoculation resulted in a suppressed disease phenotype and a reduction in endogenous transcript levels of the targeted fungal genes indicating translocation of siRNA molecules from host to fungal cells. Efficiency of this host-generated trans-specific RNAi was enhanced by using BSMV silencing vectors defective in coat protein coupled with introducing fungal gene sequences simultaneously in sense and antisense orientation. The disease suppression indicated the likely involvement of these fungal genes in pathogenicity. This study demonstrates that BSMV-mediated in planta-generated RNAi is an effective strategy for functional genomics in rust fungi. PMID:23417582

  3. Virus induced gene silencing of a gene repressing flowering in sugar beet.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Exposure to a prolonged cold period during winter is necessary for flowering in the next spring in many biennial plants - a process termed vernalization. We have described BvFL1, a vernalization gene in sugar beet (Beta vulgaris), which is a repressor of flowering that is downregulated in response ...

  4. Molecular basis for improved gene silencing by Dicer substrate interfering RNA compared with other siRNA variants

    PubMed Central

    Snead, Nicholas M.; Wu, Xiwei; Li, Arthur; Cui, Qi; Sakurai, Kumi; Burnett, John C.; Rossi, John J.

    2013-01-01

    The canonical exogenous trigger of RNA interference (RNAi) in mammals is small interfering RNA (siRNA). One promising application of RNAi is siRNA-based therapeutics, and therefore the optimization of siRNA efficacy is an important consideration. To reduce unfavorable properties of canonical 21mer siRNAs, structural and chemical variations to canonical siRNA have been reported. Several of these siRNA variants demonstrate increased potency in downstream readout-based assays, but the molecular mechanism underlying the increased potency is not clear. Here, we tested the performance of canonical siRNAs and several sequence-matched variants in parallel in gene silencing, RNA-induced silencing complex (RISC) assembly, stability and Argonaute (Ago) loading assays. The commonly used 19mer with two deoxythymidine overhangs (19merTT) variant performed similarly to canonical 21mer siRNA. A shorter 16mer variant (16merTT) did not perform comparably in our assays. Dicer substrate interfering RNA (dsiRNA) demonstrated better gene silencing by the guide strand (target complementary strand), better RISC assembly, persistence of the guide strand and relatively more loading of the guide strand into Ago. Hence, we demonstrate the advantageous properties of dsiRNAs at upstream, intermediate and downstream molecular steps of the RNAi pathway. PMID:23620279

  5. An Alpha Motif at Tas3C Terminus Mediates RITS Cis Spreading and Promotes Heterochromatic Gene Silencing

    SciTech Connect

    Li, H.; Motamedi, M; Yip, C; Wang, Z; Walz, T; Patel, D; Moazed, D

    2009-01-01

    RNA interference (RNAi) plays a pivotal role in the formation of heterochromatin at the fission yeast centromeres. The RNA-induced transcriptional silencing (RITS) complex, composed of heterochromatic small interfering RNAs (siRNAs), the siRNA-binding protein Ago1, the chromodomain protein Chp1, and the Ago1/Chp1-interacting protein Tas3, provides a physical tether between the RNAi and heterochromatin assembly pathways. Here, we report the structural and functional characterization of a C-terminal Tas3 {alpha}-helical motif (TAM), which self-associates into a helical polymer and is required for cis spreading of RITS in centromeric DNA regions. Site-directed mutations of key residues within the hydrophobic monomer-monomer interface disrupt Tas3-TAM polymeric self-association in vitro and result in loss of gene silencing, spreading of RITS, and a dramatic reduction in centromeric siRNAs in vivo. These results demonstrate that, in addition to the chromodomain of Chp1 and siRNA-loaded Ago1, Tas3 self-association is required for RITS spreading and efficient heterochromatic gene silencing at centromeric repeat regions.

  6. Functional analysis of a multicopy host-selective ACT-toxin biosynthesis gene in the tangerine pathotype of Alternaria alternata using RNA silencing.

    PubMed

    Miyamoto, Y; Masunaka, A; Tsuge, T; Yamamoto, M; Ohtani, K; Fukumoto, T; Gomi, K; Peever, T L; Akimitsu, K

    2008-12-01

    Alternaria brown spot, caused by the tangerine pathotype of Alternaria alternata, is a serious disease of commercially important tangerines and their hybrids. The pathogen produces host-selective ACT toxin, and several genes (named ACTT) responsible for ACT-toxin biosynthesis have been identified. These genes have many paralogs, which are clustered on a small, conditionally dispensable chromosome, making it difficult to disrupt entire functional copies of ACTT genes using homologous recombination-mediated gene disruption. To overcome this problem, we attempted to use RNA silencing, which has never been employed in Alternaria spp., to knock down the functional copies of one ACTT gene with a single silencing event. ACTT2, which encodes a putative hydrolase and is present in multiple copies in the genome, was silenced by transforming the fungus with a plasmid construct expressing hairpin ACTT2 RNAs. The ACTT2 RNA-silenced transformant (S-7-24-2) completely lost ACTT2 transcripts and ACT-toxin production as well as pathogenicity. These results indicated that RNA silencing may be a useful technique for studying the role of ACTT genes responsible for host-selective toxin biosynthesis in A. alternata. Further, this technique may be broadly applicable to the analysis of many genes present in multiple copies in fungal genomes that are difficult to analyze using recombination-mediated knockdowns. PMID:18986255

  7. Interplay of Developmentally Regulated Gene Expression and Heterochromatic Silencing in Trans in Drosophila

    PubMed Central

    Sage, Brian T.; Wu, Michael D.; Csink, Amy K.

    2008-01-01

    The brownDominant (bwD) allele of Drosophila contains a heterochromatic block that causes the locus to interact with centric heterochromatin. This association silences bw+ in heterozygotes (trans-inactivation) and is dependent on nuclear organizational changes later in development, suggesting that trans-inactivation may not be possible until later in development. To study this, a P element containing an upstream activating sequence (UAS)–GFP reporter was inserted 5 kb from the bwD insertion site. Seven different GAL4 driver lines were used and GFP fluorescence was compared in the presence or the absence of bwD. We measured silencing in different tissues and stages of development and found variable silencing of GFP expression driven by the same driver. When UAS–GFP was not expressed until differentiation in the eye imaginal disc it was more easily trans-inactivated than when it was expressed earlier in undifferentiated cells. In contrast to some studies by other workers on silencing in cis, we did not find consistent correlation of silencing with level of expression or evidence of relaxation of silencing with terminal differentiation. We suggest that such contrasting results may be attributed to a potentially different role played by nuclear organization in cis and trans position-effect variegation. PMID:18245337

  8. Cytosine methylation at CG and CNG sites is not a prerequisite for the initiation of transcriptional gene silencing in plants, but it is required for its maintenance.

    PubMed

    Diéguez, M J; Vaucheret, H; Paszkowski, J; Mittelsten Scheid, O

    1998-08-01

    Transgenes integrated into plant chromosomes, and/or endogenous plant genes, may be subjected to epigenetic silencing at the transcriptional or post-transcriptional level. Transcriptional inactivation is correlated with hypermethylation of CG/CNG sites at the silent loci. It is not known whether local hypermethylation is part of the inactivation process, or just an outcome of the silent state. To address this issue, we generated transgenic tobacco lines containing a selectable marker gene controlled by a derivative of the 35S promoter of the cauliflower mosaic virus (CaMV) devoid of CG and CNG methylation acceptor sites. Silencing was triggered by crossing to the silencer locus of tobacco line 271. This line contains inactive and methylated copies of the 35S promoter and is able to silence homologous promoter copies at ectopic chromosomal positions. The mutated promoter lacking CG/CNG methylation acceptor sites was as susceptible to Trans-silencing as the unmodified 35S promoter control. Thus, methylation at CG and CNG sites is not a prerequisite for the initiation of epigenetic gene inactivation. Interestingly, while methylation of the remaining cytosines is usually only slightly affected by silencing, it was significantly increased in the absence of CG/CNG sequences. Since this sequence preference is the same as that of known methyltransferases, this may imply that silencing is accompanied or directly followed by recruitment of methyltransferase, which, in the absence of cytosines in the optimal sequence context, modifies other C residues in the affected area. However, silencing without CG/CNG methylation was immediately relieved in the absence of the silencer. Thus, CG/CNG methylation is probably essential for the maintenance of previously established epigenetic states. PMID:9747712

  9. Nanoparticle Based Galectin-1 Gene Silencing, Implications in Methamphetamine Regulation of HIV-1 Infection in Monocyte Derived Macrophages

    PubMed Central

    Law, Wing Cheung; Mahajan, Supriya D.; Aalinkeel, Ravikumar; Nair, Bindukumar; Sykes, Donald E.; Yong, Ken-Tye; Hui, Rui; Prasad, Paras N.; Schwartz, Stanley A.

    2012-01-01

    Galectin-1, an adhesion molecule, is expressed in macrophages and implicated in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-1) viral adsorption. In this study, we investigated the effects of methamphetamine on galectin-1 production in human monocyte derived macrophages (MDM) and the role of galectin-1 in methamphetamine potentiation of HIV-1 infection. Herein we show that levels of galectin-1 gene and protein expression are significantly increased by meth-amphetamine. Furthermore, concomitant incubation of MDM with galectin-1 and methamphetamine facilitates HIV-1 infection compared to galectin-1 alone or methamphetamine alone. We utilized a nanotechnology approach that uses gold nanorod (GNR)-galectin-1 siRNA complexes (nanoplexes) to inhibit gene expression for galectin-1. Nanoplexes significantly silenced gene expression for galectin-1 and reversed the effects of methamphetamine on galectin-1 gene expression. Moreover, the effects of methamphetamine on HIV-1 infection were attenuated in the presence of the nanoplex in MDM. PMID:22689223

  10. Gene Silencing by Gold Nanoshell-Mediated Delivery and Laser-Triggered Release of Antisense Oligonucleotide and siRNA

    PubMed Central

    Huschka, Ryan; Barhoumi, Aoune; Liu, Qing; Roth, Jack A.; Ji, Lin; Halas, Naomi J.

    2013-01-01

    The approach of RNA interference (RNAi)- using antisense DNA or RNA oligonucleotides to silence activity of a specific pathogenic gene transcript and reduce expression of the encoded protein- is very useful in dissecting genetic function and holds significant promise as a molecular therapeutic. A major obstacle in achieving gene silencing with RNAi technology is the systemic delivery of therapeutic oligonucleotides. Here we demonstrate an engineered gold nanoshell (NS)-based therapeutic oligonucleotide delivery vehicle, designed to release its cargo on demand upon illumination with a near-infrared (NIR) laser. A poly(L)lysine peptide (PLL) epilayer covalently attached to the NS surface (NS-PLL) is used to capture intact, single-stranded antisense DNA oligonucleotides, or alternatively, double-stranded short-interfering RNA (siRNA) molecules. Controlled release of the captured therapeutic oligonucleotides in each case is accomplished by continuous wave NIR laser irradiation at 800 nm, near the resonance wavelength of the nanoshell. Fluorescently tagged oligonucleotides were used to monitor the time-dependent release process and light-triggered endosomal release. A green fluorescent protein (GFP)-expressing human lung cancer H1299 cell line was used to determine cellular uptake and gene silencing mediated by the NS-PLL carrying GFP gene-specific single-stranded DNA antisense oligonucleotide (AON-GFP), or a double-stranded siRNA (siRNA-GFP), in vitro. Light-triggered delivery resulted in ? 47% and ?49% downregulation of the targeted GFP expression by AON-GFP and siRNA-GFP, respectively. Cytotoxicity induced by both the NS-PLL delivery vector and by laser irradiation is minimal, as demonstrated by a XTT cell proliferation assay. PMID:22862291

  11. Citrus tristeza virus-based RNAi in citrus plants induces gene silencing in Diaphorina citri, a phloem-sap sucking insect vector of citrus greening disease (Huanglongbing).

    PubMed

    Hajeri, Subhas; Killiny, Nabil; El-Mohtar, Choaa; Dawson, William O; Gowda, Siddarame

    2014-04-20

    A transient expression vector based on Citrus tristeza virus (CTV) is unusually stable. Because of its stability it is being considered for use in the field to control Huanglongbing (HLB), which is caused by Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus (CLas) and vectored by Asian citrus psyllid, Diaphorina citri. In the absence of effective control strategies for CLas, emphasis has been on control of D. citri. Coincident cohabitation in phloem tissue by CLas, D. citri and CTV was exploited to develop a novel method to mitigate HLB through RNA interference (RNAi). Since CTV has three RNA silencing suppressors, it was not known if CTV-based vector could induce RNAi in citrus. Yet, expression of sequences targeting citrus phytoene desaturase gene by CTV-RNAi resulted in photo-bleaching phenotype. CTV-RNAi vector, engineered with truncated abnormal wing disc (Awd) gene of D. citri, induced altered Awd expression when silencing triggers ingested by feeding D. citri nymphs. Decreased Awd in nymphs resulted in malformed-wing phenotype in adults and increased adult mortality. This impaired ability of D. citri to fly would potentially limit the successful vectoring of CLas bacteria between citrus trees in the grove. CTV-RNAi vector would be relevant for fast-track screening of candidate sequences for RNAi-mediated pest control. PMID:24572372

  12. Frequent Long-Range Epigenetic Silencing of Protocadherin Gene Clusters on Chromosome 5q31 in Wilms' Tumor

    PubMed Central

    Dallosso, Anthony R.; Hancock, Anne L.; Szemes, Marianna; Moorwood, Kim; Chilukamarri, Laxmi; Tsai, Hsin-Hao; Sarkar, Abby; Barasch, Jonathan; Vuononvirta, Raisa; Jones, Chris; Pritchard-Jones, Kathy; Royer-Pokora, Brigitte; Lee, Sean Bong; Owen, Ceris; Malik, Sally; Feng, Yi; Frank, Marcus; Ward, Andrew; Brown, Keith W.; Malik, Karim

    2009-01-01

    Wilms' tumour (WT) is a pediatric tumor of the kidney that arises via failure of the fetal developmental program. The absence of identifiable mutations in the majority of WTs suggests the frequent involvement of epigenetic aberrations in WT. We therefore conducted a genome-wide analysis of promoter hypermethylation in WTs and identified hypermethylation at chromosome 5q31 spanning 800 kilobases (kb) and more than 50 genes. The methylated genes all belong to ?-, ?-, and ?-protocadherin (PCDH) gene clusters (Human Genome Organization nomenclature PCDHA@, PCDHB@, and PCDHG@, respectively). This demonstrates that long-range epigenetic silencing (LRES) occurs in developmental tumors as well as in adult tumors. Bisulfite polymerase chain reaction analysis showed that PCDH hypermethylation is a frequent event found in all Wilms' tumor subtypes. Hypermethylation is concordant with reduced PCDH expression in tumors. WT precursor lesions showed no PCDH hypermethylation, suggesting that de novo PCDH hypermethylation occurs during malignant progression. Discrete boundaries of the PCDH domain are delimited by abrupt changes in histone modifications; unmethylated genes flanking the LRES are associated with permissive marks which are absent from methylated genes within the domain. Silenced genes are marked with non-permissive histone 3 lysine 9 dimethylation. Expression analysis of embryonic murine kidney and differentiating rat metanephric mesenchymal cells demonstrates that Pcdh expression is developmentally regulated and that Pcdhg@ genes are expressed in blastemal cells. Importantly, we show that PCDHs negatively regulate canonical Wnt signalling, as short-interfering RNA–induced reduction of PCDHG@ encoded proteins leads to elevated ?-catenin protein, increased ?-catenin/T-cell factor (TCF) reporter activity, and induction of Wnt target genes. Conversely, over-expression of PCDHs suppresses ?-catenin/TCF-reporter activity and also inhibits colony formation and growth of cancer cells in soft agar. Thus PCDHs are candidate tumor suppressors that modulate regulatory pathways critical in development and disease, such as canonical Wnt signaling. PMID:19956686

  13. New Generation of Artificial MicroRNA and Synthetic Trans-Acting Small Interfering RNA Vectors for Efficient Gene Silencing in Arabidopsis1[W][OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Carbonell, Alberto; Takeda, Atsushi; Fahlgren, Noah; Johnson, Simon C.; Cuperus, Josh T.; Carrington, James C.

    2014-01-01

    Artificial microRNAs (amiRNAs) and synthetic trans-acting small interfering RNAs (syn-tasiRNAs) are used for small RNA-based, specific gene silencing or knockdown in plants. Current methods to generate amiRNA or syn-tasiRNA constructs are not well adapted for cost-effective, large-scale production or for multiplexing to specifically suppress multiple targets. Here, we describe simple, fast, and cost-effective methods with high-throughput capability to generate amiRNA and multiplexed syn-tasiRNA constructs for efficient gene silencing in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) and other plant species. amiRNA or syn-tasiRNA inserts resulting from the annealing of two overlapping and partially complementary oligonucleotides are ligated directionally into a zero background BsaI/ccdB-based expression vector. BsaI/ccdB vectors for amiRNA or syn-tasiRNA cloning and expression contain a modified version of Arabidopsis MIR390a or TAS1c precursors, respectively, in which a fragment of the endogenous sequence was substituted by a ccdB cassette flanked by two BsaI sites. Several amiRNA and syn-tasiRNA sequences designed to target one or more endogenous genes were validated in transgenic plants that (1) exhibited the expected phenotypes predicted by loss of target gene function, (2) accumulated high levels of accurately processed amiRNAs or syn-tasiRNAs, and (3) had reduced levels of the corresponding target RNAs. PMID:24647477

  14. Efficacious gene silencing in serum and significant apoptotic activity induction by survivin downregulation mediated by new cationic gemini tocopheryl lipids.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Krishan; Maiti, Bappa; Kondaiah, Paturu; Bhattacharya, Santanu

    2015-02-01

    Nonviral gene delivery offers cationic liposomes as promising instruments for the delivery of double-stranded RNA (ds RNA) molecules for successful sequence-specific gene silencing (RNA interference). The efficient delivery of siRNA (small interfering RNA) to cells while avoiding unexpected side effects is an important prerequisite for the exploitation of the power of this excellent tool. We present here six new tocopherol based cationic gemini lipids, which induce substantial gene knockdown without any obvious cytotoxicity. All the efficient coliposomal formulations derived from each of these geminis and a helper lipid, dioleoylphosphatidylethanolamine (DOPE), were well characterized using physical methods such as atomic force microscopy (AFM) and dynamic light scattering (DLS). Zeta potential measurements were conducted to estimate the surface charge of these formulations. Flow cytometric analysis showed that the optimized coliposomal formulations could transfect anti-GFP siRNA efficiently in three different GFP expressing cell lines, viz., HEK 293T, HeLa, and Caco-2, significantly better than a potent commercial standard Lipofectamine 2000 (L2K) both in the absence and in the presence of serum (FBS). Notably, the knockdown activity of coliposomes of gemini lipids was not affected even in the presence of serum (10% and 50% FBS) while it dropped down for L2K significantly. Observations under a fluorescence microscope, RT-PCR, and Western blot analysis substantiated the flow cytometry results. The efficient cellular entry of labeled siRNA in GFP expressing cells as evidenced from confocal microscopy put forward these gemini lipids among the potent lipidic carriers for siRNA. The efficient transfection capabilities were also profiled in a more relevant fashion while performing siRNA transfections against survivin (an anti-apoptotic protein) which induced substantial apoptosis. Furthermore, the survivin downregulation improved the therapeutic efficacy levels of an anticancer drug, doxorubicin, significantly. In short, the new tocopherol based gemini lipids appear to be highly promising for achieving siRNA mediated gene knockdown in various cell lines. PMID:25438085

  15. Heterochromatic gene silencing by activator interference and a transcription elongation barrier.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Aaron; Wu, Ronghu; Peetz, Matthew; Gygi, Steven P; Moazed, Danesh

    2013-10-01

    Heterochromatin silences transcription, contributing to development, differentiation, and genome stability in eukaryotic organisms. Budding yeast heterochromatic silencing is strictly dependent on the silent information regulator (SIR) complex composed of the Sir2 histone deacetylase and the chromatin-interacting proteins Sir3 and Sir4. We use reconstituted SIR heterochromatin to characterize the steps in transcription that are disrupted to achieve silencing. Transcriptional activator binding is permitted before and after heterochromatin assembly. A comprehensive proteomic approach identified heterochromatin-mediated disruption of activator interactions with coactivator complexes. We also find that if RNA polymerase II (Pol II) is allowed to initiate transcription, the SIR complex blocks elongation on chromatin while maintaining Pol II in a halted conformation. This Pol II elongation barrier functions for even one nucleosome, is more effective when assembled with multiple nucleosomes, and is sensitive to a histone mutation that is known to disrupt silencing. This dual mechanism of silencing suggests a conserved principle of heterochromatin in assembling a specific structure that targets multiple steps to achieve repression. PMID:23940036

  16. Heterochromatic Gene Silencing by Activator Interference and a Transcription Elongation Barrier*

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Aaron; Wu, Ronghu; Peetz, Matthew; Gygi, Steven P.; Moazed, Danesh

    2013-01-01

    Heterochromatin silences transcription, contributing to development, differentiation, and genome stability in eukaryotic organisms. Budding yeast heterochromatic silencing is strictly dependent on the silent information regulator (SIR) complex composed of the Sir2 histone deacetylase and the chromatin-interacting proteins Sir3 and Sir4. We use reconstituted SIR heterochromatin to characterize the steps in transcription that are disrupted to achieve silencing. Transcriptional activator binding is permitted before and after heterochromatin assembly. A comprehensive proteomic approach identified heterochromatin-mediated disruption of activator interactions with coactivator complexes. We also find that if RNA polymerase II (Pol II) is allowed to initiate transcription, the SIR complex blocks elongation on chromatin while maintaining Pol II in a halted conformation. This Pol II elongation barrier functions for even one nucleosome, is more effective when assembled with multiple nucleosomes, and is sensitive to a histone mutation that is known to disrupt silencing. This dual mechanism of silencing suggests a conserved principle of heterochromatin in assembling a specific structure that targets multiple steps to achieve repression. PMID:23940036

  17. Gene Therapy for Neuropathic Pain by Silencing of TNF-? Expression with Lentiviral Vectors Targeting the Dorsal Root Ganglion in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Ogawa, Nobuhiro; Kawai, Hiromichi; Terashima, Tomoya; Kojima, Hideto; Oka, Kazuhiro; Chan, Lawrence; Maegawa, Hiroshi

    2014-01-01

    Neuropathic pain can be a debilitating condition. Many types of drugs that have been used to treat neuropathic pain have only limited efficacy. Recent studies indicate that pro-inflammatory mediators including tumor necrosis factor ? (TNF-?) are involved in the pathogenesis of neuropathic pain. In the present study, we engineered a gene therapy strategy to relieve neuropathic pain by silencing TNF-? expression in the dorsal root ganglion (DRG) using lentiviral vectors expressing TNF short hairpin RNA1-4 (LV-TNF-shRNA1-4) in mice. First, based on its efficacy in silencing TNF-? in vitro, we selected shRNA3 to construct LV-TNF-shRNA3 for in vivo study. We used L5 spinal nerve transection (SNT) mice as a neuropathic pain model. These animals were found to display up-regulated mRNA expression of activating transcription factor 3 (ATF3) and neuropeptide Y (NPY), injury markers, and interleukin (IL)-6, an inflammatory cytokine in the ipsilateral L5 DRG. Injection of LV-TNF-shRNA3 onto the proximal transected site suppressed significantly the mRNA levels of ATF3, NPY and IL-6, reduced mechanical allodynia and neuronal cell death of DRG neurons. These results suggest that lentiviral-mediated silencing of TNF-? in DRG relieves neuropathic pain and reduces neuronal cell death, and may constitute a novel therapeutic option for neuropathic pain. PMID:24642694

  18. Cloning and characterization of the erg1 gene of Trichoderma harzianum: effect of the erg1 silencing on ergosterol biosynthesis and resistance to terbinafine.

    PubMed

    Cardoza, R E; Vizcaíno, J A; Hermosa, M R; Sousa, S; González, F J; Llobell, A; Monte, E; Gutiérrez, S

    2006-03-01

    Trichoderma species are commonly used as biocontrol agents of different plant-pathogenic fungi. Terpene compounds are involved in the biocontrol process due to their antifungal properties (e.g., ergokonins and viridins) but additionally their structural function in the cell membranes (ergosterol) is essential. We report here the characterization of the T. harzianum erg1 gene, encoding a squalene epoxidase, a key enzyme in the biosynthesis of triterpene derivatives such as ergosterol. In T. harzianum the partial silencing of the erg1 gene gave rise to transformants with a higher level of sensitivity to terbinafine, an antifungal compound that acts specifically over the squalene epoxidase activity. In addition, these silenced transformants produced lower levels of ergosterol than the wild type strain. Finally, the silencing of the erg1 gene resulted in an increase in the expression level of the erg7 gene that encodes the oxidosqualene lanosterol-cyclase, another enzyme of the terpene biosynthesis pathway. PMID:16466954

  19. Tombusvirus-based vector systems to permit over-expression of genes or that serve as sensors of antiviral RNA silencing in plants.

    PubMed

    Shamekova, Malika; Mendoza, Maria R; Hsieh, Yi-Cheng; Lindbo, John; Omarov, Rustem T; Scholthof, Herman B

    2014-03-01

    A next generation Tomato bushy stunt virus (TBSV) coat protein gene replacement vector system is described that can be applied by either RNA inoculation or through agroinfiltration. A vector expressing GFP rapidly yields high levels of transient gene expression in inoculated leaves of various plant species, as illustrated for Nicotiana benthamiana, cowpea, tomato, pepper, and lettuce. A start-codon mutation to down-regulate the dose of the P19 silencing suppressor reduces GFP accumulation, whereas mutations that result in undetectable levels of P19 trigger rapid silencing of GFP. Compared to existing virus vectors the TBSV system has a unique combination of a very broad host range, rapid and high levels of replication and gene expression, and the ability to regulate its suppressor. These features are attractive for quick transient assays in numerous plant species for over-expression of genes of interest, or as a sensor to monitor the efficacy of antiviral RNA silencing. PMID:24606693

  20. High-Stearic and High-Oleic Cottonseed Oils Produced by Hairpin RNA-Mediated Post-Transcriptional Gene Silencing1

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Qing; Singh, Surinder P.; Green, Allan G.

    2002-01-01

    We have genetically modified the fatty acid composition of cottonseed oil using the recently developed technique of hairpin RNA-mediated gene silencing to down-regulate the seed expression of two key fatty acid desaturase genes, ghSAD-1-encoding stearoyl-acyl-carrier protein ?9-desaturase and ghFAD2-1-encoding oleoyl-phosphatidylcholine ?6-desaturase. Hairpin RNA-encoding gene constructs (HP) targeted against either ghSAD-1 or ghFAD2-1 were transformed into cotton (Gossypium hirsutum cv Coker 315). The resulting down-regulation of the ghSAD-1 gene substantially increased stearic acid from the normal levels of 2% to 3% up to as high as 40%, and silencing of the ghFAD2-1 gene resulted in greatly elevated oleic acid content, up to 77% compared with about 15% in seeds of untransformed plants. In addition, palmitic acid was significantly lowered in both high-stearic and high-oleic lines. Similar fatty acid composition phenotypes were also achieved by transformation with conventional antisense constructs targeted against the same genes, but at much lower frequencies than were achieved with the HP constructs. By intercrossing the high-stearic and high-oleic genotypes, it was possible to simultaneously down-regulate both ghSAD-1 and ghFAD2-1 to the same degree as observed in the individually silenced parental lines, demonstrating for the first time, to our knowledge, that duplex RNA-induced posttranslational gene silencing in independent genes can be stacked without any diminution in the degree of silencing. The silencing of ghSAD-1 and/or ghFAD2-1 to various degrees enables the development of cottonseed oils having novel combinations of palmitic, stearic, oleic, and linoleic contents that can be used in margarines and deep frying without hydrogenation and also potentially in high-value confectionery applications. PMID:12177486

  1. Bioenergetics and Gene Silencing Approaches for Unraveling Nucleotide Recognition by the Human EIF2C2/Ago2 PAZ Domain

    PubMed Central

    Kandeel, Mahmoud; Al-Taher, Abdullah; Nakashima, Remi; Sakaguchi, Tomoya; Kandeel, Ali; Nagaya, Yuki; Kitamura, Yoshiaki; Kitade, Yukio

    2014-01-01

    Gene silencing and RNA interference are major cellular processes that control gene expression via the cleavage of target mRNA. Eukaryotic translation initiation factor 2C2 (EIF2C2, Argonaute protein 2, Ago2) is considered to be the major player of RNAi as it is the core component of RISC complexes. While a considerable amount of research has focused on RNA interference and its associated mechanisms, the nature and mechanisms of nucleotide recognition by the PAZ domain of EIF2C2/Ago2 have not yet been characterized. Here, we demonstrate that the EIF2C2/Ago2 PAZ domain has an inherent lack of binding to adenine nucleotides, a feature that highlights the poor binding of 3?-adenylated RNAs with the PAZ domain as well as the selective high trimming of the 3?-ends of miRNA containing adenine nucleotides. We further show that the PAZ domain selectively binds all ribonucleotides (except adenosine), whereas it poorly recognizes deoxyribonucleotides. In this context, the modification of dTMP to its ribonucleotide analogue gave a drastic improvement of binding enthalpy and, hence, binding affinity. Additionally, higher in vivo gene silencing efficacy was correlated with the stronger PAZ domain binders. These findings provide new insights into the nature of the interactions of the EIF2C2/Ago2 PAZ domain. PMID:24788663

  2. Engineering broad root-knot resistance in transgenic plants by RNAi silencing of a conserved and essential root-knot nematode parasitism gene

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Guozhong Huang; Rex Allen; Eric L. Davis; Thomas J. Baum; Richard S. Hussey

    2006-01-01

    Secreted parasitism proteins encoded by parasitism genes expressed in esophageal gland cells mediate infection and parasitism of plants by root-knot nematodes (RKN). Parasitism gene 16D10 encodes a conserved RKN secretory peptide that stimulates root growth and functions as a ligand for a putative plant transcription factor. We used in vitro and in vivo RNA interference approaches to silence this parasitism

  3. Silencing defense pathways in Arabidopsis by heterologous gene sequences from Brassica oleracea enhances the performance of a specialist and a generalist herbivorous insect.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Si-Jun; Zhang, Peng-Jun; van Loon, Joop J A; Dicke, Marcel

    2011-08-01

    The jasmonic acid (JA) signaling pathway and defensive secondary metabolites such as glucosinolates are generally considered to play central roles in the defense of brassicaceous plants against herbivorous insects. To determine the function of specific plant genes in plant-insect interactions, signaling or biosynthetic mutants are needed. However, mutants are not yet available for brassicaceous plants other than Arabidopsis thaliana, e.g., cabbage (Brassica oleracea). We employed virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS) by using tobacco rattle virus (TRV) to knock down the endogenous expression of lipoxygenase (LOX), an upstream enzyme of the JA pathway and thioglucoside glucohydrolase: myrosinase (TGG1/TGG2), a hydrolytic enzyme that catalyzes the release of defensive volatile products originating from glucosinolates, in Arabidopsis thaliana. This was done by using the heterologous gene sequences from B. oleracea. Silencing these genes in A. thaliana plants is efficient and specific. Only 18 nucleotides with 100% identity between the trigger (BoMYR) and the target (AtTGG1/2) sequence are sufficient to achieve gene silencing. LOX-silenced plants showed significantly reduced AtLOX2 transcript accumulation after Pieris rapae larval feeding. TGG-silenced plants exhibited significantly lower TGG1/TGG2 transcript levels only after shorter larval feeding. The inhibition of TGG1/TGG2 transcript accumulation via gene silencing may be overruled by longer larval feeding. Specialist P. rapae larvae developed significantly better on both types of silenced plants than on empty vector (EV) control plants, while generalist Mamestra brassicae larvae developed significantly better on the TGG1/TGG2 silenced plants than on EV control plants. This shows that not only the generalist herbivore but also the Brassicaceae-specialist P. rapae is negatively affected by the ability of brassicaceous plants to produce their specific secondary metabolites, i.e., glucosinolates. Our results demonstrate the important roles of AtLOX2 and AtTGG1/TGG2 genes, which were silenced by heterologous gene sequences from B. oleracea BoLOX and BoMYR, in A. thaliana resistance to the specialist P. rapae and the generalist M. brassicae. PMID:21691809

  4. Video Article Virus-induced Gene Silencing (VIGS) in Nicotiana benthamiana and Tomato

    E-print Network

    Pawlowski, Wojtek

    themselves against infection by viruses. Consequently, many viruses have evolved suppressors of gene) is a method that takes advantage of the plant RNAi-mediated antiviral defense mechanism. In plants infected and the first 2 - 4 true leaves have emerged. Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) plants are used 7 - 8 days post

  5. Tobacco rattle virus mediates gene silencing in a plant parasitic root-knot nematode

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. Dubreuil; M. Magliano; M. P. Dubrana; J. Lozano; P. Lecomte; B. Favery; P. Abad; M. N. Rosso

    2009-01-01

    Root-knot nematodes (RKNs) are sedentary biotrophic parasites that induce the differentiation of root cells into feeding cells that provide the nematodes with the nutrients necessary for their development. The development of new control methods against RKNs relies greatly on the functional analysis of genes that are crucial for the development of the pathogen or the success of parasitism. In the

  6. Silencing of PNPLA6, the neuropathy target esterase (NTE) codifying gene, alters neurodifferentiation of human embryonal carcinoma stem cells (NT2).

