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Sample records for genera aspergillus eurotium

  1. Concentration of the genera Aspergillus, Eurotium and Penicillium in 63-?m house dust fraction as a method to predict hidden moisture damage in homes

    PubMed Central

    Baudisch, Christoph; Assadian, Ojan; Kramer, Axel

    2009-01-01

    Background Quantitative measurements of mould enrichment of indoor air or house dust might be suitable surrogates to evaluate present but hidden moisture damage. Our intent was to develop a house-dust monitoring method to detect hidden moisture damage excluding the influence of outdoor air, accumulated old dust, and dust swirled up from room surfaces. Methods Based on standardized measurement of mould spores in the 63-?m fraction of house dust yielded by carpets, the background concentrations were determined and compared to simultaneously obtained colony numbers and total spore numbers of the indoor air in 80 non-mouldy living areas during summer and winter periods. Additionally, sampling with a vacuum-cleaner or manual sieve was compared to sampling with a filter holder or sieving machine, and the evaluative power of an established two-step assessment model (lower and upper limits) was compared to that of a one-step model (one limit) in order to derive concentration limits for mould load in house dust. Results Comparison with existing evaluation procedures proved the developed method to be the most reliable means of evaluating hidden moisture damage, yielding the lowest false-positive results (specificity 98.7%). Background measurements and measurements in 14 mouldy rooms show that even by evaluating just the indicator genera in summer and winter, a relatively certain assessment of mould infestation is possible. Conclusion A one-step evaluation is finally possible for house dust. The house-dust evaluation method is based on analysis of the indicator genera Aspergillus, Eurotium and Penicillium spp., which depend on the total fungal count. Inclusion of further moisture indicators currently appears questionable, because of outdoor air influence and the paucity of measurements. PMID:19615082

  2. Taxonomic revision of Eurotium and transfer of species to Aspergillus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Section Aspergillus contains economically important, xerophilic species widely distributed in nature and the human environment that are known for their ability to grow on substrates with low water activity. The high level of phenoplasticity and frequent occurrence of mutants with atypical morphology...

  3. Eurotium spp. and echinulin in feed refused by swine.

    PubMed Central

    Vesonder, R F; Lambert, R; Wicklow, D T; Biehl, M L

    1988-01-01

    Feed refused by swine contained a high-propagule density of Eurotium chevalieri Mangin (anamorph, Aspergillus chevalieri (Mangin) Thom and Church), Eurotium amstelodami Mangin (anamorph, Aspergillus amstelodami (Mangin Thom and Church), and Aspergillus candidus Link. Echinulin (8 micrograms/g of feed) was detected in the feed. Isolates of E. chevalieri and E. amstelodami but not A. candidus produced echinulin on rice or cracked corn. Mice refused to drink water containing 90 micrograms of echinulin per ml. This is the first report of the alkaloid echinulin in feed refused by swine. PMID:3377495

  4. Biotransformation of the mycotoxin zearalenone by fungi of the genera Rhizopus and Aspergillus.

    PubMed

    Brodehl, Antje; Möller, Anne; Kunte, Hans-Jörg; Koch, Matthias; Maul, Ronald

    2014-10-01

    Zearalenone (ZEN) is a nonsteroidal estrogenic mycotoxin biosynthesized by various Fusarium fungi. These fungal species frequently infest grains; therefore, ZEN represents a common contaminant in cereal products. The biotransformation of ZEN differs significantly from species to species, and several metabolites are known to be formed by animals, plants, and microorganisms. The aim of the present study was to investigate the microbial conversion of ZEN by species of the genera Rhizopus and Aspergillus representing relevant fungi for food processing (e.g. fermentation). To monitor the ZEN metabolism, ZEN was added to liquid cultures of the different fungal species. After a period of 3 days, the media were analyzed by HPLC-MS/MS for metabolite formation. Two Aspergillus oryzae strains and all seven Rhizopus species were able to convert ZEN into various metabolites, including ZEN-14-sulfate as well as ZEN-O-14- and ZEN-O-16-glucoside. Microbial transformation of ZEN into the significantly more estrogenic ?-zearalenol (?-ZEL) was also observed. Additionally, a novel fungal metabolite, ?-ZEL-sulfate, was detected. Semi-quantification of the main metabolites indicates that more than 50% of initial ZEN may be modified. The results show that fungal strains have the potential to convert ZEN into various metabolites leading to a masking of the toxin, for example in fermented food. PMID:25145804

  5. Aspergillus cumulatus sp. nov., from rice straw and air for meju fermentation.

    PubMed

    Kim, Dae-Ho; Kim, Seon-Hwa; Kwon, Soon-Wo; Lee, Jong-Kyu; Hong, Seung-Beom

    2014-03-28

    A new species named Aspergillus cumulatus sp. nov. is described in Aspergillus section Aspergillus (Eurotium state). The type strain (KACC 47316(T)) of this species was isolated from rice straw used in meju fermentations in Korea, and other strains were isolated from the air in a meju fermentation room. The species is characterized by growth at a wide range of water activities and the formation of aerial hyphae on malt extract 60% sucrose agar (ME60S) that resemble a cumulus cloud. Furthermore, A. cumulatus produces yellow ascomata containing small lenticular ascospores (5.1-5.7 ?m) with a wide furrow, low equatorial crests, and tuberculate convex surface. The species is phylogenetically distinct from the other reported Aspergillus section Aspergillus species based on multilocus sequence typing using rDNA-ITS, ?-tubulin, calmodulin, and RNA polymerase II genes. PMID:24473456

  6. Benzyl Derivatives with in Vitro Binding Affinity for Human Opioid Receptors and Cannabinoid Receptors from the Fungus Eurotium repens

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bioassay-guided fractionation of the fungus Eurotium repens resulted in the isolation of two benzyl derivatives, repenol A (1) and repenol B (2). Seven known secondary metabolites were also isolated including five benzaldehyde compounds, flavoglaucin (3), tetrahydroauroglaucin (4), dihydroauroglauci...

  7. Aspergillus: introduction

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Species in the genus Aspergillus possess versatile metabolic activities that impact our daily life both positively and negatively. Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus oryzae are closely related fungi. While the former is able to produce carcinogenic aflatoxins and is an etiological agent of aspergill...

  8. Phylogeny, identification and nomenclature of the genus Aspergillus

    PubMed Central

    Samson, R.A.; Visagie, C.M.; Houbraken, J.; Hong, S.-B.; Hubka, V.; Klaassen, C.H.W.; Perrone, G.; Seifert, K.A.; Susca, A.; Tanney, J.B.; Varga, J.; Kocsubé, S.; Szigeti, G.; Yaguchi, T.; Frisvad, J.C.

    2014-01-01

    Aspergillus comprises a diverse group of species based on morphological, physiological and phylogenetic characters, which significantly impact biotechnology, food production, indoor environments and human health. Aspergillus was traditionally associated with nine teleomorph genera, but phylogenetic data suggest that together with genera such as Polypaecilum, Phialosimplex, Dichotomomyces and Cristaspora, Aspergillus forms a monophyletic clade closely related to Penicillium. Changes in the International Code of Nomenclature for algae, fungi and plants resulted in the move to one name per species, meaning that a decision had to be made whether to keep Aspergillus as one big genus or to split it into several smaller genera. The International Commission of Penicillium and Aspergillus decided to keep Aspergillus instead of using smaller genera. In this paper, we present the arguments for this decision. We introduce new combinations for accepted species presently lacking an Aspergillus name and provide an updated accepted species list for the genus, now containing 339 species. To add to the scientific value of the list, we include information about living ex-type culture collection numbers and GenBank accession numbers for available representative ITS, calmodulin, ?-tubulin and RPB2 sequences. In addition, we recommend a standard working technique for Aspergillus and propose calmodulin as a secondary identification marker. PMID:25492982

  9. Biodiversity of Aspergillus Species in Some Important Agricultural Products

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The genus Aspergillus is one of the most important filamentous fungal genera. Aspergillus species are used in the fermentation industry, but they are also responsible of various plant and food secondary rot, with the consequence of possible accumulation of mycotoxins. The aflatoxin-producing A. fl...

  10. Aspergillus endophthalmitis.

    PubMed Central

    Sihota, R; Agarwal, H C; Grover, A K; Sood, N N

    1987-01-01

    A case is reported of bilateral aspergillus endophthalmitis in an infant without any detectable systemic predisposition or focus of infection. The patient is the youngest recorded case of endogenous aspergillus endophthalmitis so far, with an onset of symptoms at the age of 15 days. After histopathological confirmation of the aetiology by enucleation of the atrophic eye, systemic amphotericin B therapy was instituted with excellent results in the fellow eye. This is the first recorded instance of a complete clinical cure in aspergillus ocular disease on systemic amphotericin B therapy alone. PMID:3498509

  11. Mycoflora of Soybeans Used for Meju Fermentation

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Dae-Ho; Kim, Seon-Hwa; Kwon, Soon-Wo; Lee, Jong-Kyu

    2013-01-01

    Diverse fungi are present in Korean traditional meju and they are known to play an important role in fermented soybean products. To determine the origin of the fungi in meju, we examined the mycoflora of soybeans from 10 traditional meju factories. The samples were untreated or treated with sodium hypochlorite, and placed on malt extract agar (MEA), dichloran 18% glycerol agar (DG18), and dichloran rose bengal chloramphenicol agar (DRBC) medium. A total of 794 fungal strains were isolated and they were identified as 41 genera and 86 species. From sodium hypochlorite untreated soybeans, the genera, Cladosporium (55%), Eurotium (51%), Fusarium (33%), Penicillium (22%), and Aspergillus (exclusion of Eurotium) (20%), were mainly isolated, and Eurotium herbariorum (22%), Eurotium repens (18%), Cladosporium tenuissimum (18%), F. fujikuroi (18%), Aspergillus oryzae/flavus (7%), and Penicillium steckii (6%) were the predominant species. In case of sodium hypochlorite-treated soybeans, Eurotium (31%) and Cladosporium (5%) were frequently isolated, but Aspergillus (excluding Eurotium), Penicillium and Fusarium which were frequently isolated from untreated soybeans, were rarely isolated. Eurotium herbariorum (21%), Eurotium repens (8%), and Cladosporium tenuissimum (3%) were the predominant species. Of the 41 genera and 86 species isolated from soybeans, 13 genera and 33 species were also found in meju. These results suggest that the fungi on soybeans may influence the mycoflora of meju. PMID:23874133

  12. Genomic adaptations of the halophilic Dead Sea filamentous fungus Eurotium rubrum.

    PubMed

    Kis-Papo, Tamar; Weig, Alfons R; Riley, Robert; Peršoh, Derek; Salamov, Asaf; Sun, Hui; Lipzen, Anna; Wasser, Solomon P; Rambold, Gerhard; Grigoriev, Igor V; Nevo, Eviatar

    2014-01-01

    The Dead Sea is one of the most hypersaline habitats on Earth. The fungus Eurotium rubrum (Eurotiomycetes) is among the few species able to survive there. Here we highlight its adaptive strategies, based on genome analysis and transcriptome profiling. The 26.2?Mb genome of E. rubrum shows, for example, gains in gene families related to stress response and losses with regard to transport processes. Transcriptome analyses under different salt growth conditions revealed, among other things differentially expressed genes encoding ion and metabolite transporters. Our findings suggest that long-term adaptation to salinity requires cellular and metabolic responses that differ from short-term osmotic stress signalling. The transcriptional response indicates that halophilic E. rubrum actively counteracts the salinity stress. Many of its genes encode for proteins with a significantly higher proportion of acidic amino acid residues. This trait is characteristic of the halophilic prokaryotes as well, supporting the theory of convergent evolution under extreme hypersaline stress. PMID:24811710

  13. Aspergillus Associated with Meju, a Fermented Soybean Starting Material for Traditional Soy Sauce and Soybean Paste in Korea

    PubMed Central

    Hong, Seung-Beom

    2015-01-01

    Aspergillus is an important fungal genus used for the fermentation of Asian foods; this genus is referred to as koji mold in Japan and China. A. oryzae, A. sojae, and A. tamari are used in the production of miso and shoyu in Japan, but a comprehensive taxonomic study of Aspergillus isolated from Meju, a fermented soybean starting material for traditional soy sauce and soybean paste in Korea, has not been conducted. In this study, various Aspergillus species were isolated during a study of the mycobiota of Meju, and the aspergilli were identified based on phenotypic characteristics and sequencing of the ?-tubulin gene. Most strains of Aspergillus were found to belong to the following sections: Aspergillus (n = 220), Flavi (n = 213), and Nigri (n = 54). The most commonly identified species were A. oryzae (n = 183), A. pseudoglaucus (Eurotium repens) (n = 81), A. chevalieri (E. chevalieri) (n = 62), A. montevidensis (E. amstelodami) (n = 34), A. niger (n = 21), A. tamari (n = 15), A. ruber (E. rubrum) (n = 15), A. proliferans (n = 14), and A. luchuensis (n = 14); 25 species were identified from 533 Aspergillus strains. Aspergillus strains were mainly found during the high temperature fermentation period in the later steps of Meju fermentation. PMID:26539037

  14. Sphingomonas and Related Genera

    SciTech Connect

    Balkwill, David L.; Fredrickson, Jim K.; Romine, Margaret F.

    2003-12-31

    INTRODUCTION-The genus Sphingomonas was defined by Yabuuchi et al. (1990) as a group of Gram-negative, rod-shaped, chemoheterotrophic, strictly aerobic bacteria that possess ubiquinone 10 as the major respiratory quinone, contain glycosphingolipids (GSLs) instead of lipopolysaccharide in their cell envelopes, and typically produce yellow-pigmented colonies. By 2001, the genus included more than 20 species that were quite diverse in terms of their phylogenetic, ecological, and physiological properties. As a result, Takeuchi et al. (2001) subdivided Sphingomonas into four genera: Sphingomonas, Sphingobium, Novosphingobium and Sphingopyxis...

  15. Aspergillus spinal epidural abscess

    SciTech Connect

    Byrd, B.F. III; Weiner, M.H.; McGee, Z.A.

    1982-12-17

    A spinal epidural abscess developed in a renal transplant recipient; results of a serum radioimmunoassay for Aspergillus antigen were positive. Laminectomy disclosed an abscess of the L4-5 interspace and L-5 vertebral body that contained hyphal forms and from which Aspergillus species was cultured. Serum Aspergillus antigen radioimmunoassay may be a valuable, specific early diagnostic test when systemic aspergillosis is a consideration in an immunosuppressed host.

  16. Genera of the human lineage

    PubMed Central

    Cela-Conde, Camilo J.; Ayala, Francisco J.

    2003-01-01

    Human fossils dated between 3.5 and nearly 7 million years old discovered during the last 8 years have been assigned to as many as four new genera of the family Hominidae: Ardipithecus, Orrorin, Kenyanthropus, and Sahelanthropus. These specimens are described as having morphological traits that justify placing them in the family Hominidae while creating a new genus for the classification of each. The discovery of these fossils pushed backward by >2 million years the date of the oldest hominids known. Only two or three hominid genera, Australopithecus, Paranthropus, and Homo, had been previously accepted, with Paranthropus considered a subgenus of Australopithecus by some authors. Two questions arise from the classification of the newly discovered fossils: (i) Should each one of these specimens be placed in the family Hominidae? (ii) Are these specimens sufficiently distinct to justify the creation of four new genera? The answers depend, in turn, on the concepts of what is a hominid and how the genus category is defined. These specimens seem to possess a sufficient number of morphological traits to be placed in the Hominidae. However, the nature of the morphological evidence and the adaptation-rooted concept of what a genus is do not justify the establishment of four new genera. We propose a classification that includes four well defined genera: Praeanthropus, Ardipithecus, Australopithecus, and Homo, plus one tentative incertae sedis genus: Sahelanthropus. PMID:12794185

  17. Development in Aspergillus

    PubMed Central

    Krijgsheld, P.; Bleichrodt, R.; van Veluw, G.J.; Wang, F.; Müller, W.H.; Dijksterhuis, J.; Wösten, H.A.B.

    2013-01-01

    The genus Aspergillus represents a diverse group of fungi that are among the most abundant fungi in the world. Germination of a spore can lead to a vegetative mycelium that colonizes a substrate. The hyphae within the mycelium are highly heterogeneous with respect to gene expression, growth, and secretion. Aspergilli can reproduce both asexually and sexually. To this end, conidiophores and ascocarps are produced that form conidia and ascospores, respectively. This review describes the molecular mechanisms underlying growth and development of Aspergillus. PMID:23450714

  18. GENOMICS OF ASPERGILLUS FUMIGATUS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Aspergillus fumigatus is a filamentous fungal saprophyte that is ubiquitous in the environment. It is also a human pathogen and induces allergenic response, negatively impacting health care and associated costs significantly around the world. Much of the basic biology of this organism is only poor...

  19. The genera of Hyphomycetes - 2011 update.

    PubMed

    Seifert, K A; Gams, W

    2011-12-01

    This supplement to the taxonomic monograph The Genera of Hyphomycetes summarises information on 23 accepted new genera and c. 160 species described in 2011. These include three dematiaceous genera (Funbolia, Noosia, Pyrigemmula, all related to Dothideomycetes), a bulbil-producing genus, Spiroplana (Pleosporales), and two endophytic genera, the sterile Periglandula (Clavicipitaceae), and the hyaline, sympodial Micronematobotrys (Pyronemataceae). Slow-growing, morphologically-reduced, darkly pigmented fungi continue to be the source of new taxa, including the new genus Atramixtia (Dothioraceae). Eight new genera of darkly pigmented chlamydospore-like anamorphs were described from marine or subtidal environments (Glomerulispora, Halozoön, Hiogispora, Matsusporium, Moheitospora, Moleospora, Moromyces), mostly associated with subclades of the Lulworthiales. Several genera that are morphologically similar to but phylogenetically distinct from genera of the Capnodiales (Pseudopassalora, Scleroramularia) were introduced, as well as segregates from the classical concepts of Alternaria (Sinomyces), Chalara and Phialophora (Brachyalara, Infundichalara, Lasiadelphia), and Paecilomyces (Purpureocillium for the former Paecilomyces lilacinus complex). In addition, in anticipation of the new nomenclatural rules, newly configured formerly-teleomorph genera were proposed as segregates from classical hyphomycete genera in the Hypocreales, namely Acremonium (Cosmospora), Fusarium (Cyanonectria, Dialonectria, Geejayessia, Macroconia, Stylonectria), and Volutella (Pseudonectria) and the Trichocomaceae, Eurotiales, Penicillium (Talaromyces for the former Penicillium subg. Biverticillium). Standardized generic mini-diagnoses are provided for the accepted new genera, along with details of distribution, substrates, numbers of new species and phylogenetic affinities within the Dikarya. GenBank accession numbers for ITS DNA-barcodes are provided where available. New information on generic concepts of previously recognised genera, phylogenetic relationships, and corrections of factual errors are also included. Only two newly described genera, Fecundostilbum and Utrechtiana, seem to be synonyms of previously described genera. PMID:22403480

  20. Physiology of some actinomycete genera.

    PubMed

    Ensign, J C; Normand, P; Burden, J P; Yallop, C A

    1993-10-01

    Actinomycetes are widespread in the environment and are mainly organotrophic. Studies of their ecology have been primarily focussed on their detection and isolation, with comparatively little attention to the control mechanisms that determine their occurrence and behaviour in their natural environments. This session provided some diverse examples of approaches to this problem. Several actinomycete genera produce motile spores. The significance of flagella proteins and factors influencing spore motility and germination are considered. The genus Frankia forms nitrogen-fixing associations with non-leguminous plants. Molecular techniques have been used to clarify the endophyte-host relationships. Micromonospora species are common in the environment. The growth and physiology of a gentamicin-producing strain are described. Thermophilic actinomycetes in the genus Thermoactinomyces are common in composts and other self-heating environments. Novel isolates from acid soil, which grow and produce enzymes active at high temperatures and in acidic conditions, are discussed. PMID:8140284

  1. Redefining Ceratocystis and allied genera

    PubMed Central

    de Beer, Z.W.; Duong, T.A.; Barnes, I.; Wingfield, B.D.; Wingfield, M.J.

    2014-01-01

    The genus Ceratocystis was established in 1890 and accommodates many important fungi. These include serious plant pathogens, significant insect symbionts and agents of timber degradation that result in substantial economic losses. Virtually since its type was described from sweet potatoes, the taxonomy of Ceratocystis has been confused and vigorously debated. In recent years, particulary during the last two decades, it has become very obvious that this genus includes a wide diversity of very different fungi. These have been roughly lumped together due to their similar morphological structures that have clearly evolved through convergent evolution linked to an insect-associated ecology. As has been true for many other groups of fungi, the emergence of DNA-based sequence data and associated phylogenetic inferences, have made it possible to robustly support very distinct boundaries defined by morphological characters and ecological differences. In this study, DNA-sequence data for three carefully selected gene regions (60S, LSU, MCM7) were generated for 79 species residing in the aggregate genus Ceratocystis sensu lato and these data were subjected to rigorous phylogenetic analyses. The results made it possible to distinguish seven major groups for which generic names have been chosen and descriptions either provided or emended. The emended genera included Ceratocystis sensu stricto, Chalaropsis, Endoconidiophora, Thielaviopsis, and Ambrosiella, while two new genera, Davidsoniella and Huntiella, were described. In total, 30 new combinations have been made. This major revision of the generic boundaries in the Ceratocystidaceae will simplify future treatments and work with an important group of fungi including distantly related species illogically aggregated under a single name. PMID:25492989

  2. Redefining Ceratocystis and allied genera.

    PubMed

    de Beer, Z W; Duong, T A; Barnes, I; Wingfield, B D; Wingfield, M J

    2014-09-01

    The genus Ceratocystis was established in 1890 and accommodates many important fungi. These include serious plant pathogens, significant insect symbionts and agents of timber degradation that result in substantial economic losses. Virtually since its type was described from sweet potatoes, the taxonomy of Ceratocystis has been confused and vigorously debated. In recent years, particulary during the last two decades, it has become very obvious that this genus includes a wide diversity of very different fungi. These have been roughly lumped together due to their similar morphological structures that have clearly evolved through convergent evolution linked to an insect-associated ecology. As has been true for many other groups of fungi, the emergence of DNA-based sequence data and associated phylogenetic inferences, have made it possible to robustly support very distinct boundaries defined by morphological characters and ecological differences. In this study, DNA-sequence data for three carefully selected gene regions (60S, LSU, MCM7) were generated for 79 species residing in the aggregate genus Ceratocystis sensu lato and these data were subjected to rigorous phylogenetic analyses. The results made it possible to distinguish seven major groups for which generic names have been chosen and descriptions either provided or emended. The emended genera included Ceratocystis sensu stricto, Chalaropsis, Endoconidiophora, Thielaviopsis, and Ambrosiella, while two new genera, Davidsoniella and Huntiella, were described. In total, 30 new combinations have been made. This major revision of the generic boundaries in the Ceratocystidaceae will simplify future treatments and work with an important group of fungi including distantly related species illogically aggregated under a single name. PMID:25492989

  3. Rare and new etiological agents revealed among 178 clinical Aspergillus strains obtained from Czech patients and characterized by molecular sequencing.

    PubMed

    Hubka, Vit; Kubatova, Alena; Mallatova, Nada; Sedlacek, Petr; Melichar, Jan; Skorepova, Magdalena; Mencl, Karel; Lyskova, Pavlina; Sramkova, Blanka; Chudickova, Milada; Hamal, Petr; Kolarik, Miroslav

    2012-08-01

    A collection of 178 Aspergillus isolates, recovered from Czech patients, mostly from 2007-2011, was subjected to multilocus DNA sequence typing using the ITS region, ?-tubulin, and calmodulin genes. An unusually wide spectrum of etiologic agents that included 36 species of Aspergillus is discussed in the context of recent taxonomic and clinical reports. Invasive aspergillosis (IA), onychomycosis, and otitis externa were the predominant clinical entities. Five cases due to species newly proven as etiologic agents of human mycoses, as well as cases with unique clinical manifestations caused by unusual agents are discussed in more detail. Three species (i.e., A. insulicola, A. westerdijkiae and A. tritici) were identified as the confirmed etiologic agents of non-dermatophytic onychomycosis. Emericella rugulosa was recovered from a premature newborn with a fatal necrotising disseminated infection and is reported for only the second time as the cause of IA. Furthermore, we document the first infection due to A. calidoustus in a patient with chronic granulomatous disease. The infection manifested as a latent brain aspergilloma with an unusual clinical-laboratory finding. In addition to the well-known agents of human mycosis, several rarely isolated or poorly documented species were identified. An undescribed cryptic species related to A. versicolor was found to be common among isolates linked to proven and probable onychomycosis. An isolate representing A. fresenii, or an unnamed sister species, were causal agents of otomycosis. Three well defined, and tentative new species belonging to section Cervini, Candidi and Aspergillus (Eurotium spp.), were associated with cases of probable onychomycosis. PMID:22458252

  4. Ochratoxin production by Aspergillus species.

    PubMed Central

    Varga, J; Kevei, E; Rinyu, E; Téren, J; Kozakiewicz, Z

    1996-01-01

    Ochratoxin production was tested in 172 strains representing species in sections Fumigati, Circumdati, Candidi, and Wentii of the genus Aspergillus by an immunochemical method using a monoclonal antibody preparation against ochratoxin A. Ochratoxin A was detected in Aspergillus ochraceus, A. alliaceus, A. sclerotiorum, A. sulphureus, A. albertensis, A. auricomus, and A. wentii strains. This is the first report of production of ochratoxins in the latter three species. Ochratoxin production by these species was confirmed by high-performance thin-layer chromatography and by high-performance liquid chromatography. The chemical methods also indicated the production of ochratoxin B by all of the Aspergillus strains mentioned above. PMID:8953717

  5. Morphological and molecular identification of filamentous Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus parasiticus isolated from compound feeds in South Africa.

    PubMed

    Iheanacho, Henry E; Njobeh, Patrick B; Dutton, Francis M; Steenkamp, Paul A; Steenkamp, Lucia; Mthombeni, Julian Q; Daru, Barnabas H; Makun, Anthony H

    2014-12-01

    Isolation of filamentous species of two Aspergillum genera from compound feeds produced in South Africa, and subsequent extraction of their individual DNA in this study, presents a simple but rapid molecular procedure for high through-put analysis of the individual morphological forms. DNA was successfully isolated from the Aspergillus spp. from agar cultures by use of a commercial kit. Agarose gel electrophoresis fractionation of the fungi DNA, showed distinct bands. The DNA extracted by this procedure appears to be relatively pure with a ratio absorbance at 260 and 280 nm. However, the overall morphological and molecular data indicated that 67.5 and 51.1% of feed samples were found to be contaminated with Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus parasiticus, respectively, with poultry feed having the highest contamination mean level of 5.7 × 105 CFU/g when compared to cattle (mean: 4.0 × 106 CFU/g), pig (mean: 2.7 × 104 CFU/g) and horse (1.0 × 102 CFU) feed. This technique presents a readily achievable, easy to use method in the extraction of filamentous fungal DNA and it's identification. Hence serves as an important tool towards molecular study of these organisms for routine analysis check in monitoring and improving compound feed quality against fungal contamination. PMID:25084661

  6. 76 FR 16297 - Aspergillus flavus

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-23

    ...toxigenic (aflatoxin-producing) fungi with atoxic fungi without an increase in the overall...no potential for harm from this fungus in its use as an antifungal agent...information, EPA concludes that the fungus, Aspergillus flavus AF36,...

  7. A trispecies Aspergillus microarray: Comparative transcriptomics of three Aspergillus species

    PubMed Central

    Andersen, Mikael R.; Vongsangnak, Wanwipa; Panagiotou, Gianni; Salazar, Margarita P.; Lehmann, Linda; Nielsen, Jens

    2008-01-01

    The full-genome sequencing of the filamentous fungi Aspergillus nidulans, Aspergillus niger, and Aspergillus oryzae has opened possibilities for studying the cellular physiology of these fungi on a systemic level. As a tool to explore this, we are making available an Affymetrix GeneChip developed for transcriptome analysis of any of the three above-mentioned aspergilli. Transcriptome analysis of triplicate batch cultivations of all three aspergilli on glucose and xylose media was used to validate the performance of the microarray. Gene comparisons of all three species and cross-analysis with the expression data identified 23 genes to be a conserved response across Aspergillus sp., including the xylose transcriptional activator XlnR. A promoter analysis of the up-regulated genes in all three species indicates the conserved XlnR-binding site to be 5?-GGNTAAA-3?. The composition of the conserved gene-set suggests that xylose acts as a molecule, indicating the presence of complex carbohydrates such as hemicellulose, and triggers an array of degrading enzymes. With this case example, we present a validated tool for transcriptome analysis of three Aspergillus species and a methodology for conducting cross-species evolutionary studies within a genus using comparative transcriptomics. PMID:18332432

  8. Aspergillus fumigatus and Aspergillosis

    PubMed Central

    Latgé, Jean-Paul

    1999-01-01

    Aspergillus fumigatus is one of the most ubiquitous of the airborne saprophytic fungi. Humans and animals constantly inhale numerous conidia of this fungus. The conidia are normally eliminated in the immunocompetent host by innate immune mechanisms, and aspergilloma and allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis, uncommon clinical syndromes, are the only infections observed in such hosts. Thus, A. fumigatus was considered for years to be a weak pathogen. With increases in the number of immunosuppressed patients, however, there has been a dramatic increase in severe and usually fatal invasive aspergillosis, now the most common mold infection worldwide. In this review, the focus is on the biology of A. fumigatus and the diseases it causes. Included are discussions of (i) genomic and molecular characterization of the organism, (ii) clinical and laboratory methods available for the diagnosis of aspergillosis in immunocompetent and immunocompromised hosts, (iii) identification of host and fungal factors that play a role in the establishment of the fungus in vivo, and (iv) problems associated with antifungal therapy. PMID:10194462

  9. The Mycobiota of Air Inside and Outside the Meju Fermentation Room and the Origin of Meju Fungi

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Dae-Ho; Kim, Sun-Hwa; Kwon, Soon-wo; Lee, Jong-Kyu

    2015-01-01

    The fungi on Meju are known to play an important role as degrader of macromolecule of soybeans. In order to elucidate the origin of fungi on traditional Meju, mycobiota of the air both inside and outside traditional Meju fermentation rooms was examined. From 11 samples of air collected from inside and outside of 7 Meju fermentation rooms, 37 genera and 90 species of fungi were identified. In outside air of the fermentation room, Cladosporium sp. and Cladosporium cladosporioides were the dominant species, followed by Cladosporium tenuissimum, Eurotium sp., Phoma sp., Sistotrema brinkmannii, Alternaria sp., Aspergillus fumigatus, Schizophyllum commune, and Penicillium glabrum. In inside air of the fermentation room, Cladosporium sp., Aspergillus oryzae, Penicillium chrysogenum, Asp. nidulans, Aspergillus sp., Cla. cladosporioides, Eurotium sp., Penicillium sp., Cla. tenuissimum, Asp. niger, Eur. herbariorum, Asp. sydowii, and Eur. repens were collected with high frequency. The concentrations of the genera Aspergillus, Eurotium, and Penicillium were significantly higher in inside air than outside air. From this result and those of previous reports, the origin of fungi present on Meju was inferred. Of the dominant fungal species present on Meju, Lichtheimia ramosa, Mucor circinelloides, Mucor racemosus, and Scopulariopsis brevicaulis are thought to be originated from outside air, because these species are not or are rarely isolated from rice straw and soybean; however, they were detected outside air of fermentation room and are species commonly found in indoor environments. However, Asp. oryzae, Pen. polonicum, Eur. repens, Pen. solitum, and Eur. chevalieri, which are frequently found on Meju, are common in rice straw and could be transferred from rice straw to Meju. The fungi grow and produce abundant spores during Meju fermentation, and after the spores accumulate in the air of fermentation room, they could influence mycobiota of Meju fermentation in the following year. This could explain why concentrations of the genera Aspergillus, Eurotium, and Penicillium are much higher inside than outside of the fermentation rooms. PMID:26539041

  10. The Mycobiota of Air Inside and Outside the Meju Fermentation Room and the Origin of Meju Fungi.

    PubMed

    Kim, Dae-Ho; Kim, Sun-Hwa; Kwon, Soon-Wo; Lee, Jong-Kyu; Hong, Seung-Beom

    2015-09-01

    The fungi on Meju are known to play an important role as degrader of macromolecule of soybeans. In order to elucidate the origin of fungi on traditional Meju, mycobiota of the air both inside and outside traditional Meju fermentation rooms was examined. From 11 samples of air collected from inside and outside of 7 Meju fermentation rooms, 37 genera and 90 species of fungi were identified. In outside air of the fermentation room, Cladosporium sp. and Cladosporium cladosporioides were the dominant species, followed by Cladosporium tenuissimum, Eurotium sp., Phoma sp., Sistotrema brinkmannii, Alternaria sp., Aspergillus fumigatus, Schizophyllum commune, and Penicillium glabrum. In inside air of the fermentation room, Cladosporium sp., Aspergillus oryzae, Penicillium chrysogenum, Asp. nidulans, Aspergillus sp., Cla. cladosporioides, Eurotium sp., Penicillium sp., Cla. tenuissimum, Asp. niger, Eur. herbariorum, Asp. sydowii, and Eur. repens were collected with high frequency. The concentrations of the genera Aspergillus, Eurotium, and Penicillium were significantly higher in inside air than outside air. From this result and those of previous reports, the origin of fungi present on Meju was inferred. Of the dominant fungal species present on Meju, Lichtheimia ramosa, Mucor circinelloides, Mucor racemosus, and Scopulariopsis brevicaulis are thought to be originated from outside air, because these species are not or are rarely isolated from rice straw and soybean; however, they were detected outside air of fermentation room and are species commonly found in indoor environments. However, Asp. oryzae, Pen. polonicum, Eur. repens, Pen. solitum, and Eur. chevalieri, which are frequently found on Meju, are common in rice straw and could be transferred from rice straw to Meju. The fungi grow and produce abundant spores during Meju fermentation, and after the spores accumulate in the air of fermentation room, they could influence mycobiota of Meju fermentation in the following year. This could explain why concentrations of the genera Aspergillus, Eurotium, and Penicillium are much higher inside than outside of the fermentation rooms. PMID:26539041

  11. Cyclopiazonic Acid Biosynthesis of Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus oryzae

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cyclopiazonic acid (CPA) is an indole-tetramic acid neurotoxin produced by some of the same strains of A. flavus that produce aflatoxins and by some Aspergillus oryzae strains. Despite its discovery 40 years ago, few reviews of its toxicity and biosynthesis have been reported. This review examines w...

  12. Characterization of Aspergillus species on Brazil nut from the Brazilian Amazonian region and development of a PCR assay for identification at the genus level

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Brazil nut is a protein-rich extractivist tree crop in the Amazon region. Fungal contamination of shells and kernel material frequently includes the presence of aflatoxigenic Aspergillus species from the section Flavi. Aflatoxins are polyketide secondary metabolites, which are hepatotoxic carcinogens in mammals. The objectives of this study were to identify Aspergillus species occurring on Brazil nut grown in different states in the Brazilian Amazon region and develop a specific PCR method for collective identification of member species of the genus Aspergillus. Results Polyphasic identification of 137 Aspergillus strains isolated from Brazil nut shell material from cooperatives across the Brazilian Amazon states of Acre, Amapá and Amazonas revealed five species, with Aspergillus section Flavi species A. nomius and A. flavus the most abundant. PCR primers ASP_GEN_MTSSU_F1 and ASP_GEN_MTSSU_R1 were designed for the genus Aspergillus, targeting a portion of the mitochondrial small subunit ribosomal RNA gene. Primer specificity was validated through both electronic PCR against target gene sequences at Genbank and in PCR reactions against DNA from Aspergillus species and other fungal genera common on Brazil nut. Collective differentiation of the observed section Flavi species A. flavus, A. nomius and A. tamarii from other Aspergillus species was possible on the basis of RFLP polymorphism. Conclusions Given the abundance of Aspergillus section Flavi species A. nomius and A. flavus observed on Brazil nut, and associated risk of mycotoxin accumulation, simple identification methods for such mycotoxigenic species are of importance for Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point system implementation. The assay for the genus Aspergillus represents progress towards specific PCR identification and detection of mycotoxigenic species. PMID:24885088

  13. Keratitis caused by Aspergillus pseudotamarii

    PubMed Central

    Baranyi, Nikolett; Kocsubé, Sándor; Szekeres, András; Raghavan, Anita; Narendran, Venkatapathy; Vágvölgyi, Csaba; Panneer Selvam, Kanesan; Babu Singh, Yendremban Randhir; Kredics, László; Varga, János; Manikandan, Palanisamy

    2013-01-01

    A male patient presented with complaints of redness, pain and defective vision in the left eye. The infiltrate healed completely after two weeks of topical natamycin administration. A polyphasic approach was used to identify the isolate as Aspergillus pseudotamarii, which produced aflatoxins in inducing medium. PMID:24432226

  14. Sexual reproduction in Aspergillus flavus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Aspergillus flavus is the major producer of carcinogenic aflatoxins in crops worldwide and is also an important opportunistic human pathogen in aspergillosis. The sexual state of this heterothallic fungus is described from crosses between strains of the opposite mating type. Sexual reproduction oc...

  15. Nine genera of Eucnemidae (Coleoptera) new to Peru, with a key to Peruvian genera

    PubMed Central

    Muona, Jyrki; Linna, Ari; Sääksjärvi, Ilari E.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Thirteen genera of Eucnemidae containing forty species were collected from the Iquitos region in Peru. Nine of the genera are new to the country: Rhagomicrus Fleutiaux, 1902, Adelorhagus Horn, 1890, Adelothyreus Chevrolat, 1867, Microrhagus Dejean, 1833, Dyscharachthis Blackburn, 1900, Heterotaxis Bonvouloir, 1871, Spinifornax Fleutiaux, 1926, Serrifornax Fleutiaux, 1926 and Maelodrus Fleutiaux, 1928. The previous eucnemid record from Peru contained eleven species in ten genera. Only one of the forty species caught, Entomophthalmus americanus Bonvouloir, was previously known and described from the country. Dyscharachthis, Maelodrus and Adelorhagus are recorded from South America for the first time. Many of the collected species seem to favor white-sand forest as their habitat. Possible reasons for this are discussed. A list of eucnemids from Peru is included, containing taxa already recorded from the country and also taxa that are likely to occur there. A key to the Peruvian genera is included. PMID:25834475

  16. Genome sizes for all genera of Cycadales.

    PubMed

    Zonneveld, B J M

    2012-01-01

    Nuclear DNA content (2C) is reported for all genera of the Cycadales, using flow cytometry with propidium iodide. Nuclear DNA content ranges from 24 to 64 pg in cycads. This implies that the largest genome contains roughly 40 × 10(9) more base pairs than the smallest genome. The narrow range in nuclear DNA content within a genus is remarkable for such an old group. Furthermore, 42 of the 58 plants measured, covering five genera, have 18 chromosomes. They vary from 36.1 to 64.7 pg, covering the whole range of genome sizes (excluding the genome of Cycas). Hence, their does not seem to be a correlation between genome size and the number of chromosomes. PMID:22117644

  17. Modelling of the growth/no growth interface of Wallemia sebi and Eurotium herbariorum as a function of pH, aw and ethanol concentration.

    PubMed

    Deschuyffeleer, N; Vermeulen, A; Daelman, J; Castelein, E; Eeckhout, M; Devlieghere, F

    2015-01-01

    High sugar products (sugar content > 50%) are generally considered to be stable against all forms of microbial spoilage during a prolonged shelf life of several months. However, one specific subgroup of micro-organisms, the xerophilic moulds, can develop quite fast on the surface of food products with a reduced water activity (< 0.85). The chance whether these xerophilic moulds are able to grow on the food product depends on the combination of intrinsic factors (e.g., water activity and pH) and the storage conditions (e.g., temperature). This study examines the development of growth/no growth models for the xerophilic moulds Wallemia sebi and Eurotium herbariorum in a sugar rich broth. Growth/no growth models are predictive models that are designed to give a prediction about the probability of growth of a spoilage micro-organism under a specific set of environmental conditions. In this research, a water activity between 0.75 and 0.90, a pH between 5.0 and 6.2, an ethanol concentration between 0% and 5% (g EtOH/g H2O) and their interactions were tested. The inoculated media were stored at 22 °C (± 1 °C) during a prolonged test period (up to 120 days). The obtained models were also validated in a chocolate-based food product (ganache). The resulting growth/no growth models show that the growth of W. sebi and E. herbariorum can be inhibited for a prolonged time (> 3 months) if an ethanol concentration of 5% on the water phase is present in the food product, irrespective of water activity values between 0.89 and 0.755. The necessary amount of ethanol for shorter shelf lives can be calculated with the models that were built. Although the models have not been validated thoroughly in actual food products, the preliminary results that were obtained by testing the model on a ganache indicated that the models are capable of delivering safe predictions. PMID:25317503

  18. Some New Genera of Paleozoic Calcareous Sponges

    E-print Network

    Finks, R. M.

    1995-04-01

    , gidroidnye polipy i korally verkhnego triasa Kavkazskogo khrebta [Algae, sponges, hydroid polyps, and corals of the Upper Trias of the Caucasus]. Uchemye Zapiski Lenengtadskogo Gosaudarstivennogo Universiteta, Series Geologo... SPONGES Robert M. Finks Department of Geology, Queens College CUNY, Flushing, New York 11367 Abstract.—This paper describes six new genera of Paleozoic calcareous sponges: three inozoans, one sclerosponge, one sphinctozoan, and one heteractinid. The first...

  19. What Does Genetic Diversity of Aspergillus flavus Tell Us About Aspergillus oryzae?

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus oryzae belong to Aspergillus section Flavi. They are closely related and are of significant economic importance. The former species has the ability to produce harmful aflatoxins while the latter is widely used in food fermentation and industrial enzyme production. ...

  20. Onychomycosis caused by Aspergillus versicolor.

    PubMed

    Veraldi, Stefano; Chiaratti, Anna; Harak, Henry

    2010-07-01

    We report a case of onychomycosis caused by Aspergillus versicolor in a 66-year-old female patient. The infection was characterised clinically by yellowish pigmentation of the nail plate and mild nail bed hyperkeratosis of the first left toe. All other nails were normal. Three direct microscopical examinations of nail samples revealed the presence of hyaline hyphae as well as conidiophores. Pure colonies of A. versicolor were found in three cultures. The patient was successfully treated with oral itraconazole. PMID:19422523

  1. Aspergillus tracheobronchitis in a mild immunocompromised host.

    PubMed

    Cho, Byung Ha; Oh, Youngmin; Kang, Eun Seok; Hong, Yong Joo; Jeong, Hye Won; Lee, Ok-Jun; Chang, You-Jin; Choe, Kang Hyeon; Lee, Ki Man; An, Jin-Young

    2014-11-01

    Aspergillus tracheobronchitis is a form of invasive pulmonary aspergillosis in which the Aspergillus infection is limited predominantly to the tracheobronchial tree. It occurs primarily in severely immunocompromised patients such as lung transplant recipients. Here, we report a case of Aspergillus tracheobronchitis in a 42-year-old man with diabetes mellitus, who presented with intractable cough, lack of expectoration of sputum, and chest discomfort. The patient did not respond to conventional treatment with antibiotics and antitussive agents, and he underwent bronchoscopy that showed multiple, discrete, gelatinous whitish plaques mainly involving the trachea and the left bronchus. On the basis of the bronchoscopic and microbiologic findings, we made the diagnosis of Aspergillus tracheobronchitis and initiated antifungal therapy. He showed gradual improvement in his symptoms and continued taking oral itraconazole for 6 months. Physicians should consider Aspergillus tracheobronchitis as a probable diagnosis in immunocompromised patients presenting with atypical respiratory symptoms and should try to establish a prompt diagnosis. PMID:25473411

  2. Elliptic Genera and 3d Gravity

    E-print Network

    Nathan Benjamin; Miranda C. N. Cheng; Shamit Kachru; Gregory W. Moore; Natalie M. Paquette

    2015-04-24

    We describe general constraints on the elliptic genus of a 2d supersymmetric conformal field theory which has a gravity dual with large radius in Planck units. We give examples of theories which do and do not satisfy the bounds we derive, by describing the elliptic genera of symmetric product orbifolds of $K3$, product manifolds, certain simple families of Calabi-Yau hypersurfaces, and symmetric products of the "Monster CFT." We discuss the distinction between theories with supergravity duals and those whose duals have strings at the scale set by the AdS curvature. Under natural assumptions we attempt to quantify the fraction of (2,2) supersymmetric conformal theories which admit a weakly curved gravity description, at large central charge.

  3. Isolation of culturable mycobiota from agricultural soils and determination of tolerance to glyphosate of nontoxigenic Aspergillus section Flavi strains.

    PubMed

    Carranza, Cecilia S; Barberis, Carla L; Chiacchiera, Stella M; Dalcero, Ana María; Magnoli, Carina E

    2016-01-01

    Glyphosate-based herbicides are extensively used in Argentina's agricultural system to control undesirable weeds. This study was conducted to evaluate the culturable mycobiota [colony forming units (CFU) g(-1) and frequency of fungal genera or species] from an agricultural field exposed to pesticides. In addition, we evaluated the tolerance of A. oryzae and nontoxigenic A. flavus strains to high concentrations (100 to 500 mM - 17,000 to 84,500 ppm) of a glyphosate commercial formulation. The analysis of the mycobiota showed that the frequency of the main fungal genera varied according to the analyzed sampling period. Aspergillus spp. or Aspergillus section Flavi strains were isolated from 20 to 100% of the soil samples. Sterilia spp. were also observed throughout the sampling (50 to 100%). Aspergillus section Flavi tolerance assays showed that all of the tested strains were able to develop at the highest glyphosate concentration tested regardless of the water availability conditions. In general, significant reductions in growth rates were observed with increasing concentrations of the herbicide. However, a complete inhibition of fungal growth was not observed with the concentrations assayed. This study contributes to the knowledge of culturable mycobiota from agricultural soils exposed to pesticides and provides evidence on the effective growth ability of A. oryzae and nontoxigenic A. flavus strains exposed to high glyphosate concentrations in vitro. PMID:26549415

  4. Aspergillus uvarum sp. nov., an uniseriate black Aspergillus species isolated from grapes in Europe.

    PubMed

    Perrone, Giancarlo; Varga, János; Susca, Antonia; Frisvad, Jens C; Stea, Gaetano; Kocsubé, Sándor; Tóth, Beáta; Kozakiewicz, Zofia; Samson, Robert A

    2008-04-01

    A novel species, Aspergillus uvarum sp. nov., is described within Aspergillus section Nigri. This species can be distinguished from other black aspergilli based on internal transcribed spacers (ITS), beta-tubulin and calmodulin gene sequences, by AFLP analysis and by extrolite profiles. Aspergillus uvarum sp. nov. isolates produced secalonic acid, common to other Aspergillus japonicus-related taxa, and geodin, erdin and dihydrogeodin, which are not produced by any other black aspergilli. None of the isolates were found to produce ochratoxin A. The novel species is most closely related to two atypical strains of Aspergillus aculeatus, CBS 114.80 and CBS 620.78, and was isolated from grape berries in Portugal, Italy, France, Israel, Greece and Spain. The type strain of Aspergillus uvarum sp. nov. is IMI 388523T=CBS 127591T=ITEM 4834T=IBT26606T. PMID:18398215

  5. Small heat shock proteins, phylogeny in filamentous fungi and expression analyses in Aspergillus nidulans.

    PubMed

    Wu, Jianbing; Wang, Mingshuang; Zhou, Liting; Yu, Dongliang

    2016-01-10

    Small heat shock proteins (sHSPs) have been characterized in organisms from all three domains of life and viruses and are involved in a wide range of biological functions. However, the evolution and function of sHSP in Aspergillus species are largely unknown. In the present work, sHSPs were identified in 31 filamentous fungi, including species from Aspergillus, Penicillium, Fusarium and Magnaporthe, as well as Botrytis cinerea and Neurospora crassa. Phylogenetic analysis revealed high level of divergence of sHSPs among filamentous fungi that orthologs could be only found between very closely related species. Strikingly, duplication of shsp genes occurred in genera Penicillium and also Aspergillus nidulans was observed, which might be an important pathway of sHSPs evolution. Expression analysis of shsp genes revealed that sHSPs were involved in response of A. nidulans to various conditions, including cold/heat as well as oxidative and osmotic stresses, and that the recent duplicated sHSPs in A. nidulans had highly similar function. PMID:26403724

  6. New genera and subgenera of augochlorine bees (Hymenoptera: Halictidae).

    E-print Network

    Engel, Michael S.; Brooks, Robert W.; Yanega, Douglas

    1997-12-17

    Two new augochlorine genera, Chlerogelloides and Xenochlora, and three new subgenera, Megalopta (Noctoraptor), Megommation (Stilbochlora), and Megommation (Cleptommation), are described and figured. Three new combinations ...

  7. Three new species of Aspergillus section Flavi isolated from almonds and maize in Portugal

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Three new aflatoxin-producing species belonging to Aspergillus section Flavi are described, Aspergillus mottae, Aspergillus sergii and Aspergillus transmontanensis. These species were isolated from Portuguese almonds and maize. An investigation examining morphology, extrolites and molecular data was...

  8. Onychomycosis due to Aspergillus candidus: case report.

    PubMed

    Cornere, B M; Eastman, M

    1975-07-01

    A patient is described who suffered from chronic fungal involvement of right great toe nail. Serial cultures of the removed nail demonstrated a non-dermatophyte, Aspergillus candidus, as the causative agent. PMID:125865

  9. Aspergillus waksmanii sp. nov. and Aspergillus marvanovae sp. nov., two closely related species in section Fumigati

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Two new and phylogenetically closely related species in Aspergillus section Fumigati are described and illustrated. Homothallic A. waksmanii was isolated from New Jersey soil (USA) and is represented by the ex-type isolate NRRL 179T (=CCF 4266= IBT 31900). Aspergillus marvanovae was isolated from wa...

  10. Variation in fungal microbiome (mycobiome) and aflatoxin in stored in-shell peanuts at four different areas of China

    PubMed Central

    Ding, Ning; Xing, Fuguo; Liu, Xiao; Selvaraj, Jonathan N.; Wang, Limin; Zhao, Yueju; Wang, Yan; Guo, Wei; Dai, Xiaofeng; Liu, Yang

    2015-01-01

    The contamination of peanuts with Aspergillus sp. and subsequently aflatoxins is considered to be one of the most serious safety problems in the world. Mycobiome in peanuts is critical for aflatoxin production and food safety. To evaluate the biodiversity and ecological characteristics of whole communities in stored peanuts, the barcoded Illumina paired-end sequencing of the internal transcribed spacer 2 (ITS2) region of rDNA was used to characterize the peanut mycobiome monthly over a period of 1 year at four main peanut grown areas, i.e., Liaoning (LN, North East), Shandong (SD, East), Hubei (HB, Central), and Guangdong (GD, South) provinces. The fungal diversity of peanuts stored in SD was the highest with 98 OTUs and 43 genera, followed by LN, HB and GD. In peanuts stored in SD, Rhizopus, Emericella, and Clonostachys were predominant. In peanuts from LN, Penicillium, Eurotium, and Clonostachys were abundant. In peanuts from HB, Penicillium, Eurotium, and Aspergillus were higher. In GD peanuts, Eurotium, Aspergillus, and Emericella were mainly seen. The abundances of Aspergillus in LN, SD, HB, and GD were 0.53, 6.29, 10.86, and 25.75%, respectively. From the North of China to the South, that increased over the latitude, suggesting that the higher temperature and relative humidity might increase the risk of peanuts contaminated with Aspergillus and aflatoxins. During the storage, Aspergillus levels were higher at 7–12 months than in 0–6 months, suggesting that the risk increases over storage time. At 7–10 months, AFB1 was higher in four areas, while declined further. The reduction of AFB1 might be attributed to the inhibition and degradation of AFB1 by Aspergillus niger or to the combination with the compounds of peanuts. This is the first study that identified the mycobiome and its variation in stored peanuts using ITS2 sequencing technology, and provides the basis for a detailed characterization of whole mycobiome in peanuts. PMID:26557107

  11. Copper induction and differential expression of laccase in Aspergillus flavus

    PubMed Central

    Gomaa, Ola M.; Momtaz, Osama A.

    2015-01-01

    Aspergillus flavus was isolated from soil and exhibited laccase activity under both constitutive and copper induced conditions. Spiking the medium with 1 mM copper sulfate resulted in an increase in the activity which reached 51.84 U/mL, a distinctive protein band was detected at 60 kDa. The extracellular enzyme was purified 81 fold using gel filtration chromatography and resulted in two different laccase fractions L1 and L2, the latter had a higher enzymatic activity which reached 79.57 U/mL and specific activity of 64.17 U/?g protein. The analysis of the spectrum of the L2 fraction showed a shoulder at 330 nm which is characteristic for T2/T3 copper centers; both copper and zinc were detected suggesting that this is an unconventional white laccase. Primers of laccase gene were designed and synthesized to recover specific gene from A. flavus . Sequence analysis indicated putative laccase (Genbank ID: JF683612) at the amino acid level suggesting a close identity to laccases from other genera containing the copper binding site. Decolorization of textile waste water under different conditions showed possible application in bioremediation within a short period of time. The effect of copper on A. flavus was concentration dependent. PMID:26221119

  12. 21 CFR 866.3040 - Aspergillus spp. serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...to identify antibodies to Aspergillus spp. in serum. The identification aids in the diagnosis of aspergillosis caused by fungi belonging to the genus Aspergillus. Aspergillosis is a disease marked by inflammatory granulomatous...

  13. 21 CFR 866.3040 - Aspergillus spp. serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...to identify antibodies to Aspergillus spp. in serum. The identification aids in the diagnosis of aspergillosis caused by fungi belonging to the genus Aspergillus. Aspergillosis is a disease marked by inflammatory granulomatous...

  14. Calmodulin inhibitors from Aspergillus stromatoides.

    PubMed

    González-Andrade, Martín; Del Valle, Paulina; Macías-Rubalcava, Martha L; Sosa-Peinado, Alejandro; Del Carmen González, María; Mata, Rachel

    2013-03-01

    An organic extract was prepared from the culture medium and mycelia of the marine fungus Aspergillus stromatoides RAPER & FENNELL. The extract was fractionated via column chromatography, and the resulting fractions were tested for their abilities to quench the fluorescence of the calmodulin (CaM) biosensor hCaM M124C-mBBr. From the active fraction, emodin (1) and ?-hydroxyemodin (2) were isolated as CaM inhibitors. Anthraquinones 1 and 2 quenched the fluorescence of the hCaM M124C-mBBr biosensor in a concentration-dependent manner with K(d) values of 0.33 and 0.76 ?M, respectively. The results were compared with those of chlorpromazine (CPZ), a classical inhibitor of CaM, with a K(d) value of 1.25 ?M. Docking analysis revealed that 1 and 2 bind to the same pocket of CPZ. The CaM inhibitor properties of 1 and 2 were correlated with some of their reported biological properties. Citrinin (3), methyl 8-hydroxy-6-methyl-9-oxo-9H-xanthene-1-carboxylate (4), and coniochaetone A (5) were also isolated in the present study. The X-ray structure of 5 is reported for the first time. PMID:23495150

  15. Conidial Hydrophobins of Aspergillus fumigatus

    PubMed Central

    Paris, Sophie; Debeaupuis, Jean-Paul; Crameri, Reto; Carey, Marilyn; Charlčs, Franck; Prévost, Marie Christine; Schmitt, Christine; Philippe, Bruno; Latgé, Jean Paul

    2003-01-01

    The surface of Aspergillus fumigatus conidia, the first structure recognized by the host immune system, is covered by rodlets. We report that this outer cell wall layer contains two hydrophobins, RodAp and RodBp, which are found as highly insoluble complexes. The RODA gene was previously characterized, and ?rodA conidia do not display a rodlet layer (N. Thau, M. Monod, B. Crestani, C. Rolland, G. Tronchin, J. P. Latgé, and S. Paris, Infect. Immun. 62:4380-4388, 1994). The RODB gene was cloned and disrupted. RodBp was highly homologous to RodAp and different from DewAp of A. nidulans. ?rodB conidia had a rodlet layer similar to that of the wild-type conidia. Therefore, unlike RodAp, RodBp is not required for rodlet formation. The surface of ?rodA conidia is granular; in contrast, an amorphous layer is present at the surface of the conidia of the ?rodA ?rodB double mutant. These data show that RodBp plays a role in the structure of the conidial cell wall. Moreover, rodletless mutants are more sensitive to killing by alveolar macrophages, suggesting that RodAp or the rodlet structure is involved in the resistance to host cells. PMID:12620846

  16. ASPERGILLUS LUCHUENSIS , AN INDUSTRIALLY IMPORTANT BLACK ASPERGILLUS IN EAST ASIA

    PubMed Central

    Hong, Seung-Beom; Lee, Mina; Kim, Dae-Ho; Varga, Janos; Frisvad, Jens C.; Perrone, Giancarlo; Gomi, Katsuya; Yamada, Osamu; Machida, Masayuki; Houbraken, Jos; Samson, Robert A.

