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1

Concentration of the genera Aspergillus, Eurotium and Penicillium in 63-?m house dust fraction as a method to predict hidden moisture damage in homes  

PubMed Central

Background Quantitative measurements of mould enrichment of indoor air or house dust might be suitable surrogates to evaluate present but hidden moisture damage. Our intent was to develop a house-dust monitoring method to detect hidden moisture damage excluding the influence of outdoor air, accumulated old dust, and dust swirled up from room surfaces. Methods Based on standardized measurement of mould spores in the 63-?m fraction of house dust yielded by carpets, the background concentrations were determined and compared to simultaneously obtained colony numbers and total spore numbers of the indoor air in 80 non-mouldy living areas during summer and winter periods. Additionally, sampling with a vacuum-cleaner or manual sieve was compared to sampling with a filter holder or sieving machine, and the evaluative power of an established two-step assessment model (lower and upper limits) was compared to that of a one-step model (one limit) in order to derive concentration limits for mould load in house dust. Results Comparison with existing evaluation procedures proved the developed method to be the most reliable means of evaluating hidden moisture damage, yielding the lowest false-positive results (specificity 98.7%). Background measurements and measurements in 14 mouldy rooms show that even by evaluating just the indicator genera in summer and winter, a relatively certain assessment of mould infestation is possible. Conclusion A one-step evaluation is finally possible for house dust. The house-dust evaluation method is based on analysis of the indicator genera Aspergillus, Eurotium and Penicillium spp., which depend on the total fungal count. Inclusion of further moisture indicators currently appears questionable, because of outdoor air influence and the paucity of measurements.

Baudisch, Christoph; Assadian, Ojan; Kramer, Axel

2009-01-01

2

Secondary metabolites from Eurotium species, Aspergillus calidoustus and A. insuetus common in Canadian homes with a review of their chemistry and biological activities.  

PubMed

As part of studies of metabolites from fungi common in the built environment in Canadian homes, we investigated metabolites from strains of three Eurotium species, namely E. herbariorum, E. amstelodami, and E. rubrum as well as a number of isolates provisionally identified as Aspergillus ustus. The latter have been recently assigned as the new species A. insuetus and A. calidoustus. E. amstelodami produced neoechinulin A and neoechinulin B, epiheveadride, flavoglaucin, auroglaucin, and isotetrahydroauroglaucin as major metabolites. Minor metabolites included echinulin, preechinulin and neoechinulin E. E. rubrum produced all of these metabolites, but epiheveadride was detected as a minor metabolite. E. herbariorum produced cladosporin as a major metabolite, in addition to those found in E. amstelodami. This species also produced questin and neoechinulin E as minor metabolites. This is the first report of epiheveadride occurring as a natural product, and the first nonadride isolated from Eurotium species. Unlike strains from mainly infection-related samples, largely from Europe, neither ophiobolins G and H nor austins were detected in the Canadian strains of A. insuetus and A. calidoustus tested, all of which had been reported from the latter species. TMC-120 A, B, C and a sesquiterpene drimane are reported with certainty for the first time from indoor isolates, as well as two novel related methyl isoquinoline alkaloids. PMID:19422073

Slack, Gregory J; Puniani, Eva; Frisvad, Jens C; Samson, Robert A; Miller, J David

2009-04-01

3

Occurrence of toxigenic Aspergillus spp. and aflatoxins in selected food commodities of Asian origin sourced in the West of Scotland.  

PubMed

The occurrence of Aspergillus moulds and aflatoxins in 12 commercially-available dried foods of Asian origin were examined. All food samples, except green beans and three types of dried fruit, contained multiple genera of moulds of which Aspergillus (55%) was the most frequently detected. Penicillium (15%), Rhizopus (11%), Mucor (3%), Monascus (1%), Eurotium (1%) and unidentified (14%) were also observed. The occurrence of aflatoxigenic moulds, however, did not correspond with the occurrence of aflatoxins in foods. Aflatoxigenic Aspergillus spp. (39 isolates) were recovered from long grain rice, fragrant rice, peanuts, black beans and black pepper. The predominant Aspergillus species was A. parasiticus (61%) while Aspergillus oryzae (3%), Aspergillus utus (5%), Aspergillus niger (5%), Aspergillus ochraceus (3%) and unidentified (23%) were also observed. Long grain rice, fragrant rice, peanuts, black beans and black pepper were positive for Aspergillus but contained undetectable aflatoxins. In contrast, Jasmine brown rice and crushed chilli contained 14.7 and 11.4?g/kg of total aflatoxins, respectively, in the absence of Aspergillus so aflatoxigenic Aspergillus was present at some stage of food production. The results from this study emphasise the need for stricter control measures in reducing occurrence of aflatoxins in foods for export and domestic use. PMID:23416649

Ruadrew, Sayan; Craft, John; Aidoo, Kofi

2013-05-01

4

Comparison of Three Antigenic Extracts of Eurotium amstelodami in Serological Diagnosis of Farmer's Lung Disease?  

PubMed Central

In France and Finland, farmer's lung disease (FLD), a hypersensitivity pneumonitis common in agricultural areas, is mainly caused by Eurotium species. The presence of antibodies in patients' serum is an important criterion for diagnosis. Our study aimed to improve the serological diagnosis of FLD by using common fungal particles that pollute the farm environment as antigens. Fungal particles of the Eurotium species were observed in handled hay. A strain of Eurotium amstelodami was grown in vitro using selected culture media; and antigen extracts from sexual (ascospores), asexual (conidia), and vegetative (hyphae) forms were made. Antigens were tested by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), which was used to test for immunoglobulin G antibodies from the sera of 17 FLD patients, 40 healthy exposed farmers, and 20 nonexposed controls. The antigens were compared by receiver operating characteristic analysis, and a threshold was then established. The ascospores contained in asci enclosed within cleistothecia were present in 38% of the hay blades observed; conidial heads of aspergillus were less prevalent. The same protocol was followed to make the three antigen extracts. A comparison of the results for FLD patients and exposed controls showed the area under the curve to be 0.850 for the ascospore antigen, 0.731 for the conidia, and 0.690 for the hyphae. The cutoffs that we determined, with the standard deviation for measures being taken into account, showed 67% for sensitivity and 92% for specificity with the ascospore antigen. In conclusion, the serological diagnosis of FLD by ELISA was improved by the adjunction of ascospore antigen.

Roussel, Sandrine; Reboux, Gabriel; Rognon, Benedicte; Monod, Michel; Grenouillet, Frederic; Quadroni, Manfredo; Fellrath, Jean-Marc; Aubert, John-David; Dalphin, Jean-Charles; Millon, Laurence

2010-01-01

5

Water activity and temperature effects on growth of Eurotium amstelodami, E. chevalieri and E. herbariorum on a sponge cake analogue  

Microsoft Academic Search

Eurotium is a widespread storage fungal genus that has been frequently isolated from bakery products. The objective of this study was (i) to obtain a method for studying the growth of xerophilic fungi on bakery products, and (ii) to determine the effects of water activity (aw), temperature, isolate and their interactions on mycelial growth of Eurotium spp. on an analogue

M Abellana; X Magr??; V Sanchis; A. J Ramos

1999-01-01

6

Identification and Characterization of Eurotium rubrum Isolated from Meju in Korea  

PubMed Central

We isolated and identified a strain of Eurotium rubrum from Meju that has not been reported in Korea. This fungus is yellowish brown; reverse dark brown on CYA and PDA while yellow on 2% MEA at 25?. Cleistothecia are first bright yellow and gradually turned brown. Mycerial growth on CYA attained a diameter of 30 mm at 20?, 37 mm at 25? and 32 mm at 30? after 15 days. The isolate grew slower on 2% MEA (< 20 mm 15 days at 25?) compared to CYA and PDA (< 40 mm 15 days at 25?). Cleistothecia are superficial, yellow to light brown, globose to subglobose, 40~75 µm in diameter. Asci are 8-spored and globose to subglobose 8~11 µm. Ascospores are disciform, 4.0~5.0 µm in length and 4.2~4.5 µm in width. Conidia are ovate or bacillar, finely roughened to densely spinulose, 4.6~6.0 µm in length and 3.0~4.3 µm in width. Compared to known Eurotium rubrum, the Korean isolate showed 99% sequence similarity in ITS rDNA (554 bp) and calmodulin (750 bp) gene and 100% in ?-tubulin (1016 bp) gene. The E. rubrum isolate also had weak ?-glucosidase and protease activities.

Yun, Yeo Hong; Hyun, Min Woo; Suh, Dong Yeon; Kim, Yong Min

2009-01-01

7

Genomic adaptations of the halophilic Dead Sea filamentous fungus Eurotium rubrum.  

PubMed

The Dead Sea is one of the most hypersaline habitats on Earth. The fungus Eurotium rubrum (Eurotiomycetes) is among the few species able to survive there. Here we highlight its adaptive strategies, based on genome analysis and transcriptome profiling. The 26.2?Mb genome of E. rubrum shows, for example, gains in gene families related to stress response and losses with regard to transport processes. Transcriptome analyses under different salt growth conditions revealed, among other things differentially expressed genes encoding ion and metabolite transporters. Our findings suggest that long-term adaptation to salinity requires cellular and metabolic responses that differ from short-term osmotic stress signalling. The transcriptional response indicates that halophilic E. rubrum actively counteracts the salinity stress. Many of its genes encode for proteins with a significantly higher proportion of acidic amino acid residues. This trait is characteristic of the halophilic prokaryotes as well, supporting the theory of convergent evolution under extreme hypersaline stress. PMID:24811710

Kis-Papo, Tamar; Weig, Alfons R; Riley, Robert; Peršoh, Derek; Salamov, Asaf; Sun, Hui; Lipzen, Anna; Wasser, Solomon P; Rambold, Gerhard; Grigoriev, Igor V; Nevo, Eviatar

2014-01-01

8

[Aspergillus insulicola Sp. Nov].  

PubMed

A strain of Aspergillus sp. is described and proposed as a new species under the name "Aspergillus insulicola sp. nov." Montemayor & Santiago, 1973. This strain was isolated from soil samples taken in "Aves Island" during a scientific expedition.--Aves Island, situated at 15 degrees, 40 feet, 42 inches N and 63 degrees, 36 feet, 47 inches W, about 665 Km of the coast of Venezuela, has very special ecological conditions. Due to its smallness: 550 m long and 40 to 120 m across and to its low profile only 3 m over sea level, it is swept by the sea during the periodical storms and hurricanes in the area. It has thus a very interesting fauna and flora. We took a series of soil samples to study its mycological flora. Forty samples were inoculated by dilution method. In this first paper a species is described and proposed as a new species because of its macroscopic and microscopic characteristics, as well as by its biological properties, under the name "Aspergillus insulicola sp. nov.". In its study we have tried to follow as closely as possible the methods recommended by Kennet B. Raper & Dorothy Fenell, world authorities on the genera Aspergillus and Penicillium. The strain is being kept in USB under the number T1, and has been sent to ATCC & CBSC to be incorporated in their collections. PMID:1128647

de Montemayor, L; Santiago, A R

1975-04-30

9

Mycoflora of Soybeans Used for Meju Fermentation  

PubMed Central

Diverse fungi are present in Korean traditional meju and they are known to play an important role in fermented soybean products. To determine the origin of the fungi in meju, we examined the mycoflora of soybeans from 10 traditional meju factories. The samples were untreated or treated with sodium hypochlorite, and placed on malt extract agar (MEA), dichloran 18% glycerol agar (DG18), and dichloran rose bengal chloramphenicol agar (DRBC) medium. A total of 794 fungal strains were isolated and they were identified as 41 genera and 86 species. From sodium hypochlorite untreated soybeans, the genera, Cladosporium (55%), Eurotium (51%), Fusarium (33%), Penicillium (22%), and Aspergillus (exclusion of Eurotium) (20%), were mainly isolated, and Eurotium herbariorum (22%), Eurotium repens (18%), Cladosporium tenuissimum (18%), F. fujikuroi (18%), Aspergillus oryzae/flavus (7%), and Penicillium steckii (6%) were the predominant species. In case of sodium hypochlorite-treated soybeans, Eurotium (31%) and Cladosporium (5%) were frequently isolated, but Aspergillus (excluding Eurotium), Penicillium and Fusarium which were frequently isolated from untreated soybeans, were rarely isolated. Eurotium herbariorum (21%), Eurotium repens (8%), and Cladosporium tenuissimum (3%) were the predominant species. Of the 41 genera and 86 species isolated from soybeans, 13 genera and 33 species were also found in meju. These results suggest that the fungi on soybeans may influence the mycoflora of meju.

Kim, Dae-Ho; Kim, Seon-Hwa; Kwon, Soon-Wo; Lee, Jong-Kyu

2013-01-01

10

Antimicrobial and antiprotozoal activities of secondary metabolites from the fungus Eurotium repens  

PubMed Central

In this study, we examined in vitro antibacterial, antifungal, antimalarial, and antileishmanial activities of secondary metabolites (1–8) isolated from the fungus Eurotium repens. All compounds showed mild to moderate antibacterial or antifungal or both activities except 7. The activity of compound 6 was the best of the group tested. The in vitro antimalarial evaluation of these compounds revealed that compounds 1–3, 5, and 6 showed antimalarial activities against both chloroquine-sensitive and chloroquine-resistant strains of Plasmodium falciparum with IC50 values in the range of 1.1–3.0 ?g/ml without showing any cytotoxicity to the mammalian cells. Compound 5 displayed the highest antimalarial activity. Antileishmanial activity against Leishmania donovani promastigotes was observed for compounds 1–6 with IC50 values ranging from 6.2 to 23 ?g/ml. Antileishmanial activity of compounds 5 and 6 (IC50 values of 7.5 and 6.2 ?g/ml, respectively) was more potent than 1–4 (IC50 values ranging from 19–23 ?g/ml). Compounds 7 and 8 did not show any antiprotozoal effect. Preliminary structure and activity relationship studies indicated that antibacterial, antifungal, antimalarial, and antileishmanial activities associated with phenol derivates (1–6) seem to be dependent on the number of double bonds in the side chain, which would be important for lead optimization in the future.

Gao, Jiangtao; Radwan, Mohamed M.; Leon, Francisco; Wang, Xiaoning; Jacob, Melissa R.; Tekwani, Babu L.; Khan, Shabana I.; Lupien, Shari; Hill, Robert A.; Dugan, Frank M.; Cutler, Horace G.

2011-01-01

11

Aspergillus--classification and antifungal susceptibilities.  

PubMed

Aspergillus is one of the most important fungal genera for the man, for its industrial use, its ability to spoil food and not least its medical impact as cause of a variety of diseases. Currently hundreds of species of Aspergillus are known; nearly fifty of them are able to cause infections in humans and animals. Recently, the genus Aspergillus is subdivided into 8 subgenera and 22 sections. The spectrum of diseases caused by Aspergillus species varies from superficial cutaneous to invasive and systemic infections. All species of Aspergillus investigated so far are resistant against the antifungals fluconazole and 5-fluorocytosine, the range of susceptibilities to currently available antifungals is discussed in this paper. PMID:23278534

Buzina, Walter

2013-01-01

12

Anti-leishmanial activities of extracts and isolated compounds from Drechslera rostrata and Eurotium tonpholium.  

PubMed

The fungal extract of Drechslera rostrata and Eurotium tonpholium showed a significant anti-leishmanial activity against Leishmania major; IC50 was 28.8 and 28.2??g/mL, respectively. Seven compounds, five from D. rostrata (H1-H5) and two from E. tonpholium (H6 and H7), were isolated and identified using different spectroscopic analysis including (1) HNMR, (13) CNMR, Hetero-nuclear multiple bond connectivity (HMBC), Hetero-nuclear Multiple Quantum Correlation (HMQC), and EI-MS. The isolated compounds are: di-2-ethylhexyl phthalate (1), (22E)-5?,8?-epidioxyergosta-6,22-diene-3?-ol (2),1,3,8-trihydroxy-6-methyl-nthraquinone (3), aloe-emodine 8-O-glucopyranoside(4), 2R, 3R,4R,5R hexane 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6 hexole (Mannitol) (5), 1,8-dihydroxy-3-methoxy-6-methyl-anthraquinone (6) and 1, 4, 5-trihydroxy-7-methoxy-2-methyl-anthraquinone (7). However, compounds (1) and (6) showed activity against L. major with IC50 of 3.2 and 10.38?µg/mL, respectively. On the other hand, oral administration of the two extracts (100?mg/kg) and compounds 1 and 6 (50?mg/kg) showed very good activity when compared with the anti-leishmanial drug Pentostam (125?mg/kg). Interestingly, the complete heeling activity of the extracts and compounds (1) and (6) was obtained after 13-17?days of treatment, while complete healing activity of Pentostam was obtained after 28?days. No alteration on liver and kidney functions was recorded on animals treated with the two extracts for 15 consecutive days. PMID:24375822

Awaad, Amani S; Al-Zaylaee, Haifa M; Alqasoumi, Saleh I; Zain, Mohamed E; Aloyan, Ebtesam M; Alafeefy, Ahmed M; Awad, Elham S H; El-Meligy, Reham M

2014-05-01

13

Aspergillus Keratitis  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a The cornea must be perfectly transparent to allow an individual to visualize his\\/her environment. Keratitis, an inflammation\\u000a of the cornea that frequently arises due to infection, is a threat to corneal transparency. Species of Aspergillus may cause keratitis, especially in outdoor workers in agricultural communities in the developing world and in tropical and\\u000a subtropical areas. Aspergillus keratitis frequently occurs following

Philip A. Thomas

14

Eurothiocin A and B, Sulfur-Containing Benzofurans from a Soft Coral-Derived Fungus Eurotium rubrum SH-823  

PubMed Central

Two new sulfur-containing benzofuran derivatives, eurothiocin A and B (1 and 2), along with five known compounds, zinniol (3), butyrolactone I (4), aspernolide D (5), vermistatin (6), and methoxyvermistatin (7), were isolated from the cultures of Eurotium rubrum SH-823, a fungus obtained from a Sarcophyton sp. soft coral collected from the South China Sea. The new compounds (1 and 2) share a methyl thiolester moiety, which is quite rare among natural secondary metabolites. The structures of these metabolites were assigned on the basis of detailed spectroscopic analysis. The absolute configurations of 1 and 2 were determined by comparison of the experimental and calculated electronic circular dichroism (ECD) data. Compounds 1 and 2 exhibited more potent inhibitory effects against ?-glucosidase activity than the clinical ?-glucosidase inhibitor acarbose. Further mechanistic analysis showed that both of them exhibited competitive inhibition characteristics.

Liu, Zhaoming; Xia, Guoping; Chen, Senhua; Liu, Yayue; Li, Hanxiang; She, Zhigang

2014-01-01

15

Eurothiocin A and B, Sulfur-Containing Benzofurans from a Soft Coral-Derived Fungus Eurotium rubrum SH-823.  

PubMed

Two new sulfur-containing benzofuran derivatives, eurothiocin A and B (1 and 2), along with five known compounds, zinniol (3), butyrolactone I (4), aspernolide D (5), vermistatin (6), and methoxyvermistatin (7), were isolated from the cultures of Eurotium rubrum SH-823, a fungus obtained from a Sarcophyton sp. soft coral collected from the South China Sea. The new compounds (1 and 2) share a methyl thiolester moiety, which is quite rare among natural secondary metabolites. The structures of these metabolites were assigned on the basis of detailed spectroscopic analysis. The absolute configurations of 1 and 2 were determined by comparison of the experimental and calculated electronic circular dichroism (ECD) data. Compounds 1 and 2 exhibited more potent inhibitory effects against ?-glucosidase activity than the clinical ?-glucosidase inhibitor acarbose. Further mechanistic analysis showed that both of them exhibited competitive inhibition characteristics. PMID:24955555

Liu, Zhaoming; Xia, Guoping; Chen, Senhua; Liu, Yayue; Li, Hanxiang; She, Zhigang

2014-01-01

16

Bioleaching of zinc and nickel from silicates using Aspergillus niger cultures  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this work, we investigated the role of bacteria from the genera Bacillus and Pseudomonas and fungi from the genera Aspergillus and Penicillium in the leaching process of two different silicates (calamine and garnierite). Since the results obtained with A. niger were better than those with different bacteria, a more detailed investigation of the leaching process with this microorganism was

I. M Castro; J. L. R Fietto; R. X Vieira; M. J. M Trópia; L. M. M Campos; E. B Paniago; R. L Brandăo

2000-01-01

17

Genera of the human lineage  

PubMed Central

Human fossils dated between 3.5 and nearly 7 million years old discovered during the last 8 years have been assigned to as many as four new genera of the family Hominidae: Ardipithecus, Orrorin, Kenyanthropus, and Sahelanthropus. These specimens are described as having morphological traits that justify placing them in the family Hominidae while creating a new genus for the classification of each. The discovery of these fossils pushed backward by >2 million years the date of the oldest hominids known. Only two or three hominid genera, Australopithecus, Paranthropus, and Homo, had been previously accepted, with Paranthropus considered a subgenus of Australopithecus by some authors. Two questions arise from the classification of the newly discovered fossils: (i) Should each one of these specimens be placed in the family Hominidae? (ii) Are these specimens sufficiently distinct to justify the creation of four new genera? The answers depend, in turn, on the concepts of what is a hominid and how the genus category is defined. These specimens seem to possess a sufficient number of morphological traits to be placed in the Hominidae. However, the nature of the morphological evidence and the adaptation-rooted concept of what a genus is do not justify the establishment of four new genera. We propose a classification that includes four well defined genera: Praeanthropus, Ardipithecus, Australopithecus, and Homo, plus one tentative incertae sedis genus: Sahelanthropus.

Cela-Conde, Camilo J.; Ayala, Francisco J.

2003-01-01

18

Aspergillus flavus.  

PubMed

Aspergillus flavus is saprophytic soil fungus that infects and contaminates preharvest and postharvest seed crops with the carcinogenic secondary metabolite aflatoxin. The fungus is also an opportunistic animal and human pathogen causing aspergillosis diseases with incidence increasing in the immunocompromised population. Whole genome sequences of A. flavus have been released and reveal 55 secondary metabolite clusters that are regulated by different environmental regimes and the global secondary metabolite regulators LaeA and VeA. Characteristics of A. flavus associated with pathogenicity and niche specialization include secondary metabolite production, enzyme elaboration, and a sophisticated oxylipin host crosstalk associated with a quorum-like development program. One of the more promising strategies in field control involves the use of atoxic strains of A. flavus in competitive exclusion studies. In this review, we discuss A. flavus as an agricultural and medical threat and summarize recent research advances in genomics, elucidation of parameters of pathogenicity, and control measures. PMID:21513456

Amaike, Saori; Keller, Nancy P

2011-01-01

19

Immunological separation of Entomophthorales genera.  

PubMed

Exoantigens from Erynia neoaphidis, Conidiobolus major, C. thromboides, C. obscurus, Zoophthora radicans, and Basidiobolus ranarum were obtained from culture filtrates of fungal material grown in a yeast extract, peptone dialysate, dextrose medium and were tested against specific hyperimmune antisera prepared from E. neoaphidis, C. major, C. thromboides, and B. ranarum by the immunodiffusion technique. Specific precipitins were observed for E. neoaphidis and B. ranarum, while cross-reactions were detected among C. major, C. thromboides, and C. obscurus. The results suggest that genera of Entomophthorales can be easily separated by this simple immunological procedure. PMID:2498433

Toriello, C; Zerón, E; Latgé, J P; Mier, T

1989-05-01

20

Modern taxonomy of biotechnologically important Aspergillus and Penicillium species.  

PubMed

Taxonomy is a dynamic discipline and name changes of fungi with biotechnological, industrial, or medical importance are often difficult to understand for researchers in the applied field. Species belonging to the genera Aspergillus and Penicillium are commonly used or isolated, and inadequate taxonomy or uncertain nomenclature of these genera can therefore lead to tremendous confusion. Misidentification of strains used in biotechnology can be traced back to (1) recent changes in nomenclature, (2) new taxonomic insights, including description of new species, and/or (3) incorrect identifications. Changes in the recent published International Code of Nomenclature for Algae, Fungi and Plants will lead to numerous name changes of existing Aspergillus and Penicillium species and an overview of the current names of biotechnological important species is given. Furthermore, in (biotechnological) literature old and invalid names are still used, such as Aspergillus awamori, A. foetidus, A. kawachii, Talaromyces emersonii, Acremonium cellulolyticus, and Penicillium funiculosum. An overview of these and other species with their correct names is presented. Furthermore, the biotechnologically important species Talaromyces thermophilus is here combined in Thermomyces as Th. dupontii. The importance of Aspergillus, Penicillium, and related genera is also illustrated by the high number of undertaken genome sequencing projects. A number of these strains are incorrectly identified or atypical strains are selected for these projects. Recommendations for correct strain selection are given here. Phylogenetic analysis shows a close relationship between the genome-sequenced strains of Aspergillus, Penicillium, and Monascus. Talaromyces stipitatus and T. marneffei (syn. Penicillium marneffei) are closely related to Thermomyces lanuginosus and Th. dupontii (syn. Talaromyces thermophilus), and these species appear to be distantly related to Aspergillus and Penicillium. In the last part of this review, an overview of heterothallic reproduction in Aspergillus and Penicillium is given. The new insights in the taxonomy of Aspergillus, Penicillium, and related genera will help to interpret the results generated with comparative genomics studies or other studies dealing with evolution of, for example, enzymes, mating-type loci, virulence genes, and secondary metabolite biosynthetic gene clusters. PMID:24377856

Houbraken, Jos; de Vries, Ronald P; Samson, Robert A

2014-01-01

21

The genera of Hyphomycetes - 2011 update.  

PubMed

This supplement to the taxonomic monograph The Genera of Hyphomycetes summarises information on 23 accepted new genera and c. 160 species described in 2011. These include three dematiaceous genera (Funbolia, Noosia, Pyrigemmula, all related to Dothideomycetes), a bulbil-producing genus, Spiroplana (Pleosporales), and two endophytic genera, the sterile Periglandula (Clavicipitaceae), and the hyaline, sympodial Micronematobotrys (Pyronemataceae). Slow-growing, morphologically-reduced, darkly pigmented fungi continue to be the source of new taxa, including the new genus Atramixtia (Dothioraceae). Eight new genera of darkly pigmented chlamydospore-like anamorphs were described from marine or subtidal environments (Glomerulispora, Halozoön, Hiogispora, Matsusporium, Moheitospora, Moleospora, Moromyces), mostly associated with subclades of the Lulworthiales. Several genera that are morphologically similar to but phylogenetically distinct from genera of the Capnodiales (Pseudopassalora, Scleroramularia) were introduced, as well as segregates from the classical concepts of Alternaria (Sinomyces), Chalara and Phialophora (Brachyalara, Infundichalara, Lasiadelphia), and Paecilomyces (Purpureocillium for the former Paecilomyces lilacinus complex). In addition, in anticipation of the new nomenclatural rules, newly configured formerly-teleomorph genera were proposed as segregates from classical hyphomycete genera in the Hypocreales, namely Acremonium (Cosmospora), Fusarium (Cyanonectria, Dialonectria, Geejayessia, Macroconia, Stylonectria), and Volutella (Pseudonectria) and the Trichocomaceae, Eurotiales, Penicillium (Talaromyces for the former Penicillium subg. Biverticillium). Standardized generic mini-diagnoses are provided for the accepted new genera, along with details of distribution, substrates, numbers of new species and phylogenetic affinities within the Dikarya. GenBank accession numbers for ITS DNA-barcodes are provided where available. New information on generic concepts of previously recognised genera, phylogenetic relationships, and corrections of factual errors are also included. Only two newly described genera, Fecundostilbum and Utrechtiana, seem to be synonyms of previously described genera. PMID:22403480

Seifert, K A; Gams, W

2011-12-01

22

Metabolic products of microorganisms. 185. The anthraquinones of the Aspergillus glaucus group. I. Occurrence, isolation, identification and antimicrobial activity.  

PubMed

The occurrence of emodin, erythroglaucin, physcion, physcion-9-anthrone, questin, catenarin, and catenarin-8-methyl ether in different species of the Aspergillus glaucus group (genus Eurotium) was investigated. So far catenarin-8-methyl ether (1, 4, 6-trihydroxy-8-methoxy-3-methylanthraquinone) has not been described as a natural product; it was therefore given the name rubrocristin. The chemical and physical properties of rubrocristin are reported. In addition a new violet pigment (C16H12O5) was isolated and characterized by its MS-, IR- and UV-spectra. The antimicrobial properties of all substances were examined in the agar diffusion assay. Gram-positive bacteria were the most sensitive organisms and catenarin was the most active naturally occurring substance. Synthetically obtained 1, 4, 6, 8-tetrahydroxyanthraquinone was slightly more active than catenarin, whereas rubrocristin showed no antibacterial activity. PMID:7406630

Anke, H; Kolthoum, I; Zähner, H; Laatsch, H

1980-07-01

23

Distribution of sterigmatocystin in filamentous fungi  

Microsoft Academic Search

During the last 50y, the carcinogenic mycotoxin sterigmatocystin (ST) has been reported in several phylogenetically and phenotypically different genera: Aschersonia, Aspergillus, Bipolaris, Botryotrichum, Chaetomium, Emericella, Eurotium, Farrowia, Fusarium, Humicola, Moelleriella, Monocillium and Podospora. We have reexamined all available strains of the original producers, in addition to ex type and further strains of each species reported to produce ST and the

Christian Rank; Kristian F. Nielsen; Thomas O. Larsen; Janos Varga; Rob A. Samson; Jens C. Frisvad

2011-01-01

24

Molecular phylogeny of Trametes and related genera  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mitochondrial small subunit ribosomal DNAs were sequenced and phylogenetically analyzed for Trametes and related genera of Ryvarden's Trametes group. Parsimony and distance analyses indicated that most of trimitic genera with white rotting habit of the Trametes group clustered within a single clade, suggesting that they may have originated from a common ancestor. The phylogenetic position and generic placement of Trametes

K. S. Ko; H. S. Jung

1999-01-01

25

Development in Aspergillus  

PubMed Central

The genus Aspergillus represents a diverse group of fungi that are among the most abundant fungi in the world. Germination of a spore can lead to a vegetative mycelium that colonizes a substrate. The hyphae within the mycelium are highly heterogeneous with respect to gene expression, growth, and secretion. Aspergilli can reproduce both asexually and sexually. To this end, conidiophores and ascocarps are produced that form conidia and ascospores, respectively. This review describes the molecular mechanisms underlying growth and development of Aspergillus.

Krijgsheld, P.; Bleichrodt, R.; van Veluw, G.J.; Wang, F.; Muller, W.H.; Dijksterhuis, J.; Wosten, H.A.B.

2013-01-01

26

Orbifold genera, product formulas and power operations  

Microsoft Academic Search

We generalize the definition of orbifold elliptic genus and introduce orbifold genera of chromatic level h, using h-tuples rather than pairs of commuting elements. We show that our genera are in fact orbifold invariants, and we prove integrality results for them. If the genus arises from an H?-map into the Morava–Lubin–Tate theory Eh, then we give a formula expressing the

Nora Ganter

2006-01-01

27

Genomics of Aspergillus fumigatus.  

PubMed

Aspergillus fumigatus is a filamentous fungal saprophyte that is ubiquitous in the environment. It is also a human pathogen and induces allergenic response, negatively impacting health care and associated costs significantly around the world. Much of the basic biology of this organism is only poorly understood, but the recent completion and publication of its genome sequence provides an excellent tool for researchers to gain insight into these processes. In this review we will summarize some of the more salient features revealed by analysis of the genome, including the search for candidate pathogenicity genes and the switch to a pathogenic lifestyle, allergen proteins, DNA repair, secondary metabolite gene clusters that produce compounds both useful and toxic, a theoretical capability of this asexual organism to reproduce sexually, signalling, and transcription. A. fumigatus was compared with the food biotechnology fungus Aspergillus oryzae and sexual fungus Aspergillus nidulans, as well as other fungi, in an attempt to discern key differences between these organisms. PMID:16499415

Ronning, Catherine M; Fedorova, Natalie D; Bowyer, Paul; Coulson, Richard; Goldman, Gustavo; Kim, H Stanley; Turner, Geoffrey; Wortman, Jennifer R; Yu, Jiujiang; Anderson, Michael J; Denning, David W; Nierman, William C

2005-12-01

28

Histone deacetylase activity regulates chemical diversity in Aspergillus.  

PubMed

Bioactive small molecules are critical in Aspergillus species during their development and interaction with other organisms. Genes dedicated to their production are encoded in clusters that can be located throughout the genome. We show that deletion of hdaA, encoding an Aspergillus nidulans histone deacetylase (HDAC), causes transcriptional activation of two telomere-proximal gene clusters--and subsequent increased levels of the corresponding molecules (toxin and antibiotic)--but not of a telomere-distal cluster. Introduction of two additional HDAC mutant alleles in a DeltahdaA background had minimal effects on expression of the two HdaA-regulated clusters. Treatment of other fungal genera with HDAC inhibitors resulted in overproduction of several metabolites, suggesting a conserved mechanism of HDAC repression of some secondary-metabolite gene clusters. Chromatin regulation of small-molecule gene clusters may enable filamentous fungi to successfully exploit environmental resources by modifying chemical diversity. PMID:17616629

Shwab, E Keats; Bok, Jin Woo; Tribus, Martin; Galehr, Johannes; Graessle, Stefan; Keller, Nancy P

2007-09-01

29

Molecular phylogeny of Trametes and related genera.  

PubMed

Mitochondrial small subunit ribosomal DNAs were sequenced and phylogenetically analyzed for Trametes and related genera of Ryvarden's Trametes group. Parsimony and distance analyses indicated that most of trimitic genera with white rotting habit of the Trametes group clustered within a single clade, suggesting that they may have originated from a common ancestor. The phylogenetic position and generic placement of Trametes consors was uncertain as yet. Trametes trogii grouped with Coriolopsis gallica and indicated that color of the basidiocarp is a poor character at generic level. Nucleotide differences between Daedaleopsis confragosa and D. tricolor were quite few and both species closely grouped together in a same clade, thus supporting that D. tricolor might be an ecotype of D. confragosa. PMID:10427407

Ko, K S; Jung, H S

1999-04-01

30

Genome sizes for all genera of Cycadales.  

PubMed

Nuclear DNA content (2C) is reported for all genera of the Cycadales, using flow cytometry with propidium iodide. Nuclear DNA content ranges from 24 to 64 pg in cycads. This implies that the largest genome contains roughly 40 × 10(9) more base pairs than the smallest genome. The narrow range in nuclear DNA content within a genus is remarkable for such an old group. Furthermore, 42 of the 58 plants measured, covering five genera, have 18 chromosomes. They vary from 36.1 to 64.7 pg, covering the whole range of genome sizes (excluding the genome of Cycas). Hence, their does not seem to be a correlation between genome size and the number of chromosomes. PMID:22117644

Zonneveld, B J M

2012-01-01

31

Biomarkers of Aspergillus spores  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We applied both matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time of flight (MALDI-TOF) mass spectrometric and 1D sodium dodecylsulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoretic (1D-PAGE) approaches for direct analysis of intact fungal spores of twenty four Aspergillus species. In parallel, we optimized various protocols for protein extraction from Aspergillus spores using acidic conditions, step organic gradient and variable sonication treatment. The MALDI-TOF mass spectra obtained from optimally prepared samples provided a reproducible fingerprint demonstrating the capability of the MALDI-TOF approach to type and characterize different fungal strains within the Aspergillus genus. Mass spectra of intact fungal spores provided signals mostly below 20 kDa. The minimum material amount represented 0.3 [mu]g (10,000 spores). Proteins with higher molecular weight were detected by 1D-PAGEE Eleven proteins were identified from three selected strains in the range 5-25 kDa by the proteomic approach. Hemolysin and hydrophobin have the highest relevance in host-pathogen interactions.

Sulc, Miroslav; Peslova, Katerina; Zabka, Martin; Hajduch, Marian; Havlicek, Vladimir

2009-02-01

32

76 FR 16297 - Aspergillus flavus  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...pesticide, Aspergillus flavus AF36, in or on corn food and feed commodities, when applied...residues of Aspergillus flavus AF36 in or on corn food and feed commodities. This notice...May 23, 2007) (FRL-8129-4) and on corn (72 FR 72965, Dec. 26, 2007)...

2011-03-23

33

Three Genera of Myxosporida (Protozoa) in Macrourid Fishes.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Three genera and eight species, three new, of myxosporida were recovered from seven genera and twenty species of geographically dispersed macrourid fishes. The constancy in spore dimensions of these species over large distances and among many host species...

M. Moser E. R. Noble

1976-01-01

34

Aspergillus brain abscess.  

PubMed

Aspergillus brain abscess is a rare clinical entity, which remains a challenge to diagnose and treat. Most fungi are low virulence organisms, often living as commensals. They however, pose a considerable challenge in an immune-compromised host. Systemic steroids are commonly used in treatment of various inflammatory conditions. Despite their relatively safe profile, one peril of such treatment is immune suppression. It is prudent that physicians remain aware of the risk of various opportunistic infections in such patients. We present a case of fatal intra-cranial aspergillosis in an immuno-compromised patient on systemic steroids. PMID:24015447

Bhaskar, Nutan; Mohammad, Khalid; Kaur, Varinder

2013-08-01

35

Aspergillus antigen skin test (image)  

MedlinePLUS

... After 48 to 72 hours the site of injection is evaluated by a physician. If a positive reaction occurs (the test site is inflamed), the person has been exposed to the aspergillus mold and is at risk for developing aspergillosis.

36

[Metabolites of Aspergillus fumigatus].  

PubMed

Aspergillus fumigatus, a type of endophytic fungi from Erthrophleum fordii, was fermented with GPY culture medium. Fermented liquid and mycelium were extracted from fermented products after freezing and thawing treatment. After alcohol extraction, mycelium was extracted with ethyl acetate and n-butyl alcohol, respectively. According to the results of cytotoxity of tumor cells, ethyl acetate extracts were studied for their chemical constituents. Five diketopiperazine compounds were separated and purified with silica gel, MCI and Sephadex LH-20 column chromatography, reversed-phase chromatographic column and preparative HPLC, their structures were identified as cyclo- (R-Pro-R-Phe) (1), cyclo- (trans-4-OH-D-Pro-D-Phe) (2), cyclo- (R-Tyr-S-Ile) (3), cyclo-(R-Phe-S-Ile) (4), and cyclo-(R-Val-S-Tyr) (5) by using spectral methods. PMID:23311158

Ding, Guang-Zhi; Liu, Yun-Bao; Ma, Shuang-Gang; Yu, Shi-Shan

2012-10-01

37

Aspergillus prosthetic valve endocarditis.  

PubMed Central

The clinical, laboratory, and histopathological features of seven cases of Aspergillus fumigatus prosthetic valve endocarditis are presented. The exact nature of the lesion, a combination of infective fungal endocarditis and thrombosis on the prosthetic valve, is discussed and the difficulties in clinical diagnosis are emphasized. Helpful indications were sudden unexplained heart failure with the appearance of new murmurs, and emboli to large or medium-sized systemic arteries. Fever and anaemia were inconstant, and in no case was blood culture or precipitin investigation helpful. Spore contamination of operating theatre air was the likely source of infection, and measures taken to overcome this and other predisposing factors are discussed. Since medical diagnosis is usually late and the few reported cures in this condition have included replacement of the prosthesis, early surgical intervention combined with antifungal chemotherapy is advised. Images

Petheram, I S; Seal, R M

1976-01-01

38

Use of thin layer chromatography for detection and high performance liquid chromatography for quantitating gliotoxin from rice cultures of Aspergillus fumigatus Fresenius  

Microsoft Academic Search

Gliotoxin, a mycotoxin with antimicrobial and immunosuppressive capabilities, is produced by several genera of fungi including the pathogenic fungusAspergillus fumigatus. The ability of selected isolates ofA. fumigatus to produce gliotoxin on three different media was tested and a thin layer chromatographic and high performance liquid chromatographic method for quantitation of gliotoxin from rice culture was developed and is described. Rice

J. L. Richard; R. L. Lyon; R. E. Fichtner; P. F. Ross

1989-01-01

39

Karyomorphology and relationships in some genera of Saururaceae and piperaceae  

Microsoft Academic Search

Karyomorphological observations were carried out on three genera belonging to the Saururaceae and four genera of the Piperacea.\\u000a All of the genera of Saururaceae show the same karyomorphological characteristics from interphase to metaphase in the somatic\\u000a cell divisions. However there are two types of the karyomorphology in Piperaceae, i) the first type observed inPiper, Pothomorphe andZippelia, and ii) the second

Hiroshi Okada

1986-01-01

40

Emended descriptions of genera of the family Halobacteriaceae.  

PubMed

The family Halobacteriaceae currently contains 96 species whose names have been validly published, classified in 27 genera (as of September 2008). In recent years, many novel species have been added to the established genera but, in many cases, one or more properties of the novel species do not agree with the published descriptions of the genera. Authors have often failed to provide emended genus descriptions when necessary. Following discussions of the International Committee on Systematics of Prokaryotes Subcommittee on the Taxonomy of Halobacteriaceae, we here propose emended descriptions of the genera Halobacterium, Haloarcula, Halococcus, Haloferax, Halorubrum, Haloterrigena, Natrialba, Halobiforma and Natronorubrum. PMID:19244452

Oren, Aharon; Arahal, David R; Ventosa, Antonio

2009-03-01

41

Hybrid genera in Liatrinae (Asteraceae: Eupatorieae).  

PubMed

Liatrinae is a small subtribe of Eupatorieae that occurs in North America with a center of generic-level diversity in the southeastern United States. Molecular phylogenetic data were sought to assess whether two monotypic genera, Garberia and Hartwrightia, are accurately placed in the subtribe, and to resolve questions of the generic-level classification of Carphephorus. Phylogenetic analyses of nuclear ITS/ETS and plastid DNA data indicated that Garberia is the basalmost diverging lineage, and that Hartwrightia is phylogenetically embedded in the subtribe. There was significant incongruence between the ITS/ETS and plastid DNA datasets in the placement of Hartwrightia and another monotypic genus, Litrisa, suggesting that both are of original hybrid origin. The results also showed that Carphephorus s.l. is not monophyletic, and even after removal of the two species of Trilisa, it is still paraphyletic to Liatris. The apparent hybrid origin of Hartwrightia, which is morphologically transgressive relative to its inferred parental lineages, suggests that reticulation between phylogenetically distinct lineages may be a recurrent problem for phylogenetic estimation in Asteraceae. PMID:21292016

Schilling, Edward E

2011-04-01

42

Genera and species in acetic acid bacteria.  

PubMed

Taxonomic studies of acetic acid bacteria were historically surveyed. The genus Acetobacter was first introduced in 1898 with a single species, Acetobacter aceti. The genus Gluconobacter was proposed in 1935 for strains with intense oxidation of glucose to gluconic acid rather than oxidation of ethanol to acetic acid and no oxidation of acetate. The genus "Acetomonas" was described in 1954 for strains with polar flagellation and no oxidation of acetate. The proposals of the two generic names were due to confusion, and "Acetomonas" was a junior subjective synonym of Gluconobacter. The genus Acetobacter was in 1984 divided into two subgenera, Acetobacter and Gluconoacetobacter. The latter was elevated to the genus Gluconacetobacter in 1998. In the acetic acid bacteria, ten genera are presently recognized and accommodated to the family Acetobacteraceae, the Alphaproteobacteria: Acetobacteer, Gluconobacter, Acidomonas, Gluconacetobacter, Asaia, Kozakia, Swaminathania, Saccharibacter, Neoasaia and Granulibacter. In contrast, the genus Frateuria, strains of which were once named 'pseudacetic acid bacteria', was classified into the Gammaproteobacteria. The genus Gluconacetobacter was phylogenetically divided into two groups: the Gluconacetobacter liquefaciens group and the Gluconacetobacter xylinus group. The two groups were discussed taxonomically. PMID:18199517

Yamada, Yuzo; Yukphan, Pattaraporn

2008-06-30

43

Aspergillus fumigatus and Aspergillosis  

PubMed Central

Aspergillus fumigatus is one of the most ubiquitous of the airborne saprophytic fungi. Humans and animals constantly inhale numerous conidia of this fungus. The conidia are normally eliminated in the immunocompetent host by innate immune mechanisms, and aspergilloma and allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis, uncommon clinical syndromes, are the only infections observed in such hosts. Thus, A. fumigatus was considered for years to be a weak pathogen. With increases in the number of immunosuppressed patients, however, there has been a dramatic increase in severe and usually fatal invasive aspergillosis, now the most common mold infection worldwide. In this review, the focus is on the biology of A. fumigatus and the diseases it causes. Included are discussions of (i) genomic and molecular characterization of the organism, (ii) clinical and laboratory methods available for the diagnosis of aspergillosis in immunocompetent and immunocompromised hosts, (iii) identification of host and fungal factors that play a role in the establishment of the fungus in vivo, and (iv) problems associated with antifungal therapy.

Latge, Jean-Paul

1999-01-01

44

Aspergillus bronchitis without significant immunocompromise.  

PubMed

Aspergillus bronchitis is poorly understood and described. We extracted clinical data from more than 400 referred patients with persistent chest symptoms who did not fulfill criteria for allergic, chronic, or invasive aspergillosis. Symptomatic patients with a positive culture or real-time PCR for Aspergillus spp. were reviewed. Seventeen patients fulfilled the selected criteria. Fourteen were women, with a mean age of 57 years (range 39-76). Sixteen of the patients had productive cough, eight had voluminous tenacious sputum, and seven had recurrent chest infections. Eight patients had Medical Research Council dyspnea scores of 4-5; 12 had bronchiectasis; and 13 patients grew A. fumigatus, 3 A. niger, and 1 A. terreus. Twelve of the 17 patients (71%) had elevated Aspergillus IgG (47-137 mg/L, mean 89.2) and 5 (29%) had elevated Aspergillus precipitins. Six of 12 (50%) had a major response to antifungal therapy and five of 12 (42%) patients relapsed, requiring long-term therapy. Aspergillus bronchitis is a discrete clinical entity in patients with structural lung disease but who are not significantly immunocompromised. It is distinct from asymptomatic fungal colonization and other forms of aspergillosis, and may respond to antifungal therapy. PMID:23231717

Chrdle, Ales; Mustakim, Sahlawati; Bright-Thomas, Rowland J; Baxter, Caroline G; Felton, Timothy; Denning, David W

2012-12-01

45

Tracheobronchial Manifestations of Aspergillus Infections  

PubMed Central

Human lungs are constantly exposed to a large number of Aspergillus spores which are present in ambient air. These spores are usually harmless to immunocompetent subjects but can produce a symptomatic disease in patients with impaired antifungal defense. In a small percentage of patients, the trachea and bronchi may be the main or even the sole site of Aspergillus infection. The clinical entities that may develop in tracheobronchial location include saprophytic, allergic and invasive diseases. Although this review is focused on invasive Aspergillus tracheobronchial infections, some aspects of allergic and saprophytic tracheobronchial diseases are also discussed in order to present the whole spectrum of tracheobronchial aspergillosis. To be consistent with clinical practice, an approach basing on specific conditions predisposing to invasive Aspergillus tracheobronchial infections is used to present the differences in the clinical course and prognosis of these infections. Thus, invasive or potentially invasive Aspergillus airway diseases are discussed separately in three groups of patients: (1) lung transplant recipients, (2) highly immunocompromised patients with hematologic malignancies and/or patients undergoing hematopoietic stem cell transplantation, and (3) the remaining, less severely immunocompromised patients or even immunocompetent subjects.

Krenke, Rafal; Grabczak, Elzbieta M.

2011-01-01

46

The Old World genera of braconine wasps (Hymenoptera: Braconidae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

An illustrated key is provided to the Old World genera of Braconinae. In addition, notes are provided on each genus and on a number of characters employed in the key. One new tribe and five new genera based on two existing and three new species are described. The new taxa are as follows: Angustibracon gen. nov. from India (type-species: Bracon

Donald L. J. Quicke

1987-01-01

47

Lignincola and Nais , polyphyletic genera of the Halosphaeriales (Ascomycota)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The taxonomic status of the genera Lignincola and Nais was re-evaluated by phylogenetic analysis of the partial large subunit ribosomal DNA sequence. Both Lignincola and Nais are inferred to be polyphyletic genera. Lignincola laevis and L. longirostris are phylogenetically related taxa but they are not monophyletic. Nais inornata, the type species of the genus, has a close relationship with Aniptodera

Ka-Lai Pang; Lilian L. P. Vrijmoed; Richard Y. C. Kong; E. B. Gareth Jones

2003-01-01

48

Characterization of Aspergillus species on Brazil nut from the Brazilian Amazonian region and development of a PCR assay for identification at the genus level  

PubMed Central

Background Brazil nut is a protein-rich extractivist tree crop in the Amazon region. Fungal contamination of shells and kernel material frequently includes the presence of aflatoxigenic Aspergillus species from the section Flavi. Aflatoxins are polyketide secondary metabolites, which are hepatotoxic carcinogens in mammals. The objectives of this study were to identify Aspergillus species occurring on Brazil nut grown in different states in the Brazilian Amazon region and develop a specific PCR method for collective identification of member species of the genus Aspergillus. Results Polyphasic identification of 137 Aspergillus strains isolated from Brazil nut shell material from cooperatives across the Brazilian Amazon states of Acre, Amapá and Amazonas revealed five species, with Aspergillus section Flavi species A. nomius and A. flavus the most abundant. PCR primers ASP_GEN_MTSSU_F1 and ASP_GEN_MTSSU_R1 were designed for the genus Aspergillus, targeting a portion of the mitochondrial small subunit ribosomal RNA gene. Primer specificity was validated through both electronic PCR against target gene sequences at Genbank and in PCR reactions against DNA from Aspergillus species and other fungal genera common on Brazil nut. Collective differentiation of the observed section Flavi species A. flavus, A. nomius and A. tamarii from other Aspergillus species was possible on the basis of RFLP polymorphism. Conclusions Given the abundance of Aspergillus section Flavi species A. nomius and A. flavus observed on Brazil nut, and associated risk of mycotoxin accumulation, simple identification methods for such mycotoxigenic species are of importance for Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point system implementation. The assay for the genus Aspergillus represents progress towards specific PCR identification and detection of mycotoxigenic species.

2014-01-01

49

Molecular genetics in Aspergillus fumigatus.  

PubMed

Manipulation of the genome of the human pathogen Aspergillus fumigatus is not well developed. Approaches and data from related model organisms are being used to develop molecular genetic systems in A. fumigatus; for example, the molecular typing of strains during infection. A genome-sequencing programme has begun and will form the basis for future development. PMID:11050444

Brookman, J L; Denning, D W

2000-10-01

50

Keratitis caused by Aspergillus pseudotamarii  

PubMed Central

A male patient presented with complaints of redness, pain and defective vision in the left eye. The infiltrate healed completely after two weeks of topical natamycin administration. A polyphasic approach was used to identify the isolate as Aspergillus pseudotamarii, which produced aflatoxins in inducing medium.

Baranyi, Nikolett; Kocsube, Sandor; Szekeres, Andras; Raghavan, Anita; Narendran, Venkatapathy; Vagvolgyi, Csaba; Panneer Selvam, Kanesan; Babu Singh, Yendremban Randhir; Kredics, Laszlo; Varga, Janos; Manikandan, Palanisamy

2013-01-01

51

Keratitis caused by Aspergillus pseudotamarii.  

PubMed

A male patient presented with complaints of redness, pain and defective vision in the left eye. The infiltrate healed completely after two weeks of topical natamycin administration. A polyphasic approach was used to identify the isolate as Aspergillus pseudotamarii, which produced aflatoxins in inducing medium. PMID:24432226

Baranyi, Nikolett; Kocsubé, Sándor; Szekeres, András; Raghavan, Anita; Narendran, Venkatapathy; Vágvölgyi, Csaba; Panneer Selvam, Kanesan; Babu Singh, Yendremban Randhir; Kredics, László; Varga, János; Manikandan, Palanisamy

2013-04-12

52

THE ASCOCARPS OF ASPERGILLUS ALLIACEUS  

Microsoft Academic Search

(WITH 11 FIGURES) Aspergillus alliaceus, described in 1926 by Thom and Church (4) as a new sclerotial species in the A. wentii Group, was based upon two strains : C.T. 4660, isolated by Eddy from a decaying garlic bulb some­ time prior to 1924 when it was discussed without name by Walker and Lindegren (6) as a wound parasite of

DOROTHY I. FENNELL; J. H. WARCUP

53

Aspergillus nomius , a new aflatoxin-producing species related to Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus tamarii  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aspergillus nomius is described and represents a new aflatoxigenic species phenotypically similar to A. flavus. Strains examined were isolated from insects and agricultural commodities. Separation from A. flavus is based on the presence of indeterminate sclerotia and a lower growth temperature. Comparisons of DNA relatedness show A. nomius to have only relatively recently evolved from A. flavus and A. tamarii.

C. P. Kurtzman; B. W. Horn; C. W. Hesseltine

1987-01-01

54

Bergbambos and Oldeania, new genera of African bamboos (Poaceae, Bambusoideae)  

PubMed Central

Abstract Two new monotypic genera, Bergbambos and Oldeania are described for African temperate bamboo species in the tribe Arundinarieae, after a comparison of their morphological characteristics with those of similar species from Asia. Morphological differences are supported by their isolated geographical distributions. Molecular evidence does not support the inclusion of these species in related Asian genera, recognising them instead as distinct lineages. New combinations Bergbambos tessellata and Oldeania alpina are made.

Stapleton, Chris M. A.

2013-01-01

55

The Phylogenetics of Mycotoxin and Sclerotium Production in Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus oryzae  

Microsoft Academic Search

Geiser, D. M., Dorner, J. W., Horn, B. W., and Taylor, J. W. 2000. The phylogenetics of mycotoxin and scle- rotium production in Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus oryzae. Fungal Genetics and Biology 31, 169 -179. Aspergillus flavus is a common filamentous fungus that produces aflatoxins and presents a major threat to agriculture and human health. Previous phylogenetic studies of A.

David M. Geiser; Joe W. Dorner; Bruce W. Horn; John W. Taylor

2001-01-01

56

Two metabolites from Aspergillus flavipes.  

PubMed

Two novel fungal metabolites, N-benzoyl-L-phenylalaninol (1a) and asperphenamate (2) were isolated from the culture filtrate and mycelium of Aspergillus flavipes ATCC 11013. N-benzoyl-L-phenylalaninol was identified by direct comparison with an authentic sample. The structure of asperphenamate is proposed as (S)-N-benzoyl-phenylalanine-(S)-2-benzamido-3-phenyl propyl ester, based on chemical and spectroscopic evidence. PMID:875642

Clark, A M; Hufford, C D; Robertson, L W

1977-01-01

57

Nitrile biotransformation by Aspergillus niger  

Microsoft Academic Search

A nitrile-converting enzyme activity was induced in Aspergillus niger K10 by 3-cyanopyridine. The whole cell biocatalyst was active at pH 3–11 and hydrolyzed the cyano group into acid and\\/or amide functions in benzonitrile as well as in its meta- and para-substituted derivatives, cyanopyridines, 2-phenylacetonitrile and thiophen-2-acetonitrile. Amides constituted a significant part of the total biotransformation products of 2- and 4-cyanopyridine,

Radka Šnajdrová; Veronika Kristová-Mylerová; Dominique Crestia; Konstantina Nikolaou; Marek Kuzma; Marielle Lemaire; Estelle Gallienne; Jean Bolte; Karel Bezouška; Vladim??r K?en; Ludmila Mart??nková

2004-01-01

58

The melectine bee genera Brachymelecta and Sinomelecta (Hymenoptera, Apidae)  

PubMed Central

Abstract The enigmatic, cleptoparasitic bee genera Brachymelecta Linsley and Sinomelecta Baker (Apinae: Melectini) are redescribed, each represented by a single species which has not been reencountered since capture of the type series ca. 1878 and 1900, respectively. Both genera are the only melectines to possess two submarginal cells in the forewing but are otherwise wholly dissimilar. Brachymelecta mucida (Cresson), a species known only from the male holotype collected in “Nevada”, is newly described and figured, including the first account of the hidden sterna and genitalia. Sinomelecta oreina Baker is similarly described and figured based on the holotype male and paratype female, apparently collected from the eastern Tibetan Plateau. Both genera are valid and from the available data do not appear to represent merely autapomorphic forms of Melecta Latreille. Indeed, the terminalia of Sinomelecta oreina are in some respects more similar to those of species of Thyreus Panzer.

Engel, Michael S.; Michener, Charles D.

2012-01-01

59

Evaluating fungal populations by genera/species on wide body commercial passenger aircraft and in airport terminals.  