    PubMed

    Pamies, D; Bal-Price, A; Fabbri, M; Gribaldo, L; Scelfo, B; Harris, G; Collotta, A; Vilanova, E; Sogorb, M A

    2014-09-26

    Neuropathy target esterase (NTE) is a protein involved in the development of a polyneuropathy caused by exposure to certain organophosphorus compounds. In vivo and in vitro studies have also associated NTE with embryonic development since NTE null mice embryos are non-viable, and silencing the NTE-codifying gene (Pnpla6) in mouse embryonic stem cells strongly alters the differentiation of vascular and nervous systems. In this paper, human embryonal carcinoma stem cells human-derived NTera2/D1 (hNT2) are used as an in vitro neurodifferentiation model to determine whether PNPLA6 silencing is able to alter the differentiation process. In control cultures, PNPLA6 mRNA levels increased in parallel with other neuroectodermal markers during neurodifferentiation. PNPLA6 silencing with specific interference RNA reached a 97% decrease in gene expression 3days after transfection and with a maximum reduction in NTE enzymatic activity (50%), observed on day 4. Silencing PNPLA6 showed an 80% decrease in quantifiable neuronal cells after 13days in vitro (DIV) compared to controls and absence of different neuronal markers after 66DIV. Microarray data analysis of the PNPLA6-silenced cells showed alterations in several developmental processes, mainly neurogenesis and epithelium tube morphogenesis. PNPLA6 silencing also led to a reduction in electrical activity and an altered neuronal phenotype. This work is the first proof supporting the hypothesis that NTE plays a role in human early neurodevelopment using a human cell differentiation model. PMID:25255935

  7. Virus-induced gene silencing reveals control of reactive oxygen species accumulation and salt tolerance in tomato by ?-aminobutyric acid metabolic pathway.

    PubMed

    Bao, Hexigeduleng; Chen, Xianyang; Lv, Sulian; Jiang, Ping; Feng, Juanjuan; Fan, Pengxiang; Nie, Lingling; Li, Yinxin

    2015-03-01

    ?-Aminobutyric acid (GABA) accumulates in many plant species in response to environmental stress. However, the physiological function of GABA or its metabolic pathway (GABA shunt) in plants remains largely unclear. Here, the genes, including glutamate decarboxylases (SlGADs), GABA?transaminases (SlGABA-Ts) and succinic semialdehyde dehydrogenase (SlSSADH), controlling three steps of the metabolic pathway of GABA, were studied through virus-induced gene silencing approach in tomato. Silencing of SlGADs (GABA biosynthetic genes) and SlGABA-Ts (GABA catabolic genes) led to increased accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) as well as salt sensitivity under 200?mm NaCl treatment. Targeted quantitative analysis of metabolites revealed that GABA decreased and increased in the SlGADs- and SlGABA-Ts-silenced plants, respectively, whereas succinate (the final product of GABA metabolism) decreased in both silenced plants. Contrarily, SlSSADH-silenced plants, also defective in GABA degradation process, showed dwarf phenotype, curled leaves and enhanced accumulation of ROS in normal conditions, suggesting the involvement of a bypath for succinic semialdehyde catabolism to ?-hydroxybutyrate as reported previously in Arabidopsis, were less sensitive to salt stress. These results suggest that GABA shunt is involved in salt tolerance of tomato, probably by affecting the homeostasis of metabolites such as succinate and ?-hydroxybutyrate and subsequent ROS accumulation under salt stress. PMID:25074245

  8. MCRIP1, an ERK substrate, mediates ERK-induced gene silencing during epithelial-mesenchymal transition by regulating the co-repressor CtBP.

    PubMed

    Ichikawa, Kenji; Kubota, Yuji; Nakamura, Takanori; Weng, Jane S; Tomida, Taichiro; Saito, Haruo; Takekawa, Mutsuhiro

    2015-04-01

    The ERK pathway not only upregulates growth-promoting genes, but also downregulates anti-proliferative and tumor-suppressive genes. In particular, ERK signaling contributes to repression of the E-cadherin gene during epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT). The CtBP transcriptional co-repressor is also involved in gene silencing of E-cadherin. However, the functional relationship between ERK signaling and CtBP is unknown. Here, we identified an ERK substrate, designated MCRIP1, which bridges ERK signaling and CtBP-mediated gene silencing. CtBP is recruited to promoter elements of target genes by interacting with the DNA-binding transcriptional repressor ZEB1. We found that MCRIP1 binds to CtBP, thereby competitively inhibiting CtBP-ZEB1 interaction. When phosphorylated by ERK, MCRIP1 dissociates from CtBP, allowing CtBP to interact with ZEB1. In this manner, the CtBP co-repressor complex is recruited to, and silences, the E-cadherin promoter by inducing chromatin modifications. Our findings reveal a molecular mechanism underlying ERK-induced epigenetic gene silencing during EMT and its dysregulation in cancer. PMID:25728771

  9. A quick and efficient approach for gene silencing by using triple putative microRNA-based short hairpin RNAs.

    PubMed

    Shan, Z X; Lin, Q X; Yang, M; Deng, C Y; Kuang, S J; Zhou, Z L; Xiao, D Z; Liu, X Y; Lin, S G; Yu, X Y

    2009-03-01

    The RNA interference (RNAi) technique has been widely used in gene function studies. It is typical to screen for effective siRNAs by knocking down targeted genes since a single gene can be suppressed by several siRNAs to varying degrees. The miRNA-based short hairpin RNA (shRNA) is a natural inducer of RNAi and has been used in siRNA expression strategies. We investigated the potential application of multiple putative microRNA-based shRNAs for gene silencing and studied the inhibition efficiency of exogenous GFP and firefly luciferase (luc) by triple human mir155-based shRNA expression vectors. A total of three candidate siRNA sequences targeted against GFP or luc were selected based on an online prediction program. Single and triple miRNA-155-based shRNAs targeted against GFP or luc were transfected into HEK293 cells mediated by the pcDNA(3) vector with an RNA polymerase II-type CMV (cytomegalovirus) promoter. Comparisons with negative control shRNAs revealed that GFP levels were markedly reduced by the triple miRNA-155-based GFP shRNA by fluorescent microscopy. Consistent results from the dual luciferase assay and real-time quantitative RT-PCR revealed that the triple miRNA-155-based GFP shRNA significantly suppressed GFP expression (P < 0.01), without significant differences from the most effective single miRNA-155-based GFP shRNA (P > 0.05). Results from the dual luciferase assay and real-time quantitative RT-PCR revealed that the triple miRNA-155-based luc shRNA significantly suppressed luc expression as the most effective single miRNA-155-based luc shRNA (P < 0.05). These studies demonstrated the gene silencing efficiency mediated by the triple putative miRNA-155-based shRNAs. This suggested that multiple miRNA-based shRNAs are quick and valuable strategies for gene silencing. PMID:19037714

  10. Organic small hairpin RNAs (OshR): a do-it-yourself platform for transgene-based gene silencing.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Mei; Kuzirian, Marissa S; Harper, Lamia; Paradis, Suzanne; Nakayama, Takuya; Lau, Nelson C

    2013-09-15

    The RNA interference (RNAi) pathway in animal cells can be harnessed to silence gene expression with artificial small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) or transgenes that express small hairpin RNAs (shRNAs). The transgene-expressing shRNA approach has been adapted into large-scale resources for genome-wide loss-of-function screens, whereas focused studies on a narrow set of genes can be achieved by using individual shRNA constructs from these resources. Although current shRNA repositories generally work, they might fail in certain situations and therefore necessitate other alternatives. We detail here a new highly-accessible and rational design of custom shRNAs that utilizes a refined backbone configuration termed the 'organic' shRNA (OshR) platform. The OshR platform is 'organic' because it conforms more naturally to the endogenous vertebrate miRNAs by maintaining specific bulges and incorporating strategic mismatches to insure the desired guide strand is produced while reducing the accumulation of passenger strands that might contribute to off-target effects. We also demonstrate that the reliability of the OshR platform for gene silencing is increased when sequences target the 3' UnTranslated Region (3'UTR) of a gene. We further compare the OshR platform with the current and emerging shRNA designs, and propose that the OshR platform is a novel approach that can allow investigators to generate custom and effective shRNAs for individual gene functional studies. PMID:23707624

  11. MPP8 and SIRT1 crosstalk in E-cadherin gene silencing and epithelial-mesenchymal transition.

    PubMed

    Sun, Lidong; Kokura, Kenji; Izumi, Victoria; Koomen, John M; Seto, Edward; Chen, Jiandong; Fang, Jia

    2015-06-01

    As a critical developmental process, epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) involves complex transcriptional reprogramming and has been closely linked to malignant progression. Although various epigenetic modifications, such as histone deacetylation and H3K9 methylation, have been implicated in this process, how they are coordinated remains elusive. We recently revealed that MPP8 couples H3K9 methylation and DNA methylation for E-cadherin gene silencing and promotes tumor cell migration, invasion, and EMT. Here, we show that MPP8 cooperates with the class III HDAC SIRT1 in this process through their physical interaction. SIRT1 antagonizes PCAF-catalyzed MPP8-K439 acetylation to protect MPP8 from ubiquitin-proteasome-mediated proteolysis. Conversely, MPP8 recruits SIRT1 for H4K16 deacetylation after binding to methyl-H3K9 on target promoters. Consequently, disabling either MPP8 methyl-H3K9 binding or SIRT1 interaction de-represses E-cadherin and reduces EMT phenotypes, as does knockdown of MPP8 or SIRT1 in prostate cancer cells. These results illustrate how SIRT1 and MPP8 reciprocally promote each other's function and coordinate epithelial gene silencing and EMT. PMID:25870236

  12. R-loops associated with triplet repeat expansions promote gene silencing in Friedreich ataxia and fragile X syndrome.

    PubMed

    Groh, Matthias; Lufino, Michele M P; Wade-Martins, Richard; Gromak, Natalia

    2014-05-01

    Friedreich ataxia (FRDA) and Fragile X syndrome (FXS) are among 40 diseases associated with expansion of repeated sequences (TREDs). Although their molecular pathology is not well understood, formation of repressive chromatin and unusual DNA structures over repeat regions were proposed to play a role. Our study now shows that RNA/DNA hybrids (R-loops) form in patient cells on expanded repeats of endogenous FXN and FMR1 genes, associated with FRDA and FXS. These transcription-dependent R-loops are stable, co-localise with repressive H3K9me2 chromatin mark and impede RNA Polymerase II transcription in patient cells. We investigated the interplay between repressive chromatin marks and R-loops on the FXN gene. We show that decrease in repressive H3K9me2 chromatin mark has no effect on R-loop levels. Importantly, increasing R-loop levels by treatment with DNA topoisomerase inhibitor camptothecin leads to up-regulation of repressive chromatin marks, resulting in FXN transcriptional silencing. This provides a direct molecular link between R-loops and the pathology of TREDs, suggesting that R-loops act as an initial trigger to promote FXN and FMR1 silencing. Thus R-loops represent a common feature of nucleotide expansion disorders and provide a new target for therapeutic interventions. PMID:24787137

  13. Host-induced gene silencing in barley powdery mildew reveals a class of ribonuclease-like effectors.

    PubMed

    Pliego, Clara; Nowara, Daniela; Bonciani, Giulia; Gheorghe, Dana M; Xu, Ruo; Surana, Priyanka; Whigham, Ehren; Nettleton, Dan; Bogdanove, Adam J; Wise, Roger P; Schweizer, Patrick; Bindschedler, Laurence V; Spanu, Pietro D

    2013-06-01

    Obligate biotrophic pathogens of plants must circumvent or counteract defenses to guarantee accommodation inside the host. To do so, they secrete a variety of effectors that regulate host immunity and facilitate the establishment of pathogen feeding structures called haustoria. The barley powdery mildew fungus Blumeria graminis f. sp. hordei produces a large number of proteins predicted to be secreted from haustoria. Fifty of these Blumeria effector candidates (BEC) were screened by host-induced gene silencing (HIGS), and eight were identified that contribute to infection. One shows similarity to ?-1,3 glucosyltransferases, one to metallo-proteases, and two to microbial secreted ribonucleases; the remainder have no similarity to proteins of known function. Transcript abundance of all eight BEC increases dramatically in the early stages of infection and establishment of haustoria, consistent with a role in that process. Complementation analysis using silencing-insensitive synthetic cDNAs demonstrated that the ribonuclease-like BEC 1011 and 1054 are bona fide effectors that function within the plant cell. BEC1011 specifically interferes with pathogen-induced host cell death. Both are part of a gene superfamily unique to the powdery mildew fungi. Structural modeling was consistent, with BEC1054 adopting a ribonuclease-like fold, a scaffold not previously associated with effector function. PMID:23441578

  14. RNAi Silencing of the HaHMG-CoA Reductase Gene Inhibits Oviposition in the Helicoverpa armigera Cotton Bollworm

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Zhijian; Dong, Yongcheng; Desneux, Nicolas; Niu, Changying

    2013-01-01

    RNA interference (RNAi) has considerable promise for developing novel pest control techniques, especially because of the threat of the development of resistance against current strategies. For this purpose, the key is to select pest control genes with the greatest potential for developing effective pest control treatments. The present study demonstrated that the 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase (HMG-CoA reductase; HMGR) gene is a potential target for insect control using RNAi. HMGR is a key enzyme in the mevalonate pathway in insects. A complete cDNA encoding full length HMGR (encoding an 837-aa protein) was cloned from Helicoverpa armigera (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae). The HaHMGR (H. armigera HMGR) knockdown using systemic RNAi in vivo inhibited the fecundity of the females, effectively inhibited ovipostion, and significantly reduced vitellogenin (Vg) mRNA levels. Moreover, the oviposition rate of the female moths was reduced by 98% by silencing HaHMGR compared to the control groups. One-pair experiments showed that both the proportions of valid mating and fecundity were zero. Furthermore, the HaHMGR-silenced females failed to lay eggs (approximate 99% decrease in oviposition) in the semi-field cage performance. The present study demonstrated the potential implications for developing novel pest management strategies using HaHMGR RNAi in the control of H. armigera and other insect pests. PMID:23844078

  15. A novel role for Xist RNA in the formation of a repressive nuclear compartment into which genes are recruited when silenced

    PubMed Central

    Chaumeil, Julie; Le Baccon, Patricia; Wutz, Anton; Heard, Edith

    2006-01-01

    During early mammalian female development, one of the two X chromosomes becomes inactivated. Although X-chromosome coating by Xist RNA is essential for the initiation of X inactivation, little is known about how this signal is transformed into transcriptional silencing. Here we show that exclusion of RNA Polymerase II and transcription factors from the Xist RNA-coated X chromosome represents the earliest event following Xist RNA accumulation described so far in differentiating embryonic stem (ES) cells. Paradoxically, exclusion of the transcription machinery occurs before gene silencing is complete. However, examination of the three-dimensional organization of X-linked genes reveals that, when transcribed, they are always located at the periphery of, or outside, the Xist RNA domain, in contact with the transcription machinery. Upon silencing, genes shift to a more internal location, within the Xist RNA compartment devoid of transcription factors. Surprisingly, the appearance of this compartment is not dependent on the A-repeats of the Xist transcript, which are essential for gene silencing. However, the A-repeats are required for the relocation of genes into the Xist RNA silent domain. We propose that Xist RNA has multiple functions: A-repeat-independent creation of a transcriptionally silent nuclear compartment; and A-repeat-dependent induction of gene repression, which is associated with their translocation into this silent domain. PMID:16912274

  16. Identification of 27 5' CpG islands aberrantly methylated and 13 genes silenced in human pancreatic cancers.

    PubMed

    Hagihara, Atsushi; Miyamoto, Kazuaki; Furuta, Junichi; Hiraoka, Nobuyoshi; Wakazono, Kuniko; Seki, Shuichi; Fukushima, Shoji; Tsao, Ming-Sound; Sugimura, Takashi; Ushijima, Toshikazu

    2004-11-11

    Aberrantly methylated DNA fragments were searched for in human pancreatic cancers, using the genome scanning technique: methylation-sensitive-representational difference analysis (MS-RDA). MS-RDA isolated 111 DNA fragments derived from CpG islands (CGIs), and 35 of them were from CGIs in the 5' regions of known genes. Methylation-specific PCR (MSP) of the CGIs in seven pancreatic cancer cell lines and two pancreatic ductal epithelial cell lines showed that 27 CGIs in the 5' regions were aberrantly methylated in at least one of the cancer cell lines. Quantitative reverse-transcription-PCR analysis showed that downstream genes of all the CGIs were either not expressed or only very weakly expressed in cancer cell lines with the aberrant methylation. In the pancreatic ductal epithelial cell lines, 18 genes were expressed at various levels, and nine genes were not expressed at all. Treatment of a cancer cell line with a demethylating agent, 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine, restored the expression of 13 genes, RASGRF2, ADAM23, NEF3, NKX2-8, HAND1, EGR4, PRG2, FBN2, CDH2, TLL1, NPTX1, NTSR1 and THBD, showing their silencing by methylation of their 5' CGIs. MSP of 24 primary pancreatic cancers showed that all these genes, except for THBD, were methylated in at least one cancer. Some of those were suggested to be potentially involved in pancreatic cancer development and progression. PMID:15467763

  17. Systematic mapping of occluded genes by cell fusion reveals prevalence and stability of cis-mediated silencing in somatic cells.

    PubMed

    Looney, Timothy J; Zhang, Li; Chen, Chih-Hsin; Lee, Jae Hyun; Chari, Sheila; Mao, Frank Fuxiang; Pelizzola, Mattia; Zhang, Lu; Lister, Ryan; Baker, Samuel W; Fernandes, Croydon J; Gaetz, Jedidiah; Foshay, Kara M; Clift, Kayla L; Zhang, Zhenyu; Li, Wei-Qiang; Vallender, Eric J; Wagner, Ulrich; Qin, Jane Yuxia; Michelini, Katelyn J; Bugarija, Branimir; Park, Donghyun; Aryee, Emmanuel; Stricker, Thomas; Zhou, Jie; White, Kevin P; Ren, Bing; Schroth, Gary P; Ecker, Joseph R; Xiang, Andy Peng; Lahn, Bruce T

    2014-02-01

    Both diffusible factors acting in trans and chromatin components acting in cis are implicated in gene regulation, but the extent to which either process causally determines a cell's transcriptional identity is unclear. We recently used cell fusion to define a class of silent genes termed "cis-silenced" (or "occluded") genes, which remain silent even in the presence of trans-acting transcriptional activators. We further showed that occlusion of lineage-inappropriate genes plays a critical role in maintaining the transcriptional identities of somatic cells. Here, we present, for the first time, a comprehensive map of occluded genes in somatic cells. Specifically, we mapped occluded genes in mouse fibroblasts via fusion to a dozen different rat cell types followed by whole-transcriptome profiling. We found that occluded genes are highly prevalent and stable in somatic cells, representing a sizeable fraction of silent genes. Occluded genes are also highly enriched for important developmental regulators of alternative lineages, consistent with the role of occlusion in safeguarding cell identities. Alongside this map, we also present whole-genome maps of DNA methylation and eight other chromatin marks. These maps uncover a complex relationship between chromatin state and occlusion. Furthermore, we found that DNA methylation functions as the memory of occlusion in a subset of occluded genes, while histone deacetylation contributes to the implementation but not memory of occlusion. Our data suggest that the identities of individual cell types are defined largely by the occlusion status of their genomes. The comprehensive reference maps reported here provide the foundation for future studies aimed at understanding the role of occlusion in development and disease. PMID:24310002

  18. A novel murrel Channa striatus mitochondrial manganese superoxide dismutase: gene silencing, SOD activity, superoxide anion production and expression.

    PubMed

    Arockiaraj, Jesu; Palanisamy, Rajesh; Bhatt, Prasanth; Kumaresan, Venkatesh; Gnanam, Annie J; Pasupuleti, Mukesh; Kasi, Marimuthu

    2014-12-01

    We have reported the molecular characterization including gene silencing, superoxide activity, superoxide anion production, gene expression and molecular characterization of a mitochondrial manganese superoxide dismutase (mMnSOD) from striped murrel Channa striatus (named as CsmMnSOD). The CsmMnSOD polypeptide contains 225 amino acids with a molecular weight of 25 kDa and a theoretical isoelectric point of 8.3. In the N-terminal region, CsmMnSOD carries a mitochondrial targeting sequence and a superoxide dismutases (SOD) Fe domain (28-109), and in C-terminal region, it carries another SOD Fe domain (114-220). The CsmMnSOD protein sequence shared significant similarity with its homolog of MnSOD from rock bream Oplegnathus fasciatus (96%). The phylogenetic analysis showed that the CsmMnSOD fell in the clade of fish mMnSOD group. The monomeric structure of CsmMnSOD possesses 9 ?-helices (52.4%), 3 ?-sheets (8.8%) and 38.8% random coils. The highest gene expression was noticed in liver, and its expression was inducted with fungal (Aphanomyces invadans) and bacterial (Aeromonas hydrophila) infections. The gene silencing results show that the fish that received dsRNA exhibited significant (P < 0.05) changes in expression when compared to their non-injected and fish physiological saline-injected controls. The SOD activity shows that the activity increases with the spread of infection and decreases once the molecule controls the pathogen. The capacity of superoxide anion production was determined by calculating the granular blood cell count during infection in murrel. It shows that the infection influenced the superoxide radical production which plays a major role in killing the pathogens. Overall, this study indicated the defense potentiality of CsmMnSOD; however, further research is necessary to explore its capability at protein level. PMID:25183231

  19. Heterochromatin-Mediated Gene Silencing Is Not Affected by Drosophila CBP Activity

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Cyclic AMP Response Element Binding protein (CREB)-binding protein (CBP) is an acetyltransferase important for modifying histones and chromatin-associated proteins and thus affecting transcription and other DNA metabolic processes. We found that the Drosophila CBP (dCBP) is associated with the NAD+-dependent deacetylase, SIR2, which was originally identified as a silencing information regulator in yeast that models silenced and repeated sequence chromatin such as centric heterochromatin, telomeres, and the repeated rDNA sequences. As in yeast, Drosophila sir2 (dsir2) affects the formation and/or function of centric heterochromatin. The fact that we found dCBP in immunecomplexes with dSIR2 in vivo and found that dCBP can interact with dSIR2 directly in vitro suggested that dCBP might affect the packaging of silencing heterochromatin as well. A careful study of the dCBP mutations provides evidence that dCBP does not affect the formation and/or function of centric heterochromatin and thus may affect other dSIR2 functions. PMID:19366813

  20. Characterization of white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei integrin ? and its role in immunomodulation by dsRNA-mediated gene silencing.

    PubMed

    Lin, Yong-Chin; Chen, Jiann-Chu; Chen, Yu-Yuan; Liu, Chun-Hung; Cheng, Winton; Hsu, Chih-Hung; Tsui, Wen-Ching

    2013-06-01

    The full sequence of white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei integrin ? (LV-B) is 2879bp which encodes 787 amino acids (aa) of the open reading frame (ORF). The mature protein (764 aa) contains (1) an extracellular domain (ED) of 692 aa, (2) a transmembrane domain (TD) of 23 aa, and (3) a cytoplasmic domain (CD) of 49 aa. The cloned LV-B grouped together with crayfish Pacifastacus leniusculus integrin ? (PL-B1), but was far away from vertebrate integrin ?1, ?3, ?5, ?6, ?7, and ?8, and another L. vannamei integrin ? (LV). A Southern blot analysis indicated that the cloned LV-B was a single copy of genomic DNA. LV-B mRNA was expressed in all tissues, and was highly expressed in haemocytes. LV-B was downregulated in shrimp 24 and 96h after having received white spot syndrome virus (WSSV). LV-B expression by haemocytes of shrimp was higher in the postmoult (A and B) stage, and lower in the premoult (D2/D3) stage. LV-B expression was significantly higher by shrimp reared in 2.5‰ and 5‰ salinities. Shrimp injected with integrin ? dsRNA showed gene silencing of integrin ? after 36h. LV-B-silenced shrimp showed decreased hyaline cells (HCs), granular cells (GCs, including semi-granular cells), the total haemocyte count (THC), respiratory bursts (RBs), and lysozyme activity, but showed increased RB/HC, superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity/HC, and the phenoloxidase (PO) activity/GC. LV-B-silenced shrimp showed upregulated expressions of lipopolysaccharide- and ?-glucan-binding protein (LGBP), peroxinectin (PX), prophenoloxidase I (proPO I), proPO II, proPO-activating enzyme (ppA), ?2-macroglobulin (?2-M), cytMnSOD, mtMnSOD, and heat shock protein 70 (HSP70). It was concluded that integrin ? plays important roles in proPO activation, phagocytosis, and the antioxidant system for immunomodulation in shrimp. PMID:23376419

  1. Silencing SlELP2L, a tomato Elongator complex protein 2-like gene, inhibits leaf growth, accelerates leaf, sepal senescence, and produces dark-green fruit.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Mingku; Li, Yali; Chen, Guoping; Ren, Lijun; Xie, Qiaoli; Zhao, Zhiping; Hu, Zongli

    2015-01-01

    The multi-subunit complex Elongator interacts with elongating RNA polymerase II (RNAPII) and is thought to facilitate transcription through histone acetylation. Elongator is highly conserved in eukaryotes, yet has multiple kingdom-specific functions in diverse organisms. Recent genetic studies performed in Arabidopsis have demonstrated that Elongator functions in plant growth and development, and in response to biotic and abiotic stress. However, little is known about its roles in other plant species. Here, we study the function of an Elongator complex protein 2-like gene in tomato, here designated as SlELP2L, through RNAi-mediated gene silencing. Silencing SlELP2L in tomato inhibits leaf growth, accelerates leaf and sepal senescence, and produces dark-green fruit with reduced GA and IAA contents in leaves, and increased chlorophyll accumulation in pericarps. Gene expression analysis indicated that SlELP2L-silenced plants had reduced transcript levels of ethylene- and ripening-related genes during fruit ripening with slightly decreased carotenoid content in fruits, while the expression of DNA methyltransferase genes was up-regulated, indicating that SlELP2L may modulate DNA methylation in tomato. Besides, silencing SlELP2L increases ABA sensitivity in inhibiting seedling growth. These results suggest that SlELP2L plays important roles in regulating plant growth and development, as well as in response to ABA in tomato. PMID:25573793

  2. Silencing SlELP2L, a tomato Elongator complex protein 2-like gene, inhibits leaf growth, accelerates leaf, sepal senescence, and produces dark-green fruit

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Mingku; Li, Yali; Chen, Guoping; Ren, Lijun; Xie, Qiaoli; Zhao, Zhiping; Hu, Zongli

    2015-01-01

    The multi-subunit complex Elongator interacts with elongating RNA polymerase II (RNAPII) and is thought to facilitate transcription through histone acetylation. Elongator is highly conserved in eukaryotes, yet has multiple kingdom-specific functions in diverse organisms. Recent genetic studies performed in Arabidopsis have demonstrated that Elongator functions in plant growth and development, and in response to biotic and abiotic stress. However, little is known about its roles in other plant species. Here, we study the function of an Elongator complex protein 2-like gene in tomato, here designated as SlELP2L, through RNAi-mediated gene silencing. Silencing SlELP2L in tomato inhibits leaf growth, accelerates leaf and sepal senescence, and produces dark-green fruit with reduced GA and IAA contents in leaves, and increased chlorophyll accumulation in pericarps. Gene expression analysis indicated that SlELP2L-silenced plants had reduced transcript levels of ethylene- and ripening-related genes during fruit ripening with slightly decreased carotenoid content in fruits, while the expression of DNA methyltransferase genes was up-regulated, indicating that SlELP2L may modulate DNA methylation in tomato. Besides, silencing SlELP2L increases ABA sensitivity in inhibiting seedling growth. These results suggest that SlELP2L plays important roles in regulating plant growth and development, as well as in response to ABA in tomato. PMID:25573793

  3. Silencing a sugar transporter gene reduces growth and fecundity in the brown planthopper, Nilaparvata lugens (Stål) (Hemiptera: Delphacidae)

    PubMed Central

    Ge, Lin-Quan; Jiang, Yi-Ping; Xia, Ting; Song, Qi-Sheng; Stanley, David; Kuai, Peng; Lu, Xiu-Li; Yang, Guo-Qing; Wu, Jin-Cai

    2015-01-01

    The brown planthopper (BPH), Nilaparvata lugens, sugar transporter gene 6 (Nlst6) is a facilitative glucose/fructose transporter (often called a passive carrier) expressed in midgut that mediates sugar transport from the midgut lumen to hemolymph. The influence of down regulating expression of sugar transporter genes on insect growth, development, and fecundity is unknown. Nonetheless, it is reasonable to suspect that transporter-mediated uptake of dietary sugar is essential to the biology of phloem-feeding insects. Based on this reasoning, we posed the hypothesis that silencing, or reducing expression, of a BPH sugar transporter gene would be deleterious to the insects. To test our hypothesis, we examined the effects of Nlst6 knockdown on BPH biology. Reducing expression of Nlst6 led to profound effects on BPHs. It significantly prolonged the pre-oviposition period, shortened the oviposition period, decreased the number of eggs deposited and reduced body weight, compared to controls. Nlst6 knockdown also significantly decreased fat body and ovarian (particularly vitellogenin) protein content as well as vitellogenin gene expression. Experimental BPHs accumulated less fat body glucose compared to controls. We infer that Nlst6 acts in BPH growth and fecundity, and has potential as a novel target gene for control of phloem-feeding pest insects. PMID:26185058

  4. Silencing of DNase Colicin E8 Gene Expression by a Complex Nucleoprotein Assembly Ensures Timely Colicin Induction

    PubMed Central

    Podlesek, Zdravko; Busby, Stephen J. W.; Žgur-Bertok, Darja; Butala, Matej

    2015-01-01

    Colicins are plasmid-encoded narrow spectrum antibiotics that are synthesized by strains of Escherichia coli and govern intraspecies competition. In a previous report, we demonstrated that the global transcriptional factor IscR, co dependently with the master regulator of the DNA damage response, LexA, delays induction of the pore forming colicin genes after SOS induction. Here we show that IscR is not involved in the regulation of nuclease colicins, but that the AsnC protein is. We report that AsnC, in concert with LexA, is the key controller of the temporal induction of the DNA degrading colicin E8 gene (cea8), after DNA damage. We demonstrate that a large AsnC nucleosome-like structure, in conjunction with two LexA molecules, prevent cea8 transcription initiation and that AsnC binding activity is directly modulated by L asparagine. We show that L-asparagine is an environmental factor that has a marked impact on cea8 promoter regulation. Our results show that AsnC also modulates the expression of several other DNase and RNase colicin genes but does not substantially affect pore-forming colicin K gene expression. We propose that selection pressure has “chosen” highly conserved regulators to control colicin expression in E. coli strains, enabling similar colicin gene silencing among bacteria upon exchange of colicinogenic plasmids. PMID:26114960

  5. SiRNAs conjugated with aromatic compounds induce RISC-mediated antisense strand selection and strong gene-silencing activity

    SciTech Connect

    Kubo, Takanori, E-mail: kubo-t@yasuda-u.ac.jp [Faculty of Pharmacy, Yasuda Women's University, 6-13-1 Yasuhigashi, Asaminami-ku, Hiroshima 731-0153 (Japan)] [Faculty of Pharmacy, Yasuda Women's University, 6-13-1 Yasuhigashi, Asaminami-ku, Hiroshima 731-0153 (Japan); Yanagihara, Kazuyoshi [Faculty of Pharmacy, Yasuda Women's University, 6-13-1 Yasuhigashi, Asaminami-ku, Hiroshima 731-0153 (Japan) [Faculty of Pharmacy, Yasuda Women's University, 6-13-1 Yasuhigashi, Asaminami-ku, Hiroshima 731-0153 (Japan); Division of Genetics, National Cancer Center Research Institute, 5-1-1 Tsukiji, Chuo-ku, Tokyo 104-0045 (Japan); Takei, Yoshifumi [Department of Biochemistry, Nagoya University Graduate School of Medicine, 65 Tsurumi-cho, Showa-ku, Nagoya 466-8550 (Japan)] [Department of Biochemistry, Nagoya University Graduate School of Medicine, 65 Tsurumi-cho, Showa-ku, Nagoya 466-8550 (Japan); Mihara, Keichiro [Department of Hematology and Oncology, Research Institute for Radiation Biology and Medicine, Hiroshima University, 1-2-3 Kasumi, Minami-ku, Hiroshima 734-8553 (Japan)] [Department of Hematology and Oncology, Research Institute for Radiation Biology and Medicine, Hiroshima University, 1-2-3 Kasumi, Minami-ku, Hiroshima 734-8553 (Japan); Sato, Yuichiro; Seyama, Toshio [Faculty of Pharmacy, Yasuda Women's University, 6-13-1 Yasuhigashi, Asaminami-ku, Hiroshima 731-0153 (Japan)] [Faculty of Pharmacy, Yasuda Women's University, 6-13-1 Yasuhigashi, Asaminami-ku, Hiroshima 731-0153 (Japan)

    2012-10-05

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer SiRNAs conjugated with aromatic compounds (Ar-siRNAs) at 5 Prime -sense strand were synthesized. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Ar-siRNAs increased resistance against nuclease degradation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Ar-siRNAs were thermodynamically stable compared with the unmodified siRNA. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer High levels of cellular uptake and cytoplasmic localization were found. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Strong gene-silencing efficacy was exhibited in the Ar-siRNAs. -- Abstract: Short interference RNA (siRNA) is a powerful tool for suppressing gene expression in mammalian cells. In this study, we focused on the development of siRNAs conjugated with aromatic compounds in order to improve the potency of RNAi and thus to overcome several problems with siRNAs, such as cellular delivery and nuclease stability. The siRNAs conjugated with phenyl, hydroxyphenyl, naphthyl, and pyrenyl derivatives showed strong resistance to nuclease degradation, and were thermodynamically stable compared with unmodified siRNA. A high level of membrane permeability in HeLa cells was also observed. Moreover, these siRNAs exhibited enhanced RNAi efficacy, which exceeded that of locked nucleic acid (LNA)-modified siRNAs, against exogenous Renilla luciferase in HeLa cells. In particular, abundant cytoplasmic localization and strong gene-silencing efficacy were found in the siRNAs conjugated with phenyl and hydroxyphenyl derivatives. The novel siRNAs conjugated with aromatic compounds are promising candidates for a new generation of modified siRNAs that can solve many of the problems associated with RNAi technology.