    2013-01-01

    Aspergilli known as black- and white-koji molds which are used for awamori, shochu, makgeolli and other food and beverage fermentations, are reported in the literature as A. luchuensis, A. awamori, A. kawachii, or A. acidus. In order to elucidate the taxonomic position of these species, available ex-type cultures were compared based on morphology and molecular characters. A. luchuensis, A. kawachii and A. acidus showed the same banding patterns in RAPD, and the three species had the same rDNA-ITS, ?-tubulin and calmodulin sequences and these differed from those of the closely related A. niger and A. tubingensis. Morphologically, the three species are not significantly different from each other or from A. niger and A. tubingensis. It is concluded that A. luchuensis, A. kawachii and A. acidus are the same species, and A. luchuensis is selected as the correct name based on priority. Strains of A. awamori which are stored in National Research Institute of Brewing in Japan, represent A. niger (n?=?14) and A. luchuensis (n?=?6). The neotype of A. awamori (CBS 557.65?=? NRRL 4948) does not originate from awamori fermentation and it is shown to be identical with the unknown taxon Aspergillus welwitschiae. Extrolite analysis of strains of A. luchuensis showed that they do not produce mycotoxins and therefore can be considered safe for food and beverage fermentations. A. luchuensis is also frequently isolated from meju and nuruk in Korea and Puerh tea in China and the species is probably common in the fermentation environment of East Asia. A re-description of A. luchuensis is provided because the incomplete data in the original literature. PMID:23723998

  17. AMERICAN SOLENOCERID SHRIMPS OF THE GENERA HYMENOPENAEUS, HALIPOROIDES, PLEOTICUS,

    E-print Network

    , NOAA, National Museum of Natural History, Washington, DC 20560. Manuscript accepted November 1976AMERICAN SOLENOCERID SHRIMPS OF THE GENERA HYMENOPENAEUS, HALIPOROIDES, PLEOTICUS, HADROPENAEUS NEW GENUS, ANDMESOPENAEUS NEW GENUS ISABEL PEREZ FARFANTE1 ABSTRACT Twelve American species, one from Hawaii

  18. The melectine bee genera Brachymelecta and Sinomelecta (Hymenoptera, Apidae).

    E-print Network

    Engel, Michael S.; Michener, Charles D.

    2012-11-26

    and figured, including the first account of the hidden sterna and genitalia. Sinomelecta oreina Baker is similarly described and figured based on the holotype male and paratype female, apparently collected from the eastern Tibetan Plateau. Both genera...

  19. Bergbambos and Oldeania, new genera of African bamboos (Poaceae, Bambusoideae)

    PubMed Central

    Stapleton, Chris M. A.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Two new monotypic genera, Bergbambos and Oldeania are described for African temperate bamboo species in the tribe Arundinarieae, after a comparison of their morphological characteristics with those of similar species from Asia. Morphological differences are supported by their isolated geographical distributions. Molecular evidence does not support the inclusion of these species in related Asian genera, recognising them instead as distinct lineages. New combinations Bergbambos tessellata and Oldeania alpina are made. PMID:24198715

  20. A rare case of bilateral aspergillus endophthalmitis

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Saurabh; Loudill, Cameron; Tammara, Anita; Chow, Robert T.

    2015-01-01

    Aspergillus endophthalmitis is a devastating inflammatory condition of the intraocular cavities that may result in irreparable loss of vision and rapid destruction of the eye. Almost all cases in the literature have shown an identified source causing aspergillus endophthalmitis as a result of direct extension of disease. We present a rare case of bilateral aspergillus endophthalmitis. A 72-year-old woman with a history of diabetes mellitus, congenital Hirschsprung disease, and recent culture-positive candida pyelonephritis with hydronephrosis status post-surgical stent placement presented with difficulty opening her eyes. She complained of decreased vision (20/200) with pain and redness in both eyes – right worse then left. Examination demonstrated multiple white fungal balls in both retinas consistent with bilateral fungal endophthalmitis. Bilateral vitreous taps for cultures and staining were performed. Patient was given intravitreal injections of amphotericin B, vancomycin, ceftazidime, and started on oral fluconazole. Patient was scheduled for vitrectomy to decrease organism burden and to remove loculated areas of infection that would not respond to systemic antifungal agents. Four weeks after initial presentation, the fungal cultures revealed mold growth consistent with aspergillus. Patient was subsequently started on voriconazole and fluconazole was discontinued due to poor efficacy against aspergillus. Further workup was conducted to evaluate for the source of infection and seeding. Transthoracic cardiogram was unremarkable for any vegetation or valvular abnormalities. MRI of the orbits and sinuses did not reveal any mass lesions or bony destruction. CT of the chest was unremarkable for infection. Aspergillus endophthalmitis may occur because of one of these several mechanisms: hematogenous dissemination, direct inoculation by trauma, and contamination during surgery. Our patient's cause of bilateral endophthalmitis was through an unknown iatrogenic seed. PMID:26653687

  1. Evaluating fungal populations by genera/species on wide body commercial passenger aircraft and in airport terminals.

    PubMed

    McKernan, Lauralynn Taylor; Burge, Harriet; Wallingford, Kenneth M; Hein, Misty J; Herrick, Robert

    2007-04-01

    Given the potential health effects of fungi and the amount of time aircrew and passengers spend inside aircraft, it is important to study fungal populations in the aircraft environment. Research objectives included documenting the genera/species of airborne culturable fungal concentrations and total spore concentrations on a twin-aisle wide body commercial passenger aircraft. Twelve flights between 4.5 and 6.5 h in duration on Boeing 767 (B-767) aircraft were evaluated. Two air cooling packs and 50% recirculation rate (i.e. 50:50 mix of outside air and filtered inside air) were utilized during flight operations. Passenger occupancy rates varied from 67 to 100%. N-6 impactors and total spore traps were used to collect sequential, triplicate air samples in the front and rear of coach class during six sampling intervals throughout each flight: boarding, mid-climb, early cruise, mid-cruise, late cruise and deplaning. Comparison air samples were also collected inside and outside the airport terminals at the origin and destination cities resulting in a total of 522 culturable and 517 total spore samples. A total of 45 surface wipe samples were collected using swabs onboard the aircraft and inside the airport terminals. A variety of taxa were observed in the culturable and total spore samples. A frequency analysis of the fungal data indicated that Cladosporium, Aspergillus and Penicillium were predominant genera in the culturable samples whereas Cladosporium, Basidiospores and Penicillium/Aspergillus were predominant in the total spore samples. Fungal populations observed inside the aircraft were comprised of similar genera, detected significantly less frequently and with lower mean concentrations than those observed in typical office buildings. Although sources internal to the aircraft could not be ruled out, our data demonstrate the importance of passenger activity as the source of the fungi observed on aircraft. Isolated fungal peak events occurred occasionally when concentrations of a particular genus or species rose sharply inside the cabin for a limited period. Overall, our research demonstrates that on the sampled flights the B-767 filtration system operated efficiently to remove fungal spores when two air cooling packs and 50% recirculation rate were utilized during flight operations. PMID:17351266

  2. Aspergillus species: An emerging pathogen in onychomycosis among diabetics

    PubMed Central

    Wijesuriya, T. M.; Kottahachchi, J.; Gunasekara, T. D. C. P.; Bulugahapitiya, U.; Ranasinghe, K. N. P.; Neluka Fernando, S. S.; Weerasekara, M. M.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Approximately, 33% patients with diabetes are afflicted with onychomycosis. In the past, nondermatophyte molds have been regarded as opportunistic pathogens; recently, Aspergillus species are considered as emerging pathogens of toenail infections. In Sri Lanka, the prevalence of Aspergillus species in onychomycosis among diabetics is not well documented. Objective: To determine the proportion of Aspergillus onychomycosis, risk factors and knowledge among diabetics. Materials and Methods: This was descriptive cross-sectional study. Three hundred diabetic patients were included. Clinical examinations of patients’ toenails were performed by a clinical microbiologist. Laboratory identification was done, and pathogens were identified to the species level by morpho-physiological methods. All inferential statistics were tested at P < 0.05. Results: Among clinically suspected patients, 85% (255/300) were mycologically confirmed to have onychomycosis. Aspergillus species were most commonly isolated n = 180 (71%) followed by dermatophytes, yeasts, and other molds n = 75 (29%). Of the patients having Aspergillus onychomycosis, 149 (83%) were in the > age group. In men, Aspergillus onycomycosis was seen in 82%. Among patients who had Aspergillus nail infection, 114 (63%) had diabetes for a period of > years. Among patients who were engaged in agricultural activities, 77% were confirmed to have infected nails due to Aspergillus species. Conclusion: Aspergillus niger was the most common pathogen isolated from toenail infection. Aspergillus species should be considered as an important pathogen in toenail onychomycosis in diabetic patients. Risk factors associated with Aspergillus onychomycosis were age, gender, duration of diabetes, length of exposure to fungi, and occupation. PMID:26693433

  3. The Multitentaculate Cirratulidae of the Genera Cirriformia and Timarete (Annelida: Polychaeta) from

    E-print Network

    Paiva, Paulo Cesar de

    The Multitentaculate Cirratulidae of the Genera Cirriformia and Timarete (Annelida: Polychaeta Cirratulidae of the Genera Cirriformia and Timarete (Annelida: Polychaeta) from Shallow Waters of Brazil. PLo

  4. Taxonomic Characterization and Secondary Metabolite Profiling of Aspergillus Section Aspergillus Contaminating Feeds and Feedstuffs.

    PubMed

    Greco, Mariana; Kemppainen, Minna; Pose, Graciela; Pardo, Alejandro

    2015-09-01

    Xerophilic fungal species of the genus Aspergillus are economically highly relevant due to their ability to grow on low water activity substrates causing spoilage of stored goods and animal feeds. These fungi can synthesize a variety of secondary metabolites, many of which show animal toxicity, creating a health risk for food production animals and to humans as final consumers, respectively. Animal feeds used for rabbit, chinchilla and rainbow trout production in Argentina were analysed for the presence of xerophilic Aspergillus section Aspergillus species. High isolation frequencies (>60%) were detected in all the studied rabbit and chinchilla feeds, while the rainbow trout feeds showed lower fungal charge (25%). These section Aspergillus contaminations comprised predominantly five taxa. Twenty isolates were subjected to taxonomic characterization using both ascospore SEM micromorphology and two independent DNA loci sequencing. The secondary metabolite profiles of the isolates were determined qualitatively by HPLC-MS. All the isolates produced neoechinulin A, 17 isolates were positive for cladosporin and echinulin, and 18 were positive for neoechinulin B. Physcion and preechinulin were detected in a minor proportion of the isolates. This is the first report describing the detailed species composition and the secondary metabolite profiles of Aspergillus section Aspergillus contaminating animal feeds. PMID:26364643

  5. Taxonomic Characterization and Secondary Metabolite Profiling of Aspergillus Section Aspergillus Contaminating Feeds and Feedstuffs

    PubMed Central

    Greco, Mariana; Kemppainen, Minna; Pose, Graciela; Pardo, Alejandro

    2015-01-01

    Xerophilic fungal species of the genus Aspergillus are economically highly relevant due to their ability to grow on low water activity substrates causing spoilage of stored goods and animal feeds. These fungi can synthesize a variety of secondary metabolites, many of which show animal toxicity, creating a health risk for food production animals and to humans as final consumers, respectively. Animal feeds used for rabbit, chinchilla and rainbow trout production in Argentina were analysed for the presence of xerophilic Aspergillus section Aspergillus species. High isolation frequencies (>60%) were detected in all the studied rabbit and chinchilla feeds, while the rainbow trout feeds showed lower fungal charge (25%). These section Aspergillus contaminations comprised predominantly five taxa. Twenty isolates were subjected to taxonomic characterization using both ascospore SEM micromorphology and two independent DNA loci sequencing. The secondary metabolite profiles of the isolates were determined qualitatively by HPLC-MS. All the isolates produced neoechinulin A, 17 isolates were positive for cladosporin and echinulin, and 18 were positive for neoechinulin B. Physcion and preechinulin were detected in a minor proportion of the isolates. This is the first report describing the detailed species composition and the secondary metabolite profiles of Aspergillus section Aspergillus contaminating animal feeds. PMID:26364643

  6. Evaluation of aflatoxin degradation by Aspergillus flavus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Aflatoxins are highly toxic and hepatocarcinogenic compounds produced by Aspergillus flavus and A. parasiticus during infection of corn (maize), peanuts, cotton seed, and tree nuts (Figure 1). To minimize exposure to aflatoxins the U.S. Food and Drug Administration enforces a 20 ppb limit of aflatox...

  7. The sexual state of Aspergillus parasiticus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The sexual state of Aspergillus parasiticus, a potent aflatoxin-producing fungus within section Flavi, is described. The production of nonostiolate ascocarps surrounded by a separate peridium within the stroma places the teleomorph in the genus Petromyces. Petromyces parasiticus differs from P. a...

  8. Kipukasins: Nucleoside derivatives from Aspergillus versicolor.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Seven new aroyl uridine derivatives (kipukasins A-G; 1-7) were isolated from solid-substrate fermentation cultures of two different Hawaiian isolates of Aspergillus versicolor. The structures of compounds 1-7 were determined by analysis of NMR and MS data. The nucleoside portion of lead compound 1...

  9. Orbital aspergillus infection diagnosed by FNAC.

    PubMed

    Kuruba, Sree Lakshmi; Prabhakaran, Venkatesh C; Nagarajappa, A H; Biligi, Dayanand S

    2011-07-01

    Fungal infections of the orbit represent a small minority of orbital infections. However, due to the virulent nature of some of the fungal species, they can have a devastating effect on ocular functions. Most of these fungi are saprophytes, which cause opportunistic infections. Aspergillus is one such fungus that can cause infection at various sites in an immunosuppressed individual. Sinonasal aspergillus infection with orbital extension and orbital aspergillus infection progress relentlessly. They can have a precipitous clinical course resulting in total loss of vision. Fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) is rarely used as a preoperative diagnostic tool in the investigation of orbital mass lesions. Further, fungal infections of orbit are seldom diagnosed on FNAC. Two cases of fungal infection of the orbital and periorbital tissue diagnosed on FNAC are presented. A 50-year-old diabetic male presented with diminishing vision, pain, and forward protrusion of the left eye. On examination, he had upper eye lid fullness. A 55-year-old diabetic male presented with a swelling on the right upper eye lid. The patients were evaluated radiologically and then subjected to FNAC. The smears showed giant cells, histiocytes, epithelioid granulomas, and fungal hyphae. A diagnosis of fungal infection was arrived at which was subsequently confirmed by culture and biopsy. Orbital aspergillus infection can have a precipitous course. Computerized tomography and magnetic resonance imaging of the orbit provide crucial information. However, FNAC can help in making an early definitive diagnosis of fungal infection and thus obviate the need for a biopsy. PMID:21695805

  10. ASPERGILLUS BOMBYCIS GENOTYPES (RFLP) FROM SILKWORM CULTIVATION

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Eighteen isolates of Aspergillus bombycis from samples of dust, insect frass, and soil collected from 8 silkworm rearing facilities in Japan, as well as single silkworm rearing facilities in Indonesia and Malaysia, were subjected to DNA fingerprinting. PstI digests of total genomic DNA from each is...

  11. Phylogeny and subgeneric taxonomy of Aspergillus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The phylogeny of the genus Aspergillus and its teleomorphs is discussed based on multilocus sequence data. DNA sequence analysis was used to formulate a nucleotide sequence framework of the genus and to analyze character changes in relationship to the phylogeny hypothesized from the DNA sequence an...

  12. Microsatellite typing of Aspergillus flavus from clinical and environmental avian isolates.

    PubMed

    Hadrich, Inčs; Drira, Inčs; Neji, Sourour; Mahfoud, Nedia; Ranque, Stéphane; Makni, Fattouma; Ayadi, Ali

    2013-01-01

    Aspergillosis is one of the most common causes of death in captive birds. Aspergillus fumigatus accounts for approximately 95 % of aspergillosis cases and Aspergillus flavus is the second most frequent organism associated with avian infections. In the present study, the fungi were grown from avian clinical samples (post-mortem lung material) and environmental samples (eggs, food and litter). Microsatellite markers were used to type seven clinical avian isolates and 22 environmental isolates of A. flavus. A. flavus was the only species (28 % prevalence) detected in the avian clinical isolates, whereas this species ranked third (19 %) after members of the genera Penicillium (39 %) and Cladosporium (21 %) in the environmental samples. Upon microsatellite analysis, five to eight distinct alleles were detected for each marker. The marker with the highest discriminatory power had eight alleles and a 0.852 D value. The combination of all six markers yielded a 0.991 D value with 25 distinct genotypes. One clinical avian isolate (lung biopsy) and one environmental isolate (egg) shared the same genotype. Microsatellite typing of A. flavus grown from avian and environmental samples displayed an excellent discriminatory power and 100 % reproducibility. This study showed a clustering of clinical and environmental isolates, which were clearly separated. Based upon these results, aspergillosis in birds may be induced by a great diversity of isolates. PMID:22977077

  13. Inhibitory effects of benzaldehyde derivatives from the marine fungus Eurotium sp. SF-5989 on inflammatory mediators via the induction of heme oxygenase-1 in lipopolysaccharide-stimulated RAW264.7 macrophages.

    PubMed

    Kim, Kyoung-Su; Cui, Xiang; Lee, Dong-Sung; Ko, Wonmin; Sohn, Jae Hak; Yim, Joung Han; An, Ren-Bo; Kim, Youn-Chul; Oh, Hyuncheol

    2014-01-01

    Two benzaldehyde derivatives, flavoglaucin (1) and isotetrahydro-auroglaucin (2), were isolated from the marine fungus Eurotium sp. SF-5989 through bioassay- and 1H NMR-guided investigation. In this study, we evaluated the anti-inflammatory effects of these compounds in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated RAW264.7 macrophages. We demonstrated that compounds 1 and 2 markedly inhibited LPS-induced nitric oxide (NO) and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) production by suppressing inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) protein expression without affecting cell viability. We also demonstrated that the compounds reduced the secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines such as tumor necrosis factor-? (TNF-?), interleukin-1? (IL-1?) and interleukin-6 (IL-6). Furthermore, compounds 1 and 2 inhibited LPS-induced nuclear factor-?B (NF-?B) activation by suppressing phosphorylation of IkappaB (I?B). These results indicated that the anti-inflammatory effects of these benzaldehyde derivatives in LPS-stimulated RAW264.7 macrophages were due to the inactivation of the NF-?B pathway. In addition, compounds 1 and 2 induced heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) expression through the nuclear transcription factor-E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) translocation. The inhibitory effects of compounds 1 and 2 on the production of pro-inflammatory mediators and on NF-?B binding activity were reversed by HO-1 inhibitor tin protoporphyrin (SnPP). Thus, the anti-inflammatory effects of compounds 1 and 2 also correlated with their ability of inducing HO-1 expression. PMID:25535073

  14. Inhibitory Effects of Benzaldehyde Derivatives from the Marine Fungus Eurotium sp. SF-5989 on Inflammatory Mediators via the Induction of Heme Oxygenase-1 in Lipopolysaccharide-Stimulated RAW264.7 Macrophages

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Kyoung-Su; Cui, Xiang; Lee, Dong-Sung; Ko, Wonmin; Sohn, Jae Hak; Yim, Joung Han; An, Ren-Bo; Kim, Youn-Chul; Oh, Hyuncheol

    2014-01-01

    Two benzaldehyde derivatives, flavoglaucin (1) and isotetrahydro-auroglaucin (2), were isolated from the marine fungus Eurotium sp. SF-5989 through bioassay- and 1H NMR-guided investigation. In this study, we evaluated the anti-inflammatory effects of these compounds in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated RAW264.7 macrophages. We demonstrated that compounds 1 and 2 markedly inhibited LPS-induced nitric oxide (NO) and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) production by suppressing inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) protein expression without affecting cell viability. We also demonstrated that the compounds reduced the secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines such as tumor necrosis factor-? (TNF-?), interleukin-1? (IL-1?) and interleukin-6 (IL-6). Furthermore, compounds 1 and 2 inhibited LPS-induced nuclear factor-?B (NF-?B) activation by suppressing phosphorylation of IkappaB (I?B). These results indicated that the anti-inflammatory effects of these benzaldehyde derivatives in LPS-stimulated RAW264.7 macrophages were due to the inactivation of the NF-?B pathway. In addition, compounds 1 and 2 induced heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) expression through the nuclear transcription factor-E2–related factor 2 (Nrf2) translocation. The inhibitory effects of compounds 1 and 2 on the production of pro-inflammatory mediators and on NF-?B binding activity were reversed by HO-1 inhibitor tin protoporphyrin (SnPP). Thus, the anti-inflammatory effects of compounds 1 and 2 also correlated with their ability of inducing HO-1 expression. PMID:25535073

  15. New taxa in Aspergillus section Usti

    PubMed Central

    Samson, R.A.; Varga, J.; Meijer, M.; Frisvad, J.C.

    2011-01-01

    Based on phylogenetic analysis of sequence data, Aspergillus section Usti includes 21 species, inclucing two teleomorphic species Aspergillus heterothallicus (= Emericella heterothallica) and Fennellia monodii. Aspergillus germanicus sp. nov. was isolated from indoor air in Germany. This species has identical ITS sequences with A. insuetus CBS 119.27, but is clearly distinct from that species based on ?-tubulin and calmodulin sequence data. This species is unable to grow at 37 °C, similarly to A. keveii and A. insuetus. Aspergillus carlsbadensis sp. nov. was isolated from the Carlsbad Caverns National Park in New Mexico. This taxon is related to, but distinct from a clade including A. calidoustus, A. pseudodeflectus, A. insuetus and A. keveii on all trees. This species is also unable to grow at 37 °C, and acid production was not observed on CREA. Aspergillus californicus sp. nov. is proposed for an isolate from chamise chaparral (Adenostoma fasciculatum) in California. It is related to a clade including A. subsessilis and A. kassunensis on all trees. This species grew well at 37 °C, and acid production was not observed on CREA. The strain CBS 504.65 from soil in Turkey showed to be clearly distinct from the A. deflectus ex-type strain, indicating that this isolate represents a distinct species in this section. We propose the name A. turkensis sp. nov. for this taxon. This species grew, although rather restrictedly at 37 °C, and acid production was not observed on CREA. Isolates from stored maize, South Africa, as a culture contaminant of Bipolaris sorokiniana from indoor air in Finland proved to be related to, but different from A. ustus and A. puniceus. The taxon is proposed as the new species A. pseudoustus. Although supported only by low bootstrap values, F. monodii was found to belong to section Usti based on phylogenetic analysis of either loci BLAST searches to the GenBank database also resulted in closest hits from section Usti. This species obviously does not belong to the Fennellia genus, instead it is a member of the Emericella genus. However, in accordance with the guidelines of the Amsterdam Declaration on fungal nomenclature (Hawksworth et al. 2011), and based on phylogenetic and physiological evidence, we propose the new combination Aspergillus monodii comb. nov. for this taxon. Species assigned to section Usti can be assigned to three chemical groups based on the extrolites. Aspergillus ustus, A. granulosus and A. puniceus produced ustic acid, while A. ustus and A. puniceus also produced austocystins and versicolorins. In the second chemical group, A. pseudodeflectus produced drimans in common with the other species in this group, and also several unique unknown compounds. Aspergillus calidoustus isolates produced drimans and ophiobolins in common with A. insuetus and A. keveii, but also produced austins. Aspergillus insuetus isolates also produced pergillin while A. keveii isolates produced nidulol. In the third chemical group, E. heterothallica has been reported to produce emethallicins, 5'-hydroxyaveranthin, emeheterone, emesterones, 5'-hydroxyaveranthin. PMID:21892244

  16. Distinctions between the snake genera Contia and Eirenis

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stickel, W.H.

    1951-01-01

    Summary: Various workers have believed Contia to be related to or congeneric with either or both Sonora and Eirenis, the latter a genus of Western Asia. Study of hemipenes, teeth, and jaws indicates that these genera are not related to one another. The hemipenes of Eirenis modesta and Contia tenuis are described. Eirenis is thought to be a derivative of the racer group. Relationships of Contia are unknown. It is suggested that some North American genera with xenodontine-type hemipenes may not be of the South American faunal element and may have been in North America at least as long as the Old Northerners.

  17. Keys to genera of the spider wasps (Hymenoptera: Pompilidae) of Russia and neighbouring countries, with check-list of genera.

    PubMed

    Loktionov, Valery M; Lelej, Arkady S

    2015-01-01

    Keys to 55 genera of spider wasps of Russia and neighbouring countries in females and males are given. Of them 34 genera are distributed in Russia. An annotated list of genera with type species and distribution data within Russia and biogeographical regions is given. The genus Xenaporus Ashmead, 1902 and X. eremocanus Wolf, 1990 are newly recorded from Russia. According to ICZN 1995 (Opinion 1820) new synonymy (valid name first) is proposed for the type species of genus Cryptocheilus Panzer, 1806: Sphex annulata Fabricius, 1798 (=Pompilus alternatus Lepeletier de Saint Fargeau, 1845, syn. nov.; =Pompilus comparatus Smith, 1855, syn. nov.; =Priocnemis culpabilis Costa, 1893, syn. nov.; Salius annulatilis Richards, 1935, syn. nov.). PMID:26624432

  18. Aspergillus fumigatus spondylodiskitis in renal transplant patient: voriconazole experience.

    PubMed

    Ersoy, Alparslan; Dizdar, Oguzhan Sitki; Koc, Aysegul Oruc; Akalin, Halis; Ener, Beyza

    2011-08-01

    The incidence of invasive aspergillosis has increased after solid organ transplant. However, aspergillus osteomyelitis in vertebrae is rare. We report a case of aspergillus spondylodiskitis after pulmonary aspergillosis in a renal transplant recipient. He was treated by antifungal therapy and surgical intervention. The transplantist should be alert for a diagnosis of aspergillus spondylodiskitis in recipients who developed back pain after aspergillosis infection in other sites. PMID:21819372

  19. Leaf-inhabiting genera of the Gnomoniaceae, Diaporthales

    PubMed Central

    Sogonov, M.V.; Castlebury, L.A.; Rossman, A.Y.; Mejía, L.C.; White, J.F.

    2008-01-01

    The Gnomoniaceae are characterised by ascomata that are generally immersed, solitary, without a stroma, or aggregated with a rudimentary stroma, in herbaceous plant material especially in leaves, twigs or stems, but also in bark or wood. The ascomata are black, soft-textured, thin-walled, and pseudoparenchymatous with one or more central or eccentric necks. The asci usually have a distinct apical ring. The Gnomoniaceae includes species having ascospores that are small, mostly less than 25 ?m long, although some are longer, and range in septation from non-septate to one-septate, rarely multi-septate. Molecular studies of the Gnomoniaceae suggest that the traditional classification of genera based on characteristics of the ascomata such as position of the neck and ascospores such as septation have resulted in genera that are not monophyletic. In this paper the concepts of the leaf-inhabiting genera in the Gnomoniaceae are reevaluated using multiple genes, specifically nrLSU, translation elongation factor 1-alpha (tef1-?), and RNA polymerase II second largest subunit (rpb2) for 64 isolates. ITS sequences were generated for 322 isolates. Six genera of leaf-inhabiting Gnomoniaceae are defined based on placement of their type species within the multigene phylogeny. The new monotypic genus Ambarignomonia is established for an unusual species, A. petiolorum. A key to 59 species of leaf-inhabiting Gnomoniaceae is presented and 22 species of Gnomoniaceae are described and illustrated. PMID:19287541

  20. Biogeography and phylogeny of the New Zealand cicada genera (Hemiptera

    E-print Network

    Simon, Chris

    ORIGINAL ARTICLE Biogeography and phylogeny of the New Zealand cicada genera (Hemiptera: Cicadidae Zealand cicadas all belong to the tribe Cicadettini, a cosmopolitan tribe in the southern hemisphere (two species) Dugdale, and Amphipsalta (three species) Fleming. Nearly all New Zealand cicada species

  1. Catalog of the Aphid Genera Described from the New World

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This manuscript presents a synthesis and catalogue of the genera of New World aphids (sensu stricto) from 1758 to 2004. It includes information on 215 generic and subgeneric names, type localities, bibliographic information, etymology, as well as synonymic and other nomenclatural data. Two nomencl...

  2. Review paper The Genera Cylindrocladium and Cylindrocladiella in South

    E-print Network

    been found on tree genera such as Eucalyptus, Pinus and Acacia. This paper provides a review of current Africa (Lundquist and Baxter, 1985). Additional local hosts for C. scoparium include Acacia spp. (Doidge recently been isolated by us from roots of Acacia mearnsii de Wild, Pinus radiata D. Don. and forest litter

  3. TECHNICAL NOTE Microsatellites for three distantly related genera

    E-print Network

    Rieseberg, Loren

    site of a pUC19 plasmid. The recombinant plasmids were then electroporated into Escherichia coli strain and tested cross-species and cross-genus transfer success of these primers for two other genera in the Brassicaceae; Card- amine and Smelowskia. Furthermore, 15 previously developed microsatellites were tested

  4. Character-based DNA barcoding allows discrimination of genera, species

    E-print Network

    DeSalle, Rob

    Character-based DNA barcoding allows discrimination of genera, species and populations in Odonata J 06520-8104, USA DNA barcoding has become a promising means for identifying organisms of all life stages taxonomic groups cannot be determined. As an alternative, DNA barcoding approaches can be `character based

  5. REGULAR PAPER Molecular systematics of Angelica and allied genera (Apiaceae)

    E-print Network

    Downie, Stephen R.

    REGULAR PAPER Molecular systematics of Angelica and allied genera (Apiaceae) from the Hengduan species of Angelica and Peucedanum endemic to the Hengduan Mountains of south-central China. Results of these analyses corroborate a monophyletic Angelica (Angelica sensu stricto) upon the inclusion of Coelo- pleurum

  6. Aspergillus bertholletius sp. nov. from Brazil Nuts

    PubMed Central

    Taniwaki, Marta H.; Pitt, John I.; Iamanaka, Beatriz T.; Sartori, Daniele; Copetti, Marina V.; Balajee, Arun; Fungaro, Maria Helena P.; Frisvad, Jens C.

    2012-01-01

    During a study on the mycobiota of brazil nuts (Bertholletia excelsa) in Brazil, a new Aspergillus species, A. bertholletius, was found, and is described here. A polyphasic approach was applied using morphological characters, extrolite data as well as partial ?-tubulin, calmodulin and ITS sequences to characterize this taxon. A. bertholletius is represented by nineteen isolates from samples of brazil nuts at various stages of production and soil close to Bertholletia excelsa trees. The following extrolites were produced by this species: aflavinin, cyclopiazonic acid, kojic acid, tenuazonic acid and ustilaginoidin C. Phylogenetic analysis using partial ?-tubulin and camodulin gene sequences showed that A. bertholletius represents a new phylogenetic clade in Aspergillus section Flavi. The type strain of A. bertholletius is CCT 7615 (?=?ITAL 270/06?=?IBT 29228). PMID:22952594

  7. Degradation of ochratoxin A by Aspergillus species.

    PubMed

    Varga, J; Rigó, K; Téren, J

    2000-07-25

    Mycotoxin contamination of agricultural products is a serious health hazard throughout the world. Besides attempts to eliminate mycotoxins from contaminated substrates by physical and chemical methods, the ability of microbes to degrade mycotoxins is now being widely examined. In this study, several Aspergillus species were examined for their ability to degrade ochratoxin A. A. fumigatus and black Aspergillus strains were found to detoxify ochratoxin A in culture media. The kinetics of ochratoxin A detoxification by an atoxigenic A. niger strain was examined by thin layer chromatography, high-performance liquid chromatography and an immunochemical technique. A. niger CBS 120.49 was found to effectively eliminate ochratoxin A from both liquid and solid media, and the degradation product, ochratoxin alpha, was also decomposed. PMID:10946833

  8. The Botryosphaeriaceae: genera and species known from culture

    PubMed Central

    Phillips, A.J.L.; Alves, A.; Abdollahzadeh, J.; Slippers, B.; Wingfield, M.J.; Groenewald, J.Z.; Crous, P.W.

    2013-01-01

    In this paper we give an account of the genera and species in the Botryosphaeriaceae. We consider morphological characters alone as inadequate to define genera or identify species, given the confusion it has repeatedly introduced in the past, their variation during development, and inevitable overlap as representation grows. Thus it seems likely that all of the older taxa linked to the Botryosphaeriaceae, and for which cultures or DNA sequence data are not available, cannot be linked to the species in this family that are known from culture. Such older taxa will have to be disregarded for future use unless they are epitypified. We therefore focus this paper on the 17 genera that can now be recognised phylogenetically, which concentrates on the species that are presently known from culture. Included is a historical overview of the family, the morphological features that define the genera and species and detailed descriptions of the 17 genera and 110 species. Keys to the genera and species are also provided. Phylogenetic relationships of the genera are given in a multi-locus tree based on combined SSU, ITS, LSU, EF1-? and ?-tubulin sequences. The morphological descriptions are supplemented by phylogenetic trees (ITS alone or ITS + EF1-?) for the species in each genus. Taxonomic novelties: New species - Neofusicoccum batangarum Begoude, Jol. Roux & Slippers. New combinations - Botryosphaeria fabicerciana (S.F. Chen, D. Pavlic, M.J. Wingf. & X.D. Zhou) A.J.L. Phillips & A. Alves, Botryosphaeria ramosa (Pavlic, T.I. Burgess, M.J. Wingf.) A.J.L. Phillips & A. Alves, Cophinforma atrovirens (Mehl & Slippers) A. Alves & A.J.L. Phillips, Cophinforma mamane (D.E. Gardner) A.J.L. Phillips & A. Alves, Dothiorella pretoriensis (Jami, Gryzenh., Slippers & M.J. Wingf.) Abdollahz. & A.J.L. Phillips, Dothiorella thailandica (D.Q. Dai., J.K. Liu & K.D. Hyde) Abdollahz., A.J.L. Phillips & A. Alves, Dothiorella uruguayensis (C.A. Pérez, Blanchette, Slippers & M.J. Wingf.) Abdollahz. & A.J.L. Phillips, Lasiodiplodia lignicola (Ariyawansa, J.K. Liu & K.D. Hyde) A.J.L. Phillips, A. Alves & Abdollahz., Neoscytalidium hyalinum (C.K. Campb. & J.L. Mulder) A.J.L. Phillips, Groenewald & Crous, Sphaeropsis citrigena (A.J.L. Phillips, P.R. Johnst. & Pennycook) A.J.L. Phillips & A. Alves, Sphaeropsis eucalypticola (Doilom, J.K. Liu, & K.D. Hyde) A.J.L. Phillips, Sphaeropsis porosa (Van Niekerk & Crous) A.J.L. Phillips & A. Alves. Epitypification (basionym) - Sphaeria sapinea Fries. Neotypifications (basionyms) - Botryodiplodia theobromae Pat., Physalospora agaves Henn, Sphaeria atrovirens var. visci Alb. & Schwein. PMID:24302790

  9. Antibiotic Extraction as a Recent Biocontrol Method for Aspergillus Niger andAspergillus Flavus Fungi in Ancient Egyptian mural paintings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hemdan, R.; et al.

    Biodeterioration of mural paintings by Aspergillus niger and Aspergillus flavus Fungi has been proved in different mural paintings in Egypt nowadays. Several researches have studied the effect of fungi on mural paintings, the mechanism of interaction and methods of control. But none of these researches gives us the solution without causing a side effect. In this paper, for the first time, a recent treatment by antibiotic "6 penthyl ? pyrone phenol" was applied as a successful technique for elimination of Aspergillus niger and Aspergillus flavus. On the other hand, it is favorable for cleaning Surfaces of Murals executed by tembera technique from the fungi metabolism which caused a black pigments on surfaces.

  10. AFLATOXIGENICITY IN ASPERGILLUS: MOLECULAR GENETICS, PHYLOGENETIC RELATIONSHIPS AND EVOLUTIONARY IMPLICATIONS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Aflatoxins are toxic and carcinogenic secondary metabolites produced by isolates of Aspergillus section Flavi, as well as a number of Aspergillus isolates that are classified outside of section Flavi. Characterization of the aflatoxin and sterigmatocystin gene clusters and analysis of factors gover...

  11. Ecology, development and gene regulation in Aspergillus flavus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Aspergillus flavus is one of the most widely known species of Aspergillus. It was described as a species in 1809 and first reported as a plant pathogen in 1920. More recently, A. flavus has emerged as an important opportunistic pathogen and is now rec¬ognized as the second leading cause of aspergill...

  12. Genomic Islands in Pathogenic Filamentous Fungus Aspergillus fumigatus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We present the genome sequences of a new clinical isolate, CEA10, of an important human pathogen, Aspergillus fumigatus, and two closely related, but rarely pathogenic species, Neosartorya fischeri NRRL181 and Aspergillus clavatus NRRL1. Comparative genomic analysis of CEA10 with the recently sequen...

  13. Prospective Multicenter International Surveillance of Azole Resistance in Aspergillus fumigatus

    PubMed Central

    Arendrup, M.C.; Warris, A.; Lagrou, K.; Pelloux, H.; Hauser, P.M.; Chryssanthou, E.; Mellado, E.; Kidd, S.E.; Tortorano, A.M.; Dannaoui, E.; Gaustad, P.; Baddley, J.W.; Uekötter, A.; Lass-Flörl, C.; Klimko, N.; Moore, C.B.; Denning, D.W.; Pasqualotto, A.C.; Kibbler, C.; Arikan-Akdagli, S.; Andes, D.; Meletiadis, J.; Naumiuk, L.; Nucci, M.; Melchers, W.J.G.; Verweij, P.E.

    2015-01-01

    To investigate azole resistance in clinical Aspergillus isolates, we conducted prospective multicenter international surveillance. A total of 3,788 Aspergillus isolates were screened in 22 centers from 19 countries. Azole-resistant A. fumigatus was more frequently found (3.2% prevalence) than previously acknowledged, causing resistant invasive and noninvasive aspergillosis and severely compromising clinical use of azoles. PMID:25988348

  14. Somatic Embryogenesis in Two Orchid Genera (Cymbidium, Dendrobium).

    PubMed

    Teixeira da Silva, Jaime A; Winarto, Budi

    2016-01-01

    The protocorm-like body (PLB) is the de facto somatic embryo in orchids. Here we describe detailed protocols for two orchid genera (hybrid Cymbidium Twilight Moon 'Day Light' and Dendrobium 'Jayakarta', D. 'Gradita 31', and D. 'Zahra FR 62') for generating PLBs. These protocols will most likely have to be tweaked for different cultivars as the response of orchids in vitro tends to be dependent on genotype. In addition to primary somatic embryogenesis, secondary (or repetitive) somatic embryogenesis is also described for both genera. The use of thin cell layers as a sensitive tissue assay is outlined for hybrid Cymbidium while the protocol outlined is suitable for bioreactor culture of D. 'Zahra FR 62'. PMID:26619873

  15. Aspergillus tanneri sp. nov, a new pathogenic Aspergillus that causes invasive disease refractory to antifungal therapy

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This is the first report documenting fatal invasive aspergillosis caused by a new pathogenic Aspergillus species that is inherently resistant to antifungal drugs. Phenotypic characteristics of A. tanneri combined with the molecular approach enabled diagnosis of this new pathogen. This study undersco...

  16. The population genomics of mycotoxin diversity in Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus parasiticus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Mycotoxins, and especially the aflatoxins, are an enormous problem in agriculture, with aflatoxin B1 being the most carcinogenic known natural compound. The worldwide costs associated with aflatoxin monitoring and crop losses are in the hundreds of millions of dollars. Aspergillus flavus and A. par...

  17. Aflatoxin Biosynthesis and Sclerotial Development in Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus parasiticus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Aflatoxins are a family of fungal secondary metabolites. They are produced by species in the genus Aspergillus. Within the last decade, significant advances have been made in understanding the biochemistry, genetics, and gene regulation of aflatoxin biosynthesis. Many scientists have used aflatox...

  18. Aspergillus pragensis sp. nov. discovered during molecular reidentification of clinical isolates belonging to Aspergillus section Candidi

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The identity of nine clinical isolates from Czech patients presumably belonging to Aspergillus section Candidi based on morphology of colonies was revised using sequences of ß-tubulin, calmodulin, and internal transcribed spacer (ITS) rDNA. The set of isolates included six isolates from suspected (n...

  19. The melectine bee genera Brachymelecta and Sinomelecta (Hymenoptera, Apidae)

    E-print Network

    Engel, Michael S.; Michener, Charles D.

    2012-01-01

    of the hidden sterna and genitalia. Sinomelecta oreina Baker is similarly described and figured based on the holotype male and paratype female, apparently collected from the eastern Tibetan Plateau. Both genera are valid and from the available data do... (by comparison to the merely 112+ year old genitalia of S. oreina), the genital capsule and hidden sterna were easily removed from between TVII and SVI and after a gentle bath in a weak potassium hydroxide solution, most of the surrounding...

  20. Evolutionary relationships among Aspergillus terreus isolates and their relatives.

    PubMed

    Varga, János; Tóth, Beáta; Kocsubé, Sándor; Farkas, Balázs; Szakács, György; Téren, József; Kozakiewicz, Zofia

    2005-08-01

    Aspergillus terreus is a ubiquitous fungus in our environment. It is an opportunistic human pathogen and economically important as the main producer of lovastatin, a cholesterol lowering drug. Our aim was to examine the genetic variability of A. terreus and closely related species using molecular and analytical techniques. Lovastatin production was examined by HPLC. Lovastatin was produced by seven isolates belonging to the species A. terreus. RAPD analyses were carried out using 25 different random primers. Neighbor-joining analysis of RAPD data (120 characters) resulted in clustering of the A. terreus isolates into distinct groups. Some correlation was observed between lovastatin producing abilities of the isolates and their position on the dendrogram based on RAPD profiles. The internal transcribed spacer region and the 5.8S rRNA gene of A. terreus and related isolates was also sequenced. Phylogenetic analysis of sequence data let us classify the isolates into different clades which mostly correspond to the species Aspergillus terreus, Aspergillus flavipes, Aspergillus niveus, Aspergillus carneus and Aspergillus janus/A. janus var. brevis. Aspergillus allahabadii, A. terreus var. aureus and A. niveus var. indicus belonged to the A. niveus clade, while an Aspergillus isolate previously classified as A. niveus was most closely related to A. flavipes isolates. Aspergillus anthodesmis formed a distinct branch on the tree. Although it was previously suggested based on 28S rDNA sequence data that Aspergillus section Terrei should include A. carneus and A. niveus isolates, phylogenetic analysis of ITS sequences indicate that A. flavipes isolates are more closely related to A. terreus than A. carneus isolates. Our data suggest that sections Terrei and Flavipedes should be merged. However, further loci should be analysed to draw more definite conclusions. PMID:16096690

  1. ADOPTING SELECTED HYDROGEN BONDING AND IONIC INTERACTIONS FROM ASPERGILLUS FUMIGATUS PHYTASE STRUCTURE IMPROVES THE THERMOSTABILITY OF ASPERGILLUS NIGER PHYA PHYTASE

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Although it has been widely used as a feed supplement to reduce manure phosphorus pollution of swine and poultry, Aspergillus niger PhyA phytase is unable to withstand heat inactivation during feed pelleting. Crystal structure comparisons with its close homolog, the thermostable Aspergillus fumigatu...

  2. Immunochemical characterization of Aspergillus fumigatus antigens.

    PubMed Central

    Kurup, V P; Ting, E Y; Fink, J N

    1983-01-01

    Culture filtrate antigens of Aspergillus fumigatus Ag 534 were purified by preparative isoelectric focusing and affinity chromatography. One of the pooled antigen fractions from the preparative isoelectric focusing step (pool 2) was passed through a concanavalin A column and yielded two components, designated antigens IIa and IIb. Antigen IIb reacted more strongly than antigen IIa with all of the aspergilloma and allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis sera tested by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The glycoprotein nature of antigen IIb was shown by the concanavalin A binding properties and staining reactions of the components. PMID:6347893

  3. The phylogeny and classification of the Gronotoma group s.l. of genera (Hymenoptera: Figitidae: Eucoilinae) 

    E-print Network

    Buffington, Matthew Louis

    2000-01-01

    Phylogenetic analysis of 96 morphological features and 1 biological feature reveal that the Gronotoma group of genera, as originally defined, is paraphyletic with respect to the remaining eucoiline genera. Thus, three new ...

  4. Global Diversity and Phylogeny of Pelagic Shrimps of the Former Genera Sergestes and Sergia (Crustacea, Dendrobranchiata, Sergestidae), with Definition of Eight New Genera

    PubMed Central

    Vereshchaka, Alexander L.; Olesen, Jřrgen; Lunina, Anastasia A.

    2014-01-01

    We revise the global diversity of the former genera Sergia and Sergestes which include 71 valid species. The revision is based on examination of more than 37,000 specimens from collections in the Natural History Museum of Denmark and the Museum of Natural History, Paris. We used 72 morphological characters (61 binary, 11 multistate) and Sicyonella antennata as an outgroup for cladistic analysis. There is no support for the genera Sergia and Sergestes as they have been defined until now. We define and diagnose eight genera of the former genus Sergia (Sergia and new genera Gardinerosergia, Phorcosergia, Prehensilosergia, Robustosergia, Scintillosergia, Challengerosergia, and Lucensosergia) and seven genera of the former genus Sergestes (Sergestes, Deosergestes, Eusergestes, Allosergestes, Parasergestes, Neosergestes, and a new genus Cornutosergestes). An identification key is presented for all genera of the family Sergestidae. The phylogeny of Sergestidae is mainly based on three categories of characters related to: (1) general decapod morphology, (2) male copulatory organs, and (3) photophores. Only simultaneous use of all three character types resulted in a resolved tree with minimal Bootstrap support 75 for each clade. Most genera are interzonal mesopelagic migrants, some are benthopelagic (Scintillosergia, Lucensosergia), bathypelagic (Sergia), or epipelagic (Cornutosergestes). Within each of meso- and benthopelagic genera there is one species with panoceanic distribution, while most species ranges are restricted to a single ocean. The genera demonstrate two different strategies expressed both in morphology and behavior: protective (Eusergestes, Sergestes, Cornutosergestes, Prehensilosergia, Scintillosergia, Lucensosergia, Challengerosergia, Gardinerosergia, Robustosergia, Phorcosergia, Sergia) and offensive (Neosergestes, Parasergestes, Allosergestes, Deosergestes). PMID:25409458

  5. Aspergillus flavus contamination in two Portuguese wastewater treatment plants.

    PubMed

    Viegas, C; Dias, R; Gomes, A Quintal; Meneses, M; Sabino, R; Viegas, S

    2014-01-01

    Filamentous fungi from genus Aspergillus were previously detected in wastewater treatment plants (WWTP) as being Aspergillus flavus (A. flavus), an important toxigenic fungus producing aflatoxins. This study aimed to determine occupational exposure adverse effects due to fungal contamination produced by A. flavus complex in two Portuguese WWTP using conventional and molecular methodologies. Air samples from two WWTP were collected at 1 m height through impaction method. Surface samples were collected by swabbing surfaces of the same indoor sites. After counting A. flavus and identification, detection of aflatoxin production was ensured through inoculation of seven inoculates in coconut-milk agar. Plates were examined under long-wave ultraviolet (UV; 365 nm) illumination to search for the presence of fluorescence in the growing colonies. To apply molecular methods, air samples were also collected using the impinger method. Samples were collected and collection liquid was subsequently used for DNA extraction. Molecular identification of A. flavus was achieved by real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) using the Rotor-Gene 6000 qPCR detection system (Corbett). Among the Aspergillus genus, the species that were more abundant in air samples from both WWTP were Aspergillus versicolor (38%), Aspergillus candidus (29.1%), and Aspergillus sydowii (12.7%). However, the most commonly species found on surfaces were A. flavus (47.3%), Aspergillus fumigatus (34.4%), and Aspergillus sydowii (10.8%). Aspergillus flavus isolates that were inoculated in coconut agar medium were not identified as toxigenic strains and were not detected by RT-PCR in any of the analyzed samples from both plants. Data in this study indicate the need for monitoring fungal contamination in this setting. Although toxigenic strains were not detected from A. flavus complex, one cannot disregard the eventual presence and potential toxicity of aflatoxins. PMID:25072712

  6. Twelve previously unknown phage genera are ubiquitous in global oceans

    SciTech Connect

    Holmfeldt, Karin; Solonenko, Natalie; Shah, Manesh B; Corrier, Kristen L; Riemann, Lasse; Verberkmoes, Nathan C; Sullivan, Matthew B

    2013-01-01

    Viruses are fundamental to ecosystems ranging from oceans to humans, yet our ability to study them is bottlenecked by the lack of ecologically relevant isolates, resulting in unknowns dominating culture-independent surveys. Here we present genomes from 31 phages infecting multiple strains of the aquatic bacterium Cellulophaga baltica (Bacteroidetes) to provide data for an underrepresented and environmentally abundant bacterial lineage. Comparative genomics delineated 12 phage groups that (i) each represent a new genus, and (ii) represent one novel and four wellknown viral families. This diversity contrasts the few well-studied marine phage systems, but parallels the diversity of phages infecting human-associated bacteria. Although all 12 Cellulophaga phages represent new genera, the podoviruses and icosahedral, nontailed ssDNA phages were exceptional, with genomes up to twice as large as those previously observed for each phage type. Structural novelty was also substantial, requiring experimental phage proteomics to identify 83% of the structural proteins. The presence of uncommon nucleotide metabolism genes in four genera likely underscores the importance of scavenging nutrient-rich molecules as previously seen for phages in marine environments. Metagenomic recruitment analyses suggest that these particular Cellulophaga phages are rare and may represent a first glimpse into the phage side of the rare biosphere. However, these analyses also revealed that these phage genera are widespread, occurring in 94% of 137 investigated metagenomes. Together, this diverse and novel collection of phages identifies a small but ubiquitous fraction of unknown marine viral diversity and provides numerous environmentally relevant phage host systems for experimental hypothesis testing.

  7. Two new genera of Nanophyidae with six desmomeres (Coleoptera, Curculionoidea)

    PubMed Central

    Alonso-Zarazaga, Miguel A.; Perrin, Hélčne

    2011-01-01

    Abstract A new genus Lyalia is described in Nanophyidae and three species are included in it: Lyalia curvata sp. n. (Vietnam), Lyalia robusta (Pic, 1921), comb. n. (from Nanophyes) (Java, Bali, Laos) and Lyalia albolineata (Pajni & Bhateja, 1982), comb. n. (from Ctenomerus) (India: Assam). Ctenomerus lagerstroemiae G. A. K. Marshall, 1923 is a syn. n. of Lyalia robusta. Thus, the genus Ctenomerus Schoenherr, 1843 is restricted to the Afrotropical Realm. Kantohia gen. n. is erected for Kantohia taiwana (Kantoh & Kojima, 2009) (from Shiva) (Taiwan). A key to the Nanophyinae genera with six desmomeres is presented. PMID:21998536

  8. Elliptic Genera of 2d = 2 Gauge Theories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benini, Francesco; Eager, Richard; Hori, Kentaro; Tachikawa, Yuji

    2015-02-01

    We compute the elliptic genera of general two-dimensional and gauge theories. We find that the elliptic genus is given by the sum of Jeffrey-Kirwan residues of a meromorphic form, representing the one-loop determinant of fields, on the moduli space of flat connections on T 2. We give several examples illustrating our formula, with both Abelian and non-Abelian gauge groups, and discuss some dualities for U( k) and SU( k) theories. This paper is a sequel to the authors' previous paper (Benini et al., Lett Math Phys 104:465-493, 2014).

  9. Effect of gamma radiation on Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus ochraceus ultrastructure and mycotoxin production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ribeiro, J.; Cavaglieri, L.; Vital, H.; Cristofolini, A.; Merkis, C.; Astoreca, A.; Orlando, J.; Carú, M.; Dalcero, A.; Rosa, C. A. R.

    2011-05-01

    The aim of this work was to study the effect of gamma radiation (2 kGy) on Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus ochraceus ultrastructure. Moreover, the influence on aflatoxin B 1 and ochratoxin A production was also observed. Irradiated A. flavus strain showed a dull orangish colony while control strain showed the typical green color. Minor differences were observed on stipes, metulae and conidia size between control and irradiated A. flavus and A. ochraceus strains. Irradiated fungi showed ultrastructural changes on cell wall, plasmalema and cytoplasm levels. The levels of mycotoxins produced by irradiated strains were two times greater than those produced by control strains. Successive transferences of irradiated strains on malt extract agar allowed the fungus to recuperate morphological characteristics. Although minor changes in the fungal morphology were observed, ultrastructural changes at cell wall level and the increase of mycotoxin production ability were observed. Inappropriate storage of irradiated food and feed would allow the development of potentially more toxicogenic fungal propagules.

  10. Why are some plant genera more invasive than others?

    PubMed

    Schmidt, John Paul; Drake, John M

    2011-01-01

    Determining how biological traits are related to the ability of groups of organisms to become economically damaging when established outside of their native ranges is a major goal of population biology, and important in the management of invasive species. Little is known about why some taxonomic groups are more likely to become pests than others among plants. We investigated traits that discriminate vascular plant genera, a level of taxonomic generality at which risk assessment and screening could be more effectively performed, according to the proportion of naturalized species which are pests. We focused on the United States and Canada, and, because our purpose is ultimately regulatory, considered species classified as weeds or noxious. Using contingency tables, we identified 11 genera of vascular plants that are disproportionately represented by invasive species. Results from boosted regression tree analyses show that these categories reflect biological differences. In summary, approximately 25% of variation in genus proportions of weeds or noxious species was explained by biological covariates. Key explanatory traits included genus means for wetland habitat affinity, chromosome number, and seed mass. PMID:21494563

  11. 21 CFR 866.3040 - Aspergillus spp. serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...aspergillosis caused by fungi belonging to the genus Aspergillus. Aspergillosis is a disease marked by inflammatory granulomatous (tumor-like) lessions in the skin, ear, eyeball cavity, nasal sinuses, lungs, and occasionally the bones. (b)...

  12. 21 CFR 866.3040 - Aspergillus spp. serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...aspergillosis caused by fungi belonging to the genus Aspergillus. Aspergillosis is a disease marked by inflammatory granulomatous (tumor-like) lessions in the skin, ear, eyeball cavity, nasal sinuses, lungs, and occasionally the bones. (b)...

  13. 21 CFR 866.3040 - Aspergillus spp. serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...aspergillosis caused by fungi belonging to the genus Aspergillus. Aspergillosis is a disease marked by inflammatory granulomatous (tumor-like) lessions in the skin, ear, eyeball cavity, nasal sinuses, lungs, and occasionally the bones. (b)...

  14. Ecological analysis of secondary metabolite production in Aspergillus spp. 

    E-print Network

    Ramaswamy, Anitha

    2002-01-01

    A complex and fascinating aspect of fungal development is the production of secondary metabolites. One of the best characterized secondary metabolite pathway is the aflatoxin (AF) and sterigmatocystin (ST) pathway, found in many Aspergillus spp...

  15. Pulmonary Mycobacterium malmoense and aspergillus infection: a fatal combination?

    PubMed Central

    Böllert, F. G.; Sime, P. J.; MacNee, W.; Crompton, G. K.

