Sample records for genera aspergillus eurotium

  1. Molecular identification of Aspergillus and Eurotium species isolated from rice and their toxin-producing ability.

    PubMed

    Yazdani, D; Zainal Abidin, M A; Tan, Y H; Kamaruzaman, S

    2011-01-01

    Thirty milled rice samples were collected from retailers in 4 provinces of Malaysia. These samples were evaluated for Aspergillus spp. infection by direct plating on malt extract salt agar (MESA). All Aspergillus holomorphs were isolated and identified using nucleotide sequences of ITS 1 and ITS 2 of rDNA. Five anamorphs (Aspergillus flavus, A. oryzae, A. tamarii, A. fumigatus and A. niger) and 5 teleomorphs (Eurotium rubrum, E. amstelodami, E. chevalieri, E. cristatum and E. tonophilum) were identified. The PCR-sequencing based technique for sequences of ITS 1 and ITS 2 is a fast technique for identification of Aspergillus and Eurotium species, although it doesn't work flawlessly for differentiation of Eurotium species. All Aspergillus and Eurotium isolates were screened for their ability to produce aflatoxin and ochratoxin A (OTA) by HPLC and TLC techniques. Only A. flavus isolate UPM 89 was able to produce aflatoxins B1 and B2. PMID:22168015

  2. Biotransformation of the mycotoxin zearalenone by fungi of the genera Rhizopus and Aspergillus.

    PubMed

    Brodehl, Antje; Möller, Anne; Kunte, Hans-Jörg; Koch, Matthias; Maul, Ronald

    2014-10-01

    Zearalenone (ZEN) is a nonsteroidal estrogenic mycotoxin biosynthesized by various Fusarium fungi. These fungal species frequently infest grains; therefore, ZEN represents a common contaminant in cereal products. The biotransformation of ZEN differs significantly from species to species, and several metabolites are known to be formed by animals, plants, and microorganisms. The aim of the present study was to investigate the microbial conversion of ZEN by species of the genera Rhizopus and Aspergillus representing relevant fungi for food processing (e.g. fermentation). To monitor the ZEN metabolism, ZEN was added to liquid cultures of the different fungal species. After a period of 3 days, the media were analyzed by HPLC-MS/MS for metabolite formation. Two Aspergillus oryzae strains and all seven Rhizopus species were able to convert ZEN into various metabolites, including ZEN-14-sulfate as well as ZEN-O-14- and ZEN-O-16-glucoside. Microbial transformation of ZEN into the significantly more estrogenic ?-zearalenol (?-ZEL) was also observed. Additionally, a novel fungal metabolite, ?-ZEL-sulfate, was detected. Semi-quantification of the main metabolites indicates that more than 50% of initial ZEN may be modified. The results show that fungal strains have the potential to convert ZEN into various metabolites leading to a masking of the toxin, for example in fermented food. PMID:25145804

  3. Does fungicide application in vineyards induce resistance to medical azoles in Aspergillus species?

    PubMed

    Lago, Magali; Aguiar, Ana; Natário, André; Fernandes, Carla; Faria, Miguel; Pinto, Eugénia

    2014-09-01

    This study assessed if the use of sterol demethylase inhibitor fungicides in vineyard production can induce resistance to azoles in Aspergillus strains and if it can induce selection of resistant species. We also tried to identify the Aspergillus species most prevalent in the vineyards. Two vineyards from northern Portugal were selected from "Vinhos Verdes" and "Douro" regions. The vineyards were divided into plots that were treated or not with penconazole (PEN). In each vineyard, air, soil, and plant samples were collected at three different times. The strains of Aspergillus spp. were isolated and identified by morphological and molecular techniques. We identified 46 Aspergillus section Nigri, eight Aspergillus fumigatus, seven Aspergillus lentulus, four Aspergillus wentii, two Aspergillus flavus, two Aspergillus terreus, one Aspergillus calidoustus, one Aspergillus westerdijkiae, one Aspergillus tamarii, and one Eurotium amstelodami. Aspergillus strains were evaluated for their susceptibility to medical azoles used in human therapy (itraconazole, posaconazole, and voriconazole) and to agricultural azoles (PEN) used in the prevention and treatment of plant diseases. The isolates showed moderate susceptibility to voriconazole. We did not observe any decrease of susceptibility to the medical azoles tested throughout the testing period in any of the treated plots, although some of the resistant species were isolated from there. PMID:24833021

  4. Benzyl Derivatives with in Vitro Binding Affinity for Human Opioid Receptors and Cannabinoid Receptors from the Fungus Eurotium repens

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bioassay-guided fractionation of the fungus Eurotium repens resulted in the isolation of two benzyl derivatives, repenol A (1) and repenol B (2). Seven known secondary metabolites were also isolated including five benzaldehyde compounds, flavoglaucin (3), tetrahydroauroglaucin (4), dihydroauroglauci...

  5. Potential aflatoxin and ochratoxin a production by Aspergillus species in poultry feed processing.

    PubMed

    Fraga, M E; Curvello, F; Gatti, M J; Cavaglieri, L R; Dalcero, A M; da Rocha Rosa, C A

    2007-04-01

    Poultry feeds are prone to fungal growth and mycotoxin production during processing. The identification of biota with the ability to produce mycotoxins is essential. The aims of this study were (1) to monitor the mycobiota counts at different stages of poultry feed processing; (2) to determine the occurrence of Aspergillus species; (3) to evaluate the natural incidence of aflatoxins and ochratoxin A. The ability of Aspergillus spp. and its teleomorphs isolated here to produce these toxins was also investigated. Samples (144) were collected at random from a factory in Brazil. The occurrence of Aspergillus and Eurotium species was demonstrated on DRBC and DG18 media and the production of aflatoxins and ochratoxin A and their natural incidence were determined by TLC and HPLC methods. A. flavus and E. chevalieri were the most prevalent species isolated. Fungal contamination was not found after the pelleting process, though Aspergillus and Eurotium species were recovered from trough samples. High levels of aflatoxin and ochratoxin A producers were found at all stages of poultry feed processing. Also, high natural contamination with aflatoxins and ochratoxin A was found in the samples. Contact of feed with remainder poultry feed could lead to fungal contamination, so the risk of aflatoxin and/or ochratoxin A contamination of feed must be taken into account. PMID:17216313

  6. Genomic adaptations of the halophilic Dead Sea filamentous fungus Eurotium rubrum.

    PubMed

    Kis-Papo, Tamar; Weig, Alfons R; Riley, Robert; Peršoh, Derek; Salamov, Asaf; Sun, Hui; Lipzen, Anna; Wasser, Solomon P; Rambold, Gerhard; Grigoriev, Igor V; Nevo, Eviatar

    2014-01-01

    The Dead Sea is one of the most hypersaline habitats on Earth. The fungus Eurotium rubrum (Eurotiomycetes) is among the few species able to survive there. Here we highlight its adaptive strategies, based on genome analysis and transcriptome profiling. The 26.2?Mb genome of E. rubrum shows, for example, gains in gene families related to stress response and losses with regard to transport processes. Transcriptome analyses under different salt growth conditions revealed, among other things differentially expressed genes encoding ion and metabolite transporters. Our findings suggest that long-term adaptation to salinity requires cellular and metabolic responses that differ from short-term osmotic stress signalling. The transcriptional response indicates that halophilic E. rubrum actively counteracts the salinity stress. Many of its genes encode for proteins with a significantly higher proportion of acidic amino acid residues. This trait is characteristic of the halophilic prokaryotes as well, supporting the theory of convergent evolution under extreme hypersaline stress. PMID:24811710

  7. Mycoflora of Soybeans Used for Meju Fermentation

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Dae-Ho; Kim, Seon-Hwa; Kwon, Soon-Wo; Lee, Jong-Kyu

    2013-01-01

    Diverse fungi are present in Korean traditional meju and they are known to play an important role in fermented soybean products. To determine the origin of the fungi in meju, we examined the mycoflora of soybeans from 10 traditional meju factories. The samples were untreated or treated with sodium hypochlorite, and placed on malt extract agar (MEA), dichloran 18% glycerol agar (DG18), and dichloran rose bengal chloramphenicol agar (DRBC) medium. A total of 794 fungal strains were isolated and they were identified as 41 genera and 86 species. From sodium hypochlorite untreated soybeans, the genera, Cladosporium (55%), Eurotium (51%), Fusarium (33%), Penicillium (22%), and Aspergillus (exclusion of Eurotium) (20%), were mainly isolated, and Eurotium herbariorum (22%), Eurotium repens (18%), Cladosporium tenuissimum (18%), F. fujikuroi (18%), Aspergillus oryzae/flavus (7%), and Penicillium steckii (6%) were the predominant species. In case of sodium hypochlorite-treated soybeans, Eurotium (31%) and Cladosporium (5%) were frequently isolated, but Aspergillus (excluding Eurotium), Penicillium and Fusarium which were frequently isolated from untreated soybeans, were rarely isolated. Eurotium herbariorum (21%), Eurotium repens (8%), and Cladosporium tenuissimum (3%) were the predominant species. Of the 41 genera and 86 species isolated from soybeans, 13 genera and 33 species were also found in meju. These results suggest that the fungi on soybeans may influence the mycoflora of meju. PMID:23874133

  8. Phylogeny, identification and nomenclature of the genus Aspergillus.

    PubMed

    Samson, R A; Visagie, C M; Houbraken, J; Hong, S-B; Hubka, V; Klaassen, C H W; Perrone, G; Seifert, K A; Susca, A; Tanney, J B; Varga, J; Kocsubé, S; Szigeti, G; Yaguchi, T; Frisvad, J C

    2014-06-01

    Aspergillus comprises a diverse group of species based on morphological, physiological and phylogenetic characters, which significantly impact biotechnology, food production, indoor environments and human health. Aspergillus was traditionally associated with nine teleomorph genera, but phylogenetic data suggest that together with genera such as Polypaecilum, Phialosimplex, Dichotomomyces and Cristaspora, Aspergillus forms a monophyletic clade closely related to Penicillium. Changes in the International Code of Nomenclature for algae, fungi and plants resulted in the move to one name per species, meaning that a decision had to be made whether to keep Aspergillus as one big genus or to split it into several smaller genera. The International Commission of Penicillium and Aspergillus decided to keep Aspergillus instead of using smaller genera. In this paper, we present the arguments for this decision. We introduce new combinations for accepted species presently lacking an Aspergillus name and provide an updated accepted species list for the genus, now containing 339 species. To add to the scientific value of the list, we include information about living ex-type culture collection numbers and GenBank accession numbers for available representative ITS, calmodulin, ?-tubulin and RPB2 sequences. In addition, we recommend a standard working technique for Aspergillus and propose calmodulin as a secondary identification marker. PMID:25492982

  9. Biodiversity of Aspergillus Species in Some Important Agricultural Products

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The genus Aspergillus is one of the most important filamentous fungal genera. Aspergillus species are used in the fermentation industry, but they are also responsible of various plant and food secondary rot, with the consequence of possible accumulation of mycotoxins. The aflatoxin-producing A. fl...

  10. Sphingomonas and Related Genera

    SciTech Connect

    Balkwill, David L.; Fredrickson, Jim K.; Romine, Margaret F.

    2003-12-31

    INTRODUCTION-The genus Sphingomonas was defined by Yabuuchi et al. (1990) as a group of Gram-negative, rod-shaped, chemoheterotrophic, strictly aerobic bacteria that possess ubiquinone 10 as the major respiratory quinone, contain glycosphingolipids (GSLs) instead of lipopolysaccharide in their cell envelopes, and typically produce yellow-pigmented colonies. By 2001, the genus included more than 20 species that were quite diverse in terms of their phylogenetic, ecological, and physiological properties. As a result, Takeuchi et al. (2001) subdivided Sphingomonas into four genera: Sphingomonas, Sphingobium, Novosphingobium and Sphingopyxis...

  11. Benzyl Derivatives with in Vitro Binding Affinity for Human Opioid and Cannabinoid Receptors from the Fungus Eurotium repens

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Jiangtao; León, Francisco; Radwan, Mohamed M.; Dale, Olivia R.; Husni, Afeef S.; Manley, Susan P.; Lupien, Shari; Wang, Xiaoning; Hill, Robert A.; Dugan, Frank M.; Cutler, Horace G.; Cutler, Stephen J.

    2011-01-01

    Bioassay-guided fractionation of the fungus Eurotium repens resulted in the isolation of two new benzyl derivatives, (E)-2-(hept-1-enyl)-3-(hydroxymethyl)-5-(3-methylbut-2-enyl)benzene-1,4-diol (1) and (E)-4-(hept-1-enyl)-7-(3-methylbut-2-enyl)-2,3-dihydrobenzofuran-2,5-diol (2) along with seven known compounds (3–9) including five benzaldehyde compounds, flavoglaucin (3), tetrahydroauroglaucin (4), dihydroauroglaucin (5), auroglaucin (6) and 2-(2?,3-epoxy-1?,3?-heptadienyl)- 6-hydroxy-5-(3-methyl-2-butenyl)benzaldehyde (7), one diketopiperazine alkaloid echinulin (8), and 5,7-dihydroxy-4-methylphthalide (9). The chemical structures of these compounds were established on the basis of extensive 1D, 2D NMR and HRMS data. Compounds 1–4 and 6 showed good binding affinity for human opioid or cannabinoid receptors. These findings have important implications for psychoactive studies with this class of compounds. PMID:21667972

  12. Regulation of Aspergillus Mycotoxin Biosynthesis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The genus Aspergillus produces a number of mycotoxins that pose adverse economic and health impacts on humans and animals. These include the toxic and carcinogenic polyketide-derived mycotoxins, sterigmatocystin and aflatoxins, produced by Aspergillus nidulans and Aspergillus flavus, respectively. ...

  13. Aspergillus spinal epidural abscess

    SciTech Connect

    Byrd, B.F. III (Vanderbilt Univ. School of Medicine, Nashville, TN); Weiner, M.H.; McGee, Z.A.

    1982-12-17

    A spinal epidural abscess developed in a renal transplant recipient; results of a serum radioimmunoassay for Aspergillus antigen were positive. Laminectomy disclosed an abscess of the L4-5 interspace and L-5 vertebral body that contained hyphal forms and from which Aspergillus species was cultured. Serum Aspergillus antigen radioimmunoassay may be a valuable, specific early diagnostic test when systemic aspergillosis is a consideration in an immunosuppressed host.

  14. CLATHRIN DYNAMICS AND ENDOCYTIC ORGANIZATION IN Aspergillus nidulans 

    E-print Network

    Johnson, Tyler

    2013-09-26

    of the most significant of these pathogens include: Magnaporthe oryzae, Botrytis cinerea, and many species within the genera Aspergillus and Fusarium. M. grisea has proven to be a significant pathogen of rice and other cereal grains while B. cinerea is a... with FM4-64." Fungal Genetics and Biology 42.12 (2005): 963-75. Print. 9. Shaw, Brian D., and Srijana Upadhyay. "Aspergillus Nidulans SwoK Encodes an RNA Binding Protein That Is Important for Cell Polarity." Fungal Genetics and Biology 42.10 (2005): 862...

  15. The genera of the Chaperiidae (Bryozoa)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dennis P. Gordon

    1982-01-01

    The genera of the bryozoan family Chaperiidae are reconsidered on the basis of type and other material and undescribed species from the New Zealand region, and 11 genera are recognised. Uttley’s Chaperiopsis is considered to be validly separable from Chaperia sensu stricto and to include Uttley & Bullivant’s genera Scutochaperia, Parmachaperia, and Clipeochaperia (retained as a subgenus). Two new genera,

  16. Aspergillus Overlap Syndromes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ayman O. Soubani

    \\u000a \\u000a Aspergillus causes a variety of clinical syndromes that are influenced by the patients’ immune status and lung function and structure.\\u000a Whilst these syndromes (such as chronic cavitary pulmonary aspergillosis, Aspergillus sinusitis, allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis – ABPA – and invasive aspergillosis) tend to have their unique clinical,\\u000a serological, and radiological presentations, there are rare situations where these may overlap, co-exist or

  17. Genera in paleontology: Definition and significance

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Warren D. Allmon

    1992-01-01

    Three working concepts or definitions of the genus as a systematic category are available: the “phylogenetic”; or “cladistic”; concept, which views genera as monophyletic clades, the “phenetic”; or “gap”; concept, which views genera as clustered in morphological space, separated from other such groups by many differences, and the “hybridization”; concept, which holds that species in different genera can never hybridize.

  18. Development in Aspergillus

    PubMed Central

    Krijgsheld, P.; Bleichrodt, R.; van Veluw, G.J.; Wang, F.; Müller, W.H.; Dijksterhuis, J.; Wösten, H.A.B.

    2013-01-01

    The genus Aspergillus represents a diverse group of fungi that are among the most abundant fungi in the world. Germination of a spore can lead to a vegetative mycelium that colonizes a substrate. The hyphae within the mycelium are highly heterogeneous with respect to gene expression, growth, and secretion. Aspergilli can reproduce both asexually and sexually. To this end, conidiophores and ascocarps are produced that form conidia and ascospores, respectively. This review describes the molecular mechanisms underlying growth and development of Aspergillus. PMID:23450714

  19. GENOMICS OF ASPERGILLUS FUMIGATUS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Aspergillus fumigatus is a filamentous fungal saprophyte that is ubiquitous in the environment. It is also a human pathogen and induces allergenic response, negatively impacting health care and associated costs significantly around the world. Much of the basic biology of this organism is only poor...

  20. Redefining Ceratocystis and allied genera

    PubMed Central

    de Beer, Z.W.; Duong, T.A.; Barnes, I.; Wingfield, B.D.; Wingfield, M.J.

    2014-01-01

    The genus Ceratocystis was established in 1890 and accommodates many important fungi. These include serious plant pathogens, significant insect symbionts and agents of timber degradation that result in substantial economic losses. Virtually since its type was described from sweet potatoes, the taxonomy of Ceratocystis has been confused and vigorously debated. In recent years, particulary during the last two decades, it has become very obvious that this genus includes a wide diversity of very different fungi. These have been roughly lumped together due to their similar morphological structures that have clearly evolved through convergent evolution linked to an insect-associated ecology. As has been true for many other groups of fungi, the emergence of DNA-based sequence data and associated phylogenetic inferences, have made it possible to robustly support very distinct boundaries defined by morphological characters and ecological differences. In this study, DNA-sequence data for three carefully selected gene regions (60S, LSU, MCM7) were generated for 79 species residing in the aggregate genus Ceratocystis sensu lato and these data were subjected to rigorous phylogenetic analyses. The results made it possible to distinguish seven major groups for which generic names have been chosen and descriptions either provided or emended. The emended genera included Ceratocystis sensu stricto, Chalaropsis, Endoconidiophora, Thielaviopsis, and Ambrosiella, while two new genera, Davidsoniella and Huntiella, were described. In total, 30 new combinations have been made. This major revision of the generic boundaries in the Ceratocystidaceae will simplify future treatments and work with an important group of fungi including distantly related species illogically aggregated under a single name. PMID:25492989

  1. The Pathology of Aspergillus Infection

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Richard Kradin

    \\u000a \\u000a Aspergillus spp. are responsible for a broad spectrum of human disorders ranging from benign colonisation of mucosal surfaces to life-threatening\\u000a angioinvasive infection. Diagnosing the array of disorders caused by Aspergillus spp. can be challenging. In the case of the hypersensitivity responses to Aspergillus species, i.e., allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis, bronchocentric granulomatosis, and hypersensitivity pneumonitis,\\u000a the surgical pathologist must be cognisant of

  2. Aspergillus: sex and recombination.

    PubMed

    Varga, János; Szigeti, Gyöngyi; Baranyi, Nikolett; Kocsubé, Sándor; O'Gorman, Céline M; Dyer, Paul S

    2014-12-01

    The genus Aspergillus is one of the most widespread groups of fungi on Earth, comprised of about 300-350 species with very diverse lifestyles. Most species produce asexual propagula (conidia) on conidial heads. Despite their ubiquity, a sexual cycle has not yet been identified for most of the aspergilli. Where sexual reproduction is present, species exhibit either homothallic (self fertile) or heterothallic (obligate outcrossing) breeding systems. A parasexual cycle has also been described in some Aspergillus species. As in other fungi, sexual reproduction is governed by mating-type (MAT) genes, which determine sexual identity and are involved in regulating later stages of sexual development. Previous population genetic studies have indicated that some supposedly asexual aspergilli exhibit evidence of a recombining population structure, suggesting the presence of a cryptic sexual cycle. In addition, genome analyses have revealed networks of genes necessary for sexual reproduction in several Aspergillus species, again consistent with latent sexuality in these fungi. Knowledge of MAT gene presence has then successfully been applied to induce sexual reproduction between MAT1-1 and MAT1-2 isolates of certain supposedly asexual aspergilli. Recent progress in understanding the extent and significance of sexual reproduction is described here, with special emphasis on findings that are relevant to clinically important aspergilli. PMID:25118872

  3. Treatment strategies for Aspergillus infections

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tom M. Chiller; David A. Stevens

    2000-01-01

    Infections caused by Aspergillus species consist of many different disease presentations, ranging from relatively benign asthma in atopic disease to life-threatening systemic invasive infections. The spectrum of disease manifestations is determined by a combination of genetic predisposition, host immune system defects, and virulence of theAspergillus species. For the purposes of this discussion, we will address three principal entities: invasive aspergillosis,

  4. Aspergillus, its sexual states and the new International Code of Nomenclature.

    PubMed

    Pitt, John I; Taylor, John W

    2014-01-01

    The newly adopted International Code of Nomenclature for algae, fungi and plants (ICN) demands that dimorphic fungi, in particular those with both sexual and asexual names, now bear a single name. Although priority is no longer associated with the mode of reproduction, the ICN requires justification for choosing an asexual name over an existing sexual one. The phylogenetic approach that made dual nomenclature for fungi obsolete can be used to help choose names for large groups of fungi that are best known by asexual names. Here we apply this approach to one of the largest and most diverse asexual genera, the genus Aspergillus. We find that existing sexual names may be given to well supported clades of fungi with distinct phenotypes, which include sexual morphology as well as physiological attributes associated with xerophily, thermophily and mycotoxin production. One group of species important to food production and food safety, Aspergillus subgen. Circumdati, lacks a well supported clade; here we propose that the name Aspergillus be retained for this group. Recognizing that nomenclature has economic and social implications, particularly for old, important genera, we discuss the consequences of various scenarios to implement the new "one name for one fungus" article in the ICN, showing that our approach requires the fewest appeals to the ICN while retaining the name Aspergillus for many of the most economically and socially important species. PMID:24871603

  5. Metabolomics of Aspergillus fumigatus.

    PubMed

    Frisvad, Jens C; Rank, Christian; Nielsen, Kristian F; Larsen, Thomas O

    2009-01-01

    Aspergillus fumigatus is the most important species in Aspergillus causing infective lung diseases. This species has been reported to produce a large number of extrolites, including secondary metabolites, acids, and proteins such as hydrophobins and extracellular enzymes. At least 226 potentially bioactive secondary metabolites have been reported from A. fumigatus that can be ordered into 24 biosynthetic families. Of these families we have detected representatives from the following families of secondary metabolites: fumigatins, fumigaclavines, fumiquinazolines, trypacidin and monomethylsulochrin, fumagillins, gliotoxins, pseurotins, chloroanthraquinones, fumitremorgins, verruculogen, helvolic acids, and pyripyropenes by HPLC with diode array detection and mass spectrometric detection. There is still doubt whether A. fumigatus can produce tryptoquivalins, but all isolates produce the related fumiquinazolines. We also tentatively detected sphingofungins in A. fumigatus Af293 and in an isolate of A. lentulus. The sphingofungins may have a similar role as the toxic fumonisins, found in A. niger. A further number of mycotoxins, including ochratoxin A, and other secondary metabolites have been reported from A. fumigatus, but in those cases either the fungus or its metabolite appear to be misidentified. PMID:18763205

  6. Ochratoxin production by Aspergillus species.

    PubMed Central

    Varga, J; Kevei, E; Rinyu, E; Téren, J; Kozakiewicz, Z

    1996-01-01

    Ochratoxin production was tested in 172 strains representing species in sections Fumigati, Circumdati, Candidi, and Wentii of the genus Aspergillus by an immunochemical method using a monoclonal antibody preparation against ochratoxin A. Ochratoxin A was detected in Aspergillus ochraceus, A. alliaceus, A. sclerotiorum, A. sulphureus, A. albertensis, A. auricomus, and A. wentii strains. This is the first report of production of ochratoxins in the latter three species. Ochratoxin production by these species was confirmed by high-performance thin-layer chromatography and by high-performance liquid chromatography. The chemical methods also indicated the production of ochratoxin B by all of the Aspergillus strains mentioned above. PMID:8953717

  7. Actin Dynamics in Aspergillus nidulans 

    E-print Network

    Quintanilla, Laura

    2013-04-08

    and rings. In Aspergillus nidulans actin patch and ring dynamics have been documented using fluorescent proteins tagged to actin. However, fluorescently tagged actin does not reveal the presence of actin cables. Recently, the Lifeact construct has been...

  8. Innate Immunity to Aspergillus Species

    PubMed Central

    Park, Stacy J.; Mehrad, Borna

    2009-01-01

    Summary: All humans are continuously exposed to inhaled Aspergillus conidia, yet healthy hosts clear the organism without developing disease and without the development of antibody- or cell-mediated acquired immunity to this organism. This suggests that for most healthy humans, innate immunity is sufficient to clear the organism. A failure of these defenses results in a uniquely diverse set of illnesses caused by Aspergillus species, which includes diseases caused by the colonization of the respiratory tract, invasive infection, and hypersensitivity. A key concept in immune responses to Aspergillus species is that the susceptibilities of the host determine the morphological form, antigenic structure, and physical location of the fungus. In this review, we summarize the current literature on the multiple layers of innate defenses against Aspergillus species that dictate the outcome of this host-microbe interaction. PMID:19822887

  9. Aspergillus fumigatus in Poultry

    PubMed Central

    Arné, Pascal; Thierry, Simon; Wang, Dongying; Deville, Manjula; Le Loc'h, Guillaume; Desoutter, Anaďs; Féménia, Françoise; Nieguitsila, Adélaďde; Huang, Weiyi; Chermette, René; Guillot, Jacques

    2011-01-01

    Aspergillus fumigatus remains a major respiratory pathogen in birds. In poultry, infection by A. fumigatus may induce significant economic losses particularly in turkey production. A. fumigatus develops and sporulates easily in poor quality bedding or contaminated feedstuffs in indoor farm environments. Inadequate ventilation and dusty conditions increase the risk of bird exposure to aerosolized spores. Acute cases are seen in young animals following inhalation of spores, causing high morbidity and mortality. The chronic form affects older birds and looks more sporadic. The respiratory tract is the primary site of A. fumigatus development leading to severe respiratory distress and associated granulomatous airsacculitis and pneumonia. Treatments for infected poultry are nonexistent; therefore, prevention is the only way to protect poultry. Development of avian models of aspergillosis may improve our understanding of its pathogenesis, which remains poorly understood. PMID:21826144

  10. Risk assessment of the use of sub-optimal levels of weak-acid preservatives in the control of mould growth on bakery products

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S Mar??n; M. E Guynot; P Neira; M Bernadó; V Sanchis; A. J Ramos

    2002-01-01

    The hurdle technology approach was used to prevent fungal growth of common contaminants of bakery products including isolates belonging to the genera Eurotium, Aspergillus and Penicillium. Several levels (0.003%, 0.03% and 0.3%) of calcium propionate, potassium sorbate and sodium benzoate were assayed on a model agar system in a full-factorial experimental design in which the other factors assayed were pH

  11. Tool For Identifying Zooxanthellate Coral Genera

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    1996-01-01

    NMITA, the Neogene Marine Biota of Tropical America (reviewed in the March 15, 2000 Scout Report for Science and Engineering), offers this useful tool for identifying Zooxanthellate coral genera. Users select one state for each of seven characters (Colony Form, Colony Shape, Budding, Columella, Corallite Size, Wall Structure, and Lobes) to automate a search; results highlight one or more genera with the selected characteristics. Requiring baseline knowledge of the characteristics important to coral identification, this tool is made more useful by the inclusion of illustrated hyperlinks for many character states. For students or researchers wishing to learn the important features of Zooxanthellate coral, this will be a useful tool.

  12. Aspergillus fumigatus and Aspergillosis

    PubMed Central

    Latgé, Jean-Paul

    1999-01-01

    Aspergillus fumigatus is one of the most ubiquitous of the airborne saprophytic fungi. Humans and animals constantly inhale numerous conidia of this fungus. The conidia are normally eliminated in the immunocompetent host by innate immune mechanisms, and aspergilloma and allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis, uncommon clinical syndromes, are the only infections observed in such hosts. Thus, A. fumigatus was considered for years to be a weak pathogen. With increases in the number of immunosuppressed patients, however, there has been a dramatic increase in severe and usually fatal invasive aspergillosis, now the most common mold infection worldwide. In this review, the focus is on the biology of A. fumigatus and the diseases it causes. Included are discussions of (i) genomic and molecular characterization of the organism, (ii) clinical and laboratory methods available for the diagnosis of aspergillosis in immunocompetent and immunocompromised hosts, (iii) identification of host and fungal factors that play a role in the establishment of the fungus in vivo, and (iv) problems associated with antifungal therapy. PMID:10194462

  13. Aspergillus arthritis and organ transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Cantarovich, Diego; Tattevin, Pierre; Le Pogamp, Patrick; Polard, Jean-Louis; Stock, Nathalie; Blancho, Gilles

    2012-01-01

    We report a case of a kidney and pancreas transplanted patient, hospitalized for septic hip arthritis. The whole diagnostic work-up including synovial and bone biopsies remained negative. After inefficient empirical anti-bacterial antibiotic treatment, femoral head resection was performed and tissue analysis revealed Aspergillus fumigatus hyphae. Treatment with voriconazole along with hip replacement led to complete recovery. However, drug interaction between immunosuppressive and anti-fungal drugs was complicated by cellular acute graft rejection. Aspergillus fumigatus arthritis is an uncommon and serious infection that should be evoked especially in the case of resistance to anti-microbial antibiotics and/or an atypical clinical picture.

  14. Cyclopiazonic Acid Biosynthesis of Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus oryzae

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cyclopiazonic acid (CPA) is an indole-tetramic acid neurotoxin produced by some of the same strains of A. flavus that produce aflatoxins and by some Aspergillus oryzae strains. Despite its discovery 40 years ago, few reviews of its toxicity and biosynthesis have been reported. This review examines w...

  15. Nine genera of Eucnemidae (Coleoptera) new to Peru, with a key to Peruvian genera

    PubMed Central

    Muona, Jyrki; Linna, Ari; Sääksjärvi, Ilari E.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Thirteen genera of Eucnemidae containing forty species were collected from the Iquitos region in Peru. Nine of the genera are new to the country: Rhagomicrus Fleutiaux, 1902, Adelorhagus Horn, 1890, Adelothyreus Chevrolat, 1867, Microrhagus Dejean, 1833, Dyscharachthis Blackburn, 1900, Heterotaxis Bonvouloir, 1871, Spinifornax Fleutiaux, 1926, Serrifornax Fleutiaux, 1926 and Maelodrus Fleutiaux, 1928. The previous eucnemid record from Peru contained eleven species in ten genera. Only one of the forty species caught, Entomophthalmus americanus Bonvouloir, was previously known and described from the country. Dyscharachthis, Maelodrus and Adelorhagus are recorded from South America for the first time. Many of the collected species seem to favor white-sand forest as their habitat. Possible reasons for this are discussed. A list of eucnemids from Peru is included, containing taxa already recorded from the country and also taxa that are likely to occur there. A key to the Peruvian genera is included. PMID:25834475

  16. Sexual reproduction in Aspergillus flavus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Aspergillus flavus is the major producer of carcinogenic aflatoxins in crops worldwide and is also an important opportunistic human pathogen in aspergillosis. The sexual state of this heterothallic fungus is described from crosses between strains of the opposite mating type. Sexual reproduction oc...

  17. Keratitis caused by Aspergillus pseudotamarii

    PubMed Central

    Baranyi, Nikolett; Kocsubé, Sándor; Szekeres, András; Raghavan, Anita; Narendran, Venkatapathy; Vágvölgyi, Csaba; Panneer Selvam, Kanesan; Babu Singh, Yendremban Randhir; Kredics, László; Varga, János; Manikandan, Palanisamy

    2013-01-01

    A male patient presented with complaints of redness, pain and defective vision in the left eye. The infiltrate healed completely after two weeks of topical natamycin administration. A polyphasic approach was used to identify the isolate as Aspergillus pseudotamarii, which produced aflatoxins in inducing medium. PMID:24432226

  18. Delimiting Cladosporium from morphologically similar genera

    PubMed Central

    Crous, P.W.; Braun, U.; Schubert, K.; Groenewald, J.Z.

    2007-01-01

    The genus Cladosporium is restricted to dematiaceous hyphomycetes with a coronate scar type, and Davidiella teleomorphs. In the present study numerous cladosporium-like taxa are treated, and allocated to different genera based on their morphology and DNA phylogeny derived from the LSU nrRNA gene. Several species are introduced in new genera such as Hyalodendriella, Ochrocladosporium, Rachicladosporium, Rhizocladosporium, Toxicocladosporium and Verrucocladosporium. A further new taxon is described in Devriesia (Teratosphaeriaceae). Furthermore, Cladosporium castellanii, the etiological agent of tinea nigra in humans, is confirmed as synonym of Stenella araguata, while the type species of Stenella is shown to be linked to the Teratosphaeriaceae (Capnodiales), and not the Mycosphaerellaceae as formerly presumed. PMID:18490995

  19. Taxonomy, chemodiversity, and chemoconsistency of Aspergillus, Penicillium, and Talaromyces species.

    PubMed

    Frisvad, Jens C

    2014-01-01

    Aspergillus, Penicillium, and Talaromyces are among the most chemically inventive of all fungi, producing a wide array of secondary metabolites (exometabolites). The three genera are holophyletic in a cladistic sense and polythetic classes in an anagenetic or functional sense, and contain 344, 354, and 88 species, respectively. New developments in classification, cladification, and nomenclature have meant that the species, series, and sections suggested are natural groups that share many extrolites, including exometabolites, exoproteins, exocarbohydrates, and exolipids in addition to morphological features. The number of exometabolites reported from these species is very large, and genome sequencing projects have shown that a large number of additional exometabolites may be expressed, given the right conditions ("cryptic" gene clusters for exometabolites). The exometabolites are biosynthesized via shikimic acid, tricarboxylic acid cycle members, nucleotides, carbohydrates or as polyketides, non-ribosomal peptides, terpenes, or mixtures of those. The gene clusters coding for these compounds contain genes for the biosynthetic building blocks, the linking of these building blocks, tailoring enzymes, resistance for own products, and exporters. Species within a series or section in Aspergillus, Penicillium, and Talaromyces have many exometabolites in common, seemingly acquired by cladogenesis, but some the gene clusters for autapomorphic exometabolites may have been acquired by horizontal gene transfer. Despite genome sequencing efforts, and the many breakthroughs these will give, it is obvious that epigenetic factors play a large role in evolution and function of chemodiversity, and better methods for characterizing the epigenome are needed. Most of the individual species of the three genera produce a consistent and characteristic profile of exometabolites, but growth medium variations, stimulation by exometabolites from other species, and variations in abiotic intrinsic and extrinsic environmental factors such as pH, temperature, redox potential, and water activity will add significantly to the number of biosynthetic families expressed in anyone species. An example of the shared exometabolites in a natural group such as Aspergillus section Circumdati series Circumdati is that most, but not all species produce penicillic acids, aspyrones, neoaspergillic acids, xanthomegnins, melleins, aspergamides, circumdatins, and ochratoxins, in different combinations. PMID:25628613

  20. Taxonomy, chemodiversity, and chemoconsistency of Aspergillus, Penicillium, and Talaromyces species

    PubMed Central

    Frisvad, Jens C.

    2014-01-01

    Aspergillus, Penicillium, and Talaromyces are among the most chemically inventive of all fungi, producing a wide array of secondary metabolites (exometabolites). The three genera are holophyletic in a cladistic sense and polythetic classes in an anagenetic or functional sense, and contain 344, 354, and 88 species, respectively. New developments in classification, cladification, and nomenclature have meant that the species, series, and sections suggested are natural groups that share many extrolites, including exometabolites, exoproteins, exocarbohydrates, and exolipids in addition to morphological features. The number of exometabolites reported from these species is very large, and genome sequencing projects have shown that a large number of additional exometabolites may be expressed, given the right conditions (“cryptic” gene clusters for exometabolites). The exometabolites are biosynthesized via shikimic acid, tricarboxylic acid cycle members, nucleotides, carbohydrates or as polyketides, non-ribosomal peptides, terpenes, or mixtures of those. The gene clusters coding for these compounds contain genes for the biosynthetic building blocks, the linking of these building blocks, tailoring enzymes, resistance for own products, and exporters. Species within a series or section in Aspergillus, Penicillium, and Talaromyces have many exometabolites in common, seemingly acquired by cladogenesis, but some the gene clusters for autapomorphic exometabolites may have been acquired by horizontal gene transfer. Despite genome sequencing efforts, and the many breakthroughs these will give, it is obvious that epigenetic factors play a large role in evolution and function of chemodiversity, and better methods for characterizing the epigenome are needed. Most of the individual species of the three genera produce a consistent and characteristic profile of exometabolites, but growth medium variations, stimulation by exometabolites from other species, and variations in abiotic intrinsic and extrinsic environmental factors such as pH, temperature, redox potential, and water activity will add significantly to the number of biosynthetic families expressed in anyone species. An example of the shared exometabolites in a natural group such as Aspergillus section Circumdati series Circumdati is that most, but not all species produce penicillic acids, aspyrones, neoaspergillic acids, xanthomegnins, melleins, aspergamides, circumdatins, and ochratoxins, in different combinations. PMID:25628613

  1. What Does Genetic Diversity of Aspergillus flavus Tell Us About Aspergillus oryzae?

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus oryzae belong to Aspergillus section Flavi. They are closely related and are of significant economic importance. The former species has the ability to produce harmful aflatoxins while the latter is widely used in food fermentation and industrial enzyme production. ...

  2. Effect of vanillin concentration, pH and incubation temperature on Aspergillus flavus , Aspergillus niger , Aspergillus ochraceus and Aspergillus parasiticus growth

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A López-Malo; S. M Alzamora; A Argaiz

    1997-01-01

    The effects of incubation temperature (10–30°C), pH (3.0–4.0) and vanillin concentration (350–1200ppm) on the growth ofAspergillus flavus, Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus ochraceusandAspergillus parasiticuswere evaluated using potato–dextrose agar adjusted to water activity (aw) 0.98. The radial growth rates after a lag period followed zero-order kinetics with constants that varied from 0 (no growth) to 0.63mmh?1. The lag period depended on vanillin concentration,

  3. Lysine aminopeptidase of Aspergillus niger

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. E. J. W. Basten; Jaap Visser; Peter J. Schaap

    2001-01-01

    Conserved regions within the M1 family of metallo-aminopeptidases have been used to clone a zinc aminopeptidase from the industrially used fungus Aspergillus niger. The derived amino acid sequence of ApsA is highly similar to two yeast zinc aminopeptidases, LAPI and AAPI (53.3 and 50.9?verall similarity, respectively), two members of the M1 family of metallo-aminopeptidases. The encoding gene was successfully overexpressed

  4. Osteomyelitis due to Aspergillus spp. in patients with chronic granulomatous disease: comparison of Aspergillus nidulans and Aspergillus fumigatus

    Microsoft Academic Search

    John Dotis; Emmanuel Roilides

    2004-01-01

    Objective: Chronic granulomatous disease (CGD) is a rare inherited disorder of NADPH oxidase in which phagocytes fail to generate reactive antimicrobial oxidants. Invasive fungal infections are an important cause of morbidity and mortality in CGD patients, with Aspergillus spp. being the most frequent fungal pathogens. We reviewed the reported cases of osteomyelitis in CGD patients due to Aspergillus nidulans and

  5. Cyclopiazonic Acid Biosynthesis of Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus oryzae

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Perng-Kuang; Ehrlich, Kenneth C.; Fujii, Isao

    2009-01-01

    Cyclopiazonic acid (CPA) is an indole-tetramic acid neurotoxin produced by some of the same strains of A. flavus that produce aflatoxins and by some Aspergillus oryzae strains. Despite its discovery 40 years ago, few reviews of its toxicity and biosynthesis have been reported. This review examines what is currently known about the toxicity of CPA to animals and humans, both by itself or in combination with other mycotoxins. The review also discusses CPA biosynthesis and the genetic diversity of CPA production in A. flavus/oryzae populations. PMID:22069533

  6. Purdue extensionAspergillus Ear Rot Purdue extension

    E-print Network

    Holland, Jeffrey

    1 Purdue extensionAspergillus Ear Rot BP-83-W Purdue extension d i s e a s e s o f c o r n Aspergillus Ear Rot Authors: Charles Woloshuk Kiersten Wise www.btny.purdue.edu The fungus Aspergillus flavus causes Aspergillus ear rot, one of the most important diseases in corn. The fungus pro- duces a mycotoxin

  7. Two novel species of Aspergillus section Nigri from indoor air

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Aspergillus collinsii, Aspergillus floridensis, and Aspergillus trinidadensis are described as novel uniseriate species of Aspergillus section Nigri isolated from air samples. To describe the species we used phenotypes from 7-d Czapek yeast extract agar culture (CYA) and malt extract agar culture (M...

  8. New genera and subgenera of augochlorine bees (Hymenoptera: Halictidae).

    E-print Network

    Engel, Michael S.; Brooks, Robert W.; Yanega, Douglas

    1997-12-17

    Two new augochlorine genera, Chlerogelloides and Xenochlora, and three new subgenera, Megalopta (Noctoraptor), Megommation (Stilbochlora), and Megommation (Cleptommation), are described and figured. Three new combinations ...

  9. Secondary metabolite profiles and antifungal drug susceptibility of Aspergillus fumigatus and closely related species, Aspergillus lentulus, Aspergillus udagawae, and Aspergillus viridinutans.

    PubMed

    Tamiya, Hiroyuki; Ochiai, Eri; Kikuchi, Kazuyo; Yahiro, Maki; Toyotome, Takahito; Watanabe, Akira; Yaguchi, Takashi; Kamei, Katsuhiko

    2015-05-01

    The incidence of Aspergillus infection has been increasing in the past few years. Also, new Aspergillus fumigatus-related species, namely Aspergillus lentulus, Aspergillus udagawae, and Aspergillus viridinutans, were shown to infect humans. These fungi exhibit marked morphological similarities to A. fumigatus, albeit with different clinical courses and antifungal drug susceptibilities. The present study used liquid chromatography/time-of-flight mass spectrometry to identify the secondary metabolites secreted as virulence factors by these Aspergillus species and compared their antifungal susceptibility. The metabolite profiles varied widely among A. fumigatus, A. lentulus, A. udagawae, and A. viridinutans, producing 27, 13, 8, and 11 substances, respectively. Among the mycotoxins, fumifungin, fumiquinazoline A/B and D, fumitremorgin B, gliotoxin, sphingofungins, pseurotins, and verruculogen were only found in A. fumigatus, whereas auranthine was only found in A. lentulus. The amount of gliotoxin, one of the most abundant mycotoxins in A. fumigatus, was negligible in these related species. In addition, they had decreased susceptibility to antifungal agents such as itraconazole and voriconazole, even though metabolites that were shared in the isolates showing higher minimum inhibitory concentrations than epidemiological cutoff values were not detected. These strikingly different secondary metabolite profiles may lead to the development of more discriminative identification protocols for such closely related Aspergillus species as well as improved treatment outcomes. PMID:25737146

  10. Characterization and population analysis of the mating-type genes in Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus parasiticus

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jorge H. Ramirez-Prado; Geromy G. Moore; Bruce W. Horn; Ignazio Carbone

    2008-01-01

    We characterize the mating-type genes in Aspergillus flavus,Aspergillus parasiticus and Petromyces alliaceus. A single MAT1-1 or MAT1-2 gene was detected in the genomes of A. flavus and A. parasiticus, which is consistent with a potential heterothallic organization of MAT genes in these species. In contrast, the only known, functionally homothallic species in Aspergillus section Flavi, P. alliaceus, has tightly linked

  11. Fungi in healthy and diseased sea fans ( Gorgonia ventalina): is Aspergillus sydowii always the pathogen?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toledo-Hernández, C.; Zuluaga-Montero, A.; Bones-González, A.; Rodríguez, J. A.; Sabat, A. M.; Bayman, P.

    2008-09-01

    Caribbean corals, including sea fans ( Gorgonia spp.), are being affected by severe and apparently new diseases. In the case of sea fans, the pathogen is reported to be the fungus Aspergillus sydowii, and the disease is named aspergillosis. In order to understand coral diseases and pathogens, knowledge of the microbes associated with healthy corals is also necessary. In this study the fungal community of healthy Gorgonia ventalina colonies was contrasted with that of diseased colonies. In addition, the fungal community of healthy and diseased tissue within colonies with aspergillosis was contrasted. Fungi were isolated from healthy and diseased fans from 15 reefs around Puerto Rico, and identified by sequencing the nuclear ribosomal ITS region and by morphology. Thirty fungal species belonging to 15 genera were isolated from 203 G. ventalina colonies. Penicillum and Aspergillus were the most common genera isolated from both healthy and diseased fans. However, the fungal community of healthy fans was distinct and more diverse than that of diseased ones. Within diseased fans, fungal communities from diseased tissues were distinct and more diverse than from healthy tissue. The reduction of fungi in diseased colonies may occur prior to infection due to environmental changes affecting the host, or after infection due to increase in dominance of the pathogen, or because of host responses to infection. Data also indicate that the fungal community of an entire sea fan colony is affected even when only a small portion of the colony suffers from aspergillosis. An unexpected result was that A. sydowii was found in healthy sea fans but never in diseased ones. This result suggests that A. sydowii is not the pathogen causing aspergillosis in the studied colonies, and suggests several fungi common to healthy and diseased colonies as opportunistic pathogens. Given that it is not clear that Aspergillus is the sole pathogen, calling this disease aspergillosis is an oversimplification at best.

  12. Characterization of the Aspergillus ochraceoroseus aflatoxin/sterigmatocystin biosynthetic gene cluster

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Production of the carcinogenic aflatoxins has been reported from members of Aspergillus section Flavi, Aspergillus section Nidulantes, and a newly proposed section, Aspergillus section Ochraceorosei that consists of Aspergillus ochraceoroseus and A. rambellii. Unlike members of section Flavi, A. oc...

  13. Buttiauxella and some other genera of the family Enterobacteriaceae

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Cathrin Sprber; Ulrike Mendrock; Jolantha Swiderski; Elke Lang; Erko Stackebrandt

    The phylogenetic relationships of the type strains of 38 species from 15 genera of the family Enterobacteriaceae were investigated by comparative 16s rDNA analysis. Several sequences of strains f rom the genera Citrobacter, Erwinia, Pantoea, Proteus, Rahnella and Serratia, analysed in this study, have been analysed previously. However, as the sequences of this study differ slightly from the published ones,

  14. The Old World genera of braconine wasps (Hymenoptera: Braconidae)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Donald L. J. Quicke

    1987-01-01

    An illustrated key is provided to the Old World genera of Braconinae. In addition, notes are provided on each genus and on a number of characters employed in the key. One new tribe and five new genera based on two existing and three new species are described. The new taxa are as follows: Angustibracon gen. nov. from India (type-species: Bracon

  15. Elliptic Genera of Toric Varieties and Applications to Mirror Symmetry

    E-print Network

    Borisov, Lev

    Elliptic Genera of Toric Varieties and Applications to Mirror Symmetry Lev A. Borisov Department The paper contains a proof that elliptic genus of a Calabi-Yau manifold is a Jacobi form, finds in which dimensions the elliptic genus is determined by the Hodge numbers and shows that elliptic genera of a Calabi

  16. ELLIPTIC GENERA, REAL ALGEBRAIC VARIETIES AND QUASI-JACOBI FORMS

    E-print Network

    Libgober, Anatoly

    1 ELLIPTIC GENERA, REAL ALGEBRAIC VARIETIES AND QUASI-JACOBI FORMS ANATOLY LIBGOBER Abstract. This paper surveys the push forward formula for elliptic class and various applications obtained allows to characterize the functions which are the elliptic genera of almost complex manifolds

  17. Elliptic Genera of Toric Varieties and Applications to Mirror Symmetry

    E-print Network

    Libgober, Anatoly

    Elliptic Genera of Toric Varieties and Applications to Mirror contains a proof that elliptic genus of a Calabi-Yau manifold is a Jacobi form, finds in which dimensions the elliptic genus is determi* *ned by the Hodge numbers and shows that elliptic genera

  18. Aspergillus granuloma of the trigeminal ganglion

    PubMed Central

    Wiles, C M; Kocen, R S; Symon, L; Scaravilli, F

    1981-01-01

    A patient is described with aspergillus flavus granuloma of the trigeminal ganglion. The patient was effectively treated by surgical excision of most of the infected tissue followed by intensive chemotherapy with amphotericin B and flucytosine. Images PMID:6973615

  19. Aspergillus and Penicillium allergens: Focus on proteases

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Horng-Der Shen; Ming F. Tam; Ren-Bin Tang; Hong Chou

    2007-01-01

    Penicillium and Aspergillus species are prevalent airborne fungi. It is imperative to identify and characterize their major allergens. Alkaline and\\/or\\u000a vacuolar serine proteases are major allergens of several prevalent Penicillium and Aspergillus species. They are also major immunoglobulin (Ig) E-reacting components of the most prevalent airborne yeast, Rhodotorula mucilaginosa, and the most prevalent Cladosporium species, C. cladosporioides. IgE cross-reactivity has

  20. Aspergillus Infections in Transplant Recipients

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Nina; Paterson, David L.

    2005-01-01

    Aspergillus infections are occurring with an increasing frequency in transplant recipients. Notable changes in the epidemiologic characteristics of this infection have occurred; these include a change in risk factors and later onset of infection. Management of invasive aspergillosis continues to be challenging, and the mortality rate, despite the use of newer antifungal agents, remains unacceptably high. Performing molecular studies to discern new targets for antifungal activity, identifying signaling pathways that may be amenable to immunologic interventions, assessing combination regimens of antifungal agents or combining antifungal agents with modulation of the host defense mechanisms, and devising diagnostic assays that can rapidly and reliably diagnose infections represent areas for future investigations that may lead to further improvement in outcomes. PMID:15653818

  1. Aspergillus waksmanii sp. nov. and Aspergillus marvanovae sp. nov., two closely related species in section Fumigati

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Two new and phylogenetically closely related species in Aspergillus section Fumigati are described and illustrated. Homothallic A. waksmanii was isolated from New Jersey soil (USA) and is represented by the ex-type isolate NRRL 179T (=CCF 4266= IBT 31900). Aspergillus marvanovae was isolated from wa...

  2. CLATHRIN DYNAMICS AND ENDOCYTIC ORGANIZATION IN Aspergillus nidulans

    E-print Network

    Johnson, Tyler

    2013-09-26

        CLATHRIN DYNAMICS AND ENDOCYTIC ORGANIZATION IN Aspergillus nidulans An Undergraduate Research Scholars Thesis by TYLER BERNARD JOHNSON Submitted to Honors and Undergraduate Research Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment... ..................................................................................................... 13 Clathrin in Aspergillus nidulans ........................................................................... 13 REFERENCES...

  3. Determination of the genera of cyst-forming coccidia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. K. Frenkel; D. D. Smith

    2003-01-01

    The following heteroxenous and cyst-forming coccidian genera, Besnoitia, Cystoisospora, Frenkelia, Hammondia, Neospora, Sarcocystis and Toxoplasma have been compared biologically, and a key to determine their tissue cysts is provided.

  4. Relative reactivity of Aspergillus allergens used in serological tests

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. Bowyer; O. Blightman; D. W. Denning

    2006-01-01

    Aspergillus is a common disease-causing agent, both as an allergen causing ABPA and severe asthma with fungal sensitization (SAFS) and as a pathogen causing invasive aspergillosis in immunocompromised individuals and chronic cavitating disease (CCPA) in apparently immune competent individuals. Currently detection of Aspergillus is problematic and some of the most useful tests rely on detection of antibody response to Aspergillus

  5. Geographic distribution and dispersal of normapolles genera in North America

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tschudy, R.H.

    1981-01-01

    Normapolles pollen have been found in North America in Cretaceous and Lower Tertiary rocks from the eastern Atlantic Seaboard, the Mississippi embayment region and from the states and provinces from western North America as far north as the District of Mackenzie, Northwest Territories. Previous postulates relating to the Normapolles floral province (western Europe-eastern North America) were re-examined in the light of new finds of Normapolles genera in rocks from west of the Cretaceous epeiric seaway which separated the Normapolles province from the western North American Aquilapollenites province. A study of published occurrences of Normapolles genera and U.S. Geological Survey Denver Laboratory Normapolles records revealed that of the approximately 60 Normapolles genera recognized from western Europe, only 26 of these have been recognized from eastern North America. These data suggest that Normapolles-producing plants originated in western Europe and migrated to eastern North America prior to the opening of the north Atlantic seaway. Ten of these 26 genera also have been found in rocks from west of the Cretaceous epeiric seaway, suggesting that these genera were the only ones able to cross this barrier. At least six genera having Normapolles characteristics occur in eastern North America but have not yet been recorded from Europe. Two additional genera with Normapolles characteristics have been reported only from the Aquilapollenites province of western North America. Several discrepancies in the record need resolution, such as the latitudinal restriction of Thomsonipollis and Nudopollis to areas south 40??N latitude, the absence of records of Thomsonipollis east and north of central Georgia, and the absence of records of Kyandopollenites and Choanopollenites west of eastern Texas. These data show that the known boundaries of the Normapolles province are somewhat hazy and that firm conclusions regarding the geographic distribution and history of dispersal of Normapolles genera are premature. ?? 1981.

  6. Bergbambos and Oldeania, new genera of African bamboos (Poaceae, Bambusoideae).

    PubMed

    Stapleton, Chris M A

    2013-01-01

    Two new monotypic genera, Bergbambos and Oldeania are described for African temperate bamboo species in the tribe Arundinarieae, after a comparison of their morphological characteristics with those of similar species from Asia. Morphological differences are supported by their isolated geographical distributions. Molecular evidence does not support the inclusion of these species in related Asian genera, recognising them instead as distinct lineages. New combinations Bergbambos tessellata and Oldeania alpina are made. PMID:24198715

  7. Extracellular siderophores from Aspergillus ochraceous.

    PubMed Central

    Jalal, M A; Mocharla, R; Barnes, C L; Hossain, M B; Powell, D R; Eng-Wilmot, D L; Grayson, S L; Benson, B A; van der Helm, D

    1984-01-01

    A large number of iron-chelating compounds (siderophores) were isolated from supernatants of iron-deficient cultures of a mold isolate, subsequently identified as Aspergillus ochraceous . Siderophores in their iron chelate form were purified to homogeneity by using Bio-Gel P2, silica gel, and C-18 bonded silica gel (reverse-phase) columns. Most of these compounds, as identified by 1H and 13C nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy and X-ray crystallography, belong to the ferrichrome family. The organism produces ferrirubin and ferrichrysin as the predominant and the second major compound (62 and 15% of the total siderophores), respectively. Ferrichrysin appears as the first siderophore in the medium on day 2 of growth. Several of the other siderophores are novel and ranged in quantities from 0.2 to 5% of the total. The trivial names asperchrome A, B1, B2, C, D1, D2, and D3 are proposed for these novel compounds, which are all members of the ferrichrome family, and all but the first one contain a common Orn1 - Orn2 - Orn3 - Ser1 -Ser2-Gly cyclic hexapeptide ring with three dissimilar ornithyl delta-N-acyl groups. Another compound which appeared late in the growth period was similar to fusarinine C ( fusigen ). All of these compounds showed growth factor activity to various extents in bioassays with Arthrobacter flavescens Jg-9. None of these compounds showed antibacterial activity against Escherichia coli or Bacillus megaterium. PMID:6233261

  8. Calmodulin inhibitors from Aspergillus stromatoides.

    PubMed

    González-Andrade, Martín; Del Valle, Paulina; Macías-Rubalcava, Martha L; Sosa-Peinado, Alejandro; Del Carmen González, María; Mata, Rachel

    2013-03-01

    An organic extract was prepared from the culture medium and mycelia of the marine fungus Aspergillus stromatoides RAPER & FENNELL. The extract was fractionated via column chromatography, and the resulting fractions were tested for their abilities to quench the fluorescence of the calmodulin (CaM) biosensor hCaM M124C-mBBr. From the active fraction, emodin (1) and ?-hydroxyemodin (2) were isolated as CaM inhibitors. Anthraquinones 1 and 2 quenched the fluorescence of the hCaM M124C-mBBr biosensor in a concentration-dependent manner with K(d) values of 0.33 and 0.76 ?M, respectively. The results were compared with those of chlorpromazine (CPZ), a classical inhibitor of CaM, with a K(d) value of 1.25 ?M. Docking analysis revealed that 1 and 2 bind to the same pocket of CPZ. The CaM inhibitor properties of 1 and 2 were correlated with some of their reported biological properties. Citrinin (3), methyl 8-hydroxy-6-methyl-9-oxo-9H-xanthene-1-carboxylate (4), and coniochaetone A (5) were also isolated in the present study. The X-ray structure of 5 is reported for the first time. PMID:23495150

  9. The Volatome of Aspergillus fumigatus

    PubMed Central

    Calvo, A. M.; Latgé, J. P.