  6. Silencing clusterin gene transcription on effects of multidrug resistance reversing of human hepatoma HepG2/ADM cells.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Wenjie; Sai, Wenli; Yao, Min; Gu, Hongbin; Yao, Yao; Qian, Qi; Yao, Dengfu

    2015-05-01

    Abnormal clusterin (CLU) expression is associated with multidrug resistance (MDR) of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). In the present study, the CLU expression was analyzed in human hepatoma cells and chemoresistant counterpart HepG2/ADM cells. Compared with L02 cells, the overexpression of cellular CLU was identified in HepG2, HepG2/ADM, SMMC7721, Hep3B ,and PLC cells and relatively lower expression in Bel-7404, SNU-739, and MHCC97H cells. Specific short hairpin RNAs (shRNAs) to silence CLU gene transcription were designed, and the most effective sequences were screened. After the HepG2/ADM cells transfected with shRNA-1, the inhibition of CLU expression was 73.68 % at messenger RNA (mRNA) level by real-time quantitative RT-PCR with obvious enhancement in cell chemosensitivity, increasing apoptosis induced by doxorubicin using fluorescence kit, and Rh-123 retention qualified with flow cytometry. Knockdown CLU also significantly decreased the drug efflux pump activity through the depression of MDR1/P-glycoprotein (q?=?11.739, P?silencing CLU led to downregulation of ?-catenin (q?=?13.544, P?=?0.001), suggesting that downregulation of CLU might be a key point to reverse multidrug resistance of HepG2/ADM cells. PMID:25600802

  7. Mature-stem expression of a silencing-resistant sucrose isomerase gene drives isomaltulose accumulation to high levels in sugarcane.

    PubMed

    Mudge, Stephen R; Basnayake, Shiromi W V; Moyle, Richard L; Osabe, Kenji; Graham, Michael W; Morgan, Terence E; Birch, Robert G

    2013-05-01

    Isomaltulose (IM) is a natural isomer of sucrose. It is widely approved as a food with properties including slower digestion, lower glycaemic index and low cariogenicity, which can benefit consumers. Availability is currently limited by the cost of fermentative conversion from sucrose. Transgenic sugarcane plants with developmentally-controlled expression of a silencing-resistant gene encoding a vacuole-targeted IM synthase were tested under field conditions typical of commercial sugarcane cultivation. High yields of IM were obtained, up to 483 mm or 81% of total sugars in whole-cane juice from plants aged 13 months. Using promoters from sugarcane to drive expression preferentially in the sugarcane stem, IM levels were consistent between stalks and stools within a transgenic line and across consecutive vegetative field generations of tested high-isomer lines. Germination and early growth of plants from setts were unaffected by IM accumulation, up to the tested level around 500 mm in flanking stem internodes. These are the highest yields ever achieved of value-added materials through plant metabolic engineering. The sugarcane stem promoters are promising for strategies to achieve even higher IM levels and for other applications in sugarcane molecular improvement. Silencing-resistant transgenes are critical to deliver the potential of these promoters in practical sugarcane improvement. At the IM levels now achieved in field-grown sugarcane, direct production of IM in plants is feasible at a cost approaching that of sucrose, which should make the benefits of IM affordable on a much wider scale. PMID:23297683

  8. RNA Interference of Soybean Isoflavone Synthase Genes Leads to Silencing in Tissues Distal to the Transformation Site and to Enhanced Susceptibility to Phytophthora sojae

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Senthil Subramanian; Madge Y. Graham; Oliver Yu; Terrence L. Graham

    2005-01-01

    Isoflavones are thought to play diverse roles in plant-microbe interactions and are also potentially important to human nutrition and medicine. Isoflavone synthase (IFS) is a key enzyme for the formation of the isoflavones. Here, we examined the consequences of RNAi silencing of genes for this enzyme in soybean (Glycine max). Soybean cotyledon tissues were transformed with Agrobacterium rhizogenes carrying an

  9. Silencing Abnormal Wing Disc Gene of the Asian Citrus Psyllid, Diaphorina citri Disrupts Adult Wing Development and Increases Nymph Mortality

    PubMed Central

    El-Hawary, Ibrahim; Gowda, Siddarame; Killiny, Nabil

    2013-01-01

    Huanglongbing (HLB) causes considerable economic losses to citrus industries worldwide. Its management depends on controlling of the Asian citrus Psyllid (ACP), the vector of the bacterium, Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus (CLas), the causal agent of HLB. Silencing genes by RNA interference (RNAi) is a promising tool to explore gene functions as well as control pests. In the current study, abnormal wing disc (awd) gene associated with wing development in insects is used to interfere with the flight of psyllids. Our study showed that transcription of awd is development-dependent and the highest level was found in the last instar (5th) of the nymphal stage. Micro-application (topical application) of dsRNA to 5th instar of nymphs caused significant nymphal mortality and adult wing-malformation. These adverse effects in ACP were positively correlated with the amounts of dsRNA used. A qRT-PCR analysis confirmed the dsRNA-mediated transcriptional down-regulation of the awd gene. Significant down-regulation was required to induce a wing-malformed phenotype. No effect was found when dsRNA-gfp was used, indicating the specific effect of dsRNA-awd. Our findings suggest a role for awd in ACP wing development and metamorphosis. awd could serve as a potential target for insect management either via direct application of dsRNA or by producing transgenic plants expressing dsRNA-awd. These strategies will help to mitigate HLB by controlling ACP. PMID:23734251

  10. Copy Number and Orientation Determine the Susceptibility of a Gene to Silencing by Nearby Heterochromatin in Drosophila

    PubMed Central

    Sabl, J. F.; Henikoff, S.

    1996-01-01

    The classical phenomenon of position-effect variegation (PEV) is the mosaic expression that occurs when a chromosomal rearrangement moves a euchromatic gene near heterochromatin. A striking feature of this phenomenon is that genes far away from the junction with heterochromatin can be affected, as if the heterochromatic state ``spreads.'' We have investigated classical PEV of a Drosophila brown transgene affected by a heterochromatic junction ~60 kb away. PEV was enhanced when the transgene was locally duplicated using P transposase. Successive rounds of P transposase mutagenesis and phenotypic selection produced a series of PEV alleles with differences in phenotype that depended on transgene copy number and orientation. As for other examples of classical PEV, nearby heterochromatin was required for gene silencing. Modifications of classical PEV by alterations at a single site are unexpected, and these observations contradict models for spreading that invoke propagation of heterochromatin along the chromosome. Rather, our results support a model in which local alterations affect the affinity of a gene region for nearby heterochromatin via homology-based pairing, suggesting an alternative explanation for this 65-year-old phenomenon. PMID:8852844

  11. Comprehensive Protein-Based Artificial MicroRNA Screens for Effective Gene Silencing in Plants[W

    PubMed Central

    Li, Jian-Feng; Chung, Hoo Sun; Niu, Yajie; Bush, Jenifer; McCormack, Matthew; Sheen, Jen

    2013-01-01

    Artificial microRNA (amiRNA) approaches offer a powerful strategy for targeted gene manipulation in any plant species. However, the current unpredictability of amiRNA efficacy has limited broad application of this promising technology. To address this, we developed epitope-tagged protein-based amiRNA (ETPamir) screens, in which target mRNAs encoding epitope-tagged proteins were constitutively or inducibly coexpressed in protoplasts with amiRNA candidates targeting single or multiple genes. This design allowed parallel quantification of target proteins and mRNAs to define amiRNA efficacy and mechanism of action, circumventing unpredictable amiRNA expression/processing and antibody unavailability. Systematic evaluation of 63 amiRNAs in 79 ETPamir screens for 16 target genes revealed a simple, effective solution for selecting optimal amiRNAs from hundreds of computational predictions, reaching ?100% gene silencing in plant cells and null phenotypes in transgenic plants. Optimal amiRNAs predominantly mediated highly specific translational repression at 5? coding regions with limited mRNA decay or cleavage. Our screens were easily applied to diverse plant species, including Arabidopsis thaliana, tobacco (Nicotiana benthamiana), tomato (Solanum lycopersicum), sunflower (Helianthus annuus), Catharanthus roseus, maize (Zea mays) and rice (Oryza sativa), and effectively validated predicted natural miRNA targets. These screens could improve plant research and crop engineering by making amiRNA a more predictable and manageable genetic and functional genomic technology. PMID:23645631

  12. Silencing of the CaCP gene delays salt- and osmotic-induced leaf senescence in Capsicum annuum L.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Huai-Juan; Yin, Yan-Xu; Chai, Wei-Guo; Gong, Zhen-Hui

    2014-01-01

    Cysteine proteinases have been known to participate in developmental processes and in response to stress in plants. Our present research reported that a novel CP gene, CaCP, was involved in leaf senescence in pepper (Capsicum annuum L.). The full-length CaCP cDNA is comprised of 1316 bp, contains 1044 nucleotides in open reading frame (ORF), and encodes a 347 amino acid protein. The deduced protein belongs to the papain-like cysteine proteases (CPs) superfamily, containing a highly conserved ERFNIN motif, a GCNGG motif and a conserved catalytic triad. This protein localized to the vacuole of plant cells. Real-time quantitative PCR analysis revealed that the expression level of CaCP gene was dramatically higher in leaves and flowers than that in roots, stems and fruits. Moreover, CaCP transcripts were induced upon during leaf senescence. CaCP expression was upregulated by plant hormones, especially salicylic acid. CaCP was also significantly induced by abiotic and biotic stress treatments, including high salinity, mannitol and Phytophthora capsici. Loss of function of CaCP using the virus-induced gene-silencing technique in pepper plants led to enhanced tolerance to salt- and osmotic-induced stress. Taken together, these results suggest that CaCP is a senescence-associated gene, which is involved in developmental senescence and regulates salt- and osmotic-induced leaf senescence in pepper. PMID:24823878

  13. Silencing of the CaCP Gene Delays Salt- and Osmotic-Induced Leaf Senescence in Capsicum annuum L.

    PubMed Central

    Xiao, Huai-Juan; Yin, Yan-Xu; Chai, Wei-Guo; Gong, Zhen-Hui

    2014-01-01

    Cysteine proteinases have been known to participate in developmental processes and in response to stress in plants. Our present research reported that a novel CP gene, CaCP, was involved in leaf senescence in pepper (Capsicum annuum L.). The full-length CaCP cDNA is comprised of 1316 bp, contains 1044 nucleotides in open reading frame (ORF), and encodes a 347 amino acid protein. The deduced protein belongs to the papain-like cysteine proteases (CPs) superfamily, containing a highly conserved ERFNIN motif, a GCNGG motif and a conserved catalytic triad. This protein localized to the vacuole of plant cells. Real-time quantitative PCR analysis revealed that the expression level of CaCP gene was dramatically higher in leaves and flowers than that in roots, stems and fruits. Moreover, CaCP transcripts were induced upon during leaf senescence. CaCP expression was upregulated by plant hormones, especially salicylic acid. CaCP was also significantly induced by abiotic and biotic stress treatments, including high salinity, mannitol and Phytophthora capsici. Loss of function of CaCP using the virus-induced gene-silencing technique in pepper plants led to enhanced tolerance to salt- and osmotic-induced stress. Taken together, these results suggest that CaCP is a senescence-associated gene, which is involved in developmental senescence and regulates salt- and osmotic-induced leaf senescence in pepper. PMID:24823878

  14. Posttranscriptional gene silencing of root-knot nematode in transformed soybean roots

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Heba M. M. Ibrahim; Nadim W. Alkharouf; Susan L. F. Meyer; Mohammed A. M. Aly; Abd El Kader Y. Gamal El-Din; Ebtissam H. A. Hussein; Benjamin F. Matthews

    2011-01-01

    RNAi constructs targeted to four different genes were examined to determine their efficacy to reduce galls formed by Meloidogyne incognita in soybean roots. These genes have high similarity with essential soybean cyst nematode (Heterodera glycines) and Caenorhabditis elegans genes. Transformed roots were challenged with M. incognita. Two constructs, targeted to genes encoding tyrosine phosphatase (TP) and mitochondrial stress-70 protein precursor

  15. Enhanced Gene Silencing through Human Serum Albumin-Mediated Delivery of Polyethylenimine-siRNA Polyplexes

    PubMed Central

    Nicolì, Elena; Syga, Marie Isabel; Bosetti, Michela; Shastri, V. Prasad

    2015-01-01

    Small interfering RNA (siRNA) targeted therapeutics (STT) offers a compelling alternative to tradition medications for treatment of genetic diseases by providing a means to silence the expression of specific aberrant proteins, through interference at the expression level. The perceived advantage of siRNA therapy is its ability to target, through synthetic antisense oligonucleotides, any part of the genome. Although STT provides a high level of specificity, it is also hindered by poor intracellular uptake, limited blood stability, high degradability and non-specific immune stimulation. Since serum proteins has been considered as useful vehicles for targeting tumors, in this study we investigated the effect of incorporation of human serum albumin (HSA) in branched polyethylenimine (bPEI)-siRNA polyplexes in their internalization in epithelial and endothelial cells. We observed that introduction of HSA preserves the capacity of bPEI to complex with siRNA and protect it against extracellular endonucleases, while affording significantly improved internalization and silencing efficiency, compared to bPEI-siRNA polyplexes in endothelial and metastatic breast cancer epithelial cells. Furthermore, the uptake of the HSA-bPEI-siRNA ternary polyplexes occurred primarily through a caveolae-mediated endocytosis, thus providing evidence for a clear role for HSA in polyplex internalization. These results provide further impetus to explore the role of serum proteins in delivery of siRNA. PMID:25856158

  16. AGO2 and SETDB1 cooperate in promoter-targeted transcriptional silencing of the androgen receptor gene

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Sunwha; Park, Jung Sun; Kang, Yong-Kook

    2014-01-01

    In mammals, RNA interference is primarily a post-transcriptional mechanism. Evidence has accumulated for additional role in transcriptional gene silencing (TGS) but the question for a good paradigm for small interfering antigene RNA (agRNA)-induced chromatin modification remains unanswered. Here, we show that SETDB1, a histone H3-lysine 9 (H3K9)-specific methyltransferase, cooperates with Argonaute-2 (AGO2) and plays an essential role in agRNA-induced TGS. The androgen receptor (AR) gene was transcriptionally silenced by agRNA targeted to its promoter, and we show that this repression was mitigated by knockdown of SETDB1 or AGO2. Chromatin immunoprecipitation demonstrated that agRNA-driven AGO2 was first targeted to the AR promoter, followed by SETDB1. SIN3A and HDAC1/2, the components of the SIN3-HDAC complex, immunoprecipitated with SETDB1, and localized at the agRNA-targeted promoter. Agreeing with the presence of SETDB1, trimethyl-H3K9 was enriched in the AR promoter. Both EZH2 and trimethyl-H3K27 were also present in the targeted locus; accordingly, EZH2 immunoprecipitated with SETDB1. DNA methylation level was not significantly changed, suggesting the absence of de novo methylating activity in agRNA-induced AR promoter. Our results demonstrate that SETDB1, together with AGO2, plays an essential role in TGS through recruiting chromatin remodeler and/or other modifiers, consequently creating a repressive chromatin milieu at the targeted promoter. PMID:25183519

  17. Targeted silencing of BjMYB28 transcription factor gene directs development of low glucosinolate lines in oilseed Brassica juncea.

    PubMed

    Augustine, Rehna; Mukhopadhyay, Arundhati; Bisht, Naveen C

    2013-09-01

    Brassica juncea (Indian mustard), a globally important oilseed crop, contains relatively high amount of seed glucosinolates ranging from 80 to 120 ?mol/g dry weight (DW). One of the major breeding objectives in oilseed Brassicas is to improve the seed-meal quality through the development of low-seed-glucosinolate lines (<30 ?mol/g DW), as high amounts of certain seed glucosinolates are known to be anti-nutritional and reduce the meal palatability. Here, we report the development of transgenic B. juncea lines having seed glucosinolates as low as 11.26 ?mol/g DW, through RNAi-based targeted suppression of BjMYB28, a R2R3-MYB transcription factor family gene involved in aliphatic glucosinolate biosynthesis. Targeted silencing of BjMYB28 homologs provided significant reduction in the anti-nutritional aliphatic glucosinolates fractions, without altering the desirable nonaliphatic glucosinolate pool, both in leaves and seeds of transgenic plants. Molecular characterization of single-copy, low glucosinolate homozygous lines confirmed significant down-regulation of BjMYB28 homologs vis-à-vis enhanced accumulation of BjMYB28-specific siRNA pool. Consequently, these low glucosinolate lines also showed significant suppression of genes involved in aliphatic glucosinolate biosynthesis. The low glucosinolate trait was stable in subsequent generations of the transgenic lines with no visible off-target effects on plant growth and development. Various seed quality parameters including fatty acid composition, oil content, protein content and seed weight of the low glucosinolate lines also remained unaltered, when tested under containment conditions in the field. Our results indicate that targeted silencing of a key glucosinolate transcriptional regulator MYB28 has huge potential for reducing the glucosinolates content and improving the seed-meal quality of oilseed Brassica crops. PMID:23721233

  18. In vivo gene silencing following non-invasive siRNA delivery into the skin using a novel topical formulation

    PubMed Central

    Hegde, Vikas; Hickerson, Robyn P.; Nainamalai, Sitheswaran; Campbell, Paul A.; Smith, Frances J.D.; McLean, W.H. Irwin; Leslie Pedrioli, Deena M.

    2014-01-01

    Therapeutics based on short interfering RNAs (siRNAs), which act by inhibiting the expression of target transcripts, represent a novel class of potent and highly specific next-generation treatments for human skin diseases. Unfortunately, the intrinsic barrier properties of the skin combined with the large size and negative charge of siRNAs make epidermal delivery of these macromolecules quite challenging. To help evaluate the in vivo activity of these therapeutics and refine delivery strategies we generated an innovative reporter mouse model that predominantly expresses firefly luciferase (luc2p) in the paw epidermis — the region of murine epidermis that most closely models the tissue architecture of human skin. Combining this animal model with state-of-the-art live animal imaging techniques, we have developed a real-time in vivo analysis work-flow that has allowed us to compare and contrast the efficacies of a wide range nucleic acid-based gene silencing reagents in the skin of live animals. While inhibition was achieved with all of the reagents tested, only the commercially available “self-delivery” modified Accell-siRNAs (Dharmacon) produced potent and sustained in vivo gene silencing. Together, these findings highlight just how informative reliable reporter mouse models can be when assessing novel therapeutics in vivo. Using this work-flow, we developed a novel clinically-relevant topical formulation that facilitates non-invasive epidermal delivery of unmodified and “self-delivery” siRNAs. Remarkably, a sustained > 40% luc2p inhibition was observed after two 1-hour treatments with Accell-siRNAs in our topical formulation. Importantly, our ability to successfully deliver siRNA molecules topically brings these novel RNAi-based therapeutics one-step closer to clinical use. PMID:25449884

  19. Distinct Gene Expression Profiles Directed by the Isoforms of the Transcription Factor Neuron-Restrictive Silencer Factor in Human SK-N-AS Neuroblastoma Cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Stuart G. Gillies; Kate Haddley; Sylvia A. Vasiliou; Gregory M. Jacobson; Bengt von Mentzer; Vivien J. Bubb; John P. Quinn

    2011-01-01

    Neuron-restrictive silencer factor (NRSF) and its isoforms are differentially regulated in rodent models of self-sustaining\\u000a status epilepticus (SSSE). NRSF isoforms regulate genes associated with SSSE, including the proconvulsant tachykinins, brain-derived\\u000a neurotrophic factor and multiple ion channels. NRSF isoforms may direct distinct gene expression patterns during SSSE, and\\u000a the ratio of each isoform may be a causative factor in traumatic damage

  20. Effect of c-MYC and E2F1 Gene Silencing and of 5Azacytidine Treatment on Telomerase Activity in Pancreatic Cancer-Derived Cell Lines

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Alpana Kumari; Radhika Srinivasan; Jai Dev Wig

    2009-01-01

    Background: The gene promoter region of human telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT) contains binding sites for c-myc and E2F1 as well as CpG islands, suggesting regulation by genetic factors and epigenetically by methylation. Hence, the effect of the demethylating agent 5-azacytidine and silencing of c-MYC and E2F1 genes on its expression and consequently on telomerase activity were studied in pancreatic cancer-derived

  1. Analysis of RNA-Mediated Gene Silencing Using a New Vector (pKNOCKOUT) and an In Planta Agrobacterium Transient Expression System

    Microsoft Academic Search

    CHRISTOPHER IAN CAZZONELLI; JEFF VELTEN

    2005-01-01

    A hairpin RNA (hpRNA) vector, pKNOCKOUT (pKO) has been constructed to facilitate the analysis of posttranscriptional gene silencing (PTGS) in an Agrobacterium- mediated transient expression system developed for tobacco. The pKO binary vector was tested by cloning a firefly luciferase (Photinus pyralis) gene segment in sense (sFLUC), antisense (aFLUC), and inverted repeat (ihpFLUC) orientations. The inverted repeats of the target

  2. A library of siRNA duplexes targeting the phosphoinositide 3-kinase pathway: determinants of gene silencing for use in cell-based screens

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Andrew C. Hsieh; Ronghai Bo; Judith Manola; Francisca Vazquez; Olivia Bare; Anastasia Khvorova; Stephen Scaringe; William R. Sellers

    2004-01-01

    Gene silencing through RNA interference (RNAi) has been established as a means of conducting reverse genetic studies. In order to better under- stand the determinants of short interfering RNA (siRNA) knockdown for use in high-throughput cell- based screens, 148 siRNA duplexes targeting 30 genes within the PI3K pathway were selected and synthesized. The extent of RNA knockdown was measured for

  3. Changes in oleic Acid content of transgenic soybeans by antisense RNA mediated posttranscriptional gene silencing.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ling; Yang, Xiang-Dong; Zhang, Yuan-Yu; Yang, Jing; Qi, Guang-Xun; Guo, Dong-Quan; Xing, Guo-Jie; Yao, Yao; Xu, Wen-Jing; Li, Hai-Yun; Li, Qi-Yun; Dong, Ying-Shan

    2014-01-01

    The Delta-12 oleate desaturase gene (FAD2-1), which converts oleic acid into linoleic acid, is the key enzyme determining the fatty acid composition of seed oil. In this study, we inhibited the expression of endogenous Delta-12 oleate desaturase GmFad2-1b gene by using antisense RNA in soybean Williams 82. By employing the soybean cotyledonary-node method, a part of the cDNA of soybean GmFad2-1b 801?bp was cloned for the construction of a pCAMBIA3300 vector under the soybean seed promoter BCSP. Leaf painting, LibertyLink strip, PCR, Southern blot, qRT-PCR, and fatty acid analysis were used to detect the insertion and expression of GmFad2-1b in the transgenic soybean lines. The results indicate that the metabolically engineered plants exhibited a significant increase in oleic acid (up to 51.71%) and a reduction in palmitic acid (to <3%) in their seed oil content. No structural differences were observed between the fatty acids of the transgenic and the nontransgenic oil extracts. PMID:25197629

  4. Cationic Lipid–Nucleic Acid Complexes for Gene Delivery and Silencing: Pathways and Mechanisms for Plasmid DNA and siRNA

    PubMed Central

    Ewert, Kai K.; Zidovska, Alexandra; Ahmad, Ayesha; Bouxsein, Nathan F.; Evans, Heather M.; McAllister, Christopher S.; Samuel, Charles E.; Safinya, Cyrus R.

    2013-01-01

    Motivated by the promises of gene therapy, there is a large interest in developing non-viral lipid-based vectors for therapeutic applications due to their nonimmunogenicity, low toxicity, ease of production, and the potential of transferring large pieces of DNA into cells. In fact, cationic lipid (CL) based vectors are among the prevalent synthetic carriers of nucleic acids (NAs) currently used in human clinical gene therapy trials worldwide. These vectors are studied both for gene delivery with CL–DNA complexes and gene silencing with CL–siRNA (short-interfering RNA) complexes. However, their transfection efficiencies and silencing efficiencies remain low compared to those of engineered viral vectors. This reflects the currently poor understanding of transfection-related mechanisms at the molecular and self-assembled levels, including a lack of knowledge about interactions between membranes and double stranded NAs and between CL–NA complexes and cellular components. In this review, we describe our recent efforts to improve the mechanistic understanding of transfection by CL–NA complexes, which will help to design optimal lipid-based carriers of DNA and siRNA for therapeutic gene delivery and gene silencing. PMID:21504103

  5. Nucleolar dominance: uniparental gene silencing on a multi-megabase scale in genetic hybrids

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Craig S. Pikaard

    2000-01-01

    Nucleolar dominance is a phenomenon in hybrids or allopolyploids in which nucleoli form on chromosomes inherited from only one of the two parents. The molecular basis for nucleolar dominance is the transcription by RNA polymerase I of only one parental set of ribosomal RNA genes (rRNA genes). These rRNA genes are clustered by the hundreds, or thousands, of copies, often

  6. RNAi-directed post transcriptional gene silencing of an Arabidopsis Myb transgene in tobacco

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The AtMyb90 gene encodes the 'production of anthocyanin pigment 2' (PAP2) transcription factor of Arabidopsis thaliana and is able to induce a visible hyper-pigmented phenotype when expressed in tobacco. Based upon this phenotype, we have used the AtMyb90 gene as a reporter gene to examine RNAi-dire...

  7. Short-hairpin RNA-mediated Heat shock protein 90 gene silencing inhibits human breast cancer cell growth in vitro and in vivo

    SciTech Connect

    Zuo, Keqiang [Department of General Surgery, Shanghai 10th People's Hospital, Tongji University School of Medicine, Shanghai 200072 (China)] [Department of General Surgery, Shanghai 10th People's Hospital, Tongji University School of Medicine, Shanghai 200072 (China); Li, Dan [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Shanghai 10th People's Hospital, Tongji University School of Medicine, Shanghai 200072 (China)] [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Shanghai 10th People's Hospital, Tongji University School of Medicine, Shanghai 200072 (China); Pulli, Benjamin [Center for Systems Biology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical School, 185 Cambridge Street, Boston, MA 02114 (United States)] [Center for Systems Biology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical School, 185 Cambridge Street, Boston, MA 02114 (United States); Yu, Fei; Cai, Haidong; Yuan, Xueyu [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Shanghai 10th People's Hospital, Tongji University School of Medicine, Shanghai 200072 (China)] [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Shanghai 10th People's Hospital, Tongji University School of Medicine, Shanghai 200072 (China); Zhang, Xiaoping, E-mail: zxpsibs@163.com [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Shanghai 10th People's Hospital, Tongji University School of Medicine, Shanghai 200072 (China)] [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Shanghai 10th People's Hospital, Tongji University School of Medicine, Shanghai 200072 (China); Lv, Zhongwei, E-mail: heyixue163@163.com [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Shanghai 10th People's Hospital, Tongji University School of Medicine, Shanghai 200072 (China)] [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Shanghai 10th People's Hospital, Tongji University School of Medicine, Shanghai 200072 (China)

    2012-05-04

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Hsp90 is over-expressed in human breast cancer. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The shRNA-mediated gene silencing of Hsp90 resulted in inhibition of cell growth. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Akt and NF-kB were down-regulation after transfection due to Hsp90 silencing. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The tumor growth ratio was decline due to Hsp90 silencing. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The PCNA expression was down-regulation due to Hsp90 silencing. -- Abstract: Hsp90 interacts with proteins that mediate signaling pathways involved in the regulation of essential processes such as proliferation, cell cycle control, angiogenesis and apoptosis. Hsp90 inhibition is therefore an attractive strategy for blocking abnormal pathways that are crucial for cancer cell growth. In the present study, the role of Hsp90 in human breast cancer MCF-7 cells was examined by stably silencing Hsp90 gene expression with an Hsp90-silencing vector (Hsp90-shRNA). RT-PCR and Western blot analyses showed that Hsp90-shRNA specifically and markedly down-regulated Hsp90 mRNA and protein expression. NF-kB and Akt protein levels were down-regulated in Hsp90-shRNA transfected cells, indicating that Hsp90 knockout caused a reduction of survival factors and induced apoptosis. Treatment with Hsp90-shRNA significantly increased apoptotic cell death and caused cell cycle arrest in the G1/S phase in MCF-7 cells, as shown by flow cytometry. Silencing of Hsp90 also reduced cell viability, as determined by MTT assay. In vivo experiments showed that MCF-7 cells stably transfected with Hsp90-shRNA grew slowly in nude mice as compared with control groups. In summary, the Hsp90-shRNA specifically silenced the Hsp90 gene, and inhibited MCF-7 cell growth in vitro and in vivo. Possible molecular mechanisms underlying the effects of Hsp90-shRNA include the degradation of Hsp90 breast cancer-related client proteins, the inhibition of survival signals and the upregulation of apoptotic pathways. shRNA-mediated interference may have potential therapeutic utility in human breast cancer.

  8. Dnmt3a1 Upregulates Transcription of Distinct Genes and Targets Chromosomal Gene Clusters for Epigenetic Silencing in Mouse Embryonic Stem Cells ?