    1994-01-01

    Three patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease developed coexisting Mycobacterium malmoense and aspergillus infection. All suffered progressive lung destruction leading to early death despite prolonged antimycobacterial chemotherapy. Images PMID:8016779

  16. Seed metabolites alter the development of Aspergillus ssp. 

    E-print Network

    Hinze, Lori Lynn

    2013-02-22

    by Aspergillus has been recently demonstrated in our lab (Hicks et al., 1997). Therefore, understanding the effects of natural fatty acids on fungal development could aid in the reduction of these mycotoxins....

  17. Preharvest aflatoxin in maize genotypes under inoculation with Aspergillus flavus 

    E-print Network

    Mayfield, Kerry L.

    2009-05-15

    conducted through inoculation with a highly concentrated solution of Aspergillus flavus FR: Link spores, a naturally occurring fungus which infects maize and produces a toxic metabolite (aflatoxin) to humans and animals consuming the grain. No commercial...

  18. Sexual reproduction in aflatoxin-producing Aspergillus nomius

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sexual reproduction was examined in the aflatoxin-producing fungus Aspergillus nomius. Crosses between sexually compatible strains resulted in the formation of multiple nonostiolate ascocarps within stromata, which places the teleomorph in the genus Petromyces. Ascocarp and ascospore morphology in...

  19. Biotransformation of artemisinin by Aspergillus niger.

    PubMed

    Zhan, Yulian; Liu, Hua; Wu, Yunshan; Wei, Pingying; Chen, Zhencheng; Williamson, John S

    2015-04-01

    Biotransformation of artemisinin (1) by Aspergillus niger was investigated. During 12 days at 28 °C and pH 6.0, A. niger transformed artemisinin into four products. They were identified as 3?-hydroxy-4,12-epoxy-1-deoxyartemisinin (2), artemisinin G (3), 3,13-epoxyartemisinin (4), and 4?-hydroxy-1-deoxyartemisinin (5). Products 2 and 4 are new compounds and are being reported here for the first time. The product 4 contains a 3,13-epoxy structure. This is the first report of epoxidation of artemisinin using microbial strains. The product 4 still has an intact peroxide bridge and therefore can be used as a scaffold for further structural modification using chemical and biological methods in the search for new antimalarial drugs. PMID:25712678

  20. Environmental fungicides and triazole resistance in Aspergillus.

    PubMed

    Bowyer, Paul; Denning, David W

    2014-02-01

    Fungal diseases are problematic in both human health and agriculture. Treatment options are limited and resistance may emerge. The relatively recent recognition of triazole resistance in Aspergillus fumigatus has prompted questioning of the origin of resistance. While multiple mechanisms are described in clinical isolates from triazole-treated patients, some de novo resistance is also recognised, especially attributable to TR34 /L98H. Such strains probably arose in the environment, and, indeed, multiple studies have now demonstrated TR(34) /L98H triazole resistance strains of A. fumigatus from soil. Docking and other in vitro studies are consistent with environmental resistance induction through exposure to certain triazole fungicides, notably difenoconazole, propiconazole, epoxiconazole, bromuconazole and tebuconazole. This article addresses the potential implications of this issue for both human health and food security. PMID:23616354

  1. Histopathological Implications of Aspergillus Infection in Lung

    PubMed Central

    Tochigi, Naobumi; Okubo, Yoichiro; Ando, Tsunehiro; Wakayama, Megumi; Shinozaki, Minoru; Gocho, Kyoko; Hata, Yoshinobu; Ishiwatari, Takao; Nemoto, Tetsuo; Shibuya, Kazutoshi

    2013-01-01

    This paper opens with a discussion on the significance of invasive fungal infections in advanced contemporary medicine, with an emphasis on the intractability of disease management and the difficulties of diagnosis. This is followed by a discussion concerning classification, histopathological features, and pathophysiology. While it has been largely accepted that Aspergillus species is recognized by cellular receptors and attacked by neutrophils, the radiological and macroscopic findings linking infection with neutropenia remain unconfirmed. In an effort to gain a better understanding of the pathophysiology and pathogenesis of invasive aspergillosis, we wish to emphasize the utility of radiological and histopathological examinations since these can provide detailed information on the extremely complex interaction between the causative microbes and tissue responses. A review of noninvasive or semi-invasive aspergillosis is also provided, with particular emphasis on chronic necrotizing pulmonary aspergillosis, which is recognized as a transition form of simple pulmonary aspergilloma and invasive pulmonary aspergillosis, although few findings have been reported in this area. PMID:24347836

  2. Endogenous aspergillus endophthalmitis after kidney transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Huan-Huan; Ding, Yong; Wu, Min; Tang, Cui-Cui; Zhang, Ri-Jia; Lin, Xiao-Feng; Xu, Jin-Tang

    2011-01-01

    Endogenous aspergillus endophthalmitis(EAE) after kidney transplant is a rare but important clinical problem due to potentially devastating consequences. Early diagnosis of EAE, timely removal of affected vitreous by vitrectomy, proper anti-fungal treatment, all contributed to the successful control of the disease. Therapeutic success of EAE in post-transplant patients depends largely on prompt diagnosis. Definite diagnosis of EAE is based on positive culture results of vitreous specimen, while fundoscopy and B scan ultrasound may aid early diagnosis. In terms of anti-fungal medicine, amphotericin B has long been the first choice, but its systemic applicaiton has severe adverse reactions, especially for patients with impaired renal function. Herein, we report the treatment modality of EAE after kidney transplant with vitrectomy, systemic administration of micafungin plus voriconazole, topical application of fluconazol and amphotercin B. PMID:22553722

  3. Aspergillus Thyroiditis after Allogeneic Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Ataca, Pinar; Atilla, Erden; Saracoglu, Pelin; Yilmaz, Gulden; Civriz Bozdag, Sinem; Toprak, Selami Kocak; Yuksel, Meltem Kurt; Ceyhan, Koray; Topcuoglu, Pervin

    2015-01-01

    Aspergillus thyroiditis is a rare disorder detected in immunocompromised patients during disseminated infections. Early management is essential to prevent high mortality. A 61-year-old allogeneic stem cell male recipient presented with painful thyroid nodular enlargement. He had low TSH and low free T4 levels. The thyroid ultrasound showed a hypoechoic nodule; biopsy indicated suppurative Aspergillus thyroiditis. He was successfully treated by amphotericin B. PMID:26640727

  4. New angiosperm genera from cretaceous sections of northern Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alekseev, P. I.; Herman, A. B.; Shchepetov, S. V.

    2014-11-01

    The Cretaceous floras of northern Asia represented by the Antibes flora of the Chulym-Yenisei area of West Siberia, Kaivayam flora of northwestern Kamchatka, and Grebenka flora of the Anadyr River basin in Chukotka are reviewed. These floras characterize the Late Cretaceous Siberian-Canadian Paleofloristic Region, where they developed in humid warm temperate climatic environments. Two new angiosperm genera are described: genus Chachlovia P. Alekseev et Herman with species C. kiyensis P. Alekseev, sp. nov. and C. dombeyopsoida (Herman) Herman, comb. nov. and genus Soninia Herman et Shczepetov with species S. asiatica P. Alekseev, sp. nov. and S. integerrima Herman et Shczepetov, sp. nov. The species Chachlovia kiyensis and Soninia asiatica were characteristic components of the Antibes flora. Chachlovia dombeyopsoida and Soninia integerrima were constituents of the Kaivayam and Grebenka floras, respectively.

  5. Phytogeographical Analysis of Seed Plant Genera in China

    PubMed Central

    QIAN, HONG; WANG, SILONG; HE, JIN-SHENG; ZHANG, JUNLI; WANG, LISONG; WANG, XIANLI; GUO, KE

    2006-01-01

    • Background and Aims A central goal of biogeography and ecology is to uncover and understand distributional patterns of organisms. China has long been a focus of attention because of its rich biota, especially with respect to plants. Using 290 floras from across China, this paper quantitatively characterizes the composition of floristic elements at multiple scales (i.e. national, provincial and local), and explores the extent to which climatic and geographical factors associated with each flora can jointly and independently explain the variation in floristic elements in local floras. • Methods A study was made of 261 local floras, 28 province-level floras and one national-level flora across China. Genera of seed plants in each flora were assigned to 14 floristic elements according to their worldwide geographical distributions. The composition of floristic elements was related to climatic and geographical factors. • Key Results and Conclusions Variations in percentages of cosmopolitan, tropical and temperate genera among local floras tend to be greater at higher latitudes than at lower latitudes. Latitude is strongly correlated with the proportions of 13 of the 14 floristic elements. Correlations of the proportions of floristic elements with longitude are much weaker than those with latitude. Climate represented by the first principal component of a principal component analysis was strongly correlated with the proportions of floristic elements in local floras (|r| = 0·75 ± 0·18). Geographical coordinates independently explained about four times as much variation in floristic elements as did climate. Further research is necessary to examine the roles of water–energy dynamics, geology, soils, biotic interactions, and historical factors such as land connections between continents in the past and at present in creating observed floristic patterns. PMID:16945946

  6. Improved production of melanin from Aspergillus fumigatus AFGRD105 by optimization of media factors.

    PubMed

    Raman, Nitya Meenakshi; Shah, Pooja Harish; Mohan, Misha; Ramasamy, Suganthi

    2015-12-01

    Melanins are indolic polymers produced by many genera included among plants, animals and microorganisms and targeted mainly for their wide range of applications in cosmetics, agriculture and medicine. An approach to analyse the cumulative effect of parameters for enhanced melanin production was carried out using response surface methodology. In this present study, optimization of media and process parameters for melanin production from Aspergillus fumigatus AFGRD105 (GenBank: JX041523; NFCCI accession number: 3826) was carried out by an initial univariate approach followed by statistical response surface methodology. The univariate approach was used to standardise the parameters that can be used for the 12-run Plackett-Burman design that is used for screening for critical parameters. Further optimization of parameters was analysed using Box-Behnken design. The optimum conditions observed were temperature, moisture and sodium dihydrogen phosphate concentration. The yield of every run of both designs were confirmed to be melanin by laboratory tests of analysis in the presence of acids, base and water. This is the first report confirming an increase in melanin production A. fumigatus AFGRD105 without the addition of costly additives. PMID:26597959

  7. Aspergillus Volatiles Regulate Aflatoxin Synthesis and Asexual Sporulation in Aspergillus parasiticus?

    PubMed Central

    Roze, Ludmila V.; Beaudry, Randolph M.; Arthur, Anna E.; Calvo, Ana M.; Linz, John E.

    2007-01-01

    Aspergillus parasiticus is one primary source of aflatoxin contamination in economically important crops. To prevent the potential health and economic impacts of aflatoxin contamination, our goal is to develop practical strategies to reduce aflatoxin synthesis on susceptible crops. One focus is to identify biological and environmental factors that regulate aflatoxin synthesis and to manipulate these factors to control aflatoxin biosynthesis in the field or during crop storage. In the current study, we analyzed the effects of aspergillus volatiles on growth, development, aflatoxin biosynthesis, and promoter activity in the filamentous fungus A. parasiticus. When colonies of Aspergillus nidulans and A. parasiticus were incubated in the same growth chamber, we observed a significant reduction in aflatoxin synthesis and asexual sporulation by A. parasiticus. Analysis of the headspace gases demonstrated that A. nidulans produced much larger quantities of 2-buten-1-ol (CA) and 2-ethyl-1-hexanol (EH) than A. parasiticus. In its pure form, EH inhibited growth and increased aflatoxin accumulation in A. parasiticus at all doses tested; EH also stimulated aflatoxin transcript accumulation. In contrast, CA exerted dose-dependent up-regulatory or down-regulatory effects on aflatoxin accumulation, conidiation, and aflatoxin transcript accumulation. Experiments with reporter strains carrying nor-1 promoter deletions and mutations suggested that the differential effects of CA were mediated through separate regulatory regions in the nor-1 promoter. The potential efficacy of CA as a tool for analysis of transcriptional regulation of aflatoxin biosynthesis is discussed. We also identify a novel, rapid, and reliable method to assess norsolorinic acid accumulation in solid culture using a Chroma Meter CR-300 apparatus. PMID:17890344

  8. Aspergillus Osteomyelitis: Epidemiology, Clinical Manifestations, Management, and Outcome

    PubMed Central

    Gamaletsou, Maria N.; Rammaert, Blandine; Bueno, Marimelle A.; Moriyama, Brad; Sipsas, Nikolaos V.; Kontoyiannis, Dimitrios P.; Roilides, Emmanuel; Zeller, Valerie; Prinapori, Roberta; Tajaldeen, Saad Jaber; Brause, Barry; Lortholary, Olivier; Walsh, Thomas J.

    2014-01-01

    Background The epidemiology, pathogenesis, diagnosis, and management of Aspergillus osteomyelitis are not well understood. Methods Protocol-defined cases of Aspergillus osteomyelitis published in the English literature were reviewed for comorbidities, microbiology, mechanisms of infection, clinical manifestations, radiological findings, inflammatory biomarkers, antifungal therapy, and outcome. Results Among 180 evaluable patients, 127 (71%) were males. Possible predisposing medical conditions in 103 (57%) included pharmacological immunosuppression, primary immunodeficiency, and neutropenia. Seventy-three others (41%) had prior open fracture, trauma or surgery. Eighty (44%) followed a hematogenous mechanism, 58 (32%) contiguous infections, and 42 (23%) direct inoculation. Aspergillus osteomyelitis was the first manifestation of aspergillosis in 77%. Pain and tenderness were present in 80%. The most frequently infected sites were vertebrae (46%), cranium (23%), ribs (16%), and long bones (13%). Patients with vertebral Aspergillus osteomyelitis had more previous orthopedic surgery (19% vs 0%; P=0.02), while those with cranial osteomyelitis had more diabetes mellitus (32% vs 8%; P=0.002) and prior head/neck surgery (12% vs 0%; P=0.02). Radiologic findings included osteolysis, soft-tissue extension, and uptake on T2-weighted images. Vertebral body Aspergillus osteomyelitis was complicated by spinal-cord compression in 47% and neurological deficits in 41%. Forty-four patients (24%) received only antifungal therapy, while 121(67%) were managed with surgery and antifungal therapy. Overall mortality was 25%. Median duration of therapy was 90 days (range, 10–772 days). There were fewer relapses in patients managed with surgery plus antifungal therapy in comparison to those managed with antifungal therapy alone (8% vs 30%; P=0.006). Conclusions Aspergillus osteomyelitis is a debilitating infection affecting both immunocompromised and immunocompetent patients. The most common sites are vertebrae, ribs, and cranium. Based upon this comprehensive review, management of Aspergillus osteomyelitis optimally includes antifungal therapy and selective surgery to avoid relapse and to achieve a complete response. PMID:24378282

  9. 21 CFR 173.120 - Carbohydrase and cellulase derived from Aspergillus niger.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...PERMITTED IN FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION Enzyme Preparations and Microorganisms § 173...Aspergillus niger. Carbohydrase and cellulase enzyme preparation derived from Aspergillus niger... from the carbohydrase and cellulase enzyme product. (d) The additive is...

  10. 21 CFR 173.120 - Carbohydrase and cellulase derived from Aspergillus niger.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...PERMITTED IN FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION Enzyme Preparations and Microorganisms § 173...Aspergillus niger. Carbohydrase and cellulase enzyme preparation derived from Aspergillus niger... from the carbohydrase and cellulase enzyme product. (d) The additive is...

  11. 21 CFR 173.120 - Carbohydrase and cellulase derived from Aspergillus niger.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...PERMITTED IN FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION Enzyme Preparations and Microorganisms § 173...Aspergillus niger. Carbohydrase and cellulase enzyme preparation derived from Aspergillus niger... from the carbohydrase and cellulase enzyme product. (d) The additive is...

  12. 21 CFR 173.120 - Carbohydrase and cellulase derived from Aspergillus niger.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...PERMITTED IN FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION Enzyme Preparations and Microorganisms § 173...Aspergillus niger. Carbohydrase and cellulase enzyme preparation derived from Aspergillus niger... from the carbohydrase and cellulase enzyme product. (d) The additive is...

  13. 21 CFR 173.120 - Carbohydrase and cellulase derived from Aspergillus niger.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...PERMITTED IN FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION Enzyme Preparations and Microorganisms § 173...Aspergillus niger. Carbohydrase and cellulase enzyme preparation derived from Aspergillus niger... from the carbohydrase and cellulase enzyme product. (d) The additive is...

  14. Stress and release : chemical modulation of secondary metabolite production in Aspergillus sp.

    E-print Network

    Hanlon, Amy

    2006-01-01

    Cyclosporin A induced biosynthesis of colored compounds in three species of Aspergillus. Diode array HPLC MS analysis of culture extracts revealed Aspergillus terreus demonstrated the most profound response, with upregulation ...

  15. Order Gymnophiona (200 species, most DD) Rhinatrematidae (2 genera, 11 species)

    E-print Network

    Dever, Jennifer A.

    1 Caecilians · Order Gymnophiona (200 species, most DD) ­Rhinatrematidae (2 genera, 11 species isthmica Atretochoana eiselti Ichthyophis glutinosus Siphonops paulensis Global Distribution of Caecilians

  16. A synoptic review of the ant genera (Hymenoptera, Formicidae) of the Philippines

    PubMed Central

    General, David M.; Alpert, Gary D.

    2012-01-01

    Abstract An overview of the history of myrmecology in the Philippine archipelago is presented. Keys are provided to the 11 ant subfamilies and the 92 ant genera known from the Philippines. Eleven ant genera (12%), including 3 undescribed genera, are recorded for the first time from the Philippines. The biology and ecology of the 92 genera, illustrated by full-face and profile photo-images, of Philippine ants are summarized in the form of brief generic accounts. A bibliography of significant taxonomic and behavioral papers on Philippine ants and a checklist of valid species and subspecies and their island distributions are provided. PMID:22767999

  17. PHYA GENE PRODUCT OF ASPERGILLUS FICUUM AND PENIOPHORA LYCII PRODUCES TWO DISSIMILAR PHYTASES

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    PhyA gene product of Aspergillus ficuum (AF) and Peniophora lycii (PL) as expressed in industrial strains of Aspergillus niger and Aspergillus oryzae, respectively, were purified to homogeneity and then characterized for both physical and biochemical properties. The PL phytase is 26 amino acid resi...

  18. Isozyme polymorphism of cellulases in Aspergillus terreus.

    PubMed

    Singh, S; Brar, J K; Sandhu, D K; Kaur, A

    1996-01-01

    Maximum cellulase production in Aspergillus terreus was obtained at a temperature of 28 degrees C, pH 4.0 and a substrate concentration of 1% CMC. Variability in cellulase enzyme production and isozyme polymorphism of endo-beta-1,4-glucanase and beta-1,4-glucosidase was studied in 45 natural isolates of A. terreus. Different electrophoretic patterns were evident for endoglucanase. Three zones of activity viz EG 1, EG 11 and EG 111 were observed showing different electrophoretic mobilities. Some of the isolates exhibited the presence of null alleles for EG 1. During development EG 1 and EG 11 were observed throughout while EG 111 appeared on the eighth day. For beta-1,4-glucosidase two zones of activity viz beta-glu 1 and beta-glu 11 were observed. beta-glu 1 showed variable electrophoretic mobilities. beta-glu 1 appeared throughout during development while beta-glu 11 appeared on the twelfth day. PMID:8765085

  19. Bioconversion of Capsaicin by Aspergillus oryzae.

    PubMed

    Lee, Minji; Cho, Jeong-Yong; Lee, Yu Geon; Lee, Hyoung Jae; Lim, Seong-Il; Park, So-Lim; Moon, Jae-Hak

    2015-07-01

    This study identified metabolites of capsaicin bioconverted by Aspergillus oryzae, which is generally used for mass production of gochujang prepared by fermenting red pepper powder in Korea. A. oryzae was incubated with capsaicin in potato dextrose broth. Capsaicin decreased depending on the incubation period, but new metabolites increased. Five capsaicin metabolites purified from the ethyl acetate fraction of the capsaicin culture were identified as N-vanillylcarbamoylbutyric acid, N-vanillyl-9-hydroxy-8-methyloctanamide, ?-hydroxycapsaicin, 8-methyl-N-vanillylcarbamoyl-6(E)-octenoic acid, and 2-methyl-N-vanillylcarbamoyl-6(Z)-octenoic acid by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and mass spectrometry (MS). The capsaicin metabolites in gochujang were confirmed and quantitated by selective multiple reaction monitoring detection after liquid chromatography electrospray ionization MS using the isolated compounds as external standards. On the basis of the structures of the capsaicin metabolites, it is proposed that capsaicin metabolites were converted by A. oryzae by ?-hydroxylation, alcohol oxidation, hydrogenation, isomerization, and ?- and/or ?-oxidation. PMID:26072923

  20. Degradation of melanin by Aspergillus fumigatus.

    PubMed Central

    Luther, J P; Lipke, H

    1980-01-01

    A strain of Aspergillus fumigatus from composted coffee and garden wastes utilized natural deproteinized insect, banana, hair, octopus, and synthetic tyrosine and dopa melanins as sole sources of carbon. With a sucrose supplement, degradation was essentially complete after 50 days in Czapek medium pH 6.5 at 30 degrees C. The catabolic rate differed for each substrate pigment, as did the molecular weight distribution of products accumulating in the medium. After incubation with L-[U-14C]melanin, over 50% was recovered in a dark fungal pigment, the remainder appearing as cell protein, chitin, lipid, CO2, and polar metabolites. When grown on melanin, the normally pale mycelia darkened with the production of a fungal allomelanin, with infrared spectrum and alkali fusion products differing from those of the substrate pigment. Isotope distribution in amino acids for A. fumigatus grown on labeled melanin supplemented with sucrose suggested separate pools for synthesis of cell proteins and melanoproteins. Deposition of allomelanin increased resistance of conidia, sterigma, and conidiophores to lytic carbohydrases as judged by scanning electron microscopy. Images PMID:6996615

  1. Polyclonal Aspergillus fumigatus infection in captive penguins.

    PubMed

    Alvarez-Perez, Sergio; Mateos, Ana; Dominguez, Lucas; Martinez-Nevado, Eva; Blanco, Jose L; Garcia, Marta E

    2010-08-26

    Aspergillus fumigatus is a known opportunistic pathogen of penguins. Most reports of penguin aspergillosis have focused on clinical, histopathological and microbiological findings. The molecular characterization of A. fumigatus isolates involved in invasive infections in penguins has yet to be addressed. The aim of this work was to study the possible coexistence of different A. fumigatus genotypes in five clinical cases of invasive aspergillosis in captive penguins. Differences in other relevant characteristics of the isolates, including mating type and invasiveness, were also considered. Alkaline protease and elastase production by the A. fumigatus isolates was evaluated by plate assays. Random amplified polymorphic DNA, and microsatellite analysis techniques were used for molecular typing, and mating type (MAT1-1 or MAT1-2) was determined by multiplex PCR. Although all isolates showed protease activity, differences in elastase activity were observed. The typing techniques indicated different genotypes in all the penguins, although one genotype was predominant in some cases. Fungal strains of different mating type were found in two different penguins, confirming infection polyclonality. In conclusion, captive penguins are susceptible to infection by multiple strains of A. fumigatus that differ not only in their genotype, but also in mating type and invasiveness. This finding has important consequences for the diagnosis and treatment of avian aspergillosis. PMID:20219295

  2. d-Mannitol Metabolism by Aspergillus candidus

    PubMed Central

    Strandberg, Gerald W.

    1969-01-01

    Pathways of mannitol biosynthesis and utilization in Aspergillus candidus NRRL 305 were studied in cell-free extracts of washed mycelia prepared by sonic and French pressure cell treatments. A nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide-linked mannitol-1-phosphate (M1P) dehydrogenase was found in French pressure cell extracts of d-glucose-grown cells, whereas a specific mannitol-1-phosphatase was present in extracts prepared by both methods. The existence of these two enzymes indicated that mannitol may be synthesized in this organism by the reduction of fructose-6-phosphate. A specific nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate-linked mannitol dehydrogenase was also identified in both extracts. This enzyme may have been involved in mannitol utilization. However, the level of the mannitol dehydrogenase appeared to be substantially reduced in extracts from mannitol-grown cells, whereas the level of M1P dehydrogenase was increased. A hexokinase has been identified in this organism. Fructose-6-phosphatase, glucose isomerase, and mannitol kinase could not be demonstrated. PMID:4304850

  3. Aspergillus Biofilm In Vitro and In Vivo.

    PubMed

    Beauvais, Anne; Latgé, Jean-Paul

    2015-08-01

    In vivo, Aspergillus fumigatus grows as a typical biofilm with hyphae covered by an extracellular matrix (ECM) composed of polysaccharides, galactomannan, and galactosaminogalactan. ?1,3 glucans and melanin are also constitutive of the ECM in aspergilloma but not in invasive aspergillosis. In vitro, two biofilm models were established to mimic the in vivo situation. The first model (model 1) uses submerged liquid conditions and is characterized by slow growth, while the second model (model 2) uses agar medium and aerial conditions and is characterized by rapid growth. The composition of the ECM was studied only in the second model and has been shown to be composed of galactomannan, galactosaminogalactan (GAG), and ?1,3 glucans, melanin, antigens, and hydrophobins. The presence of extracellular DNA was detected in model 1 biofilm but not in model 2. Transcriptomic analysis employing both biofilm models showed upregulation of genes coding for proteins involved in the biosynthesis of secondary metabolites, adhesion, and drug resistance. However, most data on A. fumigatus biofilms have been obtained in vitro and should be confirmed using in vivo animal models. There is a need for new therapeutic antibiofilm strategies that focus on the use of combination therapy, since biofilm formation poses an important clinical problem due to their resistance to antifungal agents. Furthermore, in vivo investigations of A. fumigatus biofilms that incorporate the associated microbiota are needed. Such studies will add another layer of complexity to our understanding of the role of A. fumigatus biofilm during lung invasion. PMID:26350307

  4. Distinguishing centrarchid genera by use of lateral line scales

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Roberts, N.M.; Rabeni, C.F.; Stanovick, J.S.

    2007-01-01

    Predator-prey relations involving fishes are often evaluated using scales remaining in gut contents or feces. While several reliable keys help identify North American freshwater fish scales to the family level, none attempt to separate the family Centrarchidae to the genus level. Centrarchidae is of particular concern in the midwestern United States because it contains several popular sport fishes, such as smallmouth bass Micropterus dolomieu, largemouth bass M. salmoides, and rock bass Ambloplites rupestris, as well as less-sought-after species of sunfishes Lepomis spp. and crappies Pomoxis spp. Differentiating sport fish from non-sport fish has important management implications. Morphological characteristics of lateral line scales (n = 1,581) from known centrarchid fishes were analyzed. The variability of measurements within and between genera was examined to select variables that were the most useful in further classifying unknown centrarchid scales. A linear discriminant analysis model was developed using 10 variables. Based on this model, 84.4% of Ambloplites scales, 81.2% of Lepomis scales, and 86.6% of Micropterus scales were classified correctly using a jackknife procedure. ?? Copyright by the American Fisheries Society 2007.

  5. Derived Equivalences of K3 Surfaces and Twined Elliptic Genera

    E-print Network

    John F. R. Duncan; Sander Mack-Crane

    2015-12-30

    We use the unique canonically-twisted module over a certain distinguished super vertex operator algebra---the moonshine module for Conway's group---to attach a weak Jacobi form of weight zero and index one to any symplectic derived equivalence of a projective complex K3 surface that fixes a stability condition in the distinguished space identified by Bridgeland. According to work of Huybrechts, following Gaberdiel--Hohenegger--Volpato, any such derived equivalence determines a conjugacy class in Conway's group, the automorphism group of the Leech lattice. Conway's group acts naturally on the module we consider. In physics the data of a projective complex K3 surface together with a suitable stability condition determines a supersymmetric non-linear sigma model, and supersymmetry preserving automorphisms of such an object may be used to define twinings of the K3 elliptic genus. Our construction recovers the K3 sigma model twining genera precisely in all available examples. In particular, the identity symmetry recovers the usual K3 elliptic genus, and this signals a connection to Mathieu moonshine. A generalization of our construction recovers a number of the Jacobi forms arising in umbral moonshine. We demonstrate a concrete connection to supersymmetric non-linear K3 sigma models by establishing an isomorphism between the twisted module we consider and the vector space underlying a particular sigma model attached to a certain distinguished K3 surface.

  6. Derived Equivalences of K3 Surfaces and Twined Elliptic Genera

    E-print Network

    John F. R. Duncan; Sander Mack-Crane

    2015-06-20

    We use the unique canonically-twisted module over a certain distinguished super vertex operator algebra---the moonshine module for Conway's group---to attach a weak Jacobi form of weight zero and index one to any symplectic derived equivalence of a projective complex K3 surface that fixes a stability condition in the distinguished space identified by Bridgeland. According to work of Huybrechts, following Gaberdiel--Hohenegger--Volpato, any such derived equivalence determines a conjugacy class in Conway's group, the automorphism group of the Leech lattice. Conway's group acts naturally on the module we consider. In physics the data of a projective complex K3 surface together with a suitable stability condition determines a supersymmetric non-linear sigma model, and supersymmetry preserving automorphisms of such an object may be used to define twinings of the K3 elliptic genus. Our construction recovers the K3 sigma model twining genera precisely in all available examples. In particular, the identity symmetry recovers the usual K3 elliptic genus, and this signals a connection to Mathieu moonshine. A generalization of our construction recovers a number of the Jacobi forms arising in umbral moonshine. We demonstrate a concrete connection to supersymmetric non-linear K3 sigma models by establishing an isomorphism between the twisted module we consider and the vector space underlying a particular sigma model attached to a certain distinguished K3 surface.

  7. New genera, species, and improved phylogeny of Glissomonadida (Cercozoa).

    PubMed

    Howe, Alexis T; Bass, David; Chao, Ema E; Cavalier-Smith, Thomas

    2011-11-01

    Glissomonadida is an important cercozoan order of predominantly biflagellate gliding bacterivores found largely in soil and freshwater. Their vast diversity is largely undescribed. We studied 23 mostly newly isolated strains by light microscopy and sequenced their 18S rDNA genes; nine represent new species. For two misidentified ATCC 'Heteromita triangularis' strains, we establish novel gliding genera and species: the sandonid Mollimonas lacrima, the only glissomonad forming anterior and posterior pseudopodia, and Dujardina stenomorpha, a strongly flattened member of the new family Dujardinidae. A new strain from Oxfordshire grassland soil is the first reliably identified isolate of the virtually uniflagellate, smooth-gliding glissomonad genus, AllantionSandon, 1924. Phylogenetic analysis and cytological features reveal Allantion to be a member of Allapsidae. Sandona limna and Bodomorpha prolixa from Lake Baikal and Sandona hexamutans from volcanic Costa Rican soil are described as new species. Fifteen glissomonad strains were from grassland beside Lake Baikal. We describe two as new species of Sandona (S. heptamutans and S. octamutans); the others included strains of Sandona and Allapsa species that have already been described; and three were new species of Sandona and Allapsa but these died before being described. We discuss the ecological and evolutionary significance of these new strains. PMID:21783412

  8. Aspergillus Mediastinitis after Orthotopic Heart Transplantation: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    El-Sayed Ahmed, Magdy M.; Almanfi, Abdelkader; Aftab, Muhammad; Singh, Steve K.; Mallidi, Hari R.

    2015-01-01

    A 55-year-old woman was admitted for orthotopic heart transplantation. Her medical history was notable for multiple cardiovascular problems, including ischemic cardiomyopathy that necessitated circulatory support with a left ventricular assist device. Five weeks after undergoing orthotopic heart transplantation, she developed Aspergillus calidoustus mediastinitis, for which she underwent a prolonged course of antifungal treatment that comprised (in sequence) posaconazole for 11 days, voriconazole for 10 days, and amphotericin B for 42 days. During this period, she also underwent repeated mediastinal drainage and sternal débridement, followed by sternal wiring and coverage with bilateral pectoralis advancement flaps. Four months postoperatively, she was discharged from the hospital with a successfully controlled infection and a healed sternum. To our knowledge, only 3 previous cases of Aspergillus mediastinitis after orthotopic heart transplantation have been reported in the literature, none of which was Aspergillus calidoustus. PMID:26504444

  9. A survey of East Palaearctic Lycosidae (Araneae). 11. Two new genera from the Acantholycosa complex.

    PubMed

    Marusik, Yuri M; Omelko, Mikhail M; Koponen, Seppo

    2015-01-01

    Two new genera of wolf spiders belonging to Pardosinae, Gulocosa gen. n. and Melecosa gen. n., are erected to accommodate Gulocosa eskovi sp. n. (? ?, Khabarovsk Province, Russia) and Sibirocosa alpina Marusik, Azarkina & Koponen, 2004, respectively. A new combination was also established: Melecosa alpina (Marusik, Azarkina & Koponen, 2004) comb. n. (ex. Sibirocosa). Polytomous and dichotomous keys are provided for the Palearctic Pardosinae genera. PMID:26250032

  10. Evidence of Possible Evolutionary Divergence in Plant Genera Based on Antioxidant Properties

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Asai, Elizabeth; Cao, Sharon

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to determine if three Western species of the Panax, Lycium, and Astragalus genera had antibacterial and/or antioxidant properties, and how their properties compared to Eastern herbs in the same genera. The group hypothesized that when compared, the corresponding herbs would have identical antibacterial and…

  11. Keys to the Common Genera of Marine Plants Taken Aboard the Orange County Floating Marine Laboratory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, H. R.

    Provided is a dichotomous key to the common genera of marine algae and angiosperms which are taken aboard the Orange County Floating Marine Laboratory. It is designed primarily for use by junior and senior high school students. Drawings of representative members of the various genera are included. This work was prepared under an ESEA Title III…

  12. Relationships among genera of the Saccharomycotina (Ascomycota) from multigene phylogenetic analysis of type species

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Phylogenetic relatedness among ascomycetous yeast genera (subphylum Saccharomycotina, phylum Ascomycota) has been uncertain. In the present study, type species of 70 currently recognized genera are compared from divergence in the nearly entire nuclear gene sequences for large subunit rRNA, small sub...

  13. 11Skewed Distribution of Species Number in Grass Genera: Is It

    E-print Network

    Hilu, Khidir

    165 11Skewed Distribution of Species Number in Grass Genera: Is It a Taxonomic Artefact? K. W. Hilu........................................................................................................................ 165 11.2 The Grass Family (Poaceae .................................................................................................................................... 176 ABSTRACT The grass family (Poaceae) comprises about 10,000 species distributed in some 785 genera

  14. Gliotoxin production by clinical and environmental Aspergillus fumigatus strains.

    PubMed

    Kupfahl, Claudio; Michalka, Anna; Lass-Flörl, Cornelia; Fischer, Guido; Haase, Gerhard; Ruppert, Thomas; Geginat, Gernot; Hof, Herbert

    2008-04-01

    The mycotoxin gliotoxin is produced by fungi of the genus Aspergillus, including the important human pathogen Aspergillus fumigatus. Gliotoxin exerts a broad spectrum of immunosuppressive effects in vitro and is detectable in the sera of patients suffering from invasive aspergillosis. In order to correlate the pathogenic potential of A. fumigatus with the ability to produce gliotoxin and to investigate the taxonomic distribution of gliotoxin-producing Aspergillus strains among clinical isolates, a total of 158 Aspergillus isolates comprising four different species (A. fumigatus, n=100; A. terreus, n=27; A. niger, n=16; A. flavus, n=15) were collected from different medical centers (some originating from probable cases of aspergillosis) and from environmental samples in Germany and Austria. Remarkably, gliotoxin was detected in most culture filtrates of A. fumigatus of both clinical (98%) and environmental (96%) origin. The toxin was also detected, with decreasing frequency, in culture filtrates of A. niger (56%), A. terreus (37%), and A. flavus (13%). The highest gliotoxin concentrations were detected in A. fumigatus strains of clinical (max. 21.35 microg/ml, mean 5.75 microg/ml) and environmental (max. 26.25 microg/ml, mean 5.27 microg/ml) origin. Gliotoxin productivity of other Aspergillus species was significantly lower. Culture supernatants of A. fumigatus strains lacking gliotoxin production showed a significantly lower cytotoxicity on macrophage-like cells and T-cells in vitro. In contrast, lack of gliotoxin production in the other Aspergillus species tested had no significant influence on the cytotoxic effect of culture supernatant on these immune cells. PMID:17574915

  15. The complete nucleotide sequence of a totivirus from Aspergillus foetidus.

    PubMed

    Kozlakidis, Zisis; Herrero, Noemi; Coutts, Robert H A

    2013-01-01

    Virus infection of Aspergillus foetidus was first described in the 1970s, and the purified virus, named Aspergillus foetidus virus (AfV), contains at least two types of icosahedral particles, called AfV-fast (-F) and AfV-slow (-S) virions, based on their relative electrophoretic mobilities. AfV-S consists of a mixture of two viruses, the larger of which, called AfV-S1, is a dsRNA-containing member of the genus Victorivirus in the family Totiviridae, and its complete nucleotide sequence is described here. PMID:22729614

  16. Polyphasic taxonomy of Aspergillus section Fumigati and its teleomorph Neosartorya

    PubMed Central

    Samson, R.A.; Hong, S.; Peterson, S.W.; Frisvad, J.C.; Varga, J.

    2007-01-01

    The taxonomy of Aspergillus section Fumigati with its teleomorph genus Neosartorya is revised. The species concept is based on phenotypic (morphology and extrolite profiles) and molecular (?-tubulin and calmodulin gene sequences) characters in a polyphasic approach. Four new taxa are proposed: N. australensis N. ferenczii, N. papuaensis and N. warcupii. All newly described and accepted species are illustrated. The section consists of 33 taxa: 10 strictly anamorphic Aspergillus species and 23 Neosartorya species. Four other Neosartorya species described previously were not available for this monograph, and consequently are relegated to the category of doubtful species. PMID:18490953

  17. Identification of Glucose Transporters in Aspergillus nidulans

    PubMed Central

    dos Reis, Thaila Fernanda; Menino, Joăo Filipe; Bom, Vinícius Leite Pedro; Brown, Neil Andrew; Colabardini, Ana Cristina; Savoldi, Marcela; Goldman, Maria Helena S.; Rodrigues, Fernando; Goldman, Gustavo Henrique

    2013-01-01

    To characterize the mechanisms involved in glucose transport, in the filamentous fungus Aspergillus nidulans, we have identified four glucose transporter encoding genes hxtB-E. We evaluated the ability of hxtB-E to functionally complement the Saccharomyces cerevisiae EBY.VW4000 strain that is unable to grow on glucose, fructose, mannose or galactose as single carbon source. In S. cerevisiae HxtB-E were targeted to the plasma membrane. The expression of HxtB, HxtC and HxtE was able to restore growth on glucose, fructose, mannose or galactose, indicating that these transporters accept multiple sugars as a substrate through an energy dependent process. A tenfold excess of unlabeled maltose, galactose, fructose, and mannose were able to inhibit glucose uptake to different levels (50 to 80 %) in these s. cerevisiae complemented strains. Moreover, experiments with cyanide-m-chlorophenylhydrazone (CCCP), strongly suggest that hxtB, -C, and –E mediate glucose transport via active proton symport. The A. nidulans ?hxtB, ?hxtC or ?hxtE null mutants showed ~2.5-fold reduction in the affinity for glucose, while ?hxtB and -C also showed a 2-fold reduction in the capacity for glucose uptake. The ?hxtD mutant had a 7.8-fold reduction in affinity, but a 3-fold increase in the capacity for glucose uptake. However, only the ?hxtB mutant strain showed a detectable decreased rate of glucose consumption at low concentrations and an increased resistance to 2-deoxyglucose. PMID:24282591

  18. Mahseers genera Tor and Neolissochilus (Teleostei: Cyprinidae) from southern Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Hoŕng, Huy ??c; Ph?m, Hůng M?nh; Durand, Jean-Dominique; Tr?n, Ngân Tr?ng; Phan, Phúc ?ěnh

    2015-01-01

    Two new species and two new basin records of mahseers in the genera Tor and Neolissochilus are described from the upper Krong No and middle ??ng Nai drainages of the Langbiang Plateau in southern Vietnam. These new species and new records are known from streams and rivers in montane mixed pine and evergreen forests between 140 and 1112 m. Their populations are isolated in the Sre Pok River of the Mekong basin, the middle of the ??ng Nai basin, and the An Lăo River. Both new species are differentiated from their congeners by a combination of the following characters: 23-24 lateral scales, 9-10 predorsal scales, 2/7 or 1/8 pelvic-fin rays, mouth position, median lobe of lower lip, rostral hood, colour in life and by divergent mitochondrial DNA. Tor mekongensis sp. nov. is differentiated from Tor dongnaiensis sp. nov. by the number of transverse scale rows (3/1/2 vs. 4/1/2), number of pelvic-fin rays (2/7 vs. 1/8), a blunt rostral hood vs. pointed, caudal-fin lobes that are equal vs. unequal, and by mitochondrial DNA (0.7% sequence divergence). Molecular evidence identifies both species as members of the genus Tor and distinct from all congeners sampled (uncorrected sequence divergences >1.9% for all Tor species for which homologous COI sequences are available). Tor sinensis is recorded in the Krong No and the Sre Pok rivers, further south of its known distribution. Polymorphism is described in Neolissochilus stracheyi with a Tor-like morph and a Neolissochilus-like morph. PMID:26623783

  19. Discrimination of lichen genera and species using element concentrations

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bennett, J.P.

    2008-01-01

    The importance of organic chemistry in the classification of lichens is well established, but inorganic chemistry has been largely overlooked. Six lichen species were studied over a period of 23 years that were growing in 11 protected areas of the northern Great Lakes ecoregion, which were not greatly influenced by anthropogenic particulates or gaseous air pollutants. The elemental data from these studies were aggregated in order to test the hypothesis that differences among species in tissue element concentrations were large enough to discriminate between taxa faithfully. Concentrations of 16 chemical elements that were found in tissue samples from Cladonia rangiferina, Evernia mesomorpha, Flavopunctelia flaventior, Hypogymnia physodes, Parmelia sulcata, and Punctelia rudecta were analyzed statistically using multivariate discriminant functions and CART analyses, as well as t-tests. Genera and species were clearly separated in element space, and elemental discriminant functions were able to classify 91-100 of the samples correctly into species. At the broadest level, a Zn concentration of 51 ppm in tissues of four of the lichen species effectively discriminated foliose from fruticose species. Similarly, a S concentration of 680 ppm discriminated C. rangiferina and E. mesomorpha, and a Ca concentration of 10 436 ppm discriminated H. physodes from P. sulcata. For the three parmelioid species, a Ca concentration >32 837 ppm discriminated Punctelia rudecta from the other two species, while a Zn concentration of 56 ppm discriminated Parmelia sulcata from F. flaventior. Foliose species also had higher concentrations than did fruticose species of all elements except Na. Elemental signatures for each of the six species were developed using standardized means. Twenty-four mechanisms explaining the differences among species are summarized. Finally, the relationships of four species based on element concentrations, using additive-trees clustering of a Euclidean-distance matrix, produced identical relationships as did analyses based on secondary product chemistry that used additive-trees clustering of a Jaccard similarity matrix. At least for these six species, element composition has taxonomic significance, and may be useful for discriminating other taxa. ?? 2008 British Lichen Society.

  20. Discrimination of lichen genera and species using element concentrations

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bennett, James P.

    2008-01-01

    The importance of organic chemistry in the classification of lichens is well established, but inorganic chemistry has been largely overlooked. Six lichen species were studied over a period of 23 years that were growing in 11 protected areas of the northern Great Lakes ecoregion, which were not greatly influenced by anthropogenic particulates or gaseous air pollutants. The elemental data from these studies were aggregated in order to test the hypothesis that differences among species in tissue element concentrations were large enough to discriminate between taxa faithfully. Concentrations of 16 chemical elements that were found in tissue samples from Cladonia rangiferina, Evernia mesomorpha, Flavopunctelia flaventior, Hypogymnia physodes, Parmelia sulcata, and Punctelia rudecta were analyzed statistically using multivariate discriminant functions and CART analyses, as well as t-tests. Genera and species were clearly separated in element space, and elemental discriminant functions were able to classify 91-100 of the samples correctly into species. At the broadest level, a Zn concentration of 51 ppm in tissues of four of the lichen species effectively discriminated foliose from fruticose species. Similarly, a S concentration of 680 ppm discriminated C. rangiferina and E. mesomorpha, and a Ca concentration of 10 436 ppm discriminated H. physodes from P. sulcata. For the three parmelioid species, a Ca concentration >32 837 ppm discriminated Punctelia rudecta from the other two species, while a Zn concentration of 56 ppm discriminated Parmelia sulcata from F. flaventior. Foliose species also had higher concentrations than did fruticose species of all elements except Na. Elemental signatures for each of the six species were developed using standardized means. Twenty-four mechanisms explaining the differences among species are summarized. Finally, the relationships of four species based on element concentrations, using additive-trees clustering of a Euclidean-distance matrix, produced identical relationships as did analyses based on secondary product chemistry that used additive-trees clustering of a Jaccard similarity matrix. At least for these six species, element composition has taxonomic significance, and may be useful for discriminating other taxa.

  1. Recombination and cryptic heterokaryosis in experimental populations of Aspergillus flavus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Aspergillus flavus infects both plants and animals, and is of toxicological importance due to its production of aflatoxins (AFs) and other mycotoxins. Mycotoxins can cause agricultural losses totaling upwards of $1.4 billion annually. Recent efforts to reduce AF concentrations have focused on the us...

  2. Mating-type heterokaryosis in Aspergillus flavus in North Carolina

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Aspergillus flavus is a well-known pathogen of many important agricultural commodities and is a major producer of aflatoxins (AFs), which are carcinogenic polyketides that pose a serious health risk to humans and animals. Recently, heterokaryosis and the presence of cryptic alleles were shown to ex...

  3. Nuclear heterogeneity in conidial populations of Aspergillus flavus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Aspergillus flavus is a major producer of aflatoxin and an opportunistic pathogen for a wide range of hosts. Understanding genotypic and phenotypic variations within strains of A. flavus is important for controlling disease and reducing aflatoxin contamination. A. flavus is multinucleate and predomi...

  4. Sexual reproduction in Aspergillus flavus and A. parasiticus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Aspergillus flavus and A. parasiticus are potent producers of carcinogenic and hepatotoxic aflatoxins, polyketide-derived secondary metabolites that contaminate a wide variety of agricultural crops. Strains with opposite mating-type genes MAT1-1 and MAT1-2 within each species were crossed in an att...

  5. QUANTITATIVE PCR OF SELECTED ASPERGILLUS, PENICILLIUM AND PAECILOMYCES SPECIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    A total of 65 quantitative PCR (QPCR) assays, incorporating fluorigenic 5' nuclease (TaqMan®) chemistry and directed at the nuclear ribosomal RNA operon, internal transcribed spacer regions (ITS1 or ITS2) was developed and tested for the detection of Aspergillus, Penicillium and ...

  6. Regulation of Aspergillus flavus Aflatoxin Biosynthesis and Development

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The filamentous fungus Aspergillus flavus produces a family of potent mutagenic and carcinogenic compounds collectively known as aflatoxins (AF). These secondary metabolites contaminate a number of oilseed crops during growth of the fungus and this can result in severe negative economic and health i...

  7. Biodiversity of Aspergillus section Flavi in the United States

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fungi belonging to Aspergillus section Flavi are of great economic importance in the United States due to the formation of toxic and carcinogenic aflatoxins in agricultural commodities. Development of control strategies against A. flavus and A. parasiticus, the major aflatoxin-producing species, is...

  8. Cryptic Sexuality Influences Aflatoxigenicity in Aspergillus parasiticus and A. flavus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Ascomycetous fungi of the genus Aspergillus comprise a wide variety of species of biotechnological importance as well as pathogens and toxin producers. Recent studies report A. fumigatus to be heterothallic and possibly undergoing sexual reproduction. We therefore investigated whether compatible mat...

  9. The maize rachis affects Aspergillus flavus movement during ear development

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Aspergillus flavus expressing green fluorescent protein (GFP) was used to follow infection in ears of maize hybrids resistant and susceptible to the fungus. Developing ears were needle-inoculated with GFP-transformed A. flavus 20 days after silk emergence, and GFP fluorescence in the pith was evalu...

  10. Genetic Response to Seed Colonizatin by Aspergillus flavus in Peanut

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Previous studies to evaluate peanut genotypes for in vitro resistance to seed colonization by Aspergillus flavus have not resulted in the development of cultivars with resistance to aflatoxin contamination in the field. New breeding lines showing pre-harvest field resistance to aflatoxin contaminat...

  11. 21 CFR 866.3040 - Aspergillus spp. serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Aspergillus spp. serological reagents. 866.3040 Section 866.3040 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3040...

  12. 21 CFR 866.3040 - Aspergillus spp. serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Aspergillus spp. serological reagents. 866.3040 Section 866.3040 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3040...

  13. 21 CFR 866.3040 - Aspergillus spp. serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Aspergillus spp. serological reagents. 866.3040 Section 866.3040 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3040...

  14. 21 CFR 866.3040 - Aspergillus spp. serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Aspergillus spp. serological reagents. 866.3040 Section 866.3040 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3040...

  15. 21 CFR 866.3040 - Aspergillus spp. serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Aspergillus spp. serological reagents. 866.3040 Section 866.3040 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3040...

  16. Genomic profile of maize response to Aspergillus flavus infection

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of this experiment was to identify differentially expressed genes for Aspergillus flavus resistance in the Va35 (susceptible) and Mp313E (resistant) maize (Zea mays L.) lines using cDNA microarray analysis. Out of the 5065 ESTs analyzed, 2.4% of the total ESTs analyzed were significant...

  17. Population ecology of Aspergillus flavus associated with Mississippi Delta Soils

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Understanding the source of Aspergillus flavus is required to effectively manage within-field aflatoxin contamination of maize (Zea mays L.). Studies assessed the density of A. flavus propagules and other soil microflora (Fusarium spp., total fungi) associated with Mississippi Delta soils, and corr...

  18. Polyphasic taxonomy of Aspergillus section Fumigati and its teleomorph Neosartorya

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We revised the taxonomy of Aspergillus section Fumigati along with its teleomorph genus Neosartorya. Our species concept is based phenotype (morphology and extrolite profiles) and molecular (beta-tubulin and calmodulin gene sequences) characters in a polyphasic approach. Four new taxa are proposed:...

  19. Evolutionary relationships among Aspergillus flavus vegetative compatibility groups

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Aspergillus flavus is a fungal plant pathogen of many diverse crops including cotton, peanuts, maize, almond, and pistachio. During infection by A. flavus, crops are frequently contaminated with highly carcinogenic aflatoxins. A. flavus populations are composed of numerous vegetative compatibility g...

  20. Potential of Aspergillus flavus Genomics for Applications in Biotechnology

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Aspergillus flavus is a common saprophyte and opportunistic pathogen that survives in the natural environment by extracting nutrition from plant debris, insect carcasses and a variety of other carbon sources. A. flavus produces numerous secondary metabolites and hydrolytic enzymes. The primary obj...

  1. Chemosensitization prevents tolerance of Aspergillus fumigatus to antimycotic drugs

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Tolerance of human pathogenic fungi to antifungal drugs is an emerging medical problem. We show how strains of the causative agent of human aspergillosis, Aspergillus fumigatus, tolerant to cell wall-interfering antimycotic drugs become susceptible through chemosensitization by natural compounds. To...

  2. Sexual Reproduction in Aflatoxin-Producing Aspergillus nomius

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Aflatoxins are fungal secondary metabolites that exhibit carcinogenic, hepatotoxic and immunosuppressive properties. Aspergillus nomius is a potent producer of aflatoxins and was formerly considered to be strictly asexual in reproduction. In this research, mating-type genes MAT1-1 and MAT1-2 were ...

  3. Evidence of aneuploidy modulating aflatoxigenicity in Aspergillus flavus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Aspergillus flavus is a well-known pathogen of many important agricultural commodities and is a major producer of aflatoxins, which are carcinogenic polyketides that pose a serious health risk to humans and animals. Aflatoxin contamination in peanut exports worldwide accounts for as much as $450 mi...

  4. Field ecology, fungal sex and food contamination involving Aspergillus species

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Several species within the genus Aspergillus are capable of producing a myriad of toxic secondary metabolites, with aflatoxin being of most concern. These fungi happen to colonize important agricultural commodities, thereby having the potential to contaminate our food with carcinogenic aflatoxins. P...

  5. RNA interference-mediated control of Aspergillus flavus in maize

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Introduction: Aflatoxigenic Aspergillus flavus is a frequent contaminant of agricultural commodities such as corn, peanut, tree nuts and cottonseed. Ingestion of foods, especially corn, contaminated with aflatoxins has been implicated in acute toxicoses while chronic, low-level exposure can lead to...

  6. Genomic sequence for the aflatoxigenic filamentous fungus Aspergillus nomius

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The genome of the A. nomius type strain was sequenced using a personal genome machine. Annotation of the genes was undertaken, followed by gene ontology and an investigation into the number of secondary metabolite clusters. Comparative studies with other Aspergillus species involved shared/unique ge...

  7. Utilization of brewery spent grain liquor by Aspergillus niger.

    PubMed

    Hang, Y D; Splittstoesser, D F; Woodams, E E

    1975-11-01

    Aspergillus niger was found capable of rapidly converting about 97% of the sugar from brewery spent grain liquor to fungal mass. The yield of dry mycelium, based on the sugar consumed, was approximately 57%. This fungus produced 1.10% titratable acid calculated as citric acid and reduced the biochemical oxygen demand by 96%. PMID:1200633

  8. Utilization of Brewery Spent Grain Liquor by Aspergillus niger1

    PubMed Central

    Hang, Y. D.; Splittstoesser, D. F.; Woodams, E. E.

    1975-01-01

    Aspergillus niger was found capable of rapidly converting about 97% of the sugar from brewery spent grain liquor to fungal mass. The yield of dry mycelium, based on the sugar consumed, was approximately 57%. This fungus produced 1.10% titratable acid calculated as citric acid and reduced the biochemical oxygen demand by 96%. PMID:1200633

  9. A Highly Efficient Gene-Targeting System for Aspergillus parasiticus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Gene targeting via homologous recombination is often used to elucidate gene function. For filamentous fungi, the majority of transforming DNA integrates ectopically. Deletion of Aspergillus parasiticus ku70, a gene of the non-homologous end-joining pathway, drastically increased the gene targeting...

  10. Aspergillin PZ, a novel isoindole-alkaloid from Aspergillus awamori.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yi; Wang, Tao; Pei, Yuehu; Hua, Huiming; Feng, Baomin

    2002-08-01

    Aspergillin PZ was obtained from the fermentation of Aspergillus awamori (Nakazawa) by activity-guided fractionation and purification. Its structure was elucidated on the basis of spectral data, especially by 2D NMR, and finally confirmed by an X-ray analysis. It could induce conidia of P. oryzae to deform moderately. PMID:12374381

  11. Metabolomics Analysis Reveals Specific Novel Tetrapeptide and Potential Anti-Inflammatory Metabolites in Pathogenic Aspergillus species

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Kim-Chung; Tam, Emily W. T.; Lo, Ka-Ching; Tsang, Alan K. L.; Lau, Candy C. Y.; To, Kelvin K. W.; Chan, Jasper F. W.; Lam, Ching-Wan; Yuen, Kwok-Yung; Lau, Susanna K. P.; Woo, Patrick C. Y.

    2015-01-01

    Infections related to Aspergillus species have emerged to become an important focus in infectious diseases, as a result of the increasing use of immunosuppressive agents and high fatality associated with invasive aspergillosis. However, laboratory diagnosis of Aspergillus infections remains difficult. In this study, by comparing the metabolomic profiles of the culture supernatants of 30 strains of six pathogenic Aspergillus species (A. fumigatus, A. flavus, A. niger, A. terreus, A. nomius and A. tamarii) and 31 strains of 10 non-Aspergillus fungi, eight compounds present in all strains of the six Aspergillus species but not in any strain of the non-Aspergillus fungi were observed. One of the eight compounds, Leu–Glu–Leu–Glu, is a novel tetrapeptide and represents the first linear tetrapeptide observed in Aspergillus species, which we propose to be named aspergitide. Two other closely related Aspergillus-specific compounds, hydroxy-(sulfooxy)benzoic acid and (sulfooxy)benzoic acid, may possess anti-inflammatory properties, as 2-(sulfooxy)benzoic acid possesses a structure similar to those of aspirin [2-(acetoxy)benzoic acid] and salicylic acid (2-hydroxybenzoic acid). Further studies to examine the potentials of these Aspergillus-specific compounds for laboratory diagnosis of aspergillosis are warranted and further experiments will reveal whether Leu–Glu–Leu–Glu, hydroxy-(sulfooxy)benzoic acid and (sulfooxy)benzoic acid are virulent factors of the pathogenic Aspergillus species. PMID:26090713

  12. Three new anascosporic genera of the Saccharomycotina: Danielozyma gen. nov., Deakozyma gen. nov. and Middelhovenomyces gen. nov.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Three new non-ascosporic, ascomycetous yeast genera are proposed based on their isolation from currently described species and genera. Phylogenetic placement of the genera was determined from analysis of nuclear gene sequences for D1/D2 large subunit rRNA, small subunit rRNA, translation elongation...

