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1

Taxonomic revision of Eurotium and transfer of species to Aspergillus.  

PubMed

Aspergillus section Aspergillus contains economically important, xerophilic fungi that are widely distributed in nature and the human environment and are known for their ability to grow on substrates with low water activity. The taxa were revised based on sequence data from four loci, PCR fingerprinting, micro- and macromorphology, and physiology. The number of taxa was reduced to 17 species, all of which can be distinguished with sequence data from either the caM or RPB2 locus. The original description of A. proliferans was supplemented by a description of its teleomorph. This species seems to be relatively common and often has been confused with A. glaucus. In addition, green sporulating isolates of A. niveoglaucus isolated from food and several other substrates are indistinguishable in phenotype from A. glaucus. A dichotomous key based on ascospore size and ornamentation and the ability to grow at specific combinations of temperature and water activity is provided for identification of species. In response to recent changes in the botanical code, we transferred the Eurotium species to Aspergillus and selected one name for each species. PMID:23396159

Hubka, Vit; Kolarík, Miroslav; Kubátová, Alena; Peterson, Stephen W

2013-01-01

2

Aspergillus penicilloides and Eurotium halophilicum in association with house-dust mites.  

PubMed

Aspergillus penicilloides Speg., Eurotium halophilicum Christensen et al. and other xerophilic fungi were isolated from house dust. The isolates of E. halophilicum are described and compared with the type strain of this species. A. penicilloides appeared to be rather common. The species concept of this species is broadened to accomodate some variable forms with different colony characters and conidophore structures. The role of both species is discussed in connection with house-dust mites, house-dust allergy and skin diseases. PMID:714145

Samson, R A; van der Lustgraaf, B

1978-09-01

3

Taxonomic revision of Eurotium and transfer of species to Aspergillus  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Section Aspergillus contains economically important, xerophilic species widely distributed in nature and the human environment that are known for their ability to grow on substrates with low water activity. The high level of phenoplasticity and frequent occurrence of mutants with atypical morphology...

4

Water relations of Paecilomyces variotii, Eurotium amstelodami, Aspergillus candidus and Aspergillus sydowii, xerophilic fungi isolated from Indonesian dried fish.  

PubMed

The water relations of four xerotolerant fungi, Paecilomyces variotii, Eurotium amstelodami, Aspergillus candidus and Aspergillus sydowii, isolated from dried salt fish, were examined at 25 degrees C, on media in which water activity (aW) was controlled by NaCl or a glucose/fructose mixture. All fungi were less tolerant of NaCl than glucose/fructose at low aW. P. variotii grew 2 to 3 times faster on glucose/fructose media than on NaCl. The minimum aW permitting germination varied from 0.753 for E. amstelodami and, 0.776 for A. candidus and A. sydowii to 0.793 for P. variotii. At low aW germination was not always followed by growth. In most cases the minimum for growth was 0.02 aW units above that for germination. PMID:3275312

Wheeler, K A; Hocking, A D

1988-08-01

5

An attempt to optimize potassium sorbate use to preserve low pH (4.5-5.5) intermediate moisture bakery products by modelling Eurotium spp., Aspergillus spp. and Penicillium corylophilum growth.  

PubMed

Mould growth was modelled on fermented bakery product analogues (FBPA) of two different pH (4.5 and 5.5), different water activity (a(w)) levels (0.80-0.90) and potassium sorbate concentrations (0-0.3%) by using seven moulds commonly causing spoilage of bakery products (Eurotium spp., Aspergillus spp. and Penicillium corylophilum). For the description of fungal growth (growth rates) as a function of a(w), potassium sorbate concentration and pH, 10-terms polynomial models were developed. Modelling enables prediction of spoilage during storage as a function of the factors affecting fungal growth. At pH 4.5 the concentration of potassium sorbate could be reduced to some extent only at low levels of a(w), whereas at pH 5.5 fungal growth was observed even by adding 0.3% of potassium sorbate. However, this preservative could be a valuable alternative as antifungal in such bakery product, of slightly acidic pH, if a long shelf life has not to be achieved. PMID:15862879

Guynot, M Elena; Marín, Sonia; Sanchis, Vicente; Ramos, Antonio J

2005-05-25

6

Occurrence of toxigenic Aspergillus spp. and aflatoxins in selected food commodities of Asian origin sourced in the West of Scotland.  

PubMed

The occurrence of Aspergillus moulds and aflatoxins in 12 commercially-available dried foods of Asian origin were examined. All food samples, except green beans and three types of dried fruit, contained multiple genera of moulds of which Aspergillus (55%) was the most frequently detected. Penicillium (15%), Rhizopus (11%), Mucor (3%), Monascus (1%), Eurotium (1%) and unidentified (14%) were also observed. The occurrence of aflatoxigenic moulds, however, did not correspond with the occurrence of aflatoxins in foods. Aflatoxigenic Aspergillus spp. (39 isolates) were recovered from long grain rice, fragrant rice, peanuts, black beans and black pepper. The predominant Aspergillus species was A. parasiticus (61%) while Aspergillus oryzae (3%), Aspergillus utus (5%), Aspergillus niger (5%), Aspergillus ochraceus (3%) and unidentified (23%) were also observed. Long grain rice, fragrant rice, peanuts, black beans and black pepper were positive for Aspergillus but contained undetectable aflatoxins. In contrast, Jasmine brown rice and crushed chilli contained 14.7 and 11.4?g/kg of total aflatoxins, respectively, in the absence of Aspergillus so aflatoxigenic Aspergillus was present at some stage of food production. The results from this study emphasise the need for stricter control measures in reducing occurrence of aflatoxins in foods for export and domestic use. PMID:23416649

Ruadrew, Sayan; Craft, John; Aidoo, Kofi

2013-05-01

7

The genus Eurotium - members of indigenous fungal community in hypersaline waters of salterns.  

PubMed

Six different species of the known teleomorphic food-borne xerophilic genus Eurotium were repeatedly isolated in a mycodiversity study of hypersaline waters. At salinities above 17% NaCl, E. amstelodami was detected most consistently, followed by E. repens and E. herbariorum, while E. rubrum, E. chevalieri and a potentially new species, "Eurotium halotolerans", were detected only occasionally at lower salinities. The qualitative secondary metabolite profiles produced by Eurotium spp. from salterns were not different from those of Eurotium spp. from foods and other habitats. Spatiotemporal frequency of occurrence and in vitro determined adaptive ability of propagules to survive prolonged exposure to hypersaline conditions indicate that E. amstelodami, E. herbariorum, and E. repens contribute to the indigenous fungal community in hypersaline water environments, while E. rubrum, E. chevalieri and "E. halotolerans" are only temporal inhabitants of brine at lower salinities. PMID:16329864

Butinar, Lorena; Zalar, Polona; Frisvad, Jens C; Gunde-Cimerman, Nina

2005-01-01

8

Aspergillus cibarius sp. nov., from traditional meju in Korea.  

PubMed

Aspergillus cibarius sp. nov. isolated from meju, a brick of dried fermented soybeans in Korea, is described. The species was also found from black bean, bread and salami in the Netherlands. It is characterized by abundant yellow to reddish brown ascomata and small lenticular ascospores (4.5-5.5 ?m) with a wide furrow, low equatorial crests and tuberculate or reticulate convex surface. The species was resolved as phylogenetically distinct from the other reported Aspergillus species with an Eurotium teleomorph based on multilocus sequence typing using partial fragments of the ?-tubulin, calmodulin, ITS and RNA polymerase II genes. PMID:22923125

Hong, Seung-Beom; Lee, Mina; Kim, Dae-Ho; Meijer, Martin; Majoor, Eline; Vankuyk, Patricia A; Samson, Robert A

2012-08-01

9

Water activity and temperature effects on growth of Eurotium amstelodami, E. chevalieri and E. herbariorum on a sponge cake analogue  

Microsoft Academic Search

Eurotium is a widespread storage fungal genus that has been frequently isolated from bakery products. The objective of this study was (i) to obtain a method for studying the growth of xerophilic fungi on bakery products, and (ii) to determine the effects of water activity (aw), temperature, isolate and their interactions on mycelial growth of Eurotium spp. on an analogue

M Abellana; X Magr??; V Sanchis; A. J Ramos

1999-01-01

10

Benzyl Derivatives with in Vitro Binding Affinity for Human Opioid Receptors and Cannabinoid Receptors from the Fungus Eurotium repens  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Bioassay-guided fractionation of the fungus Eurotium repens resulted in the isolation of two benzyl derivatives, repenol A (1) and repenol B (2). Seven known secondary metabolites were also isolated including five benzaldehyde compounds, flavoglaucin (3), tetrahydroauroglaucin (4), dihydroauroglauci...

11

Aspergillus Sinusitis  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a \\u000a Aspergillus sinusitis has several distinct clinical manifestations, which are determined by the presence or absence of tissue invasion\\u000a as well as the host’s response to the fungus. Most, but not all fungal sinusitis is caused by Aspergillus organisms. This section on Aspergillus sinusitis utilizes the currently accepted classification scheme for categorising fungal rhinosinusitis. An aspergilloma (fungal\\u000a ball) is a non-invasive

Matthew W. Ryan; Bradley F. Marple

12

Biodiversity of Aspergillus Species in Some Important Agricultural Products  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The genus Aspergillus is one of the most important filamentous fungal genera. Aspergillus species are used in the fermentation industry, but they are also responsible of various plant and food secondary rot, with the consequence of possible accumulation of mycotoxins. The aflatoxin-producing A. fl...

13

Phylogeny, identification and nomenclature of the genus Aspergillus  

PubMed Central

Aspergillus comprises a diverse group of species based on morphological, physiological and phylogenetic characters, which significantly impact biotechnology, food production, indoor environments and human health. Aspergillus was traditionally associated with nine teleomorph genera, but phylogenetic data suggest that together with genera such as Polypaecilum, Phialosimplex, Dichotomomyces and Cristaspora, Aspergillus forms a monophyletic clade closely related to Penicillium. Changes in the International Code of Nomenclature for algae, fungi and plants resulted in the move to one name per species, meaning that a decision had to be made whether to keep Aspergillus as one big genus or to split it into several smaller genera. The International Commission of Penicillium and Aspergillus decided to keep Aspergillus instead of using smaller genera. In this paper, we present the arguments for this decision. We introduce new combinations for accepted species presently lacking an Aspergillus name and provide an updated accepted species list for the genus, now containing 339 species. To add to the scientific value of the list, we include information about living ex-type culture collection numbers and GenBank accession numbers for available representative ITS, calmodulin, ?-tubulin and RPB2 sequences. In addition, we recommend a standard working technique for Aspergillus and propose calmodulin as a secondary identification marker. PMID:25492982

Samson, R.A.; Visagie, C.M.; Houbraken, J.; Hong, S.-B.; Hubka, V.; Klaassen, C.H.W.; Perrone, G.; Seifert, K.A.; Susca, A.; Tanney, J.B.; Varga, J.; Kocsubé, S.; Szigeti, G.; Yaguchi, T.; Frisvad, J.C.

2014-01-01

14

Mycoflora of Soybeans Used for Meju Fermentation  

PubMed Central

Diverse fungi are present in Korean traditional meju and they are known to play an important role in fermented soybean products. To determine the origin of the fungi in meju, we examined the mycoflora of soybeans from 10 traditional meju factories. The samples were untreated or treated with sodium hypochlorite, and placed on malt extract agar (MEA), dichloran 18% glycerol agar (DG18), and dichloran rose bengal chloramphenicol agar (DRBC) medium. A total of 794 fungal strains were isolated and they were identified as 41 genera and 86 species. From sodium hypochlorite untreated soybeans, the genera, Cladosporium (55%), Eurotium (51%), Fusarium (33%), Penicillium (22%), and Aspergillus (exclusion of Eurotium) (20%), were mainly isolated, and Eurotium herbariorum (22%), Eurotium repens (18%), Cladosporium tenuissimum (18%), F. fujikuroi (18%), Aspergillus oryzae/flavus (7%), and Penicillium steckii (6%) were the predominant species. In case of sodium hypochlorite-treated soybeans, Eurotium (31%) and Cladosporium (5%) were frequently isolated, but Aspergillus (excluding Eurotium), Penicillium and Fusarium which were frequently isolated from untreated soybeans, were rarely isolated. Eurotium herbariorum (21%), Eurotium repens (8%), and Cladosporium tenuissimum (3%) were the predominant species. Of the 41 genera and 86 species isolated from soybeans, 13 genera and 33 species were also found in meju. These results suggest that the fungi on soybeans may influence the mycoflora of meju. PMID:23874133

Kim, Dae-Ho; Kim, Seon-Hwa; Kwon, Soon-Wo; Lee, Jong-Kyu

2013-01-01

15

ASCOCARPS OF ASPERGILLUS AND PENICILLIUM l  

Microsoft Academic Search

(WITH 21 FIGURES) The industrial and commercial importance of Aspergillus and Peni- cillium has stimulated extensive study of these form genera. According to Raper and Thorn (1949), more than 700 species have been described as penicillia alone. The emphasis in current literature is on the conidial stages, and the manuals by Raper and Thorn (1949) and Thorn and Raper (1945)

CHESTER R. BENJAMIN

16

[Effect of water activity on the growth of the xerophilic mold Eurotium herbariorum].  

PubMed

The influence of water activity (aw) on growth of a xerophilic mold isolated from dried figs and identified as Eurotium herbariorum was studied on culture media of aw adjusted with sucrose or glycerol. Rate of radial growth (kr) and lag period were the kinetic parameters analyzed. Fungal growth was inhibited at aw > 0.97. In the presence of sucrose, optimum growth was found in M6OY agar (malt agar with yeast extract and 60% W/V of sucrose, aw = 0.95). On glycerol (aw ranging from 0.65 to 0.90) the fungus did not grow at aw < 0.80. Sucrose supported better growth than glycerol at aw 0.90. PMID:8234733

Vaamonde, G; Fernández Pinto, V E

1993-01-01

17

Genomic adaptations of the halophilic Dead Sea filamentous fungus Eurotium rubrum.  

PubMed

The Dead Sea is one of the most hypersaline habitats on Earth. The fungus Eurotium rubrum (Eurotiomycetes) is among the few species able to survive there. Here we highlight its adaptive strategies, based on genome analysis and transcriptome profiling. The 26.2?Mb genome of E. rubrum shows, for example, gains in gene families related to stress response and losses with regard to transport processes. Transcriptome analyses under different salt growth conditions revealed, among other things differentially expressed genes encoding ion and metabolite transporters. Our findings suggest that long-term adaptation to salinity requires cellular and metabolic responses that differ from short-term osmotic stress signalling. The transcriptional response indicates that halophilic E. rubrum actively counteracts the salinity stress. Many of its genes encode for proteins with a significantly higher proportion of acidic amino acid residues. This trait is characteristic of the halophilic prokaryotes as well, supporting the theory of convergent evolution under extreme hypersaline stress. PMID:24811710

Kis-Papo, Tamar; Weig, Alfons R; Riley, Robert; Peršoh, Derek; Salamov, Asaf; Sun, Hui; Lipzen, Anna; Wasser, Solomon P; Rambold, Gerhard; Grigoriev, Igor V; Nevo, Eviatar

2014-01-01

18

Water activity and temperature effects on growth of Eurotium amstelodami, E. chevalieri and E. herbariorum on a sponge cake analogue.  

PubMed

Eurotium is a widespread storage fungal genus that has been frequently isolated from bakery products. The objective of this study was (i) to obtain a method for studying the growth of xerophilic fungi on bakery products, and (ii) to determine the effects of water activity (a(w)), temperature, isolate and their interactions on mycelial growth of Eurotium spp. on an analogue medium of sponge cake. Statistical analysis showed that there were intra-isolate differences (P<0.001) due to a(w), temperature, isolate, and two- and three-way interactions. Optimum growth of all isolates over a(w) x temperature range tested showed optima at 0.90 a(w) and 30 degrees C, with an interval of growth rate of 3.8-5.1 mm x d(-1). At 0.75 a(w), growth was less than 0.15 mm x d(-1), if there was any. PMID:10573396

Abellana, M; Magrí, X; Sanchis, V; Ramos, A J

1999-11-01

19

Sphingomonas and Related Genera  

SciTech Connect

INTRODUCTION-The genus Sphingomonas was defined by Yabuuchi et al. (1990) as a group of Gram-negative, rod-shaped, chemoheterotrophic, strictly aerobic bacteria that possess ubiquinone 10 as the major respiratory quinone, contain glycosphingolipids (GSLs) instead of lipopolysaccharide in their cell envelopes, and typically produce yellow-pigmented colonies. By 2001, the genus included more than 20 species that were quite diverse in terms of their phylogenetic, ecological, and physiological properties. As a result, Takeuchi et al. (2001) subdivided Sphingomonas into four genera: Sphingomonas, Sphingobium, Novosphingobium and Sphingopyxis...

Balkwill, David L.; Fredrickson, Jim K.; Romine, Margaret F.

2003-12-31

20

Evaluation of Chemicals for Restricting Colony Spreading by a Xerophilic Mold, Eurotium amstelodami, on Dichloran-18% Glycerol Agar  

PubMed Central

Twenty chemicals were screened for their effectiveness in restricting colony spreading by four strains of a xerophilic mold, Eurotium amstelodami, on dichloran-18% glycerol agar. Triton X-100, Triton X-301, Tergitol NP-7, and Tergitol 15-S-3 (each at 200 ?g/ml) and 1,000 ?g of sodium deoxycholate, 1 ?g of iprodione, 0.1 ?g of propiconazole, and 0.01 ?g of Maxim per ml were judged to be most effective for restricting the rate of colony spreading. PMID:16348725

Beuchat, Larry R.; De Daza, Maria Soledad Tapia

1992-01-01

21

Effects of ozone exposure on the xerophilic fungus, Eurotium amstelodami IS-SAB-01, isolated from naan bread.  

PubMed

Xerophilic moulds cause contamination and spoilage of low moisture foods. This study examined the effect of ozone fumigation on growth of a Eurotium species isolated from naan bread. Two ozone treatments were used - a low-level long-term exposure (0.4 ?mol/mol for 21 days) and high-level short-term exposure (300 ?mol/mol for 5 to 120 min). For the low level exposure the combination of different media sucrose concentrations (0, 5, 10 and 20% w/v) with ozone treatment was also assessed. The growth of the isolate was found to be sensitive to low-level ozone fumigation depending on the media sucrose concentration and duration of the exposure. Low-level ozone exposure significantly (p<0.05) reduced the number of asexual spores formed in media with no added sucrose, an effect not observed in media with higher sucrose levels. Electron microscope observations of colonies indicated that ozone exposed cultures produced lower numbers of cleistothecia. High-level ozone exposure for short durations reduced spore viability although 100% reduction in viability was achieved only after 120 min exposure. This work demonstrates that ozone may be used to reduce spore production in Eurotium but that the ozone effect can be mediated by sucrose levels in the growth medium. PMID:21093088

Antony-Babu, Sanjay; Singleton, Ian

2011-01-01

22

Aspergillus spinal epidural abscess  

SciTech Connect

A spinal epidural abscess developed in a renal transplant recipient; results of a serum radioimmunoassay for Aspergillus antigen were positive. Laminectomy disclosed an abscess of the L4-5 interspace and L-5 vertebral body that contained hyphal forms and from which Aspergillus species was cultured. Serum Aspergillus antigen radioimmunoassay may be a valuable, specific early diagnostic test when systemic aspergillosis is a consideration in an immunosuppressed host.

Byrd, B.F. III (Vanderbilt Univ. School of Medicine, Nashville, TN); Weiner, M.H.; McGee, Z.A.

1982-12-17

23

Modern taxonomy of biotechnologically important Aspergillus and Penicillium species.  

PubMed

Taxonomy is a dynamic discipline and name changes of fungi with biotechnological, industrial, or medical importance are often difficult to understand for researchers in the applied field. Species belonging to the genera Aspergillus and Penicillium are commonly used or isolated, and inadequate taxonomy or uncertain nomenclature of these genera can therefore lead to tremendous confusion. Misidentification of strains used in biotechnology can be traced back to (1) recent changes in nomenclature, (2) new taxonomic insights, including description of new species, and/or (3) incorrect identifications. Changes in the recent published International Code of Nomenclature for Algae, Fungi and Plants will lead to numerous name changes of existing Aspergillus and Penicillium species and an overview of the current names of biotechnological important species is given. Furthermore, in (biotechnological) literature old and invalid names are still used, such as Aspergillus awamori, A. foetidus, A. kawachii, Talaromyces emersonii, Acremonium cellulolyticus, and Penicillium funiculosum. An overview of these and other species with their correct names is presented. Furthermore, the biotechnologically important species Talaromyces thermophilus is here combined in Thermomyces as Th. dupontii. The importance of Aspergillus, Penicillium, and related genera is also illustrated by the high number of undertaken genome sequencing projects. A number of these strains are incorrectly identified or atypical strains are selected for these projects. Recommendations for correct strain selection are given here. Phylogenetic analysis shows a close relationship between the genome-sequenced strains of Aspergillus, Penicillium, and Monascus. Talaromyces stipitatus and T. marneffei (syn. Penicillium marneffei) are closely related to Thermomyces lanuginosus and Th. dupontii (syn. Talaromyces thermophilus), and these species appear to be distantly related to Aspergillus and Penicillium. In the last part of this review, an overview of heterothallic reproduction in Aspergillus and Penicillium is given. The new insights in the taxonomy of Aspergillus, Penicillium, and related genera will help to interpret the results generated with comparative genomics studies or other studies dealing with evolution of, for example, enzymes, mating-type loci, virulence genes, and secondary metabolite biosynthetic gene clusters. PMID:24377856

Houbraken, Jos; de Vries, Ronald P; Samson, Robert A

2014-01-01

24

Seasonal variability of culturable fungal genera in the house dust of inner-city residences.  

PubMed

House dust samples were collected up to six times over a 1-year period to explore seasonal variability of individual fungal genera in inner-city households in Minneapolis, Minnesota. General linear mixed-effects models were used to explore the variability of 13 fungal genera (Cladosporium, yeasts, Aureobasidium, Alternaria, Penicillium, Epicoccum, Mucor, Rhodotorula, Aspergillus, sterile fungi, Phoma, Pithomyces, and Fusarium) found in more than 20% of total dust samples. The five most common fungi (% of samples detected) were Cladosporium (81%), yeasts (63%), Aureobasidium (57%), Alternaria (56%), and Penicillium (55%), with the remaining genera found in 20-50% of the samples. When expressed as frequency of occurrence (%), genus fraction of total fungal concentration (%), or concentration of individual genera (CFU/g), these five genera also varied substantially by season. In contrast, Aureobasidium, Fusarium, and Mucor levels remained relatively constant throughout the year. The observed concentrations of the five most common fungal genera were higher than levels associated with increased respiratory symptoms reported in previous studies. Our results indicate that seasonal variability in common fungal genera is large: within-home to between-home variance ratios of Penicillium (4.1), Alternaria (4.9), Cladosporium (7.1), and yeasts (20.3) were substantially larger than that observed for total fungi (2.5). These results suggest that future studies attempting to link individual fungal genera to health effects need to characterize and control for this seasonal variability. PMID:18932081

Cho, Sook Ja; Ramachandran, Gurumurthy; Banerjee, Sudipto; Ryan, Andrew D; Adgate, John L

2008-12-01

25

The genera of the Chaperiidae (Bryozoa)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The genera of the bryozoan family Chaperiidae are reconsidered on the basis of type and other material and undescribed species from the New Zealand region, and 11 genera are recognised. Uttley’s Chaperiopsis is considered to be validly separable from Chaperia sensu stricto and to include Uttley & Bullivant’s genera Scutochaperia, Parmachaperia, and Clipeochaperia (retained as a subgenus). Two new genera,

Dennis P. Gordon

1982-01-01

26

Aspergillus asperescens n. sp  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  A newAspergillus species,Aspergillus asperescens, is described. Three strains of this fungus have been isolated from soil and dung of bats in caves in Great-Britain and Poland.\\u000a It is characterized by a yellow green colour, radiate conidial heads, two series of sterigmata, a brown conidiophore, hülle\\u000a cells and subglobose conidia, which are smooth in young and rough in old cultures.

Amelia C. Stolk

1954-01-01

27

Mycological survey for potential aflatoxin and ochratoxin producers and their toxicological properties in harvested Brazilian black pepper  

Microsoft Academic Search

A mycological survey was carried out on 115 samples of whole dried black pepper seeds, from two main production regions of Brazil (Pará and Espírito Santo). A high incidence of contamination was verified in both regions when 99.1% of the samples showed filamentous fungi contamination. A total of 497 species of nine different genera were isolated (Aspergillus, Eurotium, Rhizopus, Penicillium,

M. J. Gatti; M. E. Fraga; C. Magnoli; A. M. Dalcero; C. A. da Rocha Rosa

2003-01-01

28

Aspergillus fumigatus and related species.  

PubMed

The genus Aspergillus contains etiologic agents of aspergillosis. The clinical manifestations of the disease range from allergic reaction to invasive pulmonary infection. Among the pathogenic aspergilli, Aspergillus fumigatus is most ubiquitous in the environment and is the major cause of the disease, followed by Aspergillus flavus, Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus terreus, Aspergillus nidulans, and several species in the section Fumigati that morphologically resemble A. fumigatus. Patients that are at risk for acquiring aspergillosis are those with an altered immune system. Early diagnosis, species identification, and adequate antifungal therapy are key elements for treatment of the disease, especially in cases of pulmonary invasive aspergillosis that often advance very rapidly. Incorporating knowledge of the basic biology of Aspergillus species to that of the diseases that they cause is fundamental for further progress in the field. PMID:25377144

Sugui, Janyce A; Kwon-Chung, Kyung J; Juvvadi, Praveen R; Latgé, Jean-Paul; Steinbach, William J

2015-02-01

29

Water activity and temperature effects on germination and growth of Eurotium amstelodami, E. chevalieri and E. herbariorum isolates from bakery products.  

PubMed

This study investigated the effect of temperature (5-30 degrees C), water activity (0.775-0.90 aw) and their interactions on the temporal rates of germination and mycelial growth of three species of Eurotium on flour wheat sucrose medium. Germination was quite rapid at aw >0.85, with an almost linear increase with time for all isolates. However, under more extreme water stress, germination was slower. The aw minima for germination were usually lower than those for growth and varied with temperature. The effect of aw x temperature interactions on the lag phases (h) prior to germination and on the germination rates (h-1) were predicted using the Gompertz model modified by Zwietering. Eurotium spp. had shown short lag times at 0.90 aw over a wide range of temperatures. At marginal temperatures, lag phases were significantly longer, especially at >15 degrees C. The temperature x aw profiles for mycelial growth varied between species in terms of rates (mm d(-1)). Predictions of the effect of important environmental factors, such as temperature, aw and their interactions on lag times to germination, germination rates and mycelial growth, are important in the development of hurdle technology approaches to predict fungal spoilage in food products. PMID:10540239

Abellana, M; Benedí, J; Sanchis, V; Ramos, A J

1999-09-01

30

GENOMICS OF ASPERGILLUS FUMIGATUS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Aspergillus fumigatus is a filamentous fungal saprophyte that is ubiquitous in the environment. It is also a human pathogen and induces allergenic response, negatively impacting health care and associated costs significantly around the world. Much of the basic biology of this organism is only poor...

31

Redefining Ceratocystis and allied genera  

PubMed Central

The genus Ceratocystis was established in 1890 and accommodates many important fungi. These include serious plant pathogens, significant insect symbionts and agents of timber degradation that result in substantial economic losses. Virtually since its type was described from sweet potatoes, the taxonomy of Ceratocystis has been confused and vigorously debated. In recent years, particulary during the last two decades, it has become very obvious that this genus includes a wide diversity of very different fungi. These have been roughly lumped together due to their similar morphological structures that have clearly evolved through convergent evolution linked to an insect-associated ecology. As has been true for many other groups of fungi, the emergence of DNA-based sequence data and associated phylogenetic inferences, have made it possible to robustly support very distinct boundaries defined by morphological characters and ecological differences. In this study, DNA-sequence data for three carefully selected gene regions (60S, LSU, MCM7) were generated for 79 species residing in the aggregate genus Ceratocystis sensu lato and these data were subjected to rigorous phylogenetic analyses. The results made it possible to distinguish seven major groups for which generic names have been chosen and descriptions either provided or emended. The emended genera included Ceratocystis sensu stricto, Chalaropsis, Endoconidiophora, Thielaviopsis, and Ambrosiella, while two new genera, Davidsoniella and Huntiella, were described. In total, 30 new combinations have been made. This major revision of the generic boundaries in the Ceratocystidaceae will simplify future treatments and work with an important group of fungi including distantly related species illogically aggregated under a single name. PMID:25492989

de Beer, Z.W.; Duong, T.A.; Barnes, I.; Wingfield, B.D.; Wingfield, M.J.

2014-01-01

32

The Tree and Shrub Genera of Borneo  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

James Jarvie of The Arnold Arboretum of Harvard University and Indonesian colleague Ermayanti of Conservation International have put together this database on the tree and shrub genera of Borneo. The illustrated database "offers a DELTA-based interactive key to the 534 tree genera of the island" and is available in English or Indonesian. Also included is a detailed, hyperlinked index of genera and a large selection of pen-and-ink images.

Ermayanti.

33

Overview of Aspergillus Allergens  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Fungi in general and, Aspergillus fumigatus (A. fumigatus) in particular, are able to produce complex patterns of IgE-binding molecules. Robotics-based high throughput screening of\\u000a A. fumigatus cDNA libraries displayed on phage surfaces revealed at last 81 different sequences encoding structures potentially able to\\u000a bind to serum IgE of sensitised individuals suffering from A. fumigatus-related complications. Although not all of these

R. Crameri; A. G. Glaser; M. Vilhelmsson; S. Zeller; C. Rhyner

34

Biomarkers of Aspergillus spores  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We applied both matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time of flight (MALDI-TOF) mass spectrometric and 1D sodium dodecylsulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoretic (1D-PAGE) approaches for direct analysis of intact fungal spores of twenty four Aspergillus species. In parallel, we optimized various protocols for protein extraction from Aspergillus spores using acidic conditions, step organic gradient and variable sonication treatment. The MALDI-TOF mass spectra obtained from optimally prepared samples provided a reproducible fingerprint demonstrating the capability of the MALDI-TOF approach to type and characterize different fungal strains within the Aspergillus genus. Mass spectra of intact fungal spores provided signals mostly below 20 kDa. The minimum material amount represented 0.3 [mu]g (10,000 spores). Proteins with higher molecular weight were detected by 1D-PAGEE Eleven proteins were identified from three selected strains in the range 5-25 kDa by the proteomic approach. Hemolysin and hydrophobin have the highest relevance in host-pathogen interactions.

Sulc, Miroslav; Peslova, Katerina; Zabka, Martin; Hajduch, Marian; Havlicek, Vladimir

2009-02-01

35

Aspergillus: sex and recombination.  

PubMed

The genus Aspergillus is one of the most widespread groups of fungi on Earth, comprised of about 300-350 species with very diverse lifestyles. Most species produce asexual propagula (conidia) on conidial heads. Despite their ubiquity, a sexual cycle has not yet been identified for most of the aspergilli. Where sexual reproduction is present, species exhibit either homothallic (self fertile) or heterothallic (obligate outcrossing) breeding systems. A parasexual cycle has also been described in some Aspergillus species. As in other fungi, sexual reproduction is governed by mating-type (MAT) genes, which determine sexual identity and are involved in regulating later stages of sexual development. Previous population genetic studies have indicated that some supposedly asexual aspergilli exhibit evidence of a recombining population structure, suggesting the presence of a cryptic sexual cycle. In addition, genome analyses have revealed networks of genes necessary for sexual reproduction in several Aspergillus species, again consistent with latent sexuality in these fungi. Knowledge of MAT gene presence has then successfully been applied to induce sexual reproduction between MAT1-1 and MAT1-2 isolates of certain supposedly asexual aspergilli. Recent progress in understanding the extent and significance of sexual reproduction is described here, with special emphasis on findings that are relevant to clinically important aspergilli. PMID:25118872

Varga, János; Szigeti, Gyöngyi; Baranyi, Nikolett; Kocsubé, Sándor; O'Gorman, Céline M; Dyer, Paul S

2014-12-01

36

Rubrumazines A-C, Indolediketopiperazines of the Isoechinulin Class from Eurotium rubrum MA-150, a Fungus Obtained from Marine Mangrove-Derived Rhizospheric Soil.  

PubMed

Three new indolediketopiperazine alkaloids of the isoechinulin type, rubrumazines A-C (1-3), each possessing an oxygenated prenyl group either at C-7 (1 and 2) or at C-5 (3), along with 13 related analogues (4-16), were isolated and identified from a culture extract of Eurotium rubrum MA-150, a fungus obtained from mangrove-derived rhizospheric soil collected from the Andaman Sea coastline, Thailand. Their structures were established by detailed interpretation of NMR spectroscopic and mass spectrometry data analysis. The structure and absolute configuration of compound 1 were confirmed by X-ray crystallographic analysis, thus providing the first characterized crystal structure of an isoechinulin-type alkaloid. All isolated compounds were evaluated for brine shrimp lethality and antibacterial activity. PMID:25730346

Meng, Ling-Hong; Du, Feng-Yu; Li, Xiao-Ming; Pedpradab, Patchara; Xu, Gang-Ming; Wang, Bin-Gui

2015-04-24

37

The Bee Genera of Eastern Canada  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Some 39 genera of bees, illustrated with full habitus photos, are included in this online article. Information about nests, behavior, floral relationships, as well as conservation are thoroughly covered. Includes an extensive references section.

0000-00-00

38

Aspergillus, its sexual states and the new International Code of Nomenclature.  

PubMed

The newly adopted International Code of Nomenclature for algae, fungi and plants (ICN) demands that dimorphic fungi, in particular those with both sexual and asexual names, now bear a single name. Although priority is no longer associated with the mode of reproduction, the ICN requires justification for choosing an asexual name over an existing sexual one. The phylogenetic approach that made dual nomenclature for fungi obsolete can be used to help choose names for large groups of fungi that are best known by asexual names. Here we apply this approach to one of the largest and most diverse asexual genera, the genus Aspergillus. We find that existing sexual names may be given to well supported clades of fungi with distinct phenotypes, which include sexual morphology as well as physiological attributes associated with xerophily, thermophily and mycotoxin production. One group of species important to food production and food safety, Aspergillus subgen. Circumdati, lacks a well supported clade; here we propose that the name Aspergillus be retained for this group. Recognizing that nomenclature has economic and social implications, particularly for old, important genera, we discuss the consequences of various scenarios to implement the new "one name for one fungus" article in the ICN, showing that our approach requires the fewest appeals to the ICN while retaining the name Aspergillus for many of the most economically and socially important species. PMID:24871603

Pitt, John I; Taylor, John W

2014-01-01

39

Ochratoxin production by Aspergillus species.  

PubMed Central

Ochratoxin production was tested in 172 strains representing species in sections Fumigati, Circumdati, Candidi, and Wentii of the genus Aspergillus by an immunochemical method using a monoclonal antibody preparation against ochratoxin A. Ochratoxin A was detected in Aspergillus ochraceus, A. alliaceus, A. sclerotiorum, A. sulphureus, A. albertensis, A. auricomus, and A. wentii strains. This is the first report of production of ochratoxins in the latter three species. Ochratoxin production by these species was confirmed by high-performance thin-layer chromatography and by high-performance liquid chromatography. The chemical methods also indicated the production of ochratoxin B by all of the Aspergillus strains mentioned above. PMID:8953717

Varga, J; Kevei, E; Rinyu, E; Téren, J; Kozakiewicz, Z

1996-01-01

40

Morphological and molecular identification of filamentous Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus parasiticus isolated from compound feeds in South Africa.  

PubMed

Isolation of filamentous species of two Aspergillum genera from compound feeds produced in South Africa, and subsequent extraction of their individual DNA in this study, presents a simple but rapid molecular procedure for high through-put analysis of the individual morphological forms. DNA was successfully isolated from the Aspergillus spp. from agar cultures by use of a commercial kit. Agarose gel electrophoresis fractionation of the fungi DNA, showed distinct bands. The DNA extracted by this procedure appears to be relatively pure with a ratio absorbance at 260 and 280 nm. However, the overall morphological and molecular data indicated that 67.5 and 51.1% of feed samples were found to be contaminated with Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus parasiticus, respectively, with poultry feed having the highest contamination mean level of 5.7 × 105 CFU/g when compared to cattle (mean: 4.0 × 106 CFU/g), pig (mean: 2.7 × 104 CFU/g) and horse (1.0 × 102 CFU) feed. This technique presents a readily achievable, easy to use method in the extraction of filamentous fungal DNA and it's identification. Hence serves as an important tool towards molecular study of these organisms for routine analysis check in monitoring and improving compound feed quality against fungal contamination. PMID:25084661

Iheanacho, Henry E; Njobeh, Patrick B; Dutton, Francis M; Steenkamp, Paul A; Steenkamp, Lucia; Mthombeni, Julian Q; Daru, Barnabas H; Makun, Anthony H

2014-12-01

41

Innate Immunity to Aspergillus Species  

PubMed Central

Summary: All humans are continuously exposed to inhaled Aspergillus conidia, yet healthy hosts clear the organism without developing disease and without the development of antibody- or cell-mediated acquired immunity to this organism. This suggests that for most healthy humans, innate immunity is sufficient to clear the organism. A failure of these defenses results in a uniquely diverse set of illnesses caused by Aspergillus species, which includes diseases caused by the colonization of the respiratory tract, invasive infection, and hypersensitivity. A key concept in immune responses to Aspergillus species is that the susceptibilities of the host determine the morphological form, antigenic structure, and physical location of the fungus. In this review, we summarize the current literature on the multiple layers of innate defenses against Aspergillus species that dictate the outcome of this host-microbe interaction. PMID:19822887

Park, Stacy J.; Mehrad, Borna

2009-01-01

42

Innate immunity to Aspergillus species.  

PubMed

All humans are continuously exposed to inhaled Aspergillus conidia, yet healthy hosts clear the organism without developing disease and without the development of antibody- or cell-mediated acquired immunity to this organism. This suggests that for most healthy humans, innate immunity is sufficient to clear the organism. A failure of these defenses results in a uniquely diverse set of illnesses caused by Aspergillus species, which includes diseases caused by the colonization of the respiratory tract, invasive infection, and hypersensitivity. A key concept in immune responses to Aspergillus species is that the susceptibilities of the host determine the morphological form, antigenic structure, and physical location of the fungus. In this review, we summarize the current literature on the multiple layers of innate defenses against Aspergillus species that dictate the outcome of this host-microbe interaction. PMID:19822887

Park, Stacy J; Mehrad, Borna

2009-10-01

43

76 FR 16297 - Aspergillus flavus  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...studies, which monitored air and soil populations of Aspergillus flavus...g., peeling, shucking, washing, and cooking) should further...things, percolation through soil. Thus, EPA expects exposure...EPA. 2003. BPPD Review of Soil and Air Monitoring Studies...

2011-03-23

44

Aspergillus fumigatus in Poultry  

PubMed Central

Aspergillus fumigatus remains a major respiratory pathogen in birds. In poultry, infection by A. fumigatus may induce significant economic losses particularly in turkey production. A. fumigatus develops and sporulates easily in poor quality bedding or contaminated feedstuffs in indoor farm environments. Inadequate ventilation and dusty conditions increase the risk of bird exposure to aerosolized spores. Acute cases are seen in young animals following inhalation of spores, causing high morbidity and mortality. The chronic form affects older birds and looks more sporadic. The respiratory tract is the primary site of A. fumigatus development leading to severe respiratory distress and associated granulomatous airsacculitis and pneumonia. Treatments for infected poultry are nonexistent; therefore, prevention is the only way to protect poultry. Development of avian models of aspergillosis may improve our understanding of its pathogenesis, which remains poorly understood. PMID:21826144

Arné, Pascal; Thierry, Simon; Wang, Dongying; Deville, Manjula; Le Loc'h, Guillaume; Desoutter, Anaďs; Féménia, Françoise; Nieguitsila, Adélaďde; Huang, Weiyi; Chermette, René; Guillot, Jacques

2011-01-01

45

Catalases of Aspergillus fumigatus  

PubMed Central

Upon infection of a host, the pathogenic fungus Aspergillus fumigatus is attacked by the reactive oxygen species produced by phagocytic cells. Detoxification of hydrogen peroxide by catalases was proposed as a way to overcome this host response. A. fumigatus produces three active catalases; one is produced by conidia, and two are produced by mycelia. The mycelial catalase Cat1p was studied previously. Here we characterized the two other catalases, their genes, and the phenotypes of gene-disrupted mutants. CatAp, a spore-specific monofunctional catalase, is resistant to heat, metal ions, and detergent. This enzyme is a dimeric protein with 84.5-kDa subunits. The 749-amino-acid polypeptide exhibits high levels of similarity to the Aspergillus nidulans CatA catalase and to bacterial catalase HPII of Escherichia coli. In spite of increased sensitivity to H2O2, killing of ?catA conidia by alveolar macrophages and virulence in animals were similar to the killing of conidia by alveolar macrophages and virulence in animals observed for the wild type. In contrast to the Cat1p and CatAp catalases, the mycelial Cat2p enzyme is a bifunctional catalase-peroxidase and is sensitive to heat, metal ions, and detergent. This enzyme, an 82-kDa monomer, is homologous to catalase-peroxidases of several fungi and bacteria. Surprisingly, mycelium of the double ?cat1?cat2 mutant with no catalase activity exhibited only slightly increased sensitivity to H2O2 and was as sensitive to killing by polymorphonuclear neutrophils as mycelium of the wild-type strain. However, this mutant exhibited delayed infection in the rat model of aspergillosis compared to infection by the wild-type strain. These results indicate that conidial catalase is not a virulence factor and that mycelial catalases transiently protect the fungus from the host. PMID:12761140

Paris, Sophie; Wysong, Deborah; Debeaupuis, Jean-Paul; Shibuya, Kazutoshi; Philippe, Bruno; Diamond, Richard D.; Latgé, Jean-Paul

2003-01-01

46

Tracheobronchial Manifestations of Aspergillus Infections  

PubMed Central

Human lungs are constantly exposed to a large number of Aspergillus spores which are present in ambient air. These spores are usually harmless to immunocompetent subjects but can produce a symptomatic disease in patients with impaired antifungal defense. In a small percentage of patients, the trachea and bronchi may be the main or even the sole site of Aspergillus infection. The clinical entities that may develop in tracheobronchial location include saprophytic, allergic and invasive diseases. Although this review is focused on invasive Aspergillus tracheobronchial infections, some aspects of allergic and saprophytic tracheobronchial diseases are also discussed in order to present the whole spectrum of tracheobronchial aspergillosis. To be consistent with clinical practice, an approach basing on specific conditions predisposing to invasive Aspergillus tracheobronchial infections is used to present the differences in the clinical course and prognosis of these infections. Thus, invasive or potentially invasive Aspergillus airway diseases are discussed separately in three groups of patients: (1) lung transplant recipients, (2) highly immunocompromised patients with hematologic malignancies and/or patients undergoing hematopoietic stem cell transplantation, and (3) the remaining, less severely immunocompromised patients or even immunocompetent subjects. PMID:22194666

Krenke, Rafal; Grabczak, Elzbieta M.

2011-01-01

47

Aspergillus fumigatus and Aspergillosis  

PubMed Central

Aspergillus fumigatus is one of the most ubiquitous of the airborne saprophytic fungi. Humans and animals constantly inhale numerous conidia of this fungus. The conidia are normally eliminated in the immunocompetent host by innate immune mechanisms, and aspergilloma and allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis, uncommon clinical syndromes, are the only infections observed in such hosts. Thus, A. fumigatus was considered for years to be a weak pathogen. With increases in the number of immunosuppressed patients, however, there has been a dramatic increase in severe and usually fatal invasive aspergillosis, now the most common mold infection worldwide. In this review, the focus is on the biology of A. fumigatus and the diseases it causes. Included are discussions of (i) genomic and molecular characterization of the organism, (ii) clinical and laboratory methods available for the diagnosis of aspergillosis in immunocompetent and immunocompromised hosts, (iii) identification of host and fungal factors that play a role in the establishment of the fungus in vivo, and (iv) problems associated with antifungal therapy. PMID:10194462

Latgé, Jean-Paul

1999-01-01

48

Glycosylinositolphosphoceramides in Aspergillus fumigatus.  

PubMed

Fungal glycosylinositolphosphoceramides (GIPCs) are involved in cell growth and fungal-host interactions. In this study, six GIPCs from the mycelium of the human pathogen Aspergillus fumigatus were purified and characterized using Q-TOF mass spectrometry and 1H, 13C, and 31P NMR. All structures have the same inositolphosphoceramide moiety with the presence of a C(18:0)-phytosphingosine conjugated to a 2-hydroxylated saturated fatty acid (2-hydroxy-lignoceric acid). The carbohydrate moiety defines two types of GIPC. The first, a mannosylated zwitterionic glycosphingolipid contains a glucosamine residue linked in alpha1-2 to an inositol ring that has been described in only two other fungal pathogens. The second type of GIPC presents an alpha-Manp-(1-->3)-alpha-Manp-(1-->2)-IPC common core. A galactofuranose residue is found in four GIPC structures, mainly at the terminal position via a beta1-2 linkage. Interestingly, this galactofuranose residue could be substituted by a choline-phosphate group, as observed only in the GIPC of Acremonium sp., a plant pathogen. PMID:17971386

Simenel, Catherine; Coddeville, Bernadette; Delepierre, Muriel; Latgé, Jean-Paul; Fontaine, Thierry

2008-01-01

49

Nine genera of Eucnemidae (Coleoptera) new to Peru, with a key to Peruvian genera  

PubMed Central

Abstract Thirteen genera of Eucnemidae containing forty species were collected from the Iquitos region in Peru. Nine of the genera are new to the country: Rhagomicrus Fleutiaux, 1902, Adelorhagus Horn, 1890, Adelothyreus Chevrolat, 1867, Microrhagus Dejean, 1833, Dyscharachthis Blackburn, 1900, Heterotaxis Bonvouloir, 1871, Spinifornax Fleutiaux, 1926, Serrifornax Fleutiaux, 1926 and Maelodrus Fleutiaux, 1928. The previous eucnemid record from Peru contained eleven species in ten genera. Only one of the forty species caught, Entomophthalmus americanus Bonvouloir, was previously known and described from the country. Dyscharachthis, Maelodrus and Adelorhagus are recorded from South America for the first time. Many of the collected species seem to favor white-sand forest as their habitat. Possible reasons for this are discussed. A list of eucnemids from Peru is included, containing taxa already recorded from the country and also taxa that are likely to occur there. A key to the Peruvian genera is included. PMID:25834475

Muona, Jyrki; Linna, Ari; Sääksjärvi, Ilari E.

2015-01-01

50

Genome sizes for all genera of Cycadales.  

PubMed

Nuclear DNA content (2C) is reported for all genera of the Cycadales, using flow cytometry with propidium iodide. Nuclear DNA content ranges from 24 to 64 pg in cycads. This implies that the largest genome contains roughly 40 × 10(9) more base pairs than the smallest genome. The narrow range in nuclear DNA content within a genus is remarkable for such an old group. Furthermore, 42 of the 58 plants measured, covering five genera, have 18 chromosomes. They vary from 36.1 to 64.7 pg, covering the whole range of genome sizes (excluding the genome of Cycas). Hence, their does not seem to be a correlation between genome size and the number of chromosomes. PMID:22117644

Zonneveld, B J M

2012-01-01

51

Sexual reproduction in Aspergillus flavus  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Aspergillus flavus is the major producer of carcinogenic aflatoxins in crops worldwide and is also an important opportunistic human pathogen in aspergillosis. The sexual state of this heterothallic fungus is described from crosses between strains of the opposite mating type. Sexual reproduction oc...

52

Keratitis caused by Aspergillus pseudotamarii  

PubMed Central

A male patient presented with complaints of redness, pain and defective vision in the left eye. The infiltrate healed completely after two weeks of topical natamycin administration. A polyphasic approach was used to identify the isolate as Aspergillus pseudotamarii, which produced aflatoxins in inducing medium. PMID:24432226

Baranyi, Nikolett; Kocsubé, Sándor; Szekeres, András; Raghavan, Anita; Narendran, Venkatapathy; Vágvölgyi, Csaba; Panneer Selvam, Kanesan; Babu Singh, Yendremban Randhir; Kredics, László; Varga, János; Manikandan, Palanisamy

2013-01-01

53

Keratitis caused by Aspergillus pseudotamarii.  

PubMed

A male patient presented with complaints of redness, pain and defective vision in the left eye. The infiltrate healed completely after two weeks of topical natamycin administration. A polyphasic approach was used to identify the isolate as Aspergillus pseudotamarii, which produced aflatoxins in inducing medium. PMID:24432226

Baranyi, Nikolett; Kocsubé, Sándor; Szekeres, András; Raghavan, Anita; Narendran, Venkatapathy; Vágvölgyi, Csaba; Panneer Selvam, Kanesan; Babu Singh, Yendremban Randhir; Kredics, László; Varga, János; Manikandan, Palanisamy

2013-04-12

54

Taxonomy, chemodiversity, and chemoconsistency of Aspergillus, Penicillium, and Talaromyces species  

PubMed Central

Aspergillus, Penicillium, and Talaromyces are among the most chemically inventive of all fungi, producing a wide array of secondary metabolites (exometabolites). The three genera are holophyletic in a cladistic sense and polythetic classes in an anagenetic or functional sense, and contain 344, 354, and 88 species, respectively. New developments in classification, cladification, and nomenclature have meant that the species, series, and sections suggested are natural groups that share many extrolites, including exometabolites, exoproteins, exocarbohydrates, and exolipids in addition to morphological features. The number of exometabolites reported from these species is very large, and genome sequencing projects have shown that a large number of additional exometabolites may be expressed, given the right conditions (“cryptic” gene clusters for exometabolites). The exometabolites are biosynthesized via shikimic acid, tricarboxylic acid cycle members, nucleotides, carbohydrates or as polyketides, non-ribosomal peptides, terpenes, or mixtures of those. The gene clusters coding for these compounds contain genes for the biosynthetic building blocks, the linking of these building blocks, tailoring enzymes, resistance for own products, and exporters. Species within a series or section in Aspergillus, Penicillium, and Talaromyces have many exometabolites in common, seemingly acquired by cladogenesis, but some the gene clusters for autapomorphic exometabolites may have been acquired by horizontal gene transfer. Despite genome sequencing efforts, and the many breakthroughs these will give, it is obvious that epigenetic factors play a large role in evolution and function of chemodiversity, and better methods for characterizing the epigenome are needed. Most of the individual species of the three genera produce a consistent and characteristic profile of exometabolites, but growth medium variations, stimulation by exometabolites from other species, and variations in abiotic intrinsic and extrinsic environmental factors such as pH, temperature, redox potential, and water activity will add significantly to the number of biosynthetic families expressed in anyone species. An example of the shared exometabolites in a natural group such as Aspergillus section Circumdati series Circumdati is that most, but not all species produce penicillic acids, aspyrones, neoaspergillic acids, xanthomegnins, melleins, aspergamides, circumdatins, and ochratoxins, in different combinations. PMID:25628613

Frisvad, Jens C.

2014-01-01

55

Taxonomy, chemodiversity, and chemoconsistency of Aspergillus, Penicillium, and Talaromyces species.  

PubMed

Aspergillus, Penicillium, and Talaromyces are among the most chemically inventive of all fungi, producing a wide array of secondary metabolites (exometabolites). The three genera are holophyletic in a cladistic sense and polythetic classes in an anagenetic or functional sense, and contain 344, 354, and 88 species, respectively. New developments in classification, cladification, and nomenclature have meant that the species, series, and sections suggested are natural groups that share many extrolites, including exometabolites, exoproteins, exocarbohydrates, and exolipids in addition to morphological features. The number of exometabolites reported from these species is very large, and genome sequencing projects have shown that a large number of additional exometabolites may be expressed, given the right conditions ("cryptic" gene clusters for exometabolites). The exometabolites are biosynthesized via shikimic acid, tricarboxylic acid cycle members, nucleotides, carbohydrates or as polyketides, non-ribosomal peptides, terpenes, or mixtures of those. The gene clusters coding for these compounds contain genes for the biosynthetic building blocks, the linking of these building blocks, tailoring enzymes, resistance for own products, and exporters. Species within a series or section in Aspergillus, Penicillium, and Talaromyces have many exometabolites in common, seemingly acquired by cladogenesis, but some the gene clusters for autapomorphic exometabolites may have been acquired by horizontal gene transfer. Despite genome sequencing efforts, and the many breakthroughs these will give, it is obvious that epigenetic factors play a large role in evolution and function of chemodiversity, and better methods for characterizing the epigenome are needed. Most of the individual species of the three genera produce a consistent and characteristic profile of exometabolites, but growth medium variations, stimulation by exometabolites from other species, and variations in abiotic intrinsic and extrinsic environmental factors such as pH, temperature, redox potential, and water activity will add significantly to the number of biosynthetic families expressed in anyone species. An example of the shared exometabolites in a natural group such as Aspergillus section Circumdati series Circumdati is that most, but not all species produce penicillic acids, aspyrones, neoaspergillic acids, xanthomegnins, melleins, aspergamides, circumdatins, and ochratoxins, in different combinations. PMID:25628613

Frisvad, Jens C

2014-01-01

56

Cross-reactivity of non-Aspergillus fungal species in the Aspergillus galactomannan enzyme immunoassay.  

PubMed

The Aspergillus galactomannan enzyme-linked immunosorbant assay (EIA) has been demonstrated to facilitate rapid and sensitive detection of invasive aspergillosis. However, test specificity has not been fully evaluated in non-Aspergillus fungal species. Of 53 fungal isolates, cross-reactivity was observed with 5 non-Aspergillus spp.: Blastomyces dermatitidis, Nigrospora oryzae, Paecilomyces lilacinus, Penicillium chrysogenum, and Trichothecium roseum. PMID:17662550

Cummings, Jessica R; Jamison, Ginger R; Boudreaux, Jan W; Howles, Merry J; Walsh, Thomas J; Hayden, Randall T

2007-09-01

57

Chronic Granulomatous Aspergillus Synovitis: a Case Report  

PubMed Central

Aspergillus can cause invasive disease of various organs especially in patients with weakened immune systems. Aspergillus synovitis and arthritis are uncommon types of involvement due to this infection. Approaches to fungal osteoarticular infections are based on only case reports. This paper presents a rare case of chronic granulomatous Aspergillus synovitis in an immunocompromised 5-year old girl who was treated for acute lymphoblastic leukemia. PMID:23795281

Ayhan, Aylin Canbolat; Özkan, Korhan; Timur, Cetin; Akta?, Birol; Ceyran, Ayse Bahar

2013-01-01

58

Modelling of the growth/no growth interface of Wallemia sebi and Eurotium herbariorum as a function of pH, aw and ethanol concentration.  