    PubMed Central

    Kotini, Andriana G.; Mpakali, Anastasia; Agalioti, Theodora

    2011-01-01

    Dnmt3a1 and Dnmt3a2 are two de novo DNA methyltransferases expressed in mouse embryonic stem cells (mESCs). They differ in that a 219-amino-acid (aa) amino (N)-terminal noncatalytic domain is present only in Dnmt3a1. Here, we examined the unique functions of Dnmt3a1 in mESCs by targeting the coding sequence of the Dnmt3a1 N-terminal domain tagged with enhanced green fluorescent protein (GFP) for insertion into the mouse Rosa26 locus. Using these targeted cells (GFP-3a1Nter), we showed that Dnmt3a1 was efficiently recruited to the silenced Oct3/4 and activated Vtn (vitronectin) gene promoters via its unique N-terminal domain. This recruitment affected the two genes in contrasting ways, compromising Oct3/4 gene promoter DNA methylation to prevent consolidation of the silent state while significantly reducing Vtn transcription. We used this negative effect of the Dnmt3a1 N-terminal domain to investigate the extent of transcriptional regulation by Dnmt3a1 in mESCs by using microarrays. A small group of all-trans retinoic acid (tRA)-inducible genes had lower transcript levels in GFP-3a1Nter cells than in wild-type mESCs. Intriguingly, this group included genes that are important for fetal nutrition, placenta development, and metabolic functions and is enriched for a distinct set of imprinted genes. We also identified a larger group of genes that showed higher transcript levels in the GFP-3a1Nter-expressing cells than in wild-type mESCs, including pluripotency factors and key regulators of primordial germ cell differentiation. Thus, Dnmt3a1 in mESCs functions primarily as a negative and to a lesser extent as a positive regulator of transcription. Our findings suggest that Dnmt3a1 positively affects transcription of specific genes at the promoter level and targets chromosomal domains to epigenetically silence gene clusters in mESCs. PMID:21262766

  9. Expression and assembly of Norwalk virus-like particles in plants using a viral RNA silencing suppressor gene.

    PubMed

    Souza, Ana Cláudia; Vasques, Raquel Medeiros; Inoue-Nagata, Alice Kazuko; Lacorte, Cristiano; Maldaner, Franciele Roberta; Noronha, Eliane Ferreira; Nagata, Tatsuya

    2013-10-01

    Binary vector-based transient expression of heterologous proteins in plants is a very attractive strategy due to the short time required for proceeding from planning to expression. However, this expression system is limited by comparatively lower yields due to strong post-transcriptional gene silencing (PTGS) in the host plants. The aim of this study was to optimize a procedure for expression of norovirus virus-like particles (VLPs) in plants using a binary vector with co-expression of a PTGS suppressor to increase the yield of the target protein. The effects of four plant viral PTGS suppressors on protein expression were evaluated using green fluorescent protein (GFP) as a reporter. Constructs for both GFP and PTGS suppressor genes were co-infiltrated in Nicotiana benthamiana plants, and the accumulation of GFP was evaluated. The most effective PTGS suppressor was the 126K protein of Pepper mild mottle virus. Therefore, this suppressor was selected as the norovirus capsid gene co-expression partner for subsequent studies. The construct containing the major (vp1) and minor capsid (vp2) genes with a 3'UTR produced a greater amount of protein than the construct with the major capsid gene alone. Thus, the vp1-vp2-3'UTR and 126K PTGS suppressor constructs were co-infiltrated at middle scale and VLPs were purified by sucrose gradient centrifugation. Proteins of the expected size, specific to the norovirus capsid antibody, were observed by Western blot. VLPs were observed by transmission electron microscopy. It was concluded that protein expression in a binary vector co-expressed with the 126K PTGS suppressor protein enabled superior expression and assembly of norovirus VLPs. PMID:23925532

  10. Genome-wide analysis of hepatic gene silencing in hepatoma cell variants.

    PubMed

    Bulla, Gary A; Aylmer, Caitlin M; Dust, Adele L; Kurkewich, Jeffrey L; Mire, Leon K; Estanda, Arnold B

    2012-09-01

    Genome-wide gene expression profiling was carried out on rat hepatoma cells and compared to profiles of hepatoma "variant" cell lines derived via a stringent selection protocol that enriches for rare cells (<1 in 100,000 cells) that fail to drive liver function. Results show 132 genes that are strongly (>5-fold) repressed in each of the four variant cell lines tested. An additional 68 genes were repressed in 3 of 4 variant cell lines. Importantly, several of the repressed genes are members of transcriptional activation pathways, suggesting that they may contribute to maintaining the hepatic phenotype. Ectopic expression of the HNF1A gene in a variant cell line resulted in activation of 56 genes, 37 of which were included in the repressed data set. These data suggest that a high level of reprogramming occurs when hepatoma cells convert to a non-differentiated phenotype, a process that can be partially reversed by the introduction of transcription factors. PMID:22659237

  11. Consistent gene silencing in transgenic plants expressing a replicating potato virus X RNA

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Susan M. Angell; David C. Baulcombe

    1997-01-01

    Tobacco plants were transformed with constructs in which the transgene was a cDNA of replicating potato virus X (PVX) RNA. The constructs, referred to here as amplicons, were the intact genome of PVX and PVX constructs modified to carry the ?-glucuronidase (GUS) reporter gene either as an additional gene or as a replacement for the coat protein gene (PVX\\/GUS\\/CP and

  12. Transcriptional silencing of the DLC-1 tumor suppressor gene by epigenetic mechanism in gastric cancer cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tai Young Kim; Hyun-Soon Jong; Sang-Hyun Song; Alexandre Dimtchev; Sook-Jung Jeong; Jung Weon Lee; Tae-You Kim; Noe Kyeong Kim; Mira Jung; Yung-Jue Bang; Y-J Bang

    2003-01-01

    DLC-1 (deleted in liver cancer) gene is frequently deleted in hepatocellular carcinoma. However, little is known about the genetic status and the expression of this gene in gastric cancer. In this study, Northern and Southern analysis showed that seven of nine human gastric cancer cell lines did not express DLC-1 mRNA, but contained the DLC-1 gene. To identify the mechanism

  13. Gene silencing in Xenopus laevis by DNA vector-based RNA interference and transgenesis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ming Li; Baerbel Rohrer

    2006-01-01

    A vector-based RNAi expression system was developed using the Xenopus tropicalis U6 promoter, which transcribes small RNA genes by RNA polymerase III. The system was first validated in a Xenopus laevis cell line, designing a short hairpin DNA specific for the GFP gene. Co-transfection of the vector-based RNAi and the GFP gene into Xenopus XR1 cells significantly decreased the number

  14. Hypermethylation and Silencing of the Putative Tumor Suppressor Tazarotene- Induced Gene 1 in Human Cancers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Emile M. Youssef; Xu-qi Chen; Eisaku Higuchi; Yutaka Kondo; Guillermo Garcia-Manero; Reuben Lotan; Jean-Pierre J. Issa

    2004-01-01

    A variety of tumor suppressor genes are down-regulated by hyper- methylation during carcinogenesis. Using methylated CpG amplification- representation difference analysis, we identified a DNA fragment correspond- ing to the Tazarotene-induced gene 1 (TIG1) promoter-associated CpG island as one of the genes hypermethylated in the leukemia cell line K562. Because TIG1 has been proposed to act as a tumor suppressor, we

  15. Silencing of Reporter Gene Expression in Skin Using siRNAs and Expression of Plasmid DNA Delivered by a Soluble Protrusion Array Device (PAD)

    PubMed Central

    Gonzalez-Gonzalez, Emilio; Speaker, Tycho J; Hickerson, Robyn P; Spitler, Ryan; Flores, Manuel A; Leake, Devin; Contag, Christopher H; Kaspar, Roger L

    2010-01-01

    Despite rapid progress in the development of potent and selective small interfering RNA (siRNA) agents for skin disorders, translation to the clinic has been hampered by the lack of effective, patient-friendly delivery technologies. The stratum corneum poses a formidable barrier to efficient delivery of large and/or charged macromolecules including siRNAs. Intradermal siRNA injection results in effective knockdown of targeted gene expression but is painful and the effects are localized to the injection site. The use of microneedle arrays represents a less painful delivery method and may have utility for the delivery of nucleic acids, including siRNAs. For this purpose, we developed a loadable, dissolvable protrusion array device (PAD) that allows skin barrier penetration. The PAD tips dissolve upon insertion, forming a gel-like plug that releases functional cargo. PAD-mediated delivery of siRNA (modified for enhanced stability and cellular uptake) resulted in effective silencing of reporter gene expression in a transgenic reporter mouse model. PAD delivery of luciferase reporter plasmids resulted in expression in cells of the ear, back, and footpad skin as assayed by intravital bioluminescence imaging. These results support the use of PADs for delivery of functional nucleic acids to cells in the skin with an efficiency that may support clinical translation. PMID:20571543

  16. Oligogalacturonide-auxin antagonism does not require posttranscriptional gene silencing or stabilization of auxin response repressors in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Savatin, Daniel V; Ferrari, Simone; Sicilia, Francesca; De Lorenzo, Giulia

    2011-11-01

    ?-1-4-Linked oligogalacturonides (OGs) derived from plant cell walls are a class of damage-associated molecular patterns and well-known elicitors of the plant immune response. Early transcript changes induced by OGs largely overlap those induced by flg22, a peptide derived from bacterial flagellin, a well-characterized microbe-associated molecular pattern, although responses diverge over time. OGs also regulate growth and development of plant cells and organs, due to an auxin-antagonistic activity. The molecular basis of this antagonism is still unknown. Here we show that, in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana), OGs inhibit adventitious root formation induced by auxin in leaf explants as well as the expression of several auxin-responsive genes. Genetic, biochemical, and pharmacological experiments indicate that inhibition of auxin responses by OGs does not require ethylene, jasmonic acid, and salicylic acid signaling and is independent of RESPIRATORY BURST OXIDASE HOMOLOGUE D-mediated reactive oxygen species production. Free indole-3-acetic acid levels are not noticeably altered by OGs. Notably, OG- as well as flg22-auxin antagonism does not involve any of the following mechanisms: (1) stabilization of auxin-response repressors; (2) decreased levels of auxin receptor transcripts through the action of microRNAs. Our results suggest that OGs and flg22 antagonize auxin responses independently of Aux/Indole-3-Acetic Acid repressor stabilization and of posttranscriptional gene silencing. PMID:21880931

  17. A new kinetochore component CENP-W interacts with the polycomb-group protein EZH2 to promote gene silencing.

    PubMed

    Koh, Wansoo; Park, Byoungwoo; Lee, Soojin

    2015-08-14

    Polycomb recessive complex 2 (PRC2) plays a central roles in chromatin compaction and remodeling. EZH2, the catalytic subunit of PRC2, is frequently overexpressed in many human tumors. Together with another essential core component, SUZ12, EZH2 trimethylates histone H3 on lysine 27 (H3K27me3). CENP-W was originally identified as a putative oncogene overexpressed in various human tumors, and later characterized as an essential factor for the formation of functional kinetochore during mitosis. In this study, we found that CENP-W associates with EZH2 to subsequently enhance the protein stability of EZH2. Chromatin immunoprecipitation revealed that ectopically expressed CENP-W bound the promoter of EZH2 target genes to enhance EZH2-mediated transcriptional repression, possibly by facilitating the recruitment of EZH2 to its target genes. Collectively, this study suggests CENP-W is a novel kinetochore component that may be involved in the EZH2-mediated silencing machinery. PMID:26111449

  18. Oligogalacturonide-Auxin Antagonism Does Not Require Posttranscriptional Gene Silencing or Stabilization of Auxin Response Repressors in Arabidopsis1[W

    PubMed Central

    Savatin, Daniel V.; Ferrari, Simone; Sicilia, Francesca; De Lorenzo, Giulia

    2011-01-01

    ?-1-4-Linked oligogalacturonides (OGs) derived from plant cell walls are a class of damage-associated molecular patterns and well-known elicitors of the plant immune response. Early transcript changes induced by OGs largely overlap those induced by flg22, a peptide derived from bacterial flagellin, a well-characterized microbe-associated molecular pattern, although responses diverge over time. OGs also regulate growth and development of plant cells and organs, due to an auxin-antagonistic activity. The molecular basis of this antagonism is still unknown. Here we show that, in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana), OGs inhibit adventitious root formation induced by auxin in leaf explants as well as the expression of several auxin-responsive genes. Genetic, biochemical, and pharmacological experiments indicate that inhibition of auxin responses by OGs does not require ethylene, jasmonic acid, and salicylic acid signaling and is independent of RESPIRATORY BURST OXIDASE HOMOLOGUE D-mediated reactive oxygen species production. Free indole-3-acetic acid levels are not noticeably altered by OGs. Notably, OG- as well as flg22-auxin antagonism does not involve any of the following mechanisms: (1) stabilization of auxin-response repressors; (2) decreased levels of auxin receptor transcripts through the action of microRNAs. Our results suggest that OGs and flg22 antagonize auxin responses independently of Aux/Indole-3-Acetic Acid repressor stabilization and of posttranscriptional gene silencing. PMID:21880931

  19. Alkane-modified low-molecular-weight polyethylenimine with enhanced gene silencing for siRNA delivery.

    PubMed

    Guo, Gaoyang; Zhou, Li; Chen, Zhifei; Chi, Weilin; Yang, Xiuqun; Wang, Wei; Zhang, Biliang

    2013-06-25

    Small interfering RNA (siRNA) has tremendous potential as a therapeutic agent for diverse diseases; however, due to its susceptibility to degradation and poor cellular uptake, the low efficiency of administration has been the most important limiting factor for clinical applications of siRNA. Herein, we synthesized alkyl chain modified low-molecular-weight polyethylenimines (LMW PEIs) and found that hydrophobically modified PEIs displayed enhanced efficiency in siRNA-mediated knockdown of target genes. To elucidate the mechanism for increased delivery, we characterized the polymers' physicochemical properties and bioactivity via nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), gel retardation assay, dynamic laser scattering (DLS) analysis, confocal laser scanning microscopy and flow cytometry. The hydrophobic modification reduced siRNA binding affinity but facilitated the formation of nanoparticles in contrast to the original PEI. The PEIs with eight and thirteen alkyl tails were able to self-assemble into nanoparticles and yielded higher cellular uptake, which leaded to even similar efficiencies of 80-90% knockdown as Lipofectamine™ 2000 control. These results suggested that the status of polymers in aqueous solution, which depended on the degree of hydrophobic modification, played an important role in the uptake of siRNA. Therefore, we provided new information on the role of hydrophobic content in the enhanced gene silencing activity. PMID:23608201

  20. Global methylation silencing of clustered proto-cadherin genes in cervical cancer: serving as diagnostic markers comparable to HPV

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Kai-Hung; Lin, Cuei-Jyuan; Liu, Chou-Jen; Liu, Dai-Wei; Huang, Rui-Lan; Ding, Dah-Ching; Weng, Ching-Feng; Chu, Tang-Yuan

    2015-01-01

    Epigenetic remodeling of cell adhesion genes is a common phenomenon in cancer invasion. This study aims to investigate global methylation of cell adhesion genes in cervical carcinogenesis and to apply them in early detection of cancer from cervical scraping. Genome-wide methylation array was performed on an investigation cohort, including 16 cervical intraepithelial neoplasia 3 (CIN3) and 20 cervical cancers (CA) versus 12 each of normal, inflammation and CIN1 as controls. Twelve members of clustered proto-cadherin (PCDH) genes were collectively methylated and silenced, which were validated in cancer cells of the cervix, endometrium, liver, head and neck, breast, and lung. In an independent cohort including 107 controls, 66 CIN1, 85 CIN2/3, and 38 CA, methylated PCDHA4 and PCDHA13 were detected in 2.8%, 24.2%, 52.9%, and 84.2% (P < 10?25), and 2.8%, 24.2%, 50.6%, and 94.7% (P < 10?29), respectively. In diagnosis of CIN2 or more severe lesion of the cervix, a combination test of methylated PCDHA4 or PCDHA13 from cervical scraping had a sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value of 74.8%, 80.3%, 73%, and 81.8%, respectively. Testing of this combination from cervical scraping is equally sensitive but more specific than human papillomavirus (HPV) test in diagnosis of CIN2 or more severe lesions. The study disclosed a collective methylation of PCDH genes in cancer of cervix and other sites. At least two of them can be promising diagnostic markers for cervical cancer noninferior to HPV. PMID:25418975

  1. Involvement of elevated proline accumulation in enhanced osmotic stress tolerance in Arabidopsis conferred by chimeric repressor gene silencing technology.

    PubMed

    Kazama, Daisuke; Kurusu, Takamitsu; Mitsuda, Nobutaka; Ohme-Takagi, Masaru; Tada, Yuichi

    2014-01-01

    Arabidopsis plants transformed with a chimeric repressor for 6 transcription factors (TFs), including ADA2b, Msantd, DDF1, DREB26, AtGeBP, and ATHB23, that were converted by Chimeric REpressor gene Silencing Technology (CRES-T), show elevated salt and osmotic stress tolerance compared with wild type (WT) plants. However, the roles of TFs in salt and osmotic signaling remain largely unknown. Their hyper-osmotic stress tolerance was evaluated using 3 criteria: germination rate, root length, and rate of seedlings with visible cotyledons at the germination stage. All CRES-T lines tested exhibited better performance than WT, at least for one criterion under stress conditions. Under 600 mM mannitol stress, 3-week-old CRES-T lines accumulated proline, which is a major compatible solute involved in osmoregulation, at higher levels than WT. Expression levels of the delta 1-pyrroline-5-carboxylate synthase gene in CRES-T lines were similar to or lower than those in WT. In contrast, expression of the proline dehydrogenase (PHD) gene in DREB26-SRDX was significantly downregulated and that in ADA2b-SRDX and AtGeBP-SRDX was also rather downregulated compared with that in WT. Although plants at different stages were used for stress tolerance test and proline measurement in this study, we previously reported that 4 out of the 6 CRES-T lines showed better growth than WT after 4 weeks of incubation under 400 mM mannitol. These results suggest that proline accumulation caused by PHD gene suppression may be involved in enhanced osmotic stress tolerance in the CRES-T lines, and that these TFs may be involved in regulating proline metabolism in Arabidopsis. PMID:24614501

  2. Involvement of elevated proline accumulation in enhanced osmotic stress tolerance in Arabidopsis conferred by chimeric repressor gene silencing technology

    PubMed Central

    Kazama, Daisuke; Kurusu, Takamitsu; Mitsuda, Nobutaka; Ohme-Takagi, Masaru; Tada, Yuichi

    2014-01-01

    Arabidopsis plants transformed with a chimeric repressor for 6 transcription factors (TFs), including ADA2b, Msantd, DDF1, DREB26, AtGeBP, and ATHB23, that were converted by Chimeric REpressor gene Silencing Technology (CRES-T), show elevated salt and osmotic stress tolerance compared with wild type (WT) plants. However, the roles of TFs in salt and osmotic signaling remain largely unknown. Their hyper-osmotic stress tolerance was evaluated using 3 criteria: germination rate, root length, and rate of seedlings with visible cotyledons at the germination stage. All CRES-T lines tested exhibited better performance than WT, at least for one criterion under stress conditions. Under 600 mM mannitol stress, 3-week-old CRES-T lines accumulated proline, which is a major compatible solute involved in osmoregulation, at higher levels than WT. Expression levels of the delta 1-pyrroline-5-carboxylate synthase gene in CRES-T lines were similar to or lower than those in WT. In contrast, expression of the proline dehydrogenase (PDH) gene in DREB26-SRDX was significantly downregulated and that in ADA2b-SRDX and AtGeBP-SRDX was also rather downregulated compared with that in WT. Although plants at different stages were used for stress tolerance test and proline measurement in this study, we previously reported that 4 out of the 6 CRES-T lines showed better growth than WT after 4 weeks of incubation under 400 mM mannitol. These results suggest that proline accumulation caused by PDH gene suppression may be involved in enhanced osmotic stress tolerance in the CRES-T lines, and that these TFs may be involved in regulating proline metabolism in Arabidopsis. PMID:24614501

  3. Morphological changes induced by class III chitin synthase gene silencing could enhance penicillin production of Penicillium chrysogenum.

    PubMed

    Liu, Hui; Zheng, Zhiming; Wang, Peng; Gong, Guohong; Wang, Li; Zhao, Genhai

    2013-04-01

    Chitin synthases catalyze the formation of ?-(1,4)-glycosidic bonds between N-acetylglucosamine residues to form the unbranched polysaccharide chitin, which is the major component of cell walls in most filamentous fungi. Several studies have shown that chitin synthases are structurally and functionally divergent and play crucial roles in the growth and morphogenesis of the genus Aspergillus although little research on this topic has been done in Penicillium chrysogenum. We used BLAST to find the genes encoding chitin synthases in P. chrysogenum related to chitin synthase genes in Aspergillus nidulans. Three homologous sequences coding for a class III chitin synthase CHS4 and two hypothetical proteins in P. chrysogenum were found. The gene which product showed the highest identity and encoded the class III chitin synthase CHS4 was studied in detail. To investigate the role of CHS4 in P. chrysogenum morphogenesis, we developed an RNA interference system to silence the class III chitin synthase gene chs4. After transformation, mutants exhibited a slow growth rate and shorter and more branched hyphae, which were distinct from those of the original strain. The results also showed that the conidiation efficiency of all transformants was reduced sharply and indicated that chs4 is essential in conidia development. The morphologies of all transformants and the original strain in penicillin production were investigated by light microscopy, which showed that changes in chs4 expression led to a completely different morphology during fermentation and eventually caused distinct penicillin yields, especially in the transformants PcRNAi1-17 and PcRNAi2-1 where penicillin production rose by 27 % and 41 %, respectively. PMID:23179625

  4. RNA-Dependent RNA Polymerase 6 Is Required for Efficient hpRNA-Induced Gene Silencing in Plants

    PubMed Central

    Harmoko, Rikno; Fanata, Wahyu Indra Duwi; Yoo, Jae Yong; Ko, Ki Seong; Rim, Yeong Gil; Uddin, Mohammad Nazim; Siswoyo, Tri Agus; Lee, Seung Sik; Kim, Dool Yi; Lee, Sang Yeol; Lee, Kyun Oh

    2013-01-01

    In plants, transgenes with inverted repeats are used to induce efficient RNA silencing, which is also frequently induced by highly transcribed sense transgenes. RNA silencing induced by sense transgenes is dependent on RNA-dependent RNA polymerase 6 (RDR6), which converts single-stranded (ss) RNA into double-stranded (ds) RNA. By contrast, it has been proposed that RNA silencing induced by self-complementary hairpin RNA (hpRNA) does not require RDR6, because the hpRNA can directly fold back on itself to form dsRNA. However, it is unclear whether RDR6 plays a role in hpRNA-induced RNA silencing by amplifying dsRNA to spread RNA silencing within the plant. To address the efficiency of hpRNA-induced RNA silencing in the presence or absence of RDR6, Wild type (WT, Col-0) and rdr6-11 Arabidopsis thaliana lines expressing green fluorescent protein (GFP) were generated and transformed with a GFP-RNA interference (RNAi) construct. Whereas most GFP-RNAi-transformed WT lines exhibited almost complete silencing of GFP expression in the T1 generation, various levels of GFP expression remained among the GFP-RNAi-transformed rdr6-11 lines. Homozygous expression of GFP-RNAi in the T3 generation was not sufficient to induce complete GFP silencing in several rdr6-11 lines. Our results indicate that RDR6 is required for efficient hpRNA-induced RNA silencing in plants. PMID:23456296

  5. Silencing of meiosis-critical genes for engineering male sterility in plants

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Engineering sterile traits in plants through the tissue-specific expression of a cytotoxic gene provides an effective way for containing transgene flow; however, the microbial origin of cytotoxic genes has raised concerns. In an attempt to develop a safe alternative, we have chosen the meiosis-crit...

  6. Chitosan Hydrogel as siRNA vector for prolonged gene silencing

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The periodontitis is one of the most prevalent diseases with alveolar resorption in adult people and is the main cause of the tooth loss. To investigate the possibility for protecting the loss of alveolar bone in periodontal diseases, a RNAi-based therapeutic strategy is applied for silencing RANK signaling using thermosensitive chitosan hydrogel as siRNA reservoir and vector. Results The thermosensitive chitosan hydrogel was formed from solution (PH = 7.2, at 4°C) at 37°C within 8 minutes. The degradation rates of hydrogel were ~50% and 5% (W remaining/W beginning) in the presence and absence of lysozyme, respectively, over a period of 20 days. The concurrent cumulative in vitro release of Cy3-labeled siRNA from the hydrogel was 50% and 17% over 14 days, with or without lysozyme digestion, respectively. High cell viability (>88%) was maintained for cells treated with hydrogel loaded with RANK specific siRNA and RANK knockdown was prolonged for up to 9 days when cells were incubated with siRNA/hydrogel complex. In vivo release of siRNA was investigated in a subcutaneous delivery setup in mice. The fluorescent signal from siRNA within hydrogel was remained for up to 14 days compared to less than one day for siRNA alone. Conclusions Chitosan hydrogel can potentially serve as a suitable reservoir and vector for local sustained delivery of siRNA in potential therapy. PMID:24946934

  7. Aberrant silencing of the endocrine peptide gene tachykinin-1 in gastric cancer

    SciTech Connect

    David, Stefan; Kan, Takatsugu; Cheng, Yulan; Agarwal, Rachana; Jin, Zhe [Department of Medicine, Division of Gastroenterology, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, 1503 E. Jefferson Street Office 108, Baltimore, MA 21287 (United States); Mori, Yuriko [Department of Medicine, Division of Gastroenterology, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, 1503 E. Jefferson Street Office 108, Baltimore, MA 21287 (United States)], E-mail: ymori3@jhmi.edu

    2009-01-16

    Tachykinin-1 (TAC1) is the precursor protein for neuroendocrine peptides, including substance P, and is centrally involved in gastric secretion, motility, mucosal immunity, and cell proliferation. Here we report aberrant silencing of TAC1 in gastric cancer (GC) by promoter hypermethylation. TAC1 methylation and mRNA expression in 47 primary GCs and 41 noncancerous gastric mucosae (NLs) were analyzed by utilizing real-time quantitative PCR-based assays. TAC1 methylation was more prevalent in GCs than in NLs: 21 (45%) of 47 GCs versus 6 (15%) of 41 NLs (p < 0.01). Microsatellite instability was also associated with TAC1 methylation in GCs. There was no significant association between TAC1 methylation and age, gender, stage, histological differentiation, or the presence of Helicobacter pylori. TAC1 mRNA was markedly downregulated in GCs relative to NLs. 5-Aza-2'-deoxycytidine-induced demethylation of the TAC1 promoter resulted in TAC1 mRNA upregulation. Further studies are indicated to elucidate the functional involvement of TAC1 in gastric carcinogenesis.

  8. Structural Basis of Transcriptional Gene Silencing Mediated by Arabidopsis MOM1

    PubMed Central

    Nishimura, Taisuke; Molinard, Guillaume; Petty, Tom J.; Broger, Larissa; Gabus, Caroline; Halazonetis, Thanos D.; Thore, Stéphane; Paszkowski, Jerzy

    2012-01-01

    Shifts between epigenetic states of transcriptional activity are typically correlated with changes in epigenetic marks. However, exceptions to this rule suggest the existence of additional, as yet uncharacterized, layers of epigenetic regulation. MOM1, a protein of 2,001 amino acids that acts as a transcriptional silencer, represents such an exception. Here we define the 82 amino acid domain called CMM2 (Conserved MOM1 Motif 2) as a minimal MOM1 fragment capable of transcriptional regulation. As determined by X-ray crystallography, this motif folds into an unusual hendecad-based coiled-coil. Structure-based mutagenesis followed by transgenic complementation tests in plants demonstrate that CMM2 and its dimerization are effective for transcriptional suppression at chromosomal loci co-regulated by MOM1 and the siRNA pathway but not at loci controlled by MOM1 in an siRNA–independent fashion. These results reveal a surprising separation of epigenetic activities that enable the single, large MOM1 protein to coordinate cooperating mechanisms of epigenetic regulation. PMID:22346760

  9. Endogenous silencing of Puccinia triticina pathogenicity genes through in planta-expressed sequences leads to the suppression of rust diseases on wheat.

    PubMed

    Panwar, Vinay; McCallum, Brent; Bakkeren, Guus

    2013-02-01

    Rust fungi are destructive plant pathogens. The draft genomes of several wheat-infecting species have been released and potential pathogenicity genes identified through comparative analyses to fungal pathogens that are amenable to genetic manipulation. Functional gene analysis tools are needed to understand the infection process of these obligate parasites and to confirm whether predicted pathogenicity genes could become targets for disease control. We have modified an Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated in planta-induced transient gene silencing (PITGS) assay for use in Triticum spp. (wheat), and used this assay to target predicted wheat leaf rust fungus, Puccinia triticina (Pt) pathogenicity genes, a MAP kinase (PtMAPK1), a cyclophilin (PtCYC1) and calcineurin B (PtCNB), to analyze their roles in disease. Agroinfiltration effectively delivered hairpin silencing constructs in wheat, leading to the generation of fungal gene-specific siRNA molecules in infiltrated leaves, and resulting in up to 70% reduction in transcription of the endogenous target genes in superinfected Pt. In vivo silencing caused severe disease suppression, compromising fungal growth and sporulation, as viewed by confocal microscopy and measured by reductions in fungal biomass and emergence of uredinia. Interestingly, using the same gene constructs, suppression of infection by Puccinia graminis and Puccinia striiformis was also achieved. Our results show that A. tumefaciens-mediated PITGS can be used as a reverse-genetics tool to discover gene function in rust fungi. This proof-of-concept study indicates that the targeted fungal transcripts might be important in pathogenesis, and could potentially be used as promising targets for developing RNA interference-based resistance against rust fungi. PMID:23110316

  10. Growth Inhibition of Head and Neck Squamous Cell Carcinoma Cells by sgRNA Targeting the Cyclin D1 mRNA Based on TRUE Gene Silencing

    PubMed Central

    Iizuka, Satoshi; Oridate, Nobuhiko; Nashimoto, Masayuki; Fukuda, Satoshi; Tamura, Masato

    2014-01-01

    Head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) exhibits increased expression of cyclin D1 (CCND1). Previous studies have shown a correlation between poor prognosis of HNSCC and cyclin D1 overexpression. tRNase ZL-utilizing efficacious gene silencing (TRUE gene silencing) is one of the RNA-mediated gene expression control technologies that have therapeutic potential. This technology is based on a unique enzymatic property of mammalian tRNase ZL, which is that it can cleave any target RNA at any desired site by recognizing a pre-tRNA-like complex formed between the target RNA and an artificial small guide RNA (sgRNA). In this study, we designed several sgRNAs targeting human cyclin D1 mRNA to examine growth inhibition of HNSCC cells. Transfection of certain sgRNAs decreased levels of cyclin D1 mRNA and protein in HSC-2 and HSC-3 cells, and also inhibited their proliferation. The combination of these sgRNAs and cisplatin showed more than additive inhibition of cancer cell growth. These findings demonstrate that TRUE gene silencing of cyclin D1 leads to inhibition of the growth of HNSCC cells and suggest that these sgRNAs alone or combined with cisplatin may be a useful new therapy for HNSCCs. PMID:25437003

  11. RNA Interference (RNAi) Induced Gene Silencing: A Promising Approach of Hi-Tech Plant Breeding

    PubMed Central

    Younis, Adnan; Siddique, Muhammad Irfan; Kim, Chang-Kil; Lim, Ki-Byung

    2014-01-01

    RNA interference (RNAi) is a promising gene regulatory approach in functional genomics that has significant impact on crop improvement which permits down-regulation in gene expression with greater precise manner without affecting the expression of other genes. RNAi mechanism is expedited by small molecules of interfering RNA to suppress a gene of interest effectively. RNAi has also been exploited in plants for resistance against pathogens, insect/pest, nematodes, and virus that cause significant economic losses. Keeping beside the significance in the genome integrity maintenance as well as growth and development, RNAi induced gene syntheses are vital in plant stress management. Modifying the genes by the interference of small RNAs is one of the ways through which plants react to the environmental stresses. Hence, investigating the role of small RNAs in regulating gene expression assists the researchers to explore the potentiality of small RNAs in abiotic and biotic stress management. This novel approach opens new avenues for crop improvement by developing disease resistant, abiotic or biotic stress tolerant, and high yielding elite varieties. PMID:25332689

  12. Analysis of RNA-mediated gene silencing using a new vector (pKNOCKOUT) and an in planta Agrobacterium transient expression system

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Christopher Ian Cazzonelli; Jeff Velten

    2004-01-01

    A hairpin RNA (hpRNA) vector, pKNOCKOUT (pKO) has been constructed to facilitate the analysis of posttranscriptional gene\\u000a silencing (PTGS) in anAgrobacterium-mediated transient expression system developed for tobacco. The pKO binary vector was tested by cloning a firefly luciferase\\u000a (Photinus pyralis) gene segment in sense (sFLUC), antisense (aFLUC), and inverted repeat (ihpFLUC) orientations. The inverted repeats of the\\u000a target gene are

  13. Geminiviruses and RNA silencing

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ramachandran Vanitharani; Padmanabhan Chellappan; Claude M. Fauquet

    2005-01-01

    Geminiviruses are single-stranded circular DNA viruses that cause economically significant diseases in a wide range of crop plants worldwide. In plants, post-tran- scriptional gene silencing (PTGS) acts as a natural anti- viral defense system and plays a role in genome maintenance and development. During the past decade there has been considerable evidence of PTGS suppres- sion by viruses, which is

  14. Duke Scientists Map 'Silenced Genes' By LAURAN NEERGAARD 13 hours ago

    E-print Network

    Hartemink, Alexander

    people get sick and others do not. "What we have is a bag of gold nuggets," lead researcher Dr. Randy gold and some will be fool's gold," Jirtle added. Usually, people inherit a copy of each gene from each

  15. Method of controlling gene expression

    DOEpatents

    Peters, Norman K. (Berkeley, CA); Frost, John W. (Menlo Park, CA); Long, Sharon R. (Palo Alto, CA)

    1991-12-03

    A method of controlling expression of a DNA segment under the control of a nod gene promoter which comprises administering to a host containing a nod gene promoter an amount sufficient to control expression of the DNA segment of a compound of the formula: ##STR1## in which each R is independently H or OH, is described.

  16. Gene silencing during development of in vitro-produced female bovine embryos

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. K. F. Merighe; F. H. Biase; W. K. F. Santos-Biase; M. S. Miranda; T. H. C. de Bem; Y. F. Watanabe; F. V. Meirelles

    2009-01-01

    ABSTRACT. In early development, female embryos (XX) produce twice the transcripts of X-linked genes compared,with male embryos,(XY). Dur- ing the course of development, inactivation of the X chromosome equili- brates gene dosage, making the development of female embryos viable. Moreover, the biotechnologies used for producing embryos in vitroseem to work better with male embryos, making it easier for them to

  17. The effect of chimeric transgene architecture on co-ordinated gene silencing

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Craigh G. Jones; Gary P. Scothern; Grantley W. Lycett; Gregory A. Tucker

    1998-01-01

    .   Two gene constructs were made consisting of a 244-bp sense fragment from the 5? end of a polygalacturonase cDNA, the 3? end\\u000a of which was ligated to a 414-bp fragment from the 5? end of a phytoene synthase cDNA. In the first construct, the phytoene\\u000a synthase fragment was in a sense orientation (sense\\/sense chimeric gene) and in the second

  18. High-Oleic Peanut Oils Produced by HpRNA-Mediated Gene Silencing of Oleate Desaturase

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dongmei Yin; Shizheng Deng; Kehui Zhan; Dangqun Cui

    2007-01-01

    The quality of peanut oil largely depends on the quantity of oleic (18:1) and linoleic acids (18:2). These two acids comprise\\u000a more than 80% of the total fatty acids in peanuts. The oleate desaturase (FAD2) gene is important for maintaining high oleic acid content. A partial conservative sequence of the FAD2 gene from peanut was selected. The sense and antisense

  19. Global Role for Polyadenylation-Assisted Nuclear RNA Degradation in Posttranscriptional Gene Silencing

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Shao-Win Wang; Abigail L. Stevenson; Stephen E. Kearsey; Stephen Watt; Jurg Bahler

    2008-01-01

    Fission yeast Cid14, a component of the TRAMP (Cid14\\/Trf4-Air1-Mtr4 polyadenylation) complex, polya- denylates nuclear RNA and stimulates degradation by the exosome for RNA quality control. Here, we analyze patterns of global gene expression in cells lacking the Cid14 or the Dis3\\/Rpr44 subunit of the nuclear exosome. We found that transcripts from many genes induced during meiosis, including key regulators, accumulated

  20. Silencing Herpes Simplex Virus Type 1 Capsid Protein Encoding Genes by siRNA: A Promising Antiviral Therapeutic Approach

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Kai; Zhuo, Cuiqin; Ma, Kaiqi; Chen, Maoyun; Wang, Qiaoli; Zhang, Peizhuo; Fan, Jianglin; Ren, Zhe; Wang, Yifei

    2014-01-01

    Herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1), a member of the herpesviridae, causes a variety of human viral diseases globally. Although a series of antiviral drugs are available for the treatment of infection and suppression of dissemination, HSV-1 remains highly prevalent worldwide. Therefore, the development of novel antiviral agents with different mechanisms of action is a matter of extreme urgency. During the proliferation of HSV-1, capsid assembly is essential for viral growth, and it is highly conserved in all HSV-1 strains. In this study, small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) against the HSV-1 capsid protein were screened to explore the influence of silencing capsid expression on the replication of HSV-1. We designed and chemically synthesized siRNAs for the capsid gene and assessed their inhibitory effects on the expression of target mRNA and the total intracellular viral genome loads by quantitative real-time PCR, as well as on the replication of HSV-1 via plaque reduction assays and electron microscopy. Our results showed that siRNA was an effective approach to inhibit the expression of capsid protein encoding genes including UL18, UL19, UL26, UL26.5, UL35 and UL38 in vitro. Interference of capsid proteins VP23 (UL18) and VP5 (UL19) individually or jointly greatly affected the replication of clinically isolated acyclovir-resistant HSV-1 as well as HSV-1/F and HSV-2/333. Plaque numbers and intracellular virions were significantly reduced by simultaneous knockdown of UL18 and UL19. The total intracellular viral genome loads were also significantly decreased in the UL18 and UL19 knockdown groups compared with the viral control. In conclusion, interfering with UL18 and UL19 gene expression could inhibit HSV-1 replication efficiently in vitro. Our research offers new targets for an RNA interference-based therapeutic strategy against HSV-1. PMID:24794394

  1. Motor Responses and Weight Gaining in Neonates through Use of Two Methods of Earmuff and Receiving Silence in NICU

    PubMed Central

    Abdeyazdan, Z.; Ghasemi, S.; Marofi, M.; Berjis, N.

