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1

Taxonomic revision of Eurotium and transfer of species to Aspergillus  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Section Aspergillus contains economically important, xerophilic species widely distributed in nature and the human environment that are known for their ability to grow on substrates with low water activity. The high level of phenoplasticity and frequent occurrence of mutants with atypical morphology...

2

Occurrence of toxigenic Aspergillus spp. and aflatoxins in selected food commodities of Asian origin sourced in the West of Scotland.  

PubMed

The occurrence of Aspergillus moulds and aflatoxins in 12 commercially-available dried foods of Asian origin were examined. All food samples, except green beans and three types of dried fruit, contained multiple genera of moulds of which Aspergillus (55%) was the most frequently detected. Penicillium (15%), Rhizopus (11%), Mucor (3%), Monascus (1%), Eurotium (1%) and unidentified (14%) were also observed. The occurrence of aflatoxigenic moulds, however, did not correspond with the occurrence of aflatoxins in foods. Aflatoxigenic Aspergillus spp. (39 isolates) were recovered from long grain rice, fragrant rice, peanuts, black beans and black pepper. The predominant Aspergillus species was A. parasiticus (61%) while Aspergillus oryzae (3%), Aspergillus utus (5%), Aspergillus niger (5%), Aspergillus ochraceus (3%) and unidentified (23%) were also observed. Long grain rice, fragrant rice, peanuts, black beans and black pepper were positive for Aspergillus but contained undetectable aflatoxins. In contrast, Jasmine brown rice and crushed chilli contained 14.7 and 11.4?g/kg of total aflatoxins, respectively, in the absence of Aspergillus so aflatoxigenic Aspergillus was present at some stage of food production. The results from this study emphasise the need for stricter control measures in reducing occurrence of aflatoxins in foods for export and domestic use. PMID:23416649

Ruadrew, Sayan; Craft, John; Aidoo, Kofi

2013-05-01

3

Aspergillus cibarius sp. nov., from traditional meju in Korea.  

PubMed

Aspergillus cibarius sp. nov. isolated from meju, a brick of dried fermented soybeans in Korea, is described. The species was also found from black bean, bread and salami in the Netherlands. It is characterized by abundant yellow to reddish brown ascomata and small lenticular ascospores (4.5-5.5 ?m) with a wide furrow, low equatorial crests and tuberculate or reticulate convex surface. The species was resolved as phylogenetically distinct from the other reported Aspergillus species with an Eurotium teleomorph based on multilocus sequence typing using partial fragments of the ?-tubulin, calmodulin, ITS and RNA polymerase II genes. PMID:22923125

Hong, Seung-Beom; Lee, Mina; Kim, Dae-Ho; Meijer, Martin; Majoor, Eline; Vankuyk, Patricia A; Samson, Robert A

2012-08-01

4

Benzyl Derivatives with in Vitro Binding Affinity for Human Opioid Receptors and Cannabinoid Receptors from the Fungus Eurotium repens  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Bioassay-guided fractionation of the fungus Eurotium repens resulted in the isolation of two benzyl derivatives, repenol A (1) and repenol B (2). Seven known secondary metabolites were also isolated including five benzaldehyde compounds, flavoglaucin (3), tetrahydroauroglaucin (4), dihydroauroglauci...

5

Does fungicide application in vineyards induce resistance to medical azoles in Aspergillus species?  

PubMed

This study assessed if the use of sterol demethylase inhibitor fungicides in vineyard production can induce resistance to azoles in Aspergillus strains and if it can induce selection of resistant species. We also tried to identify the Aspergillus species most prevalent in the vineyards. Two vineyards from northern Portugal were selected from "Vinhos Verdes" and "Douro" regions. The vineyards were divided into plots that were treated or not with penconazole (PEN). In each vineyard, air, soil, and plant samples were collected at three different times. The strains of Aspergillus spp. were isolated and identified by morphological and molecular techniques. We identified 46 Aspergillus section Nigri, eight Aspergillus fumigatus, seven Aspergillus lentulus, four Aspergillus wentii, two Aspergillus flavus, two Aspergillus terreus, one Aspergillus calidoustus, one Aspergillus westerdijkiae, one Aspergillus tamarii, and one Eurotium amstelodami. Aspergillus strains were evaluated for their susceptibility to medical azoles used in human therapy (itraconazole, posaconazole, and voriconazole) and to agricultural azoles (PEN) used in the prevention and treatment of plant diseases. The isolates showed moderate susceptibility to voriconazole. We did not observe any decrease of susceptibility to the medical azoles tested throughout the testing period in any of the treated plots, although some of the resistant species were isolated from there. PMID:24833021

Lago, Magali; Aguiar, Ana; Natário, André; Fernandes, Carla; Faria, Miguel; Pinto, Eugénia

2014-09-01

6

Phylogeny, identification and nomenclature of the genus Aspergillus  

PubMed Central

Aspergillus comprises a diverse group of species based on morphological, physiological and phylogenetic characters, which significantly impact biotechnology, food production, indoor environments and human health. Aspergillus was traditionally associated with nine teleomorph genera, but phylogenetic data suggest that together with genera such as Polypaecilum, Phialosimplex, Dichotomomyces and Cristaspora, Aspergillus forms a monophyletic clade closely related to Penicillium. Changes in the International Code of Nomenclature for algae, fungi and plants resulted in the move to one name per species, meaning that a decision had to be made whether to keep Aspergillus as one big genus or to split it into several smaller genera. The International Commission of Penicillium and Aspergillus decided to keep Aspergillus instead of using smaller genera. In this paper, we present the arguments for this decision. We introduce new combinations for accepted species presently lacking an Aspergillus name and provide an updated accepted species list for the genus, now containing 339 species. To add to the scientific value of the list, we include information about living ex-type culture collection numbers and GenBank accession numbers for available representative ITS, calmodulin, ?-tubulin and RPB2 sequences. In addition, we recommend a standard working technique for Aspergillus and propose calmodulin as a secondary identification marker. PMID:25492982

Samson, R.A.; Visagie, C.M.; Houbraken, J.; Hong, S.-B.; Hubka, V.; Klaassen, C.H.W.; Perrone, G.; Seifert, K.A.; Susca, A.; Tanney, J.B.; Varga, J.; Kocsubé, S.; Szigeti, G.; Yaguchi, T.; Frisvad, J.C.

2014-01-01

7

Mycoflora of Soybeans Used for Meju Fermentation  

PubMed Central

Diverse fungi are present in Korean traditional meju and they are known to play an important role in fermented soybean products. To determine the origin of the fungi in meju, we examined the mycoflora of soybeans from 10 traditional meju factories. The samples were untreated or treated with sodium hypochlorite, and placed on malt extract agar (MEA), dichloran 18% glycerol agar (DG18), and dichloran rose bengal chloramphenicol agar (DRBC) medium. A total of 794 fungal strains were isolated and they were identified as 41 genera and 86 species. From sodium hypochlorite untreated soybeans, the genera, Cladosporium (55%), Eurotium (51%), Fusarium (33%), Penicillium (22%), and Aspergillus (exclusion of Eurotium) (20%), were mainly isolated, and Eurotium herbariorum (22%), Eurotium repens (18%), Cladosporium tenuissimum (18%), F. fujikuroi (18%), Aspergillus oryzae/flavus (7%), and Penicillium steckii (6%) were the predominant species. In case of sodium hypochlorite-treated soybeans, Eurotium (31%) and Cladosporium (5%) were frequently isolated, but Aspergillus (excluding Eurotium), Penicillium and Fusarium which were frequently isolated from untreated soybeans, were rarely isolated. Eurotium herbariorum (21%), Eurotium repens (8%), and Cladosporium tenuissimum (3%) were the predominant species. Of the 41 genera and 86 species isolated from soybeans, 13 genera and 33 species were also found in meju. These results suggest that the fungi on soybeans may influence the mycoflora of meju. PMID:23874133

Kim, Dae-Ho; Kim, Seon-Hwa; Kwon, Soon-Wo; Lee, Jong-Kyu

2013-01-01

8

Antimicrobial and antiprotozoal activities of secondary metabolites from the fungus Eurotium repens.  

PubMed

In this study, we examined in vitro antibacterial, antifungal, antimalarial, and antileishmanial activities of secondary metabolites (1-8) isolated from the fungus Eurotium repens. All compounds showed mild to moderate antibacterial or antifungal or both activities except 7. The activity of compound 6 was the best of the group tested. The in vitro antimalarial evaluation of these compounds revealed that compounds 1-3, 5, and 6 showed antimalarial activities against both chloroquine-sensitive and chloroquine-resistant strains of Plasmodium falciparum with IC(50) values in the range of 1.1-3.0 ?g/ml without showing any cytotoxicity to the mammalian cells. Compound 5 displayed the highest antimalarial activity. Antileishmanial activity against Leishmania donovani promastigotes was observed for compounds 1-6 with IC(50) values ranging from 6.2 to 23 ?g/ml. Antileishmanial activity of compounds 5 and 6 (IC(50) values of 7.5 and 6.2 ?g/ml, respectively) was more potent than 1-4 (IC(50) values ranging from 19-23 ?g/ml). Compounds 7 and 8 did not show any antiprotozoal effect. Preliminary structure and activity relationship studies indicated that antibacterial, antifungal, antimalarial, and antileishmanial activities associated with phenol derivates (1-6) seem to be dependent on the number of double bonds in the side chain, which would be important for lead optimization in the future. PMID:23024574

Gao, Jiangtao; Radwan, Mohamed M; León, Francisco; Wang, Xiaoning; Jacob, Melissa R; Tekwani, Babu L; Khan, Shabana I; Lupien, Shari; Hill, Robert A; Dugan, Frank M; Cutler, Horace G; Cutler, Stephen J

2012-10-01

9

Study of Spanish Grape Mycobiota and Ochratoxin A Production by Isolates of Aspergillus tubingensis and Other Members of Aspergillus Section Nigri  

Microsoft Academic Search

The native mycobiota of five grape varieties grown in Spain has been studied. Four (Bobal, Tempranillo, Garnacha, and Monastrell) were red varieties and one (Moscatel) was white. The main fungal genera isolated were Alternaria, Cladosporium, and Aspergillus. The isolation frequency of Aspergillus spp. section Nigri in contaminated samples was 82%. Ochratoxin A (OTA) production was assessed using yeast extract-sucrose broth

Angel Medina; Rufino Mateo; Laura Lopez-Ocana; Francisco Manuel Valle-Algarra; Misericordia Jimenez

2005-01-01

10

Eurothiocin A and B, Sulfur-Containing Benzofurans from a Soft Coral-Derived Fungus Eurotium rubrum SH-823  

PubMed Central

Two new sulfur-containing benzofuran derivatives, eurothiocin A and B (1 and 2), along with five known compounds, zinniol (3), butyrolactone I (4), aspernolide D (5), vermistatin (6), and methoxyvermistatin (7), were isolated from the cultures of Eurotium rubrum SH-823, a fungus obtained from a Sarcophyton sp. soft coral collected from the South China Sea. The new compounds (1 and 2) share a methyl thiolester moiety, which is quite rare among natural secondary metabolites. The structures of these metabolites were assigned on the basis of detailed spectroscopic analysis. The absolute configurations of 1 and 2 were determined by comparison of the experimental and calculated electronic circular dichroism (ECD) data. Compounds 1 and 2 exhibited more potent inhibitory effects against ?-glucosidase activity than the clinical ?-glucosidase inhibitor acarbose. Further mechanistic analysis showed that both of them exhibited competitive inhibition characteristics. PMID:24955555

Liu, Zhaoming; Xia, Guoping; Chen, Senhua; Liu, Yayue; Li, Hanxiang; She, Zhigang

2014-01-01

11

Sphingomonas and Related Genera  

SciTech Connect

INTRODUCTION-The genus Sphingomonas was defined by Yabuuchi et al. (1990) as a group of Gram-negative, rod-shaped, chemoheterotrophic, strictly aerobic bacteria that possess ubiquinone 10 as the major respiratory quinone, contain glycosphingolipids (GSLs) instead of lipopolysaccharide in their cell envelopes, and typically produce yellow-pigmented colonies. By 2001, the genus included more than 20 species that were quite diverse in terms of their phylogenetic, ecological, and physiological properties. As a result, Takeuchi et al. (2001) subdivided Sphingomonas into four genera: Sphingomonas, Sphingobium, Novosphingobium and Sphingopyxis...

Balkwill, David L.; Fredrickson, Jim K.; Romine, Margaret F.

2003-12-31

12

Benzyl derivatives with in vitro binding affinity for human opioid and cannabinoid receptors from the fungus Eurotium repens.  

PubMed

Bioassay-guided fractionation of the fungus Eurotium repens resulted in the isolation of two new benzyl derivatives, (E)-2-(hept-1-enyl)-3-(hydroxymethyl)-5-(3-methylbut-2-enyl)benzene-1,4-diol (1) and (E)-4-(hept-1-enyl)-7-(3-methylbut-2-enyl)-2,3-dihydrobenzofuran-2,5-diol (2), along with seven known compounds (3-9) including five benzaldehyde compounds, flavoglaucin (3), tetrahydroauroglaucin (4), dihydroauroglaucin (5), auroglaucin (6), and 2-(2',3-epoxy-1',3'- heptadienyl)-6-hydroxy-5-(3-methyl-2-butenyl)benzaldehyde (7), one diketopiperazine alkaloid, echinulin (8), and 5,7-dihydroxy-4-methylphthalide (9). The chemical structures of these compounds were established on the basis of extensive 1D and 2D NMR and HRMS data. Compounds 1-4 and 6 showed good binding affinity for human opioid or cannabinoid receptors. These findings have important implications for psychoactive studies with this class of compounds. PMID:21667972

Gao, Jiangtao; León, Francisco; Radwan, Mohamed M; Dale, Olivia R; Husni, Afeef S; Manly, Susan P; Lupien, Shari; Wang, Xiaoning; Hill, Robert A; Dugan, Frank M; Cutler, Horace G; Cutler, Stephen J

2011-07-22

13

Serology of Aspergillus granuloma  

Microsoft Academic Search

A total of 21 cases of granuloma caused by Aspergillus species were encountered during the period 1972–79. The organs involved were nasal and paranasal sinuses, brain, orbit, subcutaneous tissue of cheek, lungs and endocardial valve in the decreasing order of their frequency. Aspergillus flavus was the main etiological agent. Immunodiffusion tests with various Aspergillus species as antigen showed a positivity

P. Talwar; M. Sharma; S. C. Sehgal; K. K. Ghose

1982-01-01

14

Modern taxonomy of biotechnologically important Aspergillus and Penicillium species.  

PubMed

Taxonomy is a dynamic discipline and name changes of fungi with biotechnological, industrial, or medical importance are often difficult to understand for researchers in the applied field. Species belonging to the genera Aspergillus and Penicillium are commonly used or isolated, and inadequate taxonomy or uncertain nomenclature of these genera can therefore lead to tremendous confusion. Misidentification of strains used in biotechnology can be traced back to (1) recent changes in nomenclature, (2) new taxonomic insights, including description of new species, and/or (3) incorrect identifications. Changes in the recent published International Code of Nomenclature for Algae, Fungi and Plants will lead to numerous name changes of existing Aspergillus and Penicillium species and an overview of the current names of biotechnological important species is given. Furthermore, in (biotechnological) literature old and invalid names are still used, such as Aspergillus awamori, A. foetidus, A. kawachii, Talaromyces emersonii, Acremonium cellulolyticus, and Penicillium funiculosum. An overview of these and other species with their correct names is presented. Furthermore, the biotechnologically important species Talaromyces thermophilus is here combined in Thermomyces as Th. dupontii. The importance of Aspergillus, Penicillium, and related genera is also illustrated by the high number of undertaken genome sequencing projects. A number of these strains are incorrectly identified or atypical strains are selected for these projects. Recommendations for correct strain selection are given here. Phylogenetic analysis shows a close relationship between the genome-sequenced strains of Aspergillus, Penicillium, and Monascus. Talaromyces stipitatus and T. marneffei (syn. Penicillium marneffei) are closely related to Thermomyces lanuginosus and Th. dupontii (syn. Talaromyces thermophilus), and these species appear to be distantly related to Aspergillus and Penicillium. In the last part of this review, an overview of heterothallic reproduction in Aspergillus and Penicillium is given. The new insights in the taxonomy of Aspergillus, Penicillium, and related genera will help to interpret the results generated with comparative genomics studies or other studies dealing with evolution of, for example, enzymes, mating-type loci, virulence genes, and secondary metabolite biosynthetic gene clusters. PMID:24377856

Houbraken, Jos; de Vries, Ronald P; Samson, Robert A

2014-01-01

15

Aspergillus spinal epidural abscess  

SciTech Connect

A spinal epidural abscess developed in a renal transplant recipient; results of a serum radioimmunoassay for Aspergillus antigen were positive. Laminectomy disclosed an abscess of the L4-5 interspace and L-5 vertebral body that contained hyphal forms and from which Aspergillus species was cultured. Serum Aspergillus antigen radioimmunoassay may be a valuable, specific early diagnostic test when systemic aspergillosis is a consideration in an immunosuppressed host.

Byrd, B.F. III (Vanderbilt Univ. School of Medicine, Nashville, TN); Weiner, M.H.; McGee, Z.A.

1982-12-17

16

Elliptic genera of monopole strings  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We obtain elliptic genera of monopole string in 5d MSYM. We find agreement with the corresponding TST-dual dyonic-instanton single particle indices in arXiv:1110.2175. We make use of (2,2) superconformal algebra and its spectral flow, and the agreement can therefore be taken as evidence that monopole string (4,4) sigma models are exactly quantum superconformal.

Bak, Dongsu; Gustavsson, Andreas

2015-01-01

17

Genera in paleontology: Definition and significance  

Microsoft Academic Search

Three working concepts or definitions of the genus as a systematic category are available: the “phylogenetic”; or “cladistic”; concept, which views genera as monophyletic clades, the “phenetic”; or “gap”; concept, which views genera as clustered in morphological space, separated from other such groups by many differences, and the “hybridization”; concept, which holds that species in different genera can never hybridize.

Warren D. Allmon

1992-01-01

18

Immunological separation of Entomophthorales genera.  

PubMed

Exoantigens from Erynia neoaphidis, Conidiobolus major, C. thromboides, C. obscurus, Zoophthora radicans, and Basidiobolus ranarum were obtained from culture filtrates of fungal material grown in a yeast extract, peptone dialysate, dextrose medium and were tested against specific hyperimmune antisera prepared from E. neoaphidis, C. major, C. thromboides, and B. ranarum by the immunodiffusion technique. Specific precipitins were observed for E. neoaphidis and B. ranarum, while cross-reactions were detected among C. major, C. thromboides, and C. obscurus. The results suggest that genera of Entomophthorales can be easily separated by this simple immunological procedure. PMID:2498433

Toriello, C; Zerón, E; Latgé, J P; Mier, T

1989-05-01

19

Redefining Ceratocystis and allied genera  

PubMed Central

The genus Ceratocystis was established in 1890 and accommodates many important fungi. These include serious plant pathogens, significant insect symbionts and agents of timber degradation that result in substantial economic losses. Virtually since its type was described from sweet potatoes, the taxonomy of Ceratocystis has been confused and vigorously debated. In recent years, particulary during the last two decades, it has become very obvious that this genus includes a wide diversity of very different fungi. These have been roughly lumped together due to their similar morphological structures that have clearly evolved through convergent evolution linked to an insect-associated ecology. As has been true for many other groups of fungi, the emergence of DNA-based sequence data and associated phylogenetic inferences, have made it possible to robustly support very distinct boundaries defined by morphological characters and ecological differences. In this study, DNA-sequence data for three carefully selected gene regions (60S, LSU, MCM7) were generated for 79 species residing in the aggregate genus Ceratocystis sensu lato and these data were subjected to rigorous phylogenetic analyses. The results made it possible to distinguish seven major groups for which generic names have been chosen and descriptions either provided or emended. The emended genera included Ceratocystis sensu stricto, Chalaropsis, Endoconidiophora, Thielaviopsis, and Ambrosiella, while two new genera, Davidsoniella and Huntiella, were described. In total, 30 new combinations have been made. This major revision of the generic boundaries in the Ceratocystidaceae will simplify future treatments and work with an important group of fungi including distantly related species illogically aggregated under a single name. PMID:25492989

de Beer, Z.W.; Duong, T.A.; Barnes, I.; Wingfield, B.D.; Wingfield, M.J.

2014-01-01

20

Redefining Ceratocystis and allied genera.  

PubMed

The genus Ceratocystis was established in 1890 and accommodates many important fungi. These include serious plant pathogens, significant insect symbionts and agents of timber degradation that result in substantial economic losses. Virtually since its type was described from sweet potatoes, the taxonomy of Ceratocystis has been confused and vigorously debated. In recent years, particulary during the last two decades, it has become very obvious that this genus includes a wide diversity of very different fungi. These have been roughly lumped together due to their similar morphological structures that have clearly evolved through convergent evolution linked to an insect-associated ecology. As has been true for many other groups of fungi, the emergence of DNA-based sequence data and associated phylogenetic inferences, have made it possible to robustly support very distinct boundaries defined by morphological characters and ecological differences. In this study, DNA-sequence data for three carefully selected gene regions (60S, LSU, MCM7) were generated for 79 species residing in the aggregate genus Ceratocystis sensu lato and these data were subjected to rigorous phylogenetic analyses. The results made it possible to distinguish seven major groups for which generic names have been chosen and descriptions either provided or emended. The emended genera included Ceratocystis sensu stricto, Chalaropsis, Endoconidiophora, Thielaviopsis, and Ambrosiella, while two new genera, Davidsoniella and Huntiella, were described. In total, 30 new combinations have been made. This major revision of the generic boundaries in the Ceratocystidaceae will simplify future treatments and work with an important group of fungi including distantly related species illogically aggregated under a single name. PMID:25492989

de Beer, Z W; Duong, T A; Barnes, I; Wingfield, B D; Wingfield, M J

2014-09-01

21

Identification of medically significant fungal genera by polymerase chain reaction followed by restriction enzyme analysis.  

PubMed

Rapid non-culture-dependent assays for identification of fungi quicken diagnosis and prompt treatment of invasive fungal disease. Fungal DNA extracts from pure cultures of the most frequently isolated fungal pathogens belonging to the Genera Aspergillus, Candida and Cryptococcus along with less common pathogenic Genera were amplified with the general fungal primer pair internal transcribed spacer-1/4. Subsequently, the amplicon was digested with the restriction endonucleases MspI, HaeIII, HinfI and EcoRI in order to generate genus- or species-specific patterns for identification of the fungus. HinfI produced indistinguishable fingerprints for all Aspergillus species tested. MspI produced species-specific patterns for: Cryptococcus neoformans, Cryptococcus non-neoformans, Candida albicans and Candida tropicalis. EcoRI succeeded in differentiating penicillia from aspergilli and cryptococci from Candida spp. It is concluded that this procedure can differentiate genera and occasionally species of medically important fungi and that following the necessary validation experiments, it can be used directly on clinical samples to assist prompt diagnosis of systemic fungal infections. PMID:10225290

Velegraki, A; Kambouris, M E; Skiniotis, G; Savala, M; Mitroussia-Ziouva, A; Legakis, N J

1999-04-01

22

The Tree and Shrub Genera of Borneo  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

James Jarvie of The Arnold Arboretum of Harvard University and Indonesian colleague Ermayanti of Conservation International have put together this database on the tree and shrub genera of Borneo. The illustrated database "offers a DELTA-based interactive key to the 534 tree genera of the island" and is available in English or Indonesian. Also included is a detailed, hyperlinked index of genera and a large selection of pen-and-ink images.

Ermayanti.; Jarvie, James K.

1995-01-01

23

Development in Aspergillus  

PubMed Central

The genus Aspergillus represents a diverse group of fungi that are among the most abundant fungi in the world. Germination of a spore can lead to a vegetative mycelium that colonizes a substrate. The hyphae within the mycelium are highly heterogeneous with respect to gene expression, growth, and secretion. Aspergilli can reproduce both asexually and sexually. To this end, conidiophores and ascocarps are produced that form conidia and ascospores, respectively. This review describes the molecular mechanisms underlying growth and development of Aspergillus. PMID:23450714

Krijgsheld, P.; Bleichrodt, R.; van Veluw, G.J.; Wang, F.; Müller, W.H.; Dijksterhuis, J.; Wösten, H.A.B.

2013-01-01

24

GENOMICS OF ASPERGILLUS FUMIGATUS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Aspergillus fumigatus is a filamentous fungal saprophyte that is ubiquitous in the environment. It is also a human pathogen and induces allergenic response, negatively impacting health care and associated costs significantly around the world. Much of the basic biology of this organism is only poor...

25

The Bee Genera of Eastern Canada  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Some 39 genera of bees, illustrated with full habitus photos, are included in this online article. Information about nests, behavior, floral relationships, as well as conservation are thoroughly covered. Includes an extensive references section.

0000-00-00

26

Characterization of filamentous fungi isolated from Moroccan olive and olive cake: toxinogenic potential of Aspergillus strains.  

PubMed

During the 2003 and 2004 olive oil production campaigns in Morocco, 136 samples from spoiled olive and olive cake were analyzed and 285 strains were isolated in pure culture. Strains included 167 mesophilic strains belonging to ten genera: Penicillium, Aspergillus, Geotrichum, Mucor, Rhizopus, Trichoderma, Alternaria, Acremonium, Humicola, Ulocladium as well as 118 thermophilic strains isolated in 2003 and 2004, mainly belonging to six species: Aspergillus fumigatus, Paecilomyces variotii, Mucor pusillus, Thermomyces lanuginosus, Humicola grisea, and Thermoascus aurantiacus. Penicillium and Aspergillus, respectively, 32.3 and 26.9% of total isolates represented the majority of mesophilic fungi isolated. When considering total strains (including thermotolerant strains) Aspergillus were the predominant strains isolated; follow-up studies on mycotoxins therefore focused primarily on aflatoxins (AFs) and ochratoxin A (OTA) from the latter strains. All isolated Aspergillus flavus strains (9) and Aspergillus niger strains (36) were studied in order to evaluate their capacity to produce AFs and OTA, respectively, when grown on starch-based culture media. Seven of the nine tested A. flavus strains isolated from olive and olive cake produced AF B1 at concentrations between 48 and 95 microg/kg of dry rice weight. As for the A. niger strains, 27 of the 36 strains produced OTA. PMID:16715545

Roussos, Sevastianos; Zaouia, Nabila; Salih, Ghislane; Tantaoui-Elaraki, Abdelrhafour; Lamrani, Khadija; Cheheb, Mostafa; Hassouni, Hicham; Verhé, Fréderic; Perraud-Gaime, Isabelle; Augur, Christopher; Ismaili-Alaoui, Mustapha

2006-05-01

27

Rare and new etiological agents revealed among 178 clinical Aspergillus strains obtained from Czech patients and characterized by molecular sequencing.  

PubMed

A collection of 178 Aspergillus isolates, recovered from Czech patients, mostly from 2007-2011, was subjected to multilocus DNA sequence typing using the ITS region, ?-tubulin, and calmodulin genes. An unusually wide spectrum of etiologic agents that included 36 species of Aspergillus is discussed in the context of recent taxonomic and clinical reports. Invasive aspergillosis (IA), onychomycosis, and otitis externa were the predominant clinical entities. Five cases due to species newly proven as etiologic agents of human mycoses, as well as cases with unique clinical manifestations caused by unusual agents are discussed in more detail. Three species (i.e., A. insulicola, A. westerdijkiae and A. tritici) were identified as the confirmed etiologic agents of non-dermatophytic onychomycosis. Emericella rugulosa was recovered from a premature newborn with a fatal necrotising disseminated infection and is reported for only the second time as the cause of IA. Furthermore, we document the first infection due to A. calidoustus in a patient with chronic granulomatous disease. The infection manifested as a latent brain aspergilloma with an unusual clinical-laboratory finding. In addition to the well-known agents of human mycosis, several rarely isolated or poorly documented species were identified. An undescribed cryptic species related to A. versicolor was found to be common among isolates linked to proven and probable onychomycosis. An isolate representing A. fresenii, or an unnamed sister species, were causal agents of otomycosis. Three well defined, and tentative new species belonging to section Cervini, Candidi and Aspergillus (Eurotium spp.), were associated with cases of probable onychomycosis. PMID:22458252

Hubka, Vit; Kubatova, Alena; Mallatova, Nada; Sedlacek, Petr; Melichar, Jan; Skorepova, Magdalena; Mencl, Karel; Lyskova, Pavlina; Sramkova, Blanka; Chudickova, Milada; Hamal, Petr; Kolarik, Miroslav

2012-08-01

28

Transformation in Aspergillus ochraceus.  

PubMed

Mutants (lysine requiring) of Aspergillus ochraceus were kept under starvation conditions for 15 days and finally were treated with DNA of a 40-h-old culture of the wild strain. The donor DNA-treated mutant conidia were then grown on plates containing minimal medium at 28 degrees C for 4 days. The number of transformed cells was estimated by colony counting and hence percentage transformants. The transforming activity of the donor DNA was found to be inhibited by the action of heat and variation of pH, and also varied with the period of starvation and with the concentration of donor DNA. PMID:7765888

Saha, D; Das, T K

1995-02-01

29

Modelling of the growth/no growth interface of Wallemia sebi and Eurotium herbariorum as a function of pH, aw and ethanol concentration.  

PubMed

High sugar products (sugar content > 50%) are generally considered to be stable against all forms of microbial spoilage during a prolonged shelf life of several months. However, one specific subgroup of micro-organisms, the xerophilic moulds, can develop quite fast on the surface of food products with a reduced water activity (< 0.85). The chance whether these xerophilic moulds are able to grow on the food product depends on the combination of intrinsic factors (e.g., water activity and pH) and the storage conditions (e.g., temperature). This study examines the development of growth/no growth models for the xerophilic moulds Wallemia sebi and Eurotium herbariorum in a sugar rich broth. Growth/no growth models are predictive models that are designed to give a prediction about the probability of growth of a spoilage micro-organism under a specific set of environmental conditions. In this research, a water activity between 0.75 and 0.90, a pH between 5.0 and 6.2, an ethanol concentration between 0% and 5% (g EtOH/g H2O) and their interactions were tested. The inoculated media were stored at 22 °C (± 1 °C) during a prolonged test period (up to 120 days). The obtained models were also validated in a chocolate-based food product (ganache). The resulting growth/no growth models show that the growth of W. sebi and E. herbariorum can be inhibited for a prolonged time (> 3 months) if an ethanol concentration of 5% on the water phase is present in the food product, irrespective of water activity values between 0.89 and 0.755. The necessary amount of ethanol for shorter shelf lives can be calculated with the models that were built. Although the models have not been validated thoroughly in actual food products, the preliminary results that were obtained by testing the model on a ganache indicated that the models are capable of delivering safe predictions. PMID:25317503

Deschuyffeleer, N; Vermeulen, A; Daelman, J; Castelein, E; Eeckhout, M; Devlieghere, F

2015-01-01

30

Ochratoxin production by Aspergillus species.  

PubMed Central

Ochratoxin production was tested in 172 strains representing species in sections Fumigati, Circumdati, Candidi, and Wentii of the genus Aspergillus by an immunochemical method using a monoclonal antibody preparation against ochratoxin A. Ochratoxin A was detected in Aspergillus ochraceus, A. alliaceus, A. sclerotiorum, A. sulphureus, A. albertensis, A. auricomus, and A. wentii strains. This is the first report of production of ochratoxins in the latter three species. Ochratoxin production by these species was confirmed by high-performance thin-layer chromatography and by high-performance liquid chromatography. The chemical methods also indicated the production of ochratoxin B by all of the Aspergillus strains mentioned above. PMID:8953717

Varga, J; Kevei, E; Rinyu, E; Téren, J; Kozakiewicz, Z

1996-01-01

31

PODOSTEMACEAE OF AFRICAAND MADAGASCAR: KEYS TO GENERAAND SPECIES, INCLUDING GENERA  

E-print Network

I PODOSTEMACEAE OF AFRICAAND MADAGASCAR: KEYS TO GENERAAND SPECIES, INCLUDING GENERA DESCRIPTIONS and Madagascar. How to use the keys: There are 16 genera and c. 85 species known from Africa and Madagascar. KEY the DIAGNOSES to all genera. Eight out of the 16 genera occur with just one species in Africa and Madagascar

Zürich, Universität

32

Aspergillus fumigatus in Poultry  

PubMed Central

Aspergillus fumigatus remains a major respiratory pathogen in birds. In poultry, infection by A. fumigatus may induce significant economic losses particularly in turkey production. A. fumigatus develops and sporulates easily in poor quality bedding or contaminated feedstuffs in indoor farm environments. Inadequate ventilation and dusty conditions increase the risk of bird exposure to aerosolized spores. Acute cases are seen in young animals following inhalation of spores, causing high morbidity and mortality. The chronic form affects older birds and looks more sporadic. The respiratory tract is the primary site of A. fumigatus development leading to severe respiratory distress and associated granulomatous airsacculitis and pneumonia. Treatments for infected poultry are nonexistent; therefore, prevention is the only way to protect poultry. Development of avian models of aspergillosis may improve our understanding of its pathogenesis, which remains poorly understood. PMID:21826144

Arné, Pascal; Thierry, Simon; Wang, Dongying; Deville, Manjula; Le Loc'h, Guillaume; Desoutter, Anaďs; Féménia, Françoise; Nieguitsila, Adélaďde; Huang, Weiyi; Chermette, René; Guillot, Jacques

2011-01-01

33

Use of thin layer chromatography for detection and high performance liquid chromatography for quantitating gliotoxin from rice cultures of Aspergillus fumigatus Fresenius  

Microsoft Academic Search

Gliotoxin, a mycotoxin with antimicrobial and immunosuppressive capabilities, is produced by several genera of fungi including the pathogenic fungusAspergillus fumigatus. The ability of selected isolates ofA. fumigatus to produce gliotoxin on three different media was tested and a thin layer chromatographic and high performance liquid chromatographic method for quantitation of gliotoxin from rice culture was developed and is described. Rice

J. L. Richard; R. L. Lyon; R. E. Fichtner; P. F. Ross

1989-01-01

34

A trispecies Aspergillus microarray: Comparative transcriptomics of three Aspergillus species  

PubMed Central

The full-genome sequencing of the filamentous fungi Aspergillus nidulans, Aspergillus niger, and Aspergillus oryzae has opened possibilities for studying the cellular physiology of these fungi on a systemic level. As a tool to explore this, we are making available an Affymetrix GeneChip developed for transcriptome analysis of any of the three above-mentioned aspergilli. Transcriptome analysis of triplicate batch cultivations of all three aspergilli on glucose and xylose media was used to validate the performance of the microarray. Gene comparisons of all three species and cross-analysis with the expression data identified 23 genes to be a conserved response across Aspergillus sp., including the xylose transcriptional activator XlnR. A promoter analysis of the up-regulated genes in all three species indicates the conserved XlnR-binding site to be 5?-GGNTAAA-3?. The composition of the conserved gene-set suggests that xylose acts as a molecule, indicating the presence of complex carbohydrates such as hemicellulose, and triggers an array of degrading enzymes. With this case example, we present a validated tool for transcriptome analysis of three Aspergillus species and a methodology for conducting cross-species evolutionary studies within a genus using comparative transcriptomics. PMID:18332432

Andersen, Mikael R.; Vongsangnak, Wanwipa; Panagiotou, Gianni; Salazar, Margarita P.; Lehmann, Linda; Nielsen, Jens

2008-01-01

35

Delimiting Cladosporium from morphologically similar genera  

PubMed Central

The genus Cladosporium is restricted to dematiaceous hyphomycetes with a coronate scar type, and Davidiella teleomorphs. In the present study numerous cladosporium-like taxa are treated, and allocated to different genera based on their morphology and DNA phylogeny derived from the LSU nrRNA gene. Several species are introduced in new genera such as Hyalodendriella, Ochrocladosporium, Rachicladosporium, Rhizocladosporium, Toxicocladosporium and Verrucocladosporium. A further new taxon is described in Devriesia (Teratosphaeriaceae). Furthermore, Cladosporium castellanii, the etiological agent of tinea nigra in humans, is confirmed as synonym of Stenella araguata, while the type species of Stenella is shown to be linked to the Teratosphaeriaceae (Capnodiales), and not the Mycosphaerellaceae as formerly presumed. PMID:18490995

Crous, P.W.; Braun, U.; Schubert, K.; Groenewald, J.Z.

2007-01-01

36

Tracheobronchial Manifestations of Aspergillus Infections  

PubMed Central

Human lungs are constantly exposed to a large number of Aspergillus spores which are present in ambient air. These spores are usually harmless to immunocompetent subjects but can produce a symptomatic disease in patients with impaired antifungal defense. In a small percentage of patients, the trachea and bronchi may be the main or even the sole site of Aspergillus infection. The clinical entities that may develop in tracheobronchial location include saprophytic, allergic and invasive diseases. Although this review is focused on invasive Aspergillus tracheobronchial infections, some aspects of allergic and saprophytic tracheobronchial diseases are also discussed in order to present the whole spectrum of tracheobronchial aspergillosis. To be consistent with clinical practice, an approach basing on specific conditions predisposing to invasive Aspergillus tracheobronchial infections is used to present the differences in the clinical course and prognosis of these infections. Thus, invasive or potentially invasive Aspergillus airway diseases are discussed separately in three groups of patients: (1) lung transplant recipients, (2) highly immunocompromised patients with hematologic malignancies and/or patients undergoing hematopoietic stem cell transplantation, and (3) the remaining, less severely immunocompromised patients or even immunocompetent subjects. PMID:22194666

Krenke, Rafal; Grabczak, Elzbieta M.

2011-01-01

37

Aspergillus fumigatus and Aspergillosis  

PubMed Central

Aspergillus fumigatus is one of the most ubiquitous of the airborne saprophytic fungi. Humans and animals constantly inhale numerous conidia of this fungus. The conidia are normally eliminated in the immunocompetent host by innate immune mechanisms, and aspergilloma and allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis, uncommon clinical syndromes, are the only infections observed in such hosts. Thus, A. fumigatus was considered for years to be a weak pathogen. With increases in the number of immunosuppressed patients, however, there has been a dramatic increase in severe and usually fatal invasive aspergillosis, now the most common mold infection worldwide. In this review, the focus is on the biology of A. fumigatus and the diseases it causes. Included are discussions of (i) genomic and molecular characterization of the organism, (ii) clinical and laboratory methods available for the diagnosis of aspergillosis in immunocompetent and immunocompromised hosts, (iii) identification of host and fungal factors that play a role in the establishment of the fungus in vivo, and (iv) problems associated with antifungal therapy. PMID:10194462

Latgé, Jean-Paul

1999-01-01

38

Characterization of Aspergillus species on Brazil nut from the Brazilian Amazonian region and development of a PCR assay for identification at the genus level  

PubMed Central

Background Brazil nut is a protein-rich extractivist tree crop in the Amazon region. Fungal contamination of shells and kernel material frequently includes the presence of aflatoxigenic Aspergillus species from the section Flavi. Aflatoxins are polyketide secondary metabolites, which are hepatotoxic carcinogens in mammals. The objectives of this study were to identify Aspergillus species occurring on Brazil nut grown in different states in the Brazilian Amazon region and develop a specific PCR method for collective identification of member species of the genus Aspergillus. Results Polyphasic identification of 137 Aspergillus strains isolated from Brazil nut shell material from cooperatives across the Brazilian Amazon states of Acre, Amapá and Amazonas revealed five species, with Aspergillus section Flavi species A. nomius and A. flavus the most abundant. PCR primers ASP_GEN_MTSSU_F1 and ASP_GEN_MTSSU_R1 were designed for the genus Aspergillus, targeting a portion of the mitochondrial small subunit ribosomal RNA gene. Primer specificity was validated through both electronic PCR against target gene sequences at Genbank and in PCR reactions against DNA from Aspergillus species and other fungal genera common on Brazil nut. Collective differentiation of the observed section Flavi species A. flavus, A. nomius and A. tamarii from other Aspergillus species was possible on the basis of RFLP polymorphism. Conclusions Given the abundance of Aspergillus section Flavi species A. nomius and A. flavus observed on Brazil nut, and associated risk of mycotoxin accumulation, simple identification methods for such mycotoxigenic species are of importance for Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point system implementation. The assay for the genus Aspergillus represents progress towards specific PCR identification and detection of mycotoxigenic species. PMID:24885088

2014-01-01

39

Pulmonary aspergillus intracavitary colonization (PAIC)  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have attempted to elucidate the natural history of pulmonary aspergillus intracavitary colonization (PAIC) based on more than 350 cases of the disease observed in the last 11 years and on data collected from the literature. The data indicate that PAIC is a dynamic process consequent to the continual growth and death of fungal elements and also with their relationships

L. C. Severo; G. R. Geyer; N. S. Porto

1990-01-01

40

Keratitis caused by Aspergillus pseudotamarii  

PubMed Central

A male patient presented with complaints of redness, pain and defective vision in the left eye. The infiltrate healed completely after two weeks of topical natamycin administration. A polyphasic approach was used to identify the isolate as Aspergillus pseudotamarii, which produced aflatoxins in inducing medium. PMID:24432226

Baranyi, Nikolett; Kocsubé, Sándor; Szekeres, András; Raghavan, Anita; Narendran, Venkatapathy; Vágvölgyi, Csaba; Panneer Selvam, Kanesan; Babu Singh, Yendremban Randhir; Kredics, László; Varga, János; Manikandan, Palanisamy

2013-01-01

41

Fungal community associated with fermentation and storage of Fuzhuan brick-tea.  

PubMed

Chinese Fuzhuan brick-tea is a unique microbial fermented tea characterized by a period of fungal growth during its manufacturing process. The aim of the present study was to characterize, both physicochemically and microbiologically, traditional industrial production processes of Fuzhuan brick-tea. Fermenting tea samples were collected from the largest manufacturer. Physicochemical analyses showed that the low water content in the tea substrates provided optimal growth conditions for xerophilic fungi. The fungal communities existing in tea materials, fermenting tea, and stored teas were monitored by polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) targeting the D1 region of the 26S rRNA genes, followed by sequencing of the amplicons. Results revealed that the microorganisms were from, or closely related to, the genera Eurotium, Debaryomyces, Aspergillus, Verticillium, Pichia, Pestalotiopsis, Rhizomucor and Beauveria. This is the first report of Debaryomyces participating in the processing of Fuzhuan brick-tea. We concluded that the dominant genera Eurotium, Debaryomyces and Aspergillus are beneficial fungi associated with the fermentation of Fuzhuan brick-tea. The genus Beauveria was present in the stored Fuzhuan brick-tea, which may help protect tea products from insect spoilage. The remaining four genera were of minor importance in the manufacturing of Fuzhuan brick-tea. The predominant Eurotium species, a strain named Eurotium sp. FZ, was phenotypically and genotypically identified as Eurotium cristatum. High performance thin layer chromatography analysis of anthraquinones showed that emodin existed in all the dark tea samples, but physcion was only detectable in the tea fermented by E. cristatum. The PCR-DGGE approach was an effective and convenient means for profiling the fungal communities in Fuzhuan brick-tea. These results may help promote the use of microbial consortia as starter cultures to stabilize and improve the quality of Fuzhuan brick-tea products. PMID:21345511

Xu, Aiqing; Wang, Yuanliang; Wen, Jieyu; Liu, Ping; Liu, Ziyin; Li, Zongjun

2011-03-15

42

Taxonomy, chemodiversity, and chemoconsistency of Aspergillus, Penicillium, and Talaromyces species  

PubMed Central

Aspergillus, Penicillium, and Talaromyces are among the most chemically inventive of all fungi, producing a wide array of secondary metabolites (exometabolites). The three genera are holophyletic in a cladistic sense and polythetic classes in an anagenetic or functional sense, and contain 344, 354, and 88 species, respectively. New developments in classification, cladification, and nomenclature have meant that the species, series, and sections suggested are natural groups that share many extrolites, including exometabolites, exoproteins, exocarbohydrates, and exolipids in addition to morphological features. The number of exometabolites reported from these species is very large, and genome sequencing projects have shown that a large number of additional exometabolites may be expressed, given the right conditions (“cryptic” gene clusters for exometabolites). The exometabolites are biosynthesized via shikimic acid, tricarboxylic acid cycle members, nucleotides, carbohydrates or as polyketides, non-ribosomal peptides, terpenes, or mixtures of those. The gene clusters coding for these compounds contain genes for the biosynthetic building blocks, the linking of these building blocks, tailoring enzymes, resistance for own products, and exporters. Species within a series or section in Aspergillus, Penicillium, and Talaromyces have many exometabolites in common, seemingly acquired by cladogenesis, but some the gene clusters for autapomorphic exometabolites may have been acquired by horizontal gene transfer. Despite genome sequencing efforts, and the many breakthroughs these will give, it is obvious that epigenetic factors play a large role in evolution and function of chemodiversity, and better methods for characterizing the epigenome are needed. Most of the individual species of the three genera produce a consistent and characteristic profile of exometabolites, but growth medium variations, stimulation by exometabolites from other species, and variations in abiotic intrinsic and extrinsic environmental factors such as pH, temperature, redox potential, and water activity will add significantly to the number of biosynthetic families expressed in anyone species. An example of the shared exometabolites in a natural group such as Aspergillus section Circumdati series Circumdati is that most, but not all species produce penicillic acids, aspyrones, neoaspergillic acids, xanthomegnins, melleins, aspergamides, circumdatins, and ochratoxins, in different combinations. PMID:25628613

Frisvad, Jens C.

2014-01-01

43

Aspergillus nomius , a new aflatoxin-producing species related to Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus tamarii  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aspergillus nomius is described and represents a new aflatoxigenic species phenotypically similar to A. flavus. Strains examined were isolated from insects and agricultural commodities. Separation from A. flavus is based on the presence of indeterminate sclerotia and a lower growth temperature. Comparisons of DNA relatedness show A. nomius to have only relatively recently evolved from A. flavus and A. tamarii.

C. P. Kurtzman; B. W. Horn; C. W. Hesseltine

1987-01-01

44

The Phylogenetics of Mycotoxin and Sclerotium Production in Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus oryzae  

Microsoft Academic Search

Geiser, D. M., Dorner, J. W., Horn, B. W., and Taylor, J. W. 2000. The phylogenetics of mycotoxin and scle- rotium production in Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus oryzae. Fungal Genetics and Biology 31, 169 -179. Aspergillus flavus is a common filamentous fungus that produces aflatoxins and presents a major threat to agriculture and human health. Previous phylogenetic studies of A.

David M. Geiser; Joe W. Dorner; Bruce W. Horn; John W. Taylor

2001-01-01

45

Pulmonary Hyalinizing Granuloma Associated with Aspergillus Infection  

Microsoft Academic Search

A 38-year-old immunocompetent man with occupational exposure to Aspergillus presented with dyspnea, pleuritic chest pain, and hemoptysis. Chest roentgenograms and computed tomography scans demonstrated multiple pulmonary nodules bilaterally. An initial set of bronchial washing cultures grew Aspergillus fumigatus, serologic testing showed an elevated anti-Aspergillus titer, and immunodiffusion testing was positive for antibody against A. fumigatus and A. niger. There was

J. Keith Pinckard; Daniel B. Rosenbluth; Kishor Patel; Louis P. Dehner; John D. Pfeifer

2003-01-01

46

Chronic Granulomatous Aspergillus Synovitis: a Case Report  

PubMed Central

Aspergillus can cause invasive disease of various organs especially in patients with weakened immune systems. Aspergillus synovitis and arthritis are uncommon types of involvement due to this infection. Approaches to fungal osteoarticular infections are based on only case reports. This paper presents a rare case of chronic granulomatous Aspergillus synovitis in an immunocompromised 5-year old girl who was treated for acute lymphoblastic leukemia. PMID:23795281

Ayhan, Aylin Canbolat; Özkan, Korhan; Timur, Cetin; Akta?, Birol; Ceyran, Ayse Bahar

2013-01-01

47

The melectine bee genera Brachymelecta and Sinomelecta (Hymenoptera, Apidae)  

E-print Network

genera Brachymelecta Linsley and Sinomelecta Baker (Apinae: Me- lectini) are redescribed, each represented by a single species which has not been reencountered since capture of the type series ca. 1878 and 1900, respectively. Both genera are the only.... The genera involved are Brachymelecta Linsley and Sinomelecta Baker; each is discussed and described below. Since each genus contains only a single species, the descriptions combine specific characters with probable generic characters, i.e., characters...

Engel, Michael S.; Michener, Charles D.

2012-01-01

48

The Pharmacodynamics of Antifungal Agents Against Aspergillus.  

E-print Network

??Background: Voriconazole is a first line agent for the treatment for invasive pulmonary aspergillosis. There are increasing reports of Aspergillus fumigatus isolates with reduced susceptibility… (more)

Jeans, Adam Rupert

2013-01-01

49

Itraconazole Resistance in Aspergillus fumigatus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Invasive aspergillosis is an increasingly frequent opportunistic infection in immunocompromised patients. Only two agents, amphotericin B and itraconazole, are licensed for therapy. Itraconazole acts through inhi- bition of a P-450 enzyme undertaking sterol 14a demethylation. In vitro resistance in Aspergillus fumigatus to itraconazole correlated with in vivo outcome has not been previously described. For three isolates (AF72, AF90, and AF91)

DAVID W. DENNING; K. VENKATESWARLU; KAREN L. OAKLEY; M. J. ANDERSON; N. J. MANNING; DAVID A. STEVENS; DAVID W. WARNOCK; STEVEN L. KELLY; Sheffield S; Bristol BS

1997-01-01

50

Compression fossil Mymaridae (Hymenoptera) from Kishenehn oil shales, with description of two new genera and review of Tertiary amber genera.  

PubMed

Compression fossils of three genera and six species of Mymaridae (Hymenoptera: Chalcidoidea) are described from 46 million year old Kishenehn oil shales in Montana, USA. Two new genera are described: Eoeustochus Huber, gen. n., with two included species, Eoeustochus kishenehn Huber (type species) and Eoeustochus borchersi Huber, sp. n., and Eoanaphes, gen. n., with Eoanaphes stethynioides Huber, sp. n. Three new species of Gonatocerus are also described, Gonatocerus greenwalti Huber, sp. n. , Gonatocerus kootenai Huber, sp. n., and Gonatocerus rasnitsyni Huber, sp. n. Previously described amber fossil genera are discussed and five genera in Baltic amber are tentatively recorded as fossils: Anagroidea, Camptoptera, Dorya, Eustochus, and Mimalaptus. PMID:22259294

Huber, John T; Greenwalt, Dale

2011-01-01

51

The Old World genera of braconine wasps (Hymenoptera: Braconidae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

An illustrated key is provided to the Old World genera of Braconinae. In addition, notes are provided on each genus and on a number of characters employed in the key. One new tribe and five new genera based on two existing and three new species are described. The new taxa are as follows: Angustibracon gen. nov. from India (type-species: Bracon

Donald L. J. Quicke

1987-01-01

52

Aspergillus tracheobronchitis in a mild immunocompromised host.  

PubMed

Aspergillus tracheobronchitis is a form of invasive pulmonary aspergillosis in which the Aspergillus infection is limited predominantly to the tracheobronchial tree. It occurs primarily in severely immunocompromised patients such as lung transplant recipients. Here, we report a case of Aspergillus tracheobronchitis in a 42-year-old man with diabetes mellitus, who presented with intractable cough, lack of expectoration of sputum, and chest discomfort. The patient did not respond to conventional treatment with antibiotics and antitussive agents, and he underwent bronchoscopy that showed multiple, discrete, gelatinous whitish plaques mainly involving the trachea and the left bronchus. On the basis of the bronchoscopic and microbiologic findings, we made the diagnosis of Aspergillus tracheobronchitis and initiated antifungal therapy. He showed gradual improvement in his symptoms and continued taking oral itraconazole for 6 months. Physicians should consider Aspergillus tracheobronchitis as a probable diagnosis in immunocompromised patients presenting with atypical respiratory symptoms and should try to establish a prompt diagnosis. PMID:25473411

Cho, Byung Ha; Oh, Youngmin; Kang, Eun Seok; Hong, Yong Joo; Jeong, Hye Won; Lee, Ok-Jun; Chang, You-Jin; Choe, Kang Hyeon; Lee, Ki Man; An, Jin-Young

2014-11-01

53

Pulmonary hyalinizing granuloma associated with Aspergillus infection.  

PubMed

A 38-year-old immunocompetent man with occupational exposure to Aspergillus presented with dyspnea, pleuritic chest pain, and hemoptysis. Chest roentgenograms and computed tomography scans demonstrated multiple pulmonary nodules bilaterally. An initial set of bronchial washing cultures grew Aspergillus fumigatus, serologic testing showed an elevated anti-Aspergillus titer, and immunodiffusion testing was positive for antibody against A. fumigatus and A. niger. There was no microbiologic or serologic evidence of infection by other pathogens, and no clinical or laboratory evidence of autoimmune disease. An open lung biopsy was diagnostic of pulmonary hyalinizing granuloma. This novel association with Aspergillus infection not only expands the spectrum of pathogens linked to pulmonary hyalinizing granuloma but also documents a new pattern of lung disease that can be caused by Aspergillus. PMID:12598920

Pinckard, J Keith; Rosenbluth, Daniel B; Patel, Kishor; Dehner, Louis P; Pfeifer, John D

2003-01-01

54

New taxa of Neosartorya and Aspergillus in Aspergillus section Fumigati.  

PubMed

Three new species of Neosartorya and one new Aspergillus of section Fumigati are proposed using a polyphasic approach based on morphology, extrolite production and partial beta-tubulin, calmodulin, and actin gene sequences. The phylogenetic analyses using the three genes clearly show that the taxa grouped separately from the known species and confirmed the phenotypic differences. Neosartorya denticulata is characterized by its unique denticulate ascospores with a prominent equatorial furrow; N. assulata by well developed flaps on the convex surface of the ascospores which in addition have two distinct equatorial crests and N. galapagensis by a funiculose colony morphology, short and narrow conidiophores and ascospores with two wide equatorial crests with a microtuberculate convex surface. Aspergillus turcosus can be distinguished by velvety, gray turquoise colonies and short, loosely columnar conidial heads. The four new taxa also have unique extrolite profiles, which contain the mycotoxins gliotoxin and viriditoxin in N. denticulate; apolar compounds provisionally named NEPS in N. assulata and gregatins in N. galapagensis. A. turcosus produced kotanins. N. denticulata sp. nov., N. assulata sp. nov., N. galapagensis sp. nov., and A. turcosus sp. nov. are described and illustrated. PMID:17610141

Hong, Seung-Beom; Shin, Hyeon-Dong; Hong, Joonbae; Frisvad, Jens C; Nielsen, Per V; Varga, János; Samson, Robert A

2008-01-01

55

New taxa of Neosartorya and Aspergillus in Aspergillus section Fumigati  

PubMed Central

Three new species of Neosartorya and one new Aspergillus of section Fumigati are proposed using a polyphasic approach based on morphology, extrolite production and partial ?-tubulin, calmodulin, and actin gene sequences. The phylogenetic analyses using the three genes clearly show that the taxa grouped separately from the known species and confirmed the phenotypic differences. Neosartorya denticulata is characterized by its unique denticulate ascospores with a prominent equatorial furrow; N. assulata by well developed flaps on the convex surface of the ascospores which in addition have two distinct equatorial crests and N. galapagensis by a funiculose colony morphology, short and narrow conidiophores and ascospores with two wide equatorial crests with a microtuberculate convex surface. Aspergillus turcosus can be distinguished by velvety, gray turquoise colonies and short, loosely columnar conidial heads. The four new taxa also have unique extrolite profiles, which contain the mycotoxins gliotoxin and viriditoxin in N. denticulate; apolar compounds provisionally named NEPS in N. assulata and gregatins in N. galapagensis. A. turcosus produced kotanins. N.denticulata sp. nov., N. assulata sp. nov., N. galapagensis sp. nov., and A. turcosus sp. nov. are described and illustrated. Electronic supplementary material The online version of this article (doi:10.1007/s10482-007-9183-1) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users. PMID:17610141

Hong, Seung-Beom; Shin, Hyeon-Dong; Hong, Joonbae; Frisvad, Jens C.; Nielsen, Per V.; Varga, János

2007-01-01

56

Activity of antibiotics against Fusarium and Aspergillus  

PubMed Central

Background/Aims To study the susceptibility of Fusarium and Aspergillus isolated from keratitis to amoxicillin, cefazolin, chloramphenicol, moxifloxacin, tobramycin, and benzalkonium chloride (BAK). Methods 10 isolates of Fusarium and 10 isolates of Aspergillus from cases of fungal keratitis at Aravind Eye Hospital in South India were tested using microbroth dilution for susceptibility to amoxicillin, cefazolin, chloramphenicol, moxifloxacin, tobramycin, and BAK. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) median and 90th percentile were determined. Results BAK had the lowest MIC for both Fusarium and Aspergillus. Chloramphenicol had activity against both Fusarium and Aspergillus, while moxifloxacin and tobramycin had activity against Fusarium but not Aspergillus. Conclusions The susceptibility of Fusarium to tobramycin, moxifloxacin, chloramphenicol, and BAK and of Aspergillus to chloramphenicol and BAK may explain anecdotal reports of fungal ulcers that improved with antibiotic treatment alone. While some of the MICs of antibiotics and BAK are lower than the typically prescribed concentrations, they are not in the range of antifungal agents such as voriconazole, natamycin, and amphotericin B. Antibiotics may, however, have a modest effect on Fusarium and Aspergillus when used as initial treatment prior to identification of the pathologic organism. PMID:18952649

Day, Shelley; Lalitha, Prajna; Haug, Sara; Fothergill, Annette W.; Cevallos, Vicky; Vijayakumar, Rajendran; Prajna, Namperumalsamy V.; Acharya, Nisha R.; McLeod, Stephen D.; Lietman, Thomas M.