PubMed

High sugar products (sugar content > 50%) are generally considered to be stable against all forms of microbial spoilage during a prolonged shelf life of several months. However, one specific subgroup of micro-organisms, the xerophilic moulds, can develop quite fast on the surface of food products with a reduced water activity (< 0.85). The chance whether these xerophilic moulds are able to grow on the food product depends on the combination of intrinsic factors (e.g., water activity and pH) and the storage conditions (e.g., temperature). This study examines the development of growth/no growth models for the xerophilic moulds Wallemia sebi and Eurotium herbariorum in a sugar rich broth. Growth/no growth models are predictive models that are designed to give a prediction about the probability of growth of a spoilage micro-organism under a specific set of environmental conditions. In this research, a water activity between 0.75 and 0.90, a pH between 5.0 and 6.2, an ethanol concentration between 0% and 5% (g EtOH/g H2O) and their interactions were tested. The inoculated media were stored at 22 °C (± 1 °C) during a prolonged test period (up to 120 days). The obtained models were also validated in a chocolate-based food product (ganache). The resulting growth/no growth models show that the growth of W. sebi and E. herbariorum can be inhibited for a prolonged time (> 3 months) if an ethanol concentration of 5% on the water phase is present in the food product, irrespective of water activity values between 0.89 and 0.755. The necessary amount of ethanol for shorter shelf lives can be calculated with the models that were built. Although the models have not been validated thoroughly in actual food products, the preliminary results that were obtained by testing the model on a ganache indicated that the models are capable of delivering safe predictions. PMID:25317503

Deschuyffeleer, N; Vermeulen, A; Daelman, J; Castelein, E; Eeckhout, M; Devlieghere, F

2015-01-01

59

Fungal community associated with fermentation and storage of Fuzhuan brick-tea.  

PubMed

Chinese Fuzhuan brick-tea is a unique microbial fermented tea characterized by a period of fungal growth during its manufacturing process. The aim of the present study was to characterize, both physicochemically and microbiologically, traditional industrial production processes of Fuzhuan brick-tea. Fermenting tea samples were collected from the largest manufacturer. Physicochemical analyses showed that the low water content in the tea substrates provided optimal growth conditions for xerophilic fungi. The fungal communities existing in tea materials, fermenting tea, and stored teas were monitored by polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) targeting the D1 region of the 26S rRNA genes, followed by sequencing of the amplicons. Results revealed that the microorganisms were from, or closely related to, the genera Eurotium, Debaryomyces, Aspergillus, Verticillium, Pichia, Pestalotiopsis, Rhizomucor and Beauveria. This is the first report of Debaryomyces participating in the processing of Fuzhuan brick-tea. We concluded that the dominant genera Eurotium, Debaryomyces and Aspergillus are beneficial fungi associated with the fermentation of Fuzhuan brick-tea. The genus Beauveria was present in the stored Fuzhuan brick-tea, which may help protect tea products from insect spoilage. The remaining four genera were of minor importance in the manufacturing of Fuzhuan brick-tea. The predominant Eurotium species, a strain named Eurotium sp. FZ, was phenotypically and genotypically identified as Eurotium cristatum. High performance thin layer chromatography analysis of anthraquinones showed that emodin existed in all the dark tea samples, but physcion was only detectable in the tea fermented by E. cristatum. The PCR-DGGE approach was an effective and convenient means for profiling the fungal communities in Fuzhuan brick-tea. These results may help promote the use of microbial consortia as starter cultures to stabilize and improve the quality of Fuzhuan brick-tea products. PMID:21345511

Xu, Aiqing; Wang, Yuanliang; Wen, Jieyu; Liu, Ping; Liu, Ziyin; Li, Zongjun

2011-03-15

60

Itraconazole Resistance in Aspergillus fumigatus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Invasive aspergillosis is an increasingly frequent opportunistic infection in immunocompromised patients. Only two agents, amphotericin B and itraconazole, are licensed for therapy. Itraconazole acts through inhi- bition of a P-450 enzyme undertaking sterol 14a demethylation. In vitro resistance in Aspergillus fumigatus to itraconazole correlated with in vivo outcome has not been previously described. For three isolates (AF72, AF90, and AF91)

DAVID W. DENNING; K. VENKATESWARLU; KAREN L. OAKLEY; M. J. ANDERSON; N. J. MANNING; DAVID A. STEVENS; DAVID W. WARNOCK; STEVEN L. KELLY; Sheffield S; Bristol BS

1997-01-01

61

Onychomycosis caused by Aspergillus versicolor.  

PubMed

We report a case of onychomycosis caused by Aspergillus versicolor in a 66-year-old female patient. The infection was characterised clinically by yellowish pigmentation of the nail plate and mild nail bed hyperkeratosis of the first left toe. All other nails were normal. Three direct microscopical examinations of nail samples revealed the presence of hyaline hyphae as well as conidiophores. Pure colonies of A. versicolor were found in three cultures. The patient was successfully treated with oral itraconazole. PMID:19422523

Veraldi, Stefano; Chiaratti, Anna; Harak, Henry

2010-07-01

62

Elliptic Genera and 3d Gravity  

E-print Network

We describe general constraints on the elliptic genus of a 2d supersymmetric conformal field theory which has a gravity dual with large radius in Planck units. We give examples of theories which do and do not satisfy the bounds we derive, by describing the elliptic genera of symmetric product orbifolds of $K3$, product manifolds, certain simple families of Calabi-Yau hypersurfaces, and symmetric products of the "Monster CFT." We discuss the distinction between theories with supergravity duals and those whose duals have strings at the scale set by the AdS curvature. Under natural assumptions we attempt to quantify the fraction of (2,2) supersymmetric conformal theories which admit a weakly curved gravity description, at large central charge.

Benjamin, Nathan; Kachru, Shamit; Moore, Gregory W; Paquette, Natalie M

2015-01-01

63

Elliptic Genera and 3d Gravity  

E-print Network

We describe general constraints on the elliptic genus of a 2d supersymmetric conformal field theory which has a gravity dual with large radius in Planck units. We give examples of theories which do and do not satisfy the bounds we derive, by describing the elliptic genera of symmetric product orbifolds of $K3$, product manifolds, certain simple families of Calabi-Yau hypersurfaces, and symmetric products of the "Monster CFT." We discuss the distinction between theories with supergravity duals and those whose duals have strings at the scale set by the AdS curvature. Under natural assumptions we attempt to quantify the fraction of (2,2) supersymmetric conformal theories which admit a weakly curved gravity description, at large central charge.

Nathan Benjamin; Miranda C. N. Cheng; Shamit Kachru; Gregory W. Moore; Natalie M. Paquette

2015-03-16

64

An electrophoretic karyotype of Aspergillus niger  

Microsoft Academic Search

An electrophoretic karyotype of Aspergillus niger was obtained using contour-clamped homogeneous electric field (CHEF) gel electrophoresis. Chromosomesized DNA was separated into four bands. Seven of the eight linkage groups could be correlated with specific chromosomal bands. For this purpose DNA preparations from seven transformant strains of A. niger each carrying the heterologous amdS gene of Aspergillus nidulans on a different

Alfons J. M. Debets; Edu F. Holub; Klaas Swart; Henk W. J. Broek; Cees J. Bos

1990-01-01

65

Cyclopiazonic Acid Biosynthesis of Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus oryzae  

PubMed Central

Cyclopiazonic acid (CPA) is an indole-tetramic acid neurotoxin produced by some of the same strains of A. flavus that produce aflatoxins and by some Aspergillus oryzae strains. Despite its discovery 40 years ago, few reviews of its toxicity and biosynthesis have been reported. This review examines what is currently known about the toxicity of CPA to animals and humans, both by itself or in combination with other mycotoxins. The review also discusses CPA biosynthesis and the genetic diversity of CPA production in A. flavus/oryzae populations. PMID:22069533

Chang, Perng-Kuang; Ehrlich, Kenneth C.; Fujii, Isao

2009-01-01

66

Aspergillus tracheobronchitis in a mild immunocompromised host.  

PubMed

Aspergillus tracheobronchitis is a form of invasive pulmonary aspergillosis in which the Aspergillus infection is limited predominantly to the tracheobronchial tree. It occurs primarily in severely immunocompromised patients such as lung transplant recipients. Here, we report a case of Aspergillus tracheobronchitis in a 42-year-old man with diabetes mellitus, who presented with intractable cough, lack of expectoration of sputum, and chest discomfort. The patient did not respond to conventional treatment with antibiotics and antitussive agents, and he underwent bronchoscopy that showed multiple, discrete, gelatinous whitish plaques mainly involving the trachea and the left bronchus. On the basis of the bronchoscopic and microbiologic findings, we made the diagnosis of Aspergillus tracheobronchitis and initiated antifungal therapy. He showed gradual improvement in his symptoms and continued taking oral itraconazole for 6 months. Physicians should consider Aspergillus tracheobronchitis as a probable diagnosis in immunocompromised patients presenting with atypical respiratory symptoms and should try to establish a prompt diagnosis. PMID:25473411

Cho, Byung Ha; Oh, Youngmin; Kang, Eun Seok; Hong, Yong Joo; Jeong, Hye Won; Lee, Ok-Jun; Chang, You-Jin; Choe, Kang Hyeon; Lee, Ki Man; An, Jin-Young

2014-11-01

67

Aspergillus Tracheobronchitis in a Mild Immunocompromised Host  

PubMed Central

Aspergillus tracheobronchitis is a form of invasive pulmonary aspergillosis in which the Aspergillus infection is limited predominantly to the tracheobronchial tree. It occurs primarily in severely immunocompromised patients such as lung transplant recipients. Here, we report a case of Aspergillus tracheobronchitis in a 42-year-old man with diabetes mellitus, who presented with intractable cough, lack of expectoration of sputum, and chest discomfort. The patient did not respond to conventional treatment with antibiotics and antitussive agents, and he underwent bronchoscopy that showed multiple, discrete, gelatinous whitish plaques mainly involving the trachea and the left bronchus. On the basis of the bronchoscopic and microbiologic findings, we made the diagnosis of Aspergillus tracheobronchitis and initiated antifungal therapy. He showed gradual improvement in his symptoms and continued taking oral itraconazole for 6 months. Physicians should consider Aspergillus tracheobronchitis as a probable diagnosis in immunocompromised patients presenting with atypical respiratory symptoms and should try to establish a prompt diagnosis. PMID:25473411

Cho, Byung Ha; Oh, Youngmin; Kang, Eun Seok; Hong, Yong Joo; Jeong, Hye Won; Lee, Ok-Jun; Chang, You-Jin; Choe, Kang Hyeon; Lee, Ki Man

2014-01-01

68

Purdue extensionAspergillus Ear Rot Purdue extension  

E-print Network

1 Purdue extensionAspergillus Ear Rot BP-83-W Purdue extension d i s e a s e s o f c o r n Aspergillus Ear Rot Authors: Charles Woloshuk Kiersten Wise www.btny.purdue.edu The fungus Aspergillus flavus causes Aspergillus ear rot, one of the most important diseases in corn. The fungus pro- duces a mycotoxin

Holland, Jeffrey

69

New taxa of Neosartorya and Aspergillus in Aspergillus section Fumigati.  

PubMed

Three new species of Neosartorya and one new Aspergillus of section Fumigati are proposed using a polyphasic approach based on morphology, extrolite production and partial beta-tubulin, calmodulin, and actin gene sequences. The phylogenetic analyses using the three genes clearly show that the taxa grouped separately from the known species and confirmed the phenotypic differences. Neosartorya denticulata is characterized by its unique denticulate ascospores with a prominent equatorial furrow; N. assulata by well developed flaps on the convex surface of the ascospores which in addition have two distinct equatorial crests and N. galapagensis by a funiculose colony morphology, short and narrow conidiophores and ascospores with two wide equatorial crests with a microtuberculate convex surface. Aspergillus turcosus can be distinguished by velvety, gray turquoise colonies and short, loosely columnar conidial heads. The four new taxa also have unique extrolite profiles, which contain the mycotoxins gliotoxin and viriditoxin in N. denticulate; apolar compounds provisionally named NEPS in N. assulata and gregatins in N. galapagensis. A. turcosus produced kotanins. N. denticulata sp. nov., N. assulata sp. nov., N. galapagensis sp. nov., and A. turcosus sp. nov. are described and illustrated. PMID:17610141

Hong, Seung-Beom; Shin, Hyeon-Dong; Hong, Joonbae; Frisvad, Jens C; Nielsen, Per V; Varga, János; Samson, Robert A

2008-01-01

70

Genera of Pentatomidae (Hemiptera: Pentatomoidea) from south India-an illustrated key to genera and checklist of species.  

PubMed

Family Pentatomidae is represented by four subfamilies (Asopinae, Pentatominae, Phyllocephalinae and Podopinae) and 86 genera in south India. Pentatominae are the dominant group represented by 29 tribes and 72 genera. An illustrated key including the habitus of majority of genera as well as illustrations of important diagnostic features are given for the subfamilies, tribes and genera occurring in south India. In addition, a key to families of Pentatomoidea and a checklist of species of Pentatomidae occurring in south India are also included. PMID:25781569

Salini, S; Viraktamath, C A

2015-01-01

71

Molecular characterization of aflatoxigenic and non-aflatoxigenic Aspergillus flavus isolates collected from corn grains.  

PubMed

Twelve species from six fungal genera were found to be associated with corn (Zea mays L.) grain samples collected from three main regions of Saudi Arabia. The average frequencies of the most common genera were Aspergillus (11.4%), Fusarium (9.5%), Penicillium (5.1%), and Alternaria (5.8%). Fifteen isolates of Aspergillus flavus were screened by HPLC for their ability to produce aflatoxins (AF). The percentage of aflatoxigenic A. flavus isolates was 53%. Eight isolates produced AF, at concentrations ranging 0.7-2.9 ppb. Random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) and inter-simple sequence repeat (ISSR) molecular markers were used to genetically characterize isolates of A. flavus and to discriminate between the aflatoxigenic and non-aflatoxigenic isolates. RAPD and ISSR analysis revealed a high level of genetic diversity in the A. flavus population, which was useful for genetic characterization. The clustering in the RAPD and ISSR dendrograms obtained was unrelated to geographic origin. The RAPD and ISSR markers could not discriminate between aflatoxigenic and non-aflatoxigenic isolates, but the ISSR primers were somewhat better. PMID:25501147

Mahmoud, M A; Ali, H M; El-Aziz, A R M; Al-Othman, M R; Al-Wadai, A S

2014-01-01

72

Secondary metabolite profiles and antifungal drug susceptibility of Aspergillus fumigatus and closely related species, Aspergillus lentulus, Aspergillus udagawae, and Aspergillus viridinutans.  

PubMed

The incidence of Aspergillus infection has been increasing in the past few years. Also, new Aspergillus fumigatus-related species, namely Aspergillus lentulus, Aspergillus udagawae, and Aspergillus viridinutans, were shown to infect humans. These fungi exhibit marked morphological similarities to A. fumigatus, albeit with different clinical courses and antifungal drug susceptibilities. The present study used liquid chromatography/time-of-flight mass spectrometry to identify the secondary metabolites secreted as virulence factors by these Aspergillus species and compared their antifungal susceptibility. The metabolite profiles varied widely among A. fumigatus, A. lentulus, A. udagawae, and A. viridinutans, producing 27, 13, 8, and 11 substances, respectively. Among the mycotoxins, fumifungin, fumiquinazoline A/B and D, fumitremorgin B, gliotoxin, sphingofungins, pseurotins, and verruculogen were only found in A. fumigatus, whereas auranthine was only found in A. lentulus. The amount of gliotoxin, one of the most abundant mycotoxins in A. fumigatus, was negligible in these related species. In addition, they had decreased susceptibility to antifungal agents such as itraconazole and voriconazole, even though metabolites that were shared in the isolates showing higher minimum inhibitory concentrations than epidemiological cutoff values were not detected. These strikingly different secondary metabolite profiles may lead to the development of more discriminative identification protocols for such closely related Aspergillus species as well as improved treatment outcomes. PMID:25737146

Tamiya, Hiroyuki; Ochiai, Eri; Kikuchi, Kazuyo; Yahiro, Maki; Toyotome, Takahito; Watanabe, Akira; Yaguchi, Takashi; Kamei, Katsuhiko

2015-05-01

73

Brain Dona on Your Gi To Future Genera ons  

E-print Network

is helpful to researchers working to be er understand Alzheimer's and find a cure to help future generaBrain Dona on Your Gi To Future Genera ons Memory & Aging Project Knight Alzheimer's Disease Research Center Washington University in St. Louis Memory & Aging Project Knight Alzheimer's Disease

74

Key to the Lichen Genera of the Pacific Northwest  

E-print Network

Key to the Lichen Genera of the Pacific Northwest August 2012 Bruce McCune #12;Key to the Lichen attempts to include all lichenized fungi known from the Pacific Northwest or North America of these are from California, Alaska, and Colorado. Genera of non-lichenized lichenicolous fungi are not included

McCune, Bruce

75

Three new species of Aspergillus section Flavi isolated from almonds and maize in Portugal  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Three new aflatoxin-producing species belonging to Aspergillus section Flavi are described, Aspergillus mottae, Aspergillus sergii and Aspergillus transmontanensis. These species were isolated from Portuguese almonds and maize. An investigation examining morphology, extrolites and molecular data was...

76

Onychomycosis due to Aspergillus candidus: case report.  

PubMed

A patient is described who suffered from chronic fungal involvement of right great toe nail. Serial cultures of the removed nail demonstrated a non-dermatophyte, Aspergillus candidus, as the causative agent. PMID:125865

Cornere, B M; Eastman, M

1975-07-01

77

Sexual recombination in Aspergillus tubingensis.  

PubMed

Aspergillus tubingensis from section Nigri (black Aspergilli) is closely related to A. niger and is used extensively in the industrial production of enzymes and organic acids. We recently discovered sexual reproduction in A. tubingensis, and in this study we demonstrate that the progeny are products of meiosis. Progeny were obtained from six crosses involving five MAT1-1 strains and two MAT1-2 strains. We examined three loci, including mating type (MAT), RNA polymerase II (RPB2) and ?-tubulin (BT2), and found that 84% (58/69) of progeny were recombinants. Recombination associated with sexual reproduction in A. tubingensis provides a new option for the genetic improvement of industrial strains for enzyme and organic acid production. PMID:25572097

Olarte, Rodrigo A; Horn, Bruce W; Singh, Rakhi; Carbone, Ignazio

2015-01-01

78

Antifungal Susceptibility Tests of Aspergillus Species  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Although different methods are now available to assess the susceptibility of Aspergillus species to antifungal agents, there are still limited data correlating in vitro resistance with meaningful clinical endpoints.\\u000a Moreover, there is no consensus on the breakpoints to define resistance\\/susceptibility to different antifungal agents. This\\u000a chapter reviews the technical issues related to antifungal susceptibility tests for Aspergillus species, including the

Arnaldo Lopes Colombo; Viviane Reis; Patricio Godoy

79

Aspergillus and Penicillium allergens: Focus on proteases  

Microsoft Academic Search

Penicillium and Aspergillus species are prevalent airborne fungi. It is imperative to identify and characterize their major allergens. Alkaline and\\/or\\u000a vacuolar serine proteases are major allergens of several prevalent Penicillium and Aspergillus species. They are also major immunoglobulin (Ig) E-reacting components of the most prevalent airborne yeast, Rhodotorula mucilaginosa, and the most prevalent Cladosporium species, C. cladosporioides. IgE cross-reactivity has

Horng-Der Shen; Ming F. Tam; Ren-Bin Tang; Hong Chou

2007-01-01

80

Aspergillus waksmanii sp. nov. and Aspergillus marvanovae sp. nov., two closely related species in section Fumigati  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Two new and phylogenetically closely related species in Aspergillus section Fumigati are described and illustrated. Homothallic A. waksmanii was isolated from New Jersey soil (USA) and is represented by the ex-type isolate NRRL 179T (=CCF 4266= IBT 31900). Aspergillus marvanovae was isolated from wa...

81

Bergbambos and Oldeania, new genera of African bamboos (Poaceae, Bambusoideae)  

PubMed Central

Abstract Two new monotypic genera, Bergbambos and Oldeania are described for African temperate bamboo species in the tribe Arundinarieae, after a comparison of their morphological characteristics with those of similar species from Asia. Morphological differences are supported by their isolated geographical distributions. Molecular evidence does not support the inclusion of these species in related Asian genera, recognising them instead as distinct lineages. New combinations Bergbambos tessellata and Oldeania alpina are made. PMID:24198715

Stapleton, Chris M. A.

2013-01-01

82

21 CFR 866.3040 - Aspergillus spp. serological reagents.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...to identify antibodies to Aspergillus spp. in serum. The identification aids in the diagnosis of aspergillosis caused by fungi belonging to the genus Aspergillus. Aspergillosis is a disease marked by inflammatory granulomatous (tumor-like)...

2012-04-01

83

Relative reactivity of Aspergillus allergens used in serological tests  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aspergillus is a common disease-causing agent, both as an allergen causing ABPA and severe asthma with fungal sensitization (SAFS) and as a pathogen causing invasive aspergillosis in immunocompromised individuals and chronic cavitating disease (CCPA) in apparently immune competent individuals. Currently detection of Aspergillus is problematic and some of the most useful tests rely on detection of antibody response to Aspergillus

P. Bowyer; O. Blightman; D. W. Denning

2006-01-01

84

The Volatome of Aspergillus fumigatus  

PubMed Central

Early detection of invasive aspergillosis is absolutely required for efficient therapy of this fungal infection. The identification of fungal volatiles in patient breath can be an alternative for the detection of Aspergillus fumigatus that still remains problematic. In this work, we investigated the production of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) by A. fumigatus in vitro, and we show that volatile production depends on the nutritional environment. A. fumigatus produces a multiplicity of VOCs, predominantly terpenes and related compounds. The production of sesquiterpenoid compounds was found to be strongly induced by increased iron concentrations and certain drugs, i.e., pravastatin. Terpenes that were always detectable in large amounts were ?-pinene, camphene, and limonene, as well as sesquiterpenes, identified as ?-bergamotene and ?-trans-bergamotene. Other substance classes that were found to be present in the volatome, such as 1-octen-3-ol, 3-octanone, and pyrazines, were found only under specific growth conditions. Drugs that interfere with the terpene biosynthesis pathway influenced the composition of the fungal volatome, and most notably, a block of sesquiterpene biosynthesis by the bisphosphonate alendronate fundamentally changed the VOC composition. Using deletion mutants, we also show that a terpene cyclase and a putative kaurene synthase are essential for the synthesis of volatile terpenes by A. fumigatus. The present analysis of in vitro volatile production by A. fumigatus suggests that VOCs may be used in the diagnosis of infections caused by this fungus. PMID:24906414

Calvo, A. M.; Latgé, J. P.

2014-01-01

85

Extracellular siderophores from Aspergillus ochraceous.  

PubMed Central

A large number of iron-chelating compounds (siderophores) were isolated from supernatants of iron-deficient cultures of a mold isolate, subsequently identified as Aspergillus ochraceous . Siderophores in their iron chelate form were purified to homogeneity by using Bio-Gel P2, silica gel, and C-18 bonded silica gel (reverse-phase) columns. Most of these compounds, as identified by 1H and 13C nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy and X-ray crystallography, belong to the ferrichrome family. The organism produces ferrirubin and ferrichrysin as the predominant and the second major compound (62 and 15% of the total siderophores), respectively. Ferrichrysin appears as the first siderophore in the medium on day 2 of growth. Several of the other siderophores are novel and ranged in quantities from 0.2 to 5% of the total. The trivial names asperchrome A, B1, B2, C, D1, D2, and D3 are proposed for these novel compounds, which are all members of the ferrichrome family, and all but the first one contain a common Orn1 - Orn2 - Orn3 - Ser1 -Ser2-Gly cyclic hexapeptide ring with three dissimilar ornithyl delta-N-acyl groups. Another compound which appeared late in the growth period was similar to fusarinine C ( fusigen ). All of these compounds showed growth factor activity to various extents in bioassays with Arthrobacter flavescens Jg-9. None of these compounds showed antibacterial activity against Escherichia coli or Bacillus megaterium. PMID:6233261

Jalal, M A; Mocharla, R; Barnes, C L; Hossain, M B; Powell, D R; Eng-Wilmot, D L; Grayson, S L; Benson, B A; van der Helm, D

1984-01-01

86

Aspergillus luchuensis, an industrially important black Aspergillus in East Asia.  

PubMed

Aspergilli known as black- and white-koji molds which are used for awamori, shochu, makgeolli and other food and beverage fermentations, are reported in the literature as A. luchuensis, A. awamori, A. kawachii, or A. acidus. In order to elucidate the taxonomic position of these species, available ex-type cultures were compared based on morphology and molecular characters. A. luchuensis, A. kawachii and A. acidus showed the same banding patterns in RAPD, and the three species had the same rDNA-ITS, ?-tubulin and calmodulin sequences and these differed from those of the closely related A. niger and A. tubingensis. Morphologically, the three species are not significantly different from each other or from A. niger and A. tubingensis. It is concluded that A. luchuensis, A. kawachii and A. acidus are the same species, and A. luchuensis is selected as the correct name based on priority. Strains of A. awamori which are stored in National Research Institute of Brewing in Japan, represent A. niger (n?=?14) and A. luchuensis (n?=?6). The neotype of A. awamori (CBS 557.65?=? NRRL 4948) does not originate from awamori fermentation and it is shown to be identical with the unknown taxon Aspergillus welwitschiae. Extrolite analysis of strains of A. luchuensis showed that they do not produce mycotoxins and therefore can be considered safe for food and beverage fermentations. A. luchuensis is also frequently isolated from meju and nuruk in Korea and Puerh tea in China and the species is probably common in the fermentation environment of East Asia. A re-description of A. luchuensis is provided because the incomplete data in the original literature. PMID:23723998

Hong, Seung-Beom; Lee, Mina; Kim, Dae-Ho; Varga, Janos; Frisvad, Jens C; Perrone, Giancarlo; Gomi, Katsuya; Yamada, Osamu; Machida, Masayuki; Houbraken, Jos; Samson, Robert A

2013-01-01

87

Comparative genomics of Bifidobacterium, Lactobacillus and related probiotic genera.  

PubMed

Six bacterial genera containing species commonly used as probiotics for human consumption or starter cultures for food fermentation were compared and contrasted, based on publicly available complete genome sequences. The analysis included 19 Bifidobacterium genomes, 21 Lactobacillus genomes, 4 Lactococcus and 3 Leuconostoc genomes, as well as a selection of Enterococcus (11) and Streptococcus (23) genomes. The latter two genera included genomes from probiotic or commensal as well as pathogenic organisms to investigate if their non-pathogenic members shared more genes with the other probiotic genomes than their pathogenic members. The pan- and core genome of each genus was defined. Pairwise BLASTP genome comparison was performed within and between genera. It turned out that pathogenic Streptococcus and Enterococcus shared more gene families than did the non-pathogenic genomes. In silico multilocus sequence typing was carried out for all genomes per genus, and the variable gene content of genomes was compared within the genera. Informative BLAST Atlases were constructed to visualize genomic variation within genera. The clusters of orthologous groups (COG) classes of all genes in the pan- and core genome of each genus were compared. In addition, it was investigated whether pathogenic genomes contain different COG classes compared to the probiotic or fermentative organisms, again comparing their pan- and core genomes. The obtained results were compared with published data from the literature. This study illustrates how over 80 genomes can be broadly compared using simple bioinformatic tools, leading to both confirmation of known information as well as novel observations. PMID:22031452

Lukjancenko, Oksana; Ussery, David W; Wassenaar, Trudy M

2012-04-01

88

Molecular phylogeny of three oxymonad genera: Pyrsonympha, Dinenympha and Oxymonas.  

PubMed

Oxymonads are a morphologically well-characterized and highly diverse lineage of protists. They are, however, under sampled at a molecular level. It has recently been demonstrated that a genus of oxymonads, Pyrsonympha, is phylogenetically related to the excavate taxon Trimastix. Here, we addressed issues of internal oxymonad evolution. Pyrsonympha and Dinenympha are shown, by fluorescent in situ hybridization and phylogenetic evidence, to be separate genera and not morphotypes of the same organism. We demonstrated that three genera of oxymonads, Dinenympha, Pyrsonympha, and Oxymonas are each monophyletic and together form a clade which excludes other known eukaryotes. We have presented a taxonomic scheme of oxymonads taking into account their sisterhood with Trimastix and speculated on morphological evolution of oxymonads, particularly of their attachment apparatuses. Our biogeographical analysis with Japanese and Canadian Pyrsonympha and Dinenympha suggests that these genera diverged before the separation of termites that inhabit Eastern Asia and Western North America. PMID:12836875

Moriya, Shigeharu; Dacks, Joel B; Takagi, Aika; Noda, Satoko; Ohkuma, Moriya; Doolittle, W Ford; Kudo, Toshiaki

2003-01-01

89

Structure of the Aspergillus niger pel A gene and its expression in Aspergillus niger and Aspergillus nidulans  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aspergillus niger pectin lyases are encoded by a multigene family. The complete nucleotide sequence of the pectin lyase PLA-encoding gene pelA has been determined. Comparison of the deduced amino acid sequence with the deduced amino acid sequence of the other characterized pectin lyase, PLD, shows that the proteins share 69% amino acid identity. When grown on media with pectin as

Margo A. Kusters-van Someren; Jan A. M. Harmsen; Harry C. M. Kester; Jaap Visser

1991-01-01

90

Distinctions between the snake genera Contia and Eirenis  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Summary: Various workers have believed Contia to be related to or congeneric with either or both Sonora and Eirenis, the latter a genus of Western Asia. Study of hemipenes, teeth, and jaws indicates that these genera are not related to one another. The hemipenes of Eirenis modesta and Contia tenuis are described. Eirenis is thought to be a derivative of the racer group. Relationships of Contia are unknown. It is suggested that some North American genera with xenodontine-type hemipenes may not be of the South American faunal element and may have been in North America at least as long as the Old Northerners.

Stickel, W.H.

1951-01-01

91

Expression and sequence comparison of the Aspergillus niger and Aspergillus tubigensis genes encoding polygalacturonase II  

Microsoft Academic Search

The structure and expression of the polygalacturonase-encoding pgaII genes of two recently recognized species, Aspergillus niger and Aspergillus tubigensis, was investigated. While the structure of the pgaII genes is very similar, showing 83% DNA sequence identity and 94% identity at the amino acid level, they have diverged significantly. The NH2-terminal sequence suggests that these PGs are made as pre pro-proteins

Hendrik J. D. Bussink; Frank P. Buxton; Jaap Visser

1991-01-01

92

Efficacy of Caspofungin against Aspergillus terreus  

PubMed Central

We investigated the in vitro and in vivo activities of caspofungin against Aspergillus terreus. The drug increased survival and reduced tissue fungal burden in neutropenic mice. Therefore, our data support the role of caspofungin in treating systemic infections due to this emerging pathogen. PMID:16304185

Barchiesi, Francesco; Spreghini, Elisabetta; Santinelli, Alfredo; Fothergill, Annette W.; Fallani, Stefania; Manso, Esther; Pisa, Eleonora; Giannini, Daniele; Novelli, Andrea; Cassetta, Maria I.; Mazzei, Teresita; Rinaldi, Michael G.; Scalise, Giorgio

2005-01-01

93

ASPERGILLUS BOMBYCIS GENOTYPES (RFLP) FROM SILKWORM CULTIVATION  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Eighteen isolates of Aspergillus bombycis from samples of dust, insect frass, and soil collected from 8 silkworm rearing facilities in Japan, as well as single silkworm rearing facilities in Indonesia and Malaysia, were subjected to DNA fingerprinting. PstI digests of total genomic DNA from each is...

94

Aflatoxin-Producing Aspergillus Species from Thailand  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Aflatoxin-producing Aspergillus species were isolated from soil samples from ten different regions within Thailand. A. flavus was present in soil samples from all of the regions, but unlike previous studies, we found no A. parasiticus or A. flavus isolates capable of both B and G production in any ...

95

Heavy metal biosorption sites in Aspergillus niger  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aspergillus niger is capable of removing heavy metals such as lead, cadmium and copper from aqueous solutions. The role played by various functional groups in the cell wall of A. niger in biosorption of lead, cadmium and copper was investigated. The biomass was subjected to chemical treatments to modify the functional groups, carboxyl, amino and phosphate, to study their role

Anoop Kapoor; T. Viraraghavan

1997-01-01

96

Dye biosorption sites in Aspergillus niger  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aspergillus niger is capable of removing dyes from an aqueous solution. In the study, the roles played by three major functional groups: carboxyl, amino and phosphate, and the lipid fraction in the biomass of A. niger in biosorption of four dyes, Basic Blue 9, Acid Blue 29, Congo Red and Disperse Red 1, were investigated. These functional groups in A.

Yuzhu Fu; T Viraraghavan

2002-01-01

97

Biotransformation of Stypotriol triacetate by Aspergillus niger  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Biological transformation of the meroditerpenoid, stypotriol triacetate ( 1) by the fungi Aspergillus niger, Cunninghamella elegans, Gibberella fujikuroi and Mucor plumbeus was studied. The incubation of 1 with A. niger yielded the new compound 6',14-diacetoxy-stypol-4,5-dione ( 2) whose structure was established by 1H, 13C and 2D NMR and supported by DFT/GIAO.

Areche, Carlos; Vaca, Inmaculada; Labbe, Pamela; Soto-Delgado, Jorge; Astudillo, Luis; Silva, Mario; Rovirosa, Juana; San-Martin, Aurelio

2011-07-01

98

Phylogeny and subgeneric taxonomy of Aspergillus  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The phylogeny of the genus Aspergillus and its teleomorphs is discussed based on multilocus sequence data. DNA sequence analysis was used to formulate a nucleotide sequence framework of the genus and to analyze character changes in relationship to the phylogeny hypothesized from the DNA sequence an...

99

N-Glycan Modification in Aspergillus Species  

Microsoft Academic Search

The production by filamentous fungi of therapeutic glycoproteins intended for use in mammals is held back by the inherent difference in protein N-glycosylation and by the inability of the fungal cell to modify proteins with mammalian glycosylation structures. Here, we report protein N-glycan engineering in two Aspergillus species. We functionally expressed in the fungal hosts heterologous chimeric fusion proteins containing

Elke Kainz; Andreas Gallmetzer; Christian Hatzl; Juergen H. Nett; Huijuan Li; Thorsten Schinko; Robert Pachlinger; Harald Berger; Yazmid Reyes-Dominguez; Andreas Bernreiter; Tillmann Gerngross; Stefan Wildt; Joseph Strauss

2008-01-01

100

Biotransformation of agallochaexcoerin A by Aspergillus flavus.  

PubMed

Agallochaexcoerin A (1), a seco-manoyl oxide diterpenoid was metabolised by pathogenic fungus, Aspergillus flavus, in growth media to yield a new metabolite, termed agallochaexcoerin G (2). It was confirmed by using IR, UV, (1)H NMR and HR-ESI-MS techniques. This microbial bioconversion was achieved by unusual dehydration at C-4 position. PMID:25515683

Sura, Madhu Babu; Ankireddy, Madhu; Gowri Ponnapalli, Mangala

2015-05-01

101

Review paper The Genera Cylindrocladium and Cylindrocladiella in South  

E-print Network

been found on tree genera such as Eucalyptus, Pinus and Acacia. This paper provides a review of current Africa (Lundquist and Baxter, 1985). Additional local hosts for C. scoparium include Acacia spp. (Doidge recently been isolated by us from roots of Acacia mearnsii de Wild, Pinus radiata D. Don. and forest litter

102

Phylogenetic placement of plant pathogenic Sclerotium species among teleomorph genera  

E-print Network

. The other Sclerotium species were placed in one of two basidiomycetous groups, genera Athelia to have an Athelia teleomorph. Key words: disease management strategies, path- ogen INTRODUCTION Fungi species in this genus, has the teleomorph Athelia rolfsii (Curzi) Tu and Kimbrough, which forms resupinate

Harrington, Thomas C.

103

REGULAR PAPER Molecular systematics of Angelica and allied genera (Apiaceae)  

E-print Network

REGULAR PAPER Molecular systematics of Angelica and allied genera (Apiaceae) from the Hengduan species of Angelica and Peucedanum endemic to the Hengduan Mountains of south-central China. Results of these analyses corroborate a monophyletic Angelica (Angelica sensu stricto) upon the inclusion of Coelo- pleurum

Downie, Stephen R.

104

Leaf-inhabiting genera of the Gnomoniaceae, Diaporthales  

PubMed Central

The Gnomoniaceae are characterised by ascomata that are generally immersed, solitary, without a stroma, or aggregated with a rudimentary stroma, in herbaceous plant material especially in leaves, twigs or stems, but also in bark or wood. The ascomata are black, soft-textured, thin-walled, and pseudoparenchymatous with one or more central or eccentric necks. The asci usually have a distinct apical ring. The Gnomoniaceae includes species having ascospores that are small, mostly less than 25 ?m long, although some are longer, and range in septation from non-septate to one-septate, rarely multi-septate. Molecular studies of the Gnomoniaceae suggest that the traditional classification of genera based on characteristics of the ascomata such as position of the neck and ascospores such as septation have resulted in genera that are not monophyletic. In this paper the concepts of the leaf-inhabiting genera in the Gnomoniaceae are reevaluated using multiple genes, specifically nrLSU, translation elongation factor 1-alpha (tef1-?), and RNA polymerase II second largest subunit (rpb2) for 64 isolates. ITS sequences were generated for 322 isolates. Six genera of leaf-inhabiting Gnomoniaceae are defined based on placement of their type species within the multigene phylogeny. The new monotypic genus Ambarignomonia is established for an unusual species, A. petiolorum. A key to 59 species of leaf-inhabiting Gnomoniaceae is presented and 22 species of Gnomoniaceae are described and illustrated. PMID:19287541

Sogonov, M.V.; Castlebury, L.A.; Rossman, A.Y.; Mejía, L.C.; White, J.F.

2008-01-01

105

Character-based DNA barcoding allows discrimination of genera, species  

E-print Network

Character-based DNA barcoding allows discrimination of genera, species and populations in Odonata J. Currently, phenetic approaches and tree-building methods have been used to define species boundaries taxonomic groups cannot be determined. As an alternative, DNA barcoding approaches can be `character based

DeSalle, Rob

106

The Botryosphaeriaceae: genera and species known from culture  

PubMed Central

In this paper we give an account of the genera and species in the Botryosphaeriaceae. We consider morphological characters alone as inadequate to define genera or identify species, given the confusion it has repeatedly introduced in the past, their variation during development, and inevitable overlap as representation grows. Thus it seems likely that all of the older taxa linked to the Botryosphaeriaceae, and for which cultures or DNA sequence data are not available, cannot be linked to the species in this family that are known from culture. Such older taxa will have to be disregarded for future use unless they are epitypified. We therefore focus this paper on the 17 genera that can now be recognised phylogenetically, which concentrates on the species that are presently known from culture. Included is a historical overview of the family, the morphological features that define the genera and species and detailed descriptions of the 17 genera and 110 species. Keys to the genera and species are also provided. Phylogenetic relationships of the genera are given in a multi-locus tree based on combined SSU, ITS, LSU, EF1-? and ?-tubulin sequences. The morphological descriptions are supplemented by phylogenetic trees (ITS alone or ITS + EF1-?) for the species in each genus. Taxonomic novelties: New species - Neofusicoccum batangarum Begoude, Jol. Roux & Slippers. New combinations - Botryosphaeria fabicerciana (S.F. Chen, D. Pavlic, M.J. Wingf. & X.D. Zhou) A.J.L. Phillips & A. Alves, Botryosphaeria ramosa (Pavlic, T.I. Burgess, M.J. Wingf.) A.J.L. Phillips & A. Alves, Cophinforma atrovirens (Mehl & Slippers) A. Alves & A.J.L. Phillips, Cophinforma mamane (D.E. Gardner) A.J.L. Phillips & A. Alves, Dothiorella pretoriensis (Jami, Gryzenh., Slippers & M.J. Wingf.) Abdollahz. & A.J.L. Phillips, Dothiorella thailandica (D.Q. Dai., J.K. Liu & K.D. Hyde) Abdollahz., A.J.L. Phillips & A. Alves, Dothiorella uruguayensis (C.A. Pérez, Blanchette, Slippers & M.J. Wingf.) Abdollahz. & A.J.L. Phillips, Lasiodiplodia lignicola (Ariyawansa, J.K. Liu & K.D. Hyde) A.J.L. Phillips, A. Alves & Abdollahz., Neoscytalidium hyalinum (C.K. Campb. & J.L. Mulder) A.J.L. Phillips, Groenewald & Crous, Sphaeropsis citrigena (A.J.L. Phillips, P.R. Johnst. & Pennycook) A.J.L. Phillips & A. Alves, Sphaeropsis eucalypticola (Doilom, J.K. Liu, & K.D. Hyde) A.J.L. Phillips, Sphaeropsis porosa (Van Niekerk & Crous) A.J.L. Phillips & A. Alves. Epitypification (basionym) - Sphaeria sapinea Fries. Neotypifications (basionyms) - Botryodiplodia theobromae Pat., Physalospora agaves Henn, Sphaeria atrovirens var. visci Alb. & Schwein. PMID:24302790

Phillips, A.J.L.; Alves, A.; Abdollahzadeh, J.; Slippers, B.; Wingfield, M.J.; Groenewald, J.Z.; Crous, P.W.

2013-01-01

107

Aspergillus niger contains the cryptic phylogenetic species A. awamori.  

PubMed

Aspergillus section Nigri is an important group of species for food and medical mycology, and biotechnology. The Aspergillus niger 'aggregate' represents its most complicated taxonomic subgroup containing eight morphologically indistinguishable taxa: A. niger, Aspergillus tubingensis, Aspergillus acidus, Aspergillus brasiliensis, Aspergillus costaricaensis, Aspergillus lacticoffeatus, Aspergillus piperis, and Aspergillus vadensis. Aspergillus awamori, first described by Nakazawa, has been compared taxonomically with other black aspergilli and recently it has been treated as a synonym of A. niger. Phylogenetic analyses of sequences generated from portions of three genes coding for the proteins ?-tubulin (benA), calmodulin (CaM), and the translation elongation factor-1 alpha (TEF-1?) of a population of A. niger strains isolated from grapes in Europe revealed the presence of a cryptic phylogenetic species within this population, A. awamori. Morphological, physiological, ecological and chemical data overlap occurred between A. niger and the cryptic A. awamori, however the splitting of these two species was also supported by AFLP analysis of the full genome. Isolates in both phylospecies can produce the mycotoxins ochratoxin A and fumonisin B?, and they also share the production of pyranonigrin A, tensidol B, funalenone, malformins, and naphtho-?-pyrones. In addition, sequence analysis of four putative A. awamori strains from Japan, used in the koji industrial fermentation, revealed that none of these strains belong to the A. awamori phylospecies. PMID:22036292

Perrone, Giancarlo; Stea, Gaetano; Epifani, Filomena; Varga, János; Frisvad, Jens C; Samson, Robert A

2011-11-01

108

IDENTIFICATION, CHARACTERIZATION AND ANTI-FUNGAL ACTVITIES OF SILK PROTEINS IN ASPERGILLUS FLAVUS  

E-print Network

IDENTIFICATION, CHARACTERIZATION AND ANTI-FUNGAL ACTVITIES OF SILK PROTEINS IN ASPERGILLUS FLAVUS 2006 #12;IDENTIFICATION, CHARACTERIZATION AND ANTI-FUNGAL ACTVITIES OF SILK PROTEINS IN ASPERGILLUS: IDENTIFICATION, CHARACTERIZATION AND ANTIFUNGAL ACTIVITIES OF SILK PROTEINS IN ASPERGILLUS FLAVUS RESISTANT

Ray, David

109

Inhibitory effects of benzaldehyde derivatives from the marine fungus Eurotium sp. SF-5989 on inflammatory mediators via the induction of heme oxygenase-1 in lipopolysaccharide-stimulated RAW264.7 macrophages.  

PubMed

Two benzaldehyde derivatives, flavoglaucin (1) and isotetrahydro-auroglaucin (2), were isolated from the marine fungus Eurotium sp. SF-5989 through bioassay- and 1H NMR-guided investigation. In this study, we evaluated the anti-inflammatory effects of these compounds in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated RAW264.7 macrophages. We demonstrated that compounds 1 and 2 markedly inhibited LPS-induced nitric oxide (NO) and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) production by suppressing inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) protein expression without affecting cell viability. We also demonstrated that the compounds reduced the secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines such as tumor necrosis factor-? (TNF-?), interleukin-1? (IL-1?) and interleukin-6 (IL-6). Furthermore, compounds 1 and 2 inhibited LPS-induced nuclear factor-?B (NF-?B) activation by suppressing phosphorylation of IkappaB (I?B). These results indicated that the anti-inflammatory effects of these benzaldehyde derivatives in LPS-stimulated RAW264.7 macrophages were due to the inactivation of the NF-?B pathway. In addition, compounds 1 and 2 induced heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) expression through the nuclear transcription factor-E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) translocation. The inhibitory effects of compounds 1 and 2 on the production of pro-inflammatory mediators and on NF-?B binding activity were reversed by HO-1 inhibitor tin protoporphyrin (SnPP). Thus, the anti-inflammatory effects of compounds 1 and 2 also correlated with their ability of inducing HO-1 expression. PMID:25535073

Kim, Kyoung-Su; Cui, Xiang; Lee, Dong-Sung; Ko, Wonmin; Sohn, Jae Hak; Yim, Joung Han; An, Ren-Bo; Kim, Youn-Chul; Oh, Hyuncheol

2014-01-01

110

Xerotolerant mycobiota from high altitude Anapurna soil, Nepal.  

PubMed

Xerophilic and xerotolerant microfungi were isolated from soil samples collected in Anapurna Mountains, Nepal, at altitudes from 3000 to 5400 m. The total numbers and proportions of xerotolerant and psychrophilic strains in comparison with mesophilic mycobiota were determined by using different enumeration, selective media and four isolation methods. The most extreme xerophilic fungi were taxonomically identified as belonging to the genera Eurotium and Aspergillus. The low water activity of the soil due to dry climate and frequent binding of water in ice crystals favors a high proportion of xerotolerant fungal species. The correlation between xerotolerant and psychrophilic fungi was observed. PMID:10620689

Petrovic, U; Gunde-Cimerman, N; Zalar, P

2000-01-15

111

Mutually facilitated dispersal between the nonmotile fungus Aspergillus fumigatus and the swarming  

E-print Network

Mutually facilitated dispersal between the nonmotile fungus Aspergillus fumigatus and the swarming show that two very different inhabitants of the rhizosphere, the nonmotile fungus Aspergillus fumigatus

Jacob, Eshel Ben

112

Chronic bilateral otomycosis caused by Aspergillus niger.  

PubMed

Aspergillus niger, an opportunistic filamentous fungus, was identified as the cause of chronic bilateral otomycosis in a 46-year-old female patient who was unresponsive to different drugs. The patient showed signs of erythema, otalgia, itching, otorrhoea and presence of greyish black coloured mass in both the ear canals. The direct microscopical examination of the ear debris in potassium hydroxide preparations, Giemsa, phase contrast and Gram revealed many thin, branched septate hyphae, condia and conidiophores morphologically indistinguishable from Aspergillus spp. The histopathological section of the ear wax mass by haematoxylin and eosin and periodic acid-Schiff techniques also showed similar fungal elements. The patient responded to 1% solution of mercurochrome. The use of mercurochrome in developing countries like India may be recommended to treat the fungal otitis in patients. We also emphasize that 'Narayan' stain should be routinely employed by microbiology and public health laboratories to study the morphology of pathogenic fungi. PMID:14998406

Mishra, G S; Mehta, Niral; Pal, M

2004-02-01

113

First Nuclear DNA C?values for 28 Angiosperm Genera  

PubMed Central

This paper reports first DNA C?values for 28 angiosperm genera. These include first DNA C?values for 25 families, of which 16 are monocots. Overall familial representation is 47·2 % for angiosperms, but is now much higher for monocots (75 %) and basal angiosperms (73·1 %) than for eudicots (38·7 %). Chromosome counts are reported for 22 taxa, including first records for six genera plus seven species. Unrepresented families will become increasingly enriched for monotypic taxa from obscure locations that are harder to access. Thus, completing familial representation for genome size for angiosperms may prove impossible in any short period, and progress towards this goal will become slower. PMID:12495917

HANSON, LYNDA; BROWN, REBECCA L.; BOYD, AMY; JOHNSON, MARGARET A. T.; BENNETT, MICHAEL D.

2003-01-01

114

Nitrogen metabolite repression in Aspergillus nidulans  

Microsoft Academic Search

In Aspergillus nidulans, mutations, designated areAr, can result in the inability to utilise a wide variety of nitrogen sources including amino acids, purines, amides, nitrate, and nitrite, whilst not affecting growth on ammonium. Other allelic areA mutations, designated areAd, lead to derepression of one or more activities which are ammonium repressible in wild type (areA+) strains, whilst not affecting their

Herbert N. Arst; David J. Cove

1973-01-01

115

Primary Aspergillus osteomyelitis of the sternum.  

PubMed

We report 2 cases of primary sternal osteomyelitis caused by Aspergillus; previously reported cases have been complications of sternotomy. Both patients were healthy young men with recent intravenous drug abuse. No other focus or predisposing factors were found. Both were treated with partial sternectomy and chondrectomy; 1 received long-term amphotericin B therapy. Both are doing well 2 1/2 years after operation. Drug usage, acquired immunodeficiency syndrome, and medical immunosuppression may lead to other cases. PMID:1929646

Walker, W A; Pate, J W

1991-10-01

116

Two new species in the endemic Chinese leafhopper genera Flexocerus and Idioceroides (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae: Idiocerinae).  

PubMed

Two new species of endemic Chinese leafhopper genera (Flexocerus Kuoh & Fang and Idioceroides Matsumura), F. sinuatus sp. nov. and I. petaliformis sp. nov. are described and illustrated. Keys to species for both genera are provided. PMID:25781401

Xue, Qingquan; Zhang, Yalin

2015-01-01

117

Mycoflora study in a wheat flour mill of Argentina  

PubMed Central

The mycoflora of the environment: wheat conditioning, milling and screening, and filling zone, as well as, raw material -wheat-, intermediate product -grits- and end product -flour- on day 1, and after cleaning improvements -days 45 and 90- were studied in an Argentine wheat mill. Samples were incubated at 28°C for 5–7 days on Malt Extract Agar with chloramphenicol (100 mg L-1) and the results were expressed in colony forming units per cubic meter of air (CFU m-3) or per gram of sample (CFU g-1), respectively. Fungal genera and species were isolated and identified and the potential toxicogenic capacity of the Aspergillus flavus and Fusarium graminearum isolated was studied. Time-Place and Time-Product multifactorial ANOVA were carried out. After cleaning improvements, CFU m-3 of air decreased as a function of time. Cladosporium and Alternaria were abundant in every zone, Aspergillus predominated in the wheat conditioning zone and Penicillium and Eurotium decreased with time. Wheat was more contaminated than grits and flour; Aspergillus, Eurotium and Mucoraceae family were the most abundant. Deoxynivalenol was above the levels allowed in wheat, being acceptable in grits and flour. Aflatoxin and Zearalenone showed acceptable levels. When studied in vitro, 53% of Aspergillus flavus and 100% of Fusarium graminearum isolates, produced Total Aflatoxins, and Deoxynivalenol and Zearalenone, respectively. PMID:24031975

Aringoli, E.E.; Cambiagno, D.E.; Chiericatti, C.A.; Basilico, J.C.; Basilico, M.L.Z.

2012-01-01

118

Hypersaline waters - a potential source of foodborne toxigenic aspergilli and penicillia.  

PubMed

Previous studies of hypersaline environments have revealed the dominant presence of melanized yeast-like fungi and related Cladosporium spp. In this study, we focused on the genera Aspergillus and Penicillium and their teleomorphic forms. From oligotrophic and eutrophic hypersaline waters around the world, 60 different species were identified, according to their morphological characteristics and extrolite profiles. For the confirmation of five new species, additionally, sequence analysis of the internal transcribed spacer region, the partial large subunit-rDNA and the partial ?-tubulin gene was performed. The species Aspergillus niger, Eurotium amstelodami and Penicillium chrysogenum were detected with the highest frequencies at all of the sampled sites; thus, they represent the pan-global stable mycobiota in hypersaline environments. Possible candidates were also Aspergillus sydowii and Eurotium herbariorum, as they were quite evenly distributed among the sampled sites, and Aspergillus candidus, which was abundant, but more locally distributed. These species and their byproducts can accumulate downstream following evaporation of brine, and they can become entrapped in the salt crystals. Consequently, marine salt used for consumption can be a potential source of food-borne fungi and their byproducts. For example, ochratoxin-A-producing species Penicillium nordicum was recovered from brine, salt and salted meat products. PMID:21477006

Butinar, Lorena; Frisvad, Jens C; Gunde-Cimerman, Nina

2011-07-01

119

[On the essential oil of green algae. II. The oils of the genera Ankistrodesmus and Scendesmus].  