    2014-01-01

    Background and Aims. With technological advances in NICUs the survival rate of preterm infants has been increased. Because NICU environment is a potent source of stress for infants, its modification is an essential measure to decrease infants' morbidity. The purposes of this study were to compare the effects of wearing earmuff and provision silence for infants on their motor responses and gaining weight. Methods. In a randomized clinical trial 96 preterm infants were enrolled. Their motor responses were evaluated for two consecutive days in the morning and afternoon shifts, in the groups of earmuff and silence, and at similar time points in the control group. Also their weight was measured at days 1 and 10. Results. In the two intervention groups, means of motor responses in infants were significantly less than in the control group, and weight gain of infants was more than the control group. However weight gain was more pronounced in the earmuff group. Conclusion. Both interventions led to decreasing number of motor responses and improvement of weight gain pattern, but these effects were more pronounced in earmuff group; thus because implementation of silence in NICUs has many barriers, it is suggested to use earmuff for preterm infants in these units. This trial obtained IRCT registration number IRCT2012092010812N2. PMID:25614898

  2. A Ligation-Independent Cloning Tobacco Rattle Virus Vector for High-Throughput Virus-Induced Gene Silencing Identifies Roles for NbMADS4-1 and -2 in

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yiyu Dong; Tessa M. Burch-Smith; Padmavathi Mamillapalli; Savithramma P. Dinesh-Kumar

    Virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS) is a widely used, powerful technique for reverse genetics. VIGS vectors derived from the Tobacco rattle virus (TRV) are among the most popular for VIGS. We have developed a TRV RNA2 vector that allows the insertion of gene silencing fragments by ligation-independent cloning (LIC). This new vector has several advantages over pre- vious vectors, particularly for

  3. Cytosine methylation at CG and CNG sites is not a prerequisite for the initiation of transcriptional gene silencing in plants, but it is required for its maintenance

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. J. Diéguez; H. Vaucheret; J. Paszkowski; O. Mittelsten Scheid

    1998-01-01

    Transgenes integrated into plant chromosomes, and\\/or endogenous plant genes, may be subjected to epigenetic silencing at\\u000a the transcriptional or post-transcriptional level. Transcriptional inactivation is correlated with hypermethylation of CG\\/CNG\\u000a sites at the silent loci. It is not known whether local hypermethylation is part of the inactivation process, or just an outcome\\u000a of the silent state. To address this issue, we

  4. Long non-coding RNA ANRIL is required for the PRC2 recruitment to and silencing of p15INK4B tumor suppressor gene

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Y Kotake; T Nakagawa; K Kitagawa; S Suzuki; N Liu; M Kitagawa; Y Xiong

    2011-01-01

    A 42 kb region on human chromosome 9p21 encodes for three distinct tumor suppressors, p16INK4A, p14ARF and p15INK4B, and is altered in an estimated 30–40% of human tumors. The expression of the INK4A-ARF-INK4B gene cluster is silenced by polycomb during normal cell growth and is activated by oncogenic insults and during aging. How the polycomb is recruited to repress this

  5. Simultaneous silencing of FAD2 and FAE1 genes affects both oleic acid and erucic acid contents in Brassica napus seeds

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Qi Peng; Yan Hu; Ran Wei; Yuan Zhang; Chunyun Guan; Ying Ruan; Chunlin Liu

    2010-01-01

    The fatty acid composition in the seed oil was significantly modified following the introduction of transgenes. To further\\u000a enhance the desirable characteristics of rapeseed oil, it would be beneficial to develop a new approach for the simultaneous\\u000a silencing of two or more target genes. Our goals in the current study were to (1) increase oleic acid to more than 75%,

  6. Short hairpin type of dsRNAs that are controlled by tRNAVal promoter significantly induce RNAi-mediated gene silencing in the cytoplasm of human cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hiroaki Kawasaki; Kazunari Taira

    2003-01-01

    The post-transcriptional gene silencing in animals and plants is called RNA interference (RNAi). Guides for the sequence-specific degradation of mRNA are 21-nt small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) that are generated by Dicer-dependent cleavage from longer double-stranded RNAs (dsRNAs). To examine the relationship between the localization of dsRNA and the target cleavage of RNAi in human cells, we constructed five kinds of

  7. Inhibition of Taura syndrome virus replication in Litopenaeus vannamei through silencing the LvRab7 gene using double-stranded RNA.

    PubMed

    Ongvarrasopone, Chalermporn; Saejia, Pipop; Chanasakulniyom, Mayuree; Panyim, Sakol

    2011-07-01

    Taura syndrome virus (TSV) is a major cause of high mortality in Pacific white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei, Lv). Previously, silencing of Penaeus monodon Rab7 (PmRab7) by injecting double-stranded RNA corresponding to PmRab7 (dsRNA-PmRab7) prevented white spot syndrome virus or yellow head virus infection. Rab7 is proposed to be involved in intracellular trafficking of the viruses. This study aimed to investigate whether knockdown of Rab7 in L. vannamei by dsRNA-PmRab7 could inhibit replication of TSV. RNA interference (RNAi) technology using dsRNA targeting the LvRab7 gene was used to silence the mRNA expression of LvRab7. The silencing of the LvRab7 gene inhibited TSV replication dramatically when compared to groups receiving dsRNA-GFP or NaCl. This is the first demonstration that dsRNA targeting the endogenous shrimp gene LvRab7 strongly reduces TSV replication. It provides further evidence that LvRab7 is involved in the endosomal trafficking pathway of viruses infecting penaeid shrimp. PMID:21347841

  8. Biolistics-based gene silencing in plants using a modified particle inflow gun.

    PubMed

    Davies, Kevin M; Deroles, Simon C; Boase, Murray R; Hunter, Don A; Schwinn, Kathy E

    2013-01-01

    RNA interference (RNAi) is one of the most commonly used techniques for examining the function of genes of interest. In this chapter we present two examples of RNAi that use the particle inflow gun for delivery of the DNA constructs. In one example transient RNAi is used to show the function of an anthocyanin regulatory gene in flower petals. In the second example stably transformed cell cultures are produced with an RNAi construct that results in a change in the anthocyanin hydroxylation pattern. PMID:23104334

  9. ADAR1 forms a complex with Dicer to promote microRNA processing and RNA-induced gene silencing

    PubMed Central

    Ota, Hiromitsu; Sakurai, Masayuki; Gupta, Ravi; Valente, Louis; Wulff, Bjorn-Erik; Ariyoshi, Kentaro; Iizasa, Hisashi; Davuluri, Ramana V.; Nishikura, Kazuko

    2013-01-01

    SUMMARY Adenosine deaminases acting on RNA (ADARs) are involved in RNA editing that converts adenosine residues to inosine specifically in double-stranded RNAs. In this study, we investigated the interaction of the RNA editing mechanism with the RNA interference (RNAi) machinery and found that ADAR1 forms a complex with Dicer through direct protein-protein interaction. Most importantly, ADAR1 increases the maximum rate (Vmax) of pre-microRNA (miRNA) cleavage by Dicer and facilitates loading of miRNA onto RNA-induced silencing complexes, identifying a new role of ADAR1 in miRNA processing and RNAi mechanisms. ADAR1 differentiates its functions in RNA editing and RNAi by formation of either ADAR1/ADAR1 homodimer or Dicer/ADAR1 heterodimer complexes, respectively. As expected, expression of miRNAs is globally inhibited in ADAR1?/? mouse embryos, which in turn alters expression of their target genes and might contribute to their embryonic lethal phenotype. PMID:23622242

  10. Complete destruction of deep-tissue buried tumors via combination of gene silencing and gold nanoechinus-mediated photodynamic therapy.

    PubMed

    Vijayaraghavan, Priya; Vankayala, Raviraj; Chiang, Chi-Shiun; Sung, Hsing-Wen; Hwang, Kuo Chu

    2015-09-01

    Cancer is one of the major diseases leading to human deaths. Complete destruction of deep tissue-buried tumors using non-invasive therapies is a grand challenge in clinical cancer treatments. Many therapeutic modalities were developed to tackle this problem, but only partial tumor suppression or delay growths were usually achieved. In this study, we report for the first time that complete destruction of deep tissue-buried tumors can be achieved by combination of gold nanoechinus (Au NEs)-mediated photodynamic therapy (PDT) and gene silencing under ultra-low doses of near infra-red (NIR) light irradiation (915 nm, 340 mW/cm(2); 1064 nm, 420 mW/cm(2)) in the first and second biological windows. The average lifespan of the mice treated by the above combined therapy is beyond 40 days, which are ?2.6 times longer than that (15 days) observed from the anticancer drug doxorubicin-treated group. The current study points out a new direction for the therapeutic design to treat deeply seated tumors in future cancer treatments. PMID:26016691

  11. Silencing of HIF Prolyl-Hydroxylase 2 Gene in the Renal Medulla Attenuates Salt-Sensitive Hypertension in Dahl S Rats

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND In response to high salt intake, transcription factor hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF) 1? activates many antihypertensive genes, such as heme oxygenase 1 (HO-1) 1 and cyclooxygenase 2 (COX-2) in the renal medulla, which is an important molecular adaptation to promote extra sodium excretion. We recently showed that high salt inhibited the expression of HIF prolyl-hydroxylase 2 (PHD2), an enzyme that promotes the degradation of HIF-1?, thereby upregulating HIF-1?, and that high salt–induced inhibition in PHD2 and subsequent activation of HIF-1? in the renal medulla was blunted in Dahl salt-sensitive hypertensive rats. This study tested the hypothesis that silencing the PHD2 gene to increase HIF-1? levels in the renal medulla attenuates salt-sensitive hypertension in Dahl S rats. METHODS PHD2 short hairpin RNA (shRNA) plasmids were transfected into the renal medulla in uninephrectomized Dahl S rats. Renal function and blood pressure were then measured. RESULTS PHD2 shRNA reduced PHD2 levels by >60% and significantly increased HIF-1? protein levels and the expression of HIF-1? target genes HO-1 and COX-2 by >3-fold in the renal medulla. Functionally, pressure natriuresis was remarkably enhanced, urinary sodium excretion was doubled after acute intravenous sodium loading, and chronic high salt-induced sodium retention was remarkably decreased, and as a result, salt-sensitive hypertension was significantly attenuated in PHD2 shRNA rats compared with control rats. CONCLUSIONS Impaired PHD2 response to high salt intake in the renal medulla may represent a novel mechanism for hypertension in Dahl S rats, and inhibition of PHD2 in the renal medulla could be a therapeutic approach for salt-sensitive hypertension. PMID:24190904

  12. Gene silencing of a prophenoloxidase activating enzyme in the shrimp, Penaeus monodon, increases susceptibility to Vibrio harveyi infection.

    PubMed

    Charoensapsri, Walaiporn; Amparyup, Piti; Hirono, Ikuo; Aoki, Takashi; Tassanakajon, Anchalee

    2009-07-01

    The prophenoloxidase (proPO) activating system is an important innate immune response against microbial infections in invertebrates. The major enzyme, phenoloxidase (PO), is synthesized as an inactive precursor and its activation to an active enzyme is mediated by a cascade of clip domain serine proteinases (clip-SPs). In this study, a cDNA encoding a proPO activating enzyme (PPAE) from the black tiger shrimp, Penaeus monodon, designated as PmPPAE1, was cloned and characterized. The full-length cDNA contains an open reading frame (ORF) of 1392bp encoding a predicted protein of 463 amino acids including an 18 amino acid signal peptide. The PmPPAE1 protein exhibits a characteristic sequence structure of clip-SPs consisting of the clip domain at the N-terminus and a SP domain at the C-terminus. Sequence analysis showed that PmPPAE1 exhibited the highest amino acid sequence similarity (70%) to a PPAE of the crayfish, Pacifastacus leniusculus. PmPPAE1 mRNA is abundantly expressed in hemocytes, and this is regulated after systemic Vibrio harveyi infection supporting that it is an immune-responsive gene. RNA interference-mediated suppression of PmPPAE1, performed by injection of double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) corresponding to the PmPPAE1 gene into shrimp, resulted in a significant reduction of PmPPAE1 but not other clip-SP and related gene transcript levels of P. monodon, suggesting gene-specific knockdown. RNAi-mediated silencing of PmPPAE1 gene significantly decreased the total PO activity (36.7%) in shrimp and additionally increased the mortality of V. harveyi infected shrimp, the latter of which correlated with an increase in the number of viable bacteria in the hemolymph. These results indicate that PmPPAE1 functions in the proPO system and is an important component in the shrimp immune system. PMID:19428482

  13. The Arabidopsis glutathione transferase gene family displays complex stress regulation and co-silencing multiple genes results in altered metabolic sensitivity to oxidative stress.

    PubMed

    Sappl, Pia G; Carroll, Adam J; Clifton, Rachael; Lister, Ryan; Whelan, James; Harvey Millar, A; Singh, Karam B

    2009-04-01

    Plant glutathione transferases (GSTs) are induced by diverse biotic and abiotic stimuli, and are important for protecting plants against oxidative damage. We have studied the primary transcriptional stress response of the entire Arabidopsis GST family to seven stresses, including both biotic and abiotic stimuli, with a focus on early changes in gene expression. Our results indicate that individual GST genes are highly specific in their induction patterns. Furthermore, we have been able to link individual GSTs to particular stress stimuli. Using RNAi, we successfully co-silenced a group of four phi GSTs that represent some of the most highly expressed GST genes. Despite a marked reduction in total phi GST protein levels, the transgenic plants showed no reduction in GST activity as measured using the model substrate 1-chloro-2,4-dinitrobenzene (CDNB), and appeared to have surprisingly robust physical phenotypes during stress. However, analysis of metabolite pools showed oxidation of the glutathione pool in the RNAi lines, and we observed alterations in carbon and nitrogen compounds following salicylic acid and hydrogen peroxide stress treatments, indicative of oxidative modification of primary metabolism. Thus, there appears to be a high degree of functional redundancy within the Arabidopsis GST family, with extensive disruption being required to reveal the roles of phi GSTs in protection against oxidative stress. PMID:19067976

  14. Silencing Gene Expression with Dicer-Generated siRNA Pools

    E-print Network

    , where they are unwound (4), allowing the antisense strand to interact in a sequence-specific manner with the complementary mRNA (5). Binding of the antisense strand to the target mRNA triggers cleavage of the mRNA (6). siRNAs typ- ically contains hundreds of different oligonucleotides, all targeting the same gene (Gong et al

  15. Genetic transformation and gene silencing mediated by multiple copies of a transgene in eastern white pine

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Wei Tang; Ronald J. Newton; Douglas A. Weidner

    2007-01-01

    An efficient transgenic eastern white pine (Pinus strobus L.) plant regeneration system has been estab- lished using Agrobacterium tumefaciens strain GV3850- mediated transformation and the green fluorescent protein (gfp) gene as a reporter in this investigation. Stable integration of transgenes in the plant genome of pine was confirmed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR), Southern blot, and northern blot analyses. Transgene

  16. Short Communication Tissue-specific gene silencing by RNA interference in the whitefly Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Murad Ghanima; Svetlana Kontsedalov; Henryk Czosnek

    The hemipteran whitefly Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) species complex and the plant viruses they transmit pose major constraints to vegetable and fiber production, worldwide. The whitefly tissue- and developmental-specific gene expression has not been exhaustively studied despite its economic importance. In 2002, a functional genomic project was initiated, which generated several thousands expressed sequence tags (ESTs) and their sequence. This project

  17. Post-transcriptional gene silencing of root knot-nematode in transformed soybean roots

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Plant-parasitic nematodes cause about $100 billion in crop losses annually. Root-knot nematodes (RKN; Meloidogyne spp.) are sedentary endoparasites, and the genus has been found on more than 3000 host plant species. In this study four different gene constructs were designed to produce RNA interferen...

  18. Gene silencing in adult Aedes aegypti mosquitoes through oral delivery of double-stranded RNA

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The induction of the naturally occurring phenomenon of RNA interference (RNAi) to study gene function in insects is now common practice. With appropriately chosen targets, the RNAi pathway has also been exploited for insect control, typically through oral delivery of dsRNA. To determine if such an a...

  19. Lentivirus-delivered stable gene silencing by RNAi in primary cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    SHEILA A. STEWART; DEREK M. DYKXHOORN; DEBORAH PALLISER; HANA MIZUNO; EVAN Y. YU; DONG SUNG AN; DAVID M. SABATINI; IRVIN S. Y. CHEN; WILLIAM C. HAHN; PHILLIP A. SHARP; ROBERT A. WEINBERG; CARL D. NOVINA

    2003-01-01

    Genome-wide genetic approaches have proven useful for examining pathways of biological significance in model organisms such as Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Drosophila melanogastor, and Caenorhabditis elegans, but similar techniques have proven difficult to apply to mammalian systems. Although manipulation of the murine genome has led to identification of genes and their function, this approach is laborious, expensive, and often leads to lethal

  20. Utility of the P19 suppressor of gene-silencing protein for production of therapeutic antibodies in Nicotiana expression hosts.

    PubMed

    Garabagi, Freydoun; Gilbert, Erin; Loos, Andreas; McLean, Michael D; Hall, J Christopher

    2012-12-01

    To study how the P19 suppressor of gene-silencing protein can be used effectively for the production of therapeutic glycoproteins, the following factors were examined: the genetic elements used for expressing recombinant proteins; the effect of different P19 concentrations; compatibility of P19 with various Nicotiana tabacum cultivars for transgenic expression; the glycan profile of a recombinant therapeutic glycoprotein co-expressed with P19 in an RNAi-based glycomodified Nicotiana benthamiana expression host. The coding sequences for the heavy and light chains of trastuzumab were cloned into five plant expression vectors (102-106) containing different 5' and 3' UTRs, designated as vector sets 102-106 mAb. The P19 protein of Tomato bushy stunt virus (TBSV) was also cloned into vector 103, which contained the Cauliflower mosaic virus (CaMV) 35S promoter and 5'UTR together with the terminator region of the nopaline synthase gene of Agrobacterium. Transient expression of the antibody vectors resulted in different levels of trastuzumab accumulation, the highest being 105 and 106 mAb at about 1% of TSP. P19 increased the concentration of trastuzumab approximately 15-fold (to about 2.3% of TSP) when co-expressed with 103 mAb but did not affect antibody levels with vectors 102 and 106 mAb. When 103 mAb was expressed together with P19 in different N. tabacum cultivars, all except Little Crittenden showed a marked discolouring of the infiltrated areas of the leaf and decreased antibody expression. Co-expression of P19 also abolished antibody accumulation in crosses between N. tabacum cv. I-64 and Little Crittenden, indicating a dominant mode of inheritance for the observed P19-induced responses. PMID:22984968

  1. RNAi-mediated silencing of vitellogenin gene function turns honeybee ( Apis mellifera) workers into extremely precocious foragers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marco Antonio, David Santos; Guidugli-Lazzarini, Karina Rosa; Do Nascimento, Adriana Mendes; Simões, Zilá Luz Paulino; Hartfelder, Klaus

    2008-10-01

    The switch from within-hive activities to foraging behavior is a major transition in the life cycle of a honeybee ( Apis mellifera) worker. A prominent regulatory role in this switch has long been attributed to juvenile hormone (JH), but recent evidence also points to the yolk precursor protein vitellogenin as a major player in behavioral development. In the present study, we injected vitellogenin double-stranded RNA (dsVg) into newly emerged worker bees of Africanized genetic origin and introduced them together with controls into observation hives to record flight behavior. RNA interference-mediated silencing of vitellogenin gene function shifted the onset of long-duration flights (>10 min) to earlier in life (by 3 4 days) when compared with sham and untreated control bees. In fact, dsVg bees were observed conducting such flights extremely precociously, when only 3 days old. Short-duration flights (<10 min), which bees usually perform for orientation and cleaning, were not affected. Additionally, we found that the JH titer in dsVg bees collected after 7 days was not significantly different from the controls. The finding that depletion of the vitellogenin titer can drive young bees to become extremely precocious foragers could imply that vitellogenin is the primary switch signal. At this young age, downregulation of vitellogenin gene activity apparently had little effect on the JH titer. As this unexpected finding stands in contrast with previous results on the vitellogenin/JH interaction at a later age, when bees normally become foragers, we propose a three-step sequence in the constellation of physiological parameters underlying behavioral development.

  2. Identification of a silencer module which selectively represses cyclic AMP-responsive element-dependent gene expression.

    PubMed Central

    Chung, K C; Huang, D; Chen, Y; Short, S; Short, M L; Zhang, Z; Jungmann, R A

    1995-01-01

    The cyclic AMP (cAMP)-inducible promoter from the rat lactate dehydrogenase A subunit gene (LDH A) is associated with a distal negative regulatory element (LDH-NRE) that represses inherent basal and cAMP-inducible promoter activity. The element is of dyad symmetry, consisting of a palindromic sequence with two half-sites, 5'-TCTTG-3'. It represses the expression of an LDH A/chloramphenicol acetyltransferase (CAT) reporter gene in a dose-dependent, orientation- and position-independent fashion, suggesting that it is a true silencer element. Uniquely, it selectively represses cAMP-responsive element (CRE)-dependent transcription but has no effect on promoters lacking a CRE sequence. The repressing action of LDH-NRE could be overcome by cotransfection with LDH A/CAT vector oligonucleotides containing either the LDH-NRE or CRE sequence. This suggests that the reversal of repression was caused by the removal of functional active, limiting transacting factors which associate with LDH-NRE as well as with CRE. Gel mobility shift, footprinting, and Southwestern blotting assays demonstrated the presence of a 69-kDa protein with specific binding activity for LDH-NRE. Additionally, gel supershift assays with anti-CREB and anti-Fos antibodies indicate the presence of CREB and Fos or antigenically closely related proteins with the LDH-NRE/protein complex. We suggest that the LDH-NRE and CRE modules functionally interact to achieve negative modulation of cAMP-responsive LDH A transcriptional activity. PMID:7565766

  3. The RING finger/B-box factor TAM-1 and a retinoblastoma-like protein LIN-35 modulate context-dependent gene silencing in Caenorhabditis elegans.

    PubMed

    Hsieh, J; Liu, J; Kostas, S A; Chang, C; Sternberg, P W; Fire, A

    1999-11-15

    Context-dependent gene silencing is used by many organisms to stably modulate gene activity for large chromosomal regions. We have used tandem array transgenes as a model substrate in a screen for Caenorhabditis elegans mutants that affect context-dependent gene silencing in somatic tissues. This screen yielded multiple alleles of a previously uncharacterized gene, designated tam-1 (for tandem-array-modifier). Loss-of-function mutations in tam-1 led to a dramatic reduction in the activity of numerous highly repeated transgenes. These effects were apparently context dependent, as nonrepetitive transgenes retained activity in a tam-1 mutant background. In addition to the dramatic alterations in transgene activity, tam-1 mutants showed modest alterations in expression of a subset of endogenous cellular genes. These effects include genetic interactions that place tam-1 into a group called the class B synMuv genes (for a Synthetic Multivulva phenotype); this family plays a negative role in the regulation of RAS pathway activity in C. elegans. Loss-of-function mutants in other members of the class-B synMuv family, including lin-35, which encodes a protein similar to the tumor suppressor Rb, exhibit a hypersilencing in somatic transgenes similar to that of tam-1 mutants. Molecular analysis reveals that tam-1 encodes a broadly expressed nuclear protein with RING finger and B-box motifs. PMID:10580003

  4. The rde-1 Gene, RNA Interference, and Transposon Silencing in C. elegans

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hiroaki Tabara; Madathia Sarkissian; William G. Kelly; Jamie Fleenor; Alla Grishok; Lisa Timmons; Andrew Z. Fire; Craig C. Mello

    1999-01-01

    Double-stranded (ds) RNA can induce sequence-specific inhibition of gene function in several organisms. However, both the mechanism and the physiological role of the interference process remain mysterious. In order to study the interference process, we have selected C. elegans mutants resistant to dsRNA-mediated interference (RNAi). Two loci, rde-1 and rde-4, are defined by mutants strongly resistant to RNAi but with

  5. The art of microRNA: Various strategies leading to gene silencing via an ancient pathway

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Guiliang Tang; Xiaoqing Tang; Venugopal Mendu; Xiaohu Tang; Xiaoyun Jia; Qi-Jun Chen; Liheng He

    2008-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs), an endogenous type of small RNAs of ?22 nucleotides (nt), have long resided in the cells of plants and animals including humans, constituting an ancient pathway of gene regulation in eukaryotes. They have a simple structure in their mature form but carry enormous information that may regulate up to 90% of the human transcriptome. Furthermore, the multi-facets of

  6. Serum response factor orchestrates nascent sarcomerogenesis and silences the biomineralization gene program in the heart

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Zhiyv Niu; Dinakar Iyer; Simon J. Conway; James F. Martin; Kathryn Ivey; Deepak Srivastava; Alfred Nordheim; Robert J. Schwartz

    2008-01-01

    Our conditional serum response factor (SRF) knockout, Srf Cko, in the heart-forming region blocked the appearance of rhythmic beating myocytes, one of the earliest cardiac defects caused by the ablation of a cardiac-enriched transcription factor. The appearance of Hand1 and Smyd1, transcription and chromatin remodeling factors; Acta1, Acta2, Myl3, and Myom1, myofibril proteins; and calcium-activated potassium-channel gene activity (KCNMB1), the

  7. Gene silencing to investigate the roles of receptor-like proteins in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Ellendorff, Ursula; Zhang, Zhao; Thomma, Bart Phj

    2008-10-01

    Receptor-like proteins (RLPs) are cell surface receptors that play important roles in various processes. In several plant species RLPs have been found to play a role in disease resistance, including the tomato Cf and Ve proteins and the apple HcrVf proteins that mediate resistance against the fungal pathogens Cladosporium fulvum, Verticillium spp., and Venturia inaequalis, respectively. The Arabidopsis genome contains 57 AtRLP genes. Two of these, CLV2 (AtRLP10) and TMM (AtRLP17), have well-characterized functions in meristem and stomatal development, respectively, while AtRLP52 is required for defense against powdery mildew. We recently reported the assembly of a genome-wide collection of T-DNA insertion lines for the Arabidopsis AtRLP genes. This collection was functionally analyzed with respect to plant growth, development and sensitivity to various stress responses including pathogen susceptibility. Only few new phenotypes were discovered; while AtRLP41 was found to mediate abscisic acid sensitivity, AtRLP30 (and possibly AtRLP18) was found to be required for full non-host resistance to a bacterial pathogen. Possibly, identification of novel phenotypes is obscured by functional redundancy. Therefore, RNA interference (RNAi) to target the expression of multiple AtRLP genes simultaneously was employed followed by functional analysis of the RNAi lines. PMID:19704533

  8. Transgenic sugarcane resistant to Sorghum mosaic virus based on coat protein gene silencing by RNA interference.

    PubMed

    Guo, Jinlong; Gao, Shiwu; Lin, Qinliang; Wang, Hengbo; Que, Youxiong; Xu, Liping

    2015-01-01

    As one of the critical diseases of sugarcane, sugarcane mosaic disease can lead to serious decline in stalk yield and sucrose content. It is mainly caused by Potyvirus sugarcane mosaic virus (SCMV) and/or Sorghum mosaic virus (SrMV), with additional differences in viral strains. RNA interference (RNAi) is a novel strategy for producing viral resistant plants. In this study, based on multiple sequence alignment conducted on genomic sequences of different strains and isolates of SrMV, the conserved region of coat protein (CP) genes was selected as the target gene and the interference sequence with size of 423?bp in length was obtained through PCR amplification. The RNAi vector pGII00-HACP with an expression cassette containing both hairpin interference sequence and cp4-epsps herbicide-tolerant gene was transferred to sugarcane cultivar ROC22 via Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. After herbicide screening, PCR molecular identification, and artificial inoculation challenge, anti-SrMV positive transgenic lines were successfully obtained. SrMV resistance rate of the transgenic lines with the interference sequence was 87.5% based on SrMV challenge by artificial inoculation. The genetically modified SrMV-resistant lines of cultivar ROC22 provide resistant germplasm for breeding lines and can also serve as resistant lines having the same genetic background for study of resistance mechanisms. PMID:25685813

  9. Transient co-expression of post-transcriptional gene silencing suppressors and ?-glucuronidase in harvested lettuce leaf tissue does not improve recombinant protein accumulation in planta

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Christopher W. Simmons; Jean S. VanderGheynst

    2007-01-01

    Agrobacterium-mediated gene transfer was used to co-express three virus-derived post-transcriptional gene silencing (PTGS) suppressors,\\u000a P19 from tomato bushy stunt virus and two species of helper component proteinase (HcPro) from tobacco etch virus (TEV) and\\u000a turnip mosaic virus, with ?-glucuronidase (GUS) in harvested lettuce leaf tissue to investigate whether GUS accumulation increases\\u000a in the presence of PTGS suppressors. Co-expression incubations were

  10. Hairpin-RNA mediated silencing of endogenous FAD2 gene combined with heterologous expression of Crambe abyssinica FAE gene causes an increase in the level of erucic acid in transgenic Brassica carinata seeds

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Elzbieta Mietkiewska; Travis L. Hoffman; Jennifer M. Brost; E. Michael Giblin; Dennis L. Barton; Tammy Francis; Yan Zhang; David C. Taylor

    2008-01-01

    The 3?-UTR of the FAD2 gene from Brassica carinata was cloned by PCR and used to prepare an intron-spliced hairpin RNA (ihpRNA) construct. Compared to that of the wild type\\u000a (WT) background, this construct, when expressed in B. carinata, resulted in a high degree of FAD2 gene silencing accompanied by strong increases of up to 16 and 10% in oleic

  11. Roles of mRNA fate modulators Dhh1 and Pat1 in TNRC6-dependent gene silencing recapitulated in yeast.

    PubMed

    Makino, Shiho; Mishima, Yuichiro; Inoue, Kunio; Inada, Toshifumi

    2015-03-27

    The CCR4-NOT complex, the major deadenylase in eukaryotes, plays crucial roles in gene expression at the levels of transcription, mRNA decay, and protein degradation. GW182/TNRC6 proteins, which are core components of the microRNA-induced silencing complex in animals, stimulate deadenylation and repress translation via recruitment of the CCR4-NOT complex. Here we report a heterologous experimental system that recapitulates the recruitment of CCR4-NOT complex by TNRC6 in S. cerevisiae. Using this system, we characterize conserved functions of the CCR4-NOT complex. The complex stimulates degradation of mRNA from the 5' end by Xrn1, in a manner independent of both translation and deadenylation. This degradation pathway is probably conserved in miRNA-mediated gene silencing in zebrafish. Furthermore, the mRNA fate modulators Dhh1 and Pat1 redundantly stimulate mRNA decay, but both factors are required for poly(A) tail-independent translation repression by tethered TNRC6A. Our tethering-based reconstitution system reveals that the conserved architecture of Not1/CNOT1 provides a binding surface for TNRC6, thereby connecting microRNA-induced silencing complex to the decapping machinery as well as the translation apparatus. PMID:25657010

  12. Unliganded progesterone receptor-mediated targeting of an RNA-containing repressive complex silences a subset of hormone-inducible genes.