2008-01-01

57

Inhibitory Effects of Benzaldehyde Derivatives from the Marine Fungus Eurotium sp. SF-5989 on Inflammatory Mediators via the Induction of Heme Oxygenase-1 in Lipopolysaccharide-Stimulated RAW264.7 Macrophages  

PubMed Central

Two benzaldehyde derivatives, flavoglaucin (1) and isotetrahydro-auroglaucin (2), were isolated from the marine fungus Eurotium sp. SF-5989 through bioassay- and 1H NMR-guided investigation. In this study, we evaluated the anti-inflammatory effects of these compounds in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated RAW264.7 macrophages. We demonstrated that compounds 1 and 2 markedly inhibited LPS-induced nitric oxide (NO) and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) production by suppressing inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) protein expression without affecting cell viability. We also demonstrated that the compounds reduced the secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines such as tumor necrosis factor-? (TNF-?), interleukin-1? (IL-1?) and interleukin-6 (IL-6). Furthermore, compounds 1 and 2 inhibited LPS-induced nuclear factor-?B (NF-?B) activation by suppressing phosphorylation of IkappaB (I?B). These results indicated that the anti-inflammatory effects of these benzaldehyde derivatives in LPS-stimulated RAW264.7 macrophages were due to the inactivation of the NF-?B pathway. In addition, compounds 1 and 2 induced heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) expression through the nuclear transcription factor-E2–related factor 2 (Nrf2) translocation. The inhibitory effects of compounds 1 and 2 on the production of pro-inflammatory mediators and on NF-?B binding activity were reversed by HO-1 inhibitor tin protoporphyrin (SnPP). Thus, the anti-inflammatory effects of compounds 1 and 2 also correlated with their ability of inducing HO-1 expression. PMID:25535073

Kim, Kyoung-Su; Cui, Xiang; Lee, Dong-Sung; Ko, Wonmin; Sohn, Jae Hak; Yim, Joung Han; An, Ren-Bo; Kim, Youn-Chul; Oh, Hyuncheol

2014-01-01

58

Inhibitory Effects of Benzaldehyde Derivatives from the Marine Fungus Eurotium sp. SF-5989 on Inflammatory Mediators via the Induction of Heme Oxygenase-1 in Lipopolysaccharide-Stimulated RAW264.7 Macrophages.  

PubMed

Two benzaldehyde derivatives, flavoglaucin (1) and isotetrahydro-auroglaucin (2), were isolated from the marine fungus Eurotium sp. SF-5989 through bioassay- and 1H NMR-guided investigation. In this study, we evaluated the anti-inflammatory effects of these compounds in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated RAW264.7 macrophages. We demonstrated that compounds 1 and 2 markedly inhibited LPS-induced nitric oxide (NO) and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) production by suppressing inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) protein expression without affecting cell viability. We also demonstrated that the compounds reduced the secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines such as tumor necrosis factor-? (TNF-?), interleukin-1? (IL-1?) and interleukin-6 (IL-6). Furthermore, compounds 1 and 2 inhibited LPS-induced nuclear factor-?B (NF-?B) activation by suppressing phosphorylation of IkappaB (I?B). These results indicated that the anti-inflammatory effects of these benzaldehyde derivatives in LPS-stimulated RAW264.7 macrophages were due to the inactivation of the NF-?B pathway. In addition, compounds 1 and 2 induced heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) expression through the nuclear transcription factor-E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) translocation. The inhibitory effects of compounds 1 and 2 on the production of pro-inflammatory mediators and on NF-?B binding activity were reversed by HO-1 inhibitor tin protoporphyrin (SnPP). Thus, the anti-inflammatory effects of compounds 1 and 2 also correlated with their ability of inducing HO-1 expression. PMID:25535073

Kim, Kyoung-Su; Cui, Xiang; Lee, Dong-Sung; Ko, Wonmin; Sohn, Jae Hak; Yim, Joung Han; An, Ren-Bo; Kim, Youn-Chul; Oh, Hyuncheol

2014-01-01

59

Bergbambos and Oldeania, new genera of African bamboos (Poaceae, Bambusoideae)  

PubMed Central

Abstract Two new monotypic genera, Bergbambos and Oldeania are described for African temperate bamboo species in the tribe Arundinarieae, after a comparison of their morphological characteristics with those of similar species from Asia. Morphological differences are supported by their isolated geographical distributions. Molecular evidence does not support the inclusion of these species in related Asian genera, recognising them instead as distinct lineages. New combinations Bergbambos tessellata and Oldeania alpina are made. PMID:24198715

Stapleton, Chris M. A.

2013-01-01

60

Geographic distribution and dispersal of normapolles genera in North America  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Normapolles pollen have been found in North America in Cretaceous and Lower Tertiary rocks from the eastern Atlantic Seaboard, the Mississippi embayment region and from the states and provinces from western North America as far north as the District of Mackenzie, Northwest Territories. Previous postulates relating to the Normapolles floral province (western Europe-eastern North America) were re-examined in the light of new finds of Normapolles genera in rocks from west of the Cretaceous epeiric seaway which separated the Normapolles province from the western North American Aquilapollenites province. A study of published occurrences of Normapolles genera and U.S. Geological Survey Denver Laboratory Normapolles records revealed that of the approximately 60 Normapolles genera recognized from western Europe, only 26 of these have been recognized from eastern North America. These data suggest that Normapolles-producing plants originated in western Europe and migrated to eastern North America prior to the opening of the north Atlantic seaway. Ten of these 26 genera also have been found in rocks from west of the Cretaceous epeiric seaway, suggesting that these genera were the only ones able to cross this barrier. At least six genera having Normapolles characteristics occur in eastern North America but have not yet been recorded from Europe. Two additional genera with Normapolles characteristics have been reported only from the Aquilapollenites province of western North America. Several discrepancies in the record need resolution, such as the latitudinal restriction of Thomsonipollis and Nudopollis to areas south 40??N latitude, the absence of records of Thomsonipollis east and north of central Georgia, and the absence of records of Kyandopollenites and Choanopollenites west of eastern Texas. These data show that the known boundaries of the Normapolles province are somewhat hazy and that firm conclusions regarding the geographic distribution and history of dispersal of Normapolles genera are premature. ?? 1981.

Tschudy, R.H.

1981-01-01

61

Mycetoma caused by Aspergillus nidulans in India.  

PubMed

The first case of mycetoma caused by Aspergillus nidulans has been described from India in a young farmer of Jaisalmer situated in the Thar desert of Western Rajasthan, India. The diagnosis was confirmed by histopathological and mycological studies. PMID:3894683

Joshi, K R; Mathur, D R; Sharma, J C; Vyas, M C; Sanghvi, A

1985-02-01

62

A fossil Aspergillus from Baltic amber.  

PubMed

A piece of Baltic amber (Tertiary, Eocene) contains an inclusion of a springtail (Collembola) which is overgrown by an Aspergillus species. The fossil fungus is described as A. collembolorum sp. nov. The excellent mode of preservation of the numerous conidiophores is remarkable and can be explained by sporulation in liquid resin. This is the second report of a fossil Aspergillus, the first being from Dominican amber. PMID:16175799

Dörfelt, Heinrich; Schmidt, Alexander R

2005-08-01

63

Activity of antibiotics against Fusarium and Aspergillus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background\\/aims:To study the susceptibility of Fusarium and Aspergillus isolated from keratitis to amoxicillin, cefazolin, chloramphenicol, moxifloxacin, tobramycin and benzalkonium chloride (BAK).Methods:10 isolates of Fusarium and 10 isolates of Aspergillus from cases of fungal keratitis at Aravind Eye Hospital in South India were tested using microbroth dilution for susceptibility to amoxicillin, cefazolin, chloramphenicol, moxifloxacin, tobramycin and BAK. The minimum inhibitory concentration

S Day; P Lalitha; S Haug; A W Fothergill; V Cevallos; R Vijayakumar; N V Prajna; N R Acharya; S D McLeod; T M Lietman

2009-01-01

64

Antifungal Susceptibility Tests of Aspergillus Species  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Although different methods are now available to assess the susceptibility of Aspergillus species to antifungal agents, there are still limited data correlating in vitro resistance with meaningful clinical endpoints.\\u000a Moreover, there is no consensus on the breakpoints to define resistance\\/susceptibility to different antifungal agents. This\\u000a chapter reviews the technical issues related to antifungal susceptibility tests for Aspergillus species, including the

Arnaldo Lopes Colombo; Viviane Reis; Patricio Godoy

65

Biofilm formation by Aspergillus fumigatus.  

PubMed

Aspergillus fumigatus is a well adapted, opportunistic fungus that causes a severe and commonly fatal disease, invasive pulmonary aspergillosis (IPA), in highly immunocompromised patients, aspergilloma in patients with lung cavities and allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis (ABPA) in hypersensitive individuals. Recent studies have suggested that biofilm formation by A. fumigatus may be one of the most important virulence factors in IPA and aspergilloma. Several fungal constituents may contribute to the formation of biofilm structures on host cells, including cell wall components, secondary metabolites and drug transporters. The biofilm phenotype of the fungus is refractory to most conventional antifungal treatment options. Thus, an in-depth analysis and understanding of A. fumigatus biofilms is necessary to devise newer and better antifungal targets for treating complex A. fumigatus biofilm-associated diseases. PMID:23962172

Kaur, Savneet; Singh, Shweta

2014-01-01

66

Study of Spanish grape mycobiota and ochratoxin A production by Isolates of Aspergillus tubingensis and other members of Aspergillus section Nigri.  

PubMed

The native mycobiota of five grape varieties grown in Spain has been studied. Four (Bobal, Tempranillo, Garnacha, and Monastrell) were red varieties and one (Moscatel) was white. The main fungal genera isolated were Alternaria, Cladosporium, and Aspergillus. The isolation frequency of Aspergillus spp. section Nigri in contaminated samples was 82%. Ochratoxin A (OTA) production was assessed using yeast extract-sucrose broth supplemented with 5% bee pollen. Cultures of 205 isolates from this section showed that 74.2% of Aspergillus carbonarius and 14.3% of Aspergillus tubingensis isolates produced OTA at levels ranging from 1.2 to 3,530 ng/ml and from 46.4 to 111.5 ng/ml, respectively. No Aspergillus niger isolate had the ability to produce this toxin under the conditions assayed. Identification of the A. niger aggregate isolates was based on PCR amplification of 5.8S rRNA genes and its two intergenic spacers, internal transcribed spacer 1 (ITS1) and ITS2, followed by digestion with restriction endonuclease RsaI of the PCR products. The restriction patterns were compared with those from strains of A. niger CECT 2807 and A. tubingensis CECT 20393, held at the Spanish Collection of Type Cultures. DNA sequencing of the ITS1-5.8S rRNA gene-ITS2 region of the OTA-producing isolates of A. tubingensis matched 99 to 100% with the nucleotide sequence of strain A. tubingensis CBS 643.92. OTA determination was accomplished by liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection. OTA confirmation was carried out by liquid chromatography coupled to ion trap mass spectrometry. The results showed that there are significant differences with regard to the isolation frequency of ochratoxinogenic fungi in the different grape varieties. These differences were uncorrelated to berry color. The ability of A. tubingensis to produce OTA and the influence of grape variety on the occurrence of OTA-producing fungi in grapes are described in this report for the first time. PMID:16085865

Medina, Angel; Mateo, Rufino; López-Ocańa, Laura; Valle-Algarra, Francisco Manuel; Jiménez, Misericordia

2005-08-01

67

The Multitentaculate Cirratulidae of the Genera Cirriformia and Timarete (Annelida: Polychaeta) from  

E-print Network

The Multitentaculate Cirratulidae of the Genera Cirriformia and Timarete (Annelida: Polychaeta Cirratulidae of the Genera Cirriformia and Timarete (Annelida: Polychaeta) from Shallow Waters of Brazil. PLo

Paiva, Paulo Cesar de

68

Aspergillus waksmanii sp. nov. and Aspergillus marvanovae sp. nov., two closely related species in section Fumigati  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Two new and phylogenetically closely related species in Aspergillus section Fumigati are described and illustrated. Homothallic A. waksmanii was isolated from New Jersey soil (USA) and is represented by the ex-type isolate NRRL 179T (=CCF 4266= IBT 31900). Aspergillus marvanovae was isolated from wa...

69

Comparative genomics of Bifidobacterium, Lactobacillus and related probiotic genera.  

PubMed

Six bacterial genera containing species commonly used as probiotics for human consumption or starter cultures for food fermentation were compared and contrasted, based on publicly available complete genome sequences. The analysis included 19 Bifidobacterium genomes, 21 Lactobacillus genomes, 4 Lactococcus and 3 Leuconostoc genomes, as well as a selection of Enterococcus (11) and Streptococcus (23) genomes. The latter two genera included genomes from probiotic or commensal as well as pathogenic organisms to investigate if their non-pathogenic members shared more genes with the other probiotic genomes than their pathogenic members. The pan- and core genome of each genus was defined. Pairwise BLASTP genome comparison was performed within and between genera. It turned out that pathogenic Streptococcus and Enterococcus shared more gene families than did the non-pathogenic genomes. In silico multilocus sequence typing was carried out for all genomes per genus, and the variable gene content of genomes was compared within the genera. Informative BLAST Atlases were constructed to visualize genomic variation within genera. The clusters of orthologous groups (COG) classes of all genes in the pan- and core genome of each genus were compared. In addition, it was investigated whether pathogenic genomes contain different COG classes compared to the probiotic or fermentative organisms, again comparing their pan- and core genomes. The obtained results were compared with published data from the literature. This study illustrates how over 80 genomes can be broadly compared using simple bioinformatic tools, leading to both confirmation of known information as well as novel observations. PMID:22031452

Lukjancenko, Oksana; Ussery, David W; Wassenaar, Trudy M

2012-04-01

70

21 CFR 866.3040 - Aspergillus spp. serological reagents.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...to identify antibodies to Aspergillus spp. in serum. The identification aids in the diagnosis of aspergillosis caused by fungi belonging to the genus Aspergillus. Aspergillosis is a disease marked by inflammatory granulomatous (tumor-like)...

2012-04-01

71

The melectine bee genera Brachymelecta and Sinomelecta (Hymenoptera, Apidae)  

PubMed Central

Abstract The enigmatic, cleptoparasitic bee genera Brachymelecta Linsley and Sinomelecta Baker (Apinae: Melectini) are redescribed, each represented by a single species which has not been reencountered since capture of the type series ca. 1878 and 1900, respectively. Both genera are the only melectines to possess two submarginal cells in the forewing but are otherwise wholly dissimilar. Brachymelecta mucida (Cresson), a species known only from the male holotype collected in “Nevada”, is newly described and figured, including the first account of the hidden sterna and genitalia. Sinomelecta oreina Baker is similarly described and figured based on the holotype male and paratype female, apparently collected from the eastern Tibetan Plateau. Both genera are valid and from the available data do not appear to represent merely autapomorphic forms of Melecta Latreille. Indeed, the terminalia of Sinomelecta oreina are in some respects more similar to those of species of Thyreus Panzer. PMID:23275741

Engel, Michael S.; Michener, Charles D.

2012-01-01

72

Laboulbeniales on millipedes: the genera Diplopodomyces and Troglomyces.  

PubMed

The genera Diplopodomyces and Troglomyces (Laboulbeniales, Ascomycota) parasitizing millipedes (Diplopoda) are reviewed. We describe four new species: D. lusitanipodos parasitic on Lusitanipus from Portugal and on Cyphocallipus from Spain, D. veneris on Lusitanipus from Portugal, T. botryandrus on Leptoiulus from Italy and T. rossii on Ophyiulus, Leptoiulus and Typhloiulus from Italy. Diplopodomyces veneris is a dimorphic species, with different morphotypes growing on the male copulatory organs and on the surroundings of the female gonopore respectively. The type species of both genera also have been studied, their descriptions are revised and a neotype for T. manfrediae is designated. New records from Italy are given for D. callipodos and T. manfrediae. PMID:24987128

Santamaria, Sergi; Enghoff, Henrik; Reboleira, Ana Sofia P S

2014-01-01

73

Distinctions between the snake genera Contia and Eirenis  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Summary: Various workers have believed Contia to be related to or congeneric with either or both Sonora and Eirenis, the latter a genus of Western Asia. Study of hemipenes, teeth, and jaws indicates that these genera are not related to one another. The hemipenes of Eirenis modesta and Contia tenuis are described. Eirenis is thought to be a derivative of the racer group. Relationships of Contia are unknown. It is suggested that some North American genera with xenodontine-type hemipenes may not be of the South American faunal element and may have been in North America at least as long as the Old Northerners.

Stickel, W.H.

1951-01-01

74

The Volatome of Aspergillus fumigatus  

PubMed Central

Early detection of invasive aspergillosis is absolutely required for efficient therapy of this fungal infection. The identification of fungal volatiles in patient breath can be an alternative for the detection of Aspergillus fumigatus that still remains problematic. In this work, we investigated the production of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) by A. fumigatus in vitro, and we show that volatile production depends on the nutritional environment. A. fumigatus produces a multiplicity of VOCs, predominantly terpenes and related compounds. The production of sesquiterpenoid compounds was found to be strongly induced by increased iron concentrations and certain drugs, i.e., pravastatin. Terpenes that were always detectable in large amounts were ?-pinene, camphene, and limonene, as well as sesquiterpenes, identified as ?-bergamotene and ?-trans-bergamotene. Other substance classes that were found to be present in the volatome, such as 1-octen-3-ol, 3-octanone, and pyrazines, were found only under specific growth conditions. Drugs that interfere with the terpene biosynthesis pathway influenced the composition of the fungal volatome, and most notably, a block of sesquiterpene biosynthesis by the bisphosphonate alendronate fundamentally changed the VOC composition. Using deletion mutants, we also show that a terpene cyclase and a putative kaurene synthase are essential for the synthesis of volatile terpenes by A. fumigatus. The present analysis of in vitro volatile production by A. fumigatus suggests that VOCs may be used in the diagnosis of infections caused by this fungus. PMID:24906414

Calvo, A. M.; Latgé, J. P.

2014-01-01

75

Calmodulin inhibitors from Aspergillus stromatoides.  

PubMed

An organic extract was prepared from the culture medium and mycelia of the marine fungus Aspergillus stromatoides RAPER & FENNELL. The extract was fractionated via column chromatography, and the resulting fractions were tested for their abilities to quench the fluorescence of the calmodulin (CaM) biosensor hCaM M124C-mBBr. From the active fraction, emodin (1) and ?-hydroxyemodin (2) were isolated as CaM inhibitors. Anthraquinones 1 and 2 quenched the fluorescence of the hCaM M124C-mBBr biosensor in a concentration-dependent manner with K(d) values of 0.33 and 0.76 ?M, respectively. The results were compared with those of chlorpromazine (CPZ), a classical inhibitor of CaM, with a K(d) value of 1.25 ?M. Docking analysis revealed that 1 and 2 bind to the same pocket of CPZ. The CaM inhibitor properties of 1 and 2 were correlated with some of their reported biological properties. Citrinin (3), methyl 8-hydroxy-6-methyl-9-oxo-9H-xanthene-1-carboxylate (4), and coniochaetone A (5) were also isolated in the present study. The X-ray structure of 5 is reported for the first time. PMID:23495150

González-Andrade, Martín; Del Valle, Paulina; Macías-Rubalcava, Martha L; Sosa-Peinado, Alejandro; Del Carmen González, María; Mata, Rachel

2013-03-01

76

Antioxidant Activity of Aspergillus fumigatus  

PubMed Central

The antioxidant activity of Aspergillus fumigatus was assayed by different procedures and correlated with its extracellular total phenolic contents. Different physio-chemical parameters were optimized to enhance the activity. The culture grown under stationary conditions for 10 days at 25°C at pH 7 gave the best antioxidant activity. Statistical approaches demonstrated sucrose and NaNO3 to be the most suitable carbon and nitrogen sources, respectively. Response surface analysis showed 5% sucrose, 0.05% NaNO3, and incubation temperature of 35°C to be the optimal conditions for best expression of antioxidant activity. Under these conditions, the antioxidant potential assayed through different procedures was 89.8%, 70.1%, and 70.2% scavenging effect for DPPH radical, ferrous ion and nitric oxide ion, respectively. The reducing power showed an absorbance of 1.0 and FRAP assay revealed the activity of 60.5%. Extracellular total phenolic content and antioxidant activity as assayed by different procedures positively correlated. PMID:22084718

Arora, Daljit Singh; Chandra, Priyanka

2011-01-01

77

Aspergillus luchuensis, an industrially important black Aspergillus in East Asia.  

PubMed

Aspergilli known as black- and white-koji molds which are used for awamori, shochu, makgeolli and other food and beverage fermentations, are reported in the literature as A. luchuensis, A. awamori, A. kawachii, or A. acidus. In order to elucidate the taxonomic position of these species, available ex-type cultures were compared based on morphology and molecular characters. A. luchuensis, A. kawachii and A. acidus showed the same banding patterns in RAPD, and the three species had the same rDNA-ITS, ?-tubulin and calmodulin sequences and these differed from those of the closely related A. niger and A. tubingensis. Morphologically, the three species are not significantly different from each other or from A. niger and A. tubingensis. It is concluded that A. luchuensis, A. kawachii and A. acidus are the same species, and A. luchuensis is selected as the correct name based on priority. Strains of A. awamori which are stored in National Research Institute of Brewing in Japan, represent A. niger (n?=?14) and A. luchuensis (n?=?6). The neotype of A. awamori (CBS 557.65?=? NRRL 4948) does not originate from awamori fermentation and it is shown to be identical with the unknown taxon Aspergillus welwitschiae. Extrolite analysis of strains of A. luchuensis showed that they do not produce mycotoxins and therefore can be considered safe for food and beverage fermentations. A. luchuensis is also frequently isolated from meju and nuruk in Korea and Puerh tea in China and the species is probably common in the fermentation environment of East Asia. A re-description of A. luchuensis is provided because the incomplete data in the original literature. PMID:23723998

Hong, Seung-Beom; Lee, Mina; Kim, Dae-Ho; Varga, Janos; Frisvad, Jens C; Perrone, Giancarlo; Gomi, Katsuya; Yamada, Osamu; Machida, Masayuki; Houbraken, Jos; Samson, Robert A

2013-01-01

78

ASPERGILLUS LUCHUENSIS , AN INDUSTRIALLY IMPORTANT BLACK ASPERGILLUS IN EAST ASIA  

PubMed Central

Aspergilli known as black- and white-koji molds which are used for awamori, shochu, makgeolli and other food and beverage fermentations, are reported in the literature as A. luchuensis, A. awamori, A. kawachii, or A. acidus. In order to elucidate the taxonomic position of these species, available ex-type cultures were compared based on morphology and molecular characters. A. luchuensis, A. kawachii and A. acidus showed the same banding patterns in RAPD, and the three species had the same rDNA-ITS, ?-tubulin and calmodulin sequences and these differed from those of the closely related A. niger and A. tubingensis. Morphologically, the three species are not significantly different from each other or from A. niger and A. tubingensis. It is concluded that A. luchuensis, A. kawachii and A. acidus are the same species, and A. luchuensis is selected as the correct name based on priority. Strains of A. awamori which are stored in National Research Institute of Brewing in Japan, represent A. niger (n?=?14) and A. luchuensis (n?=?6). The neotype of A. awamori (CBS 557.65?=? NRRL 4948) does not originate from awamori fermentation and it is shown to be identical with the unknown taxon Aspergillus welwitschiae. Extrolite analysis of strains of A. luchuensis showed that they do not produce mycotoxins and therefore can be considered safe for food and beverage fermentations. A. luchuensis is also frequently isolated from meju and nuruk in Korea and Puerh tea in China and the species is probably common in the fermentation environment of East Asia. A re-description of A. luchuensis is provided because the incomplete data in the original literature. PMID:23723998

Hong, Seung-Beom; Lee, Mina; Kim, Dae-Ho; Varga, Janos; Frisvad, Jens C.; Perrone, Giancarlo; Gomi, Katsuya; Yamada, Osamu; Machida, Masayuki; Houbraken, Jos; Samson, Robert A.

2013-01-01

79

Brain Dona on Your Gi To Future Genera ons  

E-print Network

of your death within 2 hours. Your body is then taken to Barnes Jewish Hospital where the brain is removed life me. A er death, your family or Durable Power of A orney (DPOA) can consent to brain dona on. YesBrain Dona on Your Gi To Future Genera ons Memory & Aging Project Knight Alzheimer's Disease

80

Molecular ecology of the marine cyanobacterial genera Prochlorococcus and Synechococcus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Oxygenic photoautotrophs of the genera Synechococcus and Prochlorococcus contribute significantly to primary production and are now widely accepted as the most abundant members of the picophytoplankton in the world's oceans. Since they represent one of the few cultured and representative groups of marine microorganisms, study of their physiology and biochemistry has progressed rapidly since their discovery. The recent and on-going

David J. Scanlan; Nyree J. West

2002-01-01

81

Leaf-inhabiting genera of the Gnomoniaceae, Diaporthales  

PubMed Central

The Gnomoniaceae are characterised by ascomata that are generally immersed, solitary, without a stroma, or aggregated with a rudimentary stroma, in herbaceous plant material especially in leaves, twigs or stems, but also in bark or wood. The ascomata are black, soft-textured, thin-walled, and pseudoparenchymatous with one or more central or eccentric necks. The asci usually have a distinct apical ring. The Gnomoniaceae includes species having ascospores that are small, mostly less than 25 ?m long, although some are longer, and range in septation from non-septate to one-septate, rarely multi-septate. Molecular studies of the Gnomoniaceae suggest that the traditional classification of genera based on characteristics of the ascomata such as position of the neck and ascospores such as septation have resulted in genera that are not monophyletic. In this paper the concepts of the leaf-inhabiting genera in the Gnomoniaceae are reevaluated using multiple genes, specifically nrLSU, translation elongation factor 1-alpha (tef1-?), and RNA polymerase II second largest subunit (rpb2) for 64 isolates. ITS sequences were generated for 322 isolates. Six genera of leaf-inhabiting Gnomoniaceae are defined based on placement of their type species within the multigene phylogeny. The new monotypic genus Ambarignomonia is established for an unusual species, A. petiolorum. A key to 59 species of leaf-inhabiting Gnomoniaceae is presented and 22 species of Gnomoniaceae are described and illustrated. PMID:19287541

Sogonov, M.V.; Castlebury, L.A.; Rossman, A.Y.; Mejía, L.C.; White, J.F.

2008-01-01

82

The Botryosphaeriaceae: genera and species known from culture  

PubMed Central

In this paper we give an account of the genera and species in the Botryosphaeriaceae. We consider morphological characters alone as inadequate to define genera or identify species, given the confusion it has repeatedly introduced in the past, their variation during development, and inevitable overlap as representation grows. Thus it seems likely that all of the older taxa linked to the Botryosphaeriaceae, and for which cultures or DNA sequence data are not available, cannot be linked to the species in this family that are known from culture. Such older taxa will have to be disregarded for future use unless they are epitypified. We therefore focus this paper on the 17 genera that can now be recognised phylogenetically, which concentrates on the species that are presently known from culture. Included is a historical overview of the family, the morphological features that define the genera and species and detailed descriptions of the 17 genera and 110 species. Keys to the genera and species are also provided. Phylogenetic relationships of the genera are given in a multi-locus tree based on combined SSU, ITS, LSU, EF1-? and ?-tubulin sequences. The morphological descriptions are supplemented by phylogenetic trees (ITS alone or ITS + EF1-?) for the species in each genus. Taxonomic novelties: New species - Neofusicoccum batangarum Begoude, Jol. Roux & Slippers. New combinations - Botryosphaeria fabicerciana (S.F. Chen, D. Pavlic, M.J. Wingf. & X.D. Zhou) A.J.L. Phillips & A. Alves, Botryosphaeria ramosa (Pavlic, T.I. Burgess, M.J. Wingf.) A.J.L. Phillips & A. Alves, Cophinforma atrovirens (Mehl & Slippers) A. Alves & A.J.L. Phillips, Cophinforma mamane (D.E. Gardner) A.J.L. Phillips & A. Alves, Dothiorella pretoriensis (Jami, Gryzenh., Slippers & M.J. Wingf.) Abdollahz. & A.J.L. Phillips, Dothiorella thailandica (D.Q. Dai., J.K. Liu & K.D. Hyde) Abdollahz., A.J.L. Phillips & A. Alves, Dothiorella uruguayensis (C.A. Pérez, Blanchette, Slippers & M.J. Wingf.) Abdollahz. & A.J.L. Phillips, Lasiodiplodia lignicola (Ariyawansa, J.K. Liu & K.D. Hyde) A.J.L. Phillips, A. Alves & Abdollahz., Neoscytalidium hyalinum (C.K. Campb. & J.L. Mulder) A.J.L. Phillips, Groenewald & Crous, Sphaeropsis citrigena (A.J.L. Phillips, P.R. Johnst. & Pennycook) A.J.L. Phillips & A. Alves, Sphaeropsis eucalypticola (Doilom, J.K. Liu, & K.D. Hyde) A.J.L. Phillips, Sphaeropsis porosa (Van Niekerk & Crous) A.J.L. Phillips & A. Alves. Epitypification (basionym) - Sphaeria sapinea Fries. Neotypifications (basionyms) - Botryodiplodia theobromae Pat., Physalospora agaves Henn, Sphaeria atrovirens var. visci Alb. & Schwein. PMID:24302790

Phillips, A.J.L.; Alves, A.; Abdollahzadeh, J.; Slippers, B.; Wingfield, M.J.; Groenewald, J.Z.; Crous, P.W.

2013-01-01

83

Influence of the region of origin on the mycobiota of grapes with emphasis on Aspergillus and Penicillium species.  

PubMed

A three-year study was undertaken to investigate the fungal species present on the surface of grape berries from Portuguese vineyards in four winemaking regions. Emphasis was given to Aspergillus and Penicillium species due to their relevance for mycotoxin production. From the 3517 fungal strains detected 27 genera were identified. The region of origin markedly influenced the spoilage fungal population to which berries are exposed. The main differences found were in the incidence of A. niger aggregate, Botryis cinerea and Penicillium species (P. brevicompactum, P. citrinum, P. glabrum/spinulosum, P. expansum, P. implicatum and P. thomii). In more humid climates, Botrytis seems to be the main pathogen and spoiling agent, and the incidence of black Aspergillus is minimal. The most important mycotoxin-producing species found was A. carbonarius, which is an ochratoxin A producer. The present study provides a detailed description of the fungi found on the berry surface of Portuguese grapes and shows the Aspergillus and Penicillium species, which vary significantly by geographic origin. This is of crucial importance to understand fungal hazards for grapes and wine and to the knowledge of field ecology of the species. PMID:16891107

Serra, Rita; Lourenço, Anália; Alípio, Pedro; Venâncio, Armando

2006-08-01

84

Taxonomic revision of Aspergillus section Clavati based on molecular, morphological and physiological data  

PubMed Central

Aspergillus section Clavati has been revised using morphology, secondary metabolites, physiological characters and DNA sequences. Phylogenetic analysis of ?-tubulin, ITS and calmodulin sequence data indicated that Aspergillus section Clavati includes 6 species, A. clavatus (synonyms: A. apicalis, A. pallidus), A. giganteus, A. rhizopodus, A. longivesica, Neocarpenteles acanthosporus and A. clavatonanicus. Neocarpenteles acanthosporus is the only known teleomorph of this section. The sister genera to Neocarpenteles are Neosartorya and Dichotomomyces based on sequence data. Species in Neosartorya and Neocarpenteles have anamorphs with green conidia and share the production of tryptoquivalins, while Dichotomomyces was found to be able to produce gliotoxin, which is also produced by some Neosartorya species, and tryptoquivalines and tryptoquivalones produced by members of both section Clavati and Fumigati. All species in section Clavati are alkalitolerant and acidotolerant and they all have clavate conidial heads. Many species are coprophilic and produce the effective antibiotic patulin. Members of section Clavati also produce antafumicin, tryptoquivalines, cytochalasins, sarcins, dehydrocarolic acid and kotanins (orlandin, desmethylkotanin and kotanin) in species specific combinations. Another species previously assigned to section Clavati, A. ingratus is considered a synonym of Hemicarpenteles paradoxus, which is phylogenetically very distantly related to Neocarpenteles and section Clavati. PMID:18490946

Varga, J.; Due, M.; Frisvad, J.C.; Samson, R.A.

2007-01-01

85

Detection of Aspergillus in lung and other tissue samples using the MycAssay Aspergillus real-time PCR kit.  

PubMed

The MycAssay™ Aspergillus real-time PCR kit was tested on tissues from patients with invasive fungal infections. Tissue samples from nine organ transplant recipients and 33 patients with haematological malignancy were from lung (n = 30), skin (n = 4), and others. Samples were preprocessed with proteinase K and lyticase, followed by DNA extraction and real-time PCR. For all samples, the sensitivity of the MycAssay Aspergillus test was 82% and specificity 79% relative to microscopy and 90% and 64%, respectively, compared with Aspergillus culture. The positive predictive value and negative predictive values compared with culture were 69% and 88% and were 88% and 69% compared with microscopy, respectively. The MycAssay Aspergillus test detected tissue invasive infections with Aspergillus fumigatus , Aspergillus flavus , and Aspergillus terreus. PMID:21861765

Lass-Flörl, C; Follett, S A; Moody, A; Denning, D W

2011-09-01

86

Kipukasins: Nucleoside derivatives from Aspergillus versicolor.  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Seven new aroyl uridine derivatives (kipukasins A-G; 1-7) were isolated from solid-substrate fermentation cultures of two different Hawaiian isolates of Aspergillus versicolor. The structures of compounds 1-7 were determined by analysis of NMR and MS data. The nucleoside portion of lead compound 1...

87

Aspergillus DNA contamination in blood collection tubes.  

PubMed

Fungal polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based diagnostic methods are at risk for contamination. Sample collection containers were investigated for fungal DNA contamination using real-time PCR assays. Up to 18% of blood collection tubes were contaminated with fungal DNA, probably Aspergillus fumigatus. Lower proportions of contamination in other vessels were observed. PMID:20638611

Harrison, Elizabeth; Stalhberger, Thomas; Whelan, Ruth; Sugrue, Michele; Wingard, John R; Alexander, Barbara D; Follett, Sarah A; Bowyer, Paul; Denning, David W

2010-08-01

88

Phylogeny and subgeneric taxonomy of Aspergillus  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The phylogeny of the genus Aspergillus and its teleomorphs is discussed based on multilocus sequence data. DNA sequence analysis was used to formulate a nucleotide sequence framework of the genus and to analyze character changes in relationship to the phylogeny hypothesized from the DNA sequence an...

89

ASPERGILLUS BOMBYCIS GENOTYPES (RFLP) FROM SILKWORM CULTIVATION  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Eighteen isolates of Aspergillus bombycis from samples of dust, insect frass, and soil collected from 8 silkworm rearing facilities in Japan, as well as single silkworm rearing facilities in Indonesia and Malaysia, were subjected to DNA fingerprinting. PstI digests of total genomic DNA from each is...

90

GENOME SEQUENCING AND ANALYSIS OF ASPERGILLUS ORYZAE  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The genome of Aspergillus oryzae, an important industrial fungus used in the production of oriental fermented foods, such as soy sauce, miso, and sake, has been sequenced. The genome sequence reveals a wealth of genes encoding secreted enzymes. A comparison with the genome sequences of A. nidulans...

91

New species in Aspergillus section Terrei  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Aspergillus section Terrei is reviewed and revised using information from DNA sequences, extrolite examination, and phenotypic assessment in an integrated analysis. The taxonomic status of six species from the section is modified either by describing new species or by providing new names for previou...

92

SHORT COMMUNICATION Presence of Aspergillus sydowii, a  

E-print Network

SHORT COMMUNICATION Presence of Aspergillus sydowii, a pathogen of gorgonian sea fans in the marine Pawlik5 and Oded Yarden3 1 Department of Zoology, George S Wise Faculty of Life Sciences, Tel Aviv; 4 Department of Biology, University of South Carolina-Aiken, Aiken, SC, USA and 5 Center for Marine

Pawlik, Joseph

93

Heavy metal biosorption sites in Aspergillus niger  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aspergillus niger is capable of removing heavy metals such as lead, cadmium and copper from aqueous solutions. The role played by various functional groups in the cell wall of A. niger in biosorption of lead, cadmium and copper was investigated. The biomass was subjected to chemical treatments to modify the functional groups, carboxyl, amino and phosphate, to study their role

Anoop Kapoor; T. Viraraghavan

1997-01-01

94

New genera of Afrotropical limosinine sphaerocerids (Diptera: Sphaeroceridae).  

PubMed

Eight new genera of the subfamily Limosininae are described from the Afrotropical region: Afrolimosina gen. n. (type species A. albitarsis sp. n.), Biphallapodema gen. n. (type species B. polydentata sp. n., additional species B. oligodentata sp. n.), Chelilimosina gen. n. (type species Ch. baloghi sp. n.), Mislocatus gen. n. (type species Ceroptera ealensis Vanschuytbroeck, 1951), Oligochaetosella gen. n. (type species O. inconspicua sp. n.), Permixtolimosina gen. n. (type species P. sexsetosa sp. n.), Preepiphallus gen. n. (type species P. nitidifacies sp. n., additional species P. endrodyi sp. n.), Subacuminiseta gen. n. (type species S. minor sp. n.). Comparisons to the key for the identification of Old World genera of Limosininae (Papp 2008) are given. With 118 original figures. PMID:24870627

Papp, László

2014-01-01

95

Aspergillus niger contains the cryptic phylogenetic species A. awamori.  

PubMed

Aspergillus section Nigri is an important group of species for food and medical mycology, and biotechnology. The Aspergillus niger 'aggregate' represents its most complicated taxonomic subgroup containing eight morphologically indistinguishable taxa: A. niger, Aspergillus tubingensis, Aspergillus acidus, Aspergillus brasiliensis, Aspergillus costaricaensis, Aspergillus lacticoffeatus, Aspergillus piperis, and Aspergillus vadensis. Aspergillus awamori, first described by Nakazawa, has been compared taxonomically with other black aspergilli and recently it has been treated as a synonym of A. niger. Phylogenetic analyses of sequences generated from portions of three genes coding for the proteins ?-tubulin (benA), calmodulin (CaM), and the translation elongation factor-1 alpha (TEF-1?) of a population of A. niger strains isolated from grapes in Europe revealed the presence of a cryptic phylogenetic species within this population, A. awamori. Morphological, physiological, ecological and chemical data overlap occurred between A. niger and the cryptic A. awamori, however the splitting of these two species was also supported by AFLP analysis of the full genome. Isolates in both phylospecies can produce the mycotoxins ochratoxin A and fumonisin B?, and they also share the production of pyranonigrin A, tensidol B, funalenone, malformins, and naphtho-?-pyrones. In addition, sequence analysis of four putative A. awamori strains from Japan, used in the koji industrial fermentation, revealed that none of these strains belong to the A. awamori phylospecies. PMID:22036292

Perrone, Giancarlo; Stea, Gaetano; Epifani, Filomena; Varga, János; Frisvad, Jens C; Samson, Robert A

2011-11-01

96

IDENTIFICATION, CHARACTERIZATION AND ANTI-FUNGAL ACTVITIES OF SILK PROTEINS IN ASPERGILLUS FLAVUS  

E-print Network

IDENTIFICATION, CHARACTERIZATION AND ANTI-FUNGAL ACTVITIES OF SILK PROTEINS IN ASPERGILLUS FLAVUS 2006 #12;IDENTIFICATION, CHARACTERIZATION AND ANTI-FUNGAL ACTVITIES OF SILK PROTEINS IN ASPERGILLUS: IDENTIFICATION, CHARACTERIZATION AND ANTIFUNGAL ACTIVITIES OF SILK PROTEINS IN ASPERGILLUS FLAVUS RESISTANT

Ray, David

97

New taxa in Aspergillus section Usti  

PubMed Central

Based on phylogenetic analysis of sequence data, Aspergillus section Usti includes 21 species, inclucing two teleomorphic species Aspergillus heterothallicus (= Emericella heterothallica) and Fennellia monodii. Aspergillus germanicus sp. nov. was isolated from indoor air in Germany. This species has identical ITS sequences with A. insuetus CBS 119.27, but is clearly distinct from that species based on ?-tubulin and calmodulin sequence data. This species is unable to grow at 37 °C, similarly to A. keveii and A. insuetus. Aspergillus carlsbadensis sp. nov. was isolated from the Carlsbad Caverns National Park in New Mexico. This taxon is related to, but distinct from a clade including A. calidoustus, A. pseudodeflectus, A. insuetus and A. keveii on all trees. This species is also unable to grow at 37 °C, and acid production was not observed on CREA. Aspergillus californicus sp. nov. is proposed for an isolate from chamise chaparral (Adenostoma fasciculatum) in California. It is related to a clade including A. subsessilis and A. kassunensis on all trees. This species grew well at 37 °C, and acid production was not observed on CREA. The strain CBS 504.65 from soil in Turkey showed to be clearly distinct from the A. deflectus ex-type strain, indicating that this isolate represents a distinct species in this section. We propose the name A. turkensis sp. nov. for this taxon. This species grew, although rather restrictedly at 37 °C, and acid production was not observed on CREA. Isolates from stored maize, South Africa, as a culture contaminant of Bipolaris sorokiniana from indoor air in Finland proved to be related to, but different from A. ustus and A. puniceus. The taxon is proposed as the new species A. pseudoustus. Although supported only by low bootstrap values, F. monodii was found to belong to section Usti based on phylogenetic analysis of either loci BLAST searches to the GenBank database also resulted in closest hits from section Usti. This species obviously does not belong to the Fennellia genus, instead it is a member of the Emericella genus. However, in accordance with the guidelines of the Amsterdam Declaration on fungal nomenclature (Hawksworth et al. 2011), and based on phylogenetic and physiological evidence, we propose the new combination Aspergillus monodii comb. nov. for this taxon. Species assigned to section Usti can be assigned to three chemical groups based on the extrolites. Aspergillus ustus, A. granulosus and A. puniceus produced ustic acid, while A. ustus and A. puniceus also produced austocystins and versicolorins. In the second chemical group, A. pseudodeflectus produced drimans in common with the other species in this group, and also several unique unknown compounds. Aspergillus calidoustus isolates produced drimans and ophiobolins in common with A. insuetus and A. keveii, but also produced austins. Aspergillus insuetus isolates also produced pergillin while A. keveii isolates produced nidulol. In the third chemical group, E. heterothallica has been reported to produce emethallicins, 5'-hydroxyaveranthin, emeheterone, emesterones, 5'-hydroxyaveranthin. PMID:21892244

Samson, R.A.; Varga, J.; Meijer, M.; Frisvad, J.C.

2011-01-01

98

Real-time PCR for detection of the Aspergillus genus.  

PubMed

Aspergillus is a genus of mold that has strong indoor sources, including several species capable of acting as opportunistic pathogens. Previous studies suggest that Aspergillus could serve as an indicator for abnormal mold growth or moisture, making it an important genus for environmental monitoring. Here, a quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR, or real-time PCR) assay is presented for Aspergillus. The assay shows good specificity for the genus, detecting all Aspergillus species tested, although a few non-Aspergillus species are also amplified. Sensitivity testing demonstrates that DNA representing one conidium can be detected. A validation study compared qPCR results against direct microscopy counts using A. fumigatus conidia aerosolized into a laboratory chamber. The assay was then used to quantify Aspergillus in indoor air samples, demonstrating its utility for environmental monitoring. Analysis of a small number of clinical sputum samples showed complete agreement with culturing results. PMID:17554432

Goebes, Marian D; Hildemann, Lynn M; Kujundzic, Elmira; Hernandez, Mark

2007-06-01

99

New species in Aspergillus section Terrei  

PubMed Central

Section Terrei of Aspergillus was studied using a polyphasic approach including sequence analysis of parts of the ?-tubulin and calmodulin genes and the ITS region, macro- and micromorphological analyses and examination of extrolite profiles to describe three new species in this section. Based on phylogenetic analysis of calmodulin and ?-tubulin sequences seven lineages were observed among isolates that have previously been treated as A. terreus and its subspecies by Raper & Fennell (1965) and others. Aspergillus alabamensis, A. terreus var. floccosus, A. terreus var. africanus, A. terreus var. aureus, A. hortai and A. terreus NRRL 4017 all represent distinct lineages from the A. terreus clade. Among them, A. terreus var. floccosus, A. terreus NRRL 4017 and A. terreus var. aureus could also be distinguished from A. terreus by using ITS sequence data. New names are proposed for A. terreus var. floccosus, A. terreus var. africanus, A. terreus var. aureus, while Aspergillus hortai is recognised at species level. Aspergillus terreus NRRL 4017 is described as the new species A. pseudoterreus. Also included in section Terrei are some species formerly placed in sections Flavipedes and Versicolores. A. clade including the type isolate of A. niveus (CBS 115.27) constitutes a lineage closely related to A. carneus. Fennellia nivea, the hypothesized teleomorph is not related to this clade. Aspergillus allahabadii, A. niveus var. indicus, and two species originally placed in section Versicolores, A. ambiguus and A. microcysticus, also form well-defined lineages on all trees. Species in Aspergillus section Terrei are producers of a diverse array of secondary metabolites. However, many of the species in the section produce different combinations of the following metabolites: acetylaranotin, asperphenamate, aspochalamins, aspulvinones, asteltoxin, asterric acid, asterriquinones, aszonalenins, atrovenetins, butyrolactones, citreoisocoumarins, citreoviridins, citrinins, decaturins, fulvic acid, geodins, gregatins, mevinolins, serantrypinone, terreic acid (only the precursor 3,6-dihydroxytoluquinone found), terreins, terrequinones, terretonins and territrems. The cholesterol-lowering agent mevinolin was found in A. terreus and A. neoafricanus only. The hepatotoxic extrolite citrinin was found in eight species: A. alabamensis, A. allahabadii, A. carneus, A. floccosus, A. hortai, A. neoindicus, A. niveus and A. pseudoterreus. The neurotoxic extrolite citreoviridin was found in five species: A. neoafricanus, A. aureoterreus, A. pseudoterreus, A. terreus and A. neoniveus. Territrems, tremorgenic extrolites, were found in some strains of A. alabamensis and A. terreus. PMID:21892242

Samson, R.A.; Peterson, S.W.; Frisvad, J.C.; Varga, J.

2011-01-01

100

Mycoflora study in a wheat flour mill of Argentina  

PubMed Central

The mycoflora of the environment: wheat conditioning, milling and screening, and filling zone, as well as, raw material -wheat-, intermediate product -grits- and end product -flour- on day 1, and after cleaning improvements -days 45 and 90- were studied in an Argentine wheat mill. Samples were incubated at 28°C for 5–7 days on Malt Extract Agar with chloramphenicol (100 mg L-1) and the results were expressed in colony forming units per cubic meter of air (CFU m-3) or per gram of sample (CFU g-1), respectively. Fungal genera and species were isolated and identified and the potential toxicogenic capacity of the Aspergillus flavus and Fusarium graminearum isolated was studied. Time-Place and Time-Product multifactorial ANOVA were carried out. After cleaning improvements, CFU m-3 of air decreased as a function of time. Cladosporium and Alternaria were abundant in every zone, Aspergillus predominated in the wheat conditioning zone and Penicillium and Eurotium decreased with time. Wheat was more contaminated than grits and flour; Aspergillus, Eurotium and Mucoraceae family were the most abundant. Deoxynivalenol was above the levels allowed in wheat, being acceptable in grits and flour. Aflatoxin and Zearalenone showed acceptable levels. When studied in vitro, 53% of Aspergillus flavus and 100% of Fusarium graminearum isolates, produced Total Aflatoxins, and Deoxynivalenol and Zearalenone, respectively. PMID:24031975

Aringoli, E.E.; Cambiagno, D.E.; Chiericatti, C.A.; Basilico, J.C.; Basilico, M.L.Z.

2012-01-01

101

Immuno-polymerase chain reaction for detection of Aspergillus fumigatus  

Microsoft Academic Search

A number of Aspergillus infections are caused by the opportunistic fungal pathogenAspergillus fumigatus in humans especially under immunosuppressed conditions. Major forms of the disease include invasive aspergillosis, allergic\\u000a bronchopulmonary aspergillosis and aspergilloma. A procedure that uses chitinase and microwave treatment is described for\\u000a the extraction of genomic DNA of Aspergillus species from the sputum and bronchial aspirate of patients with

P. Usha Sarma; Nivedita Bir; Anubha Paliwal; Prasad Reddy

1997-01-01

102

Global Diversity and Phylogeny of Pelagic Shrimps of the Former Genera Sergestes and Sergia (Crustacea, Dendrobranchiata, Sergestidae), with Definition of Eight New Genera  

PubMed Central

We revise the global diversity of the former genera Sergia and Sergestes which include 71 valid species. The revision is based on examination of more than 37,000 specimens from collections in the Natural History Museum of Denmark and the Museum of Natural History, Paris. We used 72 morphological characters (61 binary, 11 multistate) and Sicyonella antennata as an outgroup for cladistic analysis. There is no support for the genera Sergia and Sergestes as they have been defined until now. We define and diagnose eight genera of the former genus Sergia (Sergia and new genera Gardinerosergia, Phorcosergia, Prehensilosergia, Robustosergia, Scintillosergia, Challengerosergia, and Lucensosergia) and seven genera of the former genus Sergestes (Sergestes, Deosergestes, Eusergestes, Allosergestes, Parasergestes, Neosergestes, and a new genus Cornutosergestes). An identification key is presented for all genera of the family Sergestidae. The phylogeny of Sergestidae is mainly based on three categories of characters related to: (1) general decapod morphology, (2) male copulatory organs, and (3) photophores. Only simultaneous use of all three character types resulted in a resolved tree with minimal Bootstrap support 75 for each clade. Most genera are interzonal mesopelagic migrants, some are benthopelagic (Scintillosergia, Lucensosergia), bathypelagic (Sergia), or epipelagic (Cornutosergestes). Within each of meso- and benthopelagic genera there is one species with panoceanic distribution, while most species ranges are restricted to a single ocean. The genera demonstrate two different strategies expressed both in morphology and behavior: protective (Eusergestes, Sergestes, Cornutosergestes, Prehensilosergia, Scintillosergia, Lucensosergia, Challengerosergia, Gardinerosergia, Robustosergia, Phorcosergia, Sergia) and offensive (Neosergestes, Parasergestes, Allosergestes, Deosergestes). PMID:25409458

Vereshchaka, Alexander L.; Olesen, Jřrgen; Lunina, Anastasia A.

2014-01-01

103

Aspergillus arachnoiditis post intrathecal baclofen pump insertion.  

PubMed

This report describes an unusual fungal infection of an intrathecal baclofen pump which, to our knowledge, has not been reported previously. We describe a 39-year-old man with severe lower limb spasticity due to secondary progressive multiple sclerosis that was managed with insertion of an intrathecal baclofen pump. He subsequently presented with distinct neurological decline secondary to an intrathecal baclofen pump infection with Aspergillus terreus. PMID:23685108

Vivek, V; Kavar, B; Hogg, M; Eisen, D P; Butzkueven, H

2013-08-01

104

Restriction endonuclease analysis of Aspergillus fumigatus DNA  

Microsoft Academic Search

AIMS: To develop a genome based DNA fingerprinting system for Aspergillus fumigatus mould. METHODS: DNA was extracted from 21 isolates obtained from eight patients with an aspergilloma. This was with a freeze-dried mycelial extract fragmented in liquid nitrogen. DNA was subsequently purified by phenol-chloroform extraction followed by ultracentrifugation on a caesium chloride gradient. The DNA was restricted by EcoRI and

J P Burnie; A Coke; R C Matthews

1992-01-01

105

Twelve previously unknown phage genera are ubiquitous in global oceans  

SciTech Connect

Viruses are fundamental to ecosystems ranging from oceans to humans, yet our ability to study them is bottlenecked by the lack of ecologically relevant isolates, resulting in unknowns dominating culture-independent surveys. Here we present genomes from 31 phages infecting multiple strains of the aquatic bacterium Cellulophaga baltica (Bacteroidetes) to provide data for an underrepresented and environmentally abundant bacterial lineage. Comparative genomics delineated 12 phage groups that (i) each represent a new genus, and (ii) represent one novel and four wellknown viral families. This diversity contrasts the few well-studied marine phage systems, but parallels the diversity of phages infecting human-associated bacteria. Although all 12 Cellulophaga phages represent new genera, the podoviruses and icosahedral, nontailed ssDNA phages were exceptional, with genomes up to twice as large as those previously observed for each phage type. Structural novelty was also substantial, requiring experimental phage proteomics to identify 83% of the structural proteins. The presence of uncommon nucleotide metabolism genes in four genera likely underscores the importance of scavenging nutrient-rich molecules as previously seen for phages in marine environments. Metagenomic recruitment analyses suggest that these particular Cellulophaga phages are rare and may represent a first glimpse into the phage side of the rare biosphere. However, these analyses also revealed that these phage genera are widespread, occurring in 94% of 137 investigated metagenomes. Together, this diverse and novel collection of phages identifies a small but ubiquitous fraction of unknown marine viral diversity and provides numerous environmentally relevant phage host systems for experimental hypothesis testing.

Holmfeldt, Karin [University of Arizona] [University of Arizona; Solonenko, Natalie [University of Arizona] [University of Arizona; Shah, Manesh B [ORNL] [ORNL; Corrier, Kristen L [ORNL] [ORNL; Riemann, Lasse [University of Copenhagen] [University of Copenhagen; Verberkmoes, Nathan C [ORNL] [ORNL; Sullivan, Matthew B [University of Arizona] [University of Arizona

2013-01-01

106

Elliptic Genera of 2d = 2 Gauge Theories  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We compute the elliptic genera of general two-dimensional and gauge theories. We find that the elliptic genus is given by the sum of Jeffrey-Kirwan residues of a meromorphic form, representing the one-loop determinant of fields, on the moduli space of flat connections on T 2. We give several examples illustrating our formula, with both Abelian and non-Abelian gauge groups, and discuss some dualities for U( k) and SU( k) theories. This paper is a sequel to the authors' previous paper (Benini et al., Lett Math Phys 104:465-493, 2014).

Benini, Francesco; Eager, Richard; Hori, Kentaro; Tachikawa, Yuji

2015-02-01

107

Why Are Some Plant Genera More Invasive Than Others?  

PubMed Central

Determining how biological traits are related to the ability of groups of organisms to become economically damaging when established outside of their native ranges is a major goal of population biology, and important in the management of invasive species. Little is known about why some taxonomic groups are more likely to become pests than others among plants. We investigated traits that discriminate vascular plant genera, a level of taxonomic generality at which risk assessment and screening could be more effectively performed, according to the proportion of naturalized species which are pests. We focused on the United States and Canada, and, because our purpose is ultimately regulatory, considered species classified as weeds or noxious. Using contingency tables, we identified 11 genera of vascular plants that are disproportionately represented by invasive species. Results from boosted regression tree analyses show that these categories reflect biological differences. In summary, approximately 25% of variation in genus proportions of weeds or noxious species was explained by biological covariates. Key explanatory traits included genus means for wetland habitat affinity, chromosome number, and seed mass. PMID:21494563

Schmidt, John Paul; Drake, John M.

2011-01-01

108

Review of the genera of Mycetophagidae (Coleoptera: Tenebrionoidea) with descriptions of new genera and a world generic key.  

PubMed

The world genera of Mycetophagidae are reviewed and four new genera described. Several adult features of Mycetophagidae are discussed, and some newly discovered secondary sexual characters are described and illustrated. A key is given to the adults of all mycetophagid genera. The following new genera and species are proposed: Afrotyphaeola gen. n. (South Africa), A. natalensis sp. n. (South Africa), Neotriphyllus gen. n. (southwestern USA to Central America), Nototriphyllus gen. n. (New Zealand, Madagascar, Chile and Argentina), N. araucania sp. n. (Chile, Argentina), Zeclaviger gen. n. (New Zealand) and Z. explanatus sp. n. (New Zealand). The following synonymies are proposed: Litargus Erichson, 1846 (= Catopius Sharp, 1902) syn. n., Litargus balteatus LeConte, 1856 (= Triphyllus minor Lea, 1895) syn. n., Mycetophagus confusus Horn, 1878 (= Triphyllus perfectus Sharp, 1902) syn. n. The following new combinations are proposed: Litargops intricatus (Blackburn, 1891) (Triphyllus, Litargus) comb. n., L. multiguttatus (Lea, 1895) (Triphyllus, Litargus) comb. n., Litargus irregularis (Sharp) (Catopius) comb. n., Mycetophagus (Paralitargus) didesmus (Say) (Litargus) comb. n., Neotriphyllus confusus (Horn) (Mycetophagus) comb. n. Nototriphyllus aciculatus (Broun, 1880) (Cryptophagus) comb. n., N. adspersus (Broun, 1880) (Cryptophagus) comb. n., N. constans (Broun, 1914) comb. n., N. fuliginosus (Broun, 1880) (Cryptophagus) comb. n., N. hispidellus (Broun, 1880) (Cryptophagus) comb. n., N. integritus (Broun, 1893) comb. n., N. pubescens (Broun, 1909) comb. n., N. madagascariensis (Fairmaire, 1898) (Triphyllus) comb. n., N. punctulatus (Broun, 1880) (Cryptophagus) comb. n., N. rubicundus (Sharp, 1886) (Triphyllus) comb. n., N. serratus (Broun, 1880) (Cryptophagus) comb. n., N. substriatus (Broun, 1880) (Cryptophagus) comb. n. The larva of Nototriphyllus araucania is briefly described and compared with other known myceophagid larvae. The genus Nesolathrus Scott (1922), described in Latridiidae and considered incertae sedis in Mycetophagidae by Lawrence & Newton (1995), is placed in the subfamily Bergininae, following Lawrence & ?lipi?ski (2013). The tribe Typhaeini Thomson (1863), as delimited by Nikitsky (1993), based on the lateral closure of the mesocoxal cavity by the mesoventrite and metaventrite, is considered to be non-monophyletic. Rhipidonyx adustus Reitter (1876), described in Mycetophagidae, is transferred to Tenebrionidae: Alleculinae, based on the description and examination of a specimen presumed to be the type. PMID:24990043

Lawrence, John F; Escalona, Hermes E; Leschen, Richard A B; Slipi?ski, Adam

2014-01-01

109

Surgical management of Aspergillus colonization associated with lung hydatid disease.  

PubMed

Colonization with Aspergillus sp. usually occurs in previously formed lung cavities. Cystectomy is a widely used surgical technique for hydatid lung disease that can also leave residual cavities and potentially result in aspergilloma. We present two cases of this rare entity and a case with Aspergillus sp. colonization of an existing ruptured hydatid cyst. PMID:18414351

Vasquez, Julio C; Montesinos, Efrain; Rojas, Luis; Peralta, Julio; Delarosa, Jacob; Leon, Juan J

2008-04-01

110

In vitro susceptibility-testing in Aspergillus species  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Aspergillus species are the most common causes of invasive mould infections in immunocompromised patients. The introduction of new antifungal agents and recent reports of resistance emerging during treatment of Aspergillus infections have highlighted the need for in vitro susceptibility-testing. Various testing procedures have been proposed, including macrodilution and microdilution, agar diffusion, disc diffusion and Etest. At present, one of

Cornelia Lass-Flörl; Susanne Perkhofer

2008-01-01

111

Isolation of Bacterial Antagonists of Aspergillus flavus from Almonds  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bacteria were isolated from California almond orchard samples to evaluate their potential antifungal activity against aflatoxin-producing Aspergillus flavus. Fungal populations from the same samples were examined to determine the incidence of aflatoxigenic Aspergillus species. Antagonistic activities of the isolated bacterial strains were screened against a nonaflatoxigenic nor mutant of A. flavus, which accumulates the pigmented aflatoxin precursor norsolorinic acid (NOR)

Jeffrey D. Palumbo; James L. Baker; Noreen E. Mahoney

2006-01-01

112

?????????????????????????????????????????????????????????? Aspergillus niger ATCC 20611 Inulin and sucrose affecting on inulinase production from Aspergillus niger ATCC 20611  

Microsoft Academic Search

???????????????????????????? ??????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????? ?????????????????????????? Aspergillus niger ATCC 20611 ????????????????????????????????? (????\\/????) ?????????????????????????? 25 : 2, 25 : 4,12.5 : 4 ??? 6.25 : 4 ???????????????????????????????????????? ??????? 5.48, 2.56, 1.67 ??? 1.22 ?????\\/????????? ??????? 8, 12, 6 ??? 7.5 ??. ????? ???? ?????????????? ???????????????? (YE) ??????? 0.59, 0.84, 0.98 ??? 0.59 ?????\\/???????????? ?????????? ??????????????? ??????? (qE) ??????? 0.07, 0.10, 0.16 ??? 0.08 ?????\\/?????????