PubMed

Given the potential health effects of fungi and the amount of time aircrew and passengers spend inside aircraft, it is important to study fungal populations in the aircraft environment. Research objectives included documenting the genera/species of airborne culturable fungal concentrations and total spore concentrations on a twin-aisle wide body commercial passenger aircraft. Twelve flights between 4.5 and 6.5 h in duration on Boeing 767 (B-767) aircraft were evaluated. Two air cooling packs and 50% recirculation rate (i.e. 50:50 mix of outside air and filtered inside air) were utilized during flight operations. Passenger occupancy rates varied from 67 to 100%. N-6 impactors and total spore traps were used to collect sequential, triplicate air samples in the front and rear of coach class during six sampling intervals throughout each flight: boarding, mid-climb, early cruise, mid-cruise, late cruise and deplaning. Comparison air samples were also collected inside and outside the airport terminals at the origin and destination cities resulting in a total of 522 culturable and 517 total spore samples. A total of 45 surface wipe samples were collected using swabs onboard the aircraft and inside the airport terminals. A variety of taxa were observed in the culturable and total spore samples. A frequency analysis of the fungal data indicated that Cladosporium, Aspergillus and Penicillium were predominant genera in the culturable samples whereas Cladosporium, Basidiospores and Penicillium/Aspergillus were predominant in the total spore samples. Fungal populations observed inside the aircraft were comprised of similar genera, detected significantly less frequently and with lower mean concentrations than those observed in typical office buildings. Although sources internal to the aircraft could not be ruled out, our data demonstrate the importance of passenger activity as the source of the fungi observed on aircraft. Isolated fungal peak events occurred occasionally when concentrations of a particular genus or species rose sharply inside the cabin for a limited period. Overall, our research demonstrates that on the sampled flights the B-767 filtration system operated efficiently to remove fungal spores when two air cooling packs and 50% recirculation rate were utilized during flight operations. PMID:17351266

McKernan, Lauralynn Taylor; Burge, Harriet; Wallingford, Kenneth M; Hein, Misty J; Herrick, Robert

2007-04-01

60

Distinctions between the snake genera Contia and Eirenis  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Summary: Various workers have believed Contia to be related to or congeneric with either or both Sonora and Eirenis, the latter a genus of Western Asia. Study of hemipenes, teeth, and jaws indicates that these genera are not related to one another. The hemipenes of Eirenis modesta and Contia tenuis are described. Eirenis is thought to be a derivative of the racer group. Relationships of Contia are unknown. It is suggested that some North American genera with xenodontine-type hemipenes may not be of the South American faunal element and may have been in North America at least as long as the Old Northerners.

Stickel, W.H.

1951-01-01

61

Degradation of ochratoxin A by Aspergillus species  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mycotoxin contamination of agricultural products is a serious health hazard throughout the world. Besides attempts to eliminate mycotoxins from contaminated substrates by physical and chemical methods, the ability of microbes to degrade mycotoxins is now being widely examined. In this study, several Aspergillus species were examined for their ability to degrade ochratoxin A. A. fumigatus and black Aspergillus strains were

János Varga; Krisztina Rigó; József Téren

2000-01-01

62

Cyclopiazonic acid biosynthesis of Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus oryzae.  

PubMed

Cyclopiazonic acid (CPA) is an indole-tetramic acid neurotoxin produced by some of the same strains of A. flavus that produce aflatoxins and by some Aspergillus oryzae strains. Despite its discovery 40 years ago, few reviews of its toxicity and biosynthesis have been reported. This review examines what is currently known about the toxicity of CPA to animals and humans, both by itself or in combination with other mycotoxins. The review also discusses CPA biosynthesis and the genetic diversity of CPA production in A. flavus/oryzae populations. PMID:22069533

Chang, Perng-Kuang; Ehrlich, Kenneth C; Fujii, Isao

2009-12-01

63

Molecular characterization of Aspergillus flavus and aflatoxin contamination of wheat grains from Saudi Arabia.  

PubMed

Twelve species belonging to six fungal genera were found to be associated with wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) grain samples collected from three main regions in Saudi Arabia. The most common genera (average frequency) were Aspergillus (14.3%), Fusarium (29.1%), Penicillium (9.3%), and Alternaria (8.2%). Nineteen isolates of Aspergillus flavus were screened for their ability to produce aflatoxins using HPLC. Thirteen isolates produced aflatoxins ranging from 0.5 to 2.6 µg/kg. Inter-simple sequence repeats (ISSR), and random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) molecular markers were used, with the aim of genetically characterizing strains of A. flavus to discriminate between aflatoxigenic and non-aflatoxigenic isolates. RAPD and ISSR analysis revealed a high level of genetic diversity in the A. flavus population, useful for genetic characterization. Clustering based on RAPD and ISSR dendograms was unrelated to geographic origin. RAPD and ISSR markers were not suitable to discriminate aflatoxigenic and non-aflatoxigenic isolates, but ISSR primers were better compared to RAPD. PMID:24065675

Al-Wadai, A S; Al-Othman, M R; Mahmoud, M A; Abd El-Aziz, A R M

2013-01-01

64

Anti-inflammatory effect of neoechinulin a from the marine fungus Eurotium sp. SF-5989 through the suppression of NF-?B and p38 MAPK Pathways in lipopolysaccharide-stimulated RAW264.7 macrophages.  

PubMed

In the course of a bioassay-guided study of metabolites from the marine fungus Eurotium sp. SF-5989, two diketopiperazine type indole alkaloids, neoechinulins A and B, were isolated. In this study, we investigated the anti-inflammatory effects of neoechinulins A (1) and B (2) on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated RAW264.7 macrophages. Neoechinulin A (1) markedly suppressed the production of nitric oxide (NO) and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) and the expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) in a dose dependent manner ranging from 12.5 µM to 100 µM without affecting the cell viability. On the other hand, neoechinulin B (2) affected the cell viability at 25 µM although the compound displayed similar inhibitory effect of NO production to neoechinulin A (1) at lower doses. Furthermore, neoechinulin A (1) decreased the secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines, such as tumor necrosis factor-? (TNF-?) and interleukin-1? (IL-1?). We also confirmed that neoechinulin A (1) blocked the activation of nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-?B) in LPS-stimulated RAW264.7 macrophages by inhibiting the phosphorylation and degradation of inhibitor kappa B (I?B)-?. Moreover, neoechinulin A (1) decreased p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) phosphorylation. Therefore, these data showed that the anti-inflammatory effects of neoechinulin A (1) in LPS-stimulated RAW264.7 macrophages were due to the inhibition of the NF-?B and p38 MAPK pathways, suggesting that neoechinulin A (1) might be a potential therapeutic agent for the treatment of various inflammatory diseases. PMID:24165583

Kim, Kyoung-Su; Cui, Xiang; Lee, Dong-Sung; Sohn, Jae Hak; Yim, Joung Han; Kim, Youn-Chul; Oh, Hyuncheol

2013-01-01

65

Expression of Innate and Adaptive Immune Mediators in Human Corneal Tissue Infected With Aspergillus or Fusarium  

PubMed Central

Background.?Filamentous fungi of the genera Aspergillus and Fusarium are major causes of corneal ulcers in the United States and in the developing world and result in significant visual impairment and blindness. Methods.?RNA was extracted from 110 patients with corneal ulcers in southern India within 1 week of infection with either Fusarium solani or Aspergillus flavus, and gene expression was determined by quantitative polymerase chain reaction. Posttransplant corneas from later stage disease (>2 weeks after infection) were also examined. Results.?Expression of Dectin-1, Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2), TLR4, TLR9, and NOD-like receptor protein (NLRP)3 messenger RNA was elevated >1000-fold compared with uninfected donor corneas, whereas Dectin-2 was constitutively expressed in uninfected corneas. Furthermore, interleukin 1? (IL-1?) expression was elevated >1000-fold, whereas IL-1? expression was not increased. Expression of IL-8, IL-17, and tumor necrosis factor ? was also elevated. CD3+and CD4+ T cells were detected in infected posttransplant corneas. Expression of IL-17 and interferon ? was elevated but not that of IL-4. There were no significant differences in the host response between Aspergillus- and Fusarium-infected corneas at any time point. Conclusions.?There is a common innate and adaptive immune response to these filamentous fungi, which includes the generation of T-helper 1 and T-helper 17 cells.

Karthikeyan, Rajapandian Sivaganesa; Leal, Sixto M.; Prajna, Namperumalsamy Venkatesh; Dharmalingam, Kuppamuthu; Geiser, David M.; Lalitha, Prajna

2011-01-01

66

Colorimetric Assay for Antifungal Susceptibility Testing of Aspergillus Species  

Microsoft Academic Search

A colorimetric assay for antifungal susceptibility testing of Aspergillus species (Aspergillus fumigatus, Asper- gillus flavus, Aspergillus terreus, Aspergillus nidulans, and Aspergillus ustus) is described based on the reduction of the tetrazolium salt 2,3-bis(2-methoxy-4-nitro-5-((sulphenylamino)carbonyl)-2H-tetrazolium-hydroxide (XTT) in the presence of menadione as an electron-coupling agent. The combination of 200 g of XTT\\/ml with 25 M menadione resulted in a high production of

JOSEPH MELETIADIS; JOHAN W. MOUTON; JACQUES F. G. M. MEIS; BIANCA A. BOUMAN; J. PETER DONNELLY; PAUL E. VERWEIJ

2001-01-01

67

Aspergillus uvarum sp. nov., an uniseriate black Aspergillus species isolated from grapes in Europe.  

PubMed

A novel species, Aspergillus uvarum sp. nov., is described within Aspergillus section Nigri. This species can be distinguished from other black aspergilli based on internal transcribed spacers (ITS), beta-tubulin and calmodulin gene sequences, by AFLP analysis and by extrolite profiles. Aspergillus uvarum sp. nov. isolates produced secalonic acid, common to other Aspergillus japonicus-related taxa, and geodin, erdin and dihydrogeodin, which are not produced by any other black aspergilli. None of the isolates were found to produce ochratoxin A. The novel species is most closely related to two atypical strains of Aspergillus aculeatus, CBS 114.80 and CBS 620.78, and was isolated from grape berries in Portugal, Italy, France, Israel, Greece and Spain. The type strain of Aspergillus uvarum sp. nov. is IMI 388523T=CBS 127591T=ITEM 4834T=IBT26606T. PMID:18398215

Perrone, Giancarlo; Varga, János; Susca, Antonia; Frisvad, Jens C; Stea, Gaetano; Kocsubé, Sándor; Tóth, Beáta; Kozakiewicz, Zofia; Samson, Robert A

2008-04-01

68

Genome size evolution in holoparasitic Orobanche (Orobanchaceae) and related genera  

Microsoft Academic Search

Genome size was estimated using Feulgen densitometry for 76 accessions of 40 taxa of Orobanche and two taxa each of the related genera Phelypaea and Cistanche, providing the first data set for any group of nonphotosynthetic angiosperms. The 2C-values were 16.8-19.9 pg in Cistanche, 2.9-11.6 pg in Orobanche sect. Orobanche, 6.8-10.8 pg in sect. Trionychon, 4.3-5.1 pg in sect. Myzorrhiza,

HANNA WEISS-SCHNEEWEISS; JOHANN GREILHUBER; GERALD M. SCHNEEWEISS

2006-01-01

69

Phylogenetic and morphotaxonomic revision of Ramichloridium and allied genera  

Microsoft Academic Search

The phylogeny of the genera Periconiella, Ramichloridium, Rhinocladiella and Veronaea was explored by means of partial sequences of the 28S (LSU) rRNA gene and the ITS region (ITS1, 5.8S rDNA and ITS2). Based on the LSU sequence data, ramichloridium-like species segregate into eight distinct clusters. These include the Capnodiales (Mycosphaerellaceae and Teratosphaeriaceae), the Chaetothyriales (Herpotrichiellaceae), the Pleosporales, and five ascomycete

M. Arzanlou; J. Z. Groenewald; W. Gams; U. Braun; P. W. Crous

2007-01-01

70

Temperate Pollen Genera in the Eocene (Claiborne) Flora, Alabama.  

PubMed

Pollen, spores, hystrichospherids, dinoflagellates, and the fresh-water alga Pediastrum occur in marine clays at the classic Claiborne Bluffs locality, Alabama. The presence of Ephedra pollen provides the first documented Tertiary record of this genus from the southeastern states. The occurrence of several characteristically temperate genera lends support to the idea that a deciduous hardwood forest was present in the Appalachian uplands during the Eocene. PMID:17813748

Gray, J

1960-09-23

71

Brefeldin A, a cytotoxin produced by Paecilomyces sp. and Aspergillus clavatus isolated from Taxus mairei and Torreya grandis.  

PubMed

Paecilomyces sp. and Aspergillus clavatus, which were isolated from Taxus mairei and Torreya grandis from southeast China, produced toxic metabolites when grown in liquid culture. Nuclear magnetic resonance techniques, infrared spectrometry, electrospray ionization mass spectroscopy and X-ray analysis identified brefeldin A, a bioactive metabolite produced by a number of fungal species belonging to the genera Alternaria, Ascochyta, Penicillium, Curvularia, Cercospora and Phyllosticta. This is the first report of the isolation of the cytotoxin from Paecilomyces sp. and A. clavatus. The relevance of brefeldin A to the association between these fungi and their host plants is discussed. PMID:12208606

Wang, Jianfeng; Huang, Yaojian; Fang, Meijuan; Zhang, Yongjie; Zheng, Zhonghui; Zhao, Yufen; Su, Wenjin

2002-09-01

72

Glucan Synthase Complex of Aspergillus fumigatus  

Microsoft Academic Search

The glucan synthase complex of the human pathogenic mold Aspergillus fumigatus has been investigated. The genes encoding the putative catalytic subunit Fks1p and four Rho proteins of A. fumigatus were cloned and sequenced. Sequence analysis showed that AfFks1p was a transmembrane protein very similar to other Fksp proteins in yeasts and in Aspergillus nidulans. Heterologous expression of the conserved internal

A. Beauvais; J. M. Bruneau; P. C. Mol; M. J. Buitrago; R. Legrand; J. P. Latge

2001-01-01

73

Antifungal Susceptibility Tests of Aspergillus Species  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Although different methods are now available to assess the susceptibility of Aspergillus species to antifungal agents, there are still limited data correlating in vitro resistance with meaningful clinical endpoints.\\u000a Moreover, there is no consensus on the breakpoints to define resistance\\/susceptibility to different antifungal agents. This\\u000a chapter reviews the technical issues related to antifungal susceptibility tests for Aspergillus species, including the

Arnaldo Lopes Colombo; Viviane Reis; Patricio Godoy

74

Aspergillus brasiliensis sp. nov., a biseriate black Aspergillus species with world-wide distribution.  

PubMed

A novel species, Aspergillus brasiliensis sp. nov., is described within Aspergillus section Nigri. This species can be distinguished from other black aspergilli based on intergenic transcribed region, beta-tubulin and calmodulin gene sequences, by amplified fragment length polymorphism analysis and by extrolite profiles. A. brasiliensis isolates produced naphtho-gamma-pyrones, tensidol A and B and pyrophen in common with Aspergillus niger and Aspergillus tubingensis, but also several unique compounds, justifying their treatment as representing a separate species. None of the isolates were found to produce ochratoxin A, kotanins, funalenone or pyranonigrins. The novel species was most closely related to A. niger, and was isolated from soil from Brazil, Australia, USA and The Netherlands, and from grape berries from Portugal. The type strain of Aspergillus brasiliensis sp. nov. is CBS 101740(T) (=IMI 381727(T)=IBT 21946(T)). PMID:17684283

Varga, János; Kocsubé, Sándor; Tóth, Beáta; Frisvad, Jens C; Perrone, Giancarlo; Susca, Antonia; Meijer, Martin; Samson, Robert A

2007-08-01

75

Monograph on Foliar Anatomy of the Genera Connellia, Cottendorfia, and Navia (Bromeliaceae).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The 102 presently known species of the pitcairnioid genera Connellia, Cottendorfia, and Navia are discussed, illustrated, and keyed on the basis of cross sections and epidermal peels of leaves. Comparison with other genera of the bromeliad subfamily Pitca...

H. Robinson

1969-01-01

76

Relationships of the Fossil and Recent Genera of Rabbitfishes (Acanthuroidei: Siganidae).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Four genera of fossil siganid fishes of early Eocene to early Oligocene age are recognized in addition to the single Recent geneus. The osteological features of these five genera are described and illustrated. A phylogenetic analysis utilizing PAUP indica...

J. C. Tyler A. F. Bannikov

1997-01-01

77

Twelve previously unknown phage genera are ubiquitous in global oceans  

PubMed Central

Viruses are fundamental to ecosystems ranging from oceans to humans, yet our ability to study them is bottlenecked by the lack of ecologically relevant isolates, resulting in “unknowns” dominating culture-independent surveys. Here we present genomes from 31 phages infecting multiple strains of the aquatic bacterium Cellulophaga baltica (Bacteroidetes) to provide data for an underrepresented and environmentally abundant bacterial lineage. Comparative genomics delineated 12 phage groups that (i) each represent a new genus, and (ii) represent one novel and four well-known viral families. This diversity contrasts the few well-studied marine phage systems, but parallels the diversity of phages infecting human-associated bacteria. Although all 12 Cellulophaga phages represent new genera, the podoviruses and icosahedral, nontailed ssDNA phages were exceptional, with genomes up to twice as large as those previously observed for each phage type. Structural novelty was also substantial, requiring experimental phage proteomics to identify 83% of the structural proteins. The presence of uncommon nucleotide metabolism genes in four genera likely underscores the importance of scavenging nutrient-rich molecules as previously seen for phages in marine environments. Metagenomic recruitment analyses suggest that these particular Cellulophaga phages are rare and may represent a first glimpse into the phage side of the rare biosphere. However, these analyses also revealed that these phage genera are widespread, occurring in 94% of 137 investigated metagenomes. Together, this diverse and novel collection of phages identifies a small but ubiquitous fraction of unknown marine viral diversity and provides numerous environmentally relevant phage–host systems for experimental hypothesis testing.

Holmfeldt, Karin; Solonenko, Natalie; Shah, Manesh; Corrier, Kristen; Riemann, Lasse; VerBerkmoes, Nathan C.; Sullivan, Matthew B.

2013-01-01

78

Twelve previously unknown phage genera are ubiquitous in global oceans  

SciTech Connect

Viruses are fundamental to ecosystems ranging from oceans to humans, yet our ability to study them is bottlenecked by the lack of ecologically relevant isolates, resulting in unknowns dominating culture-independent surveys. Here we present genomes from 31 phages infecting multiple strains of the aquatic bacterium Cellulophaga baltica (Bacteroidetes) to provide data for an underrepresented and environmentally abundant bacterial lineage. Comparative genomics delineated 12 phage groups that (i) each represent a new genus, and (ii) represent one novel and four wellknown viral families. This diversity contrasts the few well-studied marine phage systems, but parallels the diversity of phages infecting human-associated bacteria. Although all 12 Cellulophaga phages represent new genera, the podoviruses and icosahedral, nontailed ssDNA phages were exceptional, with genomes up to twice as large as those previously observed for each phage type. Structural novelty was also substantial, requiring experimental phage proteomics to identify 83% of the structural proteins. The presence of uncommon nucleotide metabolism genes in four genera likely underscores the importance of scavenging nutrient-rich molecules as previously seen for phages in marine environments. Metagenomic recruitment analyses suggest that these particular Cellulophaga phages are rare and may represent a first glimpse into the phage side of the rare biosphere. However, these analyses also revealed that these phage genera are widespread, occurring in 94% of 137 investigated metagenomes. Together, this diverse and novel collection of phages identifies a small but ubiquitous fraction of unknown marine viral diversity and provides numerous environmentally relevant phage host systems for experimental hypothesis testing.

Holmfeldt, Karin [University of Arizona] [University of Arizona; Solonenko, Natalie [University of Arizona] [University of Arizona; Shah, Manesh B [ORNL] [ORNL; Corrier, Kristen L [ORNL] [ORNL; Riemann, Lasse [University of Copenhagen] [University of Copenhagen; Verberkmoes, Nathan C [ORNL] [ORNL; Sullivan, Matthew B [University of Arizona] [University of Arizona

2013-01-01

79

Rare genera of actinomycetes as potential producers of new antibiotics.  

PubMed

A literature survey covering more than twenty-three thousand bioactive microbial products including eight thousand antiinfectives demonstrated the increasing relevance of the so called 'rare' actinomycetes as a source of new antibiotics. Past and present efforts in the isolation of rare actinomycetes have enriched the Biosearch Italia Strain Collection with more than twenty thousand strains, showing that, when selective isolation methods are developed and extensively applied, some genera, such as Actinomadura, Actinoplanes, Micromonospora, Microtetraspora, are not rare at all and can be recovered from many soil samples. The current focus is on the isolation of members of Streptosporangiaceae family, given their promising chemical diversity. PMID:11386363

Lazzarini, A; Cavaletti, L; Toppo, G; Marinelli, F

2000-12-01

80

Rare genera of actinomycetes as potential producers of new antibiotics.  

PubMed

A literature survey covering more than twenty-three thousand bioactive microbial products including eight thousand antiinfectives demonstrated the increasing relevance of the so called 'rare' actinomycetes as a source of new antibiotics. Past and present efforts in the isolation of rare actinomycetes have enriched the Biosearch Italia Strain Collection with more than twenty thousand strains, showing that, when selective isolation methods are developed and extensively applied, some genera, such as Actinomadura, Actinoplanes, Micromonospora, Microtetraspora, are not rare at all and can be recovered from many soil samples. The current focus is on the isolation of members of Streptosporangiaceae family, given their promising chemical diversity. PMID:11816986

Lazzarini, A; Cavaletti, L; Toppo, G; Marinelli, F

2001-09-01

81

Antioxidant Activity of Aspergillus fumigatus  

PubMed Central

The antioxidant activity of Aspergillus fumigatus was assayed by different procedures and correlated with its extracellular total phenolic contents. Different physio-chemical parameters were optimized to enhance the activity. The culture grown under stationary conditions for 10 days at 25°C at pH 7 gave the best antioxidant activity. Statistical approaches demonstrated sucrose and NaNO3 to be the most suitable carbon and nitrogen sources, respectively. Response surface analysis showed 5% sucrose, 0.05% NaNO3, and incubation temperature of 35°C to be the optimal conditions for best expression of antioxidant activity. Under these conditions, the antioxidant potential assayed through different procedures was 89.8%, 70.1%, and 70.2% scavenging effect for DPPH radical, ferrous ion and nitric oxide ion, respectively. The reducing power showed an absorbance of 1.0 and FRAP assay revealed the activity of 60.5%. Extracellular total phenolic content and antioxidant activity as assayed by different procedures positively correlated.

Arora, Daljit Singh; Chandra, Priyanka

2011-01-01

82

Review of the genera of Mycetophagidae (Coleoptera: Tenebrionoidea) with descriptions of new genera and a world generic key.  

PubMed

The world genera of Mycetophagidae are reviewed and four new genera described. Several adult features of Mycetophagidae are discussed, and some newly discovered secondary sexual characters are described and illustrated. A key is given to the adults of all mycetophagid genera. The following new genera and species are proposed: Afrotyphaeola gen. n. (South Africa), A. natalensis sp. n. (South Africa), Neotriphyllus gen. n. (southwestern USA to Central America), Nototriphyllus gen. n. (New Zealand, Madagascar, Chile and Argentina), N. araucania sp. n. (Chile, Argentina), Zeclaviger gen. n. (New Zealand) and Z. explanatus sp. n. (New Zealand). The following synonymies are proposed: Litargus Erichson, 1846 (= Catopius Sharp, 1902) syn. n., Litargus balteatus LeConte, 1856 (= Triphyllus minor Lea, 1895) syn. n., Mycetophagus confusus Horn, 1878 (= Triphyllus perfectus Sharp, 1902) syn. n. The following new combinations are proposed: Litargops intricatus (Blackburn, 1891) (Triphyllus, Litargus) comb. n., L. multiguttatus (Lea, 1895) (Triphyllus, Litargus) comb. n., Litargus irregularis (Sharp) (Catopius) comb. n., Mycetophagus (Paralitargus) didesmus (Say) (Litargus) comb. n., Neotriphyllus confusus (Horn) (Mycetophagus) comb. n. Nototriphyllus aciculatus (Broun, 1880) (Cryptophagus) comb. n., N. adspersus (Broun, 1880) (Cryptophagus) comb. n., N. constans (Broun, 1914) comb. n., N. fuliginosus (Broun, 1880) (Cryptophagus) comb. n., N. hispidellus (Broun, 1880) (Cryptophagus) comb. n., N. integritus (Broun, 1893) comb. n., N. pubescens (Broun, 1909) comb. n., N. madagascariensis (Fairmaire, 1898) (Triphyllus) comb. n., N. punctulatus (Broun, 1880) (Cryptophagus) comb. n., N. rubicundus (Sharp, 1886) (Triphyllus) comb. n., N. serratus (Broun, 1880) (Cryptophagus) comb. n., N. substriatus (Broun, 1880) (Cryptophagus) comb. n. The larva of Nototriphyllus araucania is briefly described and compared with other known myceophagid larvae. The genus Nesolathrus Scott (1922), described in Latridiidae and considered incertae sedis in Mycetophagidae by Lawrence & Newton (1995), is placed in the subfamily Bergininae, following Lawrence & ?lipi?ski (2013). The tribe Typhaeini Thomson (1863), as delimited by Nikitsky (1993), based on the lateral closure of the mesocoxal cavity by the mesoventrite and metaventrite, is considered to be non-monophyletic. Rhipidonyx adustus Reitter (1876), described in Mycetophagidae, is transferred to Tenebrionidae: Alleculinae, based on the description and examination of a specimen presumed to be the type. PMID:24990043

Lawrence, John F; Escalona, Hermes E; Leschen, Richard A B; Slipi?ski, Adam

2014-01-01

83

ASPERGILLUS LUCHUENSIS , AN INDUSTRIALLY IMPORTANT BLACK ASPERGILLUS IN EAST ASIA  

PubMed Central

Aspergilli known as black- and white-koji molds which are used for awamori, shochu, makgeolli and other food and beverage fermentations, are reported in the literature as A. luchuensis, A. awamori, A. kawachii, or A. acidus. In order to elucidate the taxonomic position of these species, available ex-type cultures were compared based on morphology and molecular characters. A. luchuensis, A. kawachii and A. acidus showed the same banding patterns in RAPD, and the three species had the same rDNA-ITS, ?-tubulin and calmodulin sequences and these differed from those of the closely related A. niger and A. tubingensis. Morphologically, the three species are not significantly different from each other or from A. niger and A. tubingensis. It is concluded that A. luchuensis, A. kawachii and A. acidus are the same species, and A. luchuensis is selected as the correct name based on priority. Strains of A. awamori which are stored in National Research Institute of Brewing in Japan, represent A. niger (n?=?14) and A. luchuensis (n?=?6). The neotype of A. awamori (CBS 557.65?=? NRRL 4948) does not originate from awamori fermentation and it is shown to be identical with the unknown taxon Aspergillus welwitschiae. Extrolite analysis of strains of A. luchuensis showed that they do not produce mycotoxins and therefore can be considered safe for food and beverage fermentations. A. luchuensis is also frequently isolated from meju and nuruk in Korea and Puerh tea in China and the species is probably common in the fermentation environment of East Asia. A re-description of A. luchuensis is provided because the incomplete data in the original literature.

Hong, Seung-Beom; Lee, Mina; Kim, Dae-Ho; Varga, Janos; Frisvad, Jens C.; Perrone, Giancarlo; Gomi, Katsuya; Yamada, Osamu; Machida, Masayuki; Houbraken, Jos; Samson, Robert A.

2013-01-01

84

What does genetic diversity of Aspergillus flavus tell us about Aspergillus oryzae?  

PubMed

Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus oryzae belong to Aspergillus section Flavi. They are closely related and are of significant economic importance. The former species has the ability to produce harmful aflatoxins while the latter is widely used in food fermentation and industrial enzyme production. This review summarizes the current understanding of the similarity of the A. flavus and A. oryzae genomes, the genetic diversity in A. flavus and A. oryzae populations, the causes of this diversity, and the relatedness of nonaflatoxigenic A. flavus strains to A. oryzae. PMID:20163884

Chang, Perng-Kuang; Ehrlich, Kenneth C

2010-04-15

85

Immunolocalization of secretory proteins of Aspergillus fumigatus using monospecific polyclonal antibodies in a murine model.  

PubMed

The incidence of life-threatening mycoses caused by opportunistic fungi has increased dramatically in recent years with members of the genera Candida and Aspergillus being the most commonly encountered species. Prompt initiation of antifungal therapy for good prognosis of such cases is highly dependent on accurate diagnosis. The potential of metabolic antigens in the diagnosis of aspergillosis was investigated in the present study. Two proteins of 18 and 70 kDa were identified with success rate of 35% and 60% respectively based on their reactivity with patient sera of clinically diagnosed cases of aspergillosis. The antibodies raised against 70 and 18 kDa proteins in rabbits were found to be useful in detection of A. fumigatus in the kidneys of a mouse model of aspergillosis. PMID:16115101

Raghuwanshi, S K; Kumar, M; Kavishwar, A; Chaturvedi, A K; Murthy, P S R; Shukla, P K

2005-09-01

86

Susceptibility testing in Aspergillus species complex.  

PubMed

Methods for susceptibility testing of Aspergillus are developed and validated by the European Committee on Antibiotic Susceptibility Testing Subcommittee on Antifungal Susceptibility Testing. Breakpoints for phenotypic antimicrobial susceptibility testing have been determined by breakpoint committees and as part of regulatory processes for the approval of new drugs. Dosages, pharmacokinetics, resistance mechanisms, MIC distributions, pharmacodynamics and epidemiological cut-off values are used in the breakpoint-setting process. Clinical breakpoints are for everyday use in the clinical laboratory to advise on patient therapy. Resistance in Aspergillus fumigatus has been increasingly reported since standards became available. PMID:24372722

Lass-Flörl, C

2014-06-01

87

Ammonium Regulation in Aspergillus nidulans  

PubMed Central

l-Glutamate uptake, thiourea uptake, and methylammonium uptake and the intracellular ammonium concentration were measured in wild-type and mutant cells of Aspergillus nidulans held in various concentrations of ammonium and urea. The levels of l-glutamate uptake, thiourea uptake, nitrate reductase, and hypoxanthine dehydrogenase activity are determined by the extracellular ammonium concentration. The level of methylammonium uptake is determined by the intracellular ammonium concentration. The uptake and enzyme characteristics of the ammonium-derepressed mutants, meaA8, meaB6, DER3, amrA1, xprD1, and gdhA1, are described. The gdhA mutants lack normal nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate-glutamate dehydrogenase (NADP-GDH) activity and are derepressed with respect to both external and internal ammonium. The other mutant classes are derepressed only with respect to external ammonium. The mutants meaA8, DER3, amrA1, and xprD1 have low levels of one or more of the l-glutamate, thiourea, and methylammonium uptake systems. A model for ammonium regulation in A. nidulans is put forward which suggests: (i) NADP-GDH located in the cell membrane complexes with extracellular ammonium. This first regulatory complex determines the level of l-glutamate uptake, thiourea uptake, nitrate reductase, and xanthine dehydrogenase by repression or inhibition, or both. (ii) NADP-GDH also complexes with intracellular ammonium. This second and different form of regulatory complex determines the level of methylammonium uptake by repression or inhibition, or both.

Pateman, J. A.; Kinghorn, J. R.; Dunn, Etta; Forbes, E.

1973-01-01

88

Influence of the region of origin on the mycobiota of grapes with emphasis on Aspergillus and Penicillium species.  

PubMed

A three-year study was undertaken to investigate the fungal species present on the surface of grape berries from Portuguese vineyards in four winemaking regions. Emphasis was given to Aspergillus and Penicillium species due to their relevance for mycotoxin production. From the 3517 fungal strains detected 27 genera were identified. The region of origin markedly influenced the spoilage fungal population to which berries are exposed. The main differences found were in the incidence of A. niger aggregate, Botryis cinerea and Penicillium species (P. brevicompactum, P. citrinum, P. glabrum/spinulosum, P. expansum, P. implicatum and P. thomii). In more humid climates, Botrytis seems to be the main pathogen and spoiling agent, and the incidence of black Aspergillus is minimal. The most important mycotoxin-producing species found was A. carbonarius, which is an ochratoxin A producer. The present study provides a detailed description of the fungi found on the berry surface of Portuguese grapes and shows the Aspergillus and Penicillium species, which vary significantly by geographic origin. This is of crucial importance to understand fungal hazards for grapes and wine and to the knowledge of field ecology of the species. PMID:16891107

Serra, Rita; Lourenço, Anália; Alípio, Pedro; Venâncio, Armando

2006-08-01

89

Identification and characterization of antimicrobial activity in two yeast genera.  

PubMed Central

A general screening test for the expression of antibacterial activity was performed on over 400 cultures belonging to 31 yeast genera. Of these cultures, only two, Kluyveromyces thermotolerans and Kloeckera apiculata, were found to produce zones of inhibition of bacterial growth on Diagnostic Sensitivity Test Agar medium supplemented with 0.002% methylene blue. Of nine bacteria used as test organisms, only Lactobacillus plantarum and Bacillus megaterium were inhibited. No antibacterial activity was evident against four gram-negative bacteria used in this study. Optimal activities were found to be expressed after yeasts were grown at pH 6. A requirement for cultivation in the presence of methylene blue added to culture media for the expression of apparent antibacterial activity was demonstrated. Images

Bilinski, C A; Innamorato, G; Stewart, G G

1985-01-01

90

Taxonomic revision of Aspergillus section Clavati based on molecular, morphological and physiological data  

PubMed Central

Aspergillus section Clavati has been revised using morphology, secondary metabolites, physiological characters and DNA sequences. Phylogenetic analysis of ?-tubulin, ITS and calmodulin sequence data indicated that Aspergillus section Clavati includes 6 species, A. clavatus (synonyms: A. apicalis, A. pallidus), A. giganteus, A. rhizopodus, A. longivesica, Neocarpenteles acanthosporus and A. clavatonanicus. Neocarpenteles acanthosporus is the only known teleomorph of this section. The sister genera to Neocarpenteles are Neosartorya and Dichotomomyces based on sequence data. Species in Neosartorya and Neocarpenteles have anamorphs with green conidia and share the production of tryptoquivalins, while Dichotomomyces was found to be able to produce gliotoxin, which is also produced by some Neosartorya species, and tryptoquivalines and tryptoquivalones produced by members of both section Clavati and Fumigati. All species in section Clavati are alkalitolerant and acidotolerant and they all have clavate conidial heads. Many species are coprophilic and produce the effective antibiotic patulin. Members of section Clavati also produce antafumicin, tryptoquivalines, cytochalasins, sarcins, dehydrocarolic acid and kotanins (orlandin, desmethylkotanin and kotanin) in species specific combinations. Another species previously assigned to section Clavati, A. ingratus is considered a synonym of Hemicarpenteles paradoxus, which is phylogenetically very distantly related to Neocarpenteles and section Clavati.

Varga, J.; Due, M.; Frisvad, J.C.; Samson, R.A.

2007-01-01

91

Diagnostic accuracy of histopathologic and cytopathologic examination of Aspergillus species.  

PubMed

To assess the diagnostic accuracy of histopatho-logic and cytopathologic examination (HCE) of Aspergillus species (spp), we performed an 11-year retrospective review to correlate surgical/cytology cases with a diagnosis of Aspergillus spp with their concurrent fungal culture results. Diagnostic accuracy was defined as the percentage of cases with culture-proven Aspergillus spp divided by the number of cases diagnosed as Aspergillus spp on HCE that had growth on fungal culture. Ninety surgical/cytology cases with concurrent fungal culture were reviewed, 58 of which grew a fungal organism. Of these 58 cases, 45 grew an Aspergillus spp, whereas 13 grew an organism other than Aspergillus spp, including both common (Scedosporium, Fusarium, and Paecilomyces spp) and uncommon mimickers (Trichosporon loubieri), resulting in a diagnostic accuracy of 78%. The low diagnostic accuracy indicates that several fungal organisms can morphologically mimic Aspergillus spp and can only be distinguished by fungal culture and DNA sequencing. PMID:23270899

Shah, Akeesha A; Hazen, Kevin C

2013-01-01

92

Amylase synthesis in Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus niger grown on cassava peel  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Aspergillus flavus andAspergillus niger produce extracellular amylase into the culture medium when grown on basal medium containing 2% (w\\/v) soluble starch or cassava peel as the sole carbon source. On soluble tarch the highest amylase activities were 1.6 and 5.2 mg of starch hydrolyzed\\/min per mg protein forA. flavus andA. niger, respectively. When grown on cassava peel, the highest

Alhassan Sani; Francis A. Awe; Joseph A. Akinyanju

1992-01-01

93

New dimeric naphthopyrones from Aspergillus niger.  

PubMed

Three new dimeric naphthopyrones, asperpyrones A (1), B (2), and C (3), together with two known compounds, fonsecinone A (4) and aurasperone A (5), have been isolated from okara that was fermented with Aspergillus niger JV-33-48. Compounds 1, 4, and 5 showed inhibitory activity on Taq DNA polymerase. PMID:12542363

Akiyama, Kohki; Teraguchi, Seigo; Hamasaki, Yukiko; Mori, Mika; Tatsumi, Kunihiko; Ohnishi, Kenji; Hayashi, Hideo

2003-01-01

94

Managing building-related Aspergillus exposure  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aspergillus exposure is difficult to avoid. Indoor dust contains spores and thermotolerant molds may colonize damp or water-damaged building materials or components. Dust control should be part of diligent maintenance since disturbing dusts, especially during building renovation, can expose occupants to spores. Colonization of HVAC systems can shed spores into a building and expose occupants. Mold colonization warrants prompt and

W. Elliott Horner

2006-01-01

95

Heavy metal biosorption sites in Aspergillus niger  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aspergillus niger is capable of removing heavy metals such as lead, cadmium and copper from aqueous solutions. The role played by various functional groups in the cell wall of A. niger in biosorption of lead, cadmium and copper was investigated. The biomass was subjected to chemical treatments to modify the functional groups, carboxyl, amino and phosphate, to study their role

Anoop Kapoor; T. Viraraghavan

1997-01-01

96

Biosynthesis of ochratoxins by Aspergillus ochraceus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Shaken liquid fermentation of an isolate of Aspergillus ochraceus showed growth-associated production of ochratoxins A and B, followed by production of a related polyketide diaporthin. Later, between 150 and 250 h, mellein accumulated transitorily. In contrast, shaken solid substrate (shredded wheat) fermentation over 14 days produced mainly ochratoxins A and B (ratio ca. 5:1) in very high yield (up to

Jonathan P Harris; Peter G Mantle

2001-01-01

97

Retropositional events consolidate the branching order among New World monkey genera.  

PubMed

Due to contradicting relationships obtained from various morphological and genetic studies, phylogenetic relationships among New World monkey genera are highly disputed. In the present study, we analyzed the presence/absence pattern of 128 SINE integrations in all New World monkey genera. Among them, 70 were specific for only a single genus, whereas another 18 were present in all New World monkey genera. The 40 remaining insertions were informative to elucidate phylogenetic relationships among genera. Several of them confirmed the monophyly of the three families Cebidae, Atelidae and Pitheciidae as well as of the subfamily Callithrichinae. Further markers provided evidence for a sister grouping of Cebidae and Atelidae to the exclusion of Pitheciidae as well as for relationships among genera belonging to Callithrichinae and Atelidae. Although a close affiliation of Saimiri, Aotus and Cebus to Callithrichinae was shown, the relationships among the three genera remained unresolved due to three contradicting insertions. PMID:19135536

Osterholz, Martin; Walter, Lutz; Roos, Christian

2009-03-01

98

Distribution of sterigmatocystin in filamentous fungi.  

PubMed

During the last 50y, the carcinogenic mycotoxin sterigmatocystin (ST) has been reported in several phylogenetically and phenotypically different genera: Aschersonia, Aspergillus, Bipolaris, Botryotrichum, Chaetomium, Emericella, Eurotium, Farrowia, Fusarium, Humicola, Moelleriella, Monocillium and Podospora. We have reexamined all available strains of the original producers, in addition to ex type and further strains of each species reported to produce ST and the biosynthetically derived aflatoxins. We also screened strains of all available species in Penicillium and Aspergillus for ST and aflatoxin. Six new ST producing fungi were discovered: Aspergillus asperescens, Aspergillus aureolatus, Aspergillus eburneocremeus, Aspergillus protuberus, Aspergillus tardus, and Penicillium inflatum and one new aflatoxin producer: Aspergillus togoensis (=Stilbothamnium togoense). ST was confirmed in 23 Emericella, four Aspergillus, five Chaetomium, one Botryotrichum and one Humicola species grown on a selection of secondary metabolite inducing media, and using multiple detection methods: HPLC-UV/Vis DAD, - HRMS and - MS/MS. The immediate precursor for aflatoxin, O-methylsterigmatocystin was found in Chaetomium cellulolyticum, Chaetomium longicolleum, Chaetomium malaysiense and Chaetomium virescens, but aflatoxin was not detected from any Chaetomium species. In all 55 species, representing more than 11 clades throughout the Pezizomycotina, can be reliably claimed to be ST producers and 13 of these can also produce aflatoxins. It is not known yet whether the ST/aflatoxin pathway has been developed independently 11 times, or is the result of partial horizontal gene transfer. PMID:21530923

Rank, Christian; Nielsen, Kristian F; Larsen, Thomas O; Varga, Janos; Samson, Rob A; Frisvad, Jens C

2011-01-01

99

Mycoflora study in a wheat flour mill of Argentina  

PubMed Central

The mycoflora of the environment: wheat conditioning, milling and screening, and filling zone, as well as, raw material -wheat-, intermediate product -grits- and end product -flour- on day 1, and after cleaning improvements -days 45 and 90- were studied in an Argentine wheat mill. Samples were incubated at 28°C for 5–7 days on Malt Extract Agar with chloramphenicol (100 mg L-1) and the results were expressed in colony forming units per cubic meter of air (CFU m-3) or per gram of sample (CFU g-1), respectively. Fungal genera and species were isolated and identified and the potential toxicogenic capacity of the Aspergillus flavus and Fusarium graminearum isolated was studied. Time-Place and Time-Product multifactorial ANOVA were carried out. After cleaning improvements, CFU m-3 of air decreased as a function of time. Cladosporium and Alternaria were abundant in every zone, Aspergillus predominated in the wheat conditioning zone and Penicillium and Eurotium decreased with time. Wheat was more contaminated than grits and flour; Aspergillus, Eurotium and Mucoraceae family were the most abundant. Deoxynivalenol was above the levels allowed in wheat, being acceptable in grits and flour. Aflatoxin and Zearalenone showed acceptable levels. When studied in vitro, 53% of Aspergillus flavus and 100% of Fusarium graminearum isolates, produced Total Aflatoxins, and Deoxynivalenol and Zearalenone, respectively.

Aringoli, E.E.; Cambiagno, D.E.; Chiericatti, C.A.; Basilico, J.C.; Basilico, M.L.Z.

2012-01-01

100

A key to the Mexican and Central America Genera of Anthonomini (Curculionidae, Curculioninae)  

PubMed Central

Abstract Presently the only keys available for identification of genera of Anthonomini are limited to those of the United States of America and Canada. A dichotomous key is presented to identify all genera of Mexican and Central American Anthonomini. Previous keys do not include the genera Achia, Botanebius, Loncophorus, Loncophorellus and Melexerus. A brief synopsis is given for each genus and photographs of representative species are included.

Hernandez, Macotulio Soto; Jones, Robert W.; Castillo, Pedro Reyes

2013-01-01

101

General primer-mediated PCR for detection of Aspergillus species.  

PubMed Central

A PCR assay was developed for the diagnosis of invasive aspergillosis in immunocompromised patients. For this purpose, the complete nucleotide sequences of the genes encoding the 18S rRNA of Aspergillus nidulans, Aspergillus terreus, Aspergillus niger, and Aspergillus flavus were elucidated and aligned to the sequences of Aspergillus fumigatus and other clinically relevant prokaryotic and eukaryotic microorganisms. Genus-specific sequences could be identified in the V7 to V9 region of 18S rRNA. By using hot-start PCR, Southern blot hybridization, and restriction enzyme analysis, Aspergillus-specific and -sensitive determination was achieved. Five of six immunosuppressed mice experimentally infected with A. fumigatus developed infection, and rRNA could be detected in each case, even in livers with the absence of positive cultures. Aspergillus species were detected by PCR in four neutropenic patients with proven aspergillosis, although Aspergillus species had been isolated from only one bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid sample. Aspergillus species were detected by PCR in two more patients suspected of having infection. Positive PCR signals were obtained from the BAL samples of 3 of 8 neutropenic patients who had developed pulmonary infiltrates, but none were obtained from the samples of 14 nonimmunosuppressed patients. These results indicate the potential value of PCR to detect Aspergillus species in BAL samples and, therefore, to identify neutropenic patients at risk for invasive aspergillosis. Images

Melchers, W J; Verweij, P E; van den Hurk, P; van Belkum, A; De Pauw, B E; Hoogkamp-Korstanje, J A; Meis, J F

1994-01-01

102

Aspergillus niger contains the cryptic phylogenetic species A. awamori.  

PubMed

Aspergillus section Nigri is an important group of species for food and medical mycology, and biotechnology. The Aspergillus niger 'aggregate' represents its most complicated taxonomic subgroup containing eight morphologically indistinguishable taxa: A. niger, Aspergillus tubingensis, Aspergillus acidus, Aspergillus brasiliensis, Aspergillus costaricaensis, Aspergillus lacticoffeatus, Aspergillus piperis, and Aspergillus vadensis. Aspergillus awamori, first described by Nakazawa, has been compared taxonomically with other black aspergilli and recently it has been treated as a synonym of A. niger. Phylogenetic analyses of sequences generated from portions of three genes coding for the proteins ?-tubulin (benA), calmodulin (CaM), and the translation elongation factor-1 alpha (TEF-1?) of a population of A. niger strains isolated from grapes in Europe revealed the presence of a cryptic phylogenetic species within this population, A. awamori. Morphological, physiological, ecological and chemical data overlap occurred between A. niger and the cryptic A. awamori, however the splitting of these two species was also supported by AFLP analysis of the full genome. Isolates in both phylospecies can produce the mycotoxins ochratoxin A and fumonisin B?, and they also share the production of pyranonigrin A, tensidol B, funalenone, malformins, and naphtho-?-pyrones. In addition, sequence analysis of four putative A. awamori strains from Japan, used in the koji industrial fermentation, revealed that none of these strains belong to the A. awamori phylospecies. PMID:22036292

Perrone, Giancarlo; Stea, Gaetano; Epifani, Filomena; Varga, János; Frisvad, Jens C; Samson, Robert A

2011-11-01

103

Glycogen in thermoacidophilic archaebacteria of the genera Sulfolobus, Thermoproteus, Desulfurococcus and Thermococcus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Glycogen has been found in thermoacidophilic archaebacteria of the genera Sulfolobus, Thermoproteus, Desulfurococcus and Thermococcus. Thermoplasma acidophilum yielded a related, though less defined compound.

Helmut König; Romuald Skorko; Wolfram Zillig; Wolf-Dieter Reiter

1982-01-01

104

A synoptic review of the ant genera (Hymenoptera, Formicidae) of the Philippines  

PubMed Central

Abstract An overview of the history of myrmecology in the Philippine archipelago is presented. Keys are provided to the 11 ant subfamilies and the 92 ant genera known from the Philippines. Eleven ant genera (12%), including 3 undescribed genera, are recorded for the first time from the Philippines. The biology and ecology of the 92 genera, illustrated by full-face and profile photo-images, of Philippine ants are summarized in the form of brief generic accounts. A bibliography of significant taxonomic and behavioral papers on Philippine ants and a checklist of valid species and subspecies and their island distributions are provided.

General, David M.; Alpert, Gary D.

2012-01-01

105

New genera, species, and improved phylogeny of Glissomonadida (Cercozoa).  

PubMed

Glissomonadida is an important cercozoan order of predominantly biflagellate gliding bacterivores found largely in soil and freshwater. Their vast diversity is largely undescribed. We studied 23 mostly newly isolated strains by light microscopy and sequenced their 18S rDNA genes; nine represent new species. For two misidentified ATCC 'Heteromita triangularis' strains, we establish novel gliding genera and species: the sandonid Mollimonas lacrima, the only glissomonad forming anterior and posterior pseudopodia, and Dujardina stenomorpha, a strongly flattened member of the new family Dujardinidae. A new strain from Oxfordshire grassland soil is the first reliably identified isolate of the virtually uniflagellate, smooth-gliding glissomonad genus, AllantionSandon, 1924. Phylogenetic analysis and cytological features reveal Allantion to be a member of Allapsidae. Sandona limna and Bodomorpha prolixa from Lake Baikal and Sandona hexamutans from volcanic Costa Rican soil are described as new species. Fifteen glissomonad strains were from grassland beside Lake Baikal. We describe two as new species of Sandona (S. heptamutans and S. octamutans); the others included strains of Sandona and Allapsa species that have already been described; and three were new species of Sandona and Allapsa but these died before being described. We discuss the ecological and evolutionary significance of these new strains. PMID:21783412

Howe, Alexis T; Bass, David; Chao, Ema E; Cavalier-Smith, Thomas

2011-11-01

106

New genera and species of Neotropical Exosternini (Coleoptera, Histeridae)  

PubMed Central

Abstract We describe the following 8 new genera and 23 new species of Neotropical Exosternini. Conocassis gen. n. (Conocassis minor sp. n. [type species], Conocassis dromedaria sp. n., Conocassis trisulcata sp. n., and Conocassis invaginata sp. n.), Enkyosoma gen. n. (Enkyosoma rockwelli sp. n.), Pluricosta gen. n. (Pluricosta onthophiloides sp. n.), Pyxister gen. n. (Pyxister devorator sp. n. [type species] and Pyxister labralis sp. n.), Chapischema gen. n. (Chapischema doppelganger sp. n.), Scaptorus gen. n. (Scaptorus pyramus sp. n.), Lacrimorpha gen. n. (Lacrimorpha glabra sp. n. [type species], Lacrimorpha balbina sp. n., Lacrimorpha subdepressa sp. n., and Lacrimorpha acuminata sp. n.), Crenulister gen. n. (Crenulister grossus sp. n. [type species], Crenulister explanatus sp. n., Crenulister dentatus sp. n., Crenulister impar sp. n., Crenulister umbrosus sp. n., Crenulister simplex sp. n., Crenulister paucitans sp. n., Crenulister spinipes sp. n., and Crenulister seriatus sp. n.) These all represent highly distinctive and phylogenetically isolated forms, almost invariably known from very few specimens. All but one species have been collected only by passive flight intercept traps, and nothing significant is known about the biology of any of them.

Caterino, Michael S.; Tishechkin, Alexey K.

2014-01-01

107

Identification of asteroid genera with species capable of larval cloning.  

PubMed

Asexual reproduction in larvae, larval cloning, is a recently recognized component of the complex life histories of asteroids. We compare DNA sequences of mitochondrial tRNA genes (Ala, Leu, Asn, Pro, and Gln) from larvae in the process of cloning collected in the field with sequences from adults of known species in order to identify asteroid taxa capable of cloning. Neighbor-joining analysis identified four distinct groups of larvae, each having no, or very little, sequence divergence (p distances ranging from 0.00000 to 0.02589); thus, we conclude that each larval group most likely represents a single species. These field-collected larvae cannot be identified to species with certainty, but the close assemblage of known taxa with the four larval groups indicates generic or familial identity. We can assign two of the larval groups discerned here to the genera Luidia and Oreaster and another two to the family Ophidiasteridae. This study is the first to identify field-collected cloning asteroid larvae, and provides evidence that larval cloning is phylogenetically widespread within the Asteroidea. Additionally, we note that cloning occurs regularly and in multiple ways within species that are capable of cloning, emphasizing the need for further investigation of the role of larval cloning in the ecology and evolution of asteroids. PMID:12807702

Knott, K Emily; Balser, Elizabeth J; Jaeckle, William B; Wray, Gregory A

2003-06-01

108

Patterns of reproductive isolation in three angiosperm genera.  

PubMed

Analyses among animal species have found that reproductive isolation increases monotonically with genetic distance, evolves more quickly for prezygotic than postzygotic traits, and is stronger among sympatric than allopatric species pairs. The latter pattern is consistent with expectations under the reinforcement hypothesis. To determine whether similar trends are found among plant species, patterns of reproductive isolation (postpollination prezygotic, postzygotic, and "total" isolation) in three plant genera (Glycine, Silene, Streptanthus) were examined using data from previously published artificial hybridization experiments. In Silene, all measures of reproductive isolation were positively correlated with genetic distance. In contrast, in Glycine and Streptanthus, correlations between reproductive isolation and genetic distance were weak or nonsignificant, possibly due to the influence of biologically unusual taxa, variable evolutionary forces acting in different lineages, or insufficient time to accumulate reproductive isolation. There was no evidence that postpollination prezygotic reproductive isolation evolved faster than postzygotic isolation in Glycine or Silene. We also detected no evidence for faster accumulation of postmating prezygotic isolation between sympatric than allopatric species pairs; thus we found no evidence for the operation of speciation via reinforcement. In Silene, which included six polyploid species, results suggest that changes in ploidy disrupt a simple monotonic relationship between isolation and genetic distance. PMID:15266970

Moyle, Leonie C; Olson, Matthew S; Tiffin, Peter

2004-06-01

109

Secondary amyloidosis in association with Aspergillus lung disease.  

PubMed

Three patients with amyloidosis secondary to bronchiectasis are described: in two patients bronchiectasis was secondary to allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis and in the third, post-tuberculous bronchiectasis was complicated by asthma and allergy to Aspergillus. We suggest that chronic Aspergillus allergy may cause amyloidosis and that some cases of amyloidosis ascribed to tuberculosis in the past may in fact have been secondary to Aspergillus allergy. PMID:3620326

Winter, J H; Milroy, R; Stevenson, R D; Hunter, J

1986-10-01

110

Isolation of protoplasts from Aspergillus nidulans conidiospores.  

PubMed

Protoplasts were prepared from conidiospores of Aspergillus nidulans. The mononucleated conidia gave protoplasts of a uniform size, approximately 5-micron diameter, depending on the strain and the stabilizing medium used. Conidia were preincubated with 2-deoxy-D-glucose in a minimal medium at 37 degrees C for 3 h. The swollen conidia were collected, resuspended in a buffer containing 0.4 M (NH4)2SO4 as stabilizer, and incubated with Oerskovia lytic enzymes at 30 degrees C for 3 or 4 h. Approximately 80% of the conidia were converted into protoplasts. The protoplasts were separated from cell wall fragments and intact conidia by centrifugation over 30% sucrose. This isolation procedure gives a suspension of mononucleated or binucleated protoplasts suitable for recombination experiments and other studies for which a homogenous protoplast suspension is required. The procedure was also successful for Aspergillus niger. PMID:7016284

Bos, C J; Slakhorst, S M

1981-04-01

111

Phylogenetic and morphotaxonomic revision of Ramichloridium and allied genera.  

PubMed

The phylogeny of the genera Periconiella, Ramichloridium, Rhinocladiella and Veronaea was explored by means of partial sequences of the 28S (LSU) rRNA gene and the ITS region (ITS1, 5.8S rDNA and ITS2). Based on the LSU sequence data, ramichloridium-like species segregate into eight distinct clusters. These include the Capnodiales (Mycosphaerellaceae and Teratosphaeriaceae), the Chaetothyriales (Herpotrichiellaceae), the Pleosporales, and five ascomycete clades with uncertain affinities. The type species of Ramichloridium, R. apiculatum, together with R. musae, R. biverticillatum, R. cerophilum, R. verrucosum, R. pini, and three new species isolated from Strelitzia, Musa and forest soil, respectively, reside in the Capnodiales clade. The human-pathogenic species R. mackenziei and R. basitonum, together with R. fasciculatum and R. anceps, cluster with Rhinocladiella (type species: Rh. atrovirens, Herpotrichiellaceae, Chaetothyriales), and are allocated to this genus. Veronaea botryosa, the type species of the genus Veronaea, also resides in the Chaetothyriales clade, whereas Veronaea simplex clusters as a sister taxon to the Venturiaceae (Pleosporales), and is placed in a new genus, Veronaeopsis. Ramichloridium obovoideum clusters with Carpoligna pleurothecii (anamorph: Pleurothecium sp., Chaetosphaeriales), and a new combination is proposed in Pleurothecium. Other ramichloridium-like clades include R. subulatum and R. epichloës (incertae sedis, Sordariomycetes), for which a new genus, Radulidium is erected. Ramichloridium schulzeri and its varieties are placed in a new genus, Myrmecridium (incertae sedis, Sordariomycetes). The genus Pseudovirgaria (incertae sedis) is introduced to accommodate ramichloridium-like isolates occurring on various species of rust fungi. A veronaea-like isolate from Bertia moriformis with phylogenetic affinity to the Annulatascaceae (Sordariomycetidae) is placed in a new genus, Rhodoveronaea. Besides Ramichloridium, Periconiella is also polyphyletic. Thysanorea is introduced to accommodate Periconiella papuana (Herpotrichiellaceae), which is unrelated to the type species, P. velutina (Mycosphaerellaceae). PMID:18490996

Arzanlou, M; Groenewald, J Z; Gams, W; Braun, U; Shin, H-D; Crous, P W

2007-01-01

112

Phylogenetic and morphotaxonomic revision of Ramichloridium and allied genera  

PubMed Central

The phylogeny of the genera Periconiella, Ramichloridium, Rhinocladiella and Veronaea was explored by means of partial sequences of the 28S (LSU) rRNA gene and the ITS region (ITS1, 5.8S rDNA and ITS2). Based on the LSU sequence data, ramichloridium-like species segregate into eight distinct clusters. These include the Capnodiales (Mycosphaerellaceae and Teratosphaeriaceae), the Chaetothyriales (Herpotrichiellaceae), the Pleosporales, and five ascomycete clades with uncertain affinities. The type species of Ramichloridium, R. apiculatum, together with R. musae, R. biverticillatum, R. cerophilum, R. verrucosum, R. pini, and three new species isolated from Strelitzia, Musa and forest soil, respectively, reside in the Capnodiales clade. The human-pathogenic species R. mackenziei and R. basitonum, together with R. fasciculatum and R. anceps, cluster with Rhinocladiella (type species: Rh. atrovirens, Herpotrichiellaceae, Chaetothyriales), and are allocated to this genus. Veronaea botryosa, the type species of the genus Veronaea, also resides in the Chaetothyriales clade, whereas Veronaea simplex clusters as a sister taxon to the Venturiaceae (Pleosporales), and is placed in a new genus, Veronaeopsis. Ramichloridium obovoideum clusters with Carpoligna pleurothecii (anamorph: Pleurothecium sp., Chaetosphaeriales), and a new combination is proposed in Pleurothecium. Other ramichloridium-like clades include R. subulatum and R. epichloës (incertae sedis, Sordariomycetes), for which a new genus, Radulidium is erected. Ramichloridium schulzeri and its varieties are placed in a new genus, Myrmecridium (incertae sedis, Sordariomycetes). The genus Pseudovirgaria (incertae sedis) is introduced to accommodate ramichloridium-like isolates occurring on various species of rust fungi. A veronaea-like isolate from Bertia moriformis with phylogenetic affinity to the Annulatascaceae (Sordariomycetidae) is placed in a new genus, Rhodoveronaea. Besides Ramichloridium, Periconiella is also polyphyletic. Thysanorea is introduced to accommodate Periconiella papuana (Herpotrichiellaceae), which is unrelated to the type species, P. velutina (Mycosphaerellaceae).