PubMed

The essential oil and its main components (i.e., proazulenes) are useful taxonomic characters also in the genera Ankistrodesmus and Scenedesmus. The amounts of oil in these genera are similar to that of the genus Chlorella. A few strains of Ankistrodesmus, which are unable to synthesize proazulenes, seem to belong to other genera. PMID:942283

Liersch, R

1976-07-01

120

Neotropical Emerald moths: a review of the genera (Lepidoptera: Geometridae, Geometrinae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The classification of the Neotropical genera of the Geometrinae is reviewed and 38 genera are recognized (including one nomen dubium). Seven generic synonyms are newly established and the genusGnathosociais described as new. Other changes established in this work include 1 species synonym and 36 new or reinstated combinations. A key to genera, based on external features, is provided for their

LINDA M. PITKIN

1996-01-01

121

Global Diversity and Phylogeny of Pelagic Shrimps of the Former Genera Sergestes and Sergia (Crustacea, Dendrobranchiata, Sergestidae), with Definition of Eight New Genera  

PubMed Central

We revise the global diversity of the former genera Sergia and Sergestes which include 71 valid species. The revision is based on examination of more than 37,000 specimens from collections in the Natural History Museum of Denmark and the Museum of Natural History, Paris. We used 72 morphological characters (61 binary, 11 multistate) and Sicyonella antennata as an outgroup for cladistic analysis. There is no support for the genera Sergia and Sergestes as they have been defined until now. We define and diagnose eight genera of the former genus Sergia (Sergia and new genera Gardinerosergia, Phorcosergia, Prehensilosergia, Robustosergia, Scintillosergia, Challengerosergia, and Lucensosergia) and seven genera of the former genus Sergestes (Sergestes, Deosergestes, Eusergestes, Allosergestes, Parasergestes, Neosergestes, and a new genus Cornutosergestes). An identification key is presented for all genera of the family Sergestidae. The phylogeny of Sergestidae is mainly based on three categories of characters related to: (1) general decapod morphology, (2) male copulatory organs, and (3) photophores. Only simultaneous use of all three character types resulted in a resolved tree with minimal Bootstrap support 75 for each clade. Most genera are interzonal mesopelagic migrants, some are benthopelagic (Scintillosergia, Lucensosergia), bathypelagic (Sergia), or epipelagic (Cornutosergestes). Within each of meso- and benthopelagic genera there is one species with panoceanic distribution, while most species ranges are restricted to a single ocean. The genera demonstrate two different strategies expressed both in morphology and behavior: protective (Eusergestes, Sergestes, Cornutosergestes, Prehensilosergia, Scintillosergia, Lucensosergia, Challengerosergia, Gardinerosergia, Robustosergia, Phorcosergia, Sergia) and offensive (Neosergestes, Parasergestes, Allosergestes, Deosergestes). PMID:25409458

Vereshchaka, Alexander L.; Olesen, Jřrgen; Lunina, Anastasia A.

2014-01-01

122

Original article The effect of Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Aspergillus  

E-print Network

Original article The effect of Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Aspergillus oryzae on the digestion cerevisiae / Aspergillus oryzae / protozoa / digestion / fibre RĂ©sumĂ© - Effet de Saccharomyces cerevisiae et of the SAB in rumen digesta and the growth of protozoa. © Inra/Elsevier, Paris rumen / Saccharomyces

Boyer, Edmond

123

METHODOLOGY ARTICLE Open Access Comparative proteomic profiles of Aspergillus  

E-print Network

involved in various forms of aspergillosis in humans and animals [1-3]. Infections caused Aspergillus species within the Fumigati section (Aspergillus fumigatus wild-types and natural abnormally and two oxygenation conditions. Nine strains were investigated: three wild-types and four natural

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

124

Aspergillus Mycoviruses Are Targets and Suppressors of RNA Silencing  

Microsoft Academic Search

RNA silencing can function as a virus defense mechanism in a diverse range of eukaryotes, and many viruses are capable of suppressing the silencing machinery targeting them. However, the extent to which this occurs between fungal RNA silencing and mycoviruses is unclear. Here, three Aspergillus dsRNA mycoviruses were partially characterized, and their relationship to RNA silencing was investigated. Aspergillus virus

T. M. Hammond; M. D. Andrewski; M. J. Roossinck; N. P. Keller

2008-01-01

125

Production of ochratoxin A by Aspergillus carbonarius on coffee cherries  

Microsoft Academic Search

Robusta coffee cherries collected before and during sun drying from two coffee farms in Thailand were examined for moulds producing ochratoxin A (OA). Aspergillus ochraceus was only detected in one sample, whereas Aspergillus carbonarius was isolated from 7 out of 14 samples. On ?-irradiated coffee cherries, each of the six tested A. carbonarius strains produced OA. More than 4800 ?g

H. M. L. J Joosten; J Goetz; A Pittet; M Schellenberg; P Bucheli

2001-01-01

126

Aspergillus pragensis sp. nov. discovered during molecular reidentification of clinical isolates belonging Aspergillus section Candidi  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The identity of nine clinical isolates from Czech patients presumably belonging to Aspergillus section Candidi based on morphology of colonies was revised using sequences of ß-tubulin, calmodulin, and internal transcribed spacer (ITS) rDNA. The set of isolates included six isolates from suspected (n...

127

Aflatoxin Biosynthesis and Sclerotial Development in Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus parasiticus  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Aflatoxins are a family of fungal secondary metabolites. They are produced by species in the genus Aspergillus. Within the last decade, significant advances have been made in understanding the biochemistry, genetics, and gene regulation of aflatoxin biosynthesis. Many scientists have used aflatox...

128

Aspergillus tanneri sp. nov, a new pathogenic Aspergillus that causes invasive disease refractory to antifungal therapy  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

This is the first report documenting fatal invasive aspergillosis caused by a new pathogenic Aspergillus species that is inherently resistant to antifungal drugs. Phenotypic characteristics of A. tanneri combined with the molecular approach enabled diagnosis of this new pathogen. This study undersco...

129

Nomenclatural considerations in naming species of Aspergillus and its teleomorphs  

PubMed Central

The nomenclature of Aspergillus is important in many fields of research and therefore the strategies for stable and efficient naming are important. The conservation of species names as accepted by the Aspergillus community is described. Published lists of accepted names provide that people who use Aspergillus and Penicillium taxonomies need no longer fear the overturning of names currently used. Aspergillus is a good example of a genus where the naming of both anamorph and teleomorph has been applied and arguments are given for maintaining the system of dual nomenclature. A protocol for describing new taxa in Aspergillus and their teleomorphs is proposed, including the availability of living ex type cultures, deposit of type cultures in at least two recognised culture collections, deposits of sequence data in specialised data bases and registration of the new names in MycoBank. PMID:18490944

Pitt, J.I.; Samson, R.A.

2007-01-01

130

Twelve previously unknown phage genera are ubiquitous in global oceans  

SciTech Connect

Viruses are fundamental to ecosystems ranging from oceans to humans, yet our ability to study them is bottlenecked by the lack of ecologically relevant isolates, resulting in unknowns dominating culture-independent surveys. Here we present genomes from 31 phages infecting multiple strains of the aquatic bacterium Cellulophaga baltica (Bacteroidetes) to provide data for an underrepresented and environmentally abundant bacterial lineage. Comparative genomics delineated 12 phage groups that (i) each represent a new genus, and (ii) represent one novel and four wellknown viral families. This diversity contrasts the few well-studied marine phage systems, but parallels the diversity of phages infecting human-associated bacteria. Although all 12 Cellulophaga phages represent new genera, the podoviruses and icosahedral, nontailed ssDNA phages were exceptional, with genomes up to twice as large as those previously observed for each phage type. Structural novelty was also substantial, requiring experimental phage proteomics to identify 83% of the structural proteins. The presence of uncommon nucleotide metabolism genes in four genera likely underscores the importance of scavenging nutrient-rich molecules as previously seen for phages in marine environments. Metagenomic recruitment analyses suggest that these particular Cellulophaga phages are rare and may represent a first glimpse into the phage side of the rare biosphere. However, these analyses also revealed that these phage genera are widespread, occurring in 94% of 137 investigated metagenomes. Together, this diverse and novel collection of phages identifies a small but ubiquitous fraction of unknown marine viral diversity and provides numerous environmentally relevant phage host systems for experimental hypothesis testing.

Holmfeldt, Karin [University of Arizona] [University of Arizona; Solonenko, Natalie [University of Arizona] [University of Arizona; Shah, Manesh B [ORNL] [ORNL; Corrier, Kristen L [ORNL] [ORNL; Riemann, Lasse [University of Copenhagen] [University of Copenhagen; Verberkmoes, Nathan C [ORNL] [ORNL; Sullivan, Matthew B [University of Arizona] [University of Arizona

2013-01-01

131

Studies of In Vitro Activities of Voriconazole and Itraconazole against Aspergillus Hyphae Using Viability Staining  

Microsoft Academic Search

The minimal fungicidal concentrations (MFCs) of voriconazole and itraconazole for five clinical isolates each of Aspergillus terreus, Aspergillus fumigatus, Aspergillus flavus, and Aspergillus niger were determined by a broth macrodilution method. Conidial suspensions as inocula were compared to hyphae as inocula since the invasive form of aspergillosis is manifested by the appearance of hyphal structures. In addition, cell viability staining

CORNELIA LASS-FLORL; MARKUS NAGL; CORNELIA SPETH; HANNO ULMER; MANFRED P. DIERICH; REINHARD WURZNER

2001-01-01

132

Constitutive expression of fluorescent protein by Aspergillus var. niger and Aspergillus carbonarius to monitor fungal colonization in maize plants  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Aspergillus niger and A. carbonarius are two species in the Aspergillus section Nigri (black-spored aspergilli) frequently associated with peanut (Arachis hypogea), maize (Zea mays), and other plants as pathogens. These infections are symptomless and as such are major concerns since some black aspe...

133

Why Are Some Plant Genera More Invasive Than Others?  

PubMed Central

Determining how biological traits are related to the ability of groups of organisms to become economically damaging when established outside of their native ranges is a major goal of population biology, and important in the management of invasive species. Little is known about why some taxonomic groups are more likely to become pests than others among plants. We investigated traits that discriminate vascular plant genera, a level of taxonomic generality at which risk assessment and screening could be more effectively performed, according to the proportion of naturalized species which are pests. We focused on the United States and Canada, and, because our purpose is ultimately regulatory, considered species classified as weeds or noxious. Using contingency tables, we identified 11 genera of vascular plants that are disproportionately represented by invasive species. Results from boosted regression tree analyses show that these categories reflect biological differences. In summary, approximately 25% of variation in genus proportions of weeds or noxious species was explained by biological covariates. Key explanatory traits included genus means for wetland habitat affinity, chromosome number, and seed mass. PMID:21494563

Schmidt, John Paul; Drake, John M.

2011-01-01

134

Phylogenetic placement of plant pathogenic Sclerotium species among teleomorph genera.  

PubMed

Phylogenetic analyses and morphological characteristics were used to assess the taxonomic placement of eight plant-pathogenic Sclerotium species. Members of this genus produce only sclerotia and no fruiting bodies or spores, so Sclerotium species have been difficult to place taxonomically. Sequences of rDNA large subunit (LSU) and internal transcribed spacer (ITS) regions were determined for isolates of Sclerotium cepivorum, S. coffeicola, S. denigrans, S. hydrophilum, Ceratorhiza oryzae-sativae, S. perniciosum, S. rhizodes, S. rolfsii and S. rolfsii var. delphinii. Parsimony analysis grouped two species previously thought to be in the Basidiomycota, S. denigrans and S. perniciosum, within the Ascomycota; these species were found to have affinities with the teleomorph genera Sclerotinia and Stromatinia and the asexual Sclerotium cepivorum, which was known earlier to be related to Sclerotinia species. The other Sclerotium species were placed in one of two basidiomycetous groups, genera Athelia or Ceratobasidium. Based on rDNA analysis and morphology the basidiomycetous Sclerotium hydrophilum and S. rhizodes were transferred to genus Ceratorhiza, the anamorph of Ceratobasidium species. Sclerotium coffeicola was found to be close to S. rolfsii var. delphinii and S. rolfsii var. rolfsii, which was shown earlier to have an Athelia teleomorph. PMID:20361501

Xu, Zhihan; Harrington, Thomas C; Gleason, Mark L; Batzer, Jean C

2010-01-01

135

Aspergillus terreus recovered from a corneal scraping.  

PubMed

A 52 year old, healthy male presented to his optometrist complaining of redness and irritation in the right eye. A foreign body was removed from the eye. The patient was started on ophthalmic solutions of vigamox and systane. At 48 hours, the patient reported increased redness, limited vision, and yellow discharge from the eye. The patient was referred to an ophthalmologist for further evaluation. Physical assessment revealed a superlative central infiltrate (extreme, centrally located injury that had permeated the cornea), diffuse corneal haze, and edema with a 3- to 4+ conjunctival injection and a 1 millimeter hypopyon (an effusion of pus into the anterior chamber of the eye). Corneal scrapings were collected for aerobic and anaerobic bacterial and fungal cultures. The patient was then prescribed. vancomycin, tobramycin, and natamycin ophthalmic eyedrops. On day three, fungal culture results indicated possible fungal forms seen. On day 12, results from the fungal culture of the corneal scraping revealed the causative agent to be Aspergillus terreus. Voriconazole eyedrops were added to the treatment regimen and continued for 10 weeks. The physician order for a fungal culture as well as laboratory data providing the final identification of Aspergillus terreus and laboratory comments indicating an elevated minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) (> 2 microg/mL) to amphotericin B is associated with treatment failure positively impacted the patient outcome. After completion of the treatment regimen, a photo-therapeutic keratectomy (PTK) was performed in an attempt to remove the dense corneal scarring caused by the fungal infection. PMID:25000648

Campbell, Suzanne

2014-01-01

136

Aspergillus and Penicillium allergens: focus on proteases.  

PubMed

Penicillium and Aspergillus species are prevalent airborne fungi. It is imperative to identify and characterize their major allergens. Alkaline and/or vacuolar serine proteases are major allergens of several prevalent Penicillium and Aspergillus species. They are also major immunoglobulin (Ig) E-reacting components of the most prevalent airborne yeast, Rhodotorula mucilaginosa, and the most prevalent Cladosporium species, C. cladosporioides. IgE cross-reactivity has been detected among these major pan-fungal serine protease allergens. In addition, the alkaline serine protease of P. chrysogenum (Pen ch 13) induces histamine release from basophils of asthmatic patients, degrades the tight junction protein occludin, and stimulates release of proinflammatory mediators from human bronchial epithelial cells. In addition to induction of IgE and inflammatory airway responses, the alkaline serine protease allergen of A. fumigatus (Asp f 13) has synergistic effects on Asp f 2-induced immune response in mice. Studies of these serine protease major allergens elucidate the diverse allergic disease mechanisms and facilitate the development of better therapeutic strategies. PMID:17697643

Shen, Horng-Der; Tam, Ming F; Tang, Ren-Bin; Chou, Hong

2007-09-01

137

Geographical and ecological distribution of marine halacarid genera and species (Acari: Halacaridae).  

PubMed

At the end of 2002, the number of marine halacarid species was 1018, that of genera 51. A single genus, Copidognathus contains 33% of all species (336). Eleven genera are monotypic. Geographical provinces with a large number of species are the tropical western Pacific, temperate northeastern Atlantic, temperate southeastern Pacific, and Mediterranean-Black Sea. Most records of halacarid species are from temperate and tropical areas; 10% of species are known from polar zones. On a generic level, 29 genera are recorded from tropical and temperate but not from polar provinces, five genera are restricted to the tropics, and none to polar regions. The majority (920 species or 90%) of all species live in the upper 200 m. Records of genera with exclusively algivorous or brackish/fresh water species are bound to littoral habitats; all the other genera occur in more than one depth zone. Arenicolous genera, though most abundant in the littoral zone, have representatives in the bathyal. Four marine genera (Copidognathus, Halacarellus, Isobactrus, Lohmannella) have representatives in coastal fresh water, and three genera, Acarothrix, Caspihalacarus and Peregrinacarus, are predominantly inhabitants of diluted brackish and fresh water. None of the free-living halacarid genera of the world's oceans appears to be endemic to one geographical province. PMID:15597599

Bartsch, Ilse

2004-01-01

138

Aspergillus baeticus sp. nov. and Aspergillus thesauricus sp. nov., two species in section Usti from Spanish caves.  

PubMed

Two novel species of Aspergillus that are clearly distinct from all known species in section Usti were revealed during a study of microfungal communities in Spanish caves. The novel species identified in this study and additional species of Aspergillus section Usti are associated with places and substrates related to human activities in caves. Novel species are described using data from four loci (ITS, benA, caM and rpb2), morphology and basic chemical and physiological analyses. Members of the species Aspergillus thesauricus sp. nov. were isolated from various substrates, including decaying organic matter, cave air and cave sediment of the Cueva del Tesoro Cave (the Treasure cave); the species is represented by twelve isolates and is most closely related to the recently described Aspergillus germanicus. Members of the species Aspergillus baeticus sp. nov. were isolated from cave sediment in the Gruta de las Maravillas Cave (the Grotto of the Marvels); the species is represented by two isolates. An additional isolate was found in the Cueva del Tesoro Cave and in the Demänovská Peace Cave (Slovakia), suggesting a potentially wide distribution of this micro-organism. The species is related to Aspergillus ustus and Aspergillus pseudoustus. Both species were unable to grow at 37 °C, and a weakly positive, light greenish yellow Ehrlich reaction was observed in A. thesauricus. Unique morphological features alone are sufficient to distinguish both species from related taxa. PMID:22505602

Nováková, Alena; Hubka, Vit; Saiz-Jimenez, Cesareo; Kolarik, Miroslav

2012-11-01

139

Effect of gamma radiation on Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus ochraceus ultrastructure and mycotoxin production  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The aim of this work was to study the effect of gamma radiation (2 kGy) on Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus ochraceus ultrastructure. Moreover, the influence on aflatoxin B 1 and ochratoxin A production was also observed. Irradiated A. flavus strain showed a dull orangish colony while control strain showed the typical green color. Minor differences were observed on stipes, metulae and conidia size between control and irradiated A. flavus and A. ochraceus strains. Irradiated fungi showed ultrastructural changes on cell wall, plasmalema and cytoplasm levels. The levels of mycotoxins produced by irradiated strains were two times greater than those produced by control strains. Successive transferences of irradiated strains on malt extract agar allowed the fungus to recuperate morphological characteristics. Although minor changes in the fungal morphology were observed, ultrastructural changes at cell wall level and the increase of mycotoxin production ability were observed. Inappropriate storage of irradiated food and feed would allow the development of potentially more toxicogenic fungal propagules.

Ribeiro, J.; Cavaglieri, L.; Vital, H.; Cristofolini, A.; Merkis, C.; Astoreca, A.; Orlando, J.; Carú, M.; Dalcero, A.; Rosa, C. A. R.

2011-05-01

140

Optimization of culture conditions for Aspergillus sojae expressing an Aspergillus fumigatus ?-galactosidase.  

PubMed

Using Response Surface Methodology, carbon and nitrogen sources and agitation speed for cultivation of Aspergillus sojae expressing the ?-galactosidase gene, aglB of Aspergillus fumigatus IMI 385708 were optimized. Compared to cultivation in modified YpSs medium, cultivation in 250-mL Erlenmeyer flasks agitated at 276 rpm and containing 100 mL of optimized medium consisting of 10.5% molasses (w/v) and 1.3% NH(4)NO(3) (w/v), 0.1% K(2)HPO(4), and 0.005% MgSO(4)·7H(2)O achieved a 4-fold increase in ?-galactosidase production (10.4 U/mL). These results suggest the feasibility of industrial large scale production of an ?-galactosidase known to be valuable in galactomannan modification. PMID:21316941

Gurkok, Sumeyra; Cekmecelioglu, Deniz; Ogel, Zumrut B

2011-04-01

141

Congruence of morphologically-defined genera with molecular phylogenies  

PubMed Central

Morphologically-defined mammalian and molluscan genera (herein “morphogenera”) are significantly more likely to be monophyletic relative to molecular phylogenies than random, under 3 different models of expected monophyly rates: ?63% of 425 surveyed morphogenera are monophyletic and 19% are polyphyletic, although certain groups appear to be problematic (e.g., nonmarine, unionoid bivalves). Compiled nonmonophyly rates are probably extreme values, because molecular analyses have focused on “problem” taxa, and molecular topologies (treated herein as error-free) contain contradictory groupings across analyses for 10% of molluscan morphogenera and 37% of mammalian morphogenera. Both body size and geographic range, 2 key macroevolutionary and macroecological variables, show significant rank correlations between values for morphogenera and molecularly-defined clades, even when strictly monophyletic morphogenera are excluded from analyses. Thus, although morphogenera can be imperfect reflections of phylogeny, large-scale statistical treatments of diversity dynamics or macroevolutionary variables in time and space are unlikely to be misleading. PMID:19416868

Jablonski, David; Finarelli, John A.

2009-01-01

142

Phytogeographical Analysis of Seed Plant Genera in China  

PubMed Central

• Background and Aims A central goal of biogeography and ecology is to uncover and understand distributional patterns of organisms. China has long been a focus of attention because of its rich biota, especially with respect to plants. Using 290 floras from across China, this paper quantitatively characterizes the composition of floristic elements at multiple scales (i.e. national, provincial and local), and explores the extent to which climatic and geographical factors associated with each flora can jointly and independently explain the variation in floristic elements in local floras. • Methods A study was made of 261 local floras, 28 province-level floras and one national-level flora across China. Genera of seed plants in each flora were assigned to 14 floristic elements according to their worldwide geographical distributions. The composition of floristic elements was related to climatic and geographical factors. • Key Results and Conclusions Variations in percentages of cosmopolitan, tropical and temperate genera among local floras tend to be greater at higher latitudes than at lower latitudes. Latitude is strongly correlated with the proportions of 13 of the 14 floristic elements. Correlations of the proportions of floristic elements with longitude are much weaker than those with latitude. Climate represented by the first principal component of a principal component analysis was strongly correlated with the proportions of floristic elements in local floras (|r| = 0·75 ± 0·18). Geographical coordinates independently explained about four times as much variation in floristic elements as did climate. Further research is necessary to examine the roles of water–energy dynamics, geology, soils, biotic interactions, and historical factors such as land connections between continents in the past and at present in creating observed floristic patterns. PMID:16945946

QIAN, HONG; WANG, SILONG; HE, JIN-SHENG; ZHANG, JUNLI; WANG, LISONG; WANG, XIANLI; GUO, KE

2006-01-01

143

Aspergillus pragensis sp. nov. discovered during molecular reidentification of clinical isolates belonging to Aspergillus section Candidi.  

PubMed

The identity of nine clinical isolates recovered from Czech patients and presumptively identified as Aspergillus sp. section Candidi based on colony morphology was revised using sequences of ?-tubulin, calmodulin gene sequence, and internal transcribed spacer rDNA. Six isolates were from suspected and proven onychomycosis, one from otitis externa, and two associated with probable invasive aspergillosis. The results showed that one Aspergillus candidus isolate was the cause of otitis externa, and both isolates obtained from sputa of patients with probable invasive aspergillosis were reidentified as A. carneus (sect. Terrei) and A. flavus (sect. Flavi). Three isolates from nail scrapings were identified as A. tritici, a verified agent of nondermatophyte onychomycosis. One isolate from toenail was determined to be A. candidus and the two isolates belonged to a hitherto undescribed species, Aspergillus pragensis sp. nov. This species is well supported by phylogenetic analysis based on ?-tubulin and calmodulin gene and is distinguishable from other members of sect. Candidi by red-brown reverse on malt extract agar, slow growth on Czapek-Dox agar and inability to grow at 37°C. A secondary metabolite analysis was also provided with comparison of metabolite spectrum to other species. Section Candidi now encompasses five species for which a dichotomous key based on colony characteristics is provided. All clinical isolates were tested for susceptibilities to selected antifungal agents using the Etest and disc diffusion method. Overall sect. Candidi members are highly susceptible to common antifungals. PMID:24951723

Hubka, Vit; Lyskova, Pavlina; Frisvad, Jens C; Peterson, Stephen W; Skorepova, Magdalena; Kolarik, Miroslav

2014-08-01

144

Enhanced diversity and aflatoxigenicity in interspecific hybrids of Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus parasiticus.  

PubMed

Aspergillus flavus and A. parasiticus are the two most important aflatoxin-producing fungi responsible for the contamination of agricultural commodities worldwide. Both species are heterothallic and undergo sexual reproduction in laboratory crosses. Here we examine the possibility of interspecific matings between A. flavus and A. parasiticus. These species can be distinguished morphologically and genetically, as well as by their mycotoxin profiles. Aspergillus flavus produces both B aflatoxins and cyclopiazonic acid (CPA), B aflatoxins or CPA alone, or neither mycotoxin; Aspergillus parasiticus produces B and G aflatoxins or the aflatoxin precursor O-methylsterigmatocystin, but not CPA. Only four of forty-five attempted interspecific crosses between opposite mating types of A. flavus and A. parasiticus were fertile and produced viable ascospores. Single ascospore strains from each cross were shown to be recombinant hybrids using multilocus genotyping and array comparative genome hybridization. Conidia of parents and their hybrid progeny were haploid and predominantly monokaryons and dikaryons based on flow cytometry. Multilocus phylogenetic inference showed that experimental hybrid progeny were grouped with naturally occurring A. flavus L strain and A. parasiticus. Higher total aflatoxin concentrations in some F1 progeny strains compared to midpoint parent aflatoxin levels indicate synergism in aflatoxin production; moreover, three progeny strains synthesized G aflatoxins that were not produced by the parents, and there was evidence of allopolyploidization in one strain. These results suggest that hybridization is an important diversifying force resulting in the genesis of novel toxin profiles in these agriculturally important fungi. PMID:25773520

Olarte, Rodrigo A; Worthington, Carolyn J; Horn, Bruce W; Moore, Geromy G; Singh, Rakhi; Monacell, James T; Dorner, Joe W; Stone, Eric A; Xie, De-Yu; Carbone, Ignazio

2015-04-01

145

Ecological analysis of secondary metabolite production in Aspergillus spp.  

E-print Network

A complex and fascinating aspect of fungal development is the production of secondary metabolites. One of the best characterized secondary metabolite pathway is the aflatoxin (AF) and sterigmatocystin (ST) pathway, found in many Aspergillus spp...

Ramaswamy, Anitha

2002-01-01

146

Thoracic spinal cord intramedullary aspergillus invasion and abscess.  

PubMed

Invasive central nervous system aspergillosis is a rare form of fungal infection that presents most commonly in immunocompromised individuals. There have been multiple previous reports of aspergillus vertebral osteomyelitis and spinal epidural aspergillus abscess; however to our knowledge there are no reports of intramedullary aspergillus infection. We present a 19-year-old woman with active acute lymphoblastic leukemia who presented with several weeks of fevers and bilateral lower extremity weakness. She was found to have an intramedullary aspergillus abscess at T12-L1 resulting from adjacent vertebral osteomyelitis and underwent surgical debridement with ultra-sound guided aspiration and aggressive intravenous voriconazole therapy. To our knowledge this is the first reported case of spinal aspergillosis invading the intramedullary cavity. Though rare, this entity should be included in the differential for immunocompromised patients presenting with fevers and neurologic deficit. Early recognition with aggressive neurosurgical intervention and antifungal therapy may improve outcomes in future cases. PMID:25088481

McCaslin, Addason F; Lall, Rishi R; Wong, Albert P; Lall, Rohan R; Sugrue, Patrick A; Koski, Tyler R

2015-02-01

147

Terminal Oxidases in Representatives of Different Genera of the Family Microbacteriaceae  

Microsoft Academic Search

The nature of terminal oxidases in representatives of four different genera of the family Microbacteriaceae was studied. It was found that the late-logarithmic and early-stationary cells of all of the investigated strains of the genera Plantibacter and Okibacterium contain the aa3-type cytochrome oxidase. Bacteria of the genera Rathayibacter and Agreia synthesize three oxidases, the bb3- and aa3-type cytochrome oxidases and

S. M. Trutko; L. I. Evtushenko; L. V. Dorofeeva; M. G. Shlyapnikov; E. Yu. Gavrish; N. E. Suzina; V. K. Akimenko

2003-01-01

148

A key to the Mexican and Central America Genera of Anthonomini (Curculionidae, Curculioninae)  

PubMed Central

Abstract Presently the only keys available for identification of genera of Anthonomini are limited to those of the United States of America and Canada. A dichotomous key is presented to identify all genera of Mexican and Central American Anthonomini. Previous keys do not include the genera Achia, Botanebius, Loncophorus, Loncophorellus and Melexerus. A brief synopsis is given for each genus and photographs of representative species are included. PMID:23717181

Hernández, Macotulio Soto; Jones, Robert W.; Castillo, Pedro Reyes

2013-01-01

149

Synthesis of lead nanoparticles by Aspergillus species.  

PubMed

In the context of the current demand to develop green technologies in material synthesis, a natural process in the synthesis of lead particles by Aspergillus species to suit such technology is reported. The fungal strain was grown in medium containing different concentrations of lead (0.2-1.5 mM) to determine its resistance to heavy metals. The organism was found to utilize some mechanism and accumulate lead particles outside and inside the cell. The extracellular presence of lead particles in the range of 1.77-5.8 microm was characterized by scanning electron microscopy. The presence of particles of lead in the 5-20 nm size range was found on the cell surface, in the periplasmic space and in the cytoplasm and was analyzed by transmission electron microscopy. PMID:22708348

Pavani, K V; Kumar, N Sunil; Sangameswaran, B B

2012-01-01

150

Transformation of xanthohumol by Aspergillus ochraceus.  

PubMed

Microbial transformation of xanthohumol isolated from agro-residue (spent hops), by Aspergillus ochraceus was investigated. A new aurone, (Z)-2?-(2?-hydroxyisopropyl)-dihydrofurano[4?,5?:6,7]-3',4'-dihydroxy-4-methoxyaurone, was obtained as a main transformation product. Three minor metabolites were identified as 2?-(2?-hydroxyisopropyl)-dihydrofurano[4?,5?:3',4']-2',4-dihydroxy-6'-methoxychalcone, (2S,2?S)-2?-(2?-hydroxyisopropyl)-dihydrofurano[4?,5?:7,8]-4'-hydroxy-5-methoxyflavanone and (2S,2?R)-2?-(2?-hydroxyisopropyl)-dihydrofurano[4?,5?:7,8]-4'-hydroxy-5-methoxyflavanone. Their structures were elucidated on the basis of spectroscopic evidences. The antioxidant properties of xanthohumol and its metabolites were investigated using the 2,2'-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging method. The major biotransformation product, was 8.6-fold stronger antioxidant than xanthohumol and 2.3-fold than ascorbic acid. PMID:23463662

Tronina, Tomasz; Bartma?ska, Agnieszka; Pop?o?ski, Jaros?aw; Huszcza, Ewa

2014-01-01

151

Environmental fungicides and triazole resistance in Aspergillus.  

PubMed

Fungal diseases are problematic in both human health and agriculture. Treatment options are limited and resistance may emerge. The relatively recent recognition of triazole resistance in Aspergillus fumigatus has prompted questioning of the origin of resistance. While multiple mechanisms are described in clinical isolates from triazole-treated patients, some de novo resistance is also recognised, especially attributable to TR34 /L98H. Such strains probably arose in the environment, and, indeed, multiple studies have now demonstrated TR(34) /L98H triazole resistance strains of A. fumigatus from soil. Docking and other in vitro studies are consistent with environmental resistance induction through exposure to certain triazole fungicides, notably difenoconazole, propiconazole, epoxiconazole, bromuconazole and tebuconazole. This article addresses the potential implications of this issue for both human health and food security. PMID:23616354

Bowyer, Paul; Denning, David W

2014-02-01

152

Effects of fungicides on Aspergillus fumigatus.  

PubMed

Aspergillus fumigatus was the most frequently isolated thermophilous fungus from green leaf surfaces. The application of fungicides significantly reduced the frequency of its occurrence there. A. fumigatus was relatively tolerant to fungicides. On Captan-, Thiram-, and Verdasan-treated leaves, A. fumigatus constituted 66%--80% of the total number of isolates obtained at 45 degrees C from each treatment while Dicloran did not depress the percentages. At 45 degrees C, A. fumigatus was found to be strongly cellulolytic with a slow rate of radial extension on YpSs agar and rapid rate of mycelial growth in Czapek Dox liquid medium. Increasing concentrations of all four fungicides reduced or prevented growth, sporulation, starch depletion and cellulose clearing of A. fumigatus. The fungus could tolerate higher concentrations of HgCl2 than of Verdasan. 2.5 microgram/ml of the four fungicides altered the rates of mycelial growth but not the maximum amount of mycelial dry weight attained. PMID:386945

Kuthubutheen, A J; Pugh, G J

1979-01-01

153

A tyrosinase inhibitor from Aspergillus niger.  

PubMed

Tyrosinase, in the presence of oxygen, is the main culprit in post harvest browning of food products, resulting in the drop in its commercial value. In an effort to seek natural tyrosinase inhibitors for food applications, a screening programme was undertaken. Of the 26 fungal cultures isolated from soil samples of Agumbe forest, India, one isolate S16, identified as Aspergillus niger, gave an inhibition of 84 % against the enzyme. The inhibitor was isolated by following an enzyme inhibition assay guided purification protocol. The structure of the inhibitor was elucidated and found to be kojic acid. The IC50 of the Competitive inhibitor was found to be 8.8 ?g with a Ki of 0.085 mM. PMID:25328242

Vasantha, K Y; Murugesh, C S; Sattur, A P

2014-10-01

154

Comprehensive genomic analysis of cell wall genes in Aspergillus nidulans  

Microsoft Academic Search

Knowledge of the mechanisms underlying cell wall biosynthesis in Aspergillus spp. is of high relevance to medicine and food safety, and for biotechnological applications. The cell wall of Aspergillus nidulans is composed of galactomannoproteins, 1,3-?-glucan, ?-glucans, and chitin. Here, we present a comprehensive inventory of the cell wall-related genes in A. nidulans. This includes glycan-synthetic and glycan-processing enzymes, spore wall

Piet W. J. de Groot; Bernd W. Brandt; Hiroyuki Horiuchi; Arthur F. J. Ram; Chris G. de Koster; Frans M. Klis

2009-01-01

155

Production of citric acid with immobilized Aspergillus niger  

Microsoft Academic Search

The spores of Aspergillus niger were entrapped in calcium-alginate beads and precultivated in growth media with various amounts of nitrogen. During the following citric acid production in shaking cultures an optimum of acid formation and yield was observed after the precultivation with 100–200 mg\\/l NH4NO3. The productivity of the immobilized Aspergillus was found to be 1.5 times higher than in

H. Eikmeier; H. J. Rehm

1984-01-01

156

LTR retrotransposons in the Aspergillus fumigatus and A. nidulans genomes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fungi of the genus Aspergillus can infect all tissues and organs, causing invasive mycosis (aspergillosis). This disease can be fatal, especially in immunocompromised\\u000a patients. Microbiological monitoring of these infectious agents is obligatory in modern medical facilities. Mobile elements\\u000a can be used as markers to identify the Aspergillus species and strains found indoors as well as to diagnose aspergillosis. Genomic sequences

O. S. Novikova; V. Fet; A. G. Blinov

2007-01-01

157

Upstream and Downstream Regulation of Asexual Development in Aspergillus fumigatus  

Microsoft Academic Search

The opportunistic human pathogen Aspergillus fumigatus produces a large quantity of asexual spores (conidia), which are the primary agent causing invasive aspergillosis in immunocompromised patients. We investigated the mechanisms controlling asexual sporulation (conidiation) in A. fumigatus via examining functions of four key regulators, GpaA (G), AfFlbA (RGS), AfFluG, and AfBrlA, previously studied in Aspergillus nidulans. Expression analyses of gpaA ,A

Jae-Hyung Mah; Jae-Hyuk Yu

2006-01-01

158

A synoptic review of the ant genera (Hymenoptera, Formicidae) of the Philippines  

PubMed Central

Abstract An overview of the history of myrmecology in the Philippine archipelago is presented. Keys are provided to the 11 ant subfamilies and the 92 ant genera known from the Philippines. Eleven ant genera (12%), including 3 undescribed genera, are recorded for the first time from the Philippines. The biology and ecology of the 92 genera, illustrated by full-face and profile photo-images, of Philippine ants are summarized in the form of brief generic accounts. A bibliography of significant taxonomic and behavioral papers on Philippine ants and a checklist of valid species and subspecies and their island distributions are provided. PMID:22767999

General, David M.; Alpert, Gary D.

2012-01-01

159

A synoptic review of the ant genera (Hymenoptera, Formicidae) of the Philippines.  

PubMed

An overview of the history of myrmecology in the Philippine archipelago is presented. Keys are provided to the 11 ant subfamilies and the 92 ant genera known from the Philippines. Eleven ant genera (12%), including 3 undescribed genera, are recorded for the first time from the Philippines. The biology and ecology of the 92 genera, illustrated by full-face and profile photo-images, of Philippine ants are summarized in the form of brief generic accounts. A bibliography of significant taxonomic and behavioral papers on Philippine ants and a checklist of valid species and subspecies and their island distributions are provided. PMID:22767999

General, David M; Alpert, Gary D

2012-01-01

160

Three new monotypic genera of Trichopolydesmidae from Croatia, Balkan Peninsula (Diplopoda, Polydesmida).  

PubMed

Three new monotypic genera are described from underground habitats in Croatia: Balkanodesmus biokovensis gen. n., sp. n., Solentanodesmus insularis gen. n., sp. n. and Velebitodesmus cavernicolus gen. n., sp. n. In all three new genera the prefemoral part of the gonopods is orientated transversely to the main body axis, and all three new genera possess numerous metatergal setae arranged in a few transverse irregular rows, a condition observed in several European trichopolydesmids. These three new genera are very close to the genus Verhoeffodesmus. A distribution map and a brief discussion about the relationship with congeners are provided. PMID:25543771

Anti?, Dragan Ž; Reip, Hans S; Dražina, Tvrtko; Ra?a, Ton?i; Makarov, Slobodan E

2014-01-01

161

Heterologous expression of Gaeumannomyces graminis lipoxygenase in Aspergillus nidulans  

PubMed Central

Aspergillus sp. contain ppo genes coding for Ppo enzymes that produce oxylipins from polyunsaturated fatty acids. These oxylipins function as signal molecules in sporulation and influence the asexual to sexual ratio of Aspergillus sp. Fungi like Aspergillus nidulans and Aspergillus niger contain just ppo genes where the human pathogenic Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus fumigatus contain ppo genes as well as lipoxygenases. Lipoxygenases catalyze the synthesis of oxylipins and are hypothesized to be involved in quorum-sensing abilities and invading plant tissue. In this study we used A. nidulans WG505 as an expression host to heterologously express Gaeumannomyces graminis lipoxygenase. The presence of the recombinant LOX induced phenotypic changes in A. nidulans transformants. Also, a proteomic analysis of an A. nidulans LOX producing strain indicated that the heterologous protein was degraded before its glycosylation in the secretory pathway. We observed that the presence of LOX induced the specific production of aminopeptidase Y that possibly degrades the G. graminis lipoxygenase intercellularly. Also the presence of the protein thioredoxin reductase suggests that the G. graminis lipoxygenase is actively repressed in A. nidulans. PMID:25401068

2014-01-01

162

Rapid Differentiation of Aspergillus Species from Other Medically Important Opportunistic Molds and Yeasts by PCR-Enzyme Immunoassay  

Microsoft Academic Search

We developed a PCR-based assay to differentiate medically important species of Aspergillus from one another and from other opportunistic molds and yeasts by employing universal, fungus-specific primers and DNA probes in an enzyme immunoassay format (PCR-EIA). Oligonucleotide probes, directed to the internal transcribed spacer 2 region of ribosomal DNA from Aspergillus flavus, Aspergillus fumigatus, Aspergillus nidulans, Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus terreus,

Liliana de Aguirre; Steven F. Hurst; Jong Soo Choi; Jong Hee Shin; Hans Peter Hinrikson; Christine J. Morrison

2004-01-01

163

New genera, species, and improved phylogeny of Glissomonadida (Cercozoa).  

PubMed

Glissomonadida is an important cercozoan order of predominantly biflagellate gliding bacterivores found largely in soil and freshwater. Their vast diversity is largely undescribed. We studied 23 mostly newly isolated strains by light microscopy and sequenced their 18S rDNA genes; nine represent new species. For two misidentified ATCC 'Heteromita triangularis' strains, we establish novel gliding genera and species: the sandonid Mollimonas lacrima, the only glissomonad forming anterior and posterior pseudopodia, and Dujardina stenomorpha, a strongly flattened member of the new family Dujardinidae. A new strain from Oxfordshire grassland soil is the first reliably identified isolate of the virtually uniflagellate, smooth-gliding glissomonad genus, AllantionSandon, 1924. Phylogenetic analysis and cytological features reveal Allantion to be a member of Allapsidae. Sandona limna and Bodomorpha prolixa from Lake Baikal and Sandona hexamutans from volcanic Costa Rican soil are described as new species. Fifteen glissomonad strains were from grassland beside Lake Baikal. We describe two as new species of Sandona (S. heptamutans and S. octamutans); the others included strains of Sandona and Allapsa species that have already been described; and three were new species of Sandona and Allapsa but these died before being described. We discuss the ecological and evolutionary significance of these new strains. PMID:21783412

Howe, Alexis T; Bass, David; Chao, Ema E; Cavalier-Smith, Thomas

2011-11-01

164

New genera and species of Neotropical Exosternini (Coleoptera, Histeridae)  

PubMed Central

Abstract We describe the following 8 new genera and 23 new species of Neotropical Exosternini. Conocassis gen. n. (Conocassis minor sp. n. [type species], Conocassis dromedaria sp. n., Conocassis trisulcata sp. n., and Conocassis invaginata sp. n.), Enkyosoma gen. n. (Enkyosoma rockwelli sp. n.), Pluricosta gen. n. (Pluricosta onthophiloides sp. n.), Pyxister gen. n. (Pyxister devorator sp. n. [type species] and Pyxister labralis sp. n.), Chapischema gen. n. (Chapischema doppelganger sp. n.), Scaptorus gen. n. (Scaptorus pyramus sp. n.), Lacrimorpha gen. n. (Lacrimorpha glabra sp. n. [type species], Lacrimorpha balbina sp. n., Lacrimorpha subdepressa sp. n., and Lacrimorpha acuminata sp. n.), Crenulister gen. n. (Crenulister grossus sp. n. [type species], Crenulister explanatus sp. n., Crenulister dentatus sp. n., Crenulister impar sp. n., Crenulister umbrosus sp. n., Crenulister simplex sp. n., Crenulister paucitans sp. n., Crenulister spinipes sp. n., and Crenulister seriatus sp. n.) These all represent highly distinctive and phylogenetically isolated forms, almost invariably known from very few specimens. All but one species have been collected only by passive flight intercept traps, and nothing significant is known about the biology of any of them. PMID:24624014

Caterino, Michael S.; Tishechkin, Alexey K.

2014-01-01

165

Minutisphaera and Natipusilla: two new genera of freshwater Dothideomycetes.  

PubMed

Two new genera are established in the Dothideomycetes based on morphological and molecular data (SSU and LSU nuclear ribosomal sequences) to accommodate four ascomycete species collected from woody debris submerged in freshwater habitats. The genus Minutisphaera is represented by a single species, M. fimbriatispora, which was collected from freshwater habitats in temperate forests in North America. It has small, superficial, brown, subglobose, papillate pseudothecia with dark, irregularly twisted hairs around the papillae, fissitunicate asci, septate pseudoparaphyses, and hyaline, one-septate ascospores surrounded by a gelatinous sheath and having spine-like appendages radiating around the ascospore at the septum. Minutisphaera formed a strongly supported clade with Farlowiella carmichaeliana. The second genus, Natipusilla, contains three new species, N. decorospora, N. limonensis and N. naponensis, which were collected from Central and South America. Natipusilla is characterized by small, superficial, light-colored, globose pseudothecia, fissitunicate asci, few or no pseudoparaphyses, and hyaline, one-septate to tardily two- or three-septate ascospores with or without a gelatinous sheath. The three Natipusilla species form a well supported clade, but their relationship to other members of the Dothideomycetes remains unclear. PMID:21415293

Ferrer, Astrid; Miller, Andrew N; Shearer, Carol A

2011-01-01

166

Distinguishing centrarchid genera by use of lateral line scales  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Predator-prey relations involving fishes are often evaluated using scales remaining in gut contents or feces. While several reliable keys help identify North American freshwater fish scales to the family level, none attempt to separate the family Centrarchidae to the genus level. Centrarchidae is of particular concern in the midwestern United States because it contains several popular sport fishes, such as smallmouth bass Micropterus dolomieu, largemouth bass M. salmoides, and rock bass Ambloplites rupestris, as well as less-sought-after species of sunfishes Lepomis spp. and crappies Pomoxis spp. Differentiating sport fish from non-sport fish has important management implications. Morphological characteristics of lateral line scales (n = 1,581) from known centrarchid fishes were analyzed. The variability of measurements within and between genera was examined to select variables that were the most useful in further classifying unknown centrarchid scales. A linear discriminant analysis model was developed using 10 variables. Based on this model, 84.4% of Ambloplites scales, 81.2% of Lepomis scales, and 86.6% of Micropterus scales were classified correctly using a jackknife procedure. ?? Copyright by the American Fisheries Society 2007.

Roberts, N.M.; Rabeni, C.F.; Stanovick, J.S.

2007-01-01

167

New and revisited species in Aspergillus section Nigri.  

PubMed

Four new species, Aspergillus eucalypticola, A. neoniger, A. fijiensis and A. indologenus are described and illustrated. Aspergillus eucalypticola was isolated from Eucalyptus leaf from Australia, and is related to A. tubingensis and A. costaricaensis, but could clearly be distinguished from them based on either ?-tubulin or calmodulin sequence data. Aspergillus eucalypticola produced pyranonigrin A, funalenone, aurasperone B and other naphtho-?-pyrones. Aspergillus neoniger is also a biseriate species isolated from desert sand in Namibia, and mangrove water in Venezuela, which produces aurasperone B and pyranonigrin A. Aspergillus fijiensis is a uniseriate species related to A. aculeatinus, and was isolated from soil in Fiji, and from Lactuca sativa in Indonesia. This species is able to grow at 37 °C, and produces asperparalines and okaramins. Aspergillus indologenus was isolated from soil, India. This species also belongs to the uniseriate group of black aspergilli, and was found to be related to, but clearly distinguishable from A. uvarum based on ?-tubulin, calmodulin and ITS sequence data. Aspergillus indologenus produced the insecticidal compounds okaramins A, B, H, and two types of indol-alkaloids which have not been structure elucidated. Two other species, A. violaceofuscus and A. acidus, are revalidated based on molecular and extrolite data. Aspergillus violaceofuscus was found to be related to A. japonicus, and produced some of the same interesting indol-alkaloids as A. indologenus, and also produced several families of partially characterised extrolites that were also found in A. heteromorphus. Aspergillus acidus (previously known as A. foetidus var. pallidus and A. foetidus var. acidus) is also a valid species, while A. foetidus is a synonym of A. niger based on molecular and physiological data. Two other species described previously, A. coreanus and A. lacticoffeatus, were found to be colour mutants of A. acidus and A. niger, respectively. Methods which could be used to distinguish the two closely related and economically important species A. niger and A. awamori are also detailed. Although these species differ in their occurrence and several physiological means (elastase activities, abilities to utilise 2-deoxy-D-glucose as sole carbon source), our data indicate that only molecular approaches including sequence analysis of calmodulin or ?-tubulin genes, AFLP analysis, UP-PCR analysis or mtDNA RFLP analysis can be used reliably to distinguish these sibling species. Aspergillus section Nigri now includes 26 taxa. PMID:21892239

Varga, J; Frisvad, J C; Kocsubé, S; Brankovics, B; Tóth, B; Szigeti, G; Samson, R A

2011-06-30

168

Physiological and biochemical contributions to the taxonomy of the genera Ankistrodesmus and Scenedesmus  

Microsoft Academic Search

The genera Ankistrodesmus (including Raphidium) (17 strains) and Scenedesmus (27 strains) have a rather low salt tolerance without distinct speciesspecific differences. Only one strain of Ankistrodesmus and 23 strains of Scenedesmus are able to grow in the presence of 1% NaCl. Members of these genera therefore appear to be rather unsuitable for mass cultures in media based on sea water.-Two

Erich Kessler

1977-01-01

169

Differentiation of Actinomycete Genera Based on Partial rpoB Gene Sequences  

Microsoft Academic Search

rpoB DNAs (279 bp) from 34 species of 5 actinomycete genera were sequenced and a phylogenetic tree was constructed based on the sequences obtained. The genera were clearly differentiated in the rpoB tree, forming clades specific to their respective genus. In addition, 2 signature amino acid residues specific to Streptomyces were found in a multiple alignment of the deduced amino

BUM-JOON KIM; YOUNG-HWAN KOH; JONGSIK CHUN; CHANG-JIN KIM; SEUNG-HYUN LEE; JIN-WON HYUN; KEUN-HWA LEE; CHANG-YONG CHA

170

Branhamaceae fam. nov., a Proposed Family To Accommodate the Genera Branhamella and Moraxella  

Microsoft Academic Search

and also of the genera Branhamella, Moraxella, and Acinetobacter. Since these organisms must be excluded from the Neisseriaceae, the new family Branhamaceae is proposed to accommodate the genera Branhamella (including the false neisseriae) and Moraxella. This arrangement acknowledges the phylogenetic relationships of these organisms and resolves controversies concerning (i) the recommendation that the genus Moraxella should be divided into the

B. WESLEY

171

Relationships among genera of the Saccharomycotina (Ascomycota) from multigene phylogenetic analysis of type species  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Phylogenetic relatedness among ascomycetous yeast genera (subphylum Saccharomycotina, phylum Ascomycota) has been uncertain. In the present study, type species of 70 currently recognized genera are compared from divergence in the nearly entire nuclear gene sequences for large subunit rRNA, small sub...

172

Keys to the Common Genera of Marine Plants Taken Aboard the Orange County Floating Marine Laboratory.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Provided is a dichotomous key to the common genera of marine algae and angiosperms which are taken aboard the Orange County Floating Marine Laboratory. It is designed primarily for use by junior and senior high school students. Drawings of representative members of the various genera are included. This work was prepared under an ESEA Title III…

Williams, H. R.

173

Debroyerella gen. nov. and Ulladulla gen. nov., two new lysianassoid genera (Crustacea, Amphipoda, Lysianassoidea).  

PubMed

Two new genera and a new species of lysianassoid amphipods are described. Debroyerella gen. nov. is described for three Antarctic species previously assigned to the genus Cheirimedon. Ulladulla gen. nov. is described to accommodate the new species U. selje, from Australian waters. Diagnostic descriptions are given for the genera and all species are described in full. PMID:25781243

Lowry, J K; Kilgallen, N M

2015-01-01

174

Structural rearrangements, including parallel inversions, within the chloroplast genome of Anemone and related genera  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chloroplast DNA cleavage sites for 10 restriction enzymes were mapped for 46 species representing all sections of Anemone, four closely related genera (Clematis, Pulsatilla, Hepatica, and Knowltonia), and three more distantly related outgroups (Caltha, Ranunculus, and Adonis). Comparison of the maps revealed that the chloroplast genomes of Anemone and related genera have sustained an unusual number and variety of rearrangements.

Sara B. Hoot; Jeffrey D. Palmer

1994-01-01

175

Linnaeus was right all along: Ulva and Enteromorpha are not distinct genera  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ulva, one of the first Linnaean genera, was later circumscribed to consist of green seaweeds with distromatic blades, and Enteromorpha Link was established for tubular forms. Although several lines of evidence suggest that these generic constructs are artificial, Ulva and Enteromorpha have been maintained as separate genera. Our aims were to determine phylogenetic relationships among taxa currently attributed to Ulva,

Hillary S. Hayden; Jaanika Blomster; Christine A. Maggs; Paul C. Silva; Michael J. Stanhope; J. Robert Waaland

2003-01-01

176

Evidence of Possible Evolutionary Divergence in Plant Genera Based on Antioxidant Properties  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this investigation was to determine if three Western species of the Panax, Lycium, and Astragalus genera had antibacterial and/or antioxidant properties, and how their properties compared to Eastern herbs in the same genera. The group hypothesized that when compared, the corresponding herbs would have identical antibacterial and…

Asai, Elizabeth; Cao, Sharon

2009-01-01

177

Cladistics of the New World Genera of Listroderina (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Rhytirrhinini)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The weevil subtribe Listroderina belongs in the tribe Rhytirrhinini (subfamily Cyclominae), and has 25 genera and 300 species in the Americas. A cladistic analysis of the American genera was undertaken, using 53 characters from the external morphology, mouthparts, body vestiture, and male and female genitalia, and consideringRhigopsidiusHeller (subtribe Rhytirrhinina) as the outgroup. The analysis yielded 20 equally parsimonious cladograms (108

Juan J. Morrone

1997-01-01

178

Aspergillus Osteomyelitis: Epidemiology, Clinical Manifestations, Management, and Outcome  

PubMed Central

Background The epidemiology, pathogenesis, diagnosis, and management of Aspergillus osteomyelitis are not well understood. Methods Protocol-defined cases of Aspergillus osteomyelitis published in the English literature were reviewed for comorbidities, microbiology, mechanisms of infection, clinical manifestations, radiological findings, inflammatory biomarkers, antifungal therapy, and outcome. Results Among 180 evaluable patients, 127 (71%) were males. Possible predisposing medical conditions in 103 (57%) included pharmacological immunosuppression, primary immunodeficiency, and neutropenia. Seventy-three others (41%) had prior open fracture, trauma or surgery. Eighty (44%) followed a hematogenous mechanism, 58 (32%) contiguous infections, and 42 (23%) direct inoculation. Aspergillus osteomyelitis was the first manifestation of aspergillosis in 77%. Pain and tenderness were present in 80%. The most frequently infected sites were vertebrae (46%), cranium (23%), ribs (16%), and long bones (13%). Patients with vertebral Aspergillus osteomyelitis had more previous orthopedic surgery (19% vs 0%; P=0.02), while those with cranial osteomyelitis had more diabetes mellitus (32% vs 8%; P=0.002) and prior head/neck surgery (12% vs 0%; P=0.02). Radiologic findings included osteolysis, soft-tissue extension, and uptake on T2-weighted images. Vertebral body Aspergillus osteomyelitis was complicated by spinal-cord compression in 47% and neurological deficits in 41%. Forty-four patients (24%) received only antifungal therapy, while 121(67%) were managed with surgery and antifungal therapy. Overall mortality was 25%. Median duration of therapy was 90 days (range, 10–772 days). There were fewer relapses in patients managed with surgery plus antifungal therapy in comparison to those managed with antifungal therapy alone (8% vs 30%; P=0.006). Conclusions Aspergillus osteomyelitis is a debilitating infection affecting both immunocompromised and immunocompetent patients. The most common sites are vertebrae, ribs, and cranium. Based upon this comprehensive review, management of Aspergillus osteomyelitis optimally includes antifungal therapy and selective surgery to avoid relapse and to achieve a complete response. PMID:24378282

Gamaletsou, Maria N.; Rammaert, Blandine; Bueno, Marimelle A.; Moriyama, Brad; Sipsas, Nikolaos V.; Kontoyiannis, Dimitrios P.; Roilides, Emmanuel; Zeller, Valerie; Prinapori, Roberta; Tajaldeen, Saad Jaber; Brause, Barry; Lortholary, Olivier; Walsh, Thomas J.