Sarote Sirisansaneeyakul; Thikumporn Tantivimongkol; Sittiwat Lertsiri

113

The Phylogenetics of Mycotoxin and Sclerotium Production in Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus oryzae  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aspergillus flavus is a common filamentous fungus that produces aflatoxins and presents a major threat to agriculture and human health. Previous phylogenetic studies of A. flavus have shown that it consists of two subgroups, called groups I and II, and morphological studies indicated that it consists of two morphological groups based on sclerotium size, called “S” and “L.” The industrially

David M Geiser; Joe W Dorner; Bruce W Horn; John W Taylor

2000-01-01

114

The function and evolution of the Aspergillus genome  

PubMed Central

Species in the filamentous fungal genus Aspergillus display a wide diversity of lifestyles and are of great importance to humans. The decoding of genome sequences from a dozen species that vary widely in their degree of evolutionary affinity has galvanized studies of the function and evolution of the Aspergillus genome in clinical, industrial, and agricultural environments. Here, we synthesize recent key findings that shed light on the architecture of the Aspergillus genome, on the molecular foundations of the genus’ astounding dexterity and diversity in secondary metabolism, and on the genetic underpinnings of virulence in Aspergillus fumigatus, one of the most lethal fungal pathogens. Many of these insights dramatically expand our knowledge of fungal and microbial eukaryote genome evolution and function and argue that Aspergillus constitutes a superb model clade for the study of functional and comparative genomics. PMID:23084572

Gibbons, John G.; Rokas, Antonis

2012-01-01

115

Aspergillus Meningitis: Diagnosis by Non-Culture-Based Microbiological Methods and Management  

Microsoft Academic Search

The performance of antibody detection, antigen detection, and Aspergillus genus-specific PCR for diagnosing Aspergillus meningitis was investigated with 26 cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) samples obtained from a single patient with proven infection caused by Aspergillus fumigatus. Immunoglobulin G antibodies directed against Aspergillus were not detected by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay in CSF or serum. The antigen galacto- mannan was detected in the

PAUL E. VERWEIJ; KEES BRINKMAN; HERBERT P. H. KREMER; BART-JAN KULLBERG; JACQUES F. G. M. MEIS

1999-01-01

116

ADOPTING SELECTED HYDROGEN BONDING AND IONIC INTERACTIONS FROM ASPERGILLUS FUMIGATUS PHYTASE STRUCTURE IMPROVES THE THERMOSTABILITY OF ASPERGILLUS NIGER PHYA PHYTASE  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Although it has been widely used as a feed supplement to reduce manure phosphorus pollution of swine and poultry, Aspergillus niger PhyA phytase is unable to withstand heat inactivation during feed pelleting. Crystal structure comparisons with its close homolog, the thermostable Aspergillus fumigatu...

117

Identification and characterization of antimicrobial activity in two yeast genera.  

PubMed Central

A general screening test for the expression of antibacterial activity was performed on over 400 cultures belonging to 31 yeast genera. Of these cultures, only two, Kluyveromyces thermotolerans and Kloeckera apiculata, were found to produce zones of inhibition of bacterial growth on Diagnostic Sensitivity Test Agar medium supplemented with 0.002% methylene blue. Of nine bacteria used as test organisms, only Lactobacillus plantarum and Bacillus megaterium were inhibited. No antibacterial activity was evident against four gram-negative bacteria used in this study. Optimal activities were found to be expressed after yeasts were grown at pH 6. A requirement for cultivation in the presence of methylene blue added to culture media for the expression of apparent antibacterial activity was demonstrated. Images PMID:3937494

Bilinski, C A; Innamorato, G; Stewart, G G

1985-01-01

118

Cephalic musculature in five genera of Symphyla (Myriapoda).  

PubMed

The internal anatomy of the head has been investigated in representatives of five genera of Symphyla. Descriptions and schemata of the cephalic musculature, tentorial complex and other structures are displayed for two scutigerellids (Scutigerella and Hanseniella) and three scolopendrellids (Scolopendrella, Symphylella and Scolopendrellopsis). Unexpectedly, the internal anatomy of Scolopendrella corresponds to a higher degree with scutigerellids than with other scolopendrellid representatives. Symphylella and Scolopendrellopsis show features that--compared to the state in other myriapod subgroups--seem to be plesiomorphic, such as the absence of tracheae in the head, the presence of only one tentorial bridge and the presence of large dorsal muscles of the mandibular base. These states are shared with other myriapod subgroups and show that the mandibular mechanisms in Symphyla are not as specialized as previously assumed. PMID:21232626

Domínguez Camacho, Miguel

2011-03-01

119

Cone pigment variations in four genera of new world monkeys.  

PubMed

Previous research revealed significant individual variations in opsin genes and cone photopigments in several species of platyrrhine (New World) monkeys and showed that these in turn can yield significant variations in color vision. To extend the understanding of the nature of color vision in New World monkeys, electroretinogram flicker photometry was used to obtain spectral sensitivity measurements from representatives of four platyrrhine genera (Cebus, Leontopithecus, Saguinus, Pithecia). Animals from each genus were found to be polymorphic for middle to long-wavelength (M/L) sensitive cones. The presence of a short-wavelength sensitive photopigment was established as well so these animals conform to the earlier pattern in predicting that all male monkeys are dichromats while, depending on their opsin gene array, individual females can be either dichromatic or trichromatic. Across subjects a total of five different M/L cone pigments were inferred with a subset of three of these present in each species. PMID:12535982

Jacobs, Gerald H; Deegan, Jess F

2003-02-01

120

New angiosperm genera from cretaceous sections of northern Asia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Cretaceous floras of northern Asia represented by the Antibes flora of the Chulym-Yenisei area of West Siberia, Kaivayam flora of northwestern Kamchatka, and Grebenka flora of the Anadyr River basin in Chukotka are reviewed. These floras characterize the Late Cretaceous Siberian-Canadian Paleofloristic Region, where they developed in humid warm temperate climatic environments. Two new angiosperm genera are described: genus Chachlovia P. Alekseev et Herman with species C. kiyensis P. Alekseev, sp. nov. and C. dombeyopsoida (Herman) Herman, comb. nov. and genus Soninia Herman et Shczepetov with species S. asiatica P. Alekseev, sp. nov. and S. integerrima Herman et Shczepetov, sp. nov. The species Chachlovia kiyensis and Soninia asiatica were characteristic components of the Antibes flora. Chachlovia dombeyopsoida and Soninia integerrima were constituents of the Kaivayam and Grebenka floras, respectively.

Alekseev, P. I.; Herman, A. B.; Shchepetov, S. V.

2014-11-01

121

Congruence of morphologically-defined genera with molecular phylogenies.  

PubMed

Morphologically-defined mammalian and molluscan genera (herein "morphogenera") are significantly more likely to be monophyletic relative to molecular phylogenies than random, under 3 different models of expected monophyly rates: approximately 63% of 425 surveyed morphogenera are monophyletic and 19% are polyphyletic, although certain groups appear to be problematic (e.g., nonmarine, unionoid bivalves). Compiled nonmonophyly rates are probably extreme values, because molecular analyses have focused on "problem" taxa, and molecular topologies (treated herein as error-free) contain contradictory groupings across analyses for 10% of molluscan morphogenera and 37% of mammalian morphogenera. Both body size and geographic range, 2 key macroevolutionary and macroecological variables, show significant rank correlations between values for morphogenera and molecularly-defined clades, even when strictly monophyletic morphogenera are excluded from analyses. Thus, although morphogenera can be imperfect reflections of phylogeny, large-scale statistical treatments of diversity dynamics or macroevolutionary variables in time and space are unlikely to be misleading. PMID:19416868

Jablonski, David; Finarelli, John A

2009-05-19

122

Congruence of morphologically-defined genera with molecular phylogenies  

PubMed Central

Morphologically-defined mammalian and molluscan genera (herein “morphogenera”) are significantly more likely to be monophyletic relative to molecular phylogenies than random, under 3 different models of expected monophyly rates: ?63% of 425 surveyed morphogenera are monophyletic and 19% are polyphyletic, although certain groups appear to be problematic (e.g., nonmarine, unionoid bivalves). Compiled nonmonophyly rates are probably extreme values, because molecular analyses have focused on “problem” taxa, and molecular topologies (treated herein as error-free) contain contradictory groupings across analyses for 10% of molluscan morphogenera and 37% of mammalian morphogenera. Both body size and geographic range, 2 key macroevolutionary and macroecological variables, show significant rank correlations between values for morphogenera and molecularly-defined clades, even when strictly monophyletic morphogenera are excluded from analyses. Thus, although morphogenera can be imperfect reflections of phylogeny, large-scale statistical treatments of diversity dynamics or macroevolutionary variables in time and space are unlikely to be misleading. PMID:19416868

Jablonski, David; Finarelli, John A.

2009-01-01

123

Phytogeographical Analysis of Seed Plant Genera in China  

PubMed Central

• Background and Aims A central goal of biogeography and ecology is to uncover and understand distributional patterns of organisms. China has long been a focus of attention because of its rich biota, especially with respect to plants. Using 290 floras from across China, this paper quantitatively characterizes the composition of floristic elements at multiple scales (i.e. national, provincial and local), and explores the extent to which climatic and geographical factors associated with each flora can jointly and independently explain the variation in floristic elements in local floras. • Methods A study was made of 261 local floras, 28 province-level floras and one national-level flora across China. Genera of seed plants in each flora were assigned to 14 floristic elements according to their worldwide geographical distributions. The composition of floristic elements was related to climatic and geographical factors. • Key Results and Conclusions Variations in percentages of cosmopolitan, tropical and temperate genera among local floras tend to be greater at higher latitudes than at lower latitudes. Latitude is strongly correlated with the proportions of 13 of the 14 floristic elements. Correlations of the proportions of floristic elements with longitude are much weaker than those with latitude. Climate represented by the first principal component of a principal component analysis was strongly correlated with the proportions of floristic elements in local floras (|r| = 0·75 ± 0·18). Geographical coordinates independently explained about four times as much variation in floristic elements as did climate. Further research is necessary to examine the roles of water–energy dynamics, geology, soils, biotic interactions, and historical factors such as land connections between continents in the past and at present in creating observed floristic patterns. PMID:16945946

QIAN, HONG; WANG, SILONG; HE, JIN-SHENG; ZHANG, JUNLI; WANG, LISONG; WANG, XIANLI; GUO, KE

2006-01-01

124

Characterization of phytase produced by Aspergillus niger  

Microsoft Academic Search

The extracellular activity ofAspergillus niger phytase at the end of the growth phase was 132 nkat\\/mL in a laboratory bioreactor. The purified enzyme has molar mass approximately\\u000a 100 kDa, pH optimum at 5.0, temperature optimum at 55°C and high pH and temperature stability. TheK\\u000a m for dodecasodium phytate, calcium phytate and 4-nitrophenyl phosphate are 0.44, 0.45 and 1.38 mmol\\/L, respectively.

J. Dvo?áková; O. Volfová; J. Kopecký

1997-01-01

125

Retropositional events consolidate the branching order among New World monkey genera.  

PubMed

Due to contradicting relationships obtained from various morphological and genetic studies, phylogenetic relationships among New World monkey genera are highly disputed. In the present study, we analyzed the presence/absence pattern of 128 SINE integrations in all New World monkey genera. Among them, 70 were specific for only a single genus, whereas another 18 were present in all New World monkey genera. The 40 remaining insertions were informative to elucidate phylogenetic relationships among genera. Several of them confirmed the monophyly of the three families Cebidae, Atelidae and Pitheciidae as well as of the subfamily Callithrichinae. Further markers provided evidence for a sister grouping of Cebidae and Atelidae to the exclusion of Pitheciidae as well as for relationships among genera belonging to Callithrichinae and Atelidae. Although a close affiliation of Saimiri, Aotus and Cebus to Callithrichinae was shown, the relationships among the three genera remained unresolved due to three contradicting insertions. PMID:19135536

Osterholz, Martin; Walter, Lutz; Roos, Christian

2009-03-01

126

Cytogenetics and evolution of Matricaria and related genera (asteraceae-anthemideae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary 1.Chromosome numbers resp. karyotypes are established and compared for 18 species of the Anthemideae generaAnthemis, Chamaemelum, Tripleurospermum, Matricaria, Sphaeroclinium, andPentzia (Table 1, Figs. 1–2).2.Selfing tests demonstrate that various perennial and annual species of these genera are predominantly selfsterile; onlyMatricaria discoidea is an obligate inbreeder (p. 162f.).3.An experimental crossing programm involving 12 species from 5 genera has resulted in 22

Sachihiko Mitsuoka; Friedrich Ehrendorier

1972-01-01

127

A key to the Mexican and Central America Genera of Anthonomini (Curculionidae, Curculioninae)  

PubMed Central

Abstract Presently the only keys available for identification of genera of Anthonomini are limited to those of the United States of America and Canada. A dichotomous key is presented to identify all genera of Mexican and Central American Anthonomini. Previous keys do not include the genera Achia, Botanebius, Loncophorus, Loncophorellus and Melexerus. A brief synopsis is given for each genus and photographs of representative species are included. PMID:23717181

Hernández, Macotulio Soto; Jones, Robert W.; Castillo, Pedro Reyes

2013-01-01

128

A synoptic review of the ant genera (Hymenoptera, Formicidae) of the Philippines  

PubMed Central

Abstract An overview of the history of myrmecology in the Philippine archipelago is presented. Keys are provided to the 11 ant subfamilies and the 92 ant genera known from the Philippines. Eleven ant genera (12%), including 3 undescribed genera, are recorded for the first time from the Philippines. The biology and ecology of the 92 genera, illustrated by full-face and profile photo-images, of Philippine ants are summarized in the form of brief generic accounts. A bibliography of significant taxonomic and behavioral papers on Philippine ants and a checklist of valid species and subspecies and their island distributions are provided. PMID:22767999

General, David M.; Alpert, Gary D.

2012-01-01

129

Three new monotypic genera of Trichopolydesmidae from Croatia, Balkan Peninsula (Diplopoda, Polydesmida).  

PubMed

Three new monotypic genera are described from underground habitats in Croatia: Balkanodesmus biokovensis gen. n., sp. n., Solentanodesmus insularis gen. n., sp. n. and Velebitodesmus cavernicolus gen. n., sp. n. In all three new genera the prefemoral part of the gonopods is orientated transversely to the main body axis, and all three new genera possess numerous metatergal setae arranged in a few transverse irregular rows, a condition observed in several European trichopolydesmids. These three new genera are very close to the genus Verhoeffodesmus. A distribution map and a brief discussion about the relationship with congeners are provided. PMID:25543771

Anti?, Dragan Ž; Reip, Hans S; Dražina, Tvrtko; Ra?a, Ton?i; Makarov, Slobodan E

2014-01-01

130

Aspergillus fumigatus specific IgE and IgG antibodies for diagnosis of Aspergillus-related lung diseases.  

PubMed

IgE and IgG antibodies against Aspergillus fumigatus were detected by crossed radio immunoelectrophoresis (CRIE) on the sera of seven patients with aspergilloma, six patients with allergic broncho-pulmonary aspergillosis (ABPA) and 25 patients with extrinsic asthma with Aspergillus allergy. IgE-CRIE analysis indicated the presence of A. fumigatus-specific IgE in sera of patients with ABPA and Aspergillus asthma but not of aspergilloma patients. IgG-CRIE showed that both aspergilloma and ABPA patient sera contained high levels of circulating specific IgG antibodies in contrast to sera of Aspergillus asthma patients, which did not show detectable amounts of Aspergillus-specific IgG antibodies. Specific IgE binding could be demonstrated for the major allergens Ag-10 and AG-40 in all ABPA patients, in 80% of Aspergillus asthma patients but not in sera from aspergilloma patients. Specific IgG antibodies directed towards the major allergens could be detected in most of the aspergilloma patients, between 30-70% of the ABPA patients but not in sera from patients with Aspergillus asthma. PMID:1928661

Wallenbeck, I; Dreborg, S; Zetterström, O; Einarsson, R

1991-07-01

131

Effect of gamma radiation on Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus ochraceus ultrastructure and mycotoxin production  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The aim of this work was to study the effect of gamma radiation (2 kGy) on Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus ochraceus ultrastructure. Moreover, the influence on aflatoxin B 1 and ochratoxin A production was also observed. Irradiated A. flavus strain showed a dull orangish colony while control strain showed the typical green color. Minor differences were observed on stipes, metulae and conidia size between control and irradiated A. flavus and A. ochraceus strains. Irradiated fungi showed ultrastructural changes on cell wall, plasmalema and cytoplasm levels. The levels of mycotoxins produced by irradiated strains were two times greater than those produced by control strains. Successive transferences of irradiated strains on malt extract agar allowed the fungus to recuperate morphological characteristics. Although minor changes in the fungal morphology were observed, ultrastructural changes at cell wall level and the increase of mycotoxin production ability were observed. Inappropriate storage of irradiated food and feed would allow the development of potentially more toxicogenic fungal propagules.

Ribeiro, J.; Cavaglieri, L.; Vital, H.; Cristofolini, A.; Merkis, C.; Astoreca, A.; Orlando, J.; Carú, M.; Dalcero, A.; Rosa, C. A. R.

2011-05-01

132

Expression of Aspergillus oryzae phytase gene in Aspergillus oryzae RIB40 niaD(-).  

PubMed

Aspergillus oryzae RIB40 niaD(-) was transformed using a plasmid constructed with the A. oryzae phytase gene and pNAN8142 vector. The culture broth of the transformant, which was grown in a medium containing starch as a carbon source and polyvinylpyrrolidone showed phytase activity of a maximum of 2.0 units ml(-1) at 37 degrees C, pH 5.5. PMID:17270723

Uchida, Hiroyuki; Arakida, Shinya; Sakamoto, Tatsuji; Kawasaki, Haruhiko

2006-12-01

133

New genera and species of Neotropical Exosternini (Coleoptera, Histeridae)  

PubMed Central

Abstract We describe the following 8 new genera and 23 new species of Neotropical Exosternini. Conocassis gen. n. (Conocassis minor sp. n. [type species], Conocassis dromedaria sp. n., Conocassis trisulcata sp. n., and Conocassis invaginata sp. n.), Enkyosoma gen. n. (Enkyosoma rockwelli sp. n.), Pluricosta gen. n. (Pluricosta onthophiloides sp. n.), Pyxister gen. n. (Pyxister devorator sp. n. [type species] and Pyxister labralis sp. n.), Chapischema gen. n. (Chapischema doppelganger sp. n.), Scaptorus gen. n. (Scaptorus pyramus sp. n.), Lacrimorpha gen. n. (Lacrimorpha glabra sp. n. [type species], Lacrimorpha balbina sp. n., Lacrimorpha subdepressa sp. n., and Lacrimorpha acuminata sp. n.), Crenulister gen. n. (Crenulister grossus sp. n. [type species], Crenulister explanatus sp. n., Crenulister dentatus sp. n., Crenulister impar sp. n., Crenulister umbrosus sp. n., Crenulister simplex sp. n., Crenulister paucitans sp. n., Crenulister spinipes sp. n., and Crenulister seriatus sp. n.) These all represent highly distinctive and phylogenetically isolated forms, almost invariably known from very few specimens. All but one species have been collected only by passive flight intercept traps, and nothing significant is known about the biology of any of them. PMID:24624014

Caterino, Michael S.; Tishechkin, Alexey K.

2014-01-01

134

Three new species of Aspergillus from Amazonian forest soil (Ecuador).  

PubMed

From an undisturbed natural forest soil in Ecuador, three fungal strains of the genus Aspergillus were isolated. Based on molecular and morphological features they are described as three new species, named A. quitensis, A. amazonicus, and A. ecuadorensis. PMID:18594910

Mares, Donatella; Andreotti, Elisa; Maldonado, Maria Elena; Pedrini, Paola; Colalongo, Chiara; Romagnoli, Carlo

2008-09-01

135

Preharvest aflatoxin in maize genotypes under inoculation with Aspergillus flavus  

E-print Network

conducted through inoculation with a highly concentrated solution of Aspergillus flavus FR: Link spores, a naturally occurring fungus which infects maize and produces a toxic metabolite (aflatoxin) to humans and animals consuming the grain. No commercial...

Mayfield, Kerry L.

2009-05-15

136

Thoracic spinal cord intramedullary aspergillus invasion and abscess.  

PubMed

Invasive central nervous system aspergillosis is a rare form of fungal infection that presents most commonly in immunocompromised individuals. There have been multiple previous reports of aspergillus vertebral osteomyelitis and spinal epidural aspergillus abscess; however to our knowledge there are no reports of intramedullary aspergillus infection. We present a 19-year-old woman with active acute lymphoblastic leukemia who presented with several weeks of fevers and bilateral lower extremity weakness. She was found to have an intramedullary aspergillus abscess at T12-L1 resulting from adjacent vertebral osteomyelitis and underwent surgical debridement with ultra-sound guided aspiration and aggressive intravenous voriconazole therapy. To our knowledge this is the first reported case of spinal aspergillosis invading the intramedullary cavity. Though rare, this entity should be included in the differential for immunocompromised patients presenting with fevers and neurologic deficit. Early recognition with aggressive neurosurgical intervention and antifungal therapy may improve outcomes in future cases. PMID:25088481

McCaslin, Addason F; Lall, Rishi R; Wong, Albert P; Lall, Rohan R; Sugrue, Patrick A; Koski, Tyler R

2015-02-01

137

Phylogeny of the Pacific Trouts and Salmons (Oncorhynchus) and Genera of the Family Salmonidae  

Microsoft Academic Search

Seven genera—Brachymystax, Acantholingua, Salmothymus, Hucho, Salvelinus, Salmo, and Oncorhynchus—make up the living Salmoninae. Relationships of 33 extant and 4 fossil salmonid species and subspecies were studied on the basis of 119 characters analyzed by parsimony algorithms. Twelve equally parsimonious trees each requiring 253 steps were calculated. Monophyly of recognized genera is consistent with all 12 estimates. The earliest branch of

R. F. Stearley; G. R. Smith

1993-01-01

138

Comparative Phylogenetic Histories of Two Louse Genera Found on Catharus Thrushes and Other Birds  

Microsoft Academic Search

The louse genera Brueelia (Ischnocera) and Myrsidea (Amblycera) are broadly codistributed on songbirds (Passeri- formes), but differ in a variety of life history characteristics. We used mitochondrial and nuclear DNA sequences to assess levels of genetic divergence and reconstruct phylogenies of these 2 genera, focusing especially on Catharus thrushes in North America. We then qualitatively compared the phylogenies and levels

Chelsea Bueter; Jason Weckstein; Kevin P. Johnson; John M. Bates; Caleb E. Gordon

2009-01-01

139

11Skewed Distribution of Species Number in Grass Genera: Is It  

E-print Network

165 11Skewed Distribution of Species Number in Grass Genera: Is It a Taxonomic Artefact? K. W. Hilu........................................................................................................................ 165 11.2 The Grass Family (Poaceae .................................................................................................................................... 176 ABSTRACT The grass family (Poaceae) comprises about 10,000 species distributed in some 785 genera

Hilu, Khidir

140

Evidence of Possible Evolutionary Divergence in Plant Genera Based on Antioxidant Properties  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this investigation was to determine if three Western species of the Panax, Lycium, and Astragalus genera had antibacterial and/or antioxidant properties, and how their properties compared to Eastern herbs in the same genera. The group hypothesized that when compared, the corresponding herbs would have identical antibacterial and…

Asai, Elizabeth; Cao, Sharon

2009-01-01

141

Keys to the Common Genera of Marine Plants Taken Aboard the Orange County Floating Marine Laboratory.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Provided is a dichotomous key to the common genera of marine algae and angiosperms which are taken aboard the Orange County Floating Marine Laboratory. It is designed primarily for use by junior and senior high school students. Drawings of representative members of the various genera are included. This work was prepared under an ESEA Title III…

Williams, H. R.

142

Hypersensitivity pneumonitis of a mushroom worker due to Aspergillus glaucus.  

PubMed

We present the first reported case of hypersensitivity pneumonitis (HP) due to Aspergillus glaucus in a mushroom worker. The Aspergillus glaucus group is one of the most popular storage fungi and a possible subsidiary etiologic agent of farmer's lung, but no case of hypersensitivity pneumonitis (HP) due to A. glaucus has been reported. This first case may demonstrate the etiologic role of A. glaucus in HP and in farmer's lung. PMID:2119164

Yoshida, K; Ando, M; Ito, K; Sakata, T; Arima, K; Araki, S; Uchida, K

1990-01-01

143

Metabolically Independent and Accurately Adjustable Aspergillus sp. Expression System  

Microsoft Academic Search

Filamentous fungi are well-established expression hosts often used to produce extracellular proteins of use in the food and pharmaceutical industries. The expression systems presently used in Aspergillus species rely on either strong constitutive promoters, e.g., that for glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase, or inducible systems derived from metabolic pathways, e.g., glaA (glucoamylase) or alc (alcohol dehydrogenase). We de- scribe for Aspergillus nidulans and

Robert Pachlinger; Rudolf Mitterbauer; Gerhard Adam; Joseph Strauss

2005-01-01

144

L-histidine utilization in Aspergillus nidulans.  

PubMed Central

Histidase activity rather than uptake of L-histidine is the limiting factor for the utilization of histidine as the sole nitrogen source for Aspergillus nidulans. Histidine cannot act as the sole carbon source, and evidence is presented indicating that this is attributable to an inability to convert histidine to L-glutamate in vivo. It has been shown that this fungus lacks an active urocanase enzyme and that histidine is quantitatively converted to urocanate, which accumulates in the extracellular medium. The use of histidine as a nitrogen source is regulated by nitrogen metabolite repression control of histidase synthesis. In addition, evidence for a requirement for a carbon source for histidase synthesis and for a minor form of control by nitrate is presented. The activity of the histidase enzyme is inhibited by micromolar concentrations of the product urocanate and by physiological levels of L-glutamate and L-glutamine. PMID:6120926

Polkinghorne, M A; Hynes, M J

1982-01-01

145

Environmental fungicides and triazole resistance in Aspergillus.  

PubMed

Fungal diseases are problematic in both human health and agriculture. Treatment options are limited and resistance may emerge. The relatively recent recognition of triazole resistance in Aspergillus fumigatus has prompted questioning of the origin of resistance. While multiple mechanisms are described in clinical isolates from triazole-treated patients, some de novo resistance is also recognised, especially attributable to TR34 /L98H. Such strains probably arose in the environment, and, indeed, multiple studies have now demonstrated TR(34) /L98H triazole resistance strains of A. fumigatus from soil. Docking and other in vitro studies are consistent with environmental resistance induction through exposure to certain triazole fungicides, notably difenoconazole, propiconazole, epoxiconazole, bromuconazole and tebuconazole. This article addresses the potential implications of this issue for both human health and food security. PMID:23616354

Bowyer, Paul; Denning, David W

2014-02-01

146

Histopathological Implications of Aspergillus Infection in Lung  

PubMed Central

This paper opens with a discussion on the significance of invasive fungal infections in advanced contemporary medicine, with an emphasis on the intractability of disease management and the difficulties of diagnosis. This is followed by a discussion concerning classification, histopathological features, and pathophysiology. While it has been largely accepted that Aspergillus species is recognized by cellular receptors and attacked by neutrophils, the radiological and macroscopic findings linking infection with neutropenia remain unconfirmed. In an effort to gain a better understanding of the pathophysiology and pathogenesis of invasive aspergillosis, we wish to emphasize the utility of radiological and histopathological examinations since these can provide detailed information on the extremely complex interaction between the causative microbes and tissue responses. A review of noninvasive or semi-invasive aspergillosis is also provided, with particular emphasis on chronic necrotizing pulmonary aspergillosis, which is recognized as a transition form of simple pulmonary aspergilloma and invasive pulmonary aspergillosis, although few findings have been reported in this area. PMID:24347836

Tochigi, Naobumi; Okubo, Yoichiro; Ando, Tsunehiro; Wakayama, Megumi; Shinozaki, Minoru; Gocho, Kyoko; Hata, Yoshinobu; Ishiwatari, Takao; Nemoto, Tetsuo; Shibuya, Kazutoshi

2013-01-01

147

Phytochemicals and biological activities of poisonous genera of Ericaceae in China.  

PubMed

The family Ericaceae is comprised of about 70 genera of which about 20 are found throughout China. Of these Ledum, Rhododendron, Enkianthus, Pieris, Craibiodendron, Gaultheria, Vaccinium, and Leucothoe are regarded as poisonous. Many species of these poisonous genera are used as Chinese herbal medicines for the treatment of, for example, inflammation, asthma, and coughs. Modem research has demonstrated that the toxic ingredients of these poisonous genera are chiefly tetracyclic diterpenes, which have adverse effects on the digestive, cardiovascular and nervous systems. Because various species of these poisonous genera also have medicinal functions, extensive studies of these plants have led to the identification of many kinds of compound. This paper compiles 306 compounds from the eight poisonous genera, reported in 141 references. PMID:24689229

Wang, Xiaohong; Jiang, Rui; Liu, Zizhen; Liu, Weirui; Xie, Meng; Wei, Shengli; She, Gaimei

2014-03-01

148

Definition and Revision of the Orthrius-group of genera (Coleoptera, Cleridae, Clerinae)  

PubMed Central

Abstract An “Orthrius-group” of genera is proposed, and defined to include Aphelochroa Quedenfeldt, 1885; Caridopus Schenkling, 1908; Dozocolletus Chevrolat, 1842; Gyponyx Gorham, 1883; Languropilus Pic, 1940; Orthrius Gorham, 1876; Pieleus Pic, 1940; Xenorthrius Gorham, 1892; plus three new genera Neorthrius gen. n., Nonalatus gen. n. and Pseudoastigmus gen. n. A phylogeny of the 11 constituent Orthrius-group genera (analysis of 22 morphological characters using Clerus Geoffroy as the out-group taxon was performed with TNT v1.1) is proposed. Four genera are synonymised: Burgeonus Pic, 1950, syn. n. (with Aphelochroa Quedenfeldt, 1885); Brinckodes Winkler, 1960, syn. n. and Quasibrinckodes Winkler, 1960, syn. n. (both with Dozocolletus Chevrolat, 1842); and Dedana Fairmaire, 1888, syn. n. (with Orthrius Gorham, 1876). The genera Falsoorthrius Pic, 1940 and Mimorthrius Pic, 1940 are transferred from Clerinae to the subfamily Tillinae. PMID:21594111

Roland, Gerstmeier; Jonas, Eberle

2011-01-01

149

Heterologous expression of Gaeumannomyces graminis lipoxygenase in Aspergillus nidulans  

PubMed Central

Aspergillus sp. contain ppo genes coding for Ppo enzymes that produce oxylipins from polyunsaturated fatty acids. These oxylipins function as signal molecules in sporulation and influence the asexual to sexual ratio of Aspergillus sp. Fungi like Aspergillus nidulans and Aspergillus niger contain just ppo genes where the human pathogenic Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus fumigatus contain ppo genes as well as lipoxygenases. Lipoxygenases catalyze the synthesis of oxylipins and are hypothesized to be involved in quorum-sensing abilities and invading plant tissue. In this study we used A. nidulans WG505 as an expression host to heterologously express Gaeumannomyces graminis lipoxygenase. The presence of the recombinant LOX induced phenotypic changes in A. nidulans transformants. Also, a proteomic analysis of an A. nidulans LOX producing strain indicated that the heterologous protein was degraded before its glycosylation in the secretory pathway. We observed that the presence of LOX induced the specific production of aminopeptidase Y that possibly degrades the G. graminis lipoxygenase intercellularly. Also the presence of the protein thioredoxin reductase suggests that the G. graminis lipoxygenase is actively repressed in A. nidulans. PMID:25401068

2014-01-01

150

Phylogenetic and morphotaxonomic revision of Ramichloridium and allied genera  

PubMed Central

The phylogeny of the genera Periconiella, Ramichloridium, Rhinocladiella and Veronaea was explored by means of partial sequences of the 28S (LSU) rRNA gene and the ITS region (ITS1, 5.8S rDNA and ITS2). Based on the LSU sequence data, ramichloridium-like species segregate into eight distinct clusters. These include the Capnodiales (Mycosphaerellaceae and Teratosphaeriaceae), the Chaetothyriales (Herpotrichiellaceae), the Pleosporales, and five ascomycete clades with uncertain affinities. The type species of Ramichloridium, R. apiculatum, together with R. musae, R. biverticillatum, R. cerophilum, R. verrucosum, R. pini, and three new species isolated from Strelitzia, Musa and forest soil, respectively, reside in the Capnodiales clade. The human-pathogenic species R. mackenziei and R. basitonum, together with R. fasciculatum and R. anceps, cluster with Rhinocladiella (type species: Rh. atrovirens, Herpotrichiellaceae, Chaetothyriales), and are allocated to this genus. Veronaea botryosa, the type species of the genus Veronaea, also resides in the Chaetothyriales clade, whereas Veronaea simplex clusters as a sister taxon to the Venturiaceae (Pleosporales), and is placed in a new genus, Veronaeopsis. Ramichloridium obovoideum clusters with Carpoligna pleurothecii (anamorph: Pleurothecium sp., Chaetosphaeriales), and a new combination is proposed in Pleurothecium. Other ramichloridium-like clades include R. subulatum and R. epichloës (incertae sedis, Sordariomycetes), for which a new genus, Radulidium is erected. Ramichloridium schulzeri and its varieties are placed in a new genus, Myrmecridium (incertae sedis, Sordariomycetes). The genus Pseudovirgaria (incertae sedis) is introduced to accommodate ramichloridium-like isolates occurring on various species of rust fungi. A veronaea-like isolate from Bertia moriformis with phylogenetic affinity to the Annulatascaceae (Sordariomycetidae) is placed in a new genus, Rhodoveronaea. Besides Ramichloridium, Periconiella is also polyphyletic. Thysanorea is introduced to accommodate Periconiella papuana (Herpotrichiellaceae), which is unrelated to the type species, P. velutina (Mycosphaerellaceae). PMID:18490996

Arzanlou, M.; Groenewald, J.Z.; Gams, W.; Braun, U.; Shin, H.-D; Crous, P.W.

2007-01-01

151

Cross-talk between light and glucose regulation controls toxin production and morphogenesis in Aspergillus nidulans  

PubMed Central

Light is a major environmental stimulus that has a broad effect on organisms, triggering a cellular response that results in an optimal adaptation enhancing fitness and survival. In fungi, light affects growth, and causes diverse morphological changes such as those leading to reproduction. Light can also affect fungal metabolism, including the biosynthesis of natural products. In this study we show that in Aspergillus nidulans the effect of light on the production of the sterigmatocystin (ST) toxin depends on the glucose concentration. In cultures grown with 1% glucose and exposed to light, ST production was lower than when grown in the dark. This lower ST production coincided with an elevated rate of cellular damage with partial loss of nuclear integrity and vacuolated cytoplasm. However, in cultures grown with 2% glucose these effects were reversed and light enhanced ST production. Glucose abundance also affected the light-dependent subcellular localization of the VeA (velvet) protein, a key regulator necessary for normal light-dependent morphogenesis and secondary metabolism in Aspergilli and other fungal genera. The role of other VeA-associated proteins, particularly the blue light-sensing proteins LreA and LreB (WC-1 and WC-2 orthologs), on conidiation could also be modified by the abundance of glucose. We also show that LreA and LreB, as well as the phytochrome FphA, modulate not only the synthesis of sterigmatocystin, but also the production of the antibiotic penicillin. PMID:20816830

Atoui, A.; Kastner, C.; Larey, C.M.; Thokala, R.; Etxebeste, O.; Espeso, E.A.; Fischer, R.

2010-01-01

152

Improved enzyme production by co-cultivation of Aspergillus niger and Aspergillus oryzae and with other fungi  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aspergillus niger and Aspergillus oryzae were co-cultivated with each other and with Magnaporthe grisea or Phanerochaete chrysosporium, respectively. Enzyme assays for plant polysaccharide and lignin-degrading enzymes showed that co-cultivation can improve extracellular enzyme production. Highest ?-glucosidase, ?-cellobiohydrolase, ?-galactosidase, and laccase activities were found for A. oryzae in combination with other fungi, in particular with P. chrysosporium. Highest ?-xylosidase activity was

H. L. Hu; J. van den Brink; B. S. Gruben; H. A. B. Wösten; J.-D. Gu; R. P. de Vries

2011-01-01

153

Aspergillus Osteomyelitis: Epidemiology, Clinical Manifestations, Management, and Outcome  

PubMed Central

Background The epidemiology, pathogenesis, diagnosis, and management of Aspergillus osteomyelitis are not well understood. Methods Protocol-defined cases of Aspergillus osteomyelitis published in the English literature were reviewed for comorbidities, microbiology, mechanisms of infection, clinical manifestations, radiological findings, inflammatory biomarkers, antifungal therapy, and outcome. Results Among 180 evaluable patients, 127 (71%) were males. Possible predisposing medical conditions in 103 (57%) included pharmacological immunosuppression, primary immunodeficiency, and neutropenia. Seventy-three others (41%) had prior open fracture, trauma or surgery. Eighty (44%) followed a hematogenous mechanism, 58 (32%) contiguous infections, and 42 (23%) direct inoculation. Aspergillus osteomyelitis was the first manifestation of aspergillosis in 77%. Pain and tenderness were present in 80%. The most frequently infected sites were vertebrae (46%), cranium (23%), ribs (16%), and long bones (13%). Patients with vertebral Aspergillus osteomyelitis had more previous orthopedic surgery (19% vs 0%; P=0.02), while those with cranial osteomyelitis had more diabetes mellitus (32% vs 8%; P=0.002) and prior head/neck surgery (12% vs 0%; P=0.02). Radiologic findings included osteolysis, soft-tissue extension, and uptake on T2-weighted images. Vertebral body Aspergillus osteomyelitis was complicated by spinal-cord compression in 47% and neurological deficits in 41%. Forty-four patients (24%) received only antifungal therapy, while 121(67%) were managed with surgery and antifungal therapy. Overall mortality was 25%. Median duration of therapy was 90 days (range, 10–772 days). There were fewer relapses in patients managed with surgery plus antifungal therapy in comparison to those managed with antifungal therapy alone (8% vs 30%; P=0.006). Conclusions Aspergillus osteomyelitis is a debilitating infection affecting both immunocompromised and immunocompetent patients. The most common sites are vertebrae, ribs, and cranium. Based upon this comprehensive review, management of Aspergillus osteomyelitis optimally includes antifungal therapy and selective surgery to avoid relapse and to achieve a complete response. PMID:24378282

Gamaletsou, Maria N.; Rammaert, Blandine; Bueno, Marimelle A.; Moriyama, Brad; Sipsas, Nikolaos V.; Kontoyiannis, Dimitrios P.; Roilides, Emmanuel; Zeller, Valerie; Prinapori, Roberta; Tajaldeen, Saad Jaber; Brause, Barry; Lortholary, Olivier; Walsh, Thomas J.

2014-01-01

154

CROP ROTATION INFLUENCES AFLATOXIN PRODUCING POTENTIAL OF ASPERGILLUS COMMUNITIES IN SOUTH TEXAS  

E-print Network

CROP ROTATION INFLUENCES AFLATOXIN PRODUCING POTENTIAL OF ASPERGILLUS COMMUNITIES IN SOUTH TEXAS Tucson, AZ Abstract Aspergillus flavus, the causal agent of aflatoxin contamination, is a natural a greater aflatoxin contamination potential than L strain isolates. Aflatoxin contamination can be severe

Cotty, Peter J.

155

21 CFR 173.120 - Carbohydrase and cellulase derived from Aspergillus niger.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...PERMITTED IN FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION Enzyme Preparations and Microorganisms § 173...Aspergillus niger. Carbohydrase and cellulase enzyme preparation derived from Aspergillus niger... from the carbohydrase and cellulase enzyme product. (d) The additive is...

2014-04-01

156

21 CFR 173.120 - Carbohydrase and cellulase derived from Aspergillus niger.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...PERMITTED IN FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION Enzyme Preparations and Microorganisms § 173...Aspergillus niger. Carbohydrase and cellulase enzyme preparation derived from Aspergillus niger... from the carbohydrase and cellulase enzyme product. (d) The additive is...

2011-04-01

157

21 CFR 173.120 - Carbohydrase and cellulase derived from Aspergillus niger.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...PERMITTED IN FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION Enzyme Preparations and Microorganisms § 173...Aspergillus niger. Carbohydrase and cellulase enzyme preparation derived from Aspergillus niger... from the carbohydrase and cellulase enzyme product. (d) The additive is...

2013-04-01

158

21 CFR 173.120 - Carbohydrase and cellulase derived from Aspergillus niger.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...PERMITTED IN FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION Enzyme Preparations and Microorganisms § 173...Aspergillus niger. Carbohydrase and cellulase enzyme preparation derived from Aspergillus niger... from the carbohydrase and cellulase enzyme product. (d) The additive is...

2012-04-01

159

Expression of the Aspergillus terreus itaconic acid biosynthesis cluster in Aspergillus niger  

PubMed Central

Background Aspergillus terreus is a natural producer of itaconic acid and is currently used to produce itaconic acid on an industrial scale. The metabolic process for itaconic acid biosynthesis is very similar to the production of citric acid in Aspergillus niger. However, a key enzyme in A. niger, cis-aconitate decarboxylase, is missing. The introduction of the A. terreus cadA gene in A. niger exploits the high level of citric acid production (over 200 g per liter) and theoretically can lead to production levels of over 135 g per liter of itaconic acid in A. niger. Given the potential for higher production levels in A. niger, production of itaconic acid in this host was investigated. Results Expression of Aspergillus terreus cis-aconitate decarboxylase in Aspergillus niger resulted in the production of a low concentration (0.05 g/L) of itaconic acid. Overexpression of codon-optimized genes for cis-aconitate decarboxylase, a mitochondrial transporter and a plasma membrane transporter in an oxaloacetate hydrolase and glucose oxidase deficient A. niger strain led to highly increased yields and itaconic acid production titers. At these higher production titers, the effect of the mitochondrial and plasma membrane transporters was much more pronounced, with levels being 5–8 times higher than previously described. Conclusions Itaconic acid can be produced in A. niger by the introduction of the A. terreus cis-aconitate decarboxylase encoding cadA gene. This results in a low itaconic acid production level, which can be increased by codon-optimization of the cadA gene for A. niger. A second crucial requirement for efficient production of itaconic acid is the expression of the A. terreus mttA gene, encoding a putative mitochondrial transporter. Expression of this transporter results in a twenty-fold increase in the secretion of itaconic acid. Expression of the A. terreus itaconic acid cluster consisting of the cadA gene, the mttA gene and the mfsA gene results in A. niger strains that produce over twenty five-fold higher levels of itaconic acid and show a twenty-fold increase in yield compared to a strain expressing only CadA. PMID:24438100

2014-01-01

160

THE ASPERGILLUS OCHRACEUS GROUP: TWO NEW SPECIES FROM WESTERN SOILS AND A SYNOPTIC KEY  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two new species in the Aspergillus ochraceus group are described and compared to related taxa. Aspergillus bridgeri, from soils collected in a native community dominated by Atriplex gardneri in Wyoming, somewhat resembles A. elegans and A. lanosus, but differs in cultural and morphological details. Aspergillus campestris, from a native prairie in northern North Dakota, resembles A. dimorphicus in having metulae

MARTHA CHRISTENSEN

161

Sequencing of Aspergillus nidulans and comparative analysis with A. fumigatus and A. oryzae  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aspergilli comprise a diverse group of filamentous fungi spanning over 200 million years of evolution. Here we report the genome sequence of the model organism Aspergillus nidulans, and a comparative study with Aspergillus fumigatus, a serious human pathogen, and Aspergillus oryzae, used in the production of sake, miso and soy sauce. Our analysis of genome structure provided a quantitative

James E. Galagan; Sarah E. Calvo; Christina Cuomo; Li-Jun Ma; Jennifer R. Wortman; Serafim Batzoglou; Su-In Lee; Meray Bastürkmen; Christina C. Spevak; John Clutterbuck; Vladimir Kapitonov; Jerzy Jurka; Claudio Scazzocchio; Mark Farman; Jonathan Butler; Seth Purcell; Steve Harris; Gerhard H. Braus; Oliver Draht; Silke Busch; Christophe D'Enfert; Christiane Bouchier; Gustavo H. Goldman; Deborah Bell-Pedersen; Sam Griffiths-Jones; John H. Doonan; Jaehyuk Yu; Kay Vienken; Arnab Pain; Michael Freitag; Eric U. Selker; David B. Archer; Miguel Á. Peńalva; Berl R. Oakley; Michelle Momany; Toshihiro Tanaka; Toshitaka Kumagai; Kiyoshi Asai; Masayuki Machida; William C. Nierman; David W. Denning; Mark Caddick; Michael Hynes; Mathieu Paoletti; Reinhard Fischer; Bruce Miller; Paul Dyer; Matthew S. Sachs; Stephen A. Osmani; Bruce W. Birren

2005-01-01

162

A Taxonomic Review of the Genera of the Aphelenchoidea (Fuchs, 1937) Thorne, 1949 (Nematoda: Tylenchida)  

PubMed Central

This generic level taxonomic review of the nematode superfamily Aphelenchoidea is based upon a study of specimens from 24 of the 28 described genera. The diagnoses of these genera are presented, and some are emended with new information. One new genus, Huntaphelenchoides, and five new combinations are proposed. The families Paraphelenchidae and Anomyctidae are placed in synonymy with Aphelenchidae and Aphelenchoididae, respectively. The genera Asteroaphelenchoides and Pseudaphelencboides are placed in synonymy under the genus Aphelenchoides. Rare male and/or female specimens of Peraphelenchus, Anomyctus, Laimaphelenchus, Aphelenchus, Cryptaphelenchoides, Megadorus, Tylaphelenchus, and Entaphelenchus, are redescribed and illustrated. Four plates, containing 106 original drawings of the males, females, stylets, and spicules of representatives of 22 aphelenchoid genera, are presented. PMID:19322328

Nickle, W. R.

1970-01-01

163

A World Wide Web key to the grass genera of Texas  

E-print Network

An illustrated dichotomous key to the grass genera of Texas is presented in hypertext markup language (HTML) format. The key combines scanned images of inflorescences, digitized images of dissected spikelets, text descriptions and descriptive...

Dawson, John Edward

2012-06-07

164

Key to the recognition of normapolles and some morphologically similar pollen genera  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A dichotomous key to the recognition of 86 Normapolles and morphologically similar pollen genera is presented. The key is accompanied by line drawings of each genus and an illustrated glossary of descriptive terms. ?? 1981.

Batten, D.J.; Christopher, R.A.

1981-01-01

165

Molecular Reappraisal of Relationships Between Crataegus and Mespilus (Rosaceae, Pyreae)--Two Genera or One?  

E-print Network

Molecular Reappraisal of Relationships Between Crataegus and Mespilus (Rosaceae, Pyreae Editor: James F. Smith ABSTRACT. Mespilus and Crataegus are sister genera in Rosaceae tribe Pyreae within Rosaceae tribe Pyreae Baill. (formerly treated as subfamily Maloideae). Several molecular

166

A Case Report on Aspergillus lentulus Pneumonia  

PubMed Central

Background: Aspergillus lentulus was described as a new species in 2005 but it was isolated from Turkey for the first time. Case report: A. lentulus was isolated as the cause of pneumonia from a patient who had renal transplantation 4 months ago. The patient received immunosuppressive treatment after transplantation. A. lentulus was isolated from his sputum as an agent in pneumonia developed 4 months after the transplantation. Leukocytes, blastospores, and hyphae were seen in both Gram- and Giemsastained smears of the sputum. The isolate was identified by using the Maren A. Klich algorithm and molecular methods and confirmed by the reference laboratory of the CBS Fungal Biodiversity Centre (The Netherlands). In the susceptibility tests of the isolate, minimal inhibitory concentrations for amphotericin B, voriconazole, posaconazole, and caspofungin were found to be 0.5 ?g/mL, 0.25 ?g/mL, 0.125 ?g/mL, and 0.25 ?g/mL, respectively. The patient recovered with voriconazole treatment (2×200 mg/day). Conclusion: The use of the molecular tests is important for identification of A. lentulus strains because they are very easily confused with A.fumigatus strains according to phenotypic characteristics. PMID:25207153

Gürcan, ?aban; Tikve?li, Melek; Üstünda?, Sedat; Ener, Beyza

2013-01-01

167

Genetics of Polyketide Metabolism in Aspergillus nidulans  

PubMed Central

Secondary metabolites are small molecules that show large structural diversity and a broad range of bioactivities. Some metabolites are attractive as drugs or pigments while others act as harmful mycotoxins. Filamentous fungi have the capacity to produce a wide array of secondary metabolites including polyketides. The majority of genes required for production of these metabolites are mostly organized in gene clusters, which often are silent or barely expressed under laboratory conditions, making discovery and analysis difficult. Fortunately, the genome sequences of several filamentous fungi are publicly available, greatly facilitating the establishment of links between genes and metabolites. This review covers the attempts being made to trigger the activation of polyketide metabolism in the fungal model organism Aspergillus nidulans. Moreover, it will provide an overview of the pathways where ten polyketide synthase genes have been coupled to polyketide products. Therefore, the proposed biosynthesis of the following metabolites will be presented; naphthopyrone, sterigmatocystin, aspyridones, emericellamides, asperthecin, asperfuranone, monodictyphenone/emodin, orsellinic acid, and the austinols. PMID:24957370

Klejnstrup, Marie L.; Frandsen, Rasmus J. N.; Holm, Dorte K.; Nielsen, Morten T.; Mortensen, Uffe H.; Larsen, Thomas O.; Nielsen, Jakob B.

2012-01-01

168

Fingernail Onychomycosis Due to Aspergillus niger.  

PubMed

Onychomycosis is usually caused by dermatophytes, but some species of nondermatophytic molds and yeasts are also associated with nail invasion. Aspergillus niger is a nondermatophytic mold which exists as an opportunistic filamentous fungus in all environments. Here, we report a case of onychomycosis caused by A. niger in a 66-year-old female. The patient presented with a black discoloration and a milky white base and onycholysis on the proximal portion of the right thumb nail. Direct microscopic examination of scrapings after potassium hydroxide (KOH) preparation revealed dichotomous septate hyphae. Repeated cultures on Sabouraud's dextrose agar (SDA) without cycloheximide produced the same black velvety colonies. No colony growth occurred on SDA with cycloheximide slants. Biseriate phialides covering the entire vesicle with radiate conidial heads were observed on the slide culture. The DNA sequence of the internal transcribed spacer region of the clinical sample was a 100% match to that of A. niger strain ATCC 16888 (GenBank accession number AY373852). A. niger was confirmed by KOH mount, colony identification, light microscopic morphology, and DNA sequence analysis. The patient was treated orally with 250 mg terbinafine daily and topical amorolfine 5% nail lacquer for 3 months. As a result, the patient was completely cured clinically and mycologically. PMID:23197914

Kim, Dong Min; Suh, Moo Kyu; Ha, Gyoung Yim; Sohng, Seung Hyun

2012-11-01

169

Biodegradation of anthracene by Aspergillus fumigatus.  

PubMed

An anthracene-degrading strain, identified as Aspergillus fumigatus, showed a favorable ability in degradation of anthracene. The degradation efficiency could be maintained at about 60% after 5d with initial pH of the medium kept between 5 and 7.5, and the optimal temperature of 30 °C. The activity of this strain was not affected significantly by high salinity. Exploration on co-metabolism showed that the highest degradation efficiency was reached at equal concentration of lactose and anthracene. Excessive carbon source would actually hamper the degradation efficiency. Meanwhile, the strain could utilize some aromatic hydrocarbons such as benzene, toluene, phenol etc. as sole source of carbon and energy, indicating its degradation diversity. Experiments on enzymatic degradation indicated that extracellular enzymes secreted by A. fumigatus could metabolize anthracene effectively, in which the lignin peroxidase may be the most important constituent. Analysis of ion chromatography showed that the release of anions of A. fumigatus was not affected by addition of anthracene. GC-MS analysis revealed that the molecular structure of anthracene changed with the action of the microbe, generating a series of intermediate compounds such as phthalic anhydride, anthrone and anthraquinone by ring-cleavage reactions. PMID:20932640

Ye, Jin-Shao; Yin, Hua; Qiang, Jing; Peng, Hui; Qin, Hua-Ming; Zhang, Na; He, Bao-Yan

2011-01-15

170

A new genus of fossil Mymaridae (Hymenoptera) from Cretaceous amber and key to Cretaceous mymarid genera.  

PubMed

Myanmymar aresconoidesgen n., sp. n. is described from one female in Burmese amber, dated as about 100 my. It is similar to Arescon on wing features but is unique among Mymaridae in having distinctly segmented palpi. It is the fifth mymarid genus definitely referable to the Cretaceous period. A key to Cretaceous mymarid genera is presented and the features of Myanmymar are compared with the other Cretaceous and extant mymarid genera. PMID:22259293

Poinar, George; Huber, John T

2011-01-01

171

Fungal life in the dead sea.  

PubMed

The waters of the Dead Sea currently contain about 348 g/l salts (2 M Mg(2+), 0.5 M Ca(2+), 1.5 M Na(+), 0.2 M K(+), 6.5 M Cl(-), 0.1 M Br(-)). The pH is about 6.0. After rainy winters the surface waters become diluted, triggering development of microbial blooms. The 1980 and 1992 blooms were dominated by the unicellular green alga Dunaliella and red Archaea. At least 70 species (in 26 genera) of Oomycota (Chromista), Mucoromycotina, Ascomycota, and Basidiomycota (Fungi) were isolated from near-shore localities and offshore stations, including from deep waters. Aspergillus and Eurotium were most often recovered. Aspergillus terreus, A. sydowii, A. versicolor, Eurotium herbariorum, Penicillium westlingii, Cladosporium cladosporioides, C. sphaerospermum, C. ramnotellum, and C. halotolerans probably form the stable core of the community. The species Gymnascella marismortui may be endemic. Mycelia of Dead Sea isolates of A. versicolor and Chaetomium globosum remained viable for up to 8 weeks in Dead Sea water; mycelia of other species survived for many weeks in 50% Dead Sea water. Many isolates showed a very high tolerance to magnesium salts. There is no direct proof that fungi contribute to the heterotrophic activity in the Dead Sea, but fungi may be present at least locally and temporarily, and their enzymatic activities such as amylase, protease, and cellulase may play a role in the lake's ecosystem. PMID:22222829

Oren, Aharon; Gunde-Cimerman, Nina

2012-01-01

172

[Hypersensitivity pneumonitis induced by Aspergillus niger--a case report].  

PubMed

A 52-year-old woman was hospitalized because of severe cough in August 1994. She had engaged in culturing roses in greenhouses since 1968, and had developed a cough during the summer of 1990. Chest radiography showed diffuse ground-glass opacity in both lung fields, and she suffered from hypoxemia (PaO2 = 45.6 torr) while breathing room air. The lymphocyte count in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid was increased, and transbronchial lung biopsy specimens showed lymphocyte alveolitis in the alveolar spaces. After admission, the patient's symptoms improved rapidly without medication. However, on her return to work, the cough and hypoxemia reappeared. In her rose culture, she had used Rockwool, and Aspergillus niger was detected predominantly in the Rockwool. Precipitins against the extracts of Aspergillus niger were detected with the double immunodiffusion test and the inhalation provocation test yielded clinical symptoms. Our diagnosis was hypersensitivity pneumonitis caused by Aspergillus niger. PMID:15357273

Miyazaki, Hiroo; Gemma, Hitoshi; Uemura, Keiichi; Ono, Takahisa; Masuda, Masafumi; Sano, Takehisa; Sato, Masaki; Koshimizu, Naoki; Suda, Takafumi; Chida, Kingo

2004-07-01

173

[Aspergillus serology, from yesterday to today for tomorrow].  

PubMed

Anti-Aspergillus antibody detection has been performed for over 50 years for the diagnosis of different chronic Aspergillus infections, starting with aspergilloma and later with chronic necrotizing pulmonary aspergillosis. It also enters into definition criteria for allergic broncho-pulmonary aspergillosis and contributes to the initial diagnosis of the aspergillosis, to the follow-up under treatment or to the detection of exacerbations. For the acute invasive aspergillosis, antibody detection has low interest compared to galactomannan antigen detection. Serology results have to be interpreted together with other clinical, radiological and biological, mycological criteria. This review describes the origins, the technical evolutions and the current place of Aspergillus serology in France. Finally, future improvements are discussed. PMID:23177817

Persat, F

2012-03-01

174

Sequencing of mitochondrial genomes of nine Aspergillus and Penicillium species identifies mobile introns and accessory genes as main sources of genome size variability  

PubMed Central

Background The genera Aspergillus and Penicillium include some of the most beneficial as well as the most harmful fungal species such as the penicillin-producer Penicillium chrysogenum and the human pathogen Aspergillus fumigatus, respectively. Their mitochondrial genomic sequences may hold vital clues into the mechanisms of their evolution, population genetics, and biology, yet only a handful of these genomes have been fully sequenced and annotated. Results Here we report the complete sequence and annotation of the mitochondrial genomes of six Aspergillus and three Penicillium species: A. fumigatus, A. clavatus, A. oryzae, A. flavus, Neosartorya fischeri (A. fischerianus), A. terreus, P. chrysogenum, P. marneffei, and Talaromyces stipitatus (P. stipitatum). The accompanying comparative analysis of these and related publicly available mitochondrial genomes reveals wide variation in size (25–36 Kb) among these closely related fungi. The sources of genome expansion include group I introns and accessory genes encoding putative homing endonucleases, DNA and RNA polymerases (presumed to be of plasmid origin) and hypothetical proteins. The two smallest sequenced genomes (A. terreus and P. chrysogenum) do not contain introns in protein-coding genes, whereas the largest genome (T. stipitatus), contains a total of eleven introns. All of the sequenced genomes have a group I intron in the large ribosomal subunit RNA gene, suggesting that this intron is fixed in these species. Subsequent analysis of several A. fumigatus strains showed low intraspecies variation. This study also includes a phylogenetic analysis based on 14 concatenated core mitochondrial proteins. The phylogenetic tree has a different topology from published multilocus trees, highlighting the challenges still facing the Aspergillus systematics. Conclusions The study expands the genomic resources available to fungal biologists by providing mitochondrial genomes with consistent annotations for future genetic, evolutionary and population studies. Despite the conservation of the core genes, the mitochondrial genomes of Aspergillus and Penicillium species examined here exhibit significant amount of interspecies variation. Most of this variation can be attributed to accessory genes and mobile introns, presumably acquired by horizontal gene transfer of mitochondrial plasmids and intron homing. PMID:23234273

2012-01-01

175

The complete nucleotide sequence of a totivirus from Aspergillus foetidus.  