Arzanlou, M.; Groenewald, J.Z.; Gams, W.; Braun, U.; Shin, H.-D; Crous, P.W.

2007-01-01

113

Allotetraploid hybrids between citrus and seven related genera produced by somatic hybridization  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have developed an efficient protoplast-fusion method to produce somatic hybrid allopolyploid plants that combine Citrus with seven related genera, including four that are sexually incompatible. In this paper we report the creation of 18 new allotetraploid hybrids of Citrus, including ten among sexually incompatible related genera, that may have direct cultivar potential as improved citrus rootstocks. All hybrids were

J. W. Grosser; F. A. A. Mourao-Fo; F. G. Gmitter Jr; E. S. Louzada; J. Jiang; K. Baergen; A. Quiros; C. Cabasson; J. L. Schell; J. L. Chandler

1996-01-01

114

Illustrated Key to the Genera of Free-Living Marine Nematodes of the Order Enoplida.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A pictorial key to 118 genera of free-living marine nematodes in the order Enoplida is presented. Specific morphological and anatomical features are illustrated to facilitate use of the key. The work provides a single key to the genera of enoplid nematode...

E. J. Keppner A. C. Tarjan

1989-01-01

115

Molecular phylogenetic relationship of snow finch complex (genera Montifringilla, Pyrgilauda, and Onychostruthus) from the Tibetan plateau  

Microsoft Academic Search

The snow finch complex (Montifringilla, Pyrgilauda, and Onychostruthus) has its center of distribution on the Tibetan plateau, with six out of seven species in the genera occurring there. Phylogenetic relationships among these six species of three genera have been studied based on DNA sequence data obtained from the mitochondrial cytochrome b gene and the nuclear myoglobin gene. The results support

Yanhua Qu; Per G. P. Ericson; Fumin Lei; Axel Gebauer; Martin Kaiser; Andreas J. Helbig

2006-01-01

116

Phytochemicals and biological activities of poisonous genera of Ericaceae in China.  

PubMed

The family Ericaceae is comprised of about 70 genera of which about 20 are found throughout China. Of these Ledum, Rhododendron, Enkianthus, Pieris, Craibiodendron, Gaultheria, Vaccinium, and Leucothoe are regarded as poisonous. Many species of these poisonous genera are used as Chinese herbal medicines for the treatment of, for example, inflammation, asthma, and coughs. Modem research has demonstrated that the toxic ingredients of these poisonous genera are chiefly tetracyclic diterpenes, which have adverse effects on the digestive, cardiovascular and nervous systems. Because various species of these poisonous genera also have medicinal functions, extensive studies of these plants have led to the identification of many kinds of compound. This paper compiles 306 compounds from the eight poisonous genera, reported in 141 references. PMID:24689229

Wang, Xiaohong; Jiang, Rui; Liu, Zizhen; Liu, Weirui; Xie, Meng; Wei, Shengli; She, Gaimei

2014-03-01

117

Definition and Revision of the Orthrius-group of genera (Coleoptera, Cleridae, Clerinae)  

PubMed Central

Abstract An “Orthrius-group” of genera is proposed, and defined to include Aphelochroa Quedenfeldt, 1885; Caridopus Schenkling, 1908; Dozocolletus Chevrolat, 1842; Gyponyx Gorham, 1883; Languropilus Pic, 1940; Orthrius Gorham, 1876; Pieleus Pic, 1940; Xenorthrius Gorham, 1892; plus three new genera Neorthrius gen. n., Nonalatus gen. n. and Pseudoastigmus gen. n. A phylogeny of the 11 constituent Orthrius-group genera (analysis of 22 morphological characters using Clerus Geoffroy as the out-group taxon was performed with TNT v1.1) is proposed. Four genera are synonymised: Burgeonus Pic, 1950, syn. n. (with Aphelochroa Quedenfeldt, 1885); Brinckodes Winkler, 1960, syn. n. and Quasibrinckodes Winkler, 1960, syn. n. (both with Dozocolletus Chevrolat, 1842); and Dedana Fairmaire, 1888, syn. n. (with Orthrius Gorham, 1876). The genera Falsoorthrius Pic, 1940 and Mimorthrius Pic, 1940 are transferred from Clerinae to the subfamily Tillinae.

Roland, Gerstmeier; Jonas, Eberle

2011-01-01

118

Production of ochratoxin A by Aspergillus carbonarius on coffee cherries  

Microsoft Academic Search

Robusta coffee cherries collected before and during sun drying from two coffee farms in Thailand were examined for moulds producing ochratoxin A (OA). Aspergillus ochraceus was only detected in one sample, whereas Aspergillus carbonarius was isolated from 7 out of 14 samples. On ?-irradiated coffee cherries, each of the six tested A. carbonarius strains produced OA. More than 4800 ?g

H. M. L. J Joosten; J Goetz; A Pittet; M Schellenberg; P Bucheli

2001-01-01

119

Purification and characterization of mycoferritin from Aspergillus parasiticus (255)  

Microsoft Academic Search

As intracellular iron storage molecules, only hydroxymate type siderophores have been reported in ascomycetes and basidiomycetes. This is the first report documenting the presence of mycoferritin in ascomycetes. The fungus, Aspergillus parasiticus (255), is capable of producing mycoferritin only upon induction with iron in yeast extract sucrose (YES) medium. The same has been purified from Aspergillus sps by application of

J. Shashidhar; R. B. Sashidhar; Vijay Deshpande

2005-01-01

120

Fatal coinfection with Legionella pneumophila serogroup 8 and Aspergillus fumigatus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Legionella pneumophila is an important cause of community-acquired and nosocomial pneumonia. We report on a patient who simultaneously developed L. pneumophila serogroup 8 pneumonia and Aspergillus fumigatus lung abscesses. Despite appropriate treatments, Aspergillus disease progressed with metastasis. Coinfections caused by L. pneumophila and A. fumigatus remain exceptional. In apparently immunocompetent patients, corticosteroid therapy is a key risk factor for aspergillosis.

Aurélie Guillouzouic; Pascale Bemer; Françoise Gay-Andrieu; Cédric Bretonničre; Didier Lepelletier; Pierre-Joachim Mahé; Daniel Villers; Sophie Jarraud; Alain Reynaud; Stéphane Corvec

2008-01-01

121

Fatal coinfection with Legionella pneumophila serogroup 8 and Aspergillus fumigatus.  

PubMed

Legionella pneumophila is an important cause of community-acquired and nosocomial pneumonia. We report on a patient who simultaneously developed L. pneumophila serogroup 8 pneumonia and Aspergillus fumigatus lung abscesses. Despite appropriate treatments, Aspergillus disease progressed with metastasis. Coinfections caused by L. pneumophila and A. fumigatus remain exceptional. In apparently immunocompetent patients, corticosteroid therapy is a key risk factor for aspergillosis. PMID:17945454

Guillouzouic, Aurélie; Bemer, Pascale; Gay-Andrieu, Françoise; Bretonničre, Cédric; Lepelletier, Didier; Mahé, Pierre-Joachim; Villers, Daniel; Jarraud, Sophie; Reynaud, Alain; Corvec, Stéphane

2008-02-01

122

Molecular Studies Reveal Frequent Misidentification of Aspergillus fumigatus by Morphotyping  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aspergillus fumigatus has been understood to be the most common cause of invasive aspergillosis (IA) in all epidemiological surveys. However, recent studies have uncovered a large degree of genetic heterogeneity between isolates morphologically identified as A. fumigatus, leading to the description of a new species, Aspergillus lentulus. Here, we examined the genetic diversity of clinical isolates identified as A. fumigatus

S. Arunmozhi Balajee; David Nickle; Janos Varga; Kieren A. Marr

2006-01-01

123

Fulminant antiphospholipid antibody syndrome complicated by Aspergillus tracheobronchitis  

PubMed Central

Aspergillus fumigatus is a filamentous mold that causes infections in patients who are inmmunocompromised. We report a case of Aspergillus tracheobronchitis in fulminant systemic lupus erythematosus case. Diagnosis with more invasive diagnostic procedures & aggressive antifungal therapy is indicated at early stage.

Yegneswaran Prakash, Peralam; Pandit, Vinay; Rao, Sugandhi P.

2012-01-01

124

Aflatoxigenicity in Aspergillus : molecular genetics, phylogenetic relationships and evolutionary implications  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aflatoxins (AFs) are toxic and carcinogenic secondary metabolites produced by isolates of Aspergillus section Flavi as well as a number of Aspergillus isolates that are classified outside of section Flavi. Characterization of the AF and sterigmatocystin (ST) gene clusters and analysis of factors governing regulation of their\\u000a biosynthesis has resulted in these two mycotoxins being the most extensively studied of

Jeffrey W. Cary; Kenneth C. Ehrlich

2006-01-01

125

Origin and diversification of the Milla Clade (Brodiaeoideae, Asparagaceae): a Neotropical group of six geophytic genera.  

PubMed

The Milla clade currently comprises six genera of geophytic plants distributed from Arizona to Guatemala. Three genera (Behria, Jaimehintonia and Petronymphe) are monotypic while the remaining genera (Bessera, Dandya and Milla) contain from two to ten (Milla) species. Parsimony, Maximum Likelihood and Bayesian Inference analyses were conducted with plastid and nuclear DNA sequences from a total of 181 plants belonging to 15 species in all six genera. Molecular dating was performed under a relaxed clock model. We examined the phylogenetic relationships of the genera and species, estimated origin-divergence times for the clade and genera and determined the ancestral distribution area of the clade by optimizing ancestral areas given current biogeographic distributions. The phylogenetic results suggest that final decisions on limits of the six genera in the Milla clade will have to be established until further taxonomic work is completed for Milla, in particular for the group of populations included under the name M. biflora. The later genus is rendered polyphyletic by other genera of the family. The origin of the Milla clade is estimated at 15.8Ma. Ancestral area of the clade most likely was located in the California Floristic Province and dispersal occurred most likely to the Chihuahuan-Coahuila Plateaus and the Trans-Mexican Volcanic Belt and from there to Baja California and the Sierra Madre del Sur. Two hypotheses that need further testing are proposed to explain complex relationships of genera and polyphyly of Milla, one in relation to fragmentation of populations and pollinator shifts and another suggesting that populations remained in refugia in the Trans-Mexican Volcanic Belt. PMID:24594063

Gándara, Etelvina; Specht, Chelsea D; Sosa, Victoria

2014-06-01

126

The Phylogenetics of Mycotoxin and Sclerotium Production in Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus oryzae  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aspergillus flavus is a common filamentous fungus that produces aflatoxins and presents a major threat to agriculture and human health. Previous phylogenetic studies of A. flavus have shown that it consists of two subgroups, called groups I and II, and morphological studies indicated that it consists of two morphological groups based on sclerotium size, called “S” and “L.” The industrially

David M Geiser; Joe W Dorner; Bruce W Horn; John W Taylor

2000-01-01

127

Effect of Serum Components on Biofilm Formation by Aspergillus fumigatus and Other Aspergillus Species.  

PubMed

Biofilm production by microorganisms is critical for their pathogenicity. Serum promotes biofilm production by Aspergillus fumigatus; however, its effects on other Aspergillus spp. have not been reported. We analyzed biofilm formation by five Aspergillus spp., i.e., A. fumigatus, A. flavus, A. nidulans, A. niger, and A. terreus, and examined the effects of serum/serum proteins such as fetal bovine serum (FBS), fetuin A, and bovine serum albumin (BSA) on hyphal growth, hyphal branching, and extracellular matrix (ECM) formation. The antifungal susceptibility of A. fumigatus isolates that formed biofilms was also examined. All serum/serum proteins promoted the growth of all these fungal species; growth promotion was most evident with FBS, followed by fetuin A and BSA. This effect was most evident in case of A. fumigatus and least evident in case of A. terreus. Electron microscopy showed thick ECM layers surrounding fungal cell walls after culture with FBS, particularly in A. fumigatus. An increase in hyphal branching caused by fetuin A was the highest in case of A. fumigatus and A. nidulans. Biofilm-forming A. fumigatus showed resistance to most antifungal agents, although a synergism of micafungin and amphotericin B was suggested. Our results indicate that serum promotes biofilm formation, including thick ECM, by many Aspergillus spp., particularly A. fumigatus, and that this may be closely related to its virulence. PMID:24858605

Wuren, Tuya; Toyotome, Takahito; Yamaguchi, Masashi; Takahashi-Nakaguchi, Azusa; Muraosa, Yasunori; Yahiro, Maki; Wang, Dan-Ni; Watanabe, Akira; Taguchi, Hideaki; Kamei, Katsuhiko

2014-01-01

128

The function and evolution of the Aspergillus genome  

PubMed Central

Species in the filamentous fungal genus Aspergillus display a wide diversity of lifestyles and are of great importance to humans. The decoding of genome sequences from a dozen species that vary widely in their degree of evolutionary affinity has galvanized studies of the function and evolution of the Aspergillus genome in clinical, industrial, and agricultural environments. Here, we synthesize recent key findings that shed light on the architecture of the Aspergillus genome, on the molecular foundations of the genus’ astounding dexterity and diversity in secondary metabolism, and on the genetic underpinnings of virulence in Aspergillus fumigatus, one of the most lethal fungal pathogens. Many of these insights dramatically expand our knowledge of fungal and microbial eukaryote genome evolution and function and argue that Aspergillus constitutes a superb model clade for the study of functional and comparative genomics.

Gibbons, John G.; Rokas, Antonis

2012-01-01

129

Nomenclatural considerations in naming species of Aspergillus and its teleomorphs  

PubMed Central

The nomenclature of Aspergillus is important in many fields of research and therefore the strategies for stable and efficient naming are important. The conservation of species names as accepted by the Aspergillus community is described. Published lists of accepted names provide that people who use Aspergillus and Penicillium taxonomies need no longer fear the overturning of names currently used. Aspergillus is a good example of a genus where the naming of both anamorph and teleomorph has been applied and arguments are given for maintaining the system of dual nomenclature. A protocol for describing new taxa in Aspergillus and their teleomorphs is proposed, including the availability of living ex type cultures, deposit of type cultures in at least two recognised culture collections, deposits of sequence data in specialised data bases and registration of the new names in MycoBank.

Pitt, J.I.; Samson, R.A.

2007-01-01

130

Discrimination of Aspergillus lentulus from Aspergillus fumigatus by Raman spectroscopy and MALDI-TOF MS.  

PubMed

In 2005, a new sibling species of Aspergillus fumigatus was discovered: Aspergillus lentulus. Both species can cause invasive fungal disease in immune-compromised patients. The species are morphologically very similar. Current techniques for identification are PCR-based or morphology-based. These techniques are labour-intense and not sufficiently discriminatory. Since A. lentulus is less susceptible to several antifungal agents, it is important to correctly identify the causative infectious agent in order to optimize antifungal therapy. In this study we determined whether Raman spectroscopy and/or MALDI-TOF MS were able to differentiate between A. lentulus and A. fumigatus. For 16 isolates of A. lentulus and 16 isolates of A. fumigatus, Raman spectra and peptide profiles were obtained using the Spectracell and MALDI-TOF MS (VITEK MS RUO, bioMérieux) respectively. In order to obtain reliable Raman spectra for A. fumigatus and A. lentulus, the culture medium needed to be adjusted to obtain colourless conidia. Only Raman spectra obtained from colourless conidia were reproducible and correctly identified 25 out of 32 (78 %) of the Aspergillus strains. For VITEK MS RUO, no medium adjustments were necessary. Pigmented conidia resulted in reproducible peptide profiles as well in this case. VITEK MS RUO correctly identified 100 % of the Aspergillus isolates, within a timeframe of approximately 54 h including culture. Of the two techniques studied here, VITEK MS RUO was superior to Raman spectroscopy in the discrimination of A. lentulus from A. fumigatus. VITEK MS RUO seems to be a successful technique in the daily identification of Aspergillus spp. within a limited timeframe. PMID:24030717

Verwer, P E B; van Leeuwen, W B; Girard, V; Monnin, V; van Belkum, A; Staab, J F; Verbrugh, H A; Bakker-Woudenberg, I A J M; van de Sande, W W J

2014-02-01

131

Aspergillus Meningitis: Diagnosis by Non-Culture-Based Microbiological Methods and Management  

Microsoft Academic Search

The performance of antibody detection, antigen detection, and Aspergillus genus-specific PCR for diagnosing Aspergillus meningitis was investigated with 26 cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) samples obtained from a single patient with proven infection caused by Aspergillus fumigatus. Immunoglobulin G antibodies directed against Aspergillus were not detected by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay in CSF or serum. The antigen galacto- mannan was detected in the

PAUL E. VERWEIJ; KEES BRINKMAN; HERBERT P. H. KREMER; BART-JAN KULLBERG; JACQUES F. G. M. MEIS

1999-01-01

132

Bioactive alkaloids from endophytic Aspergillus fumigatus.  

PubMed

Two new alkaloids, named 9-deacetylfumigaclavine C (1) and 9-deacetoxyfumigaclavine C (2), along with 12 known compounds (3-14), were isolated from the culture of Aspergillus fumigatus. The structures of the new compounds were elucidated by comprehensive spectroscopic analyses. Compound 2 showed selectively potent cytotoxicity against human leukemia cells (K562) with an IC(50) value of 3.1 microM, which was comparable to that of doxorubicin hydrochloride, a presently prescribed drug for the treatment of leukemia. Furthermore, 14-norpseurotin (4) significantly induced neurite outgrowth of rat pheochromocytoma cells (PC12) at a 10.0 microM concentration. PMID:19256529

Ge, Hui Ming; Yu, Zhi Guo; Zhang, Jie; Wu, Jun Hua; Tan, Ren Xiang

2009-04-01

133

Immune responses to Aspergillus fumigatus infections.  

PubMed

Aspergillus fumigatus is an important fungal pathogen of the immunocompromised host. Innate inflammatory and adaptive T cell responses contribute to defense against this pathogen. Toll-like receptors are involved in the activation of innate immune defenses against fungal spores and hyphae and contribute to the recruitment of inflammatory cells to sites of infection. T cell responses to A. fumigatus are rapid and robust, and their differentiation is influenced by the metabolic activity of spores. Ongoing investigations of immune responses to A. fumigatus are likely to provide opportunities to enhance defenses against this pathogen in the immunocompromised host. PMID:16399584

Rivera, Amariliz; Hohl, Tobias; Pamer, Eric G

2006-01-01

134

Immunochemical characterization of Aspergillus fumigatus antigens.  

PubMed Central

Culture filtrate antigens of Aspergillus fumigatus Ag 534 were purified by preparative isoelectric focusing and affinity chromatography. One of the pooled antigen fractions from the preparative isoelectric focusing step (pool 2) was passed through a concanavalin A column and yielded two components, designated antigens IIa and IIb. Antigen IIb reacted more strongly than antigen IIa with all of the aspergilloma and allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis sera tested by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The glycoprotein nature of antigen IIb was shown by the concanavalin A binding properties and staining reactions of the components.

Kurup, V P; Ting, E Y; Fink, J N

1983-01-01

135

Key to the recognition of normapolles and some morphologically similar pollen genera  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A dichotomous key to the recognition of 86 Normapolles and morphologically similar pollen genera is presented. The key is accompanied by line drawings of each genus and an illustrated glossary of descriptive terms. ?? 1981.

Batten, D. J.; Christopher, R. A.

1981-01-01

136

Holothurians of the Genera Elpidia and Kolga from the Canadian Basin of the Arctic Ocean.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A number of bottom samples taken from the drifting ice station Arlis II (Arctic Research Laboratory Ice Station 2) as it drifted across the Arctic Basin included representatives of two genera of elasipodid holothurians, Elpidia and Kolga. These specimens ...

C. P. Agatep

1967-01-01

137

Nuclear DNA content of Vitis species, cultivars, and other genera of the Vitaceae  

Microsoft Academic Search

The nuclear DNA content was analyzed in Vitis species, hybrid cultivars, and genera of the Vitaceae using flow cytometry. Significant variation was found among Vitis species, hybrids, and other genera of the Vitaceae (Ampelopsis and Parthenocissus). DNA content was estimated to range from 0.98 to 1.05 pg\\/2C within V. labrusca (ns) and 0.86 to 1.00 pg\\/2C within V. vinifera (ns).

M. A. Lodhi; B. I. Reisch

1995-01-01

138

Relationships among the genera Ashbya, Eremothecium, Holleya and Nematospora determined from rDNA sequence divergence  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Species of the generaAshbya, Eremothecium, Holleya, andNematospora were compared from extent of divergence in a 580-nucleotide region near the 5' end of the large subunit (26S) ribosomal DNA gene. The four genera are closely related and comprise a subclade of the hemiascomycetes. Because the taxa show little divergence, it is proposed that all be placed in the genusEremothecium. The

Cletus P. Kurtzman

1995-01-01

139

MOSCHweb - a matrix-based interactive key to the genera of the Palaearctic Tachinidae (Insecta, Diptera).  

PubMed

We provide a general overview of features and technical specifications of an original interactive key web application for the identification of Palaearctic Tachinidae genera. The full list of terminal taxa included in the key, which is the most updated list of genera currently recorded for the Palaearctic Region, is given. We also briefly discuss the need for dealing with detailed and standardized taxa descriptions as a base to keep matrix-based interactive tools easily updated, by proposing a standardized protocol. PMID:22792031

Cerretti, Pierfilippo; Tschorsnig, Hans-Peter; Lopresti, Massimo; Giovanni, Filippo Di

2012-01-01

140

Phytase activity in Aspergillus fumigatus isolates.  

PubMed

Extracellular phytase from Aspergillus fumigatus isolates was characterized and their genes were cloned and sequenced. Based on their banding pattern in SDS-PAGE all phytases were found to be glycosylated and have similar molecular mass. A correlation between lower optimum pH (4.0) and a higher optimum temperature (70 degrees C) was found in these enzymes. All enzymes characterized displayed a lower specific activity for phytic acid and were more susceptible to proteolytic degradation than the Aspergillus niger phytase that is now commercially available. DNA sequencing established almost no sequence variation in any of the genes and no correlation is evident between a specific amino acid sequence and any physicochemical and catalytic properties of the enzymes. Despite two of the isolates having identical deduced amino acid sequence, characterization of the enzymes encoded by these two identical genes revealed differences in both pH and temperature optimum. This suggests that differences in pH and temperature optimum in these four isolates of A. fumigatus may be due in part to subtle differences in posttranslational modification. PMID:10973795

Mullaney, E J; Daly, C B; Sethumadhavan, K; Rodriquez, E; Lei, X G; Ullah, A H

2000-09-01

141

Enhancing itaconic acid production by Aspergillus terreus.  

PubMed

Aspergillus terreus is successfully used for industrial production of itaconic acid. The acid is formed from cis-aconitate, an intermediate of the tricarboxylic (TCA) cycle, by catalytic action of cis-aconitate decarboxylase. It could be assumed that strong anaplerotic reactions that replenish the pool of the TCA cycle intermediates would enhance the synthesis and excretion rate of itaconic acid. In the phylogenetic close relative Aspergillus niger, upregulated metabolic flux through glycolysis has been described that acted as a strong anaplerotic reaction. Deregulated glycolytic flux was caused by posttranslational modification of 6-phosphofructo-1-kinase (PFK1) that resulted in formation of a highly active, citrate inhibition-resistant shorter form of the enzyme. In order to avoid complex posttranslational modification, the native A. niger pfkA gene has been modified to encode for an active shorter PFK1 fragment. By the insertion of the modified A. niger pfkA genes into the A. terreus strain, increased specific productivities of itaconic acid and final yields were documented by transformants in respect to the parental strain. On the other hand, growth rate of all transformants remained suppressed which is due to the low initial pH value of the medium, one of the prerequisites for the accumulation of itaconic acid by A. terreus mycelium. PMID:20461508

Tevz, Gregor; Bencina, Mojca; Legisa, Matic

2010-08-01

142

Acute community acquired Aspergillus pneumonia in a presumed immunocompetent host  

PubMed Central

Infection from Aspergillus results in a wide range of diseases from simple Aspergillus pneumonia to fatal invasive Aspergillosis. Though the fungus is known to predominantly affect the immunocompromised host, it has also been known to cause acute pneumonia in immunocompetent hosts which is invariably fatal. It presents as an acute pneumonia with bilateral chest infiltrates on radiograph. Early clinical suspicion and microbiological identification by measures such as broncho alveolar lavage and initiation of therapy with voricanozole significantly increase the chances of survival. In this article the authors discuss a case of acute community acquired Aspergillus pneumonia in an immunocompetent host who survived due to early identification and prompt treatment with appropriate antifungal medication.

Sridhar, Varun; Rajagopalan, Natarajan; C, Shivaprasad; Patil, Mahantesh; Varghese, Jaicob

2012-01-01

143

Aspergillus baeticus sp. nov. and Aspergillus thesauricus sp. nov., two species in section Usti from Spanish caves.  

PubMed

Two novel species of Aspergillus that are clearly distinct from all known species in section Usti were revealed during a study of microfungal communities in Spanish caves. The novel species identified in this study and additional species of Aspergillus section Usti are associated with places and substrates related to human activities in caves. Novel species are described using data from four loci (ITS, benA, caM and rpb2), morphology and basic chemical and physiological analyses. Members of the species Aspergillus thesauricus sp. nov. were isolated from various substrates, including decaying organic matter, cave air and cave sediment of the Cueva del Tesoro Cave (the Treasure cave); the species is represented by twelve isolates and is most closely related to the recently described Aspergillus germanicus. Members of the species Aspergillus baeticus sp. nov. were isolated from cave sediment in the Gruta de las Maravillas Cave (the Grotto of the Marvels); the species is represented by two isolates. An additional isolate was found in the Cueva del Tesoro Cave and in the Demänovská Peace Cave (Slovakia), suggesting a potentially wide distribution of this micro-organism. The species is related to Aspergillus ustus and Aspergillus pseudoustus. Both species were unable to grow at 37 °C, and a weakly positive, light greenish yellow Ehrlich reaction was observed in A. thesauricus. Unique morphological features alone are sufficient to distinguish both species from related taxa. PMID:22505602

Nováková, Alena; Hubka, Vit; Saiz-Jimenez, Cesareo; Kolarik, Miroslav

2012-11-01

144

Effect of gamma radiation on Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus ochraceus ultrastructure and mycotoxin production  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The aim of this work was to study the effect of gamma radiation (2 kGy) on Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus ochraceus ultrastructure. Moreover, the influence on aflatoxin B 1 and ochratoxin A production was also observed. Irradiated A. flavus strain showed a dull orangish colony while control strain showed the typical green color. Minor differences were observed on stipes, metulae and conidia size between control and irradiated A. flavus and A. ochraceus strains. Irradiated fungi showed ultrastructural changes on cell wall, plasmalema and cytoplasm levels. The levels of mycotoxins produced by irradiated strains were two times greater than those produced by control strains. Successive transferences of irradiated strains on malt extract agar allowed the fungus to recuperate morphological characteristics. Although minor changes in the fungal morphology were observed, ultrastructural changes at cell wall level and the increase of mycotoxin production ability were observed. Inappropriate storage of irradiated food and feed would allow the development of potentially more toxicogenic fungal propagules.

Ribeiro, J.; Cavaglieri, L.; Vital, H.; Cristofolini, A.; Merkis, C.; Astoreca, A.; Orlando, J.; Carú, M.; Dalcero, A.; Rosa, C. A. R.

2011-05-01

145

Aflatoxin Biosynthesis and Sclerotial Development in Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus parasiticus  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Aflatoxins are a family of fungal secondary metabolites. They are produced by species in the genus Aspergillus. The commonly recognized producers of aflatoxins include A. flavus, A. parasiticus, A. nomius, A. tamarii, A. pseudotamarii, A. bombycis, and A. ochraceoroseus (Cary et al. 2005). Aflatoxin contamination of agricultural commodities can arise from field conditions conducive to fungal\\u000a growth before harvest as

Perng-Kuang Chang

146

Aspergillus pragensis sp. nov. discovered during molecular reidentification of clinical isolates belonging to Aspergillus section Candidi.  

PubMed

The identity of nine clinical isolates recovered from Czech patients and presumptively identified as Aspergillus sp. section Candidi based on colony morphology was revised using sequences of ?-tubulin, calmodulin gene sequence, and internal transcribed spacer rDNA. Six isolates were from suspected and proven onychomycosis, one from otitis externa, and two associated with probable invasive aspergillosis. The results showed that one Aspergillus candidus isolate was the cause of otitis externa, and both isolates obtained from sputa of patients with probable invasive aspergillosis were reidentified as A. carneus (sect. Terrei) and A. flavus (sect. Flavi). Three isolates from nail scrapings were identified as A. tritici, a verified agent of nondermatophyte onychomycosis. One isolate from toenail was determined to be A. candidus and the two isolates belonged to a hitherto undescribed species, Aspergillus pragensis sp. nov. This species is well supported by phylogenetic analysis based on ?-tubulin and calmodulin gene and is distinguishable from other members of sect. Candidi by red-brown reverse on malt extract agar, slow growth on Czapek-Dox agar and inability to grow at 37°C. A secondary metabolite analysis was also provided with comparison of metabolite spectrum to other species. Section Candidi now encompasses five species for which a dichotomous key based on colony characteristics is provided. All clinical isolates were tested for susceptibilities to selected antifungal agents using the Etest and disc diffusion method. Overall sect. Candidi members are highly susceptible to common antifungals. PMID:24951723

Hubka, Vit; Lyskova, Pavlina; Frisvad, Jens C; Peterson, Stephen W; Skorepova, Magdalena; Kolarik, Miroslav

2014-08-01

147

Survey of Vietnamese peanuts, corn and soil for the presence of Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus parasiticus.  

PubMed

Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus parasiticus cause perennial infection of agriculturally important crops in tropical and subtropical areas. Invasion of crops by these fungi may result in contamination of food and feed by potent carcinogenic aflatoxins. Consumption of aflatoxin contaminated foods is a recognised risk factor for human hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and may contribute to the high incidence of HCC in Southeast Asia. This study conducted a survey of Vietnamese crops (peanuts and corn) and soil for the presence of aflatoxigenic fungi and used microsatellite markers to investigate the genetic diversity of Vietnamese Aspergillus strains. From a total of 85 samples comprising peanut (25), corn (45) and soil (15), 106 strains were isolated. Identification of strains by colony morphology and aflatoxin production found all Vietnamese strains to be A. flavus with no A. parasiticus isolated. A. flavus was present in 36.0% of peanut samples, 31.1% of corn samples, 27.3% of farmed soil samples and was not found in virgin soil samples. Twenty-five per cent of the strains produced aflatoxins. Microsatellite analysis revealed a high level of genetic diversity in the Vietnamese A. flavus population. Clustering, based on microsatellite genotype, was unrelated to aflatoxin production, geographic origin or substrate origin. PMID:19693687

Tran-Dinh, N; Kennedy, I; Bui, T; Carter, D

2009-11-01

148

Okaramines H and I, new okaramine congeners, from aspergillus aculeatus  

PubMed

Two new congeners of okaramine, okaramines H (3) and I (4), were isolated from okara fermented with Aspergillus aculeatus KF-428. Their structures were elucidated by spectroscopic methods. Neither okaramine H nor I showed insecticidal activity against silkworms. PMID:10075772

Hayashi; Furutsuka; Shiono

1999-02-01

149

Growth pattern of the surface of fungus Aspergillus colony  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Aspergillus oryzae colonies were grown under various glucose concentrations, temperatures, and agar concentrations, and the effects on the pattern were investigated. Patterns of colony were found to vary from uniform to diffusion-limited aggregation type.

Matsuura, Shu; Miyazima, Sasuke

1992-05-01

150

Aspergillus flavus endaortitis following aortic valvotomy  

PubMed Central

Aspergillar endaortitis does not seem to have been described before in the English literature. Our patient had undergone aortic valvotomy and subsequently developed leg pains, migratory arthralgias, periarticular swelling, and general malaise. Mild intermittent pyrexia, evanescent petechiae, splinter haemorrhages, and peripheral small artery occlusion characterized the early course in hospital. Dramatic popliteal artery occlusion led to surgical recovery of embolic material packed with mycelia of Aspergillus flavus, but the patient died despite intravenous amphotericin B therapy. Necropsy revealed endaortitis and aspergilli were demonstrated in the wall of a saccular dilatation of the ascending aorta close to non-absorbable sutures. The relevant literature is reviewed and attention is drawn to the current implications of knowledge relating to risk factors, diagnosis, and treatment. We suggest that cardiovascular aspergillosis will now be encountered more frequently and that a different therapeutic approach is justified. Images

Malcolm, A. D.; Bakerspigel, A.; Enriquez, A. A.

1971-01-01

151

Genetics of Polyketide Metabolism in Aspergillus nidulans  

PubMed Central

Secondary metabolites are small molecules that show large structural diversity and a broad range of bioactivities. Some metabolites are attractive as drugs or pigments while others act as harmful mycotoxins. Filamentous fungi have the capacity to produce a wide array of secondary metabolites including polyketides. The majority of genes required for production of these metabolites are mostly organized in gene clusters, which often are silent or barely expressed under laboratory conditions, making discovery and analysis difficult. Fortunately, the genome sequences of several filamentous fungi are publicly available, greatly facilitating the establishment of links between genes and metabolites. This review covers the attempts being made to trigger the activation of polyketide metabolism in the fungal model organism Aspergillus nidulans. Moreover, it will provide an overview of the pathways where ten polyketide synthase genes have been coupled to polyketide products. Therefore, the proposed biosynthesis of the following metabolites will be presented; naphthopyrone, sterigmatocystin, aspyridones, emericellamides, asperthecin, asperfuranone, monodictyphenone/emodin, orsellinic acid, and the austinols.

Klejnstrup, Marie L.; Frandsen, Rasmus J. N.; Holm, Dorte K.; Nielsen, Morten T.; Mortensen, Uffe H.; Larsen, Thomas O.; Nielsen, Jakob B.

2012-01-01

152

Histopathological implications of Aspergillus infection in lung.  

PubMed

This paper opens with a discussion on the significance of invasive fungal infections in advanced contemporary medicine, with an emphasis on the intractability of disease management and the difficulties of diagnosis. This is followed by a discussion concerning classification, histopathological features, and pathophysiology. While it has been largely accepted that Aspergillus species is recognized by cellular receptors and attacked by neutrophils, the radiological and macroscopic findings linking infection with neutropenia remain unconfirmed. In an effort to gain a better understanding of the pathophysiology and pathogenesis of invasive aspergillosis, we wish to emphasize the utility of radiological and histopathological examinations since these can provide detailed information on the extremely complex interaction between the causative microbes and tissue responses. A review of noninvasive or semi-invasive aspergillosis is also provided, with particular emphasis on chronic necrotizing pulmonary aspergillosis, which is recognized as a transition form of simple pulmonary aspergilloma and invasive pulmonary aspergillosis, although few findings have been reported in this area. PMID:24347836

Tochigi, Naobumi; Okubo, Yoichiro; Ando, Tsunehiro; Wakayama, Megumi; Shinozaki, Minoru; Gocho, Kyoko; Hata, Yoshinobu; Ishiwatari, Takao; Nemoto, Tetsuo; Shibuya, Kazutoshi

2013-01-01

153

Environmental fungicides and triazole resistance in Aspergillus.  

PubMed

Fungal diseases are problematic in both human health and agriculture. Treatment options are limited and resistance may emerge. The relatively recent recognition of triazole resistance in Aspergillus fumigatus has prompted questioning of the origin of resistance. While multiple mechanisms are described in clinical isolates from triazole-treated patients, some de novo resistance is also recognised, especially attributable to TR34 /L98H. Such strains probably arose in the environment, and, indeed, multiple studies have now demonstrated TR(34) /L98H triazole resistance strains of A. fumigatus from soil. Docking and other in vitro studies are consistent with environmental resistance induction through exposure to certain triazole fungicides, notably difenoconazole, propiconazole, epoxiconazole, bromuconazole and tebuconazole. This article addresses the potential implications of this issue for both human health and food security. PMID:23616354

Bowyer, Paul; Denning, David W

2014-02-01

154

Cross-talk between light and glucose regulation controls toxin production and morphogenesis in Aspergillus nidulans.  

PubMed

Light is a major environmental stimulus that has a broad effect on organisms, triggering a cellular response that results in an optimal adaptation enhancing fitness and survival. In fungi, light affects growth, and causes diverse morphological changes such as those leading to reproduction. Light can also affect fungal metabolism, including the biosynthesis of natural products. In this study we show that in Aspergillus nidulans the effect of light on the production of the sterigmatocystin (ST) toxin depends on the glucose concentration. In cultures grown with 1% glucose and exposed to light, ST production was lower than when grown in the dark. This lower ST production coincided with an elevated rate of cellular damage with partial loss of nuclear integrity and vacuolated cytoplasm. However, in cultures grown with 2% glucose these effects were reversed and light enhanced ST production. Glucose abundance also affected the light-dependent subcellular localization of the VeA (velvet) protein, a key regulator necessary for normal light-dependent morphogenesis and secondary metabolism in Aspergilli and other fungal genera. The role of other VeA-associated proteins, particularly the blue-light-sensing proteins LreA and LreB (WC-1 and WC-2 orthologs), on conidiation could also be modified by the abundance of glucose. We also show that LreA and LreB, as well as the phytochrome FphA, modulate not only the synthesis of sterigmatocystin, but also the production of the antibiotic penicillin. PMID:20816830

Atoui, A; Kastner, C; Larey, C M; Thokala, R; Etxebeste, O; Espeso, E A; Fischer, R; Calvo, A M

2010-12-01

155

Molecular phylogeny and new classification of the genera Eulophias and Zoarchias (PISCES, Zoarcoidei).  

PubMed

Morphological and osteological studies of the Zoarcoidei group have previously been undertaken, but the group (especially the genera Eulophias and Zoarchias) still remains enigmatic. Therefore, we conducted molecular phylogenetic studies on the two genera Eulophias and Zoarchias using two mitochondrial (16S rRNA and COI) and two nuclear genes (RAG2 and RNF213). Our phylogenetic analysis supported the monophyly of the suborder level of the Zoarcoidei, but rejected the previous morphology- and osteology-based classification hypotheses regarding the two genera. Conflict between mtDNA and nDNA phylogenies within the genus Eulophias implies that the genus shows a complicated relationship such as hybridization in the process of the evolutionary history. The genetic distances between the Eulophias (or Zoarchias) and other Zoarcoidei spp. were the greatest, showing different family-level affiliations. In addition, the mtDNA topology showed the two genera were clearly separated from each other as well as from the families Stichaeidae and Zoarcidae. Considering the new molecular phylogeny, we suggest a new classification for the two genera: (1) Eulophias belongs to a new family named as the Eulophiidae; (2) Zoarchias belongs to the family Neozoarcidae (sensu Radchenko et al., 2012b) rather than to Stichaeidae and Zoarcidae. PMID:23845463

Kwun, Hyuck Joon; Kim, Jin-Koo

2013-12-01

156

The phylogenetic position of Serratia, Buttiauxella and some other genera of the family Enterobacteriaceae.  

PubMed

The phylogenetic relationships of the type strains of 38 species from 15 genera of the family Enterobacteriaceae were investigated by comparative 16S rDNA analysis. Several sequences of strains from the genera Citrobacter, Erwinia, Pantoea, Proteus, Rahnella and Serratia, analysed in this study, have been analysed previously. However, as the sequences of this study differ slightly from the published ones, they were included in the analysis. Of the 23 enterobacterial genera included in an overview dendrogram of relatedness, members of the genera Xenorhabdus, Photorhabdus, Proteus and Plesiomonas were used as a root. The other genera formed two groups which could be separated, although not exclusively, by signature nucleotides at positions 590-649 and 600-638. Group A contains species of Brenneria, Buttiauxella, Citrobacter, Escherichia, Erwinia, Klebsiella, Pantoea, Pectobacterium and Salmonella. All seven type strains of Buttiauxella share 16S rDNA similarities greater than 99%. Group B embraces two phylogenetically separate Serratia clusters, a lineage containing Yersinia species, Rahnella aquatica, Ewingella americana, and also the highly related pair Hafnia alvei and Obesumbacterium proteus. PMID:10555323

Spröer, C; Mendrock, U; Swiderski, J; Lang, E; Stackebrandt, E

1999-10-01

157

Relationships among genera of the Saccharomycotina (Ascomycota) from multigene phylogenetic analysis of type species.  

PubMed

Relationships among ascomycetous yeast genera (subphylum Saccharomycotina, phylum Ascomycota) have been uncertain. In the present study, type species of 70 currently recognized genera are compared from divergence in the nearly entire nuclear gene sequences for large subunit rRNA, small subunit (SSU) rRNA, translation elongation factor-1?, and RNA polymerase II, subunits 1 (RPB1) and 2 (RPB2). The analysis substantiates earlier proposals that all known ascomycetous yeast genera now assigned to the Saccharomycotina represent a single clade. Maximum likelihood analysis resolved the taxa into eight large multigenus clades and four-one- and two-genus clades. Maximum parsimony and neighbor-joining analyses gave similar results. Genera of the family Saccharomycetaceae remain as one large clade as previously demonstrated, to which the genus Cyniclomyces is now assigned. Pichia, Saturnispora, Kregervanrija, Dekkera, Ogataea and Ambrosiozyma are members of a single large clade, which is separate from the clade that includes Barnettozyma, Cyberlindnera, Phaffomyces, Starmera and Wickerhamomyces. Other clades include Kodamaea, Metschnikowia, Debaryomyces, Cephaloascus and related genera, which are separate from the clade that includes Zygoascus, Trichomonascus, Yarrowia and others. This study once again demonstrates that there is limited congruence between a system of classification based on phenotype and a system determined from DNA sequences. PMID:22978764

Kurtzman, Cletus P; Robnett, Christie J

2013-02-01

158

Characterization of Recombinant Terrelysin, a Hemolysin of Aspergillus terreus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fungal hemolysins are potential virulence factors. Some fungal hemolysins belong to the aegerolysin protein family that includes\\u000a cytolysins capable of lysing erythrocytes and other cells. Here, we describe a hemolysin from Aspergillus terreus called terrelysin. We used the genome sequence database to identify the terrelysin sequence based on homology with other\\u000a known aegerolysins. Aspergillus terreus mRNA was isolated, transcribed to

Ajay P. Nayak; Françoise M. Blachere; Justin M. Hettick; Slawomir Lukomski; Detlef Schmechel; Donald H. Beezhold

2011-01-01

159

Effect of building construction on Aspergillus concentrations in a hospital.  

PubMed

Air samples taken in a hospital undergoing construction and analyzed with a quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) assay for the Aspergillus genus did not show elevated concentrations of Aspergillus or particulate matter with a diameter of 5 microm or less in patient areas. Air samples from the construction zone indicated the containment system, which used polyethylene film barrier and negative pressure, was effective. PMID:18419373

Goebes, Marian D; Baron, Ellen Jo; Mathews, Kathleen L; Hildemann, Lynn M

2008-05-01

160

Ribonuclease production by free and immobilized Aspergillus clavatus cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

Several fungal strains ofAspergillus andPenicillium were immobilized by cryopolymerization in polyvinyl alcohol cryogel beads.Aspergillus clavatus was the best producer of extracellular ribonuclease. Enzyme productivity and growth of free and immobilized cells in shake flasks and agitated bioreactor were studied. Ribonuclease production and growth behaviour depended on concentrations of glucose, peptone and soybean in the culture medium. Enzyme production was influenced

R. J. Manolov

1993-01-01

161

Production of citric acid with immobilized Aspergillus niger  

Microsoft Academic Search

The spores of Aspergillus niger were entrapped in calcium-alginate beads and precultivated in growth media with various amounts of nitrogen. During the following citric acid production in shaking cultures an optimum of acid formation and yield was observed after the precultivation with 100–200 mg\\/l NH4NO3. The productivity of the immobilized Aspergillus was found to be 1.5 times higher than in

H. Eikmeier; H. J. Rehm

1984-01-01

162

Ageratum conyzoides essential oil as aflatoxin suppressor of Aspergillus flavus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) is a highly toxic and carcinogenic metabolite produced by Aspergillus species on food and agricultural commodities. Inhibitory effects of essential oil of Ageratum conyzoides, on the mycelial growth and aflatoxin B1 production by Aspergillus flavus were studied. Cultures were incubated in yeast extract-sucrose (YES) broth for days at 25°C at the following different concentrations of the essential

Juliana H. C. Nogueira; Edlayne Gonçalez; Silvia R. Galleti; Roseane Facanali; Márcia O. M. Marques; Joana D. Felício

2010-01-01

163

Provisional keys to the genera of seaweeds of Micronesia, with new records for Guam and Yap  

PubMed Central

Artificial keys to the genera of blue-green, red, brown, and green marine benthic algae of Micronesia are given, including virtually all the genera reported from Palau, Guam, Commonwealth of the Northern Marianas, Federated States of Micronesia and the Marshall Islands. Twenty-two new species or genera are reported here for Guam and 7 for Yap; 11 of these are also new for Micronesia. Note is made of several recent published records for Guam and 2 species recently raised from varietal status. Finally, a list is given of nomenclatural changes that affect the 2003 revised checklist. An interactive version of the keys is included in the algal biodiversity website at http://university.uog.edu/botany/474.

LOBBAN, CHRISTOPHER S.; N'YEURT, ANTOINE D.R.

2008-01-01

164

Twining genera of (0,4) supersymmetric sigma models on K3  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Conformal field theories with (0,4) worldsheet supersymmetry and K3 target can be used to compactify the E 8 × E 8 heterotic string to six dimensions in a supersymmetric manner. The data specifying such a model includes an appropriate configuration of 24 gauge instantons in the E 8 × E 8 gauge group to satisfy the constraints of anomaly cancellation. In this note, we compute twining genera — elliptic genera with appropriate insertions of discrete symmetry generators in the trace — for (0,4) theories with various instanton embeddings. We do this by constructing linear sigma models which flow to the desired conformal field theories, and using the techniques of localization. We present several examples of such twining genera which are consistent with a moonshine relating these (0,4) models to the finite simple sporadic group M 24.

Harrison, Sarah; Kachru, Shamit; Paquette, Natalie M.

2014-04-01

165

The family Agaricaceae: phylogenies and two new white-spored genera.  

PubMed

A well resolved phylogeny of the Agaricaceae based on partial rpb2 sequences is presented from a wide geographic and systematic sampling of the family and compared to phylogenies based on nrLSU and tef1 sequences. A smaller dataset of the family focusing on the Agaricus clade of nrITS sequences and a combined dataset were used to determine the position of several white-spored taxa from northern Thailand. Two new genera are described from Thailand. Coniolepiota accommodates Lepiota spongodes, a gray-lilac-purple floccose white-spored species with a wide distribution in tropical Asia; Eriocybe has a white wooly felt-like covering of pileus and stipe, white spores and is described with one new species E. chionea, so far known only from northern Thailand. These new genera are closely related to three genera with colored spores (viz. Agaricus, Heinemannomyces and Clarkeinda) and not to other white-spored taxa. PMID:21193599

Vellinga, Else C; Sysouphanthong, Phongeun; Hyde, Kevin D

2011-01-01

166

Polyamine distribution profiles in the eighteen genera phylogenetically located within the Flavobacterium-Flexibacter-Cytophaga complex.  

PubMed

Cellular polyamines of eighteen genera belonging to the Flavobacterium-Flexibacter-Cytophaga complex were analysed by ion exchange liquid chromatography. Homospermidine was the major polyamine in the genera Bergeyella, Riemerella, Ornithobacterium, Weeksella, Capnocytophaga, Polaribacter and Psychroflexus belonging to the family Flavobacteriaceae. In the family Spirosomaceae, Runella, Spirosoma and Flectobacillus species contained spermidine whereas Cyclobacterium species contained homospermidine. Within a divergent cluster, Haliscomenobacter and Lewinella species contained spermidine whereas Saprospira grandis contained agmatine alone. The major polyamine of Chitinophaga and Sporocytophaga species was homospermidine. Flexithrix dorotheae contained spermidine. Microscilla marina, the type species of the genus Microscilla, contained spermidine and cadaverine. However, 'Microscilla sericea' contained homospermidine, 'Microscilla furvescens' contained spermidine, and 'Microscilla arenaria' lacked all polyamines. Polyamine profiles serve as a phenotypic chemotaxonomic marker for the reclassification of the genera belonging to the complex. PMID:11491527

Hamana, K; Nakagawa, Y

2001-01-01

167

[Susceptibility to antibiotics of bacteria from genera Micrococcus, Kocuria, Nesterenkonia, Kytococcus and Dermacoccus].  

PubMed

Two hundred and nineteen strains from genera Micrococcus, Kocuria, Nesterenkonia, Kytococcus and Dermacoccus isolated from different sources, such as saliva, skin of palm and forearm and from vestibule of nose were tested. The susceptibility to doxycycline, cetriaxone, cefuroxyme, amikacyne, amoksycillin with clavulanic acid, trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole, ampicillin, ciprofloxacin, penicillin and erythromycin were estimated. In general, bacteria from these genera are sensitive to most of selected antibiotics. Most of the strains showed resistance to ampicillin and erythromycin. None of these strains produced beta-lactamases. In infectious caused by bacteria from genera Micrococcus, Kocuria, Nesterenkonia, Kytococcus and Dermacoccus in clinical treatment should be used amoksycillin with clavulanic acid, doxycycline, cetriaxone, cefuroxyme, or amikacine because, with one's own range of activity embrace highest percentage of investigated strains. PMID:12908418

Szczerba, Izabela

2003-01-01

168

Biologically active substances from amphibians: preliminary studies on anurans from twenty-one genera of Thailand.  

PubMed

Amphibian skin has been the source of a wide variety of biologically active substances, but less than one-third of the known genera of amphibians have been probed for such active substances. Skins of 21 genera of anurans from Thailand have now been investigated for noxious secretions, toxic substances, and alkaloids. Four genera of bufonid toads (Bufo, Ansonia, Leptophryne, Pedostipes) were toxic due to the presence of bufadienolides or bufadienolide-like compounds. Two species of ranid frogs (Rana raniceps, Rana signata) were toxic, perhaps due to the presence of toxic peptide(s). Two species of rhacophorid frogs (Polypedates) were slightly noxious/toxic. One species of microhylid frog (Kaloula pulchra) was noxious. Trace amounts of pumiliotoxin alkaloids were detected in a ranid frog (Limnonectes kuhli). A further 18 species did not exhibit noxious or toxic properties to a significant extent. PMID:15530960

Daly, John W; Noimai, Naratitt; Kongkathip, Boonsong; Kongkathip, Ngampong; Wilham, Jason M; Garraffo, H Martin; Kaneko, Tetsuo; Spande, Thomas F; Nimit, Yuth; Nabhitabhata, Jarujin; Chan-Ard, Tanya

2004-12-15

169

New and revisited species in Aspergillus section Nigri  

PubMed Central

Four new species, Aspergillus eucalypticola, A. neoniger, A. fijiensis and A. indologenus are described and illustrated. Aspergillus eucalypticola was isolated from Eucalyptus leaf from Australia, and is related to A. tubingensis and A. costaricaensis, but could clearly be distinguished from them based on either ?-tubulin or calmodulin sequence data. Aspergillus eucalypticola produced pyranonigrin A, funalenone, aurasperone B and other naphtho-?-pyrones. Aspergillus neoniger is also a biseriate species isolated from desert sand in Namibia, and mangrove water in Venezuela, which produces aurasperone B and pyranonigrin A. Aspergillus fijiensis is a uniseriate species related to A. aculeatinus, and was isolated from soil in Fiji, and from Lactuca sativa in Indonesia. This species is able to grow at 37 °C, and produces asperparalines and okaramins. Aspergillus indologenus was isolated from soil, India. This species also belongs to the uniseriate group of black aspergilli, and was found to be related to, but clearly distinguishable from A. uvarum based on ?-tubulin, calmodulin and ITS sequence data. Aspergillus indologenus produced the insecticidal compounds okaramins A, B, H, and two types of indol-alkaloids which have not been structure elucidated. Two other species, A. violaceofuscus and A. acidus, are revalidated based on molecular and extrolite data. Aspergillus violaceofuscus was found to be related to A. japonicus, and produced some of the same interesting indol-alkaloids as A. indologenus, and also produced several families of partially characterised extrolites that were also found in A. heteromorphus. Aspergillus acidus (previously known as A. foetidus var. pallidus and A. foetidus var. acidus) is also a valid species, while A. foetidus is a synonym of A. niger based on molecular and physiological data. Two other species described previously, A. coreanus and A. lacticoffeatus, were found to be colour mutants of A. acidus and A. niger, respectively. Methods which could be used to distinguish the two closely related and economically important species A. niger and A. awamori are also detailed. Although these species differ in their occurrence and several physiological means (elastase activities, abilities to utilise 2-deoxy-D-glucose as sole carbon source), our data indicate that only molecular approaches including sequence analysis of calmodulin or ?-tubulin genes, AFLP analysis, UP-PCR analysis or mtDNA RFLP analysis can be used reliably to distinguish these sibling species. Aspergillus section Nigri now includes 26 taxa.

Varga, J.; Frisvad, J.C.; Kocsube, S.; Brankovics, B.; Toth, B.; Szigeti, G.; Samson, R.A.

2011-01-01

170

New and revisited species in Aspergillus section Nigri.  

PubMed

Four new species, Aspergillus eucalypticola, A. neoniger, A. fijiensis and A. indologenus are described and illustrated. Aspergillus eucalypticola was isolated from Eucalyptus leaf from Australia, and is related to A. tubingensis and A. costaricaensis, but could clearly be distinguished from them based on either ?-tubulin or calmodulin sequence data. Aspergillus eucalypticola produced pyranonigrin A, funalenone, aurasperone B and other naphtho-?-pyrones. Aspergillus neoniger is also a biseriate species isolated from desert sand in Namibia, and mangrove water in Venezuela, which produces aurasperone B and pyranonigrin A. Aspergillus fijiensis is a uniseriate species related to A. aculeatinus, and was isolated from soil in Fiji, and from Lactuca sativa in Indonesia. This species is able to grow at 37 °C, and produces asperparalines and okaramins. Aspergillus indologenus was isolated from soil, India. This species also belongs to the uniseriate group of black aspergilli, and was found to be related to, but clearly distinguishable from A. uvarum based on ?-tubulin, calmodulin and ITS sequence data. Aspergillus indologenus produced the insecticidal compounds okaramins A, B, H, and two types of indol-alkaloids which have not been structure elucidated. Two other species, A. violaceofuscus and A. acidus, are revalidated based on molecular and extrolite data. Aspergillus violaceofuscus was found to be related to A. japonicus, and produced some of the same interesting indol-alkaloids as A. indologenus, and also produced several families of partially characterised extrolites that were also found in A. heteromorphus. Aspergillus acidus (previously known as A. foetidus var. pallidus and A. foetidus var. acidus) is also a valid species, while A. foetidus is a synonym of A. niger based on molecular and physiological data. Two other species described previously, A. coreanus and A. lacticoffeatus, were found to be colour mutants of A. acidus and A. niger, respectively. Methods which could be used to distinguish the two closely related and economically important species A. niger and A. awamori are also detailed. Although these species differ in their occurrence and several physiological means (elastase activities, abilities to utilise 2-deoxy-D-glucose as sole carbon source), our data indicate that only molecular approaches including sequence analysis of calmodulin or ?-tubulin genes, AFLP analysis, UP-PCR analysis or mtDNA RFLP analysis can be used reliably to distinguish these sibling species. Aspergillus section Nigri now includes 26 taxa. PMID:21892239

Varga, J; Frisvad, J C; Kocsubé, S; Brankovics, B; Tóth, B; Szigeti, G; Samson, R A

2011-06-30

171

Aspergillus fumigatus Invasion Increases with Progressive Airway Ischemia  

PubMed Central

Despite the prevalence of Aspergillus-related disease in immune suppressed lung transplant patients, little is known of the host-pathogen interaction. Because of the mould’s angiotropic nature and because of its capacity to thrive in hypoxic conditions, we hypothesized that the degree of Aspergillus invasion would increase with progressive rejection-mediated ischemia of the allograft. To study this relationship, we utilized a novel orthotopic tracheal transplant model of Aspergillus infection, in which it was possible to assess the effects of tissue hypoxia and ischemia on airway infectivity. Laser Doppler flowmetry and FITC-lectin were used to determine blood perfusion, and a fiber optic microsensor was used to measure airway tissue oxygen tension. Fungal burden and depth of invasion were graded using histopathology. We demonstrated a high efficacy (80%) for producing a localized fungal tracheal infection with the majority of infection occurring at the donor-recipient anastomosis; Aspergillus was more invasive in allogeneic compared to syngeneic groups. During the study period, the overall kinetics of both non-infected and infected allografts was similar, demonstrating a progressive loss of perfusion and oxygenation, which reached a nadir by days 10-12 post-transplantation. The extent of Aspergillus invasion directly correlated with the degree of graft hypoxia and ischemia. Compared to the midtrachea, the donor-recipient anastomotic site exhibited lower perfusion and more invasive disease; a finding consistent with clinical experience. For the first time, we identify ischemia as a putative risk factor for Aspergillus invasion. Therapeutic approaches focused on preserving vascular health may play an important role in limiting Aspergillus infections.