2014-01-01

179

Expression of the Aspergillus terreus itaconic acid biosynthesis cluster in Aspergillus niger  

PubMed Central

Background Aspergillus terreus is a natural producer of itaconic acid and is currently used to produce itaconic acid on an industrial scale. The metabolic process for itaconic acid biosynthesis is very similar to the production of citric acid in Aspergillus niger. However, a key enzyme in A. niger, cis-aconitate decarboxylase, is missing. The introduction of the A. terreus cadA gene in A. niger exploits the high level of citric acid production (over 200 g per liter) and theoretically can lead to production levels of over 135 g per liter of itaconic acid in A. niger. Given the potential for higher production levels in A. niger, production of itaconic acid in this host was investigated. Results Expression of Aspergillus terreus cis-aconitate decarboxylase in Aspergillus niger resulted in the production of a low concentration (0.05 g/L) of itaconic acid. Overexpression of codon-optimized genes for cis-aconitate decarboxylase, a mitochondrial transporter and a plasma membrane transporter in an oxaloacetate hydrolase and glucose oxidase deficient A. niger strain led to highly increased yields and itaconic acid production titers. At these higher production titers, the effect of the mitochondrial and plasma membrane transporters was much more pronounced, with levels being 5–8 times higher than previously described. Conclusions Itaconic acid can be produced in A. niger by the introduction of the A. terreus cis-aconitate decarboxylase encoding cadA gene. This results in a low itaconic acid production level, which can be increased by codon-optimization of the cadA gene for A. niger. A second crucial requirement for efficient production of itaconic acid is the expression of the A. terreus mttA gene, encoding a putative mitochondrial transporter. Expression of this transporter results in a twenty-fold increase in the secretion of itaconic acid. Expression of the A. terreus itaconic acid cluster consisting of the cadA gene, the mttA gene and the mfsA gene results in A. niger strains that produce over twenty five-fold higher levels of itaconic acid and show a twenty-fold increase in yield compared to a strain expressing only CadA. PMID:24438100

2014-01-01

180

Comparative effects of Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Aspergillus oryzae on rumen fermentations  

E-print Network

Comparative effects of Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Aspergillus oryzae on rumen fermentations F Aubière Cedex, France Saccharomyces cerevisiae (SC) and Aspergillus oryzae (AO) have both been proposed

Boyer, Edmond

181

21 CFR 173.120 - Carbohydrase and cellulase derived from Aspergillus niger.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...PERMITTED IN FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION Enzyme Preparations and Microorganisms § 173...Aspergillus niger. Carbohydrase and cellulase enzyme preparation derived from Aspergillus niger... from the carbohydrase and cellulase enzyme product. (d) The additive is...

2011-04-01

182

21 CFR 173.120 - Carbohydrase and cellulase derived from Aspergillus niger.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...PERMITTED IN FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION Enzyme Preparations and Microorganisms § 173...Aspergillus niger. Carbohydrase and cellulase enzyme preparation derived from Aspergillus niger... from the carbohydrase and cellulase enzyme product. (d) The additive is...

2010-04-01

183

Stress and release : chemical modulation of secondary metabolite production in Aspergillus sp.  

E-print Network

Cyclosporin A induced biosynthesis of colored compounds in three species of Aspergillus. Diode array HPLC MS analysis of culture extracts revealed Aspergillus terreus demonstrated the most profound response, with upregulation ...

Hanlon, Amy

2006-01-01

184

21 CFR 173.120 - Carbohydrase and cellulase derived from Aspergillus niger.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...PERMITTED IN FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION Enzyme Preparations and Microorganisms § 173...Aspergillus niger. Carbohydrase and cellulase enzyme preparation derived from Aspergillus niger... from the carbohydrase and cellulase enzyme product. (d) The additive is...

2013-04-01

185

21 CFR 173.120 - Carbohydrase and cellulase derived from Aspergillus niger.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...PERMITTED IN FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION Enzyme Preparations and Microorganisms § 173...Aspergillus niger. Carbohydrase and cellulase enzyme preparation derived from Aspergillus niger... from the carbohydrase and cellulase enzyme product. (d) The additive is...

2014-04-01

186

21 CFR 173.120 - Carbohydrase and cellulase derived from Aspergillus niger.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...PERMITTED IN FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION Enzyme Preparations and Microorganisms § 173...Aspergillus niger. Carbohydrase and cellulase enzyme preparation derived from Aspergillus niger... from the carbohydrase and cellulase enzyme product. (d) The additive is...

2012-04-01

187

Early Invasive Pulmonary Aspergillosis in a Kidney Transplant Recipient Caused by Aspergillus lentulus: First Brazilian Report.  

PubMed

We report the first Brazilian case of pulmonary invasive aspergillosis caused by Aspergillus lentulus, a new opportunistic Aspergillus species included in the section fumigati that is usually resistant to amphotericin B and azoles. PMID:25515242

de Azevedo Bastos, Viviane Reis; de Castro Lima Santos, Daniel Wagner; Padovan, Ana Carolina Barbosa; Melo, Analy Salles Azevedo; de Abreu Mazzolin, Milene; Camargo, Luis Fernando Aranha; Colombo, Arnaldo Lopes

2015-04-01

188

Relationships among Cichorium species and related genera as determined by analysis of mitochondrial RFLPs.  

PubMed

Mitochondrial DNA polymorphism was employed to assess cytoplasmic diversity among cytoypes of the genus Cichorium and related genera of the tribe Lactuceae (Asteraceae). Hybridization patterns of total DNA using six restriction enzymes and five heterologous mtDNA probes were examined. From estimates of mtDNA diversity, Cichorium spinosum appeared as an ecotype of C. intybus rather than a separate species. Interspecific mtDNA polymorphism in the genus Cichorium was higher than that observed in Cicerbita Crepis, Lactuca and Tragopogon. Molecular data seemed to indicate that Catananche is very distant from the other genera examined. Intergeneric comparisons allowed the clustering of Cicerbita, Lactuca and Cichorium, genera which belong to different subtribes. However, further molecular investigations on a larger number of genera are needed to clarify the relationships among genera within and between subtribes of the tribe Lactuceae. PMID:24185921

Vermeulen, A; Desprez, B; Lancelin, D; Bannerot, H

1994-05-01

189

Sequencing of Aspergillus nidulans and comparative analysis with A. fumigatus and A. oryzae  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aspergilli comprise a diverse group of filamentous fungi spanning over 200 million years of evolution. Here we report the genome sequence of the model organism Aspergillus nidulans, and a comparative study with Aspergillus fumigatus, a serious human pathogen, and Aspergillus oryzae, used in the production of sake, miso and soy sauce. Our analysis of genome structure provided a quantitative

James E. Galagan; Sarah E. Calvo; Christina Cuomo; Li-Jun Ma; Jennifer R. Wortman; Serafim Batzoglou; Su-In Lee; Meray Bastürkmen; Christina C. Spevak; John Clutterbuck; Vladimir Kapitonov; Jerzy Jurka; Claudio Scazzocchio; Mark Farman; Jonathan Butler; Seth Purcell; Steve Harris; Gerhard H. Braus; Oliver Draht; Silke Busch; Christophe D'Enfert; Christiane Bouchier; Gustavo H. Goldman; Deborah Bell-Pedersen; Sam Griffiths-Jones; John H. Doonan; Jaehyuk Yu; Kay Vienken; Arnab Pain; Michael Freitag; Eric U. Selker; David B. Archer; Miguel Á. Peńalva; Berl R. Oakley; Michelle Momany; Toshihiro Tanaka; Toshitaka Kumagai; Kiyoshi Asai; Masayuki Machida; William C. Nierman; David W. Denning; Mark Caddick; Michael Hynes; Mathieu Paoletti; Reinhard Fischer; Bruce Miller; Paul Dyer; Matthew S. Sachs; Stephen A. Osmani; Bruce W. Birren

2005-01-01

190

THE ASPERGILLUS OCHRACEUS GROUP: TWO NEW SPECIES FROM WESTERN SOILS AND A SYNOPTIC KEY  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two new species in the Aspergillus ochraceus group are described and compared to related taxa. Aspergillus bridgeri, from soils collected in a native community dominated by Atriplex gardneri in Wyoming, somewhat resembles A. elegans and A. lanosus, but differs in cultural and morphological details. Aspergillus campestris, from a native prairie in northern North Dakota, resembles A. dimorphicus in having metulae

MARTHA CHRISTENSEN

191

4-Ethylphenol metabolism by Aspergillus fumigatus.  

PubMed Central

Aspergillus fumigatus ATCC 28282 was found to be capable of growth on 4-ethylphenol as its sole carbon and energy source. A pathway for the metabolism of this compound has been proposed. The initial step involves hydroxylation of the methylene group of 4-ethylphenol to form 1-(4'-hydroxyphenyl)ethanol, followed by oxidation to 4-hydroxyacetophenone. The hydroxylase was NADPH and oxygen dependent, which is a characteristic of a monooxygenase type of enzyme. The 1-(4'-hydroxyphenyl)ethanol isolated from growth medium was a racemic mixture of R-(+) and S-(-) enantiomers. 4-Hydroxyacetophenone undergoes an NADPH-dependent Baeyer-Villiger type of oxygenation to give 4-hydroxyphenyl acetate, which is hydrolyzed to form hydroquinone (1,4-dihydroxybenzene). Hydroxylation of hydroquinone by an NADPH-dependent enzyme produces 1,2,4-trihydroxybenzene, the ring fission substrate, which is cleaved by ortho fission to form maleylacetate. The pathway was elucidated by various kinds of investigations. Analysis of culture medium sampled during growth on 4-ethylphenol revealed the transient appearance of 1-(4'-hydroxyphenyl)ethanol, 4-hydroxyacetophenone, and hydroquinone. Cells grown on 4-ethylphenol were able to oxidize all of these compounds immediately, whereas oxidation by succinate-grown cells showed a lag period. Extracts prepared from cells grown on 4-ethylphenol contained enzyme activities for all of the proposed steps. Apart from a low level of esterase activity towards 4-hydroxyphenyl acetate, extracts prepared from cells grown on succinate did not contain any of these enzyme activities. PMID:8031091

Jones, K H; Trudgill, P W; Hopper, D J

1994-01-01

192

Degradation of melanin by Aspergillus fumigatus.  

PubMed Central

A strain of Aspergillus fumigatus from composted coffee and garden wastes utilized natural deproteinized insect, banana, hair, octopus, and synthetic tyrosine and dopa melanins as sole sources of carbon. With a sucrose supplement, degradation was essentially complete after 50 days in Czapek medium pH 6.5 at 30 degrees C. The catabolic rate differed for each substrate pigment, as did the molecular weight distribution of products accumulating in the medium. After incubation with L-[U-14C]melanin, over 50% was recovered in a dark fungal pigment, the remainder appearing as cell protein, chitin, lipid, CO2, and polar metabolites. When grown on melanin, the normally pale mycelia darkened with the production of a fungal allomelanin, with infrared spectrum and alkali fusion products differing from those of the substrate pigment. Isotope distribution in amino acids for A. fumigatus grown on labeled melanin supplemented with sucrose suggested separate pools for synthesis of cell proteins and melanoproteins. Deposition of allomelanin increased resistance of conidia, sterigma, and conidiophores to lytic carbohydrases as judged by scanning electron microscopy. Images PMID:6996615

Luther, J P; Lipke, H

1980-01-01

193

Fingernail Onychomycosis Due to Aspergillus niger.  

PubMed

Onychomycosis is usually caused by dermatophytes, but some species of nondermatophytic molds and yeasts are also associated with nail invasion. Aspergillus niger is a nondermatophytic mold which exists as an opportunistic filamentous fungus in all environments. Here, we report a case of onychomycosis caused by A. niger in a 66-year-old female. The patient presented with a black discoloration and a milky white base and onycholysis on the proximal portion of the right thumb nail. Direct microscopic examination of scrapings after potassium hydroxide (KOH) preparation revealed dichotomous septate hyphae. Repeated cultures on Sabouraud's dextrose agar (SDA) without cycloheximide produced the same black velvety colonies. No colony growth occurred on SDA with cycloheximide slants. Biseriate phialides covering the entire vesicle with radiate conidial heads were observed on the slide culture. The DNA sequence of the internal transcribed spacer region of the clinical sample was a 100% match to that of A. niger strain ATCC 16888 (GenBank accession number AY373852). A. niger was confirmed by KOH mount, colony identification, light microscopic morphology, and DNA sequence analysis. The patient was treated orally with 250 mg terbinafine daily and topical amorolfine 5% nail lacquer for 3 months. As a result, the patient was completely cured clinically and mycologically. PMID:23197914

Kim, Dong Min; Suh, Moo Kyu; Ha, Gyoung Yim; Sohng, Seung Hyun

2012-11-01

194

Receptor-mediated signaling in Aspergillus fumigatus  

PubMed Central

Aspergillus fumigatus is the most pathogenic species among the Aspergilli, and the major fungal agent of human pulmonary infection. To prosper in diverse ecological niches, Aspergilli have evolved numerous mechanisms for adaptive gene regulation, some of which are also crucial for mammalian infection. Among the molecules which govern such responses, integral membrane receptors are thought to be the most amenable to therapeutic modulation. This is due to the localization of these molecular sensors at the periphery of the fungal cell, and to the prevalence of small molecules and licensed drugs which target receptor-mediated signaling in higher eukaryotic cells. In this review we highlight the progress made in characterizing receptor-mediated environmental adaptation in A. fumigatus and its relevance for pathogenicity in mammals. By presenting a first genomic survey of integral membrane proteins in this organism, we highlight an abundance of putative seven transmembrane domain (7TMD) receptors, the majority of which remain uncharacterized. Given the dependency of A. fumigatus upon stress adaptation for colonization and infection of mammalian hosts, and the merits of targeting receptor-mediated signaling as an antifungal strategy, a closer scrutiny of sensory perception and signal transduction in this organism is warranted. PMID:23430083

Grice, C. M.; Bertuzzi, M.; Bignell, E. M.

2013-01-01

195

N-Glycan Modification in Aspergillus Species?  

PubMed Central

The production by filamentous fungi of therapeutic glycoproteins intended for use in mammals is held back by the inherent difference in protein N-glycosylation and by the inability of the fungal cell to modify proteins with mammalian glycosylation structures. Here, we report protein N-glycan engineering in two Aspergillus species. We functionally expressed in the fungal hosts heterologous chimeric fusion proteins containing different localization peptides and catalytic domains. This strategy allowed the isolation of a strain with a functional ?-1,2-mannosidase producing increased amounts of N-glycans of the Man5GlcNAc2 type. This strain was further engineered by the introduction of a functional GlcNAc transferase I construct yielding GlcNAcMan5GlcNac2 N-glycans. Additionally, we deleted algC genes coding for an enzyme involved in an early step of the fungal glycosylation pathway yielding Man3GlcNAc2 N-glycans. This modification of fungal glycosylation is a step toward the ability to produce humanized complex N-glycans on therapeutic proteins in filamentous fungi. PMID:18083888

Kainz, Elke; Gallmetzer, Andreas; Hatzl, Christian; Nett, Juergen H.; Li, Huijuan; Schinko, Thorsten; Pachlinger, Robert; Berger, Harald; Reyes-Dominguez, Yazmid; Bernreiter, Andreas; Gerngross, Tillmann; Wildt, Stefan; Strauss, Joseph

2008-01-01

196

Discrimination of lichen genera and species using element concentrations  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The importance of organic chemistry in the classification of lichens is well established, but inorganic chemistry has been largely overlooked. Six lichen species were studied over a period of 23 years that were growing in 11 protected areas of the northern Great Lakes ecoregion, which were not greatly influenced by anthropogenic particulates or gaseous air pollutants. The elemental data from these studies were aggregated in order to test the hypothesis that differences among species in tissue element concentrations were large enough to discriminate between taxa faithfully. Concentrations of 16 chemical elements that were found in tissue samples from Cladonia rangiferina, Evernia mesomorpha, Flavopunctelia flaventior, Hypogymnia physodes, Parmelia sulcata, and Punctelia rudecta were analyzed statistically using multivariate discriminant functions and CART analyses, as well as t-tests. Genera and species were clearly separated in element space, and elemental discriminant functions were able to classify 91-100 of the samples correctly into species. At the broadest level, a Zn concentration of 51 ppm in tissues of four of the lichen species effectively discriminated foliose from fruticose species. Similarly, a S concentration of 680 ppm discriminated C. rangiferina and E. mesomorpha, and a Ca concentration of 10 436 ppm discriminated H. physodes from P. sulcata. For the three parmelioid species, a Ca concentration >32 837 ppm discriminated Punctelia rudecta from the other two species, while a Zn concentration of 56 ppm discriminated Parmelia sulcata from F. flaventior. Foliose species also had higher concentrations than did fruticose species of all elements except Na. Elemental signatures for each of the six species were developed using standardized means. Twenty-four mechanisms explaining the differences among species are summarized. Finally, the relationships of four species based on element concentrations, using additive-trees clustering of a Euclidean-distance matrix, produced identical relationships as did analyses based on secondary product chemistry that used additive-trees clustering of a Jaccard similarity matrix. At least for these six species, element composition has taxonomic significance, and may be useful for discriminating other taxa. ?? 2008 British Lichen Society.

Bennett, J.P.

2008-01-01

197

Discrimination of lichen genera and species using element concentrations  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The importance of organic chemistry in the classification of lichens is well established, but inorganic chemistry has been largely overlooked. Six lichen species were studied over a period of 23 years that were growing in 11 protected areas of the northern Great Lakes ecoregion, which were not greatly influenced by anthropogenic particulates or gaseous air pollutants. The elemental data from these studies were aggregated in order to test the hypothesis that differences among species in tissue element concentrations were large enough to discriminate between taxa faithfully. Concentrations of 16 chemical elements that were found in tissue samples from Cladonia rangiferina, Evernia mesomorpha, Flavopunctelia flaventior, Hypogymnia physodes, Parmelia sulcata, and Punctelia rudecta were analyzed statistically using multivariate discriminant functions and CART analyses, as well as t-tests. Genera and species were clearly separated in element space, and elemental discriminant functions were able to classify 91-100 of the samples correctly into species. At the broadest level, a Zn concentration of 51 ppm in tissues of four of the lichen species effectively discriminated foliose from fruticose species. Similarly, a S concentration of 680 ppm discriminated C. rangiferina and E. mesomorpha, and a Ca concentration of 10 436 ppm discriminated H. physodes from P. sulcata. For the three parmelioid species, a Ca concentration >32 837 ppm discriminated Punctelia rudecta from the other two species, while a Zn concentration of 56 ppm discriminated Parmelia sulcata from F. flaventior. Foliose species also had higher concentrations than did fruticose species of all elements except Na. Elemental signatures for each of the six species were developed using standardized means. Twenty-four mechanisms explaining the differences among species are summarized. Finally, the relationships of four species based on element concentrations, using additive-trees clustering of a Euclidean-distance matrix, produced identical relationships as did analyses based on secondary product chemistry that used additive-trees clustering of a Jaccard similarity matrix. At least for these six species, element composition has taxonomic significance, and may be useful for discriminating other taxa.

Bennett, James P.

2008-01-01

198

[Aspergillus serology, from yesterday to today for tomorrow].  

PubMed

Anti-Aspergillus antibody detection has been performed for over 50 years for the diagnosis of different chronic Aspergillus infections, starting with aspergilloma and later with chronic necrotizing pulmonary aspergillosis. It also enters into definition criteria for allergic broncho-pulmonary aspergillosis and contributes to the initial diagnosis of the aspergillosis, to the follow-up under treatment or to the detection of exacerbations. For the acute invasive aspergillosis, antibody detection has low interest compared to galactomannan antigen detection. Serology results have to be interpreted together with other clinical, radiological and biological, mycological criteria. This review describes the origins, the technical evolutions and the current place of Aspergillus serology in France. Finally, future improvements are discussed. PMID:23177817

Persat, F

2012-03-01

199

Origin and diversification of the Milla Clade (Brodiaeoideae, Asparagaceae): a Neotropical group of six geophytic genera.  

PubMed

The Milla clade currently comprises six genera of geophytic plants distributed from Arizona to Guatemala. Three genera (Behria, Jaimehintonia and Petronymphe) are monotypic while the remaining genera (Bessera, Dandya and Milla) contain from two to ten (Milla) species. Parsimony, Maximum Likelihood and Bayesian Inference analyses were conducted with plastid and nuclear DNA sequences from a total of 181 plants belonging to 15 species in all six genera. Molecular dating was performed under a relaxed clock model. We examined the phylogenetic relationships of the genera and species, estimated origin-divergence times for the clade and genera and determined the ancestral distribution area of the clade by optimizing ancestral areas given current biogeographic distributions. The phylogenetic results suggest that final decisions on limits of the six genera in the Milla clade will have to be established until further taxonomic work is completed for Milla, in particular for the group of populations included under the name M. biflora. The later genus is rendered polyphyletic by other genera of the family. The origin of the Milla clade is estimated at 15.8Ma. Ancestral area of the clade most likely was located in the California Floristic Province and dispersal occurred most likely to the Chihuahuan-Coahuila Plateaus and the Trans-Mexican Volcanic Belt and from there to Baja California and the Sierra Madre del Sur. Two hypotheses that need further testing are proposed to explain complex relationships of genera and polyphyly of Milla, one in relation to fragmentation of populations and pollinator shifts and another suggesting that populations remained in refugia in the Trans-Mexican Volcanic Belt. PMID:24594063

Gándara, Etelvina; Specht, Chelsea D; Sosa, Victoria

2014-06-01

200

Systematic revision of the ormiine genera Aulacephala Macquart and Phasioormia Townsend (Diptera, Tachinidae).  

PubMed

The tribe Ormiini comprises 64 species in six genera. In the present paper, the ormiine genera Aulacephala Macquart and Phasioormia Townsend are revised, with two valid species recognized in the former and three valid species recognized in the latter. All available nominal species in Aulacephala and Phasioormia were examined and are revised herein, so that previous synonymies could be confirmed. Furthermore, Phasioormia papuana sp. nov. is described from Papua New Guinea and Indonesia, and Therobia punctigera (Paramonov, 1955) is proposed as a new synonym of Aulacephala hervei Bequaert, 1922, syn. nov. Keys to species and illustrations of male and female terminalia are provided for both genera. PMID:25781811

Nihei, Silvio S

2015-01-01

201

Unraveling polyketide synthesis in members of the genus Aspergillus  

PubMed Central

Aspergillus species have the ability to produce a wide range of secondary metabolites including polyketides that are generated by multi-domain polyketide synthases (PKSs). Recent biochemical studies using dissected single or multiple domains from PKSs have provided deep insight into how these PKSs control the structural outcome. Moreover, the recent genome sequencing of several species has greatly facilitated the understanding of the biosynthetic pathways for these secondary metabolites. In this review, we will highlight the current knowledge regarding polyketide biosynthesis in Aspergillus based on the domain architecture of non-reducing, highly reducing, and partially reducing PKSs, and PKS-non-ribosomal peptide synthetases. PMID:20361326

Chiang, Yi-Ming; Oakley, Berl R.; Keller, Nancy P.

2011-01-01

202

The complete nucleotide sequence of a totivirus from Aspergillus foetidus.  

PubMed

Virus infection of Aspergillus foetidus was first described in the 1970s, and the purified virus, named Aspergillus foetidus virus (AfV), contains at least two types of icosahedral particles, called AfV-fast (-F) and AfV-slow (-S) virions, based on their relative electrophoretic mobilities. AfV-S consists of a mixture of two viruses, the larger of which, called AfV-S1, is a dsRNA-containing member of the genus Victorivirus in the family Totiviridae, and its complete nucleotide sequence is described here. PMID:22729614

Kozlakidis, Zisis; Herrero, Noemi; Coutts, Robert H A

2013-01-01

203

Processing of mitochondrial RNA in Aspergillus nidulans.  

PubMed

Genes for cytochrome oxidase subunit I (oxiA), ATPase subunit 9, NADH dehydrogenase subunit 3 (ndhC) and cytochrome oxidase subunit II (oxiB) are located within a 7.2 kb (1 kb = 10(3) bases or base-pairs) segment of the Aspergillus nidulans mitochondrial genome. Northern hybridization shows that abundant RNA molecules of 4.0, 2.5 and 1.5 kb, each containing copies of two or more genes, are transcribed from this region. The 4.0 kb molecule, which contains copies of each of the four genes but lacks the three oxiA introns, is cleaved at a point just upstream from ndhC to give rise to the 2.5 kb RNA, which contains copies of oxiA and the ATPase subunit 9 gene, and the 1.5 kb RNA, which carries ndhC and oxiB. The ATPase subunit 9 gene, which has no identified function, is therefore transcribed into an abundant RNA. S1 nuclease analysis indicates that there are no additional introns in the amino-terminal region of oxiA and that the 4.0 and 2.5 kb transcripts of this gene have staggered 5' termini, the most upstream of which is adjacent to the 3' end of the histidinyl-tRNA gene. The results suggest that transcription of this genome proceeds via a very limited number of primary transcripts with mature RNAs produced by extensive processing events including tRNA excision. RNA synthesis and processing in A. nidulans mitochondria therefore resembles the events occurring in metazoa rather than yeast. PMID:2530353

Dyson, N J; Brown, T A; Ray, J A; Waring, R B; Scazzocchio, C; Davies, R W

1989-08-20

204

Functional Analysis of the Aspergillus nidulans Kinome  

PubMed Central

The filamentous fungi are an ecologically important group of organisms which also have important industrial applications but devastating effects as pathogens and agents of food spoilage. Protein kinases have been implicated in the regulation of virtually all biological processes but how they regulate filamentous fungal specific processes is not understood. The filamentous fungus Aspergillus nidulans has long been utilized as a powerful molecular genetic system and recent technical advances have made systematic approaches to study large gene sets possible. To enhance A. nidulans functional genomics we have created gene deletion constructs for 9851 genes representing 93.3% of the encoding genome. To illustrate the utility of these constructs, and advance the understanding of fungal kinases, we have systematically generated deletion strains for 128 A. nidulans kinases including expanded groups of 15 histidine kinases, 7 SRPK (serine-arginine protein kinases) kinases and an interesting group of 11 filamentous fungal specific kinases. We defined the terminal phenotype of 23 of the 25 essential kinases by heterokaryon rescue and identified phenotypes for 43 of the 103 non-essential kinases. Uncovered phenotypes ranged from almost no growth for a small number of essential kinases implicated in processes such as ribosomal biosynthesis, to conditional defects in response to cellular stresses. The data provide experimental evidence that previously uncharacterized kinases function in the septation initiation network, the cell wall integrity and the morphogenesis Orb6 kinase signaling pathways, as well as in pathways regulating vesicular trafficking, sexual development and secondary metabolism. Finally, we identify ChkC as a third effector kinase functioning in the cellular response to genotoxic stress. The identification of many previously unknown functions for kinases through the functional analysis of the A. nidulans kinome illustrates the utility of the A. nidulans gene deletion constructs. PMID:23505451

De Souza, Colin P.; Hashmi, Shahr B.; Osmani, Aysha H.; Andrews, Peter; Ringelberg, Carol S.; Dunlap, Jay C.; Osmani, Stephen A.

2013-01-01

205

Validation of a New Aspergillus Real-Time PCR Assay for Direct Detection of Aspergillus and Azole Resistance of Aspergillus fumigatus on Bronchoalveolar Lavage Fluid.  

PubMed

Azole resistance in Aspergillus fumigatus is increasingly reported. Here, we describe the validation of the AsperGenius, a new multiplex real-time PCR assay consisting of two multiplex real-time PCRs, one that identifies the clinically relevant Aspergillus species, and one that detects the TR34, L98H, T289A, and Y121F mutations in CYP51A and differentiates susceptible from resistant A. fumigatus strains. The diagnostic performance of the AsperGenius assay was tested on 37 bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid samples from hematology patients and 40 BAL fluid samples from intensive care unit (ICU) patients using a BAL fluid galactomannan level of ?1.0 or positive culture as the gold standard for detecting the presence of Aspergillus. In the hematology and ICU groups combined, there were 22 BAL fluid samples from patients with invasive aspergillosis (IA) (2 proven, 9 probable, and 11 nonclassifiable). Nineteen of the 22 BAL fluid samples were positive, according to the gold standard. The optimal cycle threshold value for the presence of Aspergillus was <36. Sixteen of the 19 BAL fluid samples had a positive PCR (2 Aspergillus species and 14 A. fumigatus samples). This resulted in a sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive values of 88.9%, 89.3%, 72.7%, and 96.2%, respectively, for the hematology group and 80.0%, 93.3%, 80.0%, and 93.3%, respectively, in the ICU group. The CYP51A real-time PCR confirmed 12 wild-type and 2 resistant strains (1 TR34-L98H and 1 TR46-Y121F-T289A mutant). Voriconazole therapy failed for both patients. The AsperGenius multiplex real-time PCR assay allows for sensitive and fast detection of Aspergillus species directly from BAL fluid samples. More importantly, this assay detects and differentiates wild-type from resistant strains, even if BAL fluid cultures remain negative. PMID:25568431

Chong, Ga-Lai M; van de Sande, Wendy W J; Dingemans, Gijs J H; Gaajetaan, Giel R; Vonk, Alieke G; Hayette, Marie-Pierre; van Tegelen, Dennis W E; Simons, Guus F M; Rijnders, Bart J A

2015-03-01

206

The potential impact of the pulmonary microbiome on immunopathogenesis of Aspergillus-related lung disease.  

PubMed

Aspergillosis is an infection or allergic response caused by fungi of the genus Aspergillus. The most common forms of aspergillosis are allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis, chronic pulmonary aspergillosis, and invasive pulmonary aspergillosis. Aspergillus also plays an important role in fungal sensitized asthma. Humans inhale Aspergillus spores every day and when the host is immunocompromised, Aspergillus spp. may cause severe pulmonary disease. There is increasing evidence that the microbiome plays a significant role in immune regulation, chronic inflammatory diseases, metabolism, and other physiological processes, including recovery from the effects of antibiotic treatment. Bacterial microbiome mediated resistance mechanisms probably play a major role in limiting fungal colonization of the lungs, and may therefore prevent humans from contracting Aspergillus-related diseases. In this perspective, we review this emerging area of research and discuss the role of the microbiome in aspergillosis, role of Aspergillus in the microbiome, and the influence of the microbiome on anti-Aspergillus host defense and its role in preventing aspergillosis. PMID:25256637

Kolwijck, Eva; van de Veerdonk, Frank L

2014-11-01

207

Three new anascosporic genera of the Saccharomycotina: Danielozyma gen. nov., Deakozyma gen. nov. and Middelhovenomyces gen. nov.  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Three new non-ascosporic, ascomycetous yeast genera are proposed based on their isolation from currently described species and genera. Phylogenetic placement of the genera was determined from analysis of nuclear gene sequences for D1/D2 large subunit rRNA, small subunit rRNA, translation elongation...

208

New genera and species of leaf beetles (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) from China and South Korea  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Two new genera from China (Taumaceroides Lopatin and Yunnaniata Lopatin) and 11 new species (Smaragdina quadrimaculata Lopatin, Smaragdina oblongum Lopatin, Hyphaenia volkovitshi Lopatin, Arthrotus daliensis Lopatin, Taumaceroides sinicus Lopatin, Yunnaniata konstantinovi Lopatin, Calomicrus yunnanu...

209

A KEY TO THE COMMON GENERA OF NEOGENE SHARK TEETH ROBERT W. PURDY  

E-print Network

A KEY TO THE COMMON GENERA OF NEOGENE SHARK TEETH BY ROBERT W. PURDY Revised April 2003 #12;2 Table . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 Using Artificial Tooth Sets to Identify Fossil Shark Teeth . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 Hexanchiform Sharks

Mathis, Wayne N.

210

A World Wide Web key to the grass genera of Texas  

E-print Network

An illustrated dichotomous key to the grass genera of Texas is presented in hypertext markup language (HTML) format. The key combines scanned images of inflorescences, digitized images of dissected spikelets, text descriptions and descriptive...

Dawson, John Edward

2001-01-01

211

A Taxonomic Review of the Genera of the Aphelenchoidea (Fuchs, 1937) Thorne, 1949 (Nematoda: Tylenchida)  

PubMed Central

This generic level taxonomic review of the nematode superfamily Aphelenchoidea is based upon a study of specimens from 24 of the 28 described genera. The diagnoses of these genera are presented, and some are emended with new information. One new genus, Huntaphelenchoides, and five new combinations are proposed. The families Paraphelenchidae and Anomyctidae are placed in synonymy with Aphelenchidae and Aphelenchoididae, respectively. The genera Asteroaphelenchoides and Pseudaphelencboides are placed in synonymy under the genus Aphelenchoides. Rare male and/or female specimens of Peraphelenchus, Anomyctus, Laimaphelenchus, Aphelenchus, Cryptaphelenchoides, Megadorus, Tylaphelenchus, and Entaphelenchus, are redescribed and illustrated. Four plates, containing 106 original drawings of the males, females, stylets, and spicules of representatives of 22 aphelenchoid genera, are presented. PMID:19322328

Nickle, W. R.

1970-01-01

212

Genera&on of OLI data products Onboard Earth Observing One: A Preliminary Report  

E-print Network

Genera&on of OLI data products Onboard Earth Observing One: A Preliminary&spectral data onboard. · Specific: Demonstrate that Hyperion Hyperspectral data can be used to synthesize OLI mul&spectral data onboard. #12;Approach · U&lize exis

Schaffer, Steven

213

Key to the recognition of normapolles and some morphologically similar pollen genera  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A dichotomous key to the recognition of 86 Normapolles and morphologically similar pollen genera is presented. The key is accompanied by line drawings of each genus and an illustrated glossary of descriptive terms. ?? 1981.

Batten, D.J.; Christopher, R.A.

1981-01-01

214

Genera of orders Actiniaria and Corallimorpharia (Cnidaria, Anthozoa, Hexacorallia), and their type species  

E-print Network

with Carlgren (1949). In agreement with Neave (1939a), senior homonym of gastropod genus Adamsia of Dunker, G., 1857, Mollusca nova collectionis Cumingianć. Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 24:357. Authorship of both genera is in agreement...

Fautin, Daphne G.; Zelenchuk, Taras; Raveendran, Dinesh

2007-12-21

215

Can campo rupestre vegetation be floristically delimited based on vascular plant genera?  

Microsoft Academic Search

A number of floristic and vegetation studies apply the terms campo rupestre, campo de altitude (or Brazilian páramo), and Tepui to neotropical azonal outcrop and montane vegetation. All of these are known to harbor considerable numbers of endemic plant\\u000a species and to share several genera. In order to determine whether currently known combinations of vascular plant genera could\\u000a help circumscribe

Ruy J. V. Alves; Ji?í Kolbek

2010-01-01

216

Phylogenetic analysis of the genera Cladonia and Cladina ( Cladoniaceae , lichenized Ascomycota )  

Microsoft Academic Search

A cladistic analysis of 44 species of the generaCladina andCladonia is presented.Pycnothelia papillaria, Cladia aggregata andC. retipora were used as outgroup taxa. The consensus of all equally parsimonious trees suggests a common ancestral origin for species inCladonia andCladina while the generaPycnothelia andCladia cluster outside this group. The results do not support distinction ofCladina at genus level although it is distinguished

S. Stenroos; T. Ahti; J. Hyvönen

1997-01-01

217

New genera and species of early Tertiary palynomorphs from Gulf Coast  

E-print Network

. 6, no. 2, p. 597-600, 1 pl. ERDTM AN, GUNNAR, 1952, Pollen morphology and plant taxonomy. Angiosperms: Almquist & (Stockholm), 539 p., 261 fig. GRAY, JANE, 1960, Temperate pollen genera in the Eocene (Claiborne) flora, Alabama: Science, v. 132, p.... 6, no. 2, p. 597-600, 1 pl. ERDTM AN, GUNNAR, 1952, Pollen morphology and plant taxonomy. Angiosperms: Almquist & (Stockholm), 539 p., 261 fig. GRAY, JANE, 1960, Temperate pollen genera in the Eocene (Claiborne) flora, Alabama: Science, v. 132, p...

Stover, L. E.; Elsik, W. C.; Fairchild, W. W.

1966-05-23

218

Fungal life in the dead sea.  

PubMed

The waters of the Dead Sea currently contain about 348 g/l salts (2 M Mg(2+), 0.5 M Ca(2+), 1.5 M Na(+), 0.2 M K(+), 6.5 M Cl(-), 0.1 M Br(-)). The pH is about 6.0. After rainy winters the surface waters become diluted, triggering development of microbial blooms. The 1980 and 1992 blooms were dominated by the unicellular green alga Dunaliella and red Archaea. At least 70 species (in 26 genera) of Oomycota (Chromista), Mucoromycotina, Ascomycota, and Basidiomycota (Fungi) were isolated from near-shore localities and offshore stations, including from deep waters. Aspergillus and Eurotium were most often recovered. Aspergillus terreus, A. sydowii, A. versicolor, Eurotium herbariorum, Penicillium westlingii, Cladosporium cladosporioides, C. sphaerospermum, C. ramnotellum, and C. halotolerans probably form the stable core of the community. The species Gymnascella marismortui may be endemic. Mycelia of Dead Sea isolates of A. versicolor and Chaetomium globosum remained viable for up to 8 weeks in Dead Sea water; mycelia of other species survived for many weeks in 50% Dead Sea water. Many isolates showed a very high tolerance to magnesium salts. There is no direct proof that fungi contribute to the heterotrophic activity in the Dead Sea, but fungi may be present at least locally and temporarily, and their enzymatic activities such as amylase, protease, and cellulase may play a role in the lake's ecosystem. PMID:22222829

Oren, Aharon; Gunde-Cimerman, Nina

2012-01-01

219

Chemosensitization prevents tolerance of Aspergillus fumigatus to antimycotic drugs  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Tolerance of human pathogenic fungi to antifungal drugs is an emerging medical problem. We show how strains of the causative agent of human aspergillosis, Aspergillus fumigatus, tolerant to cell wall-interfering antimycotic drugs become susceptible through chemosensitization by natural compounds. To...

220

Sexual reproduction in Aspergillus flavus sclerotia naturally produced in corn  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Aspergillus flavus is the major producer of carcinogenic aflatoxins worldwide in crops. Populations of A. flavus are characterized by high genetic variation and the source of this variation is likely sexual reproduction. The fungus is heterothallic and laboratory crosses produce ascospore-bearing ...

221

Biodiversity of Aspergillus section Flavi in the United States  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Fungi belonging to Aspergillus section Flavi are of great economic importance in the United States due to the formation of toxic and carcinogenic aflatoxins in agricultural commodities. Development of control strategies against A. flavus and A. parasiticus, the major aflatoxin-producing species, is...

222

Genetic Response to Seed Colonizatin by Aspergillus flavus in Peanut  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Previous studies to evaluate peanut genotypes for in vitro resistance to seed colonization by Aspergillus flavus have not resulted in the development of cultivars with resistance to aflatoxin contamination in the field. New breeding lines showing pre-harvest field resistance to aflatoxin contaminat...

223

Mating-type heterokaryosis in Aspergillus flavus in North Carolina  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Aspergillus flavus is a well-known pathogen of many important agricultural commodities and is a major producer of aflatoxins (AFs), which are carcinogenic polyketides that pose a serious health risk to humans and animals. Recently, heterokaryosis and the presence of cryptic alleles were shown to ex...

224

A novel improved method for Aspergillus nidulans transformation  

Microsoft Academic Search

We systematically investigated the efficiency of Aspergillus nidulans transformation using protoplasts prepared from different stages of conidiospore germination and young mycelium. Using standard integrative plasmids, increased transformation yields were obtained with protoplasts isolated from a specific stage coincident with germ tube emergence. This increase ranged, on the average, from two- to eightfold depending on different plasmids used. Transformation efficiencies with

Marina Koukaki; Eleni Giannoutsou; Amalia Karagouni; George Diallinas

2003-01-01

225

Sexual reproduction in Aspergillus flavus and A. parasiticus  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Aspergillus flavus and A. parasiticus are potent producers of carcinogenic and hepatotoxic aflatoxins, polyketide-derived secondary metabolites that contaminate a wide variety of agricultural crops. Strains with opposite mating-type genes MAT1-1 and MAT1-2 within each species were crossed in an att...

226

Mating-type heterokaryosis and population shifts in Aspergillus flavus  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Aspergillus flavus is a fungal pathogen of many agronomically important crops worldwide. We sampled A. flavus strains from a cornfield in Rocky Mount, NC. This field was planted in 2010 and plots were inoculated at tasselling with either AF36 or NRRL 21882 (=Afla-Guard) biocontrol strains, both of...

227

QUANTITATIVE PCR OF SELECTED ASPERGILLUS, PENICILLIUM AND PAECILOMYCES SPECIES  

EPA Science Inventory

A total of 65 quantitative PCR (QPCR) assays, incorporating fluorigenic 5' nuclease (TaqMan®) chemistry and directed at the nuclear ribosomal RNA operon, internal transcribed spacer regions (ITS1 or ITS2) was developed and tested for the detection of Aspergillus, Penicillium and ...

228

Genomic sequence for the aflatoxigenic filamentous fungus Aspergillus nomius  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The genome of the A. nomius type strain was sequenced using a personal genome machine. Annotation of the genes was undertaken, followed by gene ontology and an investigation into the number of secondary metabolite clusters. Comparative studies with other Aspergillus species involved shared/unique ge...

229

Aspergillus growth and aflatoxin production on black pepper  

Microsoft Academic Search

Black peppercorns supported the growth of Aspergillus parasiticus (flavus) NRRL 3145. Incubation at 28 C and RH of 85% for 30 days resulted in profuse conidial production on the reticulate ridges of the peppercorns. An SEM study of these ridges showed that they were cortical eruptions, and the particulate matter present favored mycelial establishment. Hyphal anastamoses were commonly observed. Following

M. Seenappa; A. G. Kempton

1980-01-01

230

Pesticide Use and Mycotoxin Production in Fusarium and Aspergillus Phytopathogens  

Microsoft Academic Search

The major mycotoxigenic species of Fusarium and Aspergillus phytopathogens have been identified in this review. Since fungicides are widely used to control crop diseases caused by these fungi, it is pertinent to assess efficacy with respect to mycotoxin production. In both laboratory studies with pure cultures of phytopathogens and field trials with crop plants, the overall evidence concerning the effectiveness

J. P. Felix D'Mello; Ann M. C. Macdonald; David Postel; Wilko T. P. Dijksma; Aude Dujardin; Cristina M. Placinta

1998-01-01

231

Polyphasic taxonomy of Aspergillus section Fumigati and its teleomorph Neosartorya  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

We revised the taxonomy of Aspergillus section Fumigati along with its teleomorph genus Neosartorya. Our species concept is based phenotype (morphology and extrolite profiles) and molecular (beta-tubulin and calmodulin gene sequences) characters in a polyphasic approach. Four new taxa are proposed:...

232

The origins of aflatoxin chemotype diversity in Aspergillus populations  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Species in Aspergillus section Flavi commonly infect agricultural staples such as corn, peanuts, cottonseed, and tree nuts and produce an array of mycotoxins, the most potent of which are aflatoxins, which can be classified into B and G toxin chemotype classes. Experimental matings in the laboratory...

233

The maize rachis affects Aspergillus flavus movement during ear development  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Aspergillus flavus expressing green fluorescent protein (GFP) was used to follow infection in ears of maize hybrids resistant and susceptible to the fungus. Developing ears were needle-inoculated with GFP-transformed A. flavus 20 days after silk emergence, and GFP fluorescence in the pith was evalu...

234

EVOLUTIONARY PROCESSES IN THE AFLATOXIN GENE CLUSTER IN ASPERGILLUS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Aflatoxins are potent natural carcinogenic secondary metabolites produced by several species in the genus Aspergillus. Recently nonaflatoxigenic A. flavus strains were approved as biocontrol agents for use on cotton and peanuts. Although these biocontrol strains have proven to be effective, we have ...

235

The Innate and Acquired Pulmonary Immune Response to Aspergillus fumigatus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Epidemiological studies, clinical research, and anecdotal evidence illustrate a mounting risk for the development of fungus-related diseases throughout the world. The reason for an increased incidence of fungal allergic disease is not well understood, but is probably linked to the general increase in allergic asthma and allergy in developed countries. Aspergillus is an emerging pathogen in the increasing population of

Jane M. Schuh; Cory M. Hogaboam

236

Hydrolase production by Aspergillus niger in solid-state cultivation  

Microsoft Academic Search

A production of macerating enzymes which liquefy and hydrolyze the mandarin orange peel was studied in a solid state cultivation of Aspergillus niger on wheat bran substrate. Solid state cultivation in a 2 l drum fermenter capable of interchangeable operation under dynamic or static conditions were carried out maintaining the moisture content of the substrate at 32, 39, 46, 56,

Naomichi Nishio; Kiyoshi Tai; Shiro Nagai

1979-01-01

237

Cryptic Sexuality in Aspergillus parasiticus and A. flavus  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Ascomycetous fungi of the genus Aspergillus comprise a wide variety of species of biotechnological importance (e.g. A. sojae, A. oryzae, A. niger) as well as pathogens and toxin producers (e.g. A. flavus, A. parasiticus, A. fumigatus, A. nidulans). With the exception of A. nidulans, which is a homot...

238

Biosorption of heavy metals on Aspergillus niger: Effect of pretreatment  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of pretreatment of Aspergillus niger biomass on biosorption of lead, cadmium, copper and nickel was studied. Pretreatment of live A. niger biomass using sodium hydroxide, formaldehyde, dimethyl sulphoxide and detergent resulted in significant improvements in biosorption of lead, cadmium and copper in comparison with live A. niger cells. Pretreatment of A. niger reduced biosorption of nickel as compared

A. Kapoor; T. Viraraghavan

1998-01-01

239

Stable accumulation of Aspergillus niger phytase in transgenic tobacco leaves  

Microsoft Academic Search

Phytase from Aspergillus niger increases the availability of phos- phorus from feed for monogastric animals by releasing phosphate from the substrate phytic acid. A phytase cDNA was constitutively expressed in transgenic tobacco (Nicofiana tabacum) plants. Secre- tion of the protein to the extracellular fluid was established by use of the signal sequence from the tobacco pathogen-related protein S. lhe specific

Theo C. Verwoerd; Paridon van P. A; Oosen van A. J. J; Lent van J. W. M; André Hoekema; Jan Pen

1995-01-01

240

Glucoamylase production by a newly isolated strain of Aspergillus niger  

SciTech Connect

Glucoamylase production by Aspergillus niger 57 was studied in complex and synthetic media under stationary vs. submerged conditions. Stationary cultivation resulted in significantly greater yields than did submerged culture. Crude enzyme activity was optimum at 60 degrees and pH 4.0.

Sinkar, V.P.; Lewis, N.F.

1982-01-01

241

Population structure of Aspergillus flavus before and after biocontrol treatment  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Aspergillus flavus is a fungal pathogen of many important crops worldwide. We sampled A. flavus strains from a cornfield in Rocky Mount, North Carolina, over a period of two years. Plots were inoculated at tasselling with either AF36 or NRRL 21882 (=Afla-Guard) biocontrol strains, both of which are ...

242

[Aspergillus galactomannan detection in allogenic hematopoietic cell transplantation].  

PubMed

Invasive aspergillosis has become the leading cause of death after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. This is partially due to the lack of a prompt diagnosis. Recently the detection of Aspergillus galactomannan antigen by means an ELISA technique in serum has been described. The objective of this study was to validate its usefulness in the allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation setting. PMID:15456367

Rovira Tarrats, Montserrat; Puig de la Bellacasa, Jorge

2003-09-01

243

[Melanin pigments of the fungi Paecilomyces variotii and Aspergillus carbonarius].  

PubMed

Pigments synthesized by micromycetes Paecilomyces variotii and Aspergillus carbonarius are true melanins. Copper ions and bicyclic phenolic compounds stimulated melaninogenesis, whereas benzotriazole inhibited this process. Precursors of melanin pigments were obtained and identified. p-Hydroxybenzoic acid was shown to be the main product of melanin degradation. Melanins of these fungi are concluded to belong to the dihydronaphthalene group. PMID:10780001

Babitskaia, V G; Shcherba, V V; Filimonova, T V; Grigorchuk, E Z

2000-01-01

244

Update on antifungal drug resistance mechanisms of Aspergillus fumigatus.  

PubMed

Although the arsenal of agents with anti-Aspergillus activity has expanded over the last decade, mortality due to invasive aspergillosis (IA) remains unacceptably high. Aspergillus fumigatus still accounts for the majority of cases of IA; however less susceptible to antifungals non-fumigatus aspergilli began to emerge. Antifungal drug resistance of Aspergillus might partially account for treatment failures. Recent advances in our understanding of mechanisms of antifungal drug action in Aspergillus, along with the standardization of in vitro susceptibility testing methods, has brought resistance testing to the forefront of clinical mycology. In addition, molecular biology has started to shed light on the mechanisms of resistance of A. fumigatus to azoles and the echinocandins, while genome-based assays show promise for high-throughput screening for genotypic antifungal resistance. Several problems remain, however, in the study of this complex area. Large multicenter clinical studies--point prevalence or longitudinal--to capture the incidence and prevalence of antifungal resistance in A. fumigatus isolates are lacking. Correlation of in vitro susceptibility with clinical outcome and susceptibility breakpoints has not been established. In addition, the issue of cross-resistance between the newer triazoles is of concern. Furthermore, in vitro resistance testing for polyenes and echinocandins is difficult, and their mechanisms of resistance are largely unknown. This review examines challenges in the diagnosis, epidemiology, and mechanisms of antifungal drug resistance in A. fumigatus. PMID:16488654

Chamilos, G; Kontoyiannis, D P

2005-12-01

245

Health Effects of Aspergillus in Food and Air  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

This review summarizes the health aspects of the medically important fungal genus Aspergillus. The morphology and systematics of the genus are explained as well as its biogeography. Major mycotoxins, the aspergilli that produces them, affected crops and symptoms of the toxicoses are summarized, as...

246

Novel metabolites in phenanthrene and pyrene transformation by Aspergillus niger.  

PubMed Central

Aspergillus niger, isolated from hydrocarbon-contaminated soil, was examined for its potential to degrade phenanthrene and pyrene. Two novel metabolites, 1-methoxyphenanthrene and 1-methoxypyrene, were identified by conventional chemical techniques. Minor metabolites identified were 1- and 2-phenanthrol and 1-pyrenol. No 14CO2 evolution was observed in either [14C]phenanthrene or [14C]pyrene cultures. PMID:9212437

Sack, U; Heinze, T M; Deck, J; Cerniglia, C E; Cazau, M C; Fritsche, W

1997-01-01

247

ASPERGILLUS FLAVUS GENOMICS FOR STUDYING THE MECHANISM OF AFLATOXIN BIOSYNTHESIS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Aflatoxins are secondary metabolisms produced by the molds, Aspergillus flavus and A. parasiticus. These compounds are toxic and extremely carcinogenic. It poses a serious health hazard when they contaminate food and feed commodities. Sequencing and annotation of A. flavus ESTs identified 7,218 u...

248

Evidence of aneuploidy modulating aflatoxigenicity in Aspergillus flavus  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Aspergillus flavus is a well-known pathogen of many important agricultural commodities and is a major producer of aflatoxins, which are carcinogenic polyketides that pose a serious health risk to humans and animals. Aflatoxin contamination in peanut exports worldwide accounts for as much as $450 mi...

249

A Highly Efficient Gene-Targeting System for Aspergillus parasiticus  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Gene targeting via homologous recombination is often used to elucidate gene function. For filamentous fungi, the majority of transforming DNA integrates ectopically. Deletion of Aspergillus parasiticus ku70, a gene of the non-homologous end-joining pathway, drastically increased the gene targeting...

250

Genomic Islands in the Pathogenic Filamentous Fungus Aspergillus fumigatus  

E-print Network

University School of Medicine, Washington DC, United States of America Abstract We present the genomeGenomic Islands in the Pathogenic Filamentous Fungus Aspergillus fumigatus Natalie D. Fedorova1 Institute, University of Dublin, Trinity College, Dublin, Ireland, 3 School of Medicine and Faculty of Life

Cotty, Peter J.

251

Analysis of Aspergillus nidulans metabolism at the genome-scale  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Aspergillus nidulans is a member of a diverse group of filamentous fungi, sharing many of the properties of its close relatives with significance in the fields of medicine, agriculture and industry. Furthermore, A. nidulans has been a classical model organism for studies of development biology and gene regulation, and thus it has become one of the best-characterized filamentous fungi.

Helga David; ?lknur ? Özçelik; Gerald Hofmann; Jens Nielsen

2008-01-01

252

Zinc-Regulated Biosynthesis of Immunodominant Antigens from Aspergillus spp  

Microsoft Academic Search

ASPND1 and ASPF2 are immunodominant antigens from Aspergillus nidulans and A. fumigatus, respectively, that are readily synthesized in infections in the human host, as demonstrated by their reactivity with more than 80% of sera from patients with aspergilloma or allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis. We demonstrate here that both antigens are exclusively produced under situations of low bioavailability of free Zn 21

MONICA SEGURADO; RAQUEL LOPEZ-ARAGON; JOSEANTONIO CALERA; JOSEMANUEL FERNANDEZ-ABALOS; FERNANDO LEAL

1999-01-01

253

Integrated Database for Functional Analysis in Aspergillus flavus  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Aspergillus flavus is a plant and animal pathogen that also produces the carcinogen, aflatoxin. Because of its economic importance and well characterized pathway of aflatoxin biosynthesis, several labs are studying the development, metabolism, ecology and pathogenicity of this fungus. To facilitate...