PubMed

Virus infection of Aspergillus foetidus was first described in the 1970s, and the purified virus, named Aspergillus foetidus virus (AfV), contains at least two types of icosahedral particles, called AfV-fast (-F) and AfV-slow (-S) virions, based on their relative electrophoretic mobilities. AfV-S consists of a mixture of two viruses, the larger of which, called AfV-S1, is a dsRNA-containing member of the genus Victorivirus in the family Totiviridae, and its complete nucleotide sequence is described here. PMID:22729614

Kozlakidis, Zisis; Herrero, Noemi; Coutts, Robert H A

2013-01-01

176

Humoral immunity in disseminated Aspergillus terreus infection in the dog.  

PubMed

Aspects of humoral immunity were studied in 17 dogs with disseminated aspergillosis (16 cases Aspergillus terreus, 1 case Aspergillus flavipes). All dogs had markedly raised serum IgG levels by single radial immunodiffusion (range 1500-6000 mg dl-1). Despite this, serum antibody to A. terreus was demonstrated in only 7/16 cases by agar gel diffusion, 9/16 cases by counter immunoelectrophoresis, 10/16 by ELISA and 11/16 by an indirect immunofluorescence assay. Serum antibody was also detected in 2/5 clinically normal relatives of 2 cases, indicating previous exposure or subclinical infection. PMID:3131949

Day, M J; Penhale, W J

1988-03-01

177

Polyphasic taxonomy of Aspergillus section Fumigati and its teleomorph Neosartorya  

PubMed Central

The taxonomy of Aspergillus section Fumigati with its teleomorph genus Neosartorya is revised. The species concept is based on phenotypic (morphology and extrolite profiles) and molecular (?-tubulin and calmodulin gene sequences) characters in a polyphasic approach. Four new taxa are proposed: N. australensis N. ferenczii, N. papuaensis and N. warcupii. All newly described and accepted species are illustrated. The section consists of 33 taxa: 10 strictly anamorphic Aspergillus species and 23 Neosartorya species. Four other Neosartorya species described previously were not available for this monograph, and consequently are relegated to the category of doubtful species. PMID:18490953

Samson, R.A.; Hong, S.; Peterson, S.W.; Frisvad, J.C.; Varga, J.

2007-01-01

178

Identification of glucose transporters in Aspergillus nidulans.  

PubMed

To characterize the mechanisms involved in glucose transport, in the filamentous fungus Aspergillus nidulans, we have identified four glucose transporter encoding genes hxtB-E. We evaluated the ability of hxtB-E to functionally complement the Saccharomyces cerevisiae EBY.VW4000 strain that is unable to grow on glucose, fructose, mannose or galactose as single carbon source. In S. cerevisiae HxtB-E were targeted to the plasma membrane. The expression of HxtB, HxtC and HxtE was able to restore growth on glucose, fructose, mannose or galactose, indicating that these transporters accept multiple sugars as a substrate through an energy dependent process. A tenfold excess of unlabeled maltose, galactose, fructose, and mannose were able to inhibit glucose uptake to different levels (50 to 80 %) in these s. cerevisiae complemented strains. Moreover, experiments with cyanide-m-chlorophenylhydrazone (CCCP), strongly suggest that hxtB, -C, and -E mediate glucose transport via active proton symport. The A. nidulans ?hxtB, ?hxtC or ?hxtE null mutants showed ~2.5-fold reduction in the affinity for glucose, while ?hxtB and -C also showed a 2-fold reduction in the capacity for glucose uptake. The ?hxtD mutant had a 7.8-fold reduction in affinity, but a 3-fold increase in the capacity for glucose uptake. However, only the ?hxtB mutant strain showed a detectable decreased rate of glucose consumption at low concentrations and an increased resistance to 2-deoxyglucose. PMID:24282591

Dos Reis, Thaila Fernanda; Menino, Joăo Filipe; Bom, Vinícius Leite Pedro; Brown, Neil Andrew; Colabardini, Ana Cristina; Savoldi, Marcela; Goldman, Maria Helena S; Rodrigues, Fernando; Goldman, Gustavo Henrique

2013-01-01

179

Identification of Glucose Transporters in Aspergillus nidulans  

PubMed Central

To characterize the mechanisms involved in glucose transport, in the filamentous fungus Aspergillus nidulans, we have identified four glucose transporter encoding genes hxtB-E. We evaluated the ability of hxtB-E to functionally complement the Saccharomyces cerevisiae EBY.VW4000 strain that is unable to grow on glucose, fructose, mannose or galactose as single carbon source. In S. cerevisiae HxtB-E were targeted to the plasma membrane. The expression of HxtB, HxtC and HxtE was able to restore growth on glucose, fructose, mannose or galactose, indicating that these transporters accept multiple sugars as a substrate through an energy dependent process. A tenfold excess of unlabeled maltose, galactose, fructose, and mannose were able to inhibit glucose uptake to different levels (50 to 80 %) in these s. cerevisiae complemented strains. Moreover, experiments with cyanide-m-chlorophenylhydrazone (CCCP), strongly suggest that hxtB, -C, and –E mediate glucose transport via active proton symport. The A. nidulans ?hxtB, ?hxtC or ?hxtE null mutants showed ~2.5-fold reduction in the affinity for glucose, while ?hxtB and -C also showed a 2-fold reduction in the capacity for glucose uptake. The ?hxtD mutant had a 7.8-fold reduction in affinity, but a 3-fold increase in the capacity for glucose uptake. However, only the ?hxtB mutant strain showed a detectable decreased rate of glucose consumption at low concentrations and an increased resistance to 2-deoxyglucose. PMID:24282591

dos Reis, Thaila Fernanda; Menino, Joăo Filipe; Bom, Vinícius Leite Pedro; Brown, Neil Andrew; Colabardini, Ana Cristina; Savoldi, Marcela; Goldman, Maria Helena S.; Rodrigues, Fernando; Goldman, Gustavo Henrique

2013-01-01

180

Microbial succession in the traditional Chinese Luzhou-flavor liquor fermentation process as evaluated by SSU rRNA profiles.  

PubMed

The community succession of microbes inhabited in the fermenting lees of Luzhou-flavor liquor was investigated based on small-subunit rRNA culture independent method. All sequences recovered from fermenting lees respectively fell into the genera of Lactobacillus, Streptococcus, Bacillus, Staphylococcus, Clostridium, Pelobacter, Actobacter, Serratia, Burkholderia, Rhodoccous, Corynebacterium, Arthrobacter, Microbacterium, Curtobacterium, Leptotrichia, Methanocuuleus, Saccharomyces, Zygosaccharomyces, Saccharomycopsis, Pichia, Talaromyces, Aspergillus, Eurotium, Fomitopsis and Trichosporon. The fungal Pichia, Saccharomycopsis and Talaromyces were most abundant in the lees fermented for 1 day, the fungal Eurotium and the bacteria Burkholderia, Streptococcus and Lactobacillus were dominant in the lees fermented for 7 days, only the bacteria Lactobacillus, Burkholderia were prevalent in the lees fermented for 60 days. Most genera almost existed in the fermenting lees, while their distributions were significantly different in 1, 7 and 60 days fermented lees. The prokaryotic community similarity coefficient was from 0.5000 to 0.5455 and followed to 0.1523, and that of eukaryotic community was from 0.5466 to 0.5259 and to 0.3750 when compared at species level. These results suggested that many microbes in lees have community successions associated with fermenting and that such successions maybe contribute the fermentation process of Luzhou-flavor liquor and is main reasons that the characteristic flavor factors are produced. PMID:23180546

Xiang, Wenliang; Li, Ke; Liu, Seng; Xing, Yage; Li, Mingyuan; Che, Zhenming

2013-03-01

181

Molecular phylogeny of Subtribe Artemisiinae (Asteraceae), including Artemisia and its allied and segregate genera  

PubMed Central

Background Subtribe Artemisiinae of Tribe Anthemideae (Asteraceae) is composed of 18 largely Asian genera that include the sagebrushes and mugworts. The subtribe includes the large cosmopolitan, wind-pollinated genus Artemisia, as well as several smaller genera and Seriphidium, that altogether comprise the Artemisia-group. Circumscription and taxonomic boundaries of Artemisia and the placements of these small segregate genera is currently unresolved. Results We constructed a molecular phylogeny for the subtribe using the internal transcribed spacers (ITS) of nuclear ribosomal DNA analyzed with parsimony, likelihood, and Bayesian criteria. The resulting tree is comprised of three major clades that correspond to the radiate genera (e.g., Arctanthemum and Dendranthema), and two clades of Artemisia species. All three clades have allied and segregate genera embedded within each. Conclusions The data support a broad concept of Artemisia s.l. that includes Neopallasia, Crossostephium, Filifolium, Seriphidium, and Sphaeromeria. However, the phylogeny excludes Elachanthemum, Kaschgaria, and Stilnolepis from the Artemisia-group. Additionally, the monophyly of the four subgenera of Artemisia is also not supported, with the exception of subg. Dracunculus. Homogamous, discoid capitula appear to have arisen in parallel four to seven times, with the loss of ray florets. Thus capitular morphology is not a reliable taxonomic character, which traditionally has been one of the defining characters. PMID:12350234

Watson, Linda E; Bates, Paul L; Evans, Timothy M; Unwin, Matthew M; Estes, James R

2002-01-01

182

ORIGINAL ARTICLE Impact of Aspergillus section Flavi community structure  

E-print Network

of lethal levels of aflatoxins in Kenyan maize (Zea mays) C. Probst1 , F. Schulthess2 and P.J. Cotty1,3 1 is a primary avenue through which humans in Africa become exposed to aflatoxins (Egal et al. 2005; Shephard 2008). Aflatoxins are meta- bolites produced by several Aspergillus species. These meta- bolites

Cotty, Peter J.

183

Evidence of aneuploidy modulating aflatoxigenicity in Aspergillus flavus  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Aspergillus flavus is a well-known pathogen of many important agricultural commodities and is a major producer of aflatoxins, which are carcinogenic polyketides that pose a serious health risk to humans and animals. Aflatoxin contamination in peanut exports worldwide accounts for as much as $450 mi...

184

POPULATION OF ASPERGILLUS FLAVUS ON PISTACHIO BUDS AND FLOWERS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Aspergillus flavus Link is an economically important fungus which produces carcinogenic compounds known as aflatoxins in agricultural crops such as corn, peanuts, cotton and tree nuts. The fungus has no known sexual stage; consequently, most studies on its genetic variability have been evaluated m...

185

Characterization of toxigenic and atoxigenic Aspergillus flavus isolates from pistachio  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Thirty eight Aspergillus flavus isolates collected from a pistachio orchard in California were analyzed for production of aflatoxin (AF), cyclopiazonic acid (CPA), vegetative compatibility groups (VCGs) and mating types. All toxigenic isolates produced both AFB1 and CPA. Twenty-one percent of the i...

186

Hypersensitivity pneumonitis resulting from Aspergillus fumigatus in a greenhouse.  

PubMed

A 57-y-old female who had cultivated vegetables in a plastic greenhouse developed a case of hypersensitivity pneumonitis from Aspergillus fumigatus. This report exemplifies a potential hazard caused by a thermotolerant fungus, A. fumigatus, in a poorly constructed greenhouse. PMID:8357277

Yoshida, K; Ueda, A; Yamasaki, H; Sato, K; Uchida, K; Ando, M

1993-01-01

187

Absorbed substrate fermentation for pectinase production with Aspergillus niger  

Microsoft Academic Search

A 130 litre packed-bed bioreactor was used for pectinase production with Aspergillus niger using absorbed substrate fermentation techniques. Pectinolytic enzyme activity and relative CO2 production were used as indicators of metabolic activity. Absorbed substrate fermentation is an efficient process for pectinase production and is also an interesting model because the culture medium, water, nutrients and specific inducers, can be designed

S. Huerta; E. Favela; R. López-Ulibarri; A. Fonseca; G. Viniegra-González; M. Gutiérrez-Rojas

1994-01-01

188

Factors regulating production of glucose oxidase by Aspergillus niger  

Microsoft Academic Search

Certain factors affecting production of extracellular and cell-bound glucose oxidase by Aspergillus niger were investigated. The intention was to maximize total glucose oxidase activity of academic and potential commercial application by the selection of the appropriate strain and consecutive optimization of growth media and conditions. It was possible to identify combinations resulting in the utilization of molasses as the best

D. G. Hatzinikolaou; B. J. Macris

1995-01-01

189

Hydrolase production by Aspergillus niger in solid-state cultivation  

Microsoft Academic Search

A production of macerating enzymes which liquefy and hydrolyze the mandarin orange peel was studied in a solid state cultivation of Aspergillus niger on wheat bran substrate. Solid state cultivation in a 2 l drum fermenter capable of interchangeable operation under dynamic or static conditions were carried out maintaining the moisture content of the substrate at 32, 39, 46, 56,

Naomichi Nishio; Kiyoshi Tai; Shiro Nagai

1979-01-01

190

Chemosensitization prevents tolerance of Aspergillus fumigatus to antimycotic drugs  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Tolerance of human pathogenic fungi to antifungal drugs is an emerging medical problem. We show how strains of the causative agent of human aspergillosis, Aspergillus fumigatus, tolerant to cell wall-interfering antimycotic drugs become susceptible through chemosensitization by natural compounds. To...

191

Purdue extensionAspergillus Ear Rot Purdue extension  

E-print Network

causes Aspergillus ear rot, one of the most important diseases in corn. The fungus pro- duces a mycotoxin to livestock 3. Mycotoxin testing 4. How to minimize losses and handle diseased grain after harvest 5. How these levels. detecting Mycotoxins An ultraviolet lamp, or black light, is often used as an initial screen

Holland, Jeffrey

192

Bioleaching of spent fluid catalytic cracking catalyst using Aspergillus niger  

Microsoft Academic Search

The use of the fungus Aspergillus niger for the bioleaching of heavy metals from spent catalyst was investigated, with fluid catalytic cracking (FCC) catalyst as a model. Bioleaching was examined in batch cultures with the spent catalysts at various pulp densities (1–12%). Chemical leaching was also performed using mineral acids (sulphuric and nitric acids) and organic acids (citric, oxalic and

Khin Moh Moh Aung; Yen-Peng Ting

2005-01-01

193

The maize rachis affects Aspergillus flavus movement during ear development  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Aspergillus flavus expressing green fluorescent protein (GFP) was used to follow infection in ears of maize hybrids resistant and susceptible to the fungus. Developing ears were needle-inoculated with GFP-transformed A. flavus 20 days after silk emergence, and GFP fluorescence in the pith was evalu...

194

Telomere-mediated chromosomal truncation in Aspergillus oryzae.  

PubMed

We truncated the short arm of chromosome 3 to delete the aflatoxin biosynthesis gene homolog cluster using telomeric repeats in Aspergillus oryzae. The predicted deletion was confirmed by Southern blot analyses. This telomere-mediated chromosomal truncation method enables the development of an artificial chromosome in A. oryzae. PMID:25034635

Tada, Sawaki; Ohkuchi, Hikaru; Matsushita-Morita, Mayumi; Furukawa, Ikuyo; Hattori, Ryota; Suzuki, Satoshi; Kashiwagi, Yutaka; Kusumoto, Ken-Ichi

2015-01-01

195

Colonization of an Intralobar Pulmonary Sequestration by Aspergillus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aspergillus is an opportunistic fungus that usually colonizes preexisting lung cavities, especially tuberculous ones. Colonization of a pulmonary sequestration by this germ is exceptional, with just 14 cases reported in the world literature, most of them in Asia. A case is presented of a 48-year-old woman with pleuritic thoracic pain. Simple chest radiology revealed a lower right pulmonary tumor with

Ríos A. Zambudio; Roca M. J. Calvo; Polo L. A. García; Torres J. Lanzas; Panilla P. Paricio

2003-01-01

196

Kitchens as a source of Aspergillus niger infection  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study we investigated the epidemiology of a cluster of cutaneous infections owing to Aspergillus niger, which occurred in neutropenic patients in a bone marrow transplant unit. Heavy environmental contamination with the mould was found in the ward kitchen adjacent to the unit. The clinical and environmental isolates were typed by random amplification of polymorphic DNA (RAPD), which showed

K. W. Loudon; A. P. Coke; J. P. Burnie; A. J. Shaw; B. A. Oppenheim; C. Q. Morris

1996-01-01

197

Method for Measuring Postantifungal Effect in Aspergillus Species  

Microsoft Academic Search

An in vitro method for determination of postantifungal effect (PAFE) in molds was developed by using three isolates each of Aspergillus fumigatus, A. flavus, A. terreus, A. nidulans, and A. ustus. MICs of amphotericin B and itraconazole were determined by using National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards guidelines (M38-P). The inoculum was prepared in RPMI 1640 broth buffered with MOPS

Roxana G. Vitale; Johan W. Mouton; Javier Afeltra; Jacques F. G. M. Meis; Paul E. Verweij

2002-01-01

198

Azole-resistance in Aspergillus: Proposed nomenclature and breakpoints  

Microsoft Academic Search

Reports of itraconazole resistance in Aspergillus fumigatus have been more frequent since the millennium. Identifying azole resistance is critically method dependent; nevertheless reproducible methods, reflective of in vivo outcome, are now in routine use. Some isolates also have elevated MICs to posaconazole and voriconazole. Multiple mechanisms of resistance are now known to be responsible, with differing degrees of azole cross-resistance,

Paul E. Verweij; Susan J. Howard; Willem J. G. Melchers; David W. Denning

2009-01-01

199

Aspergillus niser for the study of in vitro drug metabolism  

Microsoft Academic Search

Drug metabolism is an important aspect for the study of toxic effect in human being. However, the occurrence of several regulatory issues and high cost involved in experimental study on drug metabolism, restrict the study using human as a model system. Keeping this in view, in the present study, the fungus Aspergillus niser was chosen as a model organism for

K. Pramanik; N. Panda; J. Satapathy; A. Biswas

2010-01-01

200

Sexual reproduction in Aspergillus flavus and A. parasiticus  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Aspergillus flavus and A. parasiticus are potent producers of carcinogenic and hepatotoxic aflatoxins, polyketide-derived secondary metabolites that contaminate a wide variety of agricultural crops. Strains with opposite mating-type genes MAT1-1 and MAT1-2 within each species were crossed in an att...

201

Cryptic Sexuality in Aspergillus parasiticus and A. flavus  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Ascomycetous fungi of the genus Aspergillus comprise a wide variety of species of biotechnological importance (e.g. A. sojae, A. oryzae, A. niger) as well as pathogens and toxin producers (e.g. A. flavus, A. parasiticus, A. fumigatus, A. nidulans). With the exception of A. nidulans, which is a homot...

202

Cryptic Sexuality Influences Aflatoxigenicity in Aspergillus parasiticus and A. flavus  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Ascomycetous fungi of the genus Aspergillus comprise a wide variety of species of biotechnological importance as well as pathogens and toxin producers. Recent studies report A. fumigatus to be heterothallic and possibly undergoing sexual reproduction. We therefore investigated whether compatible mat...

203

Calcineurin Controls Growth, Morphology, and Pathogenicity in Aspergillus fumigatus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Calcineurin is implicated in a myriad of human diseases as well as homeostasis and virulence in several major human pathogenic microorganisms. The fungus Aspergillus fumigatus is a leading cause of infectious death in the rapidly expanding immunocompromised patient population. Current antifungal treatments for invasive aspergillosis are often ineffective, and novel therapeutic approaches are urgently needed. We demon- strate that a

William J. Steinbach; Robert A. Cramer; B. Z. Perfect; Y. G. Asfaw; T. C. Sauer; L. K. Najvar; W. R. Kirkpatrick; T. F. Patterson; D. K. Benjamin; J. Heitman; J. R. Perfect

2006-01-01

204

Heterologous expression, purification and characterization of nitrilase from Aspergillus niger K10  

PubMed Central

Background Nitrilases attract increasing attention due to their utility in the mild hydrolysis of nitriles. According to activity and gene screening, filamentous fungi are a rich source of nitrilases distinct in evolution from their widely examined bacterial counterparts. However, fungal nitrilases have been less explored than the bacterial ones. Nitrilases are typically heterogeneous in their quaternary structures, forming short spirals and extended filaments, these features making their structural studies difficult. Results A nitrilase gene was amplified by PCR from the cDNA library of Aspergillus niger K10. The PCR product was ligated into expression vectors pET-30(+) and pRSET B to construct plasmids pOK101 and pOK102, respectively. The recombinant nitrilase (Nit-ANigRec) expressed in Escherichia coli BL21-Gold(DE3)(pOK101/pTf16) was purified with an about 2-fold increase in specific activity and 35% yield. The apparent subunit size was 42.7 kDa, which is approx. 4 kDa higher than that of the enzyme isolated from the native organism (Nit-ANigWT), indicating post-translational cleavage in the enzyme's native environment. Mass spectrometry analysis showed that a C-terminal peptide (Val327 - Asn356) was present in Nit-ANigRec but missing in Nit-ANigWT and Asp298-Val313 peptide was shortened to Asp298-Arg310 in Nit-ANigWT. The latter enzyme was thus truncated by 46 amino acids. Enzymes Nit-ANigRec and Nit-ANigWT differed in substrate specificity, acid/amide ratio, reaction optima and stability. Refolded recombinant enzyme stored for one month at 4°C was fractionated by gel filtration, and fractions were examined by electron microscopy. The late fractions were further analyzed by analytical centrifugation and dynamic light scattering, and shown to consist of a rather homogeneous protein species composed of 12-16 subunits. This hypothesis was consistent with electron microscopy and our modelling of the multimeric nitrilase, which supports an arrangement of dimers into helical segments as a plausible structural solution. Conclusions The nitrilase from Aspergillus niger K10 is highly homologous (?86%) with proteins deduced from gene sequencing in Aspergillus and Penicillium genera. As the first of these proteins, it was shown to exhibit nitrilase activity towards organic nitriles. The comparison of the Nit-ANigRec and Nit-ANigWT suggested that the catalytic properties of nitrilases may be changed due to missing posttranslational cleavage of the former enzyme. Nit-ANigRec exhibits a lower tendency to form filaments and, moreover, the sample homogeneity can be further improved by in vitro protein refolding. The homogeneous protein species consisting of short spirals is expected to be more suitable for structural studies. PMID:21210990

2011-01-01

205

New spider flies from the Neotropical Region (Diptera, Acroceridae) with a key to New World genera  

PubMed Central

Abstract Two new genera and five new species of spider flies (Diptera: Acroceridae) are described from the Neotropical Region. A new genus of Philopotinae (Neophilopota brevirostris Schlinger gen. et sp. n.) is described from Mexico, while an unusual new species of Sphaerops Philippi, 1865 (Acrocerinae: Sphaerops micella Schlinger sp. n.) is described from Chile. A new Panopinae genus near Lasia Wiedemann, 1824 (Coquena stangei Schlinger gen. et sp. n.), is described from Argentina and two new species of Pialea Erichson, 1840 (Pialea brunea Schlinger sp. n. and Pialea corbiculata Schlinger sp. n.)are described from Venezuela. Each genus is diagnosed and figured, and a key to species provided. The Neotropical fauna presently includes 19 genera, containing approximately 100 species. A key to New World genera is also included. PMID:23730188

Schlinger, Evert I.; Gillung, Jessica P.; Borkent, Christopher J.

2013-01-01

206

The relationship of Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus parasiticus with reference to production of aflatoxins and cyclopiazonic acid  

Microsoft Academic Search

Forty-seven isolates of Aspergillus parasiticus were analyzed for production of aflatoxins B1, B2, G1, G2, and cyclopiazonic acid. None produced cyclopiazonic acid, whereas 46 of 47 produced aflatoxins B1 and G1. These data are related to previous studies pertaining to A. flavus and illustrate species validity from a biochemical standpoint.

Joe W. Dorner; Richard J. Cole; Urban L. Diener

1984-01-01

207

Molecular phylogeny of microhylid frogs (Anura: Microhylidae) with emphasis on relationships among New World genera  

PubMed Central

Background Over the last ten years we have seen great efforts focused on revising amphibian systematics. Phylogenetic reconstructions derived from DNA sequence data have played a central role in these revisionary studies but have typically under-sampled the diverse frog family Microhylidae. Here, we present a detailed phylogenetic study focused on expanding previous hypotheses of relationships within this cosmopolitan family. Specifically, we placed an emphasis on assessing relationships among New World genera and those taxa with uncertain phylogenetic affinities (i.e., incertae sedis). Results One mitochondrial and three nuclear genes (about 2.8 kb) were sequenced to assess phylogenetic relationships. We utilized an unprecedented sampling of 200 microhylid taxa representing 91% of currently recognized subfamilies and 95% of New World genera. Our analyses do not fully resolve relationships among subfamilies supporting previous studies that have suggested a rapid early diversification of this clade. We observed a close relationship between Synapturanus and Otophryne of the subfamily Otophryninae. Within the subfamily Gastrophryninae relationships between genera were well resolved. Conclusion Otophryninae is distantly related to all other New World microhylids that were recovered as a monophyletic group, Gastrophryninae. Within Gastrophryninae, five genera were recovered as non-monophyletic; we propose taxonomic re-arrangements to render all genera monophyletic. This hypothesis of relationships and updated classification for New World microhylids may serve as a guide to better understand the evolutionary history of this group that is apparently subject to convergent morphological evolution and chromosome reduction. Based on a divergence analysis calibrated with hypotheses from previous studies and fossil data, it appears that microhylid genera inhabiting the New World originated during a period of gradual cooling from the late Oligocene to mid Miocene. PMID:23228209

2012-01-01

208

Identification of airborne bacterial and fungal species in the clinical microbiology laboratory of a university teaching hospital employing ribosomal DNA (rDNA) PCR and gene sequencing techniques.  

PubMed

Universal or "broad-range" PCR-based ribosomal DNA (rDNA) was performed on a collection of 58 isolates (n = 30 bacteria + 28 fungi), originating from environmental air from several locations within a busy clinical microbiology laboratory, supporting a university teaching hospital. A total of 10 bacterial genera were identified including both Gram-positive and Gram-negative genera. Gram-positive organisms accounted for 27/30 (90%) of total bacterial species, consisting of seven genera and included (in descending order of frequency) Staphylococcus, Micrococcus, Corynebacterium, Paenibacillus, Arthrobacter, Janibacter and Rothia. Gram-negative organisms were less frequently isolated 3/30 (10%) and comprised three genera, including Moraxella, Psychrobacter and Haloanella. Eight fungal genera were identified among the 28 fungal organisms isolated, including (in descending order of frequency) Cladosporium, Penicillium, Aspergillus, Thanatephorus, Absidia, Eurotium, Paraphaeosphaeria and Tritirachium, with Cladosporium accounting for 10/28 (35.7%) of the total fungal isolates. In conclusion, this study identified the presence of 10 bacterial and eight fungal genera in the air within the laboratory sampled. Although this reflected diversity of the microorganisms present, none of these organisms have been described previously as having an inhalational route of laboratory-acquired infection. Therefore, we believe that the species of organisms identified and the concentration levels of these airborne contaminants determined, do not pose a significant health and safety threat for immunocompotent laboratory personnel and visitors. PMID:20183192

Nagano, Yuriko; Walker, Jim; Loughrey, Anne; Millar, Cherie; Goldsmith, Colin; Rooney, Paul; Elborn, Stuart; Moore, John

2009-06-01

209

Eutrichosomellini (Hymenoptera: Chalcidoidea: Aphelinidae) from India, with description of two new genera.  

PubMed

Two new genera and four new species of the aphelinid tribe Eutrichosomellini (Chalcidoidea: Aphelinidae: Aphelininae) are described from India. These are Umairia Hayat gen. nov., Zubairia Hayat gen. nov., U. laiba Hayat sp. nov., U. zeera Hayat sp. nov., Z. mirifica Hayat sp. nov., and Eutrichosomella veenakumariae Hayat sp. nov. Two of the species, U. laiba and E. veenakumariae, are reared respectively from the eggs of Papilio polytes L. (Lepidoptera) and cockroach oothecae (Blattodea). Keys to the genera of the tribe Eutrichosomellini, and to the Indian species of Eutrichosomella Girault are given. PMID:24989756

Hayat, Mohammad

2014-01-01

210

Tanaidaceans (Crustacea) from the Central Pacific Manganese Nodule Province. I. The genera Collettea, Robustochelia and Tumidochelia  

PubMed Central

Abstract Three new species of are described from the manganese nodule province between the Clarion and the Clipperton Fracture Zone of the equatorial North Pacific Ocean, and collected during the Nodinaut expedition on board the r/v l´Atalante in the summer of 2004. The new species belongs to three genera as: Collettea (Collettea longisetosa), Robustochelia (Robustochelia pacifica), and Tumidochelia (Tumidochelia tuberculata). A key to the genus Tumidochelia is presented and the validity of the genera Robustochelia and Collettea is discussed. PMID:21594100

Larsen, Kim

2011-01-01

211

MOSCHweb — a matrix-based interactive key to the genera of the Palaearctic Tachinidae (Insecta, Diptera)  

PubMed Central

Abstract We provide a general overview of features and technical specifications of an original interactive key web application for the identification of Palaearctic Tachinidae genera. The full list of terminal taxa included in the key, which is the most updated list of genera currently recorded for the Palaearctic Region, is given. We also briefly discuss the need for dealing with detailed and standardized taxa descriptions as a base to keep matrix-based interactive tools easily updated, by proposing a standardized protocol. PMID:22792031

Cerretti, Pierfilippo; Tschorsnig, Hans-Peter; Lopresti, Massimo; Giovanni, Filippo Di

2012-01-01

212

On the identity of Mastacanthus Suffrian, 1852 and Sternoglosus Suffrian, 1866 and key to world genera of Pachybrachina (Chrysomelidae: Cryptocephalinae: Cryptocephalini)  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Pachybrachina includes 8 genera worldwide. The identity of the two Neotropical genera Mastacanthus Suffrian and Sternoglosus Suffrian is established. Redescription of the type species of both genera and an illustrated key to world genera are provided. Type species of Sternoglosus and the lectotype f...

213

Comprehensive database on Induan (Lower Triassic) to Sinemurian (Lower Jurassic) marine bivalve genera and their paleobiogeographic record  

E-print Network

Marine bivalve genera that were described or mentioned for Triassic and Lower Jurassic deposits worldwide are reviewed in terms of their validity, stratigraphic range, paleogeographic distribution, paleoautecology, and ...

Ros-Franch, Sonia; Marquez-Aliaga, Ana; Damborenea, Susana

2014-04-10

214

Mycological Society of America Phylogenetic Relationships of Chaetomium and Similar Genera Based on Ribosomal DNA  

E-print Network

Mycological Society of America Phylogenetic Relationships of Chaetomium and Similar Genera Based - Jun., 1999), pp. 434-442 Published by: Mycological Society of America Stable URL: http of scholarship. For more information about JSTOR, please contact support@jstor.org. Mycological Society

215

New Records and Range Extensions for Several Chironomid Genera from Lake Superior  

EPA Science Inventory

Five genera of chironomids have been reported for the first time in Lake Superior. Chironomids are small flying insects with a sediment-dwelling aquatic larval stage. The chironomids were collected by scientists at the Mid-Continent Ecology Division as part of a research program ...

216

Biochemical Polymorphisms and Genetic Relationships in Rodents of the Genera Oryzomys and Oligoryzomys (Sigmodontinae) from Brazil  

Microsoft Academic Search

An electrophoretic analysis of 12 allozyme systems (14 loci, 40 alleles) was performed in the rodent genera Oryzomys and Oligoryzomys, in order to determine the levels of genetic variability within and among populations and species. One hundred and fifty-five individuals from 16 populations of Oryzomys russatus, Or. angouya, Oligoryzomys flavescens, and Ol. nigripes species were trapped in nine Brazilian localities.

Marcos Vinícius Perini; Tania A. Weimer; Sidia M. Callegari-Jacques; Margarete S. Mattevi

2004-01-01

217

Geometric morphometric analysis of fish scales for identifying genera, species, and local populations within the Mugilidae  

Microsoft Academic Search

Geometric morphometric methods (GMMs) were used to determine if scale morphology can discriminate be- tween genera, species, geographic variants, and stocks of mullet (Mugilidae). GMMs were used because they allow standard multivariate analyses while preserving information about scale shape, which is important in making biological interpretations of results. The method was tested on ctenoid scales from mullets collected from different

Ana L. Ibańez; Ian G. Cowx; Paul O'Higgins

2007-01-01

218

Male sleeping aggregation of multiple Eucerini bee genera (Hymenoptera: Apidae) in Chapada Diamantina, Bahia, Brazil  

PubMed Central

Abstract Males of some groups of bees have to find a place outside the nests to sleep, sometimes forming “male sleeping aggregations”. Here we report the first record of “dense” male sleeping aggregation of two different genera of Eucerini bees observed in Bahia, Brazil. We discuss the possible aim of this kind of aggregation as well the plant utilized on aggregate. PMID:25349523

Hipólito, Juliana; de Oliveira, Favízia F.

2014-01-01

219

An illustrated key to the genera of Thripinae (Thysanoptera, Thripidae) from Iran  

PubMed Central

Abstract An illustrated key is provided for the identification of 35 genera of Thripinae (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) from Iran with comments for each genus. Chirothrips maximi Ananthakrishnan and Limothrips cerealium Haliday are recorded from Iran for the first time. A checklist is provided of Thripinae recorded from this country. PMID:23950669

Mirab-balou, Majid; Minaei, Kambiz; Chen, Xue-Xin

2013-01-01

220

Two new genera and five new species of Teloganodidae (Ephemeroptera) from South India.  

PubMed

Two new genera and five new species of teloganodid mayflies (Ephemeroptera: Pannota: Ephemerelloidea) are described based on larvae from south India: Janohyphella indica, n. gen., n. sp., Indoganodes jobini, n. gen., n. sp., Teloganodes sartorii, n. sp., Dudgeodes palnius, n. sp., and Derlethina tamiraparaniae, n. sp.  Janohyphella, n. gen., is distinguished from the larvae of other teloganodid genera by having a combination of three subequal caudal filaments, lamellate gills on abdominal segments II through V and posterolateral processes well-developed on abdominal segments II through IX, except III. Indoganodes, n. gen., is distinguished from the larvae of other teloganodid genera by having three subequal caudal filaments, lamellate gills on abdominal segments II through VI, posterolateral projections weakly developed on abdominal segments I through V, but distinct on segments VI through IX. Our new species of Dudgeodes Sartori, 2008 and Derlethina Sartori, 2008 represent the first discoveries of these genera outside Southeast Asia, with the latter genus previously considered endemic to Borneo. Emendations to the larval species key of known Oriental Teloganodidae are provided. We hypothesize that the occurrence of the new taxa in southern India is a result of the tectonic events associated with the split-up of Gondwana. This illustrates the profound biogeographical significance of how vicariance led to the establishment of some distinct oriental lineages initially on the rafting Indian Deccan Plate, which might have triggered dispersal events for subsequent species diversification in Southeast Asia.  PMID:25112240

Selvakumar, C; Sivaramakrishnan, K G; Jacobus, Luke M; Janarthanan, S; Arumugam, M

2014-01-01

221

Quantitative analysis of oxyresveratrol in different plant parts of Morus species and related Genera by HPTLC  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Four aromatic compounds; oxyresveratrol (1), mulberroside A (2), cudraflavone C (3) and kuwanone J (4) were isolated from the stems of Morus rubra L. The quantitative determination of oxyresveratrol from M. rubra L., M. alba L. and related genera by high performance thin layer chromatography (HPTLC)...

222

A plastid gene phylogeny of the non-photosynthetic parasitic Orobanche (Orobanchaceae) and related genera  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The phylogenetic relationships of the non-photosynthetic Orobanche sensu lato (Orobanchaceae), which includes some of the economically most important parasitic weeds, remain insufficiently understood and controversial. This concerns both the phylogenetic relationships within the genus, in particular its monophyly or lack thereof, and the relationships to other holoparasitic genera such as Cistanche or Conopholis. Here we present the first comprehensive phylogenetic study of this group based on a region from the plastid genome (rps2 gene). Although substitution rates appear to be elevated compared to the photosynthetic members of Orobanchaceae, relationships among the major lineages Cistanche, Conopholis plus Epifagus, Boschniakia rossica (Cham. & Schltdl.) B. Fedtsch., B. himalaica Hook. f. & Thomson, B. hookeri Walp. plus B. strobilacea A. Gray, and Orobanche s. l. remain unresolved. Resolution within Orobanche, however, is much better. In agreement with morphological, cytological and other molecular phylogenetic evidence, five lineages, corresponding to the four traditionally recognised sections (Gymnocaulis, Myzorrhiza, Orobanche, Trionychon) and O. latisquama Reut. ex Boiss. (of sect. Orobanche), can be distinguished. A combined analysis of plastid rps2 and nuclear ITS sequences of the holoparasitic genera results in more resolved and better supported trees, although the relationships among Orobanche s. l., Cistanche, and the clade including the remaining genera is unresolved. Therefore, rps2 is a marker from the plastid genome that is well-suited to be used in combination with other already established nuclear markers for resolving generic relationships of Orobanche and related genera. ?? 2008 The Botanical Society of Japan and Springer.

Park, J.-M.; Manen, J.-F.; Colwell, A.E.; Schneeweiss, G.M.

2008-01-01

223

Synopsis of the endemic New Zealand genera of the beetle subfamily Sphaeridiinae (Coleoptera: Hydrophilidae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The type material of the endemic New Zealand Sphaeridiinae (tribes Rygmodini, Tormissini, Coelostomatini) is revised. Keys are given to known species of all genera.Rygmodus pedinoides White, 1846, previously considered a synonym of R. modestus White, 1846, and Adolopus altulus (Broun, 1880), previously considered a synonym of A. badius (Broun, 1880), are reinstated as valid species.The following new synonyms are established

Michael Hansen

1997-01-01

224

China For all ages a MulTi-generaTional exPloraTion  

E-print Network

China For all ages a MulTi-generaTional exPloraTion The greaT Wall, TerraCoTTa Warriors & The MighCTuresque China Experience the Delights of a Well-Crafted Family Tour Dear Princetonian, Join Princeton Journeys, June 27 ­ July 9, 2013, for a comprehensive tour of China designed with families in mind. Explore

Rowley, Clarence W.

225

CLARIFICATION OF THE NOMENCLATURE AND RELATIONSHIPS OF THE GENERA CRYPTOSPORELLA, OPHIOVALSA AND WINTERELLA (GNOMONIACEAE)  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Fungi of the genera Cryptosporella Sacc, Ophiovalsa Petrak and Winterella (O. Kuntze) J. Reid and Booth have been reported as saprobes, endophytes and pathogens mainly from trees belonging in the Betulaceae and Ulmaceae and have recently been assigned to the family Gnomoniaceae (Diaporthales). These...

226

MEMBRANE FILTER PROCEDURE FOR ENUMERATING THE COMPONENT GENERA OF THE COLIFORM GROUP IN SEAWATER  

EPA Science Inventory

A facile, quantitative, membrane filter procedure (mC) for defining the distribution of coliform populations in seawater according to the component genera was developed. The procedure, which utilizes a series of in situ substrate tests to obviate the picking of colonies for ident...

227

Synopsis of warty leaf beetles genera of the world (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae: Cryptocephalinae: Chlamisini)  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

World genera of Chlamisini are reviewed, diagnosed, and illustrated. A key for their dentification is provided. A replacement name, Kakita Chamorro-Lacayo and Konstantinov is presented for Ceratochlamys Bokermann which is a junior homonym of Ceratochlamys Habe, 1946 (Mollusca). Chlamisus rousei M...

228

A hotspot for Mediterranean cicadas (Insecta: Hemiptera: Cicadidae): new genera, species and songs from southern Spain  

Microsoft Academic Search

Southern Spain exhibits high diversity and endemism. Based on a long-term field study, a review of nine regional cicada species hitherto placed in the genus Tettigetta is provided. According to morphological characters previously defined by Lee, none of these species belongs to the genus Tettigetta; they are placed instead in four new genera: Tettigettalna Puissant gen. nov., Tettigettula Puissant gen.

STEPHANE PUISSANT; JEROME SUEUR

2010-01-01

229

A phylogenetic analysis of the Neotropical riodinid buttery genera Juditha, Lemonias, Thisbe and  

E-print Network

; Harvey, 1987; DeVries, 1988, 1990, 1991, 1997; Fiedler, 1991), and are conspicuous, 1999b; Penz & DeVries, 1999). The purpose of this paper is three-fold: (1) to present a revision closely related genera, Lemonias HuĂ?bner, Thisbe HuĂ?bner and Uraneis Bates (Penz & DeVries, 1999

Mathis, Wayne N.

230

Modified CTAB Procedure for DNA Isolation from Epiphytic Cacti of the Genera Hylocereus and Selenicereus (Cactaceae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present a simple protocol for DNA isolation from climbing cacti, genera Hylocereus and Selenicereus. The abundant polysaccharides present in Hylocereus and Selenicereus species interfere with DNA isolation, and DNA extracts, rich in polysaccharides, are poor templates for amplification using polymerase chain reaction (PCR). We used roots as the source tissue due to the lower viscosity of the extracts relative

N. Tel-zur; S. Abbo; D. Myslabodski; Y. Mizrahi

1999-01-01

231

Modified CTAB Procedure for DNA Isolation from Epiphytic Cacti of the Genera Hylocereus and Selenicereus (Cactaceae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present a simple protocol for DNA isolation from climbing cacti, genera Hylocereus and Selenicereus. The abundant polysaccharides present in Hylocereus and Se- lenicereus species interfere with DNA isolation, and DNA extracts, rich in polysaccharides, are poor templates for amplification using polymerase chain reaction (PCR). We used roots as the source tissue due to the lower viscosity of the extracts

N. TEL-ZUR; S. ABBO; D. MYSLABODSKI; Y. MIZRAHI

1999-01-01

232

NEW GENERA AND HOST PLANT RECORDS OF ASTERACEAE-FEEDING TEPHRITIDAE (DIPTERA) FROM BRAZIL.  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Three new genera of Tephritinae (Tephritidae), Cipomyia (type species: C. totofusca, n. sp.), Eutretopsis (type species: E. albipunctata, n. sp.), and Lewinsohnia (type species: L. magna, n. sp.) are described from Brazil. The first host plant records are provided for C. totofusca, L. magna, and Cae...

233

Aspergillus as a multi-purpose cell factory: current status and perspectives  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aspergilli have a long history in biotechnology as expression platforms for the production of food ingredients, pharmaceuticals\\u000a and enzymes. The achievements made during the last years, however, have the potential to revolutionize Aspergillus biotechnology and to assure Aspergillus a dominant place among microbial cell factories. This mini-review will highlight most recent breakthroughs in fundamental\\u000a and applied Aspergillus research with a

Vera Meyer; Bo Wu; Arthur F. J. Ram

2011-01-01

234

Variants of Aspergillus alutaceus var. alutaceus (formerly Aspergillus ochraceus) with altered ochratoxin A production.  

PubMed

The present studies, using Aspergillus alutaceus var. alutaceus Berkeley et Curtis (formerly A. ochraceus Wilhelm) NRRL 3174 along with three other wild-type strains, were undertaken in an attempt to understand the effects of irradiation and other treatments on mycotoxin production in grain. Bedford barley was inoculated with spores of NRRL 3174, gamma irradiated, and incubated at 28 degrees C and 25% moisture. After 10 days of incubation, two colony types, ochre (parental) and yellow (variant), were isolated from the grain. Further culturing of the yellow variant resulted in the spontaneous appearance of a white variant that exhibited greatly enhanced fluorescence under UV light. In subsequent work, we have also isolated variants producing a soluble red pigment. In addition, in model experiments involving irradiation (1 kGy) of pure cultures, induction frequencies ranging between 2 and 4% (survival basis) were observed for the yellow and red variants. Inoculation of these variants into wheat and incubation for 14 days at 28 degrees C and 32% moisture resulted in ochratoxin A production in the relative amounts of 0.09:1:4.6:9.3 for the red, ochre (parental), yellow, and white variants, respectively. Additional characteristics of these isolates are described. Confirmation that the white high-ochratoxin-A-producing variants were derived from the parental strain was demonstrated by obtaining revertant sectors in monoclonal cultures of the variants. PMID:1768122

Chelack, W S; Borsa, J; Szekely, J G; Marquardt, R R; Frohlich, A A

1991-09-01

235

The Cu,Zn superoxide dismutases of Aspergillus flavus, Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus nidulans, and Aspergillus terreus: purification and biochemical comparison with the Aspergillus fumigatus Cu,Zn superoxide dismutase.  

PubMed Central

Cu,Zn superoxide dismutases (SODs) have been purified to homogeneity from Aspergillus flavus and A. niger, which are significant causative agents of aspergillosis, and from A. nidulans and A. terreus, which are much rarer causative agents of disease, using a combination of isoelectric focusing and gel filtration fast protein liquid chromatography. The purified enzymes have been compared with the previously described SOD from the most important pathogen in the genus, A. fumigatus (M. D. Holdom, R. J. Hay, and A. J. Hamilton, Free Radical Res. 22:519-531, 1995). The N-terminal amino acid sequences of the four newly purified enzymes were almost identical and demonstrated homology to known Cu,Zn SODs from a range of organisms including that from the previously described SOD from A. fumigatus. SOD activity was detectable in the culture filtrates of all species, and intracellular Cu,Zn SOD activity as a proportion of total protein was highest in early-log-phase cultures. The specific activities of the purified enzymes were similar, and all four of the newly described enzymes were inhibited by potassium cyanide and diethyldithiocarbamate, known Cu,Zn SOD inhibitors. Sodium azide and o-phenanthroline demonstrated inhibition at concentrations from 5 to 30 mM, and EDTA also exhibited a varying degree of inhibition of SOD activity. However, there were differences in the nonreduced molecular masses, the reduced molecular masses, and the isoelectric points of the four newly described SODs and the A. fumigatus enzyme; these varied from 55 to 123 kDa, 17.5 to 19.5 kDa, and 5.0 to 5.9, respectively. Of particular note was the observation that the A. fumigatus enzyme was thermostable compared with the SODs from the other species; in addition, the A.fiumigatus enzyme retained all of its activity at 37 degrees C relative to 20 degrees C, whereas the SODs of A. nidulans and A. terreus lost significant activity at the higher temperature. Aspergillus Cu,Zn SOD plays a hypothetical role in the avoidance of oxidative killing mechanisms, and our data suggest that the thermotolerant A. fumigatus Cu,Zn SOD would be more effective in such a protective system than, for example, the equivalent enzyme from the more rarely pathogenic A. nidulans. PMID:8757871

Holdom, M D; Hay, R J; Hamilton, A J

1996-01-01

236

Molecular characterization of Aspergillus infections in an Iranian educational hospital using RAPD-PCR method  

PubMed Central

Objective(s): The nosocomial infections by Aspergillus species are associated with constructions and increased dust loads in hospital indoors. Our main object was to find the environmental sources of Aspergillus species causing hospital acquired infections. Materials and Methods: The clinical and environmental samplings were performed during 18 months from spring 2010 to summer 2011 in Imam educational hospital, Urmia, Iran. A morphological diagnosis was performed including microscopic characterization of isolated aspergillus from cultured specimens and polymerase chain reaction - restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) for the identification in the level of species. Random amplified polymorphic DNA - PCR RAPD-PCR using random primers for rDNA gene was performed to compare Aspergillus isolates of clinical cases with the relevant environmental sources. Results: Use of RAPD method resulted various differential patterns, so that some Aspergillus isolates from the clinical and hospital indoor were completely matched (matched pairs) and some other Aspergillus isolates were not matched. In the case of matched pairs, Aspergillus niger and A. flavus isolated from broncoalveolar lavage and sinus discharge were relevant to those of air conditioner and walls surfaces, respectively. Conclusion: The hospital sources for the Aspergillus clinical isolates included air condition and walls. RAPD-PCR analysis can play a trivial role to find the hospital sources of Aspergillus clinical isolates.

Diba, Kambiz; Makhdoomi, Khadijeh; Mirhendi, Hossein

2014-01-01

237

[A case of allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis caused by Aspergillus terreus].  

PubMed

A 66-year-old woman was admitted to our hospital with a cough, wheezing, and expectoration. Chest X-ray and CT scanning revealed atelectasis and infiltration of the middle lobe, but no central bronchiectatic change. The patient had eosinophilic infiltration elevated serum IgE, RAST against Aspergillus )(A.) fumigatus, a positive immediate skin reaction, and a positive test for antibodies against A. funmigatus. Bronchoscopy demonstrated mucoid impaction that plugged the middle lobe bronchus. The mucoid plug contained A. terreus and numerous eosinophils. Because the level of the precipitating antibody for counter immunoelectrophoresis against A. terreus was higher than that at A. fumigatus, allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillus caused be A. terreus was diagnosed. Oral and inhalation therapy of corticosteroids ameliorated the symptoms and abnormal laboratory findings. PMID:9567092

Oshima, M; Soda, H; Oda, H; Watanabe, A

1997-12-01

238

The chemical identification and analysis of Aspergillus nidulans secondary metabolites  

PubMed Central

Filamentous fungi have long been recognized to be a rich source of secondary metabolites with potential medicinal applications. The recent genomic sequencing of several Aspergillus species has revealed that many secondary metabolite gene clusters are apparently silent under standard laboratory conditions. Several successful approaches have been utilized to upregulate these genes and unearth the corresponding natural products. A straightforward, reliable method to purify and characterize new metabolites therefore should be useful. Details are provided herein on the cultivation of Aspergillus nidulans and the LC/MS analysis of the metabolic profile. Following is an explanation of silica gel chromatography, HPLC, and preparative TLC. Finally, the NMR characterization of previously unknown A. nidulans metabolites is detailed. PMID:23065610

Sanchez, James F.

2013-01-01

239

Interference of Aspergillus fumigatus with the immune response.  

PubMed

Aspergillus fumigatus is a saprotrophic filamentous fungus and also the most prevalent airborne fungal pathogen of humans. Depending on the host's immune status, the variety of diseases caused by A. fumigatus ranges from allergies in immunocompetent hosts to life-threatening invasive infections in patients with impaired immunity. In contrast to the majority of other Aspergillus species, which are in most cases nonpathogenic, A. fumigatus features an armory of virulence determinants to establish an infection. For example, A. fumigatus is able to evade the human complement system by binding or degrading complement regulators. Furthermore, the fungus interferes with lung epithelial cells, alveolar macrophages, and neutrophil granulocytes to prevent killing by these immune cells. This chapter summarizes the different strategies of A. fumigatus to manipulate the immune response. We also discuss the potential impact of recent advances in immunoproteomics to improve diagnosis and therapy of an A. fumigatus infection. PMID:25404120

Heinekamp, Thorsten; Schmidt, Hella; Lapp, Katrin; Pähtz, Vera; Shopova, Iordana; Köster-Eiserfunke, Nora; Krüger, Thomas; Kniemeyer, Olaf; Brakhage, Axel A

2015-03-01

240

Aspergillus fumigatus Scleritis Associated with Monoclonal Gammopathy of Undetermined Significance  

PubMed Central

A 68-year-old woman presented with pain in her left eye. Necrosis with calcium plaques was observed on the medial part of the sclera. Aspergillus fumigatus was isolated from the culture of the necrotic area. On systemic work-up including serum and urine electrophoresis studies, the serum monoclonal protein of immunoglobulin G was detected. The patient was diagnosed with monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance and fungal scleritis. Despite intensive treatment with topical and oral antifungal agents, scleral inflammation and ulceration progressed, and scleral perforation and endophthalmitis developed. Debridement, antifungal irrigation, and tectonic scleral grafting were performed. The patient underwent a combined pars plana vitrectomy with an intravitreal injection of an antifungal agent. However, scleral and intraocular inflammation progressed, and the eye was enucleated. Aspergillus fumigatus was isolated from the cultures of the eviscerated materials. Giemsa staining of the excised sclera showed numerous fungal hyphae. PMID:20532146

Jo, Dong Hyun; Oh, Joo Youn; Kim, Mee Kum; Heo, Jang Won; Lee, Jin Hak

2010-01-01

241

?-Fructofuranosidase production by repeated batch fermentation with immobilized Aspergillus japonicus  

Microsoft Academic Search

The fungus Aspergillus japonicus ATCC 20236 was immobilized in vegetal fiber and used in repeated batch fermentations of sucrose (200 g\\/l) for the production\\u000a of ?-fructofuranosidases (FFase). The assays were performed during eight consecutive cycles that were completed in a total\\u000a period of 216 h. After each 24-h cycle of fermentation (except for the first cycle, which lasted 48 h), the fermented broth

S. I. Mussatto; L. R. Rodrigues; J. A. Teixeira

2009-01-01

242

Protopectinase production in solid state culture of Aspergillus awamori  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  Protopectinases (PPases) are a heterogeneous group of enzymes that release water soluble pectin from insoluble protopectin\\u000a in plant tissues by restricted degradation of the substrate. In all cases reported to date, PPases of bacterial or yeast origin\\u000a were produced in liquid culture. Here, we describe the growth and PPase production ofAspergillus awamori IFO 4033 in solid state culture.\\u000a \\u000a Petri dishes

Takuo Sakai

1994-01-01

243

Saccharification of Job's Tears Flour during Fermentation of Aspergillus oryzae  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of pH, initial substrate concentration and addition of sodium chloride on saccharification of Job's tears flour during fermen tation of Aspergillus oryzae were examined. The result of proximate analysis of Job's Tears flo ur showed that it contained 64.3% carbohydrate, 12.4% protein, 4.8% fat, 6.6% insolub le fiber, 1.7% ash and 10.2% moisture. The saccharification rate based on

Sasivimol Chuen-Im Ahmed; Wanida Chiansanoi; Sivatat Cosa

244

[Occupational extrinsic allergic alveolitis due to Aspergillus oryzae].  

PubMed

We report a case of extrinsic allergic alveolitis, provoked by Deterzyme, a product used in dermatology for the cleaning of cutaneous sores, and containing fractions of protolytic enzymes and amylases of Aspergillus oryzae. The diagnosis was based on the positive precipitins to an extract of antigen of the product as well as positive bronchial provocation tests (semi-delayed) and the disappearance of the symptomatology without any sequelae following cessation of exposure to the risk. PMID:7694333

Gueland, C; Fruit, J; Vannimenus, C; Wallaert, B; Tonnel, A B

1993-01-01

245

Immunochemical relationship between glucoamylases I and II of Aspergillus niger  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rabbit antisera were prepared against the purified glucoamylases I and II ofAspergillus niger. Relationships between the two enzyme forms were investigated by using the antisera in immunodiffusion and immunoinhibition\\u000a experiments. Both the forms of glucoamylase gave a single continuous precipitin band demonstrating very close structural resemblance.\\u000a They gave almost identical immunoprecipitation patterns and had the same equivalence points indicating that

P. Manjunath; M. R. Raghavendra Rao

1980-01-01

246

Molecular analysis of the arg B gene of Aspergillus nidulans  

Microsoft Academic Search

The transcriptional organization and sequence of the Aspergillus nidulans argB gene, encoding ornithine carbamoyl transferase (OCTase; E.C. 2.1.3.3.), was determined. Transcription of the gene begins within a methionine-initiated open translation reading frame, indicating that a second methionine codon of the open reading frame is used for translation initiation. The predicted length of the OCTase precursor peptide is 359 amino acids,

A. Upshall; T. Gilbert; G. Saari; P. J. O'Hara; P. Weglenski; B. Berse; K. Miller; W. E. Timberlake

1986-01-01

247

Location of glucose oxidase during production by Aspergillus niger  

Microsoft Academic Search

The production of the enzyme glucose oxidase by Aspergillus niger is well documented. However, its distribution within the fungal culture is less well defined. Since the enzyme location impacts\\u000a significantly on enzyme recovery, this study quantifies the enzyme distribution between the extracellular fluid, cell wall,\\u000a cytoplasm and slime mucilage fractions in an A. niger NRRL-3. The culture was separated into

K. G. Clarke; M. Johnstone-Robertson; B. Price; S. T. L. Harrison

2006-01-01

248

Optimized bioprocess for production of fructofuranosidase by recombinant Aspergillus niger  

Microsoft Academic Search

A comprehensive approach of bioprocess design at various levels was used to optimize microbial production of extracellular\\u000a fructofuranosidase, important as biocatalyst to derive fructooligosaccharides with broad application in food or pharmaceutical\\u000a industry. For production, the recombinant strain Aspergillus niger SKAn1015 was used, which expresses the fructofuranosidase encoding gene suc1 under control of a strong constitutive promoter. In a first screening

Habib Driouch; Andreas Roth; Petra Dersch; Christoph Wittmann

2010-01-01

249

Cellulase production by free and immobilized Aspergillus terreus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aspergillus terreus, isolated from rotting bagasse, showed comparable cellulolytic activities when grown either in the free or immobilized states\\u000a with cellulose as the sole carbon source. The cultural and nutritional requirements for maximum cellulase production by the\\u000a organism either in the free or immobilized states were similar, except an increase in the temperature optimum from 30 to 40°C,\\u000a occurred upon

Yeoh Seak Hui; A. A. Amirul; Ahmad R. M. Yahya; M. N. M. Azizan

2010-01-01

250

Induction of glucose oxidase, catalase, and lactonase in Aspergillus niger  

Microsoft Academic Search

The induction of glucose oxidase, catalase, and lactonase activities was studied both in wild-type and in glucose oxidase regulatory and structural mutants of Aspergillus niger. The structural gene for glucose oxidase was isolated and used for Northern analysis and in transformation experiments using various gox mutations. Wild-type phenotype could be restored in the glucose oxidase-negative mutant (goxC) by transformation with

Cor F. B. Witteveen; Hetty C. van den Broeck; Frank A. C. van Engelenburg; Leo H. de Graaff; Marcel H. B. C. Hillebrand; Peter J. Schaap; Jaap Visser

1993-01-01

251

Xylanolytic enzyme production by an Aspergillus niger isolate  

Microsoft Academic Search

Production of xylanolytic enzymes by anAspergillus niger CCMI 850 isolate was investigated in batch cultures. The effect of the composition of a fermentation medium that did not\\u000a include chemical inducers, on ?-xylanase, ?-xylosidase, ?-l-arabinofuranosidase, and total cellulase activity was studied. With 4% xylan as the carbon source, about 65 U\\/mL of ?-xylanase\\u000a was obtained, whereas the total cellulase activity was

M. Costa-Ferreira; A. Dias; C. Maximo; M. J. Morgado; G. Sena-Martins; J. Cardoso Duarte

1994-01-01

252

On the safety of Aspergillus niger – a review  

Microsoft Academic Search

.   \\u000a Aspergillus niger is one of the most important microorganisms used in biotechnology. It has been in use already for many decades to produce\\u000a extracellular (food) enzymes and citric acid. In fact, citric acid and many A. niger enzymes are considered GRAS by the United States Food and Drug Administration. In addition, A. niger is used for biotransformations and waste

E. Schuster; N. Dunn-Coleman; J. Frisvad; P. van Dijck

2002-01-01

253

[Aspergillus terreus as a cause of mycotic abortion in cows].  