    2014-01-01

    Early detection of invasive aspergillosis is absolutely required for efficient therapy of this fungal infection. The identification of fungal volatiles in patient breath can be an alternative for the detection of Aspergillus fumigatus that still remains problematic. In this work, we investigated the production of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) by A. fumigatus in vitro, and we show that volatile production depends on the nutritional environment. A. fumigatus produces a multiplicity of VOCs, predominantly terpenes and related compounds. The production of sesquiterpenoid compounds was found to be strongly induced by increased iron concentrations and certain drugs, i.e., pravastatin. Terpenes that were always detectable in large amounts were ?-pinene, camphene, and limonene, as well as sesquiterpenes, identified as ?-bergamotene and ?-trans-bergamotene. Other substance classes that were found to be present in the volatome, such as 1-octen-3-ol, 3-octanone, and pyrazines, were found only under specific growth conditions. Drugs that interfere with the terpene biosynthesis pathway influenced the composition of the fungal volatome, and most notably, a block of sesquiterpene biosynthesis by the bisphosphonate alendronate fundamentally changed the VOC composition. Using deletion mutants, we also show that a terpene cyclase and a putative kaurene synthase are essential for the synthesis of volatile terpenes by A. fumigatus. The present analysis of in vitro volatile production by A. fumigatus suggests that VOCs may be used in the diagnosis of infections caused by this fungus. PMID:24906414

  10. The Multitentaculate Cirratulidae of the Genera Cirriformia and Timarete (Annelida: Polychaeta) from

    E-print Network

    Paiva, Paulo Cesar de

    The Multitentaculate Cirratulidae of the Genera Cirriformia and Timarete (Annelida: Polychaeta Cirratulidae of the Genera Cirriformia and Timarete (Annelida: Polychaeta) from Shallow Waters of Brazil. PLo

  11. FT-IR Spectroscopy for Rapid Differentiation of Aspergillus flavus , Aspergillus fumigatus , Aspergillus parasiticus and Characterization of Aflatoxigenic Isolates Collected from Agricultural Environments

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David Garon; Anne El Kaddoumi; Alexandra Carayon; Caroline Amiel

    2010-01-01

    In agricultural areas, Aspergillus\\u000a flavus, Aspergillus fumigatus and Aspergillus parasiticus are commonly identified in various feedstuffs and bioaerosols originated from feed handling. Some isolates belonging to these\\u000a fungal species could produce mycotoxins and constitute a risk factor for human and animal health. In this study, Fourier-transform\\u000a infrared spectroscopy was used for a rapid detection and characterization of 99 isolates collected

  12. Aerobiological, biochemical and immunological studies on some of the dominant Aspergillus species of South Assam (India)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dhruba Sharma; B. K. Dutta; A. B. Singh; B. R. Shome

    2007-01-01

    Two years atmospheric survey of air-borne Aspergillus was carried out in the environmental conditions of South Assam. The survey revealed a total of 16 different species of Aspergillus with marked seasonal and annual variations. Aspergillus fumigatus was found to be the dominant atmospheric fungal species followed by Aspergillus flavus, Aspergillus niger, etc. Among the sample extracts tested, highest quantity of

  13. Genomics of peanut-Aspergillus flavus interactions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Aflatoxin contamination caused by Aspergillus fungi is a great concern in peanut production worldwide. Pre-harvest Aspergillii infection and aflatoxin contamination are usually severe in peanuts that are grown under drought stressed conditions. Genomic research can provide new tools and resources to...

  14. Genomic analysis of aspergillus flavus pathogenesis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Aspergillus flavus and Fusarium verticillioides colonize developing maize seeds and contaminate them with mycotoxins. Maize genotypes differ in resistance to these fungi, but incorporation of adequate resistance into desirable hybrids has been challenging.Little is known about pathogenesis of seeds...

  15. ASPERGILLUS BOMBYCIS GENOTYPES (RFLP) FROM SILKWORM CULTIVATION

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Eighteen isolates of Aspergillus bombycis from samples of dust, insect frass, and soil collected from 8 silkworm rearing facilities in Japan, as well as single silkworm rearing facilities in Indonesia and Malaysia, were subjected to DNA fingerprinting. PstI digests of total genomic DNA from each is...

  16. Inactivation of Aspergillus spp. by Ozone Treatment

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Zotti; R. Porro; A. Vizzini; M. G. Mariotti

    2008-01-01

    The article investigates the effectiveness of ozone in inhibiting the growth of two Aspergillus species, (A. flavus, A. niger) isolated from a nail affected by onychomycosis and from a biodeteriorated paper. Specifically, two main goals are to establish (i) whether differently aged colonies show different responses to the ozonization process, and (ii) whether a repeated ozone exposure can enhance the

  17. Interaction between maize seed and Aspergillus flavus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Aspergillus flavus is an opportunistic fungal pathogen that colonizes maize seeds and contaminates them with aflatoxin. The fungus is localized in the endosperm and aleurone. To investigate the plant microbe interaction, we conducted histological and molecular studies to characterize the internal co...

  18. Endogenous Aspergillus endophthalmitis in an immunocompetent individual

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Shailaja Valluri; Ramana S. Moorthy; Peter E. Liggett; Narsing A. Rao

    1993-01-01

    We present an unusual case ofAspergillus fumigatus endogenous endophthalmitis in a 27 year old Hispanic male with no history of ocular trauma, surgery, hematologic malignancy, compromised immune system, or intravenous drug use. The patient presented with a two-day history of pain, redness, and visual acuity of bare count fingers in his right eye. He was originally suspected of having toxoplasmic

  19. Phylogeny and subgeneric taxonomy of Aspergillus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The phylogeny of the genus Aspergillus and its teleomorphs is discussed based on multilocus sequence data. DNA sequence analysis was used to formulate a nucleotide sequence framework of the genus and to analyze character changes in relationship to the phylogeny hypothesized from the DNA sequence an...

  20. Biotransformation of Stypotriol triacetate by Aspergillus niger

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Areche, Carlos; Vaca, Inmaculada; Labbe, Pamela; Soto-Delgado, Jorge; Astudillo, Luis; Silva, Mario; Rovirosa, Juana; San-Martin, Aurelio

    2011-07-01

    Biological transformation of the meroditerpenoid, stypotriol triacetate ( 1) by the fungi Aspergillus niger, Cunninghamella elegans, Gibberella fujikuroi and Mucor plumbeus was studied. The incubation of 1 with A. niger yielded the new compound 6',14-diacetoxy-stypol-4,5-dione ( 2) whose structure was established by 1H, 13C and 2D NMR and supported by DFT/GIAO.

  1. Distinctions between the snake genera Contia and Eirenis

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stickel, W.H.

    1951-01-01

    Summary: Various workers have believed Contia to be related to or congeneric with either or both Sonora and Eirenis, the latter a genus of Western Asia. Study of hemipenes, teeth, and jaws indicates that these genera are not related to one another. The hemipenes of Eirenis modesta and Contia tenuis are described. Eirenis is thought to be a derivative of the racer group. Relationships of Contia are unknown. It is suggested that some North American genera with xenodontine-type hemipenes may not be of the South American faunal element and may have been in North America at least as long as the Old Northerners.

  2. Leaf-inhabiting genera of the Gnomoniaceae, Diaporthales

    PubMed Central

    Sogonov, M.V.; Castlebury, L.A.; Rossman, A.Y.; Mejía, L.C.; White, J.F.

    2008-01-01

    The Gnomoniaceae are characterised by ascomata that are generally immersed, solitary, without a stroma, or aggregated with a rudimentary stroma, in herbaceous plant material especially in leaves, twigs or stems, but also in bark or wood. The ascomata are black, soft-textured, thin-walled, and pseudoparenchymatous with one or more central or eccentric necks. The asci usually have a distinct apical ring. The Gnomoniaceae includes species having ascospores that are small, mostly less than 25 ?m long, although some are longer, and range in septation from non-septate to one-septate, rarely multi-septate. Molecular studies of the Gnomoniaceae suggest that the traditional classification of genera based on characteristics of the ascomata such as position of the neck and ascospores such as septation have resulted in genera that are not monophyletic. In this paper the concepts of the leaf-inhabiting genera in the Gnomoniaceae are reevaluated using multiple genes, specifically nrLSU, translation elongation factor 1-alpha (tef1-?), and RNA polymerase II second largest subunit (rpb2) for 64 isolates. ITS sequences were generated for 322 isolates. Six genera of leaf-inhabiting Gnomoniaceae are defined based on placement of their type species within the multigene phylogeny. The new monotypic genus Ambarignomonia is established for an unusual species, A. petiolorum. A key to 59 species of leaf-inhabiting Gnomoniaceae is presented and 22 species of Gnomoniaceae are described and illustrated. PMID:19287541

  3. A revised taxonomy of the iguanodont dinosaur genera and species

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gregory S. Paul

    2008-01-01

    Criteria for designating dinosaur genera are inconsistent; some very similar species are highly split at the generic level, other anatomically disparate species are united at the same rank. Since the mid-1800s the classic genus Iguanodon has become a taxonomic grab-bag containing species spanning most of the Early Cretaceous of the northern hemisphere. Recently the genus was radically redesignated when the

  4. On the size distribution of live genera. William J. Reed

    E-print Network

    Reed, W.J.

    of live genera, arising from a simple model of macroevolution in which speciations and extinctions of macroevolution to explain observed abundance distributions, introducing and developing the theory process and thus leading to a model of neutral macroevolution. This has been proposed by Raup (1985), who

  5. Key and bibliography of the genera of European Trichoptera larvae.

    PubMed

    Waringer, Johann; Graf, Wolfram

    2013-01-01

    The paper provides a synoptic key to the genera of final instar European Trichoptera larvae. The most important characters are illustrated by colour photos, with arrows highlighting the diagnostic features. A short descriptive text gives additional information for each decision and guides the reader through the determination process. PMID:26000409

  6. The Botryosphaeriaceae: genera and species known from culture

    PubMed Central

    Phillips, A.J.L.; Alves, A.; Abdollahzadeh, J.; Slippers, B.; Wingfield, M.J.; Groenewald, J.Z.; Crous, P.W.

    2013-01-01

    In this paper we give an account of the genera and species in the Botryosphaeriaceae. We consider morphological characters alone as inadequate to define genera or identify species, given the confusion it has repeatedly introduced in the past, their variation during development, and inevitable overlap as representation grows. Thus it seems likely that all of the older taxa linked to the Botryosphaeriaceae, and for which cultures or DNA sequence data are not available, cannot be linked to the species in this family that are known from culture. Such older taxa will have to be disregarded for future use unless they are epitypified. We therefore focus this paper on the 17 genera that can now be recognised phylogenetically, which concentrates on the species that are presently known from culture. Included is a historical overview of the family, the morphological features that define the genera and species and detailed descriptions of the 17 genera and 110 species. Keys to the genera and species are also provided. Phylogenetic relationships of the genera are given in a multi-locus tree based on combined SSU, ITS, LSU, EF1-? and ?-tubulin sequences. The morphological descriptions are supplemented by phylogenetic trees (ITS alone or ITS + EF1-?) for the species in each genus. Taxonomic novelties: New species - Neofusicoccum batangarum Begoude, Jol. Roux & Slippers. New combinations - Botryosphaeria fabicerciana (S.F. Chen, D. Pavlic, M.J. Wingf. & X.D. Zhou) A.J.L. Phillips & A. Alves, Botryosphaeria ramosa (Pavlic, T.I. Burgess, M.J. Wingf.) A.J.L. Phillips & A. Alves, Cophinforma atrovirens (Mehl & Slippers) A. Alves & A.J.L. Phillips, Cophinforma mamane (D.E. Gardner) A.J.L. Phillips & A. Alves, Dothiorella pretoriensis (Jami, Gryzenh., Slippers & M.J. Wingf.) Abdollahz. & A.J.L. Phillips, Dothiorella thailandica (D.Q. Dai., J.K. Liu & K.D. Hyde) Abdollahz., A.J.L. Phillips & A. Alves, Dothiorella uruguayensis (C.A. Pérez, Blanchette, Slippers & M.J. Wingf.) Abdollahz. & A.J.L. Phillips, Lasiodiplodia lignicola (Ariyawansa, J.K. Liu & K.D. Hyde) A.J.L. Phillips, A. Alves & Abdollahz., Neoscytalidium hyalinum (C.K. Campb. & J.L. Mulder) A.J.L. Phillips, Groenewald & Crous, Sphaeropsis citrigena (A.J.L. Phillips, P.R. Johnst. & Pennycook) A.J.L. Phillips & A. Alves, Sphaeropsis eucalypticola (Doilom, J.K. Liu, & K.D. Hyde) A.J.L. Phillips, Sphaeropsis porosa (Van Niekerk & Crous) A.J.L. Phillips & A. Alves. Epitypification (basionym) - Sphaeria sapinea Fries. Neotypifications (basionyms) - Botryodiplodia theobromae Pat., Physalospora agaves Henn, Sphaeria atrovirens var. visci Alb. & Schwein. PMID:24302790

  7. Aspergillus bertholletius sp. nov. from Brazil Nuts

    PubMed Central

    Taniwaki, Marta H.; Pitt, John I.; Iamanaka, Beatriz T.; Sartori, Daniele; Copetti, Marina V.; Balajee, Arun; Fungaro, Maria Helena P.; Frisvad, Jens C.

    2012-01-01

    During a study on the mycobiota of brazil nuts (Bertholletia excelsa) in Brazil, a new Aspergillus species, A. bertholletius, was found, and is described here. A polyphasic approach was applied using morphological characters, extrolite data as well as partial ?-tubulin, calmodulin and ITS sequences to characterize this taxon. A. bertholletius is represented by nineteen isolates from samples of brazil nuts at various stages of production and soil close to Bertholletia excelsa trees. The following extrolites were produced by this species: aflavinin, cyclopiazonic acid, kojic acid, tenuazonic acid and ustilaginoidin C. Phylogenetic analysis using partial ?-tubulin and camodulin gene sequences showed that A. bertholletius represents a new phylogenetic clade in Aspergillus section Flavi. The type strain of A. bertholletius is CCT 7615 (?=?ITAL 270/06?=?IBT 29228). PMID:22952594

  8. Amino acid supplementation reveals differential regulation of aflatoxin biosynthesis in Aspergillus flavus NRRL 3357 and Aspergillus parasiticus SRRC 143

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. R. Wilkinson; J. Yu; J. M. Bland; W. C. Nierman; D. Bhatnagar; T. E. Cleveland

    2007-01-01

    Aflatoxins are toxic and carcinogenic secondary metabolites produced by the fungi Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus parasiticus. To better understand the molecular mechanisms that regulate aflatoxin production, the biosynthesis of the toxin in A. flavus and A. parasticus grown in yeast extract sucrose media supplemented with 50 mM tryptophan (Trp) were examined. Aspergillus flavus grown in the presence of 50 mM tryptophan was

  9. Alkaline Serine Proteinase Is a Major Allergen of Aspergillus flavus, a Prevalent Airborne Aspergillus Species in the Taipei Area

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hong Chou; Ming F. Tam

    1999-01-01

    Background:Aspergillus species are prevalent indoor airborne fungi and have been identified to be a causative agent of human allergic disorders. In the present study, we identified, purified and characterized the allergen(s) from Aspergillus flavus, a predominant airborne Aspergillus species in the Taipei area. Methods: The IgE–binding components of A. flavus were identified by SDS–PAGE immunoblotting with sera from asthmatic patients.

  10. Pectin lyase from Aspergillus sp. CHY1043

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Luis Delgado; Blanca A. Trejo; Carlos Huitrón; Guillermo Aguilar

    1993-01-01

    Aspergillus sp. CH-Y-1043 synthesizes pectin lyase when grown on citrus pectin at 37° C. Production is favoured by increased esterification degree of the pectin used as carbon source. This enzyme displays higher activity at pH values of 8.5–8.8 and temperatures of 40–45° C. The optimal substrate for the enzyme was highly esterified pectin and no enzymatic activity was registered on

  11. Aspergillus arachnoiditis post intrathecal baclofen pump insertion.

    PubMed

    Vivek, V; Kavar, B; Hogg, M; Eisen, D P; Butzkueven, H

    2013-08-01

    This report describes an unusual fungal infection of an intrathecal baclofen pump which, to our knowledge, has not been reported previously. We describe a 39-year-old man with severe lower limb spasticity due to secondary progressive multiple sclerosis that was managed with insertion of an intrathecal baclofen pump. He subsequently presented with distinct neurological decline secondary to an intrathecal baclofen pump infection with Aspergillus terreus. PMID:23685108

  12. Nitrogen metabolite repression in Aspergillus nidulans

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Herbert N. Arst; David J. Cove

    1973-01-01

    In Aspergillus nidulans, mutations, designated areAr, can result in the inability to utilise a wide variety of nitrogen sources including amino acids, purines, amides, nitrate, and nitrite, whilst not affecting growth on ammonium. Other allelic areA mutations, designated areAd, lead to derepression of one or more activities which are ammonium repressible in wild type (areA+) strains, whilst not affecting their

  13. Antibiotic Extraction as a Recent Biocontrol Method for Aspergillus Niger andAspergillus Flavus Fungi in Ancient Egyptian mural paintings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hemdan, R.; et al.

    Biodeterioration of mural paintings by Aspergillus niger and Aspergillus flavus Fungi has been proved in different mural paintings in Egypt nowadays. Several researches have studied the effect of fungi on mural paintings, the mechanism of interaction and methods of control. But none of these researches gives us the solution without causing a side effect. In this paper, for the first time, a recent treatment by antibiotic "6 penthyl ? pyrone phenol" was applied as a successful technique for elimination of Aspergillus niger and Aspergillus flavus. On the other hand, it is favorable for cleaning Surfaces of Murals executed by tembera technique from the fungi metabolism which caused a black pigments on surfaces.

  14. Twisted Elliptic Genera of N=2 SCFTs in Two Dimensions

    E-print Network

    Toshiya Kawai

    2009-09-12

    The elliptic genera of two-dimensional N=2 superconformal field theories can be twisted by the action of the integral Heisenberg group if their U(1) charges are fractional. The basic properties of the resulting twisted elliptic genera and the associated twisted Witten indices are investigated with due attention to their behaviors in orbifoldization. Our findings are illustrated by and applied to several concrete examples. We give a better understanding of the duality phenomenon observed long before for certain Landau-Ginzburg models. We revisit and prove an old conjecture of Witten which states that every ADE Landau-Ginzburg model and the corresponding minimal model share the same elliptic genus. Mathematically, we establish ADE generalizations of the quintuple product identity.

  15. Notes on some African hepatic genera 1–5

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ji?í Vá?a

    1982-01-01

    The present study deals with five genera of hepatics in Africa, Isotachis\\u000a Mitt., Anastrophyllum (Spruce) Steph., Tritomaria\\u000a Schiffn. ex Loeske, Gymnocoleopsis (Schust.) Schust. and Lophozia (Dum.) Dum. All African populations of the genus Isotachis\\u000a Mitt. are considered to be one species, I. aubertii (Schwaegr.) Mitt. Four species of Anastrophyllum (Spruce) Steph. (s.l.), A. auritum (Lehm.) Steph., A. piligerum (Nees) Spruce,

  16. Ladderane lipid distribution in four genera of anammox bacteria

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jayne E. Rattray; J. L. C. M. van de Vossenberg; Ellen C. Hopmans; Boran Kartal; Laura van Niftrik; W. Irene C. Rijpstra; Marc Strous; Mike S. M. Jetten; Stefan Schouten; Jaap S. Sinninghe Damsté

    2008-01-01

    Intact ladderane phospholipids and core lipids were studied in four species of anaerobic ammonium oxidizing (anammox) bacteria,\\u000a each representing one of the four known genera. Each species of anammox bacteria contained C18 and C20 ladderane fatty acids with either 3 or 5 linearly condensed cyclobutane rings and a ladderane monoether containing a C20 alkyl moiety with 3 cyclobutane rings. The

  17. Phylogenetic relatedness among Spirulina and related cyanobacterial genera

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nirbhay Kumar Singh; Dolly Wattal Dhar

    2011-01-01

    Molecular polymorphisms in a selected set of Spirulina and related genera using random primers based on repetitive sequences along with biochemical parameters, led to the unambiguous\\u000a differentiation of the strains and understanding of their phylogenetic relationships. A combination of 10 sets of dual primers\\u000a generated 100% distinct polymorphic bands ranging from 150 to 5,000 bp. Total number of fragments ranged from

  18. AFLATOXIGENICITY IN ASPERGILLUS: MOLECULAR GENETICS, PHYLOGENETIC RELATIONSHIPS AND EVOLUTIONARY IMPLICATIONS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Aflatoxins are toxic and carcinogenic secondary metabolites produced by isolates of Aspergillus section Flavi, as well as a number of Aspergillus isolates that are classified outside of section Flavi. Characterization of the aflatoxin and sterigmatocystin gene clusters and analysis of factors gover...

  19. Health effects of Aspergillus in food and air

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Maren A Klich

    This review summarizes the health aspects of the medically important fungal genus Aspergillus. The morphology and systematics of the genus are explained as well as its biogeography. Major mycotoxins, the aspergilli that produce them, affected crops, and symptoms of the toxicoses are summarized, as are the major mycoses caused by aspergilli. The current status of the relationship between Aspergillus in

  20. WHOLE GENOME COMPARISON OF ASPERGILLUS FLAVUS AND A. ORYZAE

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Aspergillus flavus is a plant and animal pathogen that also produces the potent carcinogen aflatoxin. Aspergillus oryzae is a closely related species that has been used for centuries in the food fermentation industry and is generally regarded as safe (GRAS). Whole genome sequences for these two fu...

  1. Prospective multicenter international surveillance of azole resistance in Aspergillus fumigatus.

    PubMed

    van der Linden, J W M; Arendrup, M C; Warris, A; Lagrou, K; Pelloux, H; Hauser, P M; Chryssanthou, E; Mellado, E; Kidd, S E; Tortorano, A M; Dannaoui, E; Gaustad, P; Baddley, J W; Uekötter, A; Lass-Flörl, C; Klimko, N; Moore, C B; Denning, D W; Pasqualotto, A C; Kibbler, C; Arikan-Akdagli, S; Andes, D; Meletiadis, J; Naumiuk, L; Nucci, M; Melchers, W J G; Verweij, P E

    2015-06-01

    To investigate azole resistance in clinical Aspergillus isolates, we conducted prospective multicenter international surveillance. A total of 3,788 Aspergillus isolates were screened in 22 centers from 19 countries. Azole-resistant A. fumigatus was more frequently found (3.2% prevalence) than previously acknowledged, causing resistant invasive and noninvasive aspergillosis and severely compromising clinical use of azoles. PMID:25988348

  2. Prospective Multicenter International Surveillance of Azole Resistance in Aspergillus fumigatus

    PubMed Central

    Arendrup, M.C.; Warris, A.; Lagrou, K.; Pelloux, H.; Hauser, P.M.; Chryssanthou, E.; Mellado, E.; Kidd, S.E.; Tortorano, A.M.; Dannaoui, E.; Gaustad, P.; Baddley, J.W.; Uekötter, A.; Lass-Flörl, C.; Klimko, N.; Moore, C.B.; Denning, D.W.; Pasqualotto, A.C.; Kibbler, C.; Arikan-Akdagli, S.; Andes, D.; Meletiadis, J.; Naumiuk, L.; Nucci, M.; Melchers, W.J.G.; Verweij, P.E.

    2015-01-01

    To investigate azole resistance in clinical Aspergillus isolates, we conducted prospective multicenter international surveillance. A total of 3,788 Aspergillus isolates were screened in 22 centers from 19 countries. Azole-resistant A. fumigatus was more frequently found (3.2% prevalence) than previously acknowledged, causing resistant invasive and noninvasive aspergillosis and severely compromising clinical use of azoles. PMID:25988348

  3. Aflatoxin Biosynthesis and Sclerotial Development in Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus parasiticus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Aflatoxins are a family of fungal secondary metabolites. They are produced by species in the genus Aspergillus. Within the last decade, significant advances have been made in understanding the biochemistry, genetics, and gene regulation of aflatoxin biosynthesis. Many scientists have used aflatox...

  4. Two novel species of Aspergillus section Nigri from indoor air.

    PubMed

    Jurjevi?, Zeljko; Peterson, Stephen W; Stea, Gaetano; Solfrizzo, Michele; Varga, János; Hubka, Vit; Perrone, Giancarlo

    2012-12-01

    Aspergillus floridensis and A. trinidadensis spp. nov. are described as novel uniseriate species of Aspergillus section Nigri isolated from air samples. To describe the species we used phenotypes from 7-d Czapek yeast extract agar culture (CYA), creatine agar culture (CREA) and malt extract agar culture (MEA), with support by molecular analysis of the ?-tubulin, calmodulin, RNA polymerase II (RPB2), and translation elongation factor-alpha (TEF) gene amplified and sequenced from 56 air isolates and one isolate from almonds belonging to Aspergillus sectionNigri.Aspergillus floridensis is closely related to A. aculeatus, and A. trinidadensis is closely related to A. aculeatinus. Aspergillus brunneoviolaceus (syn. A. fijiensis) and A. uvarum are reported for the first time from the USA and from the indoor air environment. The newly described species do not produce ochratoxin A. PMID:23355969

  5. Constitutive expression of fluorescent protein by Aspergillus var. niger and Aspergillus carbonarius to monitor fungal colonization in maize plants

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Aspergillus niger and A. carbonarius are two species in the Aspergillus section Nigri (black-spored aspergilli) frequently associated with peanut (Arachis hypogea), maize (Zea mays), and other plants as pathogens. These infections are symptomless and as such are major concerns since some black aspe...

  6. Larval stenocephaly related to specialized feeding in the ant genera Amblyopone, Leptanilla and Myrmecina (Hymenoptera: Formicidae)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Keiichi Masuko

    2008-01-01

    Larvae of the ant genera Amblyopone, Leptanilla and Myrmecina have unusually minute crania. This characteristic is here termed stenocephaly. To study it in detail larvae of the three genera were examined morphometrically and histologically in comparison with other non-stenocephalous larvae of the genera Cryptopone and Manica. The stenocephalous larvae are very specialized, in that their supra- and sub-esophageal ganglia are

  7. Neotropical Emerald moths: a review of the genera (Lepidoptera: Geometridae, Geometrinae)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    LINDA M. PITKIN

    1996-01-01

    The classification of the Neotropical genera of the Geometrinae is reviewed and 38 genera are recognized (including one nomen dubium). Seven generic synonyms are newly established and the genusGnathosociais described as new. Other changes established in this work include 1 species synonym and 36 new or reinstated combinations. A key to genera, based on external features, is provided for their

  8. Genera of orders Actiniaria and Corallimorpharia (Cnidaria, Anthozoa, Hexacorallia), and their type species

    E-print Network

    Fautin, Daphne G.; Zelenchuk, Taras; Raveendran, Dinesh

    2007-12-21

    . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .184 GENERA OF ACTINIARIA (SEA ANEMONES sensu stricto) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .185 GENERA OF CORALLIMORPHARIA (coral-like sea anemones... and senior. Of the 18 available genera of Cor- allimorpharia, there are no junior homonyms, and one senior homonym. Key words: sea anemones, nomenclature, taxonomy Introduction Cnidarian order Actiniaria (sea anemones sensu stricto) is a relatively small...

  9. Genera of orders Actiniaria and Corallimorpharia (Cnidaria, Anthozoa, Hexacorallia), and their type species

    E-print Network

    Fautin, Daphne G.; Zelenchuk, Taras; Raveendran, Dinesh

    2007-12-21

    . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 184 GENERA OF ACTINIARIA (SEA ANEMONES sensu stricto) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 185 GENERA OF CORALLIMORPHARIA (coral-like sea anemones... are both junior and senior. Of the 18 available genera of Cor- allimorpharia, there are no junior homonyms, and one senior homonym. Key words: sea anemones, nomenclature, taxonomy Introduction Cnidarian order Actiniaria (sea anemones sensu stricto) is a...

  10. Reduction of aflatoxin production by Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus parasiticus in interaction with Streptomyces.

    PubMed

    Verheecke, C; Liboz, T; Anson, P; Diaz, R; Mathieu, F

    2015-05-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate aflatoxin gene expression during Streptomyces-Aspergillus interaction. Aflatoxins are carcinogenic compounds produced mainly by Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus parasiticus. A previous study has shown that Streptomyces-A. flavus interaction can reduce aflatoxin content in vitro. Here, we first validated this same effect in the interaction with A. parasiticus. Moreover, we showed that growth reduction and aflatoxin content were correlated in A. parasiticus but not in A. flavus. Secondly, we investigated the mechanisms of action by reverse-transcriptase quantitative PCR. As microbial interaction can lead to variations in expression of household genes, the most stable [act1, ?tub (and cox5 for A. parasiticus)] were chosen using geNorm software. To shed light on the mechanisms involved, we studied during the interaction the expression of five genes (aflD, aflM, aflP, aflR and aflS). Overall, the results of aflatoxin gene expression showed that Streptomyces repressed gene expression to a greater level in A. parasiticus than in A. flavus. Expression of aflR and aflS was generally repressed in both Aspergillus species. Expression of aflM was repressed and was correlated with aflatoxin B1 content. The results suggest that aflM expression could be a potential aflatoxin indicator in Streptomyces species interactions. Therefore, we demonstrate that Streptomyces can reduce aflatoxin production by both Aspergillus species and that this effect can be correlated with the repression of aflM expression. PMID:25741015

  11. Effect of processing for saponin removal on fungal contamination of quinoa seeds (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.).

    PubMed

    Pappier, Ursula; Fernández Pinto, Virginia; Larumbe, Gabriela; Vaamonde, Graciela

    2008-07-15

    Incidence of fungal contamination of quinoa seeds from three locations (Salar de Uyuni, Bolivia; Salta and Tucumán provinces, Argentina) was analyzed in samples with and without treatment to remove saponins (wet method). In processed samples, the percentage of infection was reduced. Distribution of the different fungal genera was not homogeneous in the three locations (p<0.05), although Penicillium and Aspergillus were the most prevalent contaminants, regardless the geographic origin of the samples. Other genera, such as Eurotium, Fusarium, Phoma, Ulocladium, Mucor and Rhizopus were less frequently isolated. Absidia, Alternaria, Cladosporium, Dreschlera, Epicoccum and Monascus were sporadically encountered. Significant differences (p<0.05) in the distribution of fungal genera in samples with and without saponins from each location were observed. In all cases, processing caused a decrease of Aspergillus incidence, while increased the proportion of Penicillium, Eurotium, Mucor and Rhizopus indicating that these genera were part of the internal mycota. A. flavus and A. niger were the dominating species of genus Aspergillus. A similar pattern of prevalent Penicillium species was observed in samples with and without saponins, since P. aurantiogriseum, P.chrysogenum, P. citrinum and P. crustosum were always present in high number, although their relative density was variable according to the geographic origin of samples. Mycotoxin-producing ability of most representative species was also determined. Toxigenic strains of A. flavus (aflatoxins and cyclopiazonic acid), A. parasiticus (aflatoxins), P. citrinum (citrinin) and P. griseofulvum (cyclopiazonic acid) were found. None of the A. niger isolates was ochratoxin A producer. The above mentioned mycotoxins were not detected in the samples analyzed. PMID:18501985

  12. Twelve previously unknown phage genera are ubiquitous in global oceans

    SciTech Connect

    Holmfeldt, Karin [University of Arizona] [University of Arizona; Solonenko, Natalie [University of Arizona] [University of Arizona; Shah, Manesh B [ORNL] [ORNL; Corrier, Kristen L [ORNL] [ORNL; Riemann, Lasse [University of Copenhagen] [University of Copenhagen; Verberkmoes, Nathan C [ORNL] [ORNL; Sullivan, Matthew B [University of Arizona] [University of Arizona

    2013-01-01

    Viruses are fundamental to ecosystems ranging from oceans to humans, yet our ability to study them is bottlenecked by the lack of ecologically relevant isolates, resulting in unknowns dominating culture-independent surveys. Here we present genomes from 31 phages infecting multiple strains of the aquatic bacterium Cellulophaga baltica (Bacteroidetes) to provide data for an underrepresented and environmentally abundant bacterial lineage. Comparative genomics delineated 12 phage groups that (i) each represent a new genus, and (ii) represent one novel and four wellknown viral families. This diversity contrasts the few well-studied marine phage systems, but parallels the diversity of phages infecting human-associated bacteria. Although all 12 Cellulophaga phages represent new genera, the podoviruses and icosahedral, nontailed ssDNA phages were exceptional, with genomes up to twice as large as those previously observed for each phage type. Structural novelty was also substantial, requiring experimental phage proteomics to identify 83% of the structural proteins. The presence of uncommon nucleotide metabolism genes in four genera likely underscores the importance of scavenging nutrient-rich molecules as previously seen for phages in marine environments. Metagenomic recruitment analyses suggest that these particular Cellulophaga phages are rare and may represent a first glimpse into the phage side of the rare biosphere. However, these analyses also revealed that these phage genera are widespread, occurring in 94% of 137 investigated metagenomes. Together, this diverse and novel collection of phages identifies a small but ubiquitous fraction of unknown marine viral diversity and provides numerous environmentally relevant phage host systems for experimental hypothesis testing.

  13. Rare genera of actinomycetes as potential producers of new antibiotics.

    PubMed

    Lazzarini, A; Cavaletti, L; Toppo, G; Marinelli, F

    2001-09-01

    A literature survey covering more than twenty-three thousand bioactive microbial products including eight thousand antiinfectives demonstrated the increasing relevance of the so called 'rare' actinomycetes as a source of new antibiotics. Past and present efforts in the isolation of rare actinomycetes have enriched the Biosearch Italia Strain Collection with more than twenty thousand strains, showing that, when selective isolation methods are developed and extensively applied, some genera, such as Actinomadura, Actinoplanes, Micromonospora, Microtetraspora, are not rare at all and can be recovered from many soil samples. The current focus is on the isolation of members of Streptosporangiaceae family, given their promising chemical diversity. PMID:11816986

  14. Rare genera of actinomycetes as potential producers of new antibiotics.

    PubMed

    Lazzarini, A; Cavaletti, L; Toppo, G; Marinelli, F

    2000-12-01

    A literature survey covering more than twenty-three thousand bioactive microbial products including eight thousand antiinfectives demonstrated the increasing relevance of the so called 'rare' actinomycetes as a source of new antibiotics. Past and present efforts in the isolation of rare actinomycetes have enriched the Biosearch Italia Strain Collection with more than twenty thousand strains, showing that, when selective isolation methods are developed and extensively applied, some genera, such as Actinomadura, Actinoplanes, Micromonospora, Microtetraspora, are not rare at all and can be recovered from many soil samples. The current focus is on the isolation of members of Streptosporangiaceae family, given their promising chemical diversity. PMID:11386363

  15. Elliptic Genera of 2d = 2 Gauge Theories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benini, Francesco; Eager, Richard; Hori, Kentaro; Tachikawa, Yuji

    2015-02-01

    We compute the elliptic genera of general two-dimensional and gauge theories. We find that the elliptic genus is given by the sum of Jeffrey-Kirwan residues of a meromorphic form, representing the one-loop determinant of fields, on the moduli space of flat connections on T 2. We give several examples illustrating our formula, with both Abelian and non-Abelian gauge groups, and discuss some dualities for U( k) and SU( k) theories. This paper is a sequel to the authors' previous paper (Benini et al., Lett Math Phys 104:465-493, 2014).

  16. A taxonomic survey of the genera Petasites and Endocellion

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jan Toman

    1972-01-01

    The paper summarizes all accepted species and subspecies of the generaPetasites andEndocellion, together with important synonyms, type quotations, main diacritical characters, and an outline of their distribution. The\\u000a new taxa described in this study are as follows: subgen.Capillopetalum, sect.Cricostigma, sect.Schistostigma, sect.Trichostigma, sect.Sceptrostigma, further ser.Japonici, ser.Orientales, ser.Fragrantes, ser.Spurii, ser.Imberbes, ser.Sagittati, and subspeciesPetasites frigidus subsp.sibiricus. New combinations:Petasites radiatus (J. F. Gmel.),P. rubellus

  17. Phytase activity in Aspergillus fumigatus isolates.

    PubMed

    Mullaney, E J; Daly, C B; Sethumadhavan, K; Rodriquez, E; Lei, X G; Ullah, A H

    2000-09-01

    Extracellular phytase from Aspergillus fumigatus isolates was characterized and their genes were cloned and sequenced. Based on their banding pattern in SDS-PAGE all phytases were found to be glycosylated and have similar molecular mass. A correlation between lower optimum pH (4.0) and a higher optimum temperature (70 degrees C) was found in these enzymes. All enzymes characterized displayed a lower specific activity for phytic acid and were more susceptible to proteolytic degradation than the Aspergillus niger phytase that is now commercially available. DNA sequencing established almost no sequence variation in any of the genes and no correlation is evident between a specific amino acid sequence and any physicochemical and catalytic properties of the enzymes. Despite two of the isolates having identical deduced amino acid sequence, characterization of the enzymes encoded by these two identical genes revealed differences in both pH and temperature optimum. This suggests that differences in pH and temperature optimum in these four isolates of A. fumigatus may be due in part to subtle differences in posttranslational modification. PMID:10973795

  18. Why Are Some Plant Genera More Invasive Than Others?

    PubMed Central

    Schmidt, John Paul; Drake, John M.

    2011-01-01

    Determining how biological traits are related to the ability of groups of organisms to become economically damaging when established outside of their native ranges is a major goal of population biology, and important in the management of invasive species. Little is known about why some taxonomic groups are more likely to become pests than others among plants. We investigated traits that discriminate vascular plant genera, a level of taxonomic generality at which risk assessment and screening could be more effectively performed, according to the proportion of naturalized species which are pests. We focused on the United States and Canada, and, because our purpose is ultimately regulatory, considered species classified as weeds or noxious. Using contingency tables, we identified 11 genera of vascular plants that are disproportionately represented by invasive species. Results from boosted regression tree analyses show that these categories reflect biological differences. In summary, approximately 25% of variation in genus proportions of weeds or noxious species was explained by biological covariates. Key explanatory traits included genus means for wetland habitat affinity, chromosome number, and seed mass. PMID:21494563

  19. Aflatoxin Biosynthesis and Sclerotial Development in Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus parasiticus

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Perng-Kuang Chang

    \\u000a Aflatoxins are a family of fungal secondary metabolites. They are produced by species in the genus Aspergillus. The commonly recognized producers of aflatoxins include A. flavus, A. parasiticus, A. nomius, A. tamarii, A. pseudotamarii, A. bombycis, and A. ochraceoroseus (Cary et al. 2005). Aflatoxin contamination of agricultural commodities can arise from field conditions conducive to fungal\\u000a growth before harvest as

  20. Ecological analysis of secondary metabolite production in Aspergillus spp. 

    E-print Network

    Ramaswamy, Anitha

    2002-01-01

    A complex and fascinating aspect of fungal development is the production of secondary metabolites. One of the best characterized secondary metabolite pathway is the aflatoxin (AF) and sterigmatocystin (ST) pathway, found in many Aspergillus spp...

  1. Seed metabolites alter the development of Aspergillus ssp. 

    E-print Network

    Hinze, Lori Lynn

    2013-02-22

    Three species of the genus Aspergillus (A.) A. nidulans, A. parasiticus, and A. flavus are currently being observed in our lab to determine the effects of seed metabolites on fungal development. A. nidulans reproduces asexually through the formation...

  2. Sexual reproduction in aflatoxin-producing Aspergillus nomius

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sexual reproduction was examined in the aflatoxin-producing fungus Aspergillus nomius. Crosses between sexually compatible strains resulted in the formation of multiple nonostiolate ascocarps within stromata, which places the teleomorph in the genus Petromyces. Ascocarp and ascospore morphology in...

  3. Ecological analysis of secondary metabolite production in Aspergillus spp.

    E-print Network

    Ramaswamy, Anitha

    2002-01-01

    A complex and fascinating aspect of fungal development is the production of secondary metabolites. One of the best characterized secondary metabolite pathway is the aflatoxin (AF) and sterigmatocystin (ST) pathway, found in many Aspergillus spp...

  4. Seed metabolites alter the development of Aspergillus ssp.

    E-print Network

    Hinze, Lori Lynn

    2013-02-22

    Three species of the genus Aspergillus (A.) A. nidulans, A. parasiticus, and A. flavus are currently being observed in our lab to determine the effects of seed metabolites on fungal development. A. nidulans reproduces asexually through the formation...

  5. Preharvest aflatoxin in maize genotypes under inoculation with Aspergillus flavus

    E-print Network

    Mayfield, Kerry L.

    2009-05-15

    conducted through inoculation with a highly concentrated solution of Aspergillus flavus FR: Link spores, a naturally occurring fungus which infects maize and produces a toxic metabolite (aflatoxin) to humans and animals consuming the grain. No commercial...

  6. Characterization of Aspergillus species based on fatty acid profiles.

    PubMed

    Fraga, Marcelo E; Santana, Djalva Maria N; Gatti, Mario Jorge; Direito, Gloria Maria; Cavaglieri, Lilia R; Rosa, Carlos Alberto R

    2008-09-01

    Cellular fatty acid (FA) composition was utilized as a taxonomic tool to discriminate between different Aspergillus species. Several of the tested species had the same FA composition and different relative FA concentrations. The most important FAs were palmitic acid (C16:0), estearic acid (C18:0), oleic acid (C18:1) and linoleic acid (C18:2), which represented 95% of Aspergillus FAs. Multivariate data analysis demonstrated that FA analysis is a useful tool for differentiating species belonging to genus Aspergillus. All the species analyzed showed significantly FA acid profiles (p < 0.001). Furthermore, it will be possible to distinguish among Aspergillus spp. in the Flavi Section. FA composition can serve as a useful tool for the identification of filamentous fungi. PMID:18949322

  7. Preharvest aflatoxin in maize genotypes under inoculation with Aspergillus flavus 

    E-print Network

    Mayfield, Kerry L.

    2009-05-15

    conducted through inoculation with a highly concentrated solution of Aspergillus flavus FR: Link spores, a naturally occurring fungus which infects maize and produces a toxic metabolite (aflatoxin) to humans and animals consuming the grain. No commercial...

  8. Production of cyclopiazonic acid by Aspergillus tamarii Kita.

    PubMed Central

    Dorner, J W

    1983-01-01

    Production of the mycotoxin cyclopiazonic acid by Aspergillus tamarii Kita is reported for the first time. Examination of 23 isolates of the fungus showed that 22 produced the toxin under the culture conditions utilized. PMID:6660879

  9. Aspergillus parasellar abscess mimicking radiation-induced neuropathy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Toshiki Endo; Yoshihiro Numagami; Hidefumi Jokura; Hidetoshi Ikeda; Reizo Shirane; Takashi Yoshimoto

    2001-01-01

    BACKGROUNDTranssphenoidal surgery is a safe procedure for treatment of pituitary adenomas. However, several complications, including post-surgical infection, are known. We describe a case of Aspergillus parasellar abscess that presented with cranial neuropathies following transsphenoidal surgery and radiosurgery. We initially diagnosed the case as radiation-induced neuropathies, which delayed the detection of Aspergillus.CASE DESCRIPTIONA 55-year-old man underwent transsphenoidal surgery for a pituitary

  10. Allergic Bronchopulmonary Aspergillosis due to Aspergillus niger without Bronchial Asthma

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hideaki Hoshino; Shigeru Tagaki; Hayato Kon; Takashi Shibusa; Hirotsugu Takabatake; Akihisa Fujita; Kyuichiroh Sekine; Shosaku Abe

    1999-01-01

    A 65-year-old woman was admitted to our hospital with a dry cough and pulmonary infiltrates. Chest radiograph and CT revealed mucoid impaction and consolidations. Peripheral blood eosinophilia and elevated serum IgE were observed. Aspergillus niger was cultured repeatedly from her sputum, but A. fumigatus was not detected. Immediate skin test and specific IgE (RAST) to Aspergillus antigen were positive. Precipitating

  11. Transformation of xanthohumol by Aspergillus ochraceus.

    PubMed

    Tronina, Tomasz; Bartma?ska, Agnieszka; Pop?o?ski, Jaros?aw; Huszcza, Ewa

    2014-01-01

    Microbial transformation of xanthohumol isolated from agro-residue (spent hops), by Aspergillus ochraceus was investigated. A new aurone, (Z)-2?-(2?-hydroxyisopropyl)-dihydrofurano[4?,5?:6,7]-3',4'-dihydroxy-4-methoxyaurone, was obtained as a main transformation product. Three minor metabolites were identified as 2?-(2?-hydroxyisopropyl)-dihydrofurano[4?,5?:3',4']-2',4-dihydroxy-6'-methoxychalcone, (2S,2?S)-2?-(2?-hydroxyisopropyl)-dihydrofurano[4?,5?:7,8]-4'-hydroxy-5-methoxyflavanone and (2S,2?R)-2?-(2?-hydroxyisopropyl)-dihydrofurano[4?,5?:7,8]-4'-hydroxy-5-methoxyflavanone. Their structures were elucidated on the basis of spectroscopic evidences. The antioxidant properties of xanthohumol and its metabolites were investigated using the 2,2'-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging method. The major biotransformation product, was 8.6-fold stronger antioxidant than xanthohumol and 2.3-fold than ascorbic acid. PMID:23463662

  12. A tyrosinase inhibitor from Aspergillus niger.

    PubMed

    Vasantha, K Y; Murugesh, C S; Sattur, A P

    2014-10-01

    Tyrosinase, in the presence of oxygen, is the main culprit in post harvest browning of food products, resulting in the drop in its commercial value. In an effort to seek natural tyrosinase inhibitors for food applications, a screening programme was undertaken. Of the 26 fungal cultures isolated from soil samples of Agumbe forest, India, one isolate S16, identified as Aspergillus niger, gave an inhibition of 84 % against the enzyme. The inhibitor was isolated by following an enzyme inhibition assay guided purification protocol. The structure of the inhibitor was elucidated and found to be kojic acid. The IC50 of the Competitive inhibitor was found to be 8.8 ?g with a Ki of 0.085 mM. PMID:25328242

  13. Histopathological Implications of Aspergillus Infection in Lung

    PubMed Central

    Tochigi, Naobumi; Okubo, Yoichiro; Ando, Tsunehiro; Wakayama, Megumi; Shinozaki, Minoru; Gocho, Kyoko; Hata, Yoshinobu; Ishiwatari, Takao; Nemoto, Tetsuo; Shibuya, Kazutoshi

    2013-01-01

    This paper opens with a discussion on the significance of invasive fungal infections in advanced contemporary medicine, with an emphasis on the intractability of disease management and the difficulties of diagnosis. This is followed by a discussion concerning classification, histopathological features, and pathophysiology. While it has been largely accepted that Aspergillus species is recognized by cellular receptors and attacked by neutrophils, the radiological and macroscopic findings linking infection with neutropenia remain unconfirmed. In an effort to gain a better understanding of the pathophysiology and pathogenesis of invasive aspergillosis, we wish to emphasize the utility of radiological and histopathological examinations since these can provide detailed information on the extremely complex interaction between the causative microbes and tissue responses. A review of noninvasive or semi-invasive aspergillosis is also provided, with particular emphasis on chronic necrotizing pulmonary aspergillosis, which is recognized as a transition form of simple pulmonary aspergilloma and invasive pulmonary aspergillosis, although few findings have been reported in this area. PMID:24347836

  14. Derived Equivalences of K3 Surfaces and Twined Elliptic Genera

    E-print Network

    Duncan, John F R

    2015-01-01

    We use the unique canonically-twisted module over a certain distinguished super vertex operator algebra---the moonshine module for Conway's group---to attach a weak Jacobi form of weight zero and index one to any symplectic derived equivalence of a projective complex K3 surface that fixes a stability condition in the distinguished space identified by Bridgeland. According to work of Huybrechts, following Gaberdiel--Hohenegger--Volpato, any such derived equivalence determines a conjugacy class in Conway's group, the automorphism group of the Leech lattice. Conway's group acts naturally on the module we consider. In physics the data of a projective complex K3 surface together with a suitable stability condition determines a supersymmetric non-linear sigma model, and supersymmetry preserving automorphisms of such an object may be used to define twinings of the K3 elliptic genus. Our construction recovers the K3 sigma model twining genera precisely in all available examples. In particular, the identity symmetry r...

  15. Production and properties of xylanases from Aspergillus terricola Marchal and Aspergillus ochraceus and their use in cellulose pulp bleaching

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Michelin; S. C. Peixoto-Nogueira; J. H. A. Betini; T. M. da Silva; J. A. Jorge; H. F. Terenzi; M. L. T. M. Polizeli

    2010-01-01

    Aspergillus terricola and Aspergillus ochraceus, isolated from Brazilian soil, were cultivated in Vogel and Adams media supplemented with 20 different carbon sources, at\\u000a 30 °C, under static conditions, for 120 and 144 h, respectively. High levels of cellulase-free xylanase were produced in birchwood\\u000a or oat spelt xylan-media. Wheat bran was the most favorable agricultural residue for xylanase production. Maximum activity\\u000a was obtained

  16. Detection of immunoglobulins G and A to Aspergillus fumigatus by immunoblot analysis for monitoring Aspergillus-induced lung diseases

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Th. M. van Rens; R. Vernooy-Jeras; M. Merton-de Ridder; H. van Velzen-Blad

    1998-01-01

    aa Detection of immunoglobulins G and A to Aspergillus fumigatus by immunoblot analysis for monitoring Aspergillus-induced lung diseases. M.Th.M. van Rens, R. Vernooy-Jeras, M. Merton-de Ridder, H. van Velzen-Blad, J.M.M. van den Bosch. ?ERS Journals Ltd 1998. ABSTRACT: The aim of the study was to investigate whether patients with Aspergil- lus-induced lung disease can be monitored by immunoblot analysis to

  17. Systematics of the Trichogrammatidae (Hymenoptera: Chalcidoidea) with a Focus on the Genera Attacking Lepidoptera

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ranyse B. Querino; Roberto A. Zucchi; John D. Pinto

    \\u000a The Trichogrammatidae are represented by 89 genera and more than 800 species distributed worldwide, both in terrestrial and\\u000a aquatic habitats. Fifty-six genera occur in the New World. Most South American records to the family are concerned to Trichogramma and Trichogrammatoidea, whose species are commonly used in biological control. The New World genera of Trichogrammatidae associated with Lepidoptera\\u000a are Lathromeris Forster,

  18. Cytogenetics and evolution of Matricaria and related genera (asteraceae-anthemideae)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sachihiko Mitsuoka; Friedrich Ehrendorier

    1972-01-01

    Summary 1.Chromosome numbers resp. karyotypes are established and compared for 18 species of the Anthemideae generaAnthemis, Chamaemelum, Tripleurospermum, Matricaria, Sphaeroclinium, andPentzia (Table 1, Figs. 1–2).2.Selfing tests demonstrate that various perennial and annual species of these genera are predominantly selfsterile; onlyMatricaria discoidea is an obligate inbreeder (p. 162f.).3.An experimental crossing programm involving 12 species from 5 genera has resulted in 22

  19. Distinguishing centrarchid genera by use of lateral line scales

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Roberts, N.M.; Rabeni, C.F.; Stanovick, J.S.

    2007-01-01

    Predator-prey relations involving fishes are often evaluated using scales remaining in gut contents or feces. While several reliable keys help identify North American freshwater fish scales to the family level, none attempt to separate the family Centrarchidae to the genus level. Centrarchidae is of particular concern in the midwestern United States because it contains several popular sport fishes, such as smallmouth bass Micropterus dolomieu, largemouth bass M. salmoides, and rock bass Ambloplites rupestris, as well as less-sought-after species of sunfishes Lepomis spp. and crappies Pomoxis spp. Differentiating sport fish from non-sport fish has important management implications. Morphological characteristics of lateral line scales (n = 1,581) from known centrarchid fishes were analyzed. The variability of measurements within and between genera was examined to select variables that were the most useful in further classifying unknown centrarchid scales. A linear discriminant analysis model was developed using 10 variables. Based on this model, 84.4% of Ambloplites scales, 81.2% of Lepomis scales, and 86.6% of Micropterus scales were classified correctly using a jackknife procedure. ?? Copyright by the American Fisheries Society 2007.

  20. New genera, species, and improved phylogeny of Glissomonadida (Cercozoa).

    PubMed

    Howe, Alexis T; Bass, David; Chao, Ema E; Cavalier-Smith, Thomas

    2011-11-01

    Glissomonadida is an important cercozoan order of predominantly biflagellate gliding bacterivores found largely in soil and freshwater. Their vast diversity is largely undescribed. We studied 23 mostly newly isolated strains by light microscopy and sequenced their 18S rDNA genes; nine represent new species. For two misidentified ATCC 'Heteromita triangularis' strains, we establish novel gliding genera and species: the sandonid Mollimonas lacrima, the only glissomonad forming anterior and posterior pseudopodia, and Dujardina stenomorpha, a strongly flattened member of the new family Dujardinidae. A new strain from Oxfordshire grassland soil is the first reliably identified isolate of the virtually uniflagellate, smooth-gliding glissomonad genus, AllantionSandon, 1924. Phylogenetic analysis and cytological features reveal Allantion to be a member of Allapsidae. Sandona limna and Bodomorpha prolixa from Lake Baikal and Sandona hexamutans from volcanic Costa Rican soil are described as new species. Fifteen glissomonad strains were from grassland beside Lake Baikal. We describe two as new species of Sandona (S. heptamutans and S. octamutans); the others included strains of Sandona and Allapsa species that have already been described; and three were new species of Sandona and Allapsa but these died before being described. We discuss the ecological and evolutionary significance of these new strains. PMID:21783412

  1. Molecular data delineate four genera of "Thryothorus" wrens.

    PubMed

    Mann, Nigel I; Barker, F Keith; Graves, Jeff A; Dingess-Mann, Kimberly A; Slater, Peter J B

    2006-09-01

    Wrens of the genus Thryothorus comprise over a third of the species diversity in the family Troglodytidae. In addition to this species diversity, these wrens vary in a number of behavioral characteristics, in particular in the presence and structure of vocal duets, which makes them an interesting target for comparative evolutionary ecological and behavioral study. However, no phylogenetic hypothesis for this group-which would provide a sound basis for comparative analysis-is currently available. While previous molecular phylogenetic work established conclusively that the type of this genus, Thryothorus ludovicianus (Latham), was not part of a monophyletic group with other Thryothorus, the exact limits of the genus could not be established due to limited taxon sampling. Here, we present molecular data from all but four currently recognized species of Thryothorus. These data confirm that Thryothorus is paraphyletic, and that the type T. ludovicianus does not form a monophyletic group with any other member of the genus. Based on analyses of our data, we resurrect two previously recognized wren genera, Pheugopedius and Thryophilus, and erect a new genus-Cantorchilus-to house the remaining ex-Thryothorus species. Our hypothesis of relationships will provide a firm basis for future behavioral and morphological analyses of these species. PMID:16750640

  2. New genera and species of Neotropical Exosternini (Coleoptera, Histeridae)

    PubMed Central

    Caterino, Michael S.; Tishechkin, Alexey K.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract We describe the following 8 new genera and 23 new species of Neotropical Exosternini. Conocassis gen. n. (Conocassis minor sp. n. [type species], Conocassis dromedaria sp. n., Conocassis trisulcata sp. n., and Conocassis invaginata sp. n.), Enkyosoma gen. n. (Enkyosoma rockwelli sp. n.), Pluricosta gen. n. (Pluricosta onthophiloides sp. n.), Pyxister gen. n. (Pyxister devorator sp. n. [type species] and Pyxister labralis sp. n.), Chapischema gen. n. (Chapischema doppelganger sp. n.), Scaptorus gen. n. (Scaptorus pyramus sp. n.), Lacrimorpha gen. n. (Lacrimorpha glabra sp. n. [type species], Lacrimorpha balbina sp. n., Lacrimorpha subdepressa sp. n., and Lacrimorpha acuminata sp. n.), Crenulister gen. n. (Crenulister grossus sp. n. [type species], Crenulister explanatus sp. n., Crenulister dentatus sp. n., Crenulister impar sp. n., Crenulister umbrosus sp. n., Crenulister simplex sp. n., Crenulister paucitans sp. n., Crenulister spinipes sp. n., and Crenulister seriatus sp. n.) These all represent highly distinctive and phylogenetically isolated forms, almost invariably known from very few specimens. All but one species have been collected only by passive flight intercept traps, and nothing significant is known about the biology of any of them. PMID:24624014

  3. THE ASPERGILLUS OCHRACEUS GROUP: TWO NEW SPECIES FROM WESTERN SOILS AND A SYNOPTIC KEY

    Microsoft Academic Search

    MARTHA CHRISTENSEN

    Two new species in the Aspergillus ochraceus group are described and compared to related taxa. Aspergillus bridgeri, from soils collected in a native community dominated by Atriplex gardneri in Wyoming, somewhat resembles A. elegans and A. lanosus, but differs in cultural and morphological details. Aspergillus campestris, from a native prairie in northern North Dakota, resembles A. dimorphicus in having metulae

  4. Precipitins and specific IgG antibody to Aspergillus fumigatus in a chest unit population

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J A Faux; D J Shale

    1992-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for detecting IgG antibodies to Aspergillus fumigatus is more sensitive than the measurement of Aspergillus precipitins. The relation of the results from both techniques to the clinical pattern of disease in a large unselected group of patients from a large referral centre is unknown. METHODS: The clinical relation of precipitins to Aspergillus fumigatus

  5. Contributions of Foot Traffic and Outdoor Concentrations to Indoor Airborne Aspergillus

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Marian D. Goebes; Alexandria B. Boehm; Lynn M. Hildemann

    2011-01-01

    Aspergillus is a mold genus that can cause allergies, asthma, and pulmonary infections in sensitive people; its particles are common in indoor air. Two potential contributors to indoor Aspergillus particles were examined in this field study: human activity (walking over carpet), and outdoor Aspergillus concentrations. Filtered air samples were collected outdoors and inside two carpeted hallways in public buildings, while

  6. New genera, species and host plant records of Nearctic and Neotropical Tephritidae (Diptera)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Three new genera and 5 new species of Tephritidae (Diptera) are described from the Nearctic and Neotropical Regions. The new genera are: Agallamyia Norrbom (type species: A. pendula Norrbom, n. sp.), Neosphaeniscus Norrbom (type species: Euribia m-nigrum Hendel), and Phacelochaeta Norrbom (type spec...