254

Ochratoxin A production and amplified fragment length polymorphism analysis of Aspergillus carbonarius, Aspergillus tubingensis, and Aspergillus niger strains isolated from grapes in Italy.  

PubMed

Ochratoxin A is a potent nephrotoxin and a possible human carcinogen that can contaminate various agricultural products, including grapes and wine. The capabilities of species other than Aspergillus carbonarius within Aspergillus section Nigri to produce ochratoxin A from grapes are uncertain, since strain identification is based primarily on morphological traits. We used amplified fragment length polymorphisms (AFLPs) and genomic DNA sequences (rRNA, calmodulin, and beta-tubulin genes) to identify 77 black aspergilli isolated from grape berries collected in a 2-year survey in 16 vineyards throughout Italy. Four main clusters were distinguished, and they shared an AFLP similarity of <25%. Twenty-two of 23 strains of A. carbonarius produced ochratoxin A (6 to 7,500 microg/liter), 5 of 20 strains of A. tubingensis produced ochratoxin A (4 to 130 microg/liter), 3 of 15 strains of A. niger produced ochratoxin A (250 to 360 microg/liter), and none of the 19 strains of Aspergillus "uniseriate" produced ochratoxin A above the level of detection (4 microg/liter). These findings indicate that A. tubingensis is able to produce ochratoxin and that, together with A. carbonarius and A. niger, it may be responsible for the ochratoxin contamination of wine in Italy. PMID:16391107

Perrone, Giancarlo; Mulč, Giuseppina; Susca, Antonia; Battilani, Paola; Pietri, Amedeo; Logrieco, Antonio

2006-01-01

255

Ochratoxin A Production and Amplified Fragment Length Polymorphism Analysis of Aspergillus carbonarius, Aspergillus tubingensis, and Aspergillus niger Strains Isolated from Grapes in Italy  

PubMed Central

Ochratoxin A is a potent nephrotoxin and a possible human carcinogen that can contaminate various agricultural products, including grapes and wine. The capabilities of species other than Aspergillus carbonarius within Aspergillus section Nigri to produce ochratoxin A from grapes are uncertain, since strain identification is based primarily on morphological traits. We used amplified fragment length polymorphisms (AFLPs) and genomic DNA sequences (rRNA, calmodulin, and ?-tubulin genes) to identify 77 black aspergilli isolated from grape berries collected in a 2-year survey in 16 vineyards throughout Italy. Four main clusters were distinguished, and they shared an AFLP similarity of <25%. Twenty-two of 23 strains of A. carbonarius produced ochratoxin A (6 to 7,500 ?g/liter), 5 of 20 strains of A. tubingensis produced ochratoxin A (4 to 130 ?g/liter), 3 of 15 strains of A. niger produced ochratoxin A (250 to 360 ?g/liter), and none of the 19 strains of Aspergillus “uniseriate” produced ochratoxin A above the level of detection (4 ?g/liter). These findings indicate that A. tubingensis is able to produce ochratoxin and that, together with A. carbonarius and A. niger, it may be responsible for the ochratoxin contamination of wine in Italy. PMID:16391107

Perrone, Giancarlo; Mulč, Giuseppina; Susca, Antonia; Battilani, Paola; Pietri, Amedeo; Logrieco, Antonio

2006-01-01

256

Molecular phylogeny of Subtribe Artemisiinae (Asteraceae), including Artemisia and its allied and segregate genera  

PubMed Central

Background Subtribe Artemisiinae of Tribe Anthemideae (Asteraceae) is composed of 18 largely Asian genera that include the sagebrushes and mugworts. The subtribe includes the large cosmopolitan, wind-pollinated genus Artemisia, as well as several smaller genera and Seriphidium, that altogether comprise the Artemisia-group. Circumscription and taxonomic boundaries of Artemisia and the placements of these small segregate genera is currently unresolved. Results We constructed a molecular phylogeny for the subtribe using the internal transcribed spacers (ITS) of nuclear ribosomal DNA analyzed with parsimony, likelihood, and Bayesian criteria. The resulting tree is comprised of three major clades that correspond to the radiate genera (e.g., Arctanthemum and Dendranthema), and two clades of Artemisia species. All three clades have allied and segregate genera embedded within each. Conclusions The data support a broad concept of Artemisia s.l. that includes Neopallasia, Crossostephium, Filifolium, Seriphidium, and Sphaeromeria. However, the phylogeny excludes Elachanthemum, Kaschgaria, and Stilnolepis from the Artemisia-group. Additionally, the monophyly of the four subgenera of Artemisia is also not supported, with the exception of subg. Dracunculus. Homogamous, discoid capitula appear to have arisen in parallel four to seven times, with the loss of ray florets. Thus capitular morphology is not a reliable taxonomic character, which traditionally has been one of the defining characters. PMID:12350234

Watson, Linda E; Bates, Paul L; Evans, Timothy M; Unwin, Matthew M; Estes, James R

2002-01-01

257

Secondary Aspergillus in Bronchoalveolar Lavages (BALs) of Pulmonary Tuberculosis Patients from North-India  

Microsoft Academic Search

To find out the prevalence of Aspergillus spp. in Bronchoalveolar Lavages (BALs) of pulmonary tuberculosis patients, to study the anti-Aspergillus antibodies in patient's sera and to study the anti-fungal susceptibility of the isolated Aspergillus strains. BALs obtained from sixty-five patients of pulmonar y tuberculosis and 10 healthy volunteers were studied. Direct microscopy was performed by 10% KOH and Lacto- Phenol

M. Shahid; A. Malik; R. Bhargava

258

Cryptococcus neoformans Galactoxylomannan Contains an Epitope(s) That Is Cross-Reactive with Aspergillus Galactomannan  

PubMed Central

We report a case of cryptococcosis in which a serum enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for Aspergillus galactomannan was positive, with no evidence of aspergillosis. Soluble antigens from 19 Cryptococcus neoformans strains and purified carbohydrates of C. neoformans capsule were thus assayed in the Aspergillus galactomannan ELISA. Antigens from all C. neoformans strains, and purified galactoxylomannan, gave a positive reaction, suggesting that C. neoformans galactoxylomannan contains an epitope(s) that is cross-reactive with Aspergillus galactomannan. PMID:15956422

Dalle, Frédéric; Charles, Pierre Emmanuel; Blanc, Karine; Caillot, Denis; Chavanet, Pascal; Dromer, Françoise; Bonnin, Alain

2005-01-01

259

New spider flies from the Neotropical Region (Diptera, Acroceridae) with a key to New World genera  

PubMed Central

Abstract Two new genera and five new species of spider flies (Diptera: Acroceridae) are described from the Neotropical Region. A new genus of Philopotinae (Neophilopota brevirostris Schlinger gen. et sp. n.) is described from Mexico, while an unusual new species of Sphaerops Philippi, 1865 (Acrocerinae: Sphaerops micella Schlinger sp. n.) is described from Chile. A new Panopinae genus near Lasia Wiedemann, 1824 (Coquena stangei Schlinger gen. et sp. n.), is described from Argentina and two new species of Pialea Erichson, 1840 (Pialea brunea Schlinger sp. n. and Pialea corbiculata Schlinger sp. n.)are described from Venezuela. Each genus is diagnosed and figured, and a key to species provided. The Neotropical fauna presently includes 19 genera, containing approximately 100 species. A key to New World genera is also included. PMID:23730188

Schlinger, Evert I.; Gillung, Jessica P.; Borkent, Christopher J.

2013-01-01

260

Provisional keys to the genera of seaweeds of Micronesia, with new records for Guam and Yap  

PubMed Central

Artificial keys to the genera of blue-green, red, brown, and green marine benthic algae of Micronesia are given, including virtually all the genera reported from Palau, Guam, Commonwealth of the Northern Marianas, Federated States of Micronesia and the Marshall Islands. Twenty-two new species or genera are reported here for Guam and 7 for Yap; 11 of these are also new for Micronesia. Note is made of several recent published records for Guam and 2 species recently raised from varietal status. Finally, a list is given of nomenclatural changes that affect the 2003 revised checklist. An interactive version of the keys is included in the algal biodiversity website at http://university.uog.edu/botany/474. PMID:18958300

LOBBAN, CHRISTOPHER S.; N'YEURT, ANTOINE D.R.

2008-01-01

261

Aspergillus Colonization of the Lung Allograft is a Risk Factor for Bronchiolitis Obliterans Syndrome  

PubMed Central

Multiple infections have been linked with the development of bronchiolitis obliterans syndrome (BOS) post-lung transplantation. Lung allograft airway colonization by Aspergillus species is common among lung transplant recipients. We hypothesized that Aspergillus colonization may promote the development of BOS and may decrease survival post-lung transplantation. We reviewed all lung transplant recipients transplanted in our center between 1/2000 and 6/2006. Bronchoscopy was performed according to a surveillance protocol and when clinically indicated. Aspergillus colonization was defined as a positive culture from bronchoalveolar lavage or two sputum cultures positive for the same Aspergillus species, in the absence of invasive pulmonary Aspergillosis. We found that Aspergillus colonization was strongly associated with BOS and BOS related mortality in Cox regression analyses. Aspergillus colonization typically preceded the development of BOS by a median of 261 days (95% CI 87 to 520). Furthermore, in a multivariate Cox regression model, Aspergillus colonization was a distinct risk factor for BOS, independent of acute rejection. These data suggest a potential causative role for Aspergillus colonization in the development of BOS post-lung transplantation and raise the possibility that strategies aimed to prevent Aspergillus colonization may help delay or reduce the incidence of BOS. PMID:19459819

Weigt, S. Samuel; Elashoff, Robert M.; Huang, Cathy; Ardehali, Abbas; Gregson, Aric L.; Kubak, Bernard; Fishbein, Michael C.; Saggar, Rajeev; Keane, Michael P.; Saggar, Rajan; Lynch, Joseph P.; Zisman, David A.; Ross, David J.; Belperio, John A.

2014-01-01

262

Aspergillus colonization of the lung allograft is a risk factor for bronchiolitis obliterans syndrome.  

PubMed

Multiple infections have been linked with the development of bronchiolitis obliterans syndrome (BOS) post-lung transplantation. Lung allograft airway colonization by Aspergillus species is common among lung transplant recipients. We hypothesized that Aspergillus colonization may promote the development of BOS and may decrease survival post-lung transplantation. We reviewed all lung transplant recipients transplanted in our center between January 2000 and June 2006. Bronchoscopy was performed according to a surveillance protocol and when clinically indicated. Aspergillus colonization was defined as a positive culture from bronchoalveolar lavage or two sputum cultures positive for the same Aspergillus species, in the absence of invasive pulmonary Aspergillosis. We found that Aspergillus colonization was strongly associated with BOS and BOS related mortality in Cox regression analyses. Aspergillus colonization typically preceded the development of BOS by a median of 261 days (95% CI 87-520). Furthermore, in a multivariate Cox regression model, Aspergillus colonization was a distinct risk factor for BOS, independent of acute rejection. These data suggest a potential causative role for Aspergillus colonization in the development of BOS post-lung transplantation and raise the possibility that strategies aimed to prevent Aspergillus colonization may help delay or reduce the incidence of BOS. PMID:19459819

Weigt, S S; Elashoff, R M; Huang, C; Ardehali, A; Gregson, A L; Kubak, B; Fishbein, M C; Saggar, R; Keane, M P; Saggar, R; Lynch, J P; Zisman, D A; Ross, D J; Belperio, J A

2009-08-01

263

Monitoring environmental Aspergillus spp. contamination and meteorological factors in a haematological unit.  

PubMed

The opportunistic pathogens belonging to the Aspergillus genus are present in almost all seasons of the year, and their concentration is related to meteorological conditions. The high density of Aspergillus spp. conidia in a haematological hospital ward may be a significant risk factor for developing invasive fungal diseases in immunocompromised patients. Aim of the present study was to evaluate the variability of airborne Aspergillus spp. conidia contamination in a Haematological Unit (HU) within a period of 16 months in relation with some meteorological parameters. An environmental Aspergillus surveillance was conducted in the HU in four rooms and their bathrooms, in the corridor and in three external sites using an agar impact sampler. During each sampling, temperature and relative humidity at each site were recorded and current wind speed and rainfall events were taken from the official weather service. Aspergillus spp. conidia concentration differed significantly across the sampling sites. Internal Aspergillus spp. loads were significantly dependent on temperature, internal relative humidity and rain. External conidia concentrations were significantly influenced by outdoor temperature and relative humidity. A suitable indicator was introduced to evaluate the seasonal distribution of Aspergillus spp. conidia in the sampling sites, and a significant dependence on this indicator was observed inside the HU. Seventeen different fungal species belonging to the Aspergillus genus were detected during the sampling period. Aspergillus fumigatus was the most frequently isolated species and its distribution depended significantly on the seasonal indicator both inside and outside the hospital ward. PMID:24158616

Cavallo, M; Andreoni, S; Martinotti, M G; Rinaldi, M; Fracchia, L

2013-12-01

264

Aspergillus fumigatus epidural abscess in a renal transplant recipient.  

PubMed

An epidural abscess caused by Aspergillus fumigatus occurred in a recipient of a cadaveric, renal allograft. The patient had persistent back pain and a peripheral neuropathy that involved the lower extremities. Signs of spinal cord compression evolved. No definite portal of entry was found. Diagnosis was made by histologic examination and culture of a biopsy specimen. Therapy, consisting of aggressive surgical debridement, intravenous amphotericin B, and oral flucytosine was unsuccessful in eradicating the organism. At postmortem examination, Aspergillus was identified at the abscess site. To our knowledge, aspergillosis presenting as an epidural abscess in the immunosuppressed, renal transplant recipient has not previously been reported and should be considered in the differential diagnosis of back pain and peripheral neuropathy in such a patient. PMID:339864

Ingwer, I; McLeish, K R; Tight, R R; White, A C

1978-01-01

265

Aspergillus fumigatus keratitis following intracorneal ring segment implantation  

PubMed Central

Background Fungal keratitis has been rarely reported following intracorneal ring segment (ICRS) inmplantation. This paper aims to report a case of fungal keratitis with aspergillus fumigatus following ICRS implantation for correction of keratoconus. Methods A retrospective chart review was done. Data including demographics, clinical history and presentation, microbiological analysis as well as clinical management were recorded. Results A 34?year old male presented with pain, photophobia, redness and decreased vision in his right eye ten days after ICRS implantation for correction of keratoconus. Slit-lamp examination showed chemosis, ciliary injection, corneal abcess with ill defined edges and hypopyon. Microbiological analysis and culture of the corneal scrapes were positive for aspergillus fumigatus. The patient did not respond to medical treatment and ended up with corneal transplantation. Conclusion Although rare, fungal keratitis is a serious vision threatening complication that can complicate intrastromal ring implantation. Prompt and aggressive treatment is essential to prevent irreversible reduction of vision. PMID:22769849

2012-01-01

266

Purification of soyasaponin -?-galactosidase from Aspergillus sp.39  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In order to increase physiological activity of soyasaponin, enzyme hydrolysis of soyasaponin was studied. The enzyme which hydrolyzes soyasaponin to lower sugar soyasaponin was obtained from Aspergillus sp.39s. And it was purified by the method of biologic chromatography system. The method of SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis was used to determine the molecular weight of the enzyme produced by Aspergillus sp.39s. The molecular weight was about 50 kDa. The optimum pH and temperature of soyasaponin-?-galactosidase produced from sp.39s was 5.0 and 40°C respectively. Soyasaponin-?-galactosidase was comparatively stable in the pH range from 3.0 to 7.0 and in the temperature range from 20°C to 60°C.

Tian, Jing; Zhao, Ping; Xu, Longquan; Fei, Xu; Wang, Yi

267

Salmonella and Aspergillus infections in common loons overwintering in Florida.  

PubMed

During a 5-year period (1970-1975), 190 common loons (Gavia immer) from overwintering populations on the east and west coasts of Florida were examined for evidence of infectious diseases. Salmonella spp (representing 8 serotypes) were isolated from 27 (14%) of the loons, and lesions typical of those produced by Aspergillus fumigatus were found in 34 (18%) of the loons. Seven loons were infected with Salmonella spp and had lesions typical of aspergillus infection. The largest number of loons (124) was obtained during the winter of 1973-1974, in connection with an offshore oil spill. There was no significant difference between the isolation rates of Salmonella spp from oiled vs nonoiled loons, but the occurrence of aspergillosis was higher in nonoiled than in oiled loons. PMID:789314

White, F H; Forrester, D J; Nesbitt, S A

1976-11-01

268

The chemical identification and analysis of Aspergillus nidulans secondary metabolites  

PubMed Central

Filamentous fungi have long been recognized to be a rich source of secondary metabolites with potential medicinal applications. The recent genomic sequencing of several Aspergillus species has revealed that many secondary metabolite gene clusters are apparently silent under standard laboratory conditions. Several successful approaches have been utilized to upregulate these genes and unearth the corresponding natural products. A straightforward, reliable method to purify and characterize new metabolites therefore should be useful. Details are provided herein on the cultivation of Aspergillus nidulans and the LC/MS analysis of the metabolic profile. Following is an explanation of silica gel chromatography, HPLC, and preparative TLC. Finally, the NMR characterization of previously unknown A. nidulans metabolites is detailed. PMID:23065610

Sanchez, James F.

2013-01-01

269

Quantification of the Aspergillus versicolor allergen in house dust.  

PubMed

Aspergillus versicolor, a fungus commonly found on damp building materials, produces the allergen, Asp v 13. Here we report a sensitive Asp v 13 capture ELISA for A. versicolor spores and spore- and mycelial fragments in house dust samples. The method is based on a double polyclonal capture ELSIA. The detection limits for Asp v 13 antigen and A. versicolor spores without dust were 2.44 pg and 12 ng (ca. 110 spores). Detection limits for Asp v 13 and A. versicolor spores in sieved house dust samples were 1.0 ng and 7.8 ?g per gram dry weight house dust, respectively. This detection limit is lower than for other house dust allergen immunoassays including for Stachybotrys chartarum, Aspergillus fumigatus, but much lower than that from Alternaria alternata. PMID:21763696

Shi, Chunhua; Belisle, Donald; Miller, J David

2011-09-30

270

Impact of Aspergillus oryzae genomics on industrial production of metabolites  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aspergillus oryzae is used extensively for the production of the traditional Japanese fermented foods sake (rice wine), shoyu (soy sauce), and miso (soybean paste). In recent years, recombinant DNA technology has been used to enhance industrial enzyme production by A. oryzae. Recently completed genomic studies using expressed sequence tag (EST) analyses and whole-genome sequencing are quickly expanding\\u000a the industrial potential

Keietsu Abe; Katusya Gomi; Fumihiko Hasegawa; Masayuki Machida

2006-01-01

271

Impact of Aspergillus fumigatus in allergic airway diseases  

Microsoft Academic Search

For decades, fungi have been recognized as associated with asthma and other reactive airway diseases. In contrast to type\\u000a I-mediated allergies caused by pollen, fungi cause a large number of allergic diseases such as allergic bronchopulmonary mycoses,\\u000a rhinitis, allergic sinusitis and hypersensitivity pneumonitis. Amongst the fungi, Aspergillus fumigatus is the most prevalent cause of severe pulmonary allergic disease, including allergic

Neelkamal Chaudhary; Kieren A Marr

2011-01-01

272

Chemosensitization prevents tolerance of Aspergillus fumigatus to antimycotic drugs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tolerance of human pathogenic fungi to antifungal drugs is an emerging medical problem. We show how strains of the causative agent of human aspergillosis, Aspergillus fumigatus, tolerant to cell wall-interfering antimycotic drugs become susceptible through chemosensitization by natural compounds. Tolerance of the A. fumigatus mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) mutant, sakA?, to these drugs indicates the osmotic\\/oxidative stress MAPK pathway is

Jong Kim; Bruce Campbell; Noreen Mahoney; Kathleen Chan; Russell Molyneux; Gregory May

2008-01-01

273

Fractionation of ?-Glucosidases and Related Extracellular Enzymes from Aspergillus niger  

PubMed Central

Industrial concentrates from Aspergillus niger culture filtrates were fractionated by ion-exchange and adsorption chromatography. Several other types of hydrolases were completely removed. Eight partially purified components were obtained. Using specific activity as an estimate of purification, one aryl-?-glucosidase was purified 35-fold. Another component showed 147-fold purification using a viscosimetric assay with carboxymethylcellulose as substrate. The aryl-?-glucosidase was distinctly more thermolabile than the carboxymethylcellulase. PMID:13930396

Li, L.-h.; King, K. W.

1963-01-01

274

Genetic requirements for initiating asexual development in Aspergillus nidulans  

Microsoft Academic Search

Conidiation in the filamentous ascomycete Aspergillus nidulans requires activation of brlA, a well-characterized transcriptional regulator of genes that are induced specifically during asexual development. We have isolated and characterized developmental mutations in six loci, designated fluG, flbA, flbB, flbC, flbD, and flbE, that result in defective development and reduced brlA expression. These mutants grow indeterminately to produce masses of aerial

Jenny Wieser; Bee Na Lee; John W. Fondon; Thomas H. Adams

1994-01-01

275

Aspergillus niger mutants with increased glucose oxidase production  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aspergillus niger NRRL-3, an organism used for the industrial scale production of d-gluconic acid and glucose oxidase (EC 1.1.3.4), was subjected to mutagenesis and selection for acid production on diagnostic media containing methyl red. The plates contained 0.1 M d-glucose, a concentration that does not produce a color change in the medium surrounding mycelia of the parental strain under the

John Markwell; Laura G. Frakes; Eugene C. Brott; John Osterman; Fred W. Wagner

1989-01-01

276

On the safety of Aspergillus niger – a review  

Microsoft Academic Search

.   \\u000a Aspergillus niger is one of the most important microorganisms used in biotechnology. It has been in use already for many decades to produce\\u000a extracellular (food) enzymes and citric acid. In fact, citric acid and many A. niger enzymes are considered GRAS by the United States Food and Drug Administration. In addition, A. niger is used for biotransformations and waste

E. Schuster; N. Dunn-Coleman; J. Frisvad; P. van Dijck

2002-01-01

277

Purification and immobilization of Aspergillus niger. beta. -xylosidase  

SciTech Connect

..beta..-Xylosidase from a commercial Aspergillus niger preparation was purified by differential ammonium sulfate precipitation and either gel permeation or cation exchange chromatography, giving 16-fold purification in 32% yield for the first technique or 27-fold purification in 19% yield for the second. Enzyme prepared by this method was immobilized to 10 different carriers, but only when it was bound to alumina with TiCl/sub 4/ and to alkylamine porous silica with glutaraldehyde were substantial efficiencies and stabilities achieved.

Oguntimein, G.B.; Reilly, P.J.

1980-01-01

278

Regulation of the glaA gene of Aspergillus niger  

Microsoft Academic Search

The glucoamylase gene of Aspergillus niger, glaA, is expressed at high levels in the presence of starch. We have determined the nucleotide sequence of 1966 bp of the 5' flanking region of the glaA gene and have begun to identify sequences important for the control of glaA expression by deletion analysis. Constructs containing deletions extending into the glaA gene promotor

Timothy Fowler; Randy M. Berka; Michael Ward

1990-01-01

279

Production of emodin from Aspergillus ochraceus at preparative scale  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to study the chemical constituents in the pigmented culture produced from Aspergillus ochraceus, solid phase extraction method was employed to isolate the pigment molecules from the primary culture, followed by fractionation on preparative liquid chromatography. Structural characterization confirmed that one of the two major pigment components in the culture was emodin (1,3,8 -trihydroxy-6-methyl-anthraquinone). It was observed that production

Ping Lu; Xueming Zhao; Taian Cui

280

Removal of heavy metals using the fungus Aspergillus niger  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is a need to develop technologies that can remove toxic heavy metal ions found in wastewaters. Microorganisms are known to remove heavy metal ions from water. In this study the potential of the fungus Aspergillus niger to remove lead, cadmium, copper and nickel ions was evaluated. A. niger biomass pretreated by boiling in 0.1N NaOH solution for 15 min

Anoop Kapoor; T Viraraghavan; D. Roy Cullimore

1999-01-01

281

The 18-kilodalton antigen secreted by Aspergillus fumigatus.  

PubMed Central

One of the major antigens secreted in vitro by Aspergillus fumigatus is an 18-kDa basic protein which has been purified by cation-exchange chromatography. It is recognized by sera from aspergilloma patients. It is also the major circulating antigen found in urine of patients with invasive aspergillosis. Our results indicated that this antigen has potential for the diagnosis of both aspergilloma and invasive aspergillosis. Images PMID:1855978

Latgé, J P; Moutaouakil, M; Debeaupuis, J P; Bouchara, J P; Haynes, K; Prévost, M C

1991-01-01

282

Complement Attack against Aspergillus and Corresponding Evasion Mechanisms  

PubMed Central

Invasive aspergillosis shows a high mortality rate particularly in immunocompromised patients. Perpetually increasing numbers of affected patients highlight the importance of a clearer understanding of interactions between innate immunity and fungi. Innate immunity is considered to be the most significant host defence against invasive fungal infections. Complement represents a crucial part of this first line defence and comprises direct effects against invading pathogens as well as bridging functions to other parts of the immune network. However, despite the potency of complement to attack foreign pathogens, the prevalence of invasive fungal infections is increasing. Two possible reasons may explain that phenomenon: First, complement activation might be insufficient for an effective antifungal defence in risk patients (due to, e.g., low complement levels, poor recognition of fungal surface, or missing interplay with other immune elements in immunocompromised patients). On the other hand, fungi may have developed evasion strategies to avoid recognition and/or eradication by complement. In this review, we summarize the most important interactions between Aspergillus and the complement system. We describe the various ways of complement activation by Aspergillus and the antifungal effects of the system, and also show proven and probable mechanisms of Aspergillus for complement evasion. PMID:22927844

Speth, Cornelia; Rambach, Günter

2012-01-01

283

Population ecology of Aspergillus flavus associated with Mississippi Delta soils.  

PubMed

Understanding the source of Aspergillus flavus is required to manage aflatoxin contamination of maize (Zea mays L.). Studies assessed A. flavus propagules, Fusarium spp., and total fungi associated with Mississippi Delta soils. Soils from 12 and 15 sites were collected in 2000 and 2001, respectively. The propagule density of A. flavus ranged from log(10) 2.0 to 4.3 colony-forming units (cfu) g(-1) soil, while total fusaria ranged from log(10) 3.0 to 5.4 cfu g(-1) soil. The highest populations of A. flavus were associated with soils containing higher organic matter, especially in sites under a no-tillage management. The frequency of aflatoxin production in isolates ranged from 13 to 81% depending on soil. In 2001, there was a highly significant correlation between A. flavus and the history of maize cultivation. Soil fertility factors such as organic matter content, nitrate and extractable phosphorus correlated with the density of Aspergillus, Fusarium spp., and total fungi. The relationship between soil parameters and Aspergillus populations may be useful in predicting the contribution of soil microflora to aflatoxin contamination. PMID:17886181

Zablotowicz, R M; Abbas, H K; Locke, M A

2007-10-01

284

Association of airborne Aspergillus with asthma exacerbation in Southern Pakistan  

PubMed Central

Background Exposure to airborne fungi has been related with exacerbation of asthma in adults and children leading to increased outpatient, emergency room visits, and hospitalizations. Hypersensitivity to these airborne fungi may be an important initial predisposing factor in the development and exacerbation of asthma. Objective This study was conducted to determine an association between fungal types and spore concentrations with the risk of asthma exacerbation in adults. Methods This cross-sectional study was conducted from May 2008 to August 2009 at the Aga Khan University Hospital Karachi, Pakistan. All adult (age?16 years) patients presenting to the hospital with acute asthma exacerbation were enrolled after informed consent. A home survey was conducted for each patient to assess their environmental characteristics. Indoor air samples were also obtained from the patient's home to determine the type and spore concentration of fungi within the week of their enrollment in the study. Results Three hundred and ninety-one patients with an acute asthma exacerbation were enrolled during the study period. The mean age of participants was 46 years (standard deviation, ±18 years) and 247 (63.2%) were females. A trend of higher asthma enrollment associated with higher Aspergillus concentrations was found in two consecutive summers. A total of nineteen types of fungi were found in air samples. Aspergillus spp. was the most frequently isolated fungus with acute asthma exacerbation. Conclusion An association of higher concentration of indoor Aspergillus spp. with asthma exacerbation in adults was observed in this study. PMID:24809014

Zubairi, Ali Bin Sarwar; Azam, Iqbal; Awan, Safia; Zafar, Afia

2014-01-01

285

Colonization of rye green manure and peanut fruit debris by Aspergillus falvus and Aspergillus niger group in field soils.  

PubMed Central

Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus niger group colonization of deep-plowed, decomposing rye green manure cover crops in peanut field soils was studied in four fields during 1972 and 1973; colonization of decomposing peanut fruits was studied in 1972 in two fields. A. flavus colonization of rye and peanut fruits was greater in soils of heavy texture, and an A. flavus population as high as 165 propagules per g of soil was observed in soil adjacent to rye, whereas A. flavus populations in soils not associated with rye were 18 propagules per g of soil or lower. Highest A. flavus populations in soil adjacent to decomposing peanut fruits were usually comparable to populations associated with rye. Little decomposing rye or peanut fruit colonization was generally observed by the A. flavus competitor, A. niger group. A. flavus may maintain or increase its inoculum potential by colonization of these and other moribund plant tissues. PMID:823865

Griffin, G J; Garren, K H

1976-01-01

286

Comprehensive database on Induan (Lower Triassic) to Sinemurian (Lower Jurassic) marine bivalve genera and their paleobiogeographic record  

E-print Network

Marine bivalve genera that were described or mentioned for Triassic and Lower Jurassic deposits worldwide are reviewed in terms of their validity, stratigraphic range, paleogeographic distribution, paleoautecology, and ...

Ros-Franch, Sonia; Marquez-Aliaga, Ana; Damborenea, Susana

2014-04-10

287

An anti-Aspergillus protein from Escherichia coli DH5?: putative inhibitor of siderophore biosynthesis in Aspergillus fumigatus.  

PubMed

An antifungal protein designated as anti-Aspergillus protein (AAP), produced by Escherichia coli DH5?, was purified and characterised. It exhibited a molecular weight of 60 kDa on Sodium dodecyl sulphate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis analysis and depicted 99% purity on ultra performance liquid chromatography. The purified protein manifested antimycotic potential against pathogenic isolates of Aspergillus spp., depicting a minimum inhibitory concentration in the range 15.62-31.25 ?g ml(-1) and 5.0-10.0 ?g per disc, using microbroth dilution, spore germination inhibition and disc diffusion assays respectively. In vitro toxicity tests demonstrated that it showed no toxicity against human erythrocytes at doses up to 1000 ?g ml(-1) . Matrix-assisted laser desorption ionisation-Time-of-flight analysis of trypsin-digested peptides of purified protein and subsequent Mascot search revealed that several peptides of AAP have identity with bacterial siderophore biosynthetic protein, i.e. non-ribosomal peptide synthetase enzyme, involved in critical step of fungal siderophore biosynthesis. Siderophore-based inhibition was further corroborated by Chrome azurol S assay. Hence, the antagonistic effect might be the result of impediment in siderophore-mediated iron uptake and transport process which may cause critical consequences on Aspergillus growth and virulence. PMID:23968167

Balhara, Meenakshi; Ruhil, Sonam; Kumar, Manish; Dhankhar, Sandeep; Chhillar, A K

2014-03-01

288

Phytase Production by Aspergillus niger CFR 335 and Aspergillus ficuum SGA 01 through Submerged and Solid-State Fermentation  

PubMed Central

Fermentation is one of the industrially important processes for the development of microbial metabolites that has immense applications in various fields. This has prompted to employ fermentation as a major technique in the production of phytase from microbial source. In this study, a comparison was made between submerged (SmF) and solid-state fermentations (SSF) for the production of phytase from Aspergillus niger CFR 335 and Aspergillus ficuum SGA 01. It was found that both the fungi were capable of producing maximum phytase on 5th day of incubation in both submerged and solid-state fermentation media. Aspergillus niger CFR 335 and A. ficuum produced a maximum of 60.6?U/gds and 38?U/gds of the enzyme, respectively, in wheat bran solid substrate medium. Enhancement in the enzyme level (76 and 50.7?U/gds) was found when grown in a combined solid substrate medium comprising wheat bran, rice bran, and groundnut cake in the ratio of 2?:?1?:?1. A maximum of 9.6 and 8.2?U/mL of enzyme activity was observed in SmF by A. niger CFR 335 and A.ficuum, respectively, when grown in potato dextrose broth. PMID:24688383

Shivanna, Gunashree B.; Venkateswaran, Govindarajulu

2014-01-01

289

Overexpression of Aspergillus tubingensis faeA in protease-deficient Aspergillus niger enables ferulic acid production from plant material.  

PubMed

The production of ferulic acid esterase involved in the release of ferulic acid side groups from xylan was investigated in strains of Aspergillus tubingensis, Aspergillus carneus, Aspergillus niger and Rhizopus oryzae. The highest activity on triticale bran as sole carbon source was observed with the A. tubingensis T8.4 strain, which produced a type A ferulic acid esterase active against methyl p-coumarate, methyl ferulate and methyl sinapate. The activity of the A. tubingensis ferulic acid esterase (AtFAEA) was inhibited twofold by glucose and induced twofold in the presence of maize bran. An initial accumulation of endoglucanase was followed by the production of endoxylanase, suggesting a combined action with ferulic acid esterase on maize bran. A genomic copy of the A. tubingensis faeA gene was cloned and expressed in A. niger D15#26 under the control of the A. niger gpd promoter. The recombinant strain has reduced protease activity and does not acidify the media, therefore promoting high-level expression of recombinant enzymes. It produced 13.5 U/ml FAEA after 5 days on autoclaved maize bran as sole carbon source, which was threefold higher than for the A. tubingensis donor strain. The recombinant AtFAEA was able to extract 50 % of the available ferulic acid from non-pretreated maize bran, making this enzyme suitable for the biological production of ferulic acid from lignocellulosic plant material. PMID:24664515

Zwane, Eunice N; Rose, Shaunita H; van Zyl, Willem H; Rumbold, Karl; Viljoen-Bloom, Marinda

2014-06-01

290

New flat mite genera (Acari: Trombidiformes: Tenuipalpidae) associated with Australian sedges (Cyperaceae)  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Two new genera, Gahniacarus and Cyperacarus, and four new species, G. gersonus, G. tuberculatus, C. naomae and C. foliatus, are described from native Australian sedge species in the genus Gahnia (Cyperaceae). Leg chaetotaxy is provided for all stages of each species. The importance of taxonomic ch...

291

NEW GENERA AND HOST PLANT RECORDS OF ASTERACEAE-FEEDING TEPHRITIDAE (DIPTERA) FROM BRAZIL.  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Three new genera of Tephritinae (Tephritidae), Cipomyia (type species: C. totofusca, n. sp.), Eutretopsis (type species: E. albipunctata, n. sp.), and Lewinsohnia (type species: L. magna, n. sp.) are described from Brazil. The first host plant records are provided for C. totofusca, L. magna, and Cae...

292

Polyamine profiles within genera of the class Actinobacteria with u-diaminopimelic acid in the peptidoglycan  

Microsoft Academic Search

Polyamine patterns of coryne- and nocardioform representatives of the class Actinobacteria with u-diaminopimelic acid in the peptidoglycan, comprising strains of the genera A eromicrobium , Nocardioides, In trasporangium, Terrabacter, Terracoccus, Propioniferax, Friedmanniella, Microlunatus, Luteococcus and Sporichthya, were analysed. The different polyamine patterns were in good agreement with the phylogenetic heterogeneity within this group of actinomycetes. Strains of the closely related

Hans-Jurgen Busse; Peter Schumann

293

Soil nematode fauna of afforested mine sites: genera distribution, trophic structure and functional guilds  

Microsoft Academic Search

In an afforested coal mining site at Berzdorf, Germany, the soil nematode community was investigated on the basis of genera distribution, trophic structure, and functional guilds. To assess food web complexity and nutritional status of afforested mine soils, the “weighted faunal analysis” was applied and found to be a useful diagnostic tool to describe the poorly developed, basal or matured

Karin Hohberg

2003-01-01

294

Quantitative analysis of oxyresveratrol in different plant parts of Morus species and related Genera by HPTLC  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Four aromatic compounds; oxyresveratrol (1), mulberroside A (2), cudraflavone C (3) and kuwanone J (4) were isolated from the stems of Morus rubra L. The quantitative determination of oxyresveratrol from M. rubra L., M. alba L. and related genera by high performance thin layer chromatography (HPTLC)...

295

A Key to the Common Genera of Neogene Shark Teeth Robert W. Purdy  

E-print Network

A Key to the Common Genera of Neogene Shark Teeth by Robert W. Purdy Revised March 2006 #12 Sexual Dimorphism in Teeth 11 Abnormal Teeth 11 Using Artificial Tooth Sets to Identify Fossil Shark Teeth 12 Hexanchiform Sharks 12 Squaliform Sharks 13 Lamniform Sharks 13 Carcharhiniform Sharks 14

Mathis, Wayne N.

296

New and little-known genera of cheilostome Bryozoa from the New Zealand region  

Microsoft Academic Search

Six new or little-known genera of cheilostome Bryozoa are recorded from the New Zealand region. Villicharixa n. gen. (Electridae), established for a species from South Island and from southern Chile, closely resembles forms from the lower Cretaceous of Europe. Daisyella n. gen. (Calloporidae) includes three uniserial species (two New Zealand and one Antarctic). Rhabdozoum Hincks (Rhabdozoidae), a little-known southern Australian

D. P. Gordon

1989-01-01

297

New Records and Range Extensions for Several Chironomid Genera from Lake Superior  

EPA Science Inventory

Five genera of chironomids have been reported for the first time in Lake Superior. Chironomids are small flying insects with a sediment-dwelling aquatic larval stage. The chironomids were collected by scientists at the Mid-Continent Ecology Division as part of a research program ...

298

Establishment of three new genera in the family Geminiviridae: Becurtovirus, Eragrovirus and Turncurtovirus.  

PubMed

The family Geminiviridae includes plant-infecting circular single-stranded DNA viruses that have geminate particle morphology. Members of this family infect both monocotyledonous and dicotyledonous plants and have a nearly global distribution. With the advent of new molecular tools and low-cost sequencing, there has been a significant increase in the discovery of new geminiviruses in various cultivated and non-cultivated plants. In this communication, we highlight the establishment of three new genera (Becurtovirus, Eragrovirus and Turncurtovirus) to accommodate various recently discovered geminiviruses that are highly divergent and, in some cases, have unique genome architectures. The genus Becurtovirus has two viral species, Beet curly top Iran virus (28 isolates; leafhopper vector Circulifer haematoceps) and Spinach curly top Arizona virus (1 isolate; unknown vector), whereas the genera Eragrovirus and Turncurtovirus each have a single assigned species: Eragrostis curvula streak virus (6 isolates; unknown vector) and Turnip curly top virus (20 isolates; leafhopper vector Circulifer haematoceps), respectively. Based on analysis of all of the genome sequences available in public databases for each of the three new genera, we provide guidelines and protocols for species and strain classification within these three new genera. PMID:24658781

Varsani, Arvind; Navas-Castillo, Jesús; Moriones, Enrique; Hernández-Zepeda, Cecilia; Idris, Ali; Brown, Judith K; Murilo Zerbini, F; Martin, Darren P

2014-08-01

299

Revision of the Neotropical Exoristini (Diptera, Tachinidae): The status of the genera Epiplagiops and Tetragrapha.  

PubMed

The monotypic genera Epiplagiops Blanchard, 1943 and Tetragrapha Brauer and Bergenstamm, 1891 are revised. Both are invalidated and synonymized with Chetogena Rondani, 1856. Their type-species, Epiplagiops littoralis Blanchard, 1943 and Tetragrapha tessellata Brauer and Bergenstamm, 1891, are studied, redescribed, illustrated, and transferred to Chetogena. A lectotype is designated for T. tessellata. PMID:25843588

Nihei, Silvio S

2015-01-01

300

1999 Macmillan Magazines Ltd ing to distinct primate families and genera.  

E-print Network

© 1999 Macmillan Magazines Ltd ing to distinct primate families and genera. But, for most species, fewer than 20 rearrangementsareenoughtore-assortmod- ern genomes to that of the primate ancestor. At least 12 of the ancestral primate chromo- somes are also found intact in the genomes of humans, cats

Kudela, Raphael M.

301

Chromosomal homologies and phylogenetic relationships of the vespertilionid bat genera Euderma, Idionycteris, and Plecotus  

Microsoft Academic Search

The phylogenetic relationships of three plecotine bat genera were studied by comparison of chromosome banding patterns. The G-banded karyotypes of Euderma maculatum and Idionycteris phyllotis were found to be very similar, differing by only two pericentric inversions. Plecotus townsendii possessed a strikingly different G-band karyotype, which differed from that of Euderma and Idionycteris by several fusions and an inversion in

A. D. Stock

1983-01-01

302

An illustrated key to the genera of Thripinae (Thysanoptera, Thripidae) from Iran  

PubMed Central

Abstract An illustrated key is provided for the identification of 35 genera of Thripinae (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) from Iran with comments for each genus. Chirothrips maximi Ananthakrishnan and Limothrips cerealium Haliday are recorded from Iran for the first time. A checklist is provided of Thripinae recorded from this country. PMID:23950669

Mirab-balou, Majid; Minaei, Kambiz; Chen, Xue-Xin

2013-01-01

303

New species of the Eastern Hemisphere genera Afroheriades and Noteriades (Hymenoptera: Megachilidae)  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

New species of the rarely encountered megachilid genera Afroheriades Peters from South Africa, A. hyalinus sp. n., and Noteriades Cockerell from Myanmar and Thailand, N. jenniferae sp. n. and N. spinosus sp. n., are described and illustrated. The species are described to make their names available i...

304

Tanaidacea (Crustacea) from sublittoral waters off West Scotland, including the description of two new genera  

Microsoft Academic Search

Twelve species of tanaid are recorded from samples taken in a study of shallow waters near Oban and Millport on the west coast of Scotland in 1984. Two new species, Leptognathiopsis attenuata and Subulella scotti, belong to new leptognathiid genera, and Haplocope angusta and Anarthrura simplex are reported for the first time from British and western Scottish waters, respectively. The

D. M. Holdich; G. J. Bird

1986-01-01

305

Deoxyribonucleic Acid Relationships Among Hydrogen Oxidizing Strains of the Genera Pseudomonas, Alcaligenes, and Paracoccus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Optical determination of deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) -DNA reassociation ki- netics was applied to the classification of 32 selected strains of hydrogen-oxidizing bacteria belonging to the genera Pseudomonas, Alcaligenes, and Paracoccus. The renaturation studies revealed a high intraspecies DNA homology for some strains of the species Pseudomonas palleronii, Pseudomonas pseudoflava, and Alcaligenes paradoxus, supporting former taxonomic concepts of different au- thors.

G. AULING; M. DITTBRENNER; M. MAARZAHL; T. NOKHAL; M. REH

306

A plastid gene phylogeny of the non-photosynthetic parasitic Orobanche (Orobanchaceae) and related genera  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The phylogenetic relationships of the non-photosynthetic Orobanche sensu lato (Orobanchaceae), which includes some of the economically most important parasitic weeds, remain insufficiently understood and controversial. This concerns both the phylogenetic relationships within the genus, in particular its monophyly or lack thereof, and the relationships to other holoparasitic genera such as Cistanche or Conopholis. Here we present the first comprehensive phylogenetic study of this group based on a region from the plastid genome (rps2 gene). Although substitution rates appear to be elevated compared to the photosynthetic members of Orobanchaceae, relationships among the major lineages Cistanche, Conopholis plus Epifagus, Boschniakia rossica (Cham. & Schltdl.) B. Fedtsch., B. himalaica Hook. f. & Thomson, B. hookeri Walp. plus B. strobilacea A. Gray, and Orobanche s. l. remain unresolved. Resolution within Orobanche, however, is much better. In agreement with morphological, cytological and other molecular phylogenetic evidence, five lineages, corresponding to the four traditionally recognised sections (Gymnocaulis, Myzorrhiza, Orobanche, Trionychon) and O. latisquama Reut. ex Boiss. (of sect. Orobanche), can be distinguished. A combined analysis of plastid rps2 and nuclear ITS sequences of the holoparasitic genera results in more resolved and better supported trees, although the relationships among Orobanche s. l., Cistanche, and the clade including the remaining genera is unresolved. Therefore, rps2 is a marker from the plastid genome that is well-suited to be used in combination with other already established nuclear markers for resolving generic relationships of Orobanche and related genera. ?? 2008 The Botanical Society of Japan and Springer.

Park, J.-M.; Manen, J.-F.; Colwell, A.E.; Schneeweiss, G.M.

2008-01-01

307

Synopsis of warty leaf beetles genera of the world (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae: Cryptocephalinae: Chlamisini)  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

World genera of Chlamisini are reviewed, diagnosed, and illustrated. A key for their dentification is provided. A replacement name, Kakita Chamorro-Lacayo and Konstantinov is presented for Ceratochlamys Bokermann which is a junior homonym of Ceratochlamys Habe, 1946 (Mollusca). Chlamisus rousei M...

308

China For all ages a MulTi-generaTional exPloraTion  

E-print Network

China For all ages a MulTi-generaTional exPloraTion The greaT Wall, TerraCoTTa Warriors & The MighCTuresque China Experience the Delights of a Well-Crafted Family Tour Dear Princetonian, Join Princeton Journeys, June 27 ­ July 9, 2013, for a comprehensive tour of China designed with families in mind. Explore

Rowley, Clarence W.

309

Identification and susceptibility of Aspergillus section nigri in china: prevalence of species and paradoxical growth in response to echinocandins.  

PubMed

Molecular identification and in vitro antifungal susceptibility tests of 43 Aspergillus section Nigri isolates from China were performed. Aspergillus niger and Aspergillus tubingensis were present in almost equal numbers. All of the isolates had low MIC/MECs (minimum effective concentrations) for the 7 common antifungals, and a paradoxical effect was observed for the first time in response to caspofungin and micafungin. PMID:25502526

Li, Yali; Wan, Zhe; Liu, Wei; Li, Ruoyu

2015-02-01

310

Tissue-specific components of resistance to Aspergillus ear rot of maize  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Aspergillus flavus and other Aspergillus spp. infect maize and produce aflatoxins. One control measure is the use of resistant maize lines. There are several reports of maize lines that are resistant to aflatoxin accumulation, but the mechanisms of resistance remain unknown. To gain a better unde...

311

Secondary Metabolite Profiling, Growth Profiles and Other Tools for Species Recognition and Important Aspergillus Mycotoxins  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Species in the genus Aspergillus have been classified primarily based on morphological features. Sequencing of house-hold genes has also been used in Aspergillus taxonomy and phylogeny, while extrolites and physiological features have been used less frequently. Three independent ways of classifyin...

312

Removal of cadmium, chromium, lead and copper from urban sewage by Aspergillus Niger and Pseudomonas fluorescens  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aspergillus Niger and Pseudomonas fluorescens have the ability to absorb heavy metals during the stationary phase of growth. To improve the removal the efficiency of the oxidation ditch, we have introduced Aspergillus Niger and Pseudomonas fluorescens to the traditional Carrousel oxidation ditch process and the comparative experimental study were carried out when the Hydraulic Retention Time (HRT) was 36h. According

Haihua Li; Guoqiang Bai; Yingying Fu; Yanyan Jin

2011-01-01

313

Secretome analysis of Aspergillus fumigatus reveals Asp-hemolysin as a major secreted protein  

Microsoft Academic Search

Surface-associated and secreted proteins represent primarily exposed components of Aspergillus fumigatus during host infection. Several secreted proteins are known to be involved in defense mechanisms or immune evasion, thus, probably contributing to pathogenicity. Furthermore, several secreted antigens were identified as possible biomarkers for the verification of diseases caused by Aspergillus species. Nevertheless, there is only limited knowledge about the composition

Dirk Wartenberg; Katrin Lapp; Ilse D. Jacobsen; Hans-Martin Dahse; Olaf Kniemeyer; Thorsten Heinekamp; Axel A. Brakhage

2011-01-01

314

Analysis and prediction of gene splice sites in four Aspergillus genomes.  

PubMed

Several Aspergillus fungal genomic sequences have been published, with many more in progress. Obviously, it is essential to have high-quality, consistently annotated sets of proteins from each of the genomes, in order to make meaningful comparisons. We have developed a dedicated, publicly available, splice site prediction program called NetAspGene, for the genus Aspergillus. Gene sequences from Aspergillus fumigatus, the most common mould pathogen, were used to build and test our model. Compared to many animals and plants, Aspergillus contains smaller introns; thus we have applied a larger window size on single local networks for training, to cover both donor and acceptor site information. We have applied NetAspGene to other Aspergilli, including Aspergillus nidulans, Aspergillus oryzae, and Aspergillus niger. Evaluation with independent data sets reveal that NetAspGene performs substantially better splice site prediction than other available tools. NetAspGene will be very helpful for the study in Aspergillus splice sites and especially in alternative splicing. A webpage for NetAspGene is publicly available at http://www.cbs.dtu.dk/services/NetAspGene. PMID:18948220

Wang, Kai; Ussery, David Wayne; Brunak, Sřren

2009-03-01

315

Immunohistologic identification of Aspergillus spp. and other hyaline fungi by using polyclonal fluorescent antibodies.  

PubMed Central

Isolation and identification of pathogenic Aspergillus and Fusarium spp. from clinical materials provide the most accurate means for establishing a diagnosis of infections by these molds. Such efforts, however, are not always successful. Histologic diagnosis also has its limitations. In vivo the hyphae of Aspergillus and Fusarium spp. are very similar and their in situ manifestations are not pathognomonic. To improve the histologic diagnosis of infections by Aspergillus and Fusarium species, we developed polyclonal fluorescent-antibody reagents to Aspergillus fumigatus and Fusarium solani and evaluated their diagnostic utilities. Our studies revealed that A. fumigatus and F. solani share epitopes not only with one another but also with other Aspergillus and Fusarium spp. as well as with Paecilomyces lilacinus and Pseudallescheria boydii. Adsorption of the A. fumigatus conjugate with cells of Fusarium proliferatum and F. solani and F. solani antiserum with cells of Aspergillus flavus resulted in reagents that distinguished Aspergillus spp. from Fusarium spp. but that still cross-stained P. lilacinus and P. boydii. Adjunctive use of a specific P. boydii conjugate enabled the identification of Aspergillus spp., Fusarium spp., P. lilacinus, and P. boydii in formalin-fixed tissue sections from 19 humans with culture-proven cases of mycotic infection. PMID:9276388

Kaufman, L; Standard, P G; Jalbert, M; Kraft, D E

1997-01-01

316

Utilization of b-glucosidase from aspergillus species in the hydrolysis of cellulose  

SciTech Connect

The batch hydrolysis of cellulose by Trichoderma reesei cellulase was considerably enhanced by the addition of very small amounts of B-glucosidase derived from Aspergillus niger. Addition of larger amounts had no further effect. In simultaneous cellulose hydrolysis and alcohol fermentation experiments the addition of B-glucosidase from Aspergillus niger had no significant effect on alcohol production by the fermenting yeast.

Nybergh, P.M.A.; Bailey, M.J.

1980-01-01

317

Highly sensitive PCR-based detection method specific for Aspergillus flavus in wheat flour  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aspergillus flavus is frequently found in food, producing a wide variety of toxins, aflatoxins being the most relevant in food safety. A specific PCR-based protocol for this species is described which allowed discrimination from other closely related species having different profiles of secondary metabolites from the Aspergillus Section Flavi, particularly A. parasiticus. The specific primers were designed on the multi-copy

Amaia González-Salgado; Teresa González-Jaén; Covadonga Vázquez; Belén Patińo

2008-01-01

318

Function of Conserved Tryptophans in the Aspergillus niger Glucoamylase 1 Starch Binding Domain  

E-print Network

Function of Conserved Tryptophans in the Aspergillus niger Glucoamylase 1 Starch Binding Domain of tryptophan residues in the granular starch binding domain (SBD) of glucoamylase 1 from Aspergillus niger. Wild-type SBD and three variant (W563K, W590K, and W615K) proteins were produced using an A. niger

Williamson, Mike P.

319

Biochemical Engineering Journal 8 (2001) 187193 Enhanced heterologous protein production in Aspergillus niger through  

E-print Network

in Aspergillus niger through pH control of extracellular protease activity Dara O'Donnella, Liping Wanga 2000; accepted 15 February 2001 Abstract The extracellular protease activity of Aspergillus niger AB4 glucose in the culture medium had been completely utilized. When grown at pH 6, A. niger protease activity

Gu, Tingyue

320

Solution structure of the granular starch binding domain of Aspergillus niger glucoamylase bound to -cyclodextrin  

E-print Network

Solution structure of the granular starch binding domain of Aspergillus niger glucoamylase bound the catalytic domains of hydrolytic enzymes. Glucoamylase 1 (G1) from Aspergillus niger, an enzyme used widely of insoluble polysaccharides. Results: The solution structure of the SBD of A. niger G1 bound to -cyclodextrin

Williamson, Mike P.

321

Influence of manganese on morphology and cell wall composition of Aspergillus niger during citric acid fermentation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Morphology and cell wall composition of Aspergillus niger were studied under conditions of manganese sufficient or deficient cultivation in an otherwise citric acid producing medium. Omission of Mn2+ (less than 10-7 M) from the nutrient medium of Aspergillus niger results in abnormal morphological development which is characterized by increased spore swelling, and squat, bulbeous hyphae. Fractionation and analysis of manganese

Monika Kisser; C. P. Kubicek; M. Röhr

1980-01-01

322

Detection and discrimination of four Aspergillus section Nigri species by PCR.  