Hsu, Joe L.; Khan, Mohammad A.; Sobel, Raymond A.; Jiang, Xinguo; Clemons, Karl V.; Nguyen, Tom T.; Stevens, David A.; Martinez, Marife; Nicolls, Mark R.

2013-01-01

172

21 CFR 173.120 - Carbohydrase and cellulase derived from Aspergillus niger.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...PERMITTED IN FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION Enzyme Preparations and Microorganisms § 173...Aspergillus niger. Carbohydrase and cellulase enzyme preparation derived from Aspergillus niger... from the carbohydrase and cellulase enzyme product. (d) The additive is...

2013-04-01

173

What is the importance of classifying Aspergillus disease in cystic fibrosis patients?  

PubMed

Aspergillus species are commonly isolated from lower respiratory tract samples of patients with cystic fibrosis (CF) and markers of immunological sensation to Aspergillus are frequently encountered in this group of patients; however, the contribution of Aspergillus to CF lung disease outside of the typical complications of ABPA and aspergilloma formation remains largely unclear. Patients with CF show discretely different responses to Aspergillus, though the underlying reasons for this variation are unknown. Recent work has begun to allow us to categorize patient responses to Aspergillus based upon molecular markers of infection and immune sensitization. Aspergillus sensitization and/or airway infection is associated with worse FEV1, in CF and other patients (asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, bronchiectasis). Classification of different clinical phenotypes of Aspergillus will enable future studies to determine the natural history of different manifestations of Aspergillus disease and evaluate the effects of intervention with antifungal therapy. PMID:24869560

Jones, Andrew M; Horsley, Alex; Denning, David W

2014-08-01

174

Fungal life in the dead sea.  

PubMed

The waters of the Dead Sea currently contain about 348 g/l salts (2 M Mg(2+), 0.5 M Ca(2+), 1.5 M Na(+), 0.2 M K(+), 6.5 M Cl(-), 0.1 M Br(-)). The pH is about 6.0. After rainy winters the surface waters become diluted, triggering development of microbial blooms. The 1980 and 1992 blooms were dominated by the unicellular green alga Dunaliella and red Archaea. At least 70 species (in 26 genera) of Oomycota (Chromista), Mucoromycotina, Ascomycota, and Basidiomycota (Fungi) were isolated from near-shore localities and offshore stations, including from deep waters. Aspergillus and Eurotium were most often recovered. Aspergillus terreus, A. sydowii, A. versicolor, Eurotium herbariorum, Penicillium westlingii, Cladosporium cladosporioides, C. sphaerospermum, C. ramnotellum, and C. halotolerans probably form the stable core of the community. The species Gymnascella marismortui may be endemic. Mycelia of Dead Sea isolates of A. versicolor and Chaetomium globosum remained viable for up to 8 weeks in Dead Sea water; mycelia of other species survived for many weeks in 50% Dead Sea water. Many isolates showed a very high tolerance to magnesium salts. There is no direct proof that fungi contribute to the heterotrophic activity in the Dead Sea, but fungi may be present at least locally and temporarily, and their enzymatic activities such as amylase, protease, and cellulase may play a role in the lake's ecosystem. PMID:22222829

Oren, Aharon; Gunde-Cimerman, Nina

2012-01-01

175

Visual pigment diversity in two genera of mantis shrimps implies rapid evolution (Crustacea; Stomatopoda)  

Microsoft Academic Search

1.Interspecific diversity in the visual pigments of stomatopod crustaceans was characterized using microspectrophotometry. We examined the 10 visual pigments in main rhabdoms in retinas of 3 species of each of two genera of stomatopod crustaceans of the superfamily Gonodactyloidea, Gonodactylus (G. oerstedii, G. aloha, and G. curacaoensis) and Odontodactylus (O. scyllarus, O. brevirostris, and O. “havanensis”). Species were selected to

T. W. Cronin; N. J. Marshall; R. L. Caldwell

1996-01-01

176

A plastid gene phylogeny of the non-photosynthetic parasitic Orobanche (Orobanchaceae) and related genera.  

PubMed

The phylogenetic relationships of the non-photosynthetic Orobanche sensu lato (Orobanchaceae), which includes some of the economically most important parasitic weeds, remain insufficiently understood and controversial. This concerns both the phylogenetic relationships within the genus, in particular its monophyly or lack thereof, and the relationships to other holoparasitic genera such as Cistanche or Conopholis. Here we present the first comprehensive phylogenetic study of this group based on a region from the plastid genome (rps2 gene). Although substitution rates appear to be elevated compared to the photosynthetic members of Orobanchaceae, relationships among the major lineages Cistanche, Conopholis plus Epifagus, Boschniakia rossica (Cham. & Schltdl.) B. Fedtsch., B. himalaica Hook. f. & Thomson, B. hookeri Walp. plus B. strobilacea A. Gray, and Orobanche s. l. remain unresolved. Resolution within Orobanche, however, is much better. In agreement with morphological, cytological and other molecular phylogenetic evidence, five lineages, corresponding to the four traditionally recognised sections (Gymnocaulis, Myzorrhiza, Orobanche, Trionychon) and O. latisquama Reut. ex Boiss. (of sect. Orobanche), can be distinguished. A combined analysis of plastid rps2 and nuclear ITS sequences of the holoparasitic genera results in more resolved and better supported trees, although the relationships among Orobanche s. l., Cistanche, and the clade including the remaining genera is unresolved. Therefore, rps2 is a marker from the plastid genome that is well-suited to be used in combination with other already established nuclear markers for resolving generic relationships of Orobanche and related genera. PMID:18483784

Park, Jeong-Mi; Manen, Jean-François; Colwell, Alison E; Schneeweiss, Gerald M

2008-07-01

177

An illustrated key to the genera of Thripinae (Thysanoptera, Thripidae) from Iran  

PubMed Central

Abstract An illustrated key is provided for the identification of 35 genera of Thripinae (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) from Iran with comments for each genus. Chirothrips maximi Ananthakrishnan and Limothrips cerealium Haliday are recorded from Iran for the first time. A checklist is provided of Thripinae recorded from this country.

Mirab-balou, Majid; Minaei, Kambiz; Chen, Xue-Xin

2013-01-01

178

Two new genera and three new species of Pteromalidae (Hymenoptera: Chalcidoidea) from India  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two new genera of Pteromalidae namely Kumarella and Narendrella, with type species K. angulus and N. nilamburensis respectively are described from India. Miscogasteriella Girault is reported for the first time from India by describing a new species, M. jayasreeae from Kerala.

P. M. Sureshan

1999-01-01

179

Geometric morphometric analysis of fish scales for identifying genera, species, and local populations within the Mugilidae  

Microsoft Academic Search

Geometric morphometric methods (GMMs) were used to determine if scale morphology can discriminate be- tween genera, species, geographic variants, and stocks of mullet (Mugilidae). GMMs were used because they allow standard multivariate analyses while preserving information about scale shape, which is important in making biological interpretations of results. The method was tested on ctenoid scales from mullets collected from different

Ana L. Ibańez; Ian G. Cowx; Paul O'Higgins

2007-01-01

180

MEMBRANE FILTER PROCEDURE FOR ENUMERATING THE COMPONENT GENERA OF THE COLIFORM GROUP IN SEAWATER  

EPA Science Inventory

A facile, quantitative, membrane filter procedure (mC) for defining the distribution of coliform populations in seawater according to the component genera was developed. The procedure, which utilizes a series of in situ substrate tests to obviate the picking of colonies for ident...

181

Systematics and Phylogeography of Pocket Gophers in the Genera Cratogeomys and Pappogeomys  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mitochondrial-DNA sequence data were analyzed from individuals sampled from 38 localities across the complete geographic range of the closely related pocket gopher genera Pappogeomys and Cratogeomys. Results of phylogenetic analysis of 1133 base pairs from the cytochrome b gene are consistent with past hypotheses of relationships among members of the castanops species group within the genus Cratogeomys. However, phylogeographic variation

James W. Demastes; Theresa A. Spradling; Mark S. Hafner; David J. Hafner; David L. Reed

2002-01-01

182

New Records and Range Extensions for Several Chironomid Genera from Lake Superior  

EPA Science Inventory

Five genera of chironomids have been reported for the first time in Lake Superior. Chironomids are small flying insects with a sediment-dwelling aquatic larval stage. The chironomids were collected by scientists at the Mid-Continent Ecology Division as part of a research program ...

183

GENETIC DIVERSITY AND RELATIONSHIPS REVEALED BY AFLP MARKERS AMONG SACCHARUM SPONTANEUM AND RELATED SPECIES AND GENERA  

Microsoft Academic Search

Modern sugarcane cultivars are genetically vulnerable because the narrow gene pool from which they are derived originated from a few inter-specific hybrids between Saccharum officinarum and its wild relatives, including S. spontaneum . Efforts are being made to broaden the genetic base of cultivated sugarcane through wide crosses with S. spontaneum and other related species and genera. The objective of

J. A. Arro; J. C. Veremis; C. A. Kimbeng; C. Botanga

184

A plastid gene phylogeny of the non-photosynthetic parasitic Orobanche (Orobanchaceae) and related genera  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The phylogenetic relationships of the non-photosynthetic Orobanche sensu lato (Orobanchaceae), which includes some of the economically most important parasitic weeds, remain insufficiently understood and controversial. This concerns both the phylogenetic relationships within the genus, in particular its monophyly or lack thereof, and the relationships to other holoparasitic genera such as Cistanche or Conopholis. Here we present the first comprehensive phylogenetic study of this group based on a region from the plastid genome (rps2 gene). Although substitution rates appear to be elevated compared to the photosynthetic members of Orobanchaceae, relationships among the major lineages Cistanche, Conopholis plus Epifagus, Boschniakia rossica (Cham. & Schltdl.) B. Fedtsch., B. himalaica Hook. f. & Thomson, B. hookeri Walp. plus B. strobilacea A. Gray, and Orobanche s. l. remain unresolved. Resolution within Orobanche, however, is much better. In agreement with morphological, cytological and other molecular phylogenetic evidence, five lineages, corresponding to the four traditionally recognised sections (Gymnocaulis, Myzorrhiza, Orobanche, Trionychon) and O. latisquama Reut. ex Boiss. (of sect. Orobanche), can be distinguished. A combined analysis of plastid rps2 and nuclear ITS sequences of the holoparasitic genera results in more resolved and better supported trees, although the relationships among Orobanche s. l., Cistanche, and the clade including the remaining genera is unresolved. Therefore, rps2 is a marker from the plastid genome that is well-suited to be used in combination with other already established nuclear markers for resolving generic relationships of Orobanche and related genera. ?? 2008 The Botanical Society of Japan and Springer.

Park, J. -M.; Manen, J. -F.; Colwell, A. E.; Schneeweiss, G. M.

2008-01-01

185

Deoxyribonucleic Acid Relationships Among Hydrogen Oxidizing Strains of the Genera Pseudomonas, Alcaligenes, and Paracoccus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Optical determination of deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) -DNA reassociation ki- netics was applied to the classification of 32 selected strains of hydrogen-oxidizing bacteria belonging to the genera Pseudomonas, Alcaligenes, and Paracoccus. The renaturation studies revealed a high intraspecies DNA homology for some strains of the species Pseudomonas palleronii, Pseudomonas pseudoflava, and Alcaligenes paradoxus, supporting former taxonomic concepts of different au- thors.

G. AULING; M. DITTBRENNER; M. MAARZAHL; T. NOKHAL; M. REH

186

Galactosaminogalactan from cell walls of Aspergillus niger.  

PubMed Central

A new heteropolysaccharide has been isolated by alkaline extraction of hyphal walls of Aspergillus niger NRRL 326 grown in surface culture. Its composition by weight, as determined by paper and gas chromatography and colorimetric analyses, is 70% galactose, 20% galactosamine, 6% glucose, and 1% acetyl. Two independent experiments have been used to ascertain copolymer structure: permeation chromatography in 6 M guanidinium hydrochloride, with controlled-pore glass columns of two fractionation ranges, and nitrous acid deaminative cleavage of galactosaminogalactan followed by reduction of fragments with [3H]borohydride and gel filtration chromatography. One of the tritiated fragments is tentatively identified as the disaccharide derivative galactopyranosyl 2,5-anhydrotalitol, on the basis of chromatographic properties and by kinetics of its acid hydrolysis. Smith degradation, methylation, deamination, and optical rotation studies indicate that the galactosaminogalactan consists of a linear array of hexopyranosyl units joined almost exclusively by alpha-(1 leads to 4) linkages. Hexosaminyl moieties are distributed randomly along the chains, which have an average degree of polymerization of about 100. The possible significance of this macromolecule in hyphal structure is considered.

Bardalaye, P C; Nordin, J H

1976-01-01

187

A new diketopiperazine alkaloid from Aspergillus oryzae.  

PubMed

Investigation of bioactive secondary metabolites from terrestrial Aspergillus oryzae sp. MMAO1 using M2 medium afforded a new diketopiperazine alkaloid, 7,9-dihydroxy-3-(1H-indol-3-ylmethyl)-8-methoxy-2,3,11,11a-tetrahydro-6H-pyrazino[1,2-b]isoquinoline-1,4-dione (1a), containing the unusual amino acid L-6,8-dihydroxy-7-methoxyphenylalanine. This was co-isolated with ditryptophenaline (2), cyclo-(Tryp,Tyr) (4), cyclo-(Pro,Val), ?-cyclopiazonic acid (3), kojic acid and uridine. Re-cultivation of the fungal strain on Dox medium led to the production of bisdethio(bismethylthio)gliotoxin (5), pseurotin A (6) along with linoleic acid, ?-cyclopiazonic acid (3) and kojic acid. The chemical structure of the new diketopiperazine alkaloid including the relative configuration was determined by 1D and 2D NMR spectroscopy and HR-ESI-MS spectrometry, and by comparison with the related literature. The new alkaloid (1a) showed no antimicrobial activity or cytotoxicity against brine shrimps. PMID:24116376

Shaaban, Mohamed; El-Metwally, Mohammad Magdy; Nasr, Hamdi

2014-01-01

188

The Tip Growth Apparatus of Aspergillus nidulans  

PubMed Central

Hyphal tip growth in fungi is important because of the economic and medical importance of fungi, and because it may be a useful model for polarized growth in other organisms. We have investigated the central questions of the roles of cytoskeletal elements and of the precise sites of exocytosis and endocytosis at the growing hyphal tip by using the model fungus Aspergillus nidulans. Time-lapse imaging of fluorescent fusion proteins reveals a remarkably dynamic, but highly structured, tip growth apparatus. Live imaging of SYNA, a synaptobrevin homologue, and SECC, an exocyst component, reveals that vesicles accumulate in the Spitzenkörper (apical body) and fuse with the plasma membrane at the extreme apex of the hypha. SYNA is recycled from the plasma membrane by endocytosis at a collar of endocytic patches, 1–2 ?m behind the apex of the hypha, that moves forward as the tip grows. Exocytosis and endocytosis are thus spatially coupled. Inhibitor studies, in combination with observations of fluorescent fusion proteins, reveal that actin functions in exocytosis and endocytosis at the tip and in holding the tip growth apparatus together. Microtubules are important for delivering vesicles to the tip area and for holding the tip growth apparatus in position.

Taheri-Talesh, Naimeh; Horio, Tetsuya; Araujo-Bazan, Lidia; Dou, Xiaowei; Espeso, Eduardo A.; Penalva, Miguel A.; Osmani, Stephen A.

2008-01-01

189

Spotlight on Aspergillus nidulans photosensory systems.  

PubMed

Aspergilli are ubiquitous soil-borne fungi growing within or on the surface of numerous organic substrates. Growth within a substrate or growth on the surface correlates to different growth conditions for the hyphae due to significant changes in oxygen or reactive oxygen species levels and variations in humidity or temperature. The production of air-borne spores is supported by the substrate-air interphase and also requires a sensing system to adapt appropriately. Here we focus on light as important parameter for the mycelium to discriminate between different habitats. The fungal 'eye' includes several light sensors which react to a broad plethora of wavelengths. Aspergillus nidulans light receptors comprise a phytochrome for red-light sensing, white collar-like blue-light signaling proteins, a putative green-light sensing opsin and a cryptochrome/photolyase as distinct sensory systems. Red- and blue-light receptors are assembled into a light-sensing protein complex. Light receptors transmit their signal to a number of other regulatory proteins including a bridging protein, VeA, as part of a trimeric complex. VeA plays a central role in the balance of asexual and sexual development and in the coordination of morphogenesis and secondary metabolism. PMID:20573560

Bayram, Ozgür; Braus, Gerhard H; Fischer, Reinhard; Rodriguez-Romero, Julio

2010-11-01

190

Receptor-mediated signaling in Aspergillus fumigatus  

PubMed Central

Aspergillus fumigatus is the most pathogenic species among the Aspergilli, and the major fungal agent of human pulmonary infection. To prosper in diverse ecological niches, Aspergilli have evolved numerous mechanisms for adaptive gene regulation, some of which are also crucial for mammalian infection. Among the molecules which govern such responses, integral membrane receptors are thought to be the most amenable to therapeutic modulation. This is due to the localization of these molecular sensors at the periphery of the fungal cell, and to the prevalence of small molecules and licensed drugs which target receptor-mediated signaling in higher eukaryotic cells. In this review we highlight the progress made in characterizing receptor-mediated environmental adaptation in A. fumigatus and its relevance for pathogenicity in mammals. By presenting a first genomic survey of integral membrane proteins in this organism, we highlight an abundance of putative seven transmembrane domain (7TMD) receptors, the majority of which remain uncharacterized. Given the dependency of A. fumigatus upon stress adaptation for colonization and infection of mammalian hosts, and the merits of targeting receptor-mediated signaling as an antifungal strategy, a closer scrutiny of sensory perception and signal transduction in this organism is warranted.

Grice, C. M.; Bertuzzi, M.; Bignell, E. M.

2013-01-01

191

Solubilization of Morocco phosphorite by Aspergillus niger.  

PubMed

Phosphorus containing fertilizers have an important role in agriculture. Conventionally phosphate fertilizers are obtained by rock phosphate (RP) dissolution using mineral acids. Biotechnological methods can be a promising alternative in RP processing. The influence of Aspergillus niger strain, the composition of a nutritive medium, Morocco phosphorite (MP) concentration in the liquid medium, the time of bioconversion and the preliminary mechanical activation (PMA) of MP on the phosphorite microbial solubilization has been presented. The phosphorus concentration (as P2O5), citric acid production, glucose concentration and pH in the cultural medium were monitored. The phosphate concentration was expressed as water soluble - alpha1 (in the native cultural liquid), citrate soluble - alpha2 (after treating the biomass and remaining mineral mass with citric acid) and biomass available phosphorus - alpha3. Phosphate dissolution was not strongly correlated both with the citric acid production and the incubation period. When the fungi were grown without water soluble phosphorus compounds the MP solubilization had higher values. A maximum of 94.80% total P2O5 extraction was achieved. The PMA activity does not facilitate MP dissolution during the bioconversion. PMID:18468889

Bojinova, D; Velkova, R; Ivanova, R

2008-10-01

192

Rat monoclonal antibodies against Aspergillus galactomannan.  

PubMed Central

Monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) against Aspergillus fumigatus galactomannan were produced in rats. Seven of them, EB-A1 through EB-A7, were characterized in more detail. They were all immunoglobulin M antibodies, reacting in an indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay with purified A. fumigatus galactomannan, with avidity constants of between 2 x 10(9) and 5 x 10(9)/M. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay inhibition experiments with modified galactomannan and synthetic oligomers of beta (1----5)galactofuranose demonstrated that the MAbs bound to an epitope located on the beta(1----5)galactofuranose-containing side chains of the galactomannan molecule. An identical or similar epitope also seemed to be present in other fungi. Immunofluorescence and immunoelectron microscopy experiments with EB-A2 revealed the presence of the antigen in the fungal wall and inside the cell. Immunoblotting experiments demonstrated that the epitope recognized by the MAbs was a common oligosaccharide moiety of a wide range of intracellular and extracellular glycoproteins in A. fumigatus. The characteristics of the MAbs justify their use in the diagnosis of invasive aspergillosis by antigen detection. Images

Stynen, D; Sarfati, J; Goris, A; Prevost, M C; Lesourd, M; Kamphuis, H; Darras, V; Latge, J P

1992-01-01

193

Fingernail Onychomycosis Due to Aspergillus niger  

PubMed Central

Onychomycosis is usually caused by dermatophytes, but some species of nondermatophytic molds and yeasts are also associated with nail invasion. Aspergillus niger is a nondermatophytic mold which exists as an opportunistic filamentous fungus in all environments. Here, we report a case of onychomycosis caused by A. niger in a 66-year-old female. The patient presented with a black discoloration and a milky white base and onycholysis on the proximal portion of the right thumb nail. Direct microscopic examination of scrapings after potassium hydroxide (KOH) preparation revealed dichotomous septate hyphae. Repeated cultures on Sabouraud's dextrose agar (SDA) without cycloheximide produced the same black velvety colonies. No colony growth occurred on SDA with cycloheximide slants. Biseriate phialides covering the entire vesicle with radiate conidial heads were observed on the slide culture. The DNA sequence of the internal transcribed spacer region of the clinical sample was a 100% match to that of A. niger strain ATCC 16888 (GenBank accession number AY373852). A. niger was confirmed by KOH mount, colony identification, light microscopic morphology, and DNA sequence analysis. The patient was treated orally with 250 mg terbinafine daily and topical amorolfine 5% nail lacquer for 3 months. As a result, the patient was completely cured clinically and mycologically.

Kim, Dong Min; Ha, Gyoung Yim; Sohng, Seung Hyun

2012-01-01

194

N-Glycan Modification in Aspergillus Species?  

PubMed Central

The production by filamentous fungi of therapeutic glycoproteins intended for use in mammals is held back by the inherent difference in protein N-glycosylation and by the inability of the fungal cell to modify proteins with mammalian glycosylation structures. Here, we report protein N-glycan engineering in two Aspergillus species. We functionally expressed in the fungal hosts heterologous chimeric fusion proteins containing different localization peptides and catalytic domains. This strategy allowed the isolation of a strain with a functional ?-1,2-mannosidase producing increased amounts of N-glycans of the Man5GlcNAc2 type. This strain was further engineered by the introduction of a functional GlcNAc transferase I construct yielding GlcNAcMan5GlcNac2 N-glycans. Additionally, we deleted algC genes coding for an enzyme involved in an early step of the fungal glycosylation pathway yielding Man3GlcNAc2 N-glycans. This modification of fungal glycosylation is a step toward the ability to produce humanized complex N-glycans on therapeutic proteins in filamentous fungi.

Kainz, Elke; Gallmetzer, Andreas; Hatzl, Christian; Nett, Juergen H.; Li, Huijuan; Schinko, Thorsten; Pachlinger, Robert; Berger, Harald; Reyes-Dominguez, Yazmid; Bernreiter, Andreas; Gerngross, Tillmann; Wildt, Stefan; Strauss, Joseph

2008-01-01

195

N-glycan modification in Aspergillus species.  

PubMed

The production by filamentous fungi of therapeutic glycoproteins intended for use in mammals is held back by the inherent difference in protein N-glycosylation and by the inability of the fungal cell to modify proteins with mammalian glycosylation structures. Here, we report protein N-glycan engineering in two Aspergillus species. We functionally expressed in the fungal hosts heterologous chimeric fusion proteins containing different localization peptides and catalytic domains. This strategy allowed the isolation of a strain with a functional alpha-1,2-mannosidase producing increased amounts of N-glycans of the Man5GlcNAc2 type. This strain was further engineered by the introduction of a functional GlcNAc transferase I construct yielding GlcNAcMan5GlcNac2 N-glycans. Additionally, we deleted algC genes coding for an enzyme involved in an early step of the fungal glycosylation pathway yielding Man3GlcNAc2 N-glycans. This modification of fungal glycosylation is a step toward the ability to produce humanized complex N-glycans on therapeutic proteins in filamentous fungi. PMID:18083888

Kainz, Elke; Gallmetzer, Andreas; Hatzl, Christian; Nett, Juergen H; Li, Huijuan; Schinko, Thorsten; Pachlinger, Robert; Berger, Harald; Reyes-Dominguez, Yazmid; Bernreiter, Andreas; Gerngross, Tillmann; Wildt, Stefan; Strauss, Joseph

2008-02-01

196

Eucalyptus microfungi known from culture. 2. Alysidiella, Fusculina and Phlogicylindrium genera nova, with notes on some other poorly known taxa  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although numerous microfungi have been described from Eucalyptus in recent years, this plant genus remains a rich substrate colonized by numerous undescribed species. In the present study several species and genera of ascomycetes were collected from symptomatic leaves or from leaf litter of this host in Australia, South Africa and Europe. New genera include those encompassing Alysidiella parasitica and Phlogicylindrium

B. A. Summerbell; Johannes Z. Groenewald; Angus J. Carnegie; Richard C. Summerbell; Pedro W. Crous

2006-01-01

197

First records of the genera Histeromerus Wesmael (Hymenoptera, Braconidae, Histeromerinae) and Ecclitura Kokujev (Hymenoptera, Braconidae, Euphorinae) in Italy  

PubMed Central

Abstract Braconid genera Histeromerus Wesmael, 1838 from subfamily Histeromerinae and Ecclitura Kokujev, 1902 from subfamily Euphorinae are recorded in the fauna of Italy for the first time. The discussions about taxonomic position, morphological characters and composition of these genera as well as the redescriptions of the genus and species of Ecclitura primoris Kokujev are given.

Belokobylskij, Sergey A.; Loni, Augusto; Lucchi, Andrea; Bernardo, Umberto

2013-01-01

198

Diversity and specificity of microsatellites within Aspergillus section Fumigati  

PubMed Central

Background Microsatellites (or short tandem repeats, STRs) are the genetic markers of choice for studying Aspergillus fumigatus molecular epidemiology due to its reproducibility and high discrimination power. However, the specificity of these markers must be investigated in a group of isolates from closely related species. The aim of this work was to test a microsatellite-based PCR multiplex previously designed for A. fumigatus in a set of species belonging to section Fumigati, namely Aspergillus fumigatiaffinis, Aspergillus lentulus, Aspergillus novofumigatus, Aspergillus unilateralis, Aspergillus viridinutans, Neosartorya fischeri, Neosartorya hiratsukae, Neosartorya pseudofischeri and Neosartorya udagawae. Results The reference A. fumigatus strain ATCC 46645 was easily genotyped in standard conditions showing a final electrophoretic profile of 8 expected peaks corresponding to each microsatellite locus. Inversely, no peaks were observed for all other species from section Fumigati, with an exception for marker MC6b in A. unilateralis. By screening the genome sequence of Neosartorya fischeri NRRL 181, the results showed that MC3, MC6a and MC7 might be employed for N. fischeri genotyping since these markers present several repeats of each motif. The accumulation of insertions and deletions was frequently observed in the genomic regions surrounding the microsatellites, including those where the A. fumigatus primers are located. The amplification of microsatellite markers in less stringent amplification conditions resulted in a distinct electrophoretic profile for species within section Fumigati. Conclusions Therefore, the microsatellite-based PCR multiplex allow simple identification of A. fumigatus and, with a slight modification of temperature conditions, it also allows discriminating other pathogenic species within section Fumigati, particularly A. fumigatiaffinis, N. fischeri and N. udagawae.

2012-01-01

199

Humoral immunity in disseminated Aspergillus terreus infection in the dog.  

PubMed

Aspects of humoral immunity were studied in 17 dogs with disseminated aspergillosis (16 cases Aspergillus terreus, 1 case Aspergillus flavipes). All dogs had markedly raised serum IgG levels by single radial immunodiffusion (range 1500-6000 mg dl-1). Despite this, serum antibody to A. terreus was demonstrated in only 7/16 cases by agar gel diffusion, 9/16 cases by counter immunoelectrophoresis, 10/16 by ELISA and 11/16 by an indirect immunofluorescence assay. Serum antibody was also detected in 2/5 clinically normal relatives of 2 cases, indicating previous exposure or subclinical infection. PMID:3131949

Day, M J; Penhale, W J

1988-03-01

200

The complete nucleotide sequence of a totivirus from Aspergillus foetidus.  

PubMed

Virus infection of Aspergillus foetidus was first described in the 1970s, and the purified virus, named Aspergillus foetidus virus (AfV), contains at least two types of icosahedral particles, called AfV-fast (-F) and AfV-slow (-S) virions, based on their relative electrophoretic mobilities. AfV-S consists of a mixture of two viruses, the larger of which, called AfV-S1, is a dsRNA-containing member of the genus Victorivirus in the family Totiviridae, and its complete nucleotide sequence is described here. PMID:22729614

Kozlakidis, Zisis; Herrero, Noemi; Coutts, Robert H A

2013-01-01

201

Effect of Conway Medium and f/2 Medium on the growth of six genera of South China Sea marine microalgae.  

PubMed

A study was performed to determine the effect of Conway and f/2 media on the growth of microalgae genera. Genera of Chlorella sp., Dunaliella sp., Isochrysis sp., Chaetoceros sp., Pavlova sp. and Tetraselmis sp. were isolated from the South China Sea. During the cultivation period, the density of cells were determined using Syringe Liquid Sampler Particle Measuring System (SLS-PMS) that also generated the population distribution curve based on the size of the cells. The population of the microalgae genera is thought to consist of mother and daughter generations since these microalgae genera reproduce by releasing small non-motile reproductive cells (autospores). It was found that the reproduction of Tetraselmis sp., Dunaliella sp. and Pavlova sp. could be sustained longer in f/2 Medium. Higher cell density was achieved by genus Dunaliella, Chlorella and Isochrysis in Conway Medium. Different genera of microalgae had a preference for different types of cultivation media. PMID:23562179

Lananan, Fathurrahman; Jusoh, Ahmad; Ali, Nora'aini; Lam, Su Shiung; Endut, Azizah

2013-08-01

202

Functional Analysis of the Aspergillus nidulans Kinome  

PubMed Central

The filamentous fungi are an ecologically important group of organisms which also have important industrial applications but devastating effects as pathogens and agents of food spoilage. Protein kinases have been implicated in the regulation of virtually all biological processes but how they regulate filamentous fungal specific processes is not understood. The filamentous fungus Aspergillus nidulans has long been utilized as a powerful molecular genetic system and recent technical advances have made systematic approaches to study large gene sets possible. To enhance A. nidulans functional genomics we have created gene deletion constructs for 9851 genes representing 93.3% of the encoding genome. To illustrate the utility of these constructs, and advance the understanding of fungal kinases, we have systematically generated deletion strains for 128 A. nidulans kinases including expanded groups of 15 histidine kinases, 7 SRPK (serine-arginine protein kinases) kinases and an interesting group of 11 filamentous fungal specific kinases. We defined the terminal phenotype of 23 of the 25 essential kinases by heterokaryon rescue and identified phenotypes for 43 of the 103 non-essential kinases. Uncovered phenotypes ranged from almost no growth for a small number of essential kinases implicated in processes such as ribosomal biosynthesis, to conditional defects in response to cellular stresses. The data provide experimental evidence that previously uncharacterized kinases function in the septation initiation network, the cell wall integrity and the morphogenesis Orb6 kinase signaling pathways, as well as in pathways regulating vesicular trafficking, sexual development and secondary metabolism. Finally, we identify ChkC as a third effector kinase functioning in the cellular response to genotoxic stress. The identification of many previously unknown functions for kinases through the functional analysis of the A. nidulans kinome illustrates the utility of the A. nidulans gene deletion constructs.

De Souza, Colin P.; Hashmi, Shahr B.; Osmani, Aysha H.; Andrews, Peter; Ringelberg, Carol S.; Dunlap, Jay C.; Osmani, Stephen A.

2013-01-01

203

The freshwater snails (Gastropoda) of Iran, with descriptions of two new genera and eight new species  

PubMed Central

Abstract Using published records and original data from recent field work and revision of Iranian material of certain species deposited in the collections of the Natural History Museum Basel, the Zoological Museum Berlin, and Natural History Museum Vienna, a checklist of the freshwater gastropod fauna of Iran was compiled. This checklist contains 73 species from 34 genera and 14 families of freshwater snails; 27 of these species (37%) are endemic to Iran. Two new genera, Kaskakia and Sarkhia, and eight species, i.e., Bithynia forcarti, Bithynia starmuehlneri, Bithynia mazandaranensis, Pseudamnicola georgievi, Kaskakia khorrasanensis, Sarkhia sarabensis, Valvata nowsharensis and Acroloxus pseudolacustris are described as new to science; Ecrobia grimmi (Clessin & Dybowski, 1888), Heleobia dalmatica (Radoman, 1974) and Hippeutis complanatus (Linnaeus, 1758) are reported for the first time from Iran. Additional field work is highly desirable for a more appropriate evaluation of the extant freshwater snail biodiversity in Iran.

Gloer, Peter; Pesic, Vladimir

2012-01-01

204

On Pulchritia new genus, with a reappraisal of the genera of Trichotriidae (Rotifera, Monogononta)  

PubMed Central

Abstract During the study of rotifers collected in Eastern DR Congo, we rediscovered specimens that correspond to Monostyla dorsicornuta Van Oye, 1926. This species, which we redescribe, had not been seen since it’s summary description, and lacked type material. Our analysis reveals that the animal belongs to Trichotriidae rather than to Lecane (presently considered to include Monostyla) or Lecanidae, but is nevertheless characterised by a foot structure that is remarkably convergent to that of Lecanidae, and different from all other genera of Trichotriidae. We conclude that the species and the closely related South American Macrochaetus kostei (José de Paggi, Branco & Kozlowsky-Suzuki, 2000) belong to a new genus of Trichotriidae; the two offer a rare example of African-South American vicariance in rotifers.We further provide emended diagnoses of the remaining genera of Trichotriidae, to conform these to the new information and to address some inconsistencies in these.

Luo, Yongting; Segers, Hendrik

2013-01-01

205

Catalogue of the world genera and subgenera of the superfamilies Derodontoidea and Bostrichoidea (Coleoptera: Derodontiformia, Bostrichiformia).  

PubMed

A catalogue of all the known genera and subgenera of the Coleoptera series Derodontiformia and Bostrichiformia, each with a single superfamily (Derodontoidea and Bostrichoidea, respectively), is provided. The following new tribes are established and type genera are designated: Apphianini Háva trib. nov., Ranolini Háva trib. nov. (all Dermestidae); Ochinini Zahradník trib. nov., Phanerochilini Zahradník trib. nov. (all Ptinidae). The subgenus Paranovelsis has been removed as a synonym and has been reelevated to generic rank. The following new synonymies are proposed: Megatoma Herbst, 1791 (= Perimegatoma Horn, 1875 syn. nov., Caucasotoma Mroczkowski, 1967 syn. nov.); Trinodes Dejean, 1821 (= Trinodus Gistl, 1856 syn. nov.); Nosodendron Latreille, 1804 (= Nosodendrium Gistl, 1856 syn. nov.); Casapus Wollaston, 1862 (= Pithodes Wollaston, 1862 syn. nov.). PMID:24869695

Zahradník, Petr; Háva, Ji?í

2014-01-01

206

On Pulchritia new genus, with a reappraisal of the genera of Trichotriidae (Rotifera, Monogononta).  

PubMed

During the study of rotifers collected in Eastern DR Congo, we rediscovered specimens that correspond to Monostyla dorsicornuta Van Oye, 1926. This species, which we redescribe, had not been seen since it's summary description, and lacked type material. Our analysis reveals that the animal belongs to Trichotriidae rather than to Lecane (presently considered to include Monostyla) or Lecanidae, but is nevertheless characterised by a foot structure that is remarkably convergent to that of Lecanidae, and different from all other genera of Trichotriidae. We conclude that the species and the closely related South American Macrochaetus kostei (José de Paggi, Branco & Kozlowsky-Suzuki, 2000) belong to a new genus of Trichotriidae; the two offer a rare example of African-South American vicariance in rotifers.We further provide emended diagnoses of the remaining genera of Trichotriidae, to conform these to the new information and to address some inconsistencies in these. PMID:24194651

Luo, Yongting; Segers, Hendrik

2013-01-01

207

Conspectus of the Phlaeothripinae genera from China and Southeast Asia (Thysanoptera, Phlaeothripidae).  

PubMed

An illustrated identification key is provided to 100 genera of Phlaeothripinae from China and Southeast Asia, together with a diagnosis for each genus, and comments on the species diversity. One new genus with a new species, Akarethrips iotus gen.n. & sp.n., and two new species, Heliothripoides boltoni sp.n. and Terthrothrips strasseni sp.n., are described from specimens collected in Peninsular Malaysia and Java respectively. Three Phlaeothripinae genera are synonymised, Mychiothrips Haga & Okajima syn.n. of Veerabahuthrips Ramakrishna, Syringothrips Priesner syn.n. of GigantothripsZimmermann, and Sauridothrips Priesner syn.n. of Gynaikothrips Zimmermann. In addition, four nomenclatural changes are included, Adelphothrips ignotus (Reyes) comb.n. transferred from Mesothrips, Karnyothrips palmerae (Chen) comb.n from Xylaplothrips, Xylaplothrips bogoriensis (Karny) comb.n from Brachythrips, and Oidanothrips notabilisFeng, Guo & Duan considered as a new synonym of Oidanothrips frontalis (Bagnall). PMID:24871154

Dang, Li-Hong; Mound, Laurence A; Qiao, Ge-Xia

2014-01-01

208

Polyphyly and two emerging lineages in the rust genera Puccinia and Uromyces.  

PubMed

The phylogenetic validity of Puccinia and Uromyces, Pucciniaceae, and closely related genera was evaluated using nucLSU rDNA sequences. Using a wide range of rust species with different life cycles and with different host specificities, Puccinia and Uromyces were shown to be highly polyphyletic and to also include representatives of the genera Aecidium, Cumminsiella, Dietelia, Endophyllum, Miyagia, and Uredo. Furthermore, the structure of the phylogenetic data did not reflect previous sub-generic delimitations based on teliospore pedicel structure, but rather suggests that at least two major lineages have evolved within Puccinia/Uromyces: Rusts with telial states on Poaceae were exclusively found in one of these groupings and those with telial states on Cyperaceae resided in the other lineage. This might suggest that the two lineages evolved in close association with these host groups in different biomes. PMID:17324756

Maier, Wolfgang; Wingfield, Brenda D; Mennicken, Mechthilde; Wingfield, Michael J

2007-02-01

209

Cytometric determination of genome size and base composition of tree species of three genera of Casuarinaceae  

Microsoft Academic Search

The genome size and base composition of diploid plant species from three genera of the Casuarinaceae family were determined\\u000a by flow cytometry. Casuarina glauca Sieb. ex Spring. and Gymnostoma deplancheana (Miq.) L. Johnson showed a small genome with 2C = 0.70 pg, 58.6% AT, 40.5% GC for the first species and 2C = 0.75 pg, 58.7%\\u000a AT, 40.5% GC for

J. Schwencke; J.-M. Bureau; M.-T. Crosnier; S. Brown

1998-01-01

210

Feulgen microspectrophotometric estimation of nuclear DNA of species and varieties of three different genera of Marantaceae  

Microsoft Academic Search

Karyological analysis including determination of somatic chromosome number, total chromosome length, volume and karyotype\\u000a formula andin situ estimation of 4C-nuclear DNA amount were carried out on 14 different species and varieties of the generaCalathea, Maranta andStromanthe. The 4C nuclear DNA amount was estimated through Feulgen microspectrophotometry following single wavelength method and expressed\\u000a in arbitrary units of relative absorbances. The variation

A K Sharma; Sandip Mukhopadhyay

1984-01-01

211

Palynological study of the genera Ruellia, Ecbolium, Asystasia, Blepharis and Dicliptera (Acanthaceae) of Yemen  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Pollen morphology of five genera of the family Acanthaceae, namely Ruellia, Blepharis, Asystasia, Ecbolium and Dicliptera (Acanthaceae) of Yemen has been examined using light and scanning electron microscope. Pollen descriptions were provided with two shapes distinguished, spheroidal and prolate. Most of the pollen grains were tricolporate amd psuedocolpi except those of Blepharis which are colpate. The surface is coarsely reticulate, in addition to the lumina that varies in size.

Al-Hakimi, S. Anisa; Maideen, Haja; Latiff, A.

2013-11-01

212

Comprehensive molecular phylogenetic analysis and evolution of the genus Phyllactinia ( Ascomycota: Erysiphales) and its allied genera  

Microsoft Academic Search

Phyllactinia is a unique genus within the Erysiphales (Ascomycota) having a partly endo-parasitic nature of the mycelium within the host plant tissues. We constructed phylogenetic trees for the genus Phyllactinia and its allied genera based on a total of 120 nucleotide sequences of the 28S rDNA and ITS regions to discuss their phylogenetic relationships with special references to host plants,

Susumu Takamatsu; Mihoko Inagaki; Seiko Niinomi; Seyed Akbar Khodaparast; Hyeon-Dong Shin; Banga Grigaliunaite; Maria Havrylenko

2008-01-01

213

Mitochondrial DNA Variation, Phylogenetic Relationships, and Evolution of Four Mediterranean Genera of Soles (Soleidae, Pleuronectiformes)  

Microsoft Academic Search

:   To increase knowledge about the systematics and evolution of Mediterranean soles, we assessed mitochondrial DNA variation,\\u000a molecular phylogeny, and evolution in eight species from the genera Solea, Microchirus, Monochirus, and Buglossidium by large ribosomal subunit (16S) and cytochrome b (cytb) sequence analysis. Relevant molecular features are the great variation of base composition among species at the third codon\\u000a in

Fausto Tinti; Corrado Piccinetti; Stefano Tommasini; Maria Vallisneri

2000-01-01

214

Two new genera and three new species of freshwater crabs (Crustacea: Pseudothelphusidae: Potamocarcinini) from Chiapas, Mexico.  

PubMed

Two new genera, Sylvathelphusa n. gen. and Tzotzilthelphusa n. gen., and three new species, Sylvathelphusa kalebi n. sp., S. cavernicola n. sp. and Tzotzilthelphusa villarosalensis n. sp., of the tribe Potamocarcinini, family Pseudothelphusidae, are described from Chiapas, Mexico. Sylvathelphusa n. gen. is characterized by a male gonopod with the marginal plate between the caudal and mesial surfaces abruptly widening distally and forming a triangular apical projection; and a mesial process as a strong, acute spine forming a 90ş angle with respect to the principal axis of the gonopod. Tzotzilthelphusa n. gen. exhibits a male gonopod strongly bent laterally in the distal third, and a mesial surface rounded distally with acute spinules. Sylvathelphusa n. gen. is similar to Potamocarcinus in gonopod morphology, in both straight and with a mesial process developed as strong tooth in a similar shape and position. Tzotzilthelphusa n. gen. is similar to Phrygiopilus in that the gonopods of both genera develop a supra-apical process that is a continuation of the mesial surface. The new taxa come from the Los Altos de Chiapas region and bring the total number of pseudothelphusid genera in Chiapas to 11. PMID:24613999

Villalobos, José Luis; Alvarez, Fernando

2013-01-01

215

Three proposed new bacteriophage genera of staphylococcal phages: "3alikevirus", "77likevirus" and "Phietalikevirus".  

PubMed

To date, most members of the Siphoviridae family of bacteriophages remain unclassified, including the 46 staphylococcal phages for which the complete genome sequences have been deposited in public databases. Comparative nucleotide and protein sequence analysis, in addition to available data on phage morphology, allowed us to propose three new phage genera within the family Siphoviridae: "3alikevirus", "77likevirus" and "Phietalikevirus", which include related phages infecting Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus epidermidis. However, six phages infecting S. aureus, Staphylococcus pasteuri, Staphylococcus hominis and Staphylococcus capitis strains remain to be classified (orphan phages). Overall, the former phages share morphological features and genome organization. The three groups have conserved domains containing peptidoglycan hydrolytic activities clearly identified as part of tape measure proteins ("3alikevirus" and "77likevirus") or as individual virionassociated proteins ("Phietalikevirus"). In addition, bacteriophages belonging to the genus "3alikevirus" share closely related DNA-processing and packaging proteins, while bacteriophages included in the genus "Phietalikevirus" encode specific tail proteins for host interaction. These properties are considered distinctive for these genera. Orphan phages seem to have a more divergent organization, but they share some properties with members of these proposed genera. PMID:24022640

Gutiérrez, Diana; Adriaenssens, Evelien M; Martínez, Beatriz; Rodríguez, Ana; Lavigne, Rob; Kropinski, Andrew M; García, Pilar

2014-02-01

216

Delimitation of Neonectria and Cylindrocarpon (Nectriaceae, Hypocreales, Ascomycota) and related genera with Cylindrocarpon-like anamorphs  

PubMed Central

Neonectria is a cosmopolitan genus and it is, in part, defined by its link to the anamorph genus Cylindrocarpon. Neonectria has been divided into informal groups on the basis of combined morphology of anamorph and teleomorph. Previously, Cylindrocarpon was divided into four groups defined by presence or absence of microconidia and chlamydospores. Molecular phylogenetic analyses have indicated that Neonectria sensu stricto and Cylindrocarpon sensu stricto are phylogenetically congeneric. In addition, morphological and molecular data accumulated over several years have indicated that Neonectria sensu lato and Cylindrocarpon sensu lato do not form a monophyletic group and that the respective informal groups may represent distinct genera. In the present work, a multilocus analysis (act, ITS, LSU, rpb1, tef1, tub) was applied to representatives of the informal groups to determine their level of phylogenetic support as a first step towards taxonomic revision of Neonectria sensu lato. Results show five distinct highly supported clades that correspond to some extent with the informal Neonectria and Cylindrocarpon groups that are here recognised as genera: (1) N. coccinea-group and Cylindrocarpon groups 1 & 4 (Neonectria/Cylindrocarpon sensu stricto); (2) N. rugulosa-group (Rugonectria gen. nov.); (3) N. mammoidea/N. veuillotiana-groups and Cylindrocarpon group 2 (Thelonectria gen. nov.); (4) N. radicicola-group and Cylindrocarpon group 3 (Ilyonectria gen. nov.); and (5) anamorph genus Campylocarpon. Characteristics of the anamorphs and teleomorphs correlate with the five genera, three of which are newly described. New combinations are made for species where their classification is confirmed by phylogenetic data.

Chaverri, P.; Salgado, C.; Hirooka, Y.; Rossman, A.Y.; Samuels, G.J.

2011-01-01

217

Kalapuya brunnea gen. & sp. nov. and its relationship to the other sequestrate genera in Morchellaceae.  

PubMed

Kalapuya is described as a new, monotypic truffle genus in the Morchellaceae known only from the Pacific northwestern United States. Its relationship to other hypogeous genera within Morchellaceae is explored by phylogenetic analysis of the ribosomal LSU and EF1alpha protein coding region. The type species, K. brunnea, occurs in Douglas-fir forests up to about 50 y old on the west slope of the Cascade Range in Oregon and in the Coastal Ranges of Oregon and northern California. It has a roughened, warty, reddish brown to brown peridium, a solid whitish gleba that develops grayish brown mottling as the spores mature, and produces a cheesy-garlicky odor at maturity. Its smooth, ellipsoid spores resemble those of Morchella spp. but are much larger. The four hypogeous genera known in the Morchellaceae, Kalapuya, Fischerula, Imaia and Leucangium, are distinct from the epigeous genera Morchella and Verpa, but it is uncertain whether they resulted from a single transition to a hypogeous fruiting habit or from multiple independent transitions. Kalapuya, locally known as the Oregon brown truffle, has been commercially harvested for culinary use. PMID:20943505

Trappe, Matthew J; Trappe, James M; Bonito, Gregory M

2010-01-01

218

Heterologous expression, purification and characterization of nitrilase from Aspergillus niger K10  

PubMed Central

Background Nitrilases attract increasing attention due to their utility in the mild hydrolysis of nitriles. According to activity and gene screening, filamentous fungi are a rich source of nitrilases distinct in evolution from their widely examined bacterial counterparts. However, fungal nitrilases have been less explored than the bacterial ones. Nitrilases are typically heterogeneous in their quaternary structures, forming short spirals and extended filaments, these features making their structural studies difficult. Results A nitrilase gene was amplified by PCR from the cDNA library of Aspergillus niger K10. The PCR product was ligated into expression vectors pET-30(+) and pRSET B to construct plasmids pOK101 and pOK102, respectively. The recombinant nitrilase (Nit-ANigRec) expressed in Escherichia coli BL21-Gold(DE3)(pOK101/pTf16) was purified with an about 2-fold increase in specific activity and 35% yield. The apparent subunit size was 42.7 kDa, which is approx. 4 kDa higher than that of the enzyme isolated from the native organism (Nit-ANigWT), indicating post-translational cleavage in the enzyme's native environment. Mass spectrometry analysis showed that a C-terminal peptide (Val327 - Asn356) was present in Nit-ANigRec but missing in Nit-ANigWT and Asp298-Val313 peptide was shortened to Asp298-Arg310 in Nit-ANigWT. The latter enzyme was thus truncated by 46 amino acids. Enzymes Nit-ANigRec and Nit-ANigWT differed in substrate specificity, acid/amide ratio, reaction optima and stability. Refolded recombinant enzyme stored for one month at 4°C was fractionated by gel filtration, and fractions were examined by electron microscopy. The late fractions were further analyzed by analytical centrifugation and dynamic light scattering, and shown to consist of a rather homogeneous protein species composed of 12-16 subunits. This hypothesis was consistent with electron microscopy and our modelling of the multimeric nitrilase, which supports an arrangement of dimers into helical segments as a plausible structural solution. Conclusions The nitrilase from Aspergillus niger K10 is highly homologous (?86%) with proteins deduced from gene sequencing in Aspergillus and Penicillium genera. As the first of these proteins, it was shown to exhibit nitrilase activity towards organic nitriles. The comparison of the Nit-ANigRec and Nit-ANigWT suggested that the catalytic properties of nitrilases may be changed due to missing posttranslational cleavage of the former enzyme. Nit-ANigRec exhibits a lower tendency to form filaments and, moreover, the sample homogeneity can be further improved by in vitro protein refolding. The homogeneous protein species consisting of short spirals is expected to be more suitable for structural studies.

2011-01-01

219

Antifungal activity of some essential oils against toxigenic Aspergillus species.  

PubMed

Increasing attentions have been paid on the application of essential oils and plant extracts for control of postharvest pathogens due to their natural origin and less appearance of resistance in fungi pathogens. Some Aspergillus species are toxigenic and responsible for many cases of food and feed contamination. Some Toxins that produce with some Aspergillus species are known to be potent hepatocarcinogens in animals and humans. The present work evaluated the parameters of antifungal activity of the essential oils of Zataria multiflora, Thymus migricus, Satureja hortensis, Foeniculum vulgare, Carum capticum and thiabendazol fungicide on survival and growth of different species of Aspergillus. Aerial part and seeds of plant species were collected then dried and its essential oils isolated by means of hydrodistillation. Antifungal activity was evaluated in vitro by poisonous medium technique with PDA medium at six concentrations. Results showed that all essential oils could inhibit the growth of Aspergillus species. The essential oil with the best effect and lowest EC50 and MIC (Minimum Inhibitory Concentration) was Z. multiflora (223 microl/l and 650 microl/l, respectively). The chemical composition of the Z. multiflora essential oil was analyzed by GC-MS. PMID:21534488

Alizadeh, Alireza; Zamani, Elham; Sharaifi, Rohollah; Javan-Nikkhah, Mohammad; Nazari, Somayeh

2010-01-01

220

Integrative analysis of the heat shock response in Aspergillus fumigatus  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Aspergillus fumigatus is a thermotolerant human-pathogenic mold and the most common cause of invasive aspergillosis (IA) in immunocompromised patients. Its predominance is based on several factors most of which are still unknown. The thermotolerance of A. fumigatus is one of the traits which have been assigned to pathogenicity. It allows the fungus to grow at temperatures up to and

Daniela Albrecht; Reinhard Guthke; Axel A Brakhage; Olaf Kniemeyer

2010-01-01

221

Aspergillus niser for the study of in vitro drug metabolism  

Microsoft Academic Search

Drug metabolism is an important aspect for the study of toxic effect in human being. However, the occurrence of several regulatory issues and high cost involved in experimental study on drug metabolism, restrict the study using human as a model system. Keeping this in view, in the present study, the fungus Aspergillus niser was chosen as a model organism for

K. Pramanik; N. Panda; J. Satapathy; A. Biswas

2010-01-01

222

Expression profiling of pectinolytic genes from Aspergillus niger  

Microsoft Academic Search

The expression of 26 pectinolytic genes from Aspergillus niger was studied in a wild type strain and a CreA derepressed strain, under 16 different growth conditions, to obtain an expression profile for each gene. These expression profiles were then submitted to cluster analysis to identify subsets of genes with similar expression profiles. With the exception of the feruloyl esterase encoding

Ronald P. de Vries; Jenny Jansen; Guillermo Aguilar; Lucie Pa?enicová; Vivi Joosten; Florian Wülfert; Jacques A. E. Benen; Jaap Visser

2002-01-01

223

Novel metabolites in phenanthrene and pyrene transformation by Aspergillus niger.  

PubMed Central

Aspergillus niger, isolated from hydrocarbon-contaminated soil, was examined for its potential to degrade phenanthrene and pyrene. Two novel metabolites, 1-methoxyphenanthrene and 1-methoxypyrene, were identified by conventional chemical techniques. Minor metabolites identified were 1- and 2-phenanthrol and 1-pyrenol. No 14CO2 evolution was observed in either [14C]phenanthrene or [14C]pyrene cultures.

Sack, U; Heinze, T M; Deck, J; Cerniglia, C E; Cazau, M C; Fritsche, W

1997-01-01

224

Pectinases of Aspergillus niger: A Molecular and Biochemical Characterisation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The major topics of this thesis are the microfilamentous fungus Aspergillus niger and the pectinases a group of extracellular enzymes. Many 'products' of this species hold the GRAS (Generally Regarded As Safe) status and thus pectinases find a broad range of applications in food, feed and beverage industries.Pectinases are enzymes which degrade pectin, a heteropolysaccharide found in the middle lamella

L. Parenicová

2000-01-01

225

Successful treatment of exogenous aspergillus endophthalmitis: a case report.  

PubMed Central

We describe the first case of successfully treated exogenous aspergillus endophthalmitis following penetrating injury and primary scleral wound repair. After repeated vitreous surgery with multiple intravitreous instillations of amphotericin B combined with intravenous antifungal therapy the patient's visual acuity was 6/18. A vigorous approach in the management of mycotic endophthalmitis is emphasised and the role of closed vitrectomy discussed. Images

Ho, P. C.; Tolentino, F. I.; Baker, A. S.

1984-01-01

226

Polyphasic taxonomy of Aspergillus fumigatus and related species  

Microsoft Academic Search

The variability within Aspergillus fumigatus Fresenius and related species was examined using macro-, micro-morphology, growth temperature re- gimes and extrolite patterns. In addition, DNA analyses including partial b-tubulin, calmodulin and actin gene sequences were used. Detailed examina- tion of strains, considered as A. fumigatus earlier, showed that they could be divided into four groups including A. fumigatus sensu stricto, A.