  7. Comparative Phylogenetic Histories of Two Louse Genera Found on Catharus Thrushes and Other Birds

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Chelsea Bueter; Jason Weckstein; Kevin P. Johnson; John M. Bates; Caleb E. Gordon

    2009-01-01

    The louse genera Brueelia (Ischnocera) and Myrsidea (Amblycera) are broadly codistributed on songbirds (Passeri- formes), but differ in a variety of life history characteristics. We used mitochondrial and nuclear DNA sequences to assess levels of genetic divergence and reconstruct phylogenies of these 2 genera, focusing especially on Catharus thrushes in North America. We then qualitatively compared the phylogenies and levels

  8. Structural rearrangements, including parallel inversions, within the chloroplast genome of Anemone and related genera

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sara B. Hoot; Jeffrey D. Palmer

    1994-01-01

    Chloroplast DNA cleavage sites for 10 restriction enzymes were mapped for 46 species representing all sections of Anemone, four closely related genera (Clematis, Pulsatilla, Hepatica, and Knowltonia), and three more distantly related outgroups (Caltha, Ranunculus, and Adonis). Comparison of the maps revealed that the chloroplast genomes of Anemone and related genera have sustained an unusual number and variety of rearrangements.

  9. Molecular phylogenetic relationship of snow finch complex (genera Montifringilla, Pyrgilauda, and Onychostruthus) from the Tibetan plateau

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yanhua Qu; Per G. P. Ericson; Fumin Lei; Axel Gebauer; Martin Kaiser; Andreas J. Helbig

    2006-01-01

    The snow finch complex (Montifringilla, Pyrgilauda, and Onychostruthus) has its center of distribution on the Tibetan plateau, with six out of seven species in the genera occurring there. Phylogenetic relationships among these six species of three genera have been studied based on DNA sequence data obtained from the mitochondrial cytochrome b gene and the nuclear myoglobin gene. The results support

  10. Elliptic Genera of singular varieties, orbifold elliptic genus and chiral deRham complex

    E-print Network

    Borisov, Lev

    Elliptic Genera of singular varieties, orbifold elliptic genus and chiral deRham complex Lev A-mail:libgober@math.uic.edu Abstract This paper surveys the authors recent work on two variable elliptic genus of singular varieties. The last section calculates a generating function for the elliptic genera of symmetric products

  11. Evidence of Possible Evolutionary Divergence in Plant Genera Based on Antioxidant Properties

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Asai, Elizabeth; Cao, Sharon

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to determine if three Western species of the Panax, Lycium, and Astragalus genera had antibacterial and/or antioxidant properties, and how their properties compared to Eastern herbs in the same genera. The group hypothesized that when compared, the corresponding herbs would have identical antibacterial and…

  12. Fungal life in the dead sea.

    PubMed

    Oren, Aharon; Gunde-Cimerman, Nina

    2012-01-01

    The waters of the Dead Sea currently contain about 348 g/l salts (2 M Mg(2+), 0.5 M Ca(2+), 1.5 M Na(+), 0.2 M K(+), 6.5 M Cl(-), 0.1 M Br(-)). The pH is about 6.0. After rainy winters the surface waters become diluted, triggering development of microbial blooms. The 1980 and 1992 blooms were dominated by the unicellular green alga Dunaliella and red Archaea. At least 70 species (in 26 genera) of Oomycota (Chromista), Mucoromycotina, Ascomycota, and Basidiomycota (Fungi) were isolated from near-shore localities and offshore stations, including from deep waters. Aspergillus and Eurotium were most often recovered. Aspergillus terreus, A. sydowii, A. versicolor, Eurotium herbariorum, Penicillium westlingii, Cladosporium cladosporioides, C. sphaerospermum, C. ramnotellum, and C. halotolerans probably form the stable core of the community. The species Gymnascella marismortui may be endemic. Mycelia of Dead Sea isolates of A. versicolor and Chaetomium globosum remained viable for up to 8 weeks in Dead Sea water; mycelia of other species survived for many weeks in 50% Dead Sea water. Many isolates showed a very high tolerance to magnesium salts. There is no direct proof that fungi contribute to the heterotrophic activity in the Dead Sea, but fungi may be present at least locally and temporarily, and their enzymatic activities such as amylase, protease, and cellulase may play a role in the lake's ecosystem. PMID:22222829

  13. [Gerog Fresenius and the species Aspergillus fumigatus].

    PubMed

    Schmidt, A

    1998-01-01

    The species Aspergillus fumigatus was first extensively described by G. Fresenius. J. B. Georg W. Fresenius was born in Frankfurt/Main, Germany, in 1808 and also died there in 1866. He studied medicine and finished his doctorate thesis (MD) in 1829. Afterwards he started his career as a physician and surgeon in Frankfurt/Main in the same year. In 1831 Fresenius became a university lecturer for botany at the "Senckenbergisches medicinisches Institut"; this institute specialized in botany. In this year Fresenius also became the director of the botanical gardens of Frankfurt/Main. Apart from his collaboration in the institute for agriculture he actively participated in the microscopical association of Frankfurt as well as the "Senckenbergische medicinische Gesellschaft". Almost over the whole period, Fresenius also worked as a physician taking care of miserable people. The outstanding publications of Fresenius are "Die Flora von Frankfurt" (Flora of Frankfurt) and "Beiträge zur Mykologie" (Contributions to Mycology). The monograph "Beiträge zur Mykologie" was published by Fresenius as a dedication for the centennial celebrations of the Senckenberg foundation ("Senckenbergische Stiftung"). It contains 132 pages and 13 excellent lithographic figures (Camera lucida). The third part of this monograph also contains the description of the species A. fumigatus. Fresenius was an engaged physician as well as an outstanding researcher and expert in natural sciences who described numerous new fungal species some of which are still accepted nowadays in accordance with the "International Code of Botanical Nomenclature". PMID:10085696

  14. Aspergillus fumigatus thermophilic and acidophilic endoglucanases.

    PubMed

    Grigorevski-Lima, A L; Da Vinha, F N M; Souza, D T; Bispo, A S R; Bon, E P S; Coelho, R R R; Nascimento, R P

    2009-05-01

    This study evaluated the production of cellulolytic enzymes by an Aspergillus fumigatus strain, isolated from sugar cane bagasse, according to its ability to grow on microcrystalline cellulose as the sole carbon source. The effect of the carbon source (brewer's spent grain, sugarcane bagasse, and wheat bran) and of the nitrogen source (corn steep liquor and sodium nitrate) on cellulase production was studied using submerged and solid state cultivations at 30 degrees C. The highest levels of endoglucanase (CMCase) corresponded to 365 U L(-1) and was obtained using sugarcane bagasse (1%) and corn steep liquor (1.2%) in submerged fermentation within 6 days of cultivation. This supernatant was used to run a sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis that showed six bands with endoglucanase activity. CMCase activity was higher at 65 degrees C and pH 2.0, indicating that this microorganism produces a thermophilic and acid endoglucanase. Solid state cultivation favored FPase production, that reached 47 U g(-1) of dry substrate (wheat bran and sugarcane bagasse) within 3 days. PMID:19127443

  15. Genetics of Polyketide Metabolism in Aspergillus nidulans

    PubMed Central

    Klejnstrup, Marie L.; Frandsen, Rasmus J. N.; Holm, Dorte K.; Nielsen, Morten T.; Mortensen, Uffe H.; Larsen, Thomas O.; Nielsen, Jakob B.

    2012-01-01

    Secondary metabolites are small molecules that show large structural diversity and a broad range of bioactivities. Some metabolites are attractive as drugs or pigments while others act as harmful mycotoxins. Filamentous fungi have the capacity to produce a wide array of secondary metabolites including polyketides. The majority of genes required for production of these metabolites are mostly organized in gene clusters, which often are silent or barely expressed under laboratory conditions, making discovery and analysis difficult. Fortunately, the genome sequences of several filamentous fungi are publicly available, greatly facilitating the establishment of links between genes and metabolites. This review covers the attempts being made to trigger the activation of polyketide metabolism in the fungal model organism Aspergillus nidulans. Moreover, it will provide an overview of the pathways where ten polyketide synthase genes have been coupled to polyketide products. Therefore, the proposed biosynthesis of the following metabolites will be presented; naphthopyrone, sterigmatocystin, aspyridones, emericellamides, asperthecin, asperfuranone, monodictyphenone/emodin, orsellinic acid, and the austinols. PMID:24957370

  16. The Tip Growth Apparatus of Aspergillus nidulans

    PubMed Central

    Taheri-Talesh, Naimeh; Horio, Tetsuya; Araujo-Bazán, Lidia; Dou, Xiaowei; Espeso, Eduardo A.; Peńalva, Miguel A.; Osmani, Stephen A.

    2008-01-01

    Hyphal tip growth in fungi is important because of the economic and medical importance of fungi, and because it may be a useful model for polarized growth in other organisms. We have investigated the central questions of the roles of cytoskeletal elements and of the precise sites of exocytosis and endocytosis at the growing hyphal tip by using the model fungus Aspergillus nidulans. Time-lapse imaging of fluorescent fusion proteins reveals a remarkably dynamic, but highly structured, tip growth apparatus. Live imaging of SYNA, a synaptobrevin homologue, and SECC, an exocyst component, reveals that vesicles accumulate in the Spitzenkörper (apical body) and fuse with the plasma membrane at the extreme apex of the hypha. SYNA is recycled from the plasma membrane by endocytosis at a collar of endocytic patches, 1–2 ?m behind the apex of the hypha, that moves forward as the tip grows. Exocytosis and endocytosis are thus spatially coupled. Inhibitor studies, in combination with observations of fluorescent fusion proteins, reveal that actin functions in exocytosis and endocytosis at the tip and in holding the tip growth apparatus together. Microtubules are important for delivering vesicles to the tip area and for holding the tip growth apparatus in position. PMID:18216285

  17. Fingernail Onychomycosis Due to Aspergillus niger.

    PubMed

    Kim, Dong Min; Suh, Moo Kyu; Ha, Gyoung Yim; Sohng, Seung Hyun

    2012-11-01

    Onychomycosis is usually caused by dermatophytes, but some species of nondermatophytic molds and yeasts are also associated with nail invasion. Aspergillus niger is a nondermatophytic mold which exists as an opportunistic filamentous fungus in all environments. Here, we report a case of onychomycosis caused by A. niger in a 66-year-old female. The patient presented with a black discoloration and a milky white base and onycholysis on the proximal portion of the right thumb nail. Direct microscopic examination of scrapings after potassium hydroxide (KOH) preparation revealed dichotomous septate hyphae. Repeated cultures on Sabouraud's dextrose agar (SDA) without cycloheximide produced the same black velvety colonies. No colony growth occurred on SDA with cycloheximide slants. Biseriate phialides covering the entire vesicle with radiate conidial heads were observed on the slide culture. The DNA sequence of the internal transcribed spacer region of the clinical sample was a 100% match to that of A. niger strain ATCC 16888 (GenBank accession number AY373852). A. niger was confirmed by KOH mount, colony identification, light microscopic morphology, and DNA sequence analysis. The patient was treated orally with 250 mg terbinafine daily and topical amorolfine 5% nail lacquer for 3 months. As a result, the patient was completely cured clinically and mycologically. PMID:23197914

  18. Degradation of melanin by Aspergillus fumigatus.

    PubMed Central

    Luther, J P; Lipke, H

    1980-01-01

    A strain of Aspergillus fumigatus from composted coffee and garden wastes utilized natural deproteinized insect, banana, hair, octopus, and synthetic tyrosine and dopa melanins as sole sources of carbon. With a sucrose supplement, degradation was essentially complete after 50 days in Czapek medium pH 6.5 at 30 degrees C. The catabolic rate differed for each substrate pigment, as did the molecular weight distribution of products accumulating in the medium. After incubation with L-[U-14C]melanin, over 50% was recovered in a dark fungal pigment, the remainder appearing as cell protein, chitin, lipid, CO2, and polar metabolites. When grown on melanin, the normally pale mycelia darkened with the production of a fungal allomelanin, with infrared spectrum and alkali fusion products differing from those of the substrate pigment. Isotope distribution in amino acids for A. fumigatus grown on labeled melanin supplemented with sucrose suggested separate pools for synthesis of cell proteins and melanoproteins. Deposition of allomelanin increased resistance of conidia, sterigma, and conidiophores to lytic carbohydrases as judged by scanning electron microscopy. Images PMID:6996615

  19. Galactosaminogalactan from cell walls of Aspergillus niger.

    PubMed Central

    Bardalaye, P C; Nordin, J H

    1976-01-01

    A new heteropolysaccharide has been isolated by alkaline extraction of hyphal walls of Aspergillus niger NRRL 326 grown in surface culture. Its composition by weight, as determined by paper and gas chromatography and colorimetric analyses, is 70% galactose, 20% galactosamine, 6% glucose, and 1% acetyl. Two independent experiments have been used to ascertain copolymer structure: permeation chromatography in 6 M guanidinium hydrochloride, with controlled-pore glass columns of two fractionation ranges, and nitrous acid deaminative cleavage of galactosaminogalactan followed by reduction of fragments with [3H]borohydride and gel filtration chromatography. One of the tritiated fragments is tentatively identified as the disaccharide derivative galactopyranosyl 2,5-anhydrotalitol, on the basis of chromatographic properties and by kinetics of its acid hydrolysis. Smith degradation, methylation, deamination, and optical rotation studies indicate that the galactosaminogalactan consists of a linear array of hexopyranosyl units joined almost exclusively by alpha-(1 leads to 4) linkages. Hexosaminyl moieties are distributed randomly along the chains, which have an average degree of polymerization of about 100. The possible significance of this macromolecule in hyphal structure is considered. PMID:173713

  20. Bioconversion of Capsaicin by Aspergillus oryzae.

    PubMed

    Lee, Minji; Cho, Jeong-Yong; Lee, Yu Geon; Lee, Hyoung Jae; Lim, Seong-Il; Park, So-Lim; Moon, Jae-Hak

    2015-07-01

    This study identified metabolites of capsaicin bioconverted by Aspergillus oryzae, which is generally used for mass production of gochujang prepared by fermenting red pepper powder in Korea. A. oryzae was incubated with capsaicin in potato dextrose broth. Capsaicin decreased depending on the incubation period, but new metabolites increased. Five capsaicin metabolites purified from the ethyl acetate fraction of the capsaicin culture were identified as N-vanillylcarbamoylbutyric acid, N-vanillyl-9-hydroxy-8-methyloctanamide, ?-hydroxycapsaicin, 8-methyl-N-vanillylcarbamoyl-6(E)-octenoic acid, and 2-methyl-N-vanillylcarbamoyl-6(Z)-octenoic acid by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and mass spectrometry (MS). The capsaicin metabolites in gochujang were confirmed and quantitated by selective multiple reaction monitoring detection after liquid chromatography electrospray ionization MS using the isolated compounds as external standards. On the basis of the structures of the capsaicin metabolites, it is proposed that capsaicin metabolites were converted by A. oryzae by ?-hydroxylation, alcohol oxidation, hydrogenation, isomerization, and ?- and/or ?-oxidation. PMID:26072923

  1. Phytochemicals and biological activities of poisonous genera of Ericaceae in China.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiaohong; Jiang, Rui; Liu, Zizhen; Liu, Weirui; Xie, Meng; Wei, Shengli; She, Gaimei

    2014-03-01

    The family Ericaceae is comprised of about 70 genera of which about 20 are found throughout China. Of these Ledum, Rhododendron, Enkianthus, Pieris, Craibiodendron, Gaultheria, Vaccinium, and Leucothoe are regarded as poisonous. Many species of these poisonous genera are used as Chinese herbal medicines for the treatment of, for example, inflammation, asthma, and coughs. Modem research has demonstrated that the toxic ingredients of these poisonous genera are chiefly tetracyclic diterpenes, which have adverse effects on the digestive, cardiovascular and nervous systems. Because various species of these poisonous genera also have medicinal functions, extensive studies of these plants have led to the identification of many kinds of compound. This paper compiles 306 compounds from the eight poisonous genera, reported in 141 references. PMID:24689229

  2. Acute community acquired Aspergillus pneumonia in a presumed immunocompetent host

    PubMed Central

    Sridhar, Varun; Rajagopalan, Natarajan; C, Shivaprasad; Patil, Mahantesh; Varghese, Jaicob

    2012-01-01

    Infection from Aspergillus results in a wide range of diseases from simple Aspergillus pneumonia to fatal invasive Aspergillosis. Though the fungus is known to predominantly affect the immunocompromised host, it has also been known to cause acute pneumonia in immunocompetent hosts which is invariably fatal. It presents as an acute pneumonia with bilateral chest infiltrates on radiograph. Early clinical suspicion and microbiological identification by measures such as broncho alveolar lavage and initiation of therapy with voricanozole significantly increase the chances of survival. In this article the authors discuss a case of acute community acquired Aspergillus pneumonia in an immunocompetent host who survived due to early identification and prompt treatment with appropriate antifungal medication. PMID:22605848

  3. Phylogenetic and morphotaxonomic revision of Ramichloridium and allied genera

    PubMed Central

    Arzanlou, M.; Groenewald, J.Z.; Gams, W.; Braun, U.; Shin, H.-D; Crous, P.W.

    2007-01-01

    The phylogeny of the genera Periconiella, Ramichloridium, Rhinocladiella and Veronaea was explored by means of partial sequences of the 28S (LSU) rRNA gene and the ITS region (ITS1, 5.8S rDNA and ITS2). Based on the LSU sequence data, ramichloridium-like species segregate into eight distinct clusters. These include the Capnodiales (Mycosphaerellaceae and Teratosphaeriaceae), the Chaetothyriales (Herpotrichiellaceae), the Pleosporales, and five ascomycete clades with uncertain affinities. The type species of Ramichloridium, R. apiculatum, together with R. musae, R. biverticillatum, R. cerophilum, R. verrucosum, R. pini, and three new species isolated from Strelitzia, Musa and forest soil, respectively, reside in the Capnodiales clade. The human-pathogenic species R. mackenziei and R. basitonum, together with R. fasciculatum and R. anceps, cluster with Rhinocladiella (type species: Rh. atrovirens, Herpotrichiellaceae, Chaetothyriales), and are allocated to this genus. Veronaea botryosa, the type species of the genus Veronaea, also resides in the Chaetothyriales clade, whereas Veronaea simplex clusters as a sister taxon to the Venturiaceae (Pleosporales), and is placed in a new genus, Veronaeopsis. Ramichloridium obovoideum clusters with Carpoligna pleurothecii (anamorph: Pleurothecium sp., Chaetosphaeriales), and a new combination is proposed in Pleurothecium. Other ramichloridium-like clades include R. subulatum and R. epichloës (incertae sedis, Sordariomycetes), for which a new genus, Radulidium is erected. Ramichloridium schulzeri and its varieties are placed in a new genus, Myrmecridium (incertae sedis, Sordariomycetes). The genus Pseudovirgaria (incertae sedis) is introduced to accommodate ramichloridium-like isolates occurring on various species of rust fungi. A veronaea-like isolate from Bertia moriformis with phylogenetic affinity to the Annulatascaceae (Sordariomycetidae) is placed in a new genus, Rhodoveronaea. Besides Ramichloridium, Periconiella is also polyphyletic. Thysanorea is introduced to accommodate Periconiella papuana (Herpotrichiellaceae), which is unrelated to the type species, P. velutina (Mycosphaerellaceae). PMID:18490996

  4. Microbial succession in the traditional Chinese Luzhou-flavor liquor fermentation process as evaluated by SSU rRNA profiles.

    PubMed

    Xiang, Wenliang; Li, Ke; Liu, Seng; Xing, Yage; Li, Mingyuan; Che, Zhenming

    2013-03-01

    The community succession of microbes inhabited in the fermenting lees of Luzhou-flavor liquor was investigated based on small-subunit rRNA culture independent method. All sequences recovered from fermenting lees respectively fell into the genera of Lactobacillus, Streptococcus, Bacillus, Staphylococcus, Clostridium, Pelobacter, Actobacter, Serratia, Burkholderia, Rhodoccous, Corynebacterium, Arthrobacter, Microbacterium, Curtobacterium, Leptotrichia, Methanocuuleus, Saccharomyces, Zygosaccharomyces, Saccharomycopsis, Pichia, Talaromyces, Aspergillus, Eurotium, Fomitopsis and Trichosporon. The fungal Pichia, Saccharomycopsis and Talaromyces were most abundant in the lees fermented for 1 day, the fungal Eurotium and the bacteria Burkholderia, Streptococcus and Lactobacillus were dominant in the lees fermented for 7 days, only the bacteria Lactobacillus, Burkholderia were prevalent in the lees fermented for 60 days. Most genera almost existed in the fermenting lees, while their distributions were significantly different in 1, 7 and 60 days fermented lees. The prokaryotic community similarity coefficient was from 0.5000 to 0.5455 and followed to 0.1523, and that of eukaryotic community was from 0.5466 to 0.5259 and to 0.3750 when compared at species level. These results suggested that many microbes in lees have community successions associated with fermenting and that such successions maybe contribute the fermentation process of Luzhou-flavor liquor and is main reasons that the characteristic flavor factors are produced. PMID:23180546

  5. Aspergillus flavus endocarditis--to prevaricate is to posture.

    PubMed

    Fraser, J F; Mullany, D; Natani, S; Chinthamuneedi, M; Hovarth, R

    2006-03-01

    Fungal endocarditis represents both a diagnostic and therapeutic challenge to the treating team. The critical care physician will see a rising incidence as older and more immuno-compromised patients are being supported in their intensive care units. Aspergillus sp. endocarditis represents less than 25% of all cases of fungal endocarditis and is associated with a mortality of around 80%. Early diagnosis may assist with definitive management. We review a case of Aspergillus endocarditis, and review the literature as to optimal methods of detection, imaging modalities of choice, and management, both surgical and medical. PMID:16536720

  6. Diagnostic significance of Aspergillus species isolated from respiratory samples in an adult pneumology ward.

    PubMed

    Tashiro, Takayoshi; Izumikawa, Koichi; Tashiro, Masato; Takazono, Takahiro; Morinaga, Yoshitomo; Yamamoto, Kazuko; Imamura, Yoshifumi; Miyazaki, Taiga; Seki, Masafumi; Kakeya, Hiroshi; Yamamoto, Yoshihiro; Yanagihara, Katsunori; Yasuoka, Akira; Kohno, Shigeru

    2011-08-01

    Although the diagnostic significance of isolating Aspergillus spp. from respiratory cultures has been studied in immunocompromised hosts with invasive pulmonary aspergillosis (IPA), little is known of such infections in immunocompetent patients with other forms of aspergillosis. In this study of adult pneumology ward patients, we examined the association between Aspergillus spp. and disease prevalence. Laboratory records from April 1998 to March 2009 were reviewed to identify patients with Aspergillus spp. in respiratory samples. Correlations between the isolated species and clinical characteristics of patients were evaluated. During the study period, 165 Aspergillus spp. isolates were detected in the respiratory cultures of 139 patients. Of these patients, 62 (45%) were colonized with Aspergillus spp. and displayed no clinical symptoms of aspergillosis, while 77 (55%) had a form of pulmonary aspergillosis, characterized as either chronic necrotizing pulmonary aspergillosis (CNPA) (48%), aspergilloma (29%), IPA (13%), or allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis (ABPA) (10%). The dominant species were Aspergillus fumigatus (41%), A. niger (32%), and A. versicolor (12%). A. fumigatus was most commonly isolated in patients with IPA, aspergilloma, and CNPA, whereas A. niger was the dominant species in colonized patients and those with ABPA. Isolation of an Aspergillus spp. from respiratory samples does not confirm it as the etiologic pathogen because airway colonization by Aspergillus spp. is a common feature in several chronic lung diseases. Repeated isolation of the identical Aspergillus species and detection of anti-Aspergillus antibodies and/or Aspergillus antigens in sera are needed to determine the isolate represents the etiologic agent of disease. PMID:21208028

  7. Functional Analysis of the Aspergillus nidulans Kinome

    PubMed Central

    De Souza, Colin P.; Hashmi, Shahr B.; Osmani, Aysha H.; Andrews, Peter; Ringelberg, Carol S.; Dunlap, Jay C.; Osmani, Stephen A.

    2013-01-01

    The filamentous fungi are an ecologically important group of organisms which also have important industrial applications but devastating effects as pathogens and agents of food spoilage. Protein kinases have been implicated in the regulation of virtually all biological processes but how they regulate filamentous fungal specific processes is not understood. The filamentous fungus Aspergillus nidulans has long been utilized as a powerful molecular genetic system and recent technical advances have made systematic approaches to study large gene sets possible. To enhance A. nidulans functional genomics we have created gene deletion constructs for 9851 genes representing 93.3% of the encoding genome. To illustrate the utility of these constructs, and advance the understanding of fungal kinases, we have systematically generated deletion strains for 128 A. nidulans kinases including expanded groups of 15 histidine kinases, 7 SRPK (serine-arginine protein kinases) kinases and an interesting group of 11 filamentous fungal specific kinases. We defined the terminal phenotype of 23 of the 25 essential kinases by heterokaryon rescue and identified phenotypes for 43 of the 103 non-essential kinases. Uncovered phenotypes ranged from almost no growth for a small number of essential kinases implicated in processes such as ribosomal biosynthesis, to conditional defects in response to cellular stresses. The data provide experimental evidence that previously uncharacterized kinases function in the septation initiation network, the cell wall integrity and the morphogenesis Orb6 kinase signaling pathways, as well as in pathways regulating vesicular trafficking, sexual development and secondary metabolism. Finally, we identify ChkC as a third effector kinase functioning in the cellular response to genotoxic stress. The identification of many previously unknown functions for kinases through the functional analysis of the A. nidulans kinome illustrates the utility of the A. nidulans gene deletion constructs. PMID:23505451

  8. Elliptic genera of non-compact Gepner models and mirror symmetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ashok, Sujay K.; Troost, Jan

    2012-07-01

    We consider tensor products of N = 2 minimal models and non-compact conformal field theories with N = 2 superconformal symmetry, and their orbifolds. The elliptic genera of these models give rise to a large and interesting class of real Jacobi forms. The tensor product of conformal field theories leads to a natural product on the space of completed mock modular forms. We exhibit families of non-compact mirror pairs of orbifold models with c = 9 and show explicitly the equality of elliptic genera, including contributions from the long multiplet sector. The Liouville and cigar deformed elliptic genera transform into each other under the mirror transformation.

  9. Elliptic Genera of Non-compact Gepner Models and Mirror Symmetry

    E-print Network

    Sujay K. Ashok; Jan Troost

    2012-06-27

    We consider tensor products of N=2 minimal models and non-compact conformal field theories with N=2 superconformal symmetry, and their orbifolds. The elliptic genera of these models give rise to a large and interesting class of real Jacobi forms. The tensor product of conformal field theories leads to a natural product on the space of completed mock modular forms. We exhibit families of non-compact mirror pairs of orbifold models with c=9 and show explicitly the equality of elliptic genera, including contributions from the long multiplet sector. The Liouville and cigar deformed elliptic genera transform into each other under the mirror transformation.

  10. Systematic revision of the ormiine genera Aulacephala Macquart and Phasioormia Townsend (Diptera, Tachinidae).

    PubMed

    Nihei, Silvio S

    2015-01-01

    The tribe Ormiini comprises 64 species in six genera. In the present paper, the ormiine genera Aulacephala Macquart and Phasioormia Townsend are revised, with two valid species recognized in the former and three valid species recognized in the latter. All available nominal species in Aulacephala and Phasioormia were examined and are revised herein, so that previous synonymies could be confirmed. Furthermore, Phasioormia papuana sp. nov. is described from Papua New Guinea and Indonesia, and Therobia punctigera (Paramonov, 1955) is proposed as a new synonym of Aulacephala hervei Bequaert, 1922, syn. nov. Keys to species and illustrations of male and female terminalia are provided for both genera. PMID:25781811

  11. Air sampling of Aspergillus fumigatus and other thermotolerant fungi: comparative performance of the Sartorius MD8 airport and the Merck MAS-100 portable bioaerosol sampler.

    PubMed

    Engelhart, Steffen; Glasmacher, Axel; Simon, Arne; Exner, Martin

    2007-12-01

    The purpose of our field study was to compare the performance of two portable bioaerosol samplers (Sartorius MD8 airport, and Merck MAS-100) for sampling Aspergillus fumigatus and other airborne thermotolerant fungi. From October 2001 to November 2001, a total of 336 samples were analyzed at 12 sampling days. During the sampling period fungal plate counts ranged from <1 to 300 CFU/m(3) for total thermotolerant fungi and from <1 to 76 CFU/m(3) for A. fumigatus. As compared to the MD8, the relative recovery of the MAS 100 was 0.96 for total thermotolerant fungi and 0.84 for A. fumigatus. We found a good correlation (Pearson's r=0.94 for single, 0.95 for the mean of two, and 0.96 for the mean of three sequential samples) between both portable bioaerosol samplers. The spectrum of thermotolerat fungal genera and Aspergillus species showed only minor differences. We conclude that under the given conditions the results of both samplers are approximately comparable. PMID:17142101

  12. Characterization of toxigenic and atoxigenic Aspergillus flavus isolates from pistachio

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Thirty eight Aspergillus flavus isolates collected from a pistachio orchard in California were analyzed for production of aflatoxin (AF), cyclopiazonic acid (CPA), vegetative compatibility groups (VCGs) and mating types. All toxigenic isolates produced both AFB1 and CPA. Twenty-one percent of the i...

  13. Recombination and cryptic heterokaryosis in experimental populations of Aspergillus flavus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Aspergillus flavus infects both plants and animals, and is of toxicological importance due to its production of aflatoxins (AFs) and other mycotoxins. Mycotoxins can cause agricultural losses totaling upwards of $1.4 billion annually. Recent efforts to reduce AF concentrations have focused on the us...

  14. Serum Stimulates Growth of and Proteinase Secretion by Aspergillus fumigatus

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Anna H. T. Gifford; Jodine R. Klippenstein; Margo M. Moore

    2002-01-01

    Serum contains iron-binding proteins, which inhibit the growth of most pathogenic microorganisms, in- cluding fungi. The purpose of this research was to investigate the effect of serum on growth of the opportunistic fungal pathogen Aspergillus fumigatus. Supplementing minimal essential medium (MEM) with up to 80% human serum or up to 80% fetal bovine serum (FBS) stimulated growth and increased the

  15. The maize rachis affects Aspergillus flavus movement during ear development

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Aspergillus flavus expressing green fluorescent protein (GFP) was used to follow infection in ears of maize hybrids resistant and susceptible to the fungus. Developing ears were needle-inoculated with GFP-transformed A. flavus 20 days after silk emergence, and GFP fluorescence in the pith was evalu...

  16. Genetic Response to Seed Colonizatin by Aspergillus flavus in Peanut

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Previous studies to evaluate peanut genotypes for in vitro resistance to seed colonization by Aspergillus flavus have not resulted in the development of cultivars with resistance to aflatoxin contamination in the field. New breeding lines showing pre-harvest field resistance to aflatoxin contaminat...

  17. Cryptic Sexuality Influences Aflatoxigenicity in Aspergillus parasiticus and A. flavus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Ascomycetous fungi of the genus Aspergillus comprise a wide variety of species of biotechnological importance as well as pathogens and toxin producers. Recent studies report A. fumigatus to be heterothallic and possibly undergoing sexual reproduction. We therefore investigated whether compatible mat...

  18. Cryptic Sexuality in Aspergillus parasiticus and A. flavus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Ascomycetous fungi of the genus Aspergillus comprise a wide variety of species of biotechnological importance (e.g. A. sojae, A. oryzae, A. niger) as well as pathogens and toxin producers (e.g. A. flavus, A. parasiticus, A. fumigatus, A. nidulans). With the exception of A. nidulans, which is a homot...

  19. Production of penicillic acid by Aspergillus sclerotiorum CGF

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. W. Kang; C. H. Park; S. I. Hong; S. W. Kim

    2007-01-01

    The production of penicillic acid by Aspergillus sclerotiorum CGF for the biocontrol of Phytophthora disease was investigated in submerged fermentation using media composed of different nutrients. Soluble starch was found to be the most effective substrate among the carbon sources used, and produced the highest penicillic acid concentration of 2.98mgml?1. When organic nitrogen sources were used, pharmamedia, yeast extract, and

  20. New ochratoxin A producing species of Aspergillus section Circumdati

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jens C. Frisvad; J. Mick Frank; Jos A. M. P. Houbraken; Angelina F. A. Kuijpers; Robert A. Samson

    2004-01-01

    Abstract: Aspergillus section Circumdati contains species with yellow to ochre conidia and non-black sclerotia that produce atleast one of the following extrolites: ochratoxins, penicillic acids, xanthomegnins or melleins. The exception to this is A. robustus, which produces black sclerotia, phototropic conidiophores and none of the extrolites listed above. Based on a polyphasic approach using morphological characters, extrolites and partial ?-tubulin

  1. Kitchens as a source of Aspergillus niger infection

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. W. Loudon; A. P. Coke; J. P. Burnie; A. J. Shaw; B. A. Oppenheim; C. Q. Morris

    1996-01-01

    In this study we investigated the epidemiology of a cluster of cutaneous infections owing to Aspergillus niger, which occurred in neutropenic patients in a bone marrow transplant unit. Heavy environmental contamination with the mould was found in the ward kitchen adjacent to the unit. The clinical and environmental isolates were typed by random amplification of polymorphic DNA (RAPD), which showed

  2. A Highly Efficient Gene-Targeting System for Aspergillus parasiticus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Gene targeting via homologous recombination is often used to elucidate gene function. For filamentous fungi, the majority of transforming DNA integrates ectopically. Deletion of Aspergillus parasiticus ku70, a gene of the non-homologous end-joining pathway, drastically increased the gene targeting...

  3. Potential of Aspergillus flavus Genomics for Applications in Biotechnology

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Aspergillus flavus is a common saprophyte and opportunistic pathogen that survives in the natural environment by extracting nutrition from plant debris, insect carcasses and a variety of other carbon sources. A. flavus produces numerous secondary metabolites and hydrolytic enzymes. The primary obj...

  4. Comparison of different transformation methods for Aspergillus giganteus

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Vera Meyer; Dirk Mueller; Till Strowig; Ulf Stahl

    2003-01-01

    Four different transformation methods were tested and compared in an attempt to facilitate the genetic transformation of Aspergillus giganteus, the producer of an antifungal protein (AFP). The fungus was transformed to hygromycin B resistance, using the hph gene of Escherichia coli by protoplast transformation, electroporation, biolistic transformation, and Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation. Electroporation and biolistic transformation were found to be inappropriate

  5. Mating-type heterokaryosis in Aspergillus flavus in North Carolina

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Aspergillus flavus is a well-known pathogen of many important agricultural commodities and is a major producer of aflatoxins (AFs), which are carcinogenic polyketides that pose a serious health risk to humans and animals. Recently, heterokaryosis and the presence of cryptic alleles were shown to ex...

  6. Indoloditerpenes from an algicolous isolate of Aspergillus oryzae

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ming-Feng Qiao; Nai-Yun Ji; Xiang-Hong Liu; Ke Li; Qing-Mei Zhu; Qin-Zhao Xue

    2010-01-01

    Two new indoloditerpene derivatives asporyzin A (1) and asporyzin B (2), one new indoloditerpene asporyzin C (3), and three known related indoloditerpenes JBIR-03 (4), emindole SB (5), and emeniveol (6) were isolated from an endophytic fungus Aspergillus oryzae, isolated from the marine red alga Heterosiphonia japonica. Their structures were unambiguously established by spectroscopic techniques. In addition, all the isolates were

  7. Draft Genome Sequence of Aspergillus oryzae Strain 3.042

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Guozhong; Yao, Yunping; Qi, Wei; Wang, Chunling; Hou, Lihua; Zeng, Bin

    2012-01-01

    Aspergillus oryzae is the most important fungus for the traditional fermentation in China and is particularly important in soy sauce fermentation. We report the 36,547,279-bp draft genome sequence of A. oryzae 3.042 and compared it to the published genome sequence of A. oryzae RIB40. PMID:22933657

  8. Evidence of aneuploidy modulating aflatoxigenicity in Aspergillus flavus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Aspergillus flavus is a well-known pathogen of many important agricultural commodities and is a major producer of aflatoxins, which are carcinogenic polyketides that pose a serious health risk to humans and animals. Aflatoxin contamination in peanut exports worldwide accounts for as much as $450 mi...

  9. Galacto-oligosaccharide synthesis by immobilized Aspergillus oryzae ?-galactosidase

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ruchi Gaur; Hema Pant; Ruchi Jain; S. K. Khare

    2006-01-01

    Aspergillus oryzae ?-galactosidase was immobilized by three different techniques, namely adsorption on celite, covalent coupling to chitosan and aggregation by cross-linking. These techniques were compared in terms of the yield of immobilized preparation, enzymatic characteristics, stability and efficiency in oligosaccharide synthesis. Immobilization led to increase in Km in each case. Immobilization on chitosan gave maximum enzyme yield and oligosaccharide synthesis.

  10. Polyphasic taxonomy of Aspergillus section Fumigati and its teleomorph Neosartorya

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We revised the taxonomy of Aspergillus section Fumigati along with its teleomorph genus Neosartorya. Our species concept is based phenotype (morphology and extrolite profiles) and molecular (beta-tubulin and calmodulin gene sequences) characters in a polyphasic approach. Four new taxa are proposed:...

  11. Aspergillus fumigatus Induces Immunoglobulin E–Independent Mast Cell Degranulation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mirjam Urb; Philippe Pouliot; Martin Olivier

    2009-01-01

    Background. Pulmonary colonization by Aspergillus fumigatus in chronic lung disease is associated with pro- gressive decline in lung function even in the absence of specific allergic response. We hypothesized that A. fumigatus contributes to this decline by inducing pulmonary mast cell degranulation even in the absence of antigen-specific immunoglobulin E (IgE). Therefore, we investigated whether A. fumigatus can induce mast

  12. Aspergillus fumigatus: Principles of Pathogenesis and Host Defense

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tobias M. Hohl; Marta Feldmesser

    2007-01-01

    Aspergillus fumigatus is a ubiquitous saprophytic mold (67) that forms airborne spores (conidia). Humans inhale, on aver- age, hundreds of these infectious propagules daily. In immune competent hosts, these encounters are of no further signifi- cance—conidia are killed and cleared by cells of the pulmonary immune system. However, disease occurs when the host re- sponse is either too strong or

  13. The origins of aflatoxin chemotype diversity in Aspergillus populations

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Species in Aspergillus section Flavi commonly infect agricultural staples such as corn, peanuts, cottonseed, and tree nuts and produce an array of mycotoxins, the most potent of which are aflatoxins, which can be classified into B and G toxin chemotype classes. Experimental matings in the laboratory...

  14. Health Effects of Aspergillus in Food and Air

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This review summarizes the health aspects of the medically important fungal genus Aspergillus. The morphology and systematics of the genus are explained as well as its biogeography. Major mycotoxins, the aspergilli that produces them, affected crops and symptoms of the toxicoses are summarized, as...

  15. Key to the recognition of normapolles and some morphologically similar pollen genera

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Batten, D.J.; Christopher, R.A.

    1981-01-01

    A dichotomous key to the recognition of 86 Normapolles and morphologically similar pollen genera is presented. The key is accompanied by line drawings of each genus and an illustrated glossary of descriptive terms. ?? 1981.

  16. A World Wide Web key to the grass genera of Texas

    E-print Network

    Dawson, John Edward

    2001-01-01

    An illustrated dichotomous key to the grass genera of Texas is presented in hypertext markup language (HTML) format. The key combines scanned images of inflorescences, digitized images of dissected spikelets, text descriptions and descriptive...

  17. A KEY TO THE COMMON GENERA OF NEOGENE SHARK TEETH ROBERT W. PURDY

    E-print Network

    Mathis, Wayne N.

    A KEY TO THE COMMON GENERA OF NEOGENE SHARK TEETH BY ROBERT W. PURDY Revised April 2003 #12;2 Table . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 Using Artificial Tooth Sets to Identify Fossil Shark Teeth . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 Hexanchiform Sharks

  18. Heterologous expression, purification and characterization of nitrilase from Aspergillus niger K10

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Nitrilases attract increasing attention due to their utility in the mild hydrolysis of nitriles. According to activity and gene screening, filamentous fungi are a rich source of nitrilases distinct in evolution from their widely examined bacterial counterparts. However, fungal nitrilases have been less explored than the bacterial ones. Nitrilases are typically heterogeneous in their quaternary structures, forming short spirals and extended filaments, these features making their structural studies difficult. Results A nitrilase gene was amplified by PCR from the cDNA library of Aspergillus niger K10. The PCR product was ligated into expression vectors pET-30(+) and pRSET B to construct plasmids pOK101 and pOK102, respectively. The recombinant nitrilase (Nit-ANigRec) expressed in Escherichia coli BL21-Gold(DE3)(pOK101/pTf16) was purified with an about 2-fold increase in specific activity and 35% yield. The apparent subunit size was 42.7 kDa, which is approx. 4 kDa higher than that of the enzyme isolated from the native organism (Nit-ANigWT), indicating post-translational cleavage in the enzyme's native environment. Mass spectrometry analysis showed that a C-terminal peptide (Val327 - Asn356) was present in Nit-ANigRec but missing in Nit-ANigWT and Asp298-Val313 peptide was shortened to Asp298-Arg310 in Nit-ANigWT. The latter enzyme was thus truncated by 46 amino acids. Enzymes Nit-ANigRec and Nit-ANigWT differed in substrate specificity, acid/amide ratio, reaction optima and stability. Refolded recombinant enzyme stored for one month at 4°C was fractionated by gel filtration, and fractions were examined by electron microscopy. The late fractions were further analyzed by analytical centrifugation and dynamic light scattering, and shown to consist of a rather homogeneous protein species composed of 12-16 subunits. This hypothesis was consistent with electron microscopy and our modelling of the multimeric nitrilase, which supports an arrangement of dimers into helical segments as a plausible structural solution. Conclusions The nitrilase from Aspergillus niger K10 is highly homologous (?86%) with proteins deduced from gene sequencing in Aspergillus and Penicillium genera. As the first of these proteins, it was shown to exhibit nitrilase activity towards organic nitriles. The comparison of the Nit-ANigRec and Nit-ANigWT suggested that the catalytic properties of nitrilases may be changed due to missing posttranslational cleavage of the former enzyme. Nit-ANigRec exhibits a lower tendency to form filaments and, moreover, the sample homogeneity can be further improved by in vitro protein refolding. The homogeneous protein species consisting of short spirals is expected to be more suitable for structural studies. PMID:21210990

  19. The genera of Mallophaga of North America north of Mexico with special reference to Texas species 

    E-print Network

    Wiseman, John Sumner

    1959-01-01

    LIBRARY A & M COLLEGE OF A&MCO THE GENERA OF MALLOPHAGA OF NORTH AMERICA NORTH OF MEXICO WITH SPECIAL REFERENCE TO TEXAS SPECIES A Dissertation JOHN SUMNER WISEMAN Submitted to the Graduate School of the Agricultural and Mechanical College... of Texas in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY May 1959 Major Subjects Entomology THE GENERA. OF MALLOFHAGA OF NORTH AMERICA NORTH OF MEXICO WITH SPECIAL REFERENCE TO TEXAS SPECIES A Dissertation By JOHN...

  20. Molecular Reappraisal of Relationships Between Crataegus and Mespilus (Rosaceae, Pyreae)—Two Genera or One?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    EUGENIA Y. Y. LO; SASA STEFANOVIC ´; TIMOTHY A. DICKINSON; James F. Smith

    2007-01-01

    Mespilus and Crataegus are sister genera in Rosaceae tribe Pyreae. Mespilus has been seen to comprise not only the medlar, Mespilus germanica, of western Eurasia but also the Arkansas, U.S.A. endemic, Mespilus canescens. Crataegus, on the other hand, consists of 140-200 species found throughout the northern hemisphere. Diagnoses of these two genera rely on morphological features of leaves, flowers and

  1. Longevity of orders is related to the longevity of their constituent genera rather than genus richness

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Stefan Bornholdt; Kim Sneppen; Hildegard Westphal

    2009-01-01

    Longevity of a taxonomic group is an important issue in understanding the dynamics of evolution. In this respect a key observation\\u000a is that genera, families or orders can each be assigned a characteristic average lifetime (Van Valen in Evol Theory 1:1–30,\\u000a 1973). Using the fossil marine animal genera database (Sepkoski in Bull Am Paleontol 363, pp 563, 2002) we here

  2. A new genus of fossil Mymaridae (Hymenoptera) from Cretaceous amber and key to Cretaceous mymarid genera.

    PubMed

    Poinar, George; Huber, John T

    2011-01-01

    Myanmymar aresconoidesgen n., sp. n. is described from one female in Burmese amber, dated as about 100 my. It is similar to Arescon on wing features but is unique among Mymaridae in having distinctly segmented palpi. It is the fifth mymarid genus definitely referable to the Cretaceous period. A key to Cretaceous mymarid genera is presented and the features of Myanmymar are compared with the other Cretaceous and extant mymarid genera. PMID:22259293

  3. A cytotaxonomic study of some species in the genera Pennisetum and Cenchrus 

    E-print Network

    Read, James C

    1969-01-01

    for investigations of chromosome homology and fertility. Cons quently, taxonomists and plant breeders find apomictic genera confusing. It is apparent that apomixis has been an important. factor in certain grass genera. However, the role of apomixis in speciation... consequence, some important forage species, such as bu felgrass, have been placed first in one genus and then the other. Until recently, all available plants of these species reproduced by obligate apomixis making it impossible to use fertility relation...

  4. Molecular phylogeny of the endemic fern genera Cyrtomidictyum and Cyrtogonellum (Dryopteridaceae) from East Asia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hong-Mei Liu; Xian-Chun Zhang; Wei Wang; Hui Zeng

    2010-01-01

    Cyrtomidictyum Ching and Cyrtogonellum Ching are two eastern Asian endemic genera whose taxonomic affinities and phylogenetic relationships have long been controversial.\\u000a The main uncertainty surrounds the separation of the two genera from the species-rich genus Polystichum. Here we present a phylogenetic study focusing on the phylogenetic relationships of these polystichoid ferns. We reconstructed\\u000a the relationships based on DNA sequence variation

  5. The genera of Mallophaga of North America north of Mexico with special reference to Texas species

    E-print Network

    Wiseman, John Sumner

    1959-01-01

    LIBRARY A & M COLLEGE OF A&MCO THE GENERA OF MALLOPHAGA OF NORTH AMERICA NORTH OF MEXICO WITH SPECIAL REFERENCE TO TEXAS SPECIES A Dissertation JOHN SUMNER WISEMAN Submitted to the Graduate School of the Agricultural and Mechanical College... of Texas in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY May 1959 Major Subjects Entomology THE GENERA. OF MALLOFHAGA OF NORTH AMERICA NORTH OF MEXICO WITH SPECIAL REFERENCE TO TEXAS SPECIES A Dissertation By JOHN...

  6. Metabolomics Analysis Reveals Specific Novel Tetrapeptide and Potential Anti-Inflammatory Metabolites in Pathogenic Aspergillus species

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Kim-Chung; Tam, Emily W. T.; Lo, Ka-Ching; Tsang, Alan K. L.; Lau, Candy C. Y.; To, Kelvin K. W.; Chan, Jasper F. W.; Lam, Ching-Wan; Yuen, Kwok-Yung; Lau, Susanna K. P.; Woo, Patrick C. Y.

    2015-01-01

    Infections related to Aspergillus species have emerged to become an important focus in infectious diseases, as a result of the increasing use of immunosuppressive agents and high fatality associated with invasive aspergillosis. However, laboratory diagnosis of Aspergillus infections remains difficult. In this study, by comparing the metabolomic profiles of the culture supernatants of 30 strains of six pathogenic Aspergillus species (A. fumigatus, A. flavus, A. niger, A. terreus, A. nomius and A. tamarii) and 31 strains of 10 non-Aspergillus fungi, eight compounds present in all strains of the six Aspergillus species but not in any strain of the non-Aspergillus fungi were observed. One of the eight compounds, Leu–Glu–Leu–Glu, is a novel tetrapeptide and represents the first linear tetrapeptide observed in Aspergillus species, which we propose to be named aspergitide. Two other closely related Aspergillus-specific compounds, hydroxy-(sulfooxy)benzoic acid and (sulfooxy)benzoic acid, may possess anti-inflammatory properties, as 2-(sulfooxy)benzoic acid possesses a structure similar to those of aspirin [2-(acetoxy)benzoic acid] and salicylic acid (2-hydroxybenzoic acid). Further studies to examine the potentials of these Aspergillus-specific compounds for laboratory diagnosis of aspergillosis are warranted and further experiments will reveal whether Leu–Glu–Leu–Glu, hydroxy-(sulfooxy)benzoic acid and (sulfooxy)benzoic acid are virulent factors of the pathogenic Aspergillus species. PMID:26090713

  7. Metabolomics Analysis Reveals Specific Novel Tetrapeptide and Potential Anti-Inflammatory Metabolites in Pathogenic Aspergillus species.

    PubMed

    Lee, Kim-Chung; Tam, Emily W T; Lo, Ka-Ching; Tsang, Alan K L; Lau, Candy C Y; To, Kelvin K W; Chan, Jasper F W; Lam, Ching-Wan; Yuen, Kwok-Yung; Lau, Susanna K P; Woo, Patrick C Y

    2015-01-01

    Infections related to Aspergillus species have emerged to become an important focus in infectious diseases, as a result of the increasing use of immunosuppressive agents and high fatality associated with invasive aspergillosis. However, laboratory diagnosis of Aspergillus infections remains difficult. In this study, by comparing the metabolomic profiles of the culture supernatants of 30 strains of six pathogenic Aspergillus species (A. fumigatus, A. flavus, A. niger, A. terreus, A. nomius and A. tamarii) and 31 strains of 10 non-Aspergillus fungi, eight compounds present in all strains of the six Aspergillus species but not in any strain of the non-Aspergillus fungi were observed. One of the eight compounds, Leu-Glu-Leu-Glu, is a novel tetrapeptide and represents the first linear tetrapeptide observed in Aspergillus species, which we propose to be named aspergitide. Two other closely related Aspergillus-specific compounds, hydroxy-(sulfooxy)benzoic acid and (sulfooxy)benzoic acid, may possess anti-inflammatory properties, as 2-(sulfooxy)benzoic acid possesses a structure similar to those of aspirin [2-(acetoxy)benzoic acid] and salicylic acid (2-hydroxybenzoic acid). Further studies to examine the potentials of these Aspergillus-specific compounds for laboratory diagnosis of aspergillosis are warranted and further experiments will reveal whether Leu-Glu-Leu-Glu, hydroxy-(sulfooxy)benzoic acid and (sulfooxy)benzoic acid are virulent factors of the pathogenic Aspergillus species. PMID:26090713

  8. In Vitro Evaluation of Double and Triple Combinations of Antifungal Drugs against Aspergillus fumigatus and Aspergillus terreus

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Eric Dannaoui; Olivier Lortholary; Francoise Dromer

    2004-01-01

    Microdilution broth checkerboard techniques based on the National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards methodology were used to study double and triple antifungal combinations against clinical isolates of Aspergillus fumigatus and A. terreus. The influences of the end-point definition (partial or complete inhibition) and the mode of reading (visually or spectrophotometrically) were determined. Interactions between antifungal drugs were also evaluated by

  9. Characterization of the Aspergillus parasiticus delta12-desaturase gene: a role for lipid metabolism in the Aspergillus-seed interaction.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Richard A; Calvo, Ana M; Chang, Perng-Kuang; Keller, Nancy P

    2004-09-01

    In the mycotoxigenic oilseed pathogens Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus parasiticus and the model filamentous fungus Aspergillus nidulans, unsaturated fatty acids and their derivatives act as important developmental signals that affect asexual conidiospore, sexual ascospore and/or sclerotial development. To dissect the relationship between lipid metabolism and fungal development, an A. parasiticus Delta(12)-desaturase mutant that was unable to convert oleic acid to linoleic acid and was thus impaired in polyunsaturated fatty acid biosynthesis was generated. The Delta(12)-desaturase mutant demonstrates delayed spore germination, a twofold reduction in growth, a reduced level of conidiation and complete loss of sclerotial development, compared to the wild-type. Host colonization is impaired, as reflected by a decrease in conidial production on live peanut and corn seed by the mutant compared to the wild-type. Similarly, the previously isolated A. nidulans Delta(12)-desaturase mutant has reduced colonization capabilities compared to the wild-type. Therefore, desaturation mutants display a key requisite that affords a genetic solution to oilseed crop contamination by mycotoxigenic Aspergillus species: a reduction in the production of conidia, the infectious particle of the pathogenic aspergilli. PMID:15347747

  10. Loss of msnA a putative stress regulatory gene in Aspergillus parasiticus and Aspergillus flavus increased production of conidia aflatoxins and kojic acid

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Production of the harmful carcinogenic aflatoxins by Aspergillus parasiticus and Aspergillus flavus has been postulated to be a mechanism to relieve oxidative stress. The msnA gene, the ortholog of Saccharomyces cerevisiae MSN2 associated with multi-stress response, of the two species was disrupted....

  11. A study on Aspergillus species in houses of asthmatic patients from Sari City, Iran and a brief review of the health effects of exposure to indoor Aspergillus

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mohammad T. Hedayati; Sabah Mayahi; David W. Denning

    2009-01-01

    To study the distribution of Aspergillus spp. in outdoor and indoor air of asthmatic pa- tients' houses, as well as a review on the health effects of exposure to indoor Aspergillus .O pen plates containing malt extract agar media were used to isolate fungi from the indoor (n = 360) and outdoor (n = 180) air of 90 asthmatic pa-

  12. Isolation and characterization of the Aspergillus parasiticus pacC gene

    E-print Network

    Pinero, David

    1999-01-01

    . pacC' ) were grown at pH 8. Aspergillus parasiticus strains were grown on potato dextrose agar at 30' C. Snains were maintained as silica stocks at room temperature. Sexual crosses of A. nidulans strains were conducted according to Pontecorvo (26... and carcinogenic secondary metabolites produced by several Aspergi llus species. Ambient pH has been determined to affect mycotoxin (i. e. aflatoxin and sterigmatocystin) biosynthesis in Aspergillus parasiticus and Aspergillus nidulans, respectively...