PubMed

Species of Aspergillus section Nigri are not easily distinguished by traditional morphological techniques, and typically are identified by DNA sequencing methods. We developed four PCR primers to distinguish between Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus welwitschiae, Aspergillus carbonarius and Aspergillus tubingensis, based on species-conserved differences in the calmodulin gene sequence. PCR amplification from total DNA using these primers was species specific; no amplification occurred from nontarget species DNA for each primer pair. Species-specific PCR could distinguish between species in mixed DNA templates, indicating a utility in determining culture uniformity of isolated Aspergillus strains. In addition, with these primer sets, each species could be detected in soil following mixed-species inoculation with Aspergillus spores. This indicates that PCR with these species-specific primers may be useful in determining the distribution of Aspergillus species in environmental samples without the need for species identification from isolated strains, as well as detecting species that may be infrequently isolated by culture-based methods. PMID:25384730

Palumbo, J D; O'Keeffe, T L

2015-02-01

323

Isolation and chemical characterization of naphthoquinone metabolites of Aspergillus parvulus Smith  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although several benzoquinone and anthraquinone compounds have been isolated from Aspergillus species, only two naphthoquinone monomers have been reported thus far. Aspergillus parvulus Smith (ATCC number16911) was first investigated chemically in 1974, and five naphthalenones, along with one naphthoquinone, were isolated and characterized. Based on biosynthetic considerations, it was thought that A. parvulus might be capable of producing additional naphthoquinones

1984-01-01

324

Mycotoxin production by different ochratoxigenic Aspergillus and Penicillium species on coffee and wheat-based media  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ochratoxin A (OTA) is one of the most widespread mycotoxins, and is produced by several Aspergillus or Penicillium species. Human exposure to OTA is mainly by intake of contaminated food, with cereal products, followed by coffee and red\\u000a wine as the main sources of OTA. In this study, the OTA production of four ochratoxigenic fungi (two Aspergillus and two Penicillium

Katherine Muńoz; Mario Vega; Gisela Rios; Rolf Geisen; Gisela H. Degen

325

NsdC and NsdD affect Aspergillus flavus morphogenesis and aflatoxin production  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The transcription factors NsdC and NsdD have been shown to be necessary for sexual development in Aspergillus nidulans. Herein we examine the role of these proteins in development and aflatoxin production of the agriculturally important, aflatoxin-producing fungus, Aspergillus flavus. We found tha...

326

Comparsion of Cultural and Analytical Methods for Determination of Aflatoxin Production by Mississippi Delta Aspergillus isolates  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

This study compared cultural versus analytical methods to detect aflatoxin production by Aspergillus species. Aspergillus isolates (517) were obtained from various Mississippi Delta crops (corn, peanut, rice, cotton) and soils. Ten standard aflatoxigenic A. flavus isolates were also included in thi...

327

DETERMINATION OF AFLATOXIN PRODUCTION BY ASPERGILLUS SPECIES FROM THE MISSISSIPPI DELTA BY VARIOUS METHODS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

This study evaluated several methods to detect aflatoxins in Aspergillus. Aspergillus isolates (517) were obtained from various Mississippi Delta crops (corn, peanut, rice, cotton) and soils. Cultural methods included fluorescence on Beta-cyclodextrin media (FL), yellow pigment (YP), and color cha...

328

Genomic analysis of allergen genes in Aspergillus spp.: the relevance of genomics to everyday research  

Microsoft Academic Search

Full genomic sequencing of Aspergillus fumigatus and other genomes has allowed correction of Aspergillus allergen gene sequences and requires revision of Genbank and IUIS sequences of allergens. In addition allergens in other fungal species may be found in the aspergilli. We compared the published sequences of numerous allergens with recently available genome sequences. This analysis suggests that Aspf 56KD, Asp

Paul Bowyer; David W. Denning

2007-01-01

329

Development and evaluation of a real-time quantitative PCR assay for Aspergillus flavus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aspergillus flavus is a ubiquitous mold and the most common mold contaminating foodstuffs. Many strains of A. flavus produce aflatoxins. In addition it is an allergen and an opportunistic pathogen of animals and plants. A. flavus often is underestimated in traditional culture analyses due to the expertise required and the cost associated with speciating members of the genus Aspergillus. The

Patricia Cruz; Mark P. Buttner

2008-01-01

330

Genetic and structural validation of Aspergillus fumigatus UDP-N-acetylglucosamine pyrophosphorylase as an  

E-print Network

of chitin, an essential component of the fungal cell wall. UDP-N-acetylglucosamine pyrophosphorylase (UAP fungi. Here, we demonstrate that the fungal pathogen Aspergillus fumigatus possesses an active UAP (AfUAP, constructed by replacing the native promoter of the A. fumigatus uap1 gene with the Aspergillus nidulans alc

van Aalten, Daan

331

Isolation and identification of Aspergillus spp. from brown kiwi (Apteryx mantelli) nocturnal houses in New Zealand.  

PubMed

Aspergillosis, a disease caused by infection with Aspergillus spp., is a common cause of death in birds globally and is an irregular cause of mortality of captive kiwi (Apteryx spp.). Aspergillus spp. are often present in rotting plant material, including the litter and nesting material used for kiwi in captivity. The aim of this study was to survey nocturnal kiwi houses in New Zealand to assess the levels of Aspergillus currently present in leaf litter. Samples were received from 11 nocturnal kiwi houses from throughout New Zealand, with one site supplying multiple samples over time. Aspergillus was isolated and quantified by colony counts from litter samples using selective media and incubation temperatures. Isolates were identified to the species level by amplification and sequencing of ITS regions of the ribosomal. Aspergillus spp. were recovered from almost every sample; however, the levels in most kiwi houses were below 1000 colony-forming units (CFU)/g of wet material. The predominant species was Aspergillus fumigatus, with rare occurrences of Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus nidulans, and Aspergillus parasiticus. Only one site had no detectable Aspergillus. The limit of detection was around 50 CFU/g wet material. One site was repeatedly sampled as it had a high loading of A. fumigatus at the start of the survey and had two recent clinical cases of aspergillosis diagnosed in resident kiwi. Environmental loading at this site with Aspergillus spp. reduced but was not eliminated despite changes of the litter. The key finding of our study is that the background levels of Aspergillus spores in kiwi nocturnal houses in New Zealand are low, but occasional exceptions occur and are associated with the onset of aspergillosis in otherwise healthy birds. The predominant Aspergillus species present in the leaf litter was A. fumigatus, but other species were also present. Further research is needed to confirm the optimal management of leaf litter to minimize Aspergillus spore counts. However, in the interim, our recommendations are that leaf litter should be freshly collected from areas of undisturbed forest areas and spread immediately after collection, without interim storage. PMID:24758108

Glare, Travis R; Gartrell, Brett D; Brookes, Jenny J; Perrott, John K

2014-03-01

332

Fruit flies as a minihost model for studying drug activity and virulence in Aspergillus.  

PubMed

Invasive aspergillosis (IA) is a significant cause of morbidity and mortality in profoundly immunosuppressed patients. The mediocre efficacy of antifungals for IA in clinical practice and an incomplete understanding of the pathogenesis of IA contribute to its overall poor prognosis. Although logistically difficult for large scale use, conventional animal models of IA provide valuable information regarding both antifungal drug efficacy and Aspergillus mutant virulence. However, in the era of introduction of molecular biology techniques for studying Aspergillus and increasing antifungal options, the existing in vivo models of IA might be well complemented by nonvertebrate minihost models such as the Drosophila melanogaster (fruit fly). Drosophila may offer the distinct advantage of performing fast, inexpensive high-throughput screening of compounds for anti-Aspergillus activity and putative Aspergillus mutants for their role in Aspergillus virulence. PMID:16110801

Lionakis, M S; Kontoyiannis, D P

2005-05-01

333

Phylogenomic and Molecular Demarcation of the Core Members of the Polyphyletic Pasteurellaceae Genera Actinobacillus, Haemophilus, and Pasteurella  

PubMed Central

The genera Actinobacillus, Haemophilus, and Pasteurella exhibit extensive polyphyletic branching in phylogenetic trees and do not represent coherent clusters of species. In this study, we have utilized molecular signatures identified through comparative genomic analyses in conjunction with genome based and multilocus sequence based phylogenetic analyses to clarify the phylogenetic and taxonomic boundary of these genera. We have identified large clusters of Actinobacillus, Haemophilus, and Pasteurella species which represent the “sensu stricto” members of these genera. We have identified 3, 7, and 6 conserved signature indels (CSIs), which are specifically shared by sensu stricto members of Actinobacillus, Haemophilus, and Pasteurella, respectively. We have also identified two different sets of CSIs that are unique characteristics of the pathogen containing genera Aggregatibacter and Mannheimia, respectively. It is now possible to demarcate the genera Actinobacillus sensu stricto, Haemophilus sensu stricto, and Pasteurella sensu stricto on the basis of discrete molecular signatures. The other members of the genera Actinobacillus, Haemophilus, and Pasteurella that do not fall within the “sensu stricto” clades and do not contain these molecular signatures should be reclassified as other genera. The CSIs identified here also provide useful diagnostic targets for the identification of current and novel members of the indicated genera.

Naushad, Sohail; Adeolu, Mobolaji; Goel, Nisha; Khadka, Bijendra; Al-Dahwi, Aqeel; Gupta, Radhey S.

2015-01-01

334

Seed plant genera endemic to the Caribbean Island biodiversity hotspot: A review and a molecular phylogentic perspective  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The Caribbean Island Biodiversity Hotspot is composed primarily by the Bahamas and Greater and Lesser Antilles. A total of 178 genera (722 spp., ca. 9% of the species endemic to the Antilles) are restricted to this hotspot. Most of these genera are unispecific (53%), a pattern that is also found o...

335

THREE NEW GENERA AND THREE NEW SPECIES OF NEOTROPICAL HYALIODINI, WITH NEW COMBINATIONS AND NEW SYNONYMY (HEMIPTERA: HETEROPTERA: MIRIDAE: DERAEOCORINAE)  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Three new genera of Hyaliodini are described to provide names for a forthcoming study on the phylogenetic relationships of the genera within the subfamily Deraeocorinae. The new genus Dicyphanisca is described to accommodate the new species D. marginella from Ecuador; the new genus Froeschnerisca, ...

336

Phylogenetic relationships of four endemic genera of the Phasianidae in China based on mitochondrial DNA control-region genes.  

PubMed

The taxonomic status of some genera within the Phasianidae remains controversial. To demonstrate the phylogenetic relationships of four endemic genera (Tetraophasis, Ithaginis, Crossoptilon and Chrysolophus) and other 11 genera of Phasianidae in China, a total of 1070 nucleotides of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) control-region genes were sequenced. There are 376 variable sites including 345 parsimony sites. The genetic distance ranged from 0.067 (Chrysolophus and Phasianus) to 0.181 (Perdix and Bambusicola) among the 15 genera. Maximum likelihood method was used to construct a phylogenetic tree, which grouped all the genera into two deeply divergent clades. Perdix was shown to be a non-partridge genus. Alternatively, it appears ancestral to either partridges or pheasants. The sibling taxa of the four endemic genera were Lophophorus, Tragopan, Lophura and Phasianus, respectively. Calibrated rates of molecular evolution suggested that the divergence time between the four genera and related taxa was 4.00-5.00 million years ago, corresponding to the Pliocene. Considering their molecular phylogenetics, fossil and geographical distribution patterns, the four endemic genera might have originated in the southwestern mountains in China. PMID:19591951

Huang, Zuhao; Liu, Naifa; Xiao, Yi'an; Cheng, Yalin; Mei, Wenfeng; Wen, Longying; Zhang, Lixun; Yu, Xiaoping

2009-11-01

337

Healthy Human T-Cell Responses to Aspergillus fumigatus Antigens  

PubMed Central

Background Aspergillus fumigatus is associated with both invasive and allergic pulmonary diseases, in different hosts. The organism is inhaled as a spore, which, if not cleared from the airway, germinates into hyphal morphotypes that are responsible for tissue invasion and resultant inflammation. Hyphae secrete multiple products that function as antigens, evoking both a protective (TH1–TH17) and destructive allergic (TH2) immunity. How Aspergillus allergens (Asp f proteins) participate in the development of allergic sensitization is unknown. Methodology/Principal Findings To determine whether Asp f proteins are strictly associated with TH2 responses, or represent soluble hyphal products recognized by healthy hosts, human T cell responses to crude and recombinant products were characterized by ELISPOT. While responses (number of spots producing IFN-?, IL-4 or IL-17) to crude hyphal antigen preparations were weak, responses to recombinant Asp f proteins were higher. Recombinant allergens stimulated cells to produce IFN-? more so than IL-4 or IL-17. Volunteers exhibited a diverse CD4+ and CD8+ T cell antigen recognition profile, with prominent CD4 TH1-responses to Asp f3 (a putative peroxismal membrane protein), Asp f9/16 (cell wall glucanase), Asp f11 (cyclophilin type peptidyl-prolyl isomerase) and Asp f22 (enolase). Strong IFN-? responses were reproduced in most subjects tested over 6 month intervals. Conclusions Products secreted after conidial germination into hyphae are differentially recognized by protective T cells in healthy, non-atopic individuals. Defining the specificity of the human T cell repertoire, and identifying factors that govern early responses may allow for development of novel diagnostics and therapeutics for both invasive and allergic Aspergillus diseases. PMID:20174463

Chaudhary, Neelkamal; Staab, Janet F.; Marr, Kieren A.

2010-01-01

338

Isolation and Characterization of Halotolerant Soil Fungi from the Great Salt Plains of Oklahoma  

PubMed Central

The Great Salt Plains (GSP) of Oklahoma is an inland terrestrial hypersaline environment where saturated brines leave evaporite crusts of NaCl. The current report examines the fungal community, complementing earlier reports on the bacterial and archaeal communities. Twenty-five fungal isolates from GSP soils were obtained on medium containing 10% NaCl and characterized. Based on 18S rRNA gene sequence analysis, all of the isolates fall within the Ascomycetes, with a predominance of Trichocomaceae, represented by Aspergillus, Eurotium, and Penicillium species. Representatives of Anthrinium, Cladosporium, Debaryomyces, Fusarium, and Ulocladium also were isolated. Overall the isolates were widely halotolerant, with best growth observed at lower salinities and no halophilism. The fungal genera observed were all cosmopolitan, without strong specialization. Taken together, these results support the conclusion that hypersaline environments do not have a characteristic community, in contrast to what was observed at the GSP for bacteria and archaea. PMID:25249710

EVANS, Sarah; HANSEN, Ryan W.; SCHNEEGURT, Mark A.

2014-01-01

339

How relevant are house dust mite-fungal interactions in laboratory culture to the natural dust system?  

PubMed

Both house dust and house dust mites Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus contained a wider range of fungi than laboratory mite cultures. In total, nine species of fungi were isolated from D. pteronyssinus in house dust, and these included three xerophilic species (Eurotium amstelodami, Aspergillus penicillioides and Wallemia sebi) commonly found in laboratory cultures of D. pteronyssinus. It is concluded that mites do interact with a similar range of fungi in natural dust and in laboratory culture, but that the diversity of fungal species in the laboratory is reduced and the density of individual fungal species in culture exceeds that of house dust. In a second experiment, dust samples were incubated at room temperature with 75% relative humidity. The diversity of fungi invariably declined from up to 13 genera to the few species recorded in laboratory culture. This suggests that the dominance of xerophilic fungi in laboratory mite rearings is mediated primarily by low relative humidity, and the exclusion of air-borne spores. PMID:1493747

Hay, D B; Hart, B J; Pearce, R B; Kozakiewicz, Z; Douglas, A E

1992-11-01

340

Isolation and Characterization of Halotolerant Soil Fungi from the Great Salt Plains of Oklahoma.  

PubMed

The Great Salt Plains (GSP) of Oklahoma is an inland terrestrial hypersaline environment where saturated brines leave evaporite crusts of NaCl. The current report examines the fungal community, complementing earlier reports on the bacterial and archaeal communities. Twenty-five fungal isolates from GSP soils were obtained on medium containing 10% NaCl and characterized. Based on 18S rRNA gene sequence analysis, all of the isolates fall within the Ascomycetes, with a predominance of Trichocomaceae, represented by Aspergillus, Eurotium, and Penicillium species. Representatives of Anthrinium, Cladosporium, Debaryomyces, Fusarium, and Ulocladium also were isolated. Overall the isolates were widely halotolerant, with best growth observed at lower salinities and no halophilism. The fungal genera observed were all cosmopolitan, without strong specialization. Taken together, these results support the conclusion that hypersaline environments do not have a characteristic community, in contrast to what was observed at the GSP for bacteria and archaea. PMID:25249710

Evans, Sarah; Hansen, Ryan W; Schneegurt, Mark A

2013-12-01

341

Anidulafungin in Combination with Amphotericin B against Aspergillus fumigatus?  

PubMed Central

We investigated the effects of anidulafungin alone and in combination with amphotericin B against Aspergillus fumigatus. Indifference was the only type of interaction observed in vitro. Anidulafungin at 1 and 5 mg/kg of body weight/day, amphotericin B at 1 mg/kg/day, and combination therapy prolonged the survival of mice with invasive aspergillosis. Anidulafungin at 5 mg/kg/day, alone and in combination with amphotericin B, reduced the kidney fungal burden. Overall, the combination was not superior to the most active single drug. PMID:19596890

Spreghini, Elisabetta; Orlando, Fiorenza; Santinelli, Alfredo; Pisa, Eleonora; Loretelli, Cristian; Manso, Esther; Milici, Maria Eleonara; Scalise, Giorgio; Barchiesi, Francesco

2009-01-01

342

New metabolites from the marine-derived fungus Aspergillus fumigatus.  

PubMed

A new alkaloid, fumiquinazoline K (1), and a new nordammarane triterpenoid (2), together with three known diketopiperazines (3-5) and tryptoquivaline F (6) have been isolated from a marine strain of Aspergillus fumigatus KMM 4 631 associated with the soft coral Sinularia sp. Their structures were determined by HR-MS and 1D and 2D NMR. Compounds 3-5 exhibit weak cytotoxicity against cytoplasm non-specific esterase in Ehrlich carcinoma cells. Compound 3 also induces early apoptosis of the same cells in a non-toxic range of concentrations. PMID:22574452

Afiyatullov, Shamil Sh; Zhuravleva, Olesya I; Antonov, Alexandr S; Kalinovsky, Anatoly I; Pivkin, Michail V; Menchinskaya, Ekaterina S; Aminin, Dmitry L

2012-04-01

343

Butyrolactone and cycloheptanetrione from mangrove-associated fungus Aspergillus terreus.  

PubMed

A new butyrolactone, 7?-hydroxybutyrolactone III (1) and three new cycloheptanetriones, terretrione A-C (2-4), together with five known compounds, butyrolactone I, cyclo(Leu-Pro), cyclo(Val-Pro), cyclo(Ile-Pro), cyclo(Phe-Pro), were isolated from mangrove-associated marine fungus Aspergillus terreus. The structures of these compounds were elucidated on the basis of physical data analysis (NMR, high resolution-electrospray ionization (HR-ESI)-MS), especially by 2D-NMR techniques. These compounds showed weak cytotoxicity in vitro against HCT-8, Bel-7402, BGC-823, A2780 cell lines. PMID:23124567

Shen, Yi; Zou, Jianhua; Xie, Dan; Ge, Hanlin; Cao, Xiuping; Dai, Jungui

2012-01-01

344

Production of extremophilic bacterial cellulase enzymes in aspergillus niger.  

SciTech Connect

Enzymes can be used to catalyze a myriad of chemical reactions and are a cornerstone in the biotechnology industry. Enzymes have a wide range of uses, ranging from medicine with the production of pharmaceuticals to energy were they are applied to biofuel production. However, it is difficult to produce large quantities of enzymes, especially if they are non-native to the production host. Fortunately, filamentous fungi, such as Aspergillus niger, are broadly used in industry and show great potential for use a heterologous enzyme production hosts. Here, we present work outlining an effort to engineer A. niger to produce thermophilic bacterial cellulases relevant to lignocellulosic biofuel production.

Gladden, John Michael

2013-09-01

345

Orbital tuberculosis with coexisting fungal (Aspergillus flavus) infection  

PubMed Central

Background: A coexisting invasive fungal and tubercular involvement of the skull base is a rare event. Co-infection has been reported with involvement of paranasal sinuses and middle ear cleft. Case Description: We herein report a case of an elderly male diabetic patient who presented with gradually progressive visual loss, which on imaging showed an orbital lesion. Surgical decompression and microbiological evaluation showed growth of Mycobacterium tuberculosis and Aspergillus flavus. Conclusion: Rare combinations of such infections do exist and should be treated aggressively to achieve good outcomes in a losing battle with fastidious organisms in the backdrop of compromised immunity. PMID:24778920

Reddy, Sunkara Srikanth; Penmmaiah, Devi Chendira; Rajesh, Alugolu; Patil, Madhusudan

2014-01-01

346

Characterization of two forms of glucoamylase from aspergillus niger  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aspergillus niger glucoamylases GI and GII (E.C. 3.2.1.3) were isolated from a commercial enzyme preparation by ammonium sulfate\\u000a precipitation followed by DEAE-cellulose ion exchange chromatography. Both enzymes consist of a single glycosylated polypeptide\\u000a chain. The molecular weights of GI and GII were determined by sedimentation equilibrium ultracentrifugation to 52,000 and\\u000a 46,000, respectively, and by molecular sieving to 65,000 and 55,000.

Birte Svensson; Torben Graves Svendsen; IB Svendsen; Takuo Sakai; Martin Ottesen

1982-01-01

347

Steady-state shear characteristics of Aspergillus niger broths  

SciTech Connect

It can be difficult to obtain reliable rheological data for filamentous fermentation broths using conventional instruments. One common approach is to measure the torque drawn by an impeller rotating in the suspension. Many previous workers have assumed that the applicable shear rate in such a device is related to the impeller speed by a fluid-independent constant determined by calibration with Newtonian and non-Newtonian fluids. The rheology of Aspergillus niger broths have been characterized using the impeller viscometer approach. The changes in the broth rheology were measured, and used to interpret the growth of biomass and the evolution of the microorganism morphology.

Svihla, C.K.; Dronawat, S.N.; Hanley, T.R. [Univ. of Louisville, KY (United States)

1995-12-31

348

Furandiones from an endophytic Aspergillus terreus residing in Malus halliana.  

PubMed

Two new furandiones named asperterone B (1) and C (2) together with four known metabolites (3-6) were isolated from the liquid culture of the endophytic fungus Aspergillus terreus MHL-P22 residing in the fresh leaves of Malus halliana. The structures of the new compounds were elucidated by analysis of their MS, IR, 1D- and 2D-NMR spectra. 1 and 2 showed moderate cytotoxic activities against human colorectal carcinoma SW1116 cells with IC(50) values of 57.5 and 71.0?µM, respectively. The biosynthetic pathway for 1, 2 and their analogues was also postulated and briefly discussed. PMID:22971827

Gu, Wen; Qiao, Chao

2012-01-01

349

?-1,3-glucan modifying enzymes in Aspergillus fumigatus  

PubMed Central

In Aspergillus fumigatus like in other filamentous ascomycetes, ?-1,3-glucan constitutes a prominent cell wall component being responsible for rigidity of the cell wall structure. In filamentous fungi, softening of the cell wall is absolutely required during conidial germination and hyphal branching. Because of the central structure of ?-1,3-glucans, it is expected that ?-1,3-glucanases play a major role in cell wall softening. Based on in silico and experimental data, this review gives an overview of ?-1,3-glucan modifying enzymes in A. fumigatus genome and their putative role during morphogenesis. PMID:23616783

Mouyna, Isabelle; Hartl, Lukas; Latgé, Jean-Paul

2013-01-01

350

Keratitis due to Aspergillus flavus successfully treated with thiabendazole.  

PubMed Central

A case of Aspergillus flavus keratitis treated successfully with 4% suspension of thiabendazole is reported. This seems to be the first case of successful treatment of keratomycosis with thiabendazole. All other reported cases treated with this drug either had their eyes removed or did not retain any useful vision. Its ability to penetrate ocular tissues, ability to remain in concentrations higher than the minimal inhibitory concentration of many fungi, and broad spectrum of activity make it a worthwhile drug for further investigation in keratomycosis. Images PMID:6766732

Upadhyay, M P; West, E P; Sharma, A P

1980-01-01

351

Effect of Carbon, Nitrogen Sources and Water Activity on Growth and Ochratoxin Production of Aspergillus carbonarius (Bainier) Thom  

PubMed Central

Background: Ochratoxin A (OTA) is a toxic secondary metabolite produced by fungi belonging to Aspergillus and Penicillium genera. The production of OTA is influenced by environmental conditions and nutritional requirements. The postharvest application of bunches of table grape fruit (TGF), with water activity of 0.8 aw, was highly effective for controlling OTA contamination in vitro and in vivo (table grape). Objectives: The aim of this study was to determine the influence of environmental conditions and nutritional requirements on growth and OTA production by Aspergillus carbonarius, as well as, the impact of water activity on OTA production and growth characters of A. carbonarius. Furthermore, we also examined the influence of the application of different levels of water activity (aw 0.8) on the preservation of the general appearance of TGF and control of their contamination with OTA. Materials and Methods: The growth and OTA production by A. carbonarius were studied using glucose-ammonium nitrate salt broth medium. Effect of water activity was studied using glycerol (0.80, 0.85, 0.90, and 0.98 aw). The bunches of table grape fruits were immersed in glycerol solution (equivalent to 0.80 aw) and placed as a double layer in cardboard boxes (25 × 35 × 10 cm). The boxes were stored at 20°C for 15 days to simulate local market conditions. Results: The maximum OTA production by A. carbonarius was observed on broth medium after eight days of incubation at 20°C, with pH 4, and fructose and ammonium nitrate supplementation as carbon and nitrogen sources, respectively. The water activity (0.9, 0.85 aw) caused significant decrease in OTA production by A. carbonarius. The postharvest application of water activity (0.8 aw) was highly effective for maintenance of the table grape quality, which was expressed as weight loss, firmness and decay, while it also controlled OTA contamination of fruits under concept of local market conditions. Conclusions: Our results reported that deterioration of TGF by A. carbonarius could be minimized by application of aw. Our experiments were performed under conditions of local markets, which support the economy of many thousands of families in Egypt, especially in the poor rural areas. In future adequate research is required to use these technologies commercially.

Hashem, Abeer; Fathi Abd-Allah, Elsayed; Sultan Al-Obeed, Rashid; Abdullah Alqarawi, Abdulaziz; Alwathnani, Hend Awad

2015-01-01

352

Inhibition of Aspergillus parasiticus and cancer cells by marine actinomycete strains  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ten actinomycete strains isolated from the Yellow Sea off China's coasts were identified as belonging to two genera by 16S rDNA phylogenetic analysis: Streptomyces and Nocardiopsis. Six Streptomyces strains (MA10, 2SHXF01-3, MA35, MA05-2, MA05-2-1 and MA08-1) and one Nocardiopsis strain (MA03) were predicted to have the potential to produce aromatic polyketides based on the analysis of the KS? (ketoacyl-synthase) gene in the type II PKS (polyketides synthase) gene cluster. Four strains (MA03, MA01, MA10 and MA05-2) exhibited significant inhibitory effects on mycelia growth (inhibition rate >50%) and subsequent aflatoxin production (inhibition rate >75%) of the mutant aflatoxigenic Aspergillus parasiticus NFRI-95. The ethyl acetate extracts of the broth of these four strains displayed significant inhibitory effects on mycelia growth, and the IC50 values were calculated (MA03: 0.275 mg mL-1, MA01: 0.106 mg mL-1, MA10: 1.345 mg mL-1 and MA05-2: 1.362 mg mL-1). Five strains (2SHXF01-3, MA03, MA05-2, MA01 and MA08-1) were selected based on their high cytotoxic activities. The ethyl acetate extract of the Nocardiopsis strain MA03 was particularly noted for its high antitumor activity against human carcinomas of the cervix (HeLa), lung (A549), kidney (Caki-1) and liver (HepG2) (IC50: 2.890, 1.981, 3.032 and 2.603 ?g mL-1, respectively). The extract also remarkably inhibited colony formation of HeLa cells at an extremely low concentration (0.5 ?g mL-1). This study highlights that marine-derived actinomycetes are a huge resource of compounds for the biological control of aflatoxin contamination and the development of novel drugs for human carcinomas.

Li, Ping; Yan, Peisheng

2014-12-01

353

Species identification and evolutionary inference of the genera Megalobrama and Parabramis (Cyprinidae: Cultrinae) in China.  

PubMed

Abstract The species boundaries and evolutionary relationships of two closely related genera, Megalobrama and Parabramis, were inferred from the partial mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase subunit I (COI) gene, NADH dehydrogenase subunit 2 (ND2) gene and their concatenated segment. Phylogenetic reconstructions showed that among the three breams, Megalobrama amblycephala and Megalobrama skolkovii are more closely related to each other than either is to Megalobrama terminalis. The taxonomy of M. pellegrini should be reconsidered. The divergence time estimation based on the assumption of a global molecular clock indicated that speciation and dispersal of the two genera might have occurred at approximately Pliocene to Late Pleistocene, due to major paleo-environmental events associated with monsoon evolution and the formation of the Three Gorges of the Yangtze River. PMID:24004309

Bai, X H; Guo, X W; Zhang, X J; Song, W; Li, Y H; Luo, W; Cao, X J; Wang, W M

2013-09-01

354

Elliptic genera of ALE and ALF manifolds from gauged linear sigma models  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We compute the equivariant elliptic genera of several classes of ALE and ALF manifolds using localization in gauged linear sigma models. In the sigma model computation the equivariant action corresponds to chemical potentials for U(1) currents and the elliptic genera exhibit interesting pole structure as a function of the chemical potentials. We use this to decompose the answers into polar terms that exhibit wall crossing and universal terms. We compare our results to previous results on the large radius limit of the Taub-NUT elliptic genus and also discuss applications of our results to counting of BPS world-sheet spectrum of monopole strings in the 5d super Yang-Mills theory and self-dual strings in the 6d theories.

Harvey, Jeffrey A.; Lee, Sungjay; Murthy, Sameer

2015-02-01

355

Elliptic genera of ALE and ALF manifolds from gauged linear sigma models  

E-print Network

We compute the equivariant elliptic genera of several classes of ALE and ALF manifolds using localization in gauged linear sigma models. In the sigma model computation the equivariant action corresponds to chemical potentials for U(1) currents and the elliptic genera exhibit interesting pole structure as a function of the chemical potentials. We use this to decompose the answers into polar terms that exhibit wall crossing and universal terms. We compare our results to previous results on the large radius limit of the Taub-NUT elliptic genus and also discuss applications of our results to counting of BPS world-sheet spectrum of monopole strings in the 5d N=2 super Yang-Mills theory and self-dual strings in the 6d N=(2,0) theories.

Harvey, Jeffrey A; Murthy, Sameer

2014-01-01

356

Elliptic genera of ALE and ALF manifolds from gauged linear sigma models  

E-print Network

We compute the equivariant elliptic genera of several classes of ALE and ALF manifolds using localization in gauged linear sigma models. In the sigma model computation the equivariant action corresponds to chemical potentials for U(1) currents and the elliptic genera exhibit interesting pole structure as a function of the chemical potentials. We use this to decompose the answers into polar terms that exhibit wall crossing and universal terms. We compare our results to previous results on the large radius limit of the Taub-NUT elliptic genus and also discuss applications of our results to counting of BPS world-sheet spectrum of monopole strings in the 5d N=2 super Yang-Mills theory and self-dual strings in the 6d N=(2,0) theories.

Jeffrey A. Harvey; Sungjay Lee; Sameer Murthy

2014-06-24

357

The freshwater snails (Gastropoda) of Iran, with descriptions of two new genera and eight new species  

PubMed Central

Abstract Using published records and original data from recent field work and revision of Iranian material of certain species deposited in the collections of the Natural History Museum Basel, the Zoological Museum Berlin, and Natural History Museum Vienna, a checklist of the freshwater gastropod fauna of Iran was compiled. This checklist contains 73 species from 34 genera and 14 families of freshwater snails; 27 of these species (37%) are endemic to Iran. Two new genera, Kaskakia and Sarkhia, and eight species, i.e., Bithynia forcarti, Bithynia starmuehlneri, Bithynia mazandaranensis, Pseudamnicola georgievi, Kaskakia khorrasanensis, Sarkhia sarabensis, Valvata nowsharensis and Acroloxus pseudolacustris are described as new to science; Ecrobia grimmi (Clessin & Dybowski, 1888), Heleobia dalmatica (Radoman, 1974) and Hippeutis complanatus (Linnaeus, 1758) are reported for the first time from Iran. Additional field work is highly desirable for a more appropriate evaluation of the extant freshwater snail biodiversity in Iran. PMID:22977349

Glöer, Peter; Peši?, Vladimir

2012-01-01

358

On Pulchritia new genus, with a reappraisal of the genera of Trichotriidae (Rotifera, Monogononta)  

PubMed Central

Abstract During the study of rotifers collected in Eastern DR Congo, we rediscovered specimens that correspond to Monostyla dorsicornuta Van Oye, 1926. This species, which we redescribe, had not been seen since it’s summary description, and lacked type material. Our analysis reveals that the animal belongs to Trichotriidae rather than to Lecane (presently considered to include Monostyla) or Lecanidae, but is nevertheless characterised by a foot structure that is remarkably convergent to that of Lecanidae, and different from all other genera of Trichotriidae. We conclude that the species and the closely related South American Macrochaetus kostei (José de Paggi, Branco & Kozlowsky-Suzuki, 2000) belong to a new genus of Trichotriidae; the two offer a rare example of African-South American vicariance in rotifers.We further provide emended diagnoses of the remaining genera of Trichotriidae, to conform these to the new information and to address some inconsistencies in these. PMID:24194651

Luo, Yongting; Segers, Hendrik

2013-01-01

359

A plastid gene phylogeny of the non-photosynthetic parasitic Orobanche (Orobanchaceae) and related genera  

Microsoft Academic Search

The phylogenetic relationships of the non-photosynthetic Orobanche sensu lato (Orobanchaceae), which includes some of the economically most important parasitic weeds, remain insufficiently\\u000a understood and controversial. This concerns both the phylogenetic relationships within the genus, in particular its monophyly\\u000a or lack thereof, and the relationships to other holoparasitic genera such as Cistanche or Conopholis. Here we present the first comprehensive phylogenetic

Jeong-Mi Park; Jean-François Manen; Alison E. Colwell; Gerald M. Schneeweiss

2008-01-01

360

At Least 23 Genera Instead of One: The Case of Iris L. s.l. (Iridaceae)  

PubMed Central

Background Iris L. s.l. is one of the most diverse and well-known genera in the Asparagales, with approximately 250–300 circumscribed species and significant economic impact. The taxonomy of the genus has suffered dramatic changes in the last century, particularly in the last decades after the application of molecular techniques. As a result several contrasting systematic arrangements are currently available to taxonomists. Many genera that were split from Iris s.str. in the past, on the basis of morphology (e.g., Hermodactylus, Iridodictyum, Juno, Pardanthopsis, and Xiphion, among others), are now a priori re-included in a very widely circumscribed Iris s.l. (incl. Belamcanda). This resulted in a more heterogeneous genus that is more difficult to define on morphological grounds. Testing congruence between taxonomic treatments and the results of recent molecular studies of Iris has never been performed, mostly due to the lack of proper taxonomic context. Results We generated several conventional phylogenies for Iris & outgroups using extensive sampling of taxa (187) and characters (10 plastid loci). We demonstrate that the natural history of Iris, written either as conventional molecular phylogenies or, if viewing in the context of the comparative approach, as a nested most parsimonious hierarchy of patterns, appear to be fully congruent with the narrow taxonomical treatment of the genus, restricted to the rhizomatous “bearded” taxa. The resulting topologies place Belamcanda, Pardanthopsis, and Gattenhofia as sisters to Iris s.str. and genus Siphonostylis as sister to Iris s.l. Conclusion The present study clearly justifies the splitting of Iris s.l. into at least 23 genera, 18 of which have already been accepted in the past by numerous authorities. These genera are characterized by unique combinations of partly overlapping morphological characters and biogeography. Moreover, nearly the same entities, which we here recognize at a generic rank, were for centuries frequently referred to by horticulturists as “working-name” groups. PMID:25170935

Mavrodiev, Evgeny V.; Martínez-Azorín, Mario; Dranishnikov, Peter; Crespo, Manuel B.

2014-01-01

361

Palynological study of the genera Ruellia, Ecbolium, Asystasia, Blepharis and Dicliptera (Acanthaceae) of Yemen  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Pollen morphology of five genera of the family Acanthaceae, namely Ruellia, Blepharis, Asystasia, Ecbolium and Dicliptera (Acanthaceae) of Yemen has been examined using light and scanning electron microscope. Pollen descriptions were provided with two shapes distinguished, spheroidal and prolate. Most of the pollen grains were tricolporate amd psuedocolpi except those of Blepharis which are colpate. The surface is coarsely reticulate, in addition to the lumina that varies in size.

Al-Hakimi, S. Anisa; Maideen, Haja; Latiff, A.

2013-11-01

362

Leaf surface flavonoids in Iranian species of Nepeta (Lamiaceae) and some related genera  

Microsoft Academic Search

A HPLC survey of the leaf surface flavonoids of 38 species of Nepeta (Lamiaceae) and four species of the related genera Agastache, Dracocephalum and Lallemantia revealed 14 different flavones, one of which is new (8-hydroxycirsiliol or 5,8,3?,4?-tetrahydroxy-6,7-dimethoxyflavone). In addition, two flavonols (methyl ethers of kaempferol) were found in Dracocephalum kotschyii. The most frequently encountered flavones in Nepeta were cirsimaritin (5,4?-dihydroxy-6,7-dimethoxyflavone);

Ziba Jamzad; Renée J. Grayer; Geoffrey C. Kite; Monique S. J. Simmonds; Martin Ingrouille; Adel Jalili

2003-01-01

363

Purines, pyrimidines and amino acids as carbon or nitrogen source in different genera of bacteria  

E-print Network

t and Bacillus were tested for their ability to utilize purine and pyrimidine compounds as carbon and/or nitrogen sources. Uracil auxotrophs of Salmonella, Enterobacter, and Bacillus were examined for possible effects of pyrimidine auxotrophy on the catabolism..., and partially in Bacillus and Pseudrsmonas species (Fig. 1-4) Using the established pathways for purine and pyrimidine catabolism (Fig. 2-3) for comparison one may investigate other genera of microorganisms for similar pathways in the degradation of purine...

Atkinson, Margaret Elizabeth Naquin

1973-01-01

364

Palynological study of the genera Ruellia, Ecbolium, Asystasia, Blepharis and Dicliptera (Acanthaceae) of Yemen  

SciTech Connect

Pollen morphology of five genera of the family Acanthaceae, namely Ruellia, Blepharis, Asystasia, Ecbolium and Dicliptera (Acanthaceae) of Yemen has been examined using light and scanning electron microscope. Pollen descriptions were provided with two shapes distinguished, spheroidal and prolate. Most of the pollen grains were tricolporate amd psuedocolpi except those of Blepharis which are colpate. The surface is coarsely reticulate, in addition to the lumina that varies in size.

Al-Hakimi, S. Anisa [School of Environmental and Natural Resource Sciences, Faculty of Science and Technology, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, 43600, Bangi, Selangor, Malaysia and Biology Department, Faculty of Science, Taiz University, Taiz (Yemen); Maideen, Haja; Latiff, A. [School of Environmental and Natural Resource Sciences, Faculty of Science and Technology, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, 43600, Bangi, Selangor (Malaysia)

2013-11-27

365

The Phylogeny of the Genus Clostridium: Proposal of Five New Genera and Eleven New Species Combinations  

Microsoft Academic Search

The 16s rRNA gene sequences of 34 named and unnamed clostridial strains were determined by PCR direct sequencing and were compared with more than 80 previously determined clostridial sequences and the previously published sequences of representative species of other low- G+C-content gram-positive genera, thereby providing an almost complete picture of the genealogical interrelationships of the clostridia. The results of our

M. D. COLLINS; P. A. LAWSON; A. WILLEMS; J. J. CORDOBA; J. FERNANDEZ-GARAYZABAL; P. GARCIA; J. CAI; H. HIPPE; J. A. E. FARROW

1994-01-01

366

Trichome morphology of eleven genera of the tribe Alysseae (Brassicaceae) occurring in Bulgaria  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ancev, M. & Goranova, V.: Trichome morphology of eleven genera of the tribe Alysseae (Bras- sicaceae) occurring in Bulgaria. - Willdenowia 36 (Special Issue): 193-204. - ISSN 0511-9618; © 2006 BGBM Berlin-Dahlem. doi:10.3372\\/wi.36.36116 (available via http:\\/\\/dx.doi.org\\/) The leaf and silicule trichomes of 18 species of Alysseae were studied by scanning electron and light microscopy. Four trichome types are distinguished: (1)

M. Ancev; VALENTINA GORANOVA

2006-01-01

367

Comparative pharmacognostic evaluation of some species of the genera Suaeda and Salsola leaf (Chenopodiaceae).  

PubMed

The genera Suaeda and Salsola are halophytic plants belong to the family Chenopodiaceae. Species of these genera have been extensively used in traditional medicines against many diseases due to their various bioactive compounds such as carotenoids, vitamins, sterol, phenolic compounds etc. The present research was carried out to establish detailed pharmacognosy of Suaeda fruticosa, Suaeda monoica, Salsola imbricata and Salsola tragus, which included macroscopy, microscopy, physico-chemical parameters and qualitative phytochemical screening of leaf samples extracted with methanol and chloroform. It was observed that macroscopic and microscopic characteristics were diagnostic features and can be used for distinction and identification of these closely related plant species. Phytochemically, these plant species are rich in constituents like anthraquinones, alkaloids, carbohydrates, cardiac glycosides, flavonoids, saponins, phenolic compounds and terpenoids. Physico-chemical parameters revealed that in all investigated plant species; methanol extractive values were higher than that of chloroform. Moreover, total ash values were found to be higher than other acid insoluble and water-soluble ash values, while a considerable amount of moisture was present in the species of both genera. On the basis of pharmacognosy, species of Suaeda were found to be more promising than Salsola. Present investigation will contribute towards establishment of pharmacognostic profile of these medicinally effective plants species. PMID:25176385

Munir, Uzma; Perveen, Anjum; Qamarunnisa, Syeda

2014-09-01

368

Jurassic-Early Cretaceous Gondwanan homoxylous woods: a nomenclatural revision of the genera with taxonomic notes.  

PubMed

The homoxylous fossil woods occurring in the Gondwanan continents of South America, Australia, Africa, India and Antarctica during the Jurassic and Early Cretaceous period are considered here. Original descriptions of the genera and wherever possible, the type material, have been consulted. Applying the rules of the International Code of Botanical Nomenclature, the generic names of the homoxylous woods have been revised from a nomenclatural point of view. According to this review, out of 31 generic names used for woods from the given time interval and area, 6 are illegitimate later nomenclatural synonyms, 1 is a later homonym, and 5 can be considered as taxonomical synonyms. Moreover, 9 genera have been used erroneously. We propose one new generic name (Protaxodioxylon n. gen.) and elsewhere we will propose for conservation, with a conserved type one of the illegitimate names and one of the taxonomic synonyms. As a result, we consider that there are only eighteen generic names correctly quoted for the Jurassic-Early Cretaceous of Gondwana, and we provide a taxonomic key for the corresponding genera. This revision is the first step in systematically comparing northern and southern hemisphere woods. PMID:11179718

Bamford, M K.; Philippe, M

2001-04-01

369

Review of the genera Anelaphinis Kolbe, 1892 and Atrichelaphinis Kraatz, 1898 (Coleoptera, Scarabaeidae, Cetoniinae).  

PubMed

New material collected recently throughout the Afrotropical region has led to a major reassessment of taxa within the genera Anelaphinis Kolbe, 1892, Atrichelaphinis Kraatz, 1898 and other closely related genera. As a result, the name Megalleucosma Antoine, 1989 is here synonymised with Anelaphinis and a lectotype is designated for the type species, Cetoniadominula Harold, 1879. The genus Atrichelaphinis is redefined and a new subgenus, Atrichelaphinis (Eugeaphinis), is proposed for Elaphinissimillima Ancey, 1883, Elaphinisvermiculata Fairmaire, 1894, Niphetophorarhodesiana Péringuey, 1907, Atrichelaphinisdeplanata Moser, 1907 (with Anelaphiniskwangensis Burgeon, 1931 as junior synonym) and Anelaphinissternalis Moser, 1914. Additionally, three new species and one new subspecies are recognised and described in this new subgenus: Atrichelaphinis (Eugeaphinis) bomboesbergicasp. n. from South Africa; Atrichelaphinis (Eugeaphinis) bjornstadisp. n. from Tanzania; Atrichelaphinis (Eugeaphinis) garnierisp. n. from south-east Africa (Tanzania, Zimbabwe); and Atrichelaphinis (Eugeaphinis) deplanataminettiissp. n. from central Africa (Malawi, Mozambique, Congo-Kinshasa, Congo-Brazzaville, South Africa, Rwanda, Zambia, Zimbabwe). The genus Atrichelaphinis is compared to its closest relatives and two separate keys are proposed, one for Atrichelaphinis and one for the sub-Saharan genera exhibiting completely or partially fused parameres. PMID:25709532

Rojkoff, Sébastien; Perissinotto, Renzo

2015-01-01

370

Review of the genera Anelaphinis Kolbe, 1892 and Atrichelaphinis Kraatz, 1898 (Coleoptera, Scarabaeidae, Cetoniinae)  

PubMed Central

Abstract New material collected recently throughout the Afrotropical region has led to a major reassessment of taxa within the genera Anelaphinis Kolbe, 1892, Atrichelaphinis Kraatz, 1898 and other closely related genera. As a result, the name Megalleucosma Antoine, 1989 is here synonymised with Anelaphinis and a lectotype is designated for the type species, Cetonia dominula Harold, 1879. The genus Atrichelaphinis is redefined and a new subgenus, Atrichelaphinis (Eugeaphinis), is proposed for Elaphinis simillima Ancey, 1883, Elaphinis vermiculata Fairmaire, 1894, Niphetophora rhodesiana Péringuey, 1907, Atrichelaphinis deplanata Moser, 1907 (with Anelaphinis kwangensis Burgeon, 1931 as junior synonym) and Anelaphinis sternalis Moser, 1914. Additionally, three new species and one new subspecies are recognised and described in this new subgenus: Atrichelaphinis (Eugeaphinis) bomboesbergica sp. n. from South Africa; Atrichelaphinis (Eugeaphinis) bjornstadi sp. n. from Tanzania; Atrichelaphinis (Eugeaphinis) garnieri sp. n. from south–east Africa (Tanzania, Zimbabwe); and Atrichelaphinis (Eugeaphinis) deplanata minettii ssp. n. from central Africa (Malawi, Mozambique, Congo-Kinshasa, Congo-Brazzaville, South Africa, Rwanda, Zambia, Zimbabwe). The genus Atrichelaphinis is compared to its closest relatives and two separate keys are proposed, one for Atrichelaphinis and one for the sub-Saharan genera exhibiting completely or partially fused parameres. PMID:25709532

Rojkoff, Sébastien; Perissinotto, Renzo

2015-01-01

371

Structural rearrangements, including parallel inversions, within the chloroplast genome of Anemone and related genera.  

PubMed

Chloroplast DNA cleavage sites for 10 restriction enzymes were mapped for 46 species representing all sections of Anemone, four closely related genera (Clematis, Pulsatilla, Hepatica, and Knowltonia), and three more distantly related outgroups (Caltha, Ranunculus, and Adonis). Comparison of the maps revealed that the chloroplast genomes of Anemone and related genera have sustained an unusual number and variety of rearrangements. A single inversion of a 42-kb segment was found in the large single-copy region of Adonis aestivalis. Two types of rearrangements were found in the chloroplast genome of Clematis, Anemone, Pulsatilla, Hepatica, and Knowltonia: An approximately 4-kb expansion of the inverted repeat and four inversions within the large single-copy region. These rearrangements support the monophyletic status of these genera, clearly separating them from Caltha, Ranunculus, and Adonis. Two further inversions were found in two Clematis species and three Anemone species. While appearing to support a monophyletic grouping for these taxa, these two inversions conflict with data from both chloroplast restriction sites and morphology and are better interpreted as having occurred twice independently. These are the first two documented cases of homoplastic inversions in chloroplast DNA. Finally, the second intron of the chloroplast rps 12 gene was shown to have been lost in the common ancestor of the same three Anemone species that feature the two homoplastic inversions. PMID:8006994

Hoot, S B; Palmer, J D

1994-03-01

372

Phylogenetic relationships between Bacillus species and related genera inferred from 16s rDNA sequences  

PubMed Central

Neighbor-joining, maximum-parsimony, minimum-evolution, maximum-likelihood and Bayesian trees constructed based on 16S rDNA sequences of 181 type strains of Bacillus species and related taxa manifested nine phylogenetic groups. The phylogenetic analysis showed that Bacillus was not a monophyletic group. B. subtilis was in Group 1. Group 4, 6 and 8 respectively consisted of thermophiles, halophilic or halotolerant bacilli and alkaliphilic bacilli. Group 2, 4 and 8 consisting of Bacillus species and related genera demonstrated that the current taxonomic system did not agree well with the 16S rDNA evolutionary trees. The position of Caryophanaceae and Planococcaceae in Group 2 suggested that they might be transferred into Bacillaceae, and the heterogeneity of Group 2 implied that some Bacillus species in it might belong to several new genera. Group 9 was mainly comprised of the genera (excluding Bacillus) of Bacillaceae, so some Bacillus species in Group 9: B. salarius, B. qingdaonensis and B. thermcloacae might not belong to Bacillus. Four Bacillus species, B. schlegelii, B. tusciae, B. edaphicus and B. mucilaginosus were clearly placed outside the nine groups. PMID:24031394

Wei Wang, Mi Sun

2009-01-01

373

Identification of fungi of the genus Aspergillus section nigri using polyphasic taxonomy  

PubMed Central

In spite of the taxonomy of the Aspergillus species of the Nigri Section being regarded as troublesome, a number of methods have been proposed to aid in the classification of this Section. This work aimed to distinguish Aspergillus species of the Nigri Section from foods, grains and caves on the basis in Polyphasic Taxonomy by utilizing morphologic and physiologic characters, and sequencing of ß-tubulin and calmodulin genes. The morphologic identification proved useful for some species, such as A. carbonarius and Aspergillus sp UFLA DCA 01, despite not having been totally effective in elucidating species related to A. niger. The isolation of the species of the Nigri Section on Creatine Sucrose Agar (CREA) enabled to distinguish the Aspergillus sp species, which was characterized by the lack of sporulation and by the production of sclerotia. Scanning Electron microscopy (SEM) allowed distinguishing the species into two distinct groups. The production of Ochratoxin A (OTA) was only found in the A. carbonarius and A. niger species. The sequencing of ?-tubulin gene was efficient in differing most of the Aspergillus species from the Nigri Section with the exception of Aspergillus UFLA DCA 01, which could not be distinguished from A. costaricaensis. This species is morphologically similar to A. costaricaencis for its low sporulation capacity and high sclerotia production, but it differs morphologically from A. costaricaensis for its conidial ornamentation and size of vesicles. Equally, based on partial calmodulin gene sequence data Aspergillus UFLA DCA 01 differs from A. costaricaensis. PMID:24031691

Silva, Daiani M.; Batista, Luís R.; Rezende, Elisângela F.; Fungaro, Maria Helena P.; Sartori, Daniele; Alves, Eduardo

2011-01-01

374

Environmental investigations and molecular typing of Aspergillus in a Chinese hospital.  

PubMed

Invasive fungal infections due to Aspergillus species have become a major cause of morbidity and mortality among immunocompromised patients. In order to determine the possible relationship between environmental contamination by Aspergillus and the occurrence of invasive aspergillosis, a 1-year prospective study was carried out in a tertiary hospital in China. Air, surface, and tap water sampling was performed twice monthly at the bone marrow transplant (BMT) department, intensive care unit (ICU), neurosurgery intensive care unit (NICU), and outdoors. Nose, pharynx, and sputum samples were collected from high-risk patients. Isolates of Aspergillus from the environment and patients were genotyped by random amplification of polymorphic DNA (RAPD) assay to investigate the origin of infection. Mean total Aspergillus count was 7.73, 8.94, 13.19, and 17.32 cfu/m(3) in the BMT department, ICU, NICU, and outdoors, respectively. RAPD analysis by R108 primer demonstrated that strains isolated from patients in NICU were identical to the environmental strain. Strains isolated from patients in ICU differed from the environmental strain. Aspergillus contamination was found in the BTM department, NICU, and ICU. Clinical and environmental strains from NICU had identical genotypes. These findings suggest that Aspergillus is found in the hospital environment including the air, surface, and tap water. The genotypes of Aspergillus were identical from patients and the environment, suggesting that clinical infection may originate from the hospital environment. PMID:24442359

Ao, Jun-hong; Hao, Zhen-feng; Zhu, He; Wen, Liang; Yang, Rong-ya

2014-02-01

375

Characterization of a novel lipolytic enzyme from Aspergillus oryzae.  

PubMed

In this study, we report the characterization of a protein from Aspergillus oryzae, exhibiting sequence identity with paraben esterase from the genus Aspergillus. The coding region of 1,586 bp, including a 77-bp intron, encoded a protein of 502 amino acids. The gene without the signal peptide of 19 amino acids was cloned into a vector, pPICZ?C, and expressed successfully in Pichia pastoris as an active extracellular protein. The purified recombinant protein had pH and temperature optima of 7.0-8.0 and 30 °C, respectively, and was stable at the pH range of 7.0-10.0 and up to 40 °C. The optimal substrate for hydrolysis by the purified recombinant protein, among a panel of ?-naphthyl esters (C2-C16), was ?-naphthyl butyrate (C4), with activity of 0.16 units/mg protein. The considerable hydrolytic activity of the purified recombinant enzyme toward tributyrin was determined. However, no paraben esterase activity was detected toward the ethyl, propyl, and butyl esters of 4-hydroxybenzoic acid. In addition, no activity was detected toward the methyl esters of ferulic, p-coumaric, caffeic, and sinapic acids that would indicate feruloyl esterase activity. PMID:23001008

Koseki, Takuya; Asai, Shungo; Saito, Natsumi; Mori, Masayo; Sakaguchi, Yasuko; Ikeda, Kazutaka; Shiono, Yoshihito

2013-06-01

376

Targeting zinc homeostasis to combat Aspergillus fumigatus infections  

PubMed Central

Aspergillus fumigatus is able to invade and grow in the lungs of immunosuppressed individuals and causes invasive pulmonary aspergillosis. The concentration of free zinc in living tissues is much lower than that required for optimal fungal growth in vitro because most of it is tightly bound to proteins. To obtain efficiently zinc from a living host A. fumigatus uses the zinc transporters ZrfA, ZrfB, and ZrfC. The ZafA transcriptional regulator induces the expression of all these transporters and is essential for virulence. Thus, ZafA could be targeted therapeutically to inhibit fungal growth. The ZrfC transporter plays the major role in zinc acquisition from the host whereas ZrfA and ZrfB rather have a supplementary role to that of ZrfC. In addition, only ZrfC enables A. fumigatus to overcome the inhibitory effect of calprotectin, which is an antimicrobial Zn/Mn-chelating protein synthesized and released by neutrophils within the fungal abscesses of immunosuppressed non-leucopenic animals. Hence, fungal survival in these animals would be undermined upon blocking therapeutically the function of ZrfC. Therefore, both ZafA and ZrfC have emerged as promising targets for the discovery of new antifungals to treat Aspergillus infections.