  13. Loss of msnA a putative stress regulatory gene in Aspergillus parasiticus and Aspergillus flavus increased production of conidia aflatoxins and kojic acid

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Production of the harmful carcinogenic aflatoxins by Aspergillus parasiticus and Aspergillus flavus has been postulated to be a mechanism to relieve oxidative stress. The msnA gene, the ortholog of Saccharomyces cerevisiae MSN2 associated with multi-stress response, of the two species was disrupted....

  14. Clinical Performance of Aspergillus PCR for Testing Serum and Plasma: a Study by the European Aspergillus PCR Initiative

    PubMed Central

    Barnes, Rosemary A.; Springer, Jan; Klingspor, Lena; Cuenca-Estrella, Manuel; Morton, C. Oliver; Lagrou, Katrien; Bretagne, Stéphane; Melchers, Willem J. G.; Mengoli, Carlo; Donnelly, J. Peter; Heinz, Werner J.; Loeffler, Juergen

    2015-01-01

    Aspergillus PCR testing of serum provides technical simplicity but with potentially reduced sensitivity compared to whole-blood testing. With diseases for which screening to exclude disease represents an optimal strategy, sensitivity is paramount. The associated analytical study confirmed that DNA concentrations were greater in plasma than those in serum. The aim of the current investigation was to confirm analytical findings by comparing the performance of Aspergillus PCR testing of plasma and serum in the clinical setting. Standardized Aspergillus PCR was performed on plasma and serum samples concurrently obtained from hematology patients in a multicenter retrospective anonymous case-control study, with cases diagnosed according to European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer/Invasive Fungal Infections Cooperative Group and the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Mycoses Study Group (EORTC/MSG) consensus definitions (19 proven/probable cases and 42 controls). Clinical performance and clinical utility (time to positivity) were calculated for both kinds of samples. The sensitivity and specificity for Aspergillus PCR when testing serum were 68.4% and 76.2%, respectively, and for plasma, they were 94.7% and 83.3%, respectively. Eighty-five percent of serum and plasma PCR results were concordant. On average, plasma PCR was positive 16.8 days before diagnosis and was the earliest indicator of infection in 13 cases, combined with other biomarkers in five cases. On average, serum PCR was positive 10.8 days before diagnosis and was the earliest indicator of infection in six cases, combined with other biomarkers in three cases. These results confirm the analytical finding that the sensitivity of Aspergillus PCR using plasma is superior to that using serum. PCR positivity occurs earlier when testing plasma and provides sufficient sensitivity for the screening of invasive aspergillosis while maintaining methodological simplicity. PMID:26085618

  15. New genera and species of leaf beetles (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) from China and South Korea

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Two new genera from China (Taumaceroides Lopatin and Yunnaniata Lopatin) and 11 new species (Smaragdina quadrimaculata Lopatin, Smaragdina oblongum Lopatin, Hyphaenia volkovitshi Lopatin, Arthrotus daliensis Lopatin, Taumaceroides sinicus Lopatin, Yunnaniata konstantinovi Lopatin, Calomicrus yunnanu...

  16. Genera&on of OLI data products Onboard Earth Observing One: A Preliminary Report

    E-print Network

    Schaffer, Steven

    Genera&on of OLI data products Onboard Earth Observing One: A Preliminary&spectral data onboard. · Specific: Demonstrate that Hyperion Hyperspectral data can be used to synthesize OLI mul&spectral data onboard. #12;Approach · U&lize exis

  17. A KEY TO THE COMMON GENERA OF NEOGENE SHARK TEETH ROBERT W. PURDY

    E-print Network

    Miller, Scott

    A KEY TO THE COMMON GENERA OF NEOGENE SHARK TEETH BY ROBERT W. PURDY Revised April 2003 #12;2 Table . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 Using Artificial Tooth Sets to Identify Fossil Shark Teeth . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 Hexanchiform Sharks

  18. VALIDITY OF THREE GENERA OF FLYING SQUIRRELS: EOGLAUCOMYS, GLAUCOMYS, AND HYLOPETES

    E-print Network

    Miller, Scott

    VALIDITY OF THREE GENERA OF FLYING SQUIRRELS: EOGLAUCOMYS, GLAUCOMYS, AND HYLOPETES Divisiort: Eoglaucomys, Glaucomys, Hylopetes, flying squirrels, systematics We investigate two hypotheses about fly- ing squirrels: that Himalayan flying squir- rels, subgenus Eoglaucomys, are closely re- lated to and should

  19. A World Wide Web key to the grass genera of Texas 

    E-print Network

    Dawson, John Edward

    2001-01-01

    An illustrated dichotomous key to the grass genera of Texas is presented in hypertext markup language (HTML) format. The key combines scanned images of inflorescences, digitized images of dissected spikelets, text descriptions and descriptive...

  20. Key to the recognition of normapolles and some morphologically similar pollen genera

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Batten, D.J.; Christopher, R.A.

    1981-01-01

    A dichotomous key to the recognition of 86 Normapolles and morphologically similar pollen genera is presented. The key is accompanied by line drawings of each genus and an illustrated glossary of descriptive terms. ?? 1981.

  1. A comparative morphological study of the kinorhynch genera Antygomonas and Semnoderes (Kinorhyncha: Cyclorhagida)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sřrensen, Martin V.; Heiner, Iben; Hansen, Jesper G.

    2009-06-01

    Detailed information revealed through combined use of light- and scanning electron microscopy, is given for two species of kinorhynchs, representing the cyclorhagid genera Semnoderes and Antygomonas. The two species have not previously been examined using SEM, and the new observations point out several similarities between species of the two genera, which could indicate a potential close relationship. The generated data is meant to be incorporated in a future phylogenetic analysis in order to clarify the phylogenetic relationships among kinorhynchs.

  2. Molecular characterization of Aspergillus infections in an Iranian educational hospital using RAPD-PCR method

    PubMed Central

    Diba, Kambiz; Makhdoomi, Khadijeh; Mirhendi, Hossein

    2014-01-01

    Objective(s): The nosocomial infections by Aspergillus species are associated with constructions and increased dust loads in hospital indoors. Our main object was to find the environmental sources of Aspergillus species causing hospital acquired infections. Materials and Methods: The clinical and environmental samplings were performed during 18 months from spring 2010 to summer 2011 in Imam educational hospital, Urmia, Iran. A morphological diagnosis was performed including microscopic characterization of isolated aspergillus from cultured specimens and polymerase chain reaction - restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) for the identification in the level of species. Random amplified polymorphic DNA - PCR RAPD-PCR using random primers for rDNA gene was performed to compare Aspergillus isolates of clinical cases with the relevant environmental sources. Results: Use of RAPD method resulted various differential patterns, so that some Aspergillus isolates from the clinical and hospital indoor were completely matched (matched pairs) and some other Aspergillus isolates were not matched. In the case of matched pairs, Aspergillus niger and A. flavus isolated from broncoalveolar lavage and sinus discharge were relevant to those of air conditioner and walls surfaces, respectively. Conclusion: The hospital sources for the Aspergillus clinical isolates included air condition and walls. RAPD-PCR analysis can play a trivial role to find the hospital sources of Aspergillus clinical isolates. PMID:25691939

  3. Fitness Studies of Azole-Resistant Strains of Aspergillus fumigatus.

    PubMed

    Valsecchi, Isabel; Mellado, Emilia; Beau, Rémi; Raj, Shriya; Latgé, Jean-Paul

    2015-12-01

    Isogenic bar-coded strains of Aspergillus fumigatus carrying the G54W or M220K mutation in Cyp51A were constructed. In vitro, the growth and conidiation capacities of the mutants were similar to those of the parental strain. Competition studies in the absence of azoles showed that there was no adverse fitness cost for the azole-resistant A. fumigatus strains in vitro or in vivo compared to the parental strain. PMID:26416854

  4. Aspergillus versicolor, a New Causative Agent of Canine Disseminated Aspergillosis

    PubMed Central

    Corapi, Wayne; Quist, Erin; Griffin, Sarah; Zhang, Michael

    2012-01-01

    Disseminated aspergillosis in dogs has been associated with Aspergillus terreus or A. deflectus infection. We report a case of disseminated A. versicolor infection presenting as diskospondylitis, osteomyelitis, and pyelonephritis. The diagnosis was made based on clinical, radiographic, and pathological findings. The etiologic agent was identified by fungal culture and internal transcribed spacer (ITS) ribosomal DNA (rDNA) sequencing. This is the first description of canine aspergillosis caused by A. versicolor. PMID:22031699

  5. Infected Baerveldt Glaucoma Drainage Device by Aspergillus niger

    PubMed Central

    Salim, Nurul-Laila; Azhany, Yaakub; Abdul Rahman, Zaidah; Yusof, Roziawati; Liza-Sharmini, Ahmad Tajudin

    2015-01-01

    Fungal endophthalmitis is rare but may complicate glaucoma drainage device surgery. Management is challenging as the symptoms and signs may be subtle at initial presentation and the visual prognosis is usually poor due to its resistant nature to treatment. At present there is lesser experience with intravitreal injection of voriconazole as compared to Amphotericin B. We present a case of successfully treated Aspergillus endophthalmitis following Baerveldt glaucoma drainage device implantation with intravitreal and topical voriconazole. PMID:26064735

  6. Association of airborne Aspergillus with asthma exacerbation in Southern Pakistan

    PubMed Central

    Zubairi, Ali Bin Sarwar; Azam, Iqbal; Awan, Safia; Zafar, Afia

    2014-01-01

    Background Exposure to airborne fungi has been related with exacerbation of asthma in adults and children leading to increased outpatient, emergency room visits, and hospitalizations. Hypersensitivity to these airborne fungi may be an important initial predisposing factor in the development and exacerbation of asthma. Objective This study was conducted to determine an association between fungal types and spore concentrations with the risk of asthma exacerbation in adults. Methods This cross-sectional study was conducted from May 2008 to August 2009 at the Aga Khan University Hospital Karachi, Pakistan. All adult (age?16 years) patients presenting to the hospital with acute asthma exacerbation were enrolled after informed consent. A home survey was conducted for each patient to assess their environmental characteristics. Indoor air samples were also obtained from the patient's home to determine the type and spore concentration of fungi within the week of their enrollment in the study. Results Three hundred and ninety-one patients with an acute asthma exacerbation were enrolled during the study period. The mean age of participants was 46 years (standard deviation, ±18 years) and 247 (63.2%) were females. A trend of higher asthma enrollment associated with higher Aspergillus concentrations was found in two consecutive summers. A total of nineteen types of fungi were found in air samples. Aspergillus spp. was the most frequently isolated fungus with acute asthma exacerbation. Conclusion An association of higher concentration of indoor Aspergillus spp. with asthma exacerbation in adults was observed in this study. PMID:24809014

  7. Recombinant Aspergillus ?-galactosidases as a robust glycomic and biotechnological tool.

    PubMed

    Dragosits, Martin; Pflügl, Stefan; Kurz, Simone; Razzazi-Fazeli, Ebrahim; Wilson, Iain B H; Rendic, Dubravko

    2014-04-01

    Galactosidases are widespread enzymes that are used for manifold applications, including production of prebiotics, biosynthesis of different transgalactosylated products, improving lactose tolerance and in various analytical approaches. The nature of these applications often require galactosidases to be present in a purified form with clearly defined properties, including precisely determined substrate specificities, low sensitivity to inhibitors, and high efficiency and stability under distinct conditions. In this study, we present the recombinant expression and purification of two previously uncharacterized ?-galactosidases from Aspergillus nidulans as well as one ?-galactosidase from Aspergillus niger. All enzymes were active toward p-nitrophenyl-?-D-galactopyranoside as substrate and displayed similar temperature and pH optima. The purified recombinant galactosidases digested various complex substrates containing terminal galactose ?-1,4 linked to either N-acetylglucosamine or fucose, such as N-glycans derived from bovine fibrin and Caenorhabditis elegans. In our comparative study of the recombinant galactosidases with the commercially available galactosidase from Aspergillus oryzae, all enzymes also displayed various degrees of activity toward complex oligosaccharides containing ?-1,3-linked terminal galactose residues. All recombinant enzymes were found to be robust in the presence of various organic solvents, temperature variations, and freeze/thaw cycles and were also tested for their ability to synthesize galactooligosaccharides. Furthermore, the use of fermentors considerably increased the yield of recombinant galactosidases. Taken together, we demonstrate that purified recombinant galactosidases from A. niger and from A. nidulans are suitable for various glycobiological and biotechnological applications. PMID:24037406

  8. Persistence versus Escape: Aspergillus terreus and Aspergillus fumigatus Employ Different Strategies during Interactions with Macrophages

    PubMed Central

    Slesiona, Silvia; Gressler, Markus; Mihlan, Michael; Zaehle, Christoph; Schaller, Martin; Barz, Dagmar; Hube, Bernhard; Jacobsen, Ilse D.; Brock, Matthias

    2012-01-01

    Invasive bronchopulmonary aspergillosis (IBPA) is a life-threatening disease in immunocompromised patients. Although Aspergillus terreus is frequently found in the environment, A. fumigatus is by far the main cause of IBPA. However, once A. terreus establishes infection in the host, disease is as fatal as A. fumigatus infections. Thus, we hypothesized that the initial steps of disease establishment might be fundamentally different between these two species. Since alveolar macrophages represent one of the first phagocytes facing inhaled conidia, we compared the interaction of A. terreus and A. fumigatus conidia with alveolar macrophages. A. terreus conidia were phagocytosed more rapidly than A. fumigatus conidia, possibly due to higher exposure of ?-1,3-glucan and galactomannan on the surface. In agreement, blocking of dectin-1 and mannose receptors significantly reduced phagocytosis of A. terreus, but had only a moderate effect on phagocytosis of A. fumigatus. Once phagocytosed, and in contrast to A. fumigatus, A. terreus did not inhibit acidification of phagolysosomes, but remained viable without signs of germination both in vitro and in immunocompetent mice. The inability of A. terreus to germinate and pierce macrophages resulted in significantly lower cytotoxicity compared to A. fumigatus. Blocking phagolysosome acidification by the v-ATPase inhibitor bafilomycin increased A. terreus germination rates and cytotoxicity. Recombinant expression of the A. nidulans wA naphthopyrone synthase, a homologue of A. fumigatus PksP, inhibited phagolysosome acidification and resulted in increased germination, macrophage damage and virulence in corticosteroid-treated mice. In summary, we show that A. terreus and A. fumigatus have evolved significantly different strategies to survive the attack of host immune cells. While A. fumigatus prevents phagocytosis and phagolysosome acidification and escapes from macrophages by germination, A. terreus is rapidly phagocytosed, but conidia show long-term persistence in macrophages even in immunocompetent hosts. PMID:22319619

  9. Molecular phylogeny of Subtribe Artemisiinae (Asteraceae), including Artemisia and its allied and segregate genera

    PubMed Central

    Watson, Linda E; Bates, Paul L; Evans, Timothy M; Unwin, Matthew M; Estes, James R

    2002-01-01

    Background Subtribe Artemisiinae of Tribe Anthemideae (Asteraceae) is composed of 18 largely Asian genera that include the sagebrushes and mugworts. The subtribe includes the large cosmopolitan, wind-pollinated genus Artemisia, as well as several smaller genera and Seriphidium, that altogether comprise the Artemisia-group. Circumscription and taxonomic boundaries of Artemisia and the placements of these small segregate genera is currently unresolved. Results We constructed a molecular phylogeny for the subtribe using the internal transcribed spacers (ITS) of nuclear ribosomal DNA analyzed with parsimony, likelihood, and Bayesian criteria. The resulting tree is comprised of three major clades that correspond to the radiate genera (e.g., Arctanthemum and Dendranthema), and two clades of Artemisia species. All three clades have allied and segregate genera embedded within each. Conclusions The data support a broad concept of Artemisia s.l. that includes Neopallasia, Crossostephium, Filifolium, Seriphidium, and Sphaeromeria. However, the phylogeny excludes Elachanthemum, Kaschgaria, and Stilnolepis from the Artemisia-group. Additionally, the monophyly of the four subgenera of Artemisia is also not supported, with the exception of subg. Dracunculus. Homogamous, discoid capitula appear to have arisen in parallel four to seven times, with the loss of ray florets. Thus capitular morphology is not a reliable taxonomic character, which traditionally has been one of the defining characters. PMID:12350234

  10. Comparison of isoleucine epimerization and leaching potential in the molluskan genera Astarte, Macoma, and Mya

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roof, Steven

    1997-12-01

    Amino acid racemization geochronology is widely applied to provide relative age control for carbonate fossils, however, there are significant chemical differences between genera which affect diagenetic reactions in proteins such as hydrolysis and racemization. In order to evaluate intergeneric influences on isoleucine epimerization, laboratory heating experiments were undertaken to compare the rate of epimerization of L-isoleucine to D-alloisoleucine and the potential for leaching of amino acids in three molluskan genera: Astarte, Macoma, and Mya. Shell fragments from these genera were heated for up to 816 h at 100°C to simulate aging. After 96 h of heating, the three genera experienced similar degrees of epimerization in the total acid hydrolysate, but with additional heating, Astarte and Macoma epimerized more extensively than Mya. In the free amino acid fraction, the relative rates of epimerization were reversed: Mya shows the fastest apparent rate and Astarte the slowest. All three genera lost amino acids from both the free and bound fractions by leaching, but more significantly, alloisoleucine leached proportionately much faster than isoleucine. If leaching of amino acids under natural conditions continues after significant alloisoleucine is produced, then the preferential loss of alloisoleucine over isoleucine will result in lowering of the alloisoleucine/isoleucine ratio and, therefore, lead to significant underestimation of ages. An important implication for all studies utilizing amino acid racemization geochronology is that even coeval shells of the same genus may give different alle/Ile values if different individual shells experienced different burial conditions and degrees of leaching.

  11. Decontamination of Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus parasiticus spores on hazelnuts via atmospheric pressure fluidized bed plasma reactor.

    PubMed

    Dasan, Beyhan Gunaydin; Mutlu, Mehmet; Boyaci, Ismail Hakki

    2016-01-01

    In this study, an atmospheric pressure fluidized bed plasma (APFBP) system was designed and its decontamination effect on aflatoxigenic fungi (Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus parasiticus) on the surface of hazelnuts was investigated. Hazelnuts were artificially contaminated with A. flavus and A. parasiticus and then were treated with dry air plasma for up to 5min in the APFBP system at various plasma parameters. Significant reductions of 4.50 log (cfu/g) in A. flavus and 4.19 log (cfu/g) in A. parasiticus were achieved after 5min treatments at 100% V - 25kHz (655W) by using dry air as the plasma forming gas. The decontamination effect of APFBP on A. flavus and A. parasiticus spores inoculated on hazelnuts was increased with the applied reference voltage and the frequency. No change or slight reductions were observed in A. flavus and A. parasiticus load during the storage of plasma treated hazelnuts whereas on the control samples fungi continued to grow under storage conditions (30days at 25°C). Temperature change on hazelnut surfaces in the range between 35 and 90°C was monitored with a thermal camera, and it was demonstrated that the temperature increase taking place during plasma treatment did not have a lethal effect on A. flavus and A. parasiticus spores. The damage caused by APFBP treatment on Aspergillus spp. spores was also observed by scanning electron microscopy. PMID:26398284

  12. Overexpression of Aspergillus tubingensis faeA in protease-deficient Aspergillus niger enables ferulic acid production from plant material.

    PubMed

    Zwane, Eunice N; Rose, Shaunita H; van Zyl, Willem H; Rumbold, Karl; Viljoen-Bloom, Marinda

    2014-06-01

    The production of ferulic acid esterase involved in the release of ferulic acid side groups from xylan was investigated in strains of Aspergillus tubingensis, Aspergillus carneus, Aspergillus niger and Rhizopus oryzae. The highest activity on triticale bran as sole carbon source was observed with the A. tubingensis T8.4 strain, which produced a type A ferulic acid esterase active against methyl p-coumarate, methyl ferulate and methyl sinapate. The activity of the A. tubingensis ferulic acid esterase (AtFAEA) was inhibited twofold by glucose and induced twofold in the presence of maize bran. An initial accumulation of endoglucanase was followed by the production of endoxylanase, suggesting a combined action with ferulic acid esterase on maize bran. A genomic copy of the A. tubingensis faeA gene was cloned and expressed in A. niger D15#26 under the control of the A. niger gpd promoter. The recombinant strain has reduced protease activity and does not acidify the media, therefore promoting high-level expression of recombinant enzymes. It produced 13.5 U/ml FAEA after 5 days on autoclaved maize bran as sole carbon source, which was threefold higher than for the A. tubingensis donor strain. The recombinant AtFAEA was able to extract 50 % of the available ferulic acid from non-pretreated maize bran, making this enzyme suitable for the biological production of ferulic acid from lignocellulosic plant material. PMID:24664515

  13. An anti-Aspergillus protein from Escherichia coli DH5?: putative inhibitor of siderophore biosynthesis in Aspergillus fumigatus.

    PubMed

    Balhara, Meenakshi; Ruhil, Sonam; Kumar, Manish; Dhankhar, Sandeep; Chhillar, A K

    2014-03-01

    An antifungal protein designated as anti-Aspergillus protein (AAP), produced by Escherichia coli DH5?, was purified and characterised. It exhibited a molecular weight of 60 kDa on Sodium dodecyl sulphate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis analysis and depicted 99% purity on ultra performance liquid chromatography. The purified protein manifested antimycotic potential against pathogenic isolates of Aspergillus spp., depicting a minimum inhibitory concentration in the range 15.62-31.25 ?g ml(-1) and 5.0-10.0 ?g per disc, using microbroth dilution, spore germination inhibition and disc diffusion assays respectively. In vitro toxicity tests demonstrated that it showed no toxicity against human erythrocytes at doses up to 1000 ?g ml(-1) . Matrix-assisted laser desorption ionisation-Time-of-flight analysis of trypsin-digested peptides of purified protein and subsequent Mascot search revealed that several peptides of AAP have identity with bacterial siderophore biosynthetic protein, i.e. non-ribosomal peptide synthetase enzyme, involved in critical step of fungal siderophore biosynthesis. Siderophore-based inhibition was further corroborated by Chrome azurol S assay. Hence, the antagonistic effect might be the result of impediment in siderophore-mediated iron uptake and transport process which may cause critical consequences on Aspergillus growth and virulence. PMID:23968167

  14. Aspergillus steynii and Aspergillus westerdijkiae as potential risk of OTA contamination in food products in warm climates.

    PubMed

    Gil-Serna, Jessica; Patińo, Belén; Cortes, Laura; Gonzalez-Jaen, Maria Teresa; Vazquez, Covadonga

    2015-04-01

    Aspergillus steynii and Aspergillus westerdijkiae are the main ochratoxin A (OTA) producing species of Aspergillus section Circumdati. Due to its recent description, few data are available about the influence of ecophysiological factors on their growth and OTA production profiles. In this work, the effect of temperature (20, 24 and 28 °C) and water activity (aw) (0.928, 0.964 and 0.995) on growth, sporulation and OTA production by these fungi was examined in CYA and media prepared from paprika, green coffee, anise, grapes, maize and barley. Growth was positively affected by the highest temperature and aw values indicating that both species might be expected in warm climates or storage conditions. However, optimal growth conditions showed differences depending on the medium. OTA production was markedly affected by substrate and showed qualitative and quantitative differences. Both species, especially A. steynii, represent a great potential risk of OTA contamination due to their high production in a variety of conditions and substrates, in particular in barley and paprika-based media. Additionally, neither growth nor sporulation did result good indicators of OTA production by A. steynii or A. westerdijkiae; therefore, specific and highly-sensitive detection methods become essential tools for control strategies to reduce OTA risk by these species. PMID:25475281

  15. Twining Genera of (0,4) Supersymmetric Sigma Models on K3

    E-print Network

    Sarah Harrison; Shamit Kachru; Natalie M. Paquette

    2013-09-02

    Conformal field theories with (0,4) worldsheet supersymmetry and K3 target can be used to compactify the E8xE8 heterotic string to six dimensions in a supersymmetric manner. The data specifying such a model includes an appropriate configuration of 24 gauge instantons in the E8xE8 gauge group to satisfy the constraints of anomaly cancellation. In this note, we compute twining genera - elliptic genera with appropriate insertions of discrete symmetry generators in the trace - for (0,4) theories with various instanton embeddings. We do this by constructing linear sigma models which flow to the desired conformal field theories, and using the techniques of localization. We present several examples of such twining genera which are consistent with a moonshine relating these (0,4) models to the finite simple sporadic group M24.

  16. Immatures of the New World treehopper tribe Amastrini (Hemiptera, Membracidae, Smiliinae) with a key to genera

    PubMed Central

    McKamey, Stuart H.; Wallner, Adam M.; Porter, Mitchell J.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The immatures stages of 8 of the 11 genera (Amastris Stĺl, Bajulata Ball, Erosne Stĺl, Harmonides Kirkaldy, Idioderma Van Duzee, Neotynelia Creăo-Duarte & Sakakibara, Tynelia Stĺl, and Vanduzea Goding) of the tribe Amastrini are described for the first time along with brief diagnoses of Membracidae and the subfamily Smiliinae. A key to genera and notes on biology are provided. Multiple species of most genera are illustrated. Based on its distinct nymphal morphology, Vanduzea laeta nolina Ball is elevated to specific rank as Vanduzea nolina stat. n., and Bajulata, despite the superficial similarity of its adults to those of Vanduzea, is confirmed as warranting generic rank based on its unique nymphal morphology. Colombia is a new country record for Tynelia. PMID:26478706

  17. Provisional keys to the genera of seaweeds of Micronesia, with new records for Guam and Yap

    PubMed Central

    LOBBAN, CHRISTOPHER S.; N'YEURT, ANTOINE D.R.

    2008-01-01

    Artificial keys to the genera of blue-green, red, brown, and green marine benthic algae of Micronesia are given, including virtually all the genera reported from Palau, Guam, Commonwealth of the Northern Marianas, Federated States of Micronesia and the Marshall Islands. Twenty-two new species or genera are reported here for Guam and 7 for Yap; 11 of these are also new for Micronesia. Note is made of several recent published records for Guam and 2 species recently raised from varietal status. Finally, a list is given of nomenclatural changes that affect the 2003 revised checklist. An interactive version of the keys is included in the algal biodiversity website at http://university.uog.edu/botany/474. PMID:18958300

  18. [Susceptibility to antibiotics of bacteria from genera Micrococcus, Kocuria, Nesterenkonia, Kytococcus and Dermacoccus].

    PubMed

    Szczerba, Izabela

    2003-01-01

    Two hundred and nineteen strains from genera Micrococcus, Kocuria, Nesterenkonia, Kytococcus and Dermacoccus isolated from different sources, such as saliva, skin of palm and forearm and from vestibule of nose were tested. The susceptibility to doxycycline, cetriaxone, cefuroxyme, amikacyne, amoksycillin with clavulanic acid, trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole, ampicillin, ciprofloxacin, penicillin and erythromycin were estimated. In general, bacteria from these genera are sensitive to most of selected antibiotics. Most of the strains showed resistance to ampicillin and erythromycin. None of these strains produced beta-lactamases. In infectious caused by bacteria from genera Micrococcus, Kocuria, Nesterenkonia, Kytococcus and Dermacoccus in clinical treatment should be used amoksycillin with clavulanic acid, doxycycline, cetriaxone, cefuroxyme, or amikacine because, with one's own range of activity embrace highest percentage of investigated strains. PMID:12908418

  19. One, four or 100 genera? A new classification of the cone snails

    PubMed Central

    Puillandre, N.; Duda, T. F.; Meyer, C.; Olivera, B. M.; Bouchet, P.

    2015-01-01

    We present a new classification for the genus Conus sensu lato (family Conidae), based on molecular phylogenetic analyses of 329 species. This classification departs from both the traditional classification in only one genus and from a recently proposed shell- and radula-based classification scheme that separates members of this group into five families and 115 genera. Roughly 140 genus-group names are available for Recent cone snails. We propose to place all cone snails within a single family (Conidae) containing four genera—Conus, Conasprella, Profundiconus and Californiconus (with Conus alone encompassing about 85% of known species)—based on the clear separation of cone snails into four distinct and well-supported groups/lineages in molecular phylogenetic analyses. Within Conus and Conasprella, we recognize 57 and 11 subgenera, respectively, that represent well-supported subgroupings within these genera, which we interpret as evidence of intrageneric distinctiveness. We allocate the 803 Recent species of Conidae listed as valid in the World Register of Marine Species into these four genera and 71 subgenera, with an estimate of the confidence for placement of species in these taxonomic categories based on whether molecular or radula and/or shell data were used in these determinations. Our proposed classification effectively departs from previous schemes by (1) limiting the number of accepted genera, (2) retaining the majority of species within the genus Conus and (3) assigning members of these genera to species groups/subgenera to enable the effective communication of these groups, all of which we hope will encourage acceptance of this scheme. PMID:26300576

  20. Molecular phylogeny of microhylid frogs (Anura: Microhylidae) with emphasis on relationships among New World genera

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Over the last ten years we have seen great efforts focused on revising amphibian systematics. Phylogenetic reconstructions derived from DNA sequence data have played a central role in these revisionary studies but have typically under-sampled the diverse frog family Microhylidae. Here, we present a detailed phylogenetic study focused on expanding previous hypotheses of relationships within this cosmopolitan family. Specifically, we placed an emphasis on assessing relationships among New World genera and those taxa with uncertain phylogenetic affinities (i.e., incertae sedis). Results One mitochondrial and three nuclear genes (about 2.8 kb) were sequenced to assess phylogenetic relationships. We utilized an unprecedented sampling of 200 microhylid taxa representing 91% of currently recognized subfamilies and 95% of New World genera. Our analyses do not fully resolve relationships among subfamilies supporting previous studies that have suggested a rapid early diversification of this clade. We observed a close relationship between Synapturanus and Otophryne of the subfamily Otophryninae. Within the subfamily Gastrophryninae relationships between genera were well resolved. Conclusion Otophryninae is distantly related to all other New World microhylids that were recovered as a monophyletic group, Gastrophryninae. Within Gastrophryninae, five genera were recovered as non-monophyletic; we propose taxonomic re-arrangements to render all genera monophyletic. This hypothesis of relationships and updated classification for New World microhylids may serve as a guide to better understand the evolutionary history of this group that is apparently subject to convergent morphological evolution and chromosome reduction. Based on a divergence analysis calibrated with hypotheses from previous studies and fossil data, it appears that microhylid genera inhabiting the New World originated during a period of gradual cooling from the late Oligocene to mid Miocene. PMID:23228209

  1. Production of Specific Monoclonal Antibodies to Aspergillus Species and Their Use in Immunohistochemical Identification of Aspergillosis

    PubMed Central

    Fenelon, L. E.; Hamilton, A. J.; Figueroa, J. I.; Bartholomew, M. A.; Allen, M. H.; McCarthy, P.; Hay, R. J.

    1999-01-01

    Two anti-Aspergillus murine monoclonal antibodies (MAbs), designated 164G and 611F, have been produced; both specifically recognize cytoplasmic antigens of A. fumigatus, A. flavus, and A. niger by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The MAbs can identify Aspergillus spp. both in frozen sections by immunofluorescence and in paraffin-embedded clinical specimens by immunofluorescence and immunoperoxidase staining. PMID:10074559

  2. RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN SOIL DENSITIES OF ASPERGILLUS SPECIES AND COLONIZATION OF WOUNDED PEANUT SEEDS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The relationship between soil density of Aspergillus species and the incidence of peanut seed colonization under laboratory conditions was examined. Viable peanut seeds were wounded and inoculated with 20 soils differing in composition and density of Aspergillus species, then incubated for 14 d at ...

  3. RNA interference reduces aflatoxin accumulation by Aspergillus flavus in peanut seeds

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Aflatoxins are among the most powerful carcinogens in nature. They are produced by the fungal pathogen Aspergillus flavus Link and other Aspergillus species. Aflatoxins accumulate in many crops, including rice, wheat, oats, pecans, pistachios, soybean, cassava, almonds, peanuts, beans, corn and cot...

  4. Introduction to the Toxin Reviews Special Issue "Aspergillus, Aflatoxin, Cyclopiazonic Acid, and Biological Control"

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This special issue of Toxin Reviews, “Aspergillus, Aflatoxin, CPA and Biological Control of Aflatoxin", is different from previous publications because it focuses on solving the problem of mycotoxin contamination through the use of biological control strains of Aspergillus, which is applicable to th...

  5. NsdC and NsdD affect Aspergillus flavus morphogenesis and aflatoxin production

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The transcription factors NsdC and NsdD have been shown to be necessary for sexual development in Aspergillus nidulans. Herein we examine the role of these proteins in development and aflatoxin production of the agriculturally important, aflatoxin-producing fungus, Aspergillus flavus. We found tha...

  6. Utilization of b-glucosidase from aspergillus species in the hydrolysis of cellulose

    SciTech Connect

    Nybergh, P.M.A.; Bailey, M.J.

    1980-01-01

    The batch hydrolysis of cellulose by Trichoderma reesei cellulase was considerably enhanced by the addition of very small amounts of B-glucosidase derived from Aspergillus niger. Addition of larger amounts had no further effect. In simultaneous cellulose hydrolysis and alcohol fermentation experiments the addition of B-glucosidase from Aspergillus niger had no significant effect on alcohol production by the fermenting yeast.

  7. DETERMINATION OF AFLATOXIN PRODUCTION BY ASPERGILLUS SPECIES FROM THE MISSISSIPPI DELTA BY VARIOUS METHODS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study evaluated several methods to detect aflatoxins in Aspergillus. Aspergillus isolates (517) were obtained from various Mississippi Delta crops (corn, peanut, rice, cotton) and soils. Cultural methods included fluorescence on Beta-cyclodextrin media (FL), yellow pigment (YP), and color cha...

  8. Comparsion of Cultural and Analytical Methods for Determination of Aflatoxin Production by Mississippi Delta Aspergillus isolates

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study compared cultural versus analytical methods to detect aflatoxin production by Aspergillus species. Aspergillus isolates (517) were obtained from various Mississippi Delta crops (corn, peanut, rice, cotton) and soils. Ten standard aflatoxigenic A. flavus isolates were also included in thi...

  9. Sexual reproduction influences aflatoxin chemotype diversity in worldwide populations of Aspergillus flavus and A. parasiticus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Aflatoxins are toxic polyketides produced by several Aspergillus species that contaminate food crops worldwide. Aspergillus flavus and A. parasiticus are the most common agents of aflatoxin contamination of oil-rich crops. The genes involved in aflatoxin biosynthesis are clustered and convert acetat...

  10. 21 CFR 173.120 - Carbohydrase and cellulase derived from Aspergillus niger.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... PERMITTED IN FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION Enzyme Preparations and Microorganisms § 173.120 Carbohydrase and cellulase derived from Aspergillus niger. Carbohydrase and cellulase enzyme preparation derived from... Aspergillus niger from the carbohydrase and cellulase enzyme product. (d) The additive is used or intended...

  11. 21 CFR 173.120 - Carbohydrase and cellulase derived from Aspergillus niger.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... PERMITTED IN FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION Enzyme Preparations and Microorganisms § 173.120 Carbohydrase and cellulase derived from Aspergillus niger. Carbohydrase and cellulase enzyme preparation derived from... Aspergillus niger from the carbohydrase and cellulase enzyme product. (d) The additive is used or intended...

  12. 21 CFR 173.120 - Carbohydrase and cellulase derived from Aspergillus niger.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... Enzyme Preparations and Microorganisms § 173.120 Carbohydrase and cellulase derived from Aspergillus niger. Carbohydrase and cellulase enzyme preparation derived from Aspergillus niger may be safely used... the carbohydrase and cellulase enzyme product. (d) The additive is used or intended for use as...

  13. 21 CFR 173.120 - Carbohydrase and cellulase derived from Aspergillus niger.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... PERMITTED IN FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION Enzyme Preparations and Microorganisms § 173.120 Carbohydrase and cellulase derived from Aspergillus niger. Carbohydrase and cellulase enzyme preparation derived from... Aspergillus niger from the carbohydrase and cellulase enzyme product. (d) The additive is used or intended...

  14. 21 CFR 173.120 - Carbohydrase and cellulase derived from Aspergillus niger.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... PERMITTED IN FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION Enzyme Preparations and Microorganisms § 173.120 Carbohydrase and cellulase derived from Aspergillus niger. Carbohydrase and cellulase enzyme preparation derived from... Aspergillus niger from the carbohydrase and cellulase enzyme product. (d) The additive is used or intended...

  15. Non-aflatoxigenic Aspergillus flavus isolates reduce aflatoxins, cyclopiazonic acid and fumonisin in corn (maize)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Aspergillus flavus strains vary widely in their production of aflatoxins and cyclopiazonic acid (CPA). A total of 500 Aspergillus strains isolated from a variety of sources showed 16.4% were negative for both aflatoxin and CPA, 41.3% were positive for both mycotoxins, 13.0% were positive only fo...

  16. Secondary Metabolite Profiling, Growth Profiles and Other Tools for Species Recognition and Important Aspergillus Mycotoxins

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Species in the genus Aspergillus have been classified primarily based on morphological features. Sequencing of house-hold genes has also been used in Aspergillus taxonomy and phylogeny, while extrolites and physiological features have been used less frequently. Three independent ways of classifyin...

  17. Tanaidaceans (Crustacea) from the Central Pacific Manganese Nodule Province. I. The genera Collettea, Robustochelia and Tumidochelia

    PubMed Central

    Larsen, Kim

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Three new species of are described from the manganese nodule province between the Clarion and the Clipperton Fracture Zone of the equatorial North Pacific Ocean, and collected during the Nodinaut expedition on board the r/v l´Atalante in the summer of 2004. The new species belongs to three genera as: Collettea (Collettea longisetosa), Robustochelia (Robustochelia pacifica), and Tumidochelia (Tumidochelia tuberculata). A key to the genus Tumidochelia is presented and the validity of the genera Robustochelia and Collettea is discussed. PMID:21594100

  18. Three New Monotypic Genera of the Caloplacoid Lichens (Teloschistaceae, Lichen-Forming Ascomycetes)

    PubMed Central

    L?kös, Lászlo; Kim, Jung A.; Kondratiuk, Anna S.; Jeong, Min Hye; Jang, Seol Hwa; Oh, Soon-Ok; Hur, Jae-Seoun

    2015-01-01

    Three monophyletic branches are strongly supported in a phylogenetic analysis of the Teloschistaceae based on combined data sets of internal transcribed spacer and large subunit nrDNA and 12S small subunit mtDNA sequences. These are described as new monotypic genera: Jasonhuria S. Y. Kondr., L. L?kös et S. -O. Oh, Loekoesia S. Y. Kondr., S. -O. Oh et J. -S. Hur and Olegblumia S. Y. Kondr., L. L?kös et J. -S. Hur. Three new combinations for the type species of these genera are proposed. PMID:26539034

  19. Isolation and identification of Aspergillus spp. from brown kiwi (Apteryx mantelli) nocturnal houses in New Zealand.

    PubMed

    Glare, Travis R; Gartrell, Brett D; Brookes, Jenny J; Perrott, John K

    2014-03-01

    Aspergillosis, a disease caused by infection with Aspergillus spp., is a common cause of death in birds globally and is an irregular cause of mortality of captive kiwi (Apteryx spp.). Aspergillus spp. are often present in rotting plant material, including the litter and nesting material used for kiwi in captivity. The aim of this study was to survey nocturnal kiwi houses in New Zealand to assess the levels of Aspergillus currently present in leaf litter. Samples were received from 11 nocturnal kiwi houses from throughout New Zealand, with one site supplying multiple samples over time. Aspergillus was isolated and quantified by colony counts from litter samples using selective media and incubation temperatures. Isolates were identified to the species level by amplification and sequencing of ITS regions of the ribosomal. Aspergillus spp. were recovered from almost every sample; however, the levels in most kiwi houses were below 1000 colony-forming units (CFU)/g of wet material. The predominant species was Aspergillus fumigatus, with rare occurrences of Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus nidulans, and Aspergillus parasiticus. Only one site had no detectable Aspergillus. The limit of detection was around 50 CFU/g wet material. One site was repeatedly sampled as it had a high loading of A. fumigatus at the start of the survey and had two recent clinical cases of aspergillosis diagnosed in resident kiwi. Environmental loading at this site with Aspergillus spp. reduced but was not eliminated despite changes of the litter. The key finding of our study is that the background levels of Aspergillus spores in kiwi nocturnal houses in New Zealand are low, but occasional exceptions occur and are associated with the onset of aspergillosis in otherwise healthy birds. The predominant Aspergillus species present in the leaf litter was A. fumigatus, but other species were also present. Further research is needed to confirm the optimal management of leaf litter to minimize Aspergillus spore counts. However, in the interim, our recommendations are that leaf litter should be freshly collected from areas of undisturbed forest areas and spread immediately after collection, without interim storage. PMID:24758108

  20. Characteristic clinical features of Aspergillus appendicitis: Case report and literature review

    PubMed Central

    Gjeorgjievski, Mihajlo; Amin, Mitual B; Cappell, Mitchell S

    2015-01-01

    This work aims to facilitate diagnosing Aspergillus appendicitis, which can be missed clinically due to its rarity, by proposing a clinical pentad for Aspergillus appendicitis based on literature review and one new case. The currently reported case of pathologically-proven Aspergillus appendicitis was identified by computerized search of pathology database at William Beaumont Hospital, 1999-2014. Prior cases were identified by computerized literature search. Among 10980 pathology reports of pathologically-proven appendicitis, one case of Aspergillus appendicitis was identified (rate = 0.01%). A young boy with profound neutropenia, recent chemotherapy, and acute myelogenous leukemia presented with right lower quadrant pain, pyrexia, and generalized malaise. Abdominal computed tomography scan showed a thickened appendiceal wall and periappendiceal inflammation, suggesting appendicitis. Emergent laparotomy showed an inflamed, thickened appendix, which was resected. The patient did poorly postoperatively with low-grade-fevers while receiving antibacterial therapy, but rapidly improved after initiating amphotericin therapy. Microscopic examination of a silver stain of the appendectomy specimen revealed fungi with characteristic Aspergillus morphology, findings confirmed by immunohistochemistry. Primary Aspergillus appendicitis is exceptionally rare, with only 3 previously reported cases. All three cases presented with (1)-neutropenia, (2)-recent chemotherapy, (3)-acute leukemia, and (4)-suspected appendicitis; (5)-the two prior cases initially treated with antibacterial therapy, fared poorly before instituting anti-Aspergillus therapy. The current patient satisfied all these five criteria. Based on these four cases, a clinical pentad is proposed for Aspergillus appendicitis: clinically-suspected appendicitis, neutropenia, recent chemotherapy, acute leukemia, and poor clinical response if treated solely by antibacterial/anti-candidial therapy. Patients presenting with this proposed pentad may benefit from testing for Aspergillus infection by silver-stains/immunohistochemistry and considering empirical anti-Aspergillus therapy pending a tissue diagnosis. PMID:26640349

  1. Comprehensive database on Induan (Lower Triassic) to Sinemurian (Lower Jurassic) marine bivalve genera and their paleobiogeographic record

    E-print Network

    Ros-Franch, Sonia; Marquez-Aliaga, Ana; Damborenea, Susana

    2014-04-10

    Marine bivalve genera that were described or mentioned for Triassic and Lower Jurassic deposits worldwide are reviewed in terms of their validity, stratigraphic range, paleogeographic distribution, paleoautecology, and ...

  2. Pediatric foreign body aspiration: A nidus for Aspergillus colonization.

    PubMed

    Mitchell, Candace A; Kreiger, Portia; Goff, Christopher; Shah, Udayan K

    2015-06-01

    We describe an immunocompetent child with bronchial fungus following foreign body aspiration. A two-year-old male presented with cough. Workup revealed air trapping and bronchoscopy showed aspirated foreign material in the right mainstem bronchus. Histopathology revealed fungal organisms suggestive of Aspergillus within an ulcer of the adjacent bronchial mucosa. Foreign body aspiration has been posited as a nidus for aspergilloma formation but is not yet described in the available English-language pediatric literature. Here, the foreign body provided a site for fungal growth in the bronchus of an otherwise healthy child. This case suggests that bronchial foreign body may pose risk of fungal colonization even in immunocompetent children. PMID:25890398

  3. Identification of Aspergillus nomius in Bees Visiting Brazil Nut Flowers

    PubMed Central

    Massi, Fernanda Pelisson; Penha, Rafael Elias Silva; Cavalcante, Marcelo Casimiro; Viaro, Helena Paula; da Silva, Josué José; de Souza Ferranti, Larissa; Fungaro, Maria Helena Pelegrinelli

    2015-01-01

    We designed a primer pair (BtubNomF/BtubNomR) specifically for amplifying Aspergillus nomius DNA. In vitro assays confirmed BtubNomF/BtubNomR specificity, corroborating its usefulness in detecting and identifying A. nomius. We then investigated the occurrence of A. nomius in floral visitors of Bertholletia excelsa trees by means of PCR, and A. nomius was detected in the following bees: Xylocopa frontalis, Bombus transversalis, Centris denudans, C. ferruginea, and Epicharis flava. The presence of A. nomius in bees visiting Brazil nuts opens up new avenues for obtaining novel insights into the process whereby Brazil nuts are contaminated by aflatoxin-producing fungi. PMID:26063353

  4. Identification of Aspergillus nomius in Bees Visiting Brazil Nut Flowers.

    PubMed

    Massi, Fernanda Pelisson; Penha, Rafael Elias Silva; Cavalcante, Marcelo Casimiro; Viaro, Helena Paula; da Silva, Josué José; de Souza Ferranti, Larissa; Fungaro, Maria Helena Pelegrinelli

    2015-01-01

    We designed a primer pair (BtubNomF/BtubNomR) specifically for amplifying Aspergillus nomius DNA. In vitro assays confirmed BtubNomF/BtubNomR specificity, corroborating its usefulness in detecting and identifying A. nomius. We then investigated the occurrence of A. nomius in floral visitors of Bertholletia excelsa trees by means of PCR, and A. nomius was detected in the following bees: Xylocopa frontalis, Bombus transversalis, Centris denudans, C. ferruginea, and Epicharis flava. The presence of A. nomius in bees visiting Brazil nuts opens up new avenues for obtaining novel insights into the process whereby Brazil nuts are contaminated by aflatoxin-producing fungi. PMID:26063353

  5. Furandiones from an endophytic Aspergillus terreus residing in Malus halliana.

    PubMed

    Gu, Wen; Qiao, Chao

    2012-01-01

    Two new furandiones named asperterone B (1) and C (2) together with four known metabolites (3-6) were isolated from the liquid culture of the endophytic fungus Aspergillus terreus MHL-P22 residing in the fresh leaves of Malus halliana. The structures of the new compounds were elucidated by analysis of their MS, IR, 1D- and 2D-NMR spectra. 1 and 2 showed moderate cytotoxic activities against human colorectal carcinoma SW1116 cells with IC(50) values of 57.5 and 71.0?µM, respectively. The biosynthetic pathway for 1, 2 and their analogues was also postulated and briefly discussed. PMID:22971827

  6. ?-Glucosidase Inhibitors from the Fungus Aspergillus terreus 3.05358.

    PubMed

    Shan, Wei-Guang; Wu, Zhao-Ying; Pang, Wei-Wei; Ma, Lie-Feng; Ying, You-Min; Zhan, Zha-Jun

    2015-11-01

    One new diketopiperazine alkaloid amauromine B (1), along with three known meroterpenoids, austalide B (2), austalides N and O (3 and 4), and two known steroids (5 and 6), was isolated and identified from the culture broth of the fungus Aspergillus terreus 3.05358. Their structures were elucidated by extensive spectroscopic techniques, including 2D-NMR and MS analysis, the absolute configuration of 1 was unambiguously established by single crystal X-ray diffraction analysis. All the isolates were evaluated for their inhibitory effects on ?-glucosidase. Amauromine B (1) and austalide N (3) exhibited more potent ?-glucosidase inhibitory activities than the positive control acarbose. PMID:26567949

  7. Environmental isolates of azole-resistant Aspergillus fumigatus in Germany.

    PubMed

    Bader, Oliver; Tünnermann, Jana; Dudakova, Anna; Tangwattanachuleeporn, Marut; Weig, Michael; Groß, Uwe

    2015-07-01

    Azole antifungal drug resistance in Aspergillus fumigatus is an emerging problem in several parts of the world. Here we investigated the distribution of such strains in soils from Germany. At a general positivity rate of 12%, most prevalently, we found strains with the TR34/L98H and TR46/Y121F/T289A alleles, dispersed along a corridor across northern Germany. Comparison of the distributions of resistance alleles and genotypes between environment and clinical samples suggests the presence of local clinical clusters. PMID:25941229

  8. Lumazine Peptides from the Marine-Derived Fungus Aspergillus terreus

    PubMed Central

    You, Minjung; Liao, Lijuan; Hong, Soo Hyun; Park, Wanki; Kwon, Dah In; Lee, Jeeyeon; Noh, Minsoo; Oh, Dong-Chan; Oh, Ki-Bong; Shin, Jongheon

    2015-01-01

    Terrelumamides A (1) and B (2), two new lumazine-containing peptides, were isolated from the culture broth of the marine-derived fungus Aspergillus terreus. From the results of combined spectroscopic and chemical analyses, the structures of these compounds were determined to be linear assemblies of 1-methyllumazine-6-carboxylic acid, an amino acid residue and anthranilic acid methyl ester connected by peptide bonds. These new compounds exhibited pharmacological activity by improving insulin sensitivity, which was evaluated in an adipogenesis model using human bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells. In addition, the compounds exhibited fluorescence changes upon binding to DNA, demonstrating their potential applications to DNA sequence recognition. PMID:25775424

  9. Production of extremophilic bacterial cellulase enzymes in aspergillus niger.

    SciTech Connect

    Gladden, John Michael

    2013-09-01

    Enzymes can be used to catalyze a myriad of chemical reactions and are a cornerstone in the biotechnology industry. Enzymes have a wide range of uses, ranging from medicine with the production of pharmaceuticals to energy were they are applied to biofuel production. However, it is difficult to produce large quantities of enzymes, especially if they are non-native to the production host. Fortunately, filamentous fungi, such as Aspergillus niger, are broadly used in industry and show great potential for use a heterologous enzyme production hosts. Here, we present work outlining an effort to engineer A. niger to produce thermophilic bacterial cellulases relevant to lignocellulosic biofuel production.

  10. Mycological Society of America Phylogenetic Relationships of Chaetomium and Similar Genera Based on Ribosomal DNA

    E-print Network

    Mycological Society of America Phylogenetic Relationships of Chaetomium and Similar Genera Based or partic- ular morphological characters, which are related to those of Chaetomium. The 15 fungal isolates of Coniochaeta in the Coniochaetaceae and Chaetomium and Achaetomium in the Chaetomi- aceae, under the order

  11. The comparative biology of diving in two genera of European Dytiscidae (Coleoptera)

    E-print Network

    Saltzman, Wendy

    The comparative biology of diving in two genera of European Dytiscidae (Coleoptera) P. CALOSI*, D beetles (Dytiscidae), the air store is wholly subelytral (Heberdey, 1938; Balke, 2005), acting only for Dytiscidae, limiting our Correspondence: Piero Calosi, Marine Biology and Ecology Research Centre, University

  12. Biodiversity among luminescent symbionts from squid of the genera Uroteuthis, Loliolus and Euprymna (Mollusca: Cephalopoda)

    E-print Network

    McFall-Ngai, Margaret

    Biodiversity among luminescent symbionts from squid of the genera Uroteuthis, Loliolus and Euprymna, bilobed light organs of sepiolid and loliginid squids. Although morphology of these organs in both families of squid is similar, the species of bacteria that inhabit each host has yet to be verified. We

  13. Type species of genera in Aphididae (Hemiptera Sternorrhyncha) with two new generic synonymies

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The type species of genus-group taxa in the insect family Aphididae are summarized. Type species designations of 16 available genera are amended to adhere to international nomenclatural standards and two synonymies incorrectly recorded in the literature are corrected: Neorhizobius Del Guercio is a s...

  14. Size refugia from predation through time: A case-study of two Middle Devonian brachiopod genera

    E-print Network

    Machel, Hans

    Size refugia from predation through time: A case-study of two Middle Devonian brachiopod genera September 2012 Keywords: Repair-frequency Crushing-predation Atrypida Strophomenida Arms-race Traverse Group Predation scars offer insight into ancient predator­prey relationships and evolutionary processes. One ap

  15. NEW GENERA AND HOST PLANT RECORDS OF ASTERACEAE-FEEDING TEPHRITIDAE (DIPTERA) FROM BRAZIL.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Three new genera of Tephritinae (Tephritidae), Cipomyia (type species: C. totofusca, n. sp.), Eutretopsis (type species: E. albipunctata, n. sp.), and Lewinsohnia (type species: L. magna, n. sp.) are described from Brazil. The first host plant records are provided for C. totofusca, L. magna, and Cae...

  16. MEMBRANE FILTER PROCEDURE FOR ENUMERATING THE COMPONENT GENERA OF THE COLIFORM GROUP IN SEAWATER

    EPA Science Inventory

    A facile, quantitative, membrane filter procedure (mC) for defining the distribution of coliform populations in seawater according to the component genera was developed. The procedure, which utilizes a series of in situ substrate tests to obviate the picking of colonies for ident...

  17. New species of the Eastern Hemisphere genera Afroheriades and Noteriades (Hymenoptera: Megachilidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    New species of the rarely encountered megachilid genera Afroheriades Peters from South Africa, A. hyalinus sp. n., and Noteriades Cockerell from Myanmar and Thailand, N. jenniferae sp. n. and N. spinosus sp. n., are described and illustrated. The species are described to make their names available i...

  18. Molecular phylogeny of the genus Frankia and related genera and emendation of the family Frankiaceae.

    PubMed

    Normand, P; Orso, S; Cournoyer, B; Jeannin, P; Chapelon, C; Dawson, J; Evtushenko, L; Misra, A K

    1996-01-01

    The members of the actinomycete genus Frankia are nitrogen-fixing symbionts of may species of woody dicotyledonous plants belonging to eight families. Several strains isolated from diverse actinorhizal plants growing in different geographical areas were used in this study. The phylogenetic relationships of these organisms and uncharacterized microsymbionts that are recalcitrant to isolation in pure culture were determined by comparing complete 16S ribosomal DNA sequences. The resulting phylogenetic tree revealed that there was greater diversity among the Alnus-infective strains than among the strains that infect other host plants. The four main subdivisions of the genus Frankia revealed by this phylogenetic analysis are (i) a very large group comprising Frankia alni and related organisms (including Alnus rugosa Sp+ microsymbionts that are seldom isolated in pure culture), to which Casuarina-infective strains, a Myrica nagi microsymbiont, and other effective Alnus-infective strains are related; (ii) unisolated microsymbionts of Dryas, Coriaria, and Datisca species; (iii) Elaeagnus-infective strains; and (iv) "atypical" strains (a group which includes an Alnus-infective, non-nitrogen-fixing strain). Taxa that are related to this well-defined, coherent Frankia cluster are the genera Geodermatophilus, "Blastococcus," Sporichthya, Acidothermus, and Actinoplanes. However, the two genera whose members have multilocular sporangia (the genera Frankia and Geodermatophilus) did not form a coherent group. For this reason, we propose that the family Frankiaceae should be emended so that the genera Geodermatophilus and "Blastococcus" are excluded and only the genus Frankia is retained. PMID:8573482

  19. Revision of the Neotropical Exoristini (Diptera, Tachinidae): The status of the genera Epiplagiops and Tetragrapha

    PubMed Central

    Nihei, Silvio S.