  13. Evidence of RIP (repeat-induced point mutation) in transposase sequences of Aspergillus oryzae

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Maria D. Montiel; Heather A. Lee; David B. Archer

    2006-01-01

    A DNA methyl-binding column was used to isolate genomic fragments enriched for DNA-methylation from Aspergillus parasiticus. One of the isolated sequences presented 67% identity at the protein level with the transposase from the transposable element Tan1 of Aspergillus niger var. awamori, and was found to be present in at least 20 copies in the Aspergillus oryzae database. Analysis of four

  14. Discovery of a novel superfamily of type III polyketide synthases in Aspergillus oryzae

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yasuyo Seshime; Praveen Rao Juvvadi; Isao Fujii; Katsuhiko Kitamoto

    2005-01-01

    Identification of genes encoding type III polyketide synthase (PKS) superfamily members in the industrially useful filamentous fungus, Aspergillus oryzae, revealed that their distribution is not specific to plants or bacteria. Among other Aspergilli (Aspergillus nidulans and Aspergillus fumigatus), A. oryzae was unique in possessing four chalcone synthase (CHS)-like genes (csyA, csyB, csyC, and csyD). Expression of csyA, csyB, and csyD

  15. Enumeration and identification of Aspergillus group and Penicillium species in poultry feeds from Argentina

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. Magnoli; R. Miazzo

    1998-01-01

    A total of 180 samples of poultry feeds were collected during 1996 and 1997 from different factories in the south of the province\\u000a of Crdoba-Argentina. They were examined for the occurrence of Penicillium spp. and Aspergillus group species. Likewise, the\\u000a capacity to produce aflatoxins by the Aspergillus section flavi group was determined. The predominant species of Aspergillus\\u000a were A. flavus

  16. Opportunistic Mycelial Fungal Infections in Organ Transplant Recipients: Emerging Importance of Non? Aspergillus Mycelial Fungi

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Shahid Husain; Barbara D. Alexander; Patricia Munoz; Robin K. Avery; Sally Houston; Timothy Pruett; Richard Jacobs; Edward A. Dominguez; Jan G. Tollemar; Katherine Baumgarten; Chen M. Yu; Marilyn M. Wagener; Peter Linden; Shimon Kusne; Nina Singh

    2003-01-01

    To determine the spectrum and impact of mycelial fungal infections, particularly those due to non-Aspergillus molds, 53 liver and heart transplant recipients with invasive mycelial infections were prospectively identified in a multicenter study. Invasive mycelial infections were due to Aspergillus species in 69.8% of patients, to non-Aspergillus hyalohyphomycetes in 9.4%, to phaeohyphomycetes in 9.4%, to zygomycetes in 5.7%, and to

  17. The distribution of Aspergillus spp. opportunistic parasites in hives and their pathogenicity to honey bees.

    PubMed

    Foley, Kirsten; Fazio, Géraldine; Jensen, Annette B; Hughes, William O H

    2014-03-14

    Stonebrood is a disease of honey bee larvae caused by fungi from the genus Aspergillus. As very few studies have focused on the epidemiological aspects of stonebrood and diseased brood may be rapidly discarded by worker bees, it is possible that a high number of cases go undetected. Aspergillus spp. fungi are ubiquitous and associated with disease in many insects, plants, animals and man. They are regarded as opportunistic pathogens that require immunocompromised hosts to establish infection. Microbiological studies have shown high prevalences of Aspergillus spp. in apiaries which occur saprophytically on hive substrates. However, the specific conditions required for pathogenicity to develop remain unknown. In this study, an apiary was screened to determine the prevalence and diversity of Aspergillus spp. fungi. A series of dose-response tests were then conducted using laboratory reared larvae to determine the pathogenicity and virulence of frequently occurring isolates. The susceptibility of adult worker bees to Aspergillus flavus was also tested. Three isolates (A. flavus, Aspergillus nomius and Aspergillus phoenicis) of the ten species identified were pathogenic to honey bee larvae. Moreover, adult honey bees were also confirmed to be highly susceptible to A. flavus infection when they ingested conidia. Neither of the two Aspergillus fumigatus strains used in dose-response tests induced mortality in larvae and were the least pathogenic of the isolates tested. These results confirm the ubiquity of Aspergillus spp. in the apiary environment and highlight their potential to infect both larvae and adult bees. PMID:24485932

  18. Production of biologically active recombinant human lactoferrin in Aspergillus oryzae.

    PubMed

    Ward, P P; Lo, J Y; Duke, M; May, G S; Headon, D R; Conneely, O M

    1992-07-01

    We report the production of recombinant human lactoferrin in Aspergillus oryzae. Expression of human lactoferrin (hLF), a 78 kD glycoprotein, was achieved by placing the cDNA under the control of the A. oryzae alpha-amylase promoter and the 3' flanking region of the A. niger glucoamylase gene. Using this system, hLF is expressed and secreted into the growth medium at levels up to 25 mg/l. The recombinant lactoferrin is indistinguishable from human milk lactoferrin with respect to its size, immunoreactivity, and iron-binding capacity. The recombinant protein appears to be appropriately N-linked glycosylated and correctly processed at the N-terminus by the A. oryzae secretory apparatus. Lactoferrin is the largest heterologous protein and the first mammalian glycoprotein expressed in the Aspergillus system to date. Hence, this expression system appears suitable for the large-scale production and secretion of biologically active mammalian glycoproteins. PMID:1368268

  19. Aspergillus fumigatus Scleritis Associated with Monoclonal Gammopathy of Undetermined Significance

    PubMed Central

    Jo, Dong Hyun; Oh, Joo Youn; Kim, Mee Kum; Heo, Jang Won; Lee, Jin Hak

    2010-01-01

    A 68-year-old woman presented with pain in her left eye. Necrosis with calcium plaques was observed on the medial part of the sclera. Aspergillus fumigatus was isolated from the culture of the necrotic area. On systemic work-up including serum and urine electrophoresis studies, the serum monoclonal protein of immunoglobulin G was detected. The patient was diagnosed with monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance and fungal scleritis. Despite intensive treatment with topical and oral antifungal agents, scleral inflammation and ulceration progressed, and scleral perforation and endophthalmitis developed. Debridement, antifungal irrigation, and tectonic scleral grafting were performed. The patient underwent a combined pars plana vitrectomy with an intravitreal injection of an antifungal agent. However, scleral and intraocular inflammation progressed, and the eye was enucleated. Aspergillus fumigatus was isolated from the cultures of the eviscerated materials. Giemsa staining of the excised sclera showed numerous fungal hyphae. PMID:20532146

  20. Ecophysiology of Aspergillus Section Nigri Species Potential Ochratoxin A Producers

    PubMed Central

    Astoreca, Andrea L.; Magnoli, Carina E.; Dalcero, Ana M.

    2010-01-01

    After aflatoxins, ochratoxin A (OTA) is the most studied mycotoxin due to the toxicological significance in human and animal diets. OTA presence has been extensively reported worldwide in the last decade in several agricultural products. The main OTA producer in tropical and temperate climates is Aspergillus carbonarius followed by species belonging to A. niger aggregate. Currently, many scientists worldwide have studied the influence of water activity and temperature for growth and biosynthesis of OTA by these species on synthetic media. This article reviews ecophysiological studies of Aspergillus section Nigri strains on synthetic media and natural substrates. The results of these investigations suggest that significant amounts of OTA can be produced in only five days and that the use of different storage practices, such as aW and temperature levels below 0.930 and 15 °C, respectively, allow controlling fungal contamination and minimizing the OTA production in several products as peanuts, corn, dried grapes and derived products for human consumption. PMID:22069566

  1. Salmonella and Aspergillus infections in common loons overwintering in Florida.

    PubMed

    White, F H; Forrester, D J; Nesbitt, S A

    1976-11-01

    During a 5-year period (1970-1975), 190 common loons (Gavia immer) from overwintering populations on the east and west coasts of Florida were examined for evidence of infectious diseases. Salmonella spp (representing 8 serotypes) were isolated from 27 (14%) of the loons, and lesions typical of those produced by Aspergillus fumigatus were found in 34 (18%) of the loons. Seven loons were infected with Salmonella spp and had lesions typical of aspergillus infection. The largest number of loons (124) was obtained during the winter of 1973-1974, in connection with an offshore oil spill. There was no significant difference between the isolation rates of Salmonella spp from oiled vs nonoiled loons, but the occurrence of aspergillosis was higher in nonoiled than in oiled loons. PMID:789314

  2. Advances in molecular detection of Aspergillus : an update

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Z. Abdin; Malik M. Ahmad; Saleem Javed

    2010-01-01

    Filamentous cosmopolitan fungi of the genus Aspergillus can be harmful in two ways, directly they can be opportunistic pathogens causing aspergillosis and indirectly due to aflatoxin\\u000a production on food products which can lead to aflatoxicosis. Therefore, a number of methods have been proposed so far for\\u000a detection of the fungi with lowest possible concentration at the earliest. Molecular methods such

  3. Restriction endonuclease cleavage map of mitochondrial DNA from Aspergillus nidulans.

    PubMed Central

    Stepie?, P P; Bernard, U; Cooke, H J; Küntzel, H

    1978-01-01

    Mitochondrial DNA of the ascomycete fungus Aspergillus nidulans, a circular molecule of 31 500 base pairs, is cleaved by restriction endonucleases Eco R I, Hind II, Hind III and Bgl II into 3, 7, 9 and 5 fragments, respectively. The relative positions of the cleavage sites could be mapped by analysis of fragments obtained by double enzyme digestions of whole DNA and by complete and partial redigestion of isolated restriction fragments. Images PMID:345242

  4. Single cell transcriptomics of neighboring hyphae of Aspergillus niger.

    PubMed

    de Bekker, Charissa; Bruning, Oskar; Jonker, Martijs J; Breit, Timo M; Wösten, Han A B

    2011-01-01

    Single cell profiling was performed to assess differences in RNA accumulation in neighboring hyphae of the fungus Aspergillus niger. A protocol was developed to isolate and amplify RNA from single hyphae or parts thereof. Microarray analysis resulted in a present call for 4 to 7% of the A. niger genes, of which 12% showed heterogeneous RNA levels. These genes belonged to a wide range of gene categories. PMID:21816052

  5. Structure elucidation of metabolites of swertiamarin produced by Aspergillus niger

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jun, Chang; Xue-Ming, Zhao; Chang-Xiao, Liu; Tie-Jun, Zhang

    2008-04-01

    The in vitro metabolism of swertiamarin was carried out in preparative scale using the fungus Aspergillus niger and the metabolites were isolated by semi-preparative HPLC combined with liquid-liquid extraction. Two metabolites, erythrocentaurin and one new compound were obtained and identified by 1H, 13C and 2D NMR and high resolution MS. The anti-inflammatory activity of the novel metabolite was tested and compared with that of swertiamarin in a mice model.

  6. Infected Baerveldt Glaucoma Drainage Device by Aspergillus niger

    PubMed Central

    Salim, Nurul-Laila; Azhany, Yaakub; Abdul Rahman, Zaidah; Yusof, Roziawati; Liza-Sharmini, Ahmad Tajudin

    2015-01-01

    Fungal endophthalmitis is rare but may complicate glaucoma drainage device surgery. Management is challenging as the symptoms and signs may be subtle at initial presentation and the visual prognosis is usually poor due to its resistant nature to treatment. At present there is lesser experience with intravitreal injection of voriconazole as compared to Amphotericin B. We present a case of successfully treated Aspergillus endophthalmitis following Baerveldt glaucoma drainage device implantation with intravitreal and topical voriconazole.

  7. Induction of xylanase in Aspergillus tamarii by methyl ?- d -xyloside

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. C. Simăo; C. G. M. Souza; R. M. Peralta

    1997-01-01

    Aspergillus tamarii produced extracellular xylanase and intracellular ?-xylosidase inductively in washed glucose-grown mycelia incubated with\\u000a xylan and methyl ?-d-xyloside, a synthetic glycoside. Methyl ?-d-xyloside was a more effective inducer than xylan at the same concentration for both enzymes. Glucose and cycloheximide were\\u000a found to inhibit xylanase production by methyl ?-d-xyloside. Methyl ?-d-xyloside was hydrolyzed to xylose by mycelial extract in

  8. Lovastatin production by Aspergillus terreus in solid-state fermentation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Pei-lian Wei; Zhi-nan Xu; Pei-lin Cen

    2007-01-01

    Lovastatin production by Aspergillus terreus ATCC 20542 in solid-state fermentation (SSF) was studied. Various substrates were used to evaluate the ability of A. terreus to produce lovastatin. The results showed that either rice or wheat bran was suitable substrate for lovastatin production\\u000a in SSF. The maximum yield of lovastatin (2.9 mg\\/g dry substrate) using rice as substrate was achieved after

  9. Single cell transcriptomics of neighboring hyphae of Aspergillus niger

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Single cell profiling was performed to assess differences in RNA accumulation in neighboring hyphae of the fungus Aspergillus niger. A protocol was developed to isolate and amplify RNA from single hyphae or parts thereof. Microarray analysis resulted in a present call for 4 to 7% of the A. niger genes, of which 12% showed heterogeneous RNA levels. These genes belonged to a wide range of gene categories. PMID:21816052

  10. Fractionation of ?-Glucosidases and Related Extracellular Enzymes from Aspergillus niger

    PubMed Central

    Li, L.-h.; King, K. W.

    1963-01-01

    Industrial concentrates from Aspergillus niger culture filtrates were fractionated by ion-exchange and adsorption chromatography. Several other types of hydrolases were completely removed. Eight partially purified components were obtained. Using specific activity as an estimate of purification, one aryl-?-glucosidase was purified 35-fold. Another component showed 147-fold purification using a viscosimetric assay with carboxymethylcellulose as substrate. The aryl-?-glucosidase was distinctly more thermolabile than the carboxymethylcellulase. PMID:13930396

  11. Cotransformation of Aspergillus nidulans : a tool for replacing fungal genes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Karel Wernars; Theo Goosen; Bert M. J. Wennekes; Klaas Swart; Cees A. M. J. J. Hondel; Henk W. J. Broek

    1987-01-01

    When a non-selected DNA sequence was added during the transformation of amdS320 deletion strains of Aspergillus nidulans with a vector containing the wild-type amdS gene the AmdS+ transformants were cotransformed at a high frequency. Cotransformation of an amdS320, trpC801 double mutant strain showed that both the molar ratio of the two vectors and the concentration of the cotransforming vector affected

  12. Phylogenetic analysis of polyketide synthase genes from Aspergillus ochraceus

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. O'Callaghan; A. D. W. Dobson

    2006-01-01

    A number of polyketide synthase gene sequences fromAspergillus ochraceus were isolated by both SSH-PCR and degenerate PCR. The deduced amino acid sequences of the corresponding clonedpks DNA fragments were then aligned with the amino acid sequences of other polyketide synthase enzymes. One of thesepks genes is essential for ochratoxin A biosynthesis (OTA-PKS). The OTA-PKS was most similar to methylsalicylic acid

  13. Genetic aspects of resistance to imazalil in Aspergillus nidulans

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. M. van Tuyl

    1977-01-01

    Mutant strains of Aspergillus nidulans have been isolated which display a low level of resistance to imazalil, a recently\\u000a developed systemic fungicide. Agar growth tests showed that A. nidulans is about three times as sensitive to imazalil when\\u000a growing on supplemented minimal medium (SM) as compared with complete medium. This effect was reduced by adding glutamic acid\\u000a to the SM.

  14. Fed-batch biotransformation of ?-ionone by Aspergillus niger

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. Larroche; C. Cruely; J.-B. Gros

    1995-01-01

    Aspergillus niger IFO 8541 was found to be an efficient biocatalyst for the biotransformation of ß-ionone into hydroxy and oxo derivatives. The reaction had to be carried out with an inoculum made of about 4 × 107 fresh spores\\/l and with a preliminary growth period giving at least 3 g\\/l biomass. The fungus developed in the form of pellets when

  15. Characterization of Aspergillus species based on fatty acid profiles

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Marcelo E Fraga; Djalva Maria N Santana; Mario Jorge Gatti; Gloria Maria Direito; Lilia R Cavaglieri; Carlos Alberto R Rosa

    2008-01-01

    Cellular fatty acid (FA) composition was utilized as a taxonomic tool to discriminate between different Aspergil- lus species. Several of the tested species had the same FA composition and different relative FA concentrations. The most important FAs were palmitic acid (C16:0), estearic acid (C18:0), oleic acid (C18:1) and linoleic acid (C18:2), which represented 95% of Aspergillus FAs. Multivariate data analysis

  16. Aspergillus and other moulds in the air of Kuwait

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Z. U. Khan; M. A. Y. Khan; Rachel Chandy; P. N. Sharma

    1999-01-01

    A one-year survey was carried out to study the aerial prevalence of Aspergillus species and other moulds in the outdoor and indoor environments of Kuwait. Petri plates containing rose-Bengal medium were\\u000a exposed for 20 minutes twice a month using a six-stage Andersen air sampler at the pre-determined sites. The exposed plates\\u000a were incubated at 28 °C ± 1 °C up

  17. Degradation of homophthalic acid byAspergillus niger.

    PubMed

    Karigar, C S; Banji, S H; Pujar, B G

    1993-09-01

    The fungusAspergillus niger degraded homophthalic acid through the involvement ofo-hydroxyphenylacetic acid and homogentisic acid as the metabolic intermediates. Isolation of intermediates was carried out by extracting the spent medium and by using inhibitor in replacement culture techniques. Metabolites were characterized by various physicochemical methods. Oxygen uptake studies and enzyme investigations also confirmed that the degradation of homophthalic acid follows through these intermediates in the fungus. PMID:23835751

  18. Galactosaminogalactan, a New Immunosuppressive Polysaccharide of Aspergillus fumigatus

    PubMed Central

    Simenel, Catherine; Coddeville, Bernadette; van Vliet, Sandra J.; van Kooyk, Yvette; Bozza, Silvia; Moretti, Silvia; Schwarz, Flavio; Trichot, Coline; Aebi, Markus; Delepierre, Muriel; Elbim, Carole; Romani, Luigina; Latgé, Jean-Paul

    2011-01-01

    A new polysaccharide secreted by the human opportunistic fungal pathogen Aspergillus fumigatus has been characterized. Carbohydrate analysis using specific chemical degradations, mass spectrometry, 1H and 13C nuclear magnetic resonance showed that this polysaccharide is a linear heterogeneous galactosaminogalactan composed of ?1-4 linked galactose and ?1-4 linked N-acetylgalactosamine residues where both monosacharides are randomly distributed and where the percentage of galactose per chain varied from 15 to 60%. This polysaccharide is antigenic and is recognized by a majority of the human population irrespectively of the occurrence of an Aspergillus infection. GalNAc oligosaccharides are an essential epitope of the galactosaminogalactan that explains the universal antibody reaction due to cross reactivity with other antigenic molecules containing GalNAc stretches such as the N-glycans of Campylobacter jejuni. The galactosaminogalactan has no protective effect during Aspergillus infections. Most importantly, the polysaccharide promotes fungal development in immunocompetent mice due to its immunosuppressive activity associated with disminished neutrophil infiltrates. PMID:22102815

  19. In vitro activity of disinfectants against Aspergillus spp.

    PubMed

    Mattei, A S; Madrid, I M; Santin, R; Schuch, L F D; Meireles, M C A

    2013-01-01

    Fungi of the Aspergillus genus are widespread and contaminate the environment. Thousands of conidia are released from each phialide and dispersed in the air every day. These fungi are considered important mycose-causing agents in hospitals. Due to this, research to determine prevalent fungi from the Aspergillus genus in hospital environments, and an adequate disinfection program in these areas is are needed. This study evaluated the susceptibility of Aspergillus spp. isolated from a veterinary environment against four disinfectants. Successive dilutions of disinfectants (log2) were used according to CLSI M38-A2 microdilution technique adapted to chemical agents against 18 isolates of this genus. After 72 hours of incubation, the Minimum Inhibiting Concentration and Minimum Fungicidal Concentration capable of inhibiting 50% and 90% of the isolates were determined. Chlorexidine-cetrimine, benzalconium chloride and a chlorophenol derivative proved to be effective against all isolates with a lower MIC than that suggested by the manufacturer, except for the A. flavus strain. Sodium hypochlorite was ineffective against three A. fumigatus, three A. flavus and one A. niger isolate. These results demonstrated that all studied disinfectants were effective against environmental isolates, with the exception of sodium hypochlorite, which showed lower effectiveness. PMID:24294243

  20. Association of airborne Aspergillus with asthma exacerbation in Southern Pakistan

    PubMed Central

    Zubairi, Ali Bin Sarwar; Azam, Iqbal; Awan, Safia; Zafar, Afia

    2014-01-01

    Background Exposure to airborne fungi has been related with exacerbation of asthma in adults and children leading to increased outpatient, emergency room visits, and hospitalizations. Hypersensitivity to these airborne fungi may be an important initial predisposing factor in the development and exacerbation of asthma. Objective This study was conducted to determine an association between fungal types and spore concentrations with the risk of asthma exacerbation in adults. Methods This cross-sectional study was conducted from May 2008 to August 2009 at the Aga Khan University Hospital Karachi, Pakistan. All adult (age?16 years) patients presenting to the hospital with acute asthma exacerbation were enrolled after informed consent. A home survey was conducted for each patient to assess their environmental characteristics. Indoor air samples were also obtained from the patient's home to determine the type and spore concentration of fungi within the week of their enrollment in the study. Results Three hundred and ninety-one patients with an acute asthma exacerbation were enrolled during the study period. The mean age of participants was 46 years (standard deviation, ±18 years) and 247 (63.2%) were females. A trend of higher asthma enrollment associated with higher Aspergillus concentrations was found in two consecutive summers. A total of nineteen types of fungi were found in air samples. Aspergillus spp. was the most frequently isolated fungus with acute asthma exacerbation. Conclusion An association of higher concentration of indoor Aspergillus spp. with asthma exacerbation in adults was observed in this study. PMID:24809014

  1. Bibulocystis gen. nov. ( Uredinales ) on Daviesia ( Fabaceae ) and Albizia ( Mimosaceae ) in Australasia, with comments on the genera Cystomyces and Dicheirinia and rust genera with teliospore cysts

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Walker; V. Beilharz; I. G. Pascoe; M. J. Priest

    2006-01-01

    The five known genera of Uredinales with hygroscopic teliospore cysts, Cystomyces, Kemkampella, Ravenelia, Spumula and Uromycladium, are discussed. Of these, the monotypic Cystomyces, type species C. costaricensis, is the only one with teliospores composed of a simple, monohyphal pedicel attached to cysts, which bear the fertile cells.\\u000a A rust of Daviesia species in south-eastern Australia was thought originally to be

  2. Isolation and Characterization of Halotolerant Soil Fungi from the Great Salt Plains of Oklahoma.

    PubMed

    Evans, Sarah; Hansen, Ryan W; Schneegurt, Mark A

    2013-12-01

    The Great Salt Plains (GSP) of Oklahoma is an inland terrestrial hypersaline environment where saturated brines leave evaporite crusts of NaCl. The current report examines the fungal community, complementing earlier reports on the bacterial and archaeal communities. Twenty-five fungal isolates from GSP soils were obtained on medium containing 10% NaCl and characterized. Based on 18S rRNA gene sequence analysis, all of the isolates fall within the Ascomycetes, with a predominance of Trichocomaceae, represented by Aspergillus, Eurotium, and Penicillium species. Representatives of Anthrinium, Cladosporium, Debaryomyces, Fusarium, and Ulocladium also were isolated. Overall the isolates were widely halotolerant, with best growth observed at lower salinities and no halophilism. The fungal genera observed were all cosmopolitan, without strong specialization. Taken together, these results support the conclusion that hypersaline environments do not have a characteristic community, in contrast to what was observed at the GSP for bacteria and archaea. PMID:25249710

  3. Fibrosing mediastinitis due to Aspergillus with dominant cardiac involvement: report of two autopsy cases with review of literature.

    PubMed

    Chatterjee, Debajyoti; Bal, Amanjit; Singhal, Manphool; Vijayvergiya, Rajesh; Das, Ashim

    2014-01-01

    Fibrosing mediastinitis (FM) is a rare condition characterized by extensive proliferation of fibrous tissue in the mediastinum resulting in mass like lesion. Histoplasma and Mycobacterium tuberculosis are the common infective causes of fibrosing mediastinitis, but Aspergillus infection is an extremely rare cause. Fibrosing mediastinitis due to Aspergillus usually occurs following Aspergillus bronchopneumonia. Cardiac involvement due to Aspergillus-related fibrosing mediastinitis is extremely rare in immune-competent individuals and occurs following some intervention or as a part of disseminated systemic fungal infection. Here, we report two cases of Aspergillus FM with dominant cardiac involvement in immune-competent patients. Both cases presented with large mediastinal mass and large vegetation in the left atrium. Autopsy findings showed the granulomatous Aspergillus mediastinitis and extension into the heart with associated fibrosis. One case was proven to be due to Aspergillus flavus by fungal genomic sequencing. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of Aspergillus FM with pancarditis. PMID:24998315

  4. Biological activities of ophiobolin K and 6-epi-ophiobolin K produced by the endophytic fungus Aspergillus calidoustus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The endophytic fungus, Aspergillus calidoustus, was isolated from the plant species Acanthospermum australe (Asteraceae). A dichloromethane extract of the fungus displayed antifungal, antiprotozoal, and cytotoxic activities. Aspergillus calidoustus was identified using molecular, physiological and m...

  5. New spider flies from the Neotropical Region (Diptera, Acroceridae) with a key to New World genera

    PubMed Central

    Schlinger, Evert I.; Gillung, Jessica P.; Borkent, Christopher J.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Two new genera and five new species of spider flies (Diptera: Acroceridae) are described from the Neotropical Region. A new genus of Philopotinae (Neophilopota brevirostris Schlinger gen. et sp. n.) is described from Mexico, while an unusual new species of Sphaerops Philippi, 1865 (Acrocerinae: Sphaerops micella Schlinger sp. n.) is described from Chile. A new Panopinae genus near Lasia Wiedemann, 1824 (Coquena stangei Schlinger gen. et sp. n.), is described from Argentina and two new species of Pialea Erichson, 1840 (Pialea brunea Schlinger sp. n. and Pialea corbiculata Schlinger sp. n.)are described from Venezuela. Each genus is diagnosed and figured, and a key to species provided. The Neotropical fauna presently includes 19 genera, containing approximately 100 species. A key to New World genera is also included. PMID:23730188

  6. Molecular strategy to discriminate between two ochratoxin A producing Aspergillus niger aggregate species isolated from fresh and dried grapes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sabeh Melki Ben Fredj; Angélique Gautier; Yves Brygoo; Ahmed Mliki

    2009-01-01

    Abstact  \\u000a Aspergillus genus is an ubiquitous fungal group that colonizes a wide range of substrates. A total of 100 Tunisian fungal strains isolated\\u000a at harvest time from fresh and dried grapes were identified within the sectionNigri and tested for their ochratoxin A (OTA) producing abilities. Of the isolates, 45% were identified asAspergillus tubingensis, 34% asAspergillus niger, 12% asAspergillus japonicus and

  7. Effect of increasing inoculum sizes of Aspergillus hyphae on MICs and MFCs of antifungal agents by broth microdilution method

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Cornelia Lass-Flörl; C Speth; G Kofler; M. P Dierch; E Gunsilius; R Würzner

    2003-01-01

    In order to investigate the influence of different hyphal inoculum sizes on minimal inhibition concentrations (MICs) and minimum fungicidal concentrations (MFCs) of amphotericin B (AMB), voriconazole and itraconazole, five isolates each of Aspergillus fumigatus, Aspergillus flavus, Aspergillus niger and Aspergillus terreus were studied using a broth microdilution method. Three inoculum sizes were used: 1×103–5×103, 1×104–5×104 and 1×105–5×105 cfu\\/ml. MICs and

  8. An anti-Aspergillus protein from Escherichia coli DH5?: putative inhibitor of siderophore biosynthesis in Aspergillus fumigatus.

    PubMed

    Balhara, Meenakshi; Ruhil, Sonam; Kumar, Manish; Dhankhar, Sandeep; Chhillar, A K

    2014-03-01

    An antifungal protein designated as anti-Aspergillus protein (AAP), produced by Escherichia coli DH5?, was purified and characterised. It exhibited a molecular weight of 60 kDa on Sodium dodecyl sulphate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis analysis and depicted 99% purity on ultra performance liquid chromatography. The purified protein manifested antimycotic potential against pathogenic isolates of Aspergillus spp., depicting a minimum inhibitory concentration in the range 15.62-31.25 ?g ml(-1) and 5.0-10.0 ?g per disc, using microbroth dilution, spore germination inhibition and disc diffusion assays respectively. In vitro toxicity tests demonstrated that it showed no toxicity against human erythrocytes at doses up to 1000 ?g ml(-1) . Matrix-assisted laser desorption ionisation-Time-of-flight analysis of trypsin-digested peptides of purified protein and subsequent Mascot search revealed that several peptides of AAP have identity with bacterial siderophore biosynthetic protein, i.e. non-ribosomal peptide synthetase enzyme, involved in critical step of fungal siderophore biosynthesis. Siderophore-based inhibition was further corroborated by Chrome azurol S assay. Hence, the antagonistic effect might be the result of impediment in siderophore-mediated iron uptake and transport process which may cause critical consequences on Aspergillus growth and virulence. PMID:23968167

  9. Phytase Production by Aspergillus niger CFR 335 and Aspergillus ficuum SGA 01 through Submerged and Solid-State Fermentation

    PubMed Central

    Shivanna, Gunashree B.; Venkateswaran, Govindarajulu

    2014-01-01

    Fermentation is one of the industrially important processes for the development of microbial metabolites that has immense applications in various fields. This has prompted to employ fermentation as a major technique in the production of phytase from microbial source. In this study, a comparison was made between submerged (SmF) and solid-state fermentations (SSF) for the production of phytase from Aspergillus niger CFR 335 and Aspergillus ficuum SGA 01. It was found that both the fungi were capable of producing maximum phytase on 5th day of incubation in both submerged and solid-state fermentation media. Aspergillus niger CFR 335 and A. ficuum produced a maximum of 60.6?U/gds and 38?U/gds of the enzyme, respectively, in wheat bran solid substrate medium. Enhancement in the enzyme level (76 and 50.7?U/gds) was found when grown in a combined solid substrate medium comprising wheat bran, rice bran, and groundnut cake in the ratio of 2?:?1?:?1. A maximum of 9.6 and 8.2?U/mL of enzyme activity was observed in SmF by A. niger CFR 335 and A.ficuum, respectively, when grown in potato dextrose broth. PMID:24688383

  10. Effects of Aspergillus niger treated Shea butter cake based diets on nutrient intake and weight gain of Red Sokoto goat

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. A. Belewu; A. A. Yahaya

    2008-01-01

    Effects of feed intake, weight gain and digestibility when growing Red Sokoto goats consuming Aspergillus niger treated and untreated shea-butter cake (SBC) were determined. Twenty five Red Sokoto goats in a completely randomized design model with 56 d periods consumed diet A (control, without SBC), B (15% Aspergillus treated SBC), C (15% untreated SBC), D (7.5% Aspergillus treated SBC) and

  11. Comprehensive database on Induan (Lower Triassic) to Sinemurian (Lower Jurassic) marine bivalve genera and their paleobiogeographic record

    E-print Network

    Ros-Franch, Sonia; Marquez-Aliaga, Ana; Damborenea, Susana

    2014-04-10

    Marine bivalve genera that were described or mentioned for Triassic and Lower Jurassic deposits worldwide are reviewed in terms of their validity, stratigraphic range, paleogeographic distribution, paleoautecology, and ...

  12. Crop rotation and soil temperature influence the community structure of Aspergillus flavus in soil

    E-print Network

    Cotty, Peter J.

    Crop rotation and soil temperature influence the community structure of Aspergillus flavus in soil s t r a c t Aspergillus flavus, the most important cause of aflatoxin contamination, has two major the strain L isolates. The S strain has been implicated as the primary causal agent of several contamination

  13. Sterigmatocystin production by nine newly described Aspergillus species in section Versicolores grown on two different media

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Nine recently described Aspergillus species and four known species in section Versicolores were tested for their ability to produce Nine recently described Aspergillus species and four known species in section Versicolores were tested for their ability to produce sterigmatocystin (ST) on two liquid ...

  14. Mycotoxin production by different ochratoxigenic Aspergillus and Penicillium species on coffee and wheat-based media

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Katherine Muńoz; Mario Vega; Gisela Rios; Rolf Geisen; Gisela H. Degen

    Ochratoxin A (OTA) is one of the most widespread mycotoxins, and is produced by several Aspergillus or Penicillium species. Human exposure to OTA is mainly by intake of contaminated food, with cereal products, followed by coffee and red\\u000a wine as the main sources of OTA. In this study, the OTA production of four ochratoxigenic fungi (two Aspergillus and two Penicillium

  15. Detection and discrimination of four Aspergillus section Nigri species by PCR.

    PubMed

    Palumbo, J D; O'Keeffe, T L

    2015-02-01

    Species of Aspergillus section Nigri are not easily distinguished by traditional morphological techniques, and typically are identified by DNA sequencing methods. We developed four PCR primers to distinguish between Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus welwitschiae, Aspergillus carbonarius and Aspergillus tubingensis, based on species-conserved differences in the calmodulin gene sequence. PCR amplification from total DNA using these primers was species specific; no amplification occurred from nontarget species DNA for each primer pair. Species-specific PCR could distinguish between species in mixed DNA templates, indicating a utility in determining culture uniformity of isolated Aspergillus strains. In addition, with these primer sets, each species could be detected in soil following mixed-species inoculation with Aspergillus spores. This indicates that PCR with these species-specific primers may be useful in determining the distribution of Aspergillus species in environmental samples without the need for species identification from isolated strains, as well as detecting species that may be infrequently isolated by culture-based methods. PMID:25384730

  16. Glucosinolate degradation by Aspergillus clavatus and Fusarium oxysporum in liquid and solid-state fermentation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. P. Smits; W. Knol; J. Bol

    1993-01-01

    Two fungal strains, Aspergillus clavatus II-9 and Fusarium oxysporum @ 149, proved to be capable of degrading sinigrin and sinalbin. During the degradation of sinigrin by whole cells of the Aspergillus strain, allylcyanide accumulated in the liquid incubation mixture. After a maximum concentration had been reached, the concentration of allylcyanide decreased as a result of its instability in the medium

  17. Human Polymorphonuclear Leukocytes Inhibit Aspergillus fumigatus Conidial Growth by Lactoferrin-Mediated Iron Depletion1

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kol A. Zarember; Janyce A. Sugui; Yun C. Chang; Kyung J. Kwon-Chung; John I. Gallin

    Aspergillus fumigatus, a common mold, rarely infects humans, except during prolonged neutropenia or in cases of chronic gran- ulomatous disease (CGD), a primary immunodeficiency caused by mutations in the NADPH oxidase that normally produces fungicidal reactive oxygen species. Filamentous hyphae of Aspergillus are killed by normal, but not CGD polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMN); however, the few studies on PMN-mediated host defenses

  18. Aspergillus mastoiditis in an immunocompetent patient: a case report and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Youssef, Mona; Bassim, Marc; Shabb, Nina; Kanj, Souha S

    2014-04-01

    Aspergillus mastoiditis usually occurs in immunocompromised patients. There are a few isolated reports in the literature involving immunocompetent patients. We hereby describe the case of an immunocompetent patient diagnosed with invasive Aspergillus mastoiditis, which was treated successfully, and review the literature pertaining to this condition. The common clinical presentations, putative pathophysiology, and recommended therapy are discussed. PMID:24484416

  19. In silico characterization of alkaline proteases from different species of Aspergillus.

    PubMed

    Morya, Vivek Kumar; Yadav, Sangeeta; Kim, Eun-Ki; Yadav, Dinesh

    2012-01-01

    A total of 49 protein sequences of alkaline proteases retrieved from GenBank representing different species of Aspergillus have been characterized for various physiochemical properties, homology search, multiple sequence alignment, motif, and super family search and phylogenetic tree construction. The sequence level homology was obtained among different groups of alkaline protease enzymes, viz alkaline serine protease, oryzin, calpain-like protease, serine protease, subtilisin-like alkaline proteases. Multiple sequence alignment of alkaline protease protein sequence of different Aspergillus species revealed a stretch of conserved region for amino acid residues from 69 to 110 and 130-204. The phylogenetic tree constructed indicated several Aspergillus species-specific clusters for alkaline proteases namely Aspergillus fumigatus, Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus oryzae, Aspergillus clavatus. The distributions of ten commonly observed motifs were analyzed among these proteases. Motif 1 with a signature amino acid sequence of 50 amino acids, i.e., ASFSNYGKVVDIFAPGQDILSCWIGSTTATNTISGTSMATPHIVGLSCYL, was uniformly observed in proteases protein sequences indicating its involvement with the structure and enzymatic function. Motif analysis of acidic proteases of Aspergillus and bacterial alkaline proteases has revealed different signature amino acid sequences. The superfamily search for these proteases revealed the presence of subtilases, serine-carboxyl proteinase, calpain large subunit, and thermolysin-like superfamilies with 45 representing the subtilases superfamily. PMID:22072140

  20. RNA interference reduces aflatoxin accumulation by Aspergillus flavus in peanut seeds

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Aflatoxins are among the most powerful carcinogens in nature. They are produced by the fungal pathogen Aspergillus flavus Link and other Aspergillus species. Aflatoxins accumulate in many crops, including rice, wheat, oats, pecans, pistachios, soybean, cassava, almonds, peanuts, beans, corn and cot...

  1. Sensitization to Aspergillus Antigens and Occurrence of Allergic Bronchopulmonary Aspergillosis in Patients With Asthma

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Vikas Maurya; Harish Chander Gugnani; Puranam Usha Sarma; Taruna Madan; Ashok Shah

    Background: Allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis (ABPA), which is predominantly a disease of asthmatic subjects, is caused by hypersensitivity to Aspergillus antigens. Screening for Aspergillus sensitization in asthmatic subjects could identify those who are at risk for ABPA. Few studies have shown that fungal sensitization could be an important risk factor for asthma severity. We sought to determine the frequency of sensitization

  2. Development and evaluation of a real-time quantitative PCR assay for Aspergillus flavus

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Patricia Cruz; Mark P. Buttner

    2008-01-01

    Aspergillus flavus is a ubiquitous mold and the most common mold contaminating foodstuffs. Many strains of A. flavus produce aflatoxins. In addition it is an allergen and an opportunistic pathogen of animals and plants. A. flavus often is underestimated in traditional culture analyses due to the expertise required and the cost associated with speciating members of the genus Aspergillus. The

  3. Population genetics as a tool for understanding toxigenesis in Aspergillus flavus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Species in Aspergillus section Flavi commonly infect agricultural staples such as corn, peanuts, cottonseed, and tree nuts and produce an array of mycotoxins, the most potent of which is aflatoxin. Aspergillus flavus is the dominant aflatoxin-producing species in the majority of crops. Populations...

  4. Secondary Metabolite Profiling, Growth Profiles and Other Tools for Species Recognition and Important Aspergillus Mycotoxins

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Species in the genus Aspergillus have been classified primarily based on morphological features. Sequencing of house-hold genes has also been used in Aspergillus taxonomy and phylogeny, while extrolites and physiological features have been used less frequently. Three independent ways of classifyin...

  5. 7/12/07 Trappe & Castellano 1 KEYS TO THE GENERA OF TRUFFLES (ASCOMYCETES)

    E-print Network

    California at Berkeley, University of

    they detect them (Maser et al., 1978). Humans are numbered among the animals that enjoy eating truffles7/12/07 Trappe & Castellano 1 KEYS TO THE GENERA OF TRUFFLES (ASCOMYCETES) James M. Trappe, Corvallis, Oregon 97331 INTRODUCTION Truffles are belowground (hypogeous) relatives of the cup fungi

  6. Two new genera and five new species of Teloganodidae (Ephemeroptera) from South India.

    PubMed

    Selvakumar, C; Sivaramakrishnan, K G; Jacobus, Luke M; Janarthanan, S; Arumugam, M

    2014-01-01

    Two new genera and five new species of teloganodid mayflies (Ephemeroptera: Pannota: Ephemerelloidea) are described based on larvae from south India: Janohyphella indica, n. gen., n. sp., Indoganodes jobini, n. gen., n. sp., Teloganodes sartorii, n. sp., Dudgeodes palnius, n. sp., and Derlethina tamiraparaniae, n. sp.  Janohyphella, n. gen., is distinguished from the larvae of other teloganodid genera by having a combination of three subequal caudal filaments, lamellate gills on abdominal segments II through V and posterolateral processes well-developed on abdominal segments II through IX, except III. Indoganodes, n. gen., is distinguished from the larvae of other teloganodid genera by having three subequal caudal filaments, lamellate gills on abdominal segments II through VI, posterolateral projections weakly developed on abdominal segments I through V, but distinct on segments VI through IX. Our new species of Dudgeodes Sartori, 2008 and Derlethina Sartori, 2008 represent the first discoveries of these genera outside Southeast Asia, with the latter genus previously considered endemic to Borneo. Emendations to the larval species key of known Oriental Teloganodidae are provided. We hypothesize that the occurrence of the new taxa in southern India is a result of the tectonic events associated with the split-up of Gondwana. This illustrates the profound biogeographical significance of how vicariance led to the establishment of some distinct oriental lineages initially on the rafting Indian Deccan Plate, which might have triggered dispersal events for subsequent species diversification in Southeast Asia.  PMID:25112240

  7. A hotspot for Mediterranean cicadas (Insecta: Hemiptera: Cicadidae): new genera, species and songs from southern Spain

    Microsoft Academic Search

    STEPHANE PUISSANT; JEROME SUEUR

    2010-01-01

    Southern Spain exhibits high diversity and endemism. Based on a long-term field study, a review of nine regional cicada species hitherto placed in the genus Tettigetta is provided. According to morphological characters previously defined by Lee, none of these species belongs to the genus Tettigetta; they are placed instead in four new genera: Tettigettalna Puissant gen. nov., Tettigettula Puissant gen.

  8. Molecular Reappraisal of Relationships Between Crataegus and Mespilus (Rosaceae, Pyreae)--Two Genera or One?

    E-print Network

    Molecular Reappraisal of Relationships Between Crataegus and Mespilus (Rosaceae, Pyreae Editor: James F. Smith ABSTRACT. Mespilus and Crataegus are sister genera in Rosaceae tribe Pyreae the Arkansas, U.S.A. endemic, Mespilus canescens. Crataegus, on the other hand, consists of 140­200 species

  9. Male sleeping aggregation of multiple Eucerini bee genera (Hymenoptera: Apidae) in Chapada Diamantina, Bahia, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Hipólito, Juliana; de Oliveira, Favízia F.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Males of some groups of bees have to find a place outside the nests to sleep, sometimes forming “male sleeping aggregations”. Here we report the first record of “dense” male sleeping aggregation of two different genera of Eucerini bees observed in Bahia, Brazil. We discuss the possible aim of this kind of aggregation as well the plant utilized on aggregate. PMID:25349523

  10. New and little-known genera of cheilostome Bryozoa from the New Zealand region

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. P. Gordon

    1989-01-01

    Six new or little-known genera of cheilostome Bryozoa are recorded from the New Zealand region. Villicharixa n. gen. (Electridae), established for a species from South Island and from southern Chile, closely resembles forms from the lower Cretaceous of Europe. Daisyella n. gen. (Calloporidae) includes three uniserial species (two New Zealand and one Antarctic). Rhabdozoum Hincks (Rhabdozoidae), a little-known southern Australian

  11. China For all ages a MulTi-generaTional exPloraTion

    E-print Network

    Rowley, Clarence W.

    China For all ages a MulTi-generaTional exPloraTion The greaT Wall, TerraCoTTa Warriors & The MighCTuresque China Experience the Delights of a Well-Crafted Family Tour Dear Princetonian, Join Princeton Journeys, June 27 ­ July 9, 2013, for a comprehensive tour of China designed with families in mind. Explore

  12. The comparative biology of diving in two genera of European Dytiscidae (Coleoptera)

    E-print Network

    Garland Jr., Theodore

    The comparative biology of diving in two genera of European Dytiscidae (Coleoptera) P. CALOSI*, D beetles (Dytiscidae), the air store is wholly subelytral (Heberdey, 1938; Balke, 2005), acting only for Dytiscidae, limiting our Correspondence: Piero Calosi, Marine Biology and Ecology Research Centre, University

  13. Quantitative analysis of oxyresveratrol in different plant parts of Morus species and related Genera by HPTLC

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Four aromatic compounds; oxyresveratrol (1), mulberroside A (2), cudraflavone C (3) and kuwanone J (4) were isolated from the stems of Morus rubra L. The quantitative determination of oxyresveratrol from M. rubra L., M. alba L. and related genera by high performance thin layer chromatography (HPTLC)...

  14. Establishment of three new genera in the family Geminiviridae: Becurtovirus, Eragrovirus and Turncurtovirus.

    PubMed

    Varsani, Arvind; Navas-Castillo, Jesús; Moriones, Enrique; Hernández-Zepeda, Cecilia; Idris, Ali; Brown, Judith K; Murilo Zerbini, F; Martin, Darren P

    2014-08-01

    The family Geminiviridae includes plant-infecting circular single-stranded DNA viruses that have geminate particle morphology. Members of this family infect both monocotyledonous and dicotyledonous plants and have a nearly global distribution. With the advent of new molecular tools and low-cost sequencing, there has been a significant increase in the discovery of new geminiviruses in various cultivated and non-cultivated plants. In this communication, we highlight the establishment of three new genera (Becurtovirus, Eragrovirus and Turncurtovirus) to accommodate various recently discovered geminiviruses that are highly divergent and, in some cases, have unique genome architectures. The genus Becurtovirus has two viral species, Beet curly top Iran virus (28 isolates; leafhopper vector Circulifer haematoceps) and Spinach curly top Arizona virus (1 isolate; unknown vector), whereas the genera Eragrovirus and Turncurtovirus each have a single assigned species: Eragrostis curvula streak virus (6 isolates; unknown vector) and Turnip curly top virus (20 isolates; leafhopper vector Circulifer haematoceps), respectively. Based on analysis of all of the genome sequences available in public databases for each of the three new genera, we provide guidelines and protocols for species and strain classification within these three new genera. PMID:24658781

  15. 884 BioScience October 2003 / Vol. 53 No. 10 The Earth Remains Forever: Genera-

    E-print Network

    Getz, Wayne M.

    884 BioScience · October 2003 / Vol. 53 No. 10 Books The Earth Remains Forever: Genera- tions arguments about environmental policy. But The Earth Remains Forever also has a major flaw, one that would pre- clude my recommending it for an intro- ductory environmental science course. Jackson is very

  16. Systematics and Phylogeography of Pocket Gophers in the Genera Cratogeomys and Pappogeomys

    Microsoft Academic Search

    James W. Demastes; Theresa A. Spradling; Mark S. Hafner; David J. Hafner; David L. Reed

    2002-01-01

    Mitochondrial-DNA sequence data were analyzed from individuals sampled from 38 localities across the complete geographic range of the closely related pocket gopher genera Pappogeomys and Cratogeomys. Results of phylogenetic analysis of 1133 base pairs from the cytochrome b gene are consistent with past hypotheses of relationships among members of the castanops species group within the genus Cratogeomys. However, phylogeographic variation

  17. Freshwater turtles, particularly those of the genera Chrysemys and Trachemys, exhibit a remarkable ability to

    E-print Network

    Farrell, Anthony P.

    of the -adrenergic system in modulating Rsys during anoxia at 5°C and 21°C in the turtle Trachemys scripta, and also words: red-eared slider, Trachemys scripta, anoxia, temperature, cardiovascular, systemic resistance269 Freshwater turtles, particularly those of the genera Chrysemys and Trachemys, exhibit

  18. A Key to the Common Genera of Neogene Shark Teeth Robert W. Purdy

    E-print Network

    Mathis, Wayne N.

    A Key to the Common Genera of Neogene Shark Teeth by Robert W. Purdy Revised March 2006 #12 Sexual Dimorphism in Teeth 11 Abnormal Teeth 11 Using Artificial Tooth Sets to Identify Fossil Shark Teeth 12 Hexanchiform Sharks 12 Squaliform Sharks 13 Lamniform Sharks 13 Carcharhiniform Sharks 14

  19. An illustrated key to the genera of Thripinae (Thysanoptera, Thripidae) from Iran

    PubMed Central

    Mirab-balou, Majid; Minaei, Kambiz; Chen, Xue-Xin

    2013-01-01

    Abstract An illustrated key is provided for the identification of 35 genera of Thripinae (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) from Iran with comments for each genus. Chirothrips maximi Ananthakrishnan and Limothrips cerealium Haliday are recorded from Iran for the first time. A checklist is provided of Thripinae recorded from this country. PMID:23950669

  20. Variation in seed oil composition of species from the genera Barbarea and Lepidium

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. Nilsson; Arnulf Merker

    1998-01-01

    The seed oil composition and content in a number of accessions from species of the genera Barbarea and Lepidium were analysed. The oil from most accessions of B. verna contained more than 50% erucic acid, while the oil from B. vulgaris contained ? 30% erucic acid, and 22% each of oleic and linoleic acid. The oil from B. intermedia resembled

  1. DNA extraction protocols from dormant buds of twelve woody plant genera

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Standard plant DNA extraction protocols call for samples of newly expanding leaves and shoots yet analysis is sometimes needed when plants are dormant. We evaluated three DNA extraction protocols using dormant buds from 40 species and four hybrids of 12 genera. Two protocols were from ready-to-use ...

  2. Two new genera and two new species of Mantophasmatodea (Insecta, Polyneoptera) from Namibia

    PubMed Central

    Wipfler, Benjamin; Pohl, Hans; Predel, Reinhard

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Two new species and two new genera (Pachyphasma, Striatophasma) of Mantophasmatodea are described from Namibia. Pachyphasma brandbergense is endemic to the Brandberg massif; Striatophasma occupies an extensive area south of the region inhabited by Mantophasma. Phylogenetic analyses (see Predel et al. in press) suggest a sistergroup relationship of Striatophasma and the South African Austrophasmatidae. PMID:22328860

  3. CLARIFICATION OF THE NOMENCLATURE AND RELATIONSHIPS OF THE GENERA CRYPTOSPORELLA, OPHIOVALSA AND WINTERELLA (GNOMONIACEAE)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fungi of the genera Cryptosporella Sacc, Ophiovalsa Petrak and Winterella (O. Kuntze) J. Reid and Booth have been reported as saprobes, endophytes and pathogens mainly from trees belonging in the Betulaceae and Ulmaceae and have recently been assigned to the family Gnomoniaceae (Diaporthales). These...

  4. A study on Aspergillus species in houses of asthmatic patients from Sari City, Iran and a brief review of the health effects of exposure to indoor Aspergillus

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mohammad T. Hedayati; Sabah Mayahi; David W. Denning

    2010-01-01

    To study the distribution of Aspergillus spp. in outdoor and indoor air of asthmatic patients’ houses, as well as a review on the health effects of exposure to indoor\\u000a Aspergillus. Open plates containing malt extract agar media were used to isolate fungi from the indoor (n?=?360) and outdoor (n?=?180) air of 90 asthmatic patients’ houses living in Sari City, Iran.

  5. Skeletal morphology of two controversial Poecilosclerid genera (Porifera, Demospongiae): Discorhabdella and Crambe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maldonado, M.; Uriz, M. J.

    1996-09-01

    The genera Discorhabdella and Crambe are characterized by bearing uncommon spicule types, i.e. pseudoastrose acanthostyles and sphaeroclones, respectively. They have traditionally been considered to be unrelated taxa, but the present reexamination made evident that an important amount of skeletal features are shared by both. Some of these morphological features, such as the ornamentation on the point of the ectosomal subtylostyles, are reported for the first time. The study also revealed that a tuberose nature of the tyles of the main choanosomal megascleres could be a common ancestral condition in both genera. The morphology of the multi-toothed anchorate chelae showed a gradual transition across the species, suggesting that the morphological diversity in chelae was generated in these genera through a “palmate-anchorate-arcuate” evolutionary sequence. However, the forward or backward direction of this sequence remained unclear from the available evidence. Important levels of skeletal variability were found to affect many of the skeletal characters, especially in the genus Crambe. In some cases, this variability transgressed the limits theoretically defining a species, making evident that the traditional procedure just based on comparison of the skeletons becomes unreliable when tackling the taxonomy of these genera. Most of the skeletal variability seemed to correspond to genetic polymorphisms, except in the case of C. acuata. In this taxon, the skeletal variability could be a result of the existence of a cryptic species, originated by a misconceived synonymy between C. acuata and C. chelastra. Besides the skeletal variability, the obscure taxonomic meaning of many skeletal features favored the existence of conflicting taxonomic proposals for the suprageneric location of these genera, depending on the author’s criteria. This study made evident that any subsequent attempt of phylogenetic inference should be based on an unweighted analysis of the available skeletal information.

  6. Cryptic species and azole resistance in the Aspergillus niger complex.

    PubMed

    Howard, Susan J; Harrison, Elizabeth; Bowyer, Paul; Varga, Janos; Denning, David W

    2011-10-01

    Aspergillus niger is a common clinical isolate. Multiple species comprise the Aspergillus section Nigri and are separable using sequence data. The antifungal susceptibility of these cryptic species is not known. We determined the azole MICs of 50 black aspergilli, 45 from clinical specimens, using modified EUCAST (mEUCAST) and Etest methods. Phylogenetic trees were prepared using the internal transcribed spacer, beta-tubulin, and calmodulin sequences to identify strains to species level and the results were compared with those obtained with cyp51A sequences. We attempted to correlate cyp51A mutations with azole resistance. Etest MICs were significantly different from mEUCAST MICs (P < 0.001), with geometric means of 0.77 and 2.79 mg/liter, respectively. Twenty-six of 50 (52%) isolates were itraconazole resistant by mEUCAST (MICs > 8 mg/liter), with limited cross-resistance to other azoles. Using combined beta-tubulin/calmodulin sequences, the 45 clinical isolates grouped into 5 clades, A. awamori (55.6%), A. tubingensis (17.8%), A. niger (13.3%), A. acidus (6.7%), and an unknown group (6.7%), none of which were morphologically distinguishable. Itraconazole resistance was found in 36% of the isolates in the A. awamori group, 90% of the A. tubingensis group, 33% of the A. niger group, 100% of the A. acidus group, and 67% of the unknown group. These data suggest that cyp51A mutations in section Nigri may not play as important a role in azole resistance as in A. fumigatus, although some mutations (G427S, K97T) warrant further study. Numerous cryptic species are found in clinical isolates of the Aspergillus section Nigri and are best reported as "A. niger complex" by clinical laboratories. Itraconazole resistance was common in this data set, but azole cross-resistance was unusual. The mechanism of resistance remains obscure. PMID:21768508

  7. Weed growth inhibitors from Aspergillus fischeri TISTR 3272.

    PubMed

    Phattanawasin, P; Pojchanakom, K; Sotanaphun, U; Piyapolrungroj, N; Zungsontiporn, S

    2007-12-01

    Chloroform and ethyl acetate extracts of Aspergillus fischeri TISTR 3272 showed good growth inhibitory activity on Mimosa pigra and Echinochloa crus-galli. Bioassay-directed fractionation of the active extracts led to the isolation of five known compounds, (+)-terrein (1), (-)-6-hydroxymellein (2), two diketopiperazines (cyclo-(S-Pro-S-Leu) (3) and cyclo-(S-Pro-S-Val) (4)) and butyrolactone I (5). Compounds 2-5 were reported for the first time in this fungus. Their structural determinations were based on analyses of spectroscopic data and their weed growth inhibitory effects were assessed. PMID:18075891

  8. ?-1,3-glucan modifying enzymes in Aspergillus fumigatus

    PubMed Central

    Mouyna, Isabelle; Hartl, Lukas; Latgé, Jean-Paul

    2013-01-01

    In Aspergillus fumigatus like in other filamentous ascomycetes, ?-1,3-glucan constitutes a prominent cell wall component being responsible for rigidity of the cell wall structure. In filamentous fungi, softening of the cell wall is absolutely required during conidial germination and hyphal branching. Because of the central structure of ?-1,3-glucans, it is expected that ?-1,3-glucanases play a major role in cell wall softening. Based on in silico and experimental data, this review gives an overview of ?-1,3-glucan modifying enzymes in A. fumigatus genome and their putative role during morphogenesis. PMID:23616783

  9. A new sesquiterpene from endophytic fungus Aspergillus sp

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Shao-Liu Luo; Guo-Hong Li; Fang-Fang Liu; Li-Ping Lei; Zhen-Yuan Xia; Ke-Qin Zhang

    2011-01-01

    A fungal strain named YLF-14 was isolated from the leaf of Altingia yunnunensis. Based on the sequence at the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region, the strain was identified as an Aspergillus sp.. A new sesquiterpene 5?,8a?-dimethyl-3,4,4a?,5,6,7,8,8a-octahydronaphthalene-1,2,5?-trimethanol (1) and a known compound 12-N-methylcyclo-(L-tryptophyl-L-phenylalanyl) (2) were isolated from the culture of this strain. Bioassay experiments showed that the two compounds had no

  10. A new sesquiterpene from endophytic fungus Aspergillus sp

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Shao-Liu Luo; Guo-Hong Li; Fang-Fang Liu; Li-Ping Lei; Zhen-Yuan Xia; Ke-Qin Zhang

    2012-01-01

    A fungal strain named YLF-14 was isolated from the leaf of Altingia yunnunensis. Based on the sequence at the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region, the strain was identified as an Aspergillus sp.. A new sesquiterpene 5?,8a?-dimethyl-3,4,4a?,5,6,7,8,8a-octahydronaphthalene-1,2,5?-trimethanol (1) and a known compound 12-N-methylcyclo-(L-tryptophyl-L-phenylalanyl) (2) were isolated from the culture of this strain. Bioassay experiments showed that the two compounds had no

  11. Indoloditerpenes from an algicolous isolate of Aspergillus oryzae.

    PubMed

    Qiao, Ming-Feng; Ji, Nai-Yun; Liu, Xiang-Hong; Li, Ke; Zhu, Qing-Mei; Xue, Qin-Zhao

    2010-10-01

    Two new indoloditerpene derivatives asporyzin A (1) and asporyzin B (2), one new indoloditerpene asporyzin C (3), and three known related indoloditerpenes JBIR-03 (4), emindole SB (5), and emeniveol (6) were isolated from an endophytic fungus Aspergillus oryzae, isolated from the marine red alga Heterosiphonia japonica. Their structures were unambiguously established by spectroscopic techniques. In addition, all the isolates were evaluated preliminarily for insecticidal and antimicrobial activities in order to probe into their chemical defensive function. Compound 4 was more active against brine shrimp than the others, and 3 possessed potent activity against Escherichia coli. PMID:20797856

  12. Production of extremophilic bacterial cellulase enzymes in aspergillus niger.

    SciTech Connect

    Gladden, John Michael

    2013-09-01

    Enzymes can be used to catalyze a myriad of chemical reactions and are a cornerstone in the biotechnology industry. Enzymes have a wide range of uses, ranging from medicine with the production of pharmaceuticals to energy were they are applied to biofuel production. However, it is difficult to produce large quantities of enzymes, especially if they are non-native to the production host. Fortunately, filamentous fungi, such as Aspergillus niger, are broadly used in industry and show great potential for use a heterologous enzyme production hosts. Here, we present work outlining an effort to engineer A. niger to produce thermophilic bacterial cellulases relevant to lignocellulosic biofuel production.