Vicentefranqueira, Rocío; Amich, Jorge; Laskaris, Paris; Ibrahim-Granet, Oumaima; Latgé, Jean P.; Toledo, Héctor; Leal, Fernando; Calera, José A.

2015-01-01

377

Targeting zinc homeostasis to combat Aspergillus fumigatus infections.  

PubMed

Aspergillus fumigatus is able to invade and grow in the lungs of immunosuppressed individuals and causes invasive pulmonary aspergillosis. The concentration of free zinc in living tissues is much lower than that required for optimal fungal growth in vitro because most of it is tightly bound to proteins. To obtain efficiently zinc from a living host A. fumigatus uses the zinc transporters ZrfA, ZrfB, and ZrfC. The ZafA transcriptional regulator induces the expression of all these transporters and is essential for virulence. Thus, ZafA could be targeted therapeutically to inhibit fungal growth. The ZrfC transporter plays the major role in zinc acquisition from the host whereas ZrfA and ZrfB rather have a supplementary role to that of ZrfC. In addition, only ZrfC enables A. fumigatus to overcome the inhibitory effect of calprotectin, which is an antimicrobial Zn/Mn-chelating protein synthesized and released by neutrophils within the fungal abscesses of immunosuppressed non-leucopenic animals. Hence, fungal survival in these animals would be undermined upon blocking therapeutically the function of ZrfC. Therefore, both ZafA and ZrfC have emerged as promising targets for the discovery of new antifungals to treat Aspergillus infections. PMID:25774155

Vicentefranqueira, Rocío; Amich, Jorge; Laskaris, Paris; Ibrahim-Granet, Oumaima; Latgé, Jean P; Toledo, Héctor; Leal, Fernando; Calera, José A

2015-01-01

378

Characterization of two amine oxidases from Aspergillus carbonarius AIU 205.  

PubMed

We have reported that Aspergillus carbonarius AIU 205, which was isolated by our group, produced three enzymes exhibiting oxidase activity for 4-aminobutanamide (4-ABAD) (J. Biosci. Bioeng., 117, 263-268 (2014)). Among three enzymes, characteristics of enzyme I have been revealed, but those of the other two enzymes have not. In this study, we purified enzymes II and III, and compared their characteristics with those of enzyme I. Enzymes II and III also oxidized aliphatic monoamines, aromatic amines, and aliphatic aminoalcohols. In addition, the oxidase activity of both enzymes was strongly inhibited by carbonyl reagents and specific inhibitors for copper-containing amine oxidases. Thus, enzymes II and III were also classified into the copper-containing amine oxidase group (EC 1.4.3.6) along with enzyme I. However, these three enzymes differed from each other in their enzymatic, kinetic, and physicochemical properties. The N-terminal amino acid sequences also differed from each other; that of enzyme I was modified, that of enzyme II was similar to those of peroxisomal copper-containing amine oxidases, and that of enzyme III was similar to those of copper-containing amine oxidases from the genus Aspergillus. Therefore, we concluded that A. carbonarius AIU 205 produced three different types of amine oxidase in the mycelia. PMID:25468423

Sugawara, Asami; Matsui, Daisuke; Yamada, Miwa; Asano, Yasuhisa; Isobe, Kimiyasu

2014-11-22

379

Enhanced pulmonary allergic responses to Aspergillus in CCR2-/- mice.  

PubMed

Allergic responses to Aspergillus species exacerbate asthma and cystic fibrosis. The natural defense against live Aspergillus fumigatus spores or conidia depends on the recruitment and activation of mononuclear and polymorphonuclear leukocytes, events that are dependent on chemotactic cytokines. In this study, we explored the relative contribution of the monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 receptor, CCR2, in the pulmonary response to A. fumigatus conidia. Following sensitization to soluble A. fumigatus Ags, mice lacking CCR2 due to targeted deletion were markedly more susceptible to the injurious effects of an intrapulmonary challenge with live conidia compared with mice that expressed CCR2 or CCR2+/+. CCR2-/- mice exhibited a major defect in the recruitment of polymorphonuclear cells, but these mice also had significantly more eosinophils and lymphocytes in bronchoalveolar lavage samples. CCR2-/- mice also had significant increases in serum levels of total IgE and whole lung levels of IL-5, IL-13, eotaxin, and RANTES compared with CCR2+/+ mice. Airway inflammation, hyper-responsiveness to spasmogens, and subepithelial fibrosis were significantly enhanced in CCR2-/- mice compared with CCR2+/+ mice after the conidia challenge. Thus, these findings demonstrate that CCR2 plays an important role in the immune response against A. fumigatus, thereby limiting the allergic airway inflammatory and remodeling responses to this fungus. PMID:10946288

Blease, K; Mehrad, B; Standiford, T J; Lukacs, N W; Gosling, J; Boring, L; Charo, I F; Kunkel, S L; Hogaboam, C M

2000-09-01

380

Cytokines in host defense against Aspergillus: recent advances.  

PubMed

Many aspects of antimicrobial host responses are orchestrated by a complex network of cytokines and their receptors. This review focuses on recent progress in our understanding of the function of cytokines in innate immune responses to Aspergillus. TNF, a recognition cytokine, has been shown to be required for initiation of the innate response in the mouse model of invasive aspergillosis. Several recruitment cytokines play critical roles in mediating influx of specific leukocytes to the site of infection in invasive aspergillosis. Among these, the ELR + subset of CXC chemokines and their receptor CXCR2 are critical to neutrophil recruitment, while CCL3/macrophage inflammatory protein (MIP)-1alpha and CCL2/ monocyte chemoattractant protein (MCP)-1 are critical to recruitment of monocyte-lineage leukocytes and NK cells, respectively. Of the activation cytokines, those associated with the Th-1 phenotype, including interleukin (IL)-12, IL-18, and interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma), are critical to protective responses to the infection. Conversely, the Th2-phenotype cytokines IL-4 and IL-10 contribute to progression of infection. Modulation of the immune response to Aspergillus by manipulating these mediators remains intriguing as a potential adjunctive treatment in patients with invasive aspergillosis. PMID:16110808

Phadke, A P; Mehrad, B

2005-05-01

381

The Antifungal Protein from Aspergillus giganteus Causes Membrane Permeabilization  

PubMed Central

We investigated the inhibitory effects of the antifungal protein (AFP) from Aspergillus giganteus on the growth of several filamentous fungi. For this purpose, the MICs of AFP were determined and ranged from 0.1 ?g/ml for Fusarium oxysporum to 200 ?g/ml for Aspergillus nidulans. The antifungal activity of AFP was diminished in the presence of cations. We were able to show that incubation of AFP-sensitive fungi with the protein resulted in membrane permeabilization using an assay based on the uptake of the fluorescent dye SYTOX Green. No permeabilization by AFP could be detected at concentrations below the species-specific MIC. Furthermore, AFP-induced permeabilization could readily be detected after 5 min of incubation. Localization experiments with fluorescein isothiocyanate-labeled AFP and immunofluorescence staining with an AFP-specific antibody supported the observation that the protein interacts with membranes. After treatment of AFP-sensitive fungi with AFP, the protein was localized at the plasma membrane, whereas it was mainly detected inside the cells of AFP-resistant fungi. We conclude from these data that the growth-inhibitory effect of AFP is caused by permeabilization of the fungal membranes. PMID:12543664

Theis, T.; Wedde, M.; Meyer, V.; Stahl, U.

2003-01-01

382

Testing an innovative device against airborne Aspergillus contamination.  

PubMed

Aspergillus fumigatus is a major airborne nosocomial pathogen that is responsible for severe mycosis in immunocompromised patients. We studied the efficacy of an innovative mobile air-treatment device in eliminating A. fumigatus from the air following experimental massive contamination in a high-security room. Viable mycological particles were isolated from sequential air samples in order to evaluate the device's effectiveness in removing the fungus. The concentration of airborne conidia was reduced by 95% in 18 min. Contamination was reduced below the detection threshold in 29 min, even when the machine was at the lowest airflow setting. In contrast, during spontaneous settling with no air treatment, conidia remained airborne for more than 1 h. This indoor air contamination model provided consistent and reproducible results. Because the air purifier proved to be effective at eliminating a major contaminant, it may prove useful in preventing air-transmitted disease agents. In an experimental space mimicking a hospital room, the AirLyse air purifier, which uses a combination of germicidal ultraviolet C irradiation and titanium photocatalysis, effectively eliminated Aspergillus conidia. Such a mobile device may be useful in routine practice for lowering microbiological air contamination in the rooms of patients at risk. PMID:24965945

Desoubeaux, Guillaume; Bernard, Marie-Charlotte; Gros, Valérie; Sarradin, Pierre; Perrodeau, Elodie; Vecellio, Laurent; Piscopo, Antoine; Chandenier, Jacques; Bernard, Louis

2014-08-01

383

Update on antifungal resistance in Aspergillus and Candida.  

PubMed

Antifungal resistance in Candida and Aspergillus may be either intrinsic or acquired and may be encountered in the antifungal drug exposed but also the antifungal drug-naďve patient. Prior antifungal treatment confers a selection pressure and notoriously raises the awareness of possible resistance in patients failing therapy, thus calling for susceptibility testing. On the contrary, antifungal resistance in the drug-naďve patient is less expected and therefore more challenging. This is particularly true when it concerns pathogens with acquired resistance which cannot be predicted from the species identification itself. This scenario is particularly relevant for A. fumigatus infections due to the increasing prevalence of azole-resistant isolates in the environment. For Candida, infections resistance is most common in the context of increasing prevalence of species with intrinsic resistance. Candida glabrata which has intrinsically reduced susceptibility to fluconazole is increasingly common particularly among the adult and elderly population on the Northern Hemisphere where it may be responsible for as many as 30% of the blood stream infections in population-based surveillance programmes. Candida parapsilosis is prevalent in the paediatric setting, at centres with increasing echinocandin use and at the southern or pacific parts of the world. In the following, the prevalence and drivers of intrinsic and acquired resistance in Aspergillus and Candida will be reviewed. PMID:24372701

Arendrup, M C

2014-06-01

384

Viriditoxin production by Aspergillus viridi-nutans and related species.  

PubMed

Bioproduction of viriditoxin on various substrates by strains of the Aspergillus fumigatus group was determined under several incubation conditions. Aspergillus viridi-nutans strains NRRL 4365 and 576 produced the largest quantities of toxin, A. brevipes gave reduced yields, and there was no detectable synthesis by isolates of four related species. After 30 days in static culture at 20 C on various autoclaved agricultural commodities, optimal yields of 440 and 380 mg of toxin were observed per kilogram of sorghum and rice. Toxin levels were reduced on corn, rye, and wheat (40-200 mg/kg); yields were low on cottonseed, barley, and oats. Incubation at 10 C restricted biosynthesis of viriditoxin, and no toxin accumulated on substrates maintained at 5 C for 120 days. In a liquid, yeast extract-sucrose medium, maximal mycotoxin production developed in shake flasks; after 156 h, 10 mg of toxin accumulated per gram of mycelium. Viriditoxin produced in submerged culture was associated with the mycelium; less than 1% was detected in the filtered broth after 156 h of incubation. PMID:4582816

Lillehoj, E B; Milburn, M S

1973-08-01

385

Putative cell wall integrity sensor proteins in Aspergillus nidulans  

PubMed Central

The cell wall integrity (CWI) signal transduction pathway, which has been well-studied in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, plays an important role in the regulation of cell wall biogenesis. Recently, we characterized the CWI stress sensor orthologs WscA and WscB in the filamentous fungus Aspergillus nidulans. Disruption of the wscA and wscB genes causes a change in the transcriptional levels of agsA and agsB, which encode ?-1,3-glucan synthase, resulting in an increase in alkaline soluble cell wall glucan. However, the contribution of these putative sensors to downstream CWI pathway signaling remains unclear because MpkA-RlmA signaling remains active in wscA-wscB double disruptants exposed to cell wall stress associated with exposure to micafungin, a potent inhibitor of ?-1,3-glucan synthase. In this addendum, we report the results of further studies involving hypo-osmotic shock as a stressor that suggest WscA and WscB are not essential for MpkA-RlmA signaling. Finally, we describe for the first time other Aspergillus CWI stress sensor candidate Mid2-like protein. PMID:22808335

Futagami, Taiki; Goto, Masatoshi

2012-01-01

386

Putative cell wall integrity sensor proteins in Aspergillus nidulans.  

PubMed

The cell wall integrity (CWI) signal transduction pathway, which has been well-studied in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, plays an important role in the regulation of cell wall biogenesis. Recently, we characterized the CWI stress sensor orthologs WscA and WscB in the filamentous fungus Aspergillus nidulans. Disruption of the wscA and wscB genes causes a change in the transcriptional levels of agsA and agsB, which encode ?-1,3-glucan synthase, resulting in an increase in alkaline soluble cell wall glucan. However, the contribution of these putative sensors to downstream CWI pathway signaling remains unclear because MpkA-RlmA signaling remains active in wscA-wscB double disruptants exposed to cell wall stress associated with exposure to micafungin, a potent inhibitor of ?-1,3-glucan synthase. In this addendum, we report the results of further studies involving hypo-osmotic shock as a stressor that suggest WscA and WscB are not essential for MpkA-RlmA signaling. Finally, we describe for the first time other Aspergillus CWI stress sensor candidate Mid2-like protein. PMID:22808335

Futagami, Taiki; Goto, Masatoshi

2012-03-01

387

Revision of the stiletto fly genera Acupalpa Kröber and Pipinnipons Winterton (Diptera, Therevidae, Agapophytinae) using cybertaxonomic methods, with a key to Australasian genera  

PubMed Central

Abstract Australian stiletto flies of the sister-genera Acupalpa Kröber, 1912 and Pipinnipons Winterton, 2001 (Diptera: Therevidae: Agapophytinae) are revised. Twelve new species of Acupalpa are described, while Acupalpa imitans (White, 1915), comb. n. is transferred from Pipinnipons and Acupalpa albimanis (Kröber, 1914), comb. n. is transferred from Ectinorhynchus Macquart as a senior synonym of Acupalpa pollinosa Mann. The total number of species of Acupalpa is therefore increased to 19: Acupalpa albimanis (Kröber), comb. n., Acupalpa albitarsa Mann, Acupalpa boharti sp. n., Acupalpa divisa (Walker), Acupalpa dolichorhyncha sp. n., Acupalpa glossa sp. n., Acupalpa imitans (White), comb. n., Acupalpa irwini Winterton, Acupalpa melanophaeos sp. n., Acupalpa miaboolya sp. n., Acupalpa minuta sp. n., Acupalpa minutoides sp. n., Acupalpa notomelas sp. n., Acupalpa novayamarna sp. n., Acupalpa rostrata Kröber, Acupalpa semirufa Mann, Acupalpa westralica sp. n., Acupalpa yalgoo sp. n. and Acupalpa yanchep sp. n. Three new species of Pipinnipons are described, increasing the total number of species to five: Pipinnipons chauncyvallis sp. n., Pipinnipons fascipennis (Kröber), Pipinnipons kampmeierae sp. n., Pipinnipons kroeberi Winterton, and P. sphecoda sp. n. Pipinnipons and Acupalpa are rediagnosed in light of the new species presented herein and revised keys to species are included. A dichotomous key to genera of Australasian Therevidae is included. As an empirical example of cybertaxonomy, taxonomic descriptions were composed using a character matrix developed in Lucid Builder (in Structured Descriptive Data (SDD) format) to generate natural language descriptions supplemented by online specimen and image databases. Web resources are provided throughout the document including: a) links to high resolution colour images of all species on Morphbank, b) registration of authors, publications, taxon names and other nomenclatural acts in Zoobank, with assignment of Life Science Identifiers (LSIDs) for each, c) links to Genbank accession records for DNA sequences, and d) assignment of LSIDs to specimen records with links to respective records in an online Therevidae specimen database. PMID:21594068

Winterton, Shaun L.

2011-01-01

388

Aspergillus terreus endogenous endophthalmitis: Report of a case and review of literature  

PubMed Central

We report a rare case of Aspergillus terreus endogenous endophthalmitis in an immunocompetent patient with subretinal abscess and also review the reported cases. A 50-year-old healthy male presented with sudden painful loss of vision in right eye. He was diagnosed with endogenous endophthalmitis and underwent urgent vitrectomy. Aspergillus terreus growth was obtained in culture. At final follow-up, there was complete resolution of the infection but visual acuity was poor due to macular scar. Aspergillus terreus is a rare cause of endophthalmitis with usually poor outcomes. Newer antifungals like Voriconazole can be sometimes associated with better prognosis. PMID:25230968

Panigrahi, Pradeep Kumar; Roy, Rupak; Pal, Swakshyar Saumya; Mukherjee, Anjan; Lobo, Aneesha

2014-01-01

389

Cross-Reactivity of Fusarium spp. in the Aspergillus Galactomannan Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay  

PubMed Central

Nine of 11 hematological patients with disseminated/deep-seated Fusarium infection tested at least twice for Aspergillus galactomannan (GM) had repeated positive results in the absence of Aspergillus isolation in culture. The centrifuged supernatants of 12 Fusarium isolates were tested by a GM enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (EIA). All the isolates produced positive reactions when tested undiluted. These results show cross-reactivity of Fusarium spp. with Aspergillus GM that may constitute a drawback with respect to the specificity of the Platelia EIA. PMID:22205818

Esposto, Maria Carmela; Prigitano, Anna; Grancini, Anna; Ossi, Cristina; Cavanna, Caterina; Cascio, Giuliana Lo

2012-01-01

390

Complete mitochondrial genome of an Amynthas earthworm, Amynthas aspergillus (Oligochaeta: Megascolecidae).  

PubMed

Abstract We have determined the mitochondrial genome of the first Amynthas earthworm, Amynthas aspergillus (Perrier, 1872), which is a natural medical resource in Chinese traditional medicine. Its mitogenome is 15,115?bp in length containing 37 genes with the same contents and order as other sequenced earthworms. All genes are encoded by the same strand, all 13 PCGs use ATG as start codon. The content of A + T is 63.04% for A. aspergillus (33.41% A, 29.63% T, 14.56% G and 22.41% C). The complete mitochondrial genomes of A. aspergillus would be useful for the reconstruction of Oligochaeta polygenetic relationships. PMID:25329289

Zhang, Liangliang; Jiang, Jibao; Dong, Yan; Qiu, Jiangping

2014-10-20

391

Modelling the effect of temperature and water activity in the growth boundaries of Aspergillus ochraceus and Aspergillus parasiticus.  

PubMed

The aim of this work was to model the growth of Aspergillus parasiticus and Aspergillus ochraceus, both mycotoxin producers, near to the growth/no growth boundaries and validate those models in sterile maize grain, peanuts and coffee beans. Malt extract agar was adjusted to six different water activities: 0.93, 0.91, 0.89, 0.87, 0.85 and 0.80. Plates were incubated at 10, 15, 20, 25, 30, 37 and 42 °C. For each of the 42 conditions, 10 Petri dishes were inoculated. Both kinetic and probability models were applied to colony growth data. The results of the present study indicate that the developed probability modelling approach could be satisfactorily employed to quantify the combined effect of temperature and water activity on the growth responses of A. ochraceus and A. parasiticus. However, validation of kinetic results led to poor goodness of prediction. In this study, the validation samples were placed near to the expected boundaries of the models in order to test them under the worst situation. Probability of growth prediction under extreme growth conditions was somewhat compromised, but it can be considered acceptable. PMID:21356445

Garcia, Daiana; Ramos, Antonio J; Sanchis, Vicente; Marín, Sonia

2011-05-01

392

In many amphibian genera, including Bufo, Rana and Xenopus, tadpoles hatch at an early `tailbud' stage of  

E-print Network

In many amphibian genera, including Bufo, Rana and Xenopus, tadpoles hatch at an early `tailbud in Great Britain © The Company of Biologists Limited 2000 JEB2629 Many amphibian tadpoles hatch and swim

393

A revision and key to the genera of Afrotropical Mantispidae (Neuropterida, Neuroptera), with the description of a new genus  

PubMed Central

Abstract The Afrotropical Mantispidae genera have previously been neglected and are poorly known. The genera are revised and redescribed. A new genus Afromantispa Snyman and Ohl is described with Afromantispa tenella comb. n.as type species. Perlamantispa (Handschin, 1960) is synonymised with Sagittalata Handschin, 1959. The new combinations within the genus include Sagittalata austroafrica comb. n., Sagittalata bequaerti comb. n., Sagittalata dorsalis comb. n., Sagittalata girardi comb. n., Sagittalata nubila comb. n., Sagittalata perla comb. n., Sagittalata pusilla comb. n., Sagittalata similata comb. n., Sagittalata royi comb. n., Sagittalata tincta comb. n. and Sagittalata vassei comb. n. An illustrated key to the genera Afromantispa gen. n., Sagittalata Handschin, 1959, Mantispa Illiger, 1798, Cercomantispa Handschin, 1959, Rectinerva Handschin, 1959, Nampista Navás, 1914, and Pseudoclimaciella Handschin, 1960 is provided. The wing venation of Mantispidae is redescribed. Similarities between the genera are discussed. Subsequent studies will focus on revising the taxonomic status of species, which are not dealt with in this study. PMID:22573953

Snyman, Louwtjie P.; Ohl, Michael; Mansell, Mervyn W.; Scholtz, Clarke H.

2012-01-01

394

Palaearctic osmiine bees of the genera Hofferia and Stenoheriades (Megachilidae, Osmiini): biology, taxonomy and key to species.  

PubMed

Hofferia and Stenoheriades are closely related, species-poor genera of the osmiine bees (Megachilidae). Analysis of female pollen loads and field observations indicate that species of both genera have a strong affinity to Asteraceae as pollen hosts. Both genera use insect burrows in dead wood as nesting site, and Hofferia schmiedeknechti was found to build cell walls and nest plug with resin partly mixed with small pebbles. The taxonomic revision of the Palaearctic Hofferia and Stenoheriades species revealed the existence of a still undescribed species in the Levant, Stenoheriades levantica spec. nov.. Stenoheriades hofferi (Tkalc?, 1984) is synonymized with S. coelostoma (Benoist, 1935), which is distinct from S. asiatica (Friese, 1921), and Heriades integra Benoist, 1934, formerly considered a Stenoheriades species, is synonymized with Osmia (Hoplosmia) scutellaris Morawitz, 1868. Keys for the delimitation of Hofferia and Stenoheriades from the other Palaearctic osmiine bee genera and for the identification of the Palaearctic species are given.  PMID:24870894

Müller, Andreas; Trunz, Vincent

2014-01-01

395

A general overview of the typical 18 frontal-ventral-transverse cirri Oxytrichidae s. l. genera (Ciliophora, Hypotrichia)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Oxytrichidae s. l. ciliates usually have 18 frontal-ventral-transverse cirri which are clustered to six distinct groups usually originating from six longitudinal primordia segregating 1, 3, 3, 3, 4, 4 cirri. During morphogenesis, three dorsal kineties anlagen are primarily formed. Fragmentation of kinety 3 usually present, while sometimes secondarily lost. Dorsomarginal kineties are formed, while sometimes lost. Oxytrichids tend to have overlapping characters, e.g. cell shape and size, infraciliature, pellicle features. This makes a great problem for genera separation. In the present work, all typical 18 frontal-ventral-transverse-cirri Oxytrichidae s. l. genera were revised systematically based on their living morphology, ciliature patterns and dorsal morphogenetic features. The outline of the genera, the schematic illustrations, and the key to typical 18 frontal-ventral-transverse-cirri genera of Oxytrichidae s. l. were clarified. Additionally, some morphological and morphogenetic patterns were summarized and compared.

Shao, Chen; Lu, Xiaoteng; Ma, Honggang

2014-10-01

396

Multilocus sequence analysis of Aspergillus Sect. Nigri in dried vine fruits of worldwide origin.  

PubMed

Dried vine fruits may be heavily colonized by Aspergillus species. The molecular biodiversity of an Aspergillus population (234 strains) isolated from dried vine fruit samples of worldwide origin were analyzed by investigating four housekeeping gene loci (calmodulin, ?-tubulin, elongation factor 1-?, RPB2). Aspergillus Sect. Nigri was dominant and the strains were identified as A. tubingensis (138), A. awamori (38), A. carbonarius (27), A. uvarum (16) and A. niger (11). Four Aspergillus flavus strains were also identified from Chilean raisins. Two clusters closely related to the A. tubingensis species with a significant bootstrap (60% and 99%) were identified as distinct populations. Among the four loci, RPB2 showed the highest genetic variability. This is the first complete study on the worldwide distribution of black Aspergilli occurring on dried vine fruits identified by a molecular approach. PMID:23732831

Susca, Antonia; Perrone, Giancarlo; Cozzi, Giuseppe; Stea, Gaetano; Logrieco, Antonio F; Mulč, Giuseppina

2013-07-15

397

Increased Heterologous Protein Production in Aspergillus niger Fermentation through Extracellular Proteases Inhibition by  

E-print Network

Increased Heterologous Protein Production in Aspergillus niger Fermentation through Extracellular in filamentous fungal fermentation and thereby to enhance heterologous protein production. Introduction with efficient heterologous protein production in the fungal fermentation industry (1, 2). Current strategies

Gu, Tingyue

398

ASPERGILLUS FLAVUS EXPRESSED SEQUENCE TAGS AND MICROARRAY AS TOOLS IN UNDERSTANDING AFLATOXIN BIOSYNTHESIS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Aflatoxins are the most toxic and carcinogenic naturally occurring mycotoxins. They are produced primarily by Aspergillus flavus and A. parasiticus. In order to better understand the molecular mechanisms that control aflatoxin production, identification of genes using A. flavus expressed sequence ...

399

Recombination, balancing selection and geographic subdivision among worldwide populations of Aspergillus flavus  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Aspergillus flavus is a global agent of aflatoxin contamination of economically important crops such as corn, peanuts, and cottonseed. Extensive studies have elucidated the biochemical and regulatory mechanisms of aflatoxin production, but basic knowledge of the evolutionary processes that maintain ...

400

Analysis of aflatoxin regulatory factors in serial transfer-induced non-aflatoxigenic Aspergillus parasiticus  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Aflatoxins (AFs) are carcinogenic secondary metabolites of Aspergillus parasiticus. In previous studies, non-toxigenic A. parasiticus sec' (for secondary metabolism negative) variants were generated from their toxigenic sec+ (for secondary metabolism positive) parents for genetic and physiological ...

401

40 CFR 180.1206 - Aspergillus flavus AF36; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...the requirement of a tolerance. (a) An exemption from the requirement of a tolerance is established for residues of the microbial pesticide Aspergillus flavus AF36 in or on cotton, gin byproducts; cotton, hulls; cotton, meal; cotton, refined...

2013-07-01

402

40 CFR 180.1206 - Aspergillus flavus AF36; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...the requirement of a tolerance. (a) An exemption from the requirement of a tolerance is established for residues of the microbial pesticide Aspergillus flavus AF36 in or on cotton, gin byproducts; cotton, hulls; cotton, meal; cotton, refined...

2010-07-01

403

Variecolactol: A New Sesterterpene Lactone from the Sclerotia of Aspergillus auricomus (Guegen) Saito  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Variecolactol (1), a new sesterterpene lactone related to variecolin (2), has been isolated from the organic extracts of Aspergillus auricomus. Structure determination of this compound was achieved primarily through HMQC, HMBC, and NOESY experiments. The known compounds dihydropenicillic acid (3) ...

404

X-ray Structure Analysis and Characterization of AFUEI, an Elastase Inhibitor from Aspergillus fumigatus*  

PubMed Central

Elastase from Aspergillus sp. is an important factor for aspergillosis. AFUEI is an inhibitor of the elastase derived from Aspergillus fumigatus. AFUEI is a member of the I78 inhibitor family and has a high inhibitory activity against elastases of Aspergillus fumigatus and Aspergillus flavus, human neutrophil elastase and bovine chymotrypsin, but does not inhibit bovine trypsin. Here we report the crystal structure of AFUEI in two crystal forms. AFUEI is a wedge-shaped protein composed of an extended loop and a scaffold protein core. The structure of AFUEI shows remarkable similarity to serine protease inhibitors of the potato inhibitor I family, although they are classified into different inhibitor families. A structural comparison with the potato I family inhibitors suggests that the extended loop of AFUEI corresponds to the binding loop of the potato inhibitor I family, and AFUEI inhibits its cognate proteases through the same mechanism as the potato I family inhibitors. PMID:23640894

Sakuma, Mayuko; Imada, Katsumi; Okumura, Yoshiyuki; Uchiya, Kei-ichi; Yamashita, Nobuo; Ogawa, Kenji; Hijikata, Atsushi; Shirai, Tsuyoshi; Homma, Michio; Nikai, Toshiaki

2013-01-01

405

OPPORTUNISTIC ASPERGILLUS PATHOGENS MEASURED IN HOME AND HOSPITAL TAP WATER BY MOLD SPECIFIC QUANTITATIVE PCR (MSQPCR)  

EPA Science Inventory

Opportunistic fungal pathogens are a concern because of the increasing number of immunocompromised patients. The goal of this research was to test a simple extraction method and rapid quantitative PCR (QPCR) measurement of the occurrence of potential pathogens, Aspergillus fumiga...

406

Potential involvement of Aspergillus flavus laccases in peanut invasion at low water potential  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Aspergillus flavus (Link) accumulates aflatoxins in peanuts, mainly affecting immature kernels during drought. Peanut invasion by A. flavus induces synthesis of phytoalexins, mostly stilbenoids, as a plant defense mechanism. Fungal laccases are often related to pathogenicity, and among other subst...

407

Evaluation of Atoxigenic Strains of Aspergillus flavus as Potential Biocontrol Agents for Aflatoxin in Maize  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Aflatoxin contamination resulting from maize infection by Aspergillus flavus is both an economic concern and public health concern. Therefore, strategies for controlling maize contamination are being investigated. Abilities of 11 naturally occurring atoxigenic strains in Nigeria to reduce aflatox...

408

Dual genome microarray: Fusarium verticillioides and Aspergillus flavus gene expression in co-culture  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Aflatoxins produced by Aspergillus flavus, and fumonisins produced by Fusarium verticillioides, are prominent among the mycotoxins associated with economic losses to the maize grain industry worldwide. F. verticillioides is also recognized as a systemic endophyte of maize that prevents opportunisti...

409

Comparative Analysis of the Performance of Aspergillus flavus on Resistant and Susceptible Maize Genotypes during Infection  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Aspergillus, a mycotoxicogenic fungal genus, produces carcinogenic aflatoxins in crops like peanuts and maize. Development of fungal resistant maize cultivars is one strategy used to decrease contamination. Successful development and identification of resistant maize genotypes requires evaluation o...

410

40 CFR 180.1254 - Aspergillus flavus NRRL 21882; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...the requirement of a tolerance is established for residues of Aspergillus flavus NRRL 21882 on corn, field, forage; corn, field, grain; corn, field, stover; corn, field, aspirated grain fractions; corn, sweet, kernel plus cob...

2012-07-01

411

40 CFR 180.1254 - Aspergillus flavus NRRL 21882; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...the requirement of a tolerance is established for residues of Aspergillus flavus NRRL 21882 on corn, field, forage; corn, field, grain; corn, field, stover; corn, field, aspirated grain fractions; corn, sweet, kernel plus cob...

2010-07-01

412

Specificity of Eupenicillium and Penicillium species for the conidial heads of Aspergillus sections Flavi and Nigri  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The genus Penicillium comprises species that mostly colonize plant matter. However, early reports suggest that several species are capable of parasitizing Aspergillus. More recently Eupenicillium ochrosalmoneum and E. cinnamopurpureum, both with Penicillium anamorphs, have been observed sporulatin...

413

Aspergillus, Penicillium and Talaromyces isolated from house dust samples collected around the world  

E-print Network

Aspergillus, Penicillium and Talaromyces isolated from house dust samples collected around Penicillium species of which seven were undescribed and 18 Talaromyces species including three described here, Penicillium alfredii Visagie, Seifert & Samson, P. dunedinense Visagie, Seifert & Samson, P. infrapurpureum

Amend, Anthony S.

414

An illustrated key to the genera and subgenera of the Recent azooxanthellate Scleractinia (Cnidaria, Anthozoa), with an attached glossary  

PubMed Central

Abstract The 120 presently recognized genera and seven subgenera of the azooxanthellate Scleractinia are keyed using gross morphological characters of the corallum. All genera are illustrated with calicular and side views of coralla. All termes used in the key are defined in an illustrated glossary. A table of all species-level keys, both comprehensive and faunistic, is provided covering the last 40 years. PMID:23166463

Cairns, Stephen D.; Kitahara, Marcelo V.

2012-01-01

415

A QUICK KEY TO THE SUBFAMILIES AND GENERA OF ANTS OF THE SAVANNAH RIVER SITE  

SciTech Connect

This taxonomic key was devised to support development of a Rapid Bioassessment Protocol using ants at the Savannah River Site. The emphasis is on 'rapid' and, because the available keys contained a very large number of genera not known to occur at the Savannah River Site, we found that the available keys were unwieldy. Because these keys contained many more genera than we would ever encounter and because this larger number of genera required more couplets in the key and often required examination of characters that are difficult to assess without higher magnifications (60X or higher), more time was required to process samples. In developing this set of keys I emphasized character states that are easier for nonspecialists to recognize. I recognize that the character sets used may lead to some errors but I believe that the error rate will be small and, for the purpose of rapid bioassessment, this error rate will be acceptable provided that overall sample sizes are adequate. Oliver and Beattie (1996a, 1996b) found that for rapid assessment of biodiversity the same results were found when identifications were done to morphospecies by people with minimal expertise as when the same data sets were identified by subject matter experts. Basset et al. (2004) concluded that it was not as important to correctly identify all species as it was to be sure that the study included as many functional groups as possible. If your study requires high levels of accuracy, it is highly recommended that, when you key out a specimen and have any doubts concerning the identification, you should refer to keys in Bolton (1994) or to the other keys used to develop this area specific taxonomic key.

Martin, D

2007-09-04

416

Five vicarious genera from Gondwana: the Velloziaceae as shown by molecules and morphology  

PubMed Central

Background and Aims The amount of data collected previously for Velloziaceae neither clarified relationships within the family nor helped determine an appropriate classification, which has led to huge discordance among treatment by different authors. To achieve an acceptable phylogenetic result and understand the evolution and roles of characters in supporting groups, a total evidence analysis was developed which included approx. 20 % of the species and all recognized genera and sections of Velloziaceae, plus outgroups representatives of related families within Pandanales. Methods Analyses were undertaken with 48 species of Velloziaceae, representing all ten genera, with DNA sequences from the atpB-rbcL spacer, trnL-trnF spacer, trnL intron, trnH-psbA spacer, ITS ribosomal DNA spacers and morphology. Key Results Four groups consistently emerge from the analyses. Persistent leaves, two phloem strands, stem cortex divided in three regions and violet tepals support Acanthochlamys as sister to Velloziaceae s.s., which are supported mainly by leaves with marginal bundles, transfusion tracheids and inflorescence without axis. Within Velloziaceae s.s., an African Xerophyta + Talbotia clade is uniquely supported by basal loculicidal capsules; an American clade, Barbacenia s.l. + Barbaceniopsis + Nanuza + Vellozia, is supported by only homoplastic characters. Barbacenia s.l. (= Aylthonia + Barbacenia + Burlemarxia + Pleurostima) is supported by a double sheath in leaf vascular bundles and a corona; Barbaceniopsis + Nanuza + Vellozia is not supported by an unambiguous character, but Barbaceniopsis is supported by five characters, including diclinous flowers, Nanuza + Vellozia is supported mainly by horizontal stigma lobes and stem inner cortex cells with secondary walls, and Vellozia alone is supported mainly by pollen in tetrads. Conclusions The results imply recognition of five genera (Acanthochlamys (Xerophyta (Barbacenia (Barbaceniopsis, Vellozia)))), solving the long-standing controversies among recent classifications of the family. They also suggest a Gondwanan origin for Velloziaceae, with a vicariant pattern of distribution. PMID:21693665

Mello-Silva, Renato; Santos, Déborah Yara A. C.; Salatino, Maria Luiza F.; Motta, Lucimar B.; Cattai, Marina B.; Sasaki, Denise; Lovo, Juliana; Pita, Patrícia B.; Rocini, Cintia; Rodrigues, Cristiane D. N.; Zarrei, Mehdi; Chase, Mark W.

2011-01-01

417

Phylogenetic relationship among genera of Polymorphidae (Acanthocephala), inferred from nuclear and mitochondrial gene sequences.  

PubMed

Acanthocephalans of the family Polymorphidae Meyer, 1931 are obligate endoparasites with complex life cycles. These worms use vertebrates (marine mammals, fish-eating birds and waterfowl) as definitive hosts and invertebrates (amphipods, decapods and euphausiids) as intermediate hosts to complete their life cycle. Polymorphidae has a wordwide distribution, containing 12 genera, with approximately 127 species. The family is diagnosed by having a spinose trunk, bulbose proboscis, double-walled proboscis receptacle, and usually four to eight tubular cement glands. To conduct a phylogenetic analysis, in the current study sequences of the small (18S) and large-subunit (28S) ribosomal RNA, and cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (cox 1) were generated for 27 taxa representing 10 of 12 genera of Polymorphidae, plus three additional species of acanthocephalans that were used as outgroups. Maximum likelihood (ML), maximum parsimony (MP), and Bayesian analyses were conducted on a combined nuclear rRNA (18S+28S) data set and on a concatenated dataset of nuclear plus one mitochondrial gene (18S+28S+cox 1). Phylogenetic analyses inferred with the concatenated dataset of three genes support the monophyly of nine genera (Andracantha, Corynosoma, Bolbosoma, Profilicollis, Pseudocorynosoma, Southwellina, Arhythmorhynchus, Hexaglandula and Ibirhynchus). However, the four sampled species of Polymorphus were nested within several clades, indicating that these species do not share a common ancestor, requiring further taxonomic revision using phylogenetic systematics, and reexamination of morphological and ecological data. By mapping definitive and intermediate host association onto the resulting cladogram, we observe that aquatic birds were the ancestral definitive hosts for the family with a secondary colonization and diversification to marine mammals. Whereas amphipods were ancestral intermediate hosts and that the association with decapods represent episodes of secondary colonization that arose several times during the evolutionary history of the family. Our results are useful to start testing hypothesis about the evolutionary history of this highly diverse family of acanthocephalans. PMID:23567022

García-Varela, Martín; Pérez-Ponce de León, Gerardo; Aznar, Francisco J; Nadler, Steven A

2013-08-01

418

Dated Phylogenies of the Sister Genera Macaranga and Mallotus (Euphorbiaceae): Congruence in Historical Biogeographic Patterns?  

PubMed Central

Molecular phylogenies and estimates of divergence times within the sister genera Macaranga and Mallotus were estimated using Bayesian relaxed clock analyses of two generic data sets, one per genus. Both data sets were based on different molecular markers and largely different samples. Per genus three calibration points were utilised. The basal calibration point (crown node of all taxa used) was taken from literature and used for both taxa. The other three calibrations were based on fossils of which two were used per genus. We compared patterns of dispersal and diversification in Macaranga and Mallotus using ancestral area reconstruction in RASP (S-DIVA option) and contrasted our results with biogeographical and geological records to assess accuracy of inferred age estimates. A check of the fossil calibration point showed that the Japanese fossil, used for dating the divergence of Mallotus, probably had to be attached to a lower node, the stem node of all pioneer species, but even then the divergence time was still younger than the estimated age of the fossil. The African (only used in the Macaranga data set) and New Zealand fossils (used for both genera) seemed reliably placed. Our results are in line with existing geological data and the presence of stepping stones that provided dispersal pathways from Borneo to New Guinea-Australia, from Borneo to mainland Asia and additionally at least once to Africa and Madagascar via land and back to India via Indian Ocean island chains. The two genera show congruence in dispersal patterns, which corroborate divergence time estimates, although the overall mode and tempo of dispersal and diversification differ significantly as shown by distribution patterns of extant species. PMID:24465660

van Welzen, Peter C.; Strijk, Joeri S.; van Konijnenburg-van Cittert, Johanna H. A.; Nucete, Monica; Merckx, Vincent S. F. T.

2014-01-01

419

Delimitation of Neonectria and Cylindrocarpon (Nectriaceae, Hypocreales, Ascomycota) and related genera with Cylindrocarpon-like anamorphs  

PubMed Central

Neonectria is a cosmopolitan genus and it is, in part, defined by its link to the anamorph genus Cylindrocarpon. Neonectria has been divided into informal groups on the basis of combined morphology of anamorph and teleomorph. Previously, Cylindrocarpon was divided into four groups defined by presence or absence of microconidia and chlamydospores. Molecular phylogenetic analyses have indicated that Neonectria sensu stricto and Cylindrocarpon sensu stricto are phylogenetically congeneric. In addition, morphological and molecular data accumulated over several years have indicated that Neonectria sensu lato and Cylindrocarpon sensu lato do not form a monophyletic group and that the respective informal groups may represent distinct genera. In the present work, a multilocus analysis (act, ITS, LSU, rpb1, tef1, tub) was applied to representatives of the informal groups to determine their level of phylogenetic support as a first step towards taxonomic revision of Neonectria sensu lato. Results show five distinct highly supported clades that correspond to some extent with the informal Neonectria and Cylindrocarpon groups that are here recognised as genera: (1) N. coccinea-group and Cylindrocarpon groups 1 & 4 (Neonectria/Cylindrocarpon sensu stricto); (2) N. rugulosa-group (Rugonectria gen. nov.); (3) N. mammoidea/N. veuillotiana-groups and Cylindrocarpon group 2 (Thelonectria gen. nov.); (4) N. radicicola-group and Cylindrocarpon group 3 (Ilyonectria gen. nov.); and (5) anamorph genus Campylocarpon. Characteristics of the anamorphs and teleomorphs correlate with the five genera, three of which are newly described. New combinations are made for species where their classification is confirmed by phylogenetic data. PMID:21523189

Chaverri, P.; Salgado, C.; Hirooka, Y.; Rossman, A.Y.; Samuels, G.J.

2011-01-01

420

Flocculation behavior and mechanism of bioflocculant produced by Aspergillus flavus.  

PubMed

In this study, the flocculation behavior and mechanism of a cation-independent bioflocculant IH-7 produced by Aspergillus flavus were investigated. Results showed 91.6% was the lowest flocculating rate recorded by IH-7 (0.5 mg L(-1)) at pH range 4-8. Moreover, IH-7 showed better flocculation performance than polyaluminum chloride (PAC) at a wide range of flocculant concentration (0.06-25 mg L(-1)), temperature (5-45 °C) and salinity (10-60% w/w). The current study found that cation addition did not significantly enhance the flocculating rate and IH-7 is a positively charged bioflocculant. These findings suggest that charge neutralization is the main flocculation mechanism of IH-7 bioflocculant. IH-7 was significantly used to flocculate different types of suspended solids such as activated carbons, kaolin clays, soil solids and yeast cells. PMID:25560664

Aljuboori, Ahmad H Rajab; Idris, Azni; Al-joubory, Hamid Hussain Rijab; Uemura, Yoshimitsu; Ibn Abubakar, B S U

2015-03-01

421

Bioconversion of tea polyphenols to bioactive theabrownins by Aspergillus fumigatus.  

PubMed

Theabrownins (TB) are water-soluble phenolic compounds associated with the various health benefits of Pu-erh tea, a post-fermented Chinese dark tea. This work reports on the production of theabrownins from infusions of sun-dried green tea leaves using a pure culture of Aspergillus fumigatus isolated from a solid-state Pu-erh tea fermentation. A theabrownins yield of 158 g kg(-1) sun-dried green tea leaves was obtained in 6 days at 45 °C in an aerobic fermentation. In a 2 l fermenter, the yield of theabrownins was 151 g kg(-1) sun-dried green tea leaves in 48 h of aerobic culture (45 °C, 1 vvm aeration rate, 250 rpm agitation speed). Extracellular polyphenol oxidase and peroxidase of A. fumigatus contributed to this bioconversion. Repeated batch fermentation process was used for producing theabrownins but was less productive than the batch process. PMID:25214210

Wang, Qiuping; Gong, Jiashun; Chisti, Yusuf; Sirisansaneeyakul, Sarote

2014-12-01

422

Nanosulfur: A Potent Fungicide Against Food Pathogen, Aspergillus niger  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Elemental sulfur (S0), man's oldest eco-friendly fungicide for curing fungal infections in plants and animals, is registered in India as a non-systemic and contact fungicide. However due to its high volume requirement, Indian agrochemical industry and farmers could not effectively use this product till date. We hypothesize that intelligent nanoscience applications might increase the visibility of nanosulfur in Indian agriculture as a potent and eco-safe fungicide. Sulfur nanoparticles (NPs) were synthesized bottom-up via a liquid synthesis method with average particle size in the range of 50-80 nm and the shapes of the NPs were spherical. A comparative study of elemental and nano-sulfur produced has been tested against facultative fungal food pathogen, Aspergillus niger. Results showed that nanosulfur is more efficacious than its elemental form.

Choudhury, Samrat Roy; Nair, Kishore K.; Kumar, Rajesh; Gogoi, Robin; Srivastava, Chitra; Gopal, Madhuban; Subhramanyam, B. S.; devakumar, C.; Goswami, Arunava

2010-10-01

423

Nanosulfur: A Potent Fungicide Against Food Pathogen, Aspergillus niger  

SciTech Connect

Elemental sulfur (S{sup 0}), man's oldest eco-friendly fungicide for curing fungal infections in plants and animals, is registered in India as a non-systemic and contact fungicide. However due to its high volume requirement, Indian agrochemical industry and farmers could not effectively use this product till date. We hypothesize that intelligent nanoscience applications might increase the visibility of nanosulfur in Indian agriculture as a potent and eco-safe fungicide. Sulfur nanoparticles (NPs) were synthesized bottom-up via a liquid synthesis method with average particle size in the range of 50-80 nm and the shapes of the NPs were spherical. A comparative study of elemental and nano-sulfur produced has been tested against facultative fungal food pathogen, Aspergillus niger. Results showed that nanosulfur is more efficacious than its elemental form.

Choudhury, Samrat Roy; Goswami, Arunava [Agricultural and Ecological Research Unit, Biological Sciences Division, Indian Statistical Institute, 203 B. T. Road, Kolkata, West Bengal-700108 (India); Nair, Kishore K.; Kumar, Rajesh; Gopal, Madhuban; Devakumar, C. [Department of Agricultural Chemicals, Pusa Campus, New Delhi (India); Gogoi, Robin [Plant Pathology, Pusa Campus, New Delhi (India); Srivastava, Chitra; Subhramanyam, B. S. [Entomology, Indian Agricultural Research Institute, Pusa Campus, New Delhi (India)

2010-10-04

424

Purification and Characterization of Acid Phosphatase V from Aspergillus nidulans  

PubMed Central

Acid phosphatase V of Aspergillus nidulans was purified by ammonium sulfate precipitation, gel filtration, and ion-exchange chromatography. The enzyme demonstrated a charge microheterogeneity on starch and acrylamide gel electrophoresis, but proved to be homogeneous on ultracentrifugation and gel filtration. Phosphatase V was found to be a classic acid orthophosphoric monoester phosphohydrolase, and it cleaved p-nitrophenylphosphate, glucose-6-phosphate, and uridine-5?-monophosphate at maximal rates. It was inhibited by fluoride, borate, and molybdate ions, and demonstrated end-product inhibition by inorganic phosphate. Metallic ions or cofactors were not required for activity. The molecular weight was estimated to be 100,000, the S20,w was calculated to be 4.1, and the pH optimum was found to be 6.1. Images PMID:4552990

Harsanyi, Zsolt; Dorn, Gordon L.

1972-01-01

425

Biotransformation of germacranolide from Onopordon leptolepies by Aspergillus niger.  

PubMed

Terpenes are present in the essential oils obtained from herbs and spices. They are produced by these plant species as a chemical defense mechanism against phytopathogenic microorganisms. Therefore, terpenes have attracted great attention in the food industry, e.g., they have been used in foods such as cheese as natural preservatives to prevent fungal growth. Herein, we describe the microbial transformation of onopordopicrin (1) by Aspergillus niger. Four product 11? H-dihydroonopordopicrin (2), 11? H-dihydroonopordopicrin (3), 3?-hydroxy-11? H-dihydroonopordopicrin (4), and 14-hydroxy-11? H-dihydroonopordopicrin (5) were obtained. Their structures were identified on the basis of chemical and spectroscopic data. All the four compounds were novel. PMID:22186324

Esmaeili, Akbar; Moazami, Nasrin; Rustaiyan, Abdolhossein

2012-01-01

426

Molecular characterization of atoxigenic Aspergillus flavus isolates collected in China.  

PubMed

Aspergillus flavus strains were isolated from peanut fields of Liaoning, Shandong, Hubei and Guangdong Provinces in China, and identified through phenotypic and molecular approaches. Of the 323 A. flavus strains isolated, 76 strains did not produce aflatoxins detectable by UPLC. The incidence of atoxigenic A. flavus strains decreased with increase in temperature and increased with increase in latitude in different geographical locations. Amplification of all the aflatoxin genes in the aflatoxin gene cluster in the atoxigenic isolates showed that there were 25 deletion patterns (A-Y), with 22 deletion patterns identified for the first time. Most of the atoxigenic A. flavus isolates with gene deletions (97%) had deletions in at least one of the four genes (aflT, nor-1, aflR, and hypB), indicating that these four genes could be targeted for rapid identification of atoxigenic strains. The atoxigenic isolates with gene deletions, especially the isolates with large deletions, are potential candidates for aflatoxin control. PMID:24879349

Wei, Dandan; Zhou, Lu; Selvaraj, Jonathan Nimal; Zhang, Chushu; Xing, Fuguo; Zhao, Yueju; Wang, Yan; Liu, Yang

2014-07-01

427

Halophilic Aspergillus penicillioides from athalassohaline, thalassohaline, and polyhaline environments  

PubMed Central

Aspergillus penicillioides is a true halophile, present in diverse econiches – from the hypersaline athalassohaline, and thalassohaline environments, to polyhaline systems, and in different geographical locations. Twenty seven isolates from these environments, were seen to be moderate halophiles, euryhaline in nature. They had an obligate need of a low aw and were unable to grow on a regular defined medium such as Czapek Dox Agar, as well as on varied nutrient rich agar media such as Malt Extract, Potato Dextrose and Sabouraud Agar; however, growth was obtained on all these media when amended with 10% solar salt. In absence of added salt, the conidia either did not germinate, or when germinated, distortions and lysis were seen in the short mycelial forms; on media with salt, the mycelia and vesicles appeared normal. PMID:25140168

Nazareth, Sarita W.; Gonsalves, Valerie

2014-01-01

428

Fungal siderophore metabolism with a focus on Aspergillus fumigatus  

PubMed Central

Covering: up to 2014 Siderophores are chelators synthesized by microbes to sequester iron. This article summarizes the knowledge on the fungal siderophore metabolism with a focus on Aspergillus fumigatus. In recent years, A. fumigatus became a role model for fungal biosynthesis, uptake and degradation of siderophores as well as regulation of siderophore-mediated iron handling and the elucidation of siderophore functions. Siderophore functions comprise uptake, intracellular transport and storage of iron. This proved to be crucial not only for adaptation to iron starvation conditions but also for germination, asexual and sexual propagation, antioxidative defense, mutual interaction, microbial competition as well as virulence in plant and animal hosts. Recent studies also indicate the high potential of siderophores and its biosynthetic pathway to improve diagnosis and therapy of fungal infections. PMID:25140791

2014-01-01

429

The mitochondrial ribosomal RNA molecules of Aspergillus nidulans.  

PubMed

The 16S and 23S mitochondrial rRNAs of Aspergillus nidulans have been identified by Northern hybridisation and the ends of the molecules mapped onto the mitochondrial genome by S1 nuclease analysis. The results show that both the rRNA molecules are longer than originally reported, forcing a reassessment of the potential secondary structures that can form in the terminal regions. In particular, structures resembling the 5.8S- and 4.5S-like domains of the bacterial large rRNA can now be recognised within the A. nidulans 23S molecule. The new 5' termini of the 16S and 23S genes lie within conserved 18-bp sequences that may be promoters but are more likely to be processing signals that cleave the mature rRNAs from larger precursor molecules. The new end of the 23S gene abuts the 5' end of the threonine-tRNA gene. PMID:2656406

Dyson, N J; Brown, T A; Waring, R B; Davies, R W

1989-01-30

430

Structure of N-myristoyltransferase from Aspergillus fumigatus.  