Seung-Beom Hong; Seung-Joo Go; H.-D. Shin; J. C. Frisvad; R. A. Samson

2005-01-01

227

Fumonisin and Ochratoxin Production in Industrial Aspergillus niger Strains  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aspergillus niger is perhaps the most important fungus used in biotechnology, and is also one of the most commonly encountered fungi contaminating foods and feedstuffs, and occurring in soil and indoor environments. Many of its industrial applications have been given GRAS status (generally regarded as safe). However, A. niger has the potential to produce two groups of potentially carcinogenic mycotoxins:

Jens C. Frisvad; Thomas O. Larsen; Ulf Thrane; Martin Meijer; Janos Varga; Robert A. Samson; Kristian F. Nielsen

2011-01-01

228

Mycotoxin risk evaluation in feeds contaminated by Aspergillus fumigatus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aspergillus fumigatus, a common feed contaminant particularly ubiquitous in conserved forages, produces several mycotoxins that can affect the health of animals. The aim of this work was to assess the ability of A. fumigatus to produce toxins, particularly gliotoxin, on laboratory media and natural feed substrates. The ability of fourteen A. fumigatus strains to produce gliotoxin, verruculogen, fumagillin, and helvolic

H. Boudra; D. P. Morgavi

2005-01-01

229

Growth and ?-amylase production by Aspergillus oryzae during continuous cultivations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Continuous cultivations of an ?-amylase producing strain of Aspergillus oryzae were carried out using a chemically defined medium with glucose as the growth limiting component. For steady-state cultures the recovery of carbon was about 99%, indicating that all major carbon components i.e. biomass, carbon dioxide and ?-amylase were measured. The rates of sugar consumption, oxygen consumption and carbon dioxide production

Morten Carlsen; Jens Nielsen; John Villadsen

1996-01-01

230

Aspergillus genomes: secret sex and the secrets of sex  

Microsoft Academic Search

The genomic sequences of three species of Aspergillus, including the model organism A. nidulans (which is homothallic: having no differentiated mating types, a strain being able to cross with itself), suggest that A. fumigatus and A. oryzae, considered to be asexual, might in fact be heterothallic (having two differentiated mating types, a strain being able to cross only with strains

Claudio Scazzocchio

2006-01-01

231

Aspergillus pneumonia in adult patients with acute leukemia.  

PubMed

Aspergillus pneumonia often is a fatal consequence of prolonged neutropenia in patients with acute leukemia. Despite prompt diagnosis and adequate antifungal therapy, mortality remains high among these patients. Recognizing early signs and symptoms, as well as risk factors, is the key to reducing morbidity and mortality. PMID:24675261

Cadogan, Stacey; Miller, Sharon

2014-04-01

232

New ochratoxin A producing species of Aspergillus section Circumdati  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract: Aspergillus section Circumdati contains species with yellow to ochre conidia and non-black sclerotia that produce atleast one of the following extrolites: ochratoxins, penicillic acids, xanthomegnins or melleins. The exception to this is A. robustus, which produces black sclerotia, phototropic conidiophores and none of the extrolites listed above. Based on a polyphasic approach using morphological characters, extrolites and partial ?-tubulin

Jens C. Frisvad; J. Mick Frank; Jos A. M. P. Houbraken; Angelina F. A. Kuijpers; Robert A. Samson

2004-01-01

233

A case of onychomycosis caused by Aspergillus candidus  

PubMed Central

Based on epidemiological studies, Aspergillus candidus has been demonstrated as an emerging fungal agent of toenail onychomycosis. Here we report a case of a toenail infection caused by A. candidus in a healthy 60-year-old woman. Based on macroscopic and microscopic characteristics of the culture as well as nucleotide sequencing of 28S region, the causative agent was identified as A. candidus.

Ahmadi, Bahram; Hashemi, Seyed Jamal; Zaini, Farideh; Shidfar, Mohammad Reza; Moazeni, Maryam; Mousavi, Bita; Noorbakhsh, Fatemeh; Gheramishoar, Mohsen; Hossein pour, Leila; Rezaie, Sassan

2012-01-01

234

Thoracic Intradural Aspergillus Abscess Formation following Epidural Steroid Injection  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary: We report an extremely unusual iatrogenic in- fection of the spinal canal with Aspergillus fumigatus that resulted in intradural abscess formation following epidural steroid injection in an immunocompetent young individual. Although the imaging findings of the infection were rela- tively nonspecific, MR imaging not only allowed for a prompt diagnosis, but also helped in surgical localization to the intradural

Gaurav Saigal; M. Judith; Donovan Post; Dusko Kozic

235

Bioleaching of spent fluid catalytic cracking catalyst using Aspergillus niger  

Microsoft Academic Search

The use of the fungus Aspergillus niger for the bioleaching of heavy metals from spent catalyst was investigated, with fluid catalytic cracking (FCC) catalyst as a model. Bioleaching was examined in batch cultures with the spent catalysts at various pulp densities (1–12%). Chemical leaching was also performed using mineral acids (sulphuric and nitric acids) and organic acids (citric, oxalic and

Khin Moh Moh Aung; Yen-Peng Ting

2005-01-01

236

Lovastatin Biosynthesis by Aspergillus terreus in a Chemically Defined Medium  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lovastatin is a secondary metabolite produced by Aspergillus terreus. A chemically defined medium was developed in order to investigate the influence of carbon and nitrogen sources on lovastatin biosynthesis. Among several organic and inorganic defined nitrogen sources metabolized by A. terreus, glutamate and histidine gave the highest lovastatin biosynthesis level. For cultures on glucose and glutamate, lovastatin synthesis initiated when

HASSAN HAJJAJ; PETER NIEDERBERGER; PHILIPPE DUBOC

2001-01-01

237

Solubilization of rock phosphate by immobilized Aspergillus niger  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aspergillus niger, an acid-producing filamentous fungus, was immobilized on polyurethane foam. Various amounts of foam cubes and spore suspension were tested in order to obtain an efficient immobilization process. The best combination selected for further experiments was 0.2 g polyurethane foam and 3 ml spore suspension. Immobilized cells were reused, with higher levels of acid formation being maintained for longer

Nikolay Vassilev; Maria Vassileva; Rosario Azcon

1997-01-01

238

Citric acid production by Aspergillus niger immobilized on polyurethane foam  

Microsoft Academic Search

Citric acid was produced using Aspergillus niger immobilized on polyurethane foam in a bubble column reactor. Most of the adsorbed cells remained on the support and, as a result, high oxygen tension was maintained during the reactor operation. However, uncontrolled growth of the pellets made continuous reactor operation difficult. The citric acid productivity obtained from 15 vol.% foam particles containing

Yong Hee Lee; Chang Woo Lee; Ho Nam Chang

1989-01-01

239

New genus-specific primers for the PCR identification of novel isolates of the genera Nocardiopsis and Saccharothrix.  

PubMed

The taxonomic position of the genera Saccharothrix and Nocardiopsis has evolved in recent years to accommodate an increasing number of actinomycete strains that cannot be clearly distinguished by morphological characters. More recently, the taxonomic reorganization of the genus Saccharothrix has determined the creation of new, related genera, increasing the complexity of the identification of this taxon. Nevertheless, today these genera can still only be identified by applying chemotaxonomic and molecular criteria, and no other tools are available for the rapid distinction of members of the two genera. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rDNA nucleotide sequences of reference strains has shown that both genera represent complete distinct lineages within the order Actinomycetales. Differences in the nucleotide sequences of the 16S rDNAs of reference strains were used to design two pairs of genus-specific primers to identify novel members of the genera Nocardiopsis and Saccharothrix by PCR amplification. The genus specificity of these primers was validated with reference strains as well as with wild-type isolates that exhibited morphological characteristics common to both genera. The diversity and taxonomic position of the isolates identified with these tools is also discussed. PMID:12148658

Salazar, Oscar; González, Ignacio; Genilloud, Olga

2002-07-01

240

The relationship of Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus parasiticus with reference to production of aflatoxins and cyclopiazonic acid  

Microsoft Academic Search

Forty-seven isolates of Aspergillus parasiticus were analyzed for production of aflatoxins B1, B2, G1, G2, and cyclopiazonic acid. None produced cyclopiazonic acid, whereas 46 of 47 produced aflatoxins B1 and G1. These data are related to previous studies pertaining to A. flavus and illustrate species validity from a biochemical standpoint.

Joe W. Dorner; Richard J. Cole; Urban L. Diener

1984-01-01

241

Performance Characteristics of the Platelia Aspergillus Enzyme Immunoassay for Detection of Aspergillus Galactomannan Antigen in Bronchoalveolar Lavage Fluid  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have evaluated the Platelia Aspergillus enzyme immunoassay for detection of galactomannan in bron- choalveolar lavage (BAL) specimens in solid organ transplant patients with aspergillosis. The precision and reproducibility in serum or BAL to which galactomannan was added were similar. Sensitivity was 81.8% in patients with aspergillosis, and specificity was 95.8% in lung transplant patients who underwent BAL for surveillance

S. Husain; C. J. Clancy; M. H. Nguyen; S. Swartzentruber; H. Leather; A. M. LeMonte; M. M. Durkin; K. S. Knox; C. A. Hage; C. Bentsen; N. Singh; J. R. Wingard; L. J. Wheat

2008-01-01

242

In vitro susceptibilities of Aspergillus spp. causing otomycosis to amphotericin B, voriconazole and itraconazole.  

PubMed

Otomycosis is worldwide in distribution and most commonly caused by Aspergillus species. Amphotericin B, itraconazole and voriconazole are used for the treatment of aspergillosis, but recently an increase in resistance to these agents has been reported. We aimed at investigating the in vitro activities of amphotericin B, voriconazole and itraconazole against Aspergillus isolates causing otomycosis. Mycological analysis of samples from the ear canals of patients was performed by culturing onto Sabouraud Dextrose Agar and by evaluating microscopically. Aspergillus species were identified with colony morphology and microscopic appearance, and tested for susceptibilities to amphotericin B, itraconazole and voriconazole by the CLSI reference broth microdilution method (M38-A document). A total of 120 isolates from 120 patients, comprising 57 Aspergillus niger, 42 Aspergillus fumigatus, nine Aspergillus flavus, six Aspergillus nidulans and six Aspergillus terreus strains were tested. No resistance was determined against amphotericin B and voriconazole, while six A. fumigatus and three A. niger isolates were resistant to itraconazole. In vitro data obtained in this study showed the resistance to itraconazole, while all of the isolates were susceptible to voriconazole and amphotericin B. Voriconazole seemed to be an alternative in the treatment of infections related to Aspergillus spp. but further studies are needed to learn more about the antifungal resistance of different species of Aspergillus to different agents. PMID:17944704

Kaya, Ayse Demet; Kiraz, Nuri

2007-11-01

243

Invertase production of common storage moulds in food and feed grains as a possibility for rapid detection of aspergillus flavus group and Aspergillus fumigatus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Invertase production of grain storage moulds was studied. Aspergillus spp. and Penicillium spp. were grown in a sucrose based liquid medium, at 37°C. The A. flavus group (A. flavus, A. parasiticus, A. nomius, A. oryzae) and A. fumigatus showed a fast growth and intense invertase activity, while other Aspergillus spp. and Penicillium spp. grew slower and produced less invertase. The

T. Mátrai; Susan Mayer; Susan Kókai; Irene Salamon

2000-01-01

244

Activity of essential oil and its major compound, 1,8-cineole, from Eucalyptus globulus Labill., against the storage fungi Aspergillus flavus Link and Aspergillus parasiticus Speare  

Microsoft Academic Search

The essential oil from leaves of Eucalyptus globulus obtained by hydrodistillation, as well as its major compound 1,8-cineole, identified by gas chromatography coupled with a mass selective detector, were evaluated for their effectiveness against the storage fungi Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus parasiticus. The evaluation was performed by compound dissolution in yeast extract sucrose (YES) medium and exposure to headspace volatiles.

Georgia Rocha Vilela; Gustavo Steffen de Almeida; Marisa Aparecida Bismara Regitano D'Arce; Maria Heloisa Duarte Moraes; José Otávio Brito; Maria Fátima das G. F. da Silva; Sebastiăo Cruz Silva; Sônia Maria de Stefano Piedade; Maria Antonia Calori-Domingues; Eduardo Micotti da Gloria

2009-01-01

245

Endemicity and evolutionary value: a study of Chilean endemic vascular plant genera  

PubMed Central

This study uses phylogeny-based measures of evolutionary potential (phylogenetic diversity and community structure) to evaluate the evolutionary value of vascular plant genera endemic to Chile. Endemicity is regarded as a very important consideration for conservation purposes. Taxa that are endemic to a single country are valuable conservation targets, as their protection depends upon a single government policy. This is especially relevant in developing countries in which conservation is not always a high resource allocation priority. Phylogeny-based measures of evolutionary potential such as phylogenetic diversity (PD) have been regarded as meaningful measures of the “value” of taxa and ecosystems, as they are able to account for the attributes that could allow taxa to recover from environmental changes. Chile is an area of remarkable endemism, harboring a flora that shows the highest number of endemic genera in South America. We studied PD and community structure of this flora using a previously available supertree at the genus level, to which we added DNA sequences of 53 genera endemic to Chile. Using discrepancy values and a null model approach, we decoupled PD from taxon richness, in order to compare their geographic distribution over a one-degree grid. An interesting pattern was observed in which areas to the southwest appear to harbor more PD than expected by their generic richness than those areas to the north of the country. In addition, some southern areas showed more PD than expected by chance, as calculated with the null model approach. Geological history as documented by the study of ancient floras as well as glacial refuges in the coastal range of southern Chile during the quaternary seem to be consistent with the observed pattern, highlighting the importance of this area for conservation purposes.

Scherson, Rosa A; Albornoz, Abraham A; Moreira-Munoz, Andres S; Urbina-Casanova, Rafael

2014-01-01

246

Five vicarious genera from Gondwana: the Velloziaceae as shown by molecules and morphology  

PubMed Central

Background and Aims The amount of data collected previously for Velloziaceae neither clarified relationships within the family nor helped determine an appropriate classification, which has led to huge discordance among treatment by different authors. To achieve an acceptable phylogenetic result and understand the evolution and roles of characters in supporting groups, a total evidence analysis was developed which included approx. 20 % of the species and all recognized genera and sections of Velloziaceae, plus outgroups representatives of related families within Pandanales. Methods Analyses were undertaken with 48 species of Velloziaceae, representing all ten genera, with DNA sequences from the atpB-rbcL spacer, trnL-trnF spacer, trnL intron, trnH-psbA spacer, ITS ribosomal DNA spacers and morphology. Key Results Four groups consistently emerge from the analyses. Persistent leaves, two phloem strands, stem cortex divided in three regions and violet tepals support Acanthochlamys as sister to Velloziaceae s.s., which are supported mainly by leaves with marginal bundles, transfusion tracheids and inflorescence without axis. Within Velloziaceae s.s., an African Xerophyta + Talbotia clade is uniquely supported by basal loculicidal capsules; an American clade, Barbacenia s.l. + Barbaceniopsis + Nanuza + Vellozia, is supported by only homoplastic characters. Barbacenia s.l. (= Aylthonia + Barbacenia + Burlemarxia + Pleurostima) is supported by a double sheath in leaf vascular bundles and a corona; Barbaceniopsis + Nanuza + Vellozia is not supported by an unambiguous character, but Barbaceniopsis is supported by five characters, including diclinous flowers, Nanuza + Vellozia is supported mainly by horizontal stigma lobes and stem inner cortex cells with secondary walls, and Vellozia alone is supported mainly by pollen in tetrads. Conclusions The results imply recognition of five genera (Acanthochlamys (Xerophyta (Barbacenia (Barbaceniopsis, Vellozia)))), solving the long-standing controversies among recent classifications of the family. They also suggest a Gondwanan origin for Velloziaceae, with a vicariant pattern of distribution.

Mello-Silva, Renato; Santos, Deborah Yara A. C.; Salatino, Maria Luiza F.; Motta, Lucimar B.; Cattai, Marina B.; Sasaki, Denise; Lovo, Juliana; Pita, Patricia B.; Rocini, Cintia; Rodrigues, Cristiane D. N.; Zarrei, Mehdi; Chase, Mark W.

2011-01-01

247

Further studies on the Pselaphodes complex of genera from China (Coleoptera, Staphylinidae, Pselaphinae)  

PubMed Central

Abstract New data on the Pselaphodes complex of genera (Pselaphitae: Tyrini) from China is presented. The generic limits of Labomimus Sharp and Pselaphodes Westwood are discussed and expanded. A revised key to the genera of the Pselaphodes complex is provided. New geographic evidence suggests that previously believed wide-spread species Pselaphodes tianmuensis Yin, Li & Zhao contains a number of related species, resulting in a division of the species to nine separate taxa. Fourteen new species belonging to three genera are diagnosed, described and illustrated: Dayao emeiensis Yin & Li, sp. n. (Sichuan), Labomimus fimbriatus Yin & Hlavá?, sp. n. (Yunnan), Labomimus jizuensis Yin & Hlavá?, sp. n. (Yunnan), Labomimus simplicipalpus Yin & Hlavá?, sp. n. (Sichuan), Pselaphodes anhuianus Yin & Li, sp. n. (Anhui), Pselaphodes daii Yin & Hlavá?, sp. n. (Sichuan), Pselaphodes grebennikovi Yin & Hlavá?, sp. n. (Yunnan), Pselaphodes hainanensis Yin & Li, sp. n. (Hainan), Pselaphodes kuankuoshuiensis Yin & Li, sp. n. (Guizhou), Pselaphodes longilobus Yin & Hlavá?, sp. n. (Hunbei, Yunnan), Pselaphodes monoceros Yin & Hlavá?, sp. n. (Xizang), Pselaphodes pengi Yin & Li, sp. n. (Sichuan), Pselaphodes tiantongensis Yin & Li, sp. n. (Zhejiang) and Pselaphodes wrasei Yin & Li, sp. n. (Yunnan). Labomimus sichuanicus Hlavá?, Nomura & Zhou (Sichuan) is redescribed and illustrated based on a paratype and the material from the type locality. Two recently described species, Pselaphodes tibialis Yin & Li (Yunnan), and Pselaphodes venustus Yin & Li (Yunnan), are transferred to Labomimus (comb. n.) due to the presence of a median metaventral fovea. New locality data is provided for Pselaphodes aculeus Yin, Li & Zhao (Anhui, Fujian, Guangxi, Hainan, Yunnan), Pselaphodes maoershanus Yin & Li (Guangxi, Guizhou), Pselaphodes tianmuensis (Zhejiang, Anhui, Fujian, Jiangxi, Guangxi) and Pselaphodes pectinatus Yin, Li & Zhao (Hainan), with the aedeagus newly illustrated for the latter species.

Yin, Zi-Wei; Hlavac, Peter; Li, Li-Zhen

2013-01-01

248

A QUICK KEY TO THE SUBFAMILIES AND GENERA OF ANTS OF THE SAVANNAH RIVER SITE  

SciTech Connect

This taxonomic key was devised to support development of a Rapid Bioassessment Protocol using ants at the Savannah River Site. The emphasis is on 'rapid' and, because the available keys contained a very large number of genera not known to occur at the Savannah River Site, we found that the available keys were unwieldy. Because these keys contained many more genera than we would ever encounter and because this larger number of genera required more couplets in the key and often required examination of characters that are difficult to assess without higher magnifications (60X or higher), more time was required to process samples. In developing this set of keys I emphasized character states that are easier for nonspecialists to recognize. I recognize that the character sets used may lead to some errors but I believe that the error rate will be small and, for the purpose of rapid bioassessment, this error rate will be acceptable provided that overall sample sizes are adequate. Oliver and Beattie (1996a, 1996b) found that for rapid assessment of biodiversity the same results were found when identifications were done to morphospecies by people with minimal expertise as when the same data sets were identified by subject matter experts. Basset et al. (2004) concluded that it was not as important to correctly identify all species as it was to be sure that the study included as many functional groups as possible. If your study requires high levels of accuracy, it is highly recommended that, when you key out a specimen and have any doubts concerning the identification, you should refer to keys in Bolton (1994) or to the other keys used to develop this area specific taxonomic key.

Martin, D

2007-09-04

249

The ortho-nitrophenol (ONPG) test and acid from lactose in Gram-negative genera  

PubMed Central

The results are given of the ortho-nitrophenol test for beta-galactosidase production (ONPG test) on 588 strains of 123 aerobic species of bacteria, representing 30 genera. Apart from some strains of Erwinia herbicola (synonym Chromobacterium typhiflavum) and of Yersinia spp, these strains were not members of the Enterobacteriaceae, in which family the ONPG test is widely used and well documented. The strains were also tested for acid production from 1, 5, and 10% lactose and the findings are discussed in relation to the ONPG test.

Lapage, S. P.; Efstratiou, Androulla; Hill, L. R.

1973-01-01

250

First Reported Infections Caused by Three Newly Described Genera in the Family Xanthomonadaceae?  

PubMed Central

Members of the family of Xanthomonadaceae are typically characterized as environmental organisms. With the exception of Stenotrophomonas maltophilia, these organisms are infrequently implicated as human pathogens. We describe three cases of central venous catheter-associated bloodstream infections caused by Dokdonella koreensis, Aquimonas voraii, and a Luteibacter sp., all newly named genera within the family Xanthomonadaceae. The three patients all had histories of underlying hematological disorders, presented with fever, and recovered fully following treatment. These isolates required 16S rRNA gene sequencing for identification and, unlike S. maltophilia, demonstrated susceptibility to most antibiotics tested. This report represents the first description of human infections caused by these organisms.

LaSala, P. Rocco; Segal, Jonathan; Han, Faye S.; Tarrand, Jeffrey J.; Han, Xiang Y.

2007-01-01

251

Taxonomic study on Korean Aphyllophorales (5) - on some unrecorded genera and species -  

PubMed Central

A total of 149 species and 209 strains of Korean Aphyllophorales in Seoul National University Fungus Collection (SFC) were analyzed by taxonomic and phylogenetic methods. Among those examined fungal specimens, 9 genera Abundisporus, Antrodiella, Cyphellopsis, Dendrothele, Dichomitus, Laxitextum, Piloderma, Skeletocutis and Tubulicrinis, and 23 species, Abundisporus fuscopurpureus, Antrodiella semisupina, Auriporia pileata, Cantharellus subalbidus, Clavulina cinerea, Cyphellopsis confusa, Dendrothele acerina, Dichomitus campestris, Haplotrichum aureum, Heterobasidion annosum, Hyphoderma argillaceum, Hyphodontia tropica, Inonotus dryophilus, Ischnoderma benzoinum, Laxitextum bicolor, Phanerochaete radicata, Phellinus lonicericola, Piloderma byssinum, Skeletocutis nivea, Tomentella terrestris, Trametes elegans, Trametes tenuis, and Tubulicrinis accedens were confirmed as new to Korea and registered here with descriptions.

Lee, Jin Sung

2006-01-01

252

Illustrated keys to the mosquitoes of Thailand. II. Genera Culex and Lutzia.  

PubMed

Illustrated keys for the identification of the fourth-instar larvae and adult females of the mosquito genera Culex and Lutzia is presented, along with information on the geographic distribution of each species, and bionomics. Eighty-two species belonging to subgenera Culex, Culiciomyia, Eumelanomyia, Lophoceraomyia, and Oculeomyia of genus Culex, and three species belonging to subgenus Metalutzia of genus Lutzia are recognized in Thailand. Subgenus Oculeomyia includes a probable new species near Cx. infula and Lt. vorax is recognized as a new country record. PMID:16285260

Rattanarithikul, Rampa; Harbach, Ralph E; Harrison, Bruce A; Panthusiri, Prachong; Jones, James W; Coleman, Russell E

2005-01-01

253

Systematic placement and biogeographical relationships of the monotypic genera Gypothamnium and Oxyphyllum (Asteraceae: Mutisioideae) from the Atacama Desert  

Microsoft Academic Search

Gypothamnium and Oxyphyllum (Asteraceae) are two monotypic genera endemic to the Atacama Desert of northern Chile. We performed a phylogenetic analysis using published sequences of the plastid rbcL and ndhF genes, the trnL-trnF region and the nuclear ribosomal internal transcribed spacer (ITS) to assess the systematic placement of the two genera within Mutisioideae. On the basis of the phylogenetic results,

FEDERICO LUEBERT; JUN WEN; MICHAEL O. DILLON

2009-01-01

254

An illustrated key to the genera and subgenera of the Recent azooxanthellate Scleractinia (Cnidaria, Anthozoa), with an attached glossary.  

PubMed

The 120 presently recognized genera and seven subgenera of the azooxanthellate Scleractinia are keyed using gross morphological characters of the corallum. All genera are illustrated with calicular and side views of coralla. All termes used in the key are defined in an illustrated glossary. A table of all species-level keys, both comprehensive and faunistic, is provided covering the last 40 years. PMID:23166463

Cairns, Stephen D; Kitahara, Marcelo V

2012-01-01

255

Aspergillus infections in transplant and non-transplant surgical patients.  

PubMed

Background: Aspergillus infections are associated commonly with immunocompromised states, such as transplantation and hematologic malignant disease. Although Aspergillus infections among patients having surgery occur primarily in transplant recipients, they are found in non-recipients of transplants, and have a mortality rate similar to that seen among transplant recipients. Methods: We conducted a retrospective analysis of a prospective data base collected from 1996 to 2010, in which we identified patients with Aspergillus infections. We compared demographic data, co-morbidities, and outcomes in non-transplant patients with those in abdominal transplant recipients. Continuous data were evaluated with the Student t-test, and categorical data were evaluated through ?(2) analysis. Results: Twenty-three patients (11 transplant patients and 12 non-transplant patients) were identified as having had Aspergillus infections. The two groups were similar with regard to their demographics and co-morbidities, with the exceptions of their scores on the Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II (APACHE II), of 23.6±8.1 points for transplant patients vs. 16.8±6.1 points for non-transplant patients (p=0.03); Simplified Acute Physiology Score (SAPS) of 16.6±8.3 points vs. 9.2±4.1 points, respectively (p=0.02); steroid use 91.0% vs. 25.0%, respectively (p=0.003); and percentage of infections acquired in the intensive care unit (ICU) 27.3% vs. 83.3%, respectively (p=0.01). The most common site of infection in both patient groups was the lung. The two groups showed no significant difference in the number of days from admission to treatment, hospital length of stay following treatment, or mortality. Conclusions: Although Aspergillus infections among surgical patients have been associated historically with solid-organ transplantation, our data suggest that other patients may also be susceptible to such infections, especially those in an ICU who are deemed to be critically ill. This supports the idea that critically ill surgical patients exist in an immunocompromised state. Surgical intensivists should be familiar with the diagnosis and treatment of Aspergillus infections even in the absence of an active transplant program. PMID:24799182

Davies, Stephen; Guidry, Christopher; Politano, Amani; Rosenberger, Laura; McLeod, Matthew; Hranjec, Tjasa; Sawyer, Robert

2014-06-01

256

In vitro antifungal activity of farnesyltransferase inhibitors against clinical isolates of Aspergillus and Candida  

PubMed Central

Background Protein farnesylation is an important tosttranslational modification in fungi. We evaluated the antifungal activity of two farnesyltransferase inhibitors against clinical isolates of Aspergillus and Candida. Methods Disk diffusion assay and broth microdilution assay were used to determine the antifungal susceptibility of two farnesyltransferase inhibitors (manumycin A and tipifarnib) against clinical isolates of Aspergillus and Candida. Results Disk diffusion assay demonstrated both agents had activity against Aspergillus and Candida. The minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) ranges for manumycin A against Aspergillus and Candida were 200 to 400 ?M and 13 to >25 ?M, respectively. Unfortunately, the MIC were vastly higher than the concentrations that inhibit the proliferation and viability of mammalian cells. The MICs of tipifarnib against Aspergillus and Candida were >1600 ?M. Conclusion The outcome of present study showed that farnesyltransferase inhibitors have activity against Aspergillus and Candida. This suggests that farnesyltransferase may be used as anifungal target in designing and developing new drugs.

2013-01-01

257

Cladal relatedness among Aspergillus oryzae isolates and Aspergillus flavus S and L morphotype isolates.  

PubMed

Aspergillus flavus is the main etiological agent for aflatoxin contamination of crops. Its close relative, A. oryzae, does not produce aflatoxins and has been widely used to produce fermented foods. We compared the phylogeny of A. oryzae isolates and L- and S-type sclerotial isolates of A. flavus using single nucleotide polymorphisms in the omtA gene in the aflatoxin biosynthesis gene cluster and deletions in and distal to the norB-cypA intergenic region as phylogenetic signals. Aflatoxin-producing ability and sclerotial size also were weighted in the analysis. Like A. flavus, the A. oryzae isolates form a polyphyletic assemblage. A. oryzae isolates in one clade strikingly resemble an A. flavus subgroup of atoxigenic L-type isolates. All toxigenic S-type isolates closely resemble another subgroup of atoxigenic L-type isolates. Because atoxigenic S-type isolates are extremely rare, we hypothesize that loss of aflatoxin production in S-type isolates may occur concomitantly with a change to L-type sclerotia. All toxigenic L-type isolates, unlike A. oryzae, have a 1.0 kb deletion in the norB-cypA region. Although A. oryzae isolates, like S-type, have a 1.5 kb deletion in the norB-cypA region, none were cladally related to S-type A. flavus isolates. Our results show that A. flavus populations are genetically diverse. A. oryzae isolates may descend from certain atoxigenic L-type A. flavus isolates. PMID:16430983

Chang, Perng-Kuang; Ehrlich, Kenneth C; Hua, Sui-Sheng T

2006-04-25

258

Amphotericin B und Flucytosin-Therapie bei Aspergillus -Pneumonie und akutem Nierenversagen  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Kidney failure and pneumonia byAspergillus flavus andA. fumigatus were found in a 56-year-old woman who had received antibiotic and corticoid treatment to control high fever. Her bloody tracheal secretion was a suspension of granule-like spore-free colonies of bothAspergillus species. Hemorrhages in mucous membranes and skin suggested a hematogenous dissemination of the fungi. Aspergillus spores in the soil of ornamental

F. Staib; I. Bennhold; H.-W. Voigt; C. Bangel; A. Blisse

1987-01-01

259

Prevalence of Aspergillus sensitisation in pulmonary tuberculosis-related fibrocavitary disease.  

PubMed

SETTING Aspergillus complicates the course of healed pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB), causing aspergilloma and chronic pulmonary aspergillosis. Whether Aspergillus also causes allergic sensitisation in PTB-related fibrocavitary disease and bronchiectasis remains unknown. OBJECTIVE To investigate the prevalence of Aspergillus sensitisation in healed fibrocavitary PTB. DESIGN In a case-control design, consecutive symptomatic new referrals with PTB-related fibrocavitary disease underwent spirometry, Aspergillus skin test and computed tomography of the chest, determination of serum IgE levels (total and Aspergillus fumigatus-specific), serum precipitins against A. fumigatus and eosinophil count. Aspergillus sensitisation was defined as either a positive Aspergillus skin test or A. fumigatus IgE >0.35 kUA/l. RESULTS A total of 100 subjects (50 PTB-related fibrocavitary disease, 50 controls) with a mean age of 40.8 years (standard deviation [SD] 12.2) were enrolled. Aspergillus sensitisation was present in 16 (32%) cases and two (4%) controls. Fourteen cases (one control) had IgE values >1000 IU/ml, while two cases manifested eosinophilia. Aspergillus precipitins were positive in 13 cases (two controls); of these, 8 did not have Aspergillus sensitisation. The presence of airflow obstruction on spirometry was significantly associated with Aspergillus sensitisation on univariate analysis (OR 4.96, 95%CI 1.36-18.03). CONCLUSIONS There is a high prevalence of Aspergillus sensitisation in PTB-related fibrocavitary disease. The clinical relevance and therapeutic implications of this finding require further investigation. PMID:24902565

Dhooria, S; Kumar, P; Saikia, B; Aggarwal, A N; Gupta, D; Behera, D; Chakrabarti, A; Agarwal, R

2014-07-01

260

Aspergillus as a multi-purpose cell factory: current status and perspectives  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aspergilli have a long history in biotechnology as expression platforms for the production of food ingredients, pharmaceuticals\\u000a and enzymes. The achievements made during the last years, however, have the potential to revolutionize Aspergillus biotechnology and to assure Aspergillus a dominant place among microbial cell factories. This mini-review will highlight most recent breakthroughs in fundamental\\u000a and applied Aspergillus research with a

Vera Meyer; Bo Wu; Arthur F. J. Ram

2011-01-01

261

The Mediterranean red alga Asparagopsis taxiformis has antifungal activity against Aspergillus species.  

PubMed

The red algae Asparagopsis taxiformis collected from the Straits of Messina (Italy) were screened for antifungal activity against Aspergillus species. EUCAST methodology was applied and extracts showed antifungal activity against A. fumigatus, A. terreus and A. flavus. The lowest minimum inhibitory concentrations observed were <0.15 mg ml(-1) and the highest were >5 mg ml(-1) for Aspergillus spp. tested. Agar diffusion assays confirmed antifungal activity of A. taxiformis extracts in Aspergillus species. PMID:23437896

Genovese, Giuseppa; Leitner, Sandra; Minicante, Simona A; Lass-Flörl, Cornelia

2013-09-01

262

Thirteen novel deoxynivalenol-degrading bacteria are classified within two genera with distinct degradation mechanisms.  

PubMed

The mycotoxin deoxynivalenol (DON), a secondary metabolite produced by species of the plant pathogen Fusarium, causes serious problems in cereal crop production because of its toxicity towards humans and livestock. A biological approach for the degradation of DON using a DON-degrading bacterium (DDB) appears to be promising, although information about DDBs is limited. We isolated 13 aerobic DDBs from a variety of environmental samples, including field soils and wheat leaves. Of these 13 strains, nine belonged to the Gram-positive genus Nocardioides and other four to the Gram-negative genus Devosia. The degradation phenotypes of the two Gram types were clearly different; all washed cells of the 13 strains degraded 100 ?g mL(-1) DON to below the detection limit (0.5 ?g mL(-1)), but the conditions inducing the DON-degrading activities differed between the two Gram types. The HPLC profiles of the DON metabolites were also distinct between the two genera, although all strains produced 3-epi-deoxynivalenol. The Gram-positive strains showed DON assimilation in media containing DON as a carbon source, whereas the Gram-negatives did not. Our results suggest that aerobic DDBs are distributed within at least two phylogenetically restricted genera, suggesting independent evolution of the DON-degradation mechanisms. PMID:22098388

Sato, Ikuo; Ito, Michihiro; Ishizaka, Masumi; Ikunaga, Yoko; Sato, Yukari; Yoshida, Shigenobu; Koitabashi, Motoo; Tsushima, Seiya

2012-02-01

263

Molecular and classical chromosomal techniques reveal diversity in bushcricket genera of Barbitistini (Orthoptera).  

PubMed

The cytogenetic characteristics of 17 species of bushcricket belonging to eight genera of the tribe Barbitistini were examined by fluorescence in situ hybridization with 18S rDNA and (TTAGGn) telomeric as probes and by C-banding, silver, and fluorochrome staining. These markers were used to understand chromosomal organization and evolutionary relationships between genera or species within the same genus. The number of 18S rDNA clusters per haploid genome that co-localized with active nucleolus organizer regions (NORs) ranged from one to five, with the most common pattern being the presence of one NOR-bearing chromosome. This ribosomal cistron was preferentially located in the paracentromeric region of autosomes and very rarely in the sex chromosome. The results demonstrated coincidence between the localization of major ribosomal genes and active NORs and the position of C-band and GC-rich regions. The rDNA/NOR distribution and the composition of chromosome heterochromatin proved to be good cytogenetic markers for distinguishing species and phylogenetic lines and for understanding the genomic differentiation and evolution of Barbitistini. A comparison of cytogenetic and morphological or behavioral traits suggests that morphological and behavioral specialization in this group was not followed by major karyotype modification (except for Leptophyes). However, the occurrence and distribution of different repetitive DNA sites tends to vary among the taxa. PMID:24299106

Warcha?owska-?liwa, E; Grzywacz, B; Marya?ska-Nadachowska, A; Karamysheva, T V; Heller, K-G; Lehmann, A W; Lehmann, G U C; Chobanov, D P

2013-11-01

264

A three-parameter model for classifying anurans into four genera based on advertisement calls.  

PubMed

The vocalizations of anurans are innate in structure and may therefore contain indicators of phylogenetic history. Thus, advertisement calls of species which are more closely related phylogenetically are predicted to be more similar than those of distant species. This hypothesis was evaluated by comparing several widely used machine-learning algorithms. Recordings of advertisement calls from 142 species belonging to four genera were analyzed. A logistic regression model, using mean values for dominant frequency, coefficient of variation of root-mean square energy, and spectral flux, correctly classified advertisement calls with regard to genus with an accuracy above 70%. Similar accuracy rates were obtained using these parameters with a support vector machine model, a K-nearest neighbor algorithm, and a multivariate Gaussian distribution classifier, whereas a Gaussian mixture model performed slightly worse. In contrast, models based on mel-frequency cepstral coefficients did not fare as well. Comparable accuracy levels were obtained on out-of-sample recordings from 52 of the 142 original species. The results suggest that a combination of low-level acoustic attributes is sufficient to discriminate efficiently between the vocalizations of these four genera, thus supporting the initial premise and validating the use of high-throughput algorithms on animal vocalizations to evaluate phylogenetic hypotheses. PMID:23297926

Gingras, Bruno; Fitch, William Tecumseh

2013-01-01

265

Phenotypic characterization, cellular fatty acid composition, and DNA relatedness of aerococci and comparison to related genera.  

PubMed Central

Aerococci can be misidentified as streptococci, enterococci, pediococci, lactococci, or leuconostocs. To distinguish the genus and determine if another species is needed in the present taxon, we analyzed 37 aerococci for cellular fatty acids and compared them with 377 strains of gram-positive cocci, including the species type strains from each of the related genera. The cellular fatty acid profile of aerococci was distinguishable from other genera. Two relatively novel fatty acids found in the aerococci were identified as C16:1 omega 9c and C16:1 omega 9t. Eleven strains of aerococci (including a strain originally identified as "Gaffkya" species) were chosen for DNA-DNA reassociation studies with the type strain Aerococcus viridans ATCC 11563; DNAs from eight of these strains were more than 75% related to the type strain and had 1 to 4% divergence in related sequences. The remaining three strains were 60 to 70% related to the type strain, had 7 to 11.5% divergence, and may represent a second species, Aerococcus genospecies 2. beta-Glucuronidase, alpha-galactosidase, and beta-galactosidase were useful in characterizing the aerococci.

Bosley, G S; Wallace, P L; Moss, C W; Steigerwalt, A G; Brenner, D J; Swenson, J M; Hebert, G A; Facklam, R R

1990-01-01

266

Chromosome numbers and karyotype evolution in holoparasitic Orobanche (Orobanchaceae) and related genera.  

PubMed

Chromosome numbers and karyotypes of species of Orobanche, Cistanche, and Diphelypaea (Orobanchaceae) were investigated, and 108 chromosome counts of 53 taxa, 19 counted for the first time, are presented with a thorough compilation of previously published data. Additionally, karyotypes of representatives of these genera, including Orobanche sects. Orobanche and Trionychon, are reported. Cistanche (x = 20) has large meta- to submetacentric chromosomes, while those of Diphelypaea (x = 19) are medium-sized submeta- to acrocentrics. Within three analyzed sections of Orobanche, sects. Myzorrhiza (x = 24) and Trionychon (x = 12) possess medium-sized submeta- to acrocentrics, while sect. Orobanche (x = 19) has small, mostly meta- to submetacentric, chromosomes. Polyploidy is unevenly distributed in Orobanche and restricted to a few lineages, e.g., O. sect. Myzorrhiza or Orobanche gracilis and its relatives (sect. Orobanche). The distribution of basic chromosome numbers supports the groups found by molecular phylogenetic analyses: Cistanche has x = 20, the Orobanche-group (Orobanche sect. Orobanche, Diphelypaea) has x = 19, and the Phelipanche-group (Orobanche sects. Gymnocaulis, Myzorrhiza, Trionychon) has x = 12, 24. A model of chromosome number evolution in Orobanche and related genera is presented: from two ancestral base numbers, x(h) = 5 and x(h) = 6, independent polyploidizations led to x = 20 (Cistanche) and (after dysploidization) x = 19 (Orobanche-group) and to x = 12 and x = 24 (Phelipanche-group), respectively. PMID:21653400

Schneeweiss, Gerald M; Palomeque, Teresa; Colwell, Alison E; Weiss-Schneeweiss, Hanna

2004-03-01

267

Molecular phylogenetics of the Meteoriaceae s. str.: focusing on the genera Meteorium and Papillaria.  

PubMed

In order to delimit and understand the evolution of the Meteoriaceae, we provide phylogenetic analyses using the internal transcribed spacer 2 (ITS2) of nuclear ribosomal DNA in combination with two plastid markers, trnL-F and psbT-H. In contrast to the widely used trnL-F region, the psbT-H gene cluster, coding for proteins of photosystem II, has been rarely used to address systematic questions among the different land plant lineages. To overcome the problem of potential ambiguous alignments of non-coding DNA regions, the data were independently analyzed using direct optimization. The comparison and evaluation of the obtained results showed that the inferred cladograms based on the different phylogenetic approaches are very similar, with only minor differences. In combination with morphological characters, generic relationships as well as taxonomic and nomenclatural problems, especially regarding the key genera Meteorium and Papillaria are discussed in detail. New insights into generic relationships of the Meteoriaceae are provided, such as the exclusion of the monospecific southern South American genera Ancistrodes and Cryphaeophilum, which are subsequently transferred to the Hookeriaceae and Cryphaeaceae, respectively. Phylogenetic reconstructions using maximum likelihood as well as parsimony approaches reveal that at the familial level the Meteoriaceae s. l. are polyphyletic, if the formerly recognized "Trachypodaceae" are considered as a separate family. Based on our results we favor the synonym of the Trachypodaceae with the Meteoriaceae. PMID:15223029

Quandt, Dietmar; Huttunen, Sanna; Streimann, Heinar; Frahm, Jan Peter; Frey, Wolfgang

2004-08-01

268

Chromosome numbers and karyotype evolution in holoparasitic Orobanche (Orobanchaceae) and related genera  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Chromosome numbers and karyotypes of species of Orobanche, Cistanche, and Diphelypaea (Orobanchaceae) were investigated, and 108 chromosome counts of 53 taxa, 19 counted for the first time, are presented with a thorough compilation of previously published data. Additionally, karyotypes of representatives of these genera, including Orobanche sects. Orobanche and Trionychon, are reported. Cistanche (x = 20) has large meta- to submetacentric chromosomes, while those of Diphelypaea (x = 19) are medium-sized submeta-to acrocentrics. Within three analyzed sections of Orobanche, sects. Myzorrhiza (x = 24) and Trionychon (x = 12) possess medium-sized submeta- to acrocentrics, while sect. Orobanche (x = 19) has small, mostly meta- to submetacentric, chromosomes. Polyploidy is unevenly distributed in Orobanche and restricted to a few lineages, e.g., O. sect. Myzorrhiza or Orobanche gracilis and its relatives (sect. Orobanche). The distribution of basic chromosome numbers supports the groups found by molecular phylogenetic analyses: Cistanche has x = 20, the Orobanche-group (Orobanche sect. Orobanche, Diphelypaea) has x = 19, and the Phelipanche-group (Orobanche sects. Gymnocaulis, Myzorrhiza, Trionychon) has x = 12, 24. A model of chromosome number evolution in Orobanche and related genera is presented: from two ancestral base numbers, xh = 5 and xh = 6, independent polyploidizations led to x = 20 (Cistanche) and (after dysploidization) x = 19 (Orobanche-group) and to x = 12 and x = 24 (Phelipanche-group), respectively.

Schneeweiss, G. M.; Palomeque, T.; Colwell, A. E.; Weiss-Schneeweiss, H.

2004-01-01

269

Comprehensive Secondary Structure Elucidation of Four Genera of the Family Pospiviroidae  

PubMed Central

Viroids are small, circular, single stranded RNA molecules that infect plants. Since they are non-coding, their structures play a critical role in their life cycles. To date, little effort has been spend on elucidating viroid structures in solution due to both the experimental difficulties and the time-consuming nature of the methodologies implicated. Recently, the technique of high-throughput selective 2?-hydroxyl acylation analyzed by primer extension (SHAPE) was adapted for the probing of the members of family Avsunviroidae, all of whom replicate in the chloroplast and demonstrate ribozyme activity. In the present work, twelve viroid species belonging to four different genera of the family Pospiviroidae, whose members are characterized by the presence of a central conserved region (CCR) and who replicate in nucleus of the host, were probed. Given that the structures of five distinct viroid species from the family Pospiviroidae have been previously reported, an overview of the different structural characteristics for all genera and the beginning of a manual classification of the different viroids based on their structural features are presented here.

Giguere, Tamara; Raj Adkar-Purushothama, Charith; Perreault, Jean-Pierre

2014-01-01

270

Antifungal Activity of Eugenol against Penicillium, Aspergillus, and Fusarium Species.  

PubMed

The antifungal activity of eugenol in a model system against aspergilli (Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus terreus, and Emericella nidulans), penicilli (Penicillium expansum, Penicillium glabrum, and Penicillium italicum), and fusaria (Fusarium oxysporum and Fusarium avenaceum) was investigated. Minimum detection time (time to attain a colony diameter of 1 cm) and the kinetic parameters were evaluated. The effectiveness of the active compound seemed to be strain or genus dependent; 100 mg/liter represented a critical value for P. expansum, P. glabrum, P. italicum, A. niger, and E. nidulans because a further increase of eugenol resulted in fungistatic activity. The radial growth of A. terreus and F. avenaceum was inhibited at 140 mg/liter, and growth of F. oxysporum was completely inhibited at 150 mg/liter. PMID:20537272

Campaniello, Daniela; Corbo, Maria Rosaria; Sinigaglia, Milena

2010-06-01

271

Monitoring environmental Aspergillus spp. contamination and meteorological factors in a haematological unit.  

PubMed

The opportunistic pathogens belonging to the Aspergillus genus are present in almost all seasons of the year, and their concentration is related to meteorological conditions. The high density of Aspergillus spp. conidia in a haematological hospital ward may be a significant risk factor for developing invasive fungal diseases in immunocompromised patients. Aim of the present study was to evaluate the variability of airborne Aspergillus spp. conidia contamination in a Haematological Unit (HU) within a period of 16 months in relation with some meteorological parameters. An environmental Aspergillus surveillance was conducted in the HU in four rooms and their bathrooms, in the corridor and in three external sites using an agar impact sampler. During each sampling, temperature and relative humidity at each site were recorded and current wind speed and rainfall events were taken from the official weather service. Aspergillus spp. conidia concentration differed significantly across the sampling sites. Internal Aspergillus spp. loads were significantly dependent on temperature, internal relative humidity and rain. External conidia concentrations were significantly influenced by outdoor temperature and relative humidity. A suitable indicator was introduced to evaluate the seasonal distribution of Aspergillus spp. conidia in the sampling sites, and a significant dependence on this indicator was observed inside the HU. Seventeen different fungal species belonging to the Aspergillus genus were detected during the sampling period. Aspergillus fumigatus was the most frequently isolated species and its distribution depended significantly on the seasonal indicator both inside and outside the hospital ward. PMID:24158616

Cavallo, M; Andreoni, S; Martinotti, M G; Rinaldi, M; Fracchia, L

2013-12-01

272

Advances in molecular detection of Aspergillus : an update  

Microsoft Academic Search

Filamentous cosmopolitan fungi of the genus Aspergillus can be harmful in two ways, directly they can be opportunistic pathogens causing aspergillosis and indirectly due to aflatoxin\\u000a production on food products which can lead to aflatoxicosis. Therefore, a number of methods have been proposed so far for\\u000a detection of the fungi with lowest possible concentration at the earliest. Molecular methods such

M. Z. Abdin; Malik M. Ahmad; Saleem Javed

2010-01-01

273

Catalytic Properties of Lipase Extracts from Aspergillus niger  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Screening of lipolytic strains using Rhodamine-B\\/olive oil plate technique allowed the selection of Aspergillus niger MYA 135. Lipase production in submerged culture containing 2 % olive oil was enhanced by more than 50 % compared to basal cultural conditions. Op- timal catalytic conditions for olive oil-induced lipase were pH=6.5 and 30-35 °C. These values were shifted to the acid

Licia M. Pera; Cintia M. Romero; Mario D. Baigori; Guillermo R. Castro

2006-01-01

274

Sodium gluconate production by Aspergillus niger with intermittent broth replacement  

Microsoft Academic Search

Intermittent broth replacement was carried out to enhance the productivity and purity of sodium gluconate usingAspergillus niger by reducing the concentration of unmetabolized glucose. As inoculum size increased, length of lag phase was shortened and\\u000a high initial production rate of sodium gluconate was achieved. However, too high inoculum concentration lowered productivity\\u000a during the later stage of fermentation and increased residual

Sang-Yoon Lee; Bu-Su Park; Jin-Hyup Kim; Byung-Gee Kim; Dong-Il Kim

1999-01-01

275

Immobilization of ? galactosidase from Aspergillus oryzae via immunoaffinity support  

Microsoft Academic Search

Polyclonal antibody bound cellulose support has been exploited for the immobilization and stabilization of ? galactosidase from Aspergillus oryzae. Immunoaffinity bound ? galactosidase retained 96.5% of the initial activity on the support. Immobilized ? galactosidase showed broad-spectrum pH optima, pH 4.6–5.5 and temperature at 50–60°C whereas the soluble enzyme exhibited activity peak at pH 4.6 and 50°C. Immunoaffinity bound enzyme

Toshiba Haider; Qayyum Husain

2009-01-01

276

Stereochemistry of hydrolysis of glycosidic linkage by three Aspergillus polygalacturonases  

Microsoft Academic Search

The stereochemistry of the hydrolytic action of endopolygalacturonases I and II (PGI and PGII, respectively) from Aspergillus niger and of an exopolygalacturonase (PGX) from A. tubingensis was investigated by 1H-NMR spectroscopy by following the configuration of the reducing ends in the products formed in D2O reaction mixtures. It has been shown that all three polygalacturonases are inverting enzymes; the newly

P. Biely; J. A. E. Benen; H. C. M. Kester; K. Heinrichova; J. Visser

1996-01-01

277

Storability of onion bulbs contaminated by Aspergillus niger mold  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the course of pre- and postharvest epidemiological studies on bulbs contamination byAspergillus niger, two Sudanese onion cultivars were tested: ‘Saggai Red’ and ‘El-Hilo White’.A. niger spores, whether seedborne, soilborne or airborne, were avirulent to the healthy growing onion plants. The fungus heavily\\u000a contaminated the dead onion tissues, mainly the dead leaves followed by the dry scales, the dead roots

S. A. F. El-Nagerabi; A. H. M. Ahmed

2003-01-01

278

Immunochemical detection of ochratoxin A in black Aspergillus strains  

Microsoft Academic Search

One hundred and fifty-seven strains belonging to Aspergillus section Nigri were tested for ochratoxin A production using three different methods: a relatively new immunochemical method based on an\\u000a enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), thin-layer chromatography (TLC) and high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC).\\u000a The monoclonal antibody-based ELISA technique was successfully used to screen for low levels of ochratoxin A in the black\\u000a Aspergilli

József Téren; János Varga; Zsuzsanna Hamari; Ferenc Kevei

1996-01-01

279

Removal of heavy metals using the fungus Aspergillus niger  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is a need to develop technologies that can remove toxic heavy metal ions found in wastewaters. Microorganisms are known to remove heavy metal ions from water. In this study the potential of the fungus Aspergillus niger to remove lead, cadmium, copper and nickel ions was evaluated. A. niger biomass pretreated by boiling in 0.1N NaOH solution for 15 min

Anoop Kapoor; T Viraraghavan; D. Roy Cullimore

1999-01-01

280

Phylogenetic analysis of polyketide synthase genes from Aspergillus ochraceus  

Microsoft Academic Search

A number of polyketide synthase gene sequences fromAspergillus ochraceus were isolated by both SSH-PCR and degenerate PCR. The deduced amino acid sequences of the corresponding clonedpks DNA fragments were then aligned with the amino acid sequences of other polyketide synthase enzymes. One of thesepks genes is essential for ochratoxin A biosynthesis (OTA-PKS). The OTA-PKS was most similar to methylsalicylic acid

J. O'Callaghan; A. D. W. Dobson

2006-01-01

281

?1,3 Glucans Are Dispensable in Aspergillus fumigatus  

PubMed Central

A triple ?1,3 glucan synthase mutant of Aspergillus fumigatus obtained by successive deletions of the three ?1,3 glucan synthase genes (AGS1, AGS2, and AGS3) has a cell wall devoid of ?1,3 glucans. The lack of ?1,3 glucans affects neither conidial germination nor mycelial vegetative growth and is compensated by an increase in ?1,3 glucan and/or chitin content.

Henry, Christine; Latge, Jean-Paul

2012-01-01

282

Genetic analysis of benzoate metabolism in Aspergillus niger  

Microsoft Academic Search

The benzoate metabolism of Aspergillus niger was studied as part of a design to clone the benzoate-4-hydroxylase gene of this fungus on the basis of complementation. Filtration enrichment techniques yielded mutants defective for different steps of benzoate degradation: bph (benzoate-4-hydroxylase), phh (4-hydroxybenzoate-3-hydroxylase) and prc (protocatechuate ring cleavage) mutants. In this way the degradation pathway for benzoate, involving the formation of

J. G. Boschloo; A. Paffen; T. Koot; W. J. J. van den Tweel; R. F. M. van Gorcom; J. H. G. Cordewener; C. J. Bos

1990-01-01

283

Single cell transcriptomics of neighboring hyphae of Aspergillus niger  

PubMed Central

Single cell profiling was performed to assess differences in RNA accumulation in neighboring hyphae of the fungus Aspergillus niger. A protocol was developed to isolate and amplify RNA from single hyphae or parts thereof. Microarray analysis resulted in a present call for 4 to 7% of the A. niger genes, of which 12% showed heterogeneous RNA levels. These genes belonged to a wide range of gene categories.

2011-01-01

284

Impact of Aspergillus oryzae genomics on industrial production of metabolites  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aspergillus oryzae is used extensively for the production of the traditional Japanese fermented foods sake (rice wine), shoyu (soy sauce), and miso (soybean paste). In recent years, recombinant DNA technology has been used to enhance industrial enzyme production by A. oryzae. Recently completed genomic studies using expressed sequence tag (EST) analyses and whole-genome sequencing are quickly expanding\\u000a the industrial potential

Keietsu Abe; Katusya Gomi; Fumihiko Hasegawa; Masayuki Machida

2006-01-01

285

Production of aflatoxin by Aspergillus parasiticus and its control  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of the present work was to investigate the production of aflatoxin byAspergillus parasiticus and to find out the possible ways to control it. Of 40 food samples collected from Abha region, Saudi Arabia, only 25% were\\u000a contaminated with aflatoxins. Oil-rich commodities had the highly contaminated commodities by fungi and aflatoxins while spices\\u000a were free from aflatoxins.Bacillus megatertum andB

Hamdy Aly Emara

1997-01-01

286

Aspergillus nidulans 5S rRNA genes and pseudogenes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The sequence of four Aspergillus nidulans 5S rRNA genes and of two pseudogenes has been determined. A conserved sequence about 100 by upstream of the 5S rRNA coding sequences has been found in three genes and one pseudogene. The two pseudogenes correspond to the 5' half of the 5S rRNA coding sequence and their 3' flanking sequences which are not

Ewa Bartnik; S?awomir Bartoszewski; Piotr Borsuk; Joanna Empel

1986-01-01

287

Aflatoxin production by Aspergillus flavus in Brazil nuts  

Microsoft Academic Search

Experiments were conducted to evaluate the effects of relative humidity (r.h.; 75%, 80%, 85%, 97%) and temperature (10, 13, 15, 25, 30°C) on aflatoxin production in previously dried (3.5% moisture content; m.c.) Brazil nuts. Initially Aspergillus spp. were isolated from the surfaces of whole in-shell (WIS) Brazil nuts imported from Peru using A. flavus and A. parasiticus agar (AFPA). Isolates

K. Arrus; G. Blank; D. Abramson; R. Clear; R. A. Holley

2005-01-01

288

The current status of species recognition and identification in Aspergillus  

PubMed Central

The species recognition and identification of aspergilli and their teleomorphs is discussed. A historical overview of the taxonomic concepts starting with the monograph of Raper & Fennell (1965) is given. A list of taxa described since 2000 is provided. Physiological characters, particularly growth rates and the production of extrolites, often show differences that reflect phylogenetic species boundaries and greater emphasis should be placed on extrolite profiles and growth characteristics in species descriptions. Multilocus sequence-based phylogenetic analyses have emerged as the primary tool for inferring phylogenetic species boundaries and relationships within subgenera and sections. A four locus DNA sequence study covering all major lineages in Aspergillus using genealogical concordance theory resulted in a species recognition system that agrees in part with phenotypic studies and reveals the presence of many undescribed species not resolved by phenotype. The use of as much data from as many sources as possible in making taxonomic decisions is advocated. For species identification, DNA barcoding uses a short genetic marker in an organism”s DNA to quickly and easily identify it to a particular species. Partial cytochrome oxidase subunit 1 sequences, which are used for barcoding animal species, were found to have limited value for species identification among black aspergilli. The various possibilities are discussed and at present partial ?-tubulin or calmodulin are the most promising loci for Aspergillus identification. For characterising Aspergillus species one application would be to produce a multilocus phylogeny, with the goal of having a firm understanding of the evolutionary relationships among species across the entire genus. DNA chip technologies are discussed as possibilities for an accurate multilocus barcoding tool for the genus Aspergillus.

Geiser, D.M.; Klich, M.A.; Frisvad, J.C.; Peterson, S.W.; Varga, J.; Samson, R.A.

2007-01-01

289

The 18-kilodalton antigen secreted by Aspergillus fumigatus.  