  13. Molecular mechanisms of Aspergillus flavus secondary metabolism and development.

    PubMed

    Amare, Meareg G; Keller, Nancy P

    2014-05-01

    The plant and human opportunistic fungus Aspergillus flavus is recognized for the production of the carcinogen aflatoxin. Although many reviews focus on the wealth of information known about aflatoxin biosynthesis, few articles describe other genes and molecules important for A. flavus development or secondary metabolism. Here we compile the most recent work on A. flavus secondary metabolite clusters, environmental response mechanisms (stress response pathways, quorum sensing and G protein signaling pathways) and the function of the transcriptional regulatory unit known as the Velvet Complex. A comparison to other Aspergilli reveals conservation in several pathways affecting fungal development and metabolism. PMID:24613992

  14. Experimental efficacy of anidulafungin against Aspergillus terreus species complex.

    PubMed

    Sanchis, Marta; Capilla, Javier; Mayayo, Emilio; Pastor, Francisco J; Guarro, Josep

    2015-08-01

    Whereas echinocandins are alternatives for the treatment of invasive aspergillosis, the efficacy of anidulafungin (AFG) against Aspergillus terreus infection has not yet been explored. We have evaluated the in vitro activity, as well as the in vivo efficacy of AFG in neutropenic mice infected by A. terreus species complex. Time-kill studies showed in vitro fungistatic activity of AFG against two strains. AFG at doses of 5 and 10 mg/kg/day significantly reduced the fungal load in kidney of mice, but only the higher dose was able to prolong survival. PMID:25980004

  15. Mellein and 4-Hydroxymellein Production by Aspergillus ochraceus Wilhelm1

    PubMed Central

    Moore, Jack H.; Davis, Norman D.; Diener, Urban L.

    1972-01-01

    Mellein and 4-hydroxymellein are isocoumarin compounds produced by Aspergillus ochraceus Wilhelm. They are structurally similar to the dihydroisocoumarin moiety of ochratoxin A, a toxic metabolite of the same fungus, and they possibly have similar biological properties. Production of mellein and 4-hydroxymellein on synthetic media and natural solid substrates was determined. Several carbon and nitrogen sources supported production of these metabolites in stationary culture. Additional zinc and molybdenum increased production of both metabolites in stationary culture, but were not required for maximum production in shaken culture. Mellein and 4-hydroxymellein were produced on yellow corn, but neither was produced on wheat, peanuts, or soybeans. PMID:5064985

  16. Lumazine Peptides from the Marine-Derived Fungus Aspergillus terreus

    PubMed Central

    You, Minjung; Liao, Lijuan; Hong, Soo Hyun; Park, Wanki; Kwon, Dah In; Lee, Jeeyeon; Noh, Minsoo; Oh, Dong-Chan; Oh, Ki-Bong; Shin, Jongheon

    2015-01-01

    Terrelumamides A (1) and B (2), two new lumazine-containing peptides, were isolated from the culture broth of the marine-derived fungus Aspergillus terreus. From the results of combined spectroscopic and chemical analyses, the structures of these compounds were determined to be linear assemblies of 1-methyllumazine-6-carboxylic acid, an amino acid residue and anthranilic acid methyl ester connected by peptide bonds. These new compounds exhibited pharmacological activity by improving insulin sensitivity, which was evaluated in an adipogenesis model using human bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells. In addition, the compounds exhibited fluorescence changes upon binding to DNA, demonstrating their potential applications to DNA sequence recognition. PMID:25775424

  17. Bioremediation of Dyes in Textile Effluents by Aspergillus oryzae

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Carlos Renato Corso; Ana Carolina Maganha de Almeida

    2009-01-01

    In this study Aspergillus oryzae was utilized to remove azo dyes from aqueous solution. Physically induced in its paramorphogenic form to produce standardized\\u000a mycelial pellets, the non-autoclaved and autoclaved hyphae biomass was applied to biosorb the reactive dyes Procion Red HE7B\\u000a (PR-HE7B) and Procion Violet H3R (PV-H3R) at different pH values (2.50, 4.50, and 6.50). The best pH for biosorption

  18. Pediatric foreign body aspiration: A nidus for Aspergillus colonization.

    PubMed

    Mitchell, Candace A; Kreiger, Portia; Goff, Christopher; Shah, Udayan K

    2015-06-01

    We describe an immunocompetent child with bronchial fungus following foreign body aspiration. A two-year-old male presented with cough. Workup revealed air trapping and bronchoscopy showed aspirated foreign material in the right mainstem bronchus. Histopathology revealed fungal organisms suggestive of Aspergillus within an ulcer of the adjacent bronchial mucosa. Foreign body aspiration has been posited as a nidus for aspergilloma formation but is not yet described in the available English-language pediatric literature. Here, the foreign body provided a site for fungal growth in the bronchus of an otherwise healthy child. This case suggests that bronchial foreign body may pose risk of fungal colonization even in immunocompetent children. PMID:25890398

  19. Environmental Isolates of Azole-Resistant Aspergillus fumigatus in Germany.

    PubMed

    Bader, Oliver; Tünnermann, Jana; Dudakova, Anna; Tangwattanachuleeporn, Marut; Weig, Michael; Groß, Uwe

    2015-07-01

    Azole antifungal drug resistance in Aspergillus fumigatus is an emerging problem in several parts of the world. Here we investigated the distribution of such strains in soils from Germany. At a general positivity rate of 12%, most prevalently, we found strains with the TR34/L98H and TR46/Y121F/T289A alleles, dispersed along a corridor across northern Germany. Comparison of the distributions of resistance alleles and genotypes between environment and clinical samples suggests the presence of local clinical clusters. PMID:25941229

  20. Phylogenetic relationships of four endemic genera of the Phasianidae in China based on mitochondrial DNA control-region genes.

    PubMed

    Huang, Zuhao; Liu, Naifa; Xiao, Yi'an; Cheng, Yalin; Mei, Wenfeng; Wen, Longying; Zhang, Lixun; Yu, Xiaoping

    2009-11-01

    The taxonomic status of some genera within the Phasianidae remains controversial. To demonstrate the phylogenetic relationships of four endemic genera (Tetraophasis, Ithaginis, Crossoptilon and Chrysolophus) and other 11 genera of Phasianidae in China, a total of 1070 nucleotides of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) control-region genes were sequenced. There are 376 variable sites including 345 parsimony sites. The genetic distance ranged from 0.067 (Chrysolophus and Phasianus) to 0.181 (Perdix and Bambusicola) among the 15 genera. Maximum likelihood method was used to construct a phylogenetic tree, which grouped all the genera into two deeply divergent clades. Perdix was shown to be a non-partridge genus. Alternatively, it appears ancestral to either partridges or pheasants. The sibling taxa of the four endemic genera were Lophophorus, Tragopan, Lophura and Phasianus, respectively. Calibrated rates of molecular evolution suggested that the divergence time between the four genera and related taxa was 4.00-5.00 million years ago, corresponding to the Pliocene. Considering their molecular phylogenetics, fossil and geographical distribution patterns, the four endemic genera might have originated in the southwestern mountains in China. PMID:19591951

  1. THREE NEW GENERA AND THREE NEW SPECIES OF NEOTROPICAL HYALIODINI, WITH NEW COMBINATIONS AND NEW SYNONYMY (HEMIPTERA: HETEROPTERA: MIRIDAE: DERAEOCORINAE)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Three new genera of Hyaliodini are described to provide names for a forthcoming study on the phylogenetic relationships of the genera within the subfamily Deraeocorinae. The new genus Dicyphanisca is described to accommodate the new species D. marginella from Ecuador; the new genus Froeschnerisca, ...

  2. Testing an innovative device against airborne Aspergillus contamination.

    PubMed

    Desoubeaux, Guillaume; Bernard, Marie-Charlotte; Gros, Valérie; Sarradin, Pierre; Perrodeau, Elodie; Vecellio, Laurent; Piscopo, Antoine; Chandenier, Jacques; Bernard, Louis

    2014-08-01

    Aspergillus fumigatus is a major airborne nosocomial pathogen that is responsible for severe mycosis in immunocompromised patients. We studied the efficacy of an innovative mobile air-treatment device in eliminating A. fumigatus from the air following experimental massive contamination in a high-security room. Viable mycological particles were isolated from sequential air samples in order to evaluate the device's effectiveness in removing the fungus. The concentration of airborne conidia was reduced by 95% in 18 min. Contamination was reduced below the detection threshold in 29 min, even when the machine was at the lowest airflow setting. In contrast, during spontaneous settling with no air treatment, conidia remained airborne for more than 1 h. This indoor air contamination model provided consistent and reproducible results. Because the air purifier proved to be effective at eliminating a major contaminant, it may prove useful in preventing air-transmitted disease agents. In an experimental space mimicking a hospital room, the AirLyse air purifier, which uses a combination of germicidal ultraviolet C irradiation and titanium photocatalysis, effectively eliminated Aspergillus conidia. Such a mobile device may be useful in routine practice for lowering microbiological air contamination in the rooms of patients at risk. PMID:24965945

  3. The Antifungal Protein from Aspergillus giganteus Causes Membrane Permeabilization

    PubMed Central

    Theis, T.; Wedde, M.; Meyer, V.; Stahl, U.

    2003-01-01

    We investigated the inhibitory effects of the antifungal protein (AFP) from Aspergillus giganteus on the growth of several filamentous fungi. For this purpose, the MICs of AFP were determined and ranged from 0.1 ?g/ml for Fusarium oxysporum to 200 ?g/ml for Aspergillus nidulans. The antifungal activity of AFP was diminished in the presence of cations. We were able to show that incubation of AFP-sensitive fungi with the protein resulted in membrane permeabilization using an assay based on the uptake of the fluorescent dye SYTOX Green. No permeabilization by AFP could be detected at concentrations below the species-specific MIC. Furthermore, AFP-induced permeabilization could readily be detected after 5 min of incubation. Localization experiments with fluorescein isothiocyanate-labeled AFP and immunofluorescence staining with an AFP-specific antibody supported the observation that the protein interacts with membranes. After treatment of AFP-sensitive fungi with AFP, the protein was localized at the plasma membrane, whereas it was mainly detected inside the cells of AFP-resistant fungi. We conclude from these data that the growth-inhibitory effect of AFP is caused by permeabilization of the fungal membranes. PMID:12543664

  4. Targeting zinc homeostasis to combat Aspergillus fumigatus infections

    PubMed Central

    Vicentefranqueira, Rocío; Amich, Jorge; Laskaris, Paris; Ibrahim-Granet, Oumaima; Latgé, Jean P.; Toledo, Héctor; Leal, Fernando; Calera, José A.

    2015-01-01

    Aspergillus fumigatus is able to invade and grow in the lungs of immunosuppressed individuals and causes invasive pulmonary aspergillosis. The concentration of free zinc in living tissues is much lower than that required for optimal fungal growth in vitro because most of it is tightly bound to proteins. To obtain efficiently zinc from a living host A. fumigatus uses the zinc transporters ZrfA, ZrfB, and ZrfC. The ZafA transcriptional regulator induces the expression of all these transporters and is essential for virulence. Thus, ZafA could be targeted therapeutically to inhibit fungal growth. The ZrfC transporter plays the major role in zinc acquisition from the host whereas ZrfA and ZrfB rather have a supplementary role to that of ZrfC. In addition, only ZrfC enables A. fumigatus to overcome the inhibitory effect of calprotectin, which is an antimicrobial Zn/Mn-chelating protein synthesized and released by neutrophils within the fungal abscesses of immunosuppressed non-leucopenic animals. Hence, fungal survival in these animals would be undermined upon blocking therapeutically the function of ZrfC. Therefore, both ZafA and ZrfC have emerged as promising targets for the discovery of new antifungals to treat Aspergillus infections. PMID:25774155

  5. Characterization of a novel lipolytic enzyme from Aspergillus oryzae.

    PubMed

    Koseki, Takuya; Asai, Shungo; Saito, Natsumi; Mori, Masayo; Sakaguchi, Yasuko; Ikeda, Kazutaka; Shiono, Yoshihito

    2013-06-01

    In this study, we report the characterization of a protein from Aspergillus oryzae, exhibiting sequence identity with paraben esterase from the genus Aspergillus. The coding region of 1,586 bp, including a 77-bp intron, encoded a protein of 502 amino acids. The gene without the signal peptide of 19 amino acids was cloned into a vector, pPICZ?C, and expressed successfully in Pichia pastoris as an active extracellular protein. The purified recombinant protein had pH and temperature optima of 7.0-8.0 and 30 °C, respectively, and was stable at the pH range of 7.0-10.0 and up to 40 °C. The optimal substrate for hydrolysis by the purified recombinant protein, among a panel of ?-naphthyl esters (C2-C16), was ?-naphthyl butyrate (C4), with activity of 0.16 units/mg protein. The considerable hydrolytic activity of the purified recombinant enzyme toward tributyrin was determined. However, no paraben esterase activity was detected toward the ethyl, propyl, and butyl esters of 4-hydroxybenzoic acid. In addition, no activity was detected toward the methyl esters of ferulic, p-coumaric, caffeic, and sinapic acids that would indicate feruloyl esterase activity. PMID:23001008

  6. Comparative studies on O-acetylhomoserine sulfhydrylase: physiological role and characterization of the Aspergillus nidulans enzyme.

    PubMed

    Brzywczy, J; Yamagata, S; Paszewski, A

    1993-01-01

    O-acetylhomoserine sulfhydrylase (OAH SHLase) from Aspergillus nidulans is an oligomeric protein with a broad substrate specificity with regard to sulfhydryl compounds. As its Saccharomyces cerevisiae counterpart the enzyme also reacts with O-acetylserine and is inhibited by carbonyl reagents but not by antiserum raised against the yeast enzyme. In contrast to Saccharomyces cerevisiae the enzyme is not essential for Aspergillus nidulans as indicated by the completely prototrophic phenotype of OAH SHLase-negative mutants. Its major physiological role in Aspergillus nidulans seems to be recycling of the thiomethyl group of methylthio-adenosine but it is also a constituent of the alternative pathway of cysteine synthesis. PMID:8249501

  7. Interaction of the echinocandin caspofungin with amphotericin B or voriconazole against Aspergillus biofilms in vitro.

    PubMed

    Liu, Weixia; Li, Lijuan; Sun, Yi; Chen, Wei; Wan, Zhe; Li, Ruoyu; Liu, Wei

    2012-12-01

    Aspergillus biofilms were prepared from 22 strains of Aspergillus spp. via a 96-well plate-based method. Using a broth microdilution checkerboard technique with the XTT [2,3-bis-(2-methoxy-4-nitro-5-sulfophenyl)-2H-tetrazolium-5-carboxanilide] colorimetric assay, we demonstrated a synergistic antifungal activity against 18 of 22 Aspergillus biofilm strains with a combination of caspofungin and amphotericin B and against 13 of 22 strains with a combination of caspofungin and voriconazole. We did not observe antagonism. PMID:23027186

  8. Complete mitochondrial genome of an Amynthas earthworm, Amynthas aspergillus (Oligochaeta: Megascolecidae).

    PubMed

    Zhang, Liangliang; Jiang, Jibao; Dong, Yan; Qiu, Jiangping

    2014-10-20

    Abstract We have determined the mitochondrial genome of the first Amynthas earthworm, Amynthas aspergillus (Perrier, 1872), which is a natural medical resource in Chinese traditional medicine. Its mitogenome is 15,115?bp in length containing 37 genes with the same contents and order as other sequenced earthworms. All genes are encoded by the same strand, all 13 PCGs use ATG as start codon. The content of A + T is 63.04% for A. aspergillus (33.41% A, 29.63% T, 14.56% G and 22.41% C). The complete mitochondrial genomes of A. aspergillus would be useful for the reconstruction of Oligochaeta polygenetic relationships. PMID:25329289

  9. A case of hypertrophic cranial pachymeningitis associated with invasive Aspergillus mastoiditis.

    PubMed

    Okada, Masahiro; Hato, Naohito; Okada, Yoko; Sato, Eriko; Yamada, Hiroyuki; Hakuba, Nobuhiro; Gyo, Kiyofumi

    2015-12-01

    We report a rare case of hypertrophic cranial pachymeningitis (HCP) associated with invasive Aspergillus mastoiditis. A 63-year-old man with diabetes mellitus underwent mastoidectomy because of chronic discharge from his left ear. The mastoidectomy was unsuccessful in resolving purulent otorrhea; moreover, 7 months later, the patient developed left abducens nerve palsy. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed HCP at the left middle cranial fossa. Although the pathogen could not be identified, an Aspergillus infection was considered based on elevated serum ?-d-glucan and a positive Aspergillus antigen test result. Voriconazole treatment resolved diplopia and left otorrhea and dramatically improved HCP. PMID:26003880

  10. The freshwater snails (Gastropoda) of Iran, with descriptions of two new genera and eight new species

    PubMed Central

    Glöer, Peter; Peši?, Vladimir

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Using published records and original data from recent field work and revision of Iranian material of certain species deposited in the collections of the Natural History Museum Basel, the Zoological Museum Berlin, and Natural History Museum Vienna, a checklist of the freshwater gastropod fauna of Iran was compiled. This checklist contains 73 species from 34 genera and 14 families of freshwater snails; 27 of these species (37%) are endemic to Iran. Two new genera, Kaskakia and Sarkhia, and eight species, i.e., Bithynia forcarti, Bithynia starmuehlneri, Bithynia mazandaranensis, Pseudamnicola georgievi, Kaskakia khorrasanensis, Sarkhia sarabensis, Valvata nowsharensis and Acroloxus pseudolacustris are described as new to science; Ecrobia grimmi (Clessin & Dybowski, 1888), Heleobia dalmatica (Radoman, 1974) and Hippeutis complanatus (Linnaeus, 1758) are reported for the first time from Iran. Additional field work is highly desirable for a more appropriate evaluation of the extant freshwater snail biodiversity in Iran. PMID:22977349

  11. Endiandric Acid Derivatives and Other Constituents of Plants from the Genera Beilschmiedia and Endiandra (Lauraceae)

    PubMed Central

    Ndjakou Lenta, Bruno; Chouna, Jean Rodolphe; Nkeng-Efouet, Pepin Alango; Sewald, Norbert

    2015-01-01

    Plants of the Lauraceae family are widely used in traditional medicine and are sources of various classes of secondary metabolites. Two genera of this family, Beilschmiedia and Endiandra, have been the subject of numerous investigations over the past decades because of their application in traditional medicine. They are the only source of bioactive endiandric acid derivatives. Noteworthy is that their biosynthesis contains two consecutive non-enzymatic electrocyclic reactions. Several interesting biological activities for this specific class of secondary metabolites and other constituents of the two genera have been reported, including antimicrobial, enzymes inhibitory and cytotoxic properties. This review compiles information on the structures of the compounds described between January 1960 and March 2015, their biological activities and information on endiandric acid biosynthesis, with 104 references being cited. PMID:26111193

  12. Species identification and evolutionary inference of the genera Megalobrama and Parabramis (Cyprinidae: Cultrinae) in China.

    PubMed

    Bai, X H; Guo, X W; Zhang, X J; Song, W; Li, Y H; Luo, W; Cao, X J; Wang, W M

    2015-06-01

    The species boundaries and evolutionary relationships of two closely related genera, Megalobrama and Parabramis, were inferred from the partial mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase subunit I (COI) gene, NADH dehydrogenase subunit 2 (ND2) gene and their concatenated segment. Phylogenetic reconstructions showed that among the three breams, Megalobrama amblycephala and Megalobrama skolkovii are more closely related to each other than either is to Megalobrama terminalis. The taxonomy of M. pellegrini should be reconsidered. The divergence time estimation based on the assumption of a global molecular clock indicated that speciation and dispersal of the two genera might have occurred at approximately Pliocene to Late Pleistocene, due to major paleo-environmental events associated with monsoon evolution and the formation of the Three Gorges of the Yangtze River. PMID:24004309

  13. Elliptic genera of ALE and ALF manifolds from gauged linear sigma models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harvey, Jeffrey A.; Lee, Sungjay; Murthy, Sameer

    2015-02-01

    We compute the equivariant elliptic genera of several classes of ALE and ALF manifolds using localization in gauged linear sigma models. In the sigma model computation the equivariant action corresponds to chemical potentials for U(1) currents and the elliptic genera exhibit interesting pole structure as a function of the chemical potentials. We use this to decompose the answers into polar terms that exhibit wall crossing and universal terms. We compare our results to previous results on the large radius limit of the Taub-NUT elliptic genus and also discuss applications of our results to counting of BPS world-sheet spectrum of monopole strings in the 5d super Yang-Mills theory and self-dual strings in the 6d theories.

  14. Two new genera, Hoffmannanthus and Jeffreycia, mostly from East Africa (Erlangeinae, Vernonieae, Asteraceae)

    PubMed Central

    Robinson, Harold; Keeley, Sterling C.; Skvarla, John J.; Chan, Raymund

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Two genera of Vernonieae subtribe Erlangeinae with Type A pollen, 5-ribbed achenes, and blunt-tipped sweeping hairs on the styles are described as new, Hoffmannanthus with one species and with Vernonia brachycalyx O. Hoffm. as type, and Jeffreycia with five known species, with Vernonia zanzibarensis Less. as type. Vernonia abbotiana O. Hoffm. is neotypified and is an older name for V. brachycalyx. PMID:25197225

  15. Palynological study of the genera Ruellia, Ecbolium, Asystasia, Blepharis and Dicliptera (Acanthaceae) of Yemen

    SciTech Connect

    Al-Hakimi, S. Anisa [School of Environmental and Natural Resource Sciences, Faculty of Science and Technology, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, 43600, Bangi, Selangor, Malaysia and Biology Department, Faculty of Science, Taiz University, Taiz (Yemen); Maideen, Haja; Latiff, A. [School of Environmental and Natural Resource Sciences, Faculty of Science and Technology, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, 43600, Bangi, Selangor (Malaysia)

    2013-11-27

    Pollen morphology of five genera of the family Acanthaceae, namely Ruellia, Blepharis, Asystasia, Ecbolium and Dicliptera (Acanthaceae) of Yemen has been examined using light and scanning electron microscope. Pollen descriptions were provided with two shapes distinguished, spheroidal and prolate. Most of the pollen grains were tricolporate amd psuedocolpi except those of Blepharis which are colpate. The surface is coarsely reticulate, in addition to the lumina that varies in size.

  16. Two genera of Braconinae (Hymenoptera, Braconidae) in China, with descriptions of four new species

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yi-Ping; Chen, Xue-Xin; Wu, Hong; He, Jun-Hua

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Two genera, namely Dolabraulax Quicke and Scutibracon Quicke of Braconinae (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) from China are studied for the first time, and four new species, namely Dolabraulax jigongshanus Wang & Chen, sp. n., Dolabraulax flavus Wang & Chen, sp. n., Dolabraulax brevivena Wang & Chen, sp. n. and Scutibracon fujianensis Wang & Chen, sp. n. are fully described and illustrated. The examined specimens are deposited in the Parasitic Hymenoptera Collection, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, China (ZJUH). PMID:21594015

  17. Molecular Phylogeny of the Australian Frog Genera Crinia, Geocrinia, and Allied Taxa (Anura: Myobatrachidae)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kathryn Read; J. Scott Keogh; Ian A. W. Scott; J. Dale Roberts; Paul Doughty

    2001-01-01

    We present a mitochondrial gene tree for representative species of all the genera in the subfamily Myobatrachinae, with special emphasis on Crinia and Geocrinia. This group has been the subject of a number of long-standing taxonomic and phylogenetic debates. Our phylogeny is based on data from approximately 780 bp of 12S rRNA and 676 bp of ND2, and resolves a

  18. Purines, pyrimidines and amino acids as carbon or nitrogen source in different genera of bacteria

    E-print Network

    Atkinson, Margaret Elizabeth Naquin

    1973-01-01

    t and Bacillus were tested for their ability to utilize purine and pyrimidine compounds as carbon and/or nitrogen sources. Uracil auxotrophs of Salmonella, Enterobacter, and Bacillus were examined for possible effects of pyrimidine auxotrophy on the catabolism..., and partially in Bacillus and Pseudrsmonas species (Fig. 1-4) Using the established pathways for purine and pyrimidine catabolism (Fig. 2-3) for comparison one may investigate other genera of microorganisms for similar pathways in the degradation of purine...

  19. Leaf surface flavonoids in Iranian species of Nepeta (Lamiaceae) and some related genera

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ziba Jamzad; Renée J. Grayer; Geoffrey C. Kite; Monique S. J. Simmonds; Martin Ingrouille; Adel Jalili

    2003-01-01

    A HPLC survey of the leaf surface flavonoids of 38 species of Nepeta (Lamiaceae) and four species of the related genera Agastache, Dracocephalum and Lallemantia revealed 14 different flavones, one of which is new (8-hydroxycirsiliol or 5,8,3?,4?-tetrahydroxy-6,7-dimethoxyflavone). In addition, two flavonols (methyl ethers of kaempferol) were found in Dracocephalum kotschyii. The most frequently encountered flavones in Nepeta were cirsimaritin (5,4?-dihydroxy-6,7-dimethoxyflavone);

  20. Pollen morphology of Gaultheria L. and related genera of subfamily Vaccinioideae: Taxonomic and evolutionary significance

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lu Lu; Peter W. Fritsch; Hong Wang; Hong-Tao Li; De-Zhu Li; Jian-Qun Chen

    2009-01-01

    The pollen morphology of 86 samples from 84 species of Gaultheria and the closely related genera Chamaedaphne, Craibiodendron, Diplycosia, Eubotrys, Gaylussacia, Leucothoe, Lyonia, Oxydendrum, Pieris, Satyria, and Vaccinium (subfamily Vaccinioideae) was investigated with light and scanning electron microscopy. The tetrahedral tetrads are tri-zonocolporate and range from 22.9 to 51.5 ?m in diameter. Exine ornamentation (apocolpia and mesocolpia) of pollen grains is

  1. Labellar Micromorphology of Two Euglossine-pollinated Orchid Genera; Scuticaria Lindl. and Dichaea Lindl.

    PubMed Central

    Davies, Kevin L.; Stpiczy?ska, Malgorzata

    2008-01-01

    Background and Aims Until recently, there was no consensus regarding the phylogenetic relationships of the Neotropical orchid genera Scuticaria Lindl. and Dichaea Lindl. However, recent evidence derived from both gross morphological and molecular studies supports the inclusion of Scuticaria and Dichaea in sub-tribes Maxillariinae and Zygopetalinae, respectively. The present paper describes the labellar micromorphology of both genera and seeks to establish whether labellar characters support the assignment of Scuticaria and Dichaea to these sub-tribes. Methods The labella of four species of Scuticaria and 14 species of Dichaea were examined using light microscopy and scanning electron microscopy, and their micromorphology was compared with that of representative species of Maxillariinae sensu lato and Zygopetalinae (Huntleya clade). Key Results and Conclusions In most specimens of Scuticaria examined, the papillose labella bear uniseriate, multicellular, unbranched trichomes. However, in S. steelii (Lindl.) Lindl., branched hairs may also be present and some trichomes may fragment and form pseudopollen. Multicellular, leaf-like scales were also present in one species of Scuticaria. Similar, unbranched hairs are present in certain species of Maxillaria Ruiz & Pav. (Maxillariinae sensu stricto) and Chaubardia Rchb.f. (Huntleya clade). As yet, moniliform, pseudopollen-forming hairs have not been observed for Zygopetalinae, but their presence in Scuticaria steelii, Maxillaria and Heterotaxis Lindl. supports the placing of Scuticaria in Maxillariinae. As other genera are sampled, the presence of branched hairs, hitherto unknown for Maxillariinae sensu lato, may prove to be a useful character in taxonomy and phylogenetic studies. Euglossophily occurs in Dichaea, as well as Chondrorhyncha Lindl. and Pescatorea Rchb.f. (Huntleya clade), and all three genera tend to lack distinctive labellar features. Instead, lip micromorphology is relatively simple and glabrous or papillose. However, two of the Dichaea species examined bear unicellular, labellar trichomes very similar to those found in Bifrenaria Lindl. (pollinated by both euglossine bees and Bombus spp.), and this feature may have arisen by convergence in response to similar pollination pressures. PMID:18765439

  2. Dominant Bacterial Genera of a Tilapia Fish Farm and RAPD Typing of Vibrio Isolates

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Shuxia Lu; Robert E. Levin

    2008-01-01

    The predominant bacterial genera present in the fish tank water of a sustainable tilapia fish farm system were found to be Vibrio (39.7-69%), Aeromonas (16-21.6%), Pseudomanas (1.8-2.0%), and Shewanella (4.0-9.9%). Each of the 69 Vibrio isolates obtained on March 5, 2003 from tilapia fish tank water was subjected to RAPD-PCR analysis separately with three decamer primers PB1, PB4 and HLWL74.

  3. The Phylogeny of the Genus Clostridium: Proposal of Five New Genera and Eleven New Species Combinations

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. D. COLLINS; P. A. LAWSON; A. WILLEMS; J. J. CORDOBA; J. FERNANDEZ-GARAYZABAL; P. GARCIA; J. CAI; H. HIPPE; J. A. E. FARROW

    1994-01-01

    The 16s rRNA gene sequences of 34 named and unnamed clostridial strains were determined by PCR direct sequencing and were compared with more than 80 previously determined clostridial sequences and the previously published sequences of representative species of other low- G+C-content gram-positive genera, thereby providing an almost complete picture of the genealogical interrelationships of the clostridia. The results of our

  4. Taxonomic considerations on the genera Moneuptychia Forster and Carminda Dias, reval. (Lepidoptera, Nymphalidae, Satyrinae).

    PubMed

    Dias, M M

    2011-05-01

    Euptychia soter Butler, 1877, the type species of Moneuptychia Forster, 1964, is compared to Satyrus paeon Godart, 1824, the type species of Carminda Dias, 1998. The male genitalia and wing design patterns of these species are dealt with. Some additional data from other species from both genera are also presented. The morphological comparisons carried out in this study indicate that Carminda is not a junior synonym of Moneuptychia. Thus, Carminda is revalidated. PMID:21755174

  5. Bioaccumulation potential of Aspergillus niger and Aspergillus flavus for removal of heavy metals from paper mill effluent.

    PubMed

    Thippeswamy, B; Shivakumar, C K; Krishnappa, M

    2012-11-01

    In the present study Aspergillus niger and Aspergillus flavus isolated from paper mill effluent showed tolerance and accumulation of toxic metals Ni, Zn, Cd, Pb, Cr and Cu from synthetic medium and paper mill effluent. Physico-chemical and heavy metals characterization of industrially treated paper mill effluent showed insignificant reduction in BOD, hardness, TDS and heavy metals as compared to permissible limits of BIS and WHO. A. niger and A. flavus were treated with synthetic medium containing 100-1000 mg l(-1) of six heavy metals. A. niger was able to tolerate and grow in 1000 mg l(-1) Pb, 500 mg l(-1) Cu, 250 mg l(-1) Zn and 100 mg l(-1) Cr, Ni respectively. No growth of A. niger was observed in 100 mg l-(-1) of Cd. A. flavus was capable to tolerate and grow in 1000 mg l(-1) Pb, Zn and Ni, 100mg l(-1) Cu. A. flavus growth was completely inhibited in 100 mg l(-1) of Cd and Cr. The Cd, Zn, Cu and Pb reduction were found significant (p < 0.05) in the paper effluent inoculated with A. niger and A. flavus biomass compared to industrial treated effluent. A. niger and A. flavus accumulated maximum of Pb (75.82%) followed by Zn (49.40%) > Cu (45.34%) > Ni (25.20%), while only 41% Cr was accumulated by A. nigerfrom 100 mg l(-1) of Cr solution. PMID:23741802

  6. In vitro evaluation of double and triple combinations of antifungal drugs against Aspergillus fumigatus and Aspergillus terreus.

    PubMed

    Dannaoui, Eric; Lortholary, Olivier; Dromer, Françoise

    2004-03-01

    Microdilution broth checkerboard techniques based on the National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards methodology were used to study double and triple antifungal combinations against clinical isolates of Aspergillus fumigatus and A. terreus. The influences of the end-point definition (partial or complete inhibition) and the mode of reading (visually or spectrophotometrically) were determined. Interactions between antifungal drugs were also evaluated by agar diffusion tests. Combinations of caspofungin with either amphotericin B or voriconazole were additive for all the isolates, and antagonism was not observed. The interaction between caspofungin and flucytosine was synergistic for 62% of the isolates. In contrast, the interaction between voriconazole and flucytosine was never synergistic and antagonism was noted for 93% of the isolates. The triple combination of caspofungin with flucytosine and amphotericin B was synergistic for all the isolates tested. The triple combination of caspofungin with flucytosine and voriconazole was also mostly synergistic; but complex interactions were obtained for some isolates, with synergy or antagonism depending on the concentrations of caspofungin and voriconazole. Analysis of the influence of the reading technique on the results showed that spectrophotometric reading was a good alternative to the recommended visual reading. The results of these in vitro tests suggest that the activity of flucytosine as part of a double combination with caspofungin and as part of a triple combination with caspofungin and amphotericin B against Aspergillus spp. warrants further investigations. Animal studies are needed to evaluate the in vivo efficacies of these combinations. PMID:14982791

  7. A Saccharomyces cerevisiae Wine Strain Inhibits Growth and Decreases Ochratoxin A Biosynthesis by Aspergillus carbonarius and Aspergillus ochraceus

    PubMed Central

    Cubaiu, Loredana; Abbas, Hamid; Dobson, Alan D. W.; Budroni, Marilena; Migheli, Quirico

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to select wine yeast strains as biocontrol agents against fungal contaminants responsible for the accumulation of ochratoxin A (OTA) in grape and wine and to dissect the mechanism of OTA detoxification by a Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain (DISAABA1182), which had previously been reported to reduce OTA in a synthetic must. All of the yeast strains tested displayed an ability to inhibit the growth of Aspergillus carbonarius both in vivo and in vitro and addition of culture filtrates from the tested isolates led to complete inhibition of OTA production. S. cerevisiae DISAABA1182 was selected and further tested for its capacity to inhibit OTA production and pks (polyketide synthase) transcription in A. carbonarius and Aspergillus ochraceus in vitro. In order to dissect the mechanism of OTA detoxification, each of these two fungi was co-cultured with living yeast cells exposed to yeast crude or to autoclaved supernatant: S. cerevisiae DISAABA1182 was found to inhibit mycelial growth and OTA production in both Aspergilli when co-cultured in the OTA-inducing YES medium. Moreover, a decrease in pks transcription was observed in the presence of living cells of S. cerevisiae DISAABA1182 or its supernatant, while no effects were observed on transcription of either of the constitutively expressed calmodulin and ?-tubulin genes. This suggests that transcriptional regulation of OTA biosynthetic genes takes place during the interaction between DISAABA1182 and OTA-producing Aspergilli. PMID:23223175

  8. Phylogenetic relationships between Bacillus species and related genera inferred from 16s rDNA sequences

    PubMed Central

    Wei Wang, Mi Sun

    2009-01-01

    Neighbor-joining, maximum-parsimony, minimum-evolution, maximum-likelihood and Bayesian trees constructed based on 16S rDNA sequences of 181 type strains of Bacillus species and related taxa manifested nine phylogenetic groups. The phylogenetic analysis showed that Bacillus was not a monophyletic group. B. subtilis was in Group 1. Group 4, 6 and 8 respectively consisted of thermophiles, halophilic or halotolerant bacilli and alkaliphilic bacilli. Group 2, 4 and 8 consisting of Bacillus species and related genera demonstrated that the current taxonomic system did not agree well with the 16S rDNA evolutionary trees. The position of Caryophanaceae and Planococcaceae in Group 2 suggested that they might be transferred into Bacillaceae, and the heterogeneity of Group 2 implied that some Bacillus species in it might belong to several new genera. Group 9 was mainly comprised of the genera (excluding Bacillus) of Bacillaceae, so some Bacillus species in Group 9: B. salarius, B. qingdaonensis and B. thermcloacae might not belong to Bacillus. Four Bacillus species, B. schlegelii, B. tusciae, B. edaphicus and B. mucilaginosus were clearly placed outside the nine groups. PMID:24031394

  9. Comparative phylogenetic histories of two louse genera found on Catharus thrushes and other birds.

    PubMed

    Bueter, Chelsea; Weckstein, Jason; Johnson, Kevin P; Bates, John M; Gordon, Caleb E

    2009-04-01

    The louse genera Brueelia (Ischnocera) and Myrsidea (Amblycera) are broadly codistributed on songbirds (Passeriformes), but differ in a variety of life history characteristics. We used mitochondrial and nuclear DNA sequences to assess levels of genetic divergence and reconstruct phylogenies of these 2 genera, focusing especially on Catharus thrushes in North America. We then qualitatively compared the phylogenies and levels of divergence within these 2 genera of codistributed parasites. Neither Brueelia nor Myrsidea appears to cospeciate with Catharus thrushes or passerine birds in general. The Myrsidea phylogeny exhibits significant levels of biogeographic structure, whereas the Brueelia phylogeny does not. Myrsidea and Brueelia also differ in their levels of intra-generic genetic divergence, with Myrsidea showing higher levels of genetic divergence and host specificity than Brueelia. Our genetic data support traditional morphology-based taxonomy in several instances in which the same species of Brueelia has been reported on multiple host taxa, e.g., all migrant Catharus spp. carry B. antiqua, with little haplotype divergence. Myrsidea found on each Catharus sp. are in general genetically distinct, except for M. incerta, which parasitizes both Catharus ustulatus and Catharus minimus. The strong biogeographic signal in the Myrsidea phylogeny and higher relative levels of host specificity of Myrsidea spp. suggest that infrequent host-switching, followed by speciation, is shaping the evolutionary history of this group. In contrast, the relatively lower host specificity of Brueelia spp. suggests that host-switching, combined with more frequent ongoing dispersal, has been more important in the evolutionary history of Brueelia. PMID:18821823

  10. Structural rearrangements, including parallel inversions, within the chloroplast genome of Anemone and related genera.

    PubMed

    Hoot, S B; Palmer, J D

    1994-03-01

    Chloroplast DNA cleavage sites for 10 restriction enzymes were mapped for 46 species representing all sections of Anemone, four closely related genera (Clematis, Pulsatilla, Hepatica, and Knowltonia), and three more distantly related outgroups (Caltha, Ranunculus, and Adonis). Comparison of the maps revealed that the chloroplast genomes of Anemone and related genera have sustained an unusual number and variety of rearrangements. A single inversion of a 42-kb segment was found in the large single-copy region of Adonis aestivalis. Two types of rearrangements were found in the chloroplast genome of Clematis, Anemone, Pulsatilla, Hepatica, and Knowltonia: An approximately 4-kb expansion of the inverted repeat and four inversions within the large single-copy region. These rearrangements support the monophyletic status of these genera, clearly separating them from Caltha, Ranunculus, and Adonis. Two further inversions were found in two Clematis species and three Anemone species. While appearing to support a monophyletic grouping for these taxa, these two inversions conflict with data from both chloroplast restriction sites and morphology and are better interpreted as having occurred twice independently. These are the first two documented cases of homoplastic inversions in chloroplast DNA. Finally, the second intron of the chloroplast rps 12 gene was shown to have been lost in the common ancestor of the same three Anemone species that feature the two homoplastic inversions. PMID:8006994

  11. Jurassic-Early Cretaceous Gondwanan homoxylous woods: a nomenclatural revision of the genera with taxonomic notes.

    PubMed

    Bamford, M K.; Philippe, M

    2001-04-01

    The homoxylous fossil woods occurring in the Gondwanan continents of South America, Australia, Africa, India and Antarctica during the Jurassic and Early Cretaceous period are considered here. Original descriptions of the genera and wherever possible, the type material, have been consulted. Applying the rules of the International Code of Botanical Nomenclature, the generic names of the homoxylous woods have been revised from a nomenclatural point of view. According to this review, out of 31 generic names used for woods from the given time interval and area, 6 are illegitimate later nomenclatural synonyms, 1 is a later homonym, and 5 can be considered as taxonomical synonyms. Moreover, 9 genera have been used erroneously. We propose one new generic name (Protaxodioxylon n. gen.) and elsewhere we will propose for conservation, with a conserved type one of the illegitimate names and one of the taxonomic synonyms. As a result, we consider that there are only eighteen generic names correctly quoted for the Jurassic-Early Cretaceous of Gondwana, and we provide a taxonomic key for the corresponding genera. This revision is the first step in systematically comparing northern and southern hemisphere woods. PMID:11179718

  12. Review of the genera Anelaphinis Kolbe, 1892 and Atrichelaphinis Kraatz, 1898 (Coleoptera, Scarabaeidae, Cetoniinae)

    PubMed Central

    Rojkoff, Sébastien; Perissinotto, Renzo

    2015-01-01

    Abstract New material collected recently throughout the Afrotropical region has led to a major reassessment of taxa within the genera Anelaphinis Kolbe, 1892, Atrichelaphinis Kraatz, 1898 and other closely related genera. As a result, the name Megalleucosma Antoine, 1989 is here synonymised with Anelaphinis and a lectotype is designated for the type species, Cetonia dominula Harold, 1879. The genus Atrichelaphinis is redefined and a new subgenus, Atrichelaphinis (Eugeaphinis), is proposed for Elaphinis simillima Ancey, 1883, Elaphinis vermiculata Fairmaire, 1894, Niphetophora rhodesiana Péringuey, 1907, Atrichelaphinis deplanata Moser, 1907 (with Anelaphinis kwangensis Burgeon, 1931 as junior synonym) and Anelaphinis sternalis Moser, 1914. Additionally, three new species and one new subspecies are recognised and described in this new subgenus: Atrichelaphinis (Eugeaphinis) bomboesbergica sp. n. from South Africa; Atrichelaphinis (Eugeaphinis) bjornstadi sp. n. from Tanzania; Atrichelaphinis (Eugeaphinis) garnieri sp. n. from south–east Africa (Tanzania, Zimbabwe); and Atrichelaphinis (Eugeaphinis) deplanata minettii ssp. n. from central Africa (Malawi, Mozambique, Congo-Kinshasa, Congo-Brazzaville, South Africa, Rwanda, Zambia, Zimbabwe). The genus Atrichelaphinis is compared to its closest relatives and two separate keys are proposed, one for Atrichelaphinis and one for the sub-Saharan genera exhibiting completely or partially fused parameres. PMID:25709532

  13. Review of the genera Anelaphinis Kolbe, 1892 and Atrichelaphinis Kraatz, 1898 (Coleoptera, Scarabaeidae, Cetoniinae).

    PubMed

    Rojkoff, Sébastien; Perissinotto, Renzo

    2015-01-01

    New material collected recently throughout the Afrotropical region has led to a major reassessment of taxa within the genera Anelaphinis Kolbe, 1892, Atrichelaphinis Kraatz, 1898 and other closely related genera. As a result, the name Megalleucosma Antoine, 1989 is here synonymised with Anelaphinis and a lectotype is designated for the type species, Cetoniadominula Harold, 1879. The genus Atrichelaphinis is redefined and a new subgenus, Atrichelaphinis (Eugeaphinis), is proposed for Elaphinissimillima Ancey, 1883, Elaphinisvermiculata Fairmaire, 1894, Niphetophorarhodesiana Péringuey, 1907, Atrichelaphinisdeplanata Moser, 1907 (with Anelaphiniskwangensis Burgeon, 1931 as junior synonym) and Anelaphinissternalis Moser, 1914. Additionally, three new species and one new subspecies are recognised and described in this new subgenus: Atrichelaphinis (Eugeaphinis) bomboesbergicasp. n. from South Africa; Atrichelaphinis (Eugeaphinis) bjornstadisp. n. from Tanzania; Atrichelaphinis (Eugeaphinis) garnierisp. n. from south-east Africa (Tanzania, Zimbabwe); and Atrichelaphinis (Eugeaphinis) deplanataminettiissp. n. from central Africa (Malawi, Mozambique, Congo-Kinshasa, Congo-Brazzaville, South Africa, Rwanda, Zambia, Zimbabwe). The genus Atrichelaphinis is compared to its closest relatives and two separate keys are proposed, one for Atrichelaphinis and one for the sub-Saharan genera exhibiting completely or partially fused parameres. PMID:25709532

  14. The relationship of the whole genome sequence identity to DNA hybridization varies between genera of prokaryotes.

    PubMed

    Li, Xun; Huang, Yongjie; Whitman, William B

    2015-01-01

    In the original proposal of Wayne et al. (Int J Syst Bacteriol 37:463-464, 1987), two measures of genetic relatedness were proposed to set the boundary for prokaryotic species. The first was the change in the melting temperature (?Tm) of heteroduplex DNA and the second was the extent of DNA-DNA hybridization (DDH). While this approach was justified given the experimental error inherent in these methods, genomic sequencing has the potential to measure both parameters with great precision. The average nucleotide identity (ANIb), a surrogate for the ?Tm, and the calculated DDH (cDDH) were determined from the complete genomes of representatives of 17 genera of prokaryotes. When the ANIb was >75 %, the ratio (100-cDDH)/(100-ANIb) was 3.69 ± 0.93 (± SD) and varied from about 2.35 to 4.59 between genera. The differences among genera was highly significant (p < 0.001) but not correlated with specific phylogenetic or physiological groups. Moreover, the ANIm was a poor measure of ANIb when ANIb was <75 %. Because the ANIb and cDDH provide different measures of relatedness, it is no longer appropiate to consider both when delineating species. For these reasons, measures of relatedness based upon sequence identity should be used for delineating species in the future. PMID:25370015

  15. Ribosomal and RPB2 DNA sequence analyses suggest that Sporidesmium and morphologically similar genera are polyphyletic.

    PubMed

    Shenoy, Belle Damodara; Jeewon, Rajesh; Wu, Wenping P; Bhat, Darbhe Jayarama; Hyde, Kevin D

    2006-08-01

    Sporidesmium and morphologically similar dematiaceous, hyphomycetous genera are characterised by holoblastic phragmoconidia produced on proliferating or non-proliferating conidiophores. They include a number of asexual (anamorphic) genera taxonomically segregated from Sporidesmium sensu lato and are similar in having schizolytic conidial secession. The taxonomy of these ubiquitous asexual fungi and their affinities with known Ascomycetes are, however, still obscure. This study incorporates a phylogenetic investigation, based on the LSU nu-rDNA and RNA polymerase II second largest subunit (RPB2) gene sequence, to assess the possible familial placement of Ellisembia, Linkosia, Repetophragma, Sporidesmiella, Sporidesmium and Stanjehughesia, and justify whether anamorphic characters are proper phylogenetic indicators. Phylogenies provide conclusive evidence to suggest that Sporidesmium is not monophyletic and species are phylogenetically distributed in two major ascomycete classes, Dothideomycetes and Sordariomycetes. Morphologies currently used in their classification have undergone convergent evolution and are not phylogenetically reliable. The possible teleomorphic affinities of these anamorphic genera are discussed in light of morphology and molecular data. As these anamorphs, in most cases, are the sole known morph of the holomorph, it is proposed that in the absence of or failure to detect their teleomorphic phase, the anamorph names should be used for the holomorph. PMID:16908125

  16. Recombination, balancing selection and geographic subdivision among worldwide populations of Aspergillus flavus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Aspergillus flavus is a global agent of aflatoxin contamination of economically important crops such as corn, peanuts, and cottonseed. Extensive studies have elucidated the biochemical and regulatory mechanisms of aflatoxin production, but basic knowledge of the evolutionary processes that maintain ...

  17. Twenty-four microsatellite markers for the aflatoxin-producing fungus Aspergillus flavus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Aspergillus flavus infects both plants and humans and contaminates diverse agricultural crops with aflatoxins, highly carcinogenic fungal metabolites. We describe 24 microsatellite markers developed to assess genetic diversity and recombination within and between three vegetative compatibility group...

  18. The roles of N-myristoylation in cell morphogenesis in Aspergillus nidulans 

    E-print Network

    Lee, Soo Chan

    2009-05-15

    Nmyristoylation is one process important to hyphal growth for which the direct mechanism for this connection is not understood. N-myristoylation is mediated by Nmyristoyltransferase (NMT), which links 14-carbon myristate to target proteins. In Aspergillus nidulans...

  19. Unraveling Reciprocal Lipid-Mediated Communication between Maize Seed and Aspergillus flavus 

    E-print Network

    Borrego, Eli James

    2014-07-31

    from maize and Aspergillus flavus within the context of the oxylipin-mediated cross-kingdom crosstalk. Maize wild-type and near-isogenic mutants for several lipoxygenase (LOX) and 12-oxophytodienoate reductases (OPR) related to jasmonic acid...

  20. The roles of N-myristoylation in cell morphogenesis in Aspergillus nidulans

    E-print Network

    Lee, Soo Chan

    2009-05-15

    Nmyristoylation is one process important to hyphal growth for which the direct mechanism for this connection is not understood. N-myristoylation is mediated by Nmyristoyltransferase (NMT), which links 14-carbon myristate to target proteins. In Aspergillus nidulans...

  1. Assessing conserved function of conidiation regulators in two distantly related ascomycetes, Aspergillus nidulans and Neurospora crassa

    E-print Network

    Chung, Da Woon

    2012-07-16

    in the ancestral species, and became specialized in the extant species to lead to morphological and functional diversity. To address this hypothesis we assessed the conserved function of conidiation regulators in two distantly related ascomycetes, Aspergillus...

  2. Genes Differentially Expressed by Aspergillus flavus Strains After Loss of Aflatoxin Production by Serial Transfers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Aflatoxins are carcinogenic fungal secondary metabolites produced by Aspergillus flavus and other closely related species. To better understand the molecular events that are associated with aflatoxin production, three separate nonaflatoxigenic A. flavus strains were produced through serial transfer...

  3. Gene Profiling for Studying the Mechanism of Aflatoxin Biosynthesis in Aspergillus flavus and A. parasiticus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Aflatoxins are toxic and carcinogenic polyketide metabolites produced by certain fungal species, including Aspergillus flavus and A. parasiticus. Because many internal and external factors, such as nutrition and environment affect aflatoxin biosynthesis, we have analyzed the transcriptome of A. fla...

  4. X-ray Structure Analysis and Characterization of AFUEI, an Elastase Inhibitor from Aspergillus fumigatus*

    PubMed Central

    Sakuma, Mayuko; Imada, Katsumi; Okumura, Yoshiyuki; Uchiya, Kei-ichi; Yamashita, Nobuo; Ogawa, Kenji; Hijikata, Atsushi; Shirai, Tsuyoshi; Homma, Michio; Nikai, Toshiaki

    2013-01-01

    Elastase from Aspergillus sp. is an important factor for aspergillosis. AFUEI is an inhibitor of the elastase derived from Aspergillus fumigatus. AFUEI is a member of the I78 inhibitor family and has a high inhibitory activity against elastases of Aspergillus fumigatus and Aspergillus flavus, human neutrophil elastase and bovine chymotrypsin, but does not inhibit bovine trypsin. Here we report the crystal structure of AFUEI in two crystal forms. AFUEI is a wedge-shaped protein composed of an extended loop and a scaffold protein core. The structure of AFUEI shows remarkable similarity to serine protease inhibitors of the potato inhibitor I family, although they are classified into different inhibitor families. A structural comparison with the potato I family inhibitors suggests that the extended loop of AFUEI corresponds to the binding loop of the potato inhibitor I family, and AFUEI inhibits its cognate proteases through the same mechanism as the potato I family inhibitors. PMID:23640894

  5. ASPERGILLUS FLAVUS EXPRESSED SEQUENCE TAGS AND MICROARRAY AS TOOLS IN UNDERSTANDING AFLATOXIN BIOSYNTHESIS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Aflatoxins are the most toxic and carcinogenic naturally occurring mycotoxins. They are produced primarily by Aspergillus flavus and A. parasiticus. In order to better understand the molecular mechanisms that control aflatoxin production, identification of genes using A. flavus expressed sequence ...

  6. Dual genome microarray: Fusarium verticillioides and Aspergillus flavus gene expression in co-culture

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Aflatoxins produced by Aspergillus flavus, and fumonisins produced by Fusarium verticillioides, are prominent among the mycotoxins associated with economic losses to the maize grain industry worldwide. F. verticillioides is also recognized as a systemic endophyte of maize that prevents opportunisti...

  7. Increased Heterologous Protein Production in Aspergillus niger Fermentation through Extracellular Proteases Inhibition by

    E-print Network

    Gu, Tingyue

    Increased Heterologous Protein Production in Aspergillus niger Fermentation through Extracellular in filamentous fungal fermentation and thereby to enhance heterologous protein production. Introduction with efficient heterologous protein production in the fungal fermentation industry (1, 2). Current strategies

  8. Revision of Aspergillus section Flavipedes: seven new species and section Jani sect. nov.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Aspergillus section Flavipedes contains species that are distributed world-wide in soil and rhizosphere, indoor and cave environments, plant endophytes, food contaminants, and occasionally causing human infections. They are producers of many bioactive and extensively studied secondary metabolites an...

  9. The chsDand chsEGenes of Aspergillus nidulansand Their Roles in Chitin Synthesis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Charles A. Specht; Yilun Liu; Phillips W. Robbins; Christine E. Bulawa; Natalia Iartchouk; Kenneth R. Winter; Perry J. Riggle; Judith C. Rhodes; Carol L. Dodge; David W. Culp; Peter T. Borgia

    1996-01-01

    Specht, C. A., Liu, Y., Robbins, P. W., Bulawa, C. E., Iartchouk, N., Winter, K. R., Riggle, P. J., Rhodes, J. C., Dodge, C. L., Culp, D. W., and Borgia, P. T. 1996. ThechsDandchsEgenes ofAspergillus nidulansand their roles in chitin synthesis.Fungal Genetics and Biology20,153–167. Two chitin synthase genes,chsDandchsE,were identified from the filamentous ascomyceteAspergillus nidulans.In a region that is conserved among

  10. The chsBGene of Aspergillus nidulansIs Necessary for Normal Hyphal Growth and Development

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Peter T. Borgia; Natalia Iartchouk; Perry J. Riggle; Kenneth R. Winter; Yigal Koltin; Christine E. Bulawa

    1996-01-01

    Borgia, P. T., Iartchouk, N., Riggle, P. J., Winter, K. R., Koltin, Y., and Bulawa, C. E. 1996. ThechsBgene ofAspergillus nidulansis necessary for normal hyphal growth and development.Fungal Genetics and Biology20,193–203. ThechsBgene fromAspergillus nidulansencodes a class III chitin synthase, an enzyme class found in filamentous fungi but not in yeast-like organisms. Using a novel method, we isolated haploid segregants carrying

  11. Isolation and characterization of the Aspergillus parasiticus pacC gene 

    E-print Network

    Pinero, David

    1999-01-01

    ISOLATION AND CHARACTERIZATION OF THE Aspergillus parasiticus pacC GENE A Thesis by DAVID PINERO Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER... OF SCIENCE August 1999 Major Subject: Plant Pathology ISOLATION AND CHARACTERIZATION OF THE Aspergillus parasiticus pacC GENE A Thesis by DAVID PINERO Submitted to Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree...