    PubMed

    Vicent, Guillermo Pablo; Nacht, A Silvina; Zaurin, Roser; Font-Mateu, Jofre; Soronellas, Daniel; Le Dily, Francois; Reyes, Diana; Beato, Miguel

    2013-05-15

    A close chromatin conformation precludes gene expression in eukaryotic cells. Genes activated by external cues have to overcome this repressive state by locally changing chromatin structure to a more open state. Although much is known about hormonal gene activation, how basal repression of regulated genes is targeted to the correct sites throughout the genome is not well understood. Here we report that in breast cancer cells, the unliganded progesterone receptor (PR) binds genomic sites and targets a repressive complex containing HP1? (heterochromatin protein 1?), LSD1 (lysine-specific demethylase 1), HDAC1/2, CoREST (corepressor for REST [RE1 {neuronal repressor element 1} silencing transcription factor]), KDM5B, and the RNA SRA (steroid receptor RNA activator) to 20% of hormone-inducible genes, keeping these genes silenced prior to hormone treatment. The complex is anchored via binding of HP1? to H3K9me3 (histone H3 tails trimethylated on Lys 9). SRA interacts with PR, HP1?, and LSD1, and its depletion compromises the loading of the repressive complex to target chromatin-promoting aberrant gene derepression. Upon hormonal treatment, the HP1?-LSD1 complex is displaced from these constitutively poorly expressed genes as a result of rapid phosphorylation of histone H3 at Ser 10 mediated by MSK1, which is recruited to the target sites by the activated PR. Displacement of the repressive complex enables the loading of coactivators needed for chromatin remodeling and activation of this set of genes, including genes involved in apoptosis and cell proliferation. These results highlight the importance of the unliganded PR in hormonal regulation of breast cancer cells. PMID:23699411

  13. Transcription of the mitochondrial citrate carrier gene: Identification of a silencer and its binding protein ZNF224

    SciTech Connect

    Iacobazzi, Vito [Department of Pharmaco-Biology, University of Bari, Bari (Italy)] [Department of Pharmaco-Biology, University of Bari, Bari (Italy); Infantino, Vittoria [Department of Pharmaco-Biology, University of Bari, Bari (Italy) [Department of Pharmaco-Biology, University of Bari, Bari (Italy); Department of Chemistry, University of Basilicata, Potenza (Italy); Convertini, Paolo; Vozza, Angelo; Agrimi, Gennaro [Department of Pharmaco-Biology, University of Bari, Bari (Italy)] [Department of Pharmaco-Biology, University of Bari, Bari (Italy); Palmieri, Ferdinando, E-mail: fpalm@farmbiol.uniba.it [Department of Pharmaco-Biology, University of Bari, Bari (Italy)] [Department of Pharmaco-Biology, University of Bari, Bari (Italy)

    2009-08-14

    In the last few years, we have been functionally characterizing the promoter of the human mitochondrial citrate carrier (CIC). In this study we show that CIC silencer activity extends over 26 bp (-595/-569), which specifically bind a protein present in HepG2 cell nuclear extracts. This transcription factor was purified by DNA affinity and identified as ZNF224. Overexpression of ZNF224 decreases LUC transgene activity in cells transfected with a construct containing the CIC silencer region, whereas ZNF224 silencing activates reporter transcription in cells transfected with the same construct. Moreover, overexpression and silencing of ZNF224 diminishes and enhances, respectively, CIC transcript and protein levels. Finally, ZNF224 is abundantly expressed in fetal tissues contrary to CIC. It is suggested that CIC transcriptional repression by ZNF224 explains, at least in part, the low expression of CIC in fetal tissues in which fatty acid synthesis is low.

  14. A high-throughput virus-induced gene-silencing vector for screening transcription factors in virus-induced plant defense response in orchid.

    PubMed

    Lu, Hsiang-Chia; Hsieh, Ming-Hsien; Chen, Cheng-En; Chen, Hong-Hwa; Wang, Hsiang-Iu; Yeh, Hsin-Hung

    2012-06-01

    The large number of species and worldwide spread of species of Orchidaceae indicates their successful adaptation to environmental stresses. Thus, orchids provide rich resources to study how plants have evolved to cope with stresses. This report describes our improvement of our previously reported orchid virus-induced gene silencing vector, pCymMV-pro60, with a modified Gateway cloning system which requires only one recombination and can be inoculated by agroinfiltration. We cloned 1,700 DNA fragments, including 187 predicted transcription factors derived from an established expression sequence tag library of orchid, into pCymMV-Gateway. Phalaenopsis aphrodite was inoculated with these vectors that contained DNA fragments of the 187 predicted transcription factors. The viral vector initially triggered the expression of the salicylic acid (SA)-related plant defense responses and later induced silencing of the endogenous target transcription factor genes. By monitoring the expression of the SA-related plant defense marker PhaPR1 (homolog of PR1), we identified a gene, PhaTF15, involved in the expression of PhaPR1. Knockdown of PhaTF15 by virus-induced gene silencing and by transient delivery of double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) reduced expression of the orchid homolog of the conserved positive defense regulator NPR1, PhaNPR1. Cymbidium mosaic virus also accumulated to high levels with knockdown of PhaTF15 by transient delivery of dsRNA. We demonstrated efficient cloning and screening strategies for high-throughput analysis of orchid and identify a gene, PhaTF15, involved in regulation of SA-related plant defense. PMID:22397405

  15. Simultaneous silencing of FAD2 and FAE1 genes affects both oleic acid and erucic acid contents in Brassica napus seeds.

    PubMed

    Peng, Qi; Hu, Yan; Wei, Ran; Zhang, Yuan; Guan, Chunyun; Ruan, Ying; Liu, Chunlin

    2010-04-01

    The fatty acid composition in the seed oil was significantly modified following the introduction of transgenes. To further enhance the desirable characteristics of rapeseed oil, it would be beneficial to develop a new approach for the simultaneous silencing of two or more target genes. Our goals in the current study were to (1) increase oleic acid to more than 75%, (2) reduce polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) to about 10% and erucic acid to zero, and (3) accomplish these changes in a single-transformation event. In a single transformation, two fragments amplified from the fatty acid (Delta12)-desaturase 2 (BnaFAD2) and fatty acid elongase 1 (BnaFAE1) genes of Brassica napus were linked together to form a fusion fragment. The fusion fragment was then used to assemble unique intron-spliced hairpin interfering constructs. In the transgenic plant FFRP4-4, the expression of BnaFAD2 and BnaFAE1 genes was completely inhibited. The composition of oleic acid in FFRP4-4 rose to 85%, PUFA dropped to 10% and erucic acid was undetectable. All hybrid F(1) seeds obtained from the reciprocal crossing of FFRP4-4 and GX-parents (with different genetic backgrounds) contained more than 80% oleic acid, about 10% PUFA and very low, or undetectable, erucic acid. The results confirmed that the fusion fragment silencing construct can simultaneously and effectively silence the target genes on a consistent basis. The strategy provides a useful tool for detecting gene function and advancing genetic engineering techniques for the improvement of agricultural crops. PMID:20130882

  16. A chromatin activity based chemoproteomic approach reveals a transcriptional repressome for gene-specific silencing

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Cui; Yu, Yanbao; Liu, Feng; Wei, Xin; Wrobel, John A.; Gunawardena, Harsha P.; Zhou, Li; Jin, Jian; Chen, Xian

    2015-01-01

    Immune cells develop endotoxin tolerance (ET) after prolonged stimulation. ET increases the level of a repression mark H3K9me2 in the transcriptional-silent chromatin specifically associated with pro-inflammatory genes. However, it is not clear what proteins are functionally involved in this process. Here we show that a novel chromatin activity based chemoproteomic (ChaC) approach can dissect the functional chromatin protein complexes that regulate ET-associated inflammation. Using UNC0638 that binds the enzymatically active H3K9-specific methyltransferase G9a/GLP, ChaC reveals that G9a is constitutively active at a G9a-dependent mega-dalton repressome in primary endotoxin-tolerant macrophages. G9a/GLP broadly impacts the ET-specific reprogramming of the histone code landscape, chromatin remodeling, and the activities of select transcription factors. We discover that the G9a-dependent epigenetic environment promotes the transcriptional repression activity of c-Myc for gene-specific co-regulation of chronic inflammation. ChaC may be also applicable to dissect other functional protein complexes in the context of phenotypic chromatin architectures. PMID:25502336

  17. Functional pathways altered after silencing Pnpla6 (the codifying gene of neuropathy target esterase) in mouse embryonic stem cells under differentiation.

    PubMed

    Pamies, David; Vilanova, Eugenio; Sogorb, Miguel A

    2014-03-01

    Neuropathy target esterase (NTE) is involved in several disorders in adult organisms and embryos. A relationship between NTE and nervous system integrity and maintenance in adult systems has been suggested. NTE-related motor neuron disease is associated with the expression of a mutant form of NTE and the inhibition and further modification of NTE by organophosphorus compounds is the trigger of a delayed neurodegenerative neuropathy. Homozygotic NTE knockout mice embryos are not viable, while heterozygotic NTE knockout mice embryos yields mice with neurological disorders, which suggest that this protein plays a critical role in embryonic development. The present study used D3 mouse embryonic stem cells with the aim of gaining mechanistic insights on the role of Pnpla6 (NTE gene encoding) in the developmental process. D3 cells were silenced by lipofectamine transfection with a specific interference RNA for Pnpla6. Silencing Pnpla6 in D3 monolayer cultures reduced NTE enzymatic activity to 50% 20 h post-treatment, while the maximum loss of Pnpla6 expression reached 80% 48 h postsilencing. Pnpla6 was silenced in embryoid bodies and 545 genes were differentially expressed regarding the control 96 h after silencing, which revealed alterations in multiple genetic pathways, such as cell motion and cell migration, vesicle regulation, and cell adhesion. These findings also allow considering that these altered pathways would impair the formation of respiratory, neural, and vascular tubes causing the deficiencies observed in the in vivo development of nervous and vascular systems. Our findings, therefore, support the previous observations made in vivo concerning lack of viability of mice embryos not expressing NTE and help to understand the biology of several neurological and developmental disorders in which NTE is involved. PMID:24142151

  18. miRNA-dependent gene silencing involving Ago2-mediated cleavage of a circular antisense RNA

    PubMed Central

    Hansen, Thomas B; Wiklund, Erik D; Bramsen, Jesper B; Villadsen, Sune B; Statham, Aaron L; Clark, Susan J; Kjems, Jørgen

    2011-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are ?22 nt non-coding RNAs that typically bind to the 3? UTR of target mRNAs in the cytoplasm, resulting in mRNA destabilization and translational repression. Here, we report that miRNAs can also regulate gene expression by targeting non-coding antisense transcripts in human cells. Specifically, we show that miR-671 directs cleavage of a circular antisense transcript of the Cerebellar Degeneration-Related protein 1 (CDR1) locus in an Ago2-slicer-dependent manner. The resulting downregulation of circular antisense has a concomitant decrease in CDR1 mRNA levels, independently of heterochromatin formation. This study provides the first evidence for non-coding antisense transcripts as functional miRNA targets, and a novel regulatory mechanism involving a positive correlation between mRNA and antisense circular RNA levels. PMID:21964070

  19. A GAL4-HP1 fusion protein targeted near heterochromatin promotes gene silencing.

    PubMed

    Seum, C; Spierer, A; Delattre, M; Pauli, D; Spierer, P

    2000-11-01

    We have constructed a new reporter transgene, Winkelried, equipped with a synthetic binding site for the yeast GAL4 transcriptional activator. The binding site is inserted between the white and lacZ reporter genes, and is flanked by FRT sequences. These elements allow excision of the GAL4 binding site by crossing the transgenic line with an FLP recombinase producing strain. We have generated by X-ray irradiation two independent chromosomal rearrangements, Heidi and Tell, relocating Winkelried next to pericentromeric heterochromatin. These rearrangements induce variegation of both white and lacZ. Variegation of Winkelried in the rearranged transgenic lines responds to the loss and excess of doses of the dominant suppressors of position-effect variegation (PEV) Su(var)3-7 and Su(var)2-5. Winkelried therefore constitutes a unique tool to test the effect on variegation in cis of any factor fused to the GAL4 DNA binding domain. Indeed, a chimeric protein, made of the DNA binding site of GAL4 and of HP1, the modifier of PEV encoded by Su(var)2-5, is shown to enhance variegation of Heidi and Tell. Excision of the binding sites for GAL4 in the variegating rearrangements Heidi and Tell abolishes the modifier effect of the GAL4-HP1 chimera. Therefore, in the Heidi and Tell rearrangements, enhancement of position-effect variegation depends strictly both on the concentration of GAL4-HP1 and on the presence of its binding site in the vicinity of the reporter genes. PMID:11151674

  20. Methylation silencing of ULK2, an autophagy gene, is essential for astrocyte transformation and tumor growth.

    PubMed

    Shukla, Sudhanshu; Patric, Irene Rosita Pia; Patil, Vikas; Shwetha, Shivayogi D; Hegde, Alangar S; Chandramouli, Bangalore A; Arivazhagan, Arimappamagan; Santosh, Vani; Somasundaram, Kumaravel

    2014-08-01

    Glioblastoma (GBM) is the most aggressive type of brain tumor and shows very poor prognosis. Here, using genome-wide methylation analysis, we show that G-CIMP+ and G-CIMP-subtypes enrich distinct classes of biological processes. One of the hypermethylated genes in GBM, ULK2, an upstream autophagy inducer, was found to be down-regulated in GBM. Promoter hypermethylation of ULK2 was confirmed by bisulfite sequencing. GBM and glioma cell lines had low levels of ULK2 transcripts, which could be reversed upon methylation inhibitor treatment. ULK2 promoter methylation and transcript levels showed significant negative correlation. Ectopic overexpression of ULK2-induced autophagy, which further enhanced upon nutrient starvation or temozolomide chemotherapy. ULK2 also inhibited the growth of glioma cells, which required autophagy induction as kinase mutant of ULK2 failed to induce autophagy and inhibit growth. Furthermore, ULK2 induced autophagy and inhibited growth in Ras-transformed immortalized Baby Mouse Kidney (iBMK) ATG5(+/+) but not in autophagy-deficient ATG5(-/-) cells. Growth inhibition due to ULK2 induced high levels of autophagy under starvation or chemotherapy utilized apoptotic cell death but not at low levels of autophagy. Growth inhibition by ULK2 also appears to involve catalase degradation and reactive oxygen species generation. ULK2 overexpression inhibited anchorage independent growth, inhibited astrocyte transformation in vitro and tumor growth in vivo. Of all autophagy genes, we found ULK2 and its homologue ULK1 were only down-regulated in all grades of glioma. Thus these results altogether suggest that inhibition of autophagy by ULK1/2 down-regulation is essential for glioma development. PMID:24923441

  1. Pendant polymer:amino-?-cyclodextrin:siRNA guest:host nanoparticles as efficient vectors for gene silencing.

    PubMed

    Kulkarni, Aditya; DeFrees, Kyle; Hyun, Seok-Hee; Thompson, David H

    2012-05-01

    A novel siRNA delivery vector has been developed, based on the self-assembly of monosubstituted cationic ?-CD derivatives with a poly(vinyl alcohol)MW27kD (PVA) main-chain polymer bearing poly(ethylene glycol)MW2000 (PEG) and acid-labile cholesterol-modified (Chol) grafts through an acid-sensitive benzylidene acetal linkage. These components were investigated for their ability to form nanoparticles with siRNA using two different assembly schemes, involving either precomplexation of the pendant Chol-PVA-PEG polymer with the cationic ?-CD derivatives before siRNA condensation or siRNA condensation with the cationic ?-CD derivatives prior to addition of Chol-PVA-PEG to engage host:guest complexation. The pendant polymer:amino-?-CD:siRNA complexes were shown to form nanoparticles in the size range of 120-170 nm, with a slightly negative zeta potential. Cell viability studies in CHO-GFP cells shows that these materials have 10(3)-fold lower cytotoxicities than 25 kD bPEI, while maintaining gene-silencing efficiencies that are comparable to those of benchmark transfection reagents such as bPEI and Lipofectamine 2000. These results suggest that the degradable Chol-PVA-PEG polymer is able to self-assemble in the presence of siRNA and cationic-?-CD to form nanoparticles that are an effective and low-toxicity vehicle for delivering siRNA cargo to target cells. PMID:22545899

  2. Orthologs of human disease associated genes and RNAi analysis of silencing insulin receptor gene in Bombyx mori.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zan; Teng, Xiaolu; Chen, Maohua; Li, Fei

    2014-01-01

    The silkworm, Bombyx mori L., is an important economic insect that has been domesticated for thousands of years to produce silk. It is our great interest to investigate the possibility of developing the B. mori as human disease model. We searched the orthologs of human disease associated genes in the B. mori by bi-directional best hits of BLAST and confirmed by searching the OrthoDB. In total, 5006 genes corresponding to 1612 kinds of human diseases had orthologs in the B. mori, among which, there are 25 genes associated with diabetes mellitus. Of these, we selected the insulin receptor gene of the B. mori (Bm-INSR) to study its expression in different tissues and at different developmental stages and tissues. Quantitative PCR showed that Bm-INSR was highly expressed in the Malpighian tubules but expressed at low levels in the testis. It was highly expressed in the 3rd and 4th instar larvae, and adult. We knocked down Bm-INSR expression using RNA interference. The abundance of Bm-INSR transcripts were dramatically reduced to ~4% of the control level at 6 days after dsRNA injection and the RNAi-treated B. mori individuals showed apparent growth inhibition and malformation such as abnormal body color in black, which is the typical symptom of diabetic patients. Our results demonstrate that B. mori has potential use as an animal model for diabetic mellitus research. PMID:25302617

  3. RNAi Related Mechanisms Affect Both Transcriptional and Posttranscriptional Transgene Silencing in Drosophila

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Manika Pal-Bhadra; Utpal Bhadra; James A Birchler

    2002-01-01

    Two types of transgene silencing were found for the Alcohol dehydrogenase (Adh) transcription unit. Transcriptional gene silencing (TGS) is Polycomb dependent and occurs when Adh is driven by the white eye color gene promoter. Full-length Adh transgenes are silenced posttranscriptionally at high copy number or by a pulsed increase over a threshold. The posttranscriptional gene silencing (PTGS) exhibits molecular hallmarks

  4. SILENCING POLYGALACTURONASE EXPRESSION INHIBITS TOMATO PETIOLE ABSCISSION

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We used Virus Induced Gene Silencing (VIGS) as a tool for functional analysis of cell-wall associated genes that have been suggested to be involved in leaf abscission. Tobacco rattle virus (TRV) is an effective vector for VIGS in tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum). Silencing was more efficient when ...

  5. Silencing BMI1 eliminates tumor formation of pediatric glioma CD133+ cells not by affecting known targets but by down-regulating a novel set of core genes.

    PubMed

    Baxter, Patricia A; Lin, Qi; Mao, Hua; Kogiso, Mari; Zhao, Xiumei; Liu, Zhigang; Huang, Yulun; Voicu, Horatiu; Gurusiddappa, Sivashankarappa; Su, Jack M; Adesina, Adekunle M; Perlaky, Laszlo; Dauser, Robert C; Leung, Hon-chiu Eastwood; Muraszko, Karin M; Heth, Jason A; Fan, Xing; Lau, Ching C; Man, Tsz-Kwong; Chintagumpala, Murali; Li, Xiao-Nan

    2014-01-01

    Clinical outcome of children with malignant glioma remains dismal. Here, we examined the role of over-expressed BMI1, a regulator of stem cell self-renewal, in sustaining tumor formation in pediatric glioma stem cells. Our investigation revealed BMI1 over-expression in 29 of 54 (53.7%) pediatric gliomas, 8 of 8 (100%) patient derived orthotopic xenograft (PDOX) mouse models, and in both CD133+ and CD133- glioma cells. We demonstrated that lentiviral-shRNA mediated silencing of suppressed cell proliferation in vitro in cells derived from 3 independent PDOX models and eliminated tumor-forming capacity of CD133+ and CD133- cells derived from 2 PDOX models in mouse brains. Gene expression profiling showed that most of the molecular targets of BMI1 ablation in CD133+ cells were different from that in CD133- cells. Importantly, we found that silencing BMI1 in CD133+ cells derived from 3 PDOX models did not affect most of the known genes previously associated with the activated BMI1, but modulated a novel set of core genes, including RPS6KA2, ALDH3A2, FMFB, DTL, API5, EIF4G2, KIF5c, LOC650152, C20ORF121, LOC203547, LOC653308, and LOC642489, to mediate the elimination of tumor formation. In summary, we identified the over-expressed BMI1 as a promising therapeutic target for glioma stem cells, and suggest that the signaling pathways associated with activated BMI1 in promoting tumor growth may be different from those induced by silencing BMI1 in blocking tumor formation. These findings highlighted the importance of careful re-analysis of the affected genes following the inhibition of abnormally activated oncogenic pathways to identify determinants that can potentially predict therapeutic efficacy. PMID:25526772

  6. Gene Silencing of Human Neuronal Cells for Drug Addiction Therapy using Anisotropic Nanocrystals

    PubMed Central

    Law, Wing-Cheung; Mahajan, Supriya D.; Kopwitthaya, Atcha; Reynolds, Jessica L.; Liu, Maixian; Liu, Xin; Chen, Guanying; Erogbogbo, Folarin; Vathy, Lisa; Aalinkeel, Ravikumar; Schwartz, Stanley A.; Yong, Ken-Tye; Prasad, Paras N.

    2012-01-01

    Theranostic platform integrating diagnostic imaging and therapeutic function into a single system has become a new direction of nanoparticle research. In the process of treatment, therapeutic efficacy is monitored. The use of theranostic nanoparticle can add an additional "layer" to keep track on the therapeutic agent such as the pharmacokinetics and biodistribution. In this report, we have developed quantum rod (QR) based formulations for the delivery of small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) to human neuronal cells. PEGlyated QRs with different surface functional groups (amine and maleimide) were designed for selectively down-regulating the dopaminergic signaling pathway which is associated with the drug abuse behavior. We have demonstrated that the DARPP-32 siRNAs were successfully delivered to dopaminergic neuronal (DAN) cells which led to drastic knockdown of specific gene expression by both the electrostatic and covalent bond conjugation regimes. The PEGlyated surface offered high biocompatibilities and negligible cytotoxicities to the QR formulations that may facilitate the in vivo applications of these nanoparticles. PMID:22896771

  7. Uncoupling of X-linked gene silencing from XIST binding by DICER1 and chromatin modulation on human inactive X chromosome.

    PubMed

    Kota, Satya Keerthi; Roy Chowdhury, Debabani; Rao, Lakshmi K; Padmalatha, Venkata; Singh, Lalji; Bhadra, Utpal

    2015-06-01

    In mammals, X-inactivation process is achieved by the cis-spreading of long noncoding Xist RNA over one of the female X chromosomes. The Xist binding accumulates histones H3 methylation and H4 hypoacetylation required for X inactivation that leads to proper dosage compensation of the X-linked genes. Co-transcription of Tsix, an antisense copy of Xist, blocks the Xist coating on the Xi. In mice ES cells, an RNase III enzyme Dicer1 disrupts Xist binding and methylated H3K27me3 accumulation on the Xi. Later, multiple reports opposed these findings raising a question regarding the possible role of Dicer1 in murine X silencing. Here, we show that reduction of DICER1 in human female cells increases XIST transcripts without compromising the binding of the XIST and histone tail modifications on the Xi. Moreover, DICER1-depleted cells show differential upregulation of many human X-linked genes by binding different amounts of acetylated histone predominantly on their active promoter sites. Therefore, X-linked gene silencing, which is thought to be coupled with the accumulation of XIST and heterochromatin markers on Xi can be disrupted in DICER1 depleted human cells. These results suggest that DICER1 has no apparent effect on the recruitment of heterochromatic markers on the Xi but is required for inactivation of differentially regulated genes for the maintenance of proper dosage compensation in differentiated cells. PMID:25428210

  8. An insertion of oleate desaturase homologous sequence silences via siRNA the functional gene leading to high oleic acid content in sunflower seed oil.

    PubMed

    Lacombe, Séverine; Souyris, Irénée; Bervillé, André J

    2009-01-01

    Classical sunflower varieties display a high linoleic acid content in their seeds [low oleic (LO) varieties] whereas genotypes carrying the Pervenets mutation display an increased oleic acid content of above 83% [high oleic (HO) varieties]. Despite the advantage in health terms of oleic acid, the nature of the mutation was still unknown. Previous work reported that HO genotypes carried a specific oleate desaturase (OD) allele. This enzyme catalyses the desaturation of oleic acid into linoleic acid. The present work demonstrates that this allele is organised in two parts: the first section present in both HO and LO genotypes carries a normal OD gene, the second section is specific to HO genotypes and carries OD duplications. The study of mRNA accumulation in LO and HO seeds revealed that the mutation is dominant and induces an OD mRNA down-regulation. Furthermore, OD small interfering RNA, characteristic of gene silencing, accumulated specifically in HO seeds. Considered together, these observations show that the mutation is associated with OD duplications leading to gene silencing of the OD gene and consequently, to oleic acid accumulation. This finding allowed the development of molecular markers characterising the mutation that can be used in breeding programmes to facilitate the selection of HO genotypes. PMID:18956214

  9. H3K4 demethylation by Jarid1a and Jarid1b contributes to retinoblastoma-mediated gene silencing during cellular senescence.

    PubMed

    Chicas, Agustin; Kapoor, Avnish; Wang, Xiaowo; Aksoy, Ozlem; Evertts, Adam G; Zhang, Michael Q; Garcia, Benjamin A; Bernstein, Emily; Lowe, Scott W

    2012-06-01

    Cellular senescence is a tumor-suppressive program that involves chromatin reorganization and specific changes in gene expression that trigger an irreversible cell-cycle arrest. Here we combine quantitative mass spectrometry, ChIP deep-sequencing, and functional studies to determine the role of histone modifications on chromatin structure and gene-expression alterations associated with senescence in primary human cells. We uncover distinct senescence-associated changes in histone-modification patterns consistent with a repressive chromatin environment and link the establishment of one of these patterns--loss of H3K4 methylation--to the retinoblastoma tumor suppressor and the H3K4 demethylases Jarid1a and Jarid1b. Our results show that Jarid1a/b-mediated H3K4 demethylation contributes to silencing of retinoblastoma target genes in senescent cells, suggesting a mechanism by which retinoblastoma triggers gene silencing. Therefore, we link the Jarid1a and Jarid1b demethylases to a tumor-suppressor network controlling cellular senescence. PMID:22615382

  10. Transcriptional changes in epigenetic modifiers associated with gene silencing in the intestine of the sea cucumber, Apostichopus japonicus (Selenka), during aestivation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Tianming; Yang, Hongsheng; Zhao, Huan; Chen, Muyan; Wang, Bing

    2011-11-01

    The sea cucumber, Apostichopus japonicus, undergoes aestivation to improve survival during periods of high-temperature. During aestivation, the metabolic rate is depressed to reduce the consumption of reserved energy. We evaluated the role of epigenetic modification on global gene silencing during metabolic rate depression in the sea cucumber. We compared the expression of epigenetic modifiers in active and aestivating sea cucumbers. The expression of three genes involved in DNA methylation and chromatin remodeling (DNA (cytosine-5)-methyltransferase 1, Methyl-CpG-binding domain protein 2), and Chromodomain-helicase-DNA-binding protein 5) was significantly higher during aestivation (Days 20 and 40). Similarly, we observed an increase in the expression of genes involved in histone acetylation (Histone deacetylase 3) and Histone-binding protein RBBP4) during the early (Days 5 and 10) and late phases (Days 20 and 40) of aestivation. There was no change in the expression of KAT2B, a histone acetyltransferase. However, the expression of histone methylation associated modifiers (Histone-arginine methyltransferase CARMER and Histone-lysine N-methyltransferase MLL5) was significantly higher after 5 d in the aestivating group. The results suggest that the expression of epigenetic modifiers involved in DNA methylation, chromatin remodeling, histone acetylation, and histone methylation is upregulated during aestivation. We hypothesize that these changes regulate global gene silencing during aestivation in A. japonicus.

  11. A Gateway ® compatible vector for gene silencing in bloodstream form Trypanosoma brucei

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Savitha Kalidas; Qiong Li; Margaret A. Phillips

    2011-01-01

    RNA interference is the most rapid method for generation of conditional knockdown mutants in Trypanosoma brucei. The dual T7 promoter (pZJM) and the stem-loop vectors have been widely used to generate stable inducible RNAi cell lines with the latter providing tighter regulatory control. However, the steps for cloning stem-loop constructs are cumbersome requiring either multiple cloning steps or multi-fragment ligation

  12. Mi2b Is Required for c-Globin Gene Silencing: Temporal Assembly of a GATA-1-FOG-1-Mi2 Repressor Complex in b-YAC Transgenic Mice

    E-print Network

    Costa, Flavia C.; Fedosyuk, Halyna; Chazelle, Allen M.; Neades, Renee Y.; Peterson, Kenneth R.

    2012-12-20

    Mi2b Is Required for c-Globin Gene Silencing: Temporal Assembly of a GATA-1-FOG-1-Mi2 Repressor Complex in b-YAC Transgenic Mice Fla´via C. Costa1¤, Halyna Fedosyuk1, Allen M. Chazelle1, Renee Y. Neades1, Kenneth R. Peterson1,2* 1Department... hemoglobin. A GATA-1-FOG-1-Mi2 repressor complex was recently demonstrated to be recruited to the 2566 GATA motif of the Ac-globin gene. We show that Mi2b is essential for c-globin gene silencing using Mi2b conditional knockout b-YAC transgenic mice...

  13. Suppressing RNA silencing with small molecules and the viral suppressor of RNA silencing protein p19.

    PubMed

    Danielson, Dana C; Filip, Roxana; Powdrill, Megan H; O'Hara, Shifawn; Pezacki, John P

    2015-08-01

    RNA silencing is a gene regulatory and host defense mechanism whereby small RNA molecules are engaged by Argonaute (AGO) proteins, which facilitate gene knockdown of complementary mRNA targets. Small molecule inhibitors of AGO represent a convenient method for reversing this effect and have applications in human therapy and biotechnology. Viral suppressors of RNA silencing, such as p19, can also be used to suppress the pathway. Here we assess the compatibility of these two approaches, by examining whether synthetic inhibitors of AGO would inhibit p19-siRNA interactions. We observe that aurintricarboxylic acid (ATA) is a potent inhibitor of p19's ability to bind siRNA (IC50 = 0.43 ?M), oxidopamine does not inhibit p19:siRNA interactions, and suramin is a mild inhibitor of p19:siRNA interactions (IC50 = 430 ?M). We observe that p19 and suramin are compatible inhibitors of RNA silencing in human hepatoma cells. Our data suggests that at least some inhibitors of AGO may be used in combination with p19 to inhibit RNA silencing at different points in the pathway. PMID:26079891

  14. Effect of siRNA nuclease stability on the in vitro and in vivo kinetics of siRNA-mediated gene silencing.

    PubMed

    Bartlett, Derek W; Davis, Mark E

    2007-07-01

    Small interfering RNA (siRNA) molecules achieve sequence-specific gene silencing through the RNA interference (RNAi) mechanism. Here, live-cell and live-animal bioluminescent imaging (BLI) is used to directly compare luciferase knockdown by unmodified and nuclease-stabilized siRNAs in rapidly (HeLa) and slowly (CCD-1074Sk) dividing cells to reveal the impact of cell division and siRNA nuclease stability on the kinetics of siRNA-mediated gene silencing. Luciferase knockdown using unmodified siRNAs lasts approximately 1 week in HeLa cells and up to 1 month in CCD-1074Sk cells. There is a slight increase in the duration of luciferase knockdown by nuclease-stabilized siRNAs relative to unmodified siRNAs after cationic lipid transfection, but this difference is not observed after electroporation. In BALB/cJ mice, a fourfold increase in maximum luciferase knockdown is observed after hydrodynamic injection (HDI) of nuclease-stabilized siRNAs relative to unmodified siRNAs, yet the overall kinetics of the recovery after knockdown are nearly identical. By using a mathematical model of siRNA-mediated gene silencing, the trends observed in the experimental data can be duplicated by changing model parameters that affect the stability of the siRNAs before they reach the cytosolic compartment. Based on these findings, we hypothesize that the stabilization advantages of nuclease-stabilized siRNAs originate primarily from effects prior to and during internalization before the siRNAs can interact with the intracellular RNAi machinery. PMID:17154307

  15. Aberrant DNA hypermethylation patterns lead to transcriptional silencing of tumor suppressor genes in UVB-exposed skin and UVB-induced skin tumors of mice

    PubMed Central

    Nandakumar, Vijayalakshmi; Vaid, Mudit; Tollefsbol, Trygve O.; Katiyar, Santosh K.

    2011-01-01

    Overexposure of the human skin to solar ultraviolet (UV) radiation is the major etiologic factor for development of skin cancers. Here, we report the results of epigenetic modifications in UV-exposed skin and skin tumors in a systematic manner. The skin and tumor samples were collected after chronic exposure of the skin of SKH-1 hairless mice to UVB radiation using a well-established photocarcinogenesis protocol. We found a distinct DNA hypermethylation pattern in the UVB-exposed epidermal skin and UVB-induced skin tumors that was associated with the elevated expression and activity of the DNA methyltransferases (Dnmt) 1, Dnmt3a and Dnmt3b. To explore the role of hypermethylation in skin photocarcinogenesis, we focused on the p16INK4a and RASSF1A tumor suppressor genes, which are transcriptionally silenced on methylation. We established that the silencing of these genes in UVB-exposed epidermis and UVB-induced skin tumors is associated with a network of epigenetic modifications, including hypoacetylation of histone H3 and H4 and increased histone deacetylation, as well as recruitment of methyl-binding proteins, including MeCP2 and MBD1, to the methylated CpGs. Higher levels of DNA methylation and DNMT activity in human squamous cell carcinoma specimens than in normal human skin suggest that the data are relevant clinically. Our data indicate for the first time that UVB-induced DNA hypermethylation, enhanced Dnmt activity and histone modifications occur in UVB-exposed skin and UVB-induced skin tumors and suggest that these events are involved in the silencing of tumor suppressor genes and in skin tumor development. PMID:21186298

  16. Transplantation of Nogo-66 receptor gene-silenced cells in a poly(D,L-lactic-co-glycolic acid) scaffold for the treatment of spinal cord injury.