    2015-01-01

    The monotypic genera Epiplagiops Blanchard, 1943 and Tetragrapha Brauer and Bergenstamm, 1891 are revised. Both are invalidated and synonymized with Chetogena Rondani, 1856. Their type-species, Epiplagiops littoralis Blanchard, 1943 and Tetragrapha tessellata Brauer and Bergenstamm, 1891, are studied, redescribed, illustrated, and transferred to Chetogena. A lectotype is designated for T. tessellata. PMID:25843588

  20. CLARIFICATION OF THE NOMENCLATURE AND RELATIONSHIPS OF THE GENERA CRYPTOSPORELLA, OPHIOVALSA AND WINTERELLA (GNOMONIACEAE)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fungi of the genera Cryptosporella Sacc, Ophiovalsa Petrak and Winterella (O. Kuntze) J. Reid and Booth have been reported as saprobes, endophytes and pathogens mainly from trees belonging in the Betulaceae and Ulmaceae and have recently been assigned to the family Gnomoniaceae (Diaporthales). These...

  1. New Records and Range Extensions for Several Chironomid Genera from Lake Superior

    EPA Science Inventory

    Five genera of chironomids have been reported for the first time in Lake Superior. Chironomids are small flying insects with a sediment-dwelling aquatic larval stage. The chironomids were collected by scientists at the Mid-Continent Ecology Division as part of a research program ...

  2. Male sleeping aggregation of multiple Eucerini bee genera (Hymenoptera: Apidae) in Chapada Diamantina, Bahia, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Hipólito, Juliana; de Oliveira, Favízia F.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Males of some groups of bees have to find a place outside the nests to sleep, sometimes forming “male sleeping aggregations”. Here we report the first record of “dense” male sleeping aggregation of two different genera of Eucerini bees observed in Bahia, Brazil. We discuss the possible aim of this kind of aggregation as well the plant utilized on aggregate. PMID:25349523

  3. Two New Genera and Species of Ancistrini (Siluriformes: Loricariidae) from the Western Guiana Shield

    E-print Network

    Armbruster, Jonathan W.

    highlands of the western Guiana Shield have been particularly productive in terms of both total numberTwo New Genera and Species of Ancistrini (Siluriformes: Loricariidae) from the Western Guiana)) Cordylancistrus torbesensis) and the Guiana Shield-endemic clade of Exas- tilithoxus + Lithoxus (Armbruster, 2008

  4. Biogeography of the Malagasy Celastraceae: Multiple independent origins followed by widespread dispersal of genera from Madagascar.

    PubMed

    Bacon, Christine D; Simmons, Mark P; Archer, Robert H; Zhao, Liang-Cheng; Andriantiana, Jacky

    2016-01-01

    Of the 97 currently recognized genera of Celastraceae, 19 are native to Madagascar, including six endemics. In this study we conducted the most thorough phylogenetic analysis of Celastraceae yet completed with respect to both character and taxon sampling, and include representatives of five new endemic genera. Fifty-one new accessions, together with 328 previously used accessions of Celastrales, were sampled for morphological characters, two rDNA gene regions, and two plastid gene regions. The endemic Malagasy genera are resolved in two separate lineages-Xenodrys by itself and all other endemic genera in a clade that also includes four lineages inferred to have dispersed from Madagascar: Brexia madagascariensis (Mascarene Islands, coastal Africa), Elaeodendron (West Indies, Africa to New Caledonia), and Pleurostylia (Africa to New Caledonia). Of the 12 extant Malagasy Celastraceae lineages identified, eight are clearly of African origin. The origins of the remaining four lineages are less clear, but reasonable possibilities include America, Eurasia, Africa, southern India, Malesia, and Australia. Based on 95% credible age intervals from fossil-calibrated molecular dating, all 12 extant Malagasy Celastraceae lineages appear to have arisen following dispersal after the separation of Madagascar from other landmasses within the last 70million years. PMID:26432393

  5. A Key to the Common Genera of Neogene Shark Teeth Robert W. Purdy

    E-print Network

    Miller, Scott

    A Key to the Common Genera of Neogene Shark Teeth by Robert W. Purdy Revised March 2006 #12 Sexual Dimorphism in Teeth 11 Abnormal Teeth 11 Using Artificial Tooth Sets to Identify Fossil Shark Teeth 12 Hexanchiform Sharks 12 Squaliform Sharks 13 Lamniform Sharks 13 Carcharhiniform Sharks 14

  6. Quantitative analysis of oxyresveratrol in different plant parts of Morus species and related Genera by HPTLC

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Four aromatic compounds; oxyresveratrol (1), mulberroside A (2), cudraflavone C (3) and kuwanone J (4) were isolated from the stems of Morus rubra L. The quantitative determination of oxyresveratrol from M. rubra L., M. alba L. and related genera by high performance thin layer chromatography (HPTLC)...

  7. Shivasia gen. nov. for the Australasian smut Ustilago solida that historically shifted through five different genera.

    PubMed

    Lutz, Matthias; Vánky, Kálmán; Pi?tek, Marcin

    2012-12-01

    The generic position of the enigmatic smut fungus Ustilago solida is evaluated applying molecular phylogenetic analyses using ITS and LSU rDNA sequences as well as light and scanning electron microscopical investigations of several collections of this species. Ustilago solida has previously been included in five different genera (Ustilago, Urocystis, Sorosporium, Cintractia, and Tolyposporium), however, molecular analyses revealed that this smut does not belong to any of these genera and represents a distinct ustilaginalean lineage. The closest known phylogenetic relative of Ustilago solida is Heterotolyposporium lepidospermatis, the type species of the monotypic genus Heterotolyposporium. Both smuts differ considerably in both LSU sequences and in several morphological traits, such as the structure of sori and the characteristics of spore balls. Accordingly, the new genus Shivasia is described to accommodate Ustilago solida. This smut infects different Schoenus species (Cyperaceae) in Australia and New Zealand. The description of Shivasia increases the number of endemic smut genera in Australasia to ten. Compared to all other continents the number of endemic smut genera is exceptionally high, which may point at fast evolving characters and/or may be caused by the regional history, including the long-term geographic isolation of Australasia. PMID:23355967

  8. Corrections and Additions to the Catalog of the Aphid Genera Described from the New World

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Since the publication of the Catalog of the Aphid Genera Described from the New World (Favret et al. 2008), several errors and omissions have come to light. We here make corrections to seven genus-group names and add 17 valid and nine invalid generic names, raising the total number of available New ...

  9. Microthia, Holocryphia and Ursicollum, three new genera on Eucalyptus and Coccoloba for fungi previously known as

    E-print Network

    35 Microthia, Holocryphia and Ursicollum, three new genera on Eucalyptus and Coccoloba for fungi is a fungus associated with Eucalyptus species in Cuba and Florida (U.S.A.). Until recently, there have been. Isolates thought to represent this fungus have, however, emerged from surveys of Eucalyptus in Mexico

  10. DNA extraction protocols from dormant buds of twelve woody plant genera

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Standard plant DNA extraction protocols call for samples of newly expanding leaves and shoots yet analysis is sometimes needed when plants are dormant. We evaluated three DNA extraction protocols using dormant buds from 40 species and four hybrids of 12 genera. Two protocols were from ready-to-use ...

  11. Synopsis of warty leaf beetles genera of the world (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae: Cryptocephalinae: Chlamisini)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    World genera of Chlamisini are reviewed, diagnosed, and illustrated. A key for their dentification is provided. A replacement name, Kakita Chamorro-Lacayo and Konstantinov is presented for Ceratochlamys Bokermann which is a junior homonym of Ceratochlamys Habe, 1946 (Mollusca). Chlamisus rousei M...

  12. Protoptiline Caddisfly Genera Endemic to the Southern Cone Region of South America (Trichoptera: Glossosomatidae)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robertson, D. R.; Holzenthal, R. W.

    2005-05-01

    The Trichoptera fauna of the Southern Cone region of South America (Argentina, Chile, Uruguay, Paraguay, and SE Brazil) is well known for its high degree of endemism, at both the species and genus level. This is also true for the saddle or tortoise case-making family Glossosomatidae, represented entirely in the region by members of the subfamily Protoptilinae. The Southern Cone includes six endemic protoptiline genera: Canoptila, Itauara, Mastigoptila, Merionoptila, Scotiotrichia, and Tolhuaca, containing 19 described species. Although not particularly species diverse when compared to the rest of the Neotropical Trichoptera fauna, these endemics are note-worthy: some genera display morphological characteristics that may be considered very primitive and others are very evolutionarily derived. Additionally, there are at least 11 new species whose placement is uncertain. This points out the need to reexamine the taxonomy and evaluate the evolutionary relationships among these genera. Recently several new species of Mastigoptila and Tolhuaca were described, including some females. Taxonomic revisions of the remaining genera based on careful examination of the male and female genitalia, wing venation, and other adult morphological characters, are currently underway. Included in the revisions are descriptions of new species, new illustrations of previously described species, and a phylogenetic assessment.

  13. A plastid gene phylogeny of the non-photosynthetic parasitic Orobanche (Orobanchaceae) and related genera

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Park, J.-M.; Manen, J.-F.; Colwell, A.E.; Schneeweiss, G.M.

    2008-01-01

    The phylogenetic relationships of the non-photosynthetic Orobanche sensu lato (Orobanchaceae), which includes some of the economically most important parasitic weeds, remain insufficiently understood and controversial. This concerns both the phylogenetic relationships within the genus, in particular its monophyly or lack thereof, and the relationships to other holoparasitic genera such as Cistanche or Conopholis. Here we present the first comprehensive phylogenetic study of this group based on a region from the plastid genome (rps2 gene). Although substitution rates appear to be elevated compared to the photosynthetic members of Orobanchaceae, relationships among the major lineages Cistanche, Conopholis plus Epifagus, Boschniakia rossica (Cham. & Schltdl.) B. Fedtsch., B. himalaica Hook. f. & Thomson, B. hookeri Walp. plus B. strobilacea A. Gray, and Orobanche s. l. remain unresolved. Resolution within Orobanche, however, is much better. In agreement with morphological, cytological and other molecular phylogenetic evidence, five lineages, corresponding to the four traditionally recognised sections (Gymnocaulis, Myzorrhiza, Orobanche, Trionychon) and O. latisquama Reut. ex Boiss. (of sect. Orobanche), can be distinguished. A combined analysis of plastid rps2 and nuclear ITS sequences of the holoparasitic genera results in more resolved and better supported trees, although the relationships among Orobanche s. l., Cistanche, and the clade including the remaining genera is unresolved. Therefore, rps2 is a marker from the plastid genome that is well-suited to be used in combination with other already established nuclear markers for resolving generic relationships of Orobanche and related genera. ?? 2008 The Botanical Society of Japan and Springer.

  14. Effect of Carbon, Nitrogen Sources and Water Activity on Growth and Ochratoxin Production of Aspergillus carbonarius (Bainier) Thom

    PubMed Central

    Hashem, Abeer; Fathi Abd-Allah, Elsayed; Sultan Al-Obeed, Rashid; Abdullah Alqarawi, Abdulaziz; Alwathnani, Hend Awad

    2015-01-01

    Background: Ochratoxin A (OTA) is a toxic secondary metabolite produced by fungi belonging to Aspergillus and Penicillium genera. The production of OTA is influenced by environmental conditions and nutritional requirements. The postharvest application of bunches of table grape fruit (TGF), with water activity of 0.8 aw, was highly effective for controlling OTA contamination in vitro and in vivo (table grape). Objectives: The aim of this study was to determine the influence of environmental conditions and nutritional requirements on growth and OTA production by Aspergillus carbonarius, as well as, the impact of water activity on OTA production and growth characters of A. carbonarius. Furthermore, we also examined the influence of the application of different levels of water activity (aw 0.8) on the preservation of the general appearance of TGF and control of their contamination with OTA. Materials and Methods: The growth and OTA production by A. carbonarius were studied using glucose-ammonium nitrate salt broth medium. Effect of water activity was studied using glycerol (0.80, 0.85, 0.90, and 0.98 aw). The bunches of table grape fruits were immersed in glycerol solution (equivalent to 0.80 aw) and placed as a double layer in cardboard boxes (25 × 35 × 10 cm). The boxes were stored at 20°C for 15 days to simulate local market conditions. Results: The maximum OTA production by A. carbonarius was observed on broth medium after eight days of incubation at 20°C, with pH 4, and fructose and ammonium nitrate supplementation as carbon and nitrogen sources, respectively. The water activity (0.9, 0.85 aw) caused significant decrease in OTA production by A. carbonarius. The postharvest application of water activity (0.8 aw) was highly effective for maintenance of the table grape quality, which was expressed as weight loss, firmness and decay, while it also controlled OTA contamination of fruits under concept of local market conditions. Conclusions: Our results reported that deterioration of TGF by A. carbonarius could be minimized by application of aw. Our experiments were performed under conditions of local markets, which support the economy of many thousands of families in Egypt, especially in the poor rural areas. In future adequate research is required to use these technologies commercially. PMID:25825649

  15. Inhibition of Aspergillus parasiticus and cancer cells by marine actinomycete strains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Ping; Yan, Peisheng

    2014-12-01

    Ten actinomycete strains isolated from the Yellow Sea off China's coasts were identified as belonging to two genera by 16S rDNA phylogenetic analysis: Streptomyces and Nocardiopsis. Six Streptomyces strains (MA10, 2SHXF01-3, MA35, MA05-2, MA05-2-1 and MA08-1) and one Nocardiopsis strain (MA03) were predicted to have the potential to produce aromatic polyketides based on the analysis of the KS? (ketoacyl-synthase) gene in the type II PKS (polyketides synthase) gene cluster. Four strains (MA03, MA01, MA10 and MA05-2) exhibited significant inhibitory effects on mycelia growth (inhibition rate >50%) and subsequent aflatoxin production (inhibition rate >75%) of the mutant aflatoxigenic Aspergillus parasiticus NFRI-95. The ethyl acetate extracts of the broth of these four strains displayed significant inhibitory effects on mycelia growth, and the IC50 values were calculated (MA03: 0.275 mg mL-1, MA01: 0.106 mg mL-1, MA10: 1.345 mg mL-1 and MA05-2: 1.362 mg mL-1). Five strains (2SHXF01-3, MA03, MA05-2, MA01 and MA08-1) were selected based on their high cytotoxic activities. The ethyl acetate extract of the Nocardiopsis strain MA03 was particularly noted for its high antitumor activity against human carcinomas of the cervix (HeLa), lung (A549), kidney (Caki-1) and liver (HepG2) (IC50: 2.890, 1.981, 3.032 and 2.603 ?g mL-1, respectively). The extract also remarkably inhibited colony formation of HeLa cells at an extremely low concentration (0.5 ?g mL-1). This study highlights that marine-derived actinomycetes are a huge resource of compounds for the biological control of aflatoxin contamination and the development of novel drugs for human carcinomas.

  16. Skeletal morphology of two controversial Poecilosclerid genera (Porifera, Demospongiae): Discorhabdella and Crambe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maldonado, M.; Uriz, M. J.

    1996-09-01

    The genera Discorhabdella and Crambe are characterized by bearing uncommon spicule types, i.e. pseudoastrose acanthostyles and sphaeroclones, respectively. They have traditionally been considered to be unrelated taxa, but the present reexamination made evident that an important amount of skeletal features are shared by both. Some of these morphological features, such as the ornamentation on the point of the ectosomal subtylostyles, are reported for the first time. The study also revealed that a tuberose nature of the tyles of the main choanosomal megascleres could be a common ancestral condition in both genera. The morphology of the multi-toothed anchorate chelae showed a gradual transition across the species, suggesting that the morphological diversity in chelae was generated in these genera through a “palmate-anchorate-arcuate” evolutionary sequence. However, the forward or backward direction of this sequence remained unclear from the available evidence. Important levels of skeletal variability were found to affect many of the skeletal characters, especially in the genus Crambe. In some cases, this variability transgressed the limits theoretically defining a species, making evident that the traditional procedure just based on comparison of the skeletons becomes unreliable when tackling the taxonomy of these genera. Most of the skeletal variability seemed to correspond to genetic polymorphisms, except in the case of C. acuata. In this taxon, the skeletal variability could be a result of the existence of a cryptic species, originated by a misconceived synonymy between C. acuata and C. chelastra. Besides the skeletal variability, the obscure taxonomic meaning of many skeletal features favored the existence of conflicting taxonomic proposals for the suprageneric location of these genera, depending on the author’s criteria. This study made evident that any subsequent attempt of phylogenetic inference should be based on an unweighted analysis of the available skeletal information.

  17. Production of lovastatin by wild strains of Aspergillus terreus.

    PubMed

    Patil, Ravindra H; Krishnan, Prakash; Maheshwari, Vijay L

    2011-02-01

    A wild fungal strain of Aspergillus terreus, labeled as PM3, was isolated by using the Candida albicans bioassay and confirmed by 18S r DNA analyses. Lovastatin was produced by submerged and solid state fermentations. Of the 30 isolated fungal strains, 11 showed lovastatin production with Aspergillus terreus PM3 being the best with a yield of 240 mg/L at the 10th day of submerged fermentation. Carboxymethylcellulose had a stimulatory effect on lovastatin production. It restricted uncontrolled filamentous growth, induced pellet formation and, thereby, improved lovastatin yield. In solid state fermentation (SSF), of the agro wastes from five crops (bran of wheat and rice, husks of red gram and soybean, and green gram straw), wheat bran showed maximum lovastatin production (12.5 mg/g of dry substrate) at pH 7.1 and a temperature of 30 +/- 2 degrees C. Development of a lovastatin production process based on wheat bran as a substrate in SSF is economically attractive as it is a cheap and readily available raw material in agriculture-based countries. PMID:21425670

  18. Expression and characterization of Aspergillus thermostable phytases in Pichia pastoris.

    PubMed

    Promdonkoy, Patcharee; Tang, Kittapong; Sornlake, Warasirin; Harnpicharnchai, Piyanun; Kobayashi, Rutchadaporn Sriprang; Ruanglek, Vasimon; Upathanpreecha, Tewa; Vesaratchavest, Mongkol; Eurwilaichitr, Lily; Tanapongpipat, Sutipa

    2009-01-01

    Two thermostable phytases were identified from Thai isolates of Aspergillus japonicus BCC18313 (TR86) and Aspergillus niger BCC18081 (TR170). Both genes of 1404 bp length, coding for putative phytases of 468 amino acid residues, were cloned and transferred into Pichia pastoris. The recombinant phytases, r-PhyA86 and r-PhyA170, were expressed as active extracellular, glycosylated proteins with activities of 140 and 100 U mL(-1), respectively. Both recombinant phytases exhibited high affinity for phytate but not for p-nitrophenyl phosphate. Optimal phytase activity was observed at 50 degrees C and pH 5.5. High thermostability, which is partly dependent on glycosylation, was demonstrated for both enzymes, as >50% activity was retained after heating at 100 degrees C for 10 min. The recombinant phytases also exhibited broad pH stability from 2.0 to 8.0 and are resistant to pepsin. In vitro digestibility tests suggested that r-PhyA86 and r-PhyA170 are at least as efficient as commercial phytase for hydrolyzing phytate in corn-based animal feed and are therefore suitable sources of phytase supplement. PMID:19025560

  19. Terrein biosynthesis in Aspergillus terreus and its impact on phytotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Zaehle, Christoph; Gressler, Markus; Shelest, Ekaterina; Geib, Elena; Hertweck, Christian; Brock, Matthias

    2014-06-19

    Terrein is a fungal metabolite with ecological, antimicrobial, antiproliferative, and antioxidative activities. Although it is produced by Aspergillus terreus as one of its major secondary metabolites, not much is known about its biosynthetic pathway. Here, we describe an unexpected discovery of the terrein biosynthesis gene locus made while we were looking for a PKS gene involved in production of conidia coloration pigments common for Aspergilli. The gene, ATEG_00145, here named terA, is essential for terrein biosynthesis and heterologous production of TerA in Aspergillus niger revealed an unusual plasticity in the products formed, yielding a mixture of 4-hydroxy-6-methylpyranone, orsellinic acid, and 6,7-dihydroxymellein. Biochemical and molecular genetic analyses indicate a low extension cycle specificity of TerA. Furthermore, 6-hydroxymellein was identified as a key intermediate in terrein biosynthesis. We find that terrein production is highly induced on plant-derived media, that terrein has phytotoxic activity on plant growth, and induces lesions on fruit surfaces. PMID:24816227

  20. Targeting zinc homeostasis to combat Aspergillus fumigatus infections

    PubMed Central

    Vicentefranqueira, Rocío; Amich, Jorge; Laskaris, Paris; Ibrahim-Granet, Oumaima; Latgé, Jean P.; Toledo, Héctor; Leal, Fernando; Calera, José A.

    2015-01-01

    Aspergillus fumigatus is able to invade and grow in the lungs of immunosuppressed individuals and causes invasive pulmonary aspergillosis. The concentration of free zinc in living tissues is much lower than that required for optimal fungal growth in vitro because most of it is tightly bound to proteins. To obtain efficiently zinc from a living host A. fumigatus uses the zinc transporters ZrfA, ZrfB, and ZrfC. The ZafA transcriptional regulator induces the expression of all these transporters and is essential for virulence. Thus, ZafA could be targeted therapeutically to inhibit fungal growth. The ZrfC transporter plays the major role in zinc acquisition from the host whereas ZrfA and ZrfB rather have a supplementary role to that of ZrfC. In addition, only ZrfC enables A. fumigatus to overcome the inhibitory effect of calprotectin, which is an antimicrobial Zn/Mn-chelating protein synthesized and released by neutrophils within the fungal abscesses of immunosuppressed non-leucopenic animals. Hence, fungal survival in these animals would be undermined upon blocking therapeutically the function of ZrfC. Therefore, both ZafA and ZrfC have emerged as promising targets for the discovery of new antifungals to treat Aspergillus infections. PMID:25774155

  1. Induced Autolysis of Aspergillus oryzae (A. niger group)

    PubMed Central

    Emiliani, Ezio; de Davie, I. Ucha

    1962-01-01

    The examination of substances formed during induced autolysis by Aspergillus niger was continued in this work, which dealt in particular with carbohydrates. The autolysate contained a large amount of d-glucose (14 to 20% dry wt) and traces of glycolic aldehyde, dihydroxyacetone, ribose, xylose, and fructose. It also contained glycopeptides (about 10% dry wt), which were split from the cell wall during autolysis and which differed from one another in their level of polymerization and their composition. They were constituted by glucose and mannose, glucose and galactose, or mannose, glucose, and galactose (mannose being the most abundant in this case), and amino acids (chiefly alanine, serine, glutamic acid, and aspartic acid). During autolysis, only a part of the cell wall was dissolved, since it retained its shape. Upon further chemical hydrolysis, it produced mostly glucose and glucosamine, and smaller amounts of mannose, galactose, and amino acids. Presumably, glucomannoproteins and glucogalactoproteins were present in the intact cell as a macromolecular complex, constituting, together with chitin, the major part of the cell wall of Aspergillus. PMID:16349623

  2. Synthesis of ethyl phenylacetate by lyophilized mycelium of Aspergillus oryzae.

    PubMed

    Converti, A; Gandolfi, R; Zilli, M; Molinari, F; Binaghi, L; Perego, P; Del Borghi, M

    2005-06-01

    Lyophilized mycelia of Aspergillus oryzae CBS 102.07, Aspergillus oryzae MIM, Rhizopus oryzae CBS 112.07, Rhizopus oryzae CBS 391.34, Rhizopus oryzae CBS 260.28 and Rhizopus oryzae CBS 328.47 were tested in this study to select the best biocatalysts for ethanol acylation with phenylacetic acid. The mycelium-bound carboxylesterase activity of A. oryzae MIM, which exhibited the best performances, was initially investigated at 50 degrees C, either in 0.1 M phosphate buffer or in n-heptane to catalyse the hydrolysis or the synthesis, respectively, of ethyl phenylacetate. The results in terms of product and substrate concentrations versus time were used to estimate the maximum molar conversions at equilibrium, the equilibrium constants, and the times needed to reach half maximum conversions, thus providing sufficient information about this biotransformation. The values of the apparent equilibrium constants, estimated at 20 degrees C

  3. The Prevalence of Aflatoxinogenic Aspergillus parasiticus in Jordan

    PubMed Central

    Al-Hmoud, Nisreen; Ibrahim, Mohammed A.; Al-Rousan, Hiyam; Alseyah, Abbas

    2012-01-01

    Aflatoxins are potent carcinogens and produced by almost all Aspergillus parasiticus isolates and about 35% of Aspergillus flavus isolates. Chemical methods are used for detection of aflatoxins in food and feed. These methods cannot detect aflatoxinogenic fungi in samples, which contain undetectable amounts of aflatoxins. The objective of this research work was to ascertain the importance of molecular and microbiological methods in detection of aflatoxinogenic fungus A. parasiticus in food and feed samples in Jordan. Specific media for the detection of aflatoxins showed the prevalence of A. parasiticus (6–22%) in contaminated food and feed samples. HPLC method confirmed the presence of aflatoxins B1, B2, G1, and G2 in food sample contaminated with A. parasiticus. Primer set OmtBII-F and OmtBII-R amplified DNA fragment of 611 base pairs from genomic DNA of aflatoxinogenic A. parasiticus isolated from food and feed samples but could not amplify DNA fragment of nonaflatoxinogenic A. flavus. The results of this study showed the prevalence of aflatoxinogenic A. parasiticus in food and feed samples in Jordan and give further evidence of suitability of microbiological and molecular methods in detection of aflatoxins, which are reliable low-cost approach to determine food and feed biosafety. PMID:22606204

  4. Characterization of a novel lipolytic enzyme from Aspergillus oryzae.

    PubMed

    Koseki, Takuya; Asai, Shungo; Saito, Natsumi; Mori, Masayo; Sakaguchi, Yasuko; Ikeda, Kazutaka; Shiono, Yoshihito

    2013-06-01

    In this study, we report the characterization of a protein from Aspergillus oryzae, exhibiting sequence identity with paraben esterase from the genus Aspergillus. The coding region of 1,586 bp, including a 77-bp intron, encoded a protein of 502 amino acids. The gene without the signal peptide of 19 amino acids was cloned into a vector, pPICZ?C, and expressed successfully in Pichia pastoris as an active extracellular protein. The purified recombinant protein had pH and temperature optima of 7.0-8.0 and 30 °C, respectively, and was stable at the pH range of 7.0-10.0 and up to 40 °C. The optimal substrate for hydrolysis by the purified recombinant protein, among a panel of ?-naphthyl esters (C2-C16), was ?-naphthyl butyrate (C4), with activity of 0.16 units/mg protein. The considerable hydrolytic activity of the purified recombinant enzyme toward tributyrin was determined. However, no paraben esterase activity was detected toward the ethyl, propyl, and butyl esters of 4-hydroxybenzoic acid. In addition, no activity was detected toward the methyl esters of ferulic, p-coumaric, caffeic, and sinapic acids that would indicate feruloyl esterase activity. PMID:23001008

  5. Isolation and Characterization of Sexual Spore Pigments from Aspergillus nidulans

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Daren W.; Salvo, Joseph J.

    1994-01-01

    The homothallic ascomycete Aspergillus nidulans produces two types of pigmented spores: conidia and ascospores. The synthesis and localization of the spore pigments is developmentally regulated and occurs in specialized cell types. On the basis of spectroscopic evidence, we propose that the major ascospore pigment of A. nidulans (ascoquinone A) is a novel dimeric hydroxylated anthraquinone. The structure of ascoquinone A, as well as a comparison to model compounds, suggests that it is the product of a polyketide synthase. Previous studies have revealed that the conidial pigments from A. nidulans and a related Aspergillus species (A. parasiticus) also appear to be produced via polymerization of polyketide precursors (D. W. Brown, F. M. Hauser, R. Tommasi, S. Corlett, and J. J. Salvo, Tetrahedron Lett. 34:419-422, 1993; M. E. Mayorga and W. E. Timberlake, Mol. Gen. Genet. 235:205-212, 1992). The structural similarity between the ascospore pigment and the toxic anthraquinone norsolorinic acid, the first stable intermediate in the aflatoxin pathway, suggests an evolutionary relationship between the respective polyketide synthase systems. PMID:16349224

  6. Testing an innovative device against airborne Aspergillus contamination.

    PubMed

    Desoubeaux, Guillaume; Bernard, Marie-Charlotte; Gros, Valérie; Sarradin, Pierre; Perrodeau, Elodie; Vecellio, Laurent; Piscopo, Antoine; Chandenier, Jacques; Bernard, Louis

    2014-08-01

    Aspergillus fumigatus is a major airborne nosocomial pathogen that is responsible for severe mycosis in immunocompromised patients. We studied the efficacy of an innovative mobile air-treatment device in eliminating A. fumigatus from the air following experimental massive contamination in a high-security room. Viable mycological particles were isolated from sequential air samples in order to evaluate the device's effectiveness in removing the fungus. The concentration of airborne conidia was reduced by 95% in 18 min. Contamination was reduced below the detection threshold in 29 min, even when the machine was at the lowest airflow setting. In contrast, during spontaneous settling with no air treatment, conidia remained airborne for more than 1 h. This indoor air contamination model provided consistent and reproducible results. Because the air purifier proved to be effective at eliminating a major contaminant, it may prove useful in preventing air-transmitted disease agents. In an experimental space mimicking a hospital room, the AirLyse air purifier, which uses a combination of germicidal ultraviolet C irradiation and titanium photocatalysis, effectively eliminated Aspergillus conidia. Such a mobile device may be useful in routine practice for lowering microbiological air contamination in the rooms of patients at risk. PMID:24965945

  7. THREE NEW GENERA AND THREE NEW SPECIES OF NEOTROPICAL HYALIODINI, WITH NEW COMBINATIONS AND NEW SYNONYMY (HEMIPTERA: HETEROPTERA: MIRIDAE: DERAEOCORINAE)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Three new genera of Hyaliodini are described to provide names for a forthcoming study on the phylogenetic relationships of the genera within the subfamily Deraeocorinae. The new genus Dicyphanisca is described to accommodate the new species D. marginella from Ecuador; the new genus Froeschnerisca, ...

  8. Max-Planck-Institut fr Mathematik Genera of curves on a very general surface in P3

    E-print Network

    Flamini, Flaminio

    Max-Planck-Institut fĂĽr Mathematik Bonn Genera of curves on a very general surface in P3 by C. Ciliberto F. Flamini M. Zaidenberg Max-Planck-Institut fĂĽr Mathematik Preprint Series 2014 (53) #12;#12;Genera of curves on a very general surface in P3 C. Ciliberto F. Flamini M. Zaidenberg Max-Planck

  9. Seed plant genera endemic to the Caribbean Island biodiversity hotspot: A review and a molecular phylogentic perspective

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Caribbean Island Biodiversity Hotspot is composed primarily by the Bahamas and Greater and Lesser Antilles. A total of 178 genera (722 spp., ca. 9% of the species endemic to the Antilles) are restricted to this hotspot. Most of these genera are unispecific (53%), a pattern that is also found o...

  10. A case of hypertrophic cranial pachymeningitis associated with invasive Aspergillus mastoiditis.

    PubMed

    Okada, Masahiro; Hato, Naohito; Okada, Yoko; Sato, Eriko; Yamada, Hiroyuki; Hakuba, Nobuhiro; Gyo, Kiyofumi

    2015-12-01

    We report a rare case of hypertrophic cranial pachymeningitis (HCP) associated with invasive Aspergillus mastoiditis. A 63-year-old man with diabetes mellitus underwent mastoidectomy because of chronic discharge from his left ear. The mastoidectomy was unsuccessful in resolving purulent otorrhea; moreover, 7 months later, the patient developed left abducens nerve palsy. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed HCP at the left middle cranial fossa. Although the pathogen could not be identified, an Aspergillus infection was considered based on elevated serum ?-d-glucan and a positive Aspergillus antigen test result. Voriconazole treatment resolved diplopia and left otorrhea and dramatically improved HCP. PMID:26003880

  11. Cross-reactivity of Fusarium spp. in the Aspergillus Galactomannan enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay.

    PubMed

    Tortorano, Anna Maria; Esposto, Maria Carmela; Prigitano, Anna; Grancini, Anna; Ossi, Cristina; Cavanna, Caterina; Cascio, Giuliana Lo

    2012-03-01

    Nine of 11 hematological patients with disseminated/deep-seated Fusarium infection tested at least twice for Aspergillus galactomannan (GM) had repeated positive results in the absence of Aspergillus isolation in culture. The centrifuged supernatants of 12 Fusarium isolates were tested by a GM enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (EIA). All the isolates produced positive reactions when tested undiluted. These results show cross-reactivity of Fusarium spp. with Aspergillus GM that may constitute a drawback with respect to the specificity of the Platelia EIA. PMID:22205818

  12. Cross-Reactivity of Fusarium spp. in the Aspergillus Galactomannan Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay

    PubMed Central

    Esposto, Maria Carmela; Prigitano, Anna; Grancini, Anna; Ossi, Cristina; Cavanna, Caterina; Cascio, Giuliana Lo

    2012-01-01

    Nine of 11 hematological patients with disseminated/deep-seated Fusarium infection tested at least twice for Aspergillus galactomannan (GM) had repeated positive results in the absence of Aspergillus isolation in culture. The centrifuged supernatants of 12 Fusarium isolates were tested by a GM enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (EIA). All the isolates produced positive reactions when tested undiluted. These results show cross-reactivity of Fusarium spp. with Aspergillus GM that may constitute a drawback with respect to the specificity of the Platelia EIA. PMID:22205818

  13. Effect of Conway Medium and f/2 Medium on the growth of six genera of South China Sea marine microalgae.

    PubMed

    Lananan, Fathurrahman; Jusoh, Ahmad; Ali, Nora'aini; Lam, Su Shiung; Endut, Azizah

    2013-08-01

    A study was performed to determine the effect of Conway and f/2 media on the growth of microalgae genera. Genera of Chlorella sp., Dunaliella sp., Isochrysis sp., Chaetoceros sp., Pavlova sp. and Tetraselmis sp. were isolated from the South China Sea. During the cultivation period, the density of cells were determined using Syringe Liquid Sampler Particle Measuring System (SLS-PMS) that also generated the population distribution curve based on the size of the cells. The population of the microalgae genera is thought to consist of mother and daughter generations since these microalgae genera reproduce by releasing small non-motile reproductive cells (autospores). It was found that the reproduction of Tetraselmis sp., Dunaliella sp. and Pavlova sp. could be sustained longer in f/2 Medium. Higher cell density was achieved by genus Dunaliella, Chlorella and Isochrysis in Conway Medium. Different genera of microalgae had a preference for different types of cultivation media. PMID:23562179

  14. A Saccharomyces cerevisiae Wine Strain Inhibits Growth and Decreases Ochratoxin A Biosynthesis by Aspergillus carbonarius and Aspergillus ochraceus

    PubMed Central

    Cubaiu, Loredana; Abbas, Hamid; Dobson, Alan D. W.; Budroni, Marilena; Migheli, Quirico

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to select wine yeast strains as biocontrol agents against fungal contaminants responsible for the accumulation of ochratoxin A (OTA) in grape and wine and to dissect the mechanism of OTA detoxification by a Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain (DISAABA1182), which had previously been reported to reduce OTA in a synthetic must. All of the yeast strains tested displayed an ability to inhibit the growth of Aspergillus carbonarius both in vivo and in vitro and addition of culture filtrates from the tested isolates led to complete inhibition of OTA production. S. cerevisiae DISAABA1182 was selected and further tested for its capacity to inhibit OTA production and pks (polyketide synthase) transcription in A. carbonarius and Aspergillus ochraceus in vitro. In order to dissect the mechanism of OTA detoxification, each of these two fungi was co-cultured with living yeast cells exposed to yeast crude or to autoclaved supernatant: S. cerevisiae DISAABA1182 was found to inhibit mycelial growth and OTA production in both Aspergilli when co-cultured in the OTA-inducing YES medium. Moreover, a decrease in pks transcription was observed in the presence of living cells of S. cerevisiae DISAABA1182 or its supernatant, while no effects were observed on transcription of either of the constitutively expressed calmodulin and ?-tubulin genes. This suggests that transcriptional regulation of OTA biosynthetic genes takes place during the interaction between DISAABA1182 and OTA-producing Aspergilli. PMID:23223175

  15. Endiandric Acid Derivatives and Other Constituents of Plants from the Genera Beilschmiedia and Endiandra (Lauraceae)

    PubMed Central

    Ndjakou Lenta, Bruno; Chouna, Jean Rodolphe; Nkeng-Efouet, Pepin Alango; Sewald, Norbert

    2015-01-01

    Plants of the Lauraceae family are widely used in traditional medicine and are sources of various classes of secondary metabolites. Two genera of this family, Beilschmiedia and Endiandra, have been the subject of numerous investigations over the past decades because of their application in traditional medicine. They are the only source of bioactive endiandric acid derivatives. Noteworthy is that their biosynthesis contains two consecutive non-enzymatic electrocyclic reactions. Several interesting biological activities for this specific class of secondary metabolites and other constituents of the two genera have been reported, including antimicrobial, enzymes inhibitory and cytotoxic properties. This review compiles information on the structures of the compounds described between January 1960 and March 2015, their biological activities and information on endiandric acid biosynthesis, with 104 references being cited. PMID:26111193

  16. At Least 23 Genera Instead of One: The Case of Iris L. s.l. (Iridaceae)

    PubMed Central

    Mavrodiev, Evgeny V.; Martínez-Azorín, Mario; Dranishnikov, Peter; Crespo, Manuel B.

    2014-01-01

    Background Iris L. s.l. is one of the most diverse and well-known genera in the Asparagales, with approximately 250–300 circumscribed species and significant economic impact. The taxonomy of the genus has suffered dramatic changes in the last century, particularly in the last decades after the application of molecular techniques. As a result several contrasting systematic arrangements are currently available to taxonomists. Many genera that were split from Iris s.str. in the past, on the basis of morphology (e.g., Hermodactylus, Iridodictyum, Juno, Pardanthopsis, and Xiphion, among others), are now a priori re-included in a very widely circumscribed Iris s.l. (incl. Belamcanda). This resulted in a more heterogeneous genus that is more difficult to define on morphological grounds. Testing congruence between taxonomic treatments and the results of recent molecular studies of Iris has never been performed, mostly due to the lack of proper taxonomic context. Results We generated several conventional phylogenies for Iris & outgroups using extensive sampling of taxa (187) and characters (10 plastid loci). We demonstrate that the natural history of Iris, written either as conventional molecular phylogenies or, if viewing in the context of the comparative approach, as a nested most parsimonious hierarchy of patterns, appear to be fully congruent with the narrow taxonomical treatment of the genus, restricted to the rhizomatous “bearded” taxa. The resulting topologies place Belamcanda, Pardanthopsis, and Gattenhofia as sisters to Iris s.str. and genus Siphonostylis as sister to Iris s.l. Conclusion The present study clearly justifies the splitting of Iris s.l. into at least 23 genera, 18 of which have already been accepted in the past by numerous authorities. These genera are characterized by unique combinations of partly overlapping morphological characters and biogeography. Moreover, nearly the same entities, which we here recognize at a generic rank, were for centuries frequently referred to by horticulturists as “working-name” groups. PMID:25170935

  17. Palynological study of the genera Ruellia, Ecbolium, Asystasia, Blepharis and Dicliptera (Acanthaceae) of Yemen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al-Hakimi, S. Anisa; Maideen, Haja; Latiff, A.

    2013-11-01

    Pollen morphology of five genera of the family Acanthaceae, namely Ruellia, Blepharis, Asystasia, Ecbolium and Dicliptera (Acanthaceae) of Yemen has been examined using light and scanning electron microscope. Pollen descriptions were provided with two shapes distinguished, spheroidal and prolate. Most of the pollen grains were tricolporate amd psuedocolpi except those of Blepharis which are colpate. The surface is coarsely reticulate, in addition to the lumina that varies in size.

  18. Palynological study of the genera Ruellia, Ecbolium, Asystasia, Blepharis and Dicliptera (Acanthaceae) of Yemen

    SciTech Connect

    Al-Hakimi, S. Anisa; Maideen, Haja; Latiff, A.

    2013-11-27

    Pollen morphology of five genera of the family Acanthaceae, namely Ruellia, Blepharis, Asystasia, Ecbolium and Dicliptera (Acanthaceae) of Yemen has been examined using light and scanning electron microscope. Pollen descriptions were provided with two shapes distinguished, spheroidal and prolate. Most of the pollen grains were tricolporate amd psuedocolpi except those of Blepharis which are colpate. The surface is coarsely reticulate, in addition to the lumina that varies in size.

  19. The Genera of Fungi: fixing the application of type species of generic names.

    PubMed

    Crous, Pedro W; Giraldo, Alejandra; Hawksworth, David L; Robert, Vincent; Kirk, Paul M; Guarro, Josep; Robbertse, Barbara; Schoch, Conrad L; Damm, Ulrike; Trakunyingcharoen, Thippawan; Groenewald, Johannes Z

    2014-06-01

    To ensure a stable platform for fungal taxonomy, it is of paramount importance that the genetic application of generic names be based on their DNA sequence data, and wherever possible, not morphology or ecology alone. To facilitate this process, a new database, accessible at www.GeneraofFungi.org (GoF) was established, which will allow deposition of metadata linked to holo-, lecto-, neo- or epitype specimens, cultures and DNA sequence data of the type species of genera. Although there are presently more than 18 000 fungal genera described, we aim to initially focus on the subset of names that have been placed on the "Without-prejudice List of Protected Generic Names of Fungi" (see IMA Fungus 4(2): 381-443, 2013). To enable the global mycological community to keep track of typification events and avoid duplication, special MycoBank Typification identfiers (MBT) will be issued upon deposit of metadata in MycoBank. MycoBank is linked to GoF, thus deposited metadata of generic type species will be displayed in GoF (and vice versa), but will also be linked to Index Fungorum (IF) and the curated RefSeq Targeted Loci (RTL) database in GenBank at the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI). This initial paper focuses on eight genera of appendaged coelomycetes, the type species of which are neo- or epitypified here: Bartalinia (Bartalinia robillardoides; Amphisphaeriaceae, Xylariales), Chaetospermum (Chaetospermum chaetosporum, incertae sedis, Sebacinales), Coniella (Coniella fragariae, Schizoparmaceae, Diaporthales), Crinitospora (Crinitospora pulchra, Melanconidaceae, Diaporthales), Eleutheromyces (Eleutheromyces subulatus, Helotiales), Kellermania (Kellermania yuccigena, Planistromataceae, Botryosphaeriales), Mastigosporium (Mastigosporium album, Helotiales), and Mycotribulus (Mycotribulus mirabilis, Agaricales). Authors interested in contributing accounts of individual genera to larger multi-authored papers to be published in IMA Fungus, should contact the associate editors listed below for the major groups of fungi on the List of Protected Generic Names for Fungi. PMID:25083414

  20. Review of the genera Anelaphinis Kolbe, 1892 and Atrichelaphinis Kraatz, 1898 (Coleoptera, Scarabaeidae, Cetoniinae)

    PubMed Central

    Rojkoff, Sébastien; Perissinotto, Renzo

    2015-01-01

    Abstract New material collected recently throughout the Afrotropical region has led to a major reassessment of taxa within the genera Anelaphinis Kolbe, 1892, Atrichelaphinis Kraatz, 1898 and other closely related genera. As a result, the name Megalleucosma Antoine, 1989 is here synonymised with Anelaphinis and a lectotype is designated for the type species, Cetonia dominula Harold, 1879. The genus Atrichelaphinis is redefined and a new subgenus, Atrichelaphinis (Eugeaphinis), is proposed for Elaphinis simillima Ancey, 1883, Elaphinis vermiculata Fairmaire, 1894, Niphetophora rhodesiana Péringuey, 1907, Atrichelaphinis deplanata Moser, 1907 (with Anelaphinis kwangensis Burgeon, 1931 as junior synonym) and Anelaphinis sternalis Moser, 1914. Additionally, three new species and one new subspecies are recognised and described in this new subgenus: Atrichelaphinis (Eugeaphinis) bomboesbergica sp. n. from South Africa; Atrichelaphinis (Eugeaphinis) bjornstadi sp. n. from Tanzania; Atrichelaphinis (Eugeaphinis) garnieri sp. n. from south–east Africa (Tanzania, Zimbabwe); and Atrichelaphinis (Eugeaphinis) deplanata minettii ssp. n. from central Africa (Malawi, Mozambique, Congo-Kinshasa, Congo-Brazzaville, South Africa, Rwanda, Zambia, Zimbabwe). The genus Atrichelaphinis is compared to its closest relatives and two separate keys are proposed, one for Atrichelaphinis and one for the sub-Saharan genera exhibiting completely or partially fused parameres. PMID:25709532

  1. Jurassic-Early Cretaceous Gondwanan homoxylous woods: a nomenclatural revision of the genera with taxonomic notes.

    PubMed

    Bamford, M K.; Philippe, M

    2001-04-01

    The homoxylous fossil woods occurring in the Gondwanan continents of South America, Australia, Africa, India and Antarctica during the Jurassic and Early Cretaceous period are considered here. Original descriptions of the genera and wherever possible, the type material, have been consulted. Applying the rules of the International Code of Botanical Nomenclature, the generic names of the homoxylous woods have been revised from a nomenclatural point of view. According to this review, out of 31 generic names used for woods from the given time interval and area, 6 are illegitimate later nomenclatural synonyms, 1 is a later homonym, and 5 can be considered as taxonomical synonyms. Moreover, 9 genera have been used erroneously. We propose one new generic name (Protaxodioxylon n. gen.) and elsewhere we will propose for conservation, with a conserved type one of the illegitimate names and one of the taxonomic synonyms. As a result, we consider that there are only eighteen generic names correctly quoted for the Jurassic-Early Cretaceous of Gondwana, and we provide a taxonomic key for the corresponding genera. This revision is the first step in systematically comparing northern and southern hemisphere woods. PMID:11179718

  2. Phylogenetic relationships of Echinolaena and Ichnanthus within Panicoideae (Poaceae) reveal two new genera of tropical grasses.

    PubMed

    Silva, Christian; Snak, Cristiane; Schnadelbach, Alessandra Selbach; van den Berg, Cássio; Oliveira, Reyjane Patrícia

    2015-12-01

    Echinolaena and Ichnanthus are two tropical grass genera distributed mostly in the Americas, characterized by the presence of rachilla appendages in the shape of convex swellings, scars or wings at the base of the upper anthecium. However, recent studies have shown that rachilla appendages arose several times independently in several groups within Paniceae and Paspaleae (Panicoideae). Thus, this study aimed to assess the monophyly of Echinolaena and Ichnanthus and their relationship to other genera of Paniceae and Paspaleae, especially those including species with rachilla appendages. Parsimony and Bayesian analyses of the cpDNA regions ndhF, rpl16, trnH-(rps19)-psbA, trnL-trnF, trnS-(psbZ)-trnG, and the rDNA ITS region included 29 of the 39 known species of Echinolaena and Ichnanthus, 23 of which were sampled for the first time. The multiple loci analyses indicated that Echinolaena and Ichnanthus are polyphyletic in their current circumscriptions, with species in four distinct lineages within subtribe Paspalinae, each one characterized by a single type of rachilla appendage. Thus, Echinolaena and Ichnanthus are each circumscribed in a narrow sense, and the other two lineages excluded from them are proposed as the new genera Hildaea and Oedochloa, resulting in 15 new combinations and the restablishment of I. oplismenoides Munro ex Döll. PMID:26231381

  3. Kalapuya brunnea gen. & sp. nov. and its relationship to the other sequestrate genera in Morchellaceae.

    PubMed

    Trappe, Matthew J; Trappe, James M; Bonito, Gregory M

    2010-01-01

    Kalapuya is described as a new, monotypic truffle genus in the Morchellaceae known only from the Pacific northwestern United States. Its relationship to other hypogeous genera within Morchellaceae is explored by phylogenetic analysis of the ribosomal LSU and EF1alpha protein coding region. The type species, K. brunnea, occurs in Douglas-fir forests up to about 50 y old on the west slope of the Cascade Range in Oregon and in the Coastal Ranges of Oregon and northern California. It has a roughened, warty, reddish brown to brown peridium, a solid whitish gleba that develops grayish brown mottling as the spores mature, and produces a cheesy-garlicky odor at maturity. Its smooth, ellipsoid spores resemble those of Morchella spp. but are much larger. The four hypogeous genera known in the Morchellaceae, Kalapuya, Fischerula, Imaia and Leucangium, are distinct from the epigeous genera Morchella and Verpa, but it is uncertain whether they resulted from a single transition to a hypogeous fruiting habit or from multiple independent transitions. Kalapuya, locally known as the Oregon brown truffle, has been commercially harvested for culinary use. PMID:20943505

  4. Two new genera and three new species of freshwater crabs (Crustacea: Pseudothelphusidae: Potamocarcinini) from Chiapas, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Villalobos, José Luis; Álvarez, Fernando

    2013-01-01

    Two new genera, Sylvathelphusa n. gen. and Tzotzilthelphusa n. gen., and three new species, Sylvathelphusa kalebi n. sp., S. cavernicola n. sp. and Tzotzilthelphusa villarosalensis n. sp., of the tribe Potamocarcinini, family Pseudothelphusidae, are described from Chiapas, Mexico. Sylvathelphusa n. gen. is characterized by a male gonopod with the marginal plate between the caudal and mesial surfaces abruptly widening distally and forming a triangular apical projection; and a mesial process as a strong, acute spine forming a 90ş angle with respect to the principal axis of the gonopod. Tzotzilthelphusa n. gen. exhibits a male gonopod strongly bent laterally in the distal third, and a mesial surface rounded distally with acute spinules. Sylvathelphusa n. gen. is similar to Potamocarcinus in gonopod morphology, in both straight and with a mesial process developed as strong tooth in a similar shape and position. Tzotzilthelphusa n. gen. is similar to Phrygiopilus in that the gonopods of both genera develop a supra-apical process that is a continuation of the mesial surface. The new taxa come from the Los Altos de Chiapas region and bring the total number of pseudothelphusid genera in Chiapas to 11. PMID:24613999

  5. Phylogenetic relationships between Bacillus species and related genera inferred from 16s rDNA sequences.

    PubMed

    Wei Wang, Mi Sun

    2009-07-01

    Neighbor-joining, maximum-parsimony, minimum-evolution, maximum-likelihood and Bayesian trees constructed based on 16S rDNA sequences of 181 type strains of Bacillus species and related taxa manifested nine phylogenetic groups. The phylogenetic analysis showed that Bacillus was not a monophyletic group. B. subtilis was in Group 1. Group 4, 6 and 8 respectively consisted of thermophiles, halophilic or halotolerant bacilli and alkaliphilic bacilli. Group 2, 4 and 8 consisting of Bacillus species and related genera demonstrated that the current taxonomic system did not agree well with the 16S rDNA evolutionary trees. The position of Caryophanaceae and Planococcaceae in Group 2 suggested that they might be transferred into Bacillaceae, and the heterogeneity of Group 2 implied that some Bacillus species in it might belong to several new genera. Group 9 was mainly comprised of the genera (excluding Bacillus) of Bacillaceae, so some Bacillus species in Group 9: B. salarius, B. qingdaonensis and B. thermcloacae might not belong to Bacillus. Four Bacillus species, B. schlegelii, B. tusciae, B. edaphicus and B. mucilaginosus were clearly placed outside the nine groups. PMID:24031394

  6. A mutation in Aspergillus nidulans that blocks the transition from interphase to prophase

    E-print Network

    Oakley, Berl R.; Morris, R.

    1983-04-01

    In order to develop a method for obtaining mitotic synchrony in aspergillus nidulans, we have characterized previously isolated heat-sensitive nim mutations that block the nuclear division cycle in interphase at restrictive ...

  7. Evaluation of Atoxigenic Strains of Aspergillus flavus as Potential Biocontrol Agents for Aflatoxin in Maize

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Aflatoxin contamination resulting from maize infection by Aspergillus flavus is both an economic concern and public health concern. Therefore, strategies for controlling maize contamination are being investigated. Abilities of 11 naturally occurring atoxigenic strains in Nigeria to reduce aflatox...

  8. Recombination, balancing selection and geographic subdivision among worldwide populations of Aspergillus flavus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Aspergillus flavus is a global agent of aflatoxin contamination of economically important crops such as corn, peanuts, and cottonseed. Extensive studies have elucidated the biochemical and regulatory mechanisms of aflatoxin production, but basic knowledge of the evolutionary processes that maintain ...

  9. Revision of Aspergillus section Flavipedes: seven new species and section Jani sect. nov.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Aspergillus section Flavipedes contains species that are distributed world-wide in soil and rhizosphere, indoor and cave environments, plant endophytes, food contaminants, and occasionally causing human infections. They are producers of many bioactive and extensively studied secondary metabolites an...

  10. Comparative Analysis of the Performance of Aspergillus flavus on Resistant and Susceptible Maize Genotypes during Infection

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Aspergillus, a mycotoxicogenic fungal genus, produces carcinogenic aflatoxins in crops like peanuts and maize. Development of fungal resistant maize cultivars is one strategy used to decrease contamination. Successful development and identification of resistant maize genotypes requires evaluation o...

  11. An early report of growth of an Aspergillus species on the wall of a lung cavity.

    PubMed Central

    Doyle, L

    1989-01-01

    A report by Bristowe in 1854 of a vegetable fungus growing in a lung cavity and identified as an Aspergillus was almost certainly one of the earliest reports of A fumigatus colonisation. Images PMID:2648644

  12. Variecolactol: A New Sesterterpene Lactone from the Sclerotia of Aspergillus auricomus (Guegen) Saito

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Variecolactol (1), a new sesterterpene lactone related to variecolin (2), has been isolated from the organic extracts of Aspergillus auricomus. Structure determination of this compound was achieved primarily through HMQC, HMBC, and NOESY experiments. The known compounds dihydropenicillic acid (3) ...

  13. Potential involvement of Aspergillus flavus laccases in peanut invasion at low water potential

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Aspergillus flavus (Link) accumulates aflatoxins in peanuts, mainly affecting immature kernels during drought. Peanut invasion by A. flavus induces synthesis of phytoalexins, mostly stilbenoids, as a plant defense mechanism. Fungal laccases are often related to pathogenicity, and among other subst...

  14. 948 Plant Disease / Vol. 98 No. 7 Evaluation of the Atoxigenic Aspergillus flavus Strain AF36

    E-print Network

    Cotty, Peter J.

    Aspergillus flavus AF36, which has been exten- sively used as a biocontrol agent in commercial corn and cotton AF36 has been developed as a biocontrol agent for preventing aflatoxin contamination of cotton- seed

  15. Occurrence and biodiversity of Aspergillus section Nigri on 'Tannat' grapes in Uruguay.

    PubMed

    Garmendia, Gabriela; Vero, Silvana

    2016-01-01

    Ochratoxin A (OTA) is a nephrotoxic mycotoxin which has been found worldwide as a contaminant in wines. It is produced on grapes mainly by molds from Aspergillus section Nigri. This study has demonstrated for the first time the occurrence of black aspergilli on Tannat grapes from Uruguay, in a two year survey. Aspergillus uvarum (uniseriate) and Aspergillus welwitschiae (from Aspergillusniger aggregate) were the prevalent species whereas Aspergillus carbonarius which is considered the main OTA producing species was not detected. OTA production in culture medium was evaluated for native isolates from A. niger aggregate and compared to levels produced by a type strain of A. carbonarius. This work also includes the development of quick and easy molecular methods to identify black aspergilli to species level, avoiding sequencing. PMID:26398282

  16. Dual genome microarray: Fusarium verticillioides and Aspergillus flavus gene expression in co-culture

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Aflatoxins produced by Aspergillus flavus, and fumonisins produced by Fusarium verticillioides, are prominent among the mycotoxins associated with economic losses to the maize grain industry worldwide. F. verticillioides is also recognized as a systemic endophyte of maize that prevents opportunisti...