  12. Pathogenicity of a soil-derived Aspergillus fumigatus isolate for normal and immunosuppressed guinea pigs

    E-print Network

    Kenyon, Elaina Marie

    1983-01-01

    PATHOGENICITY OF A SOIL-DERIVED ASPERGILLUS FUIUIIGATUS ISOLATE FOR NORMAL ANU IMMUNOSUPPRESSED GUINEA PIGS A Thesis by ELAINA MARIE KENYON Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas AIM Uni ve rs i ty in partial fulfi liuent... of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE December Ig83 Major Subject: Epidemiology PATHOGENICITY OF A SOIL-DERIVED ASPERGILLUS FUMIGATUS ISOLATE FOR NORMAL AND IMMUNOSUPPRESSED GUINEA PIGS A Thesis by ELAINA MARIE KENYON Approved as to style...

  13. Sucrose Biotransformation to Fructooligosaccharides by Aspergillus sp. N74 Free Cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Oscar Fernando Sánchez; Ana M. Rodriguez; Edelberto Silva; Luis A. Caicedo

    2010-01-01

    Fructooligosaccharide production with the fructosyltransferase from free cells of the native strain Aspergillus sp. N74 at laboratory level was evaluated. The biomass of the native strain Aspergillus sp. N74 was produced in a sucrose fermentation medium and was employed in the enzymatic reaction in solutions of sucrose\\u000a and phosphate buffer, where pH, temperature, and initial sucrose concentration effect were evaluated.

  14. Characterization of genes in the sterigmatocystin gene cluster and their role in fitness of Aspergillus nidulans 

    E-print Network

    Sim, Sung Chur

    2001-01-01

    CHARACTERIZATION OF GENES IN THE STERIGMATOCYSTIN GENE CLUSTER AND THEIR ROLE IN FITNESS OF Aspergillus nidulans A Thesis by SUNG CHUR SIM Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A%M University in partial fulfillment... of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE August 2001 Major Subject: Plant Pathology CHARACTERIZATION OF GENES IN THE STERIGMATOCYSTIN GENE CLUSTER AND THEIR ROLE IN FITNESS OF Aspergillus nidulans A Thesis by SUNG CHUR SIM Submitted to Texas A...

  15. [Contribution of molecular biology and Aspergillus galactomannan antigen assay for the diagnosis of histoplasmosis].

    PubMed

    Pineau, S; Talarmin, J-P; Morio, F; Grossi, O; Boutoille, D; Léauté, F; Le Pape, P; Gay-Andrieu, F; Miegeville, M; Raffi, F

    2010-09-01

    We report a case of a pulmonary histoplasmosis in an HIV-positive patient usually living in Cambodia, with a positive Aspergillus galactomannan antigenemia resulting from a cross-reaction, that decreased after antifungal therapy. We discuss the potential interest of the detection of fungal DNA by PCR and Aspergillus galactomannan antigenemia for the diagnosis of histoplasmosis, especially in countries where Histoplasma capsulatum antigen testing is not available. PMID:19945807

  16. Aspergillus mastoiditis, presenting with unexplained progressive otalgia, in an immunocompetent (older) patient

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Aukje van Tol; Jeroen van Rijswijk

    2009-01-01

    Aspergillus mastoidits and skull-base osteomyelitis are extremely rare, even in immunocompromised patients. We report a case of an 81-year-old\\u000a immunocompetent man, who underwent a mastoidectomy because of unexplained, progressive otalgia in spite of a noninflamed and\\u000a air-containing middle-ear space. Histopathology yielded Aspergillus fumigatus. When confronted with otitis with an unexpected clinical course a high index of suspicion is required to

  17. Structural assessment of peanut cultivars for pod resistance to Aspergillus flavus 

    E-print Network

    Henson, Russelyn Dee

    1991-01-01

    STRUCTURAL ASSESSMENT OF PEANUT CULTIVARS FOR POD RESISTANCE TO ASPERGILLUS FLAVUS A Thesis by RUSSELYN DEE HENSON Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas ARM University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree... of Committee) Olin . Smith (Member) Ruth A. Taber (Member) . c )i~i ~) (, g. le j'(ZP'( I John S. Calahan (Member) eal Van Alfen (Department Head) May 1991 ABSTRACT Structural Assessment of Peanut Cultivars for Pod Resistance to Aspergillus flavus...

  18. Aspergillus niger absorbs copper and zinc from swine wastewater.

    PubMed

    Price, M S; Classen, J J; Payne, G A

    2001-03-01

    Wastewater from swine confined-housing operations contains elevated levels of copper and zinc due to their abundance in feed. These metals may accumulate to phytotoxic levels in some agricultural soils of North Carolina due to land application of treated swine effluent. We evaluated fungi for their ability to remove these metals from wastewater and found Aspergillus niger best suited for this purpose. A. niger was able to grow on plates amended with copper at a level five times that inhibitory to the growth of Saccharomyes cerevisiae. We also found evidence for internal absorption as the mechanism used by A. niger to detoxify its environment of copper, a property of the fungus that has not been previously exploited for metal bioremediation. In this report, we show that A. niger is capable of removing 91% of the copper and 70% of the zinc from treated swine effluent. PMID:11211074

  19. Sequence determination of a satellite RNA isolated from Aspergillus foetidus.

    PubMed

    Shah, Unnati A; Kotta-Loizou, Ioly; Coutts, Robert H A

    2015-03-01

    Aspergillus foetidus virus (AfV) has at least two distinct particle types, designated as AfV-fast (F) and AfV-slow (S). AfV-S includes AfV-S1, a victorivirus; AfV-S2, an unclassified satellite RNA; and AfV-S3, a previously uncharacterized dsRNA element. Here, we describe the complete sequence of AfV-S3, which is a short non-coding RNA with no known homologs. AfV-S3 is predicted to form an extended secondary structure, shares a 5' terminus with AfV-S2, and is a satellite RNA possibly dependent on both AfV-S1 and AfV-S2. This work concludes the sequencing of the A. foetidus virome. PMID:25613164

  20. Primary Aspergillus sellar abscess simulating pituitary tumor in immunocompetent patient.

    PubMed

    Ouyang, Taohui; Zhang, Na; Wang, Long; Jiao, Jiantong; Zhao, Yiqing; Li, Zheng; Chen, Jian

    2015-03-01

    A 55-year-old woman presented with headache, dizziness, and decreased visual acuity. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed a sellar mass with sphenoid sinus extension. The result of hormone showed an obviously high prolactin (815 ng/mL). The mass was resected and diagnosed with aspergillosis pathologically. Postoperatively, the level of prolactin dramatically decreased, and the patient received medical treatment with voriconazole and caspofungin. During a 6-month follow-up, the patient's headache and dizziness disappeared, and visual acuity improved. Therefore, aspergillus sellar abscess could result in hyperprolactinemia and should be considered in the differential diagnosis of a sellar mass, even in immunocompetent patients. A combination of surgery and antifungal therapy could reduce the hyperprolactinemia and improve symptoms. PMID:25675014

  1. Secondary metabolites from an algicolous Aspergillus versicolor strain.

    PubMed

    Miao, Feng-Ping; Li, Xiao-Dong; Liu, Xiang-Hong; Cichewicz, Robert H; Ji, Nai-Yun

    2012-01-01

    Two new compounds, asperversin A (1) and 9?-O-2(2,3-dimethylbut-3-enyl)brevianamide Q (2), and nine known compounds, brevianamide K (3), brevianamide M (4), aversin (5), 6,8-di-O-methylnidurufin (6), 6,8-di-O-methylaverufin (7), 6-O-methylaverufin (8), 5?,8?-epidioxyergosta-6,22-dien-3?-ol (9), ergosta-7,22-diene-3?,5?,6?-triol (10), and 6?-methoxyergosta-7,22-diene-3?,5?-diol (11), were obtained from the culture of Aspergillus versicolor, an endophytic fungus isolated from the marine brown alga Sargassum thunbergii. The structures of these compounds were established by spectroscopic techniques. Compounds 4, 7 and 8 exhibited antibacterial activities against Escherichia coli and Staphyloccocus aureus, and 7 also showed lethality against brine shrimp (Artemia salina) with an LC?? value of 0.5 ?g/mL. PMID:22363226

  2. Development of DNA probes for fingerprinting Aspergillus fumigatus.

    PubMed Central

    Girardin, H; Latgé, J P; Srikantha, T; Morrow, B; Soll, D R

    1993-01-01

    Several different DNA fragments containing nonribosomal repetitive sequences have been isolated from the genome of Aspergillus fumigatus and tested as potential DNA fingerprinting probes. Eight of these clones generate 19 or more bands when hybridized to EcoRI-digested DNA of a reference strain in Southern blots, and they fall into four families. Individual clones from two families were tested and were found to generate complex Southern blot hybridization patterns which are stable within a single strain over many generations, which vary among unrelated strains, and which are amenable to computer-assisted analyses involving large numbers of strains in epidemiological studies. Clones from three of the families clustered a majority of test strains in a similar fashion in individual dendrograms based on similarity coefficients computed from band positions in Southern blot hybridization patterns. These clones therefore fulfill the major requisites for effective DNA fingerprinting probes. Images PMID:8100242

  3. A short-term toxicity study of Aspergillus carbonarius carotenoid.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Anbarasu; Srikanta, Akshatha Hosahalli; Peddha, Muthukumar Serva; Sukumaran, Umesh-Kumar; Govindaswamy, Vijayalakshmi

    2012-03-01

    In a pharmacokinetic study, high-performance liquid chromatography analysis of blood samples of Wistar female rats fed with partially saturated canthaxanthin (PSC) of Aspergillus carbonarius showed the presence of the carotenoid in the plasma within 6 hours of feeding. In another study for safety assessment of PSC fed to rats over a period of 28 days at 0.05%, 0.10%, and 0.25%, the rats showed no changes in food intake. There were no significant differences observed in body weight, hematological parameters, or serum clinical enzymes compared to the control group not fed with PSC. Deposition of PSC in the eyes of the rats was also not observed. The results showed that PSC-fed rats were not adversely affected as far as toxicological studies were concerned. PMID:22366116

  4. Nanosulfur: A Potent Fungicide Against Food Pathogen, Aspergillus niger

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choudhury, Samrat Roy; Nair, Kishore K.; Kumar, Rajesh; Gogoi, Robin; Srivastava, Chitra; Gopal, Madhuban; Subhramanyam, B. S.; devakumar, C.; Goswami, Arunava

    2010-10-01

    Elemental sulfur (S0), man's oldest eco-friendly fungicide for curing fungal infections in plants and animals, is registered in India as a non-systemic and contact fungicide. However due to its high volume requirement, Indian agrochemical industry and farmers could not effectively use this product till date. We hypothesize that intelligent nanoscience applications might increase the visibility of nanosulfur in Indian agriculture as a potent and eco-safe fungicide. Sulfur nanoparticles (NPs) were synthesized bottom-up via a liquid synthesis method with average particle size in the range of 50-80 nm and the shapes of the NPs were spherical. A comparative study of elemental and nano-sulfur produced has been tested against facultative fungal food pathogen, Aspergillus niger. Results showed that nanosulfur is more efficacious than its elemental form.

  5. Drimane sesquiterpenoids from the Aspergillus oryzae QXPC-4.

    PubMed

    Ren, Ren; Chen, Chao-Jun; Hu, Sha-Sha; Ge, Hui-Ming; Zhu, Wen-Yong; Tan, Ren-Xiang; Jiao, Rui-Hua

    2015-03-01

    Three new drimane sesquiterpenoids, astellolides C-E (1-3, resp.), four new drimane sesquiterpenoid p-hydroxybenzoates, astellolides F-I (4-7, resp.), together with two known compounds astellolides A and B (8 and 9, resp.), have been isolated from the liquid culture of Aspergillus oryzae (strain No.?QXPC-4). Their structures were established by comprehensive analysis of spectroscopic data. The relative and absolute configurations were determined on the basis of NOESY and CD data, together with single-crystal X-ray diffraction analyses of compounds 1-3. The metabolites were evaluated for their cytotoxic activities, however, no compounds showed a significant cytotoxicity against the tested cell lines at a concentration of 20??M. PMID:25766910

  6. Characterization of four new antifungal yanuthones from Aspergillus niger.

    PubMed

    Petersen, Lene M; Holm, Dorte K; Knudsen, Peter B; Nielsen, Kristian F; Gotfredsen, Charlotte H; Mortensen, Uffe H; Larsen, Thomas O

    2015-03-01

    Four new yanuthone analogs (1-4) were isolated from the filamentous fungus Aspergillus niger. The structures of the new compounds were elucidated on the basis of UHPLC-DAD-HRMS data and one-dimensional and two-dimensional NMR spectroscopy. Labeling studies with (13)C8-6-methylsalicylic acid identified three class I yanuthones originating from the polyketide 6-methylsalicylic acid (yanuthone K, L and M (1-3)) and a class II yanuthone, which was named yanuthone X2 (4). The four new compounds were tested toward the pathogenic yeast Candida albicans and all displayed antifungal activity. Yanuthone X2 represents the first example of a bioactive class II yanuthone, demonstrating the pharmaceutical potential of this class. PMID:25293978

  7. Fumonisin and Ochratoxin Production in Industrial Aspergillus niger Strains

    PubMed Central

    Frisvad, Jens C.; Larsen, Thomas O.; Thrane, Ulf; Meijer, Martin; Varga, Janos; Samson, Robert A.; Nielsen, Kristian F.

    2011-01-01

    Aspergillus niger is perhaps the most important fungus used in biotechnology, and is also one of the most commonly encountered fungi contaminating foods and feedstuffs, and occurring in soil and indoor environments. Many of its industrial applications have been given GRAS status (generally regarded as safe). However, A. niger has the potential to produce two groups of potentially carcinogenic mycotoxins: fumonisins and ochratoxins. In this study all available industrial and many non-industrial strains of A. niger (180 strains) as well as 228 strains from 17 related black Aspergillus species were examined for mycotoxin production. None of the related 17 species of black Aspergilli produced fumonisins. Fumonisins (B2, B4, and B6) were detected in 81% of A. niger, and ochratoxin A in 17%, while 10% of the strains produced both mycotoxins. Among the industrial strains the same ratios were 83%, 33% and 26% respectively. Some of the most frequently used strains in industry NRRL 337, 3112 and 3122 produced both toxins and several strains used for citric acid production were among the best producers of fumonisins in pure agar culture. Most strains used for other biotechnological processes also produced fumonisins. Strains optimized through random mutagenesis usually maintained their mycotoxin production capability. Toxigenic strains were also able to produce the toxins on media suggested for citric acid production with most of the toxins found in the biomass, thereby questioning the use of the remaining biomass as animal feed. In conclusion it is recommended to use strains of A. niger with inactive or inactivated gene clusters for fumonisins and ochratoxins, or to choose isolates for biotechnological uses in related non-toxigenic species such as A. tubingensis, A. brasiliensis, A vadensis or A. acidus, which neither produce fumonisins nor ochratoxins. PMID:21853139

  8. Aspergillus nidulans galactofuranose biosynthesis affects antifungal drug sensitivity.

    PubMed

    Alam, Md Kausar; El-Ganiny, Amira M; Afroz, Sharmin; Sanders, David A R; Liu, Juxin; Kaminskyj, Susan G W

    2012-12-01

    The cell wall is essential for fungal survival in natural environments. Many fungal wall carbohydrates are absent from humans, so they are a promising source of antifungal drug targets. Galactofuranose (Galf) is a sugar that decorates certain carbohydrates and lipids. It comprises about 5% of the Aspergillus fumigatus cell wall, and may play a role in systemic aspergillosis. We are studying Aspergillus wall formation in the tractable model system, A. nidulans. Previously we showed single-gene deletions of three sequential A. nidulans Galf biosynthesis proteins each caused similar hyphal morphogenesis defects and 500-fold reduced colony growth and sporulation. Here, we generated ugeA, ugmA and ugtA strains controlled by the alcA(p) or niiA(p) regulatable promoters. For repression and expression, alcA(p)-regulated strains were grown on complete medium with glucose or threonine, whereas niiA(p)-regulated strains were grown on minimal medium with ammonium or nitrate. Expression was assessed by qPCR and colony phenotype. The alcA(p) and niiA(p) strains produced similar effects: colonies resembling wild type for gene expression, and resembling deletion strains for gene repression. Galf immunolocalization using the L10 monoclonal antibody showed that ugmA deletion and repression phenotypes correlated with loss of hyphal wall Galf. None of the gene manipulations affected itraconazole sensitivity, as expected. Deletion of any of ugmA, ugeA, ugtA, their repression by alcA(p) or niiA(p), OR, ugmA overexpression by alcA(p), increased sensitivity to Caspofungin. Strains with alcA(p)-mediated overexpression of ugeA and ugtA had lower caspofungin sensitivity. Galf appears to play an important role in A. nidulans growth and vigor. PMID:23078837

  9. Genomic islands in the pathogenic filamentous fungus Aspergillus fumigatus.

    PubMed

    Fedorova, Natalie D; Khaldi, Nora; Joardar, Vinita S; Maiti, Rama; Amedeo, Paolo; Anderson, Michael J; Crabtree, Jonathan; Silva, Joana C; Badger, Jonathan H; Albarraq, Ahmed; Angiuoli, Sam; Bussey, Howard; Bowyer, Paul; Cotty, Peter J; Dyer, Paul S; Egan, Amy; Galens, Kevin; Fraser-Liggett, Claire M; Haas, Brian J; Inman, Jason M; Kent, Richard; Lemieux, Sebastien; Malavazi, Iran; Orvis, Joshua; Roemer, Terry; Ronning, Catherine M; Sundaram, Jaideep P; Sutton, Granger; Turner, Geoff; Venter, J Craig; White, Owen R; Whitty, Brett R; Youngman, Phil; Wolfe, Kenneth H; Goldman, Gustavo H; Wortman, Jennifer R; Jiang, Bo; Denning, David W; Nierman, William C

    2008-04-01

    We present the genome sequences of a new clinical isolate of the important human pathogen, Aspergillus fumigatus, A1163, and two closely related but rarely pathogenic species, Neosartorya fischeri NRRL181 and Aspergillus clavatus NRRL1. Comparative genomic analysis of A1163 with the recently sequenced A. fumigatus isolate Af293 has identified core, variable and up to 2% unique genes in each genome. While the core genes are 99.8% identical at the nucleotide level, identity for variable genes can be as low 40%. The most divergent loci appear to contain heterokaryon incompatibility (het) genes associated with fungal programmed cell death such as developmental regulator rosA. Cross-species comparison has revealed that 8.5%, 13.5% and 12.6%, respectively, of A. fumigatus, N. fischeri and A. clavatus genes are species-specific. These genes are significantly smaller in size than core genes, contain fewer exons and exhibit a subtelomeric bias. Most of them cluster together in 13 chromosomal islands, which are enriched for pseudogenes, transposons and other repetitive elements. At least 20% of A. fumigatus-specific genes appear to be functional and involved in carbohydrate and chitin catabolism, transport, detoxification, secondary metabolism and other functions that may facilitate the adaptation to heterogeneous environments such as soil or a mammalian host. Contrary to what was suggested previously, their origin cannot be attributed to horizontal gene transfer (HGT), but instead is likely to involve duplication, diversification and differential gene loss (DDL). The role of duplication in the origin of lineage-specific genes is further underlined by the discovery of genomic islands that seem to function as designated "gene dumps" and, perhaps, simultaneously, as "gene factories". PMID:18404212

  10. FluG affects secretion in colonies of Aspergillus niger.

    PubMed

    Wang, Fengfeng; Krijgsheld, Pauline; Hulsman, Marc; de Bekker, Charissa; Müller, Wally H; Reinders, Marcel; de Vries, Ronald P; Wösten, Han A B

    2015-01-01

    Colonies of Aspergillus niger are characterized by zonal heterogeneity in growth, sporulation, gene expression and secretion. For instance, the glucoamylase gene glaA is more highly expressed at the periphery of colonies when compared to the center. As a consequence, its encoded protein GlaA is mainly secreted at the outer part of the colony. Here, multiple copies of amyR were introduced in A. niger. Most transformants over-expressing this regulatory gene of amylolytic genes still displayed heterogeneous glaA expression and GlaA secretion. However, heterogeneity was abolished in transformant UU-A001.13 by expressing glaA and secreting GlaA throughout the mycelium. Sequencing the genome of UU-A001.13 revealed that transformation had been accompanied by deletion of part of the fluG gene and disrupting its 3' end by integration of a transformation vector. Inactivation of fluG in the wild-type background of A. niger also resulted in breakdown of starch under the whole colony. Asexual development of the ?fluG strain was not affected, unlike what was previously shown in Aspergillus nidulans. Genes encoding proteins with a signal sequence for secretion, including part of the amylolytic genes, were more often downregulated in the central zone of maltose-grown ?fluG colonies and upregulated in the intermediate part and periphery when compared to the wild-type. Together, these data indicate that FluG of A. niger is a repressor of secretion. PMID:25370014

  11. Antimycotic activity of 5'-prenylisoflavanones of the plant Geoffroea decorticans, against Aspergillus species.

    PubMed

    Quiroga, Emma N; Sampietro, Diego A; Sgariglia, Melina A; Soberón, José R; Vattuone, Marta A

    2009-06-01

    The antifungal activity of the ethanolic extract (EE), (3R)-5,7,2',3'-tetrahydroxy-4'-methoxy-5'-prenylisoflavanone (1) and (3R)-7-2'-3'-trihydroxy-4'-methoxy-5'-prenylisoflavanone (2) isolated from Geoffroea decorticans was evaluated against four different species of Aspergillus. Their effect was compared with that displayed by synthetic products. The antifungal activity was assayed by bioautography, hyphal radial growth, hyphal extent and microdilution in liquid medium. The percentage of hyphal radial growth inhibition produced by EE varied between 18.4+/-0.1 and 39.6+/-0.2 for Aspergillus nomius VSC23 and Aspergillus nomius 13137, respectively; and the same value for 1 and 2 were between 31.2+/-0.1-60.8+/-1.5 and 28.9+/-0.7-57.2+/-0.6 for Aspergillus flavus (IEV 018) and Aspergillus nomius 13137, respectively. The values of MIC/MFC determined for EE, 1 and 2 were compared with the actions of ascorbic and sorbic acids, and clotrimazole. The sequence of antifungal potency was clotrimazole>1>2>ascorbic acid>sorbic acid>EE. Consequently, EE as well as the purified substances from Geoffroea decorticans would be used as biopesticides against Aspergillus species. The cytotoxicity was evaluated. PMID:19375811

  12. Biodiversity of Aspergillus section Nigri populations in Argentinian vineyards and ochratoxin A contamination.

    PubMed

    Chiotta, María L; Ponsone, María L; Sosa, Débora M; Combina, Mariana; Chulze, Sofía N

    2013-12-01

    Aspergillus section Nigri are described as the main source of ochratoxin A (OTA) contamination in grapes and wine worldwide. The knowledge of the factors affecting grape contamination by species included in this section and OTA production is essential to be able to reduce their presence, not only to improve wine quality, but also to maintain their safety. Therefore, the aims of this study were to determine the incidence of Aspergillus section Nigri species harvested in different grape-growing regions from Argentina, their ability to produce OTA, to correlate with meteorological conditions and geographical coordinates with their prevalence and to evaluate the OTA natural occurrence in grapes and wines. The morphological identification showed that Aspergillus niger aggregate species were the most prevalent ones, followed by Aspergillus carbonarius and Aspergillus uniseriate. These populations were confirmed through using AFLP markers and sequencing and, Aspergillus tubingensis was separated from A. niger aggregate. Climatic factors, altitude, longitude and latitude have influenced on the distribution of species included in the section. A. carbonarius and A. niger were OTA producers but differed in their OTA producing ability. Temperature was the factor which influenced the most over the highest incidence of A. carbonarius in La Rioja and San Juan regions. The trellis system in vineyards and drip irrigation also influenced the species isolation. The OTA levels detected in grapes and wines were low, but grape variety was more important in susceptibility to fungal infection and OTA levels. PMID:24010597

  13. A revision and key to the genera of Afrotropical Mantispidae (Neuropterida, Neuroptera), with the description of a new genus

    PubMed Central

    Snyman, Louwtjie P.; Ohl, Michael; Mansell, Mervyn W.; Scholtz, Clarke H.

    2012-01-01

    Abstract The Afrotropical Mantispidae genera have previously been neglected and are poorly known. The genera are revised and redescribed. A new genus Afromantispa Snyman and Ohl is described with Afromantispa tenella comb. n.as type species. Perlamantispa (Handschin, 1960) is synonymised with Sagittalata Handschin, 1959. The new combinations within the genus include Sagittalata austroafrica comb. n., Sagittalata bequaerti comb. n., Sagittalata dorsalis comb. n., Sagittalata girardi comb. n., Sagittalata nubila comb. n., Sagittalata perla comb. n., Sagittalata pusilla comb. n., Sagittalata similata comb. n., Sagittalata royi comb. n., Sagittalata tincta comb. n. and Sagittalata vassei comb. n. An illustrated key to the genera Afromantispa gen. n., Sagittalata Handschin, 1959, Mantispa Illiger, 1798, Cercomantispa Handschin, 1959, Rectinerva Handschin, 1959, Nampista Navás, 1914, and Pseudoclimaciella Handschin, 1960 is provided. The wing venation of Mantispidae is redescribed. Similarities between the genera are discussed. Subsequent studies will focus on revising the taxonomic status of species, which are not dealt with in this study. PMID:22573953

  14. Phylogeny and biogeography of the mayfly family Leptohyphidae (Insecta: Ephemeroptera) with a taxonomic revision of selected genera 

    E-print Network

    Baumgardner, David Eugene

    2008-10-10

    A cladistic analysis of the world genera of the mayfly family Leptohyphidae is presented. Analyses of a matrix of 58 ingroup and 9 outgroup species and 119 morphological characters strongly supports the monophyly of ...

  15. A general overview of the typical 18 frontal-ventral-transverse cirri oxytrichidae s. l. genera (Ciliophora, Hypotrichia)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shao, Chen; Lu, Xiaoteng; Ma, Honggang

    2015-06-01

    Oxytrichidae s. l. ciliates usually have 18 frontal-ventral-transverse cirri which are clustered to six distinct groups usually originating from six longitudinal primordia segregating 1, 3, 3, 3, 4, 4 cirri. During morphogenesis, three dorsal kineties anlagen are primarily formed. Fragmentation of kinety 3 usually present, while sometimes secondarily lost. Dorsomarginal kineties are formed, while sometimes lost. Oxytrichids tend to have overlapping characters, e.g. cell shape and size, infraciliature, pellicle features. This makes a great problem for genera separation. In the present work, all typical 18 frontal-ventral-transverse-cirri Oxytrichidae s. l. genera were revised systematically based on their living morphology, ciliature patterns and dorsal morphogenetic features. The outline of the genera, the schematic illustrations, and the key to typical 18 frontal-ventral-transverse-cirri genera of Oxytrichidae s. l. were clarified. Additionally, some morphological and morphogenetic patterns were summarized and compared.

  16. Polygalacturonases Produced Under Solid State and Submerged Fermentation Conditions by Two Strains of Aspergillus foetidus (Aspergillus foetidus 'a Ait ?ki Su? Tarafindan Kati Kültür ve Batik Kültür Fermentasyon Ko?ullarinda Üretilen Poligalakturonazlar) Research Article (Ara?tirma Makalesi)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Eva Stratilová

    Objectives: Polygalacturonases produced by two strains of Aspergillus foetidus (EGEK145, EGEK635) under solid state and submerged conditions were investigated for some of their biochemical characteristics.

  17. Coinfection of Strongyloides stercoralis and Aspergillus found in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid from a patient with stubborn pulmonary symptoms

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Jie; Sun, Yi; Man, Yanru; Huang, Xiaochun; Qin, Qin; Zhou, Daoyin

    2015-01-01

    We report a case involving coinfection with Strongyloides stercoralis (S. stercoralis) and Aspergillus found in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) of an elderly male patient who had a medical history of autoimmune pancreatitis (AIP) and who was treated with prednisone therapy 6 months previously. The patient presented with stubborn pulmonary symptoms and signs because of Aspergillus invasion and mechanical destruction caused by larval migration. We found S. stercoralis and Aspergillus in his BALF that provided diagnostic proof. PMID:25922748

  18. Alkaline Serine Proteinase: A Major Allergen of Aspergillus oryzae and Its Cross-Reactivity with Penicillium citrinum

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Horng-Der Shen; Win-Ling Lin; Ming F. Tam; Soo-Ray Wang; Jaw-Ji Tsai; Hong Chou; Shou-Hwa Han

    1998-01-01

    Background:Aspergillus species are common indoor airborne fungi and have been considered as causative agents of human allergic disorders. However, allergens of different Aspergillus species have not been effectively characterized. The object of this study was to identify and characterize IgE-binding components of Aspergillus oryzae. Methods. Allergens of A. oryzae were identified by immunoblot analysis using sera from asthmatic patients. The

  19. Physicochemical and clinico-immunologic studies on the allergenic significance of Aspergillus tamarii, a common airborne fungus

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Maansi Vermani; Vannan K. Vijayan; Balakrishnan Menon; Mohd A. Kausar; Mahendra K. Agarwal

    2011-01-01

    Aspergillus-derived inhalant allergens play an important role in the etiology of allergic respiratory diseases. In the present study, we investigated the allergenic potential of Aspergillus tamarii, quantified its airborne content, identified its major\\/minor allergens, evaluated heterogeneity of patients’ IgE response to its allergens and cross-reactivity of its allergens with other Aspergillus allergens. Skin prick tests with A tamarii extract were

  20. An illustrated key to the genera and subgenera of the Recent azooxanthellate Scleractinia (Cnidaria, Anthozoa), with an attached glossary

    PubMed Central

    Cairns, Stephen D.; Kitahara, Marcelo V.

    2012-01-01

    Abstract The 120 presently recognized genera and seven subgenera of the azooxanthellate Scleractinia are keyed using gross morphological characters of the corallum. All genera are illustrated with calicular and side views of coralla. All termes used in the key are defined in an illustrated glossary. A table of all species-level keys, both comprehensive and faunistic, is provided covering the last 40 years. PMID:23166463

  1. Amplification and diversity analysis of ketosynthase domains of putative polyketide synthase genes in Aspergillus ochraceus and Aspergillus carbonarius producers of ochratoxin A.

    PubMed

    Atoui, Ali; Dao, Huy Phong; Mathieu, Florence; Lebrihi, Ahmed

    2006-05-01

    The diversity of polyketide synthase (PKS) genes in Aspergillus ochraceus NRRL 3174 and Aspergillus carbonarius 2Mu134 has been investigated using different primer pairs previously developed for the ketosynthase (KS) domain of fungal PKSs. Nine different KS domain sequences in A. ochraceus NRRL 3174 as well as five different KS domain sequences in A. carbonarius 2Mu134 have been identified. The identified KS fragments were distributed in five different clusters on the phylogenetic tree, indicating that they most probably represent PKSs responsible for different functions. PMID:16715542

  2. Characterization of the gene encoding an extracellular laccase of Myceliophthora thermophila and analysis of the recombinant enzyme expressed in Aspergillus oryzae.

    PubMed Central

    Berka, R M; Schneider, P; Golightly, E J; Brown, S H; Madden, M; Brown, K M; Halkier, T; Mondorf, K; Xu, F

    1997-01-01

    A genomic DNA segment encoding an extracellular laccase was isolated from the thermophilic fungus Myceliophthora thermophila, and the nucleotide sequence of this gene was determined. The deduced amino acid sequence of M. thermophila laccase (MtL) shows homology to laccases from diverse fungal genera. A vector containing the M. thermophila laccase coding region, under transcriptional control of an Aspergillus oryzae alpha-amylase gene promoter and terminator, was constructed for heterologous expression in A. oryzae. The recombinant laccase expressed in A. oryzae was purified to electrophoretic homogeneity by anion-exchange chromatography. Amino-terminal sequence data suggests that MtL is synthesized as a preproenzyme. The molecular mass was estimated to be approximately 100 to 140 kDa by gel filtration on Sephacryl S-300 and to be 85 kDa by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Carbohydrate analysis revealed that MtL contains 40 to 60% glycosylation. The laccase shows an absorbance spectrum that is typical of blue copper oxidases, with maxima at 276 and 589 nm, and contains 3.9 copper atoms per subunit. With syringaldazine as a substrate, MtL has optimal activity at pH 6.5 and retains nearly 100% of its activity when incubated at 60 degrees C for 20 min. This is the first report of the cloning and heterologous expression of a thermostable laccase. PMID:9251203

  3. Optimization of fibrolytic enzyme production by Aspergillus japonicus C03 with potential application in ruminant feed and their effects on tropical forages hydrolysis.

    PubMed

    Facchini, Fernanda D A; Vici, Ana C; Benassi, Vivian M; Freitas, Luiz A P; Reis, Ricardo A; Jorge, Joăo A; Terenzi, Héctor F; Polizeli, Maria de Lourdes T M

    2011-10-01

    Fibrolytic enzyme production by Aspergillus japonicus C03 was optimized in a medium containing agro-industrial wastes, supplemented with peptone and yeast extract. A 2(3) full factorial composite and response surface methodology were used to design the experiments and analysis of results. Tropical forages were hydrolyzed by A. japonicus C03 enzymatic extract in different levels, and they were also tested as enzymatic substrate. Optimal production to xylanase was obtained with soybean bran added to crushed corncob (1:3), 0.01% peptone, and 0.2% yeast extract, initial pH 5.0, at 30 °C under static conditions for 5 days of incubation. Optimal endoglucanase production was obtained with wheat bran added to sugarcane bagasse (3:1), 0.01% peptone, and 0.2% yeast extract, initial pH 4.0, at 30 °C, for 6 days, under static conditions. Addition of nitrogen sources as ammonium salts either inhibited or did not influence xylanase production. This enzymatic extract had a good result on tropical forage hydrolyzes and showed better performance in the Brachiaria genera, due to their low cell wall lignin quantity. These results represent a step forward toward the use of low-cost agricultural residues for the production of valuable enzymes with potential application in animal feed, using fermentation conditions. PMID:21647681

  4. Terpenoid composition and antifungal activity of three commercially important essential oils against Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus niger.

    PubMed

    Bisht, Deepa; Pal, Anirban; Chanotiya, C S; Mishra, Dhirendra; Pandey, K N

    2011-12-01

    Hydro-distilled essential oils extracted from three commercially important aromatic plants were analysed by capillary gas chromatography-flame ionization detector and gas chromatography/quadrupole mass spectrometry and subjected to antifungal activity. Fifteen compounds, which accounted for 97.8% of Acorus calamus root oil composition have been identified. Besides the major constituent (Z)-asarone (81.1-92.4%), (Z)-methyl isoeugenol (1.8-2.1%), (Z)-isoelemicin (1.2-1.3%), (E)-asarone (1.0-2.6%), (E)-methyl isoeugenol (0.2-0.4%), (Z)-?-ocimene (0.2-0.4%), elemicin (0.2-0.3%), linalool (0.1-0.9%) and kessane (t-0.2%) were identified. Monoterpenes constituted the main fraction of Origanum vulgare essential oil attaining 90.5% of the total oil composition. p-Cymene (10.3%) was the major component of the monoterpene hydrocarbon fraction while thymol (53.2%) and carvacrol (3.9%) were the most abundant oxygenated monoterpenes among the 33 identified constituents. Cinnamomum tamala leaf oil contained (E)-cinnamaldehyde as the principal component. Quantitative variations in (Z)-cinnamaldehyde (5.8-7.1%), linalool (6.4-8.5%) and (E)-cinnamyl acetate (4.7-5.2%) were significant. The antifungal activity of the hydro-distilled essential oils of A. calamus, O. vulgare and C. tamala were evaluated against Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus niger. Disc diffusion method was used for the determination of the inhibitory effect. O. vulgare essential oil exhibited the highest activity. Moreover, all three essential oils inhibit the growth of A. flavus and A. niger. PMID:21707253

  5. Five vicarious genera from Gondwana: the Velloziaceae as shown by molecules and morphology

    PubMed Central

    Mello-Silva, Renato; Santos, Déborah Yara A. C.; Salatino, Maria Luiza F.; Motta, Lucimar B.; Cattai, Marina B.; Sasaki, Denise; Lovo, Juliana; Pita, Patrícia B.; Rocini, Cintia; Rodrigues, Cristiane D. N.; Zarrei, Mehdi; Chase, Mark W.

    2011-01-01

    Background and Aims The amount of data collected previously for Velloziaceae neither clarified relationships within the family nor helped determine an appropriate classification, which has led to huge discordance among treatment by different authors. To achieve an acceptable phylogenetic result and understand the evolution and roles of characters in supporting groups, a total evidence analysis was developed which included approx. 20 % of the species and all recognized genera and sections of Velloziaceae, plus outgroups representatives of related families within Pandanales. Methods Analyses were undertaken with 48 species of Velloziaceae, representing all ten genera, with DNA sequences from the atpB-rbcL spacer, trnL-trnF spacer, trnL intron, trnH-psbA spacer, ITS ribosomal DNA spacers and morphology. Key Results Four groups consistently emerge from the analyses. Persistent leaves, two phloem strands, stem cortex divided in three regions and violet tepals support Acanthochlamys as sister to Velloziaceae s.s., which are supported mainly by leaves with marginal bundles, transfusion tracheids and inflorescence without axis. Within Velloziaceae s.s., an African Xerophyta + Talbotia clade is uniquely supported by basal loculicidal capsules; an American clade, Barbacenia s.l. + Barbaceniopsis + Nanuza + Vellozia, is supported by only homoplastic characters. Barbacenia s.l. (= Aylthonia + Barbacenia + Burlemarxia + Pleurostima) is supported by a double sheath in leaf vascular bundles and a corona; Barbaceniopsis + Nanuza + Vellozia is not supported by an unambiguous character, but Barbaceniopsis is supported by five characters, including diclinous flowers, Nanuza + Vellozia is supported mainly by horizontal stigma lobes and stem inner cortex cells with secondary walls, and Vellozia alone is supported mainly by pollen in tetrads. Conclusions The results imply recognition of five genera (Acanthochlamys (Xerophyta (Barbacenia (Barbaceniopsis, Vellozia)))), solving the long-standing controversies among recent classifications of the family. They also suggest a Gondwanan origin for Velloziaceae, with a vicariant pattern of distribution. PMID:21693665

  6. Phylogenetic relationship among genera of Polymorphidae (Acanthocephala), inferred from nuclear and mitochondrial gene sequences.

    PubMed

    García-Varela, Martín; Pérez-Ponce de León, Gerardo; Aznar, Francisco J; Nadler, Steven A

    2013-08-01

    Acanthocephalans of the family Polymorphidae Meyer, 1931 are obligate endoparasites with complex life cycles. These worms use vertebrates (marine mammals, fish-eating birds and waterfowl) as definitive hosts and invertebrates (amphipods, decapods and euphausiids) as intermediate hosts to complete their life cycle. Polymorphidae has a wordwide distribution, containing 12 genera, with approximately 127 species. The family is diagnosed by having a spinose trunk, bulbose proboscis, double-walled proboscis receptacle, and usually four to eight tubular cement glands. To conduct a phylogenetic analysis, in the current study sequences of the small (18S) and large-subunit (28S) ribosomal RNA, and cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (cox 1) were generated for 27 taxa representing 10 of 12 genera of Polymorphidae, plus three additional species of acanthocephalans that were used as outgroups. Maximum likelihood (ML), maximum parsimony (MP), and Bayesian analyses were conducted on a combined nuclear rRNA (18S+28S) data set and on a concatenated dataset of nuclear plus one mitochondrial gene (18S+28S+cox 1). Phylogenetic analyses inferred with the concatenated dataset of three genes support the monophyly of nine genera (Andracantha, Corynosoma, Bolbosoma, Profilicollis, Pseudocorynosoma, Southwellina, Arhythmorhynchus, Hexaglandula and Ibirhynchus). However, the four sampled species of Polymorphus were nested within several clades, indicating that these species do not share a common ancestor, requiring further taxonomic revision using phylogenetic systematics, and reexamination of morphological and ecological data. By mapping definitive and intermediate host association onto the resulting cladogram, we observe that aquatic birds were the ancestral definitive hosts for the family with a secondary colonization and diversification to marine mammals. Whereas amphipods were ancestral intermediate hosts and that the association with decapods represent episodes of secondary colonization that arose several times during the evolutionary history of the family. Our results are useful to start testing hypothesis about the evolutionary history of this highly diverse family of acanthocephalans. PMID:23567022

  7. Dated Phylogenies of the Sister Genera Macaranga and Mallotus (Euphorbiaceae): Congruence in Historical Biogeographic Patterns?

    PubMed Central

    van Welzen, Peter C.; Strijk, Joeri S.; van Konijnenburg-van Cittert, Johanna H. A.; Nucete, Monica; Merckx, Vincent S. F. T.

    2014-01-01

    Molecular phylogenies and estimates of divergence times within the sister genera Macaranga and Mallotus were estimated using Bayesian relaxed clock analyses of two generic data sets, one per genus. Both data sets were based on different molecular markers and largely different samples. Per genus three calibration points were utilised. The basal calibration point (crown node of all taxa used) was taken from literature and used for both taxa. The other three calibrations were based on fossils of which two were used per genus. We compared patterns of dispersal and diversification in Macaranga and Mallotus using ancestral area reconstruction in RASP (S-DIVA option) and contrasted our results with biogeographical and geological records to assess accuracy of inferred age estimates. A check of the fossil calibration point showed that the Japanese fossil, used for dating the divergence of Mallotus, probably had to be attached to a lower node, the stem node of all pioneer species, but even then the divergence time was still younger than the estimated age of the fossil. The African (only used in the Macaranga data set) and New Zealand fossils (used for both genera) seemed reliably placed. Our results are in line with existing geological data and the presence of stepping stones that provided dispersal pathways from Borneo to New Guinea-Australia, from Borneo to mainland Asia and additionally at least once to Africa and Madagascar via land and back to India via Indian Ocean island chains. The two genera show congruence in dispersal patterns, which corroborate divergence time estimates, although the overall mode and tempo of dispersal and diversification differ significantly as shown by distribution patterns of extant species. PMID:24465660

  8. A QUICK KEY TO THE SUBFAMILIES AND GENERA OF ANTS OF THE SAVANNAH RIVER SITE

    SciTech Connect

    Martin, D

    2007-09-04

    This taxonomic key was devised to support development of a Rapid Bioassessment Protocol using ants at the Savannah River Site. The emphasis is on 'rapid' and, because the available keys contained a very large number of genera not known to occur at the Savannah River Site, we found that the available keys were unwieldy. Because these keys contained many more genera than we would ever encounter and because this larger number of genera required more couplets in the key and often required examination of characters that are difficult to assess without higher magnifications (60X or higher), more time was required to process samples. In developing this set of keys I emphasized character states that are easier for nonspecialists to recognize. I recognize that the character sets used may lead to some errors but I believe that the error rate will be small and, for the purpose of rapid bioassessment, this error rate will be acceptable provided that overall sample sizes are adequate. Oliver and Beattie (1996a, 1996b) found that for rapid assessment of biodiversity the same results were found when identifications were done to morphospecies by people with minimal expertise as when the same data sets were identified by subject matter experts. Basset et al. (2004) concluded that it was not as important to correctly identify all species as it was to be sure that the study included as many functional groups as possible. If your study requires high levels of accuracy, it is highly recommended that, when you key out a specimen and have any doubts concerning the identification, you should refer to keys in Bolton (1994) or to the other keys used to develop this area specific taxonomic key.

  9. Endemicity and evolutionary value: a study of Chilean endemic vascular plant genera.

    PubMed

    Scherson, Rosa A; Albornoz, Abraham A; Moreira-Muńoz, Andrés S; Urbina-Casanova, Rafael

    2014-03-01

    This study uses phylogeny-based measures of evolutionary potential (phylogenetic diversity and community structure) to evaluate the evolutionary value of vascular plant genera endemic to Chile. Endemicity is regarded as a very important consideration for conservation purposes. Taxa that are endemic to a single country are valuable conservation targets, as their protection depends upon a single government policy. This is especially relevant in developing countries in which conservation is not always a high resource allocation priority. Phylogeny-based measures of evolutionary potential such as phylogenetic diversity (PD) have been regarded as meaningful measures of the "value" of taxa and ecosystems, as they are able to account for the attributes that could allow taxa to recover from environmental changes. Chile is an area of remarkable endemism, harboring a flora that shows the highest number of endemic genera in South America. We studied PD and community structure of this flora using a previously available supertree at the genus level, to which we added DNA sequences of 53 genera endemic to Chile. Using discrepancy values and a null model approach, we decoupled PD from taxon richness, in order to compare their geographic distribution over a one-degree grid. An interesting pattern was observed in which areas to the southwest appear to harbor more PD than expected by their generic richness than those areas to the north of the country. In addition, some southern areas showed more PD than expected by chance, as calculated with the null model approach. Geological history as documented by the study of ancient floras as well as glacial refuges in the coastal range of southern Chile during the quaternary seem to be consistent with the observed pattern, highlighting the importance of this area for conservation purposes. PMID:24683462

  10. Some biochemical properties of fungi from genera Rhodotorula and Trichosporon isolated from Sulejów Reservoir bath water.

    PubMed

    Wójcik, Anna; Rózga, Anna; Kurnatowski, Piotr

    2004-01-01

    The hydrolytic activity of Rhodotorula and Trichosporon strains isolated from Sulej6w Reservoir water and sediments were studied. Also tolerance of high concentrations of natrium chloride and biogenic compounds was evaluated. Fungi from genera Rhodotorula and Trichosporon showed the activity of 12 and 10 from 19 hydrolases of API Zym test, respectively. Tolerance tests showed high resistance of Rhodotorula glutinis to hypertonic saline solutions and very high resistance of both Rhodotorula and Trichosporon strains to nitrate, ammonium and phosphate compounds. These properties of fungi may influence the distribution and the quantity of fungi in aquatic reservoirs. PMID:16859018

  11. Brazilian Histerini (Coleoptera, Histeridae, Histerinae): a new species, key to the genera, and checklist of species.

    PubMed

    Leivas, Fernando W T; Moura, Daniel P; Caterino, Michael S

    2015-01-01

    A new species of the Hister coenosus group from southern Brazil is described. Hister lucia sp. nov. is the largest Hister sp. in the New World, and is also distinguished by its dorsally and laterally concave mandibles. The three genera of Histerini recorded from Brazil are keyed, and a checklist of species of the tribe recorded from Brazil is presented. In total, seventeen described species of Histerini are recorded from Brazil, including fifteen of Hister Linnaeus, one of Atholus C. Thomson, and one of Margarinotus Marseul. PMID:25947523

  12. Purines, pyrimidines and amino acids as carbon or nitrogen source in different genera of bacteria 

    E-print Network

    Atkinson, Margaret Elizabeth Naquin

    1973-01-01

    and pyrimidine degradation are able to furnish utilizable carbon (energy) and/or nitrogen to those organisms capable of transporting and degrading them. Selected organisms from the genera Pseudomonas, Proteus, , ~Sh' ll, 1 11, S t', S h t-h', S t. *h... and/or nitrogen sources in those cells capable of degrading these compounds. The catabolic pathways for the interconversion and the degra- dation of purine and pyrimidine ribonucleosides and deoxyribonucleo- tdhh t ls td'd'St *11nfhh', E. coli...

  13. New genera of acrotretids from the Cambrian of Australia and the United States

    E-print Network

    Rowell, A. J.; Henderson, R. A.

    1978-07-25

    inadequately known, and recent studies of them have largely been Rowell & Henderson—New Genera of Acrotretids 3 confined to low-diversity cratonic sites (e.g., Pal- mer, 1954; Bell & Ellinwood, 1962; Grant, 1965; Lochman & Hu, 1960). It is certainly possible...., v. 22, p. 101-102. & Ellinwood, H. L., 1962, Upper Franconian and Lower Trempealeauan Cambrian trilobites and brachio- pods, Wilberns Formation, central Texas: J. Palcon- tol., v. 36, p. 385-423, 1)1. 51-64. Biernat, Gertruda, 1973, Ordovician...

  14. Distribution of aflatoxigenic Aspergillus section Flavi in commercial poultry feed in Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Ezekiel, C N; Atehnkeng, J; Odebode, A C; Bandyopadhyay, R

    2014-10-17

    The distribution and aflatoxigenicity of Aspergillus section Flavi isolates in 58 commercial poultry feed samples obtained from 17 states in five agro-ecological zones (AEZs) in Nigeria were determined in order to assess the safety of the feeds with respect to aflatoxin-producing fungi. Correlation was also performed for incidence of species, aflatoxin-producing ability of isolates in vitro, and aflatoxin (AFB1) concentrations in the feed. A total of 1006 Aspergillus section Flavi isolates were obtained from 87.9% of the feed samples and identified as Aspergillus flavus, unnamed taxon SBG, Aspergillus parasiticus and Aspergillus tamarii. A. flavus was the most prevalent (91.8%) of the isolates obtained from the feed in the AEZs while A. parasiticus had the lowest incidence (0.1%) and was isolated only from a layer mash sample collected from the DS zone. About 29% of the Aspergillus isolates produced aflatoxins in maize grains at concentrations up to 440,500?g/kg B and 341,000?g/kgG aflatoxins. The incidence of toxigenic isolates was highest (44.4%) in chick mash and lowest (19.9%) in grower mash. The population of A. flavus in the feed had positive (r=0.50) but non significant (p>0.05) correlations with proportion of toxigenic isolates obtained from the feed while SBG had significant (p<0.001) positive (r=0.99) influence on AFB1 concentrations in the feed. Poultry feed in Nigerian markets are therefore highly contaminated with aflatoxigenic Aspergillus species and consequently, aflatoxins. This is a potential threat to the poultry industry and requires urgent intervention. PMID:25108761

  15. Evaluation of the Aspergillus Western blot IgG kit for diagnosis of chronic aspergillosis.

    PubMed

    Oliva, A; Flori, P; Hennequin, C; Dubus, J-C; Reynaud-Gaubert, M; Charpin, D; Vergnon, J M; Gay, P; Colly, A; Piarroux, R; Pelloux, H; Ranque, S

    2015-01-01

    Immunoprecipitin detection (IPD) is the current reference confirmatory technique for anti-Aspergillus antibody detection; however, the lack of standardization is a critical drawback of this assay. In this study, we evaluated the performance of the Aspergillus Western blot (Asp-WB) IgG kit (LDBio Diagnostics, Lyon, France), a recently commercialized immunoblot assay for the diagnosis of various clinical presentations of chronic aspergillosis. Three hundred eight serum samples from 158 patients with aspergillosis sensu lato (s.l.) were analyzed. More specifically, 267 serum samples were derived from patients with Aspergillus disease, including 89 cases of chronic pulmonary aspergillosis, 10 of aspergilloma, and 32 of allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis, while 41 samples were from patients with Aspergillus colonization, including 15 cystic fibrosis (CF) and 12 non-CF patients. For blood donor controls, the Asp-WB specificity was 94%, while the kit displayed a sensitivity for the aspergillosis s.l. diagnosis of 88.6%, with a diagnostic odds ratio (DOR) of 119 (95% confidence interval [CI], 57 to 251). The DOR values were 185.22 (95% CI,78.79 to 435.45) and 43.74 (95% CI, 15.65 to 122.20) for the diagnosis of Aspergillus disease and Aspergillus colonization, respectively. Among the patients, the sensitivities of the Asp-WB in the diagnosis of Aspergillus colonization were 100% and 41.7% in CF and non-CF patients, respectively. The Asp-WB yielded fewer false-negative results than did IPD. In conclusion, the Asp-WB kit performed well for the diagnosis of various clinical presentations of aspergillosis in nonimmunocompromised patients, with an enhanced standardization and a higher sensitivity than with IPD, which is the current reference method. PMID:25392351

  16. Chromosome numbers and karyotype evolution in holoparasitic Orobanche (Orobanchaceae) and related genera

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schneeweiss, G.M.; Palomeque, T.; Colwell, A.E.; Weiss-Schneeweiss, H.

    2004-01-01

    Chromosome numbers and karyotypes of species of Orobanche, Cistanche, and Diphelypaea (Orobanchaceae) were investigated, and 108 chromosome counts of 53 taxa, 19 counted for the first time, are presented with a thorough compilation of previously published data. Additionally, karyotypes of representatives of these genera, including Orobanche sects. Orobanche and Trionychon, are reported. Cistanche (x = 20) has large meta- to submetacentric chromosomes, while those of Diphelypaea (x = 19) are medium-sized submeta-to acrocentrics. Within three analyzed sections of Orobanche, sects. Myzorrhiza (x = 24) and Trionychon (x = 12) possess medium-sized submeta- to acrocentrics, while sect. Orobanche (x = 19) has small, mostly meta- to submetacentric, chromosomes. Polyploidy is unevenly distributed in Orobanche and restricted to a few lineages, e.g., O. sect. Myzorrhiza or Orobanche gracilis and its relatives (sect. Orobanche). The distribution of basic chromosome numbers supports the groups found by molecular phylogenetic analyses: Cistanche has x = 20, the Orobanche-group (Orobanche sect. Orobanche, Diphelypaea) has x = 19, and the Phelipanche-group (Orobanche sects. Gymnocaulis, Myzorrhiza, Trionychon) has x = 12, 24. A model of chromosome number evolution in Orobanche and related genera is presented: from two ancestral base numbers, xh = 5 and xh = 6, independent polyploidizations led to x = 20 (Cistanche) and (after dysploidization) x = 19 (Orobanche-group) and to x = 12 and x = 24 (Phelipanche-group), respectively.

  17. Anomopterellidae Restored, with Two New Genera and Its Phylogeny in Evanioidea (Hymenoptera)

    PubMed Central

    Li, Longfeng; Rasnitsyn, Alexandr P.; Shih, Chungkun; Ren, Dong

    2013-01-01

    Background Anomopterellidae was originally classified as a family within the Evanioidea, and later lowered to a subfamily, Anomopterellinae, of Praeaulacidae. Up to date, only Rasnitsyn 1975, with four species, was assigned to Anomopterellinae. Due to their special wing venation and their metasomal attachment similar to those known in Evanioidea, the systematic position of Anomopterellinae in Evanioidea has been in contention. Principal Findings Here we report a new fossil genus Synaphopterella gen. nov. and six species from the Middle Jurassic of China and transfer Anomopterella stenocera Rasnitsyn, 1975, from Upper Jurassic of Kazakhstan, to Choristopterella gen. nov. We place these three genera in the restored family Anomopterellidae and provide a key to known genera and species. Conclusions/Significance Based on new fossil specimens and phylogenetic analyses, Praeaulacidae has the most basal position in Evanioidea and it is justifiable to restore Anomopterellidae Rasnitsyn, 1975 as a full family. Comparing the size of all described anomopterellids from China, Mongolia and Kazakhstan, we conclude that the species from China have larger bodies and forewings. Diversity of the Praeaulacidae and Anomopterellidae in the late Middle Jurassic of Daohugou suggests that Evanioidea appeared at least before the late Middle Jurassic. PMID:24340047

  18. Nematode Genera in Forest Soil Respond Differentially to Elevated CO2

    PubMed Central

    Neher, Deborah A.; Weicht, Thomas R.

    2013-01-01

    Previous reports suggest that fungivorous nematodes are the only trophic group in forest soils affected by elevated CO2. However, there can be ambiguity within trophic groups, and we examined data at a genus level to determine whether the conclusion remains similar. Nematodes were extracted from roots and soil of loblolly pine (Pinus taeda) and sweet gum (Liquidambar styraciflua) forests fumigated with either ambient air or CO2-enriched air. Root length and nematode biomass were estimated using video image analysis. Most common genera included Acrobeloides, Aphelenchoides, Cephalobus, Ditylenchus, Ecphyadorphora, Filenchus, Plectus, Prismatolaimus, and Tylencholaimus. Maturity Index values and diversity increased with elevated CO2 in loblolly pine but decreased with elevated CO2 in sweet gum forests. Elevated CO2 treatment affected the occurrence of more nematode genera in sweet gum than loblolly pine forests. Numbers were similar but size of Xiphinema decreased in elevated CO2. Abundance, but not biomass, of Aphelenchoides was reduced by elevated CO2. Treatment effects were apparent at the genus levels that were masked at the trophic level. For example, bacterivores were unaffected by elevated CO2, but abundance of Cephalobus was affected by CO2 treatment in both forests. PMID:24115786

  19. Fine Structure of Body Wall Cuticle of Females of Eight Genera of Heteroderidae

    PubMed Central

    Cliff, G. M.; Baldwin, J. G.