    PubMed

    Wang, Dong; Fan, Yuhong; Zhang, Jianjun

    2013-03-15

    Inhibition of neurite growth, which is in large part mediated by the Nogo-66 receptor, affects neural regeneration following bone marrow mesenchymal stem cell transplantation. The tissue engineering scaffold poly(D,L-lactide-co-glycolic acid) has good histocompatibility and can promote the growth of regenerating nerve fibers. The present study used small interfering RNA to silence Nogo-66 receptor gene expression in bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells and Schwann cells, which were subsequently transplanted with poly(D,L-lactide-co-glycolic acid) into the spinal cord lesion regions in rats. Simultaneously, rats treated with scaffold only were taken as the control group. Hematoxylin-eosin staining and immunohistochemistry revealed that at 4 weeks after transplantation, rats had good motor function of the hind limb after treatment with Nogo-66 receptor gene-silenced cells plus the poly(D,L-lactide-co-glycolic acid) scaffold compared with rats treated with scaffold only, and the number of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells and neuron-like cells was also increased. At 8 weeks after transplantation, horseradish peroxidase tracing and transmission electron microscopy showed a large number of unmyelinated and myelinated nerve fibers, as well as intact regenerating axonal myelin sheath following spinal cord hemisection injury. These experimental findings indicate that transplantation of Nogo-66 receptor gene-silenced bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells and Schwann cells plus a poly(D,L-lactide-co-glycolic acid) scaffold can significantly enhance axonal regeneration of spinal cord neurons and improve motor function of the extremities in rats following spinal cord injury. PMID:25206713

  17. An argonaute-like protein is required for meiotic silencing.

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Dong W; Pratt, Robert J; McLaughlin, Malcolm; Aramayo, Rodolfo

    2003-01-01

    We demonstrate the involvement of suppressor of meiotic silencing-2 (sms-2(+)), a Neurospora gene coding for an Argonaute-like protein, in meiotic silencing and normal sexual development. PMID:12807800

  18. Topical gene silencing by iontophoretic delivery of an antisense oligonucleotide-dendrimer nanocomplex: the proof of concept in a skin cancer mouse model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Venuganti, , Venkata Vamsi K.; Saraswathy, Manju; Dwivedi, Chandradhar; Kaushik, Radhey S.; Perumal, Omathanu P.

    2015-02-01

    The study was aimed at investigating the feasibility of using a poly (amidoamine) (PAMAM) dendrimer as a carrier for topical iontophoretic delivery of an antisense oligonucleotide (ASO). Bcl-2, an anti-apoptotic protein implicated in skin cancer, was used as the model target protein to demonstrate the topical gene silencing approach. Confocal laser scanning microscopy studies demonstrated that the iontophoretically delivered ASO-dendrimer complex can reach the viable epidermis in porcine skin. In contrast, passively delivered free or dendrimer complexed ASO was mainly localized to the stratum corneum. The cell uptake of ASO was significantly enhanced by the dendrimer complex and the complex suppressed Bcl-2 levels in the cell. In the skin cancer mouse model, the iontophoretically delivered ASO-dendrimer complex reduced the tumor volume by 45% and was consistent with the reduction in Bcl-2 protein levels. The iontophoretically delivered ASO-dendrimer complex caused significant apoptosis in skin tumor. Overall, the findings from this study demonstrate that dendrimers are promising nanocarriers for developing topical gene silencing approaches for skin diseases.The study was aimed at investigating the feasibility of using a poly (amidoamine) (PAMAM) dendrimer as a carrier for topical iontophoretic delivery of an antisense oligonucleotide (ASO). Bcl-2, an anti-apoptotic protein implicated in skin cancer, was used as the model target protein to demonstrate the topical gene silencing approach. Confocal laser scanning microscopy studies demonstrated that the iontophoretically delivered ASO-dendrimer complex can reach the viable epidermis in porcine skin. In contrast, passively delivered free or dendrimer complexed ASO was mainly localized to the stratum corneum. The cell uptake of ASO was significantly enhanced by the dendrimer complex and the complex suppressed Bcl-2 levels in the cell. In the skin cancer mouse model, the iontophoretically delivered ASO-dendrimer complex reduced the tumor volume by 45% and was consistent with the reduction in Bcl-2 protein levels. The iontophoretically delivered ASO-dendrimer complex caused significant apoptosis in skin tumor. Overall, the findings from this study demonstrate that dendrimers are promising nanocarriers for developing topical gene silencing approaches for skin diseases. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c4nr05241b

  19. Gene Silencing and Activation of Human Papillomavirus 18 Is Modulated by Sense Promoter Associated RNA in Bidirectionally Transcribed Long Control Region

    PubMed Central

    Kassab, Muzaffer Ahmad; Mudassir, Madeeha; Singh, Anand; N, Muthuraman; Bhagat, Mohita; Palanichamy, Jayanth Kumar; Ramalingam, Pradeep; Chosdol, Kunzang; Sinha, Subrata; Chattopadhyay, Parthaprasad

    2015-01-01

    Background Recently various studies have demonstrated the role of promoter associated non-coding RNAs (pRNA) in dsRNA induced transcriptional gene silencing and activation. However the exact mechanistic details of these processes with respect to the orientation of pRNAs are poorly defined. Methodology/Principal Findings We have identified novel sense and antisense long control region (LCR) associated RNAs (pRNAs) in HPV18 positive cervical cancer cell lines HeLa, C-4 I and C-4 II. Using dsRNAs against these pRNAs, we were able to achieve upregulation or downregulation of the sense and antisense pRNAs and the downstream E6 and E7 oncogenes. We present evidence that knockdown of the sense pRNA is associated with reduction in E6 and E7 oncogenes and an upregulation of antisense pRNA. Conversely upregulation of sense pRNA is accompanied by an induction of the oncogenes and a concomitant reduction in antisense pRNA. Moreover, the exact role of sense and antisense pRNAs in dsRNA mediated gene modulation was confirmed by their selective degradation using antisense phosphorothioate oligodeoxynucleotides (ODN). Degradation of sense pRNA with antisense ODN led to loss of dsRNA induced silencing and activation, suggesting that dsRNA mediated gene modulation requires sense pRNA. Both processes were accompanied with congruent changes in the methylation pattern of activating and repressive histones. Conclusion/Significance Thus this data identifies and demonstrates the role of previously unknown important regulatory transcripts in HPV18 gene expression which can prove valuable targets in cervical cancer therapeutics. This mode of gene regulation by bidirectional transcription could be operational in other promoters as well and serve as a mechanism of regulating gene expression. PMID:26047143

  20. Silence of the genes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Utpal Nath; Saumitra Das

    2007-01-01

    The 2006 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine was awarded to Andrew Fire and Craig Mello for discovering “RNA interference—genesilencing\\u000a by double-stranded RNA”. The Nobel Committee at the Karolinska Institute in Sweden selected them for the award for unraveling\\u000a “a fundamental mechanism for controlling the flow of genetic information” that is “already being widely used in basic science\\u000a as a

  1. Effect of transient receptor potential vanilloid 6 gene silencing on the expression of calcium transport genes in chicken osteoblasts.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jie; Deng, Yifeng; Ma, Huijie; Hou, Jiafa; Zhou, ZhenLei

    2015-03-01

    Ca(2+) plays a major role in the regulation of signal transduction. Transient receptor potential vanilloid 6 is a Ca(2+)-selective channel that serves as an important rate-limiting step in the facilitation of Ca(2+) entry into cells, but little is known about the regulation of transient receptor potential vanilloid 6 in chickens. In this study, we evaluated the effects of transient receptor potential vanilloid 6 gene interference on the expression of calbindin-D28K, Na(+)/Ca(2+) exchangers, and plasma membrane Ca(2+) ATPase 1b to investigate the mechanism underlying the regulation of transient receptor potential vanilloid 6. Three hairpin siRNA expression vectors targeting transient receptor potential vanilloid 6 (pSIREN- transient receptor potential vanilloid 6) and a negative control (pSIREN-control) were constructed and transfected into chicken osteoblasts. The mRNA and protein expression levels were evaluated by quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction and Western blot, respectively. The mRNA expression levels of transient receptor potential vanilloid 6 and calbindin-D28K were reduced by 45.7% (P < 0.01) and 27.9% (P < 0.01), respectively, 48 h after transfection with one of the three constructs (pSIREN- transient receptor potential vanilloid 6-3) compared with the level obtained in the untreated group. There was no significant difference in the mRNA expression levels of Na(+)/Ca(2+) exchangers and plasma membrane Ca(2+) ATPase 1b. The protein expression levels of transient receptor potential vanilloid 6 and calbindin-D28K were reduced by 40.2% (P < 0.01) and 29.8% (P < 0.01), respectively, 48 h after transfection with pSIREN-transient receptor potential vanilloid 6-3 compared with the level obtained in the untreated group. In conclusion, the vector-based transient receptor potential vanilloid 6-shRNA can efficiently suppress the mRNA and protein expression of transient receptor potential vanilloid 6 in chicken osteoblasts, and transient receptor potential vanilloid 6 regulates the expression of calbindin-D28K during Ca(2+) transport. PMID:25681476

  2. Dephosphorylation of tyrosine 393 in argonaute 2 by protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B regulates gene silencing in oncogenic RAS-induced senescence.

    PubMed

    Yang, Ming; Haase, Astrid D; Huang, Fang-Ke; Coulis, Gérald; Rivera, Keith D; Dickinson, Bryan C; Chang, Christopher J; Pappin, Darryl J; Neubert, Thomas A; Hannon, Gregory J; Boivin, Benoit; Tonks, Nicholas K

    2014-09-01

    Oncogenic RAS (H-RAS(V12)) induces premature senescence in primary cells by triggering production of reactive oxygen species (ROS), but the molecular role of ROS in senescence remains elusive. We investigated whether inhibition of protein tyrosine phosphatases by ROS contributed to H-RAS(V12)-induced senescence. We identified protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B (PTP1B) as a major target of H-RAS(V12)-induced ROS. Inactivation of PTP1B was necessary and sufficient to induce premature senescence in H-RAS(V12)-expressing IMR90 fibroblasts. We identified phospho-Tyr 393 of argonaute 2 (AGO2) as a direct substrate of PTP1B. Phosphorylation of AGO2 at Tyr 393 inhibited loading with microRNAs (miRNAs) and thus miRNA-mediated gene silencing, which counteracted the function of H-RAS(V12)-induced oncogenic miRNAs. Overall, our data illustrate that premature senescence in H-RAS(V12)-transformed primary cells is a consequence of oxidative inactivation of PTP1B and inhibition of miRNA-mediated gene silencing. PMID:25175024

  3. Development of Low Phytate Rice by RNAi Mediated Seed-Specific Silencing of Inositol 1,3,4,5,6-Pentakisphosphate 2-Kinase Gene (IPK1)

    PubMed Central

    Ali, Nusrat; Paul, Soumitra; Gayen, Dipak; Sarkar, Sailendra Nath; Datta, Karabi; Datta, Swapan K.

    2013-01-01

    Phytic acid (InsP6) is considered to be the major source of phosphorus and inositol phosphates in most cereal grains. However, InsP6 is not utilized efficiently by monogastric animals due to lack of phytase enzyme. Furthermore, due to its ability to chelate mineral cations, phytic acid is considered to be an antinutrient that renders these minerals unavailable for absorption. In view of these facts, reducing the phytic acid content in cereal grains is a desired goal for the genetic improvement of several crops. In the present study, we report the RNAi-mediated seed-specific silencing (using the Oleosin18 promoter) of the IPK1 gene, which catalyzes the last step of phytic acid biosynthesis in rice. The presence of the transgene cassette in the resulting transgenic plants was confirmed by molecular analysis, indicating the stable integration of the transgene. The subsequent T4 transgenic seeds revealed 3.85-fold down-regulation in IPK1 transcripts, which correlated to a significant reduction in phytate levels and a concomitant increase in the amount of inorganic phosphate (Pi). The low-phytate rice seeds also accumulated 1.8-fold more iron in the endosperm due to the decreased phytic acid levels. No negative effects were observed on seed germination or in any of the agronomic traits examined. The results provide evidence that silencing of IPK1 gene can mediate a substantial reduction in seed phytate levels without hampering the growth and development of transgenic rice plants. PMID:23844166

  4. The Cytosolic Iron-Sulfur Cluster Assembly Protein MMS19 Regulates Transcriptional Gene Silencing, DNA Repair, and Flowering Time in Arabidopsis

    PubMed Central

    Han, Yong-Feng; Huang, Huan-Wei; Li, Lin; Cai, Tao; Chen, She; He, Xin-Jian

    2015-01-01

    MMS19 is an essential component of the cytoplasmic iron-sulfur (Fe-S) cluster assembly complex in fungi and mammals; the mms19 null mutant alleles are lethal. Our study demonstrates that MMS19/MET18 in Arabidopsis thaliana interacts with the cytoplasmic Fe-S cluster assembly complex but is not an essential component of the complex. We find that MMS19 also interacts with the catalytic subunits of DNA polymerases, which have been demonstrated to be involved in transcriptional gene silencing (TGS), DNA repair, and flowering time regulation. Our results indicate that MMS19 has a similar biological function, suggesting a functional link between MMS19 and DNA polymerases. In the mms19 null mutant, the assembly of Fe-S clusters on the catalytic subunit of DNA polymerase ? is reduced but not blocked, which is consistent with the viability of the mutant. Our study suggests that MMS19 assists the assembly of Fe-S clusters on DNA polymerases in the cytosol, thereby facilitating transcriptional gene silencing, DNA repair, and flowering time control. PMID:26053632

  5. Arabidopsis Argonaute 2 regulates innate immunity via miRNA393*-mediated silencing of a Golgi-localized SNARE gene MEMB12

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xiaoming; Zhao, Hongwei; Gao, Shang; Wang, Wei-Chi; Katiyar-Agarwal, Surekha; Huang, Hsien-Da; Raikhel, Natasha; Jin, Hailing

    2011-01-01

    Summary Argonaute (AGO) proteins are critical components of RNA silencing pathways that bind small RNAs and mediate gene silencing at their target sites. We found that Arabidopsis AGO2 is highly induced by the bacterial pathogen Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato (Pst). Further genetic analysis demonstrated that AGO2 functions in antibacterial immunity. One abundant species of AGO2-bound small RNAs is miR393b*, which targets a Golgi-localized SNARE gene MEMB12. Pst infection down-regulates MEMB12 in a miR393b*-dependent manner. Loss-of-function of MEMB12 but not SYP61, another intracellular SNARE, leads to increased exocytosis of an antimicrobial pathogenesis-related protein PR1. Overexpression of miR393b* resembles memb12 mutant in resistance responses. Thus, AGO2 functions in antibacterial immunity by binding miR393b* to modulate exocytosis of antimicrobial PR proteins via MEMB12. Since miR393 also contributes to antibacterial responses, miR393*/miR393 represent an example of a miRNA*/miRNA pair that functions in immunity through two distinct AGOs - miR393* through AGO2 while miR393 through AGO1. PMID:21549312

  6. STAT3- and DNA methyltransferase 1-mediated epigenetic silencing of SHP-1 tyrosine phosphatase tumor suppressor gene in malignant T lymphocytes

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Qian; Wang, Hong Y.; Marzec, Michal; Raghunath, Puthiyaveettil N.; Nagasawa, Tomohiko; Wasik, Mariusz A.

    2005-01-01

    Expression of SHP-1 phosphatase, a key negative regulator of cell signaling, is lost in T cell lymphomas and other malignancies due to DNA methylation of the SHP-1 promoter by a currently undefined mechanism. We demonstrate that malignant T cells express DNA methyltransferase (DNMT) 1 and that constantly activated signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT) 3 is capable of binding in vitro to DNA oligonucleotides corresponding to four STAT3 SIE/GAS binding sites identified in the SHP-1 promoter. STAT3, DNMT1, and histone deacetylase 1 form complexes and bind to the SHP-1 promoter in vivo. Treatment with pharmacologic grade DNMT1 anti-sense oligonucleotides and STAT3 small-interfering RNA induces in the malignant T cells DNA demethylation and expression of SHP-1 gene. These data indicate that STAT3 may, in part, transform cells by inducing epigenetic silencing of SHP-1 in cooperation with DNMT1 and, apparently, histone deacetylase 1. Reversal of such gene silencing represents an attractive aim for novel anticancer therapies. PMID:15870198

  7. Lentiviral Vector-Mediated RNA Silencing in the Central Nervous System

    PubMed Central

    Foster, Edmund; Moon, Lawrence D.F.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract RNA silencing is an established method for investigating gene function and has attracted particular interest because of the potential for generating RNA-based therapeutics. Using lentiviral vectors as an efficient delivery system that offers stable, long-term expression in postmitotic cells further enhances the applicability of an RNA-based gene therapy for the CNS. In this review we provide an overview of both lentiviral vectors and RNA silencing along with design considerations for generating lentiviral vectors capable of RNA silencing. We go on to describe the current preclinical data regarding lentiviral vector-mediated RNA silencing for CNS disorders and discuss the concerns of side effects associated with lentiviral vectors and small interfering RNAs and how these might be mitigated. PMID:24090197

  8. Immune responses of prophenoloxidase in the mud crab Scylla paramamosain against Vibrio alginolyticus infection: in vivo and in vitro gene silencing evidence.

    PubMed

    Yang, Ya'nan; Bao, Chenchang; Liu, An; Ye, Haihui; Huang, Huiyang; Li, Shaojing

    2014-08-01

    Phenoloxidase (PO) plays an important role in arthropod melanization. In the present study, a proPO gene was obtained from the mud crab Scylla paramamosain, then we localized the proPO mRNA in hemocytes and detected the expression of proPO after bacterial challenge. In vivo and in vitro gene silencing mediated by dsRNA was also used to investigate the function of proPO in innate immune. The full-length of the proPO cDNA was 2600 bp and the predicted ORF encoded a protein of 673 amino acids with a predicted molecular mass of 77.3 kDa. The deduced amino acid and the main functional domain of proPO shared a high similarity to the mud crab Scylla serrata. In situ hybridization assay showed that the proPO mRNA was localized in the granular and semi-granular cells. The expression level of proPO in hemocytes showed a clear time-dependent pattern during the 96 h course after stimulated by Vibrio alginolyticus. In this study, high expression levels were observed at 3, 12, 24 and 48 h, respectively and the highest expression level was observed at 12 h, and this suggested that proPO was induced by bacteria and involved in immune response. In vivo proPO and GFP dsRNA treatment experiments showed that, proPO mRNA transcript was reduced to 39%, but the PO activity showed no significant difference (P > 0.05). Results indicated that the expression of proPO could be inhibited by dsRNA, and the enzyme activity may be influenced by incomplete knockdown of proPO, or hemocyanin, and other proPO isoforms as well. In vitro proPO-silenced experiments showed that the levels of proPO were decreased by 36%, 64% and 77% at 8, 16 and 32 h, respectively. Meanwhile, the quantity of bacteria was significantly larger in proPO dsRNA treatment than that in control at 3 h, calculated by 4,6-diamino-2-phenylindole staining (P < 0.01). These data demonstrated that the proPO gene plays an important role in the control of systemic bacterial infections and could help us to elucidate the defense role of the proPO-activating system in crabs. In addition, in vitro gene silencing operation mediated by dsRNA was expected to be a new tool for investigating the function of genes in crustaceans in the case of lacking cell line. PMID:24859592

  9. Silencing of endogenous envelope genes in human choriocarcinoma cells shows that envPb1 is involved in heterotypic cell fusions

    PubMed Central

    Bjerregaard, Bolette; Kjeldbjerg, Anders L.; Pedersen, Finn Skou; Larsson, Lars-Inge; Rossi, John J.

    2012-01-01

    Syncytin-1 and envPb1 are two conserved envelope genes in the human genome encoded by single loci from the HERV-W and -Pb families, respectively. To characterize the role of these envelope proteins in cell–cell fusion, we have developed lentiviral vectors that express short hairpin RNAs for stable knockdown of syncytin-1 and envPb1. Analysis of heterotypic fusion activity between trophoblast-derived choriocarcinoma BeWo cells, in which syncytin-1 and envPb1 are specifically silenced, and endothelial cells demonstrated that both syncytin-1 and envPb1 are important to fusion. The ability to fuse cells makes syncytin-1 and envPb1 attractive candidate molecules in therapy against cancer. Our available vectors may help eventually to decipher roles for these genes in human health and/or disease. PMID:22573740

  10. Proteomic and Virus-induced Gene Silencing (VIGS) Analyses Reveal That Gossypol, Brassinosteroids, and Jasmonic acid Contribute to the Resistance of Cotton to Verticillium dahliae *

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Wei; Long, Lu; Zhu, Long-Fu; Xu, Li; Gao, Wen-Hui; Sun, Long-Qing; Liu, Lin-Lin; Zhang, Xian-Long

    2013-01-01

    Verticillium wilt causes massive annual losses of cotton yield, but the mechanism of cotton resistance to Verticillium dahliae is complex and poorly understood. In this study, a comparative proteomic analysis was performed in resistant cotton (Gossypium barbadense cv7124) on infection with V. dahliae. A total of 188 differentially expressed proteins were identified by mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF/TOF) analysis and could be classified into 17 biological processes based on Gene Ontology annotation. Most of these proteins were implicated in stimulus response, cellular processes and metabolic processes. Based on the proteomic analysis, several genes involved in secondary metabolism, reactive oxygen burst and phytohormone signaling pathways were identified for further physiological and molecular analysis. The roles of the corresponding genes were further characterized by employing virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS). Based on the results, we suggest that the production of gossypol is sufficient to affect the cotton resistance to V. dahliae. Silencing of GbCAD1, a key enzyme involving in gossypol biosynthesis, compromised cotton resistance to V. dahliae. Reactive oxygen species and salicylic acid signaling may be also implicated as regulators in cotton responsive to V. dahliae according to the analysis of GbSSI2, an important regulator in the crosstalk between salicylic acid and jasmonic acid signal pathways. Moreover, brassinosteroids and jasmonic acid signaling may play essential roles in the cotton disease resistance to V. dahliae. The brassinosteroids signaling was activated in cotton on inoculation with V. dahliae and the disease resistance of cotton was enhanced after exogenous application of brassinolide. Meanwhile, jasmonic acid signaling was also activated in cotton after inoculation with V. dahliae and brassinolide application. These data provide highlights in the molecular basis of cotton resistance to V. dahliae. PMID:24019146

  11. Gene silencing of EXTL2 and EXTL3 as a substrate deprivation therapy for heparan sulphate storing mucopolysaccharidoses

    PubMed Central

    Kaidonis, Xenia; Liaw, Wan Chin; Roberts, Ainslie Derrick; Ly, Marleesa; Anson, Donald; Byers, Sharon

    2010-01-01

    Neurological pathology is characteristic of the mucopolysaccharidoses (MPSs) that store heparan sulphate (HS) glycosaminoglycan (gag) and has been proven to be refractory to systemic therapies. Substrate deprivation therapy (SDT) using general inhibitors of gag synthesis improves neurological function in mouse models of MPS, but is not specific to an MPS type. We have investigated RNA interference (RNAi) as a method of targeting SDT to the HS synthesising enzymes, EXTL2 and EXTL3. Multiple shRNA molecules specific to EXTL2 or EXTL3 were designed and validated in a reporter gene assay, with four out of six shRNA constructs reducing expression by over 90%. The three EXTL2-specific shRNA constructs reduced endogenous target gene expression by 68, 32 and 65%, and decreased gag synthesis by 46, 50 and 27%. One EXTL3-specific shRNA construct reduced endogenous target gene expression by 14% and gag synthesis by 39%. Lysosomal gag levels in MPS IIIA and MPS I fibroblasts were also reduced by EXTL2 and EXTL3-specific shRNA. Incorporation of shRNAs into a lentiviral expression system reduced gene expression, and one EXTL2-specific shRNA reduced gag synthesis. These results indicate that deprivation therapy through shRNA-mediated RNAi has potential as a therapy for HS-storing MPSs. PMID:19690583

  12. In situ vaccination with CD204 gene-silenced dendritic cell, not unmodified dendritic cell, enhances radiation therapy of prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    Guo, Chunqing; Yi, Huanfa; Yu, Xiaofei; Zuo, Daming; Qian, Jie; Yang, Gary; Foster, Barbara A; Subjeck, John R; Sun, Xiaolei; Mikkelsen, Ross B; Fisher, Paul B; Wang, Xiang-Yang

    2012-11-01

    Given the complexity of prostate cancer progression and metastasis, multimodalities that target different aspects of tumor biology, for example, radiotherapy in conjunction with immunotherapy, may provide the best opportunities for promoting clinical benefits in patients with high-risk localized prostate cancer. Here, we show that intratumoral administration of unmodified dendritic cells (DC) failed to synergize with fractionated radiotherapy. However, ionizing radiation combined with in situ vaccination with DCs, in which the immunosuppressive scavenger receptor A (SRA/CD204) has been downregulated by lentivirus-mediated gene silencing, profoundly suppressed the growth of two mouse prostate cancers (e.g., RM1 and TRAMP-C2) and prolonged the lifespan of tumor-bearing animals. Treatment of subcutaneous tumors with this novel combinatorial radioimmunotherapeutic regimen resulted in a significant reduction in distant experimental metastases. SRA/CD204-silenced DCs were highly efficient in generating antigen or tumor-specific T cells with increased effector functions (e.g., cytokine production and tumoricidal activity). SRA/CD204 silencing-enhanced tumor cell death was associated with elevated IFN-? levels in tumor tissue and increased tumor-infiltrating CD8(+) cells. IFN-? neutralization or depletion of CD8(+) cells abrogated the SRA/CD204 downregulation-promoted antitumor efficacy, indicating a critical role of IFN-?-producing CD8(+) T cells. Therefore, blocking SRA/CD204 activity significantly enhances the therapeutic potency of local radiotherapy combined with in situ DC vaccination by promoting a robust systemic antitumor immunity. Further studies are warranted to test this novel combinatorial approach for translating into improved clinical outcomes in patients with prostate cancer. PMID:22896667

  13. Homeobox gene HOPX is epigenetically silenced in human uterine endometrial cancer and suppresses estrogen-stimulated proliferation of cancer cells by inhibiting serum response factor.

    PubMed

    Yamaguchi, Shinichiro; Asanoma, Kazuo; Takao, Tomoka; Kato, Kiyoko; Wake, Norio

    2009-06-01

    HOPX (homeodomain only protein X) is a newly identified homeobox gene whose loss of expression has been reported for several types of neoplasm. Although we found most human uterine endometrial cancers (HEC) defective in HOPX expression, genetic mutations in the HOPX gene were undetectable. As is the case with several tumor suppressor genes, the promoter region of HOPX is densely methylated in HEC tissue samples obtained by laser capture microdissection. HOPX mRNA and protein levels were reduced in the majority of samples, and this correlated with hypermethylation of the HOPX promoter. Forced expression of HOPX resulted in a partial block in cell proliferation, in vivo tumorigenicity and c-fos gene expression in HEC and MCF7 cells in response to 17beta-estradiol (E(2)) stimulation. Analysis of the serum response element (SRE) of c-fos gene promoter showed that the effect of HOPX expression is associated with inhibition of E(2)-induced c-fos activation through the serum response factor (SRF) motif. Knockdown of HOPX in immortalized human endometrial cells resulted in accelerated proliferation. Our study indicates that transcriptional silencing of HOPX results from hypermethylation of the HOPpromoter, which leads to HEC development. PMID:19173292

  14. Altered chromatin structure associated with methylation-induced gene silencing in cancer cells: correlation of accessibility, methylation, MeCP2 binding and acetylation

    PubMed Central

    Nguyen, Carvell T.; Gonzales, Felicidad A.; Jones, Peter A.

    2001-01-01

    Silencing of tumor-suppressor genes by hypermethylation of promoter CpG islands is well documented in human cancer and may be mediated by methyl-CpG-binding proteins, like MeCP2, that are associated in vivo with chromatin modifiers and transcriptional repressors. However, the exact dynamic between methylation and chromatin structure in the regulation of gene expression is not well understood. In this study, we have analyzed the methylation status and chromatin structure of three CpG islands in the p14(ARF)/p16(INK4A) locus in a series of normal and cancer cell lines using methylation-sensitive digestion, MspI accessibility in intact nuclei and chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) assays. We demonstrate the existence of an altered chromatin structure associated with the silencing of tumor-suppressor genes in human cancer cell lines involving CpG island methylation, chromatin condensation, histone deacetylation and MeCP2 binding. The data showed that MeCP2 could bind to methylated CpG islands in both promoters and exons; MeCP2 does not interfere with transcription when bound at an exon, suggesting a more generalized role for the protein beyond transcriptional repression. In the absence of methylation, it is demonstrated that CpG islands located in promoters versus exons display marked differences in the levels of acetylation of associated histone H3, suggesting that chromatin remodeling can be achieved by methylation-independent processes and perhaps explaining why non-promoter CpG islands are more susceptible to de novo methylation than promoter islands. PMID:11713309

  15. Genetic Variability and Evolutionary Implications of RNA Silencing Suppressor Genes in RNA1 of Sweet Potato Chlorotic Stunt Virus Isolates Infecting Sweetpotato and Related Wild Species

    PubMed Central

    Tugume, Arthur K.; Amayo, Robert; Weinheimer, Isabel; Mukasa, Settumba B.; Rubaihayo, Patrick R.; Valkonen, Jari P. T.

    2013-01-01

    Background The bipartite single-stranded RNA genome of Sweet potato chlorotic stunt virus (SPCSV, genus Crinivirus; Closteroviridae) encodes a Class 1 RNase III (RNase3), a putative hydrophobic protein (p7) and a 22-kDa protein (p22) from genes located in RNA1. RNase3 and p22 suppress RNA silencing, the basal antiviral defence mechanism in plants. RNase3 is sufficient to render sweetpotato (Ipomoea batatas) virus-susceptible and predisposes it to development of severe diseases following infection with unrelated virus. The incidence, strains and gene content of SPCSV infecting wild plant species have not been studied. Methodology/Principal Findings Thirty SPCSV isolates were characterized from 10 wild Ipomoea species, Hewittia sublobata or Lepistemon owariensis (family Convolvulaceae) in Uganda and compared with 34 local SPCSV isolates infecting sweetpotatoes. All isolates belonged to the East African (EA) strain of SPCSV and contained RNase3 and p7, but p22 was not detected in six isolates. The three genes showed only limited genetic variability and the proteins were under purifying selection. SPCSV isolates lacking p22 synergized with Sweet potato feathery mottle virus (SPFMV, genus potyvirus; Potyviridae) and caused severe symptoms in co-infected sweetpotato plants. One SPCSV isolate enhanced accumulation of SPFMV, but no severe symptoms developed. A new whitefly-transmitted virus (KML33b) encoding an RNase3 homolog (<56% identity to SPCSV RNase3) able to suppresses sense-mediated RNA silencing was detected in I. sinensis. Conclusions/Significance SPCSV isolates infecting wild species and sweetpotato in Uganda were genetically undifferentiated, suggesting inter-species transmission of SPCSV. Most isolates in Uganda contained p22, unlike SPCSV isolates characterized from other countries and continents. Enhanced accumulation of SPFMV and increased disease severity were found to be uncoupled phenotypic outcomes of RNase3-mediated viral synergism in sweetpotato. A second virus encoding an RNase3-like RNA silencing suppressor was detected. Overall, results provided many novel and important insights into evolutionary biology of SPCSV. PMID:24278443

  16. Ets-2 repressor factor recruits histone deacetylase to silence human cytomegalovirus immediate-early gene expression in non-permissive cells.

    PubMed

    Wright, Edward; Bain, Mark; Teague, Linda; Murphy, Jane; Sinclair, John

    2005-03-01

    Previous work from this laboratory has shown that expression of human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) immediate-early (IE) genes from the major immediate-early promoter (MIEP) is likely to be regulated by chromatin remodelling around the promoter affecting the acetylation state of core histone tails. The HCMV MIEP contains sequences that bind cellular transcription factors responsible for its negative regulation in undifferentiated, non-permissive cells. Ets-2 repressor factor (ERF) is one such factor that binds to such sequences and represses IE gene expression. Although it is not known how cellular transcription factors such as ERF mediate transcriptional repression of the MIEP, it is likely to involve differentiation-specific co-factors. In this study, the mechanism by which ERF represses HCMV IE gene expression was analysed. ERF physically interacts with the histone deacetylase, HDAC1, both in vitro and in vivo and this physical interaction between ERF and HDAC1 mediates repression of the MIEP. This suggests that silencing of viral IE gene expression, associated with histone deacetylation events around the MIEP, is mediated by differentiation-dependent cellular factors such as ERF, which specifically recruit chromatin remodellers to the MIEP in non-permissive cells. PMID:15722512

  17. Practising Silence in Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Forrest, Michelle

    2013-01-01

    The concept "silence" has diametrically opposed meanings; it connotes peace and contemplation as well as death and oblivion. Silence can also be considered a practice. There is keeping the rule of silence to still the mind and find inner truth, as well as forcibly silencing in the sense of subjugating another to one's own purposes.…

  18. Biodegradable capsules as non-viral vectors for in vitro delivery of PEI/siRNA polyplexes for efficient gene silencing.