  17. Increased Heterologous Protein Production in Aspergillus niger Fermentation through Extracellular Proteases Inhibition by

    E-print Network

    Gu, Tingyue

    Increased Heterologous Protein Production in Aspergillus niger Fermentation through Extracellular in filamentous fungal fermentation and thereby to enhance heterologous protein production. Introduction with efficient heterologous protein production in the fungal fermentation industry (1, 2). Current strategies

  18. Gene Profiling for Studying the Mechanism of Aflatoxin Biosynthesis in Aspergillus flavus and A. parasiticus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Aflatoxins are toxic and carcinogenic polyketide metabolites produced by certain fungal species, including Aspergillus flavus and A. parasiticus. Because many internal and external factors, such as nutrition and environment affect aflatoxin biosynthesis, we have analyzed the transcriptome of A. fla...

  19. Genes Differentially Expressed by Aspergillus flavus Strains After Loss of Aflatoxin Production by Serial Transfers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Aflatoxins are carcinogenic fungal secondary metabolites produced by Aspergillus flavus and other closely related species. To better understand the molecular events that are associated with aflatoxin production, three separate nonaflatoxigenic A. flavus strains were produced through serial transfer...

  20. OPPORTUNISTIC ASPERGILLUS PATHOGENS MEASURED IN HOME AND HOSPITAL TAP WATER BY MOLD SPECIFIC QUANTITATIVE PCR (MSQPCR)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Opportunistic fungal pathogens are a concern because of the increasing number of immunocompromised patients. The goal of this research was to test a simple extraction method and rapid quantitative PCR (QPCR) measurement of the occurrence of potential pathogens, Aspergillus fumiga...

  1. Three new genera and three new species of Lasiopteridi (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae) on Rubiaceae from Guadeloupe, French West Indies, and a key to genera of Neotropical Lasiopteridi unplaced to tribe.

    PubMed

    Gagné, Raymond J; Etienne, Jean

    2015-01-01

    Three new genera of Lasiopteridi (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae), Faramitella Gagné, new genus, Anapeza Gagné, new genus, and Pellacara Gagné, new genus, each with one new species, are described. The new species are from leaf galls on Rubiaceae collected in Guadeloupe, F.W.I.: Faramitella planicauda Gagné, new species, was reared from Faramea occidentalis (L.) A. Rich.; Anapeza tumida Gagné, new species, and Pellacara postica, new species, were both reared from Psychotria mapourioides DC. The three new genera belong to Lasiopteridi but are unassigned to tribe. A key to the adult stage of these and 23 other Neotropical genera of unplaced Lasiopteridi whose adults are known is provided. PMID:26624324

  2. Aspergillus Niger Genomics: Past, Present and into the Future

    SciTech Connect

    Baker, Scott E.

    2006-09-01

    Aspergillus niger is a filamentous ascomycete fungus that is ubiquitous in the environment and has been implicated in opportunistic infections of humans. In addition to its role as an opportunistic human pathogen, A. niger is economically important as a fermentation organism used for the production of citric acid. Industrial citric acid production by A. niger represents one of the most efficient, highest yield bioprocesses in use currently by industry. The genome size of A. niger is estimated to be between 35.5 and 38.5 megabases (Mb) divided among eight chromosomes/linkage groups that vary in size from 3.5 - 6.6 Mb. Currently, there are three independent A. niger genome projects, an indication of the economic importance of this organism. The rich amount of data resulting from these multiple A. niger genome sequences will be used for basic and applied research programs applicable to fermentation process development, morphology and pathogenicity.

  3. Nanosulfur: A Potent Fungicide Against Food Pathogen, Aspergillus niger

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choudhury, Samrat Roy; Nair, Kishore K.; Kumar, Rajesh; Gogoi, Robin; Srivastava, Chitra; Gopal, Madhuban; Subhramanyam, B. S.; devakumar, C.; Goswami, Arunava

    2010-10-01

    Elemental sulfur (S0), man's oldest eco-friendly fungicide for curing fungal infections in plants and animals, is registered in India as a non-systemic and contact fungicide. However due to its high volume requirement, Indian agrochemical industry and farmers could not effectively use this product till date. We hypothesize that intelligent nanoscience applications might increase the visibility of nanosulfur in Indian agriculture as a potent and eco-safe fungicide. Sulfur nanoparticles (NPs) were synthesized bottom-up via a liquid synthesis method with average particle size in the range of 50-80 nm and the shapes of the NPs were spherical. A comparative study of elemental and nano-sulfur produced has been tested against facultative fungal food pathogen, Aspergillus niger. Results showed that nanosulfur is more efficacious than its elemental form.

  4. Effect of Butyrolactone I on the Producing Fungus, Aspergillus terreus†

    PubMed Central

    Schimmel, Timothy G.; Coffman, Allen D.; Parsons, Sarah J.

    1998-01-01

    Butyrolactone I [?-oxo-?-(p-hydroxyphenyl)-?-(p-hydroxy-m-3,3-dimethylallyl-benzyl)-?-methoxycarbonyl-?-butyrolactone] is produced as a secondary metabolite by Aspergillus terreus. Because small butyrolactone-containing molecules act as self-regulating factors in some bacteria, the effects of butyrolactone I on the producing organism were studied; specifically, changes in morphology, sporulation, and secondary metabolism were studied. Threefold or greater increases in hyphal branching (with concomitant decreases in the average hyphal growth unit), submerged sporulation, and secondary metabolism were observed when butyrolactone I was added to cultures of A. terreus. Among the secondary metabolites whose production was increased by this treatment was the therapeutically important compound lovastatin. These findings indicate that butyrolactone I induces morphological and sporulation changes in A. terreus and enhances secondary metabolite production in a manner similar to that previously reported for filamentous bacteria. PMID:9758788

  5. Antiviral butyrolactones from the endophytic fungus Aspergillus versicolor.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Min; Du, Gang; Yang, Hai-Ying; Xia, Cong-Fang; Yang, Juan-Xia; Ye, Yan-qing; Gao, Xue-Mei; Li, Xiao-Nian; Hu, Qiu-Fen

    2015-02-01

    Versicolactones A-D (1-4), four new butyrolactones, along with four known butyrolactones (5-8) were isolated from the fermentation products of the endophytic fungus Aspergillus versicolor. The structures of compounds 1-4, including absolute configuration, were elucidated by interpretation of the NMR and CD data. Compound 2 was further confirmed by single-crystal X-ray diffraction analysis. In particular, compound 1 is the first naturally occurring butyrolactone possessing an unusual 2-oxopropyl group. More importantly, compounds 1 and 8 displayed significant antitobacco mosaic virus activities with inhibition rates of 46.4?% and 35.4?%, even more potent than the positive control ningnanmycin (30.8?%). Compound 1 also showed moderate cytotoxicity against A549 and MCF7 cells with IC50 values of 3.2 and 2.5?µM, respectively. PMID:25590371

  6. Nanosulfur: A Potent Fungicide Against Food Pathogen, Aspergillus niger

    SciTech Connect

    Choudhury, Samrat Roy; Goswami, Arunava; Nair, Kishore K.; Kumar, Rajesh; Gopal, Madhuban; Devakumar, C.; Gogoi, Robin; Srivastava, Chitra; Subhramanyam, B. S.

    2010-10-04

    Elemental sulfur (S{sup 0}), man's oldest eco-friendly fungicide for curing fungal infections in plants and animals, is registered in India as a non-systemic and contact fungicide. However due to its high volume requirement, Indian agrochemical industry and farmers could not effectively use this product till date. We hypothesize that intelligent nanoscience applications might increase the visibility of nanosulfur in Indian agriculture as a potent and eco-safe fungicide. Sulfur nanoparticles (NPs) were synthesized bottom-up via a liquid synthesis method with average particle size in the range of 50-80 nm and the shapes of the NPs were spherical. A comparative study of elemental and nano-sulfur produced has been tested against facultative fungal food pathogen, Aspergillus niger. Results showed that nanosulfur is more efficacious than its elemental form.

  7. Cloning and characterization of two flavohemoglobins from Aspergillus oryzae

    SciTech Connect

    Zhou Shengmin; Fushinobu, Shinya; Nakanishi, Yoshito; Kim, Sang-Wan; Wakagi, Takayoshi; Shoun, Hirofumi

    2009-03-27

    Two flavohemoglobin (FHb) genes, fhb1 and fhb2, were cloned from Aspergillus oryzae. The amino acid sequences of the deduced FHb1 and FHb2 showed high identity to other FHbs except for the predicted mitochondrial targeting signal in the N-terminus of FHb2. The recombinant proteins displayed absorption spectra similar to those of other FHbs. FHb1 and FHb2 were estimated to be a monomer and a dimer in solution, respectively. Both of the isozymes exhibit high NO dioxygenase (NOD) activity. FHb1 utilizes either NADH or NADPH as an electron donor, whereas FHb2 can only use NADH. These results suggest that FHb1 and FHb2 are fungal counterparts of bacterial FHbs and act as NO detoxification enzymes in the cytosol and mitochondria, respectively. This study is the first to show that a microorganism contains two isozymes of FHb and that intracellular localization of the isozymes could differ.

  8. In-silico analysis of Aspergillus niger beta-glucosidases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yeo S., L.; Shazilah, K.; Suhaila, S.; Abu Bakar F., D.; Murad A. M., A.

    2014-09-01

    Genomic data mining was carried out and revealed a total of seventeen ?-glucosidases in filamentous fungi Aspergillus niger. Two of them belonged to glycoside hydrolase family 1 (GH1) while the rest belonged to genes in family 3 (GH3). These proteins were then named according to the nomenclature as proposed by the International Union of Biochemistry (IUB), starting from the lowest pI and glycoside hydrolase family. Their properties were predicted using various bionformatic tools showing the presence of domains for signal peptide and active sites. Interestingly, one particular domain, PA14 (protective antigen) was present in four of the enzymes, predicted to be involved in carbohydrate binding. A phylogenetic tree grouped the two glycoside hydrolase families with GH1 and GH3 related organisms. This study showed that the various domains present in these ?-glucosidases are postulated to be crucial for the survival of this fungus, as supported by other analysis.

  9. Signalling and oxidant adaptation in Candida albicans and Aspergillus fumigatus.

    PubMed

    Chauhan, Neeraj; Latge, Jean-Paul; Calderone, Richard

    2006-06-01

    Candida species and Aspergillus fumigatus were once thought to be relatively benign organisms. However, it is now known that this is not the case - Candida species rank among the top four causes of nosocomial infectious diseases in humans and A. fumigatus is the most deadly mould, often having a 90% mortality rate in immunocompromised transplant recipients. Adaptation to stress, including oxidative stress, is a necessary requisite for survival of these organisms during infection. Here, we describe the latest information on the signalling pathways and target proteins that contribute to oxidant adaptation in C. albicans and A. fumigatus, which has been obtained primarily through the analysis of mutants or inference from genome annotation. PMID:16710324

  10. New pathway for the biodegradation of indole in Aspergillus niger

    SciTech Connect

    Kamath, A.; Vaidyanathan, C.S. )

    1990-01-01

    Indole and its derivatives form a class of toxic recalcitrant environmental pollutants. The growth of Aspergillus niger was inhibited by very low concentrations (0.005 to 0.02%) of indole, even when 125- to 500-fold excess glucose was present in the medium. When 0.02% indole was added, the fungus showed a lag phase for about 30 h and the uptake of glucose was inhibited. Indole was metabolized by a new pathway via indoxyl (3-hydroxyindole), N-formylanthranilic acid, anthranilic acid, 2,3-dihydroxybenzoic acid, and catechol, which was further degraded by an ortho cleavage. The enzymes N-formylanthranilate deformylase, anthranilate hydroxylase, 2,3-dihydroxybenzoate decarboxylase, and catechol dioxygenase were induced by indole as early as after 5 h of growth, and their activities were demonstrated in a cell-free system.

  11. Biotransformations of organic compounds mediated by cultures of Aspergillus niger.

    PubMed

    Parshikov, Igor A; Woodling, Kellie A; Sutherland, John B

    2015-09-01

    Many different organic compounds may be converted by microbial biotransformation to high-value products for the chemical and pharmaceutical industries. This review summarizes the use of strains of Aspergillus niger, a well-known filamentous fungus used in numerous biotechnological processes, for biochemical transformations of organic compounds. The substrates transformed include monocyclic, bicyclic, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons; azaarenes, epoxides, chlorinated hydrocarbons, and other aliphatic and aromatic compounds. The types of reactions performed by A. niger, although not unique to this species, are extremely diverse. They include hydroxylation, oxidation of various functional groups, reduction of double bonds, demethylation, sulfation, epoxide hydrolysis, dechlorination, ring cleavage, and conjugation. Some of the products may be useful as new investigational drugs or chemical intermediates. PMID:26162670

  12. Fungal siderophore metabolism with a focus on Aspergillus fumigatus

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Covering: up to 2014 Siderophores are chelators synthesized by microbes to sequester iron. This article summarizes the knowledge on the fungal siderophore metabolism with a focus on Aspergillus fumigatus. In recent years, A. fumigatus became a role model for fungal biosynthesis, uptake and degradation of siderophores as well as regulation of siderophore-mediated iron handling and the elucidation of siderophore functions. Siderophore functions comprise uptake, intracellular transport and storage of iron. This proved to be crucial not only for adaptation to iron starvation conditions but also for germination, asexual and sexual propagation, antioxidative defense, mutual interaction, microbial competition as well as virulence in plant and animal hosts. Recent studies also indicate the high potential of siderophores and its biosynthetic pathway to improve diagnosis and therapy of fungal infections. PMID:25140791

  13. [Antibiotic and phytotoxic properties of some Aspergillus parvulus Smith strains].

    PubMed

    Tsyganenko, K S; Za?chenko, O M

    2004-01-01

    Antibiotic activity screening of 15 species of Aspergillus parvulus were made relative to different test-organisms (gram positive, gram negative, phytopathogenic bacteria and yeasts) and phytotoxic activity screening relative to different algae. The researched strains 3387, 340, 3142, 1813 of A. parvulus had a wide spectrum of antibiotic activity and high phytotoxic activity. The rest of species had different degrees of antibiotic and phytotoxic activity. For further investigation the evaporated cultural filtrate of A. parvulus 3142 was separated by the method of column chromatography into fractions with different properties. Minimum suppressing concentration (which equals 2 mg/ml for most active fraction) was determined for the most active one, and a system of solvents was chosen as a results of Schevchic assembly chromatography for the extraction of active substance (n-buthanol saturated water). PMID:15554299

  14. Action of phosphine on production of aflatoxins by various Aspergillus strains isolated from foodstuffs.

    PubMed Central

    Leitao, J; de Saint-Blanquat, G; Bailly, J R

    1987-01-01

    Phosphine is a food fumigant, used until now as an insecticide and rodenticide. The present work researches the action of phosphine treatment on growth and aflatoxin production of 23 Aspergillus strains. Production of aflatoxins B1, B2, G1, and G2 decreased in almost all cases by a ratio of 10 to 100. Phosphine treatment therefore seems favorable to prevent growth of various Aspergillus strains, in the context of keeping food safe. PMID:3426212

  15. Genomic Islands in the Pathogenic Filamentous Fungus Aspergillus fumigatus

    PubMed Central

    Fedorova, Natalie D.; Khaldi, Nora; Joardar, Vinita S.; Maiti, Rama; Amedeo, Paolo; Anderson, Michael J.; Crabtree, Jonathan; Silva, Joana C.; Badger, Jonathan H.; Albarraq, Ahmed; Angiuoli, Sam; Bussey, Howard; Bowyer, Paul; Cotty, Peter J.; Dyer, Paul S.; Egan, Amy; Galens, Kevin; Fraser-Liggett, Claire M.; Haas, Brian J.; Inman, Jason M.; Kent, Richard; Lemieux, Sebastien; Malavazi, Iran; Orvis, Joshua; Roemer, Terry; Ronning, Catherine M.; Sundaram, Jaideep P.; Sutton, Granger; Turner, Geoff; Venter, J. Craig; White, Owen R.; Whitty, Brett R.; Youngman, Phil; Wolfe, Kenneth H.; Goldman, Gustavo H.; Wortman, Jennifer R.; Jiang, Bo; Denning, David W.; Nierman, William C.

    2008-01-01

    We present the genome sequences of a new clinical isolate of the important human pathogen, Aspergillus fumigatus, A1163, and two closely related but rarely pathogenic species, Neosartorya fischeri NRRL181 and Aspergillus clavatus NRRL1. Comparative genomic analysis of A1163 with the recently sequenced A. fumigatus isolate Af293 has identified core, variable and up to 2% unique genes in each genome. While the core genes are 99.8% identical at the nucleotide level, identity for variable genes can be as low 40%. The most divergent loci appear to contain heterokaryon incompatibility (het) genes associated with fungal programmed cell death such as developmental regulator rosA. Cross-species comparison has revealed that 8.5%, 13.5% and 12.6%, respectively, of A. fumigatus, N. fischeri and A. clavatus genes are species-specific. These genes are significantly smaller in size than core genes, contain fewer exons and exhibit a subtelomeric bias. Most of them cluster together in 13 chromosomal islands, which are enriched for pseudogenes, transposons and other repetitive elements. At least 20% of A. fumigatus-specific genes appear to be functional and involved in carbohydrate and chitin catabolism, transport, detoxification, secondary metabolism and other functions that may facilitate the adaptation to heterogeneous environments such as soil or a mammalian host. Contrary to what was suggested previously, their origin cannot be attributed to horizontal gene transfer (HGT), but instead is likely to involve duplication, diversification and differential gene loss (DDL). The role of duplication in the origin of lineage-specific genes is further underlined by the discovery of genomic islands that seem to function as designated “gene dumps” and, perhaps, simultaneously, as “gene factories”. PMID:18404212

  16. Current understanding of HOG-MAPK pathway in Aspergillus fumigatus.

    PubMed

    Ma, Dongmei; Li, Ruoyu

    2013-02-01

    Aspergillus fumigatus is an important opportunistic fungal pathogen that causes lethal systemic invasive aspergillosis. It must be able to adapt to stress in the microenvironment during host invasion and systemic spread. The high-osmolarity glycerol (HOG) mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling pathway is a key element that controls adaptation to environmental stress. It plays a critical role in the virulence of several fungal pathogens. In this review, we summarize the current knowledge about the functions of different components of the HOG-MAPK pathway in A. fumigatus through mutant analysis or inferences from the genome annotation, focusing on their roles in adaptation to stress, regulation of infection-related morphogenesis, and effect on virulence. We also briefly compare the functions of the HOG pathway in A. fumigatus with those in the model fungi Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Aspergillus nidulans as well as several other human and plant pathogens including Candida albicans, Cryptococcus neoformans, and Magnaporthe oryzae. The genes described in this review mainly include tcsB, fos1, skn7, sho1, pbs2, and sakA whose deletion mutants have already been established in A. fumigatus. Among them, fos1 has been considered a virulence factor in A. fumigatus, indicating that components of the HOG pathway may be suitable as targets for developing new fungicides. However, quite a few of the genes of this pathway, such as sskA (ssk1), sskB, steC, and downstream regulator genes, are not well characterized. System biology approaches may contribute to a more comprehensive understanding of HOG pathway functions with dynamic details. PMID:23161019

  17. Coinfection of Strongyloides stercoralis and Aspergillus found in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid from a patient with stubborn pulmonary symptoms

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Jie; Sun, Yi; Man, Yanru; Huang, Xiaochun; Qin, Qin; Zhou, Daoyin

    2015-01-01

    We report a case involving coinfection with Strongyloides stercoralis (S. stercoralis) and Aspergillus found in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) of an elderly male patient who had a medical history of autoimmune pancreatitis (AIP) and who was treated with prednisone therapy 6 months previously. The patient presented with stubborn pulmonary symptoms and signs because of Aspergillus invasion and mechanical destruction caused by larval migration. We found S. stercoralis and Aspergillus in his BALF that provided diagnostic proof. PMID:25922748

  18. Coinfection of Strongyloides stercoralis and Aspergillus found in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid from a patient with stubborn pulmonary symptoms.

    PubMed

    Guo, Jie; Sun, Yi; Man, Yanru; Huang, Xiaochun; Qin, Qin; Zhou, Daoyin; Deng, Anmei

    2015-03-01

    We report a case involving coinfection with Strongyloides stercoralis (S. stercoralis) and Aspergillus found in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) of an elderly male patient who had a medical history of autoimmune pancreatitis (AIP) and who was treated with prednisone therapy 6 months previously. The patient presented with stubborn pulmonary symptoms and signs because of Aspergillus invasion and mechanical destruction caused by larval migration. We found S. stercoralis and Aspergillus in his BALF that provided diagnostic proof. PMID:25922748

  19. Abstract Aflatoxins are toxic and carcinogenic metabo-lites of several Aspergillus species. The effect of nitrate

    E-print Network

    Cotty, Peter J.

    Abstract Aflatoxins are toxic and carcinogenic metabo- lites of several Aspergillus species in regulation of nitrogen metabolism. Introduction Aflatoxins are toxic and carcinogenic secondary metabo- lites

  20. The occurrence of molds in patients with chronic sinusitis.

    PubMed

    Twaru?ek, Magdalena; Soszczy?ska, Ewelina; Winiarski, Piotr; Zwierz, Aleksander; Grajewski, Jan

    2014-05-01

    Chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS) is a common inflammatory condition of nasal and paranasal sinus mucosa. Although pathogenic bacteria were postulated as main etiological factor responsible for most cases of CRS, the involvement of molds was recently proved in some cases. The aim of the study was to conduct mycological analysis of material obtained from patients operated on due to chronic sinusitis. The study included 107 patients, 45 women and 62 men. During the surgery, a fragment of mucosa from the region of the ethmoid bulla was obtained as microbiological characteristics of this material closely resemble those of sinus mucosa. In addition, maxillary sinus lavage was obtained. The control group comprised patients without chronic sinusitis. The dithiothreitol solution method was used for the lavage examination. The tissue material (mucosal fragment from the region of the ethmoid bulla) was incubated in 2% liquid Sabouraud medium for 24 h. The material was inoculated onto culture media. The presence of molds was detected in 67% of examined samples. Overall, 41 species belonging to 12 genera were isolated. The most frequently detected genera included Penicillium spp. (46%) and Aspergillus spp. (16%). In addition, Cladosporium spp. (11%), Fusarium spp. (7%), Acremonium spp. (4%), Eurotium spp. (4%), Alternaria spp. (2%), Chaetomium spp. (1%), Geotrichum spp. (1%), Verticillium spp. (1%), Rhizopus spp. (1%), and some unidentified colonies (5%) were isolated. Penicillium crustosum, Penicillium citrinum, Aspergillus niger, Cladosporium cladosporioides, and Fusarium verticillioides were the most prevalent species. PMID:24121778

  1. Spionidae (Annelida) from Lizard Island, Great Barrier Reef, Australia: the genera Aonides, Dipolydora, Polydorella, Prionospio, Pseudopolydora, Rhynchospio, and Tripolydora.

    PubMed

    Radashevsky, Vasily I

    2015-01-01

    Nineteen species in seven genera of spionid polychaetes are described and illustrated based on new material collected from the intertidal and shallow waters around the Lizard Island Group, northern Great Barrier Reef. Only one of these species had been previously reported from the Reef. Six species are described as new to science, and the taxonomy of seven species should be clarified in the future. Prionospio sensu lato is the most diverse group with 11 species identified in the present study. One species is identified in each of the genera Dipolydora, Polydorella, Rhynchospio and Tripolydora, and two species are identified in each of the genera Aonides and Pseudopolydora. The fauna of spionid polychaetes of the Great Barrier Reef seems to be more diverse than previously described and more species are expected to be found in the future. An identification key is provided to 16 genera of Spionidae reported from or likely to be found on the Great Barrier Reef. PMID:26624082

  2. A revision and key to the genera of Afrotropical Mantispidae (Neuropterida, Neuroptera), with the description of a new genus

    PubMed Central

    Snyman, Louwtjie P.; Ohl, Michael; Mansell, Mervyn W.; Scholtz, Clarke H.

    2012-01-01

    Abstract The Afrotropical Mantispidae genera have previously been neglected and are poorly known. The genera are revised and redescribed. A new genus Afromantispa Snyman and Ohl is described with Afromantispa tenella comb. n.as type species. Perlamantispa (Handschin, 1960) is synonymised with Sagittalata Handschin, 1959. The new combinations within the genus include Sagittalata austroafrica comb. n., Sagittalata bequaerti comb. n., Sagittalata dorsalis comb. n., Sagittalata girardi comb. n., Sagittalata nubila comb. n., Sagittalata perla comb. n., Sagittalata pusilla comb. n., Sagittalata similata comb. n., Sagittalata royi comb. n., Sagittalata tincta comb. n. and Sagittalata vassei comb. n. An illustrated key to the genera Afromantispa gen. n., Sagittalata Handschin, 1959, Mantispa Illiger, 1798, Cercomantispa Handschin, 1959, Rectinerva Handschin, 1959, Nampista Navás, 1914, and Pseudoclimaciella Handschin, 1960 is provided. The wing venation of Mantispidae is redescribed. Similarities between the genera are discussed. Subsequent studies will focus on revising the taxonomic status of species, which are not dealt with in this study. PMID:22573953

  3. In many amphibian genera, including Bufo, Rana and Xenopus, tadpoles hatch at an early `tailbud' stage of

    E-print Network

    In many amphibian genera, including Bufo, Rana and Xenopus, tadpoles hatch at an early `tailbud in Great Britain © The Company of Biologists Limited 2000 JEB2629 Many amphibian tadpoles hatch and swim

  4. Dated Phylogenies of the Sister Genera Macaranga and Mallotus (Euphorbiaceae): Congruence in Historical Biogeographic Patterns?

    PubMed Central

    van Welzen, Peter C.; Strijk, Joeri S.; van Konijnenburg-van Cittert, Johanna H. A.; Nucete, Monica; Merckx, Vincent S. F. T.

    2014-01-01

    Molecular phylogenies and estimates of divergence times within the sister genera Macaranga and Mallotus were estimated using Bayesian relaxed clock analyses of two generic data sets, one per genus. Both data sets were based on different molecular markers and largely different samples. Per genus three calibration points were utilised. The basal calibration point (crown node of all taxa used) was taken from literature and used for both taxa. The other three calibrations were based on fossils of which two were used per genus. We compared patterns of dispersal and diversification in Macaranga and Mallotus using ancestral area reconstruction in RASP (S-DIVA option) and contrasted our results with biogeographical and geological records to assess accuracy of inferred age estimates. A check of the fossil calibration point showed that the Japanese fossil, used for dating the divergence of Mallotus, probably had to be attached to a lower node, the stem node of all pioneer species, but even then the divergence time was still younger than the estimated age of the fossil. The African (only used in the Macaranga data set) and New Zealand fossils (used for both genera) seemed reliably placed. Our results are in line with existing geological data and the presence of stepping stones that provided dispersal pathways from Borneo to New Guinea-Australia, from Borneo to mainland Asia and additionally at least once to Africa and Madagascar via land and back to India via Indian Ocean island chains. The two genera show congruence in dispersal patterns, which corroborate divergence time estimates, although the overall mode and tempo of dispersal and diversification differ significantly as shown by distribution patterns of extant species. PMID:24465660

  5. A QUICK KEY TO THE SUBFAMILIES AND GENERA OF ANTS OF THE SAVANNAH RIVER SITE

    SciTech Connect

    Martin, D

    2007-09-04

    This taxonomic key was devised to support development of a Rapid Bioassessment Protocol using ants at the Savannah River Site. The emphasis is on 'rapid' and, because the available keys contained a very large number of genera not known to occur at the Savannah River Site, we found that the available keys were unwieldy. Because these keys contained many more genera than we would ever encounter and because this larger number of genera required more couplets in the key and often required examination of characters that are difficult to assess without higher magnifications (60X or higher), more time was required to process samples. In developing this set of keys I emphasized character states that are easier for nonspecialists to recognize. I recognize that the character sets used may lead to some errors but I believe that the error rate will be small and, for the purpose of rapid bioassessment, this error rate will be acceptable provided that overall sample sizes are adequate. Oliver and Beattie (1996a, 1996b) found that for rapid assessment of biodiversity the same results were found when identifications were done to morphospecies by people with minimal expertise as when the same data sets were identified by subject matter experts. Basset et al. (2004) concluded that it was not as important to correctly identify all species as it was to be sure that the study included as many functional groups as possible. If your study requires high levels of accuracy, it is highly recommended that, when you key out a specimen and have any doubts concerning the identification, you should refer to keys in Bolton (1994) or to the other keys used to develop this area specific taxonomic key.

  6. Phylogenetic relationship among genera of Polymorphidae (Acanthocephala), inferred from nuclear and mitochondrial gene sequences.

    PubMed

    García-Varela, Martín; Pérez-Ponce de León, Gerardo; Aznar, Francisco J; Nadler, Steven A

    2013-08-01

    Acanthocephalans of the family Polymorphidae Meyer, 1931 are obligate endoparasites with complex life cycles. These worms use vertebrates (marine mammals, fish-eating birds and waterfowl) as definitive hosts and invertebrates (amphipods, decapods and euphausiids) as intermediate hosts to complete their life cycle. Polymorphidae has a wordwide distribution, containing 12 genera, with approximately 127 species. The family is diagnosed by having a spinose trunk, bulbose proboscis, double-walled proboscis receptacle, and usually four to eight tubular cement glands. To conduct a phylogenetic analysis, in the current study sequences of the small (18S) and large-subunit (28S) ribosomal RNA, and cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (cox 1) were generated for 27 taxa representing 10 of 12 genera of Polymorphidae, plus three additional species of acanthocephalans that were used as outgroups. Maximum likelihood (ML), maximum parsimony (MP), and Bayesian analyses were conducted on a combined nuclear rRNA (18S+28S) data set and on a concatenated dataset of nuclear plus one mitochondrial gene (18S+28S+cox 1). Phylogenetic analyses inferred with the concatenated dataset of three genes support the monophyly of nine genera (Andracantha, Corynosoma, Bolbosoma, Profilicollis, Pseudocorynosoma, Southwellina, Arhythmorhynchus, Hexaglandula and Ibirhynchus). However, the four sampled species of Polymorphus were nested within several clades, indicating that these species do not share a common ancestor, requiring further taxonomic revision using phylogenetic systematics, and reexamination of morphological and ecological data. By mapping definitive and intermediate host association onto the resulting cladogram, we observe that aquatic birds were the ancestral definitive hosts for the family with a secondary colonization and diversification to marine mammals. Whereas amphipods were ancestral intermediate hosts and that the association with decapods represent episodes of secondary colonization that arose several times during the evolutionary history of the family. Our results are useful to start testing hypothesis about the evolutionary history of this highly diverse family of acanthocephalans. PMID:23567022

  7. Endemicity and evolutionary value: a study of Chilean endemic vascular plant genera

    PubMed Central

    Scherson, Rosa A; Albornoz, Abraham A; Moreira-Muńoz, Andrés S; Urbina-Casanova, Rafael

    2014-01-01

    This study uses phylogeny-based measures of evolutionary potential (phylogenetic diversity and community structure) to evaluate the evolutionary value of vascular plant genera endemic to Chile. Endemicity is regarded as a very important consideration for conservation purposes. Taxa that are endemic to a single country are valuable conservation targets, as their protection depends upon a single government policy. This is especially relevant in developing countries in which conservation is not always a high resource allocation priority. Phylogeny-based measures of evolutionary potential such as phylogenetic diversity (PD) have been regarded as meaningful measures of the “value” of taxa and ecosystems, as they are able to account for the attributes that could allow taxa to recover from environmental changes. Chile is an area of remarkable endemism, harboring a flora that shows the highest number of endemic genera in South America. We studied PD and community structure of this flora using a previously available supertree at the genus level, to which we added DNA sequences of 53 genera endemic to Chile. Using discrepancy values and a null model approach, we decoupled PD from taxon richness, in order to compare their geographic distribution over a one-degree grid. An interesting pattern was observed in which areas to the southwest appear to harbor more PD than expected by their generic richness than those areas to the north of the country. In addition, some southern areas showed more PD than expected by chance, as calculated with the null model approach. Geological history as documented by the study of ancient floras as well as glacial refuges in the coastal range of southern Chile during the quaternary seem to be consistent with the observed pattern, highlighting the importance of this area for conservation purposes. PMID:24683462

  8. Dated phylogenies of the sister genera Macaranga and Mallotus (Euphorbiaceae): congruence in historical biogeographic patterns?

    PubMed

    van Welzen, Peter C; Strijk, Joeri S; van Konijnenburg-van Cittert, Johanna H A; Nucete, Monica; Merckx, Vincent S F T

    2014-01-01

    Molecular phylogenies and estimates of divergence times within the sister genera Macaranga and Mallotus were estimated using Bayesian relaxed clock analyses of two generic data sets, one per genus. Both data sets were based on different molecular markers and largely different samples. Per genus three calibration points were utilised. The basal calibration point (crown node of all taxa used) was taken from literature and used for both taxa. The other three calibrations were based on fossils of which two were used per genus. We compared patterns of dispersal and diversification in Macaranga and Mallotus using ancestral area reconstruction in RASP (S-DIVA option) and contrasted our results with biogeographical and geological records to assess accuracy of inferred age estimates. A check of the fossil calibration point showed that the Japanese fossil, used for dating the divergence of Mallotus, probably had to be attached to a lower node, the stem node of all pioneer species, but even then the divergence time was still younger than the estimated age of the fossil. The African (only used in the Macaranga data set) and New Zealand fossils (used for both genera) seemed reliably placed. Our results are in line with existing geological data and the presence of stepping stones that provided dispersal pathways from Borneo to New Guinea-Australia, from Borneo to mainland Asia and additionally at least once to Africa and Madagascar via land and back to India via Indian Ocean island chains. The two genera show congruence in dispersal patterns, which corroborate divergence time estimates, although the overall mode and tempo of dispersal and diversification differ significantly as shown by distribution patterns of extant species. PMID:24465660

  9. Delimitation of Neonectria and Cylindrocarpon (Nectriaceae, Hypocreales, Ascomycota) and related genera with Cylindrocarpon-like anamorphs

    PubMed Central

    Chaverri, P.; Salgado, C.; Hirooka, Y.; Rossman, A.Y.; Samuels, G.J.

    2011-01-01

    Neonectria is a cosmopolitan genus and it is, in part, defined by its link to the anamorph genus Cylindrocarpon. Neonectria has been divided into informal groups on the basis of combined morphology of anamorph and teleomorph. Previously, Cylindrocarpon was divided into four groups defined by presence or absence of microconidia and chlamydospores. Molecular phylogenetic analyses have indicated that Neonectria sensu stricto and Cylindrocarpon sensu stricto are phylogenetically congeneric. In addition, morphological and molecular data accumulated over several years have indicated that Neonectria sensu lato and Cylindrocarpon sensu lato do not form a monophyletic group and that the respective informal groups may represent distinct genera. In the present work, a multilocus analysis (act, ITS, LSU, rpb1, tef1, tub) was applied to representatives of the informal groups to determine their level of phylogenetic support as a first step towards taxonomic revision of Neonectria sensu lato. Results show five distinct highly supported clades that correspond to some extent with the informal Neonectria and Cylindrocarpon groups that are here recognised as genera: (1) N. coccinea-group and Cylindrocarpon groups 1 & 4 (Neonectria/Cylindrocarpon sensu stricto); (2) N. rugulosa-group (Rugonectria gen. nov.); (3) N. mammoidea/N. veuillotiana-groups and Cylindrocarpon group 2 (Thelonectria gen. nov.); (4) N. radicicola-group and Cylindrocarpon group 3 (Ilyonectria gen. nov.); and (5) anamorph genus Campylocarpon. Characteristics of the anamorphs and teleomorphs correlate with the five genera, three of which are newly described. New combinations are made for species where their classification is confirmed by phylogenetic data. PMID:21523189

  10. Subjects: Trematoda and Trematode Diseases, Part 8: Supergenera and Genera T-Z 

    E-print Network

    Doss, Mildred A.; Roach, Katharine F.; Farr, Marion M.; Breen, Virginia L.

    1968-01-01

    -CATALOGUE OF MEDICAL AND VETERINARY ZOOLOGY SUBJECTS: TREMATODA and TREMATODE DISEASES PART 8: SUPERGENERA and GENERA T-Z By MILDRED A. DOSS Collaborator, U.S. Department of Agriculture and Research Associate, University of Maryland and Katharine Forsyth... by Katharine Forsyth Roach, Marion M. Farr, and Virginia L. Breen T TAGIA Sproston, N. G. ,1946a, 190, 419-420 (tod:T. ecuadori). --Hargis, W. J. , 1954b, 1115(Discocotylidae)(emend. ); 1956a, 6-7 (diagnosis emend. ).--T ripathi.Y.R. , [1959a], 112, 115...

  11. New genera and species of early Tertiary palynomorphs from Gulf Coast

    E-print Network

    Stover, L. E.; Elsik, W. C.; Fairchild, W. W.

    1966-05-23

    of Oakhill, Wilcox County, Alabama. Locality 5.—Chetnard Lake lignite lentil of the Naborton Formation (Paleocene) exposed at the head of a gully in the NE 1/4 of the SW 1/4, section 6, T 11 N, R 11 W, 1.25 miles east of Grove Hill Church, DeSoto Parish... of the punctae to be aligned into rows distinguishes Calamuspollenites from other monosulcate form genera. Affinities.—The exine pattern of Calamuspol- lenites pertusus is basically the same as that found in Calamus guruba and Calannts microcarpus ( Palmae...

  12. Review of some species in the genera Pselaphodes Westwood and Labomimus Sharp (Coleoptera: Staphylinidae: Pselaphinae).

    PubMed

    Yin, Zi-Wei; Li, Li-Zhen

    2015-01-01

    Eight species of the genera Pselaphodes Westwood and Labomimus Sharp described from 1870 to 1925 are reviewed, six of them are redescribed, with their major diagnostic characters illustrated. Lectotypes are designated for the following names: Pselaphodes antennatus Bryant, 1915, Pselaphodes simplicicornis Champion, 1925, Pselaphodes spinosus Champion, 1925, and Pselaphodes villosus Westwood, 1870. Three new combinations and a new synonymy are proposed: Labomimus foveolatus (Raffray, 1882) comb. n. (transferred from Pselaphodes), Labomimus torticornis (Champion, 1925) comb. n. (transferred from Pselaphodes), and Pselaphodes championi (Jeannel, 1960) comb. n. (transferred from Labomimus), syn. n. (= Pselaphodes spinosus Champion, 1925). PMID:26624669

  13. Terfezia disappears from the American truffle mycota as two new genera and Mattirolomyces species emerge.

    PubMed

    Kovács, Gábor M; Trappe, James M; Alsheikh, Abdulmagid M; Hansen, Karen; Healy, Rosanne A; Vági, Pál

    2011-01-01

    Reexamination and molecular phylogenetic analyses of American Terfezia species and Mattirolomyces tiffanyae revealed that their generic assignments were wrong. Therefore we here propose these combinations: Mattirolomyces spinosus comb. nov. (? Terfezia spinosa), Stouffera longii gen. & comb. nov. (? Terfezia longii) and Temperantia tiffanyae gen. & comb. nov. (? Mattirolomyces tiffanyae). In addition we describe a new species, Mattirolomyces mexicanus spec. nov. All species belong to the Pezizaceae. Based on these results Terfezia is not known from North America, Mattirolomyces is represented by two species and two new monotypic genera are present. PMID:21262987

  14. Brazilian Histerini (Coleoptera, Histeridae, Histerinae): a new species, key to the genera, and checklist of species.

    PubMed

    Leivas, Fernando W T; Moura, Daniel P; Caterino, Michael S

    2015-01-01

    A new species of the Hister coenosus group from southern Brazil is described. Hister lucia sp. nov. is the largest Hister sp. in the New World, and is also distinguished by its dorsally and laterally concave mandibles. The three genera of Histerini recorded from Brazil are keyed, and a checklist of species of the tribe recorded from Brazil is presented. In total, seventeen described species of Histerini are recorded from Brazil, including fifteen of Hister Linnaeus, one of Atholus C. Thomson, and one of Margarinotus Marseul. PMID:25947523

  15. Evaluation of the Aspergillus Western Blot IgG Kit for Diagnosis of Chronic Aspergillosis

    PubMed Central

    Oliva, A.; Flori, P.; Hennequin, C.; Dubus, J.-C.; Reynaud-Gaubert, M.; Charpin, D.; Vergnon, J. M.; Gay, P.; Colly, A.; Piarroux, R.; Pelloux, H.

    2014-01-01

    Immunoprecipitin detection (IPD) is the current reference confirmatory technique for anti-Aspergillus antibody detection; however, the lack of standardization is a critical drawback of this assay. In this study, we evaluated the performance of the Aspergillus Western blot (Asp-WB) IgG kit (LDBio Diagnostics, Lyon, France), a recently commercialized immunoblot assay for the diagnosis of various clinical presentations of chronic aspergillosis. Three hundred eight serum samples from 158 patients with aspergillosis sensu lato (s.l.) were analyzed. More specifically, 267 serum samples were derived from patients with Aspergillus disease, including 89 cases of chronic pulmonary aspergillosis, 10 of aspergilloma, and 32 of allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis, while 41 samples were from patients with Aspergillus colonization, including 15 cystic fibrosis (CF) and 12 non-CF patients. For blood donor controls, the Asp-WB specificity was 94%, while the kit displayed a sensitivity for the aspergillosis s.l. diagnosis of 88.6%, with a diagnostic odds ratio (DOR) of 119 (95% confidence interval [CI], 57 to 251). The DOR values were 185.22 (95% CI,78.79 to 435.45) and 43.74 (95% CI, 15.65 to 122.20) for the diagnosis of Aspergillus disease and Aspergillus colonization, respectively. Among the patients, the sensitivities of the Asp-WB in the diagnosis of Aspergillus colonization were 100% and 41.7% in CF and non-CF patients, respectively. The Asp-WB yielded fewer false-negative results than did IPD. In conclusion, the Asp-WB kit performed well for the diagnosis of various clinical presentations of aspergillosis in nonimmunocompromised patients, with an enhanced standardization and a higher sensitivity than with IPD, which is the current reference method. PMID:25392351

  16. Evaluation of the Aspergillus Western blot IgG kit for diagnosis of chronic aspergillosis.

    PubMed

    Oliva, A; Flori, P; Hennequin, C; Dubus, J-C; Reynaud-Gaubert, M; Charpin, D; Vergnon, J M; Gay, P; Colly, A; Piarroux, R; Pelloux, H; Ranque, S

    2015-01-01

    Immunoprecipitin detection (IPD) is the current reference confirmatory technique for anti-Aspergillus antibody detection; however, the lack of standardization is a critical drawback of this assay. In this study, we evaluated the performance of the Aspergillus Western blot (Asp-WB) IgG kit (LDBio Diagnostics, Lyon, France), a recently commercialized immunoblot assay for the diagnosis of various clinical presentations of chronic aspergillosis. Three hundred eight serum samples from 158 patients with aspergillosis sensu lato (s.l.) were analyzed. More specifically, 267 serum samples were derived from patients with Aspergillus disease, including 89 cases of chronic pulmonary aspergillosis, 10 of aspergilloma, and 32 of allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis, while 41 samples were from patients with Aspergillus colonization, including 15 cystic fibrosis (CF) and 12 non-CF patients. For blood donor controls, the Asp-WB specificity was 94%, while the kit displayed a sensitivity for the aspergillosis s.l. diagnosis of 88.6%, with a diagnostic odds ratio (DOR) of 119 (95% confidence interval [CI], 57 to 251). The DOR values were 185.22 (95% CI,78.79 to 435.45) and 43.74 (95% CI, 15.65 to 122.20) for the diagnosis of Aspergillus disease and Aspergillus colonization, respectively. Among the patients, the sensitivities of the Asp-WB in the diagnosis of Aspergillus colonization were 100% and 41.7% in CF and non-CF patients, respectively. The Asp-WB yielded fewer false-negative results than did IPD. In conclusion, the Asp-WB kit performed well for the diagnosis of various clinical presentations of aspergillosis in nonimmunocompromised patients, with an enhanced standardization and a higher sensitivity than with IPD, which is the current reference method. PMID:25392351

  17. Differential Support of Aspergillus fumigatus Morphogenesis by Yeast and Human Actins

    PubMed Central

    LeClaire, Lawrence L.; Fortwendel, Jarrod R.

    2015-01-01

    The actin cytoskeleton is highly conserved among eukaryotes and is essential for cellular processes regulating growth and differentiation. In fungi, filamentous actin (F-actin) orchestrates hyphal tip structure and extension via organization of exocytic and endocytic processes at the hyphal tip. Although highly conserved, there are key differences among actins of fungal species as well as between mammalian and fungal actins. For example, the F-actin stabilizing molecules, phalloidin and jasplakinolide, bind to actin structures in yeast and human cells, whereas phalloidin does not bind actin structures of Aspergillus. These discrepancies suggest structural differences between Aspergillus actin filaments and those of human and yeast cells. Additionally, fungal actin kinetics are much faster than those of humans, displaying 5-fold faster nucleation and 40-fold faster nucleotide exchange rates. Limited published studies suggest that these faster actin kinetics are required for normal growth and morphogenesis of yeast cells. In the current work, we show that replacement of Aspergillus actin with yeast actin generates a morphologically normal strain, suggesting that Aspergillus actin kinetics are similar to those of yeast. In contrast to wild type A. fumigatus, F-actin in this strain binds phalloidin, and pharmacological stabilization of these actin structures with jasplakinolide inhibits germination and alters morphogenesis in a dose-dependent manner. We also show that human ?-actin cannot support Aspergillus viability, even though the amino acid sequences of human and Aspergillus actins are 89.3% identical. Our findings show that minor differences in actin protein sequence account for loss of phalloidin and jasplakinolide sensitivity in Aspergillus species. PMID:26555617

  18. Determination of Isavuconazole Susceptibility of Aspergillus and Candida Species by the EUCAST Method

    PubMed Central

    Howard, Susan J.; Lass-Flörl, Cornelia; Cuenca-Estrella, Manuel; Gomez-Lopez, Alicia

    2013-01-01

    Isavuconazole is a novel expanded-spectrum triazole, which has recently been approved by the FDA as an orphan drug to treat invasive aspergillosis and is currently being studied in phase III clinical trials for invasive candidiasis. The susceptibility of relatively few clinical isolates has been reported. In this study, the isavuconazole susceptibilities of 1,237 Aspergillus and 2,010 Candida geographically diverse clinical isolates were determined by EUCAST methodology at four European mycology laboratories, producing the largest multicenter data set thus far for this compound. In addition, a blinded collection of 30 cyp51A mutant Aspergillus fumigatus clinical isolates and 10 wild-type isolates was tested. From these two data sets, the following preliminary epidemiological cutoff (ECOFF) values were suggested: 2 mg/liter for Aspergillus fumigatus, Aspergillus terreus, and Aspergillus flavus; 4 mg/liter for Aspergillus niger; 0.25 mg/liter for Aspergillus nidulans; and 0.03 mg/liter for Candida albicans, Candida parapsilosis, and Candida tropicalis. Unfortunately, ECOFFs could not be determined for Candida glabrata or Candida krusei due to an unexplained interlaboratory MIC variation. For the blinded collection of A. fumigatus isolates, all MICs were ?2 mg/liter for wild-type isolates. Differential isavuconazole MICs were observed for triazole-resistant A. fumigatus isolates with different cyp51A alterations: TR34/L98H mutants had elevated isavuconazole MICs, whereas isolates with G54 and M220 alterations had MICs in the wild-type range, suggesting that the efficacy of isavuconazole may not be affected by these alterations. This study will be an aid in interpreting isavuconazole MICs for clinical care and an important step in the future process of setting official clinical breakpoints. PMID:23959309

  19. The Cell Factory Aspergillus Enters the Big Data Era: Opportunities and Challenges for Optimising Product Formation.

    PubMed

    Meyer, Vera; Fiedler, Markus; Nitsche, Benjamin; King, Rudibert

    2015-01-01

    Living with limits. Getting more from less. Producing commodities and high-value products from renewable resources including waste. What is the driving force and quintessence of bioeconomy outlines the lifestyle and product portfolio of Aspergillus, a saprophytic genus, to which some of the top-performing microbial cell factories belong: Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus oryzae and Aspergillus terreus. What makes them so interesting for exploitation in biotechnology and how can they help us to address key challenges of the twenty-first century? How can these strains become trimmed for better growth on second-generation feedstocks and how can we enlarge their product portfolio by genetic and metabolic engineering to get more from less? On the other hand, what makes it so challenging to deduce biological meaning from the wealth of Aspergillus -omics data? And which hurdles hinder us to model and engineer industrial strains for higher productivity and better rheological performance under industrial cultivation conditions? In this review, we will address these issues by highlighting most recent findings from the Aspergillus research with a focus on fungal growth, physiology, morphology and product formation. Indeed, the last years brought us many surprising insights into model and industrial strains. They clearly told us that similar is not the same: there are different ways to make a hypha, there are more protein secretion routes than anticipated and there are different molecular and physical mechanisms which control polar growth and the development of hyphal networks. We will discuss new conceptual frameworks derived from these insights and the future scientific advances necessary to create value from Aspergillus Big Data. PMID:25616499

  20. Sex, drugs and recombination: the wild life of Aspergillus.

    PubMed

    Fisher, Matthew C; Henk, Daniel A

    2012-03-01

    Throughout the eukaryotes, sexual reproduction is an almost universal phenomenon. However, within the Kingdom Fungi, this relationship is not so clear-cut. Fungi exhibit a spectrum of reproductive modes and life-cycles; amongst the better known species, sexual reproduction is often facultative, can be rare, and in over half of the known Ascomycota (the moulds) is unknown (Taylor et al. 1999). However, over the last decade, it has become apparent that many of these asexual mitosporic taxa undergo cryptic recombination via unobserved mechanisms and that wholly asexual fungi are, in fact, a rarity (Taylor et al. 1999, 2001; Heitman 2010). This revolution in our understanding of fungal sexuality has come about in two ways: Firstly, sexual reproduction leaves an imprint on fungal genomes by maintaining genes required for mating and by generating patterns of mutation and recombination restricted to meiotic processes. Secondly, scientists have become better at catching fungi in flagrante delicto. The genus Aspergillus is one such fungus where a combination of population genetics, genomics and taxonomy has been able to intuit the existence of sex, then to catch the fungus in the act and formally describe their sexual stages. So, why are sexy moulds exciting? One species in particular, Aspergillus flavus, is notorious for its ability to produce a diverse array of secondary metabolites, of which the polyketide aflatoxins (AF) are carcinogenic and others (such as cyclopiazonic acid) are toxigenic. Because of the predilection of A. flavus to grow on crops, such as peanuts, corn and cotton, biocontrol is widely used to mitigate infection by pre-applying nonaflatoxigenic (AF-) strains to competitively exclude the wild-type AF+ strains. However, the eventual fate in nature of these biocontrol strains is not known. In this issue of Molecular Ecology, Olarte et al. (2012) make an important contribution by using laboratory crosses of A. flavus to show that not only is AF highly heritable, but AF- strains can become AF+ via crossing over during meiosis. This observation has raised the spectre of cross-breeding and non-mendelian inheritance of AF between native and biocontrol strains of the fungus, leading to an increase in the natural diversity of the fungus with perhaps unanticipated consequences. PMID:22393930

  1. Chromosome numbers and karyotype evolution in holoparasitic Orobanche (Orobanchaceae) and related genera

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schneeweiss, G.M.; Palomeque, T.; Colwell, A.E.; Weiss-Schneeweiss, H.

    2004-01-01

    Chromosome numbers and karyotypes of species of Orobanche, Cistanche, and Diphelypaea (Orobanchaceae) were investigated, and 108 chromosome counts of 53 taxa, 19 counted for the first time, are presented with a thorough compilation of previously published data. Additionally, karyotypes of representatives of these genera, including Orobanche sects. Orobanche and Trionychon, are reported. Cistanche (x = 20) has large meta- to submetacentric chromosomes, while those of Diphelypaea (x = 19) are medium-sized submeta-to acrocentrics. Within three analyzed sections of Orobanche, sects. Myzorrhiza (x = 24) and Trionychon (x = 12) possess medium-sized submeta- to acrocentrics, while sect. Orobanche (x = 19) has small, mostly meta- to submetacentric, chromosomes. Polyploidy is unevenly distributed in Orobanche and restricted to a few lineages, e.g., O. sect. Myzorrhiza or Orobanche gracilis and its relatives (sect. Orobanche). The distribution of basic chromosome numbers supports the groups found by molecular phylogenetic analyses: Cistanche has x = 20, the Orobanche-group (Orobanche sect. Orobanche, Diphelypaea) has x = 19, and the Phelipanche-group (Orobanche sects. Gymnocaulis, Myzorrhiza, Trionychon) has x = 12, 24. A model of chromosome number evolution in Orobanche and related genera is presented: from two ancestral base numbers, xh = 5 and xh = 6, independent polyploidizations led to x = 20 (Cistanche) and (after dysploidization) x = 19 (Orobanche-group) and to x = 12 and x = 24 (Phelipanche-group), respectively.

  2. Molecular phylogeny of the lionfish genera Dendrochirus and Pterois (Scorpaenidae, Pteroinae) based on mitochondrial DNA sequences.

    PubMed

    Kochzius, Marc; Söller, Rainer; Khalaf, Maroof A; Blohm, Dietmar

    2003-09-01

    This study investigates the molecular phylogeny of seven lionfishes of the genera Dendrochirus and Pterois. MP, ML, and NJ phylogenetic analysis based on 964 bp of partial mitochondrial DNA sequences (cytochrome b and 16S rDNA) revealed two main clades: (1) "Pterois" clade (Pterois miles and Pterois volitans), and (2) "Pteropterus-Dendrochirus" clade (remainder of the sampled species). The position of Dendrochirus brachypterus either basal to the main clades or in the "Pteropterus-Dendrochirus" clade cannot be resolved. However, the molecular phylogeny did not support the current separation of the genera Pterois and Dendrochirus. The siblings P. miles and P. volitans are clearly separated and our results support the proposed allopatric or parapatric distribution in the Indian and Pacific Ocean. However, the present analysis cannot reveal if P. miles and P. volitans are separate species or two populations of a single species, because the observed separation in different clades can be either explained by speciation or lineage sorting. Molecular clock estimates for the siblings P. miles and P. volitans suggest a divergence time of 2.4-8.3 mya, which coincide with geological events that created vicariance between populations of the Indian and Pacific Ocean. PMID:12927126

  3. Two new genera of Lumbriculidae (Annelida, Clitellata) from North Carolina, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fend, S.V.; Lenat, D.R.

    2007-01-01

    Recent benthic macroinvertebrate collections from North Carolina contained many undescribed oligochaete taxa, mostly belonging to the family Lumbriculidae. Three of the new species had arrangements of spermathecae and atria previously unreported for the family, and were assigned to new two genera. Pilaridrilus is distinguished by the location of spermathecal pores five segments behind the male pores. The single species, Pilaridrilus uliginosus, also has unusually complex penes and spermathecae. Martinidrilus is distinguished by spermathecae beginning more than two segments anterior to the atrial segment, and also by the the vasa deferentia, which join a common duct before joining the atria. The two Martinidrilus species also have unusual digitiform blood vessels in posterior segments. Martinidrilus carolinensis has lateral spermathecae in VI, and Martinidrilus arenosus has dorsolateral spermathecae in VII and VIII. Because arrangement and morphology of reproductive organs do not resemble those of described lumbriculids, the phylogenetic affinities of the new species are not clear. These new genera and species were generally collected from areas of high water quality, suggesting that lumbriculids can be useful in water quality monitoring and conservation evaluation. Copyright ?? 2007 Magnolia Press.