PubMed

The fungus Aspergillus terreus Thom et Church was subjected to microscopic and cultivation study in the organs of an aborted foetus and was demonstrated to be the causative agent of abortion in cattle. The culture of the isolated organism is described and brief data reporting on its ecology are presented. Attention is drawn to the probable source of infection and to the insufficiently known aspects of the pathogenesis of this disease. PMID:6782741

Adámková, A; Otcenásek, M; Lávicka, M

1981-01-01

254

Single cell transcriptomics of neighboring hyphae of Aspergillus niger  

PubMed Central

Single cell profiling was performed to assess differences in RNA accumulation in neighboring hyphae of the fungus Aspergillus niger. A protocol was developed to isolate and amplify RNA from single hyphae or parts thereof. Microarray analysis resulted in a present call for 4 to 7% of the A. niger genes, of which 12% showed heterogeneous RNA levels. These genes belonged to a wide range of gene categories. PMID:21816052

2011-01-01

255

Advances in molecular detection of Aspergillus : an update  

Microsoft Academic Search

Filamentous cosmopolitan fungi of the genus Aspergillus can be harmful in two ways, directly they can be opportunistic pathogens causing aspergillosis and indirectly due to aflatoxin\\u000a production on food products which can lead to aflatoxicosis. Therefore, a number of methods have been proposed so far for\\u000a detection of the fungi with lowest possible concentration at the earliest. Molecular methods such

M. Z. Abdin; Malik M. Ahmad; Saleem Javed

2010-01-01

256

Cytoplasmic Dynein is Involved in Nuclear Migration in Aspergillus nidulans  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nuclear migration plays an important role in the growth and development of many organisms including the multinuclear fungus Aspergillus nidulans. We have identified four genes, nudA, nudC, nudF, and nudG, in which temperature-sensitive mutations affect nuclear distribution. In this report, we describe the cloning of the nudA gene by complementation of the mutant phenotype by using a chromosome VIII-specific cosmid

Xin Xiang; Susan M. Beckwith; N. Ronald Morris

1994-01-01

257

Azole Resistance in Aspergillus fumigatus —Current Epidemiology and Future Perspectives  

Microsoft Academic Search

Azole resistance in Aspergillus fumigatus isolates is increasingly reported in different nosologic contexts with variable prevalence in different countries. Mutations\\u000a in the target of triazoles are widely described in azole-resistant clinical isolates. The recovery of mutated\\/resistant isolates\\u000a is described either in patients undergoing long-term azole treatment or after inhalation of environmentally acquired resistant\\u000a isolates. Acquisition in patients during azole therapy

Alexandre Alanio; Catherine Cordonnier; Stéphane Bretagne

2011-01-01

258

Aspergillus in the lung: diverse and coincident forms  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pulmonary disease caused by the fungus Aspergillus has traditionally been regarded as belonging to one of the following, apparently distinct, entities: saprophytic aspergilloma;\\u000a allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis (ABPA); and invasive aspergillosis (IPA); which may be further categorised as angioinvasive,\\u000a acute or chronic airway invasive) [1]. It is not always obvious that there is overlap between these entities, and that in\\u000a any

Susan J. Buckingham; David M. Hansell

2003-01-01

259

Microbial transformations of 3-methoxyflavone by strains of Aspergillus niger.  

PubMed

Microbial transformation of 3-methoxyflavone into 3'-hydroxyflavon-3-yloxymethyl myristate was presented. Six filamentous fungi were used as biocatalysts: a wild strain of Aspergillus niger KB, its four UV mutants (A. niger MB, SBP, SBJ, 13/5) and the strain of Penicillium chermesinum 113. The highest yields were observed for the strains of A. niger KB and A. niger SBP (69.8% and 63.1%, respectively). PMID:25033671

Kostrzewa-Sus?ow, Edyta; Dymarska, Monika; Janeczko, Tomasz

2014-01-01

260

Chronic monolateral otomycosis in a dog caused by Aspergillus ochraceus.  

PubMed

Aspergillus ochraceus, a widely distributed filamentous fungus, was isolated and identified by cytology and culture as the cause of unilateral ceruminous purulent otitis in a 4-year-old male mixed-breed dog. The pathogenic role of the fungal isolate was confirmed by a good response to antifungal therapy and the absence of other pathogens. No underlying diseases were identified and the dog recovered after 3 weeks of therapy with oral itraconazole and topical miconazole. PMID:20409075

Ghibaudo, Giovanni; Peano, Andrea

2010-10-01

261

Removal of heavy metals using the fungus Aspergillus niger  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is a need to develop technologies that can remove toxic heavy metal ions found in wastewaters. Microorganisms are known to remove heavy metal ions from water. In this study the potential of the fungus Aspergillus niger to remove lead, cadmium, copper and nickel ions was evaluated. A. niger biomass pretreated by boiling in 0.1N NaOH solution for 15 min

Anoop Kapoor; T Viraraghavan; D. Roy Cullimore

1999-01-01

262

Metabolic control analysis of xylose catabolism in Aspergillus.  

PubMed

A kinetic model for xylose catabolism in Aspergillus is proposed. From a thermodynamic analysis it was found that the intermediate xylitol will accumulate during xylose catabolism. Use of the kinetic model allowed metabolic control analysis (MCA) of the xylose catabolic pathway to be carried out, and flux control was shown to be dependent on the metabolite levels. Due to thermodynamic constraints, flux control may reside at the first step in the pathway, i.e., at the xylose reductase, even when the intracellular xylitol concentration is high. On the basis of the kinetic analysis, the general dogma specifying that flux control often resides at the step following an intermediate present at high concentrations was, therefore, shown not to hold. The intracellular xylitol concentration was measured in batch cultivations of two different strains of Aspergillus niger and two different strains of Aspergillus nidulans grown on media containing xylose, and a concentration up to 30 mM was found. Applying MCA showed that the first polyol dehydrogenase (XDH) in the catabolic pathway of xylose exerted the main flux control in the two strains of A. nidulans and A. niger NW324, but the flux control was exerted mainly at the first enzyme of the pathway (XR) of A. niger NW 296. PMID:12892473

Prathumpai, W; Gabelgaard, J B; Wanchanthuek, P; van de Vondervoort, P J I; de Groot, M J L; McIntyre, M; Nielsen, J

2003-01-01

263

Aspergillus Flavus Keratitis after Deep Anterior Lamellar Keratoplasty  

PubMed Central

Purpose To report the clinical, microbiologic, confocal scan and histopathologic features of Aspergillus flavus keratitis which developed immediately after deep anterior lamellar keratoplasty (DALK). Case Report A 28-year-old woman underwent DALK using the big-bubble technique for keratoconus. The operation was uneventful, yielding a bare Descemet’s membrane (DM) followed by transplantation of a corneal graft devoid of DM and endothelium. Four days after keratoplasty, mild infiltrates were noticed in the inferonasal margin of the graft, which rapidly progressed to involve the adjacent recipient cornea. Confocal scan findings suggested filamentous fungal keratitis, leading to initiation of topical and systemic antifungal medications followed by immediate replacement of the graft. Histopathologic examination disclosed keratitis caused by a filamentous fungus, which was determined by microbiologic cultures to be Aspergillus flavus. Early diagnosis and appropriate management resulted in complete recovery from this potentially devastating infection. Conclusion Aspergillus Flavus can cause graft ulcers immediately after DALK. Confocal scan proved to be a valuable tool for early diagnosis and prompt intervention to control this otherwise devastating infection. PMID:23275826

Jafarinasab, Mohammad-Reza; Feizi, Sepehr; Yazdizadeh, Forouzan; Rezaei Kanavi, Mozhgan; Moein, Hamid-Reza

2012-01-01

264

Association of airborne Aspergillus with asthma exacerbation in Southern Pakistan  

PubMed Central

Background Exposure to airborne fungi has been related with exacerbation of asthma in adults and children leading to increased outpatient, emergency room visits, and hospitalizations. Hypersensitivity to these airborne fungi may be an important initial predisposing factor in the development and exacerbation of asthma. Objective This study was conducted to determine an association between fungal types and spore concentrations with the risk of asthma exacerbation in adults. Methods This cross-sectional study was conducted from May 2008 to August 2009 at the Aga Khan University Hospital Karachi, Pakistan. All adult (age?16 years) patients presenting to the hospital with acute asthma exacerbation were enrolled after informed consent. A home survey was conducted for each patient to assess their environmental characteristics. Indoor air samples were also obtained from the patient's home to determine the type and spore concentration of fungi within the week of their enrollment in the study. Results Three hundred and ninety-one patients with an acute asthma exacerbation were enrolled during the study period. The mean age of participants was 46 years (standard deviation, ±18 years) and 247 (63.2%) were females. A trend of higher asthma enrollment associated with higher Aspergillus concentrations was found in two consecutive summers. A total of nineteen types of fungi were found in air samples. Aspergillus spp. was the most frequently isolated fungus with acute asthma exacerbation. Conclusion An association of higher concentration of indoor Aspergillus spp. with asthma exacerbation in adults was observed in this study. PMID:24809014

Zubairi, Ali Bin Sarwar; Azam, Iqbal; Awan, Safia; Zafar, Afia

2014-01-01

265

Phylogenetics and divergence times of Papilioninae (Lepidoptera) with special reference to the enigmatic genera Teinopalpus and Meandrusa  

Microsoft Academic Search

Phylogenetic relationships of 18 genera of the swallowtail subfamily Papilioninae, four genera of Parnassiinae, and the monobasic Baroniinae are inferred based on 94 morphological characters and 5616 bp DNA from seven genes (16S, COI, COII, ND1, ND5, EF-1 alpha and wingless). Bayesian likelihood analyses show that Baroniinae are the sister of a clade comprising Parnassiinae and Papilioninae. Four Papilioninae tribes

Thomas J. Simonsen; Evgeny V. Zakharov; Marie Djernaes; Adam M. Cotton; R. I. Vane-Wright; Felix A. H. Sperling

2010-01-01

266

Detection of Aspergillus antigen and anti-Aspergillus precipitating antibodies by a new method: the radial immunoelectro-osmophoresis (RIEOP).  

PubMed

A new method of Immunoprecipitation-in-gel, the Radial Immunoelectro-osmophoresis (RIEOP) has been applied to detect precipitating anti-Aspergillus fumigatus antibodies and to study the antigens present in various antigenic extracts of this fungus. The results obtained with this method have been compared with those obtained when applying the Comparative Double Diffusion (CDD) and the Immunoelectro-osmophoresis (IEOP). The data presented prove that the RIEOP method is more sensitive than CDD and the IEOP in: (1) detecting precipitating anti-Aspergillus antibodies, since (a) precipitating bands are detected with higher serum dilutions, and (b) when using undiluted serum, the number of precipitating bands obtained by RIEOP is higher; and (2) studying antigens present in the antigenic extracts, since (a) the number of antigens detected by RIEOP is higher than that by CDD, and (b) identity/non-identity reactions can be studied among the antigens present in the various extracts. PMID:6811158

Llopis, F; Sánchez-Cuenca, J M; González-Molina, A; Basomba, A

1982-07-01

267

A revision of the haploporinae nicoll, 1914 (digenea: haploporidae) from mullets (mugilidae): two new haploporine genera and a key to the genera of the subfamily.  

PubMed

Two new haploporine genera are established for parasites of mullets. Ragaia n. g. is erected for R. lizae n. sp. from Liza ramado in the Ebro Delta on the Mediterranean Coast of Spain. This new genus is distinguished by the unique combination of the following characters: a strongly muscular ventral sucker which is twice as large as the oral sucker; a large, muscular hermaphroditic sac similar in length to the ventral sucker; a saccular, thick-walled internal seminal vesicle which is larger than the external seminal vesicle; and the ovary and vitellarium located rather close to the posterior extremity. Pseudodicrogaster n. g. is erected to accommodate Dicrogaster japonica Machida, 1996, as P. japonica (Machida, 1996) n. comb., a parasite of Mugil cephalus L. off Fukaura, Japan. This genus is recognised on the basis of: the tubular condition of both the internal and external seminal vesicles, the latter being much shorter than the former; the sucker ratio; the massive pyriform hermaphroditic sac; the location of the testis; and the presence of two eye-spots in developed miracidia. A key to the nine recognised genera of the Haploporinae is presented. PMID:19189231

Blasco-Costa, Isabel; Montero, Francisco E; Gibson, David I; Balbuena, Juan Antonio; Kostadinova, Aneta

2009-03-01

268

[A case of hypersensitivity pneumonitis resulting from inhalation of Aspergillus niger in a greenhouse worker who raised roses].  

PubMed

A 57-year-old woman was referred because of exertional dyspnea, fever, and cough in June 2006. She had been employed to culture roses in greenhouses since 1991 and had developed a cough during the summer from 2003. Chest CT scan revealed diffuse centrilobular micronodules. Transbronchial lung biopsy specimens demonstrated alveolitis with lymphocytes and non-necrotizing epithelioid cell granulomas. After admission, both the patient's symptoms and laboratory data improved without medication. However, upon her return to work in the greenhouse, cough and exertional dyspnea reappeared. Aspergillus niger was detected in the greenhouse. Her serum was assayed for precipitating antibodies against various antigens, and precipitating antibodies against Aspergillus fumigatus, Aspergillus flavus, Aspergillus glaucus, and Aspergillus niger were demonstrated. In a double immunodiffusion test, cross-reactivity between Aspergillus niger and other Aspergillus species was indicated. Consequently, she was diagnosed as having hypersensitivity pneumonitis resulting from the inhalation of Aspergillus niger. PMID:19348267

Hamaguchi, Reo; Saito, Hiroaki; Kegasawa, Kyoko; Nakagawa, Atsushi; Ryujin, Yasushi; Noguchi, Saiko; Sugimoto, Hideyasu; Kobayashi, Akiko; Yamazaki, Keiichi; Jin, Yasuto; Yoshimura, Nobuyuki; Tsurikisawa, Naomi; Akiyama, Kazuo

2009-03-01

269

Constitutive expression of fluorescent protein by Aspergillus var. niger and Aspergillus carbonarius to monitor fungal colonization in maize plants.  

PubMed

Aspergillus niger and Aspergillus carbonarius are two species in the Aspergillus section Nigri (black-spored aspergilli) frequently associated with peanut (Arachis hypogea), maize (Zea mays), and other plants as pathogens. These infections are symptomless and as such are major concerns since some black aspergilli produce important mycotoxins, ochratoxins A, and the fumonisins. To facilitate the study of the black aspergilli-maize interactions with maize during the early stages of infections, we developed a method that used the enhanced yellow fluorescent protein (eYFP) and the monomeric red fluorescent protein (mRFP1) to transform A. niger and A. carbonarius, respectively. The results were constitutive expressions of the fluorescent genes that were stable in the cytoplasms of hyphae and conidia under natural environmental conditions. The hyphal in planta distribution in 21-day-old seedlings of maize were similar wild type and transformants of A. niger and A. carbonarius. The in planta studies indicated that both wild type and transformants internally colonized leaf, stem and root tissues of maize seedlings, without any visible disease symptoms. Yellow and red fluorescent strains were capable of invading epidermal cells of maize roots intercellularly within the first 3 days after inoculation, but intracellular hyphal growth was more evident after 7 days of inoculation. We also tested the capacity of fluorescent transformants to produce ochratoxin A and the results with A. carbonarius showed that this transgenic strain produced similar concentrations of this secondary metabolite. This is the first report on the in planta expression of fluorescent proteins that should be useful to study the internal plant colonization patterns of two ochratoxigenic species in the Aspergillus section Nigri. PMID:23899775

Palencia, Edwin Rene; Glenn, Anthony Elbie; Hinton, Dorothy Mae; Bacon, Charles Wilson

2013-09-01

270

Effect of Conway Medium and f/2 Medium on the growth of six genera of South China Sea marine microalgae.  

PubMed

A study was performed to determine the effect of Conway and f/2 media on the growth of microalgae genera. Genera of Chlorella sp., Dunaliella sp., Isochrysis sp., Chaetoceros sp., Pavlova sp. and Tetraselmis sp. were isolated from the South China Sea. During the cultivation period, the density of cells were determined using Syringe Liquid Sampler Particle Measuring System (SLS-PMS) that also generated the population distribution curve based on the size of the cells. The population of the microalgae genera is thought to consist of mother and daughter generations since these microalgae genera reproduce by releasing small non-motile reproductive cells (autospores). It was found that the reproduction of Tetraselmis sp., Dunaliella sp. and Pavlova sp. could be sustained longer in f/2 Medium. Higher cell density was achieved by genus Dunaliella, Chlorella and Isochrysis in Conway Medium. Different genera of microalgae had a preference for different types of cultivation media. PMID:23562179

Lananan, Fathurrahman; Jusoh, Ahmad; Ali, Nora'aini; Lam, Su Shiung; Endut, Azizah

2013-08-01

271

Isolation and Characterization of Halotolerant Soil Fungi from the Great Salt Plains of Oklahoma  

PubMed Central

The Great Salt Plains (GSP) of Oklahoma is an inland terrestrial hypersaline environment where saturated brines leave evaporite crusts of NaCl. The current report examines the fungal community, complementing earlier reports on the bacterial and archaeal communities. Twenty-five fungal isolates from GSP soils were obtained on medium containing 10% NaCl and characterized. Based on 18S rRNA gene sequence analysis, all of the isolates fall within the Ascomycetes, with a predominance of Trichocomaceae, represented by Aspergillus, Eurotium, and Penicillium species. Representatives of Anthrinium, Cladosporium, Debaryomyces, Fusarium, and Ulocladium also were isolated. Overall the isolates were widely halotolerant, with best growth observed at lower salinities and no halophilism. The fungal genera observed were all cosmopolitan, without strong specialization. Taken together, these results support the conclusion that hypersaline environments do not have a characteristic community, in contrast to what was observed at the GSP for bacteria and archaea. PMID:25249710

EVANS, Sarah; HANSEN, Ryan W.; SCHNEEGURT, Mark A.

2014-01-01

272

Phytase production by Aspergillus niger CFR 335 and Aspergillus ficuum SGA 01 through submerged and solid-state fermentation.  

PubMed

Fermentation is one of the industrially important processes for the development of microbial metabolites that has immense applications in various fields. This has prompted to employ fermentation as a major technique in the production of phytase from microbial source. In this study, a comparison was made between submerged (SmF) and solid-state fermentations (SSF) for the production of phytase from Aspergillus niger CFR 335 and Aspergillus ficuum SGA 01. It was found that both the fungi were capable of producing maximum phytase on 5th day of incubation in both submerged and solid-state fermentation media. Aspergillus niger CFR 335 and A. ficuum produced a maximum of 60.6 U/gds and 38 U/gds of the enzyme, respectively, in wheat bran solid substrate medium. Enhancement in the enzyme level (76 and 50.7 U/gds) was found when grown in a combined solid substrate medium comprising wheat bran, rice bran, and groundnut cake in the ratio of 2 : 1 : 1. A maximum of 9.6 and 8.2 U/mL of enzyme activity was observed in SmF by A. niger CFR 335 and A.ficuum, respectively, when grown in potato dextrose broth. PMID:24688383

Shivanna, Gunashree B; Venkateswaran, Govindarajulu

2014-01-01

273

Phytase Production by Aspergillus niger CFR 335 and Aspergillus ficuum SGA 01 through Submerged and Solid-State Fermentation  

PubMed Central

Fermentation is one of the industrially important processes for the development of microbial metabolites that has immense applications in various fields. This has prompted to employ fermentation as a major technique in the production of phytase from microbial source. In this study, a comparison was made between submerged (SmF) and solid-state fermentations (SSF) for the production of phytase from Aspergillus niger CFR 335 and Aspergillus ficuum SGA 01. It was found that both the fungi were capable of producing maximum phytase on 5th day of incubation in both submerged and solid-state fermentation media. Aspergillus niger CFR 335 and A. ficuum produced a maximum of 60.6?U/gds and 38?U/gds of the enzyme, respectively, in wheat bran solid substrate medium. Enhancement in the enzyme level (76 and 50.7?U/gds) was found when grown in a combined solid substrate medium comprising wheat bran, rice bran, and groundnut cake in the ratio of 2?:?1?:?1. A maximum of 9.6 and 8.2?U/mL of enzyme activity was observed in SmF by A. niger CFR 335 and A.ficuum, respectively, when grown in potato dextrose broth. PMID:24688383

Shivanna, Gunashree B.; Venkateswaran, Govindarajulu

2014-01-01

274

An anti-Aspergillus protein from Escherichia coli DH5?: putative inhibitor of siderophore biosynthesis in Aspergillus fumigatus.  

PubMed

An antifungal protein designated as anti-Aspergillus protein (AAP), produced by Escherichia coli DH5?, was purified and characterised. It exhibited a molecular weight of 60 kDa on Sodium dodecyl sulphate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis analysis and depicted 99% purity on ultra performance liquid chromatography. The purified protein manifested antimycotic potential against pathogenic isolates of Aspergillus spp., depicting a minimum inhibitory concentration in the range 15.62-31.25 ?g ml(-1) and 5.0-10.0 ?g per disc, using microbroth dilution, spore germination inhibition and disc diffusion assays respectively. In vitro toxicity tests demonstrated that it showed no toxicity against human erythrocytes at doses up to 1000 ?g ml(-1) . Matrix-assisted laser desorption ionisation-Time-of-flight analysis of trypsin-digested peptides of purified protein and subsequent Mascot search revealed that several peptides of AAP have identity with bacterial siderophore biosynthetic protein, i.e. non-ribosomal peptide synthetase enzyme, involved in critical step of fungal siderophore biosynthesis. Siderophore-based inhibition was further corroborated by Chrome azurol S assay. Hence, the antagonistic effect might be the result of impediment in siderophore-mediated iron uptake and transport process which may cause critical consequences on Aspergillus growth and virulence. PMID:23968167

Balhara, Meenakshi; Ruhil, Sonam; Kumar, Manish; Dhankhar, Sandeep; Chhillar, A K

2014-03-01

275

On Pulchritia new genus, with a reappraisal of the genera of Trichotriidae (Rotifera, Monogononta)  

PubMed Central

Abstract During the study of rotifers collected in Eastern DR Congo, we rediscovered specimens that correspond to Monostyla dorsicornuta Van Oye, 1926. This species, which we redescribe, had not been seen since it’s summary description, and lacked type material. Our analysis reveals that the animal belongs to Trichotriidae rather than to Lecane (presently considered to include Monostyla) or Lecanidae, but is nevertheless characterised by a foot structure that is remarkably convergent to that of Lecanidae, and different from all other genera of Trichotriidae. We conclude that the species and the closely related South American Macrochaetus kostei (José de Paggi, Branco & Kozlowsky-Suzuki, 2000) belong to a new genus of Trichotriidae; the two offer a rare example of African-South American vicariance in rotifers.We further provide emended diagnoses of the remaining genera of Trichotriidae, to conform these to the new information and to address some inconsistencies in these. PMID:24194651

Luo, Yongting; Segers, Hendrik

2013-01-01

276

The freshwater snails (Gastropoda) of Iran, with descriptions of two new genera and eight new species  

PubMed Central

Abstract Using published records and original data from recent field work and revision of Iranian material of certain species deposited in the collections of the Natural History Museum Basel, the Zoological Museum Berlin, and Natural History Museum Vienna, a checklist of the freshwater gastropod fauna of Iran was compiled. This checklist contains 73 species from 34 genera and 14 families of freshwater snails; 27 of these species (37%) are endemic to Iran. Two new genera, Kaskakia and Sarkhia, and eight species, i.e., Bithynia forcarti, Bithynia starmuehlneri, Bithynia mazandaranensis, Pseudamnicola georgievi, Kaskakia khorrasanensis, Sarkhia sarabensis, Valvata nowsharensis and Acroloxus pseudolacustris are described as new to science; Ecrobia grimmi (Clessin & Dybowski, 1888), Heleobia dalmatica (Radoman, 1974) and Hippeutis complanatus (Linnaeus, 1758) are reported for the first time from Iran. Additional field work is highly desirable for a more appropriate evaluation of the extant freshwater snail biodiversity in Iran. PMID:22977349

Glöer, Peter; Peši?, Vladimir

2012-01-01

277

Divergent regulation of aflatoxin production at acidic pH by two Aspergillus strains  

E-print Network

Divergent regulation of aflatoxin production at acidic pH by two Aspergillus strains Kenneth C; accepted in revised form 6 January 2005 Abstract Production of aflatoxins (AF) by Aspergillus flavus and A production was not well correlated with decreases in expression of the aflatoxin pathway regulatory gene, afl

Cotty, Peter J.

278

Characterisation of a pks gene which is expressed during ochratoxin A production by Aspergillus carbonarius  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aspergillus carbonarius is considered the main fungus responsible for ochratoxin A (OTA) contamination in grapes. OTA is a potent nephrotoxin and a possible human carcinogen with a polyketide derived structure. Fungal polyketide synthases (PKSs) have recently been demonstrated to be involved in OTA biosynthesis in both Penicillium and Aspergillus species. We report here on the identification and characterisation of part

Antonia Gallo; Giancarlo Perrone; Michele Solfrizzo; Filomena Epifani; Abdelhamid Abbas; Alan D. W. Dobson; Giuseppina Mulč

2009-01-01

279

Identification of Aspergillus Species Using Internal Transcribed Spacer Regions 1 and 2  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aspergillus species are the most frequent cause of invasive mold infections in immunocompromised patients. Although over 180 species are found within the genus, 3 species, Aspergillus flavus, A. fumigatus, and A. terreus, account for most cases of invasive aspergillosis (IA), with A. nidulans, A. niger, and A. ustus being rare causes of IA. The ability to distinguish between the various

TRAVIS HENRY; PETER C. IWEN; STEVEN H. HINRICHS

2000-01-01

280

RNA interference reduces aflatoxin accumulation by Aspergillus flavus in peanut seeds  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Aflatoxins are among the most powerful carcinogens in nature. They are produced by the fungal pathogen Aspergillus flavus Link and other Aspergillus species. Aflatoxins accumulate in many crops, including rice, wheat, oats, pecans, pistachios, soybean, cassava, almonds, peanuts, beans, corn and cot...

281

Comparison of immunodiffusion and enzyme linked immunosorbent assay for antibodies to four Aspergillus species  

Microsoft Academic Search

Antigenic extracts were prepared from Aspergillus fumigatus, A niger, A flavus and A terreus for use in enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and immunodiffusion (ID) tests for Aspergillus antibodies to determine whether the use of antigenic extracts from species other than A fumigatus increased the sensitivity of the ELISA. ELISA titres correlated well with positive ID tests. Patient titres by

J H Froudist; G B Harnett; R McAleer

1989-01-01

282

Effect of culture conditions on the biosynthesis of Aspergillus niger phytase and acid phosphatase  

Microsoft Academic Search

The reduction of phytate content in plant feeds is advisable for increasing of their nutritional values. The dephosphorylation of phytates is believed to be mainly effected by phytase. A strain of Aspergillus niger shows a high potential for phytase production. In this study the possibilities to increase the enzyme production by alteration of the growth conditions of Aspergillus niger 307

S Gargova; M Sariyska

2003-01-01

283

Isolation and Identification of Indigenous Aspergillus oryzae for Saccharification of Rice Starch  

Microsoft Academic Search

A study was undertaken to isolate an indigenous Aspergillus oryzae strain for use in saccharification of high amylose rice starch. Bread, black gram, soya grains, 'kevum', and cooked rice samples assumed to be contaminated with Aspergillus oryzae were used in the isolation. Ten pure cultures obtained by culturing and sub- culturing on Potato Dextrose Agar (PDA) were maintained on PDA

S. S. Sooriyamoorthy; K. F. S. T. Silva; M. H. W. Gunawardhane; C. K. Illeperuma

284

Tissue-specific components of resistance to Aspergillus ear rot of maize  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Aspergillus flavus and other Aspergillus spp. infect maize and produce aflatoxins. One control measure is the use of resistant maize lines. There are several reports of maize lines that are resistant to aflatoxin accumulation, but the mechanisms of resistance remain unknown. To gain a better unde...

285

Correlation between Gliotoxin Production and Virulence of Aspergillus fumigatus in Galleria mellonella  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aspergillus fumigatus is a pathogenic fungus capable of causing both allergic lung disease and invasive aspergillosis, a serious, life-threatening condition in neutropenic patients. Aspergilli express an array of mycotoxins and enzymes which may facilitate fungal colonisation of host tissue. In this study we investigated the possibility of using the insect, Galleria mellonella, for in vivo pathogenicity testing of Aspergillus species.

Emer P. Reeves; C. G. M. Messina; S. Doyle; K. Kavanagh

2004-01-01

286

Mycotoxin production by different ochratoxigenic Aspergillus and Penicillium species on coffee and wheat-based media  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ochratoxin A (OTA) is one of the most widespread mycotoxins, and is produced by several Aspergillus or Penicillium species. Human exposure to OTA is mainly by intake of contaminated food, with cereal products, followed by coffee and red\\u000a wine as the main sources of OTA. In this study, the OTA production of four ochratoxigenic fungi (two Aspergillus and two Penicillium

Katherine Muńoz; Mario Vega; Gisela Rios; Rolf Geisen; Gisela H. Degen

287

NsdC and NsdD affect Aspergillus flavus morphogenesis and aflatoxin production  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The transcription factors NsdC and NsdD have been shown to be necessary for sexual development in Aspergillus nidulans. Herein we examine the role of these proteins in development and aflatoxin production of the agriculturally important, aflatoxin-producing fungus, Aspergillus flavus. We found tha...

288

Utilization of b-glucosidase from aspergillus species in the hydrolysis of cellulose  

SciTech Connect

The batch hydrolysis of cellulose by Trichoderma reesei cellulase was considerably enhanced by the addition of very small amounts of B-glucosidase derived from Aspergillus niger. Addition of larger amounts had no further effect. In simultaneous cellulose hydrolysis and alcohol fermentation experiments the addition of B-glucosidase from Aspergillus niger had no significant effect on alcohol production by the fermenting yeast.

Nybergh, P.M.A.; Bailey, M.J.

1980-01-01

289

Palynological study of the genera Ruellia, Ecbolium, Asystasia, Blepharis and Dicliptera (Acanthaceae) of Yemen  

SciTech Connect

Pollen morphology of five genera of the family Acanthaceae, namely Ruellia, Blepharis, Asystasia, Ecbolium and Dicliptera (Acanthaceae) of Yemen has been examined using light and scanning electron microscope. Pollen descriptions were provided with two shapes distinguished, spheroidal and prolate. Most of the pollen grains were tricolporate amd psuedocolpi except those of Blepharis which are colpate. The surface is coarsely reticulate, in addition to the lumina that varies in size.

Al-Hakimi, S. Anisa [School of Environmental and Natural Resource Sciences, Faculty of Science and Technology, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, 43600, Bangi, Selangor, Malaysia and Biology Department, Faculty of Science, Taiz University, Taiz (Yemen); Maideen, Haja; Latiff, A. [School of Environmental and Natural Resource Sciences, Faculty of Science and Technology, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, 43600, Bangi, Selangor (Malaysia)

2013-11-27

290

The Genera of Fungi: fixing the application of type species of generic names.  

PubMed

To ensure a stable platform for fungal taxonomy, it is of paramount importance that the genetic application of generic names be based on their DNA sequence data, and wherever possible, not morphology or ecology alone. To facilitate this process, a new database, accessible at www.GeneraofFungi.org (GoF) was established, which will allow deposition of metadata linked to holo-, lecto-, neo- or epitype specimens, cultures and DNA sequence data of the type species of genera. Although there are presently more than 18 000 fungal genera described, we aim to initially focus on the subset of names that have been placed on the "Without-prejudice List of Protected Generic Names of Fungi" (see IMA Fungus 4(2): 381-443, 2013). To enable the global mycological community to keep track of typification events and avoid duplication, special MycoBank Typification identfiers (MBT) will be issued upon deposit of metadata in MycoBank. MycoBank is linked to GoF, thus deposited metadata of generic type species will be displayed in GoF (and vice versa), but will also be linked to Index Fungorum (IF) and the curated RefSeq Targeted Loci (RTL) database in GenBank at the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI). This initial paper focuses on eight genera of appendaged coelomycetes, the type species of which are neo- or epitypified here: Bartalinia (Bartalinia robillardoides; Amphisphaeriaceae, Xylariales), Chaetospermum (Chaetospermum chaetosporum, incertae sedis, Sebacinales), Coniella (Coniella fragariae, Schizoparmaceae, Diaporthales), Crinitospora (Crinitospora pulchra, Melanconidaceae, Diaporthales), Eleutheromyces (Eleutheromyces subulatus, Helotiales), Kellermania (Kellermania yuccigena, Planistromataceae, Botryosphaeriales), Mastigosporium (Mastigosporium album, Helotiales), and Mycotribulus (Mycotribulus mirabilis, Agaricales). Authors interested in contributing accounts of individual genera to larger multi-authored papers to be published in IMA Fungus, should contact the associate editors listed below for the major groups of fungi on the List of Protected Generic Names for Fungi. PMID:25083414

Crous, Pedro W; Giraldo, Alejandra; Hawksworth, David L; Robert, Vincent; Kirk, Paul M; Guarro, Josep; Robbertse, Barbara; Schoch, Conrad L; Damm, Ulrike; Trakunyingcharoen, Thippawan; Groenewald, Johannes Z

2014-06-01

291

At Least 23 Genera Instead of One: The Case of Iris L. s.l. (Iridaceae)  

PubMed Central

Background Iris L. s.l. is one of the most diverse and well-known genera in the Asparagales, with approximately 250–300 circumscribed species and significant economic impact. The taxonomy of the genus has suffered dramatic changes in the last century, particularly in the last decades after the application of molecular techniques. As a result several contrasting systematic arrangements are currently available to taxonomists. Many genera that were split from Iris s.str. in the past, on the basis of morphology (e.g., Hermodactylus, Iridodictyum, Juno, Pardanthopsis, and Xiphion, among others), are now a priori re-included in a very widely circumscribed Iris s.l. (incl. Belamcanda). This resulted in a more heterogeneous genus that is more difficult to define on morphological grounds. Testing congruence between taxonomic treatments and the results of recent molecular studies of Iris has never been performed, mostly due to the lack of proper taxonomic context. Results We generated several conventional phylogenies for Iris & outgroups using extensive sampling of taxa (187) and characters (10 plastid loci). We demonstrate that the natural history of Iris, written either as conventional molecular phylogenies or, if viewing in the context of the comparative approach, as a nested most parsimonious hierarchy of patterns, appear to be fully congruent with the narrow taxonomical treatment of the genus, restricted to the rhizomatous “bearded” taxa. The resulting topologies place Belamcanda, Pardanthopsis, and Gattenhofia as sisters to Iris s.str. and genus Siphonostylis as sister to Iris s.l. Conclusion The present study clearly justifies the splitting of Iris s.l. into at least 23 genera, 18 of which have already been accepted in the past by numerous authorities. These genera are characterized by unique combinations of partly overlapping morphological characters and biogeography. Moreover, nearly the same entities, which we here recognize at a generic rank, were for centuries frequently referred to by horticulturists as “working-name” groups. PMID:25170935

Mavrodiev, Evgeny V.; Martínez-Azorín, Mario; Dranishnikov, Peter; Crespo, Manuel B.

2014-01-01

292

Two new genera, Hoffmannanthus and Jeffreycia, mostly from East Africa (Erlangeinae, Vernonieae, Asteraceae)  

PubMed Central

Abstract Two genera of Vernonieae subtribe Erlangeinae with Type A pollen, 5-ribbed achenes, and blunt-tipped sweeping hairs on the styles are described as new, Hoffmannanthus with one species and with Vernonia brachycalyx O. Hoffm. as type, and Jeffreycia with five known species, with Vernonia zanzibarensis Less. as type. Vernonia abbotiana O. Hoffm. is neotypified and is an older name for V. brachycalyx. PMID:25197225

Robinson, Harold; Keeley, Sterling C.; Skvarla, John J.; Chan, Raymund

2014-01-01

293

Trichome morphology of eleven genera of the tribe Alysseae (Brassicaceae) occurring in Bulgaria  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ancev, M. & Goranova, V.: Trichome morphology of eleven genera of the tribe Alysseae (Bras- sicaceae) occurring in Bulgaria. - Willdenowia 36 (Special Issue): 193-204. - ISSN 0511-9618; © 2006 BGBM Berlin-Dahlem. doi:10.3372\\/wi.36.36116 (available via http:\\/\\/dx.doi.org\\/) The leaf and silicule trichomes of 18 species of Alysseae were studied by scanning electron and light microscopy. Four trichome types are distinguished: (1)

M. Ancev; VALENTINA GORANOVA

2006-01-01

294

A plastid gene phylogeny of the non-photosynthetic parasitic Orobanche (Orobanchaceae) and related genera  

Microsoft Academic Search

The phylogenetic relationships of the non-photosynthetic Orobanche sensu lato (Orobanchaceae), which includes some of the economically most important parasitic weeds, remain insufficiently\\u000a understood and controversial. This concerns both the phylogenetic relationships within the genus, in particular its monophyly\\u000a or lack thereof, and the relationships to other holoparasitic genera such as Cistanche or Conopholis. Here we present the first comprehensive phylogenetic

Jeong-Mi Park; Jean-François Manen; Alison E. Colwell; Gerald M. Schneeweiss

2008-01-01

295

Comparative phylogenetic histories of two louse genera found on Catharus thrushes and other birds.  

PubMed

The louse genera Brueelia (Ischnocera) and Myrsidea (Amblycera) are broadly codistributed on songbirds (Passeriformes), but differ in a variety of life history characteristics. We used mitochondrial and nuclear DNA sequences to assess levels of genetic divergence and reconstruct phylogenies of these 2 genera, focusing especially on Catharus thrushes in North America. We then qualitatively compared the phylogenies and levels of divergence within these 2 genera of codistributed parasites. Neither Brueelia nor Myrsidea appears to cospeciate with Catharus thrushes or passerine birds in general. The Myrsidea phylogeny exhibits significant levels of biogeographic structure, whereas the Brueelia phylogeny does not. Myrsidea and Brueelia also differ in their levels of intra-generic genetic divergence, with Myrsidea showing higher levels of genetic divergence and host specificity than Brueelia. Our genetic data support traditional morphology-based taxonomy in several instances in which the same species of Brueelia has been reported on multiple host taxa, e.g., all migrant Catharus spp. carry B. antiqua, with little haplotype divergence. Myrsidea found on each Catharus sp. are in general genetically distinct, except for M. incerta, which parasitizes both Catharus ustulatus and Catharus minimus. The strong biogeographic signal in the Myrsidea phylogeny and higher relative levels of host specificity of Myrsidea spp. suggest that infrequent host-switching, followed by speciation, is shaping the evolutionary history of this group. In contrast, the relatively lower host specificity of Brueelia spp. suggests that host-switching, combined with more frequent ongoing dispersal, has been more important in the evolutionary history of Brueelia. PMID:18821823

Bueter, Chelsea; Weckstein, Jason; Johnson, Kevin P; Bates, John M; Gordon, Caleb E

2009-04-01

296

Biochemical Differentiation and Comparison of Desulfovibrio Species and Other Phenotypically Similar Genera  

PubMed Central

Seventeen human clinical isolates representing four species of Desulfovibrio were characterized using 16S rRNA gene sequences and tests for catalase, indole, nitrate, bile, urease, formate-fumarate stimulation, desulfoviridin, motility, and hydrogen sulfide production, plus susceptibility to antimicrobial agents. Eighty additional strains representing 10 phenotypically similar genera (Bilophila, Selenomonas, Capnocytophaga, Campylobacter, Bacteroides, Sutterella, Anaerobiospirillum, Dialister, Veillonella, and Mobiluncus) were included for comparison. All Desulfovibrio species produced H2S and were desulfoviridin positive, and all Desulfovibrio species except D. piger were motile. The four Desulfovibrio species could be distinguished from each other using tests for catalase, indole, nitrate, urease, and growth on bile, with the following results (positive [+], negative [?], growth [G], and no growth [NG]): for D. piger, ?, ?, ?, ?, and G, respectively; for D. fairfieldensis, +, ?, +, ?, and G, respectively; for D. desulfuricans, ?, ?, +, +, and NG, respectively; and for D. vulgaris, ?, +, ?, ?, and G, respectively. Resistance to the 10-?g colistin disk separated the Desulfovibrio species from most of the other genera, which were usually susceptible. These simple tests were useful for characterizing the Desulfovibrio species and differentiating them from other phenotypically similar genera. PMID:16081948

Warren, Yumi A.; Citron, Diane M.; Merriam, C. Vreni; Goldstein, Ellie J. C.

2005-01-01

297

The relationship of the whole genome sequence identity to DNA hybridization varies between genera of prokaryotes.  

PubMed

In the original proposal of Wayne et al. (Int J Syst Bacteriol 37:463-464, 1987), two measures of genetic relatedness were proposed to set the boundary for prokaryotic species. The first was the change in the melting temperature (?Tm) of heteroduplex DNA and the second was the extent of DNA-DNA hybridization (DDH). While this approach was justified given the experimental error inherent in these methods, genomic sequencing has the potential to measure both parameters with great precision. The average nucleotide identity (ANIb), a surrogate for the ?Tm, and the calculated DDH (cDDH) were determined from the complete genomes of representatives of 17 genera of prokaryotes. When the ANIb was >75 %, the ratio (100-cDDH)/(100-ANIb) was 3.69 ± 0.93 (± SD) and varied from about 2.35 to 4.59 between genera. The differences among genera was highly significant (p < 0.001) but not correlated with specific phylogenetic or physiological groups. Moreover, the ANIm was a poor measure of ANIb when ANIb was <75 %. Because the ANIb and cDDH provide different measures of relatedness, it is no longer appropiate to consider both when delineating species. For these reasons, measures of relatedness based upon sequence identity should be used for delineating species in the future. PMID:25370015

Li, Xun; Huang, Yongjie; Whitman, William B

2015-01-01

298

Comparative pharmacognostic evaluation of some species of the genera Suaeda and Salsola leaf (Chenopodiaceae).  

PubMed

The genera Suaeda and Salsola are halophytic plants belong to the family Chenopodiaceae. Species of these genera have been extensively used in traditional medicines against many diseases due to their various bioactive compounds such as carotenoids, vitamins, sterol, phenolic compounds etc. The present research was carried out to establish detailed pharmacognosy of Suaeda fruticosa, Suaeda monoica, Salsola imbricata and Salsola tragus, which included macroscopy, microscopy, physico-chemical parameters and qualitative phytochemical screening of leaf samples extracted with methanol and chloroform. It was observed that macroscopic and microscopic characteristics were diagnostic features and can be used for distinction and identification of these closely related plant species. Phytochemically, these plant species are rich in constituents like anthraquinones, alkaloids, carbohydrates, cardiac glycosides, flavonoids, saponins, phenolic compounds and terpenoids. Physico-chemical parameters revealed that in all investigated plant species; methanol extractive values were higher than that of chloroform. Moreover, total ash values were found to be higher than other acid insoluble and water-soluble ash values, while a considerable amount of moisture was present in the species of both genera. On the basis of pharmacognosy, species of Suaeda were found to be more promising than Salsola. Present investigation will contribute towards establishment of pharmacognostic profile of these medicinally effective plants species. PMID:25176385

Munir, Uzma; Perveen, Anjum; Qamarunnisa, Syeda

2014-09-01

299

Jurassic-Early Cretaceous Gondwanan homoxylous woods: a nomenclatural revision of the genera with taxonomic notes.  

PubMed

The homoxylous fossil woods occurring in the Gondwanan continents of South America, Australia, Africa, India and Antarctica during the Jurassic and Early Cretaceous period are considered here. Original descriptions of the genera and wherever possible, the type material, have been consulted. Applying the rules of the International Code of Botanical Nomenclature, the generic names of the homoxylous woods have been revised from a nomenclatural point of view. According to this review, out of 31 generic names used for woods from the given time interval and area, 6 are illegitimate later nomenclatural synonyms, 1 is a later homonym, and 5 can be considered as taxonomical synonyms. Moreover, 9 genera have been used erroneously. We propose one new generic name (Protaxodioxylon n. gen.) and elsewhere we will propose for conservation, with a conserved type one of the illegitimate names and one of the taxonomic synonyms. As a result, we consider that there are only eighteen generic names correctly quoted for the Jurassic-Early Cretaceous of Gondwana, and we provide a taxonomic key for the corresponding genera. This revision is the first step in systematically comparing northern and southern hemisphere woods. PMID:11179718

Bamford, M K.; Philippe, M

2001-04-01

300

Inhibition of Aspergillus parasiticus and cancer cells by marine actinomycete strains  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ten actinomycete strains isolated from the Yellow Sea off China's coasts were identified as belonging to two genera by 16S rDNA phylogenetic analysis: Streptomyces and Nocardiopsis. Six Streptomyces strains (MA10, 2SHXF01-3, MA35, MA05-2, MA05-2-1 and MA08-1) and one Nocardiopsis strain (MA03) were predicted to have the potential to produce aromatic polyketides based on the analysis of the KS? (ketoacyl-synthase) gene in the type II PKS (polyketides synthase) gene cluster. Four strains (MA03, MA01, MA10 and MA05-2) exhibited significant inhibitory effects on mycelia growth (inhibition rate >50%) and subsequent aflatoxin production (inhibition rate >75%) of the mutant aflatoxigenic Aspergillus parasiticus NFRI-95. The ethyl acetate extracts of the broth of these four strains displayed significant inhibitory effects on mycelia growth, and the IC50 values were calculated (MA03: 0.275 mg mL-1, MA01: 0.106 mg mL-1, MA10: 1.345 mg mL-1 and MA05-2: 1.362 mg mL-1). Five strains (2SHXF01-3, MA03, MA05-2, MA01 and MA08-1) were selected based on their high cytotoxic activities. The ethyl acetate extract of the Nocardiopsis strain MA03 was particularly noted for its high antitumor activity against human carcinomas of the cervix (HeLa), lung (A549), kidney (Caki-1) and liver (HepG2) (IC50: 2.890, 1.981, 3.032 and 2.603 ?g mL-1, respectively). The extract also remarkably inhibited colony formation of HeLa cells at an extremely low concentration (0.5 ?g mL-1). This study highlights that marine-derived actinomycetes are a huge resource of compounds for the biological control of aflatoxin contamination and the development of novel drugs for human carcinomas.

Li, Ping; Yan, Peisheng

2014-12-01

301

Fractionation of culture filtrate antigens of Aspergillus fumigatus.  

PubMed

Polyacrylamide disc gel electrophoresis (PAGE) and two-dimensional crossed immunoelectrophoresis (2D-CIE) of crude culture filtrate antigens prepared from three clinical isolates of Aspergillus fumigatus revealed a striking similarity in the number and nature of their antigenic components, notwithstanding the wide differences in their total protein contents. The antigenic components, which are largely proteins and glycoproteins, varied from 9-10 in number depending on the isolate. A prominent glycoprotein band, common to all the three isolates, merits further purification and detailed study. The serodiagnostic value of culture filtrate antigens of A. fumigatus vis-a-vis mycelial antigens, has been discussed. PMID:2081627

Chandrashekara, K V; Kumari, S

1990-01-01

302

Bioremediation of Dyes in Textile Effluents by Aspergillus oryzae  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study Aspergillus oryzae was utilized to remove azo dyes from aqueous solution. Physically induced in its paramorphogenic form to produce standardized\\u000a mycelial pellets, the non-autoclaved and autoclaved hyphae biomass was applied to biosorb the reactive dyes Procion Red HE7B\\u000a (PR-HE7B) and Procion Violet H3R (PV-H3R) at different pH values (2.50, 4.50, and 6.50). The best pH for biosorption

Carlos Renato Corso; Ana Carolina Maganha de Almeida

2009-01-01

303

Iron homeostasis—Achilles’ heel of Aspergillus fumigatus?  

PubMed Central

The opportunistic fungal pathogen Aspergillus fumigatus adapts to iron limitation by upregulation of iron uptake mechanisms including siderophore biosynthesis and downregulation of iron-consuming pathways to spare iron. These metabolic changes depend mainly on the transcription factor HapX. Consistent with the crucial role of iron in pathophysiology, genetic inactivation of either HapX or the siderophore system attenuates virulence of A. fumigatus in a murine model of aspergillosis. The differences in iron handling between mammals and fungi might serve to improve therapy and diagnosis of fungal infections. PMID:21724450

Schrettl, Markus; Haas, Hubertus

2011-01-01

304

Characterization of two forms of glucoamylase from aspergillus niger  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aspergillus niger glucoamylases GI and GII (E.C. 3.2.1.3) were isolated from a commercial enzyme preparation by ammonium sulfate\\u000a precipitation followed by DEAE-cellulose ion exchange chromatography. Both enzymes consist of a single glycosylated polypeptide\\u000a chain. The molecular weights of GI and GII were determined by sedimentation equilibrium ultracentrifugation to 52,000 and\\u000a 46,000, respectively, and by molecular sieving to 65,000 and 55,000.

Birte Svensson; Torben Graves Svendsen; IB Svendsen; Takuo Sakai; Martin Ottesen

1982-01-01

305

The crucial role of iron uptake in Aspergillus fumigatus virulence.  

PubMed

Aspergillus fumigatus is an opportunistic fungal pathogen that causes life-threatening infections in immunocompromised individuals. Siderophore-mediated iron acquisition has been shown to be essential for virulence. New studies have revealed that enzymes involved in siderophore biosynthesis and uptake are compartmentalized in peroxisomes and endosome-like vesicles, respectively. Gene and protein expression studies have revealed coordinated regulation of siderophore and sterol metabolism linked to the common precursor mevalonate. Several A. fumigatus transcription factors have been identified that are unexpectedly involved in the regulation of iron homeostasis. New diagnostic and drug treatments are being developed that exploit the requirement of A. fumigatus for extracellular siderophores. PMID:23962820

Moore, Margo M

2013-12-01

306

?-1,3-glucan modifying enzymes in Aspergillus fumigatus  

PubMed Central

In Aspergillus fumigatus like in other filamentous ascomycetes, ?-1,3-glucan constitutes a prominent cell wall component being responsible for rigidity of the cell wall structure. In filamentous fungi, softening of the cell wall is absolutely required during conidial germination and hyphal branching. Because of the central structure of ?-1,3-glucans, it is expected that ?-1,3-glucanases play a major role in cell wall softening. Based on in silico and experimental data, this review gives an overview of ?-1,3-glucan modifying enzymes in A. fumigatus genome and their putative role during morphogenesis. PMID:23616783

Mouyna, Isabelle; Hartl, Lukas; Latgé, Jean-Paul

2013-01-01

307

Fungal infection of aortic Endograft because of Aspergillus fumigatus.  

PubMed

A 59-year-old male, referred to our center with a ruptured aortic aneurysm, underwent urgent endovascular repair and femoro-femoral crossover bypass. An endograft infection because of Aspergillus fumigatus occurred about 20 days after surgery. We removed the endograft and femoral prosthesis and we then performed an aorto-bi-iliac bypass with autogenous reversed superficial femoral veins. Five days after surgery, the patient died. Microbiological examination and postmortem examination showed the presence of A. fumigatus in femoral prosthesis, aortic wall, and periaortic exudate. PMID:24858585

Ferrero, Emanuele; Ferri, Michelangelo; Viazzo, Andrea; Trevisan, Alessandra; Psacharopulo, Daniele; Ripepi, Matteo; Gibello, Lorenzo; Nessi, Franco

2014-10-01

308

In many amphibian genera, including Bufo, Rana and Xenopus, tadpoles hatch at an early `tailbud' stage of  

E-print Network

In many amphibian genera, including Bufo, Rana and Xenopus, tadpoles hatch at an early `tailbud in Great Britain © The Company of Biologists Limited 2000 JEB2629 Many amphibian tadpoles hatch and swim

309

Clinical significance of the recovery of Aspergillus species from the respiratory secretions of cystic fibrosis patients.  

PubMed

The frequent recovery of Aspergillus species from the respiratory tract secretions of cystic fibrosis (CF) patients is well recognized, and the presence of the fungus in the airways may trigger an inflammatory response that can manifest as the clinical entity known as allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis (ABPA). In our CF patient population we studied the clinical characteristics of those who had Aspergillus sp. recovered from their respiratory tract secretions (n = 45) and compared them with the characteristics seen, during the same time period, in those patients who were culture negative for Aspergillus sp. (n = 167). There were no differences in peripheral blood eosinophil count (P = 0.9) or serum immunoglobulin E levels (P = 0.61). By logistic regression analysis there seemed to be an increased risk for more advanced lung disease, both radiographically (defined by a Brasfield chest radiograph score < 18) and by lung function parameters in those who were culture positive. However, after appropriate adjustment, almost all the increased risk was associated with age and gender, but not with the presence of Aspergillus sp. in respiratory secretions. Additionally, increasing age was strongly correlated with the risk of Aspergillus sp. being cultured from respiratory secretions (P = 0.0025). The presence of Aspergillus sp. in respiratory secretions was not associated with two indicators of atopy in our CF patient population. We do not have evidence that the culture of Aspergillus sp. from CF respiratory secretions is independently associated with an increased risk for more advanced lung disease. PMID:8776259

Milla, C E; Wielinski, C L; Regelmann, W E

1996-01-01

310

The Antifungal Protein from Aspergillus giganteus Causes Membrane Permeabilization  

PubMed Central

We investigated the inhibitory effects of the antifungal protein (AFP) from Aspergillus giganteus on the growth of several filamentous fungi. For this purpose, the MICs of AFP were determined and ranged from 0.1 ?g/ml for Fusarium oxysporum to 200 ?g/ml for Aspergillus nidulans. The antifungal activity of AFP was diminished in the presence of cations. We were able to show that incubation of AFP-sensitive fungi with the protein resulted in membrane permeabilization using an assay based on the uptake of the fluorescent dye SYTOX Green. No permeabilization by AFP could be detected at concentrations below the species-specific MIC. Furthermore, AFP-induced permeabilization could readily be detected after 5 min of incubation. Localization experiments with fluorescein isothiocyanate-labeled AFP and immunofluorescence staining with an AFP-specific antibody supported the observation that the protein interacts with membranes. After treatment of AFP-sensitive fungi with AFP, the protein was localized at the plasma membrane, whereas it was mainly detected inside the cells of AFP-resistant fungi. We conclude from these data that the growth-inhibitory effect of AFP is caused by permeabilization of the fungal membranes. PMID:12543664

Theis, T.; Wedde, M.; Meyer, V.; Stahl, U.

2003-01-01

311

Enzyme profile and immunochemical characterization of Aspergillus fumigatus antigens.  

PubMed

We have compared the immunochemical characteristics of culture-filtrate antigens (Ag) from Aspergillus fumigatus extracted in our laboratory with commercially available Ags. A total of 20 different preparations were studied for protein and carbohydrate content, presence of endotoxins, mycotoxins, and hemolytic toxins. These extracts were analyzed by two-dimensional electrophoresis for protein components. The immunogenicity of the preparations was determined by rocket electrophoresis with rabbit anti-A. fumigatus sera and by agar gel diffusion with sera from patients with allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis, aspergilloma, and normal control subjects. In order to have dependable immunologic results, the Ags must be sufficiently pure and reproducible. Until such time as pure and standardized Ags are available, the crude Ags used should be characterized to the extent that adequate reproducibility between preparations can be ascertained. The enzyme profile of the Ag preparations provides a fair indication of the quality of antigenic components, and together with other immunochemical parameters, it will be of use in determining the suitability of the extracts in immunodiagnosis. Immunochemical results demonstrate that commercial Ags contain less proteins and carbohydrates and fewer enzymes than the homemade antigens. In addition, fewer patients demonstrated specific precipitins against commercial Ags than with homemade Ags. This study once again confirms the need for pure standardized Ags for studying the immunologic response in patients with Aspergillus-induced diseases. Until such preparations are readily available, partially purified or crude Ags with known immunochemical properties and enzyme profile may be the choice for immunodiagnosis. PMID:3097110

Kurup, V P; Resnick, A; Scribner, G H; Gunasekaran, M; Fink, J N

1986-12-01

312

Genomic characterization of a novel partitivirus infecting. Aspergillus ochraceus.  

PubMed

Three double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) segments from Aspergillus ochraceus isolate FA 0611, designated as AoR1, AoR2, and AoR3, were cloned and sequenced. AoR1 was identical with AoV dsRNA 1 previously reported from A. ochraceus ATCC 28706, which putatively encoded an RNA-dependent RNA polymerase of an unidentified mycovirus. AoR2 was found to encode a putative viral capsid protein (CP) with 63% similarity to that of Penicillium stoloniferum virus S, which was detected from P. stoloniferum ATCC 14586. The function of AoR3 was unknown. The three segments were found to contain a conserved sequence at their 5' termini, while an identical sequence was only found at the 3' termini of AoR1 and AoR2. It is suggested that AoR1, AoR2, and AoR3 originate from an independent partitivirus infecting A. ochraceus. The novel virus is suggested to be Aspergillus ochraceus virus 1, AoV1. PMID:18770020

Liu, Weixia; Duns, Greg; Chen, Jishuang

2008-12-01

313

Induced Autolysis of Aspergillus oryzae (A. niger group)  

PubMed Central

The examination of substances formed during induced autolysis by Aspergillus niger was continued in this work, which dealt in particular with carbohydrates. The autolysate contained a large amount of d-glucose (14 to 20% dry wt) and traces of glycolic aldehyde, dihydroxyacetone, ribose, xylose, and fructose. It also contained glycopeptides (about 10% dry wt), which were split from the cell wall during autolysis and which differed from one another in their level of polymerization and their composition. They were constituted by glucose and mannose, glucose and galactose, or mannose, glucose, and galactose (mannose being the most abundant in this case), and amino acids (chiefly alanine, serine, glutamic acid, and aspartic acid). During autolysis, only a part of the cell wall was dissolved, since it retained its shape. Upon further chemical hydrolysis, it produced mostly glucose and glucosamine, and smaller amounts of mannose, galactose, and amino acids. Presumably, glucomannoproteins and glucogalactoproteins were present in the intact cell as a macromolecular complex, constituting, together with chitin, the major part of the cell wall of Aspergillus. PMID:16349623

Emiliani, Ezio; de Davie, I. Ucha

1962-01-01

314

Evidence for positive selection acting on microcystin synthetase adenylation domains in three cyanobacterial genera  

PubMed Central

Background Cyanobacteria produce a wealth of secondary metabolites, including the group of small cyclic heptapeptide hepatotoxins that constitutes the microcystin family. The enzyme complex that directs the biosynthesis of microcystin is encoded in a single large gene cluster (mcy). mcy genes have a widespread distribution among cyanobacteria and are likely to have an ancient origin. The notable diversity within some of the Mcy modules is generated through various recombination events including horizontal gene transfer. Results A comparative analysis of the adenylation domains from the first module of McyB (McyB1) and McyC in the microcystin synthetase complex was performed on a large number of microcystin-producing strains from the Anabaena, Microcystis and Planktothrix genera. We found no decisive evidence for recombination between strains from different genera. However, we detected frequent recombination events in the mcyB and mcyC genes between strains within the same genus. Frequent interdomain recombination events were also observed between mcyB and mcyC sequences in Anabaena and Microcystis. Recombination and mutation rate ratios suggest that the diversification of mcyB and mcyC genes is driven by recombination events as well as point mutations in all three genera. Sequence analysis suggests that generally the adenylation domains of the first domain of McyB and McyC are under purifying selection. However, we found clear evidence for positive selection acting on a number of amino acid residues within these adenylation domains. These include residues important for active site selectivity of the adenylation domain, strongly suggesting selection for novel microcystin variants. Conclusion We provide the first clear evidence for positive selection acting on amino acid residues involved directly in the recognition and activation of amino acids incorporated into microcystin, indicating that the microcystin complement of a given strain may influence the ability of a particular strain to interact with its environment. PMID:18808704

2008-01-01

315

Phylogenetic relationship among genera of Polymorphidae (Acanthocephala), inferred from nuclear and mitochondrial gene sequences.  