PubMed Central

One of the major antigens secreted in vitro by Aspergillus fumigatus is an 18-kDa basic protein which has been purified by cation-exchange chromatography. It is recognized by sera from aspergilloma patients. It is also the major circulating antigen found in urine of patients with invasive aspergillosis. Our results indicated that this antigen has potential for the diagnosis of both aspergilloma and invasive aspergillosis. Images

Latge, J P; Moutaouakil, M; Debeaupuis, J P; Bouchara, J P; Haynes, K; Prevost, M C

1991-01-01

290

Aspergillus antigen testing in bone marrow transplant recipients  

PubMed Central

Aims—To assess the clinical usefulness of a commercial aspergillus antigen enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) in the diagnosis of invasive aspergillosis (IA) in bone marrow transplant recipients, and to compare it with a commercial latex agglutination (LA) test. Methods—In total, 2026 serum samples from 104 bone marrow transplant recipients were tested. These comprised 67 sera from seven patients who had died with confirmed IA, 268 sera from nine patients who had died with suspected IA, and 1691 sera from 88 patients with no clinical, radiological, or microbiological signs of IA. Results—The ELISA was more sensitive than the LA test. All patients who were ELISA positive were also LA positive, and a positive LA result never preceded a positive ELISA. Twelve of 16 patients with confirmed or suspected IA were ELISA positive on two or more occasions, compared with 10 of 15 who were LA positive. ELISA was positive before LA in five patients (range, 2–14 days), and became positive on the same day in the remainder. Aspergillus antigen was detected by ELISA a median of 15 days before death (range, 4–233). Clinical and/or radiological evidence of IA was noted in all patients, and a positive ELISA was never the sole criterion for introduction of antifungal treatment. Two samples (one from each of two patients without IA) gave false positive results. Conclusions—The aspergillus ELISA is a specific indicator of invasive aspergillosis if the criterion of two positive samples is required to confirm the diagnosis. However, the test is insufficiently sensitive to diagnose aspergillosis before other symptoms or signs are apparent, and hence is unlikely to lead to earlier initiation of antifungal treatment. It is therefore unsuitable for screening of asymptomatic patients at risk of invasive aspergillosis, but does have a useful role in confirming the diagnosis in symptomatic patients. Key Words: invasive aspergillosis • aspergillus antigen • Platelia enzyme linked immunosorbent assay

Williamson, E; Oliver, D; Johnson, E; Foot, A; Marks, D; Warnock, D

2000-01-01

291

Ergosteroid derivatives from an algicolous strain of Aspergillus ustus.  

PubMed

One new ergosteroid derivative, isocyathisterol (1), and eight known compounds (2-9) were isolated from the culture of an algicolous strain (cf-42) of Aspergillus ustus obtained from the fresh tissue of marine green alga Codium fragile. The structure and absolute configuration of 1 were unequivocally identified by using NMR and mass spectroscopic methods as well as quantum chemical calculations. Compound 1 exhibited weak antibacterial activity. PMID:24896666

Liu, Xiang-Hong; Miao, Feng-Ping; Liang, Xiao-Rui; Ji, Nai-Yun

2014-08-01

292

Biosynthesis of diaporthin and orthosporin by Aspergillus ochraceus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Diaporthin and orthosporin were characterised from the fungus Aspergillus ochraceus D2306. Diaporthin was identified by high-resolution electron impact mass spectrometry and 1H and 13C NMR spectroscopy, from which new spectroscopic assignments were made. Orthosporin was also identified by mass spectrometry and both fungal metabolites are reported for the first time as co-metabolites and also as products of A. ochraceus. The

Jonathan P Harris; Peter G Mantle

2001-01-01

293

Purification, characterization and immobilization of a keratinase from Aspergillus oryzae  

Microsoft Academic Search

A keratinase enzyme was isolated and purified from a feather-degrading culture of Aspergillus oryzae. Fractional precipitation of the crude enzyme with ethanol, acetone and ammonium sulfate yielded 21 fractions. The fraction obtained at 75–85% ammonium sulfate saturation showed the highest activity and about 3.3-fold purification. This fraction was further purified by gel filtration in Sephadex G-75 followed by ion exchange

Aida M Farag; Maha A Hassan

2004-01-01

294

Mannitol is required for stress tolerance in Aspergillus niger conidiospores  

Microsoft Academic Search

D-Mannitol is the predominant carbon compound in conidiospores of the filamentous fungus Aspergillus niger and makes up 10 to 15?f the dry weight. A number of physiological functions have been ascribed to mannitol, including serving as a reserve carbon source, as an antioxidant, and to store reducing power. In this study, we cloned and characterized the A. niger mpdA gene,

George J. G. Ruijter; Maarten Bax; Hema Patel; Simon J. Flitter; Vondervoort van de P. J. I; Vries de R. P; Kuyk van P. A; Jaap Visser

2003-01-01

295

Effect of Butyrolactone I on the Producing Fungus, Aspergillus terreus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Butyrolactone I (a-oxo-b-(p-hydroxyphenyl)-g-(p-hydroxy-m-3,3-dimethylallyl-benzyl)-g-methoxycarbonyl- g-butyrolactone) is produced as a secondary metabolite by Aspergillus terreus. Because small butyrolactone- containing molecules act as self-regulating factors in some bacteria, the effects of butyrolactone I on the producing organism were studied; specifically, changes in morphology, sporulation, and secondary metabolism were studied. Threefold or greater increases in hyphal branching (with concomitant decreases in the average hyphal

TIMOTHY G. SCHIMMEL; ALLEN D. COFFMAN; SARAH J. PARSONS

1998-01-01

296

Airborne fungi in child day care centers in Edirne City, Turkey.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to determine the concentration, in terms of monthly and seasonal distribution and in relation to meteorological factors, of indoor and outdoor microfungi at selected sites in several child day care centers in the city of Edirne, Turkey. Samples were collected at one month intervals over a period of 12 months between January-December 2004, by exposing petri plates containing Peptone Dextrose Agar with Rose-Bengal and Streptomycin medium to the air for 10-15 min. A total of 2,071 microfungal colonies were counted on 192 petri plates. Thirty microfungal genera (Acremonium, Alternaria, Arthrinium, Aspergillus, Bahusakala, Beauveria, Ceuthospora, Chaetomium, Cladosporium, Curvularia, Drechslera, Epicoccum, Eurotium, Fusarium, Mycotypha, Myrotechium, Paecilomyces, Penicillium, Pestalotiopsis, Phoma, Ramichloridium, Rhizopus, Scopulariopsis, Stachybotrys, Stemphylium, Torula, Trichoderma, Trichothecium, Ulocladium, Verticillium) and 75 microfungal species were isolated from the air indoor and outdoor of the day care centers. The dominant microfungal genera were Cladosporium, Penicillium and Alternaria (44.11%, 18.94%, 14.67% of the total respectively), while the genus with the most species richness was Penicillium (26 species). Alternaria, Cladosporium, Penicillium and non-sporulating microfungi were found every month. Cladosporium was the dominant genus in both indoor and outdoor air. Although the predominant genus was the same in both indoor and outdoor air, Cladosporium was followed by Penicillium, Alternaria and Aspergillus genera in indoor air and by Alternaria, Penicillium and Aspergillus genera in outdoor air. While a positive correlation was found between the concentration of monthly outdoor microfungi and monthly average temperature, a negative correlation was found between the concentration of monthly outdoor microfungi and monthly average wind velocity. Also, some relationships were found between the monthly concentrations of the most predominant microfungal genera (Cladosporium, Penicillium and Alternaria) and various meteorological factors. PMID:18264791

Aydogdu, Halide; Asan, Ahmet

2008-12-01

297

Complement Attack against Aspergillus and Corresponding Evasion Mechanisms  

PubMed Central

Invasive aspergillosis shows a high mortality rate particularly in immunocompromised patients. Perpetually increasing numbers of affected patients highlight the importance of a clearer understanding of interactions between innate immunity and fungi. Innate immunity is considered to be the most significant host defence against invasive fungal infections. Complement represents a crucial part of this first line defence and comprises direct effects against invading pathogens as well as bridging functions to other parts of the immune network. However, despite the potency of complement to attack foreign pathogens, the prevalence of invasive fungal infections is increasing. Two possible reasons may explain that phenomenon: First, complement activation might be insufficient for an effective antifungal defence in risk patients (due to, e.g., low complement levels, poor recognition of fungal surface, or missing interplay with other immune elements in immunocompromised patients). On the other hand, fungi may have developed evasion strategies to avoid recognition and/or eradication by complement. In this review, we summarize the most important interactions between Aspergillus and the complement system. We describe the various ways of complement activation by Aspergillus and the antifungal effects of the system, and also show proven and probable mechanisms of Aspergillus for complement evasion.

Speth, Cornelia; Rambach, Gunter

2012-01-01

298

Aspergillus Flavus Keratitis after Deep Anterior Lamellar Keratoplasty  

PubMed Central

Purpose To report the clinical, microbiologic, confocal scan and histopathologic features of Aspergillus flavus keratitis which developed immediately after deep anterior lamellar keratoplasty (DALK). Case Report A 28-year-old woman underwent DALK using the big-bubble technique for keratoconus. The operation was uneventful, yielding a bare Descemet’s membrane (DM) followed by transplantation of a corneal graft devoid of DM and endothelium. Four days after keratoplasty, mild infiltrates were noticed in the inferonasal margin of the graft, which rapidly progressed to involve the adjacent recipient cornea. Confocal scan findings suggested filamentous fungal keratitis, leading to initiation of topical and systemic antifungal medications followed by immediate replacement of the graft. Histopathologic examination disclosed keratitis caused by a filamentous fungus, which was determined by microbiologic cultures to be Aspergillus flavus. Early diagnosis and appropriate management resulted in complete recovery from this potentially devastating infection. Conclusion Aspergillus Flavus can cause graft ulcers immediately after DALK. Confocal scan proved to be a valuable tool for early diagnosis and prompt intervention to control this otherwise devastating infection.

Jafarinasab, Mohammad-Reza; Feizi, Sepehr; Yazdizadeh, Forouzan; Rezaei Kanavi, Mozhgan; Moein, Hamid-Reza

2012-01-01

299

In vitro activity of disinfectants against Aspergillus spp.  

PubMed

Fungi of the Aspergillus genus are widespread and contaminate the environment. Thousands of conidia are released from each phialide and dispersed in the air every day. These fungi are considered important mycose-causing agents in hospitals. Due to this, research to determine prevalent fungi from the Aspergillus genus in hospital environments, and an adequate disinfection program in these areas is are needed. This study evaluated the susceptibility of Aspergillus spp. isolated from a veterinary environment against four disinfectants. Successive dilutions of disinfectants (log2) were used according to CLSI M38-A2 microdilution technique adapted to chemical agents against 18 isolates of this genus. After 72 hours of incubation, the Minimum Inhibiting Concentration and Minimum Fungicidal Concentration capable of inhibiting 50% and 90% of the isolates were determined. Chlorexidine-cetrimine, benzalconium chloride and a chlorophenol derivative proved to be effective against all isolates with a lower MIC than that suggested by the manufacturer, except for the A. flavus strain. Sodium hypochlorite was ineffective against three A. fumigatus, three A. flavus and one A. niger isolate. These results demonstrated that all studied disinfectants were effective against environmental isolates, with the exception of sodium hypochlorite, which showed lower effectiveness. PMID:24294243

Mattei, A S; Madrid, I M; Santin, R; Schuch, L F D; Meireles, M C A

2013-01-01

300

Recombinant Aspergillus ?-galactosidases as a robust glycomic and biotechnological tool.  

PubMed

Galactosidases are widespread enzymes that are used for manifold applications, including production of prebiotics, biosynthesis of different transgalactosylated products, improving lactose tolerance and in various analytical approaches. The nature of these applications often require galactosidases to be present in a purified form with clearly defined properties, including precisely determined substrate specificities, low sensitivity to inhibitors, and high efficiency and stability under distinct conditions. In this study, we present the recombinant expression and purification of two previously uncharacterized ?-galactosidases from Aspergillus nidulans as well as one ?-galactosidase from Aspergillus niger. All enzymes were active toward p-nitrophenyl-?-D-galactopyranoside as substrate and displayed similar temperature and pH optima. The purified recombinant galactosidases digested various complex substrates containing terminal galactose ?-1,4 linked to either N-acetylglucosamine or fucose, such as N-glycans derived from bovine fibrin and Caenorhabditis elegans. In our comparative study of the recombinant galactosidases with the commercially available galactosidase from Aspergillus oryzae, all enzymes also displayed various degrees of activity toward complex oligosaccharides containing ?-1,3-linked terminal galactose residues. All recombinant enzymes were found to be robust in the presence of various organic solvents, temperature variations, and freeze/thaw cycles and were also tested for their ability to synthesize galactooligosaccharides. Furthermore, the use of fermentors considerably increased the yield of recombinant galactosidases. Taken together, we demonstrate that purified recombinant galactosidases from A. niger and from A. nidulans are suitable for various glycobiological and biotechnological applications. PMID:24037406

Dragosits, Martin; Pflügl, Stefan; Kurz, Simone; Razzazi-Fazeli, Ebrahim; Wilson, Iain B H; Rendic, Dubravko

2014-04-01

301

Association of airborne Aspergillus with asthma exacerbation in Southern Pakistan  

PubMed Central

Background Exposure to airborne fungi has been related with exacerbation of asthma in adults and children leading to increased outpatient, emergency room visits, and hospitalizations. Hypersensitivity to these airborne fungi may be an important initial predisposing factor in the development and exacerbation of asthma. Objective This study was conducted to determine an association between fungal types and spore concentrations with the risk of asthma exacerbation in adults. Methods This cross-sectional study was conducted from May 2008 to August 2009 at the Aga Khan University Hospital Karachi, Pakistan. All adult (age?16 years) patients presenting to the hospital with acute asthma exacerbation were enrolled after informed consent. A home survey was conducted for each patient to assess their environmental characteristics. Indoor air samples were also obtained from the patient's home to determine the type and spore concentration of fungi within the week of their enrollment in the study. Results Three hundred and ninety-one patients with an acute asthma exacerbation were enrolled during the study period. The mean age of participants was 46 years (standard deviation, ±18 years) and 247 (63.2%) were females. A trend of higher asthma enrollment associated with higher Aspergillus concentrations was found in two consecutive summers. A total of nineteen types of fungi were found in air samples. Aspergillus spp. was the most frequently isolated fungus with acute asthma exacerbation. Conclusion An association of higher concentration of indoor Aspergillus spp. with asthma exacerbation in adults was observed in this study.

Zubairi, Ali Bin Sarwar; Azam, Iqbal; Awan, Safia; Zafar, Afia

2014-01-01

302

Colonization of rye green manure and peanut fruit debris by Aspergillus falvus and Aspergillus niger group in field soils.  

PubMed Central

Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus niger group colonization of deep-plowed, decomposing rye green manure cover crops in peanut field soils was studied in four fields during 1972 and 1973; colonization of decomposing peanut fruits was studied in 1972 in two fields. A. flavus colonization of rye and peanut fruits was greater in soils of heavy texture, and an A. flavus population as high as 165 propagules per g of soil was observed in soil adjacent to rye, whereas A. flavus populations in soils not associated with rye were 18 propagules per g of soil or lower. Highest A. flavus populations in soil adjacent to decomposing peanut fruits were usually comparable to populations associated with rye. Little decomposing rye or peanut fruit colonization was generally observed by the A. flavus competitor, A. niger group. A. flavus may maintain or increase its inoculum potential by colonization of these and other moribund plant tissues.

Griffin, G J; Garren, K H

1976-01-01

303

Constitutive expression of fluorescent protein by Aspergillus var. niger and Aspergillus carbonarius to monitor fungal colonization in maize plants.  

PubMed

Aspergillus niger and Aspergillus carbonarius are two species in the Aspergillus section Nigri (black-spored aspergilli) frequently associated with peanut (Arachis hypogea), maize (Zea mays), and other plants as pathogens. These infections are symptomless and as such are major concerns since some black aspergilli produce important mycotoxins, ochratoxins A, and the fumonisins. To facilitate the study of the black aspergilli-maize interactions with maize during the early stages of infections, we developed a method that used the enhanced yellow fluorescent protein (eYFP) and the monomeric red fluorescent protein (mRFP1) to transform A. niger and A. carbonarius, respectively. The results were constitutive expressions of the fluorescent genes that were stable in the cytoplasms of hyphae and conidia under natural environmental conditions. The hyphal in planta distribution in 21-day-old seedlings of maize were similar wild type and transformants of A. niger and A. carbonarius. The in planta studies indicated that both wild type and transformants internally colonized leaf, stem and root tissues of maize seedlings, without any visible disease symptoms. Yellow and red fluorescent strains were capable of invading epidermal cells of maize roots intercellularly within the first 3 days after inoculation, but intracellular hyphal growth was more evident after 7 days of inoculation. We also tested the capacity of fluorescent transformants to produce ochratoxin A and the results with A. carbonarius showed that this transgenic strain produced similar concentrations of this secondary metabolite. This is the first report on the in planta expression of fluorescent proteins that should be useful to study the internal plant colonization patterns of two ochratoxigenic species in the Aspergillus section Nigri. PMID:23899775

Palencia, Edwin Rene; Glenn, Anthony Elbie; Hinton, Dorothy Mae; Bacon, Charles Wilson

2013-09-01

304

Little ecological divergence associated with speciation in two African rain forest tree genera  

PubMed Central

Background The tropical rain forests (TRF) of Africa are the second largest block of this biome after the Amazon and exhibit high levels of plant endemism and diversity. Two main hypotheses have been advanced to explain speciation processes that have led to this high level of biodiversity: allopatric speciation linked to geographic isolation and ecological speciation linked to ecological gradients. Both these hypotheses rely on ecology: in the former conservation of ecological niches through time is implied, while in the latter adaptation via selection to alternative ecological niches would be a prerequisite. Here, we investigate the role of ecology in explaining present day species diversity in African TRF using a species level phylogeny and ecological niche modeling of two predominantly restricted TRF tree genera, Isolona and Monodora (Annonaceae). Both these genera, with 20 and 14 species, respectively, are widely distributed in African TRFs, with a few species occurring in slightly less humid regions such as in East Africa. Results A total of 11 sister species pairs were identified most of them occurring in allopatry or with little geographical overlap. Our results provide a mixed answer on the role of ecology in speciation. Although no sister species have identical niches, just under half of the tests suggest that sister species do have more similar niches than expected by chance. PCA analyses also support little ecological differences between sister species. Most speciation events within both genera predate the Pleistocene, occurring during the Late Miocene and Pliocene periods. Conclusions Ecology is almost always involved in speciation, however, it would seem to have had a little role in species generation within Isolona and Monodora at the scale analyzed here. This is consistent with the geographical speciation model for TRF diversification. These results contrast to other studies for non-TRF plant species where ecological speciation was found to be an important factor of diversification. The Pliocene period appears to be a vital time in the generation of African TRF diversity, whereas Pleistocene climatic fluctuations have had a smaller role on speciation than previously thought. Ecological niche modeling, species level phylogeny, ecological speciation, African tropics, Isolona, Monodora, Annonaceae

2011-01-01

305

Highlights of the Didymellaceae: A polyphasic approach to characterise Phoma and related pleosporalean genera  

PubMed Central

Fungal taxonomists routinely encounter problems when dealing with asexual fungal species due to poly- and paraphyletic generic phylogenies, and unclear species boundaries. These problems are aptly illustrated in the genus Phoma. This phytopathologically significant fungal genus is currently subdivided into nine sections which are mainly based on a single or just a few morphological characters. However, this subdivision is ambiguous as several of the section-specific characters can occur within a single species. In addition, many teleomorph genera have been linked to Phoma, three of which are recognised here. In this study it is attempted to delineate generic boundaries, and to come to a generic circumscription which is more correct from an evolutionary point of view by means of multilocus sequence typing. Therefore, multiple analyses were conducted utilising sequences obtained from 28S nrDNA (Large Subunit - LSU), 18S nrDNA (Small Subunit - SSU), the Internal Transcribed Spacer regions 1 & 2 and 5.8S nrDNA (ITS), and part of the ?-tubulin (TUB) gene region. A total of 324 strains were included in the analyses of which most belonged to Phoma taxa, whilst 54 to related pleosporalean fungi. In total, 206 taxa were investigated, of which 159 are known to have affinities to Phoma. The phylogenetic analysis revealed that the current Boeremaean subdivision is incorrect from an evolutionary point of view, revealing the genus to be highly polyphyletic. Phoma species are retrieved in six distinct clades within the Pleosporales, and appear to reside in different families. The majority of the species, however, including the generic type, clustered in a recently established family, Didymellaceae. In the second part of this study, the phylogenetic variation of the species and varieties in this clade was further assessed. Next to the genus Didymella, which is considered to be the sole teleomorph of Phoma s. str., we also retrieved taxa belonging to the teleomorph genera Leptosphaerulina and Macroventuria in this clade. Based on the sequence data obtained, the Didymellaceae segregate into at least 18 distinct clusters, of which many can be associated with several specific taxonomic characters. Four of these clusters were defined well enough by means of phylogeny and morphology, so that the associated taxa could be transferred to separate genera. Aditionally, this study addresses the taxonomic description of eight species and two varieties that are novel to science, and the recombination of 61 additional taxa.

Aveskamp, M.M.; de Gruyter, J.; Woudenberg, J.H.C.; Verkley, G.J.M.; Crous, P.W.

2010-01-01

306

Phytase Production by Aspergillus niger CFR 335 and Aspergillus ficuum SGA 01 through Submerged and Solid-State Fermentation  

PubMed Central

Fermentation is one of the industrially important processes for the development of microbial metabolites that has immense applications in various fields. This has prompted to employ fermentation as a major technique in the production of phytase from microbial source. In this study, a comparison was made between submerged (SmF) and solid-state fermentations (SSF) for the production of phytase from Aspergillus niger CFR 335 and Aspergillus ficuum SGA 01. It was found that both the fungi were capable of producing maximum phytase on 5th day of incubation in both submerged and solid-state fermentation media. Aspergillus niger CFR 335 and A. ficuum produced a maximum of 60.6?U/gds and 38?U/gds of the enzyme, respectively, in wheat bran solid substrate medium. Enhancement in the enzyme level (76 and 50.7?U/gds) was found when grown in a combined solid substrate medium comprising wheat bran, rice bran, and groundnut cake in the ratio of 2?:?1?:?1. A maximum of 9.6 and 8.2?U/mL of enzyme activity was observed in SmF by A. niger CFR 335 and A.ficuum, respectively, when grown in potato dextrose broth.

Shivanna, Gunashree B.; Venkateswaran, Govindarajulu

2014-01-01

307

Phytase Production by Aspergillus niger CFR 335 and Aspergillus ficuum SGA 01 through Submerged and Solid-State Fermentation.  

PubMed

Fermentation is one of the industrially important processes for the development of microbial metabolites that has immense applications in various fields. This has prompted to employ fermentation as a major technique in the production of phytase from microbial source. In this study, a comparison was made between submerged (SmF) and solid-state fermentations (SSF) for the production of phytase from Aspergillus niger CFR 335 and Aspergillus ficuum SGA 01. It was found that both the fungi were capable of producing maximum phytase on 5th day of incubation in both submerged and solid-state fermentation media. Aspergillus niger CFR 335 and A. ficuum produced a maximum of 60.6?U/gds and 38?U/gds of the enzyme, respectively, in wheat bran solid substrate medium. Enhancement in the enzyme level (76 and 50.7?U/gds) was found when grown in a combined solid substrate medium comprising wheat bran, rice bran, and groundnut cake in the ratio of 2?:?1?:?1. A maximum of 9.6 and 8.2?U/mL of enzyme activity was observed in SmF by A. niger CFR 335 and A.ficuum, respectively, when grown in potato dextrose broth. PMID:24688383

Shivanna, Gunashree B; Venkateswaran, Govindarajulu

2014-01-01

308

An anti-Aspergillus protein from Escherichia coli DH5?: putative inhibitor of siderophore biosynthesis in Aspergillus fumigatus.  

PubMed

An antifungal protein designated as anti-Aspergillus protein (AAP), produced by Escherichia coli DH5?, was purified and characterised. It exhibited a molecular weight of 60 kDa on Sodium dodecyl sulphate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis analysis and depicted 99% purity on ultra performance liquid chromatography. The purified protein manifested antimycotic potential against pathogenic isolates of Aspergillus spp., depicting a minimum inhibitory concentration in the range 15.62-31.25 ?g ml(-1) and 5.0-10.0 ?g per disc, using microbroth dilution, spore germination inhibition and disc diffusion assays respectively. In vitro toxicity tests demonstrated that it showed no toxicity against human erythrocytes at doses up to 1000 ?g ml(-1) . Matrix-assisted laser desorption ionisation-Time-of-flight analysis of trypsin-digested peptides of purified protein and subsequent Mascot search revealed that several peptides of AAP have identity with bacterial siderophore biosynthetic protein, i.e. non-ribosomal peptide synthetase enzyme, involved in critical step of fungal siderophore biosynthesis. Siderophore-based inhibition was further corroborated by Chrome azurol S assay. Hence, the antagonistic effect might be the result of impediment in siderophore-mediated iron uptake and transport process which may cause critical consequences on Aspergillus growth and virulence. PMID:23968167

Balhara, Meenakshi; Ruhil, Sonam; Kumar, Manish; Dhankhar, Sandeep; Chhillar, A K

2014-03-01

309

Overexpression of Aspergillus tubingensis faeA in protease-deficient Aspergillus niger enables ferulic acid production from plant material.  

PubMed

The production of ferulic acid esterase involved in the release of ferulic acid side groups from xylan was investigated in strains of Aspergillus tubingensis, Aspergillus carneus, Aspergillus niger and Rhizopus oryzae. The highest activity on triticale bran as sole carbon source was observed with the A. tubingensis T8.4 strain, which produced a type A ferulic acid esterase active against methyl p-coumarate, methyl ferulate and methyl sinapate. The activity of the A. tubingensis ferulic acid esterase (AtFAEA) was inhibited twofold by glucose and induced twofold in the presence of maize bran. An initial accumulation of endoglucanase was followed by the production of endoxylanase, suggesting a combined action with ferulic acid esterase on maize bran. A genomic copy of the A. tubingensis faeA gene was cloned and expressed in A. niger D15#26 under the control of the A. niger gpd promoter. The recombinant strain has reduced protease activity and does not acidify the media, therefore promoting high-level expression of recombinant enzymes. It produced 13.5 U/ml FAEA after 5 days on autoclaved maize bran as sole carbon source, which was threefold higher than for the A. tubingensis donor strain. The recombinant AtFAEA was able to extract 50 % of the available ferulic acid from non-pretreated maize bran, making this enzyme suitable for the biological production of ferulic acid from lignocellulosic plant material. PMID:24664515

Zwane, Eunice N; Rose, Shaunita H; van Zyl, Willem H; Rumbold, Karl; Viljoen-Bloom, Marinda

2014-06-01

310

Effect of increasing inoculum sizes of Aspergillus hyphae on MICs and MFCs of antifungal agents by broth microdilution method  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to investigate the influence of different hyphal inoculum sizes on minimal inhibition concentrations (MICs) and minimum fungicidal concentrations (MFCs) of amphotericin B (AMB), voriconazole and itraconazole, five isolates each of Aspergillus fumigatus, Aspergillus flavus, Aspergillus niger and Aspergillus terreus were studied using a broth microdilution method. Three inoculum sizes were used: 1×103–5×103, 1×104–5×104 and 1×105–5×105 cfu\\/ml. MICs and

Cornelia Lass-Flörl; C Speth; G Kofler; M. P Dierch; E Gunsilius; R Würzner

2003-01-01

311

Molecular phylogeny of Nyctaginaceae: taxonomy, biogeography, and characters associated with a radiation of xerophytic genera in North America.  

PubMed

The four o'clock family (Nyctaginaceae) has a number of genera with unusual morphological and ecological characters, several of which appear to have a "tendency" to evolve repeatedly in Nyctaginaceae. Despite this, the Nyctaginaceae have attracted little attention from botanists. To produce a phylogeny for the Nyctaginaceae, we sampled 51 species representing 25 genera (of 28-31) for three chloroplast loci (ndhF, rps16, rpl16, and nrITS) and included all genera from North America. Parsimony, likelihood, and Bayesian methods were used to reconstruct the phylogeny for the family. The family is neotropical in origin. A radiation of woody taxa unites Pisonia and Pisoniella with the difficult tropical genera Neea and Guapira, which also form a clade, though neither appears to be monophyletic. This group is sister to a clade containing Bougainvillea, Belemia, and Phaeoptilum. A dramatic radiation of genera occurred in the deserts of North America. The tribe Nyctagineae and its subtribes are paraphyletic, due to over-reliance on a few homoplasious characters, i.e., pollen morphology and involucre presence. Two notable characters associated with the desert radiation are cleistogamy and edaphic endemism on gypsum soils. We discuss evolutionary trends in these traits in light of available data about self-incompatibility and gypsum tolerance in Nyctaginaceae. PMID:21636455

Douglas, Norman A; Manos, Paul S

2007-05-01

312

Chloroplast DNA evolution and systematics of Phanerophlebia (Dryopteridaceae) and related fern genera.  

PubMed

Restriction site variation in chloroplast DNA was examined in the neotropical fern genus Phanerophlebia and in selected species of the related Asiatic genus Cyrtomium and the cosmopolitan progenitor of these two, Polystichum. A total of 103 restriction site mutations was identified; these were used to construct phylogenetic networks and trees based on Wagner and Dollo parsimony and Fitch-Margoliash distance algorithms. The analyses provided evidence that Phanerophlebia did not arise from Cyrtomium. Both genera are convergent descendants from different progenitor groups in Polystichum, and Asiatic Cyrtomium is more closely related to temperate New World Polystichum than it is to neotropical Phanerophlebia. Reticulate venation, previously considered an important taxonomic character for infrageneric classification in Phanerophlebia, most likely evolved independently twice within the genus. Diploid maternal progenitors are suggested for two of four tetraploid species analyzed, and species-level distinctions for two closely related taxa of Phanerophlebia are questioned. PMID:16593923

Yatskievych, G; Stein, D B; Gastony, G J

1988-04-01

313

Taxonomic synopsis of the subtribe Physoderina (Coleoptera, Carabidae, Lebiini), with species revisions of eight genera  

PubMed Central

Abstract Ten genera of Physoderina from the Oriental Region are diagnosed and described, and twenty six species representing eight genera (Paraphaea Bates, Anchista Nietner, Metallanchista gen. n., Diamella nom. n., Allocota Motschulsky, Orionella Jedli?ka, Endynomena Chaudoir and Dasiosoma Britton (Oriental species only)) are revised. Keys to genera and species are provided, along with distribution maps, habitus images, photographs of the name-bearing types, and illustrations of male and female genitalia of available species. The female internal reproductive system is illustrated for fourteen species. Two genera, Anchista and Taicona, previously placed in Calleidina, are moved into Physoderina. One new genus is described: Metallanchista, gen. n. (type species Metallanchista laticollis, sp. n.). Two new generic synonyms are proposed: Taicona Bates, 1873, junior synonym of Allocota Motschulsky, 1859; Teradaia Habu, 1979a, junior synonym of Dasiosoma Britton, 1937. A new generic replacement name is proposed: Diamella, nom. n. for Diamella Jedli?ka, 1952 (junior homonym of Diamella Gude, 1913). The status of Paraphaea Bates, 1873 is resurrected from synonym of Anchista Nietner, 1856. Five new species are described: Paraphaea minor Shi & Liang, sp. n. (Hoa-Binh, Tonkin, Vietnam), Anchista pilosa Shi & Liang, sp. n. (Chikkangalur, Bangalore, India), Metallanchista laticollis Shi & Liang, sp. n. (PhaTo env., Chumphon prov., Thailand), Allocota bicolor Shi & Liang, sp. n. (Dengga to Mafengshan, Ruili, Yunnan, China), Dasiosoma quadraticolle Shi & Liang, sp. n. (Menglun Botanical Garden, Yunnan, China). Fourteen new combinations are proposed: Paraphaea binotata (Dejean, 1825), comb. n. from Anchista; Paraphaea formosana (Jedli?ka, 1946), comb. n. from Anchista; Paraphaea philippinensis (Jedli?ka, 1935b), comb. n. from Allocota; Metallanchista perlaeta (Kirschenhofer, 1994), comb. n. from Allocota; Physodera andrewesi (Jedli?ka, 1934), comb. n. from Allocota; Diamella cupreomicans (Oberthür, 1883), comb. n. from Physodera; Diamella arrowi (Jedli?ka, 1935a), comb. n. from Allocota; Allocota aurata (Bates, 1873), comb. n. from Taicona; Dasiosoma bellum (Habu, 1979a), comb. n. from Teradaia; Dasiosoma indicum (Kirschenhofer, 2011), comb. n. from Diamella; Dasiosoma maindroni (Tian & Deuve, 2001), comb. n. from Lachnoderma; Dasiosoma hirsutum (Bates, 1873), comb. n. from Lachnoderma; Orionella discoidalis (Bates, 1892), comb. n. from Anchista; Orionella kathmanduensis (Kirschenhofer, 1994), comb. n. from Lachnoderma. Five names are newly placed as junior synonyms: Paraphaea eurydera (Chaudoir, 1877), junior synonym of Paraphaea binotata (Dejean, 1825); Anchista glabra Chaudoir, 1877, and Anchista nepalensis Kirschenhofer, 1994, junior synonyms of Anchista fenestrata (Schmidt-Göbel, 1846); Allocota caerulea Andrewes, 1933, junior synonym of Allocota viridipennis Motschulsky, 1859; Allocota perroti (Jedli?ka, 1963), junior synonym of Allocota aurata (Bates, 1873). One new replacement name is proposed: Dasiosoma basilewskyi, nom. n. for Dasiosoma hirsutum Basilewsky, 1949 (secondary junior homonym of Dasiosoma hirsutum (Bates, 1892)). One species is downgraded to subspecies rank: Anchista fenestrata subpubescens Chaudoir, 1877, new rank.

Shi, Hongliang; Zhou, Hongzhang; Liang, Hongbin

2013-01-01

314

Phenolic acids and depsides from some species of the Erodium genera.  

PubMed

Six natural polyphenolic compounds, brevifolin carboxylic acid, brevifolin, ellagic acid, methyl gallate, gallic acid and protocatechuic acid have been isolated from the methanol extract of the whole plant of Erodium cicutarium (L.) L.'Hérit. (Geraniaceae). Structures were determined by conventional methods of analysis and confirmed by MS and NMR spectral analysis. The distribution of these compounds in the other species of the Erodium genera (E. botrys, E. chium, E. ciconium, E. cicutarium, E. glutinosum subsp. dunense, E. gruinum, E. manescavi, E. pelargoniiflorum, E. petraeum) were examined by HPLC with a RP-18 column, and MGD-TLC methods on unmodified silica gel and silica gel chemically modified with polar and nonpolar groups (HPTLC-Si 60 LiChrospher, HPTLC-NH2, HPTLC-DIOL, HPTLC RP-18W). PMID:11837680

Fecka, I; Kowalczyk, A; Cisowski, W

2001-01-01

315

A novel set of polyvalent primers that detect members of the genera Bromovirus and Cucumovirus.  

PubMed

Rapid detection and diagnosis of plant virus infection is one of the most important steps in preventing damages caused by viral diseases. Bromoviruses and cucumoviruses belong to the family Bromoviridae, which is one of the most important families of plant viruses, and infect a broad range of host plants including various economically important crops. In this study, an RT-PCR assay was developed for the universal detection of bromoviruses and cucumoviruses using a set of primers designed to target the conserved sequences in viral RNA1. The assay detected three species of Cucumovirus (Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV), Peanut stunt virus (PSV) and Tomato aspermy virus (TAV)) and two species of Bromovirus (Brome mosaic virus (BMV) and Cowpea chlorotic mottle virus (CCMV)) with high specificity and sensitivity. The assay developed in this study is predicted to have the potential to detect all major members of the genera Bromovirus and Cucumovirus and to be used as a routine diagnostic assay. PMID:24717165

Seo, Jang-Kyun; Lee, Ye-Ji; Kim, Mi-Kyeong; Lee, Su-Heon; Kim, Kook-Hyung; Choi, Hong-Soo

2014-07-01

316

DNA relatedness among saturn-spored yeasts assigned to the genera Williopsis and Pichia.  

PubMed

Saturn-spored species assigned to the genera Williopsis and Pichia were compared from extent of nuclear DNA complementarity. Of the Pichia spp., four were recognized as distinct taxa: P. dispora, P. saitoi, P. zaruensis and Pichia sp. nov. Among Williopsis spp., the following were accepted: W. californica, W. mucosa comb. nov., W. pratensis, W. saturnus var. saturnus, W. saturnus var. mrakii comb. nov., W. saturnus var. sargentensis comb. nov., W. saturnus var. subsufficiens comb. nov. and Williopsis sp. nov. The new Pichia and Williopsis species are described elsewhere. Moderate (36-68%) DNA relatedness was detected between the former Pichia sargentensis and varieties of W. saturnus again demonstrating that nitrate assimilation is not a reliable criterion for separating yeast species. PMID:1796803

Kurtzman, C P

1991-07-01

317

Chloroplast DNA evolution and systematics of Phanerophlebia (Dryopteridaceae) and related fern genera  

PubMed Central

Restriction site variation in chloroplast DNA was examined in the neotropical fern genus Phanerophlebia and in selected species of the related Asiatic genus Cyrtomium and the cosmopolitan progenitor of these two, Polystichum. A total of 103 restriction site mutations was identified; these were used to construct phylogenetic networks and trees based on Wagner and Dollo parsimony and Fitch-Margoliash distance algorithms. The analyses provided evidence that Phanerophlebia did not arise from Cyrtomium. Both genera are convergent descendants from different progenitor groups in Polystichum, and Asiatic Cyrtomium is more closely related to temperate New World Polystichum than it is to neotropical Phanerophlebia. Reticulate venation, previously considered an important taxonomic character for infrageneric classification in Phanerophlebia, most likely evolved independently twice within the genus. Diploid maternal progenitors are suggested for two of four tetraploid species analyzed, and species-level distinctions for two closely related taxa of Phanerophlebia are questioned.

Yatskievych, George; Stein, Diana B.; Gastony, Gerald J.

1988-01-01

318

Symbiotic Effectiveness of Rhizobial Mutualists Varies in Interactions with Native Australian Legume Genera  

PubMed Central

Background and Objectives Interactions between plants and beneficial soil organisms (e.g. rhizobial bacteria, mycorrhizal fungi) are models for investigating the ecological impacts of such associations in plant communities, and the evolution and maintenance of variation in mutualisms (e.g. host specificity and the level of benefits provided). With relatively few exceptions, variation in symbiotic effectiveness across wild host species is largely unexplored. Methods We evaluated these associations using representatives of several legume genera which commonly co-occur in natural ecosystems in south-eastern Australia and an extensive set of rhizobial strains isolated from these hosts. These strains had been previously assigned to specific phylotypes on the basis of molecular analyses. In the first of two inoculation experiments, the growth responses of each host species was evaluated with rhizobial strains isolated from that species. The second experiment assessed performance across genera and the extent of host specificity using a subset of these strains. Results While host growth responses to their own (sympatric) isolates varied considerably, rhizobial phylotype was a significant predictor of symbiotic performance, indicating that bacterial species designations on the basis of molecular markers have ecological importance. Hosts responded in qualitatively different ways to sympatric and allopatric strains of rhizobia, ranging from species with a clear preference for their own strains, to those that were broad generalists, through to species that grew significantly better with allopatric strains. Conclusion Theory has focused on trade-offs between the provision of benefits and symbiont competitive ability that might explain the persistence of less beneficial strains. However, differences in performance among co-occurring host species could also drive such patterns. Our results thus highlight the likely importance of plant community structure in maintaining variation in symbiotic effectiveness.

Thrall, Peter H.; Laine, Anna-Liisa; Broadhurst, Linda M.; Bagnall, David J.; Brockwell, John

2011-01-01

319

A phylogenetic and biogeographic analysis of the genera of Spirorchinae (Digenea: Spirorchidae) parasitic in freshwater turtles.  

PubMed

Cladistic analysis of the freshwater genera of Spirorchinae (Schistosomatoidea: Spirorchidae sensu Yamaguti, 1971) plus Haematotrema Stunkard, 1923, and Aphanospirorchis Platt, 1990, was completed. The Spirorchinae were considered monophyletic based on synapomorphies of the esophagus. Three lineages, Spirhapalum (Europe/Asia), Plasmiorchis+Hemiorchis (India), and Spirorchis + Henotosoma + Haematotrema + Aphanospirorchis (North America), were identified. Nelsen consensus analysis was used as the basis for recognizing 3 valid monophyletic genera: Spirhapalum, Plasmiorchis, and Spirorchis. Hapalotrematinae sensu Smith, 1972 (e.g., Hapalorhynchus/Coeuritrema), is considered the most plesiomorphic group of spirorchids. Freshwater representatives of the hapalotrematines have been reported from 7 of 12 extant turtle families, including the relatively primitive Pelomedusidae (Pleurodira) and exhibit a worldwide distribution. It is hypothesized that this group arose in the early Triassic period, prior to the breakup of Pangea. Thus, it represents a primitive lineage that was present during the diversification of turtle lineages in the mid-Mesozoic era. Spirorchinae arose later (late Cretaceous period) as a Laurasian component parasitic in the more recent pond turtles (Emydidae + Bataguridae). Species of Spirhapalum retained a relatively plesiomorphic distribution, and they are found in emydids (Europe) and batagurids (Asia). Species of Spirorchis arose and diversified with North America emydids following the separation of North America and Europe in the late Cretaceous or early Tertiary periods. Species of Plasmiorchis are hypothesized to be derived from Asian ancestors that accompanied the colonization of India by Asian batagurids during the early Tertiary period. The presence of Spirorchis species in snapping turtles (Chelydridae/North America) and of Plasmiorchis species in Indian soft-shelled turtle (Trionychidae) are considered independent colonization events. PMID:1635020

Platt, T R

1992-08-01

320

Molecular phylogenetic relationship of snow finch complex (genera Montifringilla, Pyrgilauda, and Onychostruthus) from the Tibetan plateau.  

PubMed

The snow finch complex (Montifringilla, Pyrgilauda, and Onychostruthus) has its center of distribution on the Tibetan plateau, with six out of seven species in the genera occurring there. Phylogenetic relationships among these six species of three genera have been studied based on DNA sequence data obtained from the mitochondrial cytochrome b gene and the nuclear myoglobin gene. The results support monophyly of the snow finch complex group and three major evolutionary lineages are recognized. The first clade consists of ruficollis, blanfordi, and davidiana. These three taxa are sometimes placed in their own genus, Pyrgilauda, and the DNA data supports this. The three taxa nivalis, henrici, and adamsi have traditionally been placed in the genus Montifringilla, and they group together strongly in the present analysis. The results further suggest that nivalis and adamsi are more closely related to each other than are nivalis and henrici, despite that the latter two are often regarded as conspecific. The third distinct lineage within the snow finch complex consists of taczanowskii, which has been placed its own genus, Onychostruthus. This taxon has a basal position in the phylogenetic tree and is sister to all other snow finches. We estimated that taczanowskii split from the other taxa between 2 and 2.5 mya, i.e., about the time for the most recent uplift of the Tibetan plateau, "the Tibet movement", 3.6-1.7 mya. Cladogenesis within the Montifringilla and Pyrgilauda clades seems to be contemporary with the second phase of "Tibet movement" at 2.5 mya and the third phase at 1.7 mya and "Kunhuang movement" in 1.5-0.6 mya. The dramatic climatic and ecological changes following from the uplift of the Tibetan plateau, together with the cyclic contraction and expansion of suitable habitats during the Pleistocene, are probably the most important factors for the cladogenesis in snow finch complex. PMID:16624593

Qu, Yanhua; Ericson, Per G P; Lei, Fumin; Gebauer, Axel; Kaiser, Martin; Helbig, Andreas J

2006-07-01

321

LABORATORY TRANSMISSION OF JAPANESE B ENCEPHALITIS VIRUS BY SEVEN SPECIES (THREE GENERA) OF NORTH AMERICAN MOSQUITOES.  

PubMed

In the present studies ten common species of Western North American mosquitoes have been tested for their ability to act as vectors of Japanese B encephalitis virus (see summary Table XII). The strain of Japanese B encephalitis virus which was used was adapted to direct mouse brain passage, probably a disadvantage, but no freshly isolated strain was available. Of the ten species of mosquitoes tested, seven were demonstrated to be laboratory vectors. These seven species represent three genera (Culex, Aedes, and Culiseta). In previously reported work Japanese and Russians had only incriminated five species of two genera (Aedes and Culex) (1-3). Transmission was made to mice 21 times and to a chicken once. Two attempts to infect mosquitoes from an infected chicken were unsuccessfui, but no significance is attached to so few experiments. Repeated tests for virus in the eggs, or in imagines reared from eggs of infected female mosquitoes have been negative. In this we failed to confirm results claimed by Japanese investigators (5, 6). These data, in addition to the published accounts by Japanese and Russian workers of the natural epidemiology of this disease lead us to believe that this virus might well establish itself in North America, especially if introduced in those areas where our native encephalitides are now endemic. These studies also indicate that species of mosquitoes (Culex tarsalis, Culex pipiens, See PDF for Structure Aedes dorsalis, and Culiseta inornata) now known to be fully incriminated vectors of the Western equine or St. Louis encephalitis viruses can also serve as laboratory vectors of the Japanese B virus. Methods for the effective abatement of these species should be further developed and put into practice if future epidemics of encephalitis of the Western equine, St. Louis, or Japanese B types in Western North America are to be prevented or brought under control. PMID:19871524

Reeves, W C; Hammon, W M

1946-02-28

322

Triazole Fungicides Can Induce Cross-Resistance to Medical Triazoles in Aspergillus fumigatus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background Azoles play an important role in the management of Aspergillus diseases. Azole resistance is an emerging global problem in Aspergillus fumigatus, and may develop through patient therapy. In addition, an environmental route of resistance development has been suggested through exposure to 14?-demethylase inhibitors (DMIs). The main resistance mechanism associated with this putative fungicide-driven route is a combination of alterations

E. Snelders; S. M. T. Camps; A. Karawajczyk; G. Schaftenaar; G. H. J. Kema; Lee van der H. A; C. H. Klaassen; W. J. G. Melchers; P. E. Verweij

2012-01-01

323

Isolation and Identification of Indigenous Aspergillus oryzae for Saccharification of Rice Starch  

Microsoft Academic Search

A study was undertaken to isolate an indigenous Aspergillus oryzae strain for use in saccharification of high amylose rice starch. Bread, black gram, soya grains, 'kevum', and cooked rice samples assumed to be contaminated with Aspergillus oryzae were used in the isolation. Ten pure cultures obtained by culturing and sub- culturing on Potato Dextrose Agar (PDA) were maintained on PDA

S. S. Sooriyamoorthy; K. F. S. T. Silva; M. H. W. Gunawardhane; C. K. Illeperuma

324

Correlation between Gliotoxin Production and Virulence of Aspergillus fumigatus in Galleria mellonella  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aspergillus fumigatus is a pathogenic fungus capable of causing both allergic lung disease and invasive aspergillosis, a serious, life-threatening condition in neutropenic patients. Aspergilli express an array of mycotoxins and enzymes which may facilitate fungal colonisation of host tissue. In this study we investigated the possibility of using the insect, Galleria mellonella, for in vivo pathogenicity testing of Aspergillus species.

Emer P. Reeves; C. G. M. Messina; S. Doyle; K. Kavanagh

2004-01-01

325

Aspergillus nidulans as a model system to characterize the DNA damage response in eukaryotes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Interest in DNA repair in Aspergillus nidulans had mainly grown out of studies of three different biological processes, namely mitotic recombination, inducible responses to detrimental environmental changes, and genetic control of the cell cycle. Ron Morris started the investigation of the genetic control of the cell cycle by screening hundreds of cell cycle temperature sensitive Aspergillus mutants. The sequencing and

Gustavo H Goldman; Etta Kafer

2004-01-01

326

Immunohistologic Identification of Aspergillus spp. and Other Hyaline Fungi by Using Polyclonal Fluorescent Antibodies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Infections caused by Aspergillus and Fusarium spp. are being seen with increasing frequency among immunocompromised patients. Patients with these diseases demonstrate lesions that are clinically and histopathologically similar (8). Accurate di- agnosis is essential for delivery of appropriate therapy (12), but diagnosis of these infections can be difficult. Isolation and identification of pathogenic Aspergillus and Fusarium spp. from clinical materials

LEO KAUFMAN; MAXINE JALBERT; DOROTHY E. KRAFT

1997-01-01

327

Mixed allergic bronchopulmonary fungal disease due to Pseudallescheria boydii and Aspergillus.  

PubMed Central

A 24 year old asthmatic woman with mixed allergic bronchopulmonary fungal disease due to Pseudallescheria boydii and Aspergillus is reported. No previous cases due to P boydii have been described. This patient provides evidence that fungi other than Aspergillus species may cause the condition. Images

Lake, F R; Tribe, A E; McAleer, R; Froudist, J; Thompson, P J

1990-01-01

328

Influence of manganese on morphology and cell wall composition of Aspergillus niger during citric acid fermentation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Morphology and cell wall composition of Aspergillus niger were studied under conditions of manganese sufficient or deficient cultivation in an otherwise citric acid producing medium. Omission of Mn2+ (less than 10-7 M) from the nutrient medium of Aspergillus niger results in abnormal morphological development which is characterized by increased spore swelling, and squat, bulbeous hyphae. Fractionation and analysis of manganese

Monika Kisser; C. P. Kubicek; M. Röhr

1980-01-01

329

A Versatile and Efficient Gene-Targeting System for Aspergillus nidulans  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aspergillus nidulans is an important experimental organism, and it is a model organism for the genus Aspergillus that includes serious pathogens as well as commercially important organisms. Gene targeting by homologous recombination during transformation is possible in A. nidulans, but the frequency of cor- rect gene targeting is variable and often low. We have identified the A. nidulans homolog (nkuA)

Tania Nayak; Edyta Szewczyk; C. Elizabeth Oakley; Aysha Osmani; Leena Ukil; Sandra L. Murray; Michael J. Hynes; Stephen A. Osmani; Berl R. Oakley

2005-01-01

330

Development and evaluation of a real-time quantitative PCR assay for Aspergillus flavus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aspergillus flavus is a ubiquitous mold and the most common mold contaminating foodstuffs. Many strains of A. flavus produce aflatoxins. In addition it is an allergen and an opportunistic pathogen of animals and plants. A. flavus often is underestimated in traditional culture analyses due to the expertise required and the cost associated with speciating members of the genus Aspergillus. The

Patricia Cruz; Mark P. Buttner

2008-01-01

331

Study of the Ochratoxin A effect on Aspergillus parasiticus growth and aflatoxin B 1 production  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) is a carcinogenic metabolite produced by certain Aspergillus species. Ochratoxin A (OTA) is a metabolite of Aspergillus ochraceus and Penicillium verrucosum. AFB1 and OTA are amongst the most frequent combinations of mycotoxins found in plant products. Thus, synergistic effects or interactions between the two mycotoxins could be taking place. The aim of the present study was to

V. Dimitrokallis; D. M. Meimaroglou; P. Markaki

2008-01-01

332

Mycotoxin production by different ochratoxigenic Aspergillus and Penicillium species on coffee and wheat-based media  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ochratoxin A (OTA) is one of the most widespread mycotoxins, and is produced by several Aspergillus or Penicillium species. Human exposure to OTA is mainly by intake of contaminated food, with cereal products, followed by coffee and red\\u000a wine as the main sources of OTA. In this study, the OTA production of four ochratoxigenic fungi (two Aspergillus and two Penicillium

Katherine Muńoz; Mario Vega; Gisela Rios; Rolf Geisen; Gisela H. Degen

333

Comparison of four media for the isolation of Aspergillus flavus group fungi  

Microsoft Academic Search

Four agar media used to isolate aflatoxin producing fungi were compared for utility in isolating fungi in theAspergillus flavus group from agricultural soils collected in 15 fields and four states in the southern United States. The four media wereAspergillus flavus andparasiticus Agar (AFPA, 14), the rose bengal agar described by Bell and Crawford (BCRB; 3), a modified rose bengal agar

Peter J. Cotty

1994-01-01

334

The subtribes and genera of the tribe Listroderini (Coleoptera, Curculionidae, Cyclominae): Phylogenetic analysis with systematic and biogeographical accounts  

PubMed Central

Abstract The phylogenetic relationships of the genera of Listroderini LeConte, 1876 are analyzed based on 58 morphological characters. The genera are grouped in four clades, which are given subtribal status: Macrostyphlina new subtribe (Adioristidius, Amathynetoides, Andesianellus, Macrostyphlus, Nacodius and Puranius), Palaechthina Brinck, 1948 (Anorthorhinus, Gunodes, Haversiella, Inaccodes, Listronotus, Neopachytychius, Palaechthus, Palaechtodes, Steriphus and Tristanodes), Falklandiina new subtribe (Falklandiellus, Falklandiopsis, Falklandius, Gromilus, Lanteriella, Liparogetus, Nestrius and Telurus), and Listroderina (Acroriellus, Acrorius, Acrostomus, Antarctobius, Germainiellus, Hyperoides, Lamiarhinus, Listroderes, Methypora, Philippius, Rupanius and Trachodema). The subtribes are characterized and keys to identify them and their genera are provided. Listroderini have four main biogeographical patterns: Andean (Macrostyphlina), Andean-New Zealand (Falklandiina), Andean-Neotropical-Australian (Listroderina) and Andean-Neotropical-Australian-New Zealand-Nearctic-Tristan da Cunha-Gough islands (Palaechthina). Geographical paralogy, particularly evident in the Subantarctic subregion of the Andean region, suggests that Listroderini are an ancient Gondwanic group, in which several extinction events might have obscured relationships among the areas.

Morrone, Juan J.

2013-01-01

335

Isolation and identification of Aspergillus spp. from brown kiwi (Apteryx mantelli) nocturnal houses in New Zealand.  

PubMed

Aspergillosis, a disease caused by infection with Aspergillus spp., is a common cause of death in birds globally and is an irregular cause of mortality of captive kiwi (Apteryx spp.). Aspergillus spp. are often present in rotting plant material, including the litter and nesting material used for kiwi in captivity. The aim of this study was to survey nocturnal kiwi houses in New Zealand to assess the levels of Aspergillus currently present in leaf litter. Samples were received from 11 nocturnal kiwi houses from throughout New Zealand, with one site supplying multiple samples over time. Aspergillus was isolated and quantified by colony counts from litter samples using selective media and incubation temperatures. Isolates were identified to the species level by amplification and sequencing of ITS regions of the ribosomal. Aspergillus spp. were recovered from almost every sample; however, the levels in most kiwi houses were below 1000 colony-forming units (CFU)/g of wet material. The predominant species was Aspergillus fumigatus, with rare occurrences of Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus nidulans, and Aspergillus parasiticus. Only one site had no detectable Aspergillus. The limit of detection was around 50 CFU/g wet material. One site was repeatedly sampled as it had a high loading of A. fumigatus at the start of the survey and had two recent clinical cases of aspergillosis diagnosed in resident kiwi. Environmental loading at this site with Aspergillus spp. reduced but was not eliminated despite changes of the litter. The key finding of our study is that the background levels of Aspergillus spores in kiwi nocturnal houses in New Zealand are low, but occasional exceptions occur and are associated with the onset of aspergillosis in otherwise healthy birds. The predominant Aspergillus species present in the leaf litter was A. fumigatus, but other species were also present. Further research is needed to confirm the optimal management of leaf litter to minimize Aspergillus spore counts. However, in the interim, our recommendations are that leaf litter should be freshly collected from areas of undisturbed forest areas and spread immediately after collection, without interim storage. PMID:24758108

Glare, Travis R; Gartrell, Brett D; Brookes, Jenny J; Perrott, John K

2014-03-01

336

Neotropical genera of Naucoridae (Hemiptera: Heteroptera: Nepomorpha): new species of Placomerus and Procryphocricos from Guyana and Venezuela.  

PubMed

The Neotropical fauna of saucer bugs (Naucoridae) currently includes four monotypic genera. Recent extensive collecting in Venezuela has produced three new species in two of these genera. In addition, undetermined Guyanan specimens of one of the new species were found in the United States National Museum of Natural History. Thus, described here are Placomerus obscuratus n. sp. from Guyana and Venezuela with brachypterous and macropterous hindwing forms, and two species of Procryphocricos from Venezuela. Procryphocricos quiu n. sp. is described from the brachypterous forewing form and Procryphocricos macoita n. sp. from both brachypterous and macropterous forms. Previously described species also are discussed. PMID:24869509

Sites, Robert W; Camacho, Jesús

2014-01-01

337

Preimaginal morphology of the genera Salpingogaster Schiner, 1868 and Eosalpingogaster Hull, 1949 (Diptera: Syrphidae), with its systematic implications.  