  4. Anomopterellidae Restored, with Two New Genera and Its Phylogeny in Evanioidea (Hymenoptera)

    PubMed Central

    Li, Longfeng; Rasnitsyn, Alexandr P.; Shih, Chungkun; Ren, Dong

    2013-01-01

    Background Anomopterellidae was originally classified as a family within the Evanioidea, and later lowered to a subfamily, Anomopterellinae, of Praeaulacidae. Up to date, only Rasnitsyn 1975, with four species, was assigned to Anomopterellinae. Due to their special wing venation and their metasomal attachment similar to those known in Evanioidea, the systematic position of Anomopterellinae in Evanioidea has been in contention. Principal Findings Here we report a new fossil genus Synaphopterella gen. nov. and six species from the Middle Jurassic of China and transfer Anomopterella stenocera Rasnitsyn, 1975, from Upper Jurassic of Kazakhstan, to Choristopterella gen. nov. We place these three genera in the restored family Anomopterellidae and provide a key to known genera and species. Conclusions/Significance Based on new fossil specimens and phylogenetic analyses, Praeaulacidae has the most basal position in Evanioidea and it is justifiable to restore Anomopterellidae Rasnitsyn, 1975 as a full family. Comparing the size of all described anomopterellids from China, Mongolia and Kazakhstan, we conclude that the species from China have larger bodies and forewings. Diversity of the Praeaulacidae and Anomopterellidae in the late Middle Jurassic of Daohugou suggests that Evanioidea appeared at least before the late Middle Jurassic. PMID:24340047

  5. Resolving the phylogenetic and taxonomic status of dark-spored teleomorph genera in the Botryosphaeriaceae.

    PubMed

    Phillips, A J L; Alves, A; Pennycook, S R; Johnston, P R; Ramaley, A; Akulov, A; Crous, P W

    2008-12-01

    Species in the Botryosphaeriaceae are common plant pathogens and saprobes found on a variety of mainly woody hosts. Teleomorphs typically have hyaline, aseptate ascospores. However, some have been reported with brown ascospores and their taxonomic status is uncertain. A multi-gene approach (SSU, ITS, LSU, EF1-alpha and beta-tubulin) was used to resolve the correct phylogenetic position of the dark-spored 'Botryosphaeria' teleomorphs and related asexual species. Neodeightonia and Phaeobotryon are reinstated for species with brown ascospores that are either 1-septate (Neodeightonia) or 2-septate (Phaeobotryon). Phaeobotryosphaeria is reinstated for species with brown, aseptate ascospores that bear an apiculus at either end. The status of Sphaeropsis is clarified and shown to be the anamorph of Phaeobotryosphaeria. Two new genera, namely Barriopsis for species having brown, aseptate ascospores without apiculi and Spencermartinsia for species having brown, 1-septate ascospores with an apiculus at either end are introduced. Species of Dothiorella have brown, 1-septate ascospores and differ from Spencermartinsia in the absence of apiculi. These six genera can also be distinguished from one another based on morphological characters of their anamorphs. Although previously placed in the Botryosphaeriaceae, Dothidotthia, was shown to belong in the Pleosporales, and the new family Dothidotthiaceae is introduced to accommodate it. PMID:20396576

  6. Identification of genetic defects in the atoxigenic biocontrol strain Aspergillus flavus K49 reveals the presence of a competitive recombinant group in field populations

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Contamination of corn, cotton, peanuts and tree nuts by aflatoxins is a severe economic burden for growers. A current biocontrol strategy is to use non-aflatoxigenic Aspergillus flavus strains to competitively exclude field toxigenic Aspergillus species. Aspergillus flavus K49 does not produce aflat...

  7. The biodiversity of Aspergillus section Flavi in brazil nuts: from rainforest to consumer.

    PubMed

    Calderari, Thaiane O; Iamanaka, Beatriz T; Frisvad, Jens C; Pitt, John I; Sartori, Daniele; Pereira, Jose Luiz; Fungaro, Maria Helena P; Taniwaki, Marta H

    2013-01-01

    A total of 288 brazil nut samples (173 kernel and 115 shell) from the Amazon rainforest region and Săo Paulo State, Brazil were collected at different stages of brazil nut production. Samples were analysed for: percentages of aflatoxigenic fungal species and potential for aflatoxin production and presence of aflatoxins. Aspergillus nomius was the most common species found (1235 isolates) which amounted to 30% of the total species with potential to produce aflatoxins. This species is of concern since 100% of all isolates produced aflatoxins B(1), B(2), G(1) and G(2). Aspergillus flavus was almost equally common (1212 isolates) although only 46% produced aflatoxins under laboratory conditions, and only aflatoxins B(1) and B(2). Low number of other species with the potential to produce aflatoxins was isolated: Aspergillus arachidicola and Aspergillus bombycis produced B and G aflatoxins whilst Aspergillus pseudotamarii produced only aflatoxin B(1). The total aflatoxin levels found in samples taken from the rainforests was 0.7 ?g/kg, from processing plants before and after sorting 8.0 and 0.1 ?g/kg respectively, from street markets in the Amazon region 6.3 ?g/kg and from supermarkets in Săo Paulo State 0.2 ?g/kg. Processing, which included manual or mechanical sorting and drying at 60°C for 30 to 36 h, eliminated on average more than 98% of total aflatoxins. These results showed that sorting is a very effective way to decrease aflatoxin content in brazil nuts. PMID:23290234

  8. Internal Carotid Artery Blister-Like Aneurysm Caused by Aspergillus – Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Ogawa, Masaki; Sakurai, Keita; Kawaguchi, Takatsune; Naiki-Ito, Aya; Nakagawa, Motoo; Okita, Kenji; Matsukawa, Noriyuki; Shibamoto, Yuta

    2015-01-01

    Summary Background Blister-like aneurysm of the supraclinoid internal carotid artery (ICA) is a well-documented cause of subarachnoid hemorrhage. Generally, this type of aneurysm is associated with various conditions such as hypertension, arteriosclerosis, and ICA dissection. Although Aspergillus is the most common organism causing intracranial fungal aneurysmal formation, there is no report of a blister-like aneurysm caused by Aspergillus infection. Case Report An 83-year-old man received corticosteroid pulse therapy followed by oral steroid therapy for an inflammatory pseudotumor of the clivus. Two months later, the patient was transported to an emergency department due to the diffuse subarachnoid hemorrhage, classified as Fisher group 4. Subsequent 3D computed tomography angiogram revealed a blister-like aneurysm at the superior wall of the left ICA. Six days later, the patient died of subarachnoid hemorrhage caused by the left ICA aneurysm rerupture. Autopsy revealed proliferation of Aspergillus hyphae in the wall of the aneurysm. Notably, that change was present more densely in the inner membrane than in the outer one. Thus, it was considered that Aspergillus hyphae caused infectious aneurysm formation in the left ICA via hematogenous seeding rather than direct invasion. Conclusions The blister-like aneurysm is a rare but important cause of subarachnoid hemorrhage. This case report documents another cause of blister-like aneurysms, that is an infectious aneurysm associated with Aspergillus infection. PMID:25848441

  9. Accuracy of the high-throughput amplicon sequencing to identify species within the genus Aspergillus.

    PubMed

    Lee, Seungeun; Yamamoto, Naomichi

    2015-12-01

    This study characterized the accuracy of high-throughput amplicon sequencing to identify species within the genus Aspergillus. To this end, we sequenced the internal transcribed spacer 1 (ITS1), ?-tubulin (BenA), and calmodulin (CaM) gene encoding sequences as DNA markers from eight reference Aspergillus strains with known identities using 300-bp sequencing on the Illumina MiSeq platform, and compared them with the BLASTn outputs. The identifications with the sequences longer than 250 bp were accurate at the section rank, with some ambiguities observed at the species rank due to mostly cross detection of sibling species. Additionally, in silico analysis was performed to predict the identification accuracy for all species in the genus Aspergillus, where 107, 210, and 187 species were predicted to be identifiable down to the species rank based on ITS1, BenA, and CaM, respectively. Finally, air filter samples were analysed to quantify the relative abundances of Aspergillus species in outdoor air. The results were reproducible across biological duplicates both at the species and section ranks, but not strongly correlated between ITS1 and BenA, suggesting the Aspergillus detection can be taxonomically biased depending on the selection of the DNA markers and/or primers. PMID:26615752

  10. [Cultivation conditions of the Aspergillus terricola mutant producing proteolytic enzyme].

    PubMed

    Aravina, L A; Ponomareva, V D; Tereshin, I M; Kasatkina, I D; Grekova, V K

    1976-01-01

    The effect of temperature, aeration and various foam suppressors on the growth of a mutant of Aspergillus terricola H-20 and on its production of proteolytic enzymes was studied. A high level of the proteolytic activity (12-15 PU/ml) was found at 28-30 degree C in conditions of aeration with the rate of oxygen dissolution being 0.38-0.86 g of oxygen per litre per hour. Synthesis of the enzyme was inhibited by a decrease in temperature to 22-24 degree C, a surplass (1.07 g O2 per litre per hour) or insufficient (0.18 g O2 per litre per hour) content of oxygen in the medium, and by addition of animal (sperm-whale) fat as a froth breaker to the medium. The best rate of protease biosynthesis was obtained upon stepwise addition of sunflower oil to the cultural broth. The best synthetic froth breakers for biosynthesis of the proteolytic enzyme are adecanol at a concentration of 0.1-1% and polymethylsiloxane PMS-A 154 as a water emulsion at a concentration of 0.5% of the medium volume. PMID:12453

  11. Mapping the polysaccharide degradation potential of Aspergillus niger

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The degradation of plant materials by enzymes is an industry of increasing importance. For sustainable production of second generation biofuels and other products of industrial biotechnology, efficient degradation of non-edible plant polysaccharides such as hemicellulose is required. For each type of hemicellulose, a complex mixture of enzymes is required for complete conversion to fermentable monosaccharides. In plant-biomass degrading fungi, these enzymes are regulated and released by complex regulatory structures. In this study, we present a methodology for evaluating the potential of a given fungus for polysaccharide degradation. Results Through the compilation of information from 203 articles, we have systematized knowledge on the structure and degradation of 16 major types of plant polysaccharides to form a graphical overview. As a case example, we have combined this with a list of 188 genes coding for carbohydrate-active enzymes from Aspergillus niger, thus forming an analysis framework, which can be queried. Combination of this information network with gene expression analysis on mono- and polysaccharide substrates has allowed elucidation of concerted gene expression from this organism. One such example is the identification of a full set of extracellular polysaccharide-acting genes for the degradation of oat spelt xylan. Conclusions The mapping of plant polysaccharide structures along with the corresponding enzymatic activities is a powerful framework for expression analysis of carbohydrate-active enzymes. Applying this network-based approach, we provide the first genome-scale characterization of all genes coding for carbohydrate-active enzymes identified in A. niger. PMID:22799883

  12. Some factors affecting tannase production by Aspergillus niger Van Tieghem

    PubMed Central

    Aboubakr, Hamada A.; El-Sahn, Malak A.; El-Banna, Amr A.

    2013-01-01

    One variable at a time procedure was used to evaluate the effect of qualitative variables on the production of tannase from Aspergillus niger Van Tieghem. These variables including: fermentation technique, agitation condition, tannins source, adding carbohydrates incorporation with tannic acid, nitrogen source type and divalent cations. Submerged fermentation under intermittent shaking gave the highest total tannase activity. Maximum extracellular tannase activity (305 units/50 mL) was attained in medium containing tannic acid as tannins source and sodium nitrate as nitrogen source at 30 °C for 96 h. All added carbohydrates showed significant adverse effects on the production of tannase. All tested divalent cations significantly decreased tannase production. Moreover, split plot design was carried out to study the effect of fermentation temperature and fermentation time on tannase production. The results indicated maximum tannase production (312.7 units/50 mL) at 35 °C for 96 h. In other words, increasing fermentation temperature from 30 °C to 35 °C resulted in increasing tannase production. PMID:24294255

  13. Bioleaching of spent fluid catalytic cracking catalyst using Aspergillus niger.

    PubMed

    Aung, Khin Moh Moh; Ting, Yen-Peng

    2005-03-16

    The use of the fungus Aspergillus niger for the bioleaching of heavy metals from spent catalyst was investigated, with fluid catalytic cracking (FCC) catalyst as a model. Bioleaching was examined in batch cultures with the spent catalysts at various pulp densities (1-12%). Chemical leaching was also performed using mineral acids (sulphuric and nitric acids) and organic acids (citric, oxalic and gluconic acids), as well as a mixture of organic acids at the same concentrations as that biogenically produced. It was shown that bioleaching realised higher metal extraction than chemical leaching, with A. niger mobilizing Ni (9%), Fe (23%), Al (30%), V (36%) and Sb (64%) at 1% pulp density. Extraction efficiency generally decreased with increased pulp density. Compared with abiotic controls, bioleaching gave rise to higher metal extractions than leaching using fresh medium and cell-free spent medium. pH decreased during bioleaching, but remained relatively constant in both leaching using fresh medium and cell-free spent medium, thus indicating that the fungus played a role in effecting metal extraction from the spent catalyst. PMID:15664080

  14. Rapid genome resequencing of an atoxigenic strain of Aspergillus carbonarius

    PubMed Central

    Cabańes, F. Javier; Sanseverino, Walter; Castellá, Gemma; Bragulat, M. Rosa; Cigliano, Riccardo Aiese; Sánchez, Armand

    2015-01-01

    In microorganisms, Ion Torrent sequencing technology has been proved to be useful in whole-genome sequencing of bacterial genomes (5?Mbp). In our study, for the first time we used this technology to perform a resequencing approach in a whole fungal genome (36?Mbp), a non-ochratoxin A producing strain of Aspergillus carbonarius. Ochratoxin A (OTA) is a potent nephrotoxin which is found mainly in cereals and their products, but it also occurs in a variety of common foods and beverages. Due to the fact that this strain does not produce OTA, we focused some of the bioinformatics analyses in genes involved in OTA biosynthesis, using a reference genome of an OTA producing strain of the same species. This study revealed that in the atoxigenic strain there is a high accumulation of nonsense and missense mutations in several genes. Importantly, a two fold increase in gene mutation ratio was observed in PKS and NRPS encoding genes which are suggested to be involved in OTA biosynthesis. PMID:25765923

  15. Modulation of antimicrobial metabolites production by the fungus Aspergillus parasiticus

    PubMed Central

    Bracarense, Adriana A.P.; Takahashi, Jacqueline A.

    2014-01-01

    Biosynthesis of active secondary metabolites by fungi occurs as a specific response to the different growing environments. Changes in this environment alter the chemical and biological profiles leading to metabolites diversification and consequently to novel pharmacological applications. In this work, it was studied the influence of three parameters (fermentation length, medium composition and aeration) in the biosyntheses of antimicrobial metabolites by the fungus Aspergillus parasiticus in 10 distinct fermentation periods. Metabolism modulation in two culturing media, CYA and YES was evaluated by a 22 full factorial planning (ANOVA) and on a 23 factorial planning, role of aeration, medium composition and carbohydrate concentration were also evaluated. In overall, 120 different extracts were prepared, their HPLC profiles were obtained and the antimicrobial activity against A. flavus, C. albicans, E. coli and S. aureus of all extracts was evaluated by microdilution bioassay. Yield of kojic acid, a fine chemical produced by the fungus A. parasiticus was determined in all extracts. Statistical analyses pointed thirteen conditions able to modulate the production of bioactive metabolites by A. parasiticus. Effect of carbon source in metabolites diversification was significant as shown by the changes in the HPLC profiles of the extracts. Most of the extracts presented inhibition rates higher than that of kojic acid as for the extract obtained after 6 days of fermentation in YES medium under stirring. Kojic acid was not the only metabolite responsible for the activity since some highly active extracts showed to possess low amounts of this compound, as determined by HPLC. PMID:24948950

  16. Lipase production by Aspergillus ibericus using olive mill wastewater.

    PubMed

    Abrunhosa, Luís; Oliveira, Felisbela; Dantas, Danielle; Gonçalves, Cristiana; Belo, Isabel

    2013-03-01

    Olive mill wastewater (OMW) characteristics make it a suitable resource to be used as a microbial culture media to produce value-added compounds, such as enzymes. In this work, the ability of the novel species Aspergillus ibericus to discolor OMW and produce lipase was studied. An initial screening on plates containing an OMW-based agar medium and an emulsified olive oil/rhodamine-B agar medium was employed to select the strain A. ibericus MUM 03.49. Then, experiments in conical flasks with liquid OMW-based media showed that the fungus could growth on undiluted OMW, with a chemical oxygen demand (COD) of 97 ± 2 g/L, and to produce up to 2,927 ± 54 U/L of lipase. When pure OMW was used in the media, the maximum COD and color reduction achieved were 45 and 97 %, respectively. When OMW diluted to 10 % was used, A. ibericus was able to reduce phenolic and aromatic compounds by 37 and 39 %, respectively. Additionally, lipase production was found to be promoted by the addition of mineral nutrients. When the fermentations were scaled up to a 2-L bioreactor, A. ibericus produced up to 8,319 ± 33 U/L of lipase, and the maximum COD and color reduction were 57 and 24 %, respectively. PMID:22791217

  17. Mutagenic and tumourigenic properties of the spores of Aspergillus clavatus.

    PubMed Central

    Blyth, W.; Hardy, J. C.

    1982-01-01

    Spore walls of a sputum-derived isolate of Aspergillus clavatus yielded mutagen(s) when their extracts were fractionally precipitated with ethanol following alkaline hydrolysis. After spores were given by nasal inoculation to 6-8-week-old CF-1 mice, light and electron microscopy of lung sections showed that they had been readily phagocytozed by the polymorphonuclear leucocytes and alveolar macrophages mobilized during early allergic alveolitis in immunized mice. The formation of phagosomes was followed in thioglycollate-stimulated peritoneal macrophages grown in vitro. Unimmunised mice showed a comparable lung reaction, attributed to pulmonary mycotoxicosis, and revealed a rising incidence of lung tumours, from 25% at 2 months from inoculation, to 27.3% at 6 and to 55.5% at 8. Mean numbers of tumours per lung rose from 1.0 to 2.2. Total tumours, including lymphomas, reached a final incidence of 77.7% at 8 months, when control animals were tumour-free. Tumour development correlated with the retention of apparently intact spores within giant cells probably derived from aggregates of alveolar macrophages. The implications of these findings in the light of the known history of human exposure to such spores is discussed. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Figs 6 and 7 Fig. 8 Fig. 9 Fig. 10 PMID:7059453

  18. Azole Drug Import into the Pathogenic Fungus Aspergillus fumigatus

    PubMed Central

    Esquivel, Brooke D.; Smith, Adam R.; Zavrel, Martin

    2015-01-01

    The fungal pathogen Aspergillus fumigatus causes serious illness and often death when it invades tissues, especially in immunocompromised individuals. The azole class of drugs is the most commonly prescribed treatment for many fungal infections and acts on the ergosterol biosynthesis pathway. One common mechanism of acquired azole drug resistance in fungi is the prevention of drug accumulation to toxic levels in the cell. While drug efflux is a well-known resistance strategy, reduced azole import would be another strategy to maintain low intracellular azole levels. Recently, azole uptake in Candida albicans and other yeasts was analyzed using [3H]fluconazole. Defective drug import was suggested to be a potential mechanism of drug resistance in several pathogenic fungi, including Cryptococcus neoformans, Candida krusei, and Saccharomyces cerevisiae. We have adapted and developed an assay to measure azole accumulation in A. fumigatus using radioactively labeled azole drugs, based on previous work done with C. albicans. We used this assay to study the differences in azole uptake in A. fumigatus isolates under a variety of drug treatment conditions, with different morphologies and with a select mutant strain with deficiencies in the sterol uptake and biosynthesis pathway. We conclude that azole drugs are specifically selected and imported into the fungal cell by a pH- and ATP-independent facilitated diffusion mechanism, not by passive diffusion. This method of drug transport is likely to be conserved across most fungal species. PMID:25824209

  19. Rapid genome resequencing of an atoxigenic strain of Aspergillus carbonarius

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Cabańes, F. Javier; Sanseverino, Walter; Castellá, Gemma; Bragulat, M. Rosa; Cigliano, Riccardo Aiese; Sánchez, Armand

    2015-03-13

    In microorganisms, Ion Torrent sequencing technology has been proved to be useful in whole-genome sequencing of bacterial genomes (5 Mbp). In our study, for the first time we used this technology to perform a resequencing approach in a whole fungal genome (36 Mbp), a non-ochratoxin A producing strain of Aspergillus carbonarius. Ochratoxin A (OTA) is a potent nephrotoxin which is found mainly in cereals and their products, but it also occurs in a variety of common foods and beverages. Due to the fact that this strain does not produce OTA, we focused some of the bioinformatics analyses in genes involvedmore »in OTA biosynthesis, using a reference genome of an OTA producing strain of the same species. This study revealed that in the atoxigenic strain there is a high accumulation of nonsense and missense mutations in several genes. Importantly, a two fold increase in gene mutation ratio was observed in PKS and NRPS encoding genes which are suggested to be involved in OTA biosynthesis.« less

  20. Azole resistance in canine and feline isolates of Aspergillus fumigatus.

    PubMed

    Talbot, Jessica J; Kidd, Sarah E; Martin, Patricia; Beatty, Julia A; Barrs, Vanessa R

    2015-10-01

    Azole resistance is an emerging cause of treatment failure in humans with aspergillosis. The aim of this study was to determine if azole resistance is emerging in Aspergillus fumigatus isolates from canine and feline sino-nasal aspergillosis cases. Susceptibilities of isolates collected between 1988 and 2014 from 46 dogs and 4 cats to itraconazole, posaconazole, voriconazole, fluconazole and ketoconazole were assessed using Sensititre YeastOne microdilution trays; and to enilconazole and clotrimazole, following the CLSI M38-A2 standard. For the majority of isolates MICs were high for ketoconazole, low for enilconazole and clotrimazole, and less than established epidemiological cut-off values for itraconazole, posaconazole and voriconazole. One canine isolate from 1992 had multiazole resistance and on Cyp51A gene sequencing a mutation associated with azole resistance (F46Y) was detected. There is no evidence of emerging azole resistance among A. fumigatus isolates from dogs and cats and topical azole therapy should be effective against most isolates. PMID:26387063

  1. Aspergillus parasiticus Cyclase Catalyzes Two Dehydration Steps in Aflatoxin Biosynthesis

    PubMed Central

    Sakuno, Emi; Wen, Ying; Hatabayashi, Hidemi; Arai, Hatsue; Aoki, Chiemi; Yabe, Kimiko; Nakajima, Hiromitsu

    2005-01-01

    In the aflatoxin biosynthetic pathway, 5?-oxoaverantin (OAVN) cyclase, the cytosolic enzyme, catalyzes the reaction from OAVN to (2?S,5?S)-averufin (AVR) (E. Sakuno, K. Yabe, and H. Nakajima, Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 69:6418-6426, 2003). Interestingly, the N-terminal 25-amino-acid sequence of OAVN cyclase completely matched an internal sequence of the versiconal (VHOH) cyclase that was deduced from its gene (vbs). The purified OAVN cyclase also catalyzed the reaction from VHOH to versicolorin B (VB). In a competition experiment using the cytosol fraction of Aspergillus parasiticus, a high concentration of VHOH inhibited the enzyme reaction from OAVN to AVR, and instead VB was newly formed. The recombinant Vbs protein, which was expressed in Pichia pastoris, showed OAVN cyclase activity, as well as VHOH cyclase activity. A mutant of A. parasiticus SYS-4 (= NRRL 2999) with vbs deleted accumulated large amounts of OAVN, 5?-hydroxyaverantin, averantin, AVR, and averufanin in the mycelium. These results indicated that the cyclase encoded by the vbs gene is also involved in the reaction from OAVN to AVR in aflatoxin biosynthesis. Small amounts of VHOH, VB, and aflatoxins also accumulated in the same mutant, and this accumulation may have been due to an unknown enzyme(s) not involved in aflatoxin biosynthesis. This is the first report of one enzyme catalyzing two different reactions in a pathway of secondary metabolism. PMID:15932995

  2. Chemical modification of Aspergillus niger ?-glucosidase and its catalytic properties

    PubMed Central

    Ahmed, Samia A.; El-Shayeb, Nefisa M.A.; Hashem, Abdel-Gawad M.; Saleh, Shireen A.A.; Abdel-Fattah, Ahmed F.

    2015-01-01

    Aspergillus niger ?-glucosidase was modified by covalent coupling to periodate activated polysaccharides (glycosylation). The conjugated enzyme to activated starch showed the highest specific activity (128.5 U/mg protein). Compared to the native enzyme, the conjugated form exhibited: a higher optimal reaction temperature, a lower Ea (activation energy), a higher K m (Michaelis constant) and Vmax (maximal reaction rate), and improved thermal stability. The calculated t 1/2 (half-life) values of heat in-activation at 60 °C and 70 °C were 245.7 and 54.5 min respectively, whereas at these temperatures the native enzyme was less stable (t 1/2 of 200.0 and 49.5 min respectively). The conjugated enzyme retained 32.3 and 29.7%, respectively from its initial activity in presence of 5 mM Sodium Dodecyl Sulphate (SDS) and p -Chloro Mercuri Benzoate ( p -CMB), while the native enzyme showed a remarkable loss of activity (retained activity 1.61 and 13.7%, respectively). The present work has established the potential of glycosylation to enhance the catalytic properties of ?-glucosidase enzyme, making this enzyme potentially feasible for biotechnological applications. PMID:26221085

  3. Sexual reproduction in Aspergillus flavus sclerotia naturally produced in corn.

    PubMed

    Horn, Bruce W; Sorensen, Ronald B; Lamb, Marshall C; Sobolev, Victor S; Olarte, Rodrigo A; Worthington, Carolyn J; Carbone, Ignazio

    2014-01-01

    Aspergillus flavus is the major producer of carcinogenic aflatoxins worldwide in crops. Populations of A. flavus are characterized by high genetic variation and the source of this variation is likely sexual reproduction. The fungus is heterothallic and laboratory crosses produce ascospore-bearing ascocarps embedded within sclerotia. However, the capacity for sexual reproduction in sclerotia naturally formed in crops has not been examined. Corn was grown for 3 years under different levels of drought stress at Shellman, GA, and sclerotia were recovered from 146 ears (0.6% of ears). Sclerotia of A. flavus L strain were dominant in 2010 and 2011 and sclerotia of A. flavus S strain were dominant in 2012. The incidence of S strain sclerotia in corn ears increased with decreasing water availability. Ascocarps were not detected in sclerotia at harvest but incubation of sclerotia on the surface of nonsterile soil in the laboratory resulted in the formation of viable ascospores in A. flavus L and S strains and in homothallic A. alliaceus. Ascospores were produced by section Flavi species in 6.1% of the 6,022 sclerotia (18 of 84 ears) in 2010, 0.1% of the 2,846 sclerotia (3 of 36 ears) in 2011, and 0.5% of the 3,106 sclerotia (5 of 26 ears) in 2012. For sexual reproduction to occur under field conditions, sclerotia may require an additional incubation period on soil following dispersal at crop harvest. PMID:23883157

  4. Genetic control of asexual development in aspergillus fumigatus.

    PubMed

    Alkhayyat, Fahad; Chang Kim, Sun; Yu, Jae-Hyuk

    2015-01-01

    Aspergillus fumigatus is one of the most common fungi found in the environment. It is an opportunistic human pathogen causing invasive pulmonary aspergillosis with a high mortality rate in immunocompromised patients. Conidia, the asexual spores, serve as the main dispersal and infection agent allowing entrance of the fungus into the host through the respiratory tract. Therefore, understanding the asexual developmental process that gives rise to the conidia is of great interest to the scientific community and is currently the focus of an immense load of research being conducted. We have been studying the genetic basis that controls asexual development and gliotoxin biosynthesis in A. fumigatus. In this review, we discuss the genetic regulatory system that dictates conidiation in this important fungus by covering the roles of crucial genetic factors from the upstream heterotrimeric G-protein signaling components to the more specific downstream central activators of the conidiation pathway. In addition, other key asexual regulators including the velvet regulators, the Flb proteins and their associated regulatory factors are discussed. PMID:25596030

  5. Controlling Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus parasiticus growth and aflatoxin production in poultry feed using carvacrol and trans-cinnamaldehyde.

    PubMed

    Yin, Hsin-Bai; Chen, Chi-Hung; Kollanoor-Johny, Anup; Darre, Michael J; Venkitanarayanan, Kumar

    2015-09-01

    Aflatoxins (AF) are toxic metabolites primarily produced by molds, Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus parasiticus. Contamination of poultry feed with AF is a major concern to the poultry industry due to severe economic losses stemming from poor performance, reduced egg production, and diminished egg hatchability. This study investigated the inhibitory effect of 2 generally regarded as safe (GRAS), natural plant compounds, namely carvacrol (CR) and trans-cinnamaldehyde (TC), on?A. flavus and A. parasiticus growth and AF production in potato dextrose broth (PDB) and in poultry feed. In broth culture, PDB supplemented with CR (0%, 0.02%, 0.04% and 0.08%) or TC (0%, 0.005%, 0.01% and 0.02%) was inoculated with A. flavus or A. parasiticus (6 log CFU/mL), and mold counts and AF production were determined on days 0, 1, 3, and 5. Similarly, 200 g portions of poultry feed supplemented with CR or TC (0%, 0.4%, 0.8%, and 1.0%) were inoculated with each mold, and their counts and AF concentrations in the feed were determined at 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 8, and 12 weeks of storage. Moreover, the effect of CR and TC on the expression of AF synthesis genes in A. flavus and A. parasiticus (aflC, nor1, norA, and ver1) was determined using real-time quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR). All experiments had duplicate samples and were replicated 3 times. Results indicated that CR and TC reduced A. flavus and A. parasiticus growth and AF production in broth culture and chicken feed (P<0.05). All tested concentrations of CR and TC decreased AF production in broth culture and chicken feed by at least 60% when compared to controls (P<0.05). In addition, CR and TC down-regulated the expression of major genes associated with AF synthesis in the molds (P<0.05). Results suggest the potential use of CR and TC as feed additives to control AF contamination in poultry feed. PMID:26217023

  6. Distribution and Toxigenicity of Aspergillus Species Isolated from Maize Kernels from Three Agro-ecological Zones in Nigeria

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Maize samples were collected during a survey in three agro-ecological zones in Nigeria to determine the distribution and aflatoxin-producing potential of members of Aspergillus section Flavi. Among Aspergillus, A. flavus was the most predominant and L-strains constituted > 90% of the species identi...

  7. Field efficacy of a mixture of atoxigenic Aspergillus flavus Link: Fr vegetative compatibility groups in preventing aflatoxin contamination

    E-print Network

    Cotty, Peter J.

    Field efficacy of a mixture of atoxigenic Aspergillus flavus Link: Fr vegetative compatibility of Arizona, Tucson 85721, USA h i g h l i g h t s A mixture of 4 atoxigenic strains of Aspergillus flavus. Application of strain mixture in maize fields did not increase moldiness of grain. Preharvest application

  8. Expression profiling of non-aflatoxigenic Aspergillus parasiticus mutants obtained by 5-azacytosine treatment or serial mycelial transfer

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Aflatoxins are carcinogenic secondary metabolites produced by the fungi Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus parasiticus. Repeated serial mycelial transfer or treatment of A. parasiticus with 5-azacytidine produced mutants with a fluffy phenotype and loss of aflatoxin production. To understand how the...

  9. Clustered Genes Involved in Cyclopiazonic Acid Production are Next to the Aflatoxin Biosynthesis Gene Cluster in Aspergillus flavus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cyclopiazonic acid (CPA), an indole-tetramic acid toxin, is produced by many species of Aspergillus and Penicillium. In addition to CPA Aspergillus flavus produces polyketide-derived carcinogenic aflatoxins (AFs). AF biosynthesis genes form a gene cluster in a subtelomeric region. Isolates of A. fla...

  10. Aspergillus flavus biomass in maize estimated by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction is strongly correlated with aflatoxin concentration

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Aspergillus flavus causes Aspergillus ear rot of maize and produces aflatoxins. There are published assertions that resistance to aflatoxin accumulation and pathogen colonization are distinct traits in maize. However, the levels of colonization are difficult to characterize for a pathogen such as ...

  11. RNA sequencing of an nsdC mutant reveals global regulation of secondary metabolic gene clusters in Aspergillus flavus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The zinc finger transcription factor nsdC is required for both sexual development and aflatoxin production in the saprophytic fungus Aspergillus flavus. While previous work with an nsdC knockout mutant was conducted in Aspergillus nidulans and A. flavus strain 3357, here we demonstrate perturbations...

  12. Highlights of the Didymellaceae: A polyphasic approach to characterise Phoma and related pleosporalean genera

    PubMed Central

    Aveskamp, M.M.; de Gruyter, J.; Woudenberg, J.H.C.; Verkley, G.J.M.; Crous, P.W.

    2010-01-01

    Fungal taxonomists routinely encounter problems when dealing with asexual fungal species due to poly- and paraphyletic generic phylogenies, and unclear species boundaries. These problems are aptly illustrated in the genus Phoma. This phytopathologically significant fungal genus is currently subdivided into nine sections which are mainly based on a single or just a few morphological characters. However, this subdivision is ambiguous as several of the section-specific characters can occur within a single species. In addition, many teleomorph genera have been linked to Phoma, three of which are recognised here. In this study it is attempted to delineate generic boundaries, and to come to a generic circumscription which is more correct from an evolutionary point of view by means of multilocus sequence typing. Therefore, multiple analyses were conducted utilising sequences obtained from 28S nrDNA (Large Subunit - LSU), 18S nrDNA (Small Subunit - SSU), the Internal Transcribed Spacer regions 1 & 2 and 5.8S nrDNA (ITS), and part of the ?-tubulin (TUB) gene region. A total of 324 strains were included in the analyses of which most belonged to Phoma taxa, whilst 54 to related pleosporalean fungi. In total, 206 taxa were investigated, of which 159 are known to have affinities to Phoma. The phylogenetic analysis revealed that the current Boeremaean subdivision is incorrect from an evolutionary point of view, revealing the genus to be highly polyphyletic. Phoma species are retrieved in six distinct clades within the Pleosporales, and appear to reside in different families. The majority of the species, however, including the generic type, clustered in a recently established family, Didymellaceae. In the second part of this study, the phylogenetic variation of the species and varieties in this clade was further assessed. Next to the genus Didymella, which is considered to be the sole teleomorph of Phoma s. str., we also retrieved taxa belonging to the teleomorph genera Leptosphaerulina and Macroventuria in this clade. Based on the sequence data obtained, the Didymellaceae segregate into at least 18 distinct clusters, of which many can be associated with several specific taxonomic characters. Four of these clusters were defined well enough by means of phylogeny and morphology, so that the associated taxa could be transferred to separate genera. Aditionally, this study addresses the taxonomic description of eight species and two varieties that are novel to science, and the recombination of 61 additional taxa. PMID:20502538

  13. Misidentification of Aspergillus nomius and Aspergillus tamarii as Aspergillus flavus: Characterization by Internal Transcribed Spacer, ?-Tubulin, and Calmodulin Gene Sequencing, Metabolic Fingerprinting, and Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption Ionization–Time of Flight Mass Spectrometry

    PubMed Central

    Tam, Emily W. T.; Chen, Jonathan H. K.; Lau, Eunice C. L.; Ngan, Antonio H. Y.; Fung, Kitty S. C.; Lee, Kim-Chung; Lam, Ching-Wan; Yuen, Kwok-Yung

    2014-01-01

    Aspergillus nomius and Aspergillus tamarii are Aspergillus species that phenotypically resemble Aspergillus flavus. In the last decade, a number of case reports have identified A. nomius and A. tamarii as causes of human infections. In this study, using an internal transcribed spacer, ?-tubulin, and calmodulin gene sequencing, only 8 of 11 clinical isolates reported as A. flavus in our clinical microbiology laboratory by phenotypic methods were identified as A. flavus. The other three isolates were A. nomius (n = 2) or A. tamarii (n = 1). The results corresponded with those of metabolic fingerprinting, in which the A. flavus, A. nomius, and A. tamarii strains were separated into three clusters based on ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC MS) analysis. The first two patients with A. nomius infections had invasive aspergillosis and chronic cavitary and fibrosing pulmonary and pleural aspergillosis, respectively, whereas the third patient had A. tamarii colonization of the airway. Identification of the 11 clinical isolates and three reference strains by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization–time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) showed that only six of the nine strains of A. flavus were identified correctly. None of the strains of A. nomius and A. tamarii was correctly identified. ?-Tubulin or the calmodulin gene should be the gene target of choice for identifying A. flavus, A. nomius, and A. tamarii. To improve the usefulness of MALDI-TOF MS, the number of strains for each species in MALDI-TOF MS databases should be expanded to cover intraspecies variability. PMID:24452174

  14. Aspergillus Collagen-Like Genes (acl): Identification, Sequence Polymorphism, and Assessment for PCR-Based Pathogen Detection

    PubMed Central

    Tuntevski, Kiril; Durney, Brandon C.; Snyder, Anna K.; LaSala, P. Rocco; Nayak, Ajay P.; Green, Brett J.; Beezhold, Donald H.; Rio, Rita V. M.; Holland, Lisa A.

    2013-01-01

    The genus Aspergillus is a burden to public health due to its ubiquitous presence in the environment, its production of allergens, and wide demographic susceptibility among cystic fibrosis, asthmatic, and immunosuppressed patients. Current methods of detection of Aspergillus colonization and infection rely on lengthy morphological characterization or nonstandardized serological assays that are restricted to identifying a fungal etiology. Collagen-like genes have been shown to exhibit species-specific conservation across the noncollagenous regions as well as strain-specific polymorphism in the collagen-like regions. Here we assess the conserved region of the Aspergillus collagen-like (acl) genes and explore the application of PCR amplicon size-based discrimination among the five most common etiologic species of the Aspergillus genus, including Aspergillus fumigatus, A. flavus, A. nidulans, A. niger, and A. terreus. Genetic polymorphism and phylogenetic analysis of the aclF1 gene were additionally examined among the available strains. Furthermore, the applicability of the PCR-based assay to identification of these five species in cultures derived from sputum and bronchoalveolar fluid from 19 clinical samples was explored. Application of capillary electrophoresis on nanogels was additionally demonstrated to improve the discrimination between Aspergillus species. Overall, this study demonstrated that Aspergillus acl genes could be used as PCR targets to discriminate between clinically relevant Aspergillus species. Future studies aim to utilize the detection of Aspergillus acl genes in PCR and microfluidic applications to determine the sensitivity and specificity for the identification of Aspergillus colonization and invasive aspergillosis in immunocompromised subjects. PMID:24123732

  15. A review of the omicrine genera Omicrogiton, Mircogioton and Peratogonus of China (Coleoptera, Hydrophilidae, Sphaeridiinae)

    PubMed Central

    Jia, Fenglong; Lin, Renchao; Li, Bijun; Fiká?ek, Martin

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The Chinese species of the genera Omicrogiton Orchymont, 1919, Peratogonus Sharp, 1884 and Mircogioton Orchymont, 1937 are reviewed, diagnosed and keyed. Mircogioton and Omicrogiton are reported for the first time from China, Peratogonus for the first time for mainland China. Five species are recognized: Omicrogiton coomani Balfour-Browne, 1939 (Guangdong, Hongkong), Omicrogiton hainanensis sp. n. (Hainan), Omicrogiton roberti sp. n. (Hainan), Mircogioton coomani Orchymont, 1937 (Yunnan), and Peratogonus reversus Sharp, 1884 (Guangdong, Jiangxi, Taiwan). Lectotype of Omicrogiton coomani is designated. Mircogioton cognitus (Malcolm, 1981), syn. n. is considered a junior subjective synonym of Mircogioton coomani Orchymont, 1939. Species of Mircogioton and Omicrogiton inhabit decaying banana trunks, whereas Peratogonus reversus was always collected from moist forest leaf litter. PMID:26257554

  16. Comparative electrocardiography in four species of macaws (genera Anodorhynchus and Ara).

    PubMed

    Casares, M; Enders, F; Montoya, J A

    2000-06-01

    Electrocardiograms (ECGs) were recorded during isoflurane anaesthesia from 52 macaws of four species of the genera Anodorhynchus and Ara in order to establish electrocardiographic reference values. The birds examined were clinically healthy macaws of the following species: hyacinth macaw (HM; Anodorhynchus hyacinthinus, n = 14); green-winged macaw (GWM; Ara chloroptera, n = 11); blue-throated macaw (BTM; Ara glaucogularis, n = 15); and red-fronted macaw (RFM; Ara rubrogenys, n = 12). All ECGs were recorded using a paper speed of 50 mm/s and a calibration of 10 mm = 1 mV. Significant differences were determined between species for the heart rate, duration and amplitude of the P wave, amplitude of the T wave, and amplitude of the QRS complex, specially comparing the RFM to the other macaw species. No significant differences were found between two species of similar body weight: the HM and the GWM. PMID:10932524

  17. Chloroplast DNA evolution and systematics of Phanerophlebia (Dryopteridaceae) and related fern genera

    PubMed Central

    Yatskievych, George; Stein, Diana B.; Gastony, Gerald J.

    1988-01-01

    Restriction site variation in chloroplast DNA was examined in the neotropical fern genus Phanerophlebia and in selected species of the related Asiatic genus Cyrtomium and the cosmopolitan progenitor of these two, Polystichum. A total of 103 restriction site mutations was identified; these were used to construct phylogenetic networks and trees based on Wagner and Dollo parsimony and Fitch-Margoliash distance algorithms. The analyses provided evidence that Phanerophlebia did not arise from Cyrtomium. Both genera are convergent descendants from different progenitor groups in Polystichum, and Asiatic Cyrtomium is more closely related to temperate New World Polystichum than it is to neotropical Phanerophlebia. Reticulate venation, previously considered an important taxonomic character for infrageneric classification in Phanerophlebia, most likely evolved independently twice within the genus. Diploid maternal progenitors are suggested for two of four tetraploid species analyzed, and species-level distinctions for two closely related taxa of Phanerophlebia are questioned. PMID:16593923

  18. DNA relatedness among saturn-spored yeasts assigned to the genera Williopsis and Pichia.

    PubMed

    Kurtzman, C P

    1991-07-01

    Saturn-spored species assigned to the genera Williopsis and Pichia were compared from extent of nuclear DNA complementarity. Of the Pichia spp., four were recognized as distinct taxa: P. dispora, P. saitoi, P. zaruensis and Pichia sp. nov. Among Williopsis spp., the following were accepted: W. californica, W. mucosa comb. nov., W. pratensis, W. saturnus var. saturnus, W. saturnus var. mrakii comb. nov., W. saturnus var. sargentensis comb. nov., W. saturnus var. subsufficiens comb. nov. and Williopsis sp. nov. The new Pichia and Williopsis species are described elsewhere. Moderate (36-68%) DNA relatedness was detected between the former Pichia sargentensis and varieties of W. saturnus again demonstrating that nitrate assimilation is not a reliable criterion for separating yeast species. PMID:1796803

  19. Some American Jurassic ammonites of the genera Quenstedticeras, Cardioceras, and Amoeboceras, family Cardioceratida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Reeside, John B., Jr.

    1919-01-01

    The species cordiforme Meek and Hayden, distans Whitfield, canadense Whiteaves, and dubium Hyatt (probably including whitneyi J. P. Smith), variously assigned to the genera Amaltheus, Quenstediceras, Amoeboceras, and Cardioceras, and subtumidum Whitfield and Hovey, assigned to Aegoceras, include all the previously described species of Jurassic ammonites that are considered in this paper. Material accumulated in the National Museum at Washington, mainly through the efforts of field parties of the United States Geological Survey, has shown, however, the presence of a number of undescribed forms of considerable scientific interest. These new species were obtained mainly from the Sundance formation of Wyoming. One comes from the Ellis formation of Montana, one from Jurassic beds near Lillooet, British Columbia, and three from the Cardioceras-bearing beds near the base of the Naknek formation of Alaska.

  20. Molecular Phylogeny of the Myxobolus and Henneguya Genera with Several New South American Species

    PubMed Central

    Carriero, Mateus Maldonado; Adriano, Edson A.; Silva, Márcia R. M.; Ceccarelli, Paulo S.; Maia, Antonio A. M.

    2013-01-01

    The present study consists of a detailed phylogenetic analysis of myxosporeans of the Myxobolus and Henneguya genera, including sequences from 12 Myxobolus/Henneguya species, parasites of South American pimelodids, bryconids and characids. Maximum likelihood and maximum parsimony analyses, based on 18 S rDNA gene sequences, showed that the strongest evolutionary signal is the phylogenetic affinity of the fish hosts, with clustering mainly occurring according to the order and/or family of the host. Of the 12 South American species studied here, six are newly described infecting fish from the Brazilian Pantanal wetland. Henneguya maculosus n. sp. and Myxobolus flavus n. sp. were found infecting both Pseudoplatystoma corruscans and Pseudoplatystoma reticulatum; Myxobolus aureus n. sp. and Myxobolus pantanalis n. sp. were observed parasitizing Salminus brasiliensis and Myxobolus umidus n. sp. and Myxobolus piraputangae n. sp. were detected infecting Brycon hilarii. PMID:24040037

  1. New genera, species and records of Phaneropterinae (Orthoptera, Phaneropteridae) from sub-Saharan Africa

    PubMed Central

    Massa, Bruno

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The results of the study of many specimens preserved in different European museums are reported. The tribe Terpnistrini Brunner von Wattenwyl, 1878 is resurrected. The distribution of the following species is enhanced: Pardalota asymmetrica Karsch, 1896, Diogena denticulata Chopard, 1954, Diogena fausta (Burmeister, 1838), Plangiopsis adeps Karsch, 1896, Poreuomena sanghensis Massa, 2013 and Tylopsis continua (Walker, 1869). Further, for their peculiar characteristics, two African representatives of the American genus Symmetropleura Brunner von Wattenwyl, 1878 are included in two new genera: Symmetrokarschia africana (Brunner von Wattenwyl, 1878), comb. n. and Symmetroraggea dirempta (Karsch, 1889), comb. n. A new genus and species from the Democratic Republic of Congo, Angustithorax spiniger gen. n., sp. n., and a new genus and species from Tanzania, Arostratum oblitum gen. n., sp. n. are described. Finally Melidia claudiae sp. n. and Atlasacris brevipennis sp. n. are described and compared with related species. PMID:25632250

  2. Expanding the biotechnology potential of lactobacilli through comparative genomics of 213 strains and associated genera

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Zhihong; Harris, Hugh M. B.; McCann, Angela; Guo, Chenyi; Argimón, Silvia; Zhang, Wenyi; Yang, Xianwei; Jeffery, Ian B; Cooney, Jakki C.; Kagawa, Todd F.; Liu, Wenjun; Song, Yuqin; Salvetti, Elisa; Wrobel, Agnieszka; Rasinkangas, Pia; Parkhill, Julian; Rea, Mary C.; O'Sullivan, Orla; Ritari, Jarmo; Douillard, François P.; Paul Ross, R.; Yang, Ruifu; Briner, Alexandra E.; Felis, Giovanna E.; de Vos, Willem M.; Barrangou, Rodolphe; Klaenhammer, Todd R.; Caufield, Page W.; Cui, Yujun; Zhang, Heping; O'Toole, Paul W.

    2015-01-01

    Lactobacilli are a diverse group of species that occupy diverse nutrient-rich niches associated with humans, animals, plants and food. They are used widely in biotechnology and food preservation, and are being explored as therapeutics. Exploiting lactobacilli has been complicated by metabolic diversity, unclear species identity and uncertain relationships between them and other commercially important lactic acid bacteria. The capacity for biotransformations catalysed by lactobacilli is an untapped biotechnology resource. Here we report the genome sequences of 213 Lactobacillus strains and associated genera, and their encoded genetic catalogue for modifying carbohydrates and proteins. In addition, we describe broad and diverse presence of novel CRISPR-Cas immune systems in lactobacilli that may be exploited for genome editing. We rationalize the phylogenomic distribution of host interaction factors and bacteriocins that affect their natural and industrial environments, and mechanisms to withstand stress during technological processes. We present a robust phylogenomic framework of existing species and for classifying new species. PMID:26415554

  3. Expanding the biotechnology potential of lactobacilli through comparative genomics of 213 strains and associated genera.

    PubMed

    Sun, Zhihong; Harris, Hugh M B; McCann, Angela; Guo, Chenyi; Argimón, Silvia; Zhang, Wenyi; Yang, Xianwei; Jeffery, Ian B; Cooney, Jakki C; Kagawa, Todd F; Liu, Wenjun; Song, Yuqin; Salvetti, Elisa; Wrobel, Agnieszka; Rasinkangas, Pia; Parkhill, Julian; Rea, Mary C; O'Sullivan, Orla; Ritari, Jarmo; Douillard, François P; Paul Ross, R; Yang, Ruifu; Briner, Alexandra E; Felis, Giovanna E; de Vos, Willem M; Barrangou, Rodolphe; Klaenhammer, Todd R; Caufield, Page W; Cui, Yujun; Zhang, Heping; O'Toole, Paul W

    2015-01-01

    Lactobacilli are a diverse group of species that occupy diverse nutrient-rich niches associated with humans, animals, plants and food. They are used widely in biotechnology and food preservation, and are being explored as therapeutics. Exploiting lactobacilli has been complicated by metabolic diversity, unclear species identity and uncertain relationships between them and other commercially important lactic acid bacteria. The capacity for biotransformations catalysed by lactobacilli is an untapped biotechnology resource. Here we report the genome sequences of 213 Lactobacillus strains and associated genera, and their encoded genetic catalogue for modifying carbohydrates and proteins. In addition, we describe broad and diverse presence of novel CRISPR-Cas immune systems in lactobacilli that may be exploited for genome editing. We rationalize the phylogenomic distribution of host interaction factors and bacteriocins that affect their natural and industrial environments, and mechanisms to withstand stress during technological processes. We present a robust phylogenomic framework of existing species and for classifying new species. PMID:26415554

  4. Taxonomic synopsis of the subtribe Physoderina (Coleoptera, Carabidae, Lebiini), with species revisions of eight genera

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Hongliang; Zhou, Hongzhang; Liang, Hongbin

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Ten genera of Physoderina from the Oriental Region are diagnosed and described, and twenty six species representing eight genera (Paraphaea Bates, Anchista Nietner, Metallanchista gen. n., Diamella nom. n., Allocota Motschulsky, Orionella Jedli?ka, Endynomena Chaudoir and Dasiosoma Britton (Oriental species only)) are revised. Keys to genera and species are provided, along with distribution maps, habitus images, photographs of the name-bearing types, and illustrations of male and female genitalia of available species. The female internal reproductive system is illustrated for fourteen species. Two genera, Anchista and Taicona, previously placed in Calleidina, are moved into Physoderina. One new genus is described: Metallanchista, gen. n. (type species Metallanchista laticollis, sp. n.). Two new generic synonyms are proposed: Taicona Bates, 1873, junior synonym of Allocota Motschulsky, 1859; Teradaia Habu, 1979a, junior synonym of Dasiosoma Britton, 1937. A new generic replacement name is proposed: Diamella, nom. n. for Diamella Jedli?ka, 1952 (junior homonym of Diamella Gude, 1913). The status of Paraphaea Bates, 1873 is resurrected from synonym of Anchista Nietner, 1856. Five new species are described: Paraphaea minor Shi & Liang, sp. n. (Hoa-Binh, Tonkin, Vietnam), Anchista pilosa Shi & Liang, sp. n. (Chikkangalur, Bangalore, India), Metallanchista laticollis Shi & Liang, sp. n. (PhaTo env., Chumphon prov., Thailand), Allocota bicolor Shi & Liang, sp. n. (Dengga to Mafengshan, Ruili, Yunnan, China), Dasiosoma quadraticolle Shi & Liang, sp. n. (Menglun Botanical Garden, Yunnan, China). Fourteen new combinations are proposed: Paraphaea binotata (Dejean, 1825), comb. n. from Anchista; Paraphaea formosana (Jedli?ka, 1946), comb. n. from Anchista; Paraphaea philippinensis (Jedli?ka, 1935b), comb. n. from Allocota; Metallanchista perlaeta (Kirschenhofer, 1994), comb. n. from Allocota; Physodera andrewesi (Jedli?ka, 1934), comb. n. from Allocota; Diamella cupreomicans (Oberthür, 1883), comb. n. from Physodera; Diamella arrowi (Jedli?ka, 1935a), comb. n. from Allocota; Allocota aurata (Bates, 1873), comb. n. from Taicona; Dasiosoma bellum (Habu, 1979a), comb. n. from Teradaia; Dasiosoma indicum (Kirschenhofer, 2011), comb. n. from Diamella; Dasiosoma maindroni (Tian & Deuve, 2001), comb. n. from Lachnoderma; Dasiosoma hirsutum (Bates, 1873), comb. n. from Lachnoderma; Orionella discoidalis (Bates, 1892), comb. n. from Anchista; Orionella kathmanduensis (Kirschenhofer, 1994), comb. n. from Lachnoderma. Five names are newly placed as junior synonyms: Paraphaea eurydera (Chaudoir, 1877), junior synonym of Paraphaea binotata (Dejean, 1825); Anchista glabra Chaudoir, 1877, and Anchista nepalensis Kirschenhofer, 1994, junior synonyms of Anchista fenestrata (Schmidt-Göbel, 1846); Allocota caerulea Andrewes, 1933, junior synonym of Allocota viridipennis Motschulsky, 1859; Allocota perroti (Jedli?ka, 1963), junior synonym of Allocota aurata (Bates, 1873). One new replacement name is proposed: Dasiosoma basilewskyi, nom. n. for Dasiosoma hirsutum Basilewsky, 1949 (secondary junior homonym of Dasiosoma hirsutum (Bates, 1892)). One species is downgraded to subspecies rank: Anchista fenestrata subpubescens Chaudoir, 1877, new rank. PMID:23794843

  5. The Multitentaculate Cirratulidae of the Genera Cirriformia and Timarete (Annelida: Polychaeta) from Shallow Waters of Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Magalhăes, Wagner F.; Seixas, Victor Corręa; Paiva, Paulo Cesar; Elias, Rodolfo

    2014-01-01

    A large number multitentaculate cirratulids have been described worldwide but most are only known through the original descriptions. Type material, voucher and recently collected specimens from Brazil were revisited in order to reveal their true identity and confirm the records of widely distributed species in this region. Six species are described, three of which are new, Cirriformia capixabensis sp. nov., Cirriformia chicoi sp. nov. and Timarete ceciliae sp. nov. COI and 16S sequences were obtained and used for inter-specific comparisons. Timarete caribous is reported from several localities along the Brazilian coast and a new synonym, Cirratulus melanacanthus, is proposed. The species Timarete oculata, originally described from Brazil and lumped into the Timarete filigera species complex, is herein revalidated and redescribed. The occurrence of the species Timarete filigera and Cirriformia tentaculata is not confirmed from the Brazilian coast. Descriptions, illustrations and a key to genera and species are provided. PMID:25393759

  6. Drought meets acid: three new genera in a dothidealean clade of extremotolerant fungi

    PubMed Central

    Selbmann, L.; de Hoog, G.S.; Zucconi, L.; Isola, D.; Ruisi, S.; van den Ende, A.H.G. Gerrits; Ruibal, C.; De Leo, F.; Urzě, C.; Onofri, S.

    2008-01-01

    Fungal strains isolated from rocks and lichens collected in the Antarctic ice-free area of the Victoria Land, one of the coldest and driest habitats on earth, were found in two phylogenetically isolated positions within the subclass Dothideomycetidae. They are here reported as new genera and species, Recurvomyces mirabilis gen. nov., sp. nov. and Elasticomyces elasticus gen. nov., sp. nov. The nearest neighbours within the clades were other rock-inhabiting fungi from dry environments, either cold or hot. Plant-associated Mycosphaerella-like species, known as invaders of leathery leaves in semi-arid climates, are also phylogenetically related with the new taxa. The clusters are also related to the halophilic species Hortaea werneckii, as well as to acidophilic fungi. One of the latter, able to grow at pH 0, is Scytalidium acidophilum, which is ascribed here to the newly validated genus Acidomyces. The ecological implications of this finding are discussed. PMID:19287523

  7. A phylogenetic and biogeographic analysis of the genera of Spirorchinae (Digenea: Spirorchidae) parasitic in freshwater turtles.