    1985-01-01

    Body wall cuticle of adult females of eight genera within the Heteroderidae was examined by transmission electron microscopy for comparison with previously studied species within the family. Cuticle structure was used to test some current hypotheses of phylogeny of Heteroderidae and to evaluate intrageneric variability in cuticle layering. Verutus, Rhizonema, and Meloidodera possess striated cuticle surfaces and have the simplest layering, suggesting that striations have not necessarily arisen repeatedly in Heteroderidae through convergent or parallel evolution. Atalodera and Thecavermiculatus possess similar cuticles with derived characteristics, strengthening the hypothesis that the two genera are sister groups. Similarly, the cuticle of Cactodera resembles the specialized cuticle of Globodera and Punctodera in having a basal layer (D) and a surface layer infused with electron-dense substance. Heterodera betulae has a unique cuticle in which the thickest layer (C) is infiltrated with an electron-dense matrix. Little intrageneric difference was found between cuticles of two species of Meloidodera or between two species of Atalodera. However, Atalodera ucri has a basal layer (E) not found in other Heteroderidae. The most striking intrageneric variation in cuticle structure was observed between the thin three-layered cuticle of Sarisodera africana and the much thicker four-layered cuticle of Sarisodera hydrophila; results do not support monophyly of Sarisodera. PMID:19294096

  20. Two new genera of Lumbriculidae (Annelida, Clitellata) from North Carolina, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fend, S.V.; Lenat, D.R.

    2007-01-01

    Recent benthic macroinvertebrate collections from North Carolina contained many undescribed oligochaete taxa, mostly belonging to the family Lumbriculidae. Three of the new species had arrangements of spermathecae and atria previously unreported for the family, and were assigned to new two genera. Pilaridrilus is distinguished by the location of spermathecal pores five segments behind the male pores. The single species, Pilaridrilus uliginosus, also has unusually complex penes and spermathecae. Martinidrilus is distinguished by spermathecae beginning more than two segments anterior to the atrial segment, and also by the the vasa deferentia, which join a common duct before joining the atria. The two Martinidrilus species also have unusual digitiform blood vessels in posterior segments. Martinidrilus carolinensis has lateral spermathecae in VI, and Martinidrilus arenosus has dorsolateral spermathecae in VII and VIII. Because arrangement and morphology of reproductive organs do not resemble those of described lumbriculids, the phylogenetic affinities of the new species are not clear. These new genera and species were generally collected from areas of high water quality, suggesting that lumbriculids can be useful in water quality monitoring and conservation evaluation. Copyright ?? 2007 Magnolia Press.

  1. Phylogenetic relationships of Pestalotiopsis and allied genera inferred from ribosomal DNA sequences and morphological characters.

    PubMed

    Jeewon, Rajesh; Liew, Edward C Y; Hyde, Kevin D

    2002-12-01

    The taxonomy of the coelomycetous fungus Pestalotiopsis and other closely related genera based on morphological characters has been equivocal. To gain insight in the phylogenetic relationships of Pestalotiopsis and its allies, part of the large subunit (28S) ribosomal DNA region was examined and compared with existing morphological information. Phylogenetic analyses were conducted using parsimony, distance, and likelihood criteria. Results of the analyses showed that Bartalinia, Pestalotiopsis, Seimatosporium, and Seiridium represent distinct monophyletic groups with high bootstrap support. However, Truncatella species are paraphyletic with Bartalinia, sharing a common ancestor. Pestalotia species sequenced clustered together with Pestalotiopsis. These genera should be recognized as distinct natural groups except for Monochaetia and Discosia, which need to be further resolved. Tree topologies are generally in concordance with previous morphological hypotheses, most notably the placement of all Pestalotia species, except the type P. pezizoides, in Pestalotiopsis. Well-supported clades corresponding to groupings based on conidial morphology were resolved and the relative importance of morphological characters for generic delimitation is discussed. Molecular data also provide further evidence to support the association of these coelomycetes with the Amphisphaeriaceae. PMID:12450745

  2. Monitoring the mycobiota of three plants manufacturing Culatello (a typical Italian meat product).

    PubMed

    Scaramuzza, Nicoletta; Diaferia, Carlo; Berni, Elettra

    2015-06-16

    This study reports the composition of the mycobiota growing on the surface of Culatello (a typical Italian meat product) and occurring in the environments of three processing plants. Samples were collected in both winter and summer. A total of 84 culatelli and 14 samples from the plant environment were examined. A total of 331 (from food samples) and 2030 (from air samples) fungal isolates belonging to six genera and 29 species were identified. The substantial correspondence between air- and product-mycobiota in all the manufacturing plants studied seems to indicate a natural selection of those species that have adapted to the thermal-hygrometric conditions to which meat products were subjected. In particular, all sexual Aspergillus spp. with Eurotium-type ascomata, all Scopulariopsis spp. and Sporendonema casei from culatelli exactly matched with those from air samplings, and a prevalence of xerotolerant and xerophilic species belonging to Aspergillus or Penicillium was observed for both culatelli and environments, depending on the plant considered. Aspergillus candidus (16.0%), Penicillium solitum (19.6%), and Aspergillus cristatus (? Eurotium cristatum) (17.2%) were the prevalent species in Plants 1, 2, and 3, respectively. Fungal species producing unsightly spots on the casings (Scopulariopsis spp. and Sporendonema casei) were mainly found in the first steps of the aging, but tended to diminish or to change color throughout the process, so ultimately they did not represent a matter of concern. Fungal species potentially producing ochratoxin A (Penicillium nordicum and Aspergillus westerdijkiae) were the least prevalent species collected from a minor number of culatelli, so their presence could be defined as sporadic and did not represent a risk for consumers' health. This study reports the dominance of desirable species over undesirable molds on culatelli, but also highlights the importance of monitoring those meat products where no bacterial starter can degrade mycotoxins and where neither fungal starters nor a skin can inhibit fungal development. The control of the so-called "house mycobiota" in such products should be periodically assessed both in artisanal and industrial plants, since it proved to be fundamental to focus the potential risks connected to consumption of these meat products. PMID:25791253

  3. Structure analysis of an Aspergillus flavus kernels population in North Italy. First analysis of an Aspergillus flavus kernels population based on vegetative compatibility groups in Northern Italy

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In order to gain insight into the causal agents of aflatoxin contamination of maize in Italy, populations of Aspergillus flavus on maize produced in the most affected area were characterized. Forty-six percent of A. flavus, isolated from maize kernels collected in 5 districts of northern Italy betwe...

  4. Sex, drugs and recombination: the wild life of Aspergillus.

    PubMed

    Fisher, Matthew C; Henk, Daniel A

    2012-03-01

    Throughout the eukaryotes, sexual reproduction is an almost universal phenomenon. However, within the Kingdom Fungi, this relationship is not so clear-cut. Fungi exhibit a spectrum of reproductive modes and life-cycles; amongst the better known species, sexual reproduction is often facultative, can be rare, and in over half of the known Ascomycota (the moulds) is unknown (Taylor et al. 1999). However, over the last decade, it has become apparent that many of these asexual mitosporic taxa undergo cryptic recombination via unobserved mechanisms and that wholly asexual fungi are, in fact, a rarity (Taylor et al. 1999, 2001; Heitman 2010). This revolution in our understanding of fungal sexuality has come about in two ways: Firstly, sexual reproduction leaves an imprint on fungal genomes by maintaining genes required for mating and by generating patterns of mutation and recombination restricted to meiotic processes. Secondly, scientists have become better at catching fungi in flagrante delicto. The genus Aspergillus is one such fungus where a combination of population genetics, genomics and taxonomy has been able to intuit the existence of sex, then to catch the fungus in the act and formally describe their sexual stages. So, why are sexy moulds exciting? One species in particular, Aspergillus flavus, is notorious for its ability to produce a diverse array of secondary metabolites, of which the polyketide aflatoxins (AF) are carcinogenic and others (such as cyclopiazonic acid) are toxigenic. Because of the predilection of A. flavus to grow on crops, such as peanuts, corn and cotton, biocontrol is widely used to mitigate infection by pre-applying nonaflatoxigenic (AF-) strains to competitively exclude the wild-type AF+ strains. However, the eventual fate in nature of these biocontrol strains is not known. In this issue of Molecular Ecology, Olarte et al. (2012) make an important contribution by using laboratory crosses of A. flavus to show that not only is AF highly heritable, but AF- strains can become AF+ via crossing over during meiosis. This observation has raised the spectre of cross-breeding and non-mendelian inheritance of AF between native and biocontrol strains of the fungus, leading to an increase in the natural diversity of the fungus with perhaps unanticipated consequences. PMID:22393930

  5. Molecular and enzymic properties of recombinant 1, 2-alpha-mannosidase from Aspergillus saitoi overexpressed in Aspergillus oryzae cells.

    PubMed Central

    Ichishima, E; Taya, N; Ikeguchi, M; Chiba, Y; Nakamura, M; Kawabata, C; Inoue, T; Takahashi, K; Minetoki, T; Ozeki, K; Kumagai, C; Gomi, K; Yoshida, T; Nakajima, T

    1999-01-01

    For the construction of an overexpression system of the intracellular 1,2-alpha-mannosidase (EC 3.2.1.113) gene (msdS) from Aspergillus saitoi (now designated Aspergillus phoenicis), the N-terminal signal sequence of the gene was replaced with that of the aspergillopepsin I (EC 3.4.23.18) gene (apnS) signal, one of the same strains as described previously. Then the fused 1, 2-alpha-mannosidase gene (f-msdS) was inserted into the NotI site between P-No8142 and T-agdA in the plasmid pNAN 8142 (9.5 kbp) and thus the Aspergillus oryzae expression plasmid pNAN-AM1 (11.2 kbp) was constructed. The fused f-msdS gene has been overexpressed in a transformant A. oryzae niaD AM1 cell. The recombinant enzyme expressed in A. oryzae cells was purified to homogeneity in two steps. The system is capable of making as much as about 320 mg of the enzyme/litre of culture. The recombinant enzyme has activity with methyl-2-O-alpha-d-mannopyranosyl alpha-D-mannopyranoside at pH 5.0, while no activity was determined with methyl-3-O-alpha-D-mannopyranosyl alpha-D-mannopyranoside or methyl-6-O-alpha-D-mannopyranosyl alpha-D-mannopyranoside. The substrate specificity of the enzyme was analysed by using pyridylaminated (PA)-oligomannose-type sugar chains, Man9-6(GlcNAc)2-PA (Man is mannose; GlcNAc is N-acetylglucosamine). The enzyme hydrolysed Man8GlcNAc2-PA (type 'M8A') fastest, and 'M6C' żManalpha1-3[Manalpha1-2Manalpha1-3(Manalpha1-6) Manalpha1-6]Manbeta1- 4GlcNAcbeta1-4GlcNAc-PAż slowest, among the PA-sugar chains. Molecular-mass values of the enzyme were determined to be 63 kDa by SDS/PAGE and 65 kDa by gel filtration on Superose 12 respectively. The pI value of the enzyme was 4.6. The N-terminal amino acid sequence of the enzyme was GSTQSRADAIKAAFSHAWDGYLQY, and sequence analysis indicated that the signal peptide from apnS gene was removed. The molar absorption coefficient, epsilon, at 280 nm was determined as 91539 M-1.cm-1. Contents of the secondary structure (alpha-helix, beta-structure and the remainder of the enzyme) by far-UV CD determination were about 55, 38 and 7% respectively. The melting temperature, Tm, of the enzyme was 71 degrees C by differential scanning calorimetry. The calorimetric enthalpy, DeltaHcal, of the enzyme was calculated as 13.3 kJ.kg of protein-1. Determination of 1 g-atom of Ca2+/mol of enzyme was performed by atomic-absorption spectrophotometry. PMID:10215597

  6. The biodiversity of Aspergillus section Flavi in brazil nuts: from rainforest to consumer.

    PubMed

    Calderari, Thaiane O; Iamanaka, Beatriz T; Frisvad, Jens C; Pitt, John I; Sartori, Daniele; Pereira, Jose Luiz; Fungaro, Maria Helena P; Taniwaki, Marta H

    2013-01-01

    A total of 288 brazil nut samples (173 kernel and 115 shell) from the Amazon rainforest region and Săo Paulo State, Brazil were collected at different stages of brazil nut production. Samples were analysed for: percentages of aflatoxigenic fungal species and potential for aflatoxin production and presence of aflatoxins. Aspergillus nomius was the most common species found (1235 isolates) which amounted to 30% of the total species with potential to produce aflatoxins. This species is of concern since 100% of all isolates produced aflatoxins B(1), B(2), G(1) and G(2). Aspergillus flavus was almost equally common (1212 isolates) although only 46% produced aflatoxins under laboratory conditions, and only aflatoxins B(1) and B(2). Low number of other species with the potential to produce aflatoxins was isolated: Aspergillus arachidicola and Aspergillus bombycis produced B and G aflatoxins whilst Aspergillus pseudotamarii produced only aflatoxin B(1). The total aflatoxin levels found in samples taken from the rainforests was 0.7 ?g/kg, from processing plants before and after sorting 8.0 and 0.1 ?g/kg respectively, from street markets in the Amazon region 6.3 ?g/kg and from supermarkets in Săo Paulo State 0.2 ?g/kg. Processing, which included manual or mechanical sorting and drying at 60°C for 30 to 36 h, eliminated on average more than 98% of total aflatoxins. These results showed that sorting is a very effective way to decrease aflatoxin content in brazil nuts. PMID:23290234

  7. Internal Carotid Artery Blister-Like Aneurysm Caused by Aspergillus – Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Ogawa, Masaki; Sakurai, Keita; Kawaguchi, Takatsune; Naiki-Ito, Aya; Nakagawa, Motoo; Okita, Kenji; Matsukawa, Noriyuki; Shibamoto, Yuta

    2015-01-01

    Summary Background Blister-like aneurysm of the supraclinoid internal carotid artery (ICA) is a well-documented cause of subarachnoid hemorrhage. Generally, this type of aneurysm is associated with various conditions such as hypertension, arteriosclerosis, and ICA dissection. Although Aspergillus is the most common organism causing intracranial fungal aneurysmal formation, there is no report of a blister-like aneurysm caused by Aspergillus infection. Case Report An 83-year-old man received corticosteroid pulse therapy followed by oral steroid therapy for an inflammatory pseudotumor of the clivus. Two months later, the patient was transported to an emergency department due to the diffuse subarachnoid hemorrhage, classified as Fisher group 4. Subsequent 3D computed tomography angiogram revealed a blister-like aneurysm at the superior wall of the left ICA. Six days later, the patient died of subarachnoid hemorrhage caused by the left ICA aneurysm rerupture. Autopsy revealed proliferation of Aspergillus hyphae in the wall of the aneurysm. Notably, that change was present more densely in the inner membrane than in the outer one. Thus, it was considered that Aspergillus hyphae caused infectious aneurysm formation in the left ICA via hematogenous seeding rather than direct invasion. Conclusions The blister-like aneurysm is a rare but important cause of subarachnoid hemorrhage. This case report documents another cause of blister-like aneurysms, that is an infectious aneurysm associated with Aspergillus infection. PMID:25848441

  8. A Genomics Based Discovery of Secondary Metabolite Biosynthetic Gene Clusters in Aspergillus ustus

    PubMed Central

    Pi, Borui; Yu, Dongliang; Dai, Fangwei; Song, Xiaoming; Zhu, Congyi; Li, Hongye; Yu, Yunsong

    2015-01-01

    Secondary metabolites (SMs) produced by Aspergillus have been extensively studied for their crucial roles in human health, medicine and industrial production. However, the resulting information is almost exclusively derived from a few model organisms, including A. nidulans and A. fumigatus, but little is known about rare pathogens. In this study, we performed a genomics based discovery of SM biosynthetic gene clusters in Aspergillus ustus, a rare human pathogen. A total of 52 gene clusters were identified in the draft genome of A. ustus 3.3904, such as the sterigmatocystin biosynthesis pathway that was commonly found in Aspergillus species. In addition, several SM biosynthetic gene clusters were firstly identified in Aspergillus that were possibly acquired by horizontal gene transfer, including the vrt cluster that is responsible for viridicatumtoxin production. Comparative genomics revealed that A. ustus shared the largest number of SM biosynthetic gene clusters with A. nidulans, but much fewer with other Aspergilli like A. niger and A. oryzae. These findings would help to understand the diversity and evolution of SM biosynthesis pathways in genus Aspergillus, and we hope they will also promote the development of fungal identification methodology in clinic. PMID:25706180

  9. Expression profiling of non-aflatoxigenic Aspergillus parasiticus mutants obtained by 5-azacytosine treatment or serial mycelial transfer

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Aflatoxins are carcinogenic secondary metabolites produced by the fungi Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus parasiticus. Repeated serial mycelial transfer or treatment of A. parasiticus with 5-azacytidine produced mutants with a fluffy phenotype and loss of aflatoxin production. To understand how the...

  10. Relationships among resistances to Fusarium and Aspergillus ear rots and contamination by fumonisin and aflatoxin in maize

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fusarium verticillioides, F. proliferatum, and Aspergillus flavus cause ear rots of maize and contaminate the grain with mycotoxins (fumonisin or aflatoxin). The objective of this study was to investigate the relationships between resistance to Fusarium and Aspergillus ear rots and fumonisin and a...

  11. Sensitization to Aspergillus species in the congenital neutrophil disorders chronic granulomatous disease and hyper-IgE syndrome

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Thomas M. Eppinger; Paul A. Greenberger; Dorothy A. White; Arthur E. Brown; Charlotte Cunningham-Rundles

    1999-01-01

    Background: Hyper-IgE syndrome (HIE) and chronic granulomatous disease (CGD) are congenital immunodeficiency diseases with increased susceptibility to bacterial and fungal infections. Both carry significant morbidity and mortality rates because of invasive infections by Aspergillus species. We encountered 2 patients, one with HIE and one with CGD, in whom detection of sensitization to Aspergillus species preceded the diagnosis of immunodeficiency. With

  12. Vaccination of mice against invasive aspergillosis with recombinant Aspergillus proteins and CpG oligodeoxynucleotides as adjuvants

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Silvia Bozza; Roberta Gaziano; Grayson B. Lipford; Claudia Montagnoli; Angela Bacci; Paolo Di Francesco; Viswanath P. Kurup; Hermann Wagner; Luigina Romani

    2002-01-01

    In a murine model of invasive pulmonary aspergillosis, dendritic cells (DCs) pulsed with Aspergillus antigens induced the activation of CD4+ Th1 cells capable of conferring resistance to the infection. Here we show that the combined, local delivery of unmethylated CpG oligodeoxynucleotides (ODNs) and the Asp f 16 Aspergillus allergen resulted in the functional maturation and activation of airway DCs capable

  13. Clustered Genes Involved in Cyclopiazonic Acid Production are Next to the Aflatoxin Biosynthesis Gene Cluster in Aspergillus flavus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cyclopiazonic acid (CPA), an indole-tetramic acid toxin, is produced by many species of Aspergillus and Penicillium. In addition to CPA Aspergillus flavus produces polyketide-derived carcinogenic aflatoxins (AFs). AF biosynthesis genes form a gene cluster in a subtelomeric region. Isolates of A. fla...

  14. Mutagenesis and genetic characterisation of amylolytic Aspergillus niger.

    PubMed

    Shafique, Sobiya; Bajwa, Rukhsana; Shafique, Shazia

    2010-07-01

    Aspergillus niger FCBP-198 was genetically modified for its ability to reveal extra cellular alpha-amylase enzyme activity. From 76 efficient mutants isolated after ultraviolet (UV) irradiation, An-UV-5.6 was selected as the most efficient UV mutant, with 76.41 units mL(-1) of alpha-amylase activity compared to wild (34.45 units mL(-1)). In case of ethyl methane sulphonate (EMS), among 242 survivors, 74 were assayed quantitatively and An-Ch-4.7 was found to be the most competent, as it exhibited a three-fold increase in alpha-amylase activity (89.38 units mL(-1)) than the parental strain. Genetic relationships of the mutants of A. niger FCBP-198 were analysed with a randomly amplified polymorphic DNA-polymerase chain reaction (RAPD-PCR). Results obtained from the comparison between genotypes of A. niger FCBP-198 showed differences in the sizes and numbers of amplified fragments per primer for each isolate. The dendrogram showed that genotypes An-Ch-4.7 and An-Ch-4.2 were distinctly classified into one category, while the isolates An-UV-5.6, An-UV-5.1 and A. niger FCBP-198 have the nearest genetic relationship. The five isolates from A. niger FCBP-198 genotypes shared an average of 65% bands. PMID:19764004

  15. Investigation of Aspergillus fumigatus biofilm formation by various “omics” approaches

    PubMed Central

    Muszkieta, Laetitia; Beauvais, Anne; Pähtz, Vera; Gibbons, John G.; Anton Leberre, Véronique; Beau, Rémi; Shibuya, Kazutoshi; Rokas, Antonis; Francois, Jean M.; Kniemeyer, Olaf; Brakhage, Axel A.; Latgé, Jean P.

    2013-01-01

    In the lung, Aspergillus fumigatus usually forms a dense colony of filaments embedded in a polymeric extracellular matrix called biofilm (BF). This extracellular matrix embeds and glues hyphae together and protects the fungus from an outside hostile environment. This extracellular matrix is absent in fungal colonies grown under classical liquid shake conditions (PL), which were historically used to understand A. fumigatus pathobiology. Recent works have shown that the fungus in this aerial grown BF-like state exhibits reduced susceptibility to antifungal drugs and undergoes major metabolic changes that are thought to be associated to virulence. These differences in pathological and physiological characteristics between BF and liquid shake conditions suggest that the PL condition is a poor in vitro disease model. In the laboratory, A. fumigatus mycelium embedded by the extracellular matrix can be produced in vitro in aerial condition using an agar-based medium. To provide a global and accurate understanding of A. fumigatus in vitro BF growth, we utilized microarray, RNA-sequencing, and proteomic analysis to compare the global gene and protein expression profiles of A. fumigatus grown under BF and PL conditions. In this review, we will present the different signatures obtained with these three “omics” methods. We will discuss the advantages and limitations of each method and their complementarity. PMID:23407341

  16. Genotypic and Phenotypic Versatility of Aspergillus flavus during Maize Exploitation

    PubMed Central

    Reverberi, Massimo; Punelli, Marta; Scala, Valeria; Scarpari, Marzia; Uva, Paolo; Mentzen, Wieslawa I.; Dolezal, Andrea L.; Woloshuk, Charles; Pinzari, Flavia; Fabbri, Anna A.; Fanelli, Corrado; Payne, Gary A.

    2013-01-01

    Aspergillus flavus is a cosmopolitan fungus able to respond to external stimuli and to shift both its trophic behaviour and the production of secondary metabolites, including that of the carcinogen aflatoxin (AF). To better understand the adaptability of this fungus, we examined genetic and phenotypic responses within the fungus when grown under four conditions that mimic different ecological niches ranging from saprophytic growth to parasitism. Global transcription changes were observed in both primary and secondary metabolism in response to these conditions, particularly in secondary metabolism where transcription of nearly half of the predicted secondary metabolite clusters changed in response to the trophic states of the fungus. The greatest transcriptional change was found between saprophytic and parasitic growth, which resulted in expression changes in over 800 genes in A. flavus. The fungus also responded to growth conditions, putatively by adaptive changes in conidia, resulting in differences in their ability to utilize carbon sources. We also examined tolerance of A. flavus to oxidative stress and found that growth and secondary metabolism were altered in a superoxide dismutase (sod) mutant and an alkyl-hydroperoxide reductase (ahp) mutant of A. flavus. Data presented in this study show a multifaceted response of A. flavus to its environment and suggest that oxidative stress and secondary metabolism are important in the ecology of this fungus, notably in its interaction with host plant and in relation to changes in its lifestyle (i.e. saprobic to pathogenic). PMID:23894339

  17. Kinetic modeling of fructooligosaccharide production using Aspergillus oryzae N74.

    PubMed

    Guio, Felipe; Rugeles, Luz D; Rojas, Sonia E; Palomino, María P; Camargo, María C; Sánchez, Oscar F

    2012-05-01

    In this study, the kinetic for the bioconversion of sucrose to fructooligosaccharides (FOS) by free cells of Aspergillus oryzae N74 was modeled. In addition, the effect of immobilized glucose isomerase (IGI) on FOS production yield was evaluated and considered in the kinetic model. The selected kinetic models were based on a proposed reaction mechanism described by elementary rate equations and modified Michaelis-Menten kinetic equations. The use of IGI allowed to increase the FOS production yield (FOS(Yield)) and to decrease the glucose/fructose (G/F) ratio. At shake flask scale, the FOS(Yield) was increased in 4.7 % (final yield 58.3 %), while the G/F ratio was reduced 6.2-fold. At bench scale, the FOS(Yield) was increased in 2.2 % (final yield 57.3 %), while the G/F ratio was reduced 4.5-fold. The elementary rate equation model was the one that best adjusted experimental data for FOS production using either the fungus biomass or the mixture fungus biomass-IGI, with an overall average percentage error of 7.2. Despite that FOS production yield was not highly improved by the presence of IGI in the reaction mixture, it favored the reduction of residual glucose in the mixture, avoiding the loss of material owe to glucose transformation to fructose that can be used in situ for FOS production by the fructosyltransferase. PMID:22528647

  18. Sexual reproduction in Aspergillus flavus sclerotia naturally produced in corn.

    PubMed

    Horn, Bruce W; Sorensen, Ronald B; Lamb, Marshall C; Sobolev, Victor S; Olarte, Rodrigo A; Worthington, Carolyn J; Carbone, Ignazio

    2014-01-01

    Aspergillus flavus is the major producer of carcinogenic aflatoxins worldwide in crops. Populations of A. flavus are characterized by high genetic variation and the source of this variation is likely sexual reproduction. The fungus is heterothallic and laboratory crosses produce ascospore-bearing ascocarps embedded within sclerotia. However, the capacity for sexual reproduction in sclerotia naturally formed in crops has not been examined. Corn was grown for 3 years under different levels of drought stress at Shellman, GA, and sclerotia were recovered from 146 ears (0.6% of ears). Sclerotia of A. flavus L strain were dominant in 2010 and 2011 and sclerotia of A. flavus S strain were dominant in 2012. The incidence of S strain sclerotia in corn ears increased with decreasing water availability. Ascocarps were not detected in sclerotia at harvest but incubation of sclerotia on the surface of nonsterile soil in the laboratory resulted in the formation of viable ascospores in A. flavus L and S strains and in homothallic A. alliaceus. Ascospores were produced by section Flavi species in 6.1% of the 6,022 sclerotia (18 of 84 ears) in 2010, 0.1% of the 2,846 sclerotia (3 of 36 ears) in 2011, and 0.5% of the 3,106 sclerotia (5 of 26 ears) in 2012. For sexual reproduction to occur under field conditions, sclerotia may require an additional incubation period on soil following dispersal at crop harvest. PMID:23883157

  19. Biochemical and molecular characterization of secreted ?-xylosidase from Aspergillus niger.

    PubMed

    Scott-Craig, John S; Borrusch, Melissa S; Banerjee, Goutami; Harvey, Christopher M; Walton, Jonathan D

    2011-12-16

    ?-Linked xylose is a major component of xyloglucans in the cell walls of higher plants. An ?-xylosidase (AxlA) was purified from a commercial enzyme preparation from Aspergillus niger, and the encoding gene was identified. The protein is a member of glycosyl hydrolase family 31. It was active on p-nitrophenyl-?-d-xyloside, isoprimeverose, xyloglucan heptasaccharide (XXXG), and tamarind xyloglucan. When expressed in Pichia pastoris, AxlA had activity comparable to the native enzyme on pNP?X and IP despite apparent hyperglycosylation. The pH optimum of AxlA was between 3.0 and 4.0. AxlA together with ?-glucosidase depolymerized xyloglucan heptasaccharide. A combination of AxlA, ?-glucosidase, xyloglucanase, and ?-galactosidase in the optimal proportions of 51:5:19:25 or 59:5:11:25 could completely depolymerize tamarind XG to free Glc or Xyl, respectively. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first characterization of a secreted microbial ?-xylosidase. Secreted ?-xylosidases appear to be rare in nature, being absent from other tested commercial enzyme mixtures and from the genomes of most filamentous fungi. PMID:22033931

  20. Purification and properties of the elastase from Aspergillus fumigatus.

    PubMed Central

    Frosco, M; Chase, T; Macmillan, J D

    1992-01-01

    Elastase, a potential virulence factor from the opportunistic pathogen Aspergillus fumigatus, was purified 220-fold from culture broth by fast-performance liquid chromatography employing anion exchange (Q Sepharose fast flow), cation exchange (S Sepharose fast flow), and gel filtration (Superose 12). Purified to near homogeneity, the elastase had an apparent molecular mass of 32 kDa by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (silver stain) but a mass of about 19.1 kDa as determined by gel filtration on Superdex 75. The elastase is not glycosylated and is positively charged at neutral pH, having a pI of 8.75. Inhibition by 0.2 mM phenylmethylsulfonyl fluoride (100%) and 0.21 mM leupeptin (60%) implies that the elastase is a serine protease. However, the enzyme is also inhibited by 5 mM EDTA (100%) and 10 mM 1,10-orthophenanthroline (30%), suggesting a requirement for divalent cations. The enzyme acts optimally at pH 7.4 and 45 degrees C in 50 mM sodium borate buffer, but in Tris HCl, the pH optimum shifts to 8.8. Images PMID:1541545

  1. Azole Drug Import into the Pathogenic Fungus Aspergillus fumigatus.

    PubMed

    Esquivel, Brooke D; Smith, Adam R; Zavrel, Martin; White, Theodore C

    2015-06-01

    The fungal pathogen Aspergillus fumigatus causes serious illness and often death when it invades tissues, especially in immunocompromised individuals. The azole class of drugs is the most commonly prescribed treatment for many fungal infections and acts on the ergosterol biosynthesis pathway. One common mechanism of acquired azole drug resistance in fungi is the prevention of drug accumulation to toxic levels in the cell. While drug efflux is a well-known resistance strategy, reduced azole import would be another strategy to maintain low intracellular azole levels. Recently, azole uptake in Candida albicans and other yeasts was analyzed using [(3)H]fluconazole. Defective drug import was suggested to be a potential mechanism of drug resistance in several pathogenic fungi, including Cryptococcus neoformans, Candida krusei, and Saccharomyces cerevisiae. We have adapted and developed an assay to measure azole accumulation in A. fumigatus using radioactively labeled azole drugs, based on previous work done with C. albicans. We used this assay to study the differences in azole uptake in A. fumigatus isolates under a variety of drug treatment conditions, with different morphologies and with a select mutant strain with deficiencies in the sterol uptake and biosynthesis pathway. We conclude that azole drugs are specifically selected and imported into the fungal cell by a pH- and ATP-independent facilitated diffusion mechanism, not by passive diffusion. This method of drug transport is likely to be conserved across most fungal species. PMID:25824209

  2. Production of penicillic acid by Aspergillus sclerotiorum CGF.

    PubMed

    Kang, S W; Park, C H; Hong, S I; Kim, S W

    2007-01-01

    The production of penicillic acid by Aspergillus sclerotiorum CGF for the biocontrol of Phytophthora disease was investigated in submerged fermentation using media composed of different nutrients. Soluble starch was found to be the most effective substrate among the carbon sources used, and produced the highest penicillic acid concentration of 2.98 mg ml(-1). When organic nitrogen sources were used, pharmamedia, yeast extract, and polypeptone-S were found to be suitable organic nitrogen sources (2.46-2.71 mg ml(-1)). The production of penicillic acid was not detected in when inorganic nitrogen sources were used. Only Na2HPO4, among the metal ions and phosphate salts tested, increased the production of penicillic acid (approximately 20%). When A. sclerotiorum CGF was cultured in optimal medium [8.0% (w/v) soluble starch, 0.6% (w/v) yeast extract, and 0.3% (w/v) Na2HPO4], maximum penicillic acid concentration (approximately 9.40 mg ml(-1)) and cell mass (approximately 17.4 g l(-1)) were obtained after 12 days. PMID:16458001

  3. Extracellular phytase from Aspergillus niger CFR 335: purification and characterization.

    PubMed

    Gunashree, B S; Venkateswaran, G

    2015-07-01

    Phytase, that is extensively used as a feed additive is capable of hydrolyzing phytic acid, an antinutrient found in about 60-80 % of all the plant commodities. This enzyme improves the bioavailability of essential minerals such as Ca(2+), Mg(2+), P, Zn(2+), Fe(3+), that are bound to phytic acid. An extracellular phytase from a local fungal isolate, Aspergillus niger CFR 335 was purified to homogeneity through a three-step column chromatography using DEAE-Sephadex anion exchanger. An active fraction of the enzyme was obtained with NaCl gradient of 2.5 M in DEAE Sephadex column. The enzyme was purified up to 16 fold with a yield of 28.5 %. Substrate specificity studies revealed a highest specific activity of 32.6?±?3.1 U/mg for sodium phytate with the Km value of 0.08?±?0.1 mM. The molecular weight of the enzyme was 66 kDa with an optimum temperature of 30 °C and pH 4.5. Up to 80 % of the activity was retained even after storing the enzyme for 6 months at 4 °C. PMID:26139925

  4. Functional Characterization and Localization of the Aspergillus nidulans Formin SEPAV?

    PubMed Central

    Sharpless, Kathryn E.; Harris, Steven D.

    2002-01-01

    Formins are a family of multidomain scaffold proteins involved in actin-dependent morphogenetic events. In Aspergillus nidulans, the formin SEPA participates in two actin-mediated processes, septum formation and polarized growth. In this study, we use a new null mutant to demonstrate that SEPA is required for the formation of actin rings at septation sites. In addition, we find that a functional SEPA::GFP fusion protein localizes simultaneously to septation sites and hyphal tips, and that SEPA colocalizes with actin at each site. Using live imaging, we show that SEPA localization at septation sites and hyphal tips is dynamic. Notably, at septation sites, SEPA forms a ring that constricts as the septum is deposited. Moreover, we demonstrate that actin filaments are required to maintain the proper localization pattern of SEPA, and that the amino-terminal half of SEPA is sufficient for localization at septation sites and hyphal tips. In contrast, only localization at septation sites is affected by loss of the sepH gene product. We propose that specific morphological cues activate common molecular pathways to direct SEPA localization to the appropriate morphogenetic site. PMID:11854405

  5. Testing the efficacy of RNA interference constructs in Aspergillus fumigatus.

    PubMed

    Henry, Christine; Mouyna, Isabelle; Latgé, Jean-Paul

    2007-04-01

    We recently developed a silencing vector in Aspergillus fumigatus which carries a hygromycin resistance marker and a transcriptional unit for hairpin RNA expression under the control of the inducible glucoamylase promoter (pGla) (Mouyna et al. in FEMS Microbiol Lett 237:317-324, 2004). We showed previously that this vector can be used for the RNA interference application of two genes ALB1 and FKS1 of which reduced mRNA levels occurred for both, with phenotypic consequences resembling disruptions of genes involved in melanin (ALB1) and beta(1-3)glucan biosynthesis (FKS1). We reported here the silencing of KRE6 and CRH1, two other genes putatively involved in cell wall biosynthesis using a similar construction under the control of the constitutive promoter glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (pgpdA). Silencing of the expression of these two genes was obtained. Further analysis of the transformants showed however that (1) a 100% loss of expression was never achieved for all genes tested (2) the vector used for RNAi is lost or modified over successive transfers resulting in an inhibition of the silencing. These disadvantages of RNAi indicate that classical gene disruption by gene replacement remains the most efficient method for a molecular analysis of gene function in A. fumigatus. PMID:17273823

  6. Heterogeneity of Aspergillus niger microcolonies in liquid shaken cultures.

    PubMed

    de Bekker, Charissa; van Veluw, G Jerre; Vinck, Arman; Wiebenga, L Ad; Wösten, Han A B

    2011-02-01

    The fungus Aspergillus niger forms (sub)millimeter microcolonies within a liquid shaken culture. Here, we show that such microcolonies are heterogeneous with respect to size and gene expression. Microcolonies of strains expressing green fluorescent protein (GFP) from the promoter of the glucoamlyase gene glaA or the ferulic acid esterase gene faeA were sorted on the basis of diameter and fluorescence using the Complex Object Parametric Analyzer and Sorter (COPAS) technology. Statistical analysis revealed that the liquid shaken culture consisted of two populations of microcolonies that differ by 90 ?m in diameter. The population of small microcolonies of strains expressing GFP from the glaA or faeA promoter comprised 39% and 25% of the culture, respectively. Two populations of microcolonies could also be distinguished when the expression of GFP in these strains was analyzed. The population expressing a low level of GFP consisted of 68% and 44% of the culture, respectively. We also show that mRNA accumulation is heterogeneous within microcolonies of A. niger. Central and peripheral parts of the mycelium were isolated with laser microdissection and pressure catapulting (LMPC), and RNA from these samples was used for quantitative PCR analysis. This analysis showed that the RNA content per hypha was about 45 times higher at the periphery than in the center of the microcolony. Our data imply that the protein production of A. niger can be improved in industrial fermentations by reducing the heterogeneity within the culture. PMID:21169437

  7. Isolation of Two Apsa Suppressor Strains in Aspergillus Nidulans

    PubMed Central

    Kruger, M.; Fischer, R.

    1996-01-01

    Aspergillus nidulans reproduces asexually with single nucleated conidia. In apsA (anucleate primary sterigmata) strains, nuclear positioning is affected and conidiation is greatly reduced. To get further insights into the cellular functions of apsA, aconidial apsA strains were mutagenized and conidiating suppressor strains were isolated. The suppressors fell into two complementation groups, samA and samB (suppressor of anucleate metulae). samA mapped on linkage group I close to pyrG. The mutant allele was dominant in diploids homozygous for apsA. Viability of conidia of samA suppressor strains (samA(-); apsA(-)) was reduced to 50% in comparison to wild-type conidia. Eighty percent of viable spores produced small size colonies that were temperature- and benomyl-sensitive. samB mapped to chromosome VIII and was recessive. Viability of conidia from samB suppressor strains (apsA(-); samB(-)) was also affected but no small size colonies were observed. Both suppressors produced partial defects in sexual reproduction and both suppressed an apsA deletion mutation. In wild-type background the mutant loci affected hyphal growth rate (samA) or changed the colony morphology (samB) and inhibited sexual spore formation (samA and samB). Only subtle effects on conidiation were found. We conclude that both suppressor genes bypass the apsA function and are involved in microtubule-dependent processes. PMID:8889518

  8. Regulation of Conidiation by Light in Aspergillus nidulans

    PubMed Central

    Ruger-Herreros, Carmen; Rodríguez-Romero, Julio; Fernández-Barranco, Raul; Olmedo, María; Fischer, Reinhard; Corrochano, Luis M.; Canovas, David

    2011-01-01

    Light regulates several aspects of the biology of many organisms, including the balance between asexual and sexual development in some fungi. To understand how light regulates fungal development at the molecular level we have used Aspergillus nidulans as a model. We have performed a genome-wide expression analysis that has allowed us to identify >400 genes upregulated and >100 genes downregulated by light in developmentally competent mycelium. Among the upregulated genes were genes required for the regulation of asexual development, one of the major biological responses to light in A. nidulans, which is a pathway controlled by the master regulatory gene brlA. The expression of brlA, like conidiation, is induced by light. A detailed analysis of brlA light regulation revealed increased expression after short exposures with a maximum after 60 min of light followed by photoadaptation with longer light exposures. In addition to brlA, genes flbA–C and fluG are also light regulated, and flbA–C are required for the correct light-dependent regulation of the upstream regulator fluG. We have found that light induction of brlA required the photoreceptor complex composed of a phytochrome FphA, and the white-collar homologs LreA and LreB, and the fluffy genes flbA–C. We propose that the activation of regulatory genes by light is the key event in the activation of asexual development by light in A. nidulans. PMID:21624998

  9. Mapping the polysaccharide degradation potential of Aspergillus niger

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The degradation of plant materials by enzymes is an industry of increasing importance. For sustainable production of second generation biofuels and other products of industrial biotechnology, efficient degradation of non-edible plant polysaccharides such as hemicellulose is required. For each type of hemicellulose, a complex mixture of enzymes is required for complete conversion to fermentable monosaccharides. In plant-biomass degrading fungi, these enzymes are regulated and released by complex regulatory structures. In this study, we present a methodology for evaluating the potential of a given fungus for polysaccharide degradation. Results Through the compilation of information from 203 articles, we have systematized knowledge on the structure and degradation of 16 major types of plant polysaccharides to form a graphical overview. As a case example, we have combined this with a list of 188 genes coding for carbohydrate-active enzymes from Aspergillus niger, thus forming an analysis framework, which can be queried. Combination of this information network with gene expression analysis on mono- and polysaccharide substrates has allowed elucidation of concerted gene expression from this organism. One such example is the identification of a full set of extracellular polysaccharide-acting genes for the degradation of oat spelt xylan. Conclusions The mapping of plant polysaccharide structures along with the corresponding enzymatic activities is a powerful framework for expression analysis of carbohydrate-active enzymes. Applying this network-based approach, we provide the first genome-scale characterization of all genes coding for carbohydrate-active enzymes identified in A. niger. PMID:22799883

  10. VelC Positively Controls Sexual Development in Aspergillus nidulans

    PubMed Central

    Park, Hee-Soo; Nam, Tae-Young; Han, Kap-Hoon; Kim, Sun Chang; Yu, Jae-Hyuk

    2014-01-01

    Fungal development and secondary metabolism is intimately associated via activities of the fungi-specific velvet family proteins including VeA, VosA, VelB and VelC. Among these, VelC has not been characterized in Aspergillus nidulans. In this study, we characterize the role of VelC in asexual and sexual development in A. nidulans. The velC mRNA specifically accumulates during the early phase of sexual development. The deletion of velC leads to increased number of conidia and reduced production of sexual fruiting bodies (cleistothecia). In the velC deletion mutant, mRNA levels of the brlA, abaA, wetA and vosA genes that control sequential activation of asexual sporulation increase. Overexpression of velC causes increased formation of cleistothecia. These results suggest that VelC functions as a positive regulator of sexual development. VelC is one of the five proteins that physically interact with VosA in yeast two-hybrid and GST pull down analyses. The ?velC ?vosA double mutant produced fewer cleistothecia and behaved similar to the ?vosA mutant, suggesting that VosA is epistatic to VelC in sexual development, and that VelC might mediate control of sex through interacting with VosA at specific life stages for sexual fruiting. PMID:24587098

  11. Developmental regulation of laccase levels in Aspergillus nidulans.

    PubMed Central

    Law, D J; Timberlake, W E

    1980-01-01

    Asexual spores (conidia) of Aspergillus nidulans contain a dark green pigment which is not present in other cell types. Synthesis of this pigment is catalyzed, in part, by a developmentally controlled p-diphenol oxidase, or laccase, encoded at the gamma A genetic locus (A. J. Clutterbuck, J. Gen. Microbiol. 70:423-435, 1972). We have investigated the mechanisms regulating expression of the gamma A gene of A. nidulans. Vegetative hyphae grown in submerged culture lacked detectable laccase enzyme activity and neither contained nor synthesized immunoprecipitable laccase protein. When such cultures were induced to conidiate by harvesting the cells onto filter papers and aerating them, laccase levels began to increase after 10 to 16 h, reached a peak at 20 to 36 h, and then declined slowly. Immunological assays showed that increases in laccase enzyme activity were (i) proceded by a transient rise in the relative rate of laccase protein synthesis and (ii) closely paralleled by increases in the amount of laccase protein. Addition of cycloheximide to cultures at any time after inducing conidiation inhibited further accumulation of laccase enzyme activity. These data are most consistent with increases in laccase levels being due to regulated, de novo synthesis of laccase protein. Addition of inhibitors of ribonucleic acid synthesis to conidiating cultures also inhibited further accumulation of laccase, suggesting that laccase expression is regulated by alterations in the transcriptional activity of the gamma A locus. Images PMID:7000747

  12. Rapid genome resequencing of an atoxigenic strain of Aspergillus carbonarius.

    PubMed

    Cabańes, F Javier; Sanseverino, Walter; Castellá, Gemma; Bragulat, M Rosa; Cigliano, Riccardo Aiese; Sánchez, Armand

    2015-01-01

    In microorganisms, Ion Torrent sequencing technology has been proved to be useful in whole-genome sequencing of bacterial genomes (5?Mbp). In our study, for the first time we used this technology to perform a resequencing approach in a whole fungal genome (36?Mbp), a non-ochratoxin A producing strain of Aspergillus carbonarius. Ochratoxin A (OTA) is a potent nephrotoxin which is found mainly in cereals and their products, but it also occurs in a variety of common foods and beverages. Due to the fact that this strain does not produce OTA, we focused some of the bioinformatics analyses in genes involved in OTA biosynthesis, using a reference genome of an OTA producing strain of the same species. This study revealed that in the atoxigenic strain there is a high accumulation of nonsense and missense mutations in several genes. Importantly, a two fold increase in gene mutation ratio was observed in PKS and NRPS encoding genes which are suggested to be involved in OTA biosynthesis. PMID:25765923

  13. Modulation of antimicrobial metabolites production by the fungus Aspergillus parasiticus

    PubMed Central

    Bracarense, Adriana A.P.; Takahashi, Jacqueline A.

    2014-01-01

    Biosynthesis of active secondary metabolites by fungi occurs as a specific response to the different growing environments. Changes in this environment alter the chemical and biological profiles leading to metabolites diversification and consequently to novel pharmacological applications. In this work, it was studied the influence of three parameters (fermentation length, medium composition and aeration) in the biosyntheses of antimicrobial metabolites by the fungus Aspergillus parasiticus in 10 distinct fermentation periods. Metabolism modulation in two culturing media, CYA and YES was evaluated by a 22 full factorial planning (ANOVA) and on a 23 factorial planning, role of aeration, medium composition and carbohydrate concentration were also evaluated. In overall, 120 different extracts were prepared, their HPLC profiles were obtained and the antimicrobial activity against A. flavus, C. albicans, E. coli and S. aureus of all extracts was evaluated by microdilution bioassay. Yield of kojic acid, a fine chemical produced by the fungus A. parasiticus was determined in all extracts. Statistical analyses pointed thirteen conditions able to modulate the production of bioactive metabolites by A. parasiticus. Effect of carbon source in metabolites diversification was significant as shown by the changes in the HPLC profiles of the extracts. Most of the extracts presented inhibition rates higher than that of kojic acid as for the extract obtained after 6 days of fermentation in YES medium under stirring. Kojic acid was not the only metabolite responsible for the activity since some highly active extracts showed to possess low amounts of this compound, as determined by HPLC. PMID:24948950

  14. Little ecological divergence associated with speciation in two African rain forest tree genera

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The tropical rain forests (TRF) of Africa are the second largest block of this biome after the Amazon and exhibit high levels of plant endemism and diversity. Two main hypotheses have been advanced to explain speciation processes that have led to this high level of biodiversity: allopatric speciation linked to geographic isolation and ecological speciation linked to ecological gradients. Both these hypotheses rely on ecology: in the former conservation of ecological niches through time is implied, while in the latter adaptation via selection to alternative ecological niches would be a prerequisite. Here, we investigate the role of ecology in explaining present day species diversity in African TRF using a species level phylogeny and ecological niche modeling of two predominantly restricted TRF tree genera, Isolona and Monodora (Annonaceae). Both these genera, with 20 and 14 species, respectively, are widely distributed in African TRFs, with a few species occurring in slightly less humid regions such as in East Africa. Results A total of 11 sister species pairs were identified most of them occurring in allopatry or with little geographical overlap. Our results provide a mixed answer on the role of ecology in speciation. Although no sister species have identical niches, just under half of the tests suggest that sister species do have more similar niches than expected by chance. PCA analyses also support little ecological differences between sister species. Most speciation events within both genera predate the Pleistocene, occurring during the Late Miocene and Pliocene periods. Conclusions Ecology is almost always involved in speciation, however, it would seem to have had a little role in species generation within Isolona and Monodora at the scale analyzed here. This is consistent with the geographical speciation model for TRF diversification. These results contrast to other studies for non-TRF plant species where ecological speciation was found to be an important factor of diversification. The Pliocene period appears to be a vital time in the generation of African TRF diversity, whereas Pleistocene climatic fluctuations have had a smaller role on speciation than previously thought. Ecological niche modeling, species level phylogeny, ecological speciation, African tropics, Isolona, Monodora, Annonaceae PMID:21985574

  15. Highlights of the Didymellaceae: A polyphasic approach to characterise Phoma and related pleosporalean genera

    PubMed Central

    Aveskamp, M.M.; de Gruyter, J.; Woudenberg, J.H.C.; Verkley, G.J.M.; Crous, P.W.

    2010-01-01

    Fungal taxonomists routinely encounter problems when dealing with asexual fungal species due to poly- and paraphyletic generic phylogenies, and unclear species boundaries. These problems are aptly illustrated in the genus Phoma. This phytopathologically significant fungal genus is currently subdivided into nine sections which are mainly based on a single or just a few morphological characters. However, this subdivision is ambiguous as several of the section-specific characters can occur within a single species. In addition, many teleomorph genera have been linked to Phoma, three of which are recognised here. In this study it is attempted to delineate generic boundaries, and to come to a generic circumscription which is more correct from an evolutionary point of view by means of multilocus sequence typing. Therefore, multiple analyses were conducted utilising sequences obtained from 28S nrDNA (Large Subunit - LSU), 18S nrDNA (Small Subunit - SSU), the Internal Transcribed Spacer regions 1 & 2 and 5.8S nrDNA (ITS), and part of the ?-tubulin (TUB) gene region. A total of 324 strains were included in the analyses of which most belonged to Phoma taxa, whilst 54 to related pleosporalean fungi. In total, 206 taxa were investigated, of which 159 are known to have affinities to Phoma. The phylogenetic analysis revealed that the current Boeremaean subdivision is incorrect from an evolutionary point of view, revealing the genus to be highly polyphyletic. Phoma species are retrieved in six distinct clades within the Pleosporales, and appear to reside in different families. The majority of the species, however, including the generic type, clustered in a recently established family, Didymellaceae. In the second part of this study, the phylogenetic variation of the species and varieties in this clade was further assessed. Next to the genus Didymella, which is considered to be the sole teleomorph of Phoma s. str., we also retrieved taxa belonging to the teleomorph genera Leptosphaerulina and Macroventuria in this clade. Based on the sequence data obtained, the Didymellaceae segregate into at least 18 distinct clusters, of which many can be associated with several specific taxonomic characters. Four of these clusters were defined well enough by means of phylogeny and morphology, so that the associated taxa could be transferred to separate genera. Aditionally, this study addresses the taxonomic description of eight species and two varieties that are novel to science, and the recombination of 61 additional taxa. PMID:20502538

  16. Taxonomic synopsis of the subtribe Physoderina (Coleoptera, Carabidae, Lebiini), with species revisions of eight genera.

    PubMed

    Shi, Hongliang; Zhou, Hongzhang; Liang, Hongbin

    2013-01-01

    Ten genera of Physoderina from the Oriental Region are diagnosed and described, and twenty six species representing eight genera (Paraphaea Bates, Anchista Nietner, Metallanchista gen. n., Diamella nom. n., Allocota Motschulsky, Orionella Jedli?ka, Endynomena Chaudoir and Dasiosoma Britton (Oriental species only)) are revised. Keys to genera and species are provided, along with distribution maps, habitus images, photographs of the name-bearing types, and illustrations of male and female genitalia of available species. The female internal reproductive system is illustrated for fourteen species. Two genera, Anchista and Taicona, previously placed in Calleidina, are moved into Physoderina. One new genus is described: Metallanchista, gen. n. (type species Metallanchista laticollis, sp. n.). Two new generic synonyms are proposed: Taicona Bates, 1873, junior synonym of Allocota Motschulsky, 1859; Teradaia Habu, 1979a, junior synonym of Dasiosoma Britton, 1937. A new generic replacement name is proposed: Diamella, nom. n. for Diamella Jedli?ka, 1952 (junior homonym of Diamella Gude, 1913). The status of Paraphaea Bates, 1873 is resurrected from synonym of Anchista Nietner, 1856. Five new species are described: Paraphaea minor Shi & Liang, sp. n. (Hoa-Binh, Tonkin, Vietnam), Anchista pilosa Shi & Liang, sp. n. (Chikkangalur, Bangalore, India), Metallanchista laticollis Shi & Liang, sp. n. (PhaTo env., Chumphon prov., Thailand), Allocota bicolor Shi & Liang, sp. n. (Dengga to Mafengshan, Ruili, Yunnan, China), Dasiosoma quadraticolle Shi & Liang, sp. n. (Menglun Botanical Garden, Yunnan, China). Fourteen new combinations are proposed: Paraphaea binotata (Dejean, 1825), comb. n. from Anchista; Paraphaea formosana (Jedli?ka, 1946), comb. n. from Anchista; Paraphaea philippinensis (Jedli?ka, 1935b), comb. n. from Allocota; Metallanchista perlaeta (Kirschenhofer, 1994), comb. n. from Allocota; Physodera andrewesi (Jedli?ka, 1934), comb. n. from Allocota; Diamella cupreomicans (Oberthür, 1883), comb. n. from Physodera; Diamella arrowi (Jedli?ka, 1935a), comb. n. from Allocota; Allocota aurata (Bates, 1873), comb. n. from Taicona; Dasiosoma bellum (Habu, 1979a), comb. n. from Teradaia; Dasiosoma indicum (Kirschenhofer, 2011), comb. n. from Diamella; Dasiosoma maindroni (Tian & Deuve, 2001), comb. n. from Lachnoderma; Dasiosoma hirsutum (Bates, 1873), comb. n. from Lachnoderma; Orionella discoidalis (Bates, 1892), comb. n. from Anchista; Orionella kathmanduensis (Kirschenhofer, 1994), comb. n. from Lachnoderma. Five names are newly placed as junior synonyms: Paraphaea eurydera (Chaudoir, 1877), junior synonym of Paraphaea binotata (Dejean, 1825); Anchista glabra Chaudoir, 1877, and Anchista nepalensis Kirschenhofer, 1994, junior synonyms of Anchista fenestrata (Schmidt-Göbel, 1846); Allocota caerulea Andrewes, 1933, junior synonym of Allocota viridipennis Motschulsky, 1859; Allocota perroti (Jedli?ka, 1963), junior synonym of Allocota aurata (Bates, 1873). One new replacement name is proposed: Dasiosoma basilewskyi, nom. n. for Dasiosoma hirsutum Basilewsky, 1949 (secondary junior homonym of Dasiosoma hirsutum (Bates, 1892)). One species is downgraded to subspecies rank: Anchista fenestrata subpubescens Chaudoir, 1877, new rank. PMID:23794843

  17. Survey of sensitivity of twelve yeast genera toward T-2 toxin.

    PubMed Central

    Sukroongreung, S; Schappert, K T; Khachatourians, G G

    1984-01-01

    A survey was made to detect the sensitivity of 12 yeast genera to T-2 toxin. Seventy-five yeasts isolated from various sources were tested for their susceptibility to T-2 toxin. The MIC of T-2 for these yeasts varied from 1.0 to greater than 8.0 micrograms/ml. Of the yeasts studied, Kluyveromyces fragilis showed the greatest sensitivity, which ranged between 0.5 and 2.5 micrograms of T-2 toxin per ml of culture medium. The roles of incubation temperature, size of the inoculum, and incubation time on the MICs were determined. The results suggest that in comparison with other yeasts, K. fragilis is very sensitive to T-2 toxin. Images PMID:6385850

  18. [Differentiation of the genera of coryneform bacteria synthesizing amino acids and nucleotides].

    PubMed

    Baryshnikova, L M; Sandanov, Ch M; Monakhova, E V; Golovlev, E L

    1982-01-01

    The morphological, cultural, physio-biochemical and chemotaxonomic properties as well as the content of GC in DNA were studied in coryneform bacterial strains producing amino acids and nucleotides. It has been shown that Brevibacterium ammoniagenes VKM 672, B. flavum 317A, B. stationis CCM 317 and Corynebacterium VSTI 301 should be assigned to the genus Corynebacterium. The taxonomic significance of chemotaxonomic and physio-biochemical properties is discussed on the basis of the results obtained and the data reported in literature. Apparently, coryneform bacterial genera having such chemotaxonomic properties as meso-DAPA, arabinose galactose and mycolic acids are related, and their physio-biochemical characteristics reflect the evolutionary development of coryneform bacterial groups in the course of which they have adapted to various ecological niches. PMID:6803106

  19. Multigene phylogeny of the Phallales (Phallomycetidae, Agaricomycetes) focusing on some previously unrepresented genera.