PubMed

The puparium of Salpingogaster nigra and Eosalpingogaster umbra are described, and diagnosis and illustrations are provided. The morphology of immature stages of the genera Salpingogaster and Eosalpingogaster are studied and compared for the first time. The results are in agreement with previous molecular analyses that recognise both genera as valid. We found two different puparium morphotypes for E. umbra and discuss the improbability of immature sexual dimorphism in this species. An identification key is also provided for all species with known puparia. PMID:24613957

Pérez-Bańón, Celeste; Arcaya, Evelin; Mengual, Ximo; Rojo, Santos

2013-01-01

338

Allergy to Aspergillus-derived enzymes in the baking industry: Identification of ?-xylosidase from Aspergillus niger as a new allergen (Asp n 14)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background:Aspergillus-derived enzymes are used in dough improvers in bakeries. Some of these enzymes are identified as causing IgE-mediated sensitization in up to 25% of bakers with workplace-related symptoms. Objective: The aim of this study was to compare the frequency of sensitization to Aspergillus xylanase, cellulase, and glucoamylase with the sensitization to ?-amylase (Asp o 2) and to identify IgE-reactive proteins

Ingrid Sander; Monika Raulf-Heimsoth; Christoph Siethoff; Christiane Lohaus; Helmut E. Meyer; Xaver Baur

1998-01-01

339

ITS-based detection and quantification of Aspergillus ochraceus and Aspergillus westerdijkiae in grapes and green coffee beans by real-time quantitative PCR  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aspergillus ochraceus and A. westerdijkiae are considered the most important Ochratoxin A (OTA) producing species included in Aspergillus section Circumdati which contaminate foodstuffs and beverages for human consumption. In this work a real-time quantitative PCR protocol was developed to detect both species using SYBR® Green and primers designed on the basis of the multicopy ITS1 region of the rDNA. The

Jéssica Gil-Serna; Amaia González-Salgado; Ma Teresa González-Jaén; Covadonga Vázquez; Belén Patińo

2009-01-01

340

A peanut seed lipoxygenase responsive to Aspergillus colonization.  

PubMed

Several lines of evidence have indicated that lipoxygenase enzymes (LOX) and their products, especially 9S- and 13S-hydroperoxy fatty acids, could play a role in the Aspergillus/seed interaction. Both hydroperoxides exhibit sporogenic effects on Aspergillus spp. (Calvo, A., Hinze, L., Gardner, H.W. and Keller, N.P. 1999. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 65: 3668-3673) and differentially modulate aflatoxin pathway gene transcription (Burow, G.B., Nesbitt, T.C., Dunlap, J. and Keller, N.P. 1997. Mol. Plant-Microbe Interact. 10: 380-387). To examine the role of seed LOXs at the molecular level, a peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) seed gene, PnLOX1, was cloned and characterized. Analysis of nucleotide sequence suggests that PnLOX1 encodes a predicted 98 kDa protein highly similar in sequence and biochemical properties to soybean LOX2. The full-length PnLOX1 cDNA was subcloned into an expression vector to determine the type(s) of hydroperoxide products the enzyme produces. Analysis of the oxidation products of PnLOX1 revealed that it produced a mixture of 30% 9S-HPODE (9S-hydroperoxy-10E, 12Z-octadecadienoic acid) and 70% 13S-HPODE (13S-hydroperoxy-9Z, 11E-octadecadienoic acid) at pH 7. PnLOX1 is an organ-specific gene which is constitutively expressed in immature cotyledons but is highly induced by methyl jasmonate, wounding and Aspergillus infections in mature cotyledons. Examination of HPODE production in infected cotyledons suggests PnLOX1 expression may lead to an increase in 9S-HPODE in the seed. PMID:10809442

Burow, G B; Gardner, H W; Keller, N P

2000-03-01

341

?- l Rhamnosidase of Aspergillus terreus immobilized on ferromagnetic supports  

Microsoft Academic Search

?-l-Rhamnosidase from Aspergillus terreus was covalently immobilized on the following ferromagnetic supports: polyethylene terephthalate (Dacron-hydrazide), polysiloxane\\/polyvinyl\\u000a alcohol (POS\\/PVA), and chitosan. The powdered supports were magnetized by thermal coprecipitation method using ferric and\\u000a ferrous chlorides, and the immobilization was carried out via glutaraldehyde. The activity of the Dacron-hydrazide (0.53 nkat\\/?g\\u000a of protein) and POS\\/PVA (0.59 nkat\\/?g of protein) immobilized enzyme was significantly higher

Fernando Soria; Guillermo Ellenrieder; Givanildo Bezerra Oliveira; Mariana Cabrera; Luiz Bezerra Carvalho Jr

342

Production of Chlorflavonin, an Antifungal Metabolite of Aspergillus candidus  

PubMed Central

Production of chlorflavonin, a new antifungal antibiotic, by strains of Aspergillus candidus is described. Two wild strains of the fungus had distinctly different chlorflavonin-producing capabilities. One strain produced 25 ?g of chlorflavonin per ml per 4 to 5 days in a pilot scale fermentor with stirring, using a medium containing corn steep liquor and glucose. Production of antibiotic was favored by high rates of agitation-aeration. Crude chlorflavonin was extracted from the whole brew with a hydrocarbon solvent and then purified by recrystallization from benzene and petroleum ether. The overall yield from fermentation brew to pure product was 50%.

Munden, J. E.; Butterworth, D.; Hanscomb, G.; Verrall, M. S.

1970-01-01

343

Orbital tuberculosis with coexisting fungal (Aspergillus flavus) infection  

PubMed Central

Background: A coexisting invasive fungal and tubercular involvement of the skull base is a rare event. Co-infection has been reported with involvement of paranasal sinuses and middle ear cleft. Case Description: We herein report a case of an elderly male diabetic patient who presented with gradually progressive visual loss, which on imaging showed an orbital lesion. Surgical decompression and microbiological evaluation showed growth of Mycobacterium tuberculosis and Aspergillus flavus. Conclusion: Rare combinations of such infections do exist and should be treated aggressively to achieve good outcomes in a losing battle with fastidious organisms in the backdrop of compromised immunity.

Reddy, Sunkara Srikanth; Penmmaiah, Devi Chendira; Rajesh, Alugolu; Patil, Madhusudan

2014-01-01

344

Invasive Aspergillosis Caused by Aspergillus ustus: Case Report and Review  

PubMed Central

A case of invasive pulmonary aspergillosis in an allogeneic bone marrow transplant recipient caused by Aspergillus ustus is presented. A. ustus was also recovered from the hospital environment, which may indicate that the infection was nosocomially acquired. A literature review revealed seven cases of invasive infections caused by A. ustus, and three of these were primarily cutaneous infections. In vitro susceptibility testing of 12 A. ustus isolates showed that amphotericin B and terbinafine had fungicidal activity and that itraconazole and voriconazole had fungistatic activity.

Verweij, Paul E.; van den Bergh, Marjolein F. Q.; Rath, Peter M.; de Pauw, Ben E.; Voss, Andreas; Meis, Jacques F. G. M.

1999-01-01

345

In vitro reconstruction of the Aspergillus (= Emericella) nidulans?genome  

PubMed Central

A physical map of the 31-megabase Aspergillus nidulans genome is reported, in which 94% of 5,134 cosmids are assigned to 49 contiguous segments. The physical map is the result of a two-way ordering process, in which clones and probes were ordered simultaneously on a binary DNA/DNA hybridization matrix. Compression by elimination of redundant clones resulted in a minimal map, which is a chromosome walk. Repetitive DNA is nonrandomly dispersed in the A. nidulans genome, reminiscent of heterochromatic banding patterns of higher eukaryotes. We hypothesize gene clusters may arise by horizontal transfer and spread by transposition to explain the nonrandom pattern of repeats along?chromosomes.

Prade, Rolf A.; Griffith, James; Kochut, Krys; Arnold, Jonathan; Timberlake, William E.

1997-01-01

346

Properties of a purified thermostable glucoamylase from Aspergillus niveus  

Microsoft Academic Search

A glucoamylase from Aspergillus niveus was produced by submerged fermentation in Khanna medium, initial pH 6.5 for 72 h, at 40°C. The enzyme was purified by DEAE-Fractogel\\u000a and Concanavalin A-Sepharose chromatography. The enzyme showed 11% carbohydrate content, an isoelectric point of 3.8 and a\\u000a molecular mass of 77 and 76 kDa estimated by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis or Bio-Sil-Sec-400\\u000a gel filtration,

Tony Marcio da Silva; Alexandre Maller; André Ricardo de Lima Damásio; Michele Michelin; Richard John Ward; Izaura Yoshico Hirata; Joăo Atilio Jorge; Héctor Francisco Terenzi; Maria Lourdes T. M. de Polizeli

2009-01-01

347

Isolation and characterization of alpha-glucosidase from Aspergillus niger.  

PubMed

alpha-Glucosidase is an enzyme widely used in biochemical analytical methods. Aspergillus niger was selected as a potential source for its production. Conditions for glucosidase production were optimized and the enzyme was isolated from the culture supernatant by dialysis and anion-exchange chromatography. The activity of the enzyme was determined by maltose hydrolysis to glucose, which was determined using a glucose-specific electrode or by high-performance liquid chromatography. The isolated enzyme was further characterized by sodium dodecyl sulphate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, substrate specificity and fast protein liquid chromatography. The Michaelis constant, optimal temperature and stability of the enzyme preparation were determined. PMID:1639895

Brízová, K; Králová, B; Demnerová, K; Vins, I

1992-02-28

348

Pyopneumothorax secondary to Aspergillus infection: a case report.  

PubMed

A 32 -year- old male presented with complaints of fever, dry cough, breathlessness and right sided chest pain of two months duration. Chest radiograph showed right sided hydropneumothorax which revealed frank pus on diagnostic thoracocentesis, for which tube thoracostomy was done. Despite vigorous broad spectrum antibiotic coverage, postural drainage and chest physiotherapy, there was no clinical improvement. Further work up included serology, pleural fluid culture, closed as well as thoracoscopic guided pleural biopsy revealed growth of Aspergillus fumigatus. Patient was prescribed antifungal medication (Voriconazole) and subsequent thoracotomy with right sided pneumonectomy showed good clinical recovery. PMID:23226822

Kant, Surya; Saheer, S; Singh, Abhijjeet; Hassan, Ghulam

2012-11-01

349

Funalenone, a novel collagenase inhibitor produced by Aspergillus niger.  

PubMed

Funalenone, a phenalene compound that inhibits type I collagenase (MMP-1), was isolated from mycelium of Aspergillus niger FO-5904 by solvent extaction, ODS column chromatography, Sephadex LH-20 column chromatography and reversed phase HPLC. Funalenone inhibited 50% of type I collagenase activity at a concentration of 170 microM, but inhibited 18.3% and 38.7% against 72 kDa and 92 kDa type IV collagenase, respectively, at a concentration of 400 microM. PMID:10695672

Inokoshi, J; Shiomi, K; Masuma, R; Tanaka, H; Yamada, H; Omura, S

1999-12-01

350

Formation of aflatoxins by some Egyptian Aspergillus flavus strains.  

PubMed

In all the fifteen investigated Aspergillus flavus and A. parasiticus strains the maximum quantities of aflatoxins, produced on rice powder-corn steep (RC) medium, ranged from 1.17 to 23.29 times as much as those produced on yeast extract-sucrose (YES) medium. The shake cultures lowered aflatoxin formation. The maximum yields of aflatoxins did not coincide with maximum fungal growth. In most A. flavus strains investigated, the total aflatoxin content of the mycelia highly exceeded that of the culture filtrates. PMID:6792813

Mabrouk, S S; El-Shayeb, N M

1981-01-01

351

Production of extremophilic bacterial cellulase enzymes in aspergillus niger.  

SciTech Connect

Enzymes can be used to catalyze a myriad of chemical reactions and are a cornerstone in the biotechnology industry. Enzymes have a wide range of uses, ranging from medicine with the production of pharmaceuticals to energy were they are applied to biofuel production. However, it is difficult to produce large quantities of enzymes, especially if they are non-native to the production host. Fortunately, filamentous fungi, such as Aspergillus niger, are broadly used in industry and show great potential for use a heterologous enzyme production hosts. Here, we present work outlining an effort to engineer A. niger to produce thermophilic bacterial cellulases relevant to lignocellulosic biofuel production.

Gladden, John Michael

2013-09-01

352

Indoloditerpenes from an algicolous isolate of Aspergillus oryzae.  

PubMed

Two new indoloditerpene derivatives asporyzin A (1) and asporyzin B (2), one new indoloditerpene asporyzin C (3), and three known related indoloditerpenes JBIR-03 (4), emindole SB (5), and emeniveol (6) were isolated from an endophytic fungus Aspergillus oryzae, isolated from the marine red alga Heterosiphonia japonica. Their structures were unambiguously established by spectroscopic techniques. In addition, all the isolates were evaluated preliminarily for insecticidal and antimicrobial activities in order to probe into their chemical defensive function. Compound 4 was more active against brine shrimp than the others, and 3 possessed potent activity against Escherichia coli. PMID:20797856

Qiao, Ming-Feng; Ji, Nai-Yun; Liu, Xiang-Hong; Li, Ke; Zhu, Qing-Mei; Xue, Qin-Zhao

2010-10-01

353

Crystals of beta-xylanase from Aspergillus oryzae.  

PubMed

An endo-xylanase was isolated from the culture of fungus Aspergillus oryzae variant D5. The purified enzyme had a molecular weight of 24,000 and the isoelectric point of 3.6. Xylanase crystals were obtained from a polyethylene glycol 6000 solution by the hanging-drop method. Seeding was used for the enlargement of the crystal size. Crystals belong to the monoclinic space group P2(1) with cell dimensions a = 54.9 A, b = 74.5 A, c = 50.8 A, and beta = 108.7 degrees. Crystals diffract beyond 2.5 A resolution. PMID:8464071

Golubev, A M; Kilimnik AYu; Neustroev, K N; Pickersgill, R W

1993-03-20

354

A phylogenetic analysis of the family Pseudonocardiaceae and the genera Actinokineospora and Saccharothrix with 16S rRNA sequences and a proposal to combine the genera Amycolata and Pseudonocardia in an emended genus Pseudonocardia.  

PubMed

The 16S rRNAs of 15 species of actinomycetes belonging to the genera Actinokineospora and Saccharothrix and the family Pseudonocardiaceae, including Amycolatopsis, Amycolata, Pseudonocardia, Saccharomonospora, and Saccharopolyspora species, were sequenced by using reverse transcriptase. The sequences were analyzed along with the sequences of reference actinomycetes by using distance matrix and parsimony methods. The wall chemotype IV genus Actinokineospora was found to be closely related to species of the genus Saccharothrix which have chemotype III walls. Together, these two genera formed a clade which was closely related to members of the family Pseudonocardiaceae which have chemotype IV walls. However, the phylogenetic branching pattern did not unambiguously resolve whether the members of all three taxa should be placed in a single family. We suggest, therefore, that the genera Actinokineospora and Saccharothrix should remain outside the family Pseudonocardiaceae until additional sequence or phenotypic data are available to decide the issue. The sequences of species belonging to the genera Amycolata and Pseudonocardia were always recovered as a mixed group in phylogenetic trees, and we propose that these organisms should be classified in an emended genus Pseudonocardia. This proposal is strongly supported by previously published lipid, ribosomal protein, and ultrastructure data. PMID:8186093

Warwick, S; Bowen, T; McVeigh, H; Embley, T M

1994-04-01

355

Phylogenetic analysis of the genera Rhodococcus and Nocardia and evidence for the evolutionary origin of the genus Nocardia from within the radiation of Rhodococcus species  

Microsoft Academic Search

~~ ~ ~ ~~~~~ ~~ ~ 16s rDNA analysis was performed on 32 strains of 26 species of the genera Rhodococcus and Nocardia in order to investigate the phylogenetic structure of these genera within the radiation of other mycolic-acid-containing genera such as Corynebacterium, Dietzia, Gordona, Mycobacterium and Tsukamurella. The genus Rhodococcus shows a complex structure, consisting of six phylogenetically equidistant

Frederick A. Rainey; Jutta Burghardt; Reiner M. Kroppenstedt; Stefan Klatte; Erko Stackebrandt

1995-01-01

356

Myrmecophilous rove beetles (Coleoptera: Staphylinidae) associated with Aenictus hodgsoni (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) from Thailand, with description of two new genera and three new species.  

PubMed

Three species of rove beetles (subfamily Aleocharinae) were collected from colonies of Aenictus hodgsoni Forel, 1901 in Khao Yai National Park, Thailand. They are classified into three genera, including two new genera, and described herein as: Aenictobia siamensis Maruyama, sp. n. (tribe Aenictoteratini), Aenictosymbia cornuta Maruyama, gen. & sp. n. (tribe Lomechusini) and Aenictoxenides mirabilis Maruyama, gen. & sp. n. (tribe Pygostenini). The systematic positions of the new genera are discussed. PMID:24870681

Maruyama, Munetoshi; Komatsu, Takashi; Katayama, Yuji; Song, Xiao-Bin; Sakchoowong, Watana

2014-01-01

357

Freshwater shrimp genera Caridina and Parisia (Decapoda: Caridea: Atyidae) of Madagascar, with descriptions of four new species  

Microsoft Academic Search

Three new species of Caridina and one new species of Parisia from caves in northern Madagascar are described and figured. A useful key-character, the presence or absence of an apical hook on the dactylus and propodus of pereiopods 1 and\\/or 2, is re-evaluated. Revised keys are provided for both genera.

Ann R. Gurney

1984-01-01

358

The Crepidotaceae (Basidiomycota, Agaricales): phylogeny and taxonomy of the genera and revision of the family based on molecular evidence  

Microsoft Academic Search

Advances in phylogenetic systematics have clarified the position of most major homobasidiomycete lineages. In contrast, the status of the Crepidotaceae, a historically controversial family of dark-spored agarics, remains unaddressed. In this paper, current morphology- based classifications of the agaric genera of the Crepidotaceae were evaluated by parsimony and constraint analyses of sequence data from the nuclear large subunit rDNA. Taxa

M. CATHERINE AIME; R. Vilgalys; O. K. Miller

2005-01-01

359

Revision of the Illustrated Taxonomic Keys to Genera and Species of Mosquite Larvae of Korea (Diptera, Culicidae).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Illustrated Taxonomic Keys to Genera and Species of Mosquito Larvae of Korea, which was written preliminarily in 1991 by entomologists of the 5th Medical Detachment, 8th U.S. Army, has been utilized for years as the most comprehensive and convenient taxon...

K. W. Lee

1999-01-01

360

Review of the millipede family Trichopolydesmidae in the Oriental realm (Diplopoda, Polydesmida), with descriptions of new genera and species  

PubMed Central

Abstract In the Oriental Region, the large, basically Northern Hemisphere family Trichopolydesmidae is shown to currently comprise 18 genera and 43 species. Based mainly on gonopod structure, all of them, as well as the whole family, are (re)diagnosed, including five new genera and seven new species. These new taxa are keyed, also being the first to be described from Indochina in general and from Vietnam in particular: Aporodesmella gen. n., with three species: A. securiformis sp. n. (the type species), A. similis sp. n. and A. tergalis sp. n., as well as the following four monotypic genera: Deharvengius gen. n., with D. bedosae sp. n., Gonatodesmus gen. n., with G. communicans sp. n., Helicodesmus gen. n., with H. anichkini sp. n., and Monstrodesmus gen. n., with M. flagellifer sp. n. In addition, Cocacolaria hauseri Hoffman, 1987, hitherto known only from New Ireland Island, Papua New Guinea, is redescribed based on material from Vanuatu whence it is recorded for the first time. One of the new genera, Gonatodesmus gen. n., provides a kind of transition or evolutionary bridge between Trichopolydesmidae and Opisotretidae, thus reinforcing the assignment of these two families to the single superfamily Trichopolydesmoidea.

Golovatch, Sergei I.; Geoffroy, Jean-Jacques; VandenSpiegel, Didier

2014-01-01

361

On the reclassification of species assigned to Candida and other anamorphic ascomycetous yeast genera based on phylogenetic circumscription.  

PubMed

Multigene phylogenies have been instrumental in revising the classification of ascosporic (teleomorph) yeasts in a natural system based on lines of descent. Although many taxonomic changes have already been implemented for teleomorph taxa, this is not yet the case for the large genus Candida and smaller anascosporic (anamorph) genera. In view of the recently introduced requirement that a fungal species or higher taxon be assigned only a single valid name under the new International Code of Nomenclature for algae, fungi, and plants (Melbourne Code), the current species of Candida and other anamorph yeast genera must undergo revision to make genus membership consistent with phylogenetic affinities. A review of existing data and analyses shows that certain Candida species may be assigned to teleomorph genera with high confidence using multigene phylogenies. Candida species that form well-circumscribed phylogenetic clades without any teleomorph member justify the creation of new genera. However, a considerable number of Candida species sit at the end of isolated and often long branches, and hence cannot be assigned to larger species groups. They should be maintained in Candida sensu lato until studied by multigene analyses in datasets with comprehensive taxon sampling. The principle of name stability has to be honoured to the largest extent compatible with a natural classification of Candida species. PMID:24748333

Daniel, Heide-Marie; Lachance, Marc-André; Kurtzman, Cletus P

2014-07-01

362

Bipinnate Ptilozamites nilssonii from Jameson Land and new considerations on the genera Ptilozamites Nathorst 1878 and Ctenozamites Nathorst 1886  

Microsoft Academic Search

Newly collected Rhaetian plant compressions of the seed fern Ptilozamites nilssonii Nathorst 1878 from Jameson Land, Eastern Greenland, revealed both simple and forked, unipinnate and bipinnate morphologies, indicating a closer relationship between the genera Ptilozamites Nathorst 1878 and Ctenozamites Nathorst 1886 than previously documented. Cuticle analysis revealed micromorphological traits typical of simply pinnate P. nilssonii on bipinnate leaf forms, yet

Mihai E. Popa; Jennifer C. McElwain

2009-01-01

363

A Comparison of Injectable Fluorescent Marks in Two Genera of Darters: Effects on Survival and Retention Rates  

Microsoft Academic Search

Visible implant elastomer (VIE) and injectable photonic dye (IPD), two types of injectable fluorescent marks, have shown promise in previous applications in a variety of fishes but have not been extensively tested on darters. We marked a species from each of two genera of darters, Percina and Etheostoma, in a laboratory experiment to determine the influence of VIE and IPD

James H. Roberts; Paul L. Angermeier

2004-01-01

364

Phylogenetic analysis of the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 gene from 13 sipunculan genera: intra- and interphylum relationships  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract. Sipunculans are a phylum of non-segmented, marine worms. Although they are well characterized morphologically, relationships within the phylum and the relationship of Sipun- cula to other spiralian phyla have been strongly debated. I analyzed representatives of 13 of 17 described genera using a 654-bp fragment of the mitochondrial gene, cytochrome c oxidase subunit I, to construct the first intraphylum

Joseph L. Statona

2005-01-01

365

Taxonomic Review of the Hydrothermal Vent Shrimp Genera Rimicaris Williams & Rona and Chorocaris Martin & Hessler (Crustacea: Decapoda: Caridea: Alvinocarididae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

A taxonomic review of the two genera of the family Alvinocarididae (Decapoda: Caridea), Rimicaris Williams and Rona, 1986 and Chorocaris Martin and Hessler 1990, is presented based on study of type materials and\\/or supplemental material from recent collections. Two species of Rimicaris, R. exoculata Williams and Rona 1986 and R. kairei Watabe and Hashimoto 2002, and three species of Chorocaris,

Tomoyuki Komai; Michel Segonzac

2008-01-01

366

Evolution in the block: common elements of 5S rDNA organization and evolutionary patterns in distant fish genera.  

PubMed

The 5S rDNA is organized in the genome as tandemly repeated copies of a structural unit composed of a coding sequence plus a nontranscribed spacer (NTS). The coding region is highly conserved in the evolution, whereas the NTS vary in both length and sequence. It has been proposed that 5S rRNA genes are members of a gene family that have arisen through concerted evolution. In this study, we describe the molecular organization and evolution of the 5S rDNA in the genera Lepidorhombus and Scophthalmus (Scophthalmidae) and compared it with already known 5S rDNA of the very different genera Merluccius (Merluccidae) and Salmo (Salmoninae), to identify common structural elements or patterns for understanding 5S rDNA evolution in fish. High intra- and interspecific diversity within the 5S rDNA family in all the genera can be explained by a combination of duplications, deletions, and transposition events. Sequence blocks with high similarity in all the 5S rDNA members across species were identified for the four studied genera, with evidences of intense gene conversion within noncoding regions. We propose a model to explain the evolution of the 5S rDNA, in which the evolutionary units are blocks of nucleotides rather than the entire sequences or single nucleotides. This model implies a "two-speed" evolution: slow within blocks (homogenized by recombination) and fast within the gene family (diversified by duplications and deletions). PMID:22171996

Campo, Daniel; García-Vázquez, Eva

2012-01-01

367

[Species composition and ecological peculiarities of the mosquito genera Culex, Culiseta, and Coquillettidia (Diptera, Culicidae) in the Novgorod Region].  

PubMed

Nine mosquito species from the genera Culex, Culiseta, and Coquillettidia are found in the Novgorod Region as a result of eight-year investigation (1997-2004). The species Culex torrentium is for the first time recorded in the Novgorod Region. PMID:19065837

Paniukova, E V; Medvedev, S G

2008-01-01

368

Bioinformatic and functional analysis of RNA secondary structure elements among different genera of human and animal caliciviruses  

Microsoft Academic Search

The mechanism and role of RNA structure elements in the replication and translation of Caliciviridae remains poorly understood. Several algorithmically independent methods were used to predict second- ary structures within the Norovirus, Sapovirus, Vesivirus and Lagovirus genera. All showed pro- found suppression of synonymous site variability (SSSV) at genomic 5' ends and the start of the sub-genomic (sg) transcript, consistent

Peter Simmonds; Ioannis Karakasiliotis; Dalan Bailey; Yasmin Chaudhry; David J. Evans; Ian G. Goodfellow

2008-01-01

369

A new genus of funnel-web spiders, with notes on relationships of the five genera from China (Araneae: Agelenidae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new agelenid genus, Allagelena, gen. nov. (Type species: Agelena bistriata Grube, 1861), is erected. Four species, Agelena bistriata Grube, 1861; Agelena difficilis Fox, 1936; Agelena gracilens C. L. Koch, 1841; and Agelena opulenta (L. Koch, 1878), are transferred to the new genus. The male of A. bistriata is described for the first time. The relationships among the Chinese genera

Zhi-Sheng Zhang; Ming-Sheng Zhu; Da-Xiang Song

2006-01-01

370

Phylogenetic relationships of the genera of the Pronocephalidae Looss, 1902 (Digenea: Paramphistomiformes).  

PubMed

Quantitative phylogenetic analysis of 20 nominal genera of the Pronocephalidae based on 47 morphological transformation series produced 6 equally parsimonious trees, each with a consistency index of 77.8%. All trees agree that Adenogaster is the sister group to the rest of the pronocephalids, and a new subfamily is proposed for it. The Pronocephalinae comprises Pronocephalus, Ruicephalus, Neopronocephalus, Macravestibulum, Choanophorus, Cetiosaccus, and Metacetabulum. The Charaxicephalinae comprises Charaxicephalus, Desmogonius, Diaschistorchis, Pleurogonius, Iguanacola, Renigonius, Parapleurogonius, Himasomum, Pyelosomum, Cricocephalus, Barisomum, and Pseudobarisomum. An amended diagnosis for Himasomum is presented. The trees differ only in the placements of Pleurogonius, Renigonius + Parapleurogonius, Iguanacola, and Himasomum relative to each other. Parapronocephalum and Notocotyloides are members of the clade containing the Notocotylidae. The phylogenetic tree supports interpretations of 3-4 transitions from marine to freshwater turtles, 3 host switches from marine turtles to the Galapagos marine iguana and 3 from marine turtles to the French angelfish, and widespread host switching among marine chelonians. No switches to non-chelonian hosts coincide with transitions from marine to freshwater. PMID:7707206

Pérez Ponce de León, G; Brooks, D R

1995-04-01

371

Antigenic cross-reactivity between sixteen venoms from scorpions belonging to six genera.  

PubMed

Venoms of 15 scorpion species from Venezuela and one from Brazil were compared in their antigenic cross-reactivity with specific F(ab')2 against Tityus discrepans (Td-antibodies), using the method of King and collaborators (1). Our results show that Tityus venoms cross-reactivity (shared epitopes) with the venoms of other species within the genus tended to be less for a greater distance between the habitat of the species. A nonparametric linear regression of free Td-antibody binding to T. discrepans venom immobilized to a solid phase in the presence of other Tityus venoms versus distance showed binding = a + b x log10 (distance) where: median (95% confidence interval) for a = 0.92 (7.43, 9.80) and b = 17.20 (4.15, 22.57) binding/log10(Km); Spearman rS = 0.783 with associated P = 0.006. Our results show that toxins from different Tityus species, targeting mammalian Na+ and K+ channels, are antigenically very similar. Venoms from species from other genera such as Centruroides, Broteas, Diplocentrus, Chactas, and Rhopalurus did not cross-react with Td-antibodies. PMID:17364633

D'Suze, G; Moncada, S; González, C; Sevcik, C; Alagón, A

2007-01-01

372

Revision of the cranaid genera Phalangodus, Iquitosa and Aguaytiella (Opiliones: Laniatores: Gonyleptoidea).  

PubMed

The monotypic genus Temucus Roewer, 1943, originally placed in Pachylinae (Gonyleptidae) is transferred to the Cranainae (Cranaidae) and synonymized with Phalangodus Gervais, 1842, therefore Phalangodus palpiconus (Roewer, 1943) comb. nov. is proposed. The synonymy is based on the following features: (i) the outline of dorsal scutum type alpha; (ii) the thickened pedipalpal claw in males; (iii) pedipalpal femur with a few ventral enlarged tubercles restricted to the median ventral region, and a conspicuous group of very large and acuminated tubercles basally; (iv) ventral plate of penis with a rather elevated number of cylindrical, straight and sharp distal pairs of setae and a notorious reduction in the number of the basal pairs of setae; (v) penis stylus straight, its distal tip rounded in a mushroom-like shape without stylar caps. The record of P. palpiconus to Chile is doubtful. We also propose the revalidation of Iquitosa Roewer, 1943, hitherto considered a junior synonym of Phalangodus. Iquitosa is revised and the male of its type species, I. poecilis, is reported for the first time. Aguaytiella Goodnight & Goodnight, 1943, a monotypic genus which superficially resembles Iquitosa is also revised. In this article, we report data of male genitalia of Iquitosa and Aguaytiella, providing redescriptions and diagnoses of those genera and species, and a discussion of their relationship with other cranaids. PMID:24943449

Hara, Marcos Ryotaro; Pinto-da-Rocha, Ricardo; Villarreal M, Osvaldo

2014-01-01

373

Diatoms from the Colombian and Peruvian Amazon: the Genera Encyonema, Encyonopsis and Gomphonema (Cymbellales: Bacillariophyceae).  

PubMed

The diatom flora of the Colombian and Peruvian Amazon is far less studied than the flora of the Brazilian sector of the basin. Here we present results related to the genera Encyonema, Encyonopsis and Gomphonema. Plankton and periphyton samples were collected in lotic and lentic waterbodies from the Amazonian-Andean region, the Amazon River, Japurá River and Porvenir River basins during 1993, 1994, 2001 and 2003. At each sampling station pH, temperature, water transparency and conductivity were registered. Samples were analyzed with phase contrast microscope (LM) and scanning electron microscope (SEM). Ten taxa are new records for the area; Encyonema for the Peruvian and Colombian Amazon and Encyonopsis for the Colombian Sector. Encyonema neogracile var. tenuipunctatum, E. vulgare, Encyonopsis frequentis, Gomphonema augur var. sphaerophorum and G. contraturris are recorded for the first time in Colombia; Encyonema venezolanum and G. neoapiculatum in Colombia and Peru and the latter also for Amazonia. E. angustecapitatum was mentioned in Colombia before at a pond located at 3000 m asl. We describe a new species from Porvenir River, Amazonas, Colombia: Encyonema amazonianum. PMID:20411706

Vouilloud, Amelia A; Sala, Silvia E; Avellaneda, Marcela Núńez; Duque, Santiago R

2010-03-01

374

Analysis and comparison of the pan-genomic properties of sixteen well-characterized bacterial genera  

PubMed Central

Background The increasing availability of whole genome sequences allows the gene or protein content of different organisms to be compared, leading to burgeoning interest in the relatively new subfield of pan-genomics. However, while several studies have analyzed protein content relationships in specific groups of bacteria, there has yet to be a study that provides a general characterization of protein content relationships in a broad range of bacteria. Results A variation on reciprocal BLAST hits was used to infer relationships among proteins in several groups of bacteria, and data regarding protein conservation and uniqueness in different bacterial genera are reported in terms of "core proteomes", "unique proteomes", and "singlets". We also analyzed the relationship between protein content similarity and the percent identity of the 16S rRNA gene in pairs of bacterial isolates from the same genus, and found that the strength of this relationship varied substantially depending on the genus, perhaps reflecting different rates of genome evolution and/or horizontal gene transfer. Finally, core proteomes and unique proteomes were used to study the proteomic cohesiveness of several bacterial species, revealing that some bacterial species had little cohesiveness in their protein content, with some having fewer proteins unique to that species than randomly-chosen sets of isolates from the same genus. Conclusions The results described in this study aid our understanding of protein content relationships in different bacterial groups, allowing us to make further inferences regarding genome-environment relationships, genome evolution, and the soundness of existing taxonomic classifications.

2010-01-01

375

Melanelixia and Melanohalea, two new genera segregated from Melanelia (Parmeliaceae) based on molecular and morphological data.  

PubMed

This paper continues a revision of generic concepts in the parmelioid lichens using molecular data in order to reach a consensus among lichenologists over which segregates proposed over the last two decades should be accepted. Here we employ data from three gene portions to provide a basis for a revised generic concept of the brown parmelioid lichens hitherto classified in Melanelia. The phylogeny was studied using a Bayesian analysis of a combined data set of nuclear ITS, LSU rDNA and mitochondrial SSU rDNA sequences. 173 new sequences were obtained from 38 specimens of 15 Melanelia species, 37 related parmelioid species, and eight non-parmelioid species. The results indicate that Melanelia is not monophyletic but falls into four different clades. The genus Melanelia is restricted here to a small group of saxicolous lichens related to the type species M. stygia, and with bifusiform conidia, while the remaining species, most of which are primarily corticolous and have mainly cylindrical to filiform conidia, belong to two other clades recognised as two new genera: Melanelixia and Melanohalea, to accommodate the M. exasperata and M. glabra groups, respectively. 27 new combinations are made. The epicortex of Melanelixia species have pores or special structures termed here 'fenestrations', while most Melanohalea species are pseudocyphellate. Pleurosticta links to the Melanohalea clade but without strong support, and the phylogenetic position of M. disjuncta and its related species remains uncertain, linking with the Xanthoparmelia (syn. Neofuscelia) clade but also without strong support. PMID:15449592

Blanco, Oscar; Crespo, Ana; Divakar, Pradeep K; Esslinger, Theodore L; Hawksworth, David L; Lumbsch, H Thorsten

2004-08-01

376

Late Cretaceous radiolarians of the genera Cuboctostylus Bragina and Hexacromyum Haeckel: Their stratigraphic and paleobiogeographical distribution  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recently, representatives of the genus Cuboctostylus Bragina (order Entactinaria) were included in the Upper Cretaceous radiolarian regional stratigraphic scale of Sakhalin. The Late Cretaceous species Hexacromyum pergamenti Bragina (order Spumellaria) has morphological similarity to representatives of the genus Cuboctostylus. Peculiar features of H. pergamenti internal structure are considered. Collections of Upper Cretaceous radiolarians from southern Cyprus, Serbia, northern Turkey, Crimean Mountains, East European Platform, northwestern Kamchatka, eastern slope of the Sredinnyi Range in Kamchatka, and Shikotan Island (Lesser Kurile Range) were used for the analysis of the taxonomic composition of Late Cretaceous representatives of the genera Cuboctostylus Bragina and Hexacromyum Haeckel as well as their stratigraphic and paleobiogeographic distribution. It is established that Cuboctostylus is distributed from tropical to south boreal realms. This genus is shown to exist through almost the entire Late Cretaceous: from the middle Cenomanian to initial Maastrichtian. Hexacromyum Haeckel populated both the south boreal realm and marginal areas of the Tethys Ocean in the Late Cretaceous. The new data presented may be used for distant interregional correlations. Cuboctostylus stellatus sp. nov. and several other Cuboctostylus taxa identified in open nomenclature are described; some morphological features of Hexacromyum pergamenti are specified.

Bragina, L. G.

2013-01-01

377

Natural Products from Antarctic Colonial Ascidians of the Genera Aplidium and Synoicum: Variability and Defensive Role  

PubMed Central

Ascidians have developed multiple defensive strategies mostly related to physical, nutritional or chemical properties of the tunic. One of such is chemical defense based on secondary metabolites. We analyzed a series of colonial Antarctic ascidians from deep-water collections belonging to the genera Aplidium and Synoicum to evaluate the incidence of organic deterrents and their variability. The ether fractions from 15 samples including specimens of the species A. falklandicum, A. fuegiense, A. meridianum, A. millari and S. adareanum were subjected to feeding assays towards two relevant sympatric predators: the starfish Odontaster validus, and the amphipod Cheirimedon femoratus. All samples revealed repellency. Nonetheless, some colonies concentrated defensive chemicals in internal body-regions rather than in the tunic. Four ascidian-derived meroterpenoids, rossinones B and the three derivatives 2,3-epoxy-rossinone B, 3-epi-rossinone B, 5,6-epoxy-rossinone B, and the indole alkaloids meridianins A–G, along with other minoritary meridianin compounds were isolated from several samples. Some purified metabolites were tested in feeding assays exhibiting potent unpalatabilities, thus revealing their role in predation avoidance. Ascidian extracts and purified compound-fractions were further assessed in antibacterial tests against a marine Antarctic bacterium. Only the meridianins showed inhibition activity, demonstrating a multifunctional defensive role. According to their occurrence in nature and within our colonial specimens, the possible origin of both types of metabolites is discussed.

Nunez-Pons, Laura; Carbone, Marianna; Vazquez, Jennifer; Rodriguez, Jaime; Nieto, Rosa Maria; Varela, Maria Mercedes; Gavagnin, Margherita; Avila, Conxita

2012-01-01

378

Tempo and mode of evolutionary radiation in Diabroticina beetles (genera Acalymma, Cerotoma, and Diabrotica)  

PubMed Central

Abstract Adaptive radiation is an aspect of evolutionary biology encompassing microevolution and macroevolution, for explaining the principles of lineage divergence. There are intrinsic as well as extrinsic factors that can be postulated to explain that adaptive radiation has taken place in specific lineages. The Diabroticina beetles are a prominent example of differential diversity that could be examined in detail to explain the diverse paradigms of adaptive radiation. Macroevolutionary analyses must present the differential diversity patterns in a chronological framework. The current study reviews the processes that shaped the differential diversity of some Diabroticina lineages (i.e. genera Acalymma, Cerotoma, and Diabrotica). These diversity patterns and the putative processes that produced them are discussed within a statistically reliable estimate of time. This was achieved by performing phylogenetic and coalescent analyses for 44 species of chrysomelid beetles. The data set encompassed a total of 2,718 nucleotide positions from three mitochondrial and two nuclear loci. Pharmacophagy, host plant coevolution, competitive exclusion, and geomorphological complexity are discussed as putative factors that might have influenced the observed diversity patterns. The coalescent analysis concluded that the main radiation within Diabroticina beetles occurred between middle Oligocene and middle Miocene. Therefore, the radiation observed in these beetles is not recent (i.e. post-Panamanian uplift, 4 Mya). Only a few speciation events in the genus Diabrotica might be the result of the Pleistocene climatic oscillations.

Eben, Astrid; Espinosa de los Monteros, Alejandro

2013-01-01

379

Evolutionary relationships of Pemphigus and allied genera (Hemiptera: Aphididae: Eriosomatinae) and their primary endosymbiont, Buchnera aphidicola.  

PubMed

Aphids harbor primary endosymbionts, Buchnera aphidicola, in specialized cells within their body cavities. Aphids and Buchnera have strict mutualistic relationships in nutrition exchange. This ancient association has received much attention from researchers who are interested in endosymbiotic evolution. Previous studies have found parallel phylogenetic relationships between non-galling aphids and Buchnera at lower taxonomic levels (genus, species). To understand whether relatively isolated habitats such as galls have effect on the parallel relationships between aphids and Buchnera, the present paper investigated the phylogenetic relationships of gall aphids from Pemphigus and allied genera, which induce pseudo-galls or galls on Populus spp. (poplar) and Buchnera. The molecular phylogenies inferred from three aphid genes (COI, COII and EF-1?) and two Buchnera genes (gnd, 16S rRNA gene) indicated significant congruence between aphids and Buchnera at generic as well as interspecific levels. Interestingly, both aphid and Buchnera phylogenies supported three main clades corresponding to the galling locations of aphids, namely leaf, the joint of leaf blade and petiole, and branch of the host plant. The results suggest phylogenetic conservatism of gall characters, which indicates gall characters are more strongly affected by aphid phylogeny, rather than host plants. PMID:24482319

Liu, Lin; Li, Xing-Yi; Huang, Xiao-Lei; Qiao, Ge-Xia

2014-06-01

380

Genetic diversity of rhizobial symbionts isolated from legume species within the genera Astragalus, Oxytropis, and Onobrychis.  

PubMed Central

The genetic diversity of 44 rhizobial isolates from Astragalus, Oxytropis, and Onobrychis spp. originating from different geographic locations was evaluated by mapped restriction site polymorphism (MRSP) analysis of 16S rRNA genes and by PCR DNA fingerprinting with repetitive sequences (REP-PCR). A comparison of tree topologies of reference strains constructed with data obtained by MRSP and by 16S rRNA gene sequence analyses showed that the topologies were in good agreement, indicating that the MSRP approach results in reasonable estimates of rhizobial phylogeny. The isolates were distributed into 14 distinct 16S rRNA gene types clustering into three major groups which corresponded with three of the genera within the legume symbionts. Most of the isolates were within the genus Mesorhizobium. Five were identified with different genomic species nodulating Lotus spp. and Cicer arietinum. Three Astragalus isolates were classified as Bradyrhizobium, one being similar to Bradyrhizobium elkanii and another being similar to Bradyrhizobium japonicum. Six of the isolates were related to species within the genus Rhizobium. Two were similar to Rhizobium leguminosarum, and the remainder were identified as Rhizobium gallicum. DNA fingerprinting by REP-PCR revealed a high level of diversity within single 16S ribosomal DNA types. The 44 isolates were distributed into 34 REP groups. Rhizobial classification at the genus and probably also the species levels was independent of geographic origin and host plant affinity.

Laguerre, G; van Berkum, P; Amarger, N; Prevost, D

1997-01-01

381

Effect of Inoculation Techniques and Relative Humidity on the Growth of Molds on the Surfaces of Yellow Layer Cakes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Four inoculation techniques were compared for initiation of growth on cake surfaces: spot, air cabinet, spray (atomizer), and talc addition methods. Molds were isolated from commercial cakes and were identified as Aspergillus sydowii, Aspergillus ochraceus, Penicillium funiculosum, and Eurotium herbariorum. Cake surfaces were inoculated with mold spores and incubated under three equilibrium relative humidity (ERH) levels: 97, 85, and 75%.

PATRICK FUSTIER; ALAIN LAFOND; CLAUDE P. CHAMPAGNE; FRANCOIS LAMARCHE

1998-01-01

382

Enzyme profile and immunochemical characterization of Aspergillus fumigatus antigens.  

PubMed

We have compared the immunochemical characteristics of culture-filtrate antigens (Ag) from Aspergillus fumigatus extracted in our laboratory with commercially available Ags. A total of 20 different preparations were studied for protein and carbohydrate content, presence of endotoxins, mycotoxins, and hemolytic toxins. These extracts were analyzed by two-dimensional electrophoresis for protein components. The immunogenicity of the preparations was determined by rocket electrophoresis with rabbit anti-A. fumigatus sera and by agar gel diffusion with sera from patients with allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis, aspergilloma, and normal control subjects. In order to have dependable immunologic results, the Ags must be sufficiently pure and reproducible. Until such time as pure and standardized Ags are available, the crude Ags used should be characterized to the extent that adequate reproducibility between preparations can be ascertained. The enzyme profile of the Ag preparations provides a fair indication of the quality of antigenic components, and together with other immunochemical parameters, it will be of use in determining the suitability of the extracts in immunodiagnosis. Immunochemical results demonstrate that commercial Ags contain less proteins and carbohydrates and fewer enzymes than the homemade antigens. In addition, fewer patients demonstrated specific precipitins against commercial Ags than with homemade Ags. This study once again confirms the need for pure standardized Ags for studying the immunologic response in patients with Aspergillus-induced diseases. Until such preparations are readily available, partially purified or crude Ags with known immunochemical properties and enzyme profile may be the choice for immunodiagnosis. PMID:3097110

Kurup, V P; Resnick, A; Scribner, G H; Gunasekaran, M; Fink, J N

1986-12-01

383

Isolation and Characterization of Sexual Spore Pigments from Aspergillus nidulans  

PubMed Central

The homothallic ascomycete Aspergillus nidulans produces two types of pigmented spores: conidia and ascospores. The synthesis and localization of the spore pigments is developmentally regulated and occurs in specialized cell types. On the basis of spectroscopic evidence, we propose that the major ascospore pigment of A. nidulans (ascoquinone A) is a novel dimeric hydroxylated anthraquinone. The structure of ascoquinone A, as well as a comparison to model compounds, suggests that it is the product of a polyketide synthase. Previous studies have revealed that the conidial pigments from A. nidulans and a related Aspergillus species (A. parasiticus) also appear to be produced via polymerization of polyketide precursors (D. W. Brown, F. M. Hauser, R. Tommasi, S. Corlett, and J. J. Salvo, Tetrahedron Lett. 34:419-422, 1993; M. E. Mayorga and W. E. Timberlake, Mol. Gen. Genet. 235:205-212, 1992). The structural similarity between the ascospore pigment and the toxic anthraquinone norsolorinic acid, the first stable intermediate in the aflatoxin pathway, suggests an evolutionary relationship between the respective polyketide synthase systems.

Brown, Daren W.; Salvo, Joseph J.

1994-01-01

384

Viriditoxin production by Aspergillus viridi-nutans and related species.  

PubMed

Bioproduction of viriditoxin on various substrates by strains of the Aspergillus fumigatus group was determined under several incubation conditions. Aspergillus viridi-nutans strains NRRL 4365 and 576 produced the largest quantities of toxin, A. brevipes gave reduced yields, and there was no detectable synthesis by isolates of four related species. After 30 days in static culture at 20 C on various autoclaved agricultural commodities, optimal yields of 440 and 380 mg of toxin were observed per kilogram of sorghum and rice. Toxin levels were reduced on corn, rye, and wheat (40-200 mg/kg); yields were low on cottonseed, barley, and oats. Incubation at 10 C restricted biosynthesis of viriditoxin, and no toxin accumulated on substrates maintained at 5 C for 120 days. In a liquid, yeast extract-sucrose medium, maximal mycotoxin production developed in shake flasks; after 156 h, 10 mg of toxin accumulated per gram of mycelium. Viriditoxin produced in submerged culture was associated with the mycelium; less than 1% was detected in the filtered broth after 156 h of incubation. PMID:4582816

Lillehoj, E B; Milburn, M S

1973-08-01

385

Characterization of the velvet regulators in Aspergillus fumigatus.  

PubMed

Fungal development and secondary metabolism is intimately associated via activities of the fungi-specific velvet family proteins. Here we characterize the four velvet regulators in the opportunistic human pathogen Aspergillus fumigatus. The deletion of AfuvosA, AfuveA and AfuvelB causes hyperactive asexual development (conidiation) and precocious and elevated accumulation of AfubrlA during developmental progression. Moreover, the absence of AfuvosA, AfuveA or AfuvelB results in the abundant formation of conidiophores and highly increased AfubrlA mRNA accumulation in liquid submerged culture, suggesting that they act as repressors of conidiation. The deletion of AfuvosA or AfuvelB causes a reduction in conidial trehalose amount, long-term spore viability, conidial tolerance to oxidative and UV stresses, and accelerated and elevated conidial germination regardless of the presence or absence of an external carbon source, suggesting an interdependent role of them in many aspects of fungal biology. Genetic studies suggest that AfuAbaA activates AfuvosA and AfuvelB expression during the mid to late phase of conidiation. Finally, the AfuveA null mutation can be fully complemented by Aspergillus nidulans VeA, which can physically interact with AfuVelB and AfuLaeA in vivo. A model depicting the similar yet different roles of the velvet regulators governing conidiation and sporogenesis in A.?fumigatus is presented. PMID:22970834

Park, Hee-Soo; Bayram, Ozgür; Braus, Gerhard H; Kim, Sun Chang; Yu, Jae-Hyuk

2012-11-01

386

Characterization of recombinant terrelysin, a hemolysin of Aspergillus terreus.  

PubMed

Fungal hemolysins are potential virulence factors. Some fungal hemolysins belong to the aegerolysin protein family that includes cytolysins capable of lysing erythrocytes and other cells. Here, we describe a hemolysin from Aspergillus terreus called terrelysin. We used the genome sequence database to identify the terrelysin sequence based on homology with other known aegerolysins. Aspergillus terreus mRNA was isolated, transcribed to cDNA and the open reading frame for terrelysin amplified by PCR using specific primers. Using the pASK-IBA6 cloning vector, we produced recombinant terrelysin (rTerrelysin) as a fusion product in Escherichia coli. The recombinant protein was purified and using MALDI-TOF MS determined to have a mass of 16,428 Da. Circular dichroism analysis suggests the secondary structure of the protein to be predominantly ?-sheet. Results from thermal denaturation of rTerrelysin show that the protein maintained the ?-sheet confirmation up to 65°C. Polyclonal antibody to rTerrelysin recognized a protein of approximately 16.5 kDa in mycelial extracts from A. terreus. PMID:20632211

Nayak, Ajay P; Blachere, Françoise M; Hettick, Justin M; Lukomski, Slawomir; Schmechel, Detlef; Beezhold, Donald H

2011-01-01

387

Update on antifungal resistance in Aspergillus and Candida.  

PubMed

Antifungal resistance in Candida and Aspergillus may be either intrinsic or acquired and may be encountered in the antifungal drug exposed but also the antifungal drug-naďve patient. Prior antifungal treatment confers a selection pressure and notoriously raises the awareness of possible resistance in patients failing therapy, thus calling for susceptibility testing. On the contrary, antifungal resistance in the drug-naďve patient is less expected and therefore more challenging. This is particularly true when it concerns pathogens with acquired resistance which cannot be predicted from the species identification itself. This scenario is particularly relevant for A. fumigatus infections due to the increasing prevalence of azole-resistant isolates in the environment. For Candida, infections resistance is most common in the context of increasing prevalence of species with intrinsic resistance. Candida glabrata which has intrinsically reduced susceptibility to fluconazole is increasingly common particularly among the adult and elderly population on the Northern Hemisphere where it may be responsible for as many as 30% of the blood stream infections in population-based surveillance programmes. Candida parapsilosis is prevalent in the paediatric setting, at centres with increasing echinocandin use and at the southern or pacific parts of the world. In the following, the prevalence and drivers of intrinsic and acquired resistance in Aspergillus and Candida will be reviewed. PMID:24372701

Arendrup, M C

2014-06-01

388

DOPA and DHN pathway orchestrate melanin synthesis in Aspergillus species.  

PubMed

Melanins are high molecular weight hydrophobic pigments that have been studied for their role in the virulence of fungal pathogens. We investigated the amount and type of melanin in 20 isolates of Aspergillus spp.; A. niger (n = 3), A. flavus (n = 5), A. tamarii (n = 3), A. terreus (n = 3), A. tubingensis (n = 3), A. sydowii (n = 3). Aspergillus spp. were identified by sequencing the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region. Extraction of melanin from culture filtrate and fungal biomass was done and followed by qualitative and quantitative analysis of melanin pigment. Ultraviolet (UV), Fourier transformed infrared (FT-IR), and electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectra analyses confirmed the presence of melanin. The melanin pathway was studied by analyzing the effects of inhibitors; kojic acid, tropolone, phthalide, and tricyclazole. The results indicate that in A. niger and A. tubingensis melanin was found in both culture filtrate and fungal biomass. For A. tamarii and A. flavus melanin was extracted from biomass only, whereas melanin was found only in culture filtrate for A. terreus. A negligible amount of melanin was found in A. sydowii. The maximum amount of melanin from culture filtrate and fungal biomass was found in A. niger and A. tamarrii, respectively. The DOPA (3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine) pathway produces melanin in A. niger, A. tamarii and A. flavus, whereas the DHN (1,8-dihydroxynaphthalene) pathway produces melanin in A. tubingensis and A. terreus. It can be concluded that the amount and type of melanin in aspergilli largely differ from species to species. PMID:23998343

Pal, Anuradha K; Gajjar, Devarshi U; Vasavada, Abhay R

2014-01-01

389

Recombinant bacterial hemoglobin alters metabolism of Aspergillus niger.  

PubMed

The filamentous fungus Aspergillus niger is used extensively for the production of enzymes and organic acids. A major problem in industrial fermentations with this fungus is to ensure sufficient supply of oxygen required for respiratory metabolism of the fungus. In case of oxygen limitation, the fungus will produce various by-products like organic acids and polyols. In order to circumvent this problem we here study the effects of the expression of a bacterial hemoglobin protein on the metabolism of A. niger. We integrated the vgb gene from Vitreoscilla sp. into the genome at the pyrA locus behind the strong gpdA promoter from Aspergillus nidulans. Analysis of secreted metabolites, oxygen uptake, CO(2) evolution and biomass formation points towards a relief of stress in the mutant expressing VHB when it is exposed to oxygen limitation. Our findings therefore point to an interesting strategy to attenuate unwanted side effects resulting from oxygen limitation during industrial fermentations with A. niger. PMID:18694843

Hofmann, Gerald; Diano, Audrey; Nielsen, Jens

2009-01-01

390

Aspergillus terreus complex: an emergent opportunistic agent of Onychomycosis.  

PubMed

The incidence of onychomycosis due to non-dermatophyte moulds (NDM) is increasing. Aspergillus terreus is relatively undocumented as an agent of this fungal infection. The aim of this work is to show the prevalence of onychomycosis caused by A. terreus and to describe its clinical features. Nail samples were collected for microscopic examination and culturing in selective media. All cases of onychomycosis due to NDM were confirmed by a second sample. Aspergillus terreus isolates were identified through their morphological characteristics and using molecular methods. A total of 2485 samples were obtained. Positive cultures were obtained in 1639 samples. From 124 NDM confirmed cultures, 23 were identified as A. terreus (18.5%). Superficial white onychomycosis was the most frequent clinical pattern. A high percentage was found in fingernails. The prevalence of A. terreus in this study considerably exceeded the percentages reported by other authors. Onychomycosis due to A. terreus presents similar clinical patterns to those caused by dermatophytes, but is difficult to eradicate and is associated with less predictable treatment outcomes. Better knowledge of the aetiology of A. terreus may be important for accomplishing more accurate and effective treatment. PMID:23448599

Fernández, Mariana S; Rojas, Florencia D; Cattana, María E; Sosa, María de Los Ángeles; Mangiaterra, Magdalena L; Giusiano, Gustavo E

2013-07-01

391

Enhanced cellulase producing mutants developed from heterokaryotic Aspergillus strain.  

PubMed

A heterokaryon 28, derived through protoplast fusion between Aspergillus nidulans and Aspergillus tubingensis (Dal8), was subjected cyclic mutagenesis followed by selection on increasing levels of 2-deoxy glucose (2-DG) as selection marker. The derived deregulated cellulase hyper producing mutant '64', when compared to fusant 28, produced 9.83, 7.8, 3.2, 4.2 and 19.74 folds higher endoglucanase, ?-glucosidase, cellobiohydrolase, FPase and xylanase, respectively, under shake cultures. The sequence analysis of PCR amplified ?-glucosidase gene from wild and mutant showed nucleotide deletion/substitution. The mutants showed highly catalytic efficient ?-glucosidase as evident from low Km and high Vmax values. The expression profiling through zymogram analysis also indicated towards over-expression of cellulases. The up/down regulated expressed proteins observed through SDS-PAGE were identified by Peptide mass fingerprinting The cellulase produced by mutants in conjunction with cellulase free xylanase derived from Thermomyces lanuginosus was used for efficient utilization of alkali treated rice straw for obtaining xylo-oligosaccharides and ethanol. PMID:24491293

Kaur, Baljit; Oberoi, H S; Chadha, B S

2014-03-01

392

Terrein Biosynthesis in Aspergillus terreus and Its Impact on Phytotoxicity.  

PubMed

Terrein is a fungal metabolite with ecological, antimicrobial, antiproliferative, and antioxidative activities. Although it is produced by Aspergillus terreus as one of its major secondary metabolites, not much is known about its biosynthetic pathway. Here, we describe an unexpected discovery of the terrein biosynthesis gene locus made while we were looking for a PKS gene involved in production of conidia coloration pigments common for Aspergilli. The gene, ATEG_00145, here named terA, is essential for terrein biosynthesis and heterologous production of TerA in Aspergillus niger revealed an unusual plasticity in the products formed, yielding a mixture of 4-hydroxy-6-methylpyranone, orsellinic acid, and 6,7-dihydroxymellein. Biochemical and molecular genetic analyses indicate a low extension cycle specificity of TerA. Furthermore, 6-hydroxymellein was identified as a key intermediate in terrein biosynthesis. We find that terrein production is highly induced on plant-derived media, that terrein has phytotoxic activity on plant growth, and induces lesions on fruit surfaces. PMID:24816227

Zaehle, Christoph; Gressler, Markus; Shelest, Ekaterina; Geib, Elena; Hertweck, Christian; Brock, Matthias

2014-06-19

393

Six novel constitutive promoters for metabolic engineering of Aspergillus niger.  