    PubMed

    Ganas, Carolin; Weiß, Annika; Nazarenus, Moritz; Rösler, Susanne; Kissel, Thomas; Rivera Gil, Pilar; Parak, Wolfgang J

    2014-12-28

    The efficiency of siRNA delivery is demonstrated to be improved by encapsulating the siRNA within a non-viral carrier based on layer-by-layer assembly of oppositely charged biodegradable and biocompatible polyelectrolytes. In comparison to other non-viral delivery vehicles such as polycation-based complexes, a smaller amount of siRNA was necessary to produce in vitro gene silencing as early as 20-30 h after incubation. Colloidal carriers based on assembled biodegradable polyelectrolytes offer several advantages, such as efficient intracellular delivery after endocytosis followed by release to the cytosol, as well as protection of the siRNA, which is crucial for its therapeutic activity. PMID:25451543

  19. Gender Differences in Self-Silencing and Psychological Distress in Informal Cancer Carers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ussher, Jane M.; Perz, Janette

    2010-01-01

    This study examined gender differences in self-silencing, the relationship between self-silencing and psychological distress, and reasons for self-silencing in informal cancer carers (329 women, 155 men), using a mixed-method design. Men reported greater self-silencing than women on the Silencing the Self Scale; however, women reported higher…

  20. Signal Transducer and Activator of Transcription 1 (STAT1) is Essential for Chromium Silencing of Gene Induction in Human Airway Epithelial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Nemec, Antonia A.; Barchowsky, Aaron

    2009-01-01

    Hexavalent chromium (Cr(VI)) promotes lung injury and pulmonary diseases through poorly defined mechanisms that may involve the silencing of inducible protective genes. The current study investigated the hypothesis that Cr(VI) actively signals through a signal transducer and activator of transcription 1 (STAT1)–dependent pathway to silence nickel (Ni)–induced expression of vascular endothelial cell growth factor A (VEGFA), an important mediator of lung injury and repair. In human bronchial airway epithelial (BEAS-2B) cells, Ni-induced VEGFA transcription by stimulating an extracellular regulated kinase (ERK) signaling cascade that involved Src kinase–activated Sp1 transactivation, as well as increased hypoxia-inducible factor-1? (HIF-1?) stabilization and DNA binding. Ni-stimulated ERK, Src, and HIF-1? activities, as well as Ni-induced VEGFA transcript levels were inhibited in Cr(VI)-exposed cells. We previously demonstrated that Cr(VI) stimulates STAT1 to suppress VEGFA expression. In BEAS-2B cells stably expressing STAT1 short hairpin RNA, Cr(VI) increased VEGFA transcript levels and Sp1 transactivation. Moreover, in the absence of STAT1, Cr(VI), and Ni coexposures positively interacted to further increase VEGFA transcripts. This study demonstrates that metal-stimulated signaling cascades interact to regulate transcription and induction of adaptive or repair responses in airway cells. In addition, the data implicate STAT1 as a rate limiting mediator of Cr(VI)-stimulated gene regulation and suggest that cells lacking STAT1, such as many tumor cell lines, have opposite responses to Cr(VI) relative to normal cells. PMID:19403854

  1. The Arabidopsis miR472-RDR6 silencing pathway modulates PAMP- and effector-triggered immunity through the post-transcriptional control of disease resistance genes.

    PubMed

    Boccara, Martine; Sarazin, Alexis; Thiébeauld, Odon; Jay, Florence; Voinnet, Olivier; Navarro, Lionel; Colot, Vincent

    2014-01-01

    RNA-DEPENDENT RNA POLYMERASE 6 (RDR6) is a key RNA silencing factor initially characterized in transgene silencing and virus resistance. This enzyme also contributes to the biosynthesis of endogenous short interfering RNAs (siRNAs) from non-coding RNAs, transposable elements and protein-coding transcripts. One class of protein-coding transcripts that have recently emerged as major sources of RDR6-dependent siRNAs are nucleotide-binding leucine-rich repeat (NB-LRR) proteins, a family of immune-receptors that perceive specific pathogen effector proteins and mount Effector-Triggered Immunity (ETI). Nevertheless, the dynamic post-transcriptional control of NB-LRR transcripts during the plant immune response and the functional relevance of NB-LRRs in signaling events triggered by Pathogen-Associated Molecular Patterns (PAMPs) remain elusive. Here, we show that PTI is constitutive and sensitized in the Arabidopsis rdr6 loss-of-function mutant, implicating RDR6 as a novel negative regulator of PTI. Accordingly, rdr6 mutant exhibits enhanced basal resistance towards a virulent Pseudomonas syringae strain. We further provide evidence that dozens of CC-NB-LRRs (CNLs), including the functionally characterized RPS5 gene, are post-transcriptionally controlled by RDR6 both constitutively and during PTI. These CNL transcripts are also regulated by the Arabidopsis microRNA miR472 and knock-down of this miRNA recapitulates the PTI and basal resistance phenotypes observed in the rdr6 mutant background. Furthermore, both miR472 and rdr6 mutants were more resistant to Pto DC3000 expressing AvrPphB, a bacterial effector recognized by the disease resistance protein RPS5, whereas transgenic plants overexpressing miR472 were more susceptible to this bacterial strain. Finally, we show that the enhanced basal and RPS5-mediated resistance phenotypes observed in the rdr6 mutant are dependent on the proper chaperoning of NB-LRR proteins, and might therefore be due to the enhanced accumulation of CNL proteins whose cognate mRNAs are no longer controlled by RDR6-dependent siRNAs. Altogether, this study supports a model whereby the miR472- and RDR6-mediated silencing pathway represents a key regulatory checkpoint modulating both PTI and ETI responses through the post-transcriptional control of disease resistance genes. PMID:24453975

  2. The Arabidopsis miR472-RDR6 Silencing Pathway Modulates PAMP- and Effector-Triggered Immunity through the Post-transcriptional Control of Disease Resistance Genes

    PubMed Central

    Thiébeauld, Odon; Jay, Florence; Voinnet, Olivier; Navarro, Lionel; Colot, Vincent

    2014-01-01

    RNA-DEPENDENT RNA POLYMERASE 6 (RDR6) is a key RNA silencing factor initially characterized in transgene silencing and virus resistance. This enzyme also contributes to the biosynthesis of endogenous short interfering RNAs (siRNAs) from non-coding RNAs, transposable elements and protein-coding transcripts. One class of protein-coding transcripts that have recently emerged as major sources of RDR6-dependent siRNAs are nucleotide-binding leucine-rich repeat (NB-LRR) proteins, a family of immune-receptors that perceive specific pathogen effector proteins and mount Effector-Triggered Immunity (ETI). Nevertheless, the dynamic post-transcriptional control of NB-LRR transcripts during the plant immune response and the functional relevance of NB-LRRs in signaling events triggered by Pathogen-Associated Molecular Patterns (PAMPs) remain elusive. Here, we show that PTI is constitutive and sensitized in the Arabidopsis rdr6 loss-of-function mutant, implicating RDR6 as a novel negative regulator of PTI. Accordingly, rdr6 mutant exhibits enhanced basal resistance towards a virulent Pseudomonas syringae strain. We further provide evidence that dozens of CC-NB-LRRs (CNLs), including the functionally characterized RPS5 gene, are post-transcriptionally controlled by RDR6 both constitutively and during PTI. These CNL transcripts are also regulated by the Arabidopsis microRNA miR472 and knock-down of this miRNA recapitulates the PTI and basal resistance phenotypes observed in the rdr6 mutant background. Furthermore, both miR472 and rdr6 mutants were more resistant to Pto DC3000 expressing AvrPphB, a bacterial effector recognized by the disease resistance protein RPS5, whereas transgenic plants overexpressing miR472 were more susceptible to this bacterial strain. Finally, we show that the enhanced basal and RPS5-mediated resistance phenotypes observed in the rdr6 mutant are dependent on the proper chaperoning of NB-LRR proteins, and might therefore be due to the enhanced accumulation of CNL proteins whose cognate mRNAs are no longer controlled by RDR6-dependent siRNAs. Altogether, this study supports a model whereby the miR472- and RDR6-mediated silencing pathway represents a key regulatory checkpoint modulating both PTI and ETI responses through the post-transcriptional control of disease resistance genes. PMID:24453975

  3. Scarless chromosomal gene knockout methods.

    PubMed

    Sung, Bong Hyun; Lee, Jun Hyoung; Kim, Sun Chang

    2011-01-01

    An improved and rapid genomic engineering method has been developed for the construction of -custom-designed microorganisms by scarless chromosomal gene knockouts. This method, which can be performed in 2 days, permits restructuring of the Escherichia coli genome via scarless deletion of selected genomic regions. The deletion process is mediated by a special plasmid, pREDI, which carries two independent inducible promoters: (1) an arabinose-inducible promoter that drives expression of ?-RED recombination proteins, which carry out the replacement of a target genomic region with a marker-containing linear DNA cassette, and (2) a rhamnose-inducible promoter that drives expression of I-SceI endonuclease, which accomplishes deletion of the introduced marker by double-strand breakage - mediated intramolecular recombination. This genomic deletion is performed simply by changing the carbon source in the bacterial growth medium from arabinose to rhamnose. The efficiencies of targeted region replacement and deletion of the inserted linear DNA cassette are nearly 70 and 100%, respectively. This rapid and efficient procedure can be adapted for use in generating a variety of genome modifications. PMID:21815085

  4. RNAi-mediated pinoresinol lariciresinol reductase gene silencing in flax (Linum usitatissimum L.) seed coat: consequences on lignans and neolignans accumulation.

    PubMed

    Renouard, Sullivan; Tribalatc, Marie-Aude; Lamblin, Frederic; Mongelard, Gaëlle; Fliniaux, Ophélie; Corbin, Cyrielle; Marosevic, Djurdjica; Pilard, Serge; Demailly, Hervé; Gutierrez, Laurent; Hano, Christophe; Mesnard, François; Lainé, Eric

    2014-09-15

    RNAi technology was applied to down regulate LuPLR1 gene expression in flax (Linum usitatissimum L.) seeds. This gene encodes a pinoresinol lariciresinol reductase responsible for the synthesis of (+)-secoisolariciresinol diglucoside (SDG), the major lignan accumulated in the seed coat. If flax lignans biological properties and health benefits are well documented their roles in planta remain unclear. This loss of function strategy was developed to better understand the implication of the PLR1 enzyme in the lignan biosynthetic pathway and to provide new insights on the functions of these compounds. RNAi plants generated exhibited LuPLR1 gene silencing as demonstrated by quantitative RT-PCR experiments and the failed to accumulate SDG. The accumulation of pinoresinol the substrate of the PLR1 enzyme under its diglucosylated form (PDG) was increased in transgenic seeds but did not compensate the overall loss of SDG. The monolignol flux was also deviated through the synthesis of 8-5' linked neolignans dehydrodiconiferyl alcohol glucoside (DCG) and dihydro-dehydrodiconiferyl alcohol glucoside (DDCG) which were observed for the first time in flax seeds. PMID:25046758

  5. Transcription of antisense RNA leading to gene silencing and methylation as a novel cause of human genetic disease

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Cristina Tufarelli; Jackie A Sloane Stanley; David Garrick; Jackie A Sharpe; Helena Ayyub; William G Wood; Douglas R Higgs

    2003-01-01

    Nearly all human genetic disorders result from a limited repertoire of mutations in an associated gene or its regulatory elements. We recently described an individual with an inherited form of anemia (?-thalassemia) who has a deletion that results in a truncated, widely expressed gene (LUC7L) becoming juxtaposed to a structurally normal ?-globin gene (HBA2). Although it retains all of its

  6. Gene Discovery Methods from Large-Scale Gene Expression Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shimizu, Akifumi; Yano, Kentaro

    2010-01-01

    Microarrays provide genome-wide gene expression changes. In current analyses, the majority of genes on the array are frequently eliminated for further analysis just in order for computational effort to be affordable. This strategy risks failure to discover whole sets of genes related to a quantitative trait of interest, which is generally controlled by several loci that might be eliminated in current approaches. Here, we describe a high-throughput gene discovery method based on correspondence analysis with a new index for expression ratios [arctan (1/ratio)] and three artificial marker genes. This method allows us to quickly analyze the whole microarray dataset without elimination and discover up/down-regulated genes related to a trait of interest. We employed an example dataset to show the theoretical advantage of this method. We then used the method to identify 88 cancer-related genes from a published microarray data from patients with breast cancer. This method can be easily performed and the result is also visible in three-dimensional viewing software that we have developed. Our method is useful for revaluating the wealth of microarray data available from web-sites.

  7. A systems biology analysis of the changes in gene expression via silencing of HPV-18 E1 expression in HeLa cells

    PubMed Central

    Castillo, Andres; Wang, Lu; Koriyama, Chihaya; Eizuru, Yoshito; Jordan, King; Akiba, Suminori

    2014-01-01

    Previous studies have reported the detection of a truncated E1 mRNA generated from HPV-18 in HeLa cells. Although it is unclear whether a truncated E1 protein could function as a replicative helicase for viral replication, it would still retain binding sites for potential interactions with different host cell proteins. Furthermore, in this study, we found evidence in support of expression of full-length HPV-18 E1 mRNA in HeLa cells. To determine whether interactions between E1 and cellular proteins play an important role in cellular processes other than viral replication, genome-wide expression profiles of HPV-18 positive HeLa cells were compared before and after the siRNA knockdown of E1 expression. Differential expression and gene set enrichment analysis uncovered four functionally related sets of genes implicated in host defence mechanisms against viral infection. These included the toll-like receptor, interferon and apoptosis pathways, along with the antiviral interferon-stimulated gene set. In addition, we found that the transcriptional coactivator E1A-binding protein p300 (EP300) was downregulated, which is interesting given that EP300 is thought to be required for the transcription of HPV-18 genes in HeLa cells. The observed changes in gene expression produced via the silencing of HPV-18 E1 expression in HeLa cells indicate that in addition to its well-known role in viral replication, the E1 protein may also play an important role in mitigating the host's ability to defend against viral infection. PMID:25297386

  8. Silencers, silencing, and heritable transcriptional states.

    PubMed Central

    Laurenson, P; Rine, J

    1992-01-01

    Three copies of the mating-type genes, which determine cell type, are found in the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The copy at the MAT locus is transcriptionally active, whereas identical copies of the mating-type genes at the HML and HMR loci are transcriptionally silent. Hence, HML and HMR, also known as the silent mating-type loci, are subject to a position effect. Regulatory sequences flank the silent mating-type loci and mediate repression of HML and HMR. These regulatory sequences are called silencers for their ability to repress the transcription of nearby genes in a distance- and orientation-independent fashion. In addition, a number of proteins, including the four SIR proteins, histone H4, and an alpha-acetyltransferase, are required for the complete repression of HML and HMR. Because alterations in the amino-terminal domain of histone H4 result in the derepression of the silent mating-type loci, the mechanism of repression may involve the assembly of a specific chromatin structure. A number of additional clues permit insight into the nature of repression at HML and HMR. First, an S phase event is required for the establishment of repression. Second, at least one gene appears to play a role in the establishment mechanism yet is not essential for the stable propagation of repression through many rounds of cell division. Third, certain aspects of repression are linked to aspects of replication. The silent mating-type loci share many similarities with heterochromatin. Furthermore, regions of S. cerevisiae chromosomes, such as telomeres, which are known to be heterochromatic in other organisms, require a subset of SIR proteins for repression. Further analysis of the transcriptional repression at the silent mating-type loci may lend insight into heritable repression in other eukaryotes. PMID:1480108

  9. Silencing potential of viral derived RNAi constructs in Tomato leaf curl virus AC4 gene suppression in tomato

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Shelly Praveen; S. V. Ramesh; Anil K. Mishra; Vikas Koundal; Peter Palukaitis

    2010-01-01

    We investigated viral gene suppression in an infected tomato, by transforming it with RNA inhibition (RNAi) constructs derived\\u000a from same viral gene. To develop RNAi constructs, conserved sequences ranging from 21 to 200 nt of the viral target AC4 gene of various viruses causing the tomato leaf curl disease were chosen. The double-stranded (ds)RNA producing constructs\\u000a carry the sense and

  10. A quick and efficient approach for gene silencing by using triple putative microRNA-based short hairpin RNAs

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Z. X. Shan; Q. X. Lin; M. Yang; C. Y. Deng; S. J. Kuang; Z. L. Zhou; D. Z. Xiao; X. Y. Liu; S. G. Lin; X. Y. Yu

    2009-01-01

    The RNA interference (RNAi) technique has been widely used in gene function studies. It is typical to screen for effective\\u000a siRNAs by knocking down targeted genes since a single gene can be suppressed by several siRNAs to varying degrees. The miRNA-based\\u000a short hairpin RNA (shRNA) is a natural inducer of RNAi and has been used in siRNA expression strategies. We

  11. MicroRNA-mediated myostatin silencing in caprine fetal fibroblasts.

    PubMed

    Zhong, Bushuai; Zhang, Yanli; Yan, Yibo; Wang, Ziyu; Ying, Shijia; Huang, Mingrui; Wang, Feng

    2014-01-01

    Myostatin functions as a negative regulator of skeletal muscle growth by suppressing proliferation and differentiation of myoblasts. Dysfunction of the myostatin gene, either due to natural mutation or genetic manipulations such as knockout or knockdown, has been reported to increase muscle mass in mammalian species. RNA interference (RNAi) mediated by microRNAs (miRNAs) is a promising method for gene knockdown studies. In the present study, transient and stable silencing of the myostatin gene in caprine fetal fibroblasts (CFF) was evaluated using the two most effective constructs selected from four different miRNA expression constructs screened in 293FT cells. Using these two miRNA constructs, we achieved up to 84% silencing of myostatin mRNA in transiently transfected CFF cells and up to 31% silencing in stably transfected CFF cells. Moreover, off-target effects due to induction of interferon (IFN) response genes, such as interferon beta (IFN-?) and 2'-5'-oligoadenylate synthetase 2 (OAS2), were markedly fewer in stably transfected CFF cells than in transiently transfected cells. Stable expression of anti-myostatin miRNA with minimal induction of interferon shows great promise for increasing muscle mass in transgenic goats. PMID:25244645

  12. Viral suppressor proteins show varying abilities and effectiveness to suppress transgene-induced post-transcriptional gene silencing of endogenous Chalcone synthase in transgenic Arabidopsis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Wenche Johansen; Robert C. Wilson

    2008-01-01

    Many, if not most, plant viruses encode proteins that interfere with RNA silencing pathways in plants. These proteins, known\\u000a as viral suppressor proteins interfere at different key steps of the silencing pathways, and are able to suppress, to varying\\u000a degree, transgene-induced silencing in plants. In this study, we report the ability and effectiveness of four different viral\\u000a suppressor proteins that

  13. Transgene silencing in grapevines transformed with GFLV resistance genes: analysis of variable expression of transgene, siRNAs production and cytosine methylation.

    PubMed

    Gambino, Giorgio; Perrone, Irene; Carra, Andrea; Chitarra, Walter; Boccacci, Paolo; Torello Marinoni, Daniela; Barberis, Marco; Maghuly, Fatemeh; Laimer, Margit; Gribaudo, Ivana

    2010-02-01

    Eight transgenic grapevine lines transformed with the coat protein gene of Grapevine fanleaf virus (GFLV-CP) were analyzed for a correlation between transgene expression, siRNAs production and DNA methylation. Bisulphite genome sequencing was used for a comprehensive analysis of DNA methylation. Methylated cytosine residues of CpG and CpNpG sites were detected in the GFLV-CP transgene, in the T7 terminator and in the 35S promoter of three grapevines without transgene expression, but no detectable level of siRNAs was recorded in these lines. The detailed analysis of 8 lines revealed the complex arrangements of T-DNA and integrated binary vector sequences as crucial factors that influence transgene expression. After inoculation with GFLV, no change in the levels of cytosine methylation was observed, but transgenic and untransformed plants produced short siRNAs (21-22 nt) indicating that the grapevine plants responded to GFLV infection by activating a post-transcriptional gene silencing mechanism. PMID:19507046

  14. Generation of Mice Deficient in both KLF3/BKLF and KLF8 Reveals a Genetic Interaction and a Role for These Factors in Embryonic Globin Gene Silencing

    PubMed Central

    Funnell, Alister P. W.; Mak, Ka Sin; Twine, Natalie A.; Pelka, Gregory J.; Norton, Laura J.; Radziewic, Tania; Power, Melinda; Wilkins, Marc R.; Bell-Anderson, Kim S.; Fraser, Stuart T.; Perkins, Andrew C.; Tam, Patrick P.; Pearson, Richard C. M.

    2013-01-01

    Krüppel-like factors 3 and 8 (KLF3 and KLF8) are highly related transcriptional regulators that bind to similar sequences of DNA. We have previously shown that in erythroid cells there is a regulatory hierarchy within the KLF family, whereby KLF1 drives the expression of both the Klf3 and Klf8 genes and KLF3 in turn represses Klf8 expression. While the erythroid roles of KLF1 and KLF3 have been explored, the contribution of KLF8 to this regulatory network has been unknown. To investigate this, we have generated a mouse model with disrupted KLF8 expression. While these mice are viable, albeit with a reduced life span, mice lacking both KLF3 and KLF8 die at around embryonic day 14.5 (E14.5), indicative of a genetic interaction between these two factors. In the fetal liver, Klf3 Klf8 double mutant embryos exhibit greater dysregulation of gene expression than either of the two single mutants. In particular, we observe derepression of embryonic, but not adult, globin expression. Taken together, these results suggest that KLF3 and KLF8 have overlapping roles in vivo and participate in the silencing of embryonic globin expression during development. PMID:23716600

  15. Wilms' tumor gene 1 (WT1) silencing inhibits proliferation of malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumor sNF96.2 cell line.

    PubMed

    Parenti, Rosalba; Cardile, Venera; Graziano, Adriana Carol Eleonora; Parenti, Carmela; Venuti, Assunta; Bertuccio, Maria Paola; Furno, Debora Lo; Magro, Gaetano

    2014-01-01

    Wilms' tumor gene 1 (WT1) plays complex roles in tumorigenesis, acting as tumor suppressor gene or an oncogene depending on the cellular context. WT1 expression has been variably reported in both benign and malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumors (MPNSTs) by means of immunohistochemistry. The aim of the present study was to characterize its potential pathogenetic role in these relatively uncommon malignant tumors. Firstly, immunohistochemical analyses in MPNST sNF96.2 cell line showed strong WT1 staining in nuclear and perinuclear areas of neoplastic cells. Thus, we investigated the effects of silencing WT1 by RNA interference. Through Western Blot analysis and proliferation assay we found that WT1 knockdown leads to the reduction of cell growth in a time- and dose-dependent manner. siWT1 inhibited proliferation of sNF96.2 cell lines likely by influencing cell cycle progression through a decrease in the protein levels of cyclin D1 and inhibition of Akt phosphorylation compared to the control cells. These results indicate that WT1 knockdown attenuates the biological behavior of MPNST cells by decreasing Akt activity, demonstrating that WT1 is involved in the development and progression of MPNSTs. Thus, WT1 is suggested to serve as a potential therapeutic target for MPNSTs. PMID:25474318

  16. The Repressor Element 1-Silencing Transcription Factor Regulates Heart-Specific Gene Expression Using Multiple Chromatin-Modifying Complexes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Andrew J. Bingham; Lezanne Ooi; Lukasz Kozera; Edward White; Ian C. Wood

    2007-01-01

    Cardiac hypertrophy is associated with a dramatic change in the gene expression profile of cardiac myocytes. Many genes important during development of the fetal heart but repressed in the adult tissue are reexpressed, resulting in gross physiological changes that lead to arrhythmias, cardiac failure, and sudden death. One transcription factor thought to be important in repressing the expression of fetal

  17. Blockage of RelB expression by gene silencing enhances the radiosensitivity of androgen?independent prostate cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Heng-Cheng; Qiu, Tao; Dan, Chao; Liu, Xiu-Heng; Hu, Chun-Hai

    2015-02-01

    Levels of the nuclear factor?kappa B (NF??B) alternative pathway member RelB have been shown to correlate with the effect of radiation therapy in prostate cancer. RelB expression was evaluated by immunohistochemistry in normal prostate, benign prostate hyperplasia and prostate cancer specimens. RM?1 cells were pretreated with RelB siRNA prior to radiation therapy, and RelB expression in cytoplasmic and nuclear extracts was detected by real?time polymerase chain reaction and western blot analysis. The apoptotic rates of experimental RM?1 cell groups were assessed by flow cytometry. A clonogenic growth array was used to evaluate the radiosensitivity of RM?1 cell groups. The NF??B family member RelB was expressed at a high level in prostate cancer specimens. Compared with irradiated control cells, RM?1 cells transfected with RelB siRNA and treated with radiation therapy demonstrated a significant downregulation of RelB expression in the cytoplasm and nucleus. Notably, flow cytometry revealed that pretreatment of RM?1 cells with RelB siRNA enhanced the apoptotic rate in response to radiation therapy compared with controls. Clonogenic growth assay results revealed enhanced radiosensitivity of RelB siRNA cells at various dosage points compared with control groups. Blockage of the alternative NF??B pathway via RelB silencing is a promising approach to enhance the radiosensitivity of prostate cancer. PMID:25370388

  18. Methods for monitoring multiple gene expression

    DOEpatents

    Berka, Randy (Davis, CA); Bachkirova, Elena (Davis, CA); Rey, Michael (Davis, CA)

    2012-05-01

    The present invention relates to methods for monitoring differential expression of a plurality of genes in a first filamentous fungal cell relative to expression of the same genes in one or more second filamentous fungal cells using microarrays containing Trichoderma reesei ESTs or SSH clones, or a combination thereof. The present invention also relates to computer readable media and substrates containing such array features for monitoring expression of a plurality of genes in filamentous fungal cells.

  19. Silencing of Hydroxycinnamoyl-Coenzyme A Shikimate/Quinate Hydroxycinnamoyltransferase Affects Phenylpropanoid BiosynthesisW?

    PubMed Central

    Hoffmann, Laurent; Besseau, Sébastien; Geoffroy, Pierrette; Ritzenthaler, Christophe; Meyer, Denise; Lapierre, Catherine; Pollet, Brigitte; Legrand, Michel

    2004-01-01

    The hydroxyl group in the 3-position of the phenylpropanoid compounds is introduced at the level of coumarate shikimate/quinate esters, whose synthesis implicates an acyltransferase activity. Specific antibodies raised against the recombinant tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) acyltransferase revealed the accumulation of the enzyme in stem vascular tissues of tobacco, in accordance with a putative role in lignification. For functional analysis, the acyltransferase gene was silenced in Arabidopsis thaliana and N. benthamiana by RNA-mediated posttranscriptional gene silencing. In Arabidopsis, gene silencing resulted in a dwarf phenotype and changes in lignin composition as indicated by histochemical staining. An in-depth study of silenced N. benthamiana plants by immunological, histochemical, and chemical methods revealed the impact of acyltransferase silencing on soluble phenylpropanoids and lignin content and composition. In particular, a decrease in syringyl units and an increase in p-hydroxyphenyl units were recorded. Enzyme immunolocalization by confocal microscopy showed a correlation between enzyme accumulation levels and lignin composition in vascular cells. These results demonstrate the function of the acyltransferase in phenylpropanoid biosynthesis. PMID:15161961

  20. Development of a novel approach, the epigenome-based outlier approach, to identify tumor-suppressor genes silenced by aberrant DNA methylation.

    PubMed

    Kikuyama, Mizuho; Takeshima, Hideyuki; Kinoshita, Takayuki; Okochi-Takada, Eriko; Wakabayashi, Mika; Akashi-Tanaka, Sadako; Ogawa, Toshihisa; Seto, Yasuyuki; Ushijima, Toshikazu

    2012-09-28

    Identification of tumor-suppressor genes (TSGs) silenced by aberrant methylation of promoter CpG islands (CGIs) is important, but hampered by a large number of genes methylated as passengers of carcinogenesis. To overcome this issue, we here took advantage of the fact that the vast majority of genes methylated in cancers lack, in normal cells, RNA polymerase II (Pol II) and have trimethylation of histone H3 lysine 27 (H3K27me3) in their promoter CGIs. First, we demonstrated that three of six known TSGs in breast cancer and two of three in colon cancer had Pol II and lacked H3K27me3 in normal cells, being outliers to the general rule. BRCA1, HOXA5, MLH1, and RASSF1A had high Pol II, but were expressed only at low levels in normal cells, and were unlikely to be identified as outliers by their expression statuses in normal cells. Then, using epigenome statuses (Pol II binding and H3K27me3) in normal cells, we made a genome-wide search for outliers in breast cancers, and identified 14 outlier promoter CGIs. Among these, DZIP1, FBN2, HOXA5, and HOXC9 were confirmed to be methylated in primary breast cancer samples. Knockdown of DZIP1 in breast cancer cell lines led to increases of their growth, suggesting it to be a novel TSG. The outliers based on their epigenome statuses contained unique TSGs, including DZIP1, compared with those identified by the expression microarray data. These results showed that the epigenome-based outlier approach is capable of identifying a different set of TSGs, compared to the expression-based outlier approach. PMID:22433712

  1. Right- and left-loop short shRNAs have distinct and unusual mechanisms of gene silencing

    PubMed Central

    Dallas, Anne; Ilves, Heini; Ge, Qing; Kumar, Pavan; Shorenstein, Joshua; Kazakov, Sergei A.; Cuellar, Trinna L.; McManus, Michael T.; Behlke, Mark A.; Johnston, Brian H.

    2012-01-01

    Small hairpin RNAs (shRNAs) having duplex lengths of 25–29 bp are normally processed by Dicer into short interfering RNAs (siRNAs) before incorporation into the RNA-induced silencing complex (RISC). However, shRNAs of ?19?bp [short shRNAs (sshRNAs)] are too short for Dicer to excise their loops, raising questions about their mechanism of action. sshRNAs are designated as L-type or R-type according to whether the loop is positioned 3? or 5? to the guide sequence, respectively. Using nucleotide modifications that inhibit RNA cleavage, we show that R- but not L-sshRNAs require loop cleavage for optimum activity. Passenger-arm slicing was found to be important for optimal functioning of L-sshRNAs but much less important for R-sshRNAs that have a cleavable loop. R-sshRNAs could be immunoprecipitated by antibodies to Argonaute-1 (Ago1); complexes with Ago1 contained both intact and loop-cleaved sshRNAs. In contrast, L-sshRNAs were immunoprecipitated with either Ago1 or Ago2 and were predominantly sliced in the passenger arm of the hairpin. However, ‘pre-sliced’ L-sshRNAs were inactive. We conclude that active L-sshRNAs depend on slicing of the passenger arm to facilitate opening of the duplex, whereas R-sshRNAs primarily act via loop cleavage to generate a 5?-phosphate at the 5?-end of the guide strand. PMID:22810205

  2. Comparative Evaluation of Target-Specific GFP Gene Silencing Efficiencies for Antisense ODN, Synthetic siRNA, and siRNA Plasmid Complexed with PEI?PEG?FOL Conjugate

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sun Hwa Kim; Hyejung Mok; Ji Hoon Jeong; Sung Wan Kim; Tae Gwan Park

    2006-01-01

    Cell specific gene silencing effects of antisense oligodeoxynucleotide (AS-ODN), synthetic small interfering RNA (siRNA-S), and siRNA expressing plasmid (siRNA-P) were comparatively evaluated. Poly(ethylenimine) (PEI) and PEI-graft-poly(ethylene glycol)-folate (PEI-PEG-FOL) conjugate were used to form nanosized poly- electrolyte complexes with the above three nucleic acids coding for inhibition of green fluorescent protein (GFP) expression. The three nucleic acid complexes formulated with either

  3. The trans-silencing capacity of invertedly repeated transgenes depends on their epigenetic state in tobacco

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Miloslava Fojtova; Annick Bleys; Jana Bedr; Helena Van Houdt; Anna Depicker

    2006-01-01

    We studied the in trans-silencing capacities of a trans- gene locus that carried the neomycin phosphotrans- ferase II reporter gene linked to the 35S promoter in an inverted repeat (IR). This transgene locus was originally posttranscriptionally silenced but switched to a transcriptionally silenced epiallele after in vitro tissue culture. Here, we show that both epialleles were strongly methylated in the

  4. Synthetic RNA Silencing of Actinorhodin Biosynthesis in Streptomyces coelicolor A3(2).

    PubMed

    Uguru, Gabriel C; Mondhe, Madhav; Goh, Shan; Hesketh, Andrew; Bibb, Mervyn J; Good, Liam; Stach, James E M

    2013-01-01

    We demonstrate the first application of synthetic RNA gene silencers in Streptomyces coelicolor A3(2). Peptide nucleic acid and expressed antisense RNA silencers successfully inhibited actinorhodin production. Synthetic RNA silencing was target-specific and is a new tool for gene regulation and metabolic engineering studies in Streptomyces. PMID:23826310

  5. Transformation of Mexican lime with an intron-hairpin construct expressing untranslatable versions of the genes coding for the three silencing suppressors of Citrus tristeza virus confers complete resistance to the virus.

    PubMed

    Soler, Nuria; Plomer, Montserrat; Fagoaga, Carmen; Moreno, Pedro; Navarro, Luis; Flores, Ricardo; Peña, Leandro

    2012-06-01

    Citrus tristeza virus (CTV), the causal agent of the most devastating viral disease of citrus, has evolved three silencing suppressor proteins acting at intra- (p23 and p20) and/or intercellular level (p20 and p25) to overcome host antiviral defence. Previously, we showed that Mexican lime transformed with an intron-hairpin construct including part of the gene p23 and the adjacent 3' untranslated region displays partial resistance to CTV, with a fraction of the propagations from some transgenic lines remaining uninfected. Here, we transformed Mexican lime with an intron-hairpin vect