    PubMed

    Trierveiler-Pereira, Larissa; da Silveira, Rosa Mara B; Hosaka, Kentaro

    2014-01-01

    Phylogenetic relationships within the Phallales were estimated via combined sequences: nuclear ribosomal large subunit (LSU), second largest subunit of RNA polymerase (rpb2), and mitochondrial ATPase subunit 6 (atp6). The ingroup is represented by 62 taxa comprising 18 genera and 44 species, including members of the Clathraceae, Claustulaceae, Gastrosporiaceae, Lysuraceae, Phallaceae and Protophallaceae. Sixty-one new sequences were generated, including tropical and subtropical taxa. This is one of the first studies discussing the phylogenetic placement of Abrachium, Aseroë, Blumenavia, Gastrosporium, Jansia and Xylophallus. Gastrosporiaceae was demonstrated to be sister to Phallaceae and an emended description of the order is presented. Aseroë was demonstrated to be polyphyletic and as a result, A. arachnoidea is transferred to Lysurus. PMID:24891413

  20. Phenolic acids and depsides from some species of the Erodium genera.

    PubMed

    Fecka, I; Kowalczyk, A; Cisowski, W

    2001-01-01

    Six natural polyphenolic compounds, brevifolin carboxylic acid, brevifolin, ellagic acid, methyl gallate, gallic acid and protocatechuic acid have been isolated from the methanol extract of the whole plant of Erodium cicutarium (L.) L.'Hérit. (Geraniaceae). Structures were determined by conventional methods of analysis and confirmed by MS and NMR spectral analysis. The distribution of these compounds in the other species of the Erodium genera (E. botrys, E. chium, E. ciconium, E. cicutarium, E. glutinosum subsp. dunense, E. gruinum, E. manescavi, E. pelargoniiflorum, E. petraeum) were examined by HPLC with a RP-18 column, and MGD-TLC methods on unmodified silica gel and silica gel chemically modified with polar and nonpolar groups (HPTLC-Si 60 LiChrospher, HPTLC-NH2, HPTLC-DIOL, HPTLC RP-18W). PMID:11837680

  1. Comparative electrocardiography in four species of macaws (genera Anodorhynchus and Ara).

    PubMed

    Casares, M; Enders, F; Montoya, J A

    2000-06-01

    Electrocardiograms (ECGs) were recorded during isoflurane anaesthesia from 52 macaws of four species of the genera Anodorhynchus and Ara in order to establish electrocardiographic reference values. The birds examined were clinically healthy macaws of the following species: hyacinth macaw (HM; Anodorhynchus hyacinthinus, n = 14); green-winged macaw (GWM; Ara chloroptera, n = 11); blue-throated macaw (BTM; Ara glaucogularis, n = 15); and red-fronted macaw (RFM; Ara rubrogenys, n = 12). All ECGs were recorded using a paper speed of 50 mm/s and a calibration of 10 mm = 1 mV. Significant differences were determined between species for the heart rate, duration and amplitude of the P wave, amplitude of the T wave, and amplitude of the QRS complex, specially comparing the RFM to the other macaw species. No significant differences were found between two species of similar body weight: the HM and the GWM. PMID:10932524

  2. The brachiopod genera Hebertella, Dalmanella, and Heterorthina from the Ordovician of Kentucky

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Walker, L.G.

    1982-01-01

    The orthid brachiopod genera Hebertella, Dalmanella, and Heterorthina are abundant in Middle and Upper Ordovician strata in Kentucky. 'Nine species are described: Hebertella frankfortensis Foerste; H. parksensis Foerste; H. occidentalis (Hall); Dalmanella bassleri Foerste; D. fertilis (Ulrich); D. meeki (Miller); D. multisecta (Meek); D. sulcata Cooper; and Heterorthina macfarlani Neuman. The species designations Hebertella sinuata (Hall), H. subjugata (Hall), and H. latasulcata Foerste are placed in synonymy with H. occidentalis (Hall). The stratigraphic distribution of each species is given. Large collections of silicified specimens allowed the recognition of the considerable variability characteristic of most of the species. External morphology distinguishes species of Hebertella, whereas internal features are critical to recognition of species of Dalmanella and Heterorthina.

  3. The Multitentaculate Cirratulidae of the Genera Cirriformia and Timarete (Annelida: Polychaeta) from Shallow Waters of Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Magalhăes, Wagner F.; Seixas, Victor Corręa; Paiva, Paulo Cesar; Elias, Rodolfo

    2014-01-01

    A large number multitentaculate cirratulids have been described worldwide but most are only known through the original descriptions. Type material, voucher and recently collected specimens from Brazil were revisited in order to reveal their true identity and confirm the records of widely distributed species in this region. Six species are described, three of which are new, Cirriformia capixabensis sp. nov., Cirriformia chicoi sp. nov. and Timarete ceciliae sp. nov. COI and 16S sequences were obtained and used for inter-specific comparisons. Timarete caribous is reported from several localities along the Brazilian coast and a new synonym, Cirratulus melanacanthus, is proposed. The species Timarete oculata, originally described from Brazil and lumped into the Timarete filigera species complex, is herein revalidated and redescribed. The occurrence of the species Timarete filigera and Cirriformia tentaculata is not confirmed from the Brazilian coast. Descriptions, illustrations and a key to genera and species are provided. PMID:25393759

  4. Drought meets acid: three new genera in a dothidealean clade of extremotolerant fungi

    PubMed Central

    Selbmann, L.; de Hoog, G.S.; Zucconi, L.; Isola, D.; Ruisi, S.; van den Ende, A.H.G. Gerrits; Ruibal, C.; De Leo, F.; Urzě, C.; Onofri, S.

    2008-01-01

    Fungal strains isolated from rocks and lichens collected in the Antarctic ice-free area of the Victoria Land, one of the coldest and driest habitats on earth, were found in two phylogenetically isolated positions within the subclass Dothideomycetidae. They are here reported as new genera and species, Recurvomyces mirabilis gen. nov., sp. nov. and Elasticomyces elasticus gen. nov., sp. nov. The nearest neighbours within the clades were other rock-inhabiting fungi from dry environments, either cold or hot. Plant-associated Mycosphaerella-like species, known as invaders of leathery leaves in semi-arid climates, are also phylogenetically related with the new taxa. The clusters are also related to the halophilic species Hortaea werneckii, as well as to acidophilic fungi. One of the latter, able to grow at pH 0, is Scytalidium acidophilum, which is ascribed here to the newly validated genus Acidomyces. The ecological implications of this finding are discussed. PMID:19287523

  5. Molecular Phylogeny of the Myxobolus and Henneguya Genera with Several New South American Species

    PubMed Central

    Carriero, Mateus Maldonado; Adriano, Edson A.; Silva, Márcia R. M.; Ceccarelli, Paulo S.; Maia, Antonio A. M.

    2013-01-01

    The present study consists of a detailed phylogenetic analysis of myxosporeans of the Myxobolus and Henneguya genera, including sequences from 12 Myxobolus/Henneguya species, parasites of South American pimelodids, bryconids and characids. Maximum likelihood and maximum parsimony analyses, based on 18 S rDNA gene sequences, showed that the strongest evolutionary signal is the phylogenetic affinity of the fish hosts, with clustering mainly occurring according to the order and/or family of the host. Of the 12 South American species studied here, six are newly described infecting fish from the Brazilian Pantanal wetland. Henneguya maculosus n. sp. and Myxobolus flavus n. sp. were found infecting both Pseudoplatystoma corruscans and Pseudoplatystoma reticulatum; Myxobolus aureus n. sp. and Myxobolus pantanalis n. sp. were observed parasitizing Salminus brasiliensis and Myxobolus umidus n. sp. and Myxobolus piraputangae n. sp. were detected infecting Brycon hilarii. PMID:24040037

  6. Toward a stable classification of genera within the Entolomataceae: a phylogenetic re-evaluation of the Rhodocybe-Clitopilus clade.

    PubMed

    Kluting, Kerri L; Baroni, Timothy J; Bergemann, Sarah E

    2014-01-01

    Despite the recent molecular systematic analyses of the Entolomataceae (Agaricales, Basidiomycota), a robust classification of genera supported by morphological and phylogenetic evidence remains unresolved for this cosmopolitan family of pink-spored fungi. Here, a phylogenetic analysis for one of the two major clades (Rhodocybe-Clitopilus) was conducted using three nuclear protein-coding gene regions, the mitochondrial ATP synthase subunit 6 (atp6), the nuclear RNA polymerase subunit II (rpb2) and the nuclear translation elongation factor subunit 1-? (tef1). Five monophyletic groups are resolved with strong statistical support and a set of morphological features for delineation of genera is presented. In the revised classification proposed here, Clitopilus is retained, Rhodocybe is emended, two genera previously accepted as synonyms of Rhodocybe (Clitopilopsis and Rhodophana) are resurrected and Clitocella is described as new. PMID:24987124

  7. Misidentification of Aspergillus nomius and Aspergillus tamarii as Aspergillus flavus: Characterization by Internal Transcribed Spacer, ?-Tubulin, and Calmodulin Gene Sequencing, Metabolic Fingerprinting, and Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption Ionization–Time of Flight Mass Spectrometry

    PubMed Central

    Tam, Emily W. T.; Chen, Jonathan H. K.; Lau, Eunice C. L.; Ngan, Antonio H. Y.; Fung, Kitty S. C.; Lee, Kim-Chung; Lam, Ching-Wan; Yuen, Kwok-Yung

    2014-01-01

    Aspergillus nomius and Aspergillus tamarii are Aspergillus species that phenotypically resemble Aspergillus flavus. In the last decade, a number of case reports have identified A. nomius and A. tamarii as causes of human infections. In this study, using an internal transcribed spacer, ?-tubulin, and calmodulin gene sequencing, only 8 of 11 clinical isolates reported as A. flavus in our clinical microbiology laboratory by phenotypic methods were identified as A. flavus. The other three isolates were A. nomius (n = 2) or A. tamarii (n = 1). The results corresponded with those of metabolic fingerprinting, in which the A. flavus, A. nomius, and A. tamarii strains were separated into three clusters based on ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC MS) analysis. The first two patients with A. nomius infections had invasive aspergillosis and chronic cavitary and fibrosing pulmonary and pleural aspergillosis, respectively, whereas the third patient had A. tamarii colonization of the airway. Identification of the 11 clinical isolates and three reference strains by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization–time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) showed that only six of the nine strains of A. flavus were identified correctly. None of the strains of A. nomius and A. tamarii was correctly identified. ?-Tubulin or the calmodulin gene should be the gene target of choice for identifying A. flavus, A. nomius, and A. tamarii. To improve the usefulness of MALDI-TOF MS, the number of strains for each species in MALDI-TOF MS databases should be expanded to cover intraspecies variability. PMID:24452174

  8. Identification and cloning of a second phytase gene (phyB) from Aspergillus niger (ficuum).

    PubMed

    Ehrlich, K C; Montalbano, B G; Mullaney, E J; Dischinger, H C; Ullah, A H

    1993-08-31

    An Aspergillus niger (ficuum) genomic DNA lambda EMBL3 library was probed with a 354-bp DNA fragment obtained by polymerase chain reaction of A. niger DNA with oligonucleotides based on partial amino acid sequence of a pH 2.5 optimum acid phosphatase. A clone containing a 1605 bp segment (phyB) encoding the 479 amino acid enzyme was isolated and found to contain four exons. Global alignment revealed 23.5% homology to Aspergillus niger phytase (PhyA); four regions of extensive homology were identified. Some of these regions may contain catalytic sites for phosphatase function. PMID:7916610

  9. Stimulation of polygalacturonase production in an immobilized system by Aspergillus sp.: effect of pectin and glucose

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Edwil A. L. Gattás; Marcia R. Bueno; Maria H. L. Ribeiro

    2009-01-01

    The synthesis of polygalacturonases (PG) is known to be influenced by Aspergillus growth conditions, namely, environmental factors and pectin content in the cultivation medium containing a mixed carbon source.\\u000a Optimal conditions were attained at a temperature of 30 °C and an initial pH of 4.5. PG activity (3.29 and 2.48 U\\/mL) was\\u000a determined after a two-day culture of Aspergillus sp. HC1 and

  10. Culture-proven Aspergillus fumigatus infection in a primary hydroxyapatite orbital implant.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Neil S; Ooi, Ju-Lee; Maloof, Tiba C; Wilcsek, Geoffrey; Francis, Ian C; Coroneo, Minas T

    2007-04-01

    Hydroxyapatite orbital implants are widely used in enucleation surgery. Infection in this setting is an uncommon but severe complication. Herein a patient with a 3-year history of chronic socket discharge, orbital discomfort, conjunctival breakdown and implant exposure after enucleation and implantation of a hydroxyapatite sphere 7 years previously is reported. Repeated attempts at covering the exposed implant failed. Eventually the implant was removed, and Aspergillus fumigatus was cultured from the explanted material. This is the second reported case of Aspergillus infection of a hydroxyapatite orbital implant, and the first case where fungal cultures were positive. PMID:17430526

  11. Vacuolar Membrane Dynamics in the Filamentous Fungus Aspergillus oryzae†

    PubMed Central

    Shoji, Jun-ya; Arioka, Manabu; Kitamoto, Katsuhiko

    2006-01-01

    Vacuoles in filamentous fungi are highly pleomorphic and some of them, e.g., tubular vacuoles, are implicated in intra- and intercellular transport. In this report, we isolated Aovam3, the homologue of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae VAM3 gene that encodes the vacuolar syntaxin, from Aspergillus oryzae. In yeast complementation analyses, the expression of Aovam3 restored the phenotypes of both ?vam3 and ?pep12 mutants, suggesting that AoVam3p is likely the vacuolar and/or endosomal syntaxin in A. oryzae. FM4-64 [N-(3-triethylammoniumpropyl)-4-(p-diethylaminophenyl-hexatrienyl)pyridinium dibromide] and CMAC (7-amino-4-chloromethylcoumarin) staining confirmed that the fusion protein of enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) with AoVam3p (EGFP-AoVam3p) localized on the membrane of the pleomorphic vacuolar networks, including large spherical vacuoles, tubular vacuoles, and putative late endosomes/prevacuolar compartments. EGFP-AoVam3p-expressing strains allowed us to observe the dynamics of vacuoles with high resolutions, and moreover, led to the discovery of several new aspects of fungal vacuoles, which have not been discovered so far with conventional staining methods, during different developmental stages. In old hyphae, EGFP fluorescence was present in the entire lumen of large vacuoles, which occupied most of the cell, indicating that degradation of cytosolic materials had occurred in such hyphae via an autophagic process. In hyphae that were not in contact with nutrients, such as aerial hyphae and hyphae that grew on a glass surface, vacuoles were composed of small punctate structures and tubular elements that often formed reticulum-like networks. These observations imply the presence of so-far-unrecognized roles of vacuoles in the development of filamentous fungi. PMID:16467481

  12. Invasive Aspergillus infections in hospitalized patients with chronic lung disease

    PubMed Central

    Wessolossky, Mireya; Welch, Verna L; Sen, Ajanta; Babu, Tara M; Luke, David R

    2013-01-01

    Background Although invasive pulmonary aspergillosis (IPA) is more prevalent in immunocompromised patients, critical care clinicians need to be aware of the occurrence of IPA in the nontraditional host, such as a patient with chronic lung disease. The purpose of this study was to describe the IPA patient with chronic lung disease and compare the data with that of immunocompromised patients. Methods The records of 351 patients with Aspergillus were evaluated in this single-center, retrospective study for evidence and outcomes of IPA. The outcomes of 57 patients with chronic lung disease and 56 immunocompromised patients were compared. Patients with chronic lung disease were defined by one of the following descriptive terms: emphysema, asthma, idiopathic lung disease, bronchitis, bronchiectasis, sarcoid, or pulmonary leukostasis. Results Baseline demographics were similar between the two groups. Patients with chronic lung disease were primarily defined by emphysema (61%) and asthma (18%), and immunocompromised patients primarily had malignancies (27%) and bone marrow transplants (14%). A higher proportion of patients with chronic lung disease had a diagnosis of IPA by bronchoalveolar lavage versus the immunocompromised group (P < 0.03). The major risk factors for IPA were found to be steroid use in the chronic lung disease group and neutropenia and prior surgical procedures in the immunocompromised group. Overall, 53% and 69% of chronic lung disease and immunocompromised patients were cured (P = 0.14); 55% of chronic lung patients and 47% of immunocompromised patients survived one month (P = 0.75). Conclusion Nontraditional patients with IPA, such as those with chronic lung disease, have outcomes and mortality similar to that in the more traditional immunocompromised population. PMID:23761976

  13. Identification and Characterization of Aspergillus Nidulans Mutants Defective in Cytokinesis

    PubMed Central

    Harris, S. D.; Morrell, J. L.; Hamer, J. E.

    1994-01-01

    Filamentous fungi undergo cytokinesis by forming crosswalls termed septa. Here, we describe the genetic and physiological controls governing septation in Aspergillus nidulans. Germinating conidia do not form septa until the completion of their third nuclear division. The first septum is invariantly positioned at the basal end of the germ tube. Block-and-release experiments of nuclear division with benomyl or hydroxyurea, and analysis of various nuclear division mutants demonstrated that septum formation is dependent upon the third mitotic division. Block-and-release experiments with cytochalasin A and the localization of actin in germlings by indirect immunofluorescence showed that actin participated in septum formation. In addition to being concentrated at the growing hyphal tips, a band of actin was also apparent at the site of septum formation. Previous genetic analysis in A. nidulans identified four genes involved in septation (sepA-D). We have screened a new collection of temperature sensitive (ts) mutants of A. nidulans for strains that failed to form septa at the restrictive temperature but were able to complete early nuclear divisions. We identified five new genes designated sepE, G, H, I and J, along with one additional allele of a previously identified septation gene. On the basis of temperature shift experiments, nuclear counts and cell morphology, we sorted these cytokinesis mutants into three phenotypic classes. Interestingly, one class of mutants fails to form septa and fails to progress past the third nuclear division. This class of mutants suggests the existence of a regulatory mechanism in A. nidulans that ensures the continuation of nuclear division following the initiation of cytokinesis. PMID:8150280

  14. SAGA complex components and acetate repression in Aspergillus nidulans.

    PubMed

    Georgakopoulos, Paraskevi; Lockington, Robin A; Kelly, Joan M

    2012-11-01

    Alongside the well-established carbon catabolite repression by glucose and other sugars, acetate causes repression in Aspergillus nidulans. Mutations in creA, encoding the transcriptional repressor involved in glucose repression, also affect acetate repression, but mutations in creB or creC, encoding components of a deubiquitination system, do not. To understand the effects of acetate, we used a mutational screen that was similar to screens that uncovered mutations in creA, creB, and creC, except that glucose was replaced by acetate to identify mutations that were affected for repression by acetate but not by glucose. We uncovered mutations in acdX, homologous to the yeast SAGA component gene SPT8, which in growth tests showed derepression for acetate repression but not for glucose repression. We also made mutations in sptC, homologous to the yeast SAGA component gene SPT3, which showed a similar phenotype. We found that acetate repression is complex, and analysis of facA mutations (lacking acetyl CoA synthetase) indicates that acetate metabolism is required for repression of some systems (proline metabolism) but not for others (acetamide metabolism). Although plate tests indicated that acdX- and sptC-null mutations led to derepressed alcohol dehydrogenase activity, reverse-transcription quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction showed no derepression of alcA or aldA but rather elevated induced levels. Our results indicate that acetate repression is due to repression via CreA together with metabolic changes rather than due to an independent regulatory control mechanism. PMID:23173087

  15. Homologue expression of a ?-xylosidase from native Aspergillus niger.

    PubMed

    Amaro-Reyes, A; García-Almendárez, B E; Vázquez-Mandujano, D G; Amaya-Llano, S; Castańo-Tostado, E; Guevara-González, R G; Loera, O; Regalado, C

    2011-09-01

    Xylan constitutes the second most abundant source of renewable organic carbon on earth and is located in the cell walls of hardwood and softwood plants in the form of hemicellulose. Based on its availability, there is a growing interest in production of xylanolytic enzymes for industrial applications. ?-1,4-xylan xylosidase (EC 3.2.1.37) hydrolyses from the nonreducing end of xylooligosaccharides arising from endo-1,4-?-xylanase activity. This work reports the partial characterization of a purified ?-xylosidase from the native strain Aspergillus niger GS1 expressed by means of a fungal system. A gene encoding ?-xylosidase, xlnD, was successfully cloned from a native A. niger GS1 strain. The recombinant enzyme was expressed in A. niger AB4.1 under control of A. nidulans gpdA promoter and trpC terminator. ?-xylosidase was purified by affinity chromatography, with an apparent molecular weight of 90 kDa, and showed a maximum activity of 4,280 U mg protein(-1) at 70°C, pH 3.6. Half-life was 74 min at 70°C, activation energy was 58.9 kJ mol(-1), and at 50°C optimum stability was shown at pH 4.0-5.0. ?-xylosidase kept residual activity >83% in the presence of dithiothreitol (DTT), ?-mercaptoethanol, sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS), ethylenediaminetetraacetate (EDTA), and Zn(2+). Production of a hemicellulolytic free xylosidase showed some advantages in applications, such as animal feed, enzymatic synthesis, and the fruit-juice industry where the presence of certain compounds, high temperatures, and acid media is unavoidable in the juice-making process. PMID:21116681

  16. Allergic aspergillosis and the antigens of Aspergillus fumigatus.

    PubMed

    Singh, Bharat; Singh, Seema; Asif, Abdul R; Oellerich, Michael; Sharma, Gainda L

    2014-01-01

    Incidence of fungal infections has increased alarmingly in past few decades. Of the fungal pathogens, the Aspergillus fumigatus has been a major cause of allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis (ABPA) which has five main stages--the acute, remission, exacerbation, glucocorticoid dependent and fibrotic stage. The diagnosis of ABPA remains difficult due to its overlapping clinical and radiological features with tuberculosis and cystic fibrosis. From past few decades, the crude fractions of A. fumigatus have been used for immunodiagnosis of ABPA. Most of the detection kits based on crude fractions of A. fumigatus are quite sensitive but have low specificity. Till date 21 known and 25 predicted allergens of A. fumigatus have been identified. Of these allergens, only five recombinants (rAsp f1-f4 and f6) are commercially used for diagnosis of allergic aspergillosis. Remaining allergens of A. fumigatus have been restricted for use in specific diagnosis of ABPA, due to sharing of common antigenic epitopes with other allergens. Complete sequencing of A. fumigatus genome identified 9926 genes and the reports on the proteome of A. fumigatus have shown the presence of large number of their corresponding proteins in the pathogen. The analysis of immunoproteomes developed from crude fractions of A. fumigatus by IgG/IgE reactivity with ABPA patients and animal sera have identified the panel of new antigens. A brief description on the current status of A. fumigatus antigens is provided in this review. The implementation of advance recombinant expression and peptidomic approaches on the A. fumigatus antigens may help in the selection of appropriate molecules for the development of tools for more specific early diagnosis of ABPA, and desensitization therapies for patients of allergic disorders. PMID:24818760

  17. Enrichment of Auxotrophic Mutants of Aspergillus flavus by Tritium Suicide

    PubMed Central

    Donkersloot, J. A.; Mateles, R. I.

    1968-01-01

    A method based on tritium suicide was developed to enrich auxotrophic mutants of Aspergillus flavus. N-methyl-N?-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine (NG) was chosen as a mutagen, since a wide variety of mutations were induced by the action of 0.1% NG on A. flavus conidia suspended in phosphate buffer (pH 7.0). The decimal reduction time under these conditions was about 30 min, and the surviving population contained 4 to 6% auxotrophs after 1 hr of mutagenesis. This proportion was then increased by tritium suicide of wild-type cells. At a concentration of 1.3 ?m, 3H-leucine was incorporated better than 3H-proline or 3H-thymidine into the germinating conidia. With about 20 hr of incubation and a short treatment in a high-speed mixer to disentangle mycelia and conidia, a 5- to 20-fold decrease in the number of survivors resulted from the incorporated 3H-leucine (5 c/mmole) after 1 week of storage at 5 C. At a 10-fold lower concentration, the uptake of radioactivity and the subsequent suicide rate were much lower. With 3H-leucine, the proportion of auxotrophs in the surviving population rose from 5 to about 20% during 2 weeks of storage at 5 C. Mutants requiring various intermediates for protein or nucleic acid synthesis or requiring vitamins were isolated. Finally, it was noted that A. flavus shows a much higher resistance to tritium suicide than does Escherichia coli. PMID:5726297

  18. Comparison of the EUCAST-AFST broth dilution method with the CLSI reference broth dilution method (M38-A) for susceptibility testing of posaconazole and voriconazole against Aspergillus spp

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. Chryssanthou; M. Cuenca-Estrella

    2006-01-01

    The susceptibilities of 40 clinical isolates of Aspergillus spp. (Aspergillus fumigatus, Aspergillus flavus, Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus terreus) were determined for posaconazole and voriconazole by the CLSI M38-A and EUCAST-AFST broth dilution methods. Where a discrepancy was observed between the methods, the EUCAST method tended to give higher MIC values. Overall, the level of agreement was 92.5% and the intra-class correlation

  19. Aspergillus parasiticus communities associated with sugarcane in the Rio Grande Valley of Texas: implications of global transport and host association within Aspergillus section Flavi.

    PubMed

    Garber, N P; Cotty, P J

    2014-05-01

    In the Rio Grande Valley of Texas (RGV), values of maize and cottonseed crops are significantly reduced by aflatoxin contamination. Aflatoxin contamination of susceptible crops is the product of communities of aflatoxin producers and the average aflatoxin-producing potentials of these communities influence aflatoxin contamination risk. Cropping pattern influences community composition and, thereby, the epidemiology of aflatoxin contamination. In 2004, Aspergillus parasiticus was isolated from two fields previously cropped to sugarcane but not from 23 fields without recent history of sugarcane cultivation. In 2004 and 2005, A. parasiticus composed 18 to 36% of Aspergillus section Flavi resident in agricultural soils within sugarcane-producing counties. A. parasiticus was not detected in counties that do not produce sugarcane. Aspergillus section Flavi soil communities within sugarcane-producing counties differed significantly dependent on sugarcane cropping history. Fields cropped to sugarcane within the previous 5 years had greater quantities of A. parasiticus (mean = 16 CFU/g) than fields not cropped to sugarcane (mean = 0.1 CFU/g). The percentage of Aspergillus section Flavi composed of A. parasiticus increased to 65% under continuous sugarcane cultivation and remained high the first season of rotation out of sugarcane. Section Flavi communities in fields rotated to non-sugarcane crops for 3 to 5 years were composed of <5% A. parasiticus, and fields with no sugarcane history averaged only 0.2% A. parasiticus. The section Flavi community infecting RGV sugarcane stems ranged from 95% A. parasiticus in billets prepared for commercial planting to 52% A. parasiticus in hand-collected sugarcane stems. Vegetative compatibility assays and multilocus phylogenies verified that aflatoxin contamination of raw sugar was previously attributed to similar A. parasiticus in Japan. Association of closely related A. parasiticus genotypes with sugarcane produced in Japan and RGV, frequent infection of billets by these genotypes, and the ephemeral nature of A. parasiticus in RGV soils suggests global transport with sugarcane planting material. PMID:24224872

  20. The Aspergillus nidulans amdS gene as a marker for the identification of multicopy T-DNA integration events in Agrobacterium -mediated transformation of Aspergillus awamori

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. B. Michielse; A. F. J. Ram; C. A. M. J. J. van den Hondel

    2004-01-01

    The Aspergillus nidulans amdS selection marker was used for the identification of multicopy T-DNA insertions in Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of Asp. awamori. The selection of transformants on agar plates containing acetamide as sole nitrogen source and hygromycin resulted in a six-fold decrease in the transformation frequency, compared with the transformation frequency obtained after hygromycin selection alone. However, it was found that

  1. Different Reactivity to Recombinant Aspergillus fumigatus Allergen l\\/a in Patients with Atopic Dermatitis or Allergic Asthma Sensitised to Aspergillus fumigatus

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rainer Disch; Günter Menz; Kurt Biaser; Reto Crameri

    1995-01-01

    We report a clinical study comparing the skin test reactivity to recombinant Aspergillus fumigatus allergen I (rAspfl\\/a) in patients with atopic dermatitis and A.fumigatus sensitisation (n = 15), A.fumigatus-allergic patients with asthma (n = 10) and healthy control subjects (n = 10). All patients sensitised to A.fumigatus reacted at intradermal skin tests with commercial A.fumigatus extracts in contrast to the

  2. SOURCES OF THE ARCTIC FLORA: ORIGINS OF ARCTIC SPECIES IN RANUNCULUS AND RELATED GENERA.

    PubMed

    Hoffmann, Matthias H; von Hagen, K Bernhard; Hörandl, Elvira; Röser, Martin; Tkach, Natalia V

    2010-01-01

    The arctic biome is a relatively young ecosystem with ~2300 species of vascular plants. We studied the genus Ranunculus as an example of the origin and evolution of the arctic flora. For this purpose we used molecular phylogenetic and clock analyses based on evaluation of nuclear ITS and chloroplast matK-trnK DNA sequences in 194 taxa of Ranunculus and closely related genera. Taxa occurring in the Arctic arose form seven phylogenetic lineages of Ranunculus and also in the genera Coptidium and Halerpestes. Two clades of Ranunculus are species-rich in the Arctic, i.e., Ranunculus sect. Ranunculus and R. sect. Auricomus (both from R. subg. Ranunculus), but this is due to a number of arctic "microtaxa" morphologically barely separate from R. acris in the former clade and the widely agamospermic species complex of R. auricomus in the latter. Lineages with species adapted to wetlands or aquatic habitats are significant groups represented in the arctic flora (R. subg. Ranunculus sectt. Flammula and Hecatonia/Xanthobatrachium, R. subg. Batrachium, genus Coptidium) but show no clear signs of radiation in the Arctic or the northern boreal zone, except for sectt. Hecatonia/Xanthobatrachium, with R. hyperboreus and R. sceleratus subsp. reptabundus. Astonishingly few of the otherwise numerous lineages of Ranunculus with distributions in the higher mountain systems of Eurasia and North America have acted as "founding sources" for the arctic flora. The only clear example is that of the arctic-alpine R. glacialis and the Beringian R. chamissonis from the lineage of subg. R. sectt. Aconitifolii/Crymodes, although there might be others in sect. Auricomus not recovered in the current molecular data. Lineages that gave rise to arctic taxa diverged from each other from the early Miocene (R. glacialis/R. chamissonis, Coptidium, lineages in Halerpestes) and continued at an even rate throughout the Tertiary. There are no signs that the intense climate changes of the late Pliocene and the Quaternary substantially accelerated or impeded diversification in Ranunculus. Only the crown group split of R. acris and its relatives is clearly of Quaternary age. A detailed comparison concerning morphology, karyology, and life form excludes fundamental differences between taxa of Ranunculus in the Arctic and their respective closest relatives in regions south of it. Ecological traits, e.g., preferences for dry or moist soils or growth in open and sheltered conditions, also do not differ between arctic and nonarctic? taxa. Migration into the Arctic thus started from different phylogenetic lineages and at different times, without development of obvious special traits in the adaptation to arctic environments. This recurrent pattern in Ranunculus differs from that seen in other arctic genera, e.g., Artemisia, in which special traits of adaptation to arctic environments are found. In Ranunculus, the origin of the open arctic biome primarily favored range expansions of taxa/species already adapted to wet habitats in cold areas and depending on rapid dispersal. PMID:20582248

  3. Screening a strain of Aspergillus niger and optimization of fermentation conditions for degradation of aflatoxin B1.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Wei; Xue, Beibei; Li, Mengmeng; Mu, Yang; Chen, Zhihui; Li, Jianping; Shan, Anshan

    2014-11-01

    Aflatoxin B1, a type of highly toxic mycotoxin produced by some species belonging to the Aspergillus genus, such as Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus parasiticus, is widely distributed in feed matrices. Here, coumarin was used as the sole carbon source to screen microorganism strains that were isolated from types of feed ingredients. Only one isolate (ND-1) was able to degrade aflatoxin B1 after screening. ND-1 isolate, identified as a strain of Aspergillus niger using phylogenetic analysis on the basis of 18S rDNA, could remove 26.3% of aflatoxin B1 after 48 h of fermentation in nutrient broth (NB). Optimization of fermentation conditions for aflatoxin B1 degradation by selected Aspergillus niger was also performed. These results showed that 58.2% of aflatoxin B1 was degraded after 24 h of culture under the optimal fermentation conditions. The aflatoxin B1 degradation activity of Aspergillus niger supernatant was significantly stronger than cells and cell extracts. Furthermore, effects of temperature, heat treatment, pH, and metal ions on aflatoxin B1 degradation by the supernatant were examined. Results indicated that aflatoxin B1 degradation of Aspergillus niger is enzymatic and this process occurs in the extracellular environment. PMID:25401962

  4. Screening a Strain of Aspergillus niger and Optimization of Fermentation Conditions for Degradation of Aflatoxin B1 †

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Wei; Xue, Beibei; Li, Mengmeng; Mu, Yang; Chen, Zhihui; Li, Jianping; Shan, Anshan

    2014-01-01

    Aflatoxin B1, a type of highly toxic mycotoxin produced by some species belonging to the Aspergillus genus, such as Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus parasiticus, is widely distributed in feed matrices. Here, coumarin was used as the sole carbon source to screen microorganism strains that were isolated from types of feed ingredients. Only one isolate (ND-1) was able to degrade aflatoxin B1 after screening. ND-1 isolate, identified as a strain of Aspergillus niger using phylogenetic analysis on the basis of 18S rDNA, could remove 26.3% of aflatoxin B1 after 48 h of fermentation in nutrient broth (NB). Optimization of fermentation conditions for aflatoxin B1 degradation by selected Aspergillus niger was also performed. These results showed that 58.2% of aflatoxin B1 was degraded after 24 h of culture under the optimal fermentation conditions. The aflatoxin B1 degradation activity of Aspergillus niger supernatant was significantly stronger than cells and cell extracts. Furthermore, effects of temperature, heat treatment, pH, and metal ions on aflatoxin B1 degradation by the supernatant were examined. Results indicated that aflatoxin B1 degradation of Aspergillus niger is enzymatic and this process occurs in the extracellular environment. PMID:25401962

  5. Gene Expression Profiling and Identification of Resistance Genes to Aspergillus flavus Infection in Peanut through EST and Microarray Strategies

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Baozhu; Fedorova, Natalie D.; Chen, Xiaoping; Wan, Chun-Hua; Wang, Wei; Nierman, William C.; Bhatnagar, Deepak; Yu, Jiujiang

    2011-01-01

    Aspergillus flavus and A. parasiticus infect peanut seeds and produce aflatoxins, which are associated with various diseases in domestic animals and humans throughout the world. The most cost-effective strategy to minimize aflatoxin contamination involves the development of peanut cultivars that are resistant to fungal infection and/or aflatoxin production. To identify peanut Aspergillus-interactive and peanut Aspergillus-resistance genes, we carried out a large scale peanut Expressed Sequence Tag (EST) project which we used to construct a peanut glass slide oligonucleotide microarray. The fabricated microarray represents over 40% of the protein coding genes in the peanut genome. For expression profiling, resistant and susceptible peanut cultivars were infected with a mixture of Aspergillus flavus and parasiticus spores. The subsequent microarray analysis identified 62 genes in resistant cultivars that were up-expressed in response to Aspergillus infection. In addition, we identified 22 putative Aspergillus-resistance genes that were constitutively up-expressed in the resistant cultivar in comparison to the susceptible cultivar. Some of these genes were homologous to peanut, corn, and soybean genes that were previously shown to confer resistance to fungal infection. This study is a first step towards a comprehensive genome-scale platform for developing Aspergillus-resistant peanut cultivars through targeted marker-assisted breeding and genetic engineering. PMID:22069737

  6. Allelic Variation in Malawi Cichlid Opsins: A Tale of Two Genera Adam R. Smith Karen L. Carleton

    E-print Network

    Carleton, Karen L.

    Allelic Variation in Malawi Cichlid Opsins: A Tale of Two Genera Adam R. Smith · Karen L. Carleton speciation (Kornfield and Smith 2000; Danley and Kocher 2001; Gen- ner and Turner 2005). Lakes Malawi00239-010-9355-x) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users. A. R. Smith

  7. Three new genera, three new generic synonymies, two new species, and five new combinations in Neotropical Euliini (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Three new genera in the tortricid tribe Euliini are described and illustrated: Euryeulia, with type species E. biocellata (Walsingham, 1914), new combination, from Mexico; Pseudapina, with type species P. lanceovalva, new species, from Venezuela; and Circapina, with type species C. flexalana, new sp...

  8. DNA Fingerprinting of Individual Species and Intergeneric and Interspecific Hybrids of the Genera Bos and Bison, Subfamily Bovinae

    Microsoft Academic Search

    V. A. Vasil'ev; E. P. Steklenev; E. V. Morozova; S. K. Semyenova

    2002-01-01

    Genome fingerprinting with a hypervariable minisatellite sequence of phage M13 DNA was used to study the genetic variation in individual species of the genera Bosand Bison(subfamily Bovinae) and in their interspecific and intergeneric hybrids. DNA fingerprints were obtained for domestic cow Bos taurus primigenius, vatussy Bos taurus macroceros, banteng Bos javanicus, gaur Bos gaurus, wisent Bison bonasus, bison Bison bison,

  9. Bioinformatic and functional analysis of RNA secondary structure elements among different genera of human and animal caliciviruses

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Peter Simmonds; Ioannis Karakasiliotis; Dalan Bailey; Yasmin Chaudhry; David J. Evans; Ian G. Goodfellow

    2008-01-01

    The mechanism and role of RNA structure elements in the replication and translation of Caliciviridae remains poorly understood. Several algorithmically independent methods were used to predict second- ary structures within the Norovirus, Sapovirus, Vesivirus and Lagovirus genera. All showed pro- found suppression of synonymous site variability (SSSV) at genomic 5' ends and the start of the sub-genomic (sg) transcript, consistent

  10. Significance of hind wing morphology in distinguishing genera and species of cantharid beetles with a geometric morphometric analysis

    PubMed Central

    Su, Junyan; Guan, Kaile; Wang, Jiaxu; Yang, Yuxia

    2015-01-01

    Abstract There remain some difficulties in delimitation of related genera or sibling species for cantharid beetles, because the traditionally taxonomic method and morphological characters have not been updated or introduced. In the present study, we firstly use the landmark-based geometric morphometrics to analyze and compare the hind wings of nine species belonging to three genera of Cantharinae to ascertain whether this approach may be used as a reliable method in the study of the taxonomy of this group. The results show that the shape differences of the hind wings among genera seem more variable than that within each genus, and the variations for each species are different from one another, as shown in the principal component analyses. And the canonical variates analyses show that there are significant differences among the genera and the species of each genus, which demonstrates that the hind wing shape can be diagnostic for both generic and specific identification of the cantharid beetles. This study sheds new light into clarifying the taxonomic uncertainties of Cantharidae, and lays a foundation for further studies on the evolution of the cantharid hind wing shape. PMID:26019661

  11. Significance of hind wing morphology in distinguishing genera and species of cantharid beetles with a geometric morphometric analysis.

    PubMed

    Su, Junyan; Guan, Kaile; Wang, Jiaxu; Yang, Yuxia

    2015-01-01

    There remain some difficulties in delimitation of related genera or sibling species for cantharid beetles, because the traditionally taxonomic method and morphological characters have not been updated or introduced. In the present study, we firstly use the landmark-based geometric morphometrics to analyze and compare the hind wings of nine species belonging to three genera of Cantharinae to ascertain whether this approach may be used as a reliable method in the study of the taxonomy of this group. The results show that the shape differences of the hind wings among genera seem more variable than that within each genus, and the variations for each species are different from one another, as shown in the principal component analyses. And the canonical variates analyses show that there are significant differences among the genera and the species of each genus, which demonstrates that the hind wing shape can be diagnostic for both generic and specific identification of the cantharid beetles. This study sheds new light into clarifying the taxonomic uncertainties of Cantharidae, and lays a foundation for further studies on the evolution of the cantharid hind wing shape. PMID:26019661

  12. Comparative Evolutionary Analysis of Chalcone Synthase and Alcohol Dehydrogenase Loci in Arabidopsis, Arabis, and Related Genera (Brassicaceae)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Marcus A. Koch; Bernhard Haubold; Thomas Mitchell-Olds

    We analyzed sequence variation for chalcone synthase (Chs) and alcohol dehydrogenase (Adh) loci in 28 species in the genera Arabidopsis and Arabis and related taxa from tribe Arabideae. Chs was single-copy in nearly all taxa examined, while Adh duplications were found in several species. Phylogenies constructed from both loci confirmed that the closest relatives of Arabidopsis thaliana include Arabidopsis lyrata,

  13. Development of novel chloroplast microsatellite markers to identify species in the Agrostis complex (Poaceae) and related genera.

    PubMed

    Zapiola, Maria L; Cronn, Richard C; Mallory-Smith, Carol A

    2010-07-01

    We needed a reliable way to identify species and confirm potential interspecific and intergeneric hybrids in a landscape level study of gene flow from transgenic glyphosate-resistant Agrostis stolonifera (Poaceae) to compatible relatives. We developed 12 new polymorphic chloroplast microsatellite markers to aid in identifying species recipient of transgenic pollen both within the Agrostis complex and the related genera Polypogon. PMID:21565082

  14. The phylogenetic position of Peucedanum sensu lato and allied genera and their placement in tribe Selineae (Apiaceae, subfamily

    E-print Network

    Downie, Stephen R.

    segregates are closely related to one another and to Peucedanum sensu stricto. The genera Seseli and Selinum are polyphyletic. Members of the genus Angelica form a single clade that also includes representatives of Selinum) are proposed, and Selinum pyrenaeum is recognised in Angelica (A. pyrenaea). Key words: Peucedanum, Apiaceae

  15. Review of the millipede family Trichopolydesmidae in the Oriental realm (Diplopoda, Polydesmida), with descriptions of new genera and species

    PubMed Central

    Golovatch, Sergei I.; Geoffroy, Jean-Jacques; VandenSpiegel, Didier

    2014-01-01

    Abstract In the Oriental Region, the large, basically Northern Hemisphere family Trichopolydesmidae is shown to currently comprise 18 genera and 43 species. Based mainly on gonopod structure, all of them, as well as the whole family, are (re)diagnosed, including five new genera and seven new species. These new taxa are keyed, also being the first to be described from Indochina in general and from Vietnam in particular: Aporodesmella gen. n., with three species: A. securiformis sp. n. (the type species), A. similis sp. n. and A. tergalis sp. n., as well as the following four monotypic genera: Deharvengius gen. n., with D. bedosae sp. n., Gonatodesmus gen. n., with G. communicans sp. n., Helicodesmus gen. n., with H. anichkini sp. n., and Monstrodesmus gen. n., with M. flagellifer sp. n. In addition, Cocacolaria hauseri Hoffman, 1987, hitherto known only from New Ireland Island, Papua New Guinea, is redescribed based on material from Vanuatu whence it is recorded for the first time. One of the new genera, Gonatodesmus gen. n., provides a kind of transition or evolutionary bridge between Trichopolydesmidae and Opisotretidae, thus reinforcing the assignment of these two families to the single superfamily Trichopolydesmoidea. PMID:25009416

  16. Proposed Minimal Standards for the Description of New Genera and Species of Root and Stem-Nodulating Bacteria

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. H. GRAHAM; M. J. SADOWSKY; H. H. KEYSER; Y. M. BAR; R. S. BRADLEY; J. E. COOPER

    1991-01-01

    Since the first volume of Bergey's Manual of ~~stematic Bacteriology was published, in 1984, two additional genera and several new species of stem- and root-nodulating bacteria have been proposed; further changes to the taxonomy of this group of organisms appear likely. This paper briefly reviews the current status of \\

  17. Patterns of susceptibility of Aspergillus isolates recovered from patients enrolled in the Transplant-Associated Infection Surveillance Network.

    PubMed

    Baddley, John W; Marr, Kieren A; Andes, David R; Walsh, Thomas J; Kauffman, Carol A; Kontoyiannis, Dimitrios P; Ito, James I; Balajee, S Arunmozhi; Pappas, Peter G; Moser, Stephen A

    2009-10-01

    We analyzed antifungal susceptibilities of 274 clinical Aspergillus isolates from transplant recipients with proven or probable invasive aspergillosis collected as part of the Transplant-Associated Infection Surveillance Network (TRANSNET) and examined the relationship between MIC and mortality at 6 or 12 weeks. Antifungal susceptibility testing was performed by the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) M38-A2 broth dilution method for amphotericin B (AMB), itraconazole (ITR), voriconazole (VOR), posaconazole (POS), and ravuconazole (RAV). The isolate collection included 181 Aspergillus fumigatus, 28 Aspergillus niger, 27 Aspergillus flavus, 22 Aspergillus terreus, seven Aspergillus versicolor, five Aspergillus calidoustus, and two Aspergillus nidulans isolates and two isolates identified as Aspergillus spp. Triazole susceptibilities were < or = 4 microg/ml for most isolates (POS, 97.6%; ITR, 96.3%; VOR, 95.9%; RAV, 93.5%). The triazoles were not active against the five A. calidoustus isolates, for which MICs were > or = 4 microg/ml. AMB inhibited 93.3% of isolates at an MIC of < or = 1 microg/ml. The exception was A. terreus, for which 15 (68%) of 22 isolates had MICs of >1 microg/ml. One of 181 isolates of A. fumigatus showed resistance (MIC > or = 4 microg/ml) to two of three azoles tested. Although there appeared to be a correlation of higher VOR MICs with increased mortality at 6 weeks, the relationship was not statistically significant (R2 = 0.61; P = 0.065). Significant relationships of in vitro MIC to all-cause mortality at 6 and 12 weeks for VOR or AMB were not found. PMID:19692558

  18. RECOMBINATION, BALANCING SELECTION AND ADAPTIVE EVOLUTION IN THE AFLATOXIN GENE CLUSTER OF ASPERGILLUS PARASITICUS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Aflatoxins are toxic and carcinogenic polyketides produced by several Aspergillus species that are known to contaminate agricultural commodities, posing a serious threat to animal and human health. Aflatoxin (AF) biosynthesis has been studied extensively and involves over 20 genes clustered in a 70...

  19. Aspergillus flavus Aflatoxin Occurrence and Expression of Aflatoxin Biosynthesis Genes in Soil

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The carcinogen, aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) produced by Aspergillus flavus, is a major food safety concern in crops. However, information on AFB1 occurrence in soil and crop residue is scarce. A series of experiments investigated the occurrence of AFB1 in soil and corn residues, and ascertained the ecology ...

  20. Functional and phylogenetic analysis of the Aspergillus ochraceoroseus aflQ (ordA) gene ortholog

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Within the Aspergillus parasiticus and A. flavus aflatoxin (AF) biosynthetic gene cluster the aflQ (ordA) and aflP (omtA) genes encode an oxidoreductase and methyltransferase, respectively. These genes are required for the final steps in the conversion of sterigmatocystin (ST) to aflatoxin B1 (AFB1...

  1. Antifungal mechanism of the Aspergillus giganteus AFP against the rice blast fungus Magnaporthe grisea

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ana Beatriz Moreno; Blanca San Segundo

    The mold Aspergillus giganteus produces a basic, low molecular weight protein showing antifungal properties against economically important plant pathogens, the AFP (Antifungal Protein). In this study, we investigated the mechanisms by which AFP exerts its antifungal activity against Magnaporthe grisea. M. grisea is the causal agent of rice blast, one of the most devastating diseases of cultivated rice worldwide. AFP

  2. A maize lectin-like protein with antifungal activity against Aspergillus flavus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The filamentous fungus, Aspergillus flavus, causes an ear rot on maize and produces a mycotoxin, aflatoxin, in colonized maize kernels. Aflatoxins are carcinogenic to humans and animals upon ingestion. The presence of aflatoxins in food and feed is strictly regulated by several governmental agenci...

  3. EST Profiling for Elucidation of Molecular Regulation of Aflatoxin bBiosynthesis in Aspergillus flavus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Aflatoxins are toxic and carcinogenic polyketide metabolites produced by fungal species, including Aspergillus flavus and A. parasiticus. Many internal and external factors, such as nutrition and environment, affect aflatoxin biosynthesis. A. flavus EST has been carried out and a microarray has be...

  4. Phenotypic changes in the chemistry of Aspergillus nidulans: Influence of culture conditions on mycelial composition

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ann M. T. McGetrick; Alan T. Bull

    1979-01-01

    A quantitative study was made of macromolecular (nucleic acids, protein), carbohydrate and mineral (magnesium, potassium and phosphorus) components of Aspergillus nidulans in glucose limited chemostat cultures, under varying conditions of dilution rate, temperature, pH and NaCl concentration.

  5. Rapid Host Defense against Aspergillus fumigatus Involves Alveolar Macrophages with a Predominance of Alternatively Activated Phenotype

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Shikha Bhatia; Mingjian Fei; Manohar Yarlagadda; Zengbiao Qi; Shizuo Akira; Shinobu Saijo; Yoichiro Iwakura; Nico van Rooijen; Gregory A. Gibson; Claudette M. St. Croix; Anuradha Ray; Prabir Ray; Jane Deng

    2011-01-01

    The ubiquitous fungus Aspergillus fumigatus is associated with chronic diseases such as invasive pulmonary aspergillosis in immunosuppressed patients and allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis (ABPA) in patients with cystic fibrosis or severe asthma. Because of constant exposure to this fungus, it is critical for the host to exercise an immediate and decisive immune response to clear fungal spores to ward off disease.

  6. Sequence Breakpoints in the Aflatoxin Biosynthesis Gene Cluster of Nonaflatoxigenic Aspergillus flavus Isolates

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A 66-kb gene cluster in toxigenic Aspergillus flavus is responsible for the synthesis of aflatoxin (AF). Isolates of A. flavus can produce either, neither or both AF and cyclopiazonic acid (CPA). We used PCR to determine whether defects are present in the AF biosynthesis gene cluster of nonaflatox...

  7. NON-TOXIGENIC ASPERGILLUS FLAVUS ISOLATES FOR REDUCING AFLATOXIN IN MISSISSIPPI DELTA CORN

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The potential for two non-toxigenic isolates of Aspergillus flavus CT3 and K49 isolated from the Mississippi Delta to reduce aflatoxin contamination of corn was assessed in a field study. These two isolates exhibited comparable growth and aggressiveness as the toxigenic A. flavus isolate F3W4. The...

  8. Degradation of polycaprolactone at 50 °C by a thermotolerant Aspergillus sp

    Microsoft Academic Search

    James G. Sanchez; Akio Tsuchii; Yutaka Tokiwa

    2000-01-01

    A thermotolerant Aspergillus sp. strain ST-01 degrading poly(e-caprolactone) films was isolated. The polyester was degraded and assimilated giving 36 mg of cell from 100 mg sample and 10 mg yeast extract after 6 days at 50 °C. The degradation products were identified as succinic acid, butyric acid, valeric acid, and caproic acid. The isolate also degraded more than 90% film

  9. Spiro Fused Diterpene-Indole Alkaloids from a Creek-Bottom-Derived Aspergillus terreus

    PubMed Central

    Cai, Shengxin; Du, Lin; Gerea, Alexandra L.; King, Jarrod B.; You, Jianlan

    2013-01-01

    Four metabolites, teraspiridoles A–D (2–5), formed from the merger of diterpene and modified indole scaffold were obtained from an Aspergillus terreus isolate. The structures and absolute configurations of these natural products were established using NMR, mass spectrometry, Marfey’s method, VCD, and ECD data. Teraspiridole B (3) exhibited weak inhibition of planaria regeneration/survival. PMID:23924243

  10. Cloning and characterization of the Aspergillus nidulans spdA gene 

    E-print Network

    Jin, Yuan

    2000-01-01

    Using a PCR product amplified from Aspergillus nidulans DNA as a probe, the A. nidulans spdA gene, coding for a putative spermidine synthase, was isolated. Alignment of its deduced amino acid sequence with those of other spermidine synthases showed...

  11. The black Aspergillus species of maize and peanuts and their potential for mycotoxin production

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The black spored fungi of the subgenera Circumdata, the section Nigri (=Aspergillus niger group) is reviewed relative to their production of mycotoxins and their effects on plants as pathogens. Molecular methods have revealed more than 18 cryptic species, of which several have been characterized as...

  12. Genome wide association mapping of Aspergillus flavus and aflatoxin accumulation resistance in maize

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Contamination of maize with aflatoxin, produced by the fungus Aspergillus flavus, has severe health and economic consequences. Efforts to reduce aflatoxin accumulation in maize have focused on identifying and selecting germplasm with natural host resistance factors, and several maize lines with sign...

  13. The kinetics of glucose production from rice straw by Aspergillus niger

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. O. Aderemi; E. Abu; B. K. Highina

    In this investigation, glucose was produced from rice straw using cells of Aspergillus niger, isolated from maize grain. Glucose yield was found to increase from 43 to 87% as the rice straw particle size decreased from 425 to 75 µm, while the optimal temperature and pH were found within the range of 45 - 50°C and 4.5 - 5 respectively.

  14. Cloning and characterization of the Aspergillus nidulans spdA gene

    E-print Network

    Jin, Yuan

    2000-01-01

    Using a PCR product amplified from Aspergillus nidulans DNA as a probe, the A. nidulans spdA gene, coding for a putative spermidine synthase, was isolated. Alignment of its deduced amino acid sequence with those of other spermidine synthases showed...

  15. Deadly strains of Kenyan aspergillus are distinct from other aflatoxin producers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Aflatoxin contamination of crops is a world-wide problem. Lethal aflatoxicosis of humans has been associated with maize produced in Kenya for over three decades. The S strain morphotype of Aspergillus flavus was identified as the primary cause of aflatoxin contamination events occurring between 2004...

  16. Immunochemical studies of Aspergillus fumigatus mycelial antigens by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and Western blotting techniques

    Microsoft Academic Search

    VERONICA M. HEARN; ELAINE V. WILSON; J.-P. Latge; D. W. R. Mackenzie

    1990-01-01

    Differences were detectable among strains of the opportunist fungal pathogen Aspergillus fumgatus when water- soluble (WS) preparations were analysed by combined SDS-PAGE and Western blotting procedures. A wide range of molecules of apparent molecular masses from approximately 20 to > lo0 kDa showed specific binding to antibodies raised in rabbits to A. fumgatus wall and cytoplasmic components. The ability to

  17. The launch of the Aspergillus flavus genome browser and limited release of whole genome sequence

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Aflatoxins are produced by Aspergillus flavus and A. parasiticus. These toxic and carcinogenic compounds contaminate pre-harvest agricultural crops in the field and post-harvest grains during storage. In order to reduce and eliminate aflatoxin contamination of food and feed, Aspergilllus flavus wh...

  18. Sequoiatones C-f, constituents of the redwood endophyte Aspergillus parasiticus.

    PubMed

    Stierle, A A; Stierle, D B; Bugni, T

    2001-10-01

    Aspergillus parasiticus, a fungal isolate from a coast redwood tree (Sequoia sempervirens), has been shown to produce four new compounds, sequoiatones C-F (1-4). The structures of these compounds, all of which are cytotoxic to brine shrimp, were deduced by spectral analysis. PMID:11678666

  19. Phytochemical Inhibition of Aflatoxigenicity in Aspergillus flavus by Constituents of Walnut ( Juglans regia )

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Noreen Mahoney; Russell J. Molyneux

    2004-01-01

    Tulare walnut, a cultivar highly resistant to aflatoxin formation, was investigated for endogenous phytochemical constituents capable of inhibiting aflatoxigenesis in Aspergillus flavus. The activity, located entirely in the pellicle (seed coat), was extractable to various degrees with polar solvents, although some activity remained unextractable, indicating that the bioactivity resided in a complex of hydrolyzable tannins. These tannins can be hydrolyzed

  20. Plant Disease / August 1997 911 Spatial and Temporal Patterns of Aspergillus flavus Strain Composition

    E-print Network

    Cotty, Peter J.

    Composition and Propagule Density in Yuma County, Arizona, Soils Thomas V. Orum, Donna M. Bigelow, and Merritt Research Center, USDA, ARS, New Orleans, LA 70179 Aspergillus flavus Link:Fr. is a soil- inhabiting fungus are occupied by communities of A. flavus VCGs rather than a single A. flavus population (2). Strain composition