PubMed

Acanthocephalans of the family Polymorphidae Meyer, 1931 are obligate endoparasites with complex life cycles. These worms use vertebrates (marine mammals, fish-eating birds and waterfowl) as definitive hosts and invertebrates (amphipods, decapods and euphausiids) as intermediate hosts to complete their life cycle. Polymorphidae has a wordwide distribution, containing 12 genera, with approximately 127 species. The family is diagnosed by having a spinose trunk, bulbose proboscis, double-walled proboscis receptacle, and usually four to eight tubular cement glands. To conduct a phylogenetic analysis, in the current study sequences of the small (18S) and large-subunit (28S) ribosomal RNA, and cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (cox 1) were generated for 27 taxa representing 10 of 12 genera of Polymorphidae, plus three additional species of acanthocephalans that were used as outgroups. Maximum likelihood (ML), maximum parsimony (MP), and Bayesian analyses were conducted on a combined nuclear rRNA (18S+28S) data set and on a concatenated dataset of nuclear plus one mitochondrial gene (18S+28S+cox 1). Phylogenetic analyses inferred with the concatenated dataset of three genes support the monophyly of nine genera (Andracantha, Corynosoma, Bolbosoma, Profilicollis, Pseudocorynosoma, Southwellina, Arhythmorhynchus, Hexaglandula and Ibirhynchus). However, the four sampled species of Polymorphus were nested within several clades, indicating that these species do not share a common ancestor, requiring further taxonomic revision using phylogenetic systematics, and reexamination of morphological and ecological data. By mapping definitive and intermediate host association onto the resulting cladogram, we observe that aquatic birds were the ancestral definitive hosts for the family with a secondary colonization and diversification to marine mammals. Whereas amphipods were ancestral intermediate hosts and that the association with decapods represent episodes of secondary colonization that arose several times during the evolutionary history of the family. Our results are useful to start testing hypothesis about the evolutionary history of this highly diverse family of acanthocephalans. PMID:23567022

García-Varela, Martín; Pérez-Ponce de León, Gerardo; Aznar, Francisco J; Nadler, Steven A

2013-08-01

316

Delimitation of Neonectria and Cylindrocarpon (Nectriaceae, Hypocreales, Ascomycota) and related genera with Cylindrocarpon-like anamorphs  

PubMed Central

Neonectria is a cosmopolitan genus and it is, in part, defined by its link to the anamorph genus Cylindrocarpon. Neonectria has been divided into informal groups on the basis of combined morphology of anamorph and teleomorph. Previously, Cylindrocarpon was divided into four groups defined by presence or absence of microconidia and chlamydospores. Molecular phylogenetic analyses have indicated that Neonectria sensu stricto and Cylindrocarpon sensu stricto are phylogenetically congeneric. In addition, morphological and molecular data accumulated over several years have indicated that Neonectria sensu lato and Cylindrocarpon sensu lato do not form a monophyletic group and that the respective informal groups may represent distinct genera. In the present work, a multilocus analysis (act, ITS, LSU, rpb1, tef1, tub) was applied to representatives of the informal groups to determine their level of phylogenetic support as a first step towards taxonomic revision of Neonectria sensu lato. Results show five distinct highly supported clades that correspond to some extent with the informal Neonectria and Cylindrocarpon groups that are here recognised as genera: (1) N. coccinea-group and Cylindrocarpon groups 1 & 4 (Neonectria/Cylindrocarpon sensu stricto); (2) N. rugulosa-group (Rugonectria gen. nov.); (3) N. mammoidea/N. veuillotiana-groups and Cylindrocarpon group 2 (Thelonectria gen. nov.); (4) N. radicicola-group and Cylindrocarpon group 3 (Ilyonectria gen. nov.); and (5) anamorph genus Campylocarpon. Characteristics of the anamorphs and teleomorphs correlate with the five genera, three of which are newly described. New combinations are made for species where their classification is confirmed by phylogenetic data. PMID:21523189

Chaverri, P.; Salgado, C.; Hirooka, Y.; Rossman, A.Y.; Samuels, G.J.

2011-01-01

317

Redescription of Psilotricha acuminata Stein, 1859 and revisions of the genera Psilotricha and Urospinula (Ciliophora, Hypotrichida).  

PubMed

Psilotricha acuminata was described by Stein in 1859 as the type species of the ciliate genus Psilotricha Stein, 1859. The ciliate has rarely been found since, and its infraciliature has never been described with the aid of silver-impregnation techniques. We have found P. acuminata Stein, 1859 in soil samples from upland grassland in Scotland (U.K.). Living and healthy organisms of P. acuminata are oblong in outline, and dorso-ventrally compressed. They closely resemble ciliates of the genus Euplotes. The main morphological features used for identification of P. acuminata are the very long and sparse cirri, and the two macronuclei. When the ciliate crawls, the cirri appear stiff and directed backwards. Specimens observed from the ventral side have a protruding anterior end, a rounded or acuminate posterior pole, and a "beak-like" projection to the left side of the posterior end. The ciliate shares characters with the Euplotidae (body shape and reduced ciliature) and with the Oxytrichidae (marginal rows, macronuclei, reduced number of transverse cirri). Because the arrangement of the silver-impregnated infraciliature was unknown, and as the only description of the ciliate was that of Stein (1859a, b), the genus Psilotricha became confused with other hypotrich genera, especially Urospinula Corliss, 1960. Here we provide a full redescription of P. acuminata based on living and silver-impregnated specimens, and a revision of the genera Psilotricha Stein, 1859 and Urospinula Corliss, 1960. We resurrect the genus Urospinula, and give an emended diagnosis for both genera. The species now included within the genus Psilotricha are P. acuminata Stein, 1859 (type species); Psilotricha viridis (Penard, 1922) Kahl, 1932; and Psilotricha geleii (Gelei, 1954) Stiller, 1974. Psilotricha viridis sensu Kahl, 1932 and Psilotricha dragescoi Groličre, 1975 are considered incertae sedis. PMID:11411836

Esteban, G F; Olmo, J L; Finlay, B J

2001-01-01

318

Endemicity and evolutionary value: a study of Chilean endemic vascular plant genera  

PubMed Central

This study uses phylogeny-based measures of evolutionary potential (phylogenetic diversity and community structure) to evaluate the evolutionary value of vascular plant genera endemic to Chile. Endemicity is regarded as a very important consideration for conservation purposes. Taxa that are endemic to a single country are valuable conservation targets, as their protection depends upon a single government policy. This is especially relevant in developing countries in which conservation is not always a high resource allocation priority. Phylogeny-based measures of evolutionary potential such as phylogenetic diversity (PD) have been regarded as meaningful measures of the “value” of taxa and ecosystems, as they are able to account for the attributes that could allow taxa to recover from environmental changes. Chile is an area of remarkable endemism, harboring a flora that shows the highest number of endemic genera in South America. We studied PD and community structure of this flora using a previously available supertree at the genus level, to which we added DNA sequences of 53 genera endemic to Chile. Using discrepancy values and a null model approach, we decoupled PD from taxon richness, in order to compare their geographic distribution over a one-degree grid. An interesting pattern was observed in which areas to the southwest appear to harbor more PD than expected by their generic richness than those areas to the north of the country. In addition, some southern areas showed more PD than expected by chance, as calculated with the null model approach. Geological history as documented by the study of ancient floras as well as glacial refuges in the coastal range of southern Chile during the quaternary seem to be consistent with the observed pattern, highlighting the importance of this area for conservation purposes. PMID:24683462

Scherson, Rosa A; Albornoz, Abraham A; Moreira-Muńoz, Andrés S; Urbina-Casanova, Rafael

2014-01-01

319

Dated Phylogenies of the Sister Genera Macaranga and Mallotus (Euphorbiaceae): Congruence in Historical Biogeographic Patterns?  

PubMed Central

Molecular phylogenies and estimates of divergence times within the sister genera Macaranga and Mallotus were estimated using Bayesian relaxed clock analyses of two generic data sets, one per genus. Both data sets were based on different molecular markers and largely different samples. Per genus three calibration points were utilised. The basal calibration point (crown node of all taxa used) was taken from literature and used for both taxa. The other three calibrations were based on fossils of which two were used per genus. We compared patterns of dispersal and diversification in Macaranga and Mallotus using ancestral area reconstruction in RASP (S-DIVA option) and contrasted our results with biogeographical and geological records to assess accuracy of inferred age estimates. A check of the fossil calibration point showed that the Japanese fossil, used for dating the divergence of Mallotus, probably had to be attached to a lower node, the stem node of all pioneer species, but even then the divergence time was still younger than the estimated age of the fossil. The African (only used in the Macaranga data set) and New Zealand fossils (used for both genera) seemed reliably placed. Our results are in line with existing geological data and the presence of stepping stones that provided dispersal pathways from Borneo to New Guinea-Australia, from Borneo to mainland Asia and additionally at least once to Africa and Madagascar via land and back to India via Indian Ocean island chains. The two genera show congruence in dispersal patterns, which corroborate divergence time estimates, although the overall mode and tempo of dispersal and diversification differ significantly as shown by distribution patterns of extant species. PMID:24465660

van Welzen, Peter C.; Strijk, Joeri S.; van Konijnenburg-van Cittert, Johanna H. A.; Nucete, Monica; Merckx, Vincent S. F. T.

2014-01-01

320

Five vicarious genera from Gondwana: the Velloziaceae as shown by molecules and morphology  

PubMed Central

Background and Aims The amount of data collected previously for Velloziaceae neither clarified relationships within the family nor helped determine an appropriate classification, which has led to huge discordance among treatment by different authors. To achieve an acceptable phylogenetic result and understand the evolution and roles of characters in supporting groups, a total evidence analysis was developed which included approx. 20 % of the species and all recognized genera and sections of Velloziaceae, plus outgroups representatives of related families within Pandanales. Methods Analyses were undertaken with 48 species of Velloziaceae, representing all ten genera, with DNA sequences from the atpB-rbcL spacer, trnL-trnF spacer, trnL intron, trnH-psbA spacer, ITS ribosomal DNA spacers and morphology. Key Results Four groups consistently emerge from the analyses. Persistent leaves, two phloem strands, stem cortex divided in three regions and violet tepals support Acanthochlamys as sister to Velloziaceae s.s., which are supported mainly by leaves with marginal bundles, transfusion tracheids and inflorescence without axis. Within Velloziaceae s.s., an African Xerophyta + Talbotia clade is uniquely supported by basal loculicidal capsules; an American clade, Barbacenia s.l. + Barbaceniopsis + Nanuza + Vellozia, is supported by only homoplastic characters. Barbacenia s.l. (= Aylthonia + Barbacenia + Burlemarxia + Pleurostima) is supported by a double sheath in leaf vascular bundles and a corona; Barbaceniopsis + Nanuza + Vellozia is not supported by an unambiguous character, but Barbaceniopsis is supported by five characters, including diclinous flowers, Nanuza + Vellozia is supported mainly by horizontal stigma lobes and stem inner cortex cells with secondary walls, and Vellozia alone is supported mainly by pollen in tetrads. Conclusions The results imply recognition of five genera (Acanthochlamys (Xerophyta (Barbacenia (Barbaceniopsis, Vellozia)))), solving the long-standing controversies among recent classifications of the family. They also suggest a Gondwanan origin for Velloziaceae, with a vicariant pattern of distribution. PMID:21693665

Mello-Silva, Renato; Santos, Déborah Yara A. C.; Salatino, Maria Luiza F.; Motta, Lucimar B.; Cattai, Marina B.; Sasaki, Denise; Lovo, Juliana; Pita, Patrícia B.; Rocini, Cintia; Rodrigues, Cristiane D. N.; Zarrei, Mehdi; Chase, Mark W.

2011-01-01

321

Environmental contamination by Aspergillus spp. in laying hen farms and associated health risks for farm workers.  

PubMed

Data on the occurrence and epidemiology of Aspergillus spp. in laying hens farms are scant. With the aims of determining levels of airborne contamination in laying hen farms and evaluating the potential risk of infection for workers and animals, 57 air samples from 19 sheds (Group I), 69 from faeces (Group II), 19 from poultry feedstuffs (Group III) and 60 from three anatomical sites (i.e. nostrils, pharynx, ears) of 20 farm workers (Group IV) were cultured. The Aspergillus spp. prevalence in samples ranged from 31.6% (Group III) to 55.5% (Group IV), whereas the highest conidia concentration was retrieved in Group II (1.2 × 10(4) c.f.u. g(-1)) and in Group III (1.9 × 10(3) c.f.u. g(-1)). The mean concentration of airborne Aspergillus spp. conidia was 70 c.f.u. m(-3) with Aspergillus fumigatus (27.3%) being the most frequently detected species, followed by Aspergillus flavus (6.3%). These Aspergillus spp. were also isolated from human nostrils (40%) and ears (35%) (P<0.05) (Group IV). No clinical aspergillosis was diagnosed in hens. The results demonstrate a relationship between the environmental contamination in hen farms and presence of Aspergillus spp. on animals and humans. Even if the concentration of airborne Aspergillus spp. conidia (i.e. 70 c.f.u. m(-3)) herein detected does not trigger clinical disease in hens, it causes human colonization. Correct management of hen farms is necessary to control environmental contamination by Aspergillus spp., and could lead to a significant reduction of animal and human colonization. PMID:24430250

Cafarchia, Claudia; Camarda, Antonio; Iatta, Roberta; Danesi, Patrizia; Favuzzi, Vincenza; Di Paola, Giancarlo; Pugliese, Nicola; Caroli, Anna; Montagna, Maria Teresa; Otranto, Domenico

2014-03-01

322

Terfezia disappears from the American truffle mycota as two new genera and Mattirolomyces species emerge.  

PubMed

Reexamination and molecular phylogenetic analyses of American Terfezia species and Mattirolomyces tiffanyae revealed that their generic assignments were wrong. Therefore we here propose these combinations: Mattirolomyces spinosus comb. nov. (? Terfezia spinosa), Stouffera longii gen. & comb. nov. (? Terfezia longii) and Temperantia tiffanyae gen. & comb. nov. (? Mattirolomyces tiffanyae). In addition we describe a new species, Mattirolomyces mexicanus spec. nov. All species belong to the Pezizaceae. Based on these results Terfezia is not known from North America, Mattirolomyces is represented by two species and two new monotypic genera are present. PMID:21262987

Kovács, Gábor M; Trappe, James M; Alsheikh, Abdulmagid M; Hansen, Karen; Healy, Rosanne A; Vági, Pál

2011-01-01

323

Spatial partitioning of host habitat by chewing lice of the genera Geomydoecus and Thomomydoecus (Phthiraptera: Trichodectidae).  

PubMed

Chewing lice, Geomydoecus and Thomomydoecus, coexist on pocket gophers, Thomomys spp. We investigated the spatial distribution of the 2 genera on their hosts and explored possible mechanisms of resource partitioning by chewing lice. Chewing lice appear to partition available host resources spatially, with Geomydoecus occurring primarily on the lateral and dorsal regions of the host, and Thomomydoecus occurring primarily on the lateral and ventral regions. Although spatial partitioning of the host habitat is evident, it does not appear to be explained by hair diameter. Spatial partitioning of the host's body could be the result of some other factor, possibly temperature or humidity gradients of the host's body. PMID:11128517

Reed, D L; Hafner, M S; Allen, S K; Smith, M B

2000-10-01

324

Landau-Ginzburg/Calabi-Yau Correspondence of all Genera for Elliptic Orbifold $\\mathbb{p}^1$  

E-print Network

In this paper, we establish the convergence for Gromov-Witten invariant of elliptic orbifold $\\mathbb{P}^1$ with type $(3,3,3), (4,4,2)$ and $(6,3,2)$. We also prove the mirror theorems of Gromov-Witten theory for those orbifolds and FJRW theory of elliptic singularities. Using T.Milanov and Y. Ruan's work, we prove the Landau-Ginzburg/Calabi-Yau correspondence of all genera for the above three types of elliptic orbifold $\\mathbb{P}^1$.

Krawitz, Marc

2011-01-01

325

Bronchoscopic and serologic diagnosis of Aspergillus fumigatus pulmonary infection in a bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncatus).  

PubMed

A 4-yr-old male bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncatus) developed an Aspergillus fumigatus pneumonia. Fungal elements were identified by cytology and microbiology from endoscopic bronchoalveolar lavage and brushings of a raised yellow endobronchial lesion. The results of qualitative immunodiffusion serology, a technique that identifies specific circulating antibodies to Aspergillus fumigatus, were suggestive of an active infection. The dolphin was treated with itraconazole for over 2 yr, which resulted in remission of clinical signs. Pneumonia caused by Aspergillus sp. accounts for the large majority of pulmonary mycoses in marine mammals. Bronchoscopy facilitated an early definitive diagnosis, accurate treatment, and remission. PMID:10065855

Reidarson, T H; Harrell, J H; Rinaldi, M G; McBain, J

1998-12-01

326

Complete mitochondrial genome of an Amynthas earthworm, Amynthas aspergillus (Oligochaeta: Megascolecidae).  

PubMed

Abstract We have determined the mitochondrial genome of the first Amynthas earthworm, Amynthas aspergillus (Perrier, 1872), which is a natural medical resource in Chinese traditional medicine. Its mitogenome is 15,115?bp in length containing 37 genes with the same contents and order as other sequenced earthworms. All genes are encoded by the same strand, all 13 PCGs use ATG as start codon. The content of A + T is 63.04% for A. aspergillus (33.41% A, 29.63% T, 14.56% G and 22.41% C). The complete mitochondrial genomes of A. aspergillus would be useful for the reconstruction of Oligochaeta polygenetic relationships. PMID:25329289

Zhang, Liangliang; Jiang, Jibao; Dong, Yan; Qiu, Jiangping

2014-10-20

327

Regulation of pentose utilisation by AraR, but not XlnR, differs in Aspergillus nidulans and Aspergillus niger.  

PubMed

Filamentous fungi are important producers of plant polysaccharide degrading enzymes that are used in many industrial applications. These enzymes are produced by the fungus to liberate monomeric sugars that are used as carbon source. Two of the main components of plant polysaccharides are L-arabinose and D-xylose, which are metabolized through the pentose catabolic pathway (PCP) in these fungi. In Aspergillus niger, the regulation of pentose release from polysaccharides and the PCP involves the transcriptional activators AraR and XlnR, which are also present in other Aspergilli such as Aspergillus nidulans. The comparative analysis revealed that the regulation of the PCP by AraR differs in A. nidulans and A. niger, whereas the regulation of the PCP by XlnR was similar in both species. This was demonstrated by the growth differences on L-arabinose between disruptant strains for araR and xlnR in A. nidulans and A. niger. In addition, the expression profiles of genes encoding L-arabinose reductase (larA), L-arabitol dehydrogenase (ladA) and xylitol dehydrogenase (xdhA) differed in these strains. This data suggests evolutionary changes in these two species that affect pentose utilisation. This study also implies that manipulating regulatory systems to improve the production of polysaccharide degrading enzymes, may give different results in different industrial fungi. PMID:21484208

Battaglia, Evy; Hansen, Sara Fasmer; Leendertse, Anne; Madrid, Susan; Mulder, Harm; Nikolaev, Igor; de Vries, Ronald P

2011-07-01

328

Chromosome numbers and karyotype evolution in holoparasitic Orobanche (Orobanchaceae) and related genera  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Chromosome numbers and karyotypes of species of Orobanche, Cistanche, and Diphelypaea (Orobanchaceae) were investigated, and 108 chromosome counts of 53 taxa, 19 counted for the first time, are presented with a thorough compilation of previously published data. Additionally, karyotypes of representatives of these genera, including Orobanche sects. Orobanche and Trionychon, are reported. Cistanche (x = 20) has large meta- to submetacentric chromosomes, while those of Diphelypaea (x = 19) are medium-sized submeta-to acrocentrics. Within three analyzed sections of Orobanche, sects. Myzorrhiza (x = 24) and Trionychon (x = 12) possess medium-sized submeta- to acrocentrics, while sect. Orobanche (x = 19) has small, mostly meta- to submetacentric, chromosomes. Polyploidy is unevenly distributed in Orobanche and restricted to a few lineages, e.g., O. sect. Myzorrhiza or Orobanche gracilis and its relatives (sect. Orobanche). The distribution of basic chromosome numbers supports the groups found by molecular phylogenetic analyses: Cistanche has x = 20, the Orobanche-group (Orobanche sect. Orobanche, Diphelypaea) has x = 19, and the Phelipanche-group (Orobanche sects. Gymnocaulis, Myzorrhiza, Trionychon) has x = 12, 24. A model of chromosome number evolution in Orobanche and related genera is presented: from two ancestral base numbers, xh = 5 and xh = 6, independent polyploidizations led to x = 20 (Cistanche) and (after dysploidization) x = 19 (Orobanche-group) and to x = 12 and x = 24 (Phelipanche-group), respectively.

Schneeweiss, G.M.; Palomeque, T.; Colwell, A.E.; Weiss-Schneeweiss, H.

2004-01-01

329

Taxonomic notes on the afrotropical genera Hapalogenius Hagedorn, Hylesinopsis Eggers, and Rhopalopselion Hagedorn (Coleoptera, Curculionidae, Scolytinae)  

PubMed Central

Abstract Taxonomic confusion among the afrotropical scolytine genera Hapalogenius Hagedorn, Hylesinopsis Eggers and Rhopalopselion Hagedorn, and their synonyms is discussed with especial reference to the catalogues of Wood and Bright (1992), and Alonso-Zarazaga and Lyal (2009). A key is given to separate the three genera recognised, and the species considered to be included in each genus are listed. Hylesinopsis is resurrected from synonymy with Hapalogenius, and shown not to be closely related to it. Chilodendron Schedl is considered to be a synonym of Hylesinopsis and not of Xylechinus Chapuis. The following new synonymy is proposed at specific level: Hapalogenius africanus (Eggers) (= Hapalogenius lesnei Eggers, = Metahylesinus brincki Schedl); Hapalogenius fuscipennis (Chapuis) (= Hapalogenius bimaculatus Eggers); Hapalogenius oblongus (Eggers) (= Metahylesinus striatus Schedl); Hylesinopsis fasciata (Hagedorn) (= Kissophagus punctatus Eggers); Phrixosoma niger Eggers (= Hapalogenius niger Schedl). The following species are returned to Hylesinopsis from Hapalogenius to which they were transferred by Alonso-Zarazaga and Lyal (2009): Hylesinopsis alluaudi (Lepesme), Hylesinopsis angolensis (Schedl), Hylesinopsis arabiae (Schedl), Hylesinopsis atra (Nunberg), Hylesinopsis confusa (Eggers), Hylesinopsis decellei (Nunberg), Hylesinopsis dubia Eggers, Hylesinopsis emarginata (Nunberg), Hylesinopsis fasciata (Hagedorn), Hylesinopsis ficus (Schedl), Hylesinopsis granulata (Lepesme), Hylesinopsis hirsuta (Schedl), Hylesinopsis joveri (Schedl), Hylesinopsis pauliani (Lepesme), Hylesinopsis punctata (Eggers), Hylesinopsis saudiarabiae (Schedl). The following new combination is given: Hylesinopsis leprosula (Browne) from Cryphalus Erichson. New distributional records are given for some species. PMID:21594177

Beaver, Roger A

2010-01-01

330

Two new genera of Lumbriculidae (Annelida, Clitellata) from North Carolina, USA  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Recent benthic macroinvertebrate collections from North Carolina contained many undescribed oligochaete taxa, mostly belonging to the family Lumbriculidae. Three of the new species had arrangements of spermathecae and atria previously unreported for the family, and were assigned to new two genera. Pilaridrilus is distinguished by the location of spermathecal pores five segments behind the male pores. The single species, Pilaridrilus uliginosus, also has unusually complex penes and spermathecae. Martinidrilus is distinguished by spermathecae beginning more than two segments anterior to the atrial segment, and also by the the vasa deferentia, which join a common duct before joining the atria. The two Martinidrilus species also have unusual digitiform blood vessels in posterior segments. Martinidrilus carolinensis has lateral spermathecae in VI, and Martinidrilus arenosus has dorsolateral spermathecae in VII and VIII. Because arrangement and morphology of reproductive organs do not resemble those of described lumbriculids, the phylogenetic affinities of the new species are not clear. These new genera and species were generally collected from areas of high water quality, suggesting that lumbriculids can be useful in water quality monitoring and conservation evaluation. Copyright ?? 2007 Magnolia Press.

Fend, S.V.; Lenat, D.R.

2007-01-01

331

Phylogenetic relationships among Lactuca (Asteraceae) species and related genera based on ITS-1 DNA sequences.  

PubMed

Internal transcribed spacer (ITS-1) sequences from 97 accessions representing 23 species of Lactuca and related genera were determined and used to evaluate species relationships of Lactuca sensu lato (s.l.). The ITS-1 phylogenies, calculated using PAUP and PHYLIP, correspond better to the classification of Feráková than to other classifications evaluated, although the inclusion of sect. Lactuca subsect. Cyanicae is not supported. Therefore, exclusion of subsect. Cyanicae from Lactuca sensu Feráková is proposed. The amended genus contains the entire gene pool (sensu Harlan and De Wet) of cultivated lettuce (Lactuca sativa). The position of the species in the amended classification corresponds to their position in the lettuce gene pool. In the ITS-1 phylogenies, a clade with L. sativa, L. serriola, L. dregeana, L. altaica, and L. aculeata represents the primary gene pool. L. virosa and L. saligna, branching off closest to this clade, encompass the secondary gene pool. L. virosa is possibly of hybrid origin. The primary and secondary gene pool species are classified in sect. Lactuca subsect. Lactuca. The species L. quercina, L. viminea, L. sibirica, and L. tatarica, branching off next, represent the tertiary gene pool. They are classified in Lactuca sect. Lactucopsis, sect. Phaenixopus, and sect. Mulgedium, respectively. L. perennis and L. tenerrima, classified in sect. Lactuca subsect. Cyanicae, form clades with species from related genera and are not part of the lettuce gene pool. PMID:21680311

Koopman, W J; Guetta, E; van de Wiel, C C; Vosman, B; van den Berg, R G

1998-11-01

332

Comprehensive Secondary Structure Elucidation of Four Genera of the Family Pospiviroidae  

PubMed Central

Viroids are small, circular, single stranded RNA molecules that infect plants. Since they are non-coding, their structures play a critical role in their life cycles. To date, little effort has been spend on elucidating viroid structures in solution due to both the experimental difficulties and the time-consuming nature of the methodologies implicated. Recently, the technique of high-throughput selective 2?-hydroxyl acylation analyzed by primer extension (SHAPE) was adapted for the probing of the members of family Avsunviroidae, all of whom replicate in the chloroplast and demonstrate ribozyme activity. In the present work, twelve viroid species belonging to four different genera of the family Pospiviroidae, whose members are characterized by the presence of a central conserved region (CCR) and who replicate in nucleus of the host, were probed. Given that the structures of five distinct viroid species from the family Pospiviroidae have been previously reported, an overview of the different structural characteristics for all genera and the beginning of a manual classification of the different viroids based on their structural features are presented here. PMID:24897295

Gigučre, Tamara; Raj Adkar-Purushothama, Charith; Perreault, Jean-Pierre

2014-01-01

333

Nematode Genera in Forest Soil Respond Differentially to Elevated CO2.  

PubMed

Previous reports suggest that fungivorous nematodes are the only trophic group in forest soils affected by elevated CO2. However, there can be ambiguity within trophic groups, and we examined data at a genus level to determine whether the conclusion remains similar. Nematodes were extracted from roots and soil of loblolly pine (Pinus taeda) and sweet gum (Liquidambar styraciflua) forests fumigated with either ambient air or CO2-enriched air. Root length and nematode biomass were estimated using video image analysis. Most common genera included Acrobeloides, Aphelenchoides, Cephalobus, Ditylenchus, Ecphyadorphora, Filenchus, Plectus, Prismatolaimus, and Tylencholaimus. Maturity Index values and diversity increased with elevated CO2 in loblolly pine but decreased with elevated CO2 in sweet gum forests. Elevated CO2 treatment affected the occurrence of more nematode genera in sweet gum than loblolly pine forests. Numbers were similar but size of Xiphinema decreased in elevated CO2. Abundance, but not biomass, of Aphelenchoides was reduced by elevated CO2. Treatment effects were apparent at the genus levels that were masked at the trophic level. For example, bacterivores were unaffected by elevated CO2, but abundance of Cephalobus was affected by CO2 treatment in both forests. PMID:24115786

Neher, Deborah A; Weicht, Thomas R

2013-09-01

334

40 CFR 180.1254 - Aspergillus flavus NRRL 21882; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...the requirement of a tolerance is established for residues of Aspergillus flavus NRRL 21882 on corn, field, forage; corn, field, grain; corn, field, stover; corn, field, aspirated grain fractions; corn, sweet, kernel plus cob...

2012-07-01

335

Influence of plant host species on intraspecific competition during infection by Aspergillus flavus  

E-print Network

of aflatoxin contamination. Host factors should be considered when designing and implementing aflatoxin management strategies including biocontrol with atoxigenic strains. Keywords: aflatoxin, Aspergillus flavus, cottonseed, intraspecific competition, maize Introduction Aflatoxins, highly carcinogenic secondary

Cotty, Peter J.

336

Secondary metabolite profiling, growth profiles and other tools for species recognition and important Aspergillus mycotoxins  

PubMed Central

Species in the genus Aspergillus have been classified primarily based on morphological features. Sequencing of house-hold genes has also been used in Aspergillus taxonomy and phylogeny, while extrolites and physiological features have been used less frequently. Three independent ways of classifying and identifying aspergilli appear to be applicable: Morphology combined with physiology and nutritional features, secondary metabolite profiling and DNA sequencing. These three ways of identifying Aspergillus species often point to the same species. This consensus approach can be used initially, but if consensus is achieved it is recommended to combine at least two of these independent ways of characterising aspergilli in a polyphasic taxonomy. The chemical combination of secondary metabolites and DNA sequence features has not been explored in taxonomy yet, however. Examples of these different taxonomic approaches will be given for Aspergillus section Nigri. PMID:18490955

Frisvad, J.C.; Larsen, T.O.; de Vries, R.; Meijer, M.; Houbraken, J.; Cabańes, F.J.; Ehrlich, K.; Samson, R.A.

2007-01-01

337

Osteomyelitis caused by Aspergillus species: a review of 310 reported cases.  

PubMed

Aspergillus osteomyelitis is a rare infection. We reviewed 310 individual cases reported in the literature from 1936 to 2013. The median age of patients was 43 years (range, 0-86 years), and 59% were males. Comorbidities associated with this infection included chronic granulomatous disease (19%), haematological malignancies (11%), transplantation (11%), diabetes (6%), pulmonary disease (4%), steroid therapy (4%), and human immunodeficiency virus infection (4%). Sites of infection included the spine (49%), base of the skull, paranasal sinuses and jaw (18%), ribs (9%), long bones (9%), sternum (5%), and chest wall (4%). The most common infecting species were Aspergillus fumigatus (55%), Aspergillus flavus (12%), and Aspergillus nidulans (7%). Sixty-two per cent of the individual cases were treated with a combination of an antifungal regimen and surgery. Amphotericin B was the antifungal drug most commonly used, followed by itraconazole and voriconazole. Several combination or sequential therapies were also used experimentally. The overall crude mortality rate was 25%. PMID:24303995

Gabrielli, E; Fothergill, A W; Brescini, L; Sutton, D A; Marchionni, E; Orsetti, E; Staffolani, S; Castelli, P; Gesuita, R; Barchiesi, F

2014-06-01

338

Aspergillus flavus AF36 Biopesticides Registration Action Document Final July 03, 2003  

E-print Network

AGENCY OFFICE OF PESTICIDE PROGRAMS BIOPESTICIDES AND POLLUTION PREVENTION DIVISION #12;Aspergillus . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 3. Dietary Exposure and Risk Characterization . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20 4. Occupational and Residential Exposure and Risk Characterization . . . 21 5. Drinking Water Exposure and Risk

Cotty, Peter J.

339

X-ray Structure Analysis and Characterization of AFUEI, an Elastase Inhibitor from Aspergillus fumigatus*  

PubMed Central

Elastase from Aspergillus sp. is an important factor for aspergillosis. AFUEI is an inhibitor of the elastase derived from Aspergillus fumigatus. AFUEI is a member of the I78 inhibitor family and has a high inhibitory activity against elastases of Aspergillus fumigatus and Aspergillus flavus, human neutrophil elastase and bovine chymotrypsin, but does not inhibit bovine trypsin. Here we report the crystal structure of AFUEI in two crystal forms. AFUEI is a wedge-shaped protein composed of an extended loop and a scaffold protein core. The structure of AFUEI shows remarkable similarity to serine protease inhibitors of the potato inhibitor I family, although they are classified into different inhibitor families. A structural comparison with the potato I family inhibitors suggests that the extended loop of AFUEI corresponds to the binding loop of the potato inhibitor I family, and AFUEI inhibits its cognate proteases through the same mechanism as the potato I family inhibitors. PMID:23640894

Sakuma, Mayuko; Imada, Katsumi; Okumura, Yoshiyuki; Uchiya, Kei-ichi; Yamashita, Nobuo; Ogawa, Kenji; Hijikata, Atsushi; Shirai, Tsuyoshi; Homma, Michio; Nikai, Toshiaki

2013-01-01

340

Potential involvement of Aspergillus flavus Link laccases in peanut invasion at low water potential  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Aspergillus flavus (Link) accumulates aflatoxins in peanuts, mainly affecting immature kernels during drought. Peanut invasion by A. flavus induces synthesis of phytoalexins, mostly stilbenoids, as a plant defense mechanism. Fungal laccases are often related to pathogenicity, and among other subst...

341

Genetic relatedness versus biological compatibility between Aspergillus fumigatus and related species  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Aspergillus section Fumigati contains twelve clinically relevant species. Among them, A. fumigatus is the most frequent agent of invasive aspergillosis followed by A. lentulus and A. viridinutans. Genealogical concordance and mating experiments were performed to examine the relationship between phyl...

342

Increased Heterologous Protein Production in Aspergillus niger Fermentation through Extracellular Proteases Inhibition by  

E-print Network

Increased Heterologous Protein Production in Aspergillus niger Fermentation through Extracellular in filamentous fungal fermentation and thereby to enhance heterologous protein production. Introduction with efficient heterologous protein production in the fungal fermentation industry (1, 2). Current strategies

Gu, Tingyue

343

Application of maltitol to improve production of raw starch digesting glucoamylase by Aspergillus niger F-08  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of the addition of maltitol on the production of raw starch digesting glucoamylase (RSDG) by Aspergillus niger F-08 was studied in the paper. The activity of RSDG formed by Aspergillus niger F-08 was enhanced dramatically by the addition of maltitol to the medium and it was confirmed that maltitol acted as a very\\u000a efficient inducer for RSDG production.

Haiyan Sun; Pingjuan Zhao; Ming Peng

2008-01-01

344

Aspergillus Galactomannan Antigen in the Cerebrospinal Fluid of Bone Marrow Transplant Recipients with Probable Cerebral Aspergillosis  

PubMed Central

The Aspergillus galactomannan test was performed on cerebrospinal fluid and serum samples from 5 patients with probable cerebral aspergillosis and from 16 control patients. Cerebrospinal fluid galactomannan levels were significantly higher in aspergillosis patients, and most galactomannan was produced intrathecally. Comparison of serum galactomannan values in pulmonary and cerebral aspergillosis patients showed significant overlapping. Detection of Aspergillus galactomannan in cerebrospinal fluid may be diagnostic of cerebral aspergillosis. PMID:11923380

Viscoli, Claudio; Machetti, Marco; Gazzola, Paola; De Maria, Andrea; Paola, Dimitri; Van Lint, Maria Teresa; Gualandi, Francesca; Truini, Mauro; Bacigalupo, Andrea

2002-01-01

345

Population structure and Aflatoxin production by Aspergillus Sect. Flavi from maize in Nigeria and Ghana.  

PubMed

Aflatoxins are highly toxic carcinogens that contaminate crops worldwide. Previous studies conducted in Nigeria and Ghana found high concentrations of aflatoxins in pre- and post-harvest maize. However, little information is available on the population structure of Aspergillus Sect. Flavi in West Africa. We determined the incidence of Aspergillus Sect. Flavi and the level of aflatoxin contamination in 91 maize samples from farms and markets in Nigeria and Ghana. Aspergillus spp. were recovered from 61/91 maize samples and aflatoxins B1 and/or B2 occurred in 36/91 samples. Three samples from the farms also contained aflatoxin G1 and/or G2. Farm samples were more highly contaminated than were samples from the market, in terms of both the percentage of the samples contaminated and the level of mycotoxin contamination. One-hundred-and-thirty-five strains representative of the 1163 strains collected were identified by using a multilocus sequence analysis of portions of the genes encoding calmodulin, ?-tubulin and actin, and evaluated for aflatoxin production. Of the 135 strains, there were 110 - Aspergillus flavus, 20 - Aspergillus tamarii, 2 - Aspergillus wentii, 2 - Aspergillus flavofurcatus, and 1 - Aspergillus parvisclerotigenus. Twenty-five of the A. flavus strains and the A. parvisclerotigenus strain were the only strains that produced aflatoxins. The higher contamination of the farm than the market samples suggests that the aflatoxin exposure of rural farmers is even higher than previously estimated based on reported contamination of market samples. The relative infrequency of the A. flavus SBG strains, producing small sclerotia and high levels of both aflatoxins (B and G), suggests that long-term chronic exposure to this mycotoxin are a much higher health risk in West Africa than is the acute toxicity due to very highly contaminated maize in east Africa. PMID:24750813

Perrone, Giancarlo; Haidukowski, Miriam; Stea, Gaetano; Epifani, Filomena; Bandyopadhyay, Ranajit; Leslie, John F; Logrieco, Antonio

2014-08-01

346

Structural assessment of peanut cultivars for pod resistance to Aspergillus flavus  

E-print Network

STRUCTURAL ASSESSMENT OF PEANUT CULTIVARS FOR POD RESISTANCE TO ASPERGILLUS FLAVUS A Thesis by RUSSELYN DEE HENSON Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas ARM University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree... of Committee) Olin . Smith (Member) Ruth A. Taber (Member) . c )i~i ~) (, g. le j'(ZP'( I John S. Calahan (Member) eal Van Alfen (Department Head) May 1991 ABSTRACT Structural Assessment of Peanut Cultivars for Pod Resistance to Aspergillus flavus...

Henson, Russelyn Dee

2012-06-07

347

Aspergillus Niger Genomics: Past, Present and into the Future  

SciTech Connect

Aspergillus niger is a filamentous ascomycete fungus that is ubiquitous in the environment and has been implicated in opportunistic infections of humans. In addition to its role as an opportunistic human pathogen, A. niger is economically important as a fermentation organism used for the production of citric acid. Industrial citric acid production by A. niger represents one of the most efficient, highest yield bioprocesses in use currently by industry. The genome size of A. niger is estimated to be between 35.5 and 38.5 megabases (Mb) divided among eight chromosomes/linkage groups that vary in size from 3.5 - 6.6 Mb. Currently, there are three independent A. niger genome projects, an indication of the economic importance of this organism. The rich amount of data resulting from these multiple A. niger genome sequences will be used for basic and applied research programs applicable to fermentation process development, morphology and pathogenicity.

Baker, Scott E.

2006-09-01

348

Tandem shock waves to enhance genetic transformation of Aspergillus niger.  

PubMed

Filamentous fungi are used in several industries and in academia to produce antibiotics, metabolites, proteins and pharmaceutical compounds. The development of valuable strains usually requires the insertion of recombinant deoxyribonucleic acid; however, the protocols to transfer DNA to fungal cells are highly inefficient. Recently, underwater shock waves were successfully used to genetically transform filamentous fungi. The purpose of this research was to demonstrate that the efficiency of transformation can be improved significantly by enhancing acoustic cavitation using tandem (dual-pulse) shock waves. Results revealed that tandem pressure pulses, generated at a delay of 300 ?s, increased the transformation efficiency of Aspergillus niger up to 84% in comparison with conventional (single-pulse) shock waves. This methodology may also be useful to obtain new strains required in basic research and biotechnology. PMID:24680880

Loske, Achim M; Fernández, Francisco; Magańa-Ortíz, Denis; Coconi-Linares, Nancy; Ortíz-Vázquez, Elizabeth; Gómez-Lim, Miguel A

2014-08-01

349

Characterization of a major antigenic component of Aspergillus fumigatus.  

PubMed

A component of Aspergillus fumigatus, Ag 7, previously identified as a major antigen for patients with allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis, has been isolated by gel filtration and further purified by affinity chromatography using monospecific antiserum. The antigen, which binds both specific IgG and IgE antibodies, was shown to be a high molecular weight, 150-200 kD, heat-stable glycoprotein, which binds to concanavalin A, suggesting the presence of alpha-D mannopyrannoside, or alpha-D glucopyrannoside end residues. On sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) it had a subunit of molecular weight 36 kD (with or without prior reduction), which retained antigenicity and allergenicity when tested with patients' sera. PMID:3539424

Harvey, C; Longbottom, J L

1986-07-01

350

Pathogenicity differences of multiple isolates of Aspergillus fumigatus in turkeys.  

PubMed

Sixteen Aspergillus fumigatus isolates of environmental, mammalian, and avian origin were used to assess: 1) intra-air-sac inoculation as a viable challenge alternative to aerosol exposure, and 2) isolate variability in pathogenicity. Development of lesions, antibody response in survivors, mortality, and weight gains were assessed. Turkey poults were challenged with equal numbers of viable conidia. Total number of conidia given per experimental group varied markedly and did not influence mortality. Antibody response as measured by the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and agar gel immunodiffusion test was erratic, although most poults with high antibody scores had marked lesions and low weight. Lesions were characterized by necrogranulomatous pneumonia and airsacculitis with marked visceral involvement. The source of the isolate was not a factor in mortality, although this was biased by the high numbers of isolates from birds with aspergillosis. The single environmental isolate produced no mortality. PMID:1417585

Peden, W M; Rhoades, K R

1992-01-01

351

Flocculation behavior and mechanism of bioflocculant produced by Aspergillus flavus.  

PubMed

In this study, the flocculation behavior and mechanism of a cation-independent bioflocculant IH-7 produced by Aspergillus flavus were investigated. Results showed 91.6% was the lowest flocculating rate recorded by IH-7 (0.5 mg L(-1)) at pH range 4-8. Moreover, IH-7 showed better flocculation performance than polyaluminum chloride (PAC) at a wide range of flocculant concentration (0.06-25 mg L(-1)), temperature (5-45 °C) and salinity (10-60% w/w). The current study found that cation addition did not significantly enhance the flocculating rate and IH-7 is a positively charged bioflocculant. These findings suggest that charge neutralization is the main flocculation mechanism of IH-7 bioflocculant. IH-7 was significantly used to flocculate different types of suspended solids such as activated carbons, kaolin clays, soil solids and yeast cells. PMID:25560664

Aljuboori, Ahmad H Rajab; Idris, Azni; Al-Joubory, Hamid Hussain Rijab; Uemura, Yoshimitsu; Ibn Abubakar, B S U

2015-03-01

352

Genetic analysis of resistance to fenpropimorph in Aspergillus niger.  

PubMed

Resistance to the morpholine-fungicide fenpropimorph was studied in Aspergillus niger and A. nidulans. Mass selection of conidia of A. nidulans on agar amended with the fungicide at different concentrations did not yield of resistant mutants, even after UV-treatment of the conidia. In contrast, similar experiments with A. niger generated many fenpropimorph-resistant mutants. The mutants displayed cross-resistance to fenpropidin and generally showed wild-type sensitivity to the unrelated toxicants fenarimol and cycloheximide. Genetic analysis of fenpropimorph resistance in A. niger was carried out by means of the parasexual cycle. In the mutants tested, two genes located on linkage group II were involved in fenpropimorph resistance. Dominance tests showed that resistance to fenpropimorph in A. niger is recessive. PMID:9506903

Engels, A J; Holub, E F; Swart, K; De Waard, M A

1998-02-01

353

Aminopeptidase C of Aspergillus niger Is a Novel Phenylalanine Aminopeptidase  

PubMed Central

A novel enzyme with a specific phenylalanine aminopeptidase activity (ApsC) from Aspergillus niger (CBS 120.49) has been characterized. The derived amino acid sequence is not similar to any previously characterized aminopeptidase sequence but does share similarity with some mammalian acyl-peptide hydrolase sequences. ApsC was found to be most active towards phenylalanine ?-naphthylamide (F-?NA) and phenylalanine para-nitroanilide (F-pNA), but it also displayed activity towards other amino acids with aromatic side chains coupled to ?NA; other amino acids with nonaromatic side chains coupled to either pNA or ?NA were not hydrolyzed or were poorly hydrolyzed. ApsC was not able to hydrolyze N-acetylalanine-pNA, a substrate for acyl-peptide hydrolases. PMID:12571053

Basten, Daniëlle E. J. W.; Dekker, Peter J. T.; Schaap, Peter J.

2003-01-01

354

Characterization of the Aspergillus nidulans Monodictyphenone Gene Cluster? †  

PubMed Central

Deletion of cclA, a component of the COMPASS complex of Aspergillus nidulans, results in the production of monodictyphenone and emodin derivatives. Through a set of targeted deletions in a cclA deletion strain, we have identified the genes required for monodictyphenone and emodin analog biosynthesis. Identification of an intermediate, endocrocin, from an mdpH? strain suggests that mdpH might encode a decarboxylase. Furthermore, by replacing the promoter of mdpA (a putative aflJ homolog) and mdpE (a putative aflR homolog) with the inducible alcA promoter, we have confirmed that MdpA functions as a coactivator. We propose a biosynthetic pathway for monodictyphenone and emodin derivatives based on bioinformatic analysis and characterization of biosynthetic intermediates. PMID:20139316

Chiang, Yi-Ming; Szewczyk, Edyta; Davidson, Ashley D.; Entwistle, Ruth; Keller, Nancy P.; Wang, Clay C. C.; Oakley, Berl R.

2010-01-01

355

Categorisation of sugar acid dehydratases in Aspergillus niger.  

PubMed

In the genome of Aspergillus niger five genes were identified coding for proteins with homologies to sugar acid dehydratases. The open reading frames were expressed in Saccharomyces cerevisiae and the activities tested with a library of sugar acids. Four genes were identified to code for proteins with activities with sugar acids: an l-galactonate dehydratase (gaaB), two d-galactonate dehydratases (dgdA, dgdB) and an l-rhamnonate dehydratase (lraC). The specificities of the proteins were characterised. The l-galactonate dehydratase had highest activity with l-fuconate, however it is unclear whether the enzyme is involved in l-fuconate catabolism. None of the proteins showed activity with galactaric acid or galactarolactone. PMID:24382357

Motter, Francine A; Kuivanen, Joosu; Keränen, Hanna; Hilditch, Satu; Penttilä, Merja; Richard, Peter

2014-03-01

356

Optimization of triacetylfusarinine C and ferricrocin productions in Aspergillus fumigatus.  

PubMed

Iron is an essential element for all microorganisms. Bacteria and fungi produce versatile siderophores for binding and storing this essential transition metal when its availability is limited in the environment. The aim of the study was to optimize the fermentation medium of Aspergillus fumigatus for siderophore production. Triacetyl-fusarinine C and ferricrocin yields were dependent on glucose and glycine supplementations as well as the initial pH of the culture media. The optimal fermentation medium for triacetylfusarinine C production contained 8% glucose, 0.4% glycine and the initial pH was set to 5.9. Meanwhile, maximal ferricrocin yields were recorded in the presence of 10% glucose, 0.5% glycine and at an initial pH of 7.4. Under optimized fermentation conditions, the yields for triacetylfusarinine C and ferricrocin increased up to 2.9 g/l culture medium and 18.9 mg/g mycelium, respectively. PMID:24939680

Szigeti, Zsuzsa M; Szaniszló, Szilvia; Fazekas, Erika; Gyémánt, Gyöngyi; Szabon, Judit; Antal, Károly; Emri, Tamás; Balla, József; Balla, György; Csernoch, László; Pócsi, István

2014-06-01

357

Aspergillus fumigatus: virulence genes in a street-smart mold  

PubMed Central

Infections with the filamentous fungus Aspergillus fumigatus are among the most devastating of the systemic mycoses. Unlike most primary pathogens, which possess virulence traits that developed in association with a host organism, evidence suggests that the virulence of A. fumigatus entails a collection of ‘street-smart’ attributes that have evolved to resist the adverse selection pressures encountered in decaying vegetation. These features enhance the overall competitiveness of the organism in its environmental niche, but are also thought to promote growth and survival in a human host. Although many of the genes that are responsible for these characteristics do not fit into the classical definition of a virulence factor, they are nonetheless important to the pathogenesis of aspergillosis and may therefore provide novel opportunities for antifungal development. PMID:18579432

Askew, David S.

2008-01-01

358

Nanosulfur: A Potent Fungicide Against Food Pathogen, Aspergillus niger  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Elemental sulfur (S0), man's oldest eco-friendly fungicide for curing fungal infections in plants and animals, is registered in India as a non-systemic and contact fungicide. However due to its high volume requirement, Indian agrochemical industry and farmers could not effectively use this product till date. We hypothesize that intelligent nanoscience applications might increase the visibility of nanosulfur in Indian agriculture as a potent and eco-safe fungicide. Sulfur nanoparticles (NPs) were synthesized bottom-up via a liquid synthesis method with average particle size in the range of 50-80 nm and the shapes of the NPs were spherical. A comparative study of elemental and nano-sulfur produced has been tested against facultative fungal food pathogen, Aspergillus niger. Results showed that nanosulfur is more efficacious than its elemental form.

Choudhury, Samrat Roy; Nair, Kishore K.; Kumar, Rajesh; Gogoi, Robin; Srivastava, Chitra; Gopal, Madhuban; Subhramanyam, B. S.; devakumar, C.; Goswami, Arunava

2010-10-01

359

Fungal siderophore metabolism with a focus on Aspergillus fumigatus  

PubMed Central

Covering: up to 2014 Siderophores are chelators synthesized by microbes to sequester iron. This article summarizes the knowledge on the fungal siderophore metabolism with a focus on Aspergillus fumigatus. In recent years, A. fumigatus became a role model for fungal biosynthesis, uptake and degradation of siderophores as well as regulation of siderophore-mediated iron handling and the elucidation of siderophore functions. Siderophore functions comprise uptake, intracellular transport and storage of iron. This proved to be crucial not only for adaptation to iron starvation conditions but also for germination, asexual and sexual propagation, antioxidative defense, mutual interaction, microbial competition as well as virulence in plant and animal hosts. Recent studies also indicate the high potential of siderophores and its biosynthetic pathway to improve diagnosis and therapy of fungal infections. PMID:25140791

2014-01-01

360

FluG affects secretion in colonies of Aspergillus niger.  

PubMed

Colonies of Aspergillus niger are characterized by zonal heterogeneity in growth, sporulation, gene expression and secretion. For instance, the glucoamylase gene glaA is more highly expressed at the periphery of colonies when compared to the center. As a consequence, its encoded protein GlaA is mainly secreted at the outer part of the colony. Here, multiple copies of amyR were introduced in A. niger. Most transformants over-expressing this regulatory gene of amylolytic genes still displayed heterogeneous glaA expression and GlaA secretion. However, heterogeneity was abolished in transformant UU-A001.13 by expressing glaA and secreting GlaA throughout the mycelium. Sequencing the genome of UU-A001.13 revealed that transformation had been accompanied by deletion of part of the fluG gene and disrupting its 3' end by integration of a transformation vector. Inactivation of fluG in the wild-type background of A. niger also resulted in breakdown of starch under the whole colony. Asexual development of the ?fluG strain was not affected, unlike what was previously shown in Aspergillus nidulans. Genes encoding proteins with a signal sequence for secretion, including part of the amylolytic genes, were more often downregulated in the central zone of maltose-grown ?fluG colonies and upregulated in the intermediate part and periphery when compared to the wild-type. Together, these data indicate that FluG of A. niger is a repressor of secretion. PMID:25370014

Wang, Fengfeng; Krijgsheld, Pauline; Hulsman, Marc; de Bekker, Charissa; Müller, Wally H; Reinders, Marcel; de Vries, Ronald P; Wösten, Han A B

2015-01-01

361

Identification of high-affinity copper transporters in Aspergillus fumigatus.  

PubMed

We investigated the copper metabolism of Aspergillus fumigatus, which has not been characterized well. We cloned the putative copper transporters ctrA2 and ctrC from A. fumigatus and investigated the functions of these transporters in copper metabolism. Four putative copper transporters were identified in the A. fumigatus genome; ctrA2 and ctrC complemented CTR1 functionally and localized to the plasma membrane in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. ctrA2 and ctrC single-deletion mutants and a double-deletion mutant of ctrA2 and ctrC were constructed in A. fumigatus. The ctrA2 and ctrC double-deletion mutant exhibited a growth defect on Aspergillus minimal medium (AMM) supplemented with bathocuproine disulfonic acid (BCS) and was sensitive to H2O2. Furthermore, the deletion of ctrA2 and ctrC reduced superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity, laccase activity, and intracellular copper contents. The activities of the ctrA2 and ctrC genes were up-regulated by BCS treatment. In addition, the deletion of ctrA2 up-regulated ctrC and vice versa. ctrA2 and ctrC were localized to the A. fumigatus plasma membrane. Although ctrA2 and ctrC failed to affect the mouse survival rate, these genes affected conidial killing activity. Taken together, these results indicate that ctrA2 and ctrC may function as membrane transporters and that the involvement of these genes in pathogenicity merits further investigation. PMID:25281782

Park, Yong-Sung; Lian, Haojun; Chang, Miwha; Kang, Chang-Min; Yun, Cheol-Won

2014-12-01

362

A molecular phylogeny of Acronychia, Euodia, Melicope and relatives (Rutaceae) reveals polyphyletic genera and key innovations for species richness.  

PubMed

We present the first detailed phylogenetic study of the genus Melicope, the largest genus of the Citrus family (Rutaceae). The phylogenetic analysis sampled about 50% of the 235 accepted species of Melicope as well as representatives of 26 related genera, most notably Acronychia and Euodia. The results based on five plastid and nuclear markers have revealed that Acronychia, Euodia and Melicope are each not monophyletic in their current circumscriptions and that several small genera mainly from Australia and New Caledonia need to be merged with one of the three genera to ensure monophyly at the generic level. The phylogenetic position of the drupaceous Acronychia in relation to Melicope, which has capsular or follicular fruits, remains unclear and Acronychia might be a separate genus or a part of Melicope. The seed coats of Melicope, Acronychia and related genera show adaptations to bird-dispersal, which might be regarded as key innovations for species radiations. Euodia and its relatives, which lack these adaptations, include only about 20 species while the Melicope-Acronychia group consists of about 340 species. The drupaceous genera Comptonella, Dutaillyea, Picrella and Sarcomelicope are nested within Melicope and need to be merged with Melicope. The expanded genus is a prime example of the artificial classification system of Engler, who defined Rutaceous subfamilies mainly based on gynoecial and fruit characters. PMID:24971739

Appelhans, Marc S; Wen, Jun; Wagner, Warren L

2014-10-01

363

Polygalacturonases Produced Under Solid State and Submerged Fermentation Conditions by Two Strains of Aspergillus foetidus (Aspergillus foetidus 'a Ait ?ki Su? Tarafindan Kati Kültür ve Batik Kültür Fermentasyon Ko?ullarinda Üretilen Poligalakturonazlar) Research Article (Ara?tirma Makalesi)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives: Polygalacturonases produced by two strains of Aspergillus foetidus (EGEK145, EGEK635) under solid state and submerged conditions were investigated for some of their biochemical characteristics.

Eva Stratilová

364

Combined Expression of Aspergillus nidulans Endoxylanase X24 and Aspergillus oryzae (alpha)-Amylase in Industrial Baker's Yeasts and Their Use in Bread Making  

PubMed Central

The Aspergillus nidulans endoxylanase X24 and the Aspergillus oryzae (alpha)-amylase cDNAs were placed under the control of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae actin promoter (pACT1) and introduced into baker's yeast. Bread made with transformants expressing both enzymes (YEpACT-AMY-ACT-X24) showed a 30% increase in volume and reduced firmness in comparison with that produced with a commercial strain. Endoxylanase X24 and (alpha)-amylase seem to act synergistically to improve the quality of bread in terms of volume and density. PMID:16535419

Monfort, A.; Blasco, A.; Prieto, J. A.; Sanz, P.

1996-01-01

365

Amplification and diversity analysis of ketosynthase domains of putative polyketide synthase genes in Aspergillus ochraceus and Aspergillus carbonarius producers of ochratoxin A.  