    PubMed

    Platt, T R

    1992-08-01

    Cladistic analysis of the freshwater genera of Spirorchinae (Schistosomatoidea: Spirorchidae sensu Yamaguti, 1971) plus Haematotrema Stunkard, 1923, and Aphanospirorchis Platt, 1990, was completed. The Spirorchinae were considered monophyletic based on synapomorphies of the esophagus. Three lineages, Spirhapalum (Europe/Asia), Plasmiorchis+Hemiorchis (India), and Spirorchis + Henotosoma + Haematotrema + Aphanospirorchis (North America), were identified. Nelsen consensus analysis was used as the basis for recognizing 3 valid monophyletic genera: Spirhapalum, Plasmiorchis, and Spirorchis. Hapalotrematinae sensu Smith, 1972 (e.g., Hapalorhynchus/Coeuritrema), is considered the most plesiomorphic group of spirorchids. Freshwater representatives of the hapalotrematines have been reported from 7 of 12 extant turtle families, including the relatively primitive Pelomedusidae (Pleurodira) and exhibit a worldwide distribution. It is hypothesized that this group arose in the early Triassic period, prior to the breakup of Pangea. Thus, it represents a primitive lineage that was present during the diversification of turtle lineages in the mid-Mesozoic era. Spirorchinae arose later (late Cretaceous period) as a Laurasian component parasitic in the more recent pond turtles (Emydidae + Bataguridae). Species of Spirhapalum retained a relatively plesiomorphic distribution, and they are found in emydids (Europe) and batagurids (Asia). Species of Spirorchis arose and diversified with North America emydids following the separation of North America and Europe in the late Cretaceous or early Tertiary periods. Species of Plasmiorchis are hypothesized to be derived from Asian ancestors that accompanied the colonization of India by Asian batagurids during the early Tertiary period. The presence of Spirorchis species in snapping turtles (Chelydridae/North America) and of Plasmiorchis species in Indian soft-shelled turtle (Trionychidae) are considered independent colonization events. PMID:1635020

  8. Nuclear heterogeneity in conidial populations of Aspergillus flavus.

    PubMed

    Runa, Farhana; Carbone, Ignazio; Bhatnagar, Deepak; Payne, Gary A

    2015-11-01

    Aspergillus flavus is a major producer of aflatoxin and an opportunistic pathogen for a wide range of hosts. Understanding genotypic and phenotypic variation within strains of A. flavus is important for controlling disease and reducing aflatoxin contamination. A. flavus is multinucleate and predominantly haploid (n) and homokaryotic. Although cryptic heterokaryosis may occur in nature, it is unclear how nuclei in A. flavus influence genetic heterogeneity and if nuclear condition plays a role in fungal ecology. A. flavus mainly reproduces asexually by producing conidia. In order to observe whether conidia are homokaryotic or heterokaryotic, we labeled nuclei of A. flavus using two different nuclear localized fluorescent reporters. The reporter constructs (pYH2A and pCH2B), encode histones HH2A and HH2B fused at the C terminus with either yellow (EYFP) or cyan (ECFP) fluorescent proteins, respectively. The constructs were transformed into the double auxotrophic strain AFC-1 (-pyrG, -argD) to generate a strain containing each reporter construct. By taking advantage of the nutritional requirement for each strain, we were able to generate fusants between FR36 (-argD) expressing yellow fluorescence, and FR46 (-pyr4) expressing cyan fluorescence. Conidia from fusants between FR36 and FR46 showed three types of fluorescence: only EYFP, only ECFP or both EYFP+ECFP. Conidia containing nuclei expressing EYFP+ECFP were separated by Fluorescence-Activated Cell sorting (FACS) and were found to contain both yellow and cyan fluorescent markers in the same nucleus. Further characterization of conidia having only one nucleus but expressing both EYFP+ECFP fluorescence were found to be diploid (2n). Our findings suggest that A. flavus maintains nuclear heterogeneity in conidial populations. PMID:26362651

  9. Upstream and downstream processing of lovastatin by Aspergillus terreus.

    PubMed

    Mukhtar, Hamid; Ijaz, Syeda Sidra; Ikram-ul-Haq

    2014-09-01

    The present study describes the enhanced production and purification of lovastatin by Aspergillus terreus in submerged batch fermentation. The enhancement of lovastatin production from A. terreus was attempted by random mutagenesis using ultraviolet radiations and nitrous acid. UV mutants exhibited increased efficiency for lovastatin production as compared with nitrous acid mutants. Among all the mutants developed, A. terreus UV-4 was found to be the hyper producer of lovastatin. This mutant gave 3.5-fold higher lovastatin production than the wild culture of A. terreus NRRL 265. Various cultural conditions were also optimized for hyper-producing mutant strain. 5 % glucose as carbon source, 1.5 % corn steep liquor as nitrogen source, initial pH value of 6, 120 h of incubation period, and 28 °C of incubation temperature were found as best parameters for higher lovastatin production in shake flasks. Production of lovastatin by wild and mutant strains of A. terreus was also scaled up to laboratory scale fermentor. The fermentation process was conducted at 28 °C, 200 rpm agitation, and 1vvm air flow rate without pH control. After the optimization of cultural conditions in 250 ml Erlenmeyer flasks and scaling up to laboratory scale fermentor, the mutant A. terreus UV-4 gave eightfold higher lovastatin production (3249.95 ?g/ml) than its production by wild strain in shake flasks. Purification of lovastatin was carried out by solvent extraction method which yielded 977.1 mg/l of lovastatin with 98.99 % chromatographic purity and 26.76 % recovery. The crystal structure of lovastatin was determined using X-ray diffraction analysis which is first ever reported. PMID:24671671

  10. Microbial strain improvement for enhanced polygalacturonase production by Aspergillus sojae.

    PubMed

    Heerd, Doreen; Tari, Canan; Fernández-Lahore, Marcelo

    2014-09-01

    Strain improvement is a powerful tool in commercial development of microbial fermentation processes. Strains of Aspergillus sojae which were previously identified as polygalacturonase producers were subjected to the cost-effective mutagenesis and selection method, the so-called random screening. Physical (ultraviolet irradiation at 254 nm) and chemical mutagens (N-methyl-N'-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine) were used in the development and implementation of a classical mutation and selection strategy for the improved production of pectic acid-degrading enzymes. Three mutation cycles of both mutagenic treatments and also the combination of them were performed to generate mutants descending from A. sojae ATCC 20235 and mutants of A. sojae CBS 100928. Pectinolytic enzyme production of the mutants was compared to their wild types in submerged and solid-state fermentation. Comparing both strains, higher pectinase activity was obtained by A. sojae ATCC 20235 and mutants thereof. The highest polygalacturonase activity (1,087.2?±?151.9 U/g) in solid-state culture was obtained by mutant M3, which was 1.7 times increased in comparison to the wild strain, A. sojae ATCC 20235. Additional, further mutation of mutant M3 for two more cycles of treatment by UV irradiation generated mutant DH56 with the highest polygalacturonase activity (98.8?±?8.7 U/mL) in submerged culture. This corresponded to 2.4-fold enhanced polygalacturonase production in comparison to the wild strain. The results of this study indicated the development of a classical mutation and selection strategy as a promising tool to improve pectinolytic enzyme production by both fungal strains. PMID:24695827

  11. Identification and Characterization of Aspergillus Nidulans Mutants Defective in Cytokinesis

    PubMed Central

    Harris, S. D.; Morrell, J. L.; Hamer, J. E.

    1994-01-01

    Filamentous fungi undergo cytokinesis by forming crosswalls termed septa. Here, we describe the genetic and physiological controls governing septation in Aspergillus nidulans. Germinating conidia do not form septa until the completion of their third nuclear division. The first septum is invariantly positioned at the basal end of the germ tube. Block-and-release experiments of nuclear division with benomyl or hydroxyurea, and analysis of various nuclear division mutants demonstrated that septum formation is dependent upon the third mitotic division. Block-and-release experiments with cytochalasin A and the localization of actin in germlings by indirect immunofluorescence showed that actin participated in septum formation. In addition to being concentrated at the growing hyphal tips, a band of actin was also apparent at the site of septum formation. Previous genetic analysis in A. nidulans identified four genes involved in septation (sepA-D). We have screened a new collection of temperature sensitive (ts) mutants of A. nidulans for strains that failed to form septa at the restrictive temperature but were able to complete early nuclear divisions. We identified five new genes designated sepE, G, H, I and J, along with one additional allele of a previously identified septation gene. On the basis of temperature shift experiments, nuclear counts and cell morphology, we sorted these cytokinesis mutants into three phenotypic classes. Interestingly, one class of mutants fails to form septa and fails to progress past the third nuclear division. This class of mutants suggests the existence of a regulatory mechanism in A. nidulans that ensures the continuation of nuclear division following the initiation of cytokinesis. PMID:8150280

  12. How Peroxisomes Affect Aflatoxin Biosynthesis in Aspergillus Flavus

    PubMed Central

    Reverberi, Massimo; Punelli, Marta; Smith, Carrie A.; Zjalic, Slaven; Scarpari, Marzia; Scala, Valeria; Cardinali, Giorgia; Aspite, Nicaela; Pinzari, Flavia; Payne, Gary A.; Fabbri, Anna A.; Fanelli, Corrado

    2012-01-01

    In filamentous fungi, peroxisomes are crucial for the primary metabolism and play a pivotal role in the formation of some secondary metabolites. Further, peroxisomes are important site for fatty acids ?-oxidation, the formation of reactive oxygen species and for their scavenging through a complex of antioxidant activities. Oxidative stress is involved in different metabolic events in all organisms and it occurs during oxidative processes within the cell, including peroxisomal ?-oxidation of fatty acids. In Aspergillus flavus, an unbalance towards an hyper-oxidant status into the cell is a prerequisite for the onset of aflatoxin biosynthesis. In our preliminary results, the use of bezafibrate, inducer of both peroxisomal ?-oxidation and peroxisome proliferation in mammals, significantly enhanced the expression of pex11 and foxA and stimulated aflatoxin synthesis in A. flavus. This suggests the existence of a correlation among peroxisome proliferation, fatty acids ?-oxidation and aflatoxin biosynthesis. To investigate this correlation, A. flavus was transformed with a vector containing P33, a gene from Cymbidium ringspot virus able to induce peroxisome proliferation, under the control of the promoter of the Cu,Zn-sod gene of A. flavus. This transcriptional control closely relates the onset of the antioxidant response to ROS increase, with the proliferation of peroxisomes in A. flavus. The AfP33 transformant strain show an up-regulation of lipid metabolism and an higher content of both intracellular ROS and some oxylipins. The combined presence of a higher amount of substrates (fatty acids-derived), an hyper-oxidant cell environment and of hormone-like signals (oxylipins) enhances the synthesis of aflatoxins in the AfP33 strain. The results obtained demonstrated a close link between peroxisome metabolism and aflatoxin synthesis. PMID:23094106

  13. Fatty Acid Toxicity and Methyl Ketone Production in Aspergillus niger

    PubMed Central

    Lewis, Harold L.; Darnall, Dennis W.

    1970-01-01

    Vegetative hyphae of Aspergillus niger rapidly converted caproic acid into 2-pentanone. More caproic acid was required for maximal ketone production at alkaline as compared to acidic pH values. Further increases in caproate concentrations at each pH value tested (4.5, 5.5, 6.5, 7.5, and 8.5) resulted in inhibition of ketone production and O2 uptake. At alkaline pH values (8.5 and 7.5), oxygen uptake above the endogenous level and the production of 2-pentanone were parallel. This relationship did not hold at acidic pH values. At these pH values, ketone production continued (pH 6.5) or attained a maximum (pH 5.5 and 4.5) at caproate concentrations at which oxygen uptake was inhibited below endogenous levels. These data indicate that endogenous oxygen uptake was not inhibited by caproate at alkaline pH values at concentrations which did inhibit caproate oxidation and 2-pentanone production. Conversely, at acidic pH values, endogenous oxygen uptake was vigorously inhibited by caproate at concentrations at which exogenous fatty acid oxidation and 2-pentanone production were less affected. Simon-Beevers plots of these data showed that the undissociated acid was the permeant form of caproic acid. The fatty anion appeared to be the active or inhibitory form of caproate within the cell. Vegetative hyphae of A. niger were poorly buffered. Once the hyphae were washed and resuspended in phosphate buffer, they were well buffered towards inhibitory concentrations of caproic acid. These findings suggest that the primary mechanism(s) by which caproate inhibits oxygen uptake and ketone formation does not involve a change in the intracellular pH. PMID:5411757

  14. Mannitol Is Required for Stress Tolerance in Aspergillus niger Conidiospores

    PubMed Central

    Ruijter, George J. G.; Bax, Maarten; Patel, Hema; Flitter, Simon J.; van de Vondervoort, Peter J. I.; de Vries, Ronald P.; vanKuyk, Patricia A.; Visser, Jaap

    2003-01-01

    d-Mannitol is the predominant carbon compound in conidiospores of the filamentous fungus Aspergillus niger and makes up 10 to 15% of the dry weight. A number of physiological functions have been ascribed to mannitol, including serving as a reserve carbon source, as an antioxidant, and to store reducing power. In this study, we cloned and characterized the A. niger mpdA gene, which encodes mannitol 1-phosphate dehydrogenase (MPD), the first enzyme in the mannitol biosynthesis pathway. The mpdA promoter contains putative binding sites for the development-specific transcription factors BRLA and ABAA. Furthermore, increased expression of mpdA in sporulating mycelium suggests that mannitol biosynthesis is, to a certain extent, developmentally regulated in A. niger. Inactivation of mpdA abolished mannitol biosynthesis in growing mycelium and reduced the mannitol level in conidiospores to 30% that in the wild type, indicating that MPD and mannitol 1-phosphate phosphatase form the major metabolic pathway for mannitol biosynthesis in A. niger. The viability of spores after prolonged storage and germination kinetics were normal in an mpdA null mutant, indicating that mannitol does not play an essential role as a reserve carbon source in A. niger conidia. However, conidiospores of a ?mpdA strain were extremely sensitive to a variety of stress conditions, including high temperature, oxidative stress and, to a lesser extent, freezing and lyophilization. Since mannitol supplied in the medium during sporulation repaired this deficiency, mannitol appears to be essential for the protection of A. niger spores against cell damage under these stress conditions. PMID:12912888

  15. Screening a Strain of Aspergillus niger and Optimization of Fermentation Conditions for Degradation of Aflatoxin B1 †

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Wei; Xue, Beibei; Li, Mengmeng; Mu, Yang; Chen, Zhihui; Li, Jianping; Shan, Anshan

    2014-01-01

    Aflatoxin B1, a type of highly toxic mycotoxin produced by some species belonging to the Aspergillus genus, such as Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus parasiticus, is widely distributed in feed matrices. Here, coumarin was used as the sole carbon source to screen microorganism strains that were isolated from types of feed ingredients. Only one isolate (ND-1) was able to degrade aflatoxin B1 after screening. ND-1 isolate, identified as a strain of Aspergillus niger using phylogenetic analysis on the basis of 18S rDNA, could remove 26.3% of aflatoxin B1 after 48 h of fermentation in nutrient broth (NB). Optimization of fermentation conditions for aflatoxin B1 degradation by selected Aspergillus niger was also performed. These results showed that 58.2% of aflatoxin B1 was degraded after 24 h of culture under the optimal fermentation conditions. The aflatoxin B1 degradation activity of Aspergillus niger supernatant was significantly stronger than cells and cell extracts. Furthermore, effects of temperature, heat treatment, pH, and metal ions on aflatoxin B1 degradation by the supernatant were examined. Results indicated that aflatoxin B1 degradation of Aspergillus niger is enzymatic and this process occurs in the extracellular environment. PMID:25401962

  16. Effect of ultraviolet radiation A and B on growth and mycotoxin production by Aspergillus carbonarius and Aspergillus parasiticus in grape and pistachio media.

    PubMed

    García-Cela, Esther; Marin, Sonia; Sanchis, Vicente; Crespo-Sempere, Ana; Ramos, Antonio J

    2015-01-01

    The effects of two exposure times per day (6 and 16 h) of UV-A or UV-B radiation, combined with dark and dark plus light incubation periods during 7-21 d on fungal growth and mycotoxins production of Aspergillus species were studied. Aspergillus carbonarius and Aspergillus parasiticus were inoculated on grape and pistachio media under diurnal and nocturnal temperatures choosing light photoperiod according to harvest conditions of these crops in Spain. Ultraviolet irradiation had a significant effect on A. carbonarius and A. parasiticus colony size (diameter, biomass dry weight, and colony density) and mycotoxin accumulation, although intraspecies differences were observed. Inhibition of A. carbonarius fungal growth decreased when exposure time was reduced from 16 h to 6 h, but this was not always true for ochratoxin A (OTA) production. OTA reduction was higher under UV-A than UV-B radiation and the reduction increased along time conversely to the aflatoxins (AFs). Aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) was the main toxin produced by A. parasiticus except in the UV-B light irradiated colonies which showed a higher percentage of AFG than AFB. Morphological changes were observed in colonies grown under UV-B light. PMID:25601150

  17. Understanding the Genetics of Regulation of Aflatoxin Production and Aspergillus flavus Development

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Aflatoxins are polyketide-derived, toxic and carcinogenic secondary metabolites produced primarily by two fungal species, Aspergillus flavus and A. parasiticus, on crops such as corn, peanuts, cottonseed and treenuts. Regulatory guidelines issued by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) preve...

  18. THE ASPERGILLUS PARASITICUS PROTEIN AFLJ INTERACTS WITH THE AFLATOXIN PATHWAY-SPECIFIC REGULATOR AFLR

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Aspergillus parasiticus aflJ gene, located in the aflatoxin biosynthetic gene cluster and divergently transcribed from the aflatoxin pathway regulatory gene aflR, encodes a 438-amino acid protein. Transformation of aflJ plus aflR, but not aflJ alone, increased the accumulation of aflatoxin prec...

  19. Comparison of Inoculation Methods for Evaluating Maize for Resistance to Aspergillus flavus Infection and Aflatoxin Accumulation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Aflatoxin, the most potent carcinogen found in nature, is produced by the fungus Aspergillus flavus. Aflatoxin occurs naturally in maize, Zea mays L. Growing maize hybrids with genetic resistance to aflatoxin contamination is generally considered a highly desirable way to reduce losses to aflatoxin....

  20. Influence of Gene Expression on Variable Aflatoxin Production by Different Strains of Aspergillus flavus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Aspergillus flavus is a globally distributed fungus. It causes disease in human and crop plants due to the production of numerous conidia dispersed by air movement and possibly by insects. The fungus is an economically important food contaminant because it produces the most potent natural carcinogen...

  1. Genetic diversity and population structure of Aspergillus flavus in the southern USA

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Aspergillus flavus is a fungal pathogen of animals and wild and domesticated plants with a global distribution. During infection by A. flavus, crops are frequently contaminated with highly carcinogenic aflatoxins. A. flavus populations are composed of numerous vegetative compatibility groups (VCGs),...

  2. Formation of Aspergillus flavus sclerotia on corn grown under different drought stress conditions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Aspergillus flavus is a major producer of carcinogenic aflatoxins worldwide in corn, peanuts, tree nuts, cottonseed, spices and other crops. Many countries have strict limits on the amount of aflatoxins permitted in human commodities and animal feed. Sclerotia produced by A. flavus serve several f...

  3. RECOMBINATION, BALANCING SELECTION AND ADAPTIVE EVOLUTION IN THE AFLATOXIN GENE CLUSTER OF ASPERGILLUS PARASITICUS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Aflatoxins are toxic and carcinogenic polyketides produced by several Aspergillus species that are known to contaminate agricultural commodities, posing a serious threat to animal and human health. Aflatoxin (AF) biosynthesis has been studied extensively and involves over 20 genes clustered in a 70...

  4. NMR Metabolic Profiling of Aspergillus nidulans to Monitor Drug and Protein Activity

    E-print Network

    Powers, Robert

    NMR Metabolic Profiling of Aspergillus nidulans to Monitor Drug and Protein Activity Paxton Forgue protocol for using comparative NMR metabolomics data to infer in vivo efficacy, specificity and toxicity by in vivo inactivation of urate oxidase. Keywords: drug discovery · NMR · metabolomics · principle component

  5. Penicillium parvulum and Penicillium georgiense sp. nov. Isolated from the Conidial Heads of Aspergillus Species

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Two new Penicillium species were isolated from peanut-field soils in Georgia. The species were particularly noted because they sporulated on the conidial heads of Aspergillus species. Phenotypic descriptions were prepared using standard media. ITS and lsu-rDNA sequences were made from the new spe...

  6. Aspergillus flavus Genomic Data Mining Provides Clues for Its Use in Producing Biobased Products

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Aspergillus flavus is notorious for its ability to produce aflatoxins. It is also an opportunistic pathogen that infects plants, animals and human beings. The ability to survive in the natural environment, living on plant tissues (leaves or stalks), live or dead insects make A. flavus a ubiquitous...

  7. Aspergillus flavus Aflatoxin Occurrence and Expression of Aflatoxin Biosynthesis Genes in Soil

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The carcinogen, aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) produced by Aspergillus flavus, is a major food safety concern in crops. However, information on AFB1 occurrence in soil and crop residue is scarce. A series of experiments investigated the occurrence of AFB1 in soil and corn residues, and ascertained the ecology ...

  8. Isolation of maize soil and rhizosphere bacteria with antagonistic activity against Aspergillus flavus and Fusarium verticillioides

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bacterial isolates from Mississippi maize field soil and maize rhizosphere samples were evaluated for their potential as biological control agents against Aspergillus flavus and Fusarium verticillioides. Isolated strains were screened for antagonistic activities in liquid co-culture against A. flav...

  9. Identification of novel metabolites from Aspergillus flavus by high resolution and multiple stage mass spectrometry

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Aspergillus flavus contains more than 55 gene clusters which are predicted to encode proteins involved in secondary metabolite production. One of these, cluster 27, contains a polyketide synthase (pks27) gene which encodes a protein that is highly homologous to the aflatoxin cluster PKS. Comparative...

  10. The potential role of oxidative stress in Aspergillus flavus survivability and aflatoxin biosynthesis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Aflatoxin contamination of food and feed occurs due to growth of Aspergillus flavus. This poses a serious health risk because of aflatoxin’s toxic and carcinogenic properties which negatively impact human and livestock health. Colonization and subsequent aflatoxin production by A. flavus is typicall...

  11. Managing and Monitoring of Aspergillus flavus in Corn Using Bioplastic-based Formulation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In this study, we evaluated the feasibility of bioplastic-based formulations for delivering a non-aflatoxigenic strain of Aspergillus flavus and for monitoring Aspergilli with the final objective of controlling aflatoxin contamination in corn. Field application of inoculated bioplastic granules show...

  12. Environmental influences on maize-Aspergillus flavus interactions and aflatoxin production

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Since the early 1960’s, the fungal pathogen Aspergillus flavus (Link ex Fr.) has been the focus of intensive research due to the production of carcinogenic and highly toxic secondary metabolites collectively known as aflatoxins following pre-harvest colonization of crops. Given this recurrent proble...

  13. ASPERGILLUS SECTION FLAVI IN THE UNITED STATES: CHARACTERIZATION OF SOIL POPULATIONS FROM AGRICULTURAL FIELDS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Species belonging to Aspergillus section Flavi often produce aflatoxins and cyclopiazonic acid, mycotoxins that contaminate preharvest peanuts, corn and cottonseed. Soil populations of A. flavus, A. parasiticus, A. nomius, A. tamarii and A. caelatus were examined over a large geographic area within...

  14. CULTURAL AND ANALYTICAL METHODS TO DETERMINE AFLATOXIN PRODUCTION BY ASPERGILLUS SPECIES FROM THE MISSISSIPPI DELTA

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Several methods were used to detect aflatoxin production by various Aspergillus species. Isolates (n = 786) were obtained from crops (including corn, peanut, cotton) and soils from the Mississippi Delta. Cultural methods for assessing aflatoxin production on potato dextrose agar included yellow pig...

  15. CONSTRUCTION OF EXPRESSION CASSETTES TO CONFER RESISTANCE TO ASPERGILLUS FLAVUS IN COTTON

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We have been working to develop cotton that is resistant to the fungal pathogen Aspergillus flavus using a genetic engineering approach. Success of this project depends upon the identification of appropriate regulatory elements, as well as structural genes that can be linked to confer a new pathoge...

  16. Aspergillus Flavus Endocarditis of the Native Mitral Valve in a Bone Marrow Transplant Patient

    PubMed Central

    Demir, Tolga; Ergenoglu, Mehmet Umit; Ekinci, Abdurrahman; Tanrikulu, Nursen; Sahin, Mazlum; Demirsoy, Ergun

    2015-01-01

    Patient: Male, 36 Final Diagnosis: Aspergillus flavus endocarditis Symptoms: Malaise • fatigue and dyspnea Medication: — Clinical Procedure: Mitral vale replacemnet Specialty: Cardiology Objective: Rare disease Background: Infective endocarditis due to Aspergillus species is an uncommon infection with a high mortality rate. It mostly occurs after the implantation of prosthetic heart valves. Parenteral nutrition, immunosuppression, broad-spectrum antibiotic regimens, and illegal intravenous drug use are the risk factors for developing infection. Case Report: We report a case of Aspergillus flavus native mitral valve endocarditis in a patient who had allogeneic stem cell transplantation in the past due to myelodysplastic syndrome. Conclusions: Although it is rare and there is limited experience available with the diagnosis and treatment, early recognition and therapeutic intervention with systemic antifungal therapy and aggressive surgical intervention are critical to prevent further complications that may eventually lead to death. In addition, better novel diagnostic tools are needed to facilitate more accurate identification of patients with invasive Aspergillus and to permit earlier initiation of antifungal treatment. PMID:25603977

  17. A multilocus database for the identification of Aspergillus and Penicillium species

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Identification of Aspergillus and Penicillium isolates using phenotypic methods is increasingly complex and difficult but genetic tools allow recognition and description of species formerly unrecognized or cryptic. We constructed a web-based taxonomic database using BIGSdb for the identification of ...

  18. Aspergillus flavus Genomics: Gateway to Human and Animal Health, Food Safety, and Crop Resistance to Diseases

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Aspergillus flavus is an imperfect filamentous fungus that has existed in nature for thousands of years. A. flavus is an opportunistic pathogen causing invasive and non-invasive aspergillosis in humans, animals, and insects. It is also an allergen causing allergic reaction in humans. A. flavus in...

  19. Unfolding and Refolding of Aspergillus Niger PhyB Phytase: Role of Disulfide Bridges

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Role of disulfide bridges in folding of Aspergillus niger phytase pH 2.5-optimum (PhyB) was investigated using dynamic light scattering (DLS). Guanidinium chloride (GuCl) at 1.0 M unfolded phytase; however, its removal by dialysis refolded the protein. Thiol reagent, tris (2-carboxyethyl) phosphin...

  20. Biodiversity of Aspergillus section Flavi in Europe in relation to the management of aflatoxin risk.

    PubMed

    Perrone, Giancarlo; Gallo, Antonia; Logrieco, Antonio F

    2014-01-01

    Aflatoxins and the producing fungi Aspergillus section Flavi are widely known as the most serious and dangerous mycotoxin issue in agricultural products. In Europe, before the outbreak of aflatoxins on maize (2003-2004) due to new climatic conditions, their contamination was confined to imported foods. Little information is available on molecular biodiversity and population structure of Aspergillus section Flavi in Europe. Preliminary reports evidenced the massive presence of Aspergillus flavus L -morphotype as the predominant species in maize field, no evidence of the highly toxigenic S-morphotype and of other aflatoxigenic species are reported. The risk of a shift in traditional occurrence areas for aflatoxins is expected in the world and in particular in South East of Europe due to the increasing average temperatures. Biological control of aflatoxin risk in the field by atoxigenic strains of A. flavus starts to be widely used in Africa and USA. Studies are necessary on the variation of aflatoxin production in populations of A. flavus to characterize stable atoxigenic A. flavus strains. The aim of present article is to give an overview on biodiversity and genetic variation of Aspergillus section Flavi in Europe in relation to the management of aflatoxins risk in the field. PMID:25101075

  1. Biological Control of Aflatoxin Contamination in Corn using a Nontoxigenic Strain of Aspergillus flavus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A two-year study was conducted to determine the efficacy of different applications of a nontoxigenic strain of Aspergillus flavus for reducing aflatoxin contamination in corn. Treatments consisted of the nontoxigenic strain in the form of 1) conidia-coated hulled barley applied to soil when corn was...

  2. Upgrading Fungal Gene Expression on Demand: Improved Systems for Doxycycline-Dependent Silencing in Aspergillus fumigatus

    PubMed Central

    Helmschrott, Christoph; Sasse, Anna; Samantaray, Sweta

    2013-01-01

    Conditional gene expression is key for functional studies in any given microorganism. To allow tight regulation in the pathogenic mold Aspergillus fumigatus, improved versions of the doxycycline-dependent Tet-On system were generated by replacing functional elements of the precursor module, thereby circumventing the former problem of leakiness due to intramolecular recombination. PMID:23275515

  3. 40 CFR 180.1206 - Aspergillus flavus AF36; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... tolerance is established for residues of Aspergillus flavus AF36 in or on corn, field, forage; corn, field, grain; corn, field, stover; corn, field, aspirated grain fractions; corn, sweet, kernel plus cob with husk removed; corn, sweet, forage; corn, sweet, stover; corn, pop, grain; and corn, pop, stover,...

  4. 40 CFR 180.1206 - Aspergillus flavus AF36; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... tolerance is established for residues of Aspergillus flavus AF36 in or on corn, field, forage; corn, field, grain; corn, field, stover; corn, field, aspirated grain fractions; corn, sweet, kernel plus cob with husk removed; corn, sweet, forage; corn, sweet, stover; corn, pop, grain; and corn, pop, stover,...

  5. 40 CFR 180.1206 - Aspergillus flavus AF36; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... tolerance is established for residues of Aspergillus flavus AF36 in or on corn, field, forage; corn, field, grain; corn, field, stover; corn, field, aspirated grain fractions; corn, sweet, kernel plus cob with husk removed; corn, sweet, forage; corn, sweet, stover; corn, pop, grain; and corn, pop, stover,...

  6. Candida parapsilosis as a Potent Biocontrol Agent against Growth and Aflatoxin Production by Aspergillus Species

    PubMed Central

    Niknejad, F; Zaini, F; Faramarzi, MA; Amini, M; Kordbacheh, P; Mahmoudi, M; Safara, M

    2012-01-01

    Background: Aflatoxin contamination of food and feed stuff is a serious health problem and significant economic concerns. In the present study, the inhibitory effect of Candida parapsilosis IP1698 on mycelial growth and aflatoxin production in aflatoxigenic strains of Aspergillus species was investigated. Methods: Mycelial growth inhibitions of nine strains of aflatoxigenic and non-aflatoxigenic Aspergillus species in the presence of C. parapsilosis investigated by pour plate technique at different pH, temperature and time of incubation. Reduction of aflatoxin was evaluated in co-cultured fungi in yeast extract sucrose broth after seven days of incubation using HPLC method. The data were analyzed by SPSS 11.5. Results: The presence of the C. parapsilosis at different pH did not affect significantly the growth rate of Aspergillus isolates. On the other hand, temperature and time of incubation showed to be significantly effective when compared to controls without C. parapsilosis (P?0.05). In aflatoxigenic strains, minimum percentage of reductions in total aflatoxin and B1, B2, G1, G2 fractions were 92.98, 92.54, 77.48, 54.54 and 72.22 and maximum percentage of reductions were 99.59, not detectable, 94.42, and not detectable in both G1 and G2, respectively. Conclusion: C. parapsilosis might employ as a good biocontrol agent against growth and aflatoxin production by aflatoxigenic Aspergillus species PMID:23308351

  7. Identification and molecular genetic analysis of the cichorine gene cluster in Aspergillus nidulans

    PubMed Central

    Sanchez, James F.; Entwistle, Ruth; Corcoran, David; Oakley, Berl R.; Wang, Clay C. C.

    2013-01-01

    We recently demonstrated that the phytotoxin cichorine is produced by Aspergillus nidulans. Through a set of targeted deletions, we have found a cluster of seven genes that are required for its biosynthesis. Two of the deletions yielded molecules that give information about the biosynthesis of this metabolite. PMID:24244835

  8. Effect of Competition and adverse culture conditions on aflatoxin production by aspergillus flavus through successive generations

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Strains of Aspergillus flavus often degenerate with serial transfers on culture media, resulting in morphological changes and loss of aflatoxin production. However, degeneration does not readily occur in nature as indicated by the wild-type morphological characters of newly isolated strains and the...

  9. Enzymatic Dehairing of Cattlehide with an Alkaline Protease Isolated from Aspergillus tamarii

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    An enzymatic dehairing protocol based on the alkaline serine protease isolated from Aspergillus tamarii required 16h, and we observed concomitant grain damage. The use of sodium dodecyl sulfate as a pretreatment to remove the lipids from the hide allowed a shortening of the dehairing time to 6 h wi...

  10. Aflaquinolones A-G: Secondary metabolites from marine and fungicolous isolates of Aspergillus spp.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Seven new compounds (aflaquinolones A-G; 1-7) containing dihydroquinolin-2-one and terpenoid units have been isolated from two different fungal sources. Two of these metabolites (1 and 2) were obtained from a Hawaiian fungicolous isolate of Aspergillus sp. (section Flavipedes; MYC-2048=NRRL 58570), ...

  11. Pseudoepidemic of Aspergillus niger Infections Traced to Specimen Contamination in the Microbiology Laboratory

    PubMed Central

    Laurel, Valerie L.; Meier, Patricia A.; Astorga, Alicia; Dolan, Donna; Brockett, Royce; Rinaldi, Michael G.

    1999-01-01

    We report a pseudo-outbreak of Aspergillus niger that followed building construction in our clinical microbiology laboratory. Because outbreaks of invasive aspergillosis have been linked to hospital construction, strategies to minimize dust in patient care areas are common practice. We illustrate that the impact of false-positive cultures on patient care should compel laboratories to prevent specimen contamination during construction. PMID:10203538

  12. Role of Ostrinia Nubilalis in Vectoring Aspergillus Flavus in a Corn Field in northern Italy

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The European corn borer (ECB), Ostrinia nubilalis, is a major pest of corn in Europe and in several agricultural areas of the USA. In addition to direct yield losses, the ECB is expected to act as a vector for carrying spores of the aflatoxin-producing fungus Aspergillus flavus. Therefore the object...

  13. Genetic variability of Aspergillus flavus isolates from a Mississippi corn field

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The fungus Aspergillus flavus represents a major threat to food safety and food security on a worldwide scale. Corn, peanuts, cotton, rice and edible nuts, can be colonized by A. flavus strains that produce carcinogenic aflatoxins. A biological strategy for control of toxigenic A. flavus starins inv...

  14. Characterization of Aspergillus section Flavi isolated from organic Brazil nuts using a polyphasic approach.

    PubMed

    Reis, T A; Baquiăo, A C; Atayde, D D; Grabarz, F; Corręa, B

    2014-09-01

    Brazil nut (Bertholletia excelsa), an important non-timber forest product from Amazonia, is commercialized in worldwide markets. The main importers of this nut are North America and European countries, where the demand for organic products has grown to meet consumers concerned about food safety. Thus, the precise identification of toxigenic fungi is important because the Brazil nut is susceptible to colonization by these microorganisms. The present study aimed to characterize by polyphasic approach strains of Aspergillus section Flavi from organic Brazil nuts. The results showed Aspergillus flavus as the main species found (74.4%), followed by Aspergillus nomius (12.7%). The potential mycotoxigenic revealed that 80.0% of A. flavus were toxin producers, 14.3% of which produced only aflatoxin B (AFB), 22.85% of which produced only cyclopiazonic acid (CPA), and 42.85% produced both them. All strains of A. nomius were AFB and AFG producers and did not produce CPA. There is no consensus about what Aspergillus species predominates on Brazil nuts. Apparently, the origin, processing, transport and storage conditions of this commodity influence the species that are found. The understanding about population of fungi is essential for the development of viable strategies to control aflatoxins in organic Brazil nuts. PMID:24929714

  15. Alanine-scanning mutagenesis of Aspergillus ?-tubulin yields diverse and novel phenotypes

    E-print Network

    Jung, M. Katherine; Prigozhina, Natalie L.; Oakley, C. Elizabeth; Nogales, Eva; Oakley, Berl R.

    2001-07-01

    We have created 41 clustered charged-to-alanine scanning mutations of the mipA, ?-tubulin, gene of Aspergillus nidulans and have created strains carrying these mutations by two-step gene replacement and by a new procedure, heterokaryon gene...

  16. Spindle formation in Aspergillus is coupled to tubulin movement into the nucleus

    E-print Network

    Ovechkina, Yulia; Maddox, Paul; Oakley, C. Elizabeth; Xiang, Xin; Osmani, Stephen A.; Salmon, Edward D.; Oakley, Berl R.

    2003-05-01

    proteins into and out of the nucleoplasm. We have used two methods to determine whether tubulin levels in the nucleoplasm are regulated in the fungus Aspergillus nidulans. First, we have used benomyl to disassemble microtubules and create a pool of free...

  17. Phylogenetic analysis of Aspergillus species using DNA sequences from four loci

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    DNA was isolated from representatives of Aspergillus species and sequences were determined for beta tubulin, calmodulin, ITS and lsu rDNA and RNA polymerase. The sequences were analyzed phylogenetically using PAUP* and MRBayes and species boundaries were assessed using genealogical concordance anal...

  18. Identifying cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) genes induced in response to Aspergillus flavus infection

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Aflatoxin contamination in cottonseed, caused primarily by Aspergillus flavus, is a global concern in terms of food safety and economy. Current strategies to reduce the risk of aflatoxin contamination rely mostly upon biological control with non-aflatoxigenic strains and chemical control measures. ...

  19. Description of a Distinctive Aflatoxin-Producing Strain of Aspergillus nomius that Produces Submerged Sclerotia

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Aspergillus nomius var. elaeosporus var. nov. is described from pistachio, pecan, and fig orchards in California. Similar to the typical variety of A. nomius, var. elaeosporus produced both B and G aflatoxins but not cyclopiazonic acid and grew poorly at 42 C. Furthermore, previous research using re...

  20. Cloning and characterization of the Aspergillus nidulans spdA gene 

    E-print Network

    Jin, Yuan

    2000-01-01

    Using a PCR product amplified from Aspergillus nidulans DNA as a probe, the A. nidulans spdA gene, coding for a putative spermidine synthase, was isolated. Alignment of its deduced amino acid sequence with those of other spermidine synthases showed...

  1. ENZYMATIC DEHAIRING OF CATTLE HIDE WITH AN ALKALINE PROTEASE ISOLATED FROM ASPERGILLUS TAMARII

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    An alkaline protease isolated from Aspergillus tamarii shows promise as a dehairing agent for use in the tannery. Standard dehairing conditions established for the protease isolated from Streptomyces griseus proved to be unsatisfactory for the alkaline protease. We optimized the dehairing conditio...

  2. Deadly strains of Kenyan aspergillus are distinct from other aflatoxin producers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Aflatoxin contamination of crops is a world-wide problem. Lethal aflatoxicosis of humans has been associated with maize produced in Kenya for over three decades. The S strain morphotype of Aspergillus flavus was identified as the primary cause of aflatoxin contamination events occurring between 2004...

  3. THE SEC- MUTANT OF ASPERGILLUS PARASITICUS IS ALTERED IN ITS PROFILE OF SECONDARY METABOLITES

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The sec- (secondary metabolite minus) mutant of Aspergillus parasiticus SUI produces fewer conidia on complete and minimum media and fails to produce aflatoxin or to convert labeled aflatoxin pathway precursors into aflatoxin. Transcripts of the aflatoxin pathway genes are barely detectable and tra...

  4. Nitrogen source preference of Aspergillus sydowii, an infective agent associated with aspergillosis of sea fan corals

    E-print Network

    Harvell, Catherine Drew

    of sea fan corals Emily B. Rivest,a,b David M. Baker,a,* Krystal L. Rypien,a,1 and C. Drew Harvella, Evolution, and Marine Biology, University of California Santa Barbara, Santa Barbara, California Abstract We, a disease caused by the terrestrial fungus Aspergillus sydowii, which infects sea fan corals (Gorgonia

  5. New Stilbenoids from Peanut (Arachis hypogaea) Kernels Challenged by an Aspergillus caelatus Strain

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Four new stilbene derivatives termed arahypins have been isolated from peanut kernels challenged by an Aspergillus caelatus strain, along with two known stilbenoids that have not been previously reported in peanuts. The structures of these new putative phytoalexins were determined by analysis of NMR...

  6. Induction of mutation in Aspergillus niger for conversion of cellulose into glucose

    SciTech Connect

    Helmi, S.; Khalil, A.E.; Tahoun, M.K.; Khairy, A.H.

    1991-12-31

    Plant wastes are very important part of biomass used and investigated for energy, chemical, and fuel production. Cellulose is the major renewable form of carbohydrate in the world, about 10{sup 11} tons of which is synthesized annually. For general use, it must be hydrolyzed first, either chemically or by cellulases derived from a few specialized microorganisms. Enzymes are acceptable environmentally but expensive to produce. Certainly, induction of mutations and selection of high cellulose microbial strains with significant adaptability to degrade cellulose to glucose is promising solutions. Induction of mutations in other fungi and Aspergillus sp. rather than Aspergillus niger was reported. Aspergillus ustus and Trichoderma harzianum were induced by gamma irradiation indicating mutants that excrete higher cellulose yields, particularly exocellobiohydrolase (Avicelase) than their respective wild types. Mutants from the celluiolytic fungus Penicillium pinophilum were induced by chemical and UV-irradiation. Enhancing the production of endo-1,4-{Beta}-D-glucanase (CMCase) and particularly {Beta}-glucosidase was obtained by gamma irradiation of Altemaria alternate. To overcome the lower activity of {beta}-glucosidase in certain fungi species rather than A. niger, mixed cultures of different species were tried. Thus, Aspergillus phonicis with Trichoderma reesei Rut 30, produced a cellulose complex that improved activity twofold over cellulose from Trichoderma alone.

  7. 150 PHYTOPATHOLOGY Variation in Competitive Ability Among Isolates of Aspergillus flavus

    E-print Network

    Cotty, Peter J.

    , the primary causal agent of aflatoxin contamination, includes many genetically diverse vegetative among A. flavus isolates and provide a basis for selection of biocontrol strains with improved. Aspergillus flavus is the most commonly isolated causal agent of aflatoxin contamination (5,54) of many crops

  8. Isolation and structural elucidation of acidic terpenoid phytoalexins in maize and their interactions with Aspergillus flavus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Plants use a variety of physical and chemical defenses in response to herbivory and pathogen attack. Infection of maize by the fungal pathogen Aspergillus flavus results in the accumulation of aflatoxins, which are among the most detrimental biogenic substances known to man. The majority of maize de...

  9. Aspergillus Flavus/Aflatoxin Occurrence and Expression of Aflatoxin Biosynthesis Genes in Soil

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Mycotoxins, including aflatoxins, fumonisins, cyclopiazonic acid (CPA), and zearalenone, produced by Aspergillus and Fusarium species when present in grain can cause serious health problems in livestock and humans. Little is known about the occurrence of these toxins in corn plant debris post-harve...

  10. NON-TOXIGENIC ASPERGILLUS FLAVUS ISOLATES FOR REDUCING AFLATOXIN IN MISSISSIPPI DELTA CORN

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The potential for two non-toxigenic isolates of Aspergillus flavus CT3 and K49 isolated from the Mississippi Delta to reduce aflatoxin contamination of corn was assessed in a field study. These two isolates exhibited comparable growth and aggressiveness as the toxigenic A. flavus isolate F3W4. The...

  11. Insights into sexual reproduction in Aspergillus flavus from variation in experimental crosses and natural populations

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Aspergillus flavus contaminates many important crops worldwide and is the major producer of aflatoxins, which are cancer-causing secondary metabolites. Biological control is the most effective means of reducing inoculum levels of detrimental aflatoxin-producing fungal pathogens in agricultural syst...

  12. Effect of stalk inoculation site on kernel infection of corn by Aspergillus parasiticus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Aspergillus flavus and A. parasiticus may infect corn kernels on developing ears by several routes. Kernel infection is postulated to occur inside ears primarily by the colonization of silk tissues. Airborne conidia land on exposed silks, germinate, and then colonize the silks inside the ear. Onc...

  13. Identification of resistance genes to Aspergillus flavus infection in peanut through genetic and genomic strategies

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Aspergillus flavus and A. parasiticus infect peanut before harvest in the field and after harvest during storage. These fungal moulds produce aflatoxins, the most toxic compounds and the most potent carcinogens. Contamination of aflatoxins to agricultural commodities such as peanut poses serious h...

  14. Characterization of the fumonisin B2 biosynthetic gene cluster in Aspergillus niger and A. awamori.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Aspergillus niger and A. awamori strains isolated from grapes cultivated in Mediterranean basin were examined for fumonisin B2 (FB2) production and presence/absence of sequences within the fumonisin biosynthetic gene (fum) cluster. Presence of 13 regions in the fum cluster was evaluated by PCR assay...

  15. Effects of dietary Aspergillus meal prebiotic on turkey poults production parameters and bone qualities

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of dietary Aspergillus meal (AM), a prebiotic on performance and bone parameters of neonatal turkey poults. Prebiotics are nondigestible food ingredients that beneficially affect the host and have been shown to stimulate calcium and magnesium a...

  16. AFLATOXIN FORMATION AND GENE EXPRESSION IN RESPONSE TO CARBON SOURCE MEDIA SHIFT IN ASPERGILLUS PARASITICUS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Aflatoxins are toxic and carcinogenic polyketide metabolites produced by fungal species, including Aspergillus flavus and A. parasiticus. The biosynthesis of aflatoxins is modulated by many environmental factors, including the availability of a carbon source. The gene profile of A. parasiticus was...

  17. Anti-fungal activity of maize silk proteins and role of chitinases in Aspergillus flavus resistance

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Proteins were extracted from silks of two Aspergillus flavus resistant maize (Zea mays L.) inbreds, two susceptible inbreds, and one intermediately-resistant inbred grown in the field. Two-dimensional gel electrophoresis was used to identify and compare expression patterns of the proteins in the m...

  18. Volatile profiles of toxigenic and non-toxigenic Aspergillus flavus using SPME for solid phase extraction

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Toxigenic and atoxigenic strains of Aspergillus flavus were grown on potato dextrose agar (PDA) and wetted sterile, cracked corn for 21 and 14 days, respectively. Volatile compounds produced by A. flavus, as well as those present in the PDA controls and sterile cracked corn, were collected using sol...

  19. Recombination and lineage-specific gene loss in the aflatoxin gene cluster of Aspergillus flavus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Aflatoxins produced by Aspergillus flavus are potent carcinogens that contaminate agricultural crops. Recent efforts to reduce aflatoxin concentrations in crops have focused on biological control using nonaflatoxigenic A. flavus strains AF36 (= NRRL 18543) and NRRL 21882 (the active component of af...

  20. Effect of essential oil of Hyssopus officinalis on the lipid composition of Aspergillus fumigatus.

    PubMed

    Ghfir, B; Fonvieille, J L; Koulali, Y; Ecalle, R; Dargent, R

    1994-06-01

    Addition of the essential oil of Hyssopus officinalis to the culture medium of Aspergillus fumigatus induced alterations in both growth and lipid composition of this mould. Total lipids and sterols were reduced, whereas total phospholipids were increased. There were alterations in the proportions of fatty acids, neutral lipid and phospholipid fractions. PMID:7935731

  1. IDENTIFICATION OF MAIZE KERNEL ENDOSPERM PROTEINS ASSOCIATED WITH RESISTANCE TO AFLATOXIN CONTAMINATION BY ASPERGILLUS FLAVUS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Aflatoxins are carcinogens produced mainly by Aspergillus flavus during infection of susceptible crops, such as maize (Zea mays L.). Previously, embryo proteins from maize genotypes resistant or susceptible to A. flavus infection were compared using proteomics and resistance-associated proteins wer...

  2. Efficacy of probiotic bacteria in reducing Aspergillus parasiticus aflatoxin production and hepatic cytotoxicity in vitro

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Aspergillus parasiticus produces highly hepatocarcinogenic aflatoxins (AF) in grains, which are used as poultry feed ingredients. Contamination of poultry feed with AF is a major concern to the poultry industry due to serious economic losses stemming from poor performance and diminished egg hatchabi...

  3. Mycotoxin Levels and Aspergillus flavus Colonization of Corn and Soybean Under Different Cropping Sequences

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A four year field experiment was initiated in 2005 to determine the effects of eight corn (Zea mays L.)-soybean (Glycine max L. Merr.) rotation schemes on aflatoxin and fumonisin contamination of the crops and colonization of the grain by Aspergillus flavus. Both the corn hybrid and soybean cultiva...

  4. FACTORS AFFECTING THE MAINTENANCE OF ASPERGILLUS FLAVUS TOXIGENICITY IN AGRICULTURAL FIELDS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Species belonging to Aspergillus section Flavi often produce aflatoxins and cyclopiazonic acid, mycotoxins that contaminate preharvest peanuts, corn and cottonseed. Soil populations of A. flavus, A. parasiticus, A. nomius, A. tamarii and A. caelatus were examined over a large geographic area within...

  5. Evaluation of maize inbred lines for resistance to Aspergillus and Fusarium ear rot and mycotoxin accumulation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Mycotoxin contamination in corn grain is a worldwide threat to both human food safety and animal feed ingredients. A select group of inbred corn lines was evaluated in field trials for mycotoxin accumulation in grain and ear rot caused by Aspergillus flavus and Fusarium verticillioides. Our goal ...

  6. Ear Rot, Aflatoxin Accumulation, and Fungal Biomass in Maize after Inoculation with Aspergillus flavus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Aflatoxin, a toxin produced by the fungus Aspergillus flavus Link:Fries, occurs naturally in maize (Zea mays L.). Aflatoxin is a potent human carcinogen and is toxic to livestock, pets, and wildlife. When contaminated with aflatoxin, the value of maize grain is markedly reduced. Eight germplasm l...

  7. Monoclonal Antibodies to Hyphal Exoantigens Derived from the Opportunistic Pathogen Aspergillus terreus

    EPA Science Inventory

    Aspergillus terreus has been difficult to identify in cases of aspergillosis, and clinical identification has been restricted to the broad identification of aspergillosis lesions in affected organs or the detection of fungal carbohydrates. As a result, there is a clinical need to...

  8. Understanding Nonaflatoxigenicity of Aspergillus sojae: A Windfall of Aflatoxin Biosynthesis Research

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Aspergillus section Flavi includes aflatoxin-producing and nonproducing fungi. A. sojae is unable to produce aflatoxins and is generally recognized as safe for food fermentation. However, because of its taxonomical relatedness to aflatoxin-producing A. parasiticus and A. flavus, it is necessary to...

  9. NIGERLYSINTM, HEMOLYSIN PRODUCED BY ASPERGILLUS NIGER, CAUSES LETHALITY OF PRIMARY RAT CORTICAL NEURONAL CELLS IN VITRO

    EPA Science Inventory

    Aspergillus niger produced a proteinaceous hemolysin, nigerlysinTM when incubated on sheep's blood agar at both 23° C and 37°C. Nigerlysin was purified from tryptic soy broth culture filtrate. Purified nigerlysin has a molecular weight of approximately 72 kDa, with an...

  10. The release of the Aspergillus flavus whole genome sequence for public access

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Aflatoxins are produced by Aspergillus flavus and A. parasiticus. These toxic and carcinogenic compounds contaminate pre-harvest agricultural crops in the field and post-harvest grains during storage. In order to reduce and eliminate aflatoxin contamination of food and feed, Aspergilllus flavus wh...

  11. What Can Comparative Genomics Tell Us About Species Concepts in the Genus Aspergillus?

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Understanding the nature of species’ boundaries is a fundamental question in evolutionary biology. The availability of genomes from several species of the genus Aspergillus allows us for the first time to examine the demarcation of fungal species at the whole-genome level. Here, we examine four ca...

  12. Cloning and characterization of a type III polyketide synthase from Aspergillus niger

    E-print Network

    Zhao, Huimin

    Cloning and characterization of a type III polyketide synthase from Aspergillus niger Jinglin Li in plant, bacteria, and fungi. Here we report the cloning and characterization of a putative type III PKS-pyrone synthase, and benzalacetone synthase have been cloned and characterized.4­6 They deviate from

  13. [Action of desiccation and low temperatures on mesospheric strains of Aspergillus niger and Penicillium chrysogenum].

    PubMed

    Imshenetski?, A A; Lysenko, S V; Demina, N S

    1984-01-01

    Aspergillus niger and Penicillium chrysogenum strains were isolated from the mesosphere and characterised. Their properties significant for migration in the atmosphere are discussed. The possibility of the anabiotic state of these fungi under the action of dehydration and low temperatures was studied as well as the degree of their resistance to the aforementioned extreme factors. PMID:6429492

  14. Biodiversity of Aspergillus section Flavi in Europe in relation to the management of aflatoxin risk

    PubMed Central

    Perrone, Giancarlo; Gallo, Antonia; Logrieco, Antonio F.

    2014-01-01

    Aflatoxins and the producing fungi Aspergillus section Flavi are widely known as the most serious and dangerous mycotoxin issue in agricultural products. In Europe, before the outbreak of aflatoxins on maize (2003–2004) due to new climatic conditions, their contamination was confined to imported foods. Little information is available on molecular biodiversity and population structure of Aspergillus section Flavi in Europe. Preliminary reports evidenced the massive presence of Aspergillus flavus L -morphotype as the predominant species in maize field, no evidence of the highly toxigenic S-morphotype and of other aflatoxigenic species are reported. The risk of a shift in traditional occurrence areas for aflatoxins is expected in the world and in particular in South East of Europe due to the increasing average temperatures. Biological control of aflatoxin risk in the field by atoxigenic strains of A. flavus starts to be widely used in Africa and USA. Studies are necessary on the variation of aflatoxin production in populations of A. flavus to characterize stable atoxigenic A. flavus strains. The aim of present article is to give an overview on biodiversity and genetic variation of Aspergillus section Flavi in Europe in relation to the management of aflatoxins risk in the field. PMID:25101075

  15. Development and Refinement of a High-Efficiency Gene-Targeting System for Aspergillus flavus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The development of an efficient gene-targeting system is a prerequisite for success in the functional genomics study of Aspergillus flavus, an aflatoxin-producing fungus of great economic importance. To this end, the ku70 gene, a gene of the nonhomologous end-joining pathway, was deleted to increase...

  16. Molasses Supplementation Promotes Conidiation but Suppresses Aflatoxin Production by Small Sclerotial Aspergillus flavus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Aims: To find an agar medium ingredient that significantly promotes conidial production in small sclerotia (S strain) Aspergillus flavus isolates that normally produce lower numbers of conidia than large sclerotia (L strain) A. flavus isolates on routinely used growth media. Methods and Results: ...

  17. Genes differentially expressed by Aspergillus flavus strains after loss of aflatoxin production by serial transfers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Aflatoxins are carcinogenic fungal secondary metabolites produced by Aspergillus flavus and other closely related species. Levels of aflatoxins in agricultural commodities are stringently regulated by many countries and thus aflatoxins are a major concern to both producers and consumers. A cluster...

  18. New pterocarpenes elicited by Aspergillus caelatus in peanut (Arachis hypogaea) seeds

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Two new substituted pterocarpenes named aracarpene-1 and aracarpene-2 have been isolated from wounded peanut seeds challenged by a strain of Aspergillus caelatus. The structures of these new putative phytoalexins were determined by interpretation of NMR and MS data. Together with peanut stilbenoids ...

  19. Enzymatic Comparisons of Aspergillus niger PhyA and Escherichia coli AppA2 Phytases

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study was to compare three phytase activity assays and kinetics of Aspergillus niger PhyA and Escherichia coli AppA2 phytases expressed in Pichia pastoris at the observed stomach pH of 3.5. In Experiment 1, equivalent phytase activities in the crude preparations of PhyA and AppA2 were tested ...

  20. Measurement and analysis on optical characteristics of Aspergillus oryzae spores in infrared band

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Le; Hu, Yihua; Gu, Youlin; Chen, Wei; Xu, Shilong; Zhao, Xinying

    2015-10-01

    Spore is an important part of bioaerosols. The optical characteristics of spore is a crucial parameter for study on bioaerosols. The reflection within the waveband of 2.5 to15?m were measured by squash method. Based on the measured data, Complex refractive index of Aspergillus oryzae spores within the waveband of 3 to 5?m and 8 to 14 ?m were calculated by using Krames-Kronig (K-K) relationship. Then,the mass extinction coefficient of Aspergillus oryzae spores within the waveband of 3 to 5?m and 8 to 14?m were obtained by utilizing Mie scattering theory, and the results were analyzed and discussed. The average mass extinction coefficient of Aspergillus oryzae spores is 0.51 m2/g in the range of 3 to 5?m and 0.48m2/g in the range of 8 to 14?m. Compared with common inorganic compounds, Aspergillus oryzae spores possesses a good extinction performance in infrared band.