PubMed

Genetic tools for the fine-tuning of gene expression levels are a prerequisite for rational strain optimization through metabolic engineering. While Aspergillus niger is an industrially important fungus, widely used for production of organic acids and heterologous proteins, the available genetic tool box for this organism is still rather limited. Here, we characterize six novel constitutive promoters of A. niger providing different expression levels. The selection of the promoters was based on published transcription data of A. niger. The promoter strength was determined with the ?-glucuronidase (gusA) reporter gene of Escherichia coli. The six promoters covered a GUS activity range of two to three orders of magnitude depending on the strain background. In order to demonstrate the power of the newly characterized promoters for metabolic engineering, they were used for heterologous expression of the cis-aconitate decarboxylase (cad1) gene of Aspergillus terreus, allowing the production of the building block chemical itaconic acid with A. niger. The CAD activity, dependent on the choice of promoter, showed a positive correlation with the specific productivity of itaconic acid. Product titers from the detection limit to up to 570 mg/L proved that the set of constitutive promoters is a powerful tool for the fine-tuning of metabolic pathways for the improvement of industrial production processes. PMID:22707054

Blumhoff, Marzena; Steiger, Matthias G; Marx, Hans; Mattanovich, Diethard; Sauer, Michael

2013-01-01

394

The Prevalence of Aflatoxinogenic Aspergillus parasiticus in Jordan  

PubMed Central

Aflatoxins are potent carcinogens and produced by almost all Aspergillus parasiticus isolates and about 35% of Aspergillus flavus isolates. Chemical methods are used for detection of aflatoxins in food and feed. These methods cannot detect aflatoxinogenic fungi in samples, which contain undetectable amounts of aflatoxins. The objective of this research work was to ascertain the importance of molecular and microbiological methods in detection of aflatoxinogenic fungus A. parasiticus in food and feed samples in Jordan. Specific media for the detection of aflatoxins showed the prevalence of A. parasiticus (6–22%) in contaminated food and feed samples. HPLC method confirmed the presence of aflatoxins B1, B2, G1, and G2 in food sample contaminated with A. parasiticus. Primer set OmtBII-F and OmtBII-R amplified DNA fragment of 611 base pairs from genomic DNA of aflatoxinogenic A. parasiticus isolated from food and feed samples but could not amplify DNA fragment of nonaflatoxinogenic A. flavus. The results of this study showed the prevalence of aflatoxinogenic A. parasiticus in food and feed samples in Jordan and give further evidence of suitability of microbiological and molecular methods in detection of aflatoxins, which are reliable low-cost approach to determine food and feed biosafety.

Al-Hmoud, Nisreen; Ibrahim, Mohammed A.; Al-Rousan, Hiyam; Alseyah, Abbas

2012-01-01

395

Testing an innovative device against airborne Aspergillus contamination.  

PubMed

Aspergillus fumigatus is a major airborne nosocomial pathogen that is responsible for severe mycosis in immunocompromised patients. We studied the efficacy of an innovative mobile air-treatment device in eliminating A. fumigatus from the air following experimental massive contamination in a high-security room. Viable mycological particles were isolated from sequential air samples in order to evaluate the device's effectiveness in removing the fungus. The concentration of airborne conidia was reduced by 95% in 18 min. Contamination was reduced below the detection threshold in 29 min, even when the machine was at the lowest airflow setting. In contrast, during spontaneous settling with no air treatment, conidia remained airborne for more than 1 h. This indoor air contamination model provided consistent and reproducible results. Because the air purifier proved to be effective at eliminating a major contaminant, it may prove useful in preventing air-transmitted disease agents. In an experimental space mimicking a hospital room, the AirLyse air purifier, which uses a combination of germicidal ultraviolet C irradiation and titanium photocatalysis, effectively eliminated Aspergillus conidia. Such a mobile device may be useful in routine practice for lowering microbiological air contamination in the rooms of patients at risk. PMID:24965945

Desoubeaux, Guillaume; Bernard, Marie-Charlotte; Gros, Valérie; Sarradin, Pierre; Perrodeau, Elodie; Vecellio, Laurent; Piscopo, Antoine; Chandenier, Jacques; Bernard, Louis

2014-08-01

396

Cross-Reactivity of Fusarium spp. in the Aspergillus Galactomannan Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay  

PubMed Central

Nine of 11 hematological patients with disseminated/deep-seated Fusarium infection tested at least twice for Aspergillus galactomannan (GM) had repeated positive results in the absence of Aspergillus isolation in culture. The centrifuged supernatants of 12 Fusarium isolates were tested by a GM enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (EIA). All the isolates produced positive reactions when tested undiluted. These results show cross-reactivity of Fusarium spp. with Aspergillus GM that may constitute a drawback with respect to the specificity of the Platelia EIA.

Esposto, Maria Carmela; Prigitano, Anna; Grancini, Anna; Ossi, Cristina; Cavanna, Caterina; Cascio, Giuliana Lo

2012-01-01

397

Isolation and Identification of Aspergillus Section Fumigati Strains from Arable Soil in Korea  

PubMed Central

63 strains of Aspergillus section Fumigati were isolated from 17 samples of arable soil in a central province of Korea. Based on the results of genotypic and phenotypic analyses, they were identified as Aspergillus fumigatus, A. lentulus, Neosartorya coreana, N. fennelliae, N. fischeri, N. glabra, N. hiratsukae, N. laciniosa, N. pseudofischeri, N. quadricincta, N. spinosa and N. udagawae. Among these, N. fennelliae, N. hiratsukae, N. quadricincta, and N. udagawae had not been previously recorded in Korea. The diversity of Aspergillus section Fumigati species from arable soil in Korea is also addressed.

Kim, Dae-Ho; Park, In-Cheol; Samson, Robert A.; Shin, Hyeon-Dong

2010-01-01

398

Fungi recovered from Slovakian poultry feed mixtures and their toxinogenity.  

PubMed

To contribute towards the knowledge of microbiology of feeds, more than 100 samples of poultry feed mixtures from Slovakia were mycologically investigated in terms of the overall fungal diversity and toxicological potential of isolated fungi. The study revealed that out of 22 genera recovered, Penicillium was the most frequent and diverse genus, followed by Aspergillus and Mucor being found in 89 % (34 spp.), 69 % (11 spp.) and 50 % (4 spp.), respectively. The most frequently encountered taxa were Fusarium proliferatum, followed by Penicillium aurantiogriseum, Mucor racemosus, Penicillium crustosum and Aspergillus flavus . In addition, the following genera were recorded (in descending order) Rhizopus (44 %, 3 spp.), Eurotium (42 %, 5 spp.), Fusarium (42 %, 3 spp.), Cladosporium (31 %, 1 sp.), Alternaria (22 %, 3 spp.), Absidia (16 %, 3 spp.), Acremonium (12 %, 2 spp.), Scopulariopsis (10 %, 2 spp.), Paecilomyces (4 %, 1 sp.), Ulocladium (3 %, 1 sp.), Trichoderma (2 %, 1 sp.), Zygorrhynchus (2 %, 1 sp.), and finally Emericella, Epicoccum, Geosmithia, Monascus, Stachybotrys, Syncephalastrum and Wardomyces , all were encountered in 1 % of the samples being represented by a single species. The mean value counts of total fungi ranged from 1 x 10 (3) to 200 x 10(5) cfu/g. Outcomes from mycotoxin screening within the appropriate potentially toxinogenic species showed a number of mycotoxin producers, namely those forming aflatoxin B (1) (n=3), citrinin (17), cyclopiazonic acid (76), fumonisin B(1) (86), griseofulvin (42), moniliformin (18), ochratoxin A (5), patulin (56), penitrem A (30) and sterigmatocystin (10). PMID:17195991

Labuda, Roman; Tancinová, Dana

2006-01-01

399

The occurrence of molds in patients with chronic sinusitis.  

PubMed

Chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS) is a common inflammatory condition of nasal and paranasal sinus mucosa. Although pathogenic bacteria were postulated as main etiological factor responsible for most cases of CRS, the involvement of molds was recently proved in some cases. The aim of the study was to conduct mycological analysis of material obtained from patients operated on due to chronic sinusitis. The study included 107 patients, 45 women and 62 men. During the surgery, a fragment of mucosa from the region of the ethmoid bulla was obtained as microbiological characteristics of this material closely resemble those of sinus mucosa. In addition, maxillary sinus lavage was obtained. The control group comprised patients without chronic sinusitis. The dithiothreitol solution method was used for the lavage examination. The tissue material (mucosal fragment from the region of the ethmoid bulla) was incubated in 2% liquid Sabouraud medium for 24 h. The material was inoculated onto culture media. The presence of molds was detected in 67% of examined samples. Overall, 41 species belonging to 12 genera were isolated. The most frequently detected genera included Penicillium spp. (46%) and Aspergillus spp. (16%). In addition, Cladosporium spp. (11%), Fusarium spp. (7%), Acremonium spp. (4%), Eurotium spp. (4%), Alternaria spp. (2%), Chaetomium spp. (1%), Geotrichum spp. (1%), Verticillium spp. (1%), Rhizopus spp. (1%), and some unidentified colonies (5%) were isolated. Penicillium crustosum, Penicillium citrinum, Aspergillus niger, Cladosporium cladosporioides, and Fusarium verticillioides were the most prevalent species. PMID:24121778

Twaru?ek, Magdalena; Soszczy?ska, Ewelina; Winiarski, Piotr; Zwierz, Aleksander; Grajewski, Jan

2014-05-01

400

New genera of RNA viruses in subtropical seawater, inferred from polymerase gene sequences.  

PubMed

Viruses are an integral component of the marine food web, contributing to the disease and mortality of essentially every type of marine life, yet the diversity of viruses in the sea, especially those with RNA genomes, remains very poorly characterized. Isolates of RNA-containing viruses that infect marine plankton are still rare, and the only cultivation-independent surveys of RNA viral diversity reported so far were conducted for temperate coastal waters of British Columbia. Here, we report on our improvements to a previously used protocol to investigate the diversity of marine picorna-like viruses and our results from applying this protocol in subtropical waters. The original protocol was simplified by using direct filtration, rather than tangential flow filtration, to harvest viruses from seawater, and new degenerate primers were designed to amplify a fragment of the RNA-dependent RNA polymerase gene by reverse transcription-PCR from RNA extracted from the filters. Whereas the original protocol was unsuccessful in a preliminary test, the new protocol resulted in amplification of picorna-like virus sequences in every sample of subtropical and temperate coastal seawater assayed. These polymerase sequences formed a diverse, but monophyletic cluster along with other sequences amplified previously from seawater and sequences from isolates infecting marine protists. Phylogenetic analysis suggested that our sequences represent at least five new genera and 24 new species of RNA viruses. These results contribute to our understanding of RNA virus diversity and suggest that picorna-like viruses are a source of mortality for a wide variety of marine protists. PMID:17644642

Culley, Alexander I; Steward, Grieg F

2007-09-01

401

A set of primers for analyzing chloroplast DNA diversity in Citrus and related genera.  

PubMed

Chloroplast simple sequence repeat (cpSSR) markers in Citrus were developed and used to analyze chloroplast diversity of Citrus and closely related genera. Fourteen cpSSR primer pairs from the chloroplast genomes of tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L.) and Arabidopsis were found useful for analyzing the Citrus chloroplast genome (cpDNA) and recoded with the prefix SPCC (SSR Primers for Citrus Chloroplast). Eleven of the 14 primer pairs revealed some degree of polymorphism among 34 genotypes of Citrus, Fortunella, Poncirus and some of their hybrids, with polymorphism information content (PIC) values ranging from 0.057 to 0.732, and 18 haplotypes were identified. The cpSSR data were analyzed with NTSYS-pc software, and the genetic relationships suggested by the unweighted pair group method based on arithmetic means (UPGMA) dendrogram were congruent with previous taxonomic investigations: the results showed that all samples fell into seven major clusters, i.e., Citrus medica L., Poncirus, Fortunella, C. ichangensis Blanco, C. reticulata Swingle, C. aurantifolia (Christm.) Swingle and C. grandis (L.) Osbeck. The results of previous studies combined with our cpSSR analyses revealed that: (1) Calamondin (C. madurensis Swingle) is the result of hybridization between kumquat (Fortunella) and mandarin (C. reticulata), where kumquat acted as the female parent; (2) Ichang papeda (C. ichangensis) has a unique taxonomic status; and (3) although Bendiguangju mandarin (C. reticulata) and Satsuma mandarin (C. reticulata) are similar in fruit shape and leaf morphology, they have different maternal parents. Bendiguangju mandarin has the same cytoplasm as sweet orange (C. sinensis), whereas Satsuma mandarin has the cytoplasm of C. reticulata. Seventeen PCR products from SPCC1 and 21 from SPCC11 were cloned and sequenced. The results revealed that mononucleotide repeats as well as insertions and deletions of small segments of DNA were associated with SPCC1 polymorphism, whereas polymorphism generated by SPCC11 was essentially due to the variation in length of the mononucleotide repeats. PMID:15805086

Cheng, Yunjiang; de Vicente, M Carmen; Meng, Haijun; Guo, Wenwu; Tao, Nengguo; Deng, Xiuxin

2005-06-01

402

Sensitivity of calcification to thermal stress varies among genera of massive reef-building corals.  

PubMed

Reductions in calcification in reef-building corals occur when thermal conditions are suboptimal, but it is unclear how they vary between genera in response to the same thermal stress event. Using densitometry techniques, we investigate reductions in the calcification rate of massive Porites spp. from the Great Barrier Reef (GBR), and P. astreoides, Montastraea faveolata, and M. franksi from the Mesoamerican Barrier Reef (MBR), and correlate them to thermal stress associated with ocean warming. Results show that Porites spp. are more sensitive to increasing temperature than Montastraea, with calcification rates decreasing by 0.40 g cm(-2) year(-1) in Porites spp. and 0.12 g cm(-2) year(-1) in Montastraea spp. for each 1°C increase. Under similar warming trends, the predicted calcification rates at 2100 are close to zero in Porites spp. and reduced by 40% in Montastraea spp. However, these predictions do not account for ocean acidification. Although yearly mean aragonite saturation (?(ar)) at MBR sites has recently decreased, only P. astreoides at Chinchorro showed a reduction in calcification. In corals at the other sites calcification did not change, indicating there was no widespread effect of ?(ar) changes on coral calcification rate in the MBR. Even in the absence of ocean acidification, differential reductions in calcification between Porites spp. and Montastraea spp. associated with warming might be expected to have significant ecological repercussions. For instance, Porites spp. invest increased calcification in extension, and under warming scenarios it may reduce their ability to compete for space. As a consequence, shifts in taxonomic composition would be expected in Indo-Pacific reefs with uncertain repercussions for biodiversity. By contrast, Montastraea spp. use their increased calcification resources to construct denser skeletons. Reductions in calcification would therefore make them more susceptible to both physical and biological breakdown, seriously affecting ecosystem function in Atlantic reefs. PMID:22396797

Carricart-Ganivet, Juan P; Cabanillas-Terán, Nancy; Cruz-Ortega, Israel; Blanchon, Paul

2012-01-01

403

Aspergillus Collagen-Like Genes (acl): Identification, Sequence Polymorphism, and Assessment for PCR-Based Pathogen Detection  

PubMed Central

The genus Aspergillus is a burden to public health due to its ubiquitous presence in the environment, its production of allergens, and wide demographic susceptibility among cystic fibrosis, asthmatic, and immunosuppressed patients. Current methods of detection of Aspergillus colonization and infection rely on lengthy morphological characterization or nonstandardized serological assays that are restricted to identifying a fungal etiology. Collagen-like genes have been shown to exhibit species-specific conservation across the noncollagenous regions as well as strain-specific polymorphism in the collagen-like regions. Here we assess the conserved region of the Aspergillus collagen-like (acl) genes and explore the application of PCR amplicon size-based discrimination among the five most common etiologic species of the Aspergillus genus, including Aspergillus fumigatus, A. flavus, A. nidulans, A. niger, and A. terreus. Genetic polymorphism and phylogenetic analysis of the aclF1 gene were additionally examined among the available strains. Furthermore, the applicability of the PCR-based assay to identification of these five species in cultures derived from sputum and bronchoalveolar fluid from 19 clinical samples was explored. Application of capillary electrophoresis on nanogels was additionally demonstrated to improve the discrimination between Aspergillus species. Overall, this study demonstrated that Aspergillus acl genes could be used as PCR targets to discriminate between clinically relevant Aspergillus species. Future studies aim to utilize the detection of Aspergillus acl genes in PCR and microfluidic applications to determine the sensitivity and specificity for the identification of Aspergillus colonization and invasive aspergillosis in immunocompromised subjects.

Tuntevski, Kiril; Durney, Brandon C.; Snyder, Anna K.; LaSala, P. Rocco; Nayak, Ajay P.; Green, Brett J.; Beezhold, Donald H.; Rio, Rita V. M.; Holland, Lisa A.

2013-01-01

404

The Doryctinae (Braconidae) of Costa Rica: genera and species of the tribe Heterospilini.  

PubMed

A comprehensive taxonomic study is presented for the four genera and 286 species of the doryctine tribe Heterospilini occurring in Costa Rica. The tribe is represented almost entirely by the 280 species of the genus Heterospilus Haliday. Keys for identification of the genera and species are provided and the genera and species are described and illustrated. An interactive key to the species of Heterospilus also was prepared using Lucid Builder. The following new genus and species are described from Costa Rica: Paraheterospilus gen. n., P. ceciliaensis sp. n., P. eumekus sp. n., P. wilbotgardus sp. n., Heterospilus achi sp. n., H. achterbergi sp. n., H. aesculapius sp. n., H. agujas sp. n., H. agujasensis sp. n., H. alajuelus sp. n., H. albocoxalis sp. n., H. alejandroi sp. n., H. amuzgo sp. n., H. angelicae sp. n., H. angustus sp. n., H. aphrodite sp. n., H. apollo sp. n., H. arawak sp. n., H. areolatus sp. n., H. artemis sp. n., H. athena sp. n., H. attraholucus sp. n., H. aubreyae sp. n., H. austini sp. n., H. azofeifai sp. n., H. bacchus sp. n., H. barbalhoae sp. n., H. bennetti sp. n., H. bicolor sp. n., H. boharti sp. n., H. borucas sp. n., H. braeti sp. n., H. brethesi sp. n., H. breviarius sp. n., H. brevicornus sp. n., H. bribri sp. n., H. brullei sp. n., H. bruesi sp. n., H. cabecares sp. n., H. cacaoensis sp. n., H. cachiensis sp. n., H. cameroni sp. n., H. cangrejaensis sp. n., H. careonotaulus sp. n., H. caritus sp. n., H. carolinae sp. n., H. cartagoensis sp. n., H. catiensis sp. n., H. catorce sp. n., H. cero sp. n., H. chaoi sp. n., H. chilamatensis sp. n., H. chocho sp. n., H. chorotegus sp. n., H. chorti sp. n., H. cinco sp. n., H. cocopa sp. n., H. colliletus sp. n., H. colonensis sp. n., H. complanatus sp. n., H. conservatus sp. n., H. cora sp. n., H. corcovado sp. n., H. corrugatus sp. n., H. costaricensis sp. n., H. cressoni sp. n., H. cuatro sp. n., H. curtisi sp. n., H. cushmani sp. n., H. dani sp. n., H. demeter sp. n., H. dianae sp. n., H. diecinueve sp. n., H. dieciocho sp. n., H. dieciseis sp. n., H. diecisiete sp. n., H. diez sp. n., H. doce sp. n., H. dos sp. n., H. dulcus sp. n., H. eberhardi sp. n., H. ektorincon sp. n., H. emilius sp. n., H. empalmensis sp. n., H. enderleini sp. n., H. escazuensis sp. n., H. fahringeri sp. n., H. fischeri sp. n., H. flavidus sp. n., H. flavisoma sp. n., H. flavostigmus sp. n., H. foersteri sp. n., H. fonsecai sp. n., H. fournieri sp. n., H. gahani sp. n., H. garifuna sp. n., H. gauldi sp. n., H. golfodulcensis sp. n., H. gouleti sp. n., H. granulatus sp. n., H. grisselli sp. n., H. guanacastensis sp. n., H. guapilensis sp. n., H. hachaensis sp. n., H. halidayi sp. n., H. hansoni sp. n., H. hansonorum sp. n., H. haplocarinus sp. n., H. hedqvisti sp. n., H. hera sp. n., H. heredius sp. n., H. hespenheidei sp. n., H. holleyae sp. n., H. huddlestoni sp. n., H. huetares sp. n., H. hypermekus sp. n., H. itza sp. n., H. ixcatec sp. n., H. ixil sp. n., H. jabillosensis sp. n., H. jakaltek sp. n., H. janzeni sp. n., H. jennieae sp. n., H. jonmarshi sp. n., H. jupiter sp. n., H. kellieae sp. n., H. kiefferi sp. n., H. kikapu sp. n., H. kulai sp. n., H. kuna sp. n., H. lapierrei sp. n., H. lasalturus sp. n., H. laselvus sp. n., H. leenderti sp. n., H. leioenopus sp. n., H. leiponotaulus sp. n., H. lenca sp. n., H. levis sp. n., H. leviscutum sp. n., H. levitergum sp. n., H. limonensis sp. n., H. longinoi sp. n., H. longisulcus sp. n., H. longius sp. n., H. luteogaster sp. n., H. luteoscutum sp. n., H. luteus sp. n., H. macrocarinus sp. n., H. macrocaudatus sp. n., H. magnus sp. n., H. malaisei sp. n., H. mam sp. n., H. maritzaensis sp. n., H. mars sp. n., H. masneri sp. n., H. masoni sp. n., H. mellosus sp. n., H. menkei sp. n., H. mercury sp. n., H. milleri sp. n., H. miskito sp. n., H. mixtec sp. n., H. monteverde sp. n., H. mopanmaya sp. n., H. muertensis sp. n., H. muesebecki sp. n., H. nahua sp. n., H. neesi sp. n., H. nemestrinus sp. n., H. nephilim sp. n., H. nephus sp. n., H. nigracapitus sp. n., H. nigragonatus sp. n., H. nigricoxus sp. n., H. nixoni sp. n.,

Marsh, Paul M; Wild, Alexander L; Whitfield, James B

2013-01-01

405

The Doryctinae (Braconidae) of Costa Rica: genera and species of the tribe Heterospilini  

PubMed Central

Abstract A comprehensive taxonomic study is presented for the four genera and 286 species of the doryctine tribe Heterospilini occurring in Costa Rica. The tribe is represented almost entirely by the 280 species of the genus Heterospilus Haliday. Keys for identification of the genera and species are provided and the genera and species are described and illustrated. An interactive key to the species of Heterospilus also was prepared using Lucid Builder. The following new genus and species are described from Costa Rica: Paraheterospilus gen. n., P. ceciliaensis sp. n., P. eumekus sp. n., P. wilbotgardus sp. n., Heterospilus achi sp. n., H. achterbergi sp. n., H. aesculapius sp. n., H. agujas sp. n., H. agujasensis sp. n., H. alajuelus sp. n., H. albocoxalis sp. n., H. alejandroi sp. n., H. amuzgo sp. n., H. angelicae sp. n., H. angustus sp. n., H. aphrodite sp. n., H. apollo sp. n., H. arawak sp. n., H. areolatus sp. n., H. artemis sp. n., H. athena sp. n., H. attraholucus sp. n., H. aubreyae sp. n., H. austini sp. n., H. azofeifai sp. n., H. bacchus sp. n., H. barbalhoae sp. n., H. bennetti sp. n., H. bicolor sp. n., H. boharti sp. n., H. borucas sp. n., H. braeti sp. n., H. brethesi sp. n., H. breviarius sp. n., H. brevicornus sp. n., H. bribri sp. n., H. brullei sp. n., H. bruesi sp. n., H. cabecares sp. n., H. cacaoensis sp. n., H. cachiensis sp. n., H. cameroni sp. n., H. cangrejaensis sp. n., H. careonotaulus sp. n., H. caritus sp. n., H. carolinae sp. n., H. cartagoensis sp. n., H. catiensis sp. n., H. catorce sp. n., H. cero sp. n., H. chaoi sp. n., H. chilamatensis sp. n., H. chocho sp. n., H. chorotegus sp. n., H. chorti sp. n., H. cinco sp. n., H. cocopa sp. n., H. colliletus sp. n., H. colonensis sp. n., H. complanatus sp. n., H. conservatus sp. n., H. cora sp. n., H. corcovado sp. n., H. corrugatus sp. n., H. costaricensis sp. n., H. cressoni sp. n., H. cuatro sp. n., H. curtisi sp. n., H. cushmani sp. n., H. dani sp. n., H. demeter sp. n., H. dianae sp. n., H. diecinueve sp. n., H. dieciocho sp. n., H. dieciseis sp. n., H. diecisiete sp. n., H. diez sp. n., H. doce sp. n., H. dos sp. n., H. dulcus sp. n., H. eberhardi sp. n., H. ektorincon sp. n., H. emilius sp. n., H. empalmensis sp. n., H. enderleini sp. n., H. escazuensis sp. n., H. fahringeri sp. n., H. fischeri sp. n., H. flavidus sp. n., H. flavisoma sp. n., H. flavostigmus sp. n., H. foersteri sp. n., H. fonsecai sp. n., H. fournieri sp. n., H. gahani sp. n., H. garifuna sp. n., H. gauldi sp. n., H. golfodulcensis sp. n., H. gouleti sp. n., H. granulatus sp. n., H. grisselli sp. n., H. guanacastensis sp. n., H. guapilensis sp. n., H. hachaensis sp. n., H. halidayi sp. n., H. hansoni sp. n., H. hansonorum sp. n., H. haplocarinus sp. n., H. hedqvisti sp. n., H. hera sp. n., H. heredius sp. n., H. hespenheidei sp. n., H. holleyae sp. n., H. huddlestoni sp. n., H. huetares sp. n., H. hypermekus sp. n., H. itza sp. n., H. ixcatec sp. n., H. ixil sp. n., H. jabillosensis sp. n., H. jakaltek sp. n., H. janzeni sp. n., H. jennieae sp. n., H. jonmarshi sp. n., H. jupiter sp. n., H. kellieae sp. n., H. kiefferi sp. n., H. kikapu sp. n., H. kulai sp. n., H. kuna sp. n., H. lapierrei sp. n., H. lasalturus sp. n., H. laselvus sp. n., H. leenderti sp. n., H. leioenopus sp. n., H. leiponotaulus sp. n., H. lenca sp. n., H. levis sp. n., H. leviscutum sp. n., H. levitergum sp. n., H. limonensis sp. n., H. longinoi sp. n., H. longisulcus sp. n., H. longius sp. n., H. luteogaster sp. n., H. luteoscutum sp. n., H. luteus sp. n., H. macrocarinus sp. n., H. macrocaudatus sp. n., H. magnus sp. n., H. malaisei sp. n., H. mam sp. n., H. maritzaensis sp. n., H. mars sp. n., H. masneri sp. n., H. masoni sp. n., H. mellosus sp. n., H. menkei sp. n., H. mercury sp. n., H. milleri sp. n., H. miskito sp. n., H. mixtec sp. n., H. monteverde sp. n., H. mopanmaya sp. n., H. muertensis sp. n., H. muesebecki sp. n., H. nahua sp. n., H. neesi sp. n., H. nemestrinus sp. n., H. nephilim sp. n., H. nephus sp. n., H. nigracapitus sp. n., H. nigragonatus sp. n., H. nigricoxus sp. n., H. nixoni

Marsh, Paul M.; Wild, Alexander L.; Whitfield, James B.

2013-01-01

406

Rapid radiation and cryptic speciation in squat lobsters of the genus Munida (Crustacea, Decapoda) and related genera in the South West Pacific: molecular and morphological evidence  

Microsoft Academic Search

Squat lobsters (genus Munida and related genera) are among the most diverse taxa of western Pacific crustaceans, though several features of their biology and phylogenetic relationships are unknown. This paper reports an extensive phylogenetic analysis based on mitochondrial DNA sequences (cytochrome c oxidase subunit I and 16S rRNA) and the morphology of 72 species of 12 genera of western Pacific

Annie Machordom; Enrique Macpherson

2004-01-01

407

Wide-band tracheids in genera of Portulacaceae: novel, non-xylary tracheids possibly evolved as an adaptation to water stress  

Microsoft Academic Search

Wide-band tracheids (WBTs) are novel tracheids with wide, lignified secondary walls that intrude deeply into the cell lumen when viewed in transverse sections. These tracheids are found in a few genera in related families in the order Caryophyllales: Aizoaceae, Cactaceae, and Portulacaceae. WBTs in these three families vary in (1) systematic occurrence (found in more highly derived genera in each

James V. Landrum

2006-01-01

408

A MANUAL FOR THE IDENTIFICATION OF THE LARVAE OF THE CADDISFLY GENERA 'HYDROPSYCHE' PICTET AND 'SYMPHITOPSYCHE' ULMER IN EASTERN AND CENTRAL NORTH AMERICA (TRICHOPTERA: HYDROPSYCHIDAE)  

EPA Science Inventory

Larvae of the caddisfly genera Hydropsyche and Symphitopsyche are among the most encountered and abundant organisms of lotic environments in eastern North America. Yet, little is known of the larval stages of these genera. Previously, the larvae of only 12 species of which descri...

409

Linking ultrastructure and function in four genera of anaerobic ammonium-oxidizing bacteria: cell plan, glycogen storage, and localization of cytochrome C proteins  

Microsoft Academic Search

Anaerobic ammonium oxidation (anammox) is an ecologically and industrially important process and is performed by a clade of deeply branching Planctomycetes. Anammox bacteria possess an intracytoplasmic membrane-bounded organelle, the anammoxosome. In the present study, the ultrastructures of four different genera of anammox bacteria were compared with transmission electron microscopy and electron tomography. The four anammox genera shared a common cell

L. A. M. P. van Niftrik; Willie J. C. Geerts; Elly G. van Donselaar; Bruno M. Humbel; Richard I. Webb; John A. Fuerst; Arie J. Verkleij; Mike S. M. Jetten; Marc Strous

2008-01-01

410

Restriction analysis of an amplified rodA gene fragment to distinguish Aspergillus fumigatus var. ellipticus from Aspergillus fumigatus var. fumigatus.  

PubMed

A previous multidisciplinary study indicated that gliotoxin-producing Aspergillus fumigatus Fresen. isolates from silage commodities mostly belonged to its variant A. fumigatus var. ellipticus Raper & Fennell. Sequence analysis revealed the presence of a single nucleotide polymorphism at five positions in a fragment of the rodA gene (coding for a hydrophobin rodletA protein) between Aspergillus fumigatus var. fumigatus and Aspergillus fumigatus var. ellipticus. A method was developed to distinguish these two types of isolates based on restriction analysis of this rodA gene fragment using the HinfI restriction enzyme. In addition, in silico analysis of 113 rodA gene fragments retrieved from GenBank was performed and confirmed the suitability of this method. In conclusion, the method developed in this study allows easy distinction between A. fumigatus var. fumigatus and its variant ellipticus. In combination with the earlier developed PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism method of Staab et al. (2009, J Clin Microbiol 47: 2079), this method is part of a sequencing-independent identification scheme that allows for rapid distinction between similar species/variants within Aspergillus section Fumigati, specifically A. fumigatus, A. fumigatus var. ellipticus, Aspergillus lentulus Balajee & K.A. Marr, Neosartorya pseudofischeri S.W. Peterson and Neosartorya udagawae Y. Horie, Miyaji & Nishim. PMID:22670589

Van Pamel, Els; Daeseleire, Els; De Clercq, Nikki; Herman, Lieve; Verbeken, Annemieke; Heyndrickx, Marc; Vlaemynck, Geertrui

2012-08-01

411

An annotated key to the identification of commonly occurring and dominant genera of algae observed in the phytoplankton of the United States  

USGS Publications Warehouse

In early 1979, a retrieval was made for all phytoplankton data contained in the computerized data file of the U. S. Geological Survey. The retrieval revealed the analytical results of 17,959 samples collected and processed between October 1973 and October 1978. Of the approximately 500 genera of freshwater algae reported in the United States, the U.S. Geological Survey observed 321 genera in the phytoplankton. Fifty-two genera were considered to be commonly occurring and 42 genera were considered to be community dominants. The report lists, describes, and provides a detailed taxonomic key to the identification of 58 genera of algae considered either commonly occurring or dominant. Also included is a summary of environmental conditions under which each algal genus was observed, as well as a glossary and an extensive list of selected references.

Greeson, Phillip E.

1982-01-01

412

Multilocus sequence analysis of Aspergillus Sect. Nigri in dried vine fruits of worldwide origin.  

PubMed

Dried vine fruits may be heavily colonized by Aspergillus species. The molecular biodiversity of an Aspergillus population (234 strains) isolated from dried vine fruit samples of worldwide origin were analyzed by investigating four housekeeping gene loci (calmodulin, ?-tubulin, elongation factor 1-?, RPB2). Aspergillus Sect. Nigri was dominant and the strains were identified as A. tubingensis (138), A. awamori (38), A. carbonarius (27), A. uvarum (16) and A. niger (11). Four Aspergillus flavus strains were also identified from Chilean raisins. Two clusters closely related to the A. tubingensis species with a significant bootstrap (60% and 99%) were identified as distinct populations. Among the four loci, RPB2 showed the highest genetic variability. This is the first complete study on the worldwide distribution of black Aspergilli occurring on dried vine fruits identified by a molecular approach. PMID:23732831

Susca, Antonia; Perrone, Giancarlo; Cozzi, Giuseppe; Stea, Gaetano; Logrieco, Antonio F; Mulč, Giuseppina

2013-07-15

413

Osteomyelitis caused by Aspergillus species: a review of 310 reported cases.  

PubMed

Aspergillus osteomyelitis is a rare infection. We reviewed 310 individual cases reported in the literature from 1936 to 2013. The median age of patients was 43 years (range, 0-86 years), and 59% were males. Comorbidities associated with this infection included chronic granulomatous disease (19%), haematological malignancies (11%), transplantation (11%), diabetes (6%), pulmonary disease (4%), steroid therapy (4%), and human immunodeficiency virus infection (4%). Sites of infection included the spine (49%), base of the skull, paranasal sinuses and jaw (18%), ribs (9%), long bones (9%), sternum (5%), and chest wall (4%). The most common infecting species were Aspergillus fumigatus (55%), Aspergillus flavus (12%), and Aspergillus nidulans (7%). Sixty-two per cent of the individual cases were treated with a combination of an antifungal regimen and surgery. Amphotericin B was the antifungal drug most commonly used, followed by itraconazole and voriconazole. Several combination or sequential therapies were also used experimentally. The overall crude mortality rate was 25%. PMID:24303995

Gabrielli, E; Fothergill, A W; Brescini, L; Sutton, D A; Marchionni, E; Orsetti, E; Staffolani, S; Castelli, P; Gesuita, R; Barchiesi, F

2014-06-01

414

Non-Aflatoxigenic 'Aspergillus parasiticus' Species and Their Use in Controlling Aflatoxin Contamination.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A process for biologically controlling the preharvest accumulation of aflatoxin in soil-borne crops is taught. Non-aflatoxigenic strains of Aspergillus parasiticus having the relevant identifying characteristics of NRRL 18786 and NRRL 13539 are shown to i...

R. J. Cole J. W. Dorner P. D. Blankenship

1991-01-01

415

Antifungal therapy of aspergillosis of the central nervous system and aspergillus endophthalmitis.  

PubMed

Cerebral Aspergillosis is the most lethal manifestation of infection due to Aspergillus species arising most commonly as hematogenous dissemination from a pulmonary focus, direct extension from paranasal sinus infection or direct inoculation through trauma and surgery of the central nervous system (CNS). Voriconazole is currently considered the standard of treatment of CNS aspergillosis with liposomal amphotericin B being the next best alternative. Neurosurgical resection of infected cerebral tissue in addition to antifungal therapy is frequently performed in patients with CNS aspergillosis to prevent neurological deficits and improve outcome. Aspergillus endophthalmitis may occur endogenously mostly from a pulmonary focus or exogenously following eye surgery or trauma. Although amphotericin B is still described as the primary therapy, voriconazole is increasingly considered the first line treatment of Aspergillus endophthalmitis. Vitrectomy is recommended in most cases of Aspergillus endophthalmitis. PMID:23278539

Hoenigl, Martin; Krause, Robert

2013-01-01

416

Antifungal activity of micafungin against Candida and Aspergillus spp. isolated from pediatric patients in Japan.  

PubMed

The in vitro antifungal activities of micafungin in comparison to caspofungin, fluconazole, itraconazole, voriconazole, and amphotericin B were evaluated against 93 Candida and 23 Aspergillus isolates recovered from pediatric patients with fungal infections. MICs were determined by the CLSI M27-A2 and M38-A for Candida and Aspergillus species, respectively. Micafungin showed potent activity against Candida albicans, Candida tropicalis, and Candida glabrata with a MIC range of <= 0.002 to 0.015mug/ml. In contrast, micafungin demonstrated higher MIC levels against Candida parapsilosis with a MIC range of 0.12 to 2 mug/ml. Micafungin showed potent antifungal activity against Aspergillus species tested with a MIC range of 0.004 to 0.015 mug/ml. Overall, micafungin had excellent in vitro antifungal activities against Candida and Aspergillus species recovered from pediatric patients with fungal infections. PMID:18668422

Ikeda, Fumiaki; Saika, Takeshi; Sato, Yumie; Suzuki, Makoto; Hasegawa, Miyuki; Mikawa, Takashi; Kobayashi, Intetsu; Tsuji, Akiyoshi

2009-03-01

417

Immobilization of Aminoacylase from 'Aspergillus oryzae' on Functionalized Acrylamide-Methylarcrylate Copolymers.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Poly(acrylamide-methyl acrylate) beads have been synthesized by oil phase suspensions. These polymers were functionalized by amination with diamines or polyethylene polyamines in order to be applied to the immobilization of aminoacylase from Aspergillus o...

D. Wang J. Zhou M. Li B. He

1994-01-01

418

X-ray Structure Analysis and Characterization of AFUEI, an Elastase Inhibitor from Aspergillus fumigatus*  

PubMed Central

Elastase from Aspergillus sp. is an important factor for aspergillosis. AFUEI is an inhibitor of the elastase derived from Aspergillus fumigatus. AFUEI is a member of the I78 inhibitor family and has a high inhibitory activity against elastases of Aspergillus fumigatus and Aspergillus flavus, human neutrophil elastase and bovine chymotrypsin, but does not inhibit bovine trypsin. Here we report the crystal structure of AFUEI in two crystal forms. AFUEI is a wedge-shaped protein composed of an extended loop and a scaffold protein core. The structure of AFUEI shows remarkable similarity to serine protease inhibitors of the potato inhibitor I family, although they are classified into different inhibitor families. A structural comparison with the potato I family inhibitors suggests that the extended loop of AFUEI corresponds to the binding loop of the potato inhibitor I family, and AFUEI inhibits its cognate proteases through the same mechanism as the potato I family inhibitors.

Sakuma, Mayuko; Imada, Katsumi; Okumura, Yoshiyuki; Uchiya, Kei-ichi; Yamashita, Nobuo; Ogawa, Kenji; Hijikata, Atsushi; Shirai, Tsuyoshi; Homma, Michio; Nikai, Toshiaki

2013-01-01

419

A patient with allergic bronchopulmonary mycosis caused by Aspergillus fumigatus and Candida albicans.  

PubMed

Allergic Bronchopulmonary Mycosis (ABPM) is an exagregated immunologic response to fungal colonization in the lower airways. It may cause by many kinds of fungal, but Aspergillus fumigatus is the most common cause of ABPM, although other Aspergillus and other fungal organisms, like Candida albicans, have been implicated. Aspergllus fumigatus and Candida albicans may be found as outdoor and indoor fungi, and cause the sensitization, elicitation of the disease pathology, and its clinical manifestations. Several diagnostic procedurs may be impicated to support the diagnosis of ABPM caused by Aspergillus fumigatus and Candida albicans. A case of allergic bronchopulmonary mycosis caused by Aspergillus fumigatus and Candida albicans in a 48 year old man was discussed. The patient was treated with antifungal, corticosteroids, and antibiotic for the secondary bacterial infection. The patient's condition is improved without any significant side effects. PMID:23314973

Wardhana; Datau, E A

2012-10-01

420

Leporizines A-C: epithiodiketopiperazines isolated from an Aspergillus species.  

PubMed

Three new compounds named leporizines A-C have been isolated from an Aspergillus sp. strain. Their structures were elucidated by analysis of 1D and 2D NMR spectra. Leporizines A and B were isolated during dereplication of hits from a high-throughput screening campaign for correctors of the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR), and leporizine C was isolated while preparing additional material for characterization of leporizines A and B. CFTR activity observed for leporizines A and B was highly correlated with cell toxicity and was determined to be a nonspecific effect. Leporizine C was not cytotoxic to cells and did not elicit a response in the CFTR assays. To the best of our knowledge, leporizines A-C represent the first examples of this unusual epithiodiketopiperazine skeleton. PMID:24050204

Reategui, Ricardo; Rhea, Joshua; Adolphson, Janet; Waikins, Kathryn; Newell, Ryan; Rabenstein, John; Mocek, Ulla; Luche, Michele; Carr, Grant

2013-09-27

421

Aspergillus fumigatus SidJ Mediates Intracellular Siderophore Hydrolysis  

PubMed Central

Siderophore-mediated iron handling is crucial for the virulence of Aspergillus fumigatus. Here we identified a new component of its siderophore metabolism, termed SidJ, which is encoded by AFUA_3G03390. The encoding gene is localized in a siderophore biosynthetic gene cluster that is conserved in a variety of fungi. During iron starvation, SidJ deficiency resulted in decreased growth and increased intracellular accumulation of hydrolysis products of the siderophore fusarinine C. The implied role in siderophore hydrolysis is consistent with a putative esterase domain in SidJ, which now represents the first functionally characterized member of the DUF1749 (domain of unknown function) protein family, with members found exclusively in fungi and plants.

Grundlinger, Mario; Gsaller, Fabio; Schrettl, Markus; Lindner, Herbert

2013-01-01

422

Purification and Characterization of Acid Phosphatase V from Aspergillus nidulans  

PubMed Central

Acid phosphatase V of Aspergillus nidulans was purified by ammonium sulfate precipitation, gel filtration, and ion-exchange chromatography. The enzyme demonstrated a charge microheterogeneity on starch and acrylamide gel electrophoresis, but proved to be homogeneous on ultracentrifugation and gel filtration. Phosphatase V was found to be a classic acid orthophosphoric monoester phosphohydrolase, and it cleaved p-nitrophenylphosphate, glucose-6-phosphate, and uridine-5?-monophosphate at maximal rates. It was inhibited by fluoride, borate, and molybdate ions, and demonstrated end-product inhibition by inorganic phosphate. Metallic ions or cofactors were not required for activity. The molecular weight was estimated to be 100,000, the S20,w was calculated to be 4.1, and the pH optimum was found to be 6.1. Images

Harsanyi, Zsolt; Dorn, Gordon L.

1972-01-01

423

Origin of monacolin L from Aspergillus terreus cultures.  

PubMed

In freshly harvested Aspergillus terreus cultures grown for the production of lovastatin (formerly called mevinolin), no monacolin L could be detected. However, during the isolation of lovastatin, significant quantities of monacolin L appeared. It has been discovered that a new metabolite structurally related to the members of the monacolin series is present. This metabolite is unstable and under mildly acidic conditions and elevated temperature, it converts to monacolin L. The subject metabolite is proven to be a hydroxylated derivative of dihydromonacolin L identified as 3 alpha-hydroxy-3,5-dihydromonacolin L. It seems that all monacolin L found later during various treatments of the broth and broth extracts is formed from that precursor via a dehydration reaction. The new metabolite was converted to its phenacyl ester, by means of extractive alkylation, for isolation and structure elucidation by chemical, chromatographic and spectroscopic methods. This ester, on standing, gradually formed the corresponding lactone. PMID:2921224

Treiber, L R; Reamer, R A; Rooney, C S; Ramjit, H G

1989-01-01

424

Nanosulfur: A Potent Fungicide Against Food Pathogen, Aspergillus niger  

SciTech Connect

Elemental sulfur (S{sup 0}), man's oldest eco-friendly fungicide for curing fungal infections in plants and animals, is registered in India as a non-systemic and contact fungicide. However due to its high volume requirement, Indian agrochemical industry and farmers could not effectively use this product till date. We hypothesize that intelligent nanoscience applications might increase the visibility of nanosulfur in Indian agriculture as a potent and eco-safe fungicide. Sulfur nanoparticles (NPs) were synthesized bottom-up via a liquid synthesis method with average particle size in the range of 50-80 nm and the shapes of the NPs were spherical. A comparative study of elemental and nano-sulfur produced has been tested against facultative fungal food pathogen, Aspergillus niger. Results showed that nanosulfur is more efficacious than its elemental form.

Choudhury, Samrat Roy; Goswami, Arunava [Agricultural and Ecological Research Unit, Biological Sciences Division, Indian Statistical Institute, 203 B. T. Road, Kolkata, West Bengal-700108 (India); Nair, Kishore K.; Kumar, Rajesh; Gopal, Madhuban; Devakumar, C. [Department of Agricultural Chemicals, Pusa Campus, New Delhi (India); Gogoi, Robin [Plant Pathology, Pusa Campus, New Delhi (India); Srivastava, Chitra; Subhramanyam, B. S. [Entomology, Indian Agricultural Research Institute, Pusa Campus, New Delhi (India)

2010-10-04

425

Aspergillus nidulans Pmts form heterodimers in all pairwise combinations.  

PubMed

Eukaryotic protein O-mannosyltransferases (Pmts) are divided into three subfamilies (Pmt1, Pmt2, and Pmt4) and activity of Pmts in yeasts and animals requires assembly into complexes. In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Pmt1 and Pmt2 form a heteromeric complex and Pmt 4 forms a homomeric complex. The filamentous fungus Aspergillus nidulans has three Pmts: PmtA (subfamily 2), PmtB (subfamily 1), and PmtC (subfamily 4). In this study we show that A. nidulans Pmts form heteromeric complexes in all possible pairwise combinations and that PmtC forms homomeric complexes. We also show that MsbA, an ortholog of a Pmt4-modified protein, is not modified by PmtC. PMID:24936400

Kriangkripipat, Thanyanuch; Momany, Michelle

2014-01-01

426

Aspergillus nidulans Pmts form heterodimers in all pairwise combinations  

PubMed Central

Eukaryotic protein O-mannosyltransferases (Pmts) are divided into three subfamilies (Pmt1, Pmt2, and Pmt4) and activity of Pmts in yeasts and animals requires assembly into complexes. In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Pmt1 and Pmt2 form a heteromeric complex and Pmt 4 forms a homomeric complex. The filamentous fungus Aspergillus nidulans has three Pmts: PmtA (subfamily 2), PmtB (subfamily 1), and PmtC (subfamily 4). In this study we show that A. nidulans Pmts form heteromeric complexes in all possible pairwise combinations and that PmtC forms homomeric complexes. We also show that MsbA, an ortholog of a Pmt4-modified protein, is not modified by PmtC.

Kriangkripipat, Thanyanuch; Momany, Michelle

2014-01-01

427

Purification and characterization of acid phosphatase V from Aspergillus nidulans.  

PubMed

Acid phosphatase V of Aspergillus nidulans was purified by ammonium sulfate precipitation, gel filtration, and ion-exchange chromatography. The enzyme demonstrated a charge microheterogeneity on starch and acrylamide gel electrophoresis, but proved to be homogeneous on ultracentrifugation and gel filtration. Phosphatase V was found to be a classic acid orthophosphoric monoester phosphohydrolase, and it cleaved p-nitrophenylphosphate, glucose-6-phosphate, and uridine-5'-monophosphate at maximal rates. It was inhibited by fluoride, borate, and molybdate ions, and demonstrated end-product inhibition by inorganic phosphate. Metallic ions or cofactors were not required for activity. The molecular weight was estimated to be 100,000, the S(20,w) was calculated to be 4.1, and the pH optimum was found to be 6.1. PMID:4552990

Harsanyi, Z; Dorn, G L

1972-04-01

428

Proteolysis by toxigenic Aspergillus nidulans from Nigerian palm produce.  

PubMed

The submerged cultures of Aspergillus nidulans had optimal growth and protease production at 37 degrees C and within 6 days of incubation. A rapid drop in pH of the growth medium from 6.9 to 4.8 and a subsequent gradual rise was recorded with the period of incubation. The acid-protease produced was purified by a combination of ethanolic precipitation, ultrafiltration and fractionation on DEAE-cellulose and Sephadex G-200. A single peak showing protease activity was subsequently obtained with a 16-fold increase in specific activity and a recovery value of 36%. The purified enzyme had optimal activity on casein and gelatin at pH 5.4 and a temperature of 40 degrees C. PMID:3302717

Ogundero, V W

1987-01-01

429

Secondary Metabolites from an Algicolous Aspergillus versicolor Strain  

PubMed Central

Two new compounds, asperversin A (1) and 9?-O-2(2,3-dimethylbut-3-enyl)brevianamide Q (2), and nine known compounds, brevianamide K (3), brevianamide M (4), aversin (5), 6,8-di-O-methylnidurufin (6), 6,8-di-O-methylaverufin (7), 6-O-methylaverufin (8), 5?,8?-epidioxyergosta-6,22-dien-3?-ol (9), ergosta-7,22-diene-3?,5?,6?-triol (10), and 6?-methoxyergosta-7,22-diene-3?,5?-diol (11), were obtained from the culture of Aspergillus versicolor, an endophytic fungus isolated from the marine brown alga Sargassum thunbergii. The structures of these compounds were established by spectroscopic techniques. Compounds 4, 7 and 8 exhibited antibacterial activities against Escherichia coli and Staphyloccocus aureus, and 7 also showed lethality against brine shrimp (Artemia salina) with an LC50 value of 0.5 ?g/mL.

Miao, Feng-Ping; Li, Xiao-Dong; Liu, Xiang-Hong; Cichewicz, Robert H.; Ji, Nai-Yun

2012-01-01

430

Optimization of triacetylfusarinine C and ferricrocin productions in Aspergillus fumigatus.  

PubMed

Iron is an essential element for all microorganisms. Bacteria and fungi produce versatile siderophores for binding and storing this essential transition metal when its availability is limited in the environment. The aim of the study was to optimize the fermentation medium of Aspergillus fumigatus for siderophore production. Triacetyl-fusarinine C and ferricrocin yields were dependent on glucose and glycine supplementations as well as the initial pH of the culture media. The optimal fermentation medium for triacetylfusarinine C production contained 8% glucose, 0.4% glycine and the initial pH was set to 5.9. Meanwhile, maximal ferricrocin yields were recorded in the presence of 10% glucose, 0.5% glycine and at an initial pH of 7.4. Under optimized fermentation conditions, the yields for triacetylfusarinine C and ferricrocin increased up to 2.9 g/l culture medium and 18.9 mg/g mycelium, respectively. PMID:24939680

Szigeti, Zsuzsa M; Szaniszló, Szilvia; Fazekas, Erika; Gyémánt, Gyöngyi; Szabon, Judit; Antal, Károly; Emri, Tamás; Balla, József; Balla, György; Csernoch, László; Pócsi, István

2014-06-01

431

Cloning and characterization of two flavohemoglobins from Aspergillus oryzae  

SciTech Connect

Two flavohemoglobin (FHb) genes, fhb1 and fhb2, were cloned from Aspergillus oryzae. The amino acid sequences of the deduced FHb1 and FHb2 showed high identity to other FHbs except for the predicted mitochondrial targeting signal in the N-terminus of FHb2. The recombinant proteins displayed absorption spectra similar to those of other FHbs. FHb1 and FHb2 were estimated to be a monomer and a dimer in solution, respectively. Both of the isozymes exhibit high NO dioxygenase (NOD) activity. FHb1 utilizes either NADH or NADPH as an electron donor, whereas FHb2 can only use NADH. These results suggest that FHb1 and FHb2 are fungal counterparts of bacterial FHbs and act as NO detoxification enzymes in the cytosol and mitochondria, respectively. This study is the first to show that a microorganism contains two isozymes of FHb and that intracellular localization of the isozymes could differ.

Zhou Shengmin; Fushinobu, Shinya; Nakanishi, Yoshito; Kim, Sang-Wan; Wakagi, Takayoshi [Department of Biotechnology, Graduate School of Agricultural and Life Sciences, University of Tokyo, 1-1-1 Yayoi, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8657 (Japan); Shoun, Hirofumi [Department of Biotechnology, Graduate School of Agricultural and Life Sciences, University of Tokyo, 1-1-1 Yayoi, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8657 (Japan)], E-mail: ahshoun@mail.ecc.u-tokyo.ac.jp

2009-03-27

432

Utility of Aspergillus niger citrate synthase promoter for heterologous expression.  

PubMed

Citrate synthase is a central player in the acidogenic metabolism of Aspergillus niger. The 5' upstream sequence (0.9kb DNA) of citrate synthase gene (citA) from A. niger NCIM 565 was analyzed and its promoter function demonstrated through the heterologous expression of two proteins. The cloned citrate synthase promoter (PcitA) sequence was able to express bar coding sequence thereby conferring phosphinothricin resistance. This sequence was further analyzed by systematic deletions to define an effective but compact functional promoter. The PcitA driven egfp expression showed that PcitA was active in all differentiation cell-stages of A. niger. EGFP expression was highest on non-repressible carbon sources like acetate and glycerol. Mycelial EGFP levels increased during acidogenic growth suggesting that PcitA is functional throughout this cultivation. A. niger PcitA is the first Krebs cycle gene promoter used to express heterologous proteins in filamentous fungi. PMID:21723343

Dave, Kashyap; Punekar, Narayan S

2011-09-10

433

A novel selectable marker based on Aspergillus niger arginase expression.  

PubMed

Selectable markers are valuable tools in transforming asexual fungi like Aspergillus niger. An arginase (agaA) expression vector and a suitable arginase-disrupted host would define a novel nutritional marker/selection for transformation. The development of such a marker was successfully achieved in two steps. The single genomic copy of A. niger arginase gene was disrupted by homologous integration of the bar marker. The agaA disruptant was subsequently complemented by transforming it with agaA expression vectors. Both citA and trpC promoters were able to drive the expression of arginase cDNA. Such agaA+ transformants displayed arginase expression pattern distinct from that of the parent strain. The results are also consistent with a single catabolic route for arginine in this fungus. A simple yet novel arginine-based selection for filamentous fungal transformation is thus described. PMID:22579391

Dave, Kashyap; Ahuja, Manmeet; Jayashri, T N; Sirola, Rekha Bisht; Punekar, Narayan S

2012-06-10

434

Targeted Lipid Analysis of Haemolytic Mycelial Extracts of Aspergillus niger.  

PubMed

Ethanolic extracts of mycelia from Aspergillus niger (strain N402) grown in liquid media were observed to have haemolytic activity on bovine erythrocytes. This haemolytic activity decreased significantly during the time of growth (1-3 days). Moreover, when A. niger was grown on carbon-deprived medium, the efficiency of this haemolytic activity in the ethanolic extracts was much lower than when grown in carbon-enriched medium, and became almost undetectable after 3 days of growth in carbon-deprived medium. The lipid composition of these ethanolic extracts was analysed by liquid chromatography-electrospray ionisation tandem mass spectrometry. This haemolytic activity can be mainly linked to the relative levels of the molar ratios of the unsaturated fatty acids and lysophosphatidylcholines. PMID:24983857

Novak, Maruša; Sep?i?, Kristina; Kraševec, Nada; Križaj, Igor; Ma?ek, Peter; Anderluh, Gregor; Guella, Graziano; Mancini, Ines

2014-01-01

435

Tandem shock waves to enhance genetic transformation of Aspergillus niger.  

PubMed

Filamentous fungi are used in several industries and in academia to produce antibiotics, metabolites, proteins and pharmaceutical compounds. The development of valuable strains usually requires the insertion of recombinant deoxyribonucleic acid; however, the protocols to transfer DNA to fungal cells are highly inefficient. Recently, underwater shock waves were successfully used to genetically transform filamentous fungi. The purpose of this research was to demonstrate that the efficiency of transformation can be improved significantly by enhancing acoustic cavitation using tandem (dual-pulse) shock waves. Results revealed that tandem pressure pulses, generated at a delay of 300?s, increased the transformation efficiency of Aspergillus niger up to 84% in comparison with conventional (single-pulse) shock waves. This methodology may also be useful to obtain new strains required in basic research and biotechnology. PMID:24680880

Loske, Achim M; Fernández, Francisco; Magańa-Ortíz, Denis; Coconi-Linares, Nancy; Ortíz-Vázquez, Elizabeth; Gómez-Lim, Miguel A

2014-08-01

436