PubMed

The diversity of polyketide synthase (PKS) genes in Aspergillus ochraceus NRRL 3174 and Aspergillus carbonarius 2Mu134 has been investigated using different primer pairs previously developed for the ketosynthase (KS) domain of fungal PKSs. Nine different KS domain sequences in A. ochraceus NRRL 3174 as well as five different KS domain sequences in A. carbonarius 2Mu134 have been identified. The identified KS fragments were distributed in five different clusters on the phylogenetic tree, indicating that they most probably represent PKSs responsible for different functions. PMID:16715542

Atoui, Ali; Dao, Huy Phong; Mathieu, Florence; Lebrihi, Ahmed

2006-05-01

366

New genera, species and records of Phaneropterinae (Orthoptera, Phaneropteridae) from sub-Saharan Africa  

PubMed Central

Abstract The results of the study of many specimens preserved in different European museums are reported. The tribe Terpnistrini Brunner von Wattenwyl, 1878 is resurrected. The distribution of the following species is enhanced: Pardalota asymmetrica Karsch, 1896, Diogena denticulata Chopard, 1954, Diogena fausta (Burmeister, 1838), Plangiopsis adeps Karsch, 1896, Poreuomena sanghensis Massa, 2013 and Tylopsis continua (Walker, 1869). Further, for their peculiar characteristics, two African representatives of the American genus Symmetropleura Brunner von Wattenwyl, 1878 are included in two new genera: Symmetrokarschia africana (Brunner von Wattenwyl, 1878), comb. n. and Symmetroraggea dirempta (Karsch, 1889), comb. n. A new genus and species from the Democratic Republic of Congo, Angustithorax spiniger gen. n., sp. n., and a new genus and species from Tanzania, Arostratum oblitum gen. n., sp. n. are described. Finally Melidia claudiae sp. n. and Atlasacris brevipennis sp. n. are described and compared with related species. PMID:25632250

Massa, Bruno

2015-01-01

367

Genetically Engineered Erwinia carotovora: Survival, Intraspecific Competition, and Effects upon Selected Bacterial Genera  

PubMed Central

Environmental use of genetically engineered microorganisms has raised concerns about potential ecological impact. This research evaluated the survival, competitiveness, and effects upon selected bacterial genera of wild-type and genetically engineered Erwinia carotovora subsp. carotovora to ascertain if differences between the wild-type and genetically engineered strains exist in soil microcosms. The engineered strain contained a chromosomally inserted gene for kanamycin resistance. No significant differences in survival in nonsterile soil over 2 months or in the competitiveness of either strain were observed when the strains were added concurrently to microcosms. For reasons that remain unclear, the engineered strain did survive longer in sterilized soil. The effects of both strains on total bacteria, Pseudomonas and Staphylococcus strains, and actinomycetes were observed. While some apparent differences were observed, they were not statistically significant. A better understanding of the microbial ecology of engineered bacteria, especially pathogens genetically altered for use as biological control agents, is essential before commercial applications can be accomplished. PMID:16348212

Orvos, David R.; Lacy, George H.; Cairns, John

1990-01-01

368

The Multitentaculate Cirratulidae of the Genera Cirriformia and Timarete (Annelida: Polychaeta) from Shallow Waters of Brazil  

PubMed Central

A large number multitentaculate cirratulids have been described worldwide but most are only known through the original descriptions. Type material, voucher and recently collected specimens from Brazil were revisited in order to reveal their true identity and confirm the records of widely distributed species in this region. Six species are described, three of which are new, Cirriformia capixabensis sp. nov., Cirriformia chicoi sp. nov. and Timarete ceciliae sp. nov. COI and 16S sequences were obtained and used for inter-specific comparisons. Timarete caribous is reported from several localities along the Brazilian coast and a new synonym, Cirratulus melanacanthus, is proposed. The species Timarete oculata, originally described from Brazil and lumped into the Timarete filigera species complex, is herein revalidated and redescribed. The occurrence of the species Timarete filigera and Cirriformia tentaculata is not confirmed from the Brazilian coast. Descriptions, illustrations and a key to genera and species are provided. PMID:25393759

Magalhăes, Wagner F.; Seixas, Victor Corręa; Paiva, Paulo Cesar; Elias, Rodolfo

2014-01-01

369

Feeding Habits in Soil Nematode Families and Genera—An Outline for Soil Ecologists  

PubMed Central

Because research on nematode involvement in trophic interactions, foodweb structure, and biodiversity is constrained by lack of an overview of nematode feeding habits, this outline presents a consensus of current thought on nematode feeding habits. The source of food is fundamental to trophic interactions and provides the basis for our definitions of the essential feeding types: 1) plant feeder, 2) hyphal feeder, 3) bacterial feeder, 4) substrate ingester, 5) predator of animals, 6) unicellular eucaryote feeder, 7) dispersal or infective stage of parasites, and 8) omnivore. Lists of families and genera with their presumed feeding types are given. Major gaps in knowledge of feeding in the smaller tylenchids and many dorylaims are noted. PMID:19279775

Yeates, G. W.; Bongers, T.; De Goede, R. G. M.; Freckman, D. W.; Georgieva, S. S.

1993-01-01

370

Taxonomic synopsis of the subtribe Physoderina (Coleoptera, Carabidae, Lebiini), with species revisions of eight genera  

PubMed Central

Abstract Ten genera of Physoderina from the Oriental Region are diagnosed and described, and twenty six species representing eight genera (Paraphaea Bates, Anchista Nietner, Metallanchista gen. n., Diamella nom. n., Allocota Motschulsky, Orionella Jedli?ka, Endynomena Chaudoir and Dasiosoma Britton (Oriental species only)) are revised. Keys to genera and species are provided, along with distribution maps, habitus images, photographs of the name-bearing types, and illustrations of male and female genitalia of available species. The female internal reproductive system is illustrated for fourteen species. Two genera, Anchista and Taicona, previously placed in Calleidina, are moved into Physoderina. One new genus is described: Metallanchista, gen. n. (type species Metallanchista laticollis, sp. n.). Two new generic synonyms are proposed: Taicona Bates, 1873, junior synonym of Allocota Motschulsky, 1859; Teradaia Habu, 1979a, junior synonym of Dasiosoma Britton, 1937. A new generic replacement name is proposed: Diamella, nom. n. for Diamella Jedli?ka, 1952 (junior homonym of Diamella Gude, 1913). The status of Paraphaea Bates, 1873 is resurrected from synonym of Anchista Nietner, 1856. Five new species are described: Paraphaea minor Shi & Liang, sp. n. (Hoa-Binh, Tonkin, Vietnam), Anchista pilosa Shi & Liang, sp. n. (Chikkangalur, Bangalore, India), Metallanchista laticollis Shi & Liang, sp. n. (PhaTo env., Chumphon prov., Thailand), Allocota bicolor Shi & Liang, sp. n. (Dengga to Mafengshan, Ruili, Yunnan, China), Dasiosoma quadraticolle Shi & Liang, sp. n. (Menglun Botanical Garden, Yunnan, China). Fourteen new combinations are proposed: Paraphaea binotata (Dejean, 1825), comb. n. from Anchista; Paraphaea formosana (Jedli?ka, 1946), comb. n. from Anchista; Paraphaea philippinensis (Jedli?ka, 1935b), comb. n. from Allocota; Metallanchista perlaeta (Kirschenhofer, 1994), comb. n. from Allocota; Physodera andrewesi (Jedli?ka, 1934), comb. n. from Allocota; Diamella cupreomicans (Oberthür, 1883), comb. n. from Physodera; Diamella arrowi (Jedli?ka, 1935a), comb. n. from Allocota; Allocota aurata (Bates, 1873), comb. n. from Taicona; Dasiosoma bellum (Habu, 1979a), comb. n. from Teradaia; Dasiosoma indicum (Kirschenhofer, 2011), comb. n. from Diamella; Dasiosoma maindroni (Tian & Deuve, 2001), comb. n. from Lachnoderma; Dasiosoma hirsutum (Bates, 1873), comb. n. from Lachnoderma; Orionella discoidalis (Bates, 1892), comb. n. from Anchista; Orionella kathmanduensis (Kirschenhofer, 1994), comb. n. from Lachnoderma. Five names are newly placed as junior synonyms: Paraphaea eurydera (Chaudoir, 1877), junior synonym of Paraphaea binotata (Dejean, 1825); Anchista glabra Chaudoir, 1877, and Anchista nepalensis Kirschenhofer, 1994, junior synonyms of Anchista fenestrata (Schmidt-Göbel, 1846); Allocota caerulea Andrewes, 1933, junior synonym of Allocota viridipennis Motschulsky, 1859; Allocota perroti (Jedli?ka, 1963), junior synonym of Allocota aurata (Bates, 1873). One new replacement name is proposed: Dasiosoma basilewskyi, nom. n. for Dasiosoma hirsutum Basilewsky, 1949 (secondary junior homonym of Dasiosoma hirsutum (Bates, 1892)). One species is downgraded to subspecies rank: Anchista fenestrata subpubescens Chaudoir, 1877, new rank. PMID:23794843

Shi, Hongliang; Zhou, Hongzhang; Liang, Hongbin

2013-01-01

371

SCAR markers for discriminating species of two genera of medicinal plants, Liriope and Ophiopogon.  

PubMed

The development of DNA markers that can closely discriminate between Liriope and Ophiopogon species is vital for efficient and accurate identification of these species, and to ensure the quality, safety, and efficacy of medicines made from these plants. We developed species-specific molecular markers for these two genera. Forty RAPD primers were tested to detect polymorphism; species-specific RAPD bands were gel-purified, cloned, and sequenced. Primers for sequence-characterized amplified regions (SCARs) were then designed, based on nucleotide sequences of specific RAPD primers. SCAR markers SA06 and SB05, specific to Ophiopogon japonicus, amplified 460- and 553-bp DNA fragments, respectively. The marker SA12 amplified a 485-bp fragment specific to Liriope platyphylla. This is the first report of a species-specific SCAR marker for this group. These markers will be useful for rapid identification of closely related Liriope and Ophiopogon species. PMID:22653648

Li, G; Park, Y-J

2012-01-01

372

Comparative Chloroplast Genomics Reveals the Evolution of Pinaceae Genera and Subfamilies  

PubMed Central

As the largest and the basal-most family of conifers, Pinaceae provides key insights into the evolutionary history of conifers. We present comparative chloroplast genomics and analysis of concatenated 49 chloroplast protein-coding genes common to 19 gymnosperms, including 15 species from 8 Pinaceous genera, to address the long-standing controversy about Pinaceae phylogeny. The complete cpDNAs of Cathaya argyrophylla and Cedrus deodara (Abitoideae) and draft cpDNAs of Larix decidua, Picea morrisonicola, and Pseudotsuga wilsoniana are reported. We found 21- and 42-kb inversions in congeneric species and different populations of Pinaceous species, which indicates that structural polymorphics may be common and ancient in Pinaceae. Our phylogenetic analyses reveal that Cedrus is clustered with Abies–Keteleeria rather than the basal-most genus of Pinaceae and that Cathaya is closer to Pinus than to Picea or Larix–Pseudotsuga. Topology and structural change tests and indel-distribution comparisons lend further evidence to our phylogenetic finding. Our molecular datings suggest that Pinaceae first evolved during Early Jurassic, and diversification of Pinaceous subfamilies and genera took place during Mid-Jurassic and Lower Cretaceous, respectively. Using different maximum-likelihood divergences as thresholds, we conclude that 2 (Abietoideae and Larix–Pseudotsuga–Piceae–Cathaya–Pinus), 4 (Cedrus, non-Cedrus Abietoideae, Larix–Pseudotsuga, and Piceae–Cathaya–Pinus), or 5 (Cedrus, non-Cedrus Abietoideae, Larix–Pseudotsuga, Picea, and Cathaya–Pinus) groups/subfamilies are more reasonable delimitations for Pinaceae. Specifically, our views on subfamilial classifications differ from previous studies in terms of the rank of Cedrus and with recognition of more than two subfamilies. PMID:20651328

Lin, Ching-Ping; Huang, Jen-Pan; Wu, Chung-Shien; Hsu, Chih-Yao; Chaw, Shu-Miaw

2010-01-01

373

Molecular evidence suggesting species in the zoanthid genera Palythoa and Protopalythoa (Anthozoa: Hexacorallia) are congeneric.  

PubMed

Taxonomic status of the zoanthid genera Palythoa and Protopalythoa has been in question for almost a century. Separation of the two genera has been based on traditional morphological methods (colony and polyp form, nematocyst size and form, and number of septa), with Palythoa polyps embedded in a well developed coenenchyme and Protopalythoa polyps standing free and clear of the coenenchyme. Here we sequenced two mitochondrial regions, the cytochrome oxidase I (COI) gene and 16S ribosomal DNA (16S rDNA) genes, from Palythoa and Protopalythoa samples from various parts of the world and performed phylogenetic analyses of the sequence data. The phylogenetic trees for both COI and 16S rDNA from Palythoa and Protopalythoa show four monophyletic groups (designated Palythoa tuberculosa, Palythoa heliodiscus, Palythoa mutuki 1, and Palythoa mutuki 2), with levels of sequence divergence (COI and 16S rDNA divergence approximately 0.0 approximately 1.1%) similar to or lower than that previously found among congeneric species within the closely related genus Zoanthus. Surprisingly, sequence differences among Palythoa tuberculosa, Palythoa mutuki 1, and Palythoa mutuki 2 were negligible (0.0 approximately 0.2% for both COI and 16S rDNA), potentially indicating relationships below the species level. Our sequences align well with the few Palythoa and Protopalythoa sequences reported to date. These findings strongly indicate that our samples represent a minimum of two and possibly up to four species (the Palythoa tuberculosa - P. mutuki 1 - P. mutuki 2 group, and P. heliodiscus) within the genus Palythoa, and that the genus Protopalythoa is erroneous nomenclature. PMID:16547410

Reimer, James Davis; Ono, Shusuke; Takishita, Kiyotaka; Tsukahara, Junzo; Maruyama, Tadashi

2006-01-01

374

A phylogenetic and biogeographic analysis of the genera of Spirorchinae (Digenea: Spirorchidae) parasitic in freshwater turtles.  

PubMed

Cladistic analysis of the freshwater genera of Spirorchinae (Schistosomatoidea: Spirorchidae sensu Yamaguti, 1971) plus Haematotrema Stunkard, 1923, and Aphanospirorchis Platt, 1990, was completed. The Spirorchinae were considered monophyletic based on synapomorphies of the esophagus. Three lineages, Spirhapalum (Europe/Asia), Plasmiorchis+Hemiorchis (India), and Spirorchis + Henotosoma + Haematotrema + Aphanospirorchis (North America), were identified. Nelsen consensus analysis was used as the basis for recognizing 3 valid monophyletic genera: Spirhapalum, Plasmiorchis, and Spirorchis. Hapalotrematinae sensu Smith, 1972 (e.g., Hapalorhynchus/Coeuritrema), is considered the most plesiomorphic group of spirorchids. Freshwater representatives of the hapalotrematines have been reported from 7 of 12 extant turtle families, including the relatively primitive Pelomedusidae (Pleurodira) and exhibit a worldwide distribution. It is hypothesized that this group arose in the early Triassic period, prior to the breakup of Pangea. Thus, it represents a primitive lineage that was present during the diversification of turtle lineages in the mid-Mesozoic era. Spirorchinae arose later (late Cretaceous period) as a Laurasian component parasitic in the more recent pond turtles (Emydidae + Bataguridae). Species of Spirhapalum retained a relatively plesiomorphic distribution, and they are found in emydids (Europe) and batagurids (Asia). Species of Spirorchis arose and diversified with North America emydids following the separation of North America and Europe in the late Cretaceous or early Tertiary periods. Species of Plasmiorchis are hypothesized to be derived from Asian ancestors that accompanied the colonization of India by Asian batagurids during the early Tertiary period. The presence of Spirorchis species in snapping turtles (Chelydridae/North America) and of Plasmiorchis species in Indian soft-shelled turtle (Trionychidae) are considered independent colonization events. PMID:1635020

Platt, T R

1992-08-01

375

Toward a stable classification of genera within the Entolomataceae: a phylogenetic re-evaluation of the Rhodocybe-Clitopilus clade.  

PubMed

Despite the recent molecular systematic analyses of the Entolomataceae (Agaricales, Basidiomycota), a robust classification of genera supported by morphological and phylogenetic evidence remains unresolved for this cosmopolitan family of pink-spored fungi. Here, a phylogenetic analysis for one of the two major clades (Rhodocybe-Clitopilus) was conducted using three nuclear protein-coding gene regions, the mitochondrial ATP synthase subunit 6 (atp6), the nuclear RNA polymerase subunit II (rpb2) and the nuclear translation elongation factor subunit 1-? (tef1). Five monophyletic groups are resolved with strong statistical support and a set of morphological features for delineation of genera is presented. In the revised classification proposed here, Clitopilus is retained, Rhodocybe is emended, two genera previously accepted as synonyms of Rhodocybe (Clitopilopsis and Rhodophana) are resurrected and Clitocella is described as new. PMID:24987124

Kluting, Kerri L; Baroni, Timothy J; Bergemann, Sarah E

2014-11-01

376

Neotropical genera of Naucoridae (Hemiptera: Heteroptera: Nepomorpha): new species of Placomerus and Procryphocricos from Guyana and Venezuela.  

PubMed

The Neotropical fauna of saucer bugs (Naucoridae) currently includes four monotypic genera. Recent extensive collecting in Venezuela has produced three new species in two of these genera. In addition, undetermined Guyanan specimens of one of the new species were found in the United States National Museum of Natural History. Thus, described here are Placomerus obscuratus n. sp. from Guyana and Venezuela with brachypterous and macropterous hindwing forms, and two species of Procryphocricos from Venezuela. Procryphocricos quiu n. sp. is described from the brachypterous forewing form and Procryphocricos macoita n. sp. from both brachypterous and macropterous forms. Previously described species also are discussed. PMID:24869509

Sites, Robert W; Camacho, Jesús

2014-01-01

377

Evaluation of the Aspergillus Western blot IgG kit for diagnosis of chronic aspergillosis.  

PubMed

Immunoprecipitin detection (IPD) is the current reference confirmatory technique for anti-Aspergillus antibody detection; however, the lack of standardization is a critical drawback of this assay. In this study, we evaluated the performance of the Aspergillus Western blot (Asp-WB) IgG kit (LDBio Diagnostics, Lyon, France), a recently commercialized immunoblot assay for the diagnosis of various clinical presentations of chronic aspergillosis. Three hundred eight serum samples from 158 patients with aspergillosis sensu lato (s.l.) were analyzed. More specifically, 267 serum samples were derived from patients with Aspergillus disease, including 89 cases of chronic pulmonary aspergillosis, 10 of aspergilloma, and 32 of allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis, while 41 samples were from patients with Aspergillus colonization, including 15 cystic fibrosis (CF) and 12 non-CF patients. For blood donor controls, the Asp-WB specificity was 94%, while the kit displayed a sensitivity for the aspergillosis s.l. diagnosis of 88.6%, with a diagnostic odds ratio (DOR) of 119 (95% confidence interval [CI], 57 to 251). The DOR values were 185.22 (95% CI,78.79 to 435.45) and 43.74 (95% CI, 15.65 to 122.20) for the diagnosis of Aspergillus disease and Aspergillus colonization, respectively. Among the patients, the sensitivities of the Asp-WB in the diagnosis of Aspergillus colonization were 100% and 41.7% in CF and non-CF patients, respectively. The Asp-WB yielded fewer false-negative results than did IPD. In conclusion, the Asp-WB kit performed well for the diagnosis of various clinical presentations of aspergillosis in nonimmunocompromised patients, with an enhanced standardization and a higher sensitivity than with IPD, which is the current reference method. PMID:25392351

Oliva, A; Flori, P; Hennequin, C; Dubus, J-C; Reynaud-Gaubert, M; Charpin, D; Vergnon, J M; Gay, P; Colly, A; Piarroux, R; Pelloux, H; Ranque, S

2015-01-01

378

Distribution of aflatoxigenic Aspergillus section Flavi in commercial poultry feed in Nigeria.  

PubMed

The distribution and aflatoxigenicity of Aspergillus section Flavi isolates in 58 commercial poultry feed samples obtained from 17 states in five agro-ecological zones (AEZs) in Nigeria were determined in order to assess the safety of the feeds with respect to aflatoxin-producing fungi. Correlation was also performed for incidence of species, aflatoxin-producing ability of isolates in vitro, and aflatoxin (AFB1) concentrations in the feed. A total of 1006 Aspergillus section Flavi isolates were obtained from 87.9% of the feed samples and identified as Aspergillus flavus, unnamed taxon SBG, Aspergillus parasiticus and Aspergillus tamarii. A. flavus was the most prevalent (91.8%) of the isolates obtained from the feed in the AEZs while A. parasiticus had the lowest incidence (0.1%) and was isolated only from a layer mash sample collected from the DS zone. About 29% of the Aspergillus isolates produced aflatoxins in maize grains at concentrations up to 440,500?g/kg B and 341,000?g/kgG aflatoxins. The incidence of toxigenic isolates was highest (44.4%) in chick mash and lowest (19.9%) in grower mash. The population of A. flavus in the feed had positive (r=0.50) but non significant (p>0.05) correlations with proportion of toxigenic isolates obtained from the feed while SBG had significant (p<0.001) positive (r=0.99) influence on AFB1 concentrations in the feed. Poultry feed in Nigerian markets are therefore highly contaminated with aflatoxigenic Aspergillus species and consequently, aflatoxins. This is a potential threat to the poultry industry and requires urgent intervention. PMID:25108761

Ezekiel, C N; Atehnkeng, J; Odebode, A C; Bandyopadhyay, R

2014-10-17

379

Biopelículas de Aspergillus niger para la producción de celulasas: algunos aspectos estructurales y fisiológicos Aspergillus niger biofilms for celulasas production: some structural and physiological aspects  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aspergillus niger biofilms developed on polyester cloth were evaluated considering two aspects related to the growth on surfaces: structure and physiological behavior focused on cellulase production. The biofilm structure was assessed by using electron scanning microphotographs from inoculation and adsorption to 120 h growth. The microphotographs show that biofilm formation can be divided into three phases: 1) Adhesion, which is

Gretty K. Villena; Marcel Gutiérrez-Correa

2003-01-01

380

Analysis of Aspergillus nidulans metabolism at the genome-scale  

PubMed Central

Background Aspergillus nidulans is a member of a diverse group of filamentous fungi, sharing many of the properties of its close relatives with significance in the fields of medicine, agriculture and industry. Furthermore, A. nidulans has been a classical model organism for studies of development biology and gene regulation, and thus it has become one of the best-characterized filamentous fungi. It was the first Aspergillus species to have its genome sequenced, and automated gene prediction tools predicted 9,451 open reading frames (ORFs) in the genome, of which less than 10% were assigned a function. Results In this work, we have manually assigned functions to 472 orphan genes in the metabolism of A. nidulans, by using a pathway-driven approach and by employing comparative genomics tools based on sequence similarity. The central metabolism of A. nidulans, as well as biosynthetic pathways of relevant secondary metabolites, was reconstructed based on detailed metabolic reconstructions available for A. niger and Saccharomyces cerevisiae, and information on the genetics, biochemistry and physiology of A. nidulans. Thereby, it was possible to identify metabolic functions without a gene associated, and to look for candidate ORFs in the genome of A. nidulans by comparing its sequence to sequences of well-characterized genes in other species encoding the function of interest. A classification system, based on defined criteria, was developed for evaluating and selecting the ORFs among the candidates, in an objective and systematic manner. The functional assignments served as a basis to develop a mathematical model, linking 666 genes (both previously and newly annotated) to metabolic roles. The model was used to simulate metabolic behavior and additionally to integrate, analyze and interpret large-scale gene expression data concerning a study on glucose repression, thereby providing a means of upgrading the information content of experimental data and getting further insight into this phenomenon in A. nidulans. Conclusion We demonstrate how pathway modeling of A. nidulans can be used as an approach to improve the functional annotation of the genome of this organism. Furthermore we show how the metabolic model establishes functional links between genes, enabling the upgrade of the information content of transcriptome data. PMID:18405346

David, Helga; Özçelik, ?lknur ?; Hofmann, Gerald; Nielsen, Jens

2008-01-01

381

Three new genera, three new generic synonymies, two new species, and five new combinations in Neotropical Euliini (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae)  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Three new genera in the tortricid tribe Euliini are described and illustrated: Euryeulia, with type species E. biocellata (Walsingham, 1914), new combination, from Mexico; Pseudapina, with type species P. lanceovalva, new species, from Venezuela; and Circapina, with type species C. flexalana, new sp...

382

Allelic Variation in Malawi Cichlid Opsins: A Tale of Two Genera Adam R. Smith Karen L. Carleton  

E-print Network

Allelic Variation in Malawi Cichlid Opsins: A Tale of Two Genera Adam R. Smith · Karen L. Carleton speciation (Kornfield and Smith 2000; Danley and Kocher 2001; Gen- ner and Turner 2005). Lakes Malawi00239-010-9355-x) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users. A. R. Smith

Carleton, Karen L.

383

Phylogenetic relationships among genera of the Periclimenes complex (Crustacea: Decapoda: Pontoniinae) based on mitochondrial and nuclear DNA.  

PubMed

The genus Periclimenes Costa, 1844 is the most species-rich genus in the subfamily Pontoniinae. Recent studies have suggested that it might be a polyphyletic taxon and could be further subdivided. In this study, three protein-coding nuclear genes and one mitochondrial ribosomal gene were used to analyze the phylogenetic relationships among the genera of the Periclimenes complex, includes the genus Periclimenes and 15 related genera, viz. Ancylomenes, Brucecaris, Crinotonia, Cuapetes, Harpiliopsis, Harpilius, Laomenes, Leptomenaeus, Manipontonia, Palaemonella, Periclimenella, Philarius, Phycomenes, Unguicaris and Vir. Based on both independent and combined data analyses, the results support that the genus Periclimenes is a polyphyletic group. Furthermore, the studied Periclimenes species could be divided into several independent groups, and the taxonomic status of P. commensalis, P. brevicarpalis and P. digitalis may need to be reconsidered. Besides, the majority of the related genera of Periclimenes are suggested to be monophyletic. Our analyses also reveal that these genera approximately form two main clades, despite some deep relationships are still obscure. PMID:23535017

Kou, Qi; Li, Xinzheng; Chan, Tin-Yam; Chu, Ka Hou; Huang, Hui; Gan, Zhibin

2013-07-01

384

Molecular phylogeny of Macaranga, Mallotus, and related genera (Euphorbiaceae s.s.): insights from plastid and nuclear DNA sequence data.  

PubMed

Macaranga and Mallotus (Euphorbiaceae s.s.) are two closely related, large paleo(sub)tropical genera. To investigate the phylogenetic relationships between and within them and to determine the position of related genera belonging to the subtribe Rottlerinae, we sequenced one plastid (trnL-F) and three nuclear (ITS, ncpGS, phyC) markers for species representative of these genera. The analyses demonstrated the monophyly of Macaranga and the paraphyly of Mallotus and revealed three highly supported main clades. The genera Cordemoya and Deuteromallotus and the Mallotus sections Hancea and Oliganthae form a basal Cordemoya s.l. clade. The two other clades, the Macaranga clade and the Mallotus s.s. clade (the latter with Coccoceras, Neotrewia, Octospermum, and Trewia), are sister groups. In the Macaranga clade, two basal lineages (comprising mostly sect. Pseudorottlera) and a crown group with three geographically homogenous main clades were identified. The phylogeny of the Mallotus s.s. clade is less clear because of internal conflict in all four data sets. Many of the sections and informal infrageneric groups of Macaranga and Mallotus do not appear to be monophyletic. In both the Macaranga and Mallotus s.s. clades, the African and/or Madagascan taxa are nested in Asian clades, suggesting migrations or dispersals from Asia to Africa and Madagascar. PMID:21636369

Kulju, Kristo K M; Sierra, Soraya E C; Draisma, Stefano G A; Samuel, Rosabelle; Welzen, Peter C van

2007-10-01

385

Review of the millipede family Trichopolydesmidae in the Oriental realm (Diplopoda, Polydesmida), with descriptions of new genera and species  

PubMed Central

Abstract In the Oriental Region, the large, basically Northern Hemisphere family Trichopolydesmidae is shown to currently comprise 18 genera and 43 species. Based mainly on gonopod structure, all of them, as well as the whole family, are (re)diagnosed, including five new genera and seven new species. These new taxa are keyed, also being the first to be described from Indochina in general and from Vietnam in particular: Aporodesmella gen. n., with three species: A. securiformis sp. n. (the type species), A. similis sp. n. and A. tergalis sp. n., as well as the following four monotypic genera: Deharvengius gen. n., with D. bedosae sp. n., Gonatodesmus gen. n., with G. communicans sp. n., Helicodesmus gen. n., with H. anichkini sp. n., and Monstrodesmus gen. n., with M. flagellifer sp. n. In addition, Cocacolaria hauseri Hoffman, 1987, hitherto known only from New Ireland Island, Papua New Guinea, is redescribed based on material from Vanuatu whence it is recorded for the first time. One of the new genera, Gonatodesmus gen. n., provides a kind of transition or evolutionary bridge between Trichopolydesmidae and Opisotretidae, thus reinforcing the assignment of these two families to the single superfamily Trichopolydesmoidea. PMID:25009416

Golovatch, Sergei I.; Geoffroy, Jean-Jacques; VandenSpiegel, Didier

2014-01-01

386

Review of the millipede family Trichopolydesmidae in the Oriental realm (Diplopoda, Polydesmida), with descriptions of new genera and species.  

PubMed

In the Oriental Region, the large, basically Northern Hemisphere family Trichopolydesmidae is shown to currently comprise 18 genera and 43 species. Based mainly on gonopod structure, all of them, as well as the whole family, are (re)diagnosed, including five new genera and seven new species. These new taxa are keyed, also being the first to be described from Indochina in general and from Vietnam in particular: Aporodesmella gen. n., with three species: A. securiformis sp. n. (the type species), A. similis sp. n. and A. tergalis sp. n., as well as the following four monotypic genera: Deharvengius gen. n., with D. bedosae sp. n., Gonatodesmus gen. n., with G. communicans sp. n., Helicodesmus gen. n., with H. anichkini sp. n., and Monstrodesmus gen. n., with M. flagellifer sp. n. In addition, Cocacolaria hauseri Hoffman, 1987, hitherto known only from New Ireland Island, Papua New Guinea, is redescribed based on material from Vanuatu whence it is recorded for the first time. One of the new genera, Gonatodesmus gen. n., provides a kind of transition or evolutionary bridge between Trichopolydesmidae and Opisotretidae, thus reinforcing the assignment of these two families to the single superfamily Trichopolydesmoidea. PMID:25009416

Golovatch, Sergei I; Geoffroy, Jean-Jacques; VandenSpiegel, Didier

2014-01-01

387

Increased frequency of non- fumigatus Aspergillus species in amphotericin B– or triazole–pre-exposed cancer patients with positive cultures for aspergilli  

Microsoft Academic Search

Invasive aspergillosis (IA) can occur despite prior prophylactic or empiric use of triazoles or amphotericin B (AMB). Although profound immunosuppression may account for breakthrough IA, resistance of Aspergillus to antifungals may also play a role. To examine this question, we measured the minimal inhibitory concentration of 105 Aspergillus isolates recovered from 105 cancer patients (64 with IA, 41 with Aspergillus

Michail S. Lionakis; Russell E. Lewis; Harrys A. Torres; Nathaniel D. Alberta; Issam I. Raad; Dimitrios P. Kontoyiannis

2005-01-01

388

Detection of Aspergillus spp. and aflatoxin B1 in rice in India.  

PubMed

Twelve hundred rice samples consisting of paddy (675) and milled rice (525) were collected from 20 states across India. These samples were assessed for Aspergillus spp. infection on selective medium and aflatoxin B(1) (AFB1) by indirect competitive ELISA. In this investigation, Aspergillus flavus contamination dominated in all the seed samples. The other major contaminants were Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus ochraceus and Aspergillus parasiticus. Out of 1200 rice samples, 67.8% showed AFB1 ranging from 0.1 to 308.0 microg/kg. All the paddy samples from Chattishgarh, Meghalaya and Tamil Nadu showed AFB1 contamination. Milled rice grains from different states showed below the permissible levels of AFB1 (average 0.5-3.5 microg/kg). Eighty-two percent of samples from open storage that were exposed to rain showed AFB1 contamination followed by one-year-old seed. Out of 1200 samples, 2% showed AFB1 contamination above the permissible limits (>30 microg/kg). This is the first comprehensive report of aflatoxin contamination in rice across 20 states in India. PMID:19028301

Reddy, K R N; Reddy, C S; Muralidharan, K

2009-02-01

389

Induction of extracellular arabinases on monomeric substrates in Aspergillus niger.  

PubMed

The induction of extracellular arabinases by pentose sugars and polyols generated by the metabolic pathway of L-arabinose and D-xylose catabolism in Aspergillus niger was investigated. Induction occurred with L-arabinose and L-arabitol but not with D-xylose or xylitol. L-arabitol in particular was found to be a good inducer for alpha-L-arabinofuranosidase and endo-arabinase activities. Western blotting analysis showed both alpha-L-arabinofuranosidase A and B to be present. No induction was observed using D-arabitol. Unlike the wild type A. niger N402 strain, the A. niger xylulose kinase negative mutant N572 also showed induction of alpha-L-arabinofuranosidases A and B and endo-arabinase activity on D-xylose and xylitol. This is due to metabolic conversion of these compounds leading to the accumulation of both xylitol and L-arabitol in this mutant, the latter of which then acts as inducer. The induction of the two alpha-L-arabinofuranosidases and endo-arabinase is under the control of two regulatory systems namely pathway specific induction and carbon catabolite repression. Under derepressing conditions in the wild type only alpha-L-arabinofuranosidase B could be detected by Western blotting analysis. This indicates that alpha-L-arabinofuranosidase B is of importance in the initiation of specific induction of the various arabinose activities in A. niger grown on arabinose containing structural polysaccharides. PMID:8427548

v d Veen, P; Flipphi, M J; Voragen, A G; Visser, J

1993-01-01

390

SreA-mediated iron regulation in Aspergillus fumigatus  

PubMed Central

Aspergillus fumigatus, the most common airborne fungal pathogen of humans, employs two high-affinity iron uptake systems: iron uptake mediated by the extracellular siderophore triacetylfusarinine C and reductive iron assimilation. Furthermore, A. fumigatus utilizes two intracellular siderophores, ferricrocin and hydroxyferricrocin, to store iron. Siderophore biosynthesis, which is essential for virulence, is repressed by iron. Here we show that this control is mediated by the GATA factor SreA. During iron-replete conditions, SreA deficiency partially derepressed synthesis of triacetylfusarinine C and uptake of iron resulting in increased cellular accumulation of both iron and ferricrocin. Genome-wide DNA microarray analysis identified 49 genes that are repressed by iron in an SreA-dependent manner. This gene set, termed SreA regulon, includes all known genes involved in iron acquisition, putative novel siderophore biosynthetic genes, and also genes not directly linked to iron metabolism. SreA deficiency also caused upregulation of iron-dependent and antioxidative pathways, probably due to the increased iron content and iron-mediated oxidative stress. Consistently, the sreA disruption mutant displayed increased sensitivity to iron, menadion and phleomycin but retained wild-type virulence in a mouse model. As all detrimental effects of sreA disruption are restricted to iron-replete conditions these data underscore that A. fumigatus faces iron-depleted conditions during infection. PMID:18721228

Schrettl, Markus; Kim, H Stanley; Eisendle, Martin; Kragl, Claudia; Nierman, William C; Heinekamp, Thorsten; Werner, Ernst R; Jacobsen, Ilse; Illmer, Paul; Yi, Hyojeong; Brakhage, Axel A; Haas, Hubertus

2008-01-01

391

VelC Positively Controls Sexual Development in Aspergillus nidulans  

PubMed Central

Fungal development and secondary metabolism is intimately associated via activities of the fungi-specific velvet family proteins including VeA, VosA, VelB and VelC. Among these, VelC has not been characterized in Aspergillus nidulans. In this study, we characterize the role of VelC in asexual and sexual development in A. nidulans. The velC mRNA specifically accumulates during the early phase of sexual development. The deletion of velC leads to increased number of conidia and reduced production of sexual fruiting bodies (cleistothecia). In the velC deletion mutant, mRNA levels of the brlA, abaA, wetA and vosA genes that control sequential activation of asexual sporulation increase. Overexpression of velC causes increased formation of cleistothecia. These results suggest that VelC functions as a positive regulator of sexual development. VelC is one of the five proteins that physically interact with VosA in yeast two-hybrid and GST pull down analyses. The ?velC ?vosA double mutant produced fewer cleistothecia and behaved similar to the ?vosA mutant, suggesting that VosA is epistatic to VelC in sexual development, and that VelC might mediate control of sex through interacting with VosA at specific life stages for sexual fruiting. PMID:24587098

Park, Hee-Soo; Nam, Tae-Young; Han, Kap-Hoon; Kim, Sun Chang; Yu, Jae-Hyuk

2014-01-01

392

Transcriptome analysis of Aspergillus niger grown on sugarcane bagasse  

PubMed Central

Background Considering that the costs of cellulases and hemicellulases contribute substantially to the price of bioethanol, new studies aimed at understanding and improving cellulase efficiency and productivity are of paramount importance. Aspergillus niger has been shown to produce a wide spectrum of polysaccharide hydrolytic enzymes. To understand how to improve enzymatic cocktails that can hydrolyze pretreated sugarcane bagasse, we used a genomics approach to investigate which genes and pathways are transcriptionally modulated during growth of A. niger on steam-exploded sugarcane bagasse (SEB). Results Herein we report the main cellulase- and hemicellulase-encoding genes with increased expression during growth on SEB. We also sought to determine whether the mRNA accumulation of several SEB-induced genes encoding putative transporters is induced by xylose and dependent on glucose. We identified 18 (58% of A. niger predicted cellulases) and 21 (58% of A. niger predicted hemicellulases) cellulase- and hemicellulase-encoding genes, respectively, that were highly expressed during growth on SEB. Conclusions Degradation of sugarcane bagasse requires production of many different enzymes which are regulated by the type and complexity of the available substrate. Our presently reported work opens new possibilities for understanding sugarcane biomass saccharification by A. niger hydrolases and for the construction of more efficient enzymatic cocktails for second-generation bioethanol. PMID:22008461

2011-01-01

393

Novel cytosolic allergens of Aspergillus fumigatus identified from germinating conidia.  

PubMed

Aspergillus fumigatus is the common cause of allergic broncho-pulmonary aspergillosis (ABPA) and most of the allergens have been described from its secreted fraction. In the present investigation, germinating conidial cytosolic proteins of A. fumigatus were extracted from a 16 h culture. The proteome from this fraction was developed, and immuno-blots were generated using pooled ABPA patients' sera. Well separated Immunoglobulin-E (IgE) and Immunoglobulin-G (IgG) reactive spots were picked from corresponding 2DE gels and subjected to mass spectrometric analysis. As a result, 66 immuno-reactive proteins were identified from two geographically different strains (190/96 and DAYA) of A. fumigatus. Only 3 out of 66 proteins reacted with IgG, and the remaining 63 proteins were found to be IgE reactive. These 63 IgE-reactive cytosolic proteins from germinating conidia included 2 already known (Asp f12 and Asp f22) and 4 predicted allergens (Hsp88, Hsp70, malate dehydrogenase, and alcohol dehydrogenase) based on their homology with other known fungal allergens. In view of this, the panel of presently identified IgE-reactive novel proteins holds the potential of providing a basis for the wider diagnostic application in assay for allergic aspergillosis. We could demonstrate that recombinantly expressed proteins from this panel showed consistent reactivity with IgE of individual sera of ABPA patients. The recombinantly expressed proteins may also be useful in desensitization therapy of allergic disorders including ABPA. PMID:20828162

Singh, Bharat; Sharma, Gainda L; Oellerich, Michael; Kumar, Ram; Singh, Seema; Bhadoria, Dharam P; Katyal, Anju; Reichard, Utz; Asif, Abdul R

2010-11-01

394

Inverting character of alpha-glucuronidase A from Aspergillus tubingensis.  

PubMed

Alpha-glucuronidase A from Aspergillus tubingensis was found to be capable of liberating 4-O-methyl-D-glucuronic acid (MeGlcA) only from those beechwood glucuronoxylan fragments in which the acid is attached to the non-reducing terminal xylopyranosyl residue. Reduced aldotetrauronic acid, 4-O-methyl-D-glucuronosyl-alpha-1,2-D-xylopyranosyl-beta-1,4-xylopyranosyl-beta-1,4-xylitol, was found to be a suitable substrate to follow the stereochemical course of the hydrolytic reaction catalyzed by the purified enzyme. The configuration of the liberated MeGlcA was followed in a D(2)O reaction mixture by (1)H-NMR spectroscopy. It was unambiguously established that MeGlcA was released from the substrate as its beta-anomer from which the alpha-anomer was formed on mutarotation. This result represents the first experimental evidence for the inverting character of a microbial alpha-glucuronidase, a member of glycosyl hydrolase family 67 (EC 3.1.1.139). PMID:10779688

Biely, P; de Vries RP; Vrsanská, M; Visser, J

2000-05-01

395

[The isolation and evaluation of Aspergillus fumigatus antigens].  

PubMed

Antigens from three strains of Aspergillus fumigatus (354, 356, and JIG) and an antiserum against the mixing of these antigens have been produced, and evaluated immunochemically. The antigens were obtained through a modified Coleman & Kaufman technique (culture filtrate concentrated by acetone). Analysis by the immunodiffusion test (ID) against homologous serum has yielded 100% sensitivity (with the studied sera). Concerning heterologous sera we found reactivity with a serum of a patient of candidiasis and another with histoplasmosis. The same result was obtained with a reference antigen in immunodiffusion, showing similar standards of response. Titration of the antiserum by ID and counterimmunoelectrophoresis showed a title of 1:32, and by complement fixation (micro-technique) a title of 1:128. Using immunoelectrophoresis (IEF), the produced antiserum yielded 8 lines of precipitation (5 in the anodic pole and 3 in the cathodic one). In SDS-PAGE at 12.5% the antigen has presented a rather complex electrophoretic profile (26 proteic subunits with a molecular weight ranging from 18 a > 100 kDa). Immunogenicity of the antigen was observed in all fractions of SDS-PAGE when the immunoblotting against the antiserum was carried out. PMID:1342095

Lirio, V de S; de Assis, C M; Cano, M I; Lacaz, C da S

1992-01-01

396

Optimized preparation of Aspergillus fumigatus extracts for allergy diagnosis.  

PubMed

Extracts of Aspergillus fumigatus are required for the measurement of specific antibodies that are important indices in the diagnosis of allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis (ABPA). This study investigated the effect of different culture conditions on the production and release of antigenic and allergenic proteins of A. fumigatus. Increasing the incubation temperature from 25 degrees C to 37 degrees C altered the production of proteins by the mycelium which resulted in the release of a greater number of proteins that reacted with precipitating antibodies. Static sporulating cultures produced a much wider antigenic spectrum than shake cultures although the number of precipitating proteins (5 and 3 respectively) and major IgE binding proteins (5 and 3 respectively) was not greatly altered. The widest range of proteins bound by precipitating antibody or IgE from ABPA serum were released into the culture filtrate during 28 day static incubation at 37 degrees C. The resultant extract proved useful for screening patients for specific IgE and will provide a starting material for the identification of individual antigens or allergens. PMID:10780890

Little, S A; Longbottom, J L; Warner, J O

1993-10-01

397

Characterization of immunologically important antigens and allergens of Aspergillus fumigatus.  

PubMed

Using a variety of immunochemical methods, including quantitative immuno-electrophoretic techniques, combined with gel filtration and iso-electric focusing, and production of monospecific antisera for identification and affinity purification, 4 major components of Aspergillus fumigatus have now been partially characterized. Numbering of these was derived from a reference allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis (ABPA) self-crossed radio-immuno-electrophoresis pattern of reactivity. Two major intracellular/cytoplasmic, concanavalin A (Con A)-binding antigens, Ag 7 and Ag 13, of molecular weights 150-200 and 70 kilodaltons (kD), respectively, were confirmed to be of importance for both ABPA and aspergilloma in specific sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays. A rapidly released component, Ag 5, of molecular weight 35 kD, proved both antigenic and allergenic, with aspergilloma patients having especially high-titre IgG antibodies. The major allergenic component Ag 3, of molecular weight 24 kD by gel filtration and 18 kD by SDS-PAGE was, like Ag 5, relatively heat-labile and non-Con-A-binding. Interestingly, T cell clones have been identified which respond primarily to an 18-kD fraction. PMID:2651315

Longbottom, J L; Harvey, C; Taylor, M L; Austwick, P K; Fitzharris, P; Walker, C A

1989-01-01

398

Some factors affecting tannase production by Aspergillus niger Van Tieghem  

PubMed Central

One variable at a time procedure was used to evaluate the effect of qualitative variables on the production of tannase from Aspergillus niger Van Tieghem. These variables including: fermentation technique, agitation condition, tannins source, adding carbohydrates incorporation with tannic acid, nitrogen source type and divalent cations. Submerged fermentation under intermittent shaking gave the highest total tannase activity. Maximum extracellular tannase activity (305 units/50 mL) was attained in medium containing tannic acid as tannins source and sodium nitrate as nitrogen source at 30 °C for 96 h. All added carbohydrates showed significant adverse effects on the production of tannase. All tested divalent cations significantly decreased tannase production. Moreover, split plot design was carried out to study the effect of fermentation temperature and fermentation time on tannase production. The results indicated maximum tannase production (312.7 units/50 mL) at 35 °C for 96 h. In other words, increasing fermentation temperature from 30 °C to 35 °C resulted in increasing tannase production. PMID:24294255

Aboubakr, Hamada A.; El-Sahn, Malak A.; El-Banna, Amr A.

2013-01-01

399

Glycosidases induced in Aspergillus tamarii. Mycelial alpha-D-galactosidases.  

PubMed Central

Two alpha-D-galactosidases (alpha-D-galactoside galactohydrolase, EC 3.2.1.22) produced by Aspergillus tamarii were purified from the mycelial extract by a procedure including chromatography on hydroxyapatite, DEAE-cellulose and ECTEOLA-cellulose. Each of these enzymes showed a single protein band corresponding to the alpha-D-galactosidase activity when examined by polyacrylamide-gel electrophoresis. They catalysed the hydrolysis of o-nitrophenyl alpha-D-galactoside, melibiose, raffinose and stachyose, but did not attack the galactomannans. Their Mr values were respectively 265000 +/- 5000 and 254000 +/- 5000 by the method of Hedrick & Smith [(1968) Arch. Biochem. Biophys. 126, 155-164]. Polyacrylamide-gel electrophoresis in the presence of sodium dodecyl sulphate in each case showed a single protein band, with Mr 88000 and 77500 respectively. The purified enzymes contained carbohydrate, consisting of N-acetylglucosamine, mannose, glucose and galactose in the estimated molar proportions of 1:9:5:8 in alpha-galactosidase I. Images Fig. 1. PMID:6331398

Civas, A; Eberhard, R; Le Dizet, P; Petek, F

1984-01-01

400

Cellulolytic and xylanolytic enzymes from thermophilic Aspergillus terreus RWY.  

PubMed

Thermophilic Aspergillus terreus RWY produced cellulases and xylanases in optimal concentrations at 45?°C in solid state fermentation process, though enzyme production was also observed at 50 and 55?°C. Filter paper cellulase (FP), endoglucanase (EG), ?-glucosidase (BGL), cellobiohydrolase (CBH), xylanase, ?-xylosidase, ?-L-arabinofuranosidase and xylan esterase activities for A. terreus RWY at 45?°C in 72?h were 11.3?±?0.65, 103?±?6.4, 122.5?±?8.7, 10.3?±?0.66, 872?±?22.5, 22.1?±?0.75, 126.4?±?8.4 and 907?±?15.5?U?(g-ds)(-1) , respectively. Enzyme was optimally active at temperatures and pH ranging between 50-60?°C and 4.0-6.0, respectively. The half life (T1/2 ) of 270 and 240?min at 70 and 75?°C, respectively for the enzyme indicates its stability at higher temperatures. The addition of MnCl2 , CoCl2 , and FeCl3 significantly enhanced cellulase activity. Enzyme demonstrated multiplicity by having seven, one and three isoform(s) for EG, CBH and BGL, respectively. Significant production of functionally active consortium of cellulolytic and xylanolytic enzymes from A. terreus RWY makes it a potential candidate in bioprocessing applications. PMID:25047723

Sharma, Reetika; Kocher, Gurvinder Singh; Bhogal, Ravinder Singh; Oberoi, Harinder Singh

2014-12-01

401

Heterogeneity of Aspergillus niger microcolonies in liquid shaken cultures.  

PubMed

The fungus Aspergillus niger forms (sub)millimeter microcolonies within a liquid shaken culture. Here, we show that such microcolonies are heterogeneous with respect to size and gene expression. Microcolonies of strains expressing green fluorescent protein (GFP) from the promoter of the glucoamlyase gene glaA or the ferulic acid esterase gene faeA were sorted on the basis of diameter and fluorescence using the Complex Object Parametric Analyzer and Sorter (COPAS) technology. Statistical analysis revealed that the liquid shaken culture consisted of two populations of microcolonies that differ by 90 ?m in diameter. The population of small microcolonies of strains expressing GFP from the glaA or faeA promoter comprised 39% and 25% of the culture, respectively. Two populations of microcolonies could also be distinguished when the expression of GFP in these strains was analyzed. The population expressing a low level of GFP consisted of 68% and 44% of the culture, respectively. We also show that mRNA accumulation is heterogeneous within microcolonies of A. niger. Central and peripheral parts of the mycelium were isolated with laser microdissection and pressure catapulting (LMPC), and RNA from these samples was used for quantitative PCR analysis. This analysis showed that the RNA content per hypha was about 45 times higher at the periphery than in the center of the microcolony. Our data imply that the protein production of A. niger can be improved in industrial fermentations by reducing the heterogeneity within the culture. PMID:21169437

de Bekker, Charissa; van Veluw, G Jerre; Vinck, Arman; Wiebenga, L Ad; Wösten, Han A B

2011-02-01

402

Optimized bioprocess for production of fructofuranosidase by recombinant Aspergillus niger.  

PubMed

A comprehensive approach of bioprocess design at various levels was used to optimize microbial production of extracellular fructofuranosidase, important as biocatalyst to derive fructooligosaccharides with broad application in food or pharmaceutical industry. For production, the recombinant strain Aspergillus niger SKAn1015 was used, which expresses the fructofuranosidase encoding gene suc1 under control of a strong constitutive promoter. In a first screening towards an optimized medium, glucose, nitrate, Fe(2+), and Mn(2+) were identified as beneficial for production. A minimal medium with optimized concentration of these key nutrients, obtained by central composite design experiments and quadratic modelling, provided a threefold increased fructofuranosidase activity in the culture supernatant (400 U/mL) as compared to the originally described medium. Utilizing the optimized medium, the process was then transferred from shake flask into a fed-batch-operated bioreactor. Hereby, the intended addition of talc microparticles allowed engineering the morphology of A. niger into a highly active mycelial form, which strongly boosted production. Fructofuranosidase production was highly specific as confirmed by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis analysis. The secreted enzyme activity of 2,800 U/mL, corresponding to about 3 g/L of fructofuranosidase, achieved by the microparticle-enhanced fed-batch process, is tenfold higher than that of any other process reported so far, so that the presented bioprocess strategy appears as a milestone towards future industrial fructofuranosidase production. PMID:20502893

Driouch, Habib; Roth, Andreas; Dersch, Petra; Wittmann, Christoph

2010-08-01

403

Genome shuffling of Aspergillus niger for improving transglycosylation activity.  

PubMed

Isomaltooligosaccharides (IMO), the glucosylsaccharides used as food additives, are made from saccharified starch by enzymes or microbial cells with transglycosylation activity. This study aimed to generate shuffled futants of Aspergillus niger with enhanced transglycosylation activity for industrial IMO production. The starting mutant population was generated by (60)Co-? radiation; mutants with higher transglycosylation activity were selected and subjected to recursive protoplast fusion. The resulting fusants were screened by a novel high-throughput method based on detecting non-fermentable reducing sugar. After three rounds of genome shuffling, the best performing strain GS3-3 was obtained, its transglycosylation activity (14.91 U/mL) was increased by 194.1 % compared to that of original strain C-6181. In fermentor test, transglycosylation activity of GS3-3 was obtained at 16.61 U/mL. The mycelia of GS3-3 were reused ten times to produce IMO syrup from liquefied cassava starch containing about 280 g/L total sugar within 4 days. The conversion of liquefied cassava starch to IMO was at 71.3-72.1 %, which was higher than the best conversion (68 %) ever reported. GS3-3 shows a great potential for industrial IMO production. PMID:24043449

Li, Wei; Chen, Guiguang; Gu, Lingli; Zeng, Wei; Liang, Zhiqun

2014-01-01

404

Fermentation of rice hull by Aspergillus japonicus under ultrasonic pretreatment.  

PubMed

The application of ultrasound for treating rice hull used as the fermentation substrate for xylooligosaccharides production was investigated. Aspergillus japonicus CY6-1 was selected to produce cellulolytic and xylanolytic enzymes from untreated rice hull (RH) and rice hull treated with ultrasound (USRH-M). The hemicellulose yield was increased to 1.4-fold with ultrasound, and treatment time was greatly shortened from 24h to 1.5h at 80 °C and 300 W/28 kHz. The morphology of RH from various pretreatments was observed with field emission scanning electron microscope (FESEM), revealing the surface structure of USRH-M smoother than that of RH. USRH-M was much easier to be utilized by fungi, to extend the stability of enzyme activity and to increase activities of CMCase, ?-glucosidase, and xylanase compared with those of untreated RH. The final fermentative products were xylotetraose, xylohexaose, and higher molecular weight xylooligosaccharides, achieving xylohexaose yield for USRH-M 80% higher than that for RH group. PMID:22177967

Yang, Chun-Yao; Sheih, I-Chuan; Fang, Tony J

2012-05-01

405

Bioleaching of spent fluid catalytic cracking catalyst using Aspergillus niger.  

PubMed

The use of the fungus Aspergillus niger for the bioleaching of heavy metals from spent catalyst was investigated, with fluid catalytic cracking (FCC) catalyst as a model. Bioleaching was examined in batch cultures with the spent catalysts at various pulp densities (1-12%). Chemical leaching was also performed using mineral acids (sulphuric and nitric acids) and organic acids (citric, oxalic and gluconic acids), as well as a mixture of organic acids at the same concentrations as that biogenically produced. It was shown that bioleaching realised higher metal extraction than chemical leaching, with A. niger mobilizing Ni (9%), Fe (23%), Al (30%), V (36%) and Sb (64%) at 1% pulp density. Extraction efficiency generally decreased with increased pulp density. Compared with abiotic controls, bioleaching gave rise to higher metal extractions than leaching using fresh medium and cell-free spent medium. pH decreased during bioleaching, but remained relatively constant in both leaching using fresh medium and cell-free spent medium, thus indicating that the fungus played a role in effecting metal extraction from the spent catalyst. PMID:15664080

Aung, Khin Moh Moh; Ting, Yen-Peng

2005-03-16

406

Pathway of Glycine Betaine Biosynthesis in Aspergillus fumigatus  

PubMed Central

The choline oxidase (CHOA) and betaine aldehyde dehydrogenase (BADH) genes identified in Aspergillus fumigatus are present as a cluster specific for fungal genomes. Biochemical and molecular analyses of this cluster showed that it has very specific biochemical and functional features that make it unique and different from its plant and bacterial homologs. A. fumigatus ChoAp catalyzed the oxidation of choline to glycine betaine with betaine aldehyde as an intermediate and reduced molecular oxygen to hydrogen peroxide using FAD as a cofactor. A. fumigatus Badhp oxidized betaine aldehyde to glycine betaine with reduction of NAD+ to NADH. Analysis of the AfchoA?::HPH and AfbadA?::HPH single mutants and the AfchoA?AfbadA?::HPH double mutant showed that AfChoAp is essential for the use of choline as the sole nitrogen, carbon, or carbon and nitrogen source during the germination process. AfChoAp and AfBadAp were localized in the cytosol of germinating conidia and mycelia but were absent from resting conidia. Characterization of the mutant phenotypes showed that glycine betaine in A. fumigatus functions exclusively as a metabolic intermediate in the catabolism of choline and not as a stress protectant. This study in A. fumigatus is the first molecular, cellular, and biochemical characterization of the glycine betaine biosynthetic pathway in the fungal kingdom. PMID:23563483

Lambou, Karine; Pennati, Andrea; Valsecchi, Isabel; Tada, Rui; Sherman, Stephen; Sato, Hajime; Beau, Remi

2013-01-01

407

Genetic Control of Asexual Development in Aspergillus fumigatus.  

PubMed

Aspergillus fumigatus is one of the most common fungi found in the environment. It is an opportunistic human pathogen causing invasive pulmonary aspergillosis with a high mortality rate in immunocompromised patients. Conidia, the asexual spores, serve as the main dispersal and infection agent allowing entrance of the fungus into the host through the respiratory tract. Therefore, understanding the asexual developmental process that gives rise to the conidia is of great interest to the scientific community and is currently the focus of an immense load of research being conducted. We have been studying the genetic basis that controls asexual development and gliotoxin biosynthesis in A. fumigatus. In this review, we discuss the genetic regulatory system that dictates conidiation in this important fungus by covering the roles of crucial genetic factors from the upstream heterotrimeric G-protein signaling components to the more specific downstream central activators of the conidiation pathway. In addition, other key asexual regulators including the velvet regulators, the Flb proteins and their associated regulatory factors are discussed. PMID:25596030

Alkhayyat, Fahad; Chang Kim, Sun; Yu, Jae-Hyuk

2015-01-01

408

Zinc acquisition: a key aspect in Aspergillus fumigatus virulence.  

PubMed

Zinc is an essential micronutrient required for the growth of all microorganisms. To grow in the lungs of a susceptible patient Aspergillus fumigatus must obtain zinc from the surrounding tissues. The concentration of Zn(2+) ions in living tissues is much lower than that required for optimal fungal growth in vitro because most of them are tightly bound to proteins at the physiological pH. However, A. fumigatus has several zinc transporters (ZrfA, ZrfB and ZrfC) that enable it to uptake zinc efficiently under the extreme zinc-limiting conditions provided by a susceptible host. The ZafA transcriptional regulator induces the expression of these transporters and is essential for virulence. ZrfC is required for fungal growth within the host tissues, whereas ZrfA and ZrfB play an accessory role. The zinc-scavenging capacity of ZrfC relies on its unusually long N-terminus. In addition, ZrfC also enables A. fumigatus to overcome the inhibitory effect of calprotectin, which is an antimicrobial Zn/Mn-chelating protein synthesized in high amounts by neutrophils, even in immunosuppressed non-leucopenic animals. In summary, the regulation of zinc homeostasis and zinc acquisition could be promising targets for the discovery and development of a new generation of antifungals for the treatment of invasive pulmonary aspergillosis. PMID:24947168

Amich, Jorge; Calera, José Antonio

2014-12-01

409

Interactions in solution and crystallization of Aspergillus flavus urate oxidase  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Interparticle interactions of urate oxidase from Aspergillus flavus have been studied by small-angle X-ray scattering to determine crystallization conditions. This enzyme is a homotetramer with a total molecular weight of 128 kDa. It is a slightly basic protein (pI between 7.5 and 8). The interaction potentials have been studied as a function of the main thermodynamic and chemical parameters: temperature, protein concentration, pH, salt nature and concentration, addition of polyols. In 10 mM sodium carbonate at pH 10.5, the interactions are slightly repulsive and become less repulsive with a pH closer to pI. With the addition of carbonate, the protein loses its tetrameric structure for a dimeric one; with formate, the tetrameric structure remains stable. We also studied the effect of polyethylene glycols as it had been done with high molecular weight proteins. With the addition of PEG 8 K, the interactions became less repulsive and even turned attractive with the addition of both PEG 8 K and salt. Protein crystals of urate oxidase were observed in slightly repulsive conditions (second virial coefficient A2 about +10 -5 mol ml g -2 instead of -2 to -8×10 -4 mol ml g -2 for low molecular weight proteins).

Bonneté, F.; Vivarčs, D.; Robert, Ch.; Colloc'h, N.

2001-11-01

410

Aspergillus niger time to growth in dried tomatoes.  

PubMed

Individual and combined effects of aw and incorporation of selected concentrations of Mexican oregano essential oil on the time to growth (TTG) of Aspergillus niger intentionally inoculated into dried tomatoes were studied during storage at 25°C for 100 days. For aw 0.96, 1,000 ppm of Mexican oregano essential oil inhibited A. niger growth during 100 days, whereas 500 ppm were sufficient at aw 0.91 and 250 ppm for tomatoes with aw 0.78. A. niger growth was evident at different incubation times depending on tested tomato aw and concentration of essential oil; these data were utilized to model TTG. Regression analysis revealed good agreement between experimental and predicted data with a correlation coefficient higher than 0.98. Analysis of mold growth data through TTG models makes possible to include observations detected as no growth and can be utilized to predict mold time to growth for specific preservation factor combinations or to select preservation factor levels for an expected shelf-life based on A. niger growth. PMID:23587709

Gómez-Ramírez, C; Sosa-Morales, M E; Palou, E; López-Malo, A

2013-06-01

411

Does farm fungicide use induce azole resistance in Aspergillus fumigatus?  

PubMed

Azole resistance of Aspergillus fumigatus isolates has been reported worldwide and it would appear to be mainly due to a point mutation in the 14?-sterol demethylase (CYP51A) gene, which is the target enzyme for azoles. The mutation has been confirmed in isolates from patients who received long-term itraconazole (ITZ) therapy and from agricultural fields where high levels of azole fungicides were employed. However, the relationship between farm environments and azole-resistant A. fumigatus has not been fully studied. In this investigation, 50 isolates of A. fumigatus were obtained from a farm where tetraconazole has been sprayed twice a year for more than 15 years. The mean minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of isolates was 0.74 (0.19-1.5) mg/L against ITZ, which was below the medical resistance level of ITZ. The sequence of CYP51A from isolates indicated no gene mutations in isolates from the farm. Antifungal susceptibility of isolates to tetraconazole showed that spraying with tetraconazole did not induce resistance to tetraconazole or ITZ in A. fumigatus. PMID:25541556

Kano, Rui; Kohata, Erina; Tateishi, Akira; Murayama, Somay Yamagata; Hirose, Dai; Shibata, Yasuko; Kosuge, Yasuhiro; Inoue, Hiroaki; Kamata, Hiroshi; Hasegawa, Atsuhiko

2015-02-01

412

Ethylene Inhibits Aflatoxin Biosynthesis in Aspergillus parasiticus Grown on Peanuts  

PubMed Central

The filamentous fungi Aspergillus parasiticus and A. flavus synthesize aflatoxins when they grow on a variety of susceptible food and feed crops. These mycotoxins are among the most carcinogenic naturally occurring compounds known and they pose significant health risks to humans and animals. We previously demonstrated that ethylene and CO2 act alone and together to reduce aflatoxin synthesis by A. parasiticus grown on laboratory media. To demonstrate the potential efficacy of treatment of stored seeds and grains with these gases, we tested ethylene and CO2 for ability to inhibit aflatoxin accumulation on Georgia Green peanuts stored for up to 5 days. We demonstrated an inverse relationship between A. parasiticus spore inoculum size and the level of toxin accumulation. We showed that ethylene inhibits aflatoxin synthesis in a dose-dependent manner on peanuts; CO2 also inhibits aflatoxin synthesis over a narrow dose range. Treatments had not discernable effect on mold growth. These observations support further exploration of this technology to reduce aflatoxin contamination of susceptible crops in the field and during storage. PMID:17418318

Gunterus, A.; Roze, L.V.; Beaudry, R.; Linz, J. E.

2007-01-01

413

Regulation of conidiation by light in Aspergillus nidulans.  

PubMed

Light regulates several aspects of the biology of many organisms, including the balance between asexual and sexual development in some fungi. To understand how light regulates fungal development at the molecular level we have used Aspergillus nidulans as a model. We have performed a genome-wide expression analysis that has allowed us to identify >400 genes upregulated and >100 genes downregulated by light in developmentally competent mycelium. Among the upregulated genes were genes required for the regulation of asexual development, one of the major biological responses to light in A. nidulans, which is a pathway controlled by the master regulatory gene brlA. The expression of brlA, like conidiation, is induced by light. A detailed analysis of brlA light regulation revealed increased expression after short exposures with a maximum after 60 min of light followed by photoadaptation with longer light exposures. In addition to brlA, genes flbA-C and fluG are also light regulated, and flbA-C are required for the correct light-dependent regulation of the upstream regulator fluG. We have found that light induction of brlA required the photoreceptor complex composed of a phytochrome FphA, and the white-collar homologs LreA and LreB, and the fluffy genes flbA-C. We propose that the activation of regulatory genes by light is the key event in the activation of asexual development by light in A. nidulans. PMID:21624998

Ruger-Herreros, Carmen; Rodríguez-Romero, Julio; Fernández-Barranco, Raul; Olmedo, María; Fischer, Reinhard; Corrochano, Luis M; Canovas, David

2011-08-01

414

Regulation of Conidiation by Light in Aspergillus nidulans  

PubMed Central

Light regulates several aspects of the biology of many organisms, including the balance between asexual and sexual development in some fungi. To understand how light regulates fungal development at the molecular level we have used Aspergillus nidulans as a model. We have performed a genome-wide expression analysis that has allowed us to identify >400 genes upregulated and >100 genes downregulated by light in developmentally competent mycelium. Among the upregulated genes were genes required for the regulation of asexual development, one of the major biological responses to light in A. nidulans, which is a pathway controlled by the master regulatory gene brlA. The expression of brlA, like conidiation, is induced by light. A detailed analysis of brlA light regulation revealed increased expression after short exposures with a maximum after 60 min of light followed by photoadaptation with longer light exposures. In addition to brlA, genes flbA–C and fluG are also light regulated, and flbA–C are required for the correct light-dependent regulation of the upstream regulator fluG. We have found that light induction of brlA required the photoreceptor complex composed of a phytochrome FphA, and the white-collar homologs LreA and LreB, and the fluffy genes flbA–C. We propose that the activation of regulatory genes by light is the key event in the activation of asexual development by light in A. nidulans. PMID:21624998

Ruger-Herreros, Carmen; Rodríguez-Romero, Julio; Fernández-Barranco, Raul; Olmedo, María; Fischer, Reinhard; Corrochano, Luis M.; Canovas, David

2011-01-01

415

Anti-inflammatory drimane sesquiterpene lactones from an Aspergillus species.  

PubMed

IFN-? inducible protein 10 (IP-10, CXCL10) is a 10 kDa chemokine, which is secreted from various cell types after exposure to pro-inflammatory stimuli. This chemokine is a ligand for the CXCR3 receptor and regulates immune responses by activating and recruiting leukocytes such as T cells, eosinophils, monocytes, and NK cells to sites of inflammation. Altered expression of CXCL10 has been associated with chronic inflammatory and infectious diseases and therefore CXCL10 represents a promising target for the development of new anti-inflammatory drugs. In a search for inhibitors of CXCL10 promoter activity, three structurally related drimane sesquiterpene lactones (compounds 1-3) were isolated from fermentations of an Aspergillus species. Compounds 1 and 2 inhibited the IFN-?/TNF-?/IL-1? induced CXCL10 promoter activity in transiently transfected human DLD-1 colon carcinoma cells in a dose-dependent manner with IC50 values of 12.4 ?M for 1 and 55 ?M for 2, whereas 3 was devoid of any biological activity. Moreover, compounds 1 and 2 reduced CXCL10 mRNA levels and synthesis in IFN-?/TNF-?/IL-1? stimulated DLD-1 cells. PMID:24792812

Felix, Silke; Sandjo, Louis P; Opatz, Till; Erkel, Gerhard

2014-06-01

416

Aspergillus Enzymes Involved in Degradation of Plant Cell Wall Polysaccharides  

PubMed Central

Degradation of plant cell wall polysaccharides is of major importance in the food and feed, beverage, textile, and paper and pulp industries, as well as in several other industrial production processes. Enzymatic degradation of these polymers has received attention for many years and is becoming a more and more attractive alternative to chemical and mechanical processes. Over the past 15 years, much progress has been made in elucidating the structural characteristics of these polysaccharides and in characterizing the enzymes involved in their degradation and the genes of biotechnologically relevant microorganisms encoding these enzymes. The members of the fungal genus Aspergillus are commonly used for the production of polysaccharide-degrading enzymes. This genus produces a wide spectrum of cell wall-degrading enzymes, allowing not only complete degradation of the polysaccharides but also tailored modifications by using specific enzymes purified from these fungi. This review summarizes our current knowledge of the cell wall polysaccharide-degrading enzymes from aspergilli and the genes by which they are encoded. PMID:11729262

de Vries, Ronald P.; Visser, Jaap

2001-01-01

417

Modulation of antimicrobial metabolites production by the fungus Aspergillus parasiticus  

PubMed Central

Biosynthesis of active secondary metabolites by fungi occurs as a specific response to the different growing environments. Changes in this environment alter the chemical and biological profiles leading to metabolites diversification and consequently to novel pharmacological applications. In this work, it was studied the influence of three parameters (fermentation length, medium composition and aeration) in the biosyntheses of antimicrobial metabolites by the fungus Aspergillus parasiticus in 10 distinct fermentation periods. Metabolism modulation in two culturing media, CYA and YES was evaluated by a 22 full factorial planning (ANOVA) and on a 23 factorial planning, role of aeration, medium composition and carbohydrate concentration were also evaluated. In overall, 120 different extracts were prepared, their HPLC profiles were obtained and the antimicrobial activity against A. flavus, C. albicans, E. coli and S. aureus of all extracts was evaluated by microdilution bioassay. Yield of kojic acid, a fine chemical produced by the fungus A. parasiticus was determined in all extracts. Statistical analyses pointed thirteen conditions able to modulate the production of bioactive metabolites by A. parasiticus. Effect of carbon source in metabolites diversification was significant as shown by the changes in the HPLC profiles of the extracts. Most of the extracts presented inhibition rates higher than that of kojic acid as for the extract obtained after 6 days of fermentation in YES medium under stirring. Kojic acid was not the only metabolite responsible for the activity since some highly active extracts showed to possess low amounts of this compound, as determined by HPLC. PMID:24948950

Bracarense, Adriana A.P.; Takahashi, Jacqueline A.

2014-01-01

418

Aflatoxin-producing Aspergillus species from Thailand Kenneth C. Ehrlich , Kerri Kobbeman, Beverly G. Montalbano, Peter J. Cotty  

E-print Network

Aflatoxin-producing Aspergillus species from Thailand Kenneth C. Ehrlich , Kerri Kobbeman, Beverly; accepted 25 August 2006 Abstract Aflatoxin-producing Aspergillus species were isolated from soil samples. Unlike previous studies, we found no A. parasiticus or A. flavus capable of both B- and G-type aflatoxin

Cotty, Peter J.

419

Evaluation of intraspecific competition (Aspergillus flavus Link) and aflatoxin formation in suspended disc culture and preharvest maize  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The abilities of non-aflatoxin producing strains of Aspergillus flavus NRRL 32354; 18543; 21882; 21368 as well as domesticated koji strains Aspergillus oryzae (syn. A. flavus var. oryzae) NRRL 451; 1911; 5592; 6271; 30038 to interfere with aflatoxin formation by A. flavus NRRL 3357; 32355 were exami...

420

Aspergillus flavus biomass in maize estimated by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction is strongly correlated with aflatoxin concentration  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Aspergillus flavus causes Aspergillus ear rot of maize and produces aflatoxins. There are published assertions that resistance to aflatoxin accumulation and pathogen colonization are distinct traits in maize. However, the levels of colonization are difficult to characterize for a pathogen such as ...

421

Correlation between in-vitro susceptibility testing to itraconazole and in-vivo outcome of Aspergillus fumigatus infection  

Microsoft Academic Search

Given the increased choice of therapeutic agents and the rising incidence of serious invasive disease, it is important that reliable in-vitro methods for detecting antifungal drug resistance in Aspergillus spp. are developed. Six clinical isolates of Aspergillus fumigatus, obtained from patients in whom the clinical outcome was known, were selected for study. Each was used to examine a range of

D. W. Denning; S. A. Radford; K. L. Oakley; L. Hall; E. M. Johnson; D. W. Warnock

1997-01-01

422

Tempo and mode of evolutionary radiation in Diabroticina beetles (genera Acalymma, Cerotoma, and Diabrotica)  

PubMed Central

Abstract Adaptive radiation is an aspect of evolutionary biology encompassing microevolution and macroevolution, for explaining the principles of lineage divergence. There are intrinsic as well as extrinsic factors that can be postulated to explain that adaptive radiation has taken place in specific lineages. The Diabroticina beetles are a prominent example of differential diversity that could be examined in detail to explain the diverse paradigms of adaptive radiation. Macroevolutionary analyses must present the differential diversity patterns in a chronological framework. The current study reviews the processes that shaped the differential diversity of some Diabroticina lineages (i.e. genera Acalymma, Cerotoma, and Diabrotica). These diversity patterns and the putative processes that produced them are discussed within a statistically reliable estimate of time. This was achieved by performing phylogenetic and coalescent analyses for 44 species of chrysomelid beetles. The data set encompassed a total of 2,718 nucleotide positions from three mitochondrial and two nuclear loci. Pharmacophagy, host plant coevolution, competitive exclusion, and geomorphological complexity are discussed as putative factors that might have influenced the observed diversity patterns. The coalescent analysis concluded that the main radiation within Diabroticina beetles occurred between middle Oligocene and middle Miocene. Therefore, the radiation observed in these beetles is not recent (i.e. post-Panamanian uplift, 4 Mya). Only a few speciation events in the genus Diabrotica might be the result of the Pleistocene climatic oscillations. PMID:24163585

Eben, Astrid; Espinosa de los Monteros, Alejandro

2013-01-01

423

[Taxonomic significance of the fatty acid composition of bacteria of the genera Bordetella and Haemophilus].  

PubMed

Bacteria of the species B. parapertussis and B. bronchiseptica have proved to be identical in their fatty-acid composition with a high level (35.7-39%) of methylene-hexadecanoic acid, found to be absent in B. pertussis in experimental conditions. At the same time the total content of methylene-hexadecanoic acid and its biosynthetic precursor, hexadecenoic acid, in the first two Bordetella species is similar to the content of hexadecenoic acid in B. pertussis, which, along with the presence of common characteristics in the sign under consideration (the low level of C18:1), indicates the close relationship of these three Bordetella species. Bacteria of the species H. influenzae, H. parainfluenzae, H. aegyptius, H. aphrophilus have similar fatty-acid composition with the prevalence of hexadecanoic and hexadecenoic acids and the low level of fatty acids with 18 carbon atoms. The data on fatty-acid composition may suggest the presence of philogenetic links between the genera Bordetella and Haemophilus. PMID:6322484

Vasiurenko, Z P; Kolisnichenko, N I; Khramova, N I

1984-01-01

424

Hard and soft anatomy in two genera of Dondersiidae (Mollusca, Aplacophora, Solenogastres).  

PubMed

Phylogenetic relationships and identifications in the aplacophoran taxon Solenogastres (Neomeniomorpha) are in flux largely because descriptions of hard parts--sclerites, radulae, copulatory spicules--and body shape have often not been adequately illustrated or utilized. With easily recognizable and accessible hard parts, descriptions of Solenogastres are of greater use, not just to solenogaster taxonomists, but also to ecologists, paleontologists, and evolutionary biologists. Phylogenetic studies of Aplacophora, Mollusca, and the Lophotrochozoa as a whole, whether morphological or molecular, would be enhanced. As an example, morphologic characters, both isolated hard parts and internal anatomy, are provided for two genera in the Dondersiidae. Five species are described or redescribed and earlier descriptions corrected and enhanced. Three belong to Dondersia: D. festiva Hubrecht, D. incali (Scheltema), and D. namibiensis n. sp., the latter differentiated unambiguously from D. incali only by sclerites and copulatory spicules. Two species belong to Lyratoherpia: L. carinata Salvini-Plawen and L. californica (Heath). Notes are given for other species in Dondersiidae: L. bracteata Salvini-Plawen, Ichthyomenia ichthyodes (Pruvot), and Heathia porosa (Heath). D. indica Stork is synonymized with D. annulata. A cladistic morphological analysis was conducted to examine the utility of hard parts for reconstructing solenogaster phylogeny. Results indicate monophyly of Dondersia and Lyratoherpia as described here. PMID:22815372

Scheltema, Amélie H; Schander, Christoffer; Kocot, Kevin M

2012-06-01

425

Revision of the cranaid genera Phalangodus, Iquitosa and Aguaytiella (Opiliones: Laniatores: Gonyleptoidea).  

PubMed

The monotypic genus Temucus Roewer, 1943, originally placed in Pachylinae (Gonyleptidae) is transferred to the Cranainae (Cranaidae) and synonymized with Phalangodus Gervais, 1842, therefore Phalangodus palpiconus (Roewer, 1943) comb. nov. is proposed. The synonymy is based on the following features: (i) the outline of dorsal scutum type alpha; (ii) the thickened pedipalpal claw in males; (iii) pedipalpal femur with a few ventral enlarged tubercles restricted to the median ventral region, and a conspicuous group of very large and acuminated tubercles basally; (iv) ventral plate of penis with a rather elevated number of cylindrical, straight and sharp distal pairs of setae and a notorious reduction in the number of the basal pairs of setae; (v) penis stylus straight, its distal tip rounded in a mushroom-like shape without stylar caps. The record of P. palpiconus to Chile is doubtful. We also propose the revalidation of Iquitosa Roewer, 1943, hitherto considered a junior synonym of Phalangodus. Iquitosa is revised and the male of its type species, I. poecilis, is reported for the first time. Aguaytiella Goodnight & Goodnight, 1943, a monotypic genus which superficially resembles Iquitosa is also revised. In this article, we report data of male genitalia of Iquitosa and Aguaytiella, providing redescriptions and diagnoses of those genera and species, and a discussion of their relationship with other cranaids. PMID:24943449

Hara, Marcos Ryotaro; Pinto-da-Rocha, Ricardo; Villarreal M, Osvaldo

2014-01-01

426

Association of Growth Substrates and Bacterial Genera with Benzo[a]pyrene Mineralization in Contaminated Soil.  

PubMed

Benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) is a carcinogenic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) that is not known to be a bacterial growth substrate. Organisms capable of cometabolizing BaP in complex field-contaminated systems have not previously been identified. We evaluated BaP mineralization by a bacterial community from a bioreactor treating PAH-contaminated soil during coincubation with or after pre-enrichment on various PAHs as growth substrates. Pyrosequence libraries of 16S rRNA genes were used to identify bacteria that were enriched on the added growth substrate as a means of associating specific organisms with BaP mineralization. Coincubating the bioreactor-treated soil with naphthalene, phenanthrene, or pyrene inhibited BaP mineralization, whereas pre-enriching the soil on the same three PAHs enhanced BaP mineralization. Combined, these results suggest that bacteria in the bioreactor community that are capable of growing on naphthalene, phenanthrene, and/or pyrene can metabolize BaP, with coincubation competitively inhibiting BaP metabolism. Anthracene, fluoranthene, and benz[a]anthracene had little effect on BaP mineralization compared to incubations without an added growth substrate under either coincubation or pre-enrichment conditions. Substantial increases in relative abundance after pre-enrichment with phenanthrene, naphthalene, or pyrene, but not the other PAHs, suggest that members of the genera Cupriavidus and Luteimonas may have been associated with BaP mineralization. PMID:25469077

Jones, Maiysha D; Rodgers-Vieira, Elyse A; Hu, Jing; Aitken, Michael D

2014-12-01

427

Evolutionary relationships of Pemphigus and allied genera (Hemiptera: Aphididae: Eriosomatinae) and their primary endosymbiont, Buchnera aphidicola.  

PubMed

Aphids harbor primary endosymbionts, Buchnera aphidicola, in specialized cells within their body cavities. Aphids and Buchnera have strict mutualistic relationships in nutrition exchange. This ancient association has received much attention from researchers who are interested in endosymbiotic evolution. Previous studies have found parallel phylogenetic relationships between non-galling aphids and Buchnera at lower taxonomic levels (genus, species). To understand whether relatively isolated habitats such as galls have effect on the parallel relationships between aphids and Buchnera, the present paper investigated the phylogenetic relationships of gall aphids from Pemphigus and allied genera, which induce pseudo-galls or galls on Populus spp. (poplar) and Buchnera. The molecular phylogenies inferred from three aphid genes (COI, COII and EF-1?) and two Buchnera genes (gnd, 16S rRNA gene) indicated significant congruence between aphids and Buchnera at generic as well as interspecific levels. Interestingly, both aphid and Buchnera phylogenies supported three main clades corresponding to the galling locations of aphids, namely leaf, the joint of leaf blade and petiole, and branch of the host plant. The results suggest phylogenetic conservatism of gall characters, which indicates gall characters are more strongly affected by aphid phylogeny, rather than host plants. PMID:24482319

Liu, Lin; Li, Xing-Yi; Huang, Xiao-Lei; Qiao, Ge-Xia

2014-06-01

428

Analysis and comparison of the pan-genomic properties of sixteen well-characterized bacterial genera  

PubMed Central

Background The increasing availability of whole genome sequences allows the gene or protein content of different organisms to be compared, leading to burgeoning interest in the relatively new subfield of pan-genomics. However, while several studies have analyzed protein content relationships in specific groups of bacteria, there has yet to be a study that provides a general characterization of protein content relationships in a broad range of bacteria. Results A variation on reciprocal BLAST hits was used to infer relationships among proteins in several groups of bacteria, and data regarding protein conservation and uniqueness in different bacterial genera are reported in terms of "core proteomes", "unique proteomes", and "singlets". We also analyzed the relationship between protein content similarity and the percent identity of the 16S rRNA gene in pairs of bacterial isolates from the same genus, and found that the strength of this relationship varied substantially depending on the genus, perhaps reflecting different rates of genome evolution and/or horizontal gene transfer. Finally, core proteomes and unique proteomes were used to study the proteomic cohesiveness of several bacterial species, revealing that some bacterial species had little cohesiveness in their protein content, with some having fewer proteins unique to that species than randomly-chosen sets of isolates from the same genus. Conclusions The results described in this study aid our understanding of protein content relationships in different bacterial groups, allowing us to make further inferences regarding genome-environment relationships, genome evolution, and the soundness of existing taxonomic classifications. PMID:20942950

2010-01-01

429

Diatoms from the Colombian and Peruvian Amazon: the Genera Encyonema, Encyonopsis and Gomphonema (Cymbellales: Bacillariophyceae).  

PubMed

The diatom flora of the Colombian and Peruvian Amazon is far less studied than the flora of the Brazilian sector of the basin. Here we present results related to the genera Encyonema, Encyonopsis and Gomphonema. Plankton and periphyton samples were collected in lotic and lentic waterbodies from the Amazonian-Andean region, the Amazon River, Japurá River and Porvenir River basins during 1993, 1994, 2001 and 2003. At each sampling station pH, temperature, water transparency and conductivity were registered. Samples were analyzed with phase contrast microscope (LM) and scanning electron microscope (SEM). Ten taxa are new records for the area; Encyonema for the Peruvian and Colombian Amazon and Encyonopsis for the Colombian Sector. Encyonema neogracile var. tenuipunctatum, E. vulgare, Encyonopsis frequentis, Gomphonema augur var. sphaerophorum and G. contraturris are recorded for the first time in Colombia; Encyonema venezolanum and G. neoapiculatum in Colombia and Peru and the latter also for Amazonia. E. angustecapitatum was mentioned in Colombia before at a pond located at 3000 m asl. We describe a new species from Porvenir River, Amazonas, Colombia: Encyonema amazonianum. PMID:20411706

Vouilloud, Amelia A; Sala, Silvia E; Avellaneda, Marcela Núńez; Duque, Santiago R

2010-03-01

430

Nuclei, micronuclei and appendages in tri- and tetraradiate conidia of Cornutispora and four other coelomycete genera.  

PubMed

The distribution and behaviour of nuclei in conidia of 11 coelomycete species with tri- and tetraradiate conidia and belonging to five genera has been investigated: Cornutispora (C. ciliata, C. intermedia, C. lichenicola, C. limaciformis, and C. pittii), Eriosporella (E. calami), Furcaspora (F. abieticola, F. pinicola), Suttoniella (S. eriobotryae, S. gaubae), and Tetranacrium (T. gramineum). They have been studied by the HCl-Giemsa technique using dried, preserved material including holotypes and isotypes with ages ranging from 3 to 116 yr. Conidia of Cornutispora species showed different ploidy levels, and C. limaciformis showed a very high (> 90%) frequency of stable and viable micronuclei with an unusual type of ploidy level, occurring naturally. Frequency of ploidy levels in nuclei within conidia of Cornutispora species appeared to be associated with changes in gross conidial morphology. This is the first report of micronuclei in coelomycetes. The types of appendages on arms or parts of conidia have been studied using various stains including erythrosin in ammonia and a modified Leifson's flagella staining technique. In Furcaspora species the apical and basal conidial appendages are cellular maintaining protoplasmic continuity with the arms on which they are sited. The results have been compared with those of Crucellisporium species which have tetraradiate conidia. The new species, Cornutispora intermedia, C. pittii and Furcaspora abieticola spp. nov. are described, and illustrated, and a key to all known Cornutispora species is provided. PMID:14531616

Punithalingam, Eliyathamby

2003-08-01

431

Nanoalumina promotes the horizontal transfer of multiresistance genes mediated by plasmids across genera  

PubMed Central

Antibiotic resistance is a worldwide public health concern. Conjugative transfer between closely related strains or species of bacteria is an important method for the horizontal transfer of multidrug-resistance genes. The extent to which nanomaterials are able to cause an increase in antibiotic resistance by the regulation of the conjugative transfer of antibiotic-resistance genes in bacteria, especially across genera, is still unknown. Here we show that nanomaterials in water can significantly promote the horizontal conjugative transfer of multidrug-resistance genes mediated by the RP4, RK2, and pCF10 plasmids. Nanoalumina can promote the conjugative transfer of the RP4 plasmid from Escherichia coli to Salmonella spp. by up to 200-fold compared with untreated cells. We also explored the mechanisms behind this phenomenon and demonstrate that nanoalumina is able to induce oxidative stress, damage bacterial cell membranes, enhance the expression of mating pair formation genes and DNA transfer and replication genes, and depress the expression of global regulatory genes that regulate the conjugative transfer of RP4. These findings are important in assessing the risk of nanomaterials to the environment, particularly from water and wastewater treatment systems, and in the estimation of the effect of manufacture and use of nanomaterials on the environment. PMID:22411796

Qiu, Zhigang; Yu, Yunmei; Chen, Zhaoli; Jin, Min; Yang, Dong; Zhao, Zuguo; Wang, Jingfeng; Shen, Zhiqiang; Wang, Xinwei; Qian, Di; Huang, Aihua; Zhang, Buchang; Li, Jun-Wen

2012-01-01

432

Estimation and application of indicator values for common macroinvertebrate genera and families of the United States  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Tolerance of macroinvertebrate taxa to chemical and physical stressors is widely used in the analysis and interpretation of bioassessment data, but many estimates lack empirical bases. Our main objective was to estimate genus- and family-level indicator values (IVs) from a data set of macroinvertebrate communities, chemical, and physical stressors collected in a consistent manner throughout the United States. We then demonstrated an application of these IVs to detect alterations in benthic macroinvertebrate assemblages along gradients of urbanization in New England and Alabama. Principal components analysis (PCA) was used to create synthetic gradients of chemical stressors, for which genus- and family-level weighted averages (WAs) were calculated. Based on results of PCA, WAs were calculated for three synthetic gradients (ionic concentration, nutrient concentration, and dissolved oxygen/water temperature) and two uncorrelated physical variables (suspended sediment concentration and percent fines). Indicator values for each stress gradient were subsequently created by transforming WAs into ten ordinal ranks based on percentiles of values across all taxa. Mean IVs of genera and families were highly correlated to road density in Alabama and New England, and supported the conclusions of independent assessments of the chemical and physical stressors acting in each geographic area. Family IVs were nearly as responsive to urbanization as genus IVs. The limitations of widespread use of these IVs are discussed.

Carlisle, D.M.; Meador, M.R.; Moulton, S.R., II; Ruhl, P.M.

2007-01-01

433

Revision of hemoproteid genera and description and redescription of two species of chelonian hemoproteid parasites.  

PubMed

Pigmented hemosporidian parasites that do not exhibit erthyrocytic schizogony, and infect birds, chelonians, and squamates, have been classified in various genera over time. These classifications have reflected vertebrate hosts, insect vectors, and variations in morphology and life history observed in representative species. Side-necked turtles ( Podocnemis spp.) from the Peruvian Amazon were screened for hemoparasites and 2 species of hemosporid parasites infecting these hosts were observed. Molecular phylogenetic analysis of these new isolates, along with parasites from lizards, a snake, and a variety of Haemoproteus species from birds from both the Haemoproteus and Parahaemoproteus subgenera, strongly support the separation of the non-avian parasites into a separate genus. The name with precedent for this group is Haemocystidium Castellani and Willey 1909, and we propose that subgeneric classification of Haemocystidium and Simondia be applied to parasites of squamates and chelonians, respectively. We offer a description of Haemocystidium (Simondia) pacayae n. sp. and a redescription of Haemocystidium (Simondia) peltocephali ( Lainson and Naiff 1998 , n. comb.) Morphologically, the parasites are quite similar, with H. pacayae slightly more elongated than H. peltocephali. The discovery and identification of parasite species is urgent, especially in endangered species and wildlife inhabiting rapidly declining ecosystems such as the Amazon. PMID:24032642

Pineda-Catalan, Oscar; Perkins, Susan L; Peirce, Michael A; Engstrand, Rachel; Garcia-Davila, Carmen; Pinedo-Vasquez, Miguel; Aguirre, A Alonso

2013-12-01

434

Natural Products from Antarctic Colonial Ascidians of the Genera Aplidium and Synoicum: Variability and Defensive Role  

PubMed Central

Ascidians have developed multiple defensive strategies mostly related to physical, nutritional or chemical properties of the tunic. One of such is chemical defense based on secondary metabolites. We analyzed a series of colonial Antarctic ascidians from deep-water collections belonging to the genera Aplidium and Synoicum to evaluate the incidence of organic deterrents and their variability. The ether fractions from 15 samples including specimens of the species A. falklandicum, A. fuegiense, A. meridianum, A. millari and S. adareanum were subjected to feeding assays towards two relevant sympatric predators: the starfish Odontaster validus, and the amphipod Cheirimedon femoratus. All samples revealed repellency. Nonetheless, some colonies concentrated defensive chemicals in internal body-regions rather than in the tunic. Four ascidian-derived meroterpenoids, rossinones B and the three derivatives 2,3-epoxy-rossinone B, 3-epi-rossinone B, 5,6-epoxy-rossinone B, and the indole alkaloids meridianins A–G, along with other minoritary meridianin compounds were isolated from several samples. Some purified metabolites were tested in feeding assays exhibiting potent unpalatabilities, thus revealing their role in predation avoidance. Ascidian extracts and purified compound-fractions were further assessed in antibacterial tests against a marine Antarctic bacterium. Only the meridianins showed inhibition activity, demonstrating a multifunctional defensive role. According to their occurrence in nature and within our colonial specimens, the possible origin of both types of metabolites is discussed. PMID:23015772

Núńez-Pons, Laura; Carbone, Marianna; Vázquez, Jennifer; Rodríguez, Jaime; Nieto, Rosa María; Varela, María Mercedes; Gavagnin, Margherita; Avila, Conxita

2012-01-01

435

Defective Aspergillus killing by neutrophil leucocytes in a case of systemic aspergillosis.  

PubMed Central

A persistent defect of Aspergillus killing was observed in the neutrophils of a 6-year-old patient with a systemic A. fumigatus infection which was highly refractory to anti-mycotic therapy. Aspergillus phagocytosis in vitro was normal, but nearly 80% of the ingested organisms (versus 30% in the controls) survived intracellularly during the 2-hr assay period. The patient's neutrophils showed a subnormal frequency of nitroblue tetrazolium reduction and a subnormal hexose monophosphate shunt activation in response to phagocytosis. The metabolic responsiveness, however, was clearly superior to that of chronic granulomatous disease neutrophils tested for comparison. The immune status of the patient and the following properties of his neutrophils were found to be normal: random and chemotactic motility, killing of S. aureus and C. albicans, and the contents of several granula enzymes. Our findings suggest the existence of neutrophil factors or functions which are required for killing Aspergillus, but not S. aureus and C. albicans. PMID:7018757

Pagani, A; Spalla, R; Ferrari, F A; Duse, M; Lenzi, L; Bretz, U; Baggiolini, M; Siccardi, A G

1981-01-01

436

Lipoxygenase Activation in Peanut Seed Cultivars Resistant and Susceptible to Aspergillus parasiticus Colonization.  

PubMed

ABSTRACT Accumulative evidence indicates that the lipoxygenase (LOX) pathway plays a significant role in the Aspergillus-seed interaction, such as interfering with activities of endogenous fungal oxylipins or producing antimicrobial compounds and signaling molecules. In this study, we characterized the LOX pathway in peanut seed during Aspergillus parasiticus colonization in a model of two cultivars distinguished as resistant ('PI337394') and susceptible ('Florman INTA') to Aspergillus spp. infection and aflatoxin contamination. The LOX activity together with the content of LOX substrate and LOX products demonstrated the presence of a differential response mechanism to A. parasiticus infection between cultivars. Our findings suggest that this mechanism is under transcriptional control of previously identified (LOX 2 and LOX 3) and novel (LOX 4 and LOX 5) LOX genes. The results of this study support the role of these enzymes in defense during fungus infection in peanut seed. PMID:24941329

Müller, V; Amé, M V; Carrari, V; Gieco, J; Asis, R

2014-12-01

437

Reliable and simple detection of ochratoxin and fumonisin production in black Aspergillus.  

PubMed

To date, edible fungi such as black Aspergillus (Aspergillus niger aggregates) have been considered as safe. However, it has recently been reported that some strains have a mycotoxin biosynthetic capability, and this capability must be evaluated to determine the safety of edible fungi. In this study, we assessed the ability of mycotoxin production in A. niger aggregates isolated from various Korean foods using multiplex PCR and high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analyses. Multiplex PCR and HPLC analyses of 32 A. niger aggregates showed that ochratoxin and fumonisin were produced only by strains exhibiting positive PCR patterns with ochratoxin and fumonisin biosynthesis genes. However, several strains did not produce mycotoxins, even though they contained mycotoxin biosynthesis genes. Using multiplex PCR pattern and HPLC analyses, we selected Aspergillus strains that do not produce mycotoxins, which will contribute to the development of safer fermented foods. PMID:24680080

Kim, Nam Yeun; Lee, Inhyung; Ji, Geun Eog

2014-04-01

438

Aspergillus flavus endocarditis of the native mitral valve in a bone marrow transplant patient.  

PubMed

Background Infective endocarditis due to Aspergillus species is an uncommon infection with a high mortality rate. It mostly occurs after the implantation of prosthetic heart valves. Parenteral nutrition, immunosuppression, broad-spectrum antibiotic regimens, and illegal intravenous drug use are the risk factors for developing infection. Case Report We report a case of Aspergillus flavus native mitral valve endocarditis in a patient who had allogeneic stem cell transplantation in the past due to myelodysplastic syndrome. Conclusions Although it is rare and there is limited experience available with the diagnosis and treatment, early recognition and therapeutic intervention with systemic antifungal therapy and aggressive surgical intervention are critical to prevent further complications that may eventually lead to death. In addition, better novel diagnostic tools are needed to facilitate more accurate identification of patients with invasive Aspergillus and to permit earlier initiation of antifungal treatment. PMID:25603977

Demir, Tolga; Ergenoglu, Mehmet Umit; Ekinci, Abdurrahman; Tanrikulu, Nursen; Sahin, Mazlum; Demirsoy, Ergun

2015-01-01

439

Aspergillus Collagen-Like Genes (acl): Identification, Sequence Polymorphism, and Assessment for PCR-Based Pathogen Detection  

PubMed Central

The genus Aspergillus is a burden to public health due to its ubiquitous presence in the environment, its production of allergens, and wide demographic susceptibility among cystic fibrosis, asthmatic, and immunosuppressed patients. Current methods of detection of Aspergillus colonization and infection rely on lengthy morphological characterization or nonstandardized serological assays that are restricted to identifying a fungal etiology. Collagen-like genes have been shown to exhibit species-specific conservation across the noncollagenous regions as well as strain-specific polymorphism in the collagen-like regions. Here we assess the conserved region of the Aspergillus collagen-like (acl) genes and explore the application of PCR amplicon size-based discrimination among the five most common etiologic species of the Aspergillus genus, including Aspergillus fumigatus, A. flavus, A. nidulans, A. niger, and A. terreus. Genetic polymorphism and phylogenetic analysis of the aclF1 gene were additionally examined among the available strains. Furthermore, the applicability of the PCR-based assay to identification of these five species in cultures derived from sputum and bronchoalveolar fluid from 19 clinical samples was explored. Application of capillary electrophoresis on nanogels was additionally demonstrated to improve the discrimination between Aspergillus species. Overall, this study demonstrated that Aspergillus acl genes could be used as PCR targets to discriminate between clinically relevant Aspergillus species. Future studies aim to utilize the detection of Aspergillus acl genes in PCR and microfluidic applications to determine the sensitivity and specificity for the identification of Aspergillus colonization and invasive aspergillosis in immunocompromised subjects. PMID:24123732

Tuntevski, Kiril; Durney, Brandon C.; Snyder, Anna K.; LaSala, P. Rocco; Nayak, Ajay P.; Green, Brett J.; Beezhold, Donald H.; Rio, Rita V. M.; Holland, Lisa A.

2013-01-01

440

Misidentification of Aspergillus nomius and Aspergillus tamarii as Aspergillus flavus: Characterization by Internal Transcribed Spacer, ?-Tubulin, and Calmodulin Gene Sequencing, Metabolic Fingerprinting, and Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption Ionization–Time of Flight Mass Spectrometry  

PubMed Central

Aspergillus nomius and Aspergillus tamarii are Aspergillus species that phenotypically resemble Aspergillus flavus. In the last decade, a number of case reports have identified A. nomius and A. tamarii as causes of human infections. In this study, using an internal transcribed spacer, ?-tubulin, and calmodulin gene sequencing, only 8 of 11 clinical isolates reported as A. flavus in our clinical microbiology laboratory by phenotypic methods were identified as A. flavus. The other three isolates were A. nomius (n = 2) or A. tamarii (n = 1). The results corresponded with those of metabolic fingerprinting, in which the A. flavus, A. nomius, and A. tamarii strains were separated into three clusters based on ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC MS) analysis. The first two patients with A. nomius infections had invasive aspergillosis and chronic cavitary and fibrosing pulmonary and pleural aspergillosis, respectively, whereas the third patient had A. tamarii colonization of the airway. Identification of the 11 clinical isolates and three reference strains by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization–time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) showed that only six of the nine strains of A. flavus were identified correctly. None of the strains of A. nomius and A. tamarii was correctly identified. ?-Tubulin or the calmodulin gene should be the gene target of choice for identifying A. flavus, A. nomius, and A. tamarii. To improve the usefulness of MALDI-TOF MS, the number of strains for each species in MALDI-TOF MS databases should be expanded to cover intraspecies variability. PMID:24452174

Tam, Emily W. T.; Chen, Jonathan H. K.; Lau, Eunice C. L.; Ngan, Antonio H. Y.; Fung, Kitty S. C.; Lee, Kim-Chung; Lam, Ching-Wan; Yuen, Kwok-Yung

2014-01-01

441

A MANUAL FOR THE IDENTIFICATION OF THE LARVAE OF THE CADDISFLY GENERA 'HYDROPSYCHE' PICTET AND 'SYMPHITOPSYCHE' ULMER IN EASTERN AND CENTRAL NORTH AMERICA (TRICHOPTERA: HYDROPSYCHIDAE)  

EPA Science Inventory

Larvae of the caddisfly genera Hydropsyche and Symphitopsyche are among the most encountered and abundant organisms of lotic environments in eastern North America. Yet, little is known of the larval stages of these genera. Previously, the larvae of only 12 species of which descri...

442

Mite (Arthropoda: Acari) Associates of palms (Arecaceae) in Brazil: VI. New genera and new species of Eriophyidae and Phytoptidae (Prostigmata: Eriophyoidea)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Three new genera and ten new species of Eriophyoidea associated with palm trees (Arecaceae) are illustrated and described from Brazil. Two new genera and seven new species are in the family Eriophyidae - Aceria gymnoscutan. sp. from Syagrus flexuosa and Syagrus cocoides; Aceria biornatan. sp. from Acrocomia aculeata; Aceria translinean. sp. from Syagrus romanzoffiana and Attalea dubia; Proartacris longiorn. sp.

Denise Navia; Carlos H. W. Flechtmann

2002-01-01

443

An annotated key to the identification of commonly occurring and dominant genera of algae observed in the phytoplankton of the United States  

USGS Publications Warehouse

In early 1979, a retrieval was made for all phytoplankton data contained in the computerized data file of the U. S. Geological Survey. The retrieval revealed the analytical results of 17,959 samples collected and processed between October 1973 and October 1978. Of the approximately 500 genera of freshwater algae reported in the United States, the U.S. Geological Survey observed 321 genera in the phytoplankton. Fifty-two genera were considered to be commonly occurring and 42 genera were considered to be community dominants. The report lists, describes, and provides a detailed taxonomic key to the identification of 58 genera of algae considered either commonly occurring or dominant. Also included is a summary of environmental conditions under which each algal genus was observed, as well as a glossary and an extensive list of selected references.

Greeson, Phillip E.

1982-01-01

444

Identification and cloning of a second phytase gene (phyB) from Aspergillus niger (ficuum).  

PubMed

An Aspergillus niger (ficuum) genomic DNA lambda EMBL3 library was probed with a 354-bp DNA fragment obtained by polymerase chain reaction of A. niger DNA with oligonucleotides based on partial amino acid sequence of a pH 2.5 optimum acid phosphatase. A clone containing a 1605 bp segment (phyB) encoding the 479 amino acid enzyme was isolated and found to contain four exons. Global alignment revealed 23.5% homology to Aspergillus niger phytase (PhyA); four regions of extensive homology were identified. Some of these regions may contain catalytic sites for phosphatase function. PMID:7916610

Ehrlich, K C; Montalbano, B G; Mullaney, E J; Dischinger, H C; Ullah, A H

1993-08-31

445

Metabolic peculiarities of Aspergillus niger disclosed by comparative metabolic genomics  

PubMed Central

Background Aspergillus niger is an important industrial microorganism for the production of both metabolites, such as citric acid, and proteins, such as fungal enzymes or heterologous proteins. Despite its extensive industrial applications, the genetic inventory of this fungus is only partially understood. The recently released genome sequence opens a new horizon for both scientific studies and biotechnological applications. Results Here, we present the first genome-scale metabolic network for A. niger and an in-depth genomic comparison of this species to seven other fungi to disclose its metabolic peculiarities. The raw genomic sequences of A. niger ATCC 9029 were first annotated. The reconstructed metabolic network is based on the annotation of two A. niger genomes, CBS 513.88 and ATCC 9029, including enzymes with 988 unique EC numbers, 2,443 reactions and 2,349 metabolites. More than 1,100 enzyme-coding genes are unique to A. niger in comparison to the other seven fungi. For example, we identified additional copies of genes such as those encoding alternative mitochondrial oxidoreductase and citrate synthase in A. niger, which might contribute to the high citric acid production efficiency of this species. Moreover, nine genes were identified as encoding enzymes with EC numbers exclusively found in A. niger, mostly involved in the biosynthesis of complex secondary metabolites and degradation of aromatic compounds. Conclusion The genome-level reconstruction of the metabolic network and genome-based metabolic comparison disclose peculiarities of A. niger highly relevant to its biotechnological applications and should contribute to future rational metabolic design and systems biology studies of this black mold and related species. PMID:17784953

Sun, Jibin; Lu, Xin; Rinas, Ursula; Zeng, An Ping

2007-01-01

446

Iron – A Key Nexus in the Virulence of Aspergillus fumigatus  

PubMed Central

Iron is an essential but, in excess, toxic nutrient. Therefore, fungi evolved fine-tuned mechanisms for uptake and storage of iron, such as the production of siderophores (low-molecular mass iron-specific chelators). In Aspergillus fumigatus, iron starvation causes extensive transcriptional remodeling involving two central transcription factors, which are interconnected in a negative transcriptional feed-back loop: the GATA-factor SreA and the bZip-factor HapX. During iron sufficiency, SreA represses iron uptake, including reductive iron assimilation and siderophore-mediated iron uptake, to avoid toxic effects. During iron starvation, HapX represses iron-consuming pathways, including heme biosynthesis and respiration, to spare iron and activates synthesis of ribotoxin AspF1 and siderophores, the latter partly by ensuring supply of the precursor, ornithine. In accordance with the expression pattern and mode of action, detrimental effects of inactivation of SreA and HapX are confined to growth during iron sufficiency and iron starvation, respectively. Deficiency in HapX, but not SreA, attenuates virulence of A. fumigatus in a murine model of aspergillosis, which underlines the crucial role of adaptation to iron limitation in virulence. Consistently, production of both extra and intracellular siderophores is crucial for virulence of A. fumigatus. Recently, the sterol regulatory element binding protein SrbA was found to be essential for adaptation to iron starvation, thereby linking regulation of iron metabolism, ergosterol biosynthesis, azole drug resistance, and hypoxia adaptation. PMID:22347220

Haas, Hubertus

2012-01-01

447

Morphology engineering of Aspergillus niger for improved enzyme production.  

PubMed

Supplementation with silicate microparticles was used as novel approach to control the morphological development of Aspergillus niger, important as the major world source of citric acid and higher-value enzymes, in submerged culture. With careful variation of size and concentration of the micromaterial added, a number of distinct morphological forms including pellets of different size, free dispersed mycelium, and short hyphae fragments could be reproducibly created. Aluminum oxide particles similarly affected morphology, showing that this effect is largely independent of the chemical particle composition. Image analysis of morphological development of A. niger during the cultivation process showed that the microparticles influence the morphology by collision-induced disruption of conidia aggregates and probably also the hindrance of new spore-spore interactions in the very early stage of the process. Exemplified for different recombinant A. niger strains enzyme production could be strongly enhanced by the addition of microparticles. Linked to the formation of freely dispersed mycelium, titers for glucoamylase (GA) expressed as intracellular enzyme (88 U/mL) and fructofuranosidase secreted into the supernatant (77 U/mL), were up to fourfold higher in shake flasks. Moreover, accumulation of the undesired by-product oxalate was suppressed by up to 90%. The microparticle strategy could be successfully transferred to fructofuranosidase production in bioreactor, where a final titer of 160 U/mL could be reached. Using co-expression of GA with green fluorescent protein, enzyme production was localized in the cellular aggregates of A. niger. For pelleted growth, protein production was maximal only within a thin layer at the pellet surface and markedly decreased in the pellet interior, whereas the interaction with the microparticles created a highly active biocatalyst with the dominant fraction of cells contributing to production. PMID:19953678

Driouch, Habib; Sommer, Becky; Wittmann, Christoph

2010-04-15

448

Characterization of a recombinant ?-glucuronidase from Aspergillus fumigatus.  

PubMed

The degradation of xylan requires the action of glycanases and esterases which hydrolyse, in a synergistic fashion, the main chain and the different substituents which decorate its structure. Among the xylanolytic enzymes acting on side-chains are the ?-glucuronidases (AguA) (E.C. 3.2.1.139) which release methyl glucuronic acid residues. These are the least studies among the xylanolytic enzymes. In this work, the gene and cDNA of an ?-glucuronidase from a newly isolated strain of Aspergillus fumigatus have been sequenced, and the gene has been expressed in Pichia pastoris. The gene is 2523 bp long, has no introns and codes for a protein of 840 amino acid residues including a putative signal peptide of 19 residues. The mature protein has a calculated molecular weight of 91,725 and shows 99 % identity with a putative ?-glucuronidase from A. fumigatus A1163. The recombinant enzyme was expressed with a histidine tag and was purified to near homogeneity with a nickel nitriloacetic acid (Ni-NTA) column. The purified enzyme has a molecular weight near 100,000. It is inactive using birchwood glucuronoxylan as substrate. Activity is observed in the presence of xylooligosaccharides generated from this substrate by a family 10 endoxylanase and when a mixture of aldouronic acids are used as substrates. If, instead, family 11 endoxylanase is used to generate oligosaccharides, no activity is detected, indicating a different specificity in the cleavage of xylan by family 10 and 11 endoxylanases. Enzyme activity is optimal at 37 °C and pH 4.5-5. The enzyme binds cellulose, thus it likely possesses a carbohydrate binding module. Based on its properties and sequence similarities the catalytic module of the newly described ?-glucuronidase can be classified in family 67 of the glycosyl hydrolases. The recombinant enzyme may be useful for biotechnological applications of ?-glucuronidases. PMID:23719223

Rosa, Lorena; Ravanal, María Cristina; Mardones, Wladimir; Eyzaguirre, Jaime

2013-05-01

449

Spatial Differentiation in the Vegetative Mycelium of Aspergillus niger? †  

PubMed Central

Fungal mycelia are exposed to heterogenic substrates. The substrate in the central part of the colony has been (partly) degraded, whereas it is still unexplored at the periphery of the mycelium. We here assessed whether substrate heterogeneity is a main determinant of spatial gene expression in colonies of Aspergillus niger. This question was addressed by analyzing whole-genome gene expression in five concentric zones of 7-day-old maltose- and xylose-grown colonies. Expression profiles at the periphery and the center were clearly different. More than 25% of the active genes showed twofold differences in expression between the inner and outermost zones of the colony. Moreover, 9% of the genes were expressed in only one of the five concentric zones, showing that a considerable part of the genome is active in a restricted part of the colony only. Statistical analysis of expression profiles of colonies that had either been or not been transferred to fresh xylose-containing medium showed that differential expression in a colony is due to the heterogeneity of the medium (e.g., genes involved in secretion, genes encoding proteases, and genes involved in xylose metabolism) as well as to medium-independent mechanisms (e.g., genes involved in nitrate metabolism and genes involved in cell wall synthesis and modification). Thus, we conclude that the mycelia of 7-day-old colonies of A. niger are highly differentiated. This conclusion is also indicated by the fact that distinct zones of the colony grow and secrete proteins, even after transfer to fresh medium. PMID:17951513

Levin, Ana M.; de Vries, Ronald P.; Conesa, Ana; de Bekker, Charissa; Talon, Manuel; Menke, Hildegard H.; van Peij, Noel N. M. E.; Wösten, Han A. B.

2007-01-01

450

Eosinophil Deficiency Compromises Lung Defense against Aspergillus fumigatus  

PubMed Central

Exposure to the mold Aspergillus fumigatus may result in allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis, chronic necrotizing pulmonary aspergillosis, or invasive aspergillosis (IA), depending on the host's immune status. Neutrophil deficiency is the predominant risk factor for the development of IA, the most life-threatening condition associated with A. fumigatus exposure. Here we demonstrate that in addition to neutrophils, eosinophils are an important contributor to the clearance of A. fumigatus from the lung. Acute A. fumigatus challenge in normal mice induced the recruitment of CD11b+ Siglec F+ Ly-6Glo Ly-6Cneg CCR3+ eosinophils to the lungs, which was accompanied by an increase in lung Epx (eosinophil peroxidase) mRNA levels. Mice deficient in the transcription factor dblGATA1, which exhibit a selective deficiency in eosinophils, demonstrated impaired A. fumigatus clearance and evidence of germinating organisms in the lung. Higher burden correlated with lower mRNA expression of Epx (eosinophil peroxidase) and Prg2 (major basic protein) as well as lower interleukin 1? (IL-1?), IL-6, IL-17A, granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF), granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF), and CXCL1 levels. However, examination of lung inflammatory cell populations failed to demonstrate defects in monocyte/macrophage, dendritic cell, or neutrophil recruitment in dblGATA1-deficient mice, suggesting that the absence of eosinophils in dlbGATA1-deficient mice was the sole cause of impaired lung clearance. We show that eosinophils generated from bone marrow have potent killing activity against A. fumigtaus in vitro, which does not require cell contact and can be recapitulated by eosinophil whole-cell lysates. Collectively, our data support a role for eosinophils in the lung response after A. fumigatus exposure. PMID:24379296

Lilly, Lauren M.; Scopel, Michaella; Nelson, Michael P.; Burg, Ashley R.; Dunaway, Chad W.

2014-01-01

451

Spatial Patterns and Associations between Species Belonging to Four Genera of the Lauraceae Family  

PubMed Central

Spatial distribution pattern of biological related species present unique opportunities and challenges to explain species coexistence. In this study, we explored the spatial distributions and associations among congeneric species at both the species and genus levels to explain their coexistence through examining the similarities and differences at these two levels. We first used DNA and cluster analysis to confirmed the relative relationship of eight species within a 20 ha subtropical forest in southern China. We compared Diameter at breast height (DBH) classes, aggregation intensities and spatial patterns, associations, and distributions of four closely related species pairs to reveal similarities and differences at the species and genus levels. These comparisons provided insight into the mechanisms of coexistence of these congeners. O-ring statistics were used to measure spatial patterns of species. ?0–10, the mean conspecific density within 10 m of a tree, was used as a measure of the intensity of aggregation of a species, and g-function was used to analyze spatial associations. Our results suggested that spatial aggregations were common, but the differences between spatial patterns were reduced at the genus level. Aggregation intensity clearly reduced at the genus level. Negative association frequencies decreased at the genus level, such that independent association was commonplace among all four genera. Relationships between more closely related species appeared to be more competitive at both the species and genus levels. The importance of competition on interactions is most likely influenced by similarity in lifestyle, and the habitat diversity within the species’ distribution areas. Relatives with different lifestyles likely produce different distribution patterns through different interaction process. In order to fully understand the mechanisms generating spatial distributions of coexisting siblings, further research is required to determine the spatial patterns and associations at other classification levels. PMID:25365507

Li, Lin; Ye, Wan Hui; Wei, Shi Guang; Lian, Ju Yu; Huang, Zhong Liang

2014-01-01

452

New Genera of RNA Viruses in Subtropical Seawater, Inferred from Polymerase Gene Sequences? †  

PubMed Central

Viruses are an integral component of the marine food web, contributing to the disease and mortality of essentially every type of marine life, yet the diversity of viruses in the sea, especially those with RNA genomes, remains very poorly characterized. Isolates of RNA-containing viruses that infect marine plankton are still rare, and the only cultivation-independent surveys of RNA viral diversity reported so far were conducted for temperate coastal waters of British Columbia. Here, we report on our improvements to a previously used protocol to investigate the diversity of marine picorna-like viruses and our results from applying this protocol in subtropical waters. The original protocol was simplified by using direct filtration, rather than tangential flow filtration, to harvest viruses from seawater, and new degenerate primers were designed to amplify a fragment of the RNA-dependent RNA polymerase gene by reverse transcription-PCR from RNA extracted from the filters. Whereas the original protocol was unsuccessful in a preliminary test, the new protocol resulted in amplification of picorna-like virus sequences in every sample of subtropical and temperate coastal seawater assayed. These polymerase sequences formed a diverse, but monophyletic cluster along with other sequences amplified previously from seawater and sequences from isolates infecting marine protists. Phylogenetic analysis suggested that our sequences represent at least five new genera and 24 new species of RNA viruses. These results contribute to our understanding of RNA virus diversity and suggest that picorna-like viruses are a source of mortality for a wide variety of marine protists. PMID:17644642

Culley, Alexander I.; Steward, Grieg F.

2007-01-01

453

Spatial Patterns and Associations between Species Belonging to Four Genera of the Lauraceae Family.  

PubMed

Spatial distribution pattern of biological related species present unique opportunities and challenges to explain species coexistence. In this study, we explored the spatial distributions and associations among congeneric species at both the species and genus levels to explain their coexistence through examining the similarities and differences at these two levels. We first used DNA and cluster analysis to confirmed the relative relationship of eight species within a 20 ha subtropical forest in southern China. We compared Diameter at breast height (DBH) classes, aggregation intensities and spatial patterns, associations, and distributions of four closely related species pairs to reveal similarities and differences at the species and genus levels. These comparisons provided insight into the mechanisms of coexistence of these congeners. O-ring statistics were used to measure spatial patterns of species. ?0-10, the mean conspecific density within 10 m of a tree, was used as a measure of the intensity of aggregation of a species, and g-function was used to analyze spatial associations. Our results suggested that spatial aggregations were common, but the differences between spatial patterns were reduced at the genus level. Aggregation intensity clearly reduced at the genus level. Negative association frequencies decreased at the genus level, such that independent association was commonplace among all four genera. Relationships between more closely related species appeared to be more competitive at both the species and genus levels. The importance of competition on interactions is most likely influenced by similarity in lifestyle, and the habitat diversity within the species' distribution areas. Relatives with different lifestyles likely produce different distribution patterns through different interaction process. In order to fully understand the mechanisms generating spatial distributions of coexisting siblings, further research is required to determine the spatial patterns and associations at other classification levels. PMID:25365507

Li, Lin; Ye, Wan Hui; Wei, Shi Guang; Lian, Ju Yu; Huang, Zhong Liang

2014-01-01

454

rDNA analyses of planktonic heterocystous cyanobacteria, including members of the genera Anabaenopsis and Cyanospira.  

PubMed

The taxonomic coherence and phylogenetic relationships of 11 planktonic heterocystous cyanobacterial isolates were examined by investigating two areas of the rRNA operon, the 16S rRNA gene (rrnS) and the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) located between the 16S rRNA and 23S rRNA genes. The rrnS sequences were determined for five strains, including representatives of Anabaena flos-aquae, Aphanizomenon flos-aquae, Nodularia sp. and two alkaliphilic planktonic members of the genera Anabaenopsis and Cyanospira, whose phylogenetic position was previously unknown. Comparison of the data with those previously published for individual groups of planktonic heterocystous cyanobacteria showed that, with the exception of members assigned to the genus Cylindrospermopsis, all the planktonic strains form a distinct sub