PubMed

N-Myristoyltransferase (NMT) is an enzyme which translocates the 14-carbon saturated fatty acid myristate from myristoyl-CoA to the N-terminal glycine of substrate peptides. This myristoylation process is involved in protein modification in various eukaryotes, including animals and fungi. Furthermore, this enzyme has been shown to be essential to the growth of various species, such as Saccharomyces cerevisiae, which indicates that NMT is an attractive target for the development of a novel antifungal drug. In this study, the crystal structure of a ternary complex of NMT from Aspergillus fumigatus with S-(2-oxo)pentadecyl-CoA, a myristoyl-CoA analogue cofactor, and a synthetic inhibitor is reported at a resolution of 2.1?Ĺ. The results advance the understanding of the specificity of NMT inhibitors and provide valuable information for structure-based drug design. PMID:25849386

Shimada, Takashi; Suzuki, Makoto; Katakura, Shin Ichi

2015-04-01

431

Characterization of the hexahydropolyprenols of Aspergillus fumigatus fresenius  

PubMed Central

The isolation and properties of a group of alcohols from the mycelium of Aspergillus fumigatus Fresenius are described. Mass-, nuclear-magnetic-resonance- and infrared-spectrometric studies coupled with evidence from ozonolytic degradation and chromatography show the mixture to contain hexahydroprenols-18, -19, -20, -21, -22, -23 and -24. Each contains a saturated `hydroxy-terminal' isoprene residue, a saturated ?-terminal isoprene residue and a saturated ?-isoprene residue (adjacent to the ?-residue). The presence of only two trans-isoprene residues is also a feature of the series of alcohols, but the precise position of these in each molecule is not known. ImagesFig. 4. (a)Fig. 4. (b) PMID:6029603

Stone, K. J.; Butterworth, P. H. W.; Hemming, F. W.

1967-01-01

432

New pathway for the biodegradation of indole in Aspergillus niger  

SciTech Connect

Indole and its derivatives form a class of toxic recalcitrant environmental pollutants. The growth of Aspergillus niger was inhibited by very low concentrations (0.005 to 0.02%) of indole, even when 125- to 500-fold excess glucose was present in the medium. When 0.02% indole was added, the fungus showed a lag phase for about 30 h and the uptake of glucose was inhibited. Indole was metabolized by a new pathway via indoxyl (3-hydroxyindole), N-formylanthranilic acid, anthranilic acid, 2,3-dihydroxybenzoic acid, and catechol, which was further degraded by an ortho cleavage. The enzymes N-formylanthranilate deformylase, anthranilate hydroxylase, 2,3-dihydroxybenzoate decarboxylase, and catechol dioxygenase were induced by indole as early as after 5 h of growth, and their activities were demonstrated in a cell-free system.

Kamath, A.; Vaidyanathan, C.S. (Indiana Institute of Science, Bangalore (India))

1990-01-01

433

A new diketopiperazine heterodimer from an endophytic fungus Aspergillus niger.  

PubMed

One new diketopiperazine heterodimer, asperazine A (1), and eight known compounds, asperazine (2), cyclo(d-Phe-l-Trp) (3), cyclo(l-Trp-l-Trp) (4), 4-(hydroxymethyl)-5,6-dihydro-pyran-2-one (5), walterolactone A (6), and campyrones A-C (7-9), were isolated from an endophytic fungus Aspergillus niger. Their structures were determined unequivocally on the basis of extensive spectroscopic data analysis. This is the first report of the presence of compound 3 as a natural product. Cytotoxicity test against human cancer cell lines PC3, A2780, K562, MBA-MD-231, and NCI-H1688 revealed that compounds 1 and 2 had weak activities. PMID:25401948

Li, Xiao-Bin; Li, Yue-Lan; Zhou, Jin-Chuan; Yuan, Hui-Qing; Wang, Xiao-Ning; Lou, Hong-Xiang

2015-02-01

434

Analytical and computational approaches to define the Aspergillus niger secretome  

SciTech Connect

We used computational and mass spectrometric approaches to characterize the Aspergillus niger secretome. The 11,200 gene models predicted in the genome of A. niger strain ATCC 1015 were the data source for the analysis. Depending on the computational methods used, 691 to 881 proteins were predicted to be secreted proteins. We cultured A. niger in six different media and analyzed the extracellular proteins produced using mass spectrometry. A total of 222 proteins were identified, with 39 proteins expressed under all six conditions and 74 proteins expressed under only one condition. The secreted proteins identified by mass spectrometry were used to guide the correction of about 20 gene models. Additional analysis focused on extracellular enzymes of interest for biomass processing. Of the 63 glycoside hydrolases predicted to be capable of hydrolyzing cellulose, hemicellulose or pectin, 94% of the exo-acting enzymes and only 18% of the endo-acting enzymes were experimentally detected.

Tsang, Adrian; Butler, Gregory D.; Powlowski, Justin; Panisko, Ellen A.; Baker, Scott E.

2009-03-01

435

Secondary Metabolites from an Algicolous Aspergillus versicolor Strain  

PubMed Central

Two new compounds, asperversin A (1) and 9?-O-2(2,3-dimethylbut-3-enyl)brevianamide Q (2), and nine known compounds, brevianamide K (3), brevianamide M (4), aversin (5), 6,8-di-O-methylnidurufin (6), 6,8-di-O-methylaverufin (7), 6-O-methylaverufin (8), 5?,8?-epidioxyergosta-6,22-dien-3?-ol (9), ergosta-7,22-diene-3?,5?,6?-triol (10), and 6?-methoxyergosta-7,22-diene-3?,5?-diol (11), were obtained from the culture of Aspergillus versicolor, an endophytic fungus isolated from the marine brown alga Sargassum thunbergii. The structures of these compounds were established by spectroscopic techniques. Compounds 4, 7 and 8 exhibited antibacterial activities against Escherichia coli and Staphyloccocus aureus, and 7 also showed lethality against brine shrimp (Artemia salina) with an LC50 value of 0.5 ?g/mL. PMID:22363226

Miao, Feng-Ping; Li, Xiao-Dong; Liu, Xiang-Hong; Cichewicz, Robert H.; Ji, Nai-Yun

2012-01-01

436

Sequence determination of a satellite RNA isolated from Aspergillus foetidus.  

PubMed

Aspergillus foetidus virus (AfV) has at least two distinct particle types, designated as AfV-fast (F) and AfV-slow (S). AfV-S includes AfV-S1, a victorivirus; AfV-S2, an unclassified satellite RNA; and AfV-S3, a previously uncharacterized dsRNA element. Here, we describe the complete sequence of AfV-S3, which is a short non-coding RNA with no known homologs. AfV-S3 is predicted to form an extended secondary structure, shares a 5' terminus with AfV-S2, and is a satellite RNA possibly dependent on both AfV-S1 and AfV-S2. This work concludes the sequencing of the A. foetidus virome. PMID:25613164

Shah, Unnati A; Kotta-Loizou, Ioly; Coutts, Robert H A

2015-03-01

437

New pathway for the biodegradation of indole in Aspergillus niger.  

PubMed Central

Indole and its derivatives form a class of toxic recalcitrant environmental pollutants. The growth of Aspergillus niger was inhibited by very low concentrations (0.005 to 0.02%) of indole, even when 125- to 500-fold excess glucose was present in the medium. When 0.02% indole was added, the fungus showed a lag phase for about 30 h and the uptake of glucose was inhibited. Indole was metabolized by a new pathway via indoxyl (3-hydroxyindole), N-formylanthranilic acid, anthranilic acid, 2,3-dihydroxybenzoic acid, and catechol, which was further degraded by ortho cleavage. The enzymes N-formylanthranilate deformylase, anthranilate hydroxylase, 2,3-dihydroxybenzoate decarboxylase, and catechol dioxygenase were induced by indole as early as after 5 h of growth, and their activities were demonstrated in a cell-free system. PMID:2310183

Kamath, A V; Vaidyanathan, C S

1990-01-01

438

Aspergillus flavus impairs antioxidative enzymes of Sternochetus mangiferae during mycosis.  

PubMed

Insects depend upon cuticular, humoral and cellular defenses to resist mycosis. However, entomopathogenic fungi through co-evolution have developed mechanisms to counter such defenses. Although a plethora of mechanisms of mycosis by entomopathogenic fungi are well-established, studies on the impairment of insects' antioxidative enzymes during mycosis remain elusive. Here, we used the interaction of Sternochetus mangiferae and its associated entomopathogenic fungus, Aspergillus flavus, as a model to validate our hypothesis. Uninfected insects were exposed to fungal spores for infection to occur. We observed symptoms of mycosis within 48 h of incubation period. Biochemical studies on antioxidative enzymes namely catalase, peroxidase and phenoloxidase, in infected and uninfected insects revealed decreased activity of these enzymes. It appears that A. flavus disables the host's antioxidative enzyme system that plays a crucial role in elimination of oxidative toxins produced during mycosis. PMID:25446036

Jayanthi, Kamala P D; Ayyasamy, Arthikirubha; Kempraj, Vivek; Aurade, Ravindra M; Govindan, Selvakumar; Verghese, Abraham

2015-01-01

439

Two new compounds from gorgonian-associated fungus Aspergillus sp.  

PubMed

One new gamma-lactone derivative 5-hydroxy-3-isopropyl-4-methoxyfuranone (1) and one new lactam derivative dehydrated-marinamide (2), along with two known compounds marinamide (3) and marinamide methyl ester (4) were isolated from the fermentation broth of the marine gorgonian-associated fungus Aspergillus sp. SCSGAF0093. Their structures were elucidated on the basis of spectroscopic and spectrometric analysis. Compound 1 showed significant toxicity to brine shrimp (Artemia salina) with a median lethal concentration (LC50) of 1.25 microM, and 3 inhibited protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B (PTP1B) with a half maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) of 23.3 microg/mL. PMID:24079168

Xu, Xin-Ya; Zhang, Xiao-Yong; He, Fei; Peng, Jiang; Nong, Xu-Hua; Qi, Shu-Hua

2013-08-01

440

Aspergillus Niger Genomics: Past, Present and into the Future  

SciTech Connect

Aspergillus niger is a filamentous ascomycete fungus that is ubiquitous in the environment and has been implicated in opportunistic infections of humans. In addition to its role as an opportunistic human pathogen, A. niger is economically important as a fermentation organism used for the production of citric acid. Industrial citric acid production by A. niger represents one of the most efficient, highest yield bioprocesses in use currently by industry. The genome size of A. niger is estimated to be between 35.5 and 38.5 megabases (Mb) divided among eight chromosomes/linkage groups that vary in size from 3.5 - 6.6 Mb. Currently, there are three independent A. niger genome projects, an indication of the economic importance of this organism. The rich amount of data resulting from these multiple A. niger genome sequences will be used for basic and applied research programs applicable to fermentation process development, morphology and pathogenicity.

Baker, Scott E.

2006-09-01

441

In-silico analysis of Aspergillus niger beta-glucosidases  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Genomic data mining was carried out and revealed a total of seventeen ?-glucosidases in filamentous fungi Aspergillus niger. Two of them belonged to glycoside hydrolase family 1 (GH1) while the rest belonged to genes in family 3 (GH3). These proteins were then named according to the nomenclature as proposed by the International Union of Biochemistry (IUB), starting from the lowest pI and glycoside hydrolase family. Their properties were predicted using various bionformatic tools showing the presence of domains for signal peptide and active sites. Interestingly, one particular domain, PA14 (protective antigen) was present in four of the enzymes, predicted to be involved in carbohydrate binding. A phylogenetic tree grouped the two glycoside hydrolase families with GH1 and GH3 related organisms. This study showed that the various domains present in these ?-glucosidases are postulated to be crucial for the survival of this fungus, as supported by other analysis.

Yeo S., L.; Shazilah, K.; Suhaila, S.; Abu Bakar F., D.; Murad A. M., A.

2014-09-01

442

Preparation, characterization and application of Aspergillus sp. xylanase immobilized on Eudragit S-100  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aspergillus sp. 5 (strain 5) and Aspergillus sp. 44 (strain 44) produced xylanase (34.3 and 32.7 IU ml?1, respectively) with very low levels of cellulases when grown on 1% wheat bran medium. Xylanase was non-covalently immobilized on Eudragit S-100 for saccharification. The system retained 70 and 80% of strain 5 and strain 44 xylanase activity, respectively. On immobilization, optimum temperature

P. V Gawande; M. Y Kamat

1998-01-01

443

Purification of Aspergillus sp xylanase by precipitation with an anionic polymer Eudragit S100  

Microsoft Academic Search

The separation of xylanases from the crude culture filtrates of Aspergillus sp 5 and Aspergillus sp 44 was carried out using affinity precipitation with a commercially available enteric polymer Eudragit S100. With affinity precipitation the yield of enzyme was 85.3, 82.7% with 10.8, 4.08-folds (specific activity of ammonium sulphate precipitate was taken as 100%) increases in the specific activity of

P. V Gawande; M. Y Kamat

1999-01-01

444

Comparative study of Aspergillus mycotoxin production on enriched media and construction material  

Microsoft Academic Search

  Isolates of Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus fumigatus from indoor air were compared with a known mycotoxin producer for their capacity to produce mycotoxins on a variety of enrichment\\u000a media and with growth on indoor substrates such as ceiling tile and wall board. In enrichment media, four of seven isolates\\u000a of A. flavus produced at least one aflatoxin and both isolates

P Ren; D G Ahearn; S A Crow Jr

1999-01-01

445

Study on characteristics of biocometabolic removal of omethoate by the Aspergillus spp  

Microsoft Academic Search

A strain Aspergillus spp. F1 which could effectively metabolized omethoate was screened out in this study. F1 tended to form granula with diameter 4–5mm after 5 days culture in shaker. The pH range from 4.5 to 6.5 was the suitable pH range for growth and metabolism of Aspergillus spp. F1. The maximum omethoate removal rate was about 3.0mg\\/(hL), and the

Meng Chun; S. Chngchun; Guo Yanghao; Shi Xian’ai; Cheng Jianfeng; Yan Fen

2004-01-01

446

New PCR method to differentiate species in the Aspergillus niger aggregate  

Microsoft Academic Search

The DNA that encodes the 5.8S gene of the ribosomal RNA and the two intergenic spacers ITS1 and ITS2 of the two proposed type strains of the Aspergillus niger aggregate (A. niger and Aspergillus tubingensis) have been sequenced. By comparison of sequences we have found that both species could be differentiated by RsaI digestion of the PCR products of the

F. Accensi; J. Cano; L. Figuera; M. L. Abarca; F. J. Cabańes

1999-01-01

447

Immunosuppressive Compounds Exhibit Particular Effects on Functional Properties of Human Anti-Aspergillus TH1 Cells  

PubMed Central

Allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplant (HSCT) recipients are at high risk for invasive aspergillosis. Whereas adoptive immunotherapy transferring donor-derived anti-Aspergillus TH1 cells has been shown to be beneficial for HSCT recipients suffering from invasive aspergillosis, little is known about the impact of commonly used immunosuppressants on the functional properties of anti-Aspergillus TH1 cells. Anti-Aspergillus TH1 cells were coincubated with different concentrations of methylprednisolone, cyclosporine (CsA), mycophenolic acid (MPA), the active component of mycophenolate mofetil, and rapamycin. Immunosuppressants were tested in concentrations reflecting common target levels in serum and in significantly lower and higher concentrations. Apoptosis of anti-Aspergillus TH1 cells, as well as proliferation and production of gamma interferon (IFN-?) and CD154 upon restimulation, was evaluated in the presence and absence of immunosuppressive compounds. All dosages of CsA, MPA, and methylprednisolone significantly decreased the number of viable anti-Aspergillus TH1 cells in the cell culture, which was due partly to an impaired proliferative capacity of the cells and partly to an increased rate of apoptosis. In addition, CsA significantly decreased the number of IFN-?-producing cells and had the highest impact of all immunosuppressants on IFN-? levels in the supernatant. CsA also significantly decreased the expression of CD154 by anti-Aspergillus TH1 cells. Variant dosages of immunosuppressants exhibit particular effects on essential functional properties of anti-Aspergillus TH1 cells. Our findings may have an important impact on the design of clinical trials evaluating the therapeutic benefit of anti-Aspergillus TH1 cells in allogeneic HSCT recipients suffering from invasive aspergillosis. PMID:24711569

Tramsen, Lars; Schmidt, Stanislaw; Roeger, Frauke; Schubert, Ralf; Salzmann-Manrique, Emilia; Latgé, Jean-Paul; Klingebiel, Thomas

2014-01-01

448

Isolation and characterization of the Aspergillus parasiticus pacC gene  

E-print Network

and carcinogenic secondary metabolites produced by several Aspergi llus species. Ambient pH has been determined to affect mycotoxin (i. e. aflatoxin and sterigmatocystin) biosynthesis in Aspergillus parasiticus and Aspergillus nidulans, respectively.... The construction of constitutive mutations of pacC is achieved by engineering a truncated protein, which acts as the activated form. This permits an additional level of investigation into the effects of PacC and pH regulation besides that of a null mutation...

Pinero, David

1999-01-01

449

Heteroduplex Panel Analysis, a Novel Method for Genetic Identification of Aspergillus Section Flavi Strains  

Microsoft Academic Search

For genetic identification of Aspergillus Section Flavi isolates and detection of intraspecific variation, we developed a novel method for heteroduplex panel analysis (HPA) utilizing fragments of the internal tran- scribed spacer (ITS) regions (ITS1-5.8S-ITS2) of the rRNA gene that was PCR amplified with universal primers. The method involves formation of heteroduplexes with a set of reference fragments amplified from Aspergillus

YUKO KUMEDA; TSUTOMU ASAO

2001-01-01

450

Parallels in the evolution of the two largest New and Old World seed-beetle genera (Coleoptera, Bruchidae).  

PubMed

This study provides the first phylogenetic analysis of a large sample of the two largest genera of seed-beetles, Acanthoscelides Schilsky and Bruchidius Schilsky, which mostly feed on legumes (Fabaceae). The goal of this study was to investigate evolutionary patterns in relation to biogeography and host-plant associations. We used three mitochondrial molecular markers and parsimony and Bayesian inference methods to reconstruct the phylogeny of 76 species. In addition, we critically reviewed host-plant records in the literature for these two bruchid genera. Our results demonstrated the existence of two major clades, one New World and one largely Old World, which generally correspond to the two genera. Yet, current classification of several species is erroneous, so that both genera as currently defined are paraphyletic. We highlighted a strong trend toward specialization (with high taxonomic conservatism in host-plant use) exhibited by the two studied genera. However, we showed the existence of several host shifts during the evolution of this group of bruchids. Our phylogenetic hypotheses and our evaluation of host-plant associations both suggest that the two genera have undergone parallel evolution, as they have independently colonized similar host plants in their respective areas of distribution. Our estimation of divergence times indicated a more ancient origin for bruchids than that suggested by the fossil records. Interestingly, the suggested timing of diversification is consistent with the hypothesis of a radiation that could have occurred contemporaneously with the diversification of their legume hosts. PMID:16262855

Kergoat, G J; Alvarez, N; Hossaert-McKey, M; Faure, N; Silvain, J-F

2005-11-01

451

Subjects: Trematoda And Trematode Diseases, Part 2: Supergenera And Genera C  

E-print Network

, Agamo- distomum, Cercaria, and Metacercaria are treated for convenience as if they were genera. However, they require no type species and have no standing in nomenclature. See the recent ruling on collective group names in Articles 42 and 57...). biparasitica (Goto, 1894) ? r i ? e, E. W. , 1960a, 240, 241(tod). caballero! (Winter, 1955) Pr i ? e, E. W. , 1960a,241. foliacea (Goto, 1894) Price, E. W. , 1960a, 241. gouri (Chauhan, 1952) Price, E.W., 1960a, 241. katsuwoni (Ishii, 1936) Price, E...

Roach, Katharine F.; Breen, Virginia L.

1964-01-01

452

Phylogenetic analysis of the highland papayas ( Vasconcellea ) and allied genera (Caricaceae) using PCR-RFLP  

Microsoft Academic Search

The chloroplast and mitochondrial DNA diversity of 61 genotypes belonging to 18 Vasconcellea species, the so-called highland papayas, was studied by PCR-RFLP analysis of two non-coding cpDNA regions ( trnM- rbcL and trnK1- trnK2) and one non-coding mtDNA region ( nad4\\/1- nad4\\/2). This sample set was supplemented with six genotypes belonging to three other Caricaceae genera: the monotypic genus Carica,

B. Van Droogenbroeck; T. Kyndt; I. Maertens; E. Romeijn-Peeters; X. Scheldeman; J. P. Romero-Motochi; P. Van Damme; P. Goetghebeur; G. Gheysen

2004-01-01

453

FluG affects secretion in colonies of Aspergillus niger.  

PubMed

Colonies of Aspergillus niger are characterized by zonal heterogeneity in growth, sporulation, gene expression and secretion. For instance, the glucoamylase gene glaA is more highly expressed at the periphery of colonies when compared to the center. As a consequence, its encoded protein GlaA is mainly secreted at the outer part of the colony. Here, multiple copies of amyR were introduced in A. niger. Most transformants over-expressing this regulatory gene of amylolytic genes still displayed heterogeneous glaA expression and GlaA secretion. However, heterogeneity was abolished in transformant UU-A001.13 by expressing glaA and secreting GlaA throughout the mycelium. Sequencing the genome of UU-A001.13 revealed that transformation had been accompanied by deletion of part of the fluG gene and disrupting its 3' end by integration of a transformation vector. Inactivation of fluG in the wild-type background of A. niger also resulted in breakdown of starch under the whole colony. Asexual development of the ?fluG strain was not affected, unlike what was previously shown in Aspergillus nidulans. Genes encoding proteins with a signal sequence for secretion, including part of the amylolytic genes, were more often downregulated in the central zone of maltose-grown ?fluG colonies and upregulated in the intermediate part and periphery when compared to the wild-type. Together, these data indicate that FluG of A. niger is a repressor of secretion. PMID:25370014

Wang, Fengfeng; Krijgsheld, Pauline; Hulsman, Marc; de Bekker, Charissa; Müller, Wally H; Reinders, Marcel; de Vries, Ronald P; Wösten, Han A B

2015-01-01

454

Fumonisin and Ochratoxin Production in Industrial Aspergillus niger Strains  

PubMed Central

Aspergillus niger is perhaps the most important fungus used in biotechnology, and is also one of the most commonly encountered fungi contaminating foods and feedstuffs, and occurring in soil and indoor environments. Many of its industrial applications have been given GRAS status (generally regarded as safe). However, A. niger has the potential to produce two groups of potentially carcinogenic mycotoxins: fumonisins and ochratoxins. In this study all available industrial and many non-industrial strains of A. niger (180 strains) as well as 228 strains from 17 related black Aspergillus species were examined for mycotoxin production. None of the related 17 species of black Aspergilli produced fumonisins. Fumonisins (B2, B4, and B6) were detected in 81% of A. niger, and ochratoxin A in 17%, while 10% of the strains produced both mycotoxins. Among the industrial strains the same ratios were 83%, 33% and 26% respectively. Some of the most frequently used strains in industry NRRL 337, 3112 and 3122 produced both toxins and several strains used for citric acid production were among the best producers of fumonisins in pure agar culture. Most strains used for other biotechnological processes also produced fumonisins. Strains optimized through random mutagenesis usually maintained their mycotoxin production capability. Toxigenic strains were also able to produce the toxins on media suggested for citric acid production with most of the toxins found in the biomass, thereby questioning the use of the remaining biomass as animal feed. In conclusion it is recommended to use strains of A. niger with inactive or inactivated gene clusters for fumonisins and ochratoxins, or to choose isolates for biotechnological uses in related non-toxigenic species such as A. tubingensis, A. brasiliensis, A vadensis or A. acidus, which neither produce fumonisins nor ochratoxins. PMID:21853139

Frisvad, Jens C.; Larsen, Thomas O.; Thrane, Ulf; Meijer, Martin; Varga, Janos; Samson, Robert A.; Nielsen, Kristian F.

2011-01-01

455

Analyses of black Aspergillus species of peanut and maize for ochratoxins and fumonisins.  

PubMed

The genus Aspergillus section Nigri, or the black aspergilli, represents genetically closely related species that produce the mycotoxins, ochratoxins and the fumonisins. Fumonisin B1 (FB1) is of an added concern because it is also a virulence factor for maize. Our preliminary data indicated that black aspergilli could develop asymptomatic infections with maize and peanuts plants. Symptomless infections are potential problems, because under favorable conditions, there is a potential for accumulation of ochratoxins and the fumonisins in contaminated postharvest crops. In the present report, the ability of black aspergilli from peanuts and maize to produce ochratoxin A and FB1 on maize kernels was assessed. One hundred fifty strains from peanuts and maize were isolated from several southeastern and midwestern states. Aspergillus nigri (A. nigri var. nigri) was the dominant species (87%), while Aspergillus foetidus, Aspergillus japonicus, Aspergillus tubingensis, and Aspergillus carbonarius were infrequently isolated. None of the wild isolates produced detectable amounts of ochratoxins. However, we do report the occurrence of the fumonisins B1, B2, and B3. Of 54 field isolates, 30% (n = 16) produced FB1, 61% (n = 33) produced FB2, and 44% (n = 24) produced FB3. The amounts of fumonisins produced during the test period of 30 days suggest that these strains might be weak to moderate producers of fumonisin on maize. To our knowledge, this is a first report of FB1 and FB3 production by isolates of black aspergilli from an American cereal and legume. PMID:24780336

Palencia, Edwin R; Mitchell, Trevor R; Snook, Maurice E; Glenn, Anthony E; Gold, Scott; Hinton, Dorothy M; Riley, Ronald T; Bacon, Charles W

2014-05-01

456

Environmental Dimensionality Controls the Interaction of Phagocytes with the Pathogenic Fungi Aspergillus fumigatus and Candida albicans  

PubMed Central

The fungal pathogens Aspergillus fumigatus and Candida albicans are major health threats for immune-compromised patients. Normally, macrophages and neutrophil granulocytes phagocytose inhaled Aspergillus conidia in the two-dimensional (2-D) environment of the alveolar lumen or Candida growing in tissue microabscesses, which are composed of a three-dimensional (3-D) extracellular matrix. However, neither the cellular dynamics, the per-cell efficiency, the outcome of this interaction, nor the environmental impact on this process are known. Live imaging shows that the interaction of phagocytes with Aspergillus or Candida in 2-D liquid cultures or 3-D collagen environments is a dynamic process that includes phagocytosis, dragging, or the mere touching of fungal elements. Neutrophils and alveolar macrophages efficiently phagocytosed or dragged Aspergillus conidia in 2-D, while in 3-D their function was severely impaired. The reverse was found for phagocytosis of Candida. The phagocytosis rate was very low in 2-D, while in 3-D most neutrophils internalized multiple yeasts. In competitive assays, neutrophils primarily incorporated Aspergillus conidia in 2-D and Candida yeasts in 3-D despite frequent touching of the other pathogen. Thus, phagocytes show activity best in the environment where a pathogen is naturally encountered. This could explain why “delocalized” Aspergillus infections such as hematogeneous spread are almost uncontrollable diseases, even in immunocompetent individuals. PMID:17274685

Hasenberg, Mike; Gunzer, Frank; Bilitewski, Ursula; Klippel, Nina; Rohde, Manfred; Brock, Matthias; Brakhage, Axel A; Gunzer, Matthias

2007-01-01

457

Alkaline Serine Proteinase: A Major Allergen of Aspergillus oryzae and Its Cross-Reactivity with Penicillium citrinum  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background:Aspergillus species are common indoor airborne fungi and have been considered as causative agents of human allergic disorders. However, allergens of different Aspergillus species have not been effectively characterized. The object of this study was to identify and characterize IgE-binding components of Aspergillus oryzae. Methods. Allergens of A. oryzae were identified by immunoblot analysis using sera from asthmatic patients. The

Horng-Der Shen; Win-Ling Lin; Ming F. Tam; Soo-Ray Wang; Jaw-Ji Tsai; Hong Chou; Shou-Hwa Han

1998-01-01

458

Characterization of the gene encoding an extracellular laccase of Myceliophthora thermophila and analysis of the recombinant enzyme expressed in Aspergillus oryzae.  

PubMed Central

A genomic DNA segment encoding an extracellular laccase was isolated from the thermophilic fungus Myceliophthora thermophila, and the nucleotide sequence of this gene was determined. The deduced amino acid sequence of M. thermophila laccase (MtL) shows homology to laccases from diverse fungal genera. A vector containing the M. thermophila laccase coding region, under transcriptional control of an Aspergillus oryzae alpha-amylase gene promoter and terminator, was constructed for heterologous expression in A. oryzae. The recombinant laccase expressed in A. oryzae was purified to electrophoretic homogeneity by anion-exchange chromatography. Amino-terminal sequence data suggests that MtL is synthesized as a preproenzyme. The molecular mass was estimated to be approximately 100 to 140 kDa by gel filtration on Sephacryl S-300 and to be 85 kDa by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Carbohydrate analysis revealed that MtL contains 40 to 60% glycosylation. The laccase shows an absorbance spectrum that is typical of blue copper oxidases, with maxima at 276 and 589 nm, and contains 3.9 copper atoms per subunit. With syringaldazine as a substrate, MtL has optimal activity at pH 6.5 and retains nearly 100% of its activity when incubated at 60 degrees C for 20 min. This is the first report of the cloning and heterologous expression of a thermostable laccase. PMID:9251203

Berka, R M; Schneider, P; Golightly, E J; Brown, S H; Madden, M; Brown, K M; Halkier, T; Mondorf, K; Xu, F

1997-01-01

459

Anomopterellidae Restored, with Two New Genera and Its Phylogeny in Evanioidea (Hymenoptera)  

PubMed Central

Background Anomopterellidae was originally classified as a family within the Evanioidea, and later lowered to a subfamily, Anomopterellinae, of Praeaulacidae. Up to date, only Rasnitsyn 1975, with four species, was assigned to Anomopterellinae. Due to their special wing venation and their metasomal attachment similar to those known in Evanioidea, the systematic position of Anomopterellinae in Evanioidea has been in contention. Principal Findings Here we report a new fossil genus Synaphopterella gen. nov. and six species from the Middle Jurassic of China and transfer Anomopterella stenocera Rasnitsyn, 1975, from Upper Jurassic of Kazakhstan, to Choristopterella gen. nov. We place these three genera in the restored family Anomopterellidae and provide a key to known genera and species. Conclusions/Significance Based on new fossil specimens and phylogenetic analyses, Praeaulacidae has the most basal position in Evanioidea and it is justifiable to restore Anomopterellidae Rasnitsyn, 1975 as a full family. Comparing the size of all described anomopterellids from China, Mongolia and Kazakhstan, we conclude that the species from China have larger bodies and forewings. Diversity of the Praeaulacidae and Anomopterellidae in the late Middle Jurassic of Daohugou suggests that Evanioidea appeared at least before the late Middle Jurassic. PMID:24340047

Li, Longfeng; Rasnitsyn, Alexandr P.; Shih, Chungkun; Ren, Dong

2013-01-01

460

Phylogenetic relationships among Lactuca (Asteraceae) species and related genera based on ITS-1 DNA sequences.  

PubMed

Internal transcribed spacer (ITS-1) sequences from 97 accessions representing 23 species of Lactuca and related genera were determined and used to evaluate species relationships of Lactuca sensu lato (s.l.). The ITS-1 phylogenies, calculated using PAUP and PHYLIP, correspond better to the classification of Feráková than to other classifications evaluated, although the inclusion of sect. Lactuca subsect. Cyanicae is not supported. Therefore, exclusion of subsect. Cyanicae from Lactuca sensu Feráková is proposed. The amended genus contains the entire gene pool (sensu Harlan and De Wet) of cultivated lettuce (Lactuca sativa). The position of the species in the amended classification corresponds to their position in the lettuce gene pool. In the ITS-1 phylogenies, a clade with L. sativa, L. serriola, L. dregeana, L. altaica, and L. aculeata represents the primary gene pool. L. virosa and L. saligna, branching off closest to this clade, encompass the secondary gene pool. L. virosa is possibly of hybrid origin. The primary and secondary gene pool species are classified in sect. Lactuca subsect. Lactuca. The species L. quercina, L. viminea, L. sibirica, and L. tatarica, branching off next, represent the tertiary gene pool. They are classified in Lactuca sect. Lactucopsis, sect. Phaenixopus, and sect. Mulgedium, respectively. L. perennis and L. tenerrima, classified in sect. Lactuca subsect. Cyanicae, form clades with species from related genera and are not part of the lettuce gene pool. PMID:21680311

Koopman, W J; Guetta, E; van de Wiel, C C; Vosman, B; van den Berg, R G

1998-11-01

461

18S rDNA phylogeny of lamproderma and allied genera (Stemonitales, Myxomycetes, Amoebozoa).  

PubMed

The phylogenetic position of the slime-mould genus Lamproderma (Myxomycetes, Amoebozoa) challenges traditional taxonomy: although it displays the typical characters of the order Stemonitales, it appears to be sister to Physarales. This study provides a small subunit (18S or SSU) ribosomal RNA gene-based phylogeny of Lamproderma and its allies, with new sequences from 49 specimens in 12 genera. We found that the order Stemonitales and Lamproderma were both ancestral to Physarales and that Lamproderma constitutes several clades intermingled with species of Diacheopsis, Colloderma and Elaeomyxa. We suggest that these genera may have evolved from Lamproderma by multiple losses of fruiting body stalks and that many taxonomic revisions are needed. We found such high genetic diversity within three Lamproderma species that they probably consist of clusters of sibling species. We discuss the contrasts between genetic and morphological divergence and implications for the morphospecies concept, highlighting the phylogenetically most reliable morphological characters and pointing to others that have been overestimated. In addition, we showed that the first part (~600 bases) of the SSU rDNA gene is a valuable tool for phylogeny in Myxomycetes, since it displayed sufficient variability to distinguish closely related taxa and never failed to cluster together specimens considered of the same species. PMID:22530009

Fiore-Donno, Anna Maria; Kamono, Akiko; Meyer, Marianne; Schnittler, Martin; Fukui, Manabu; Cavalier-Smith, Thomas

2012-01-01

462

Systematic relations among Philornis Meinert, Passeromyia Rodhain & Villeneuve and allied genera (Diptera, Muscidae).  

PubMed

Passeromyia Rodhain & Villeneuve and Philornis Meinert are the only known Muscidae whose larvae are parasites of birds. Passeromyia is known from the Old World and Philornis from the New World. Opinions on the relations between these two genera and their systematic positions among the Muscidae have varied. This survey aims to clear the discussion on the relations of Passeromyia, Philornis, and of some allied genera and give an overview of the classification of the Muscidae based on cladistic methodology. Thirty-two terminal taxa (2 of them outgroups) were analysed based on 54 characters. The cladistic analysis, carried out using Hennig86, resulted in 1 minimal tree (length 373), with a consistency index of 71 and a retention index of 85. Philornis and Passeromyia belong to a monophyletic group, supported by a synapomorphy, the presence of a cocoon, enclosing the pupa. The phylogenetic relationships found in this group are: (Muscina (Philornis (Phaonina ((Fraserella, Passeromyia) (Synthesiomyia (Calliphoroides, Reinwardtia)))))). Other probable monophyletic muscid groups, like Muscinae (with Stomoxyini and Muscini) and Coenosiinae (with Limnophorini and Coenosiini) are also discussed. Phylogenetic patterns within Reinwardtinae and Dichaetomyiinae could be explained by a Gondwana distribution. PMID:14509844

Couri, M S; Carvalho, C J

2003-05-01

463

Contrasting genomic patterns and infection strategies of two co-existing Bacteroidetes podovirus genera.  

PubMed

Bacterial viruses (phages) are abundant, ecologically important biological entities. However, our understanding of their impact is limited by model systems that are primarily not well represented in nature, e.g. Enterophages and their hosts. Here, we investigate genomic characteristics and infection strategies among six aquatic Bacteroidetes phages that represent two genera of exceptionally large (?70-75?kb genome) podoviruses, which were isolated from the same seawater sample using Cellulophaga baltica as host. Quantitative host range studies reveal that these genera have contrasting narrow (specialist) and broad (generalist) host ranges, with one-step growth curves revealing reduced burst sizes for the generalist phages. Genomic comparisons suggest candidate genes in each genus that might explain this host range variation, as well as provide hypotheses about receptors in the hosts. One generalist phage, ?38:1, was more deeply characterized, as its infection strategy switched from lytic on its original host to either inefficient lytic or lysogenic on an alternative host. If lysogenic, this phage was maintained extrachromosomally in the alternative host and could not be induced by mitomycin C. This work provides fundamental knowledge regarding phage-host ranges and their genomic drivers while also exploring the 'host environment' as a driver for switching phage replication mode. PMID:24428166

Holmfeldt, Karin; Howard-Varona, Cristina; Solonenko, Natalie; Sullivan, Matthew B

2014-08-01

464

Fine Structure of Body Wall Cuticle of Females of Eight Genera of Heteroderidae  

PubMed Central

Body wall cuticle of adult females of eight genera within the Heteroderidae was examined by transmission electron microscopy for comparison with previously studied species within the family. Cuticle structure was used to test some current hypotheses of phylogeny of Heteroderidae and to evaluate intrageneric variability in cuticle layering. Verutus, Rhizonema, and Meloidodera possess striated cuticle surfaces and have the simplest layering, suggesting that striations have not necessarily arisen repeatedly in Heteroderidae through convergent or parallel evolution. Atalodera and Thecavermiculatus possess similar cuticles with derived characteristics, strengthening the hypothesis that the two genera are sister groups. Similarly, the cuticle of Cactodera resembles the specialized cuticle of Globodera and Punctodera in having a basal layer (D) and a surface layer infused with electron-dense substance. Heterodera betulae has a unique cuticle in which the thickest layer (C) is infiltrated with an electron-dense matrix. Little intrageneric difference was found between cuticles of two species of Meloidodera or between two species of Atalodera. However, Atalodera ucri has a basal layer (E) not found in other Heteroderidae. The most striking intrageneric variation in cuticle structure was observed between the thin three-layered cuticle of Sarisodera africana and the much thicker four-layered cuticle of Sarisodera hydrophila; results do not support monophyly of Sarisodera. PMID:19294096

Cliff, G. M.; Baldwin, J. G.

1985-01-01

465

Investigation of sporulation in the Desulfotomaculum genus: a genomic comparison with the genera Bacillus and Clostridium.  

PubMed

The genus Desulfotomaculum, belonging to the Firmicutes, comprises strictly anaerobic and endospore-forming bacteria capable of dissimilatory sulfate reduction. These microorganisms are metabolically versatile and are widely distributed in the environment. Spore formation allows them to survive prolonged environmental stress. Information on the mechanism of sporulation in Desulfotomaculum species is scarce. Herein, this process was probed from a genomic standpoint, using the Bacillus subtilis model system as a reference and clostridial sporulation for comparison. Desulfotomaculum falls somewhere in between the Bacillus and Clostridium in terms of conservation of sporulation proteins. Furthermore, it showcased the conservation of a core regulatory cascade throughout genera, while uncovering variability in the initiation of sporulation and the structural characteristics of spores from different genera. In particular, while in Clostridium species sporulation is not initiated by a phosphorelay, Desulfotomaculum species harbour homologues of the B.?subtilis proteins involved in this process. Conversely, both Clostridium and Desulfotomaculum species conserve very few B.?subtilis structural proteins, particularly those found in the outer layers of the spore. Desulfotomaculum species seem to share greater similarity to the outer layers of Clostridium difficile. PMID:25132579

Dalla Vecchia, Elena; Visser, Michael; Stams, Alfons J M; Bernier-Latmani, Rizlan

2014-12-01

466

Chromosome numbers and karyotype evolution in holoparasitic Orobanche (Orobanchaceae) and related genera  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Chromosome numbers and karyotypes of species of Orobanche, Cistanche, and Diphelypaea (Orobanchaceae) were investigated, and 108 chromosome counts of 53 taxa, 19 counted for the first time, are presented with a thorough compilation of previously published data. Additionally, karyotypes of representatives of these genera, including Orobanche sects. Orobanche and Trionychon, are reported. Cistanche (x = 20) has large meta- to submetacentric chromosomes, while those of Diphelypaea (x = 19) are medium-sized submeta-to acrocentrics. Within three analyzed sections of Orobanche, sects. Myzorrhiza (x = 24) and Trionychon (x = 12) possess medium-sized submeta- to acrocentrics, while sect. Orobanche (x = 19) has small, mostly meta- to submetacentric, chromosomes. Polyploidy is unevenly distributed in Orobanche and restricted to a few lineages, e.g., O. sect. Myzorrhiza or Orobanche gracilis and its relatives (sect. Orobanche). The distribution of basic chromosome numbers supports the groups found by molecular phylogenetic analyses: Cistanche has x = 20, the Orobanche-group (Orobanche sect. Orobanche, Diphelypaea) has x = 19, and the Phelipanche-group (Orobanche sects. Gymnocaulis, Myzorrhiza, Trionychon) has x = 12, 24. A model of chromosome number evolution in Orobanche and related genera is presented: from two ancestral base numbers, xh = 5 and xh = 6, independent polyploidizations led to x = 20 (Cistanche) and (after dysploidization) x = 19 (Orobanche-group) and to x = 12 and x = 24 (Phelipanche-group), respectively.

Schneeweiss, G.M.; Palomeque, T.; Colwell, A.E.; Weiss-Schneeweiss, H.

2004-01-01

467

Molecular phylogeny of the lionfish genera Dendrochirus and Pterois (Scorpaenidae, Pteroinae) based on mitochondrial DNA sequences.  

PubMed

This study investigates the molecular phylogeny of seven lionfishes of the genera Dendrochirus and Pterois. MP, ML, and NJ phylogenetic analysis based on 964 bp of partial mitochondrial DNA sequences (cytochrome b and 16S rDNA) revealed two main clades: (1) "Pterois" clade (Pterois miles and Pterois volitans), and (2) "Pteropterus-Dendrochirus" clade (remainder of the sampled species). The position of Dendrochirus brachypterus either basal to the main clades or in the "Pteropterus-Dendrochirus" clade cannot be resolved. However, the molecular phylogeny did not support the current separation of the genera Pterois and Dendrochirus. The siblings P. miles and P. volitans are clearly separated and our results support the proposed allopatric or parapatric distribution in the Indian and Pacific Ocean. However, the present analysis cannot reveal if P. miles and P. volitans are separate species or two populations of a single species, because the observed separation in different clades can be either explained by speciation or lineage sorting. Molecular clock estimates for the siblings P. miles and P. volitans suggest a divergence time of 2.4-8.3 mya, which coincide with geological events that created vicariance between populations of the Indian and Pacific Ocean. PMID:12927126

Kochzius, Marc; Söller, Rainer; Khalaf, Maroof A; Blohm, Dietmar

2003-09-01

468

The occurrence of molds in patients with chronic sinusitis.  

PubMed

Chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS) is a common inflammatory condition of nasal and paranasal sinus mucosa. Although pathogenic bacteria were postulated as main etiological factor responsible for most cases of CRS, the involvement of molds was recently proved in some cases. The aim of the study was to conduct mycological analysis of material obtained from patients operated on due to chronic sinusitis. The study included 107 patients, 45 women and 62 men. During the surgery, a fragment of mucosa from the region of the ethmoid bulla was obtained as microbiological characteristics of this material closely resemble those of sinus mucosa. In addition, maxillary sinus lavage was obtained. The control group comprised patients without chronic sinusitis. The dithiothreitol solution method was used for the lavage examination. The tissue material (mucosal fragment from the region of the ethmoid bulla) was incubated in 2% liquid Sabouraud medium for 24 h. The material was inoculated onto culture media. The presence of molds was detected in 67% of examined samples. Overall, 41 species belonging to 12 genera were isolated. The most frequently detected genera included Penicillium spp. (46%) and Aspergillus spp. (16%). In addition, Cladosporium spp. (11%), Fusarium spp. (7%), Acremonium spp. (4%), Eurotium spp. (4%), Alternaria spp. (2%), Chaetomium spp. (1%), Geotrichum spp. (1%), Verticillium spp. (1%), Rhizopus spp. (1%), and some unidentified colonies (5%) were isolated. Penicillium crustosum, Penicillium citrinum, Aspergillus niger, Cladosporium cladosporioides, and Fusarium verticillioides were the most prevalent species. PMID:24121778

Twaru?ek, Magdalena; Soszczy?ska, Ewelina; Winiarski, Piotr; Zwierz, Aleksander; Grajewski, Jan

2014-05-01

469

Evaluation of the Aspergillus Western blot IgG kit for diagnosis of chronic aspergillosis.  

PubMed

Immunoprecipitin detection (IPD) is the current reference confirmatory technique for anti-Aspergillus antibody detection; however, the lack of standardization is a critical drawback of this assay. In this study, we evaluated the performance of the Aspergillus Western blot (Asp-WB) IgG kit (LDBio Diagnostics, Lyon, France), a recently commercialized immunoblot assay for the diagnosis of various clinical presentations of chronic aspergillosis. Three hundred eight serum samples from 158 patients with aspergillosis sensu lato (s.l.) were analyzed. More specifically, 267 serum samples were derived from patients with Aspergillus disease, including 89 cases of chronic pulmonary aspergillosis, 10 of aspergilloma, and 32 of allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis, while 41 samples were from patients with Aspergillus colonization, including 15 cystic fibrosis (CF) and 12 non-CF patients. For blood donor controls, the Asp-WB specificity was 94%, while the kit displayed a sensitivity for the aspergillosis s.l. diagnosis of 88.6%, with a diagnostic odds ratio (DOR) of 119 (95% confidence interval [CI], 57 to 251). The DOR values were 185.22 (95% CI,78.79 to 435.45) and 43.74 (95% CI, 15.65 to 122.20) for the diagnosis of Aspergillus disease and Aspergillus colonization, respectively. Among the patients, the sensitivities of the Asp-WB in the diagnosis of Aspergillus colonization were 100% and 41.7% in CF and non-CF patients, respectively. The Asp-WB yielded fewer false-negative results than did IPD. In conclusion, the Asp-WB kit performed well for the diagnosis of various clinical presentations of aspergillosis in nonimmunocompromised patients, with an enhanced standardization and a higher sensitivity than with IPD, which is the current reference method. PMID:25392351

Oliva, A; Flori, P; Hennequin, C; Dubus, J-C; Reynaud-Gaubert, M; Charpin, D; Vergnon, J M; Gay, P; Colly, A; Piarroux, R; Pelloux, H; Ranque, S

2015-01-01

470

Identification of Aspergillus species using internal transcribed spacer regions 1 and 2.  

PubMed

Aspergillus species are the most frequent cause of invasive mold infections in immunocompromised patients. Although over 180 species are found within the genus, 3 species, Aspergillus flavus, A. fumigatus, and A. terreus, account for most cases of invasive aspergillosis (IA), with A. nidulans, A. niger, and A. ustus being rare causes of IA. The ability to distinguish between the various clinically relevant Aspergillus species may have diagnostic value, as certain species are associated with higher mortality and increased virulence and vary in their resistance to antifungal therapy. A method to identify Aspergillus at the species level and differentiate it from other true pathogenic and opportunistic molds was developed using the 18S and 28S rRNA genes for primer binding sites. The contiguous internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region, ITS 1-5.8S-ITS 2, from referenced strains and clinical isolates of aspergilli and other fungi were amplified, sequenced, and compared with non-reference strain sequences in GenBank. ITS amplicons from Aspergillus species ranged in size from 565 to 613 bp. Comparison of reference strains and GenBank sequences demonstrated that both ITS 1 and ITS 2 regions were needed for accurate identification of Aspergillus at the species level. Intraspecies variation among clinical isolates and reference strains was minimal. Sixteen other pathogenic molds demonstrated less than 89% similarity with Aspergillus ITS 1 and 2 sequences. A blind study of 11 clinical isolates was performed, and each was correctly identified. Clinical application of this approach may allow for earlier diagnosis and selection of effective antifungal agents for patients with IA. PMID:10747135

Henry, T; Iwen, P C; Hinrichs, S H

2000-04-01

471

Determination of isavuconazole susceptibility of Aspergillus and Candida species by the EUCAST method.  

PubMed

Isavuconazole is a novel expanded-spectrum triazole, which has recently been approved by the FDA as an orphan drug to treat invasive aspergillosis and is currently being studied in phase III clinical trials for invasive candidiasis. The susceptibility of relatively few clinical isolates has been reported. In this study, the isavuconazole susceptibilities of 1,237 Aspergillus and 2,010 Candida geographically diverse clinical isolates were determined by EUCAST methodology at four European mycology laboratories, producing the largest multicenter data set thus far for this compound. In addition, a blinded collection of 30 cyp51A mutant Aspergillus fumigatus clinical isolates and 10 wild-type isolates was tested. From these two data sets, the following preliminary epidemiological cutoff (ECOFF) values were suggested: 2 mg/liter for Aspergillus fumigatus, Aspergillus terreus, and Aspergillus flavus; 4 mg/liter for Aspergillus niger; 0.25 mg/liter for Aspergillus nidulans; and 0.03 mg/liter for Candida albicans, Candida parapsilosis, and Candida tropicalis. Unfortunately, ECOFFs could not be determined for Candida glabrata or Candida krusei due to an unexplained interlaboratory MIC variation. For the blinded collection of A. fumigatus isolates, all MICs were ?2 mg/liter for wild-type isolates. Differential isavuconazole MICs were observed for triazole-resistant A. fumigatus isolates with different cyp51A alterations: TR34/L98H mutants had elevated isavuconazole MICs, whereas isolates with G54 and M220 alterations had MICs in the wild-type range, suggesting that the efficacy of isavuconazole may not be affected by these alterations. This study will be an aid in interpreting isavuconazole MICs for clinical care and an important step in the future process of setting official clinical breakpoints. PMID:23959309

Howard, Susan J; Lass-Flörl, Cornelia; Cuenca-Estrella, Manuel; Gomez-Lopez, Alicia; Arendrup, Maiken C

2013-11-01

472

Determination of Isavuconazole Susceptibility of Aspergillus and Candida Species by the EUCAST Method  

PubMed Central

Isavuconazole is a novel expanded-spectrum triazole, which has recently been approved by the FDA as an orphan drug to treat invasive aspergillosis and is currently being studied in phase III clinical trials for invasive candidiasis. The susceptibility of relatively few clinical isolates has been reported. In this study, the isavuconazole susceptibilities of 1,237 Aspergillus and 2,010 Candida geographically diverse clinical isolates were determined by EUCAST methodology at four European mycology laboratories, producing the largest multicenter data set thus far for this compound. In addition, a blinded collection of 30 cyp51A mutant Aspergillus fumigatus clinical isolates and 10 wild-type isolates was tested. From these two data sets, the following preliminary epidemiological cutoff (ECOFF) values were suggested: 2 mg/liter for Aspergillus fumigatus, Aspergillus terreus, and Aspergillus flavus; 4 mg/liter for Aspergillus niger; 0.25 mg/liter for Aspergillus nidulans; and 0.03 mg/liter for Candida albicans, Candida parapsilosis, and Candida tropicalis. Unfortunately, ECOFFs could not be determined for Candida glabrata or Candida krusei due to an unexplained interlaboratory MIC variation. For the blinded collection of A. fumigatus isolates, all MICs were ?2 mg/liter for wild-type isolates. Differential isavuconazole MICs were observed for triazole-resistant A. fumigatus isolates with different cyp51A alterations: TR34/L98H mutants had elevated isavuconazole MICs, whereas isolates with G54 and M220 alterations had MICs in the wild-type range, suggesting that the efficacy of isavuconazole may not be affected by these alterations. This study will be an aid in interpreting isavuconazole MICs for clinical care and an important step in the future process of setting official clinical breakpoints. PMID:23959309

Howard, Susan J.; Lass-Flörl, Cornelia; Cuenca-Estrella, Manuel; Gomez-Lopez, Alicia

2013-01-01

473

Highlights of the Didymellaceae: A polyphasic approach to characterise Phoma and related pleosporalean genera  

PubMed Central

Fungal taxonomists routinely encounter problems when dealing with asexual fungal species due to poly- and paraphyletic generic phylogenies, and unclear species boundaries. These problems are aptly illustrated in the genus Phoma. This phytopathologically significant fungal genus is currently subdivided into nine sections which are mainly based on a single or just a few morphological characters. However, this subdivision is ambiguous as several of the section-specific characters can occur within a single species. In addition, many teleomorph genera have been linked to Phoma, three of which are recognised here. In this study it is attempted to delineate generic boundaries, and to come to a generic circumscription which is more correct from an evolutionary point of view by means of multilocus sequence typing. Therefore, multiple analyses were conducted utilising sequences obtained from 28S nrDNA (Large Subunit - LSU), 18S nrDNA (Small Subunit - SSU), the Internal Transcribed Spacer regions 1 & 2 and 5.8S nrDNA (ITS), and part of the ?-tubulin (TUB) gene region. A total of 324 strains were included in the analyses of which most belonged to Phoma taxa, whilst 54 to related pleosporalean fungi. In total, 206 taxa were investigated, of which 159 are known to have affinities to Phoma. The phylogenetic analysis revealed that the current Boeremaean subdivision is incorrect from an evolutionary point of view, revealing the genus to be highly polyphyletic. Phoma species are retrieved in six distinct clades within the Pleosporales, and appear to reside in different families. The majority of the species, however, including the generic type, clustered in a recently established family, Didymellaceae. In the second part of this study, the phylogenetic variation of the species and varieties in this clade was further assessed. Next to the genus Didymella, which is considered to be the sole teleomorph of Phoma s. str., we also retrieved taxa belonging to the teleomorph genera Leptosphaerulina and Macroventuria in this clade. Based on the sequence data obtained, the Didymellaceae segregate into at least 18 distinct clusters, of which many can be associated with several specific taxonomic characters. Four of these clusters were defined well enough by means of phylogeny and morphology, so that the associated taxa could be transferred to separate genera. Aditionally, this study addresses the taxonomic description of eight species and two varieties that are novel to science, and the recombination of 61 additional taxa. PMID:20502538

Aveskamp, M.M.; de Gruyter, J.; Woudenberg, J.H.C.; Verkley, G.J.M.; Crous, P.W.

2010-01-01

474

Little ecological divergence associated with speciation in two African rain forest tree genera  

PubMed Central

Background The tropical rain forests (TRF) of Africa are the second largest block of this biome after the Amazon and exhibit high levels of plant endemism and diversity. Two main hypotheses have been advanced to explain speciation processes that have led to this high level of biodiversity: allopatric speciation linked to geographic isolation and ecological speciation linked to ecological gradients. Both these hypotheses rely on ecology: in the former conservation of ecological niches through time is implied, while in the latter adaptation via selection to alternative ecological niches would be a prerequisite. Here, we investigate the role of ecology in explaining present day species diversity in African TRF using a species level phylogeny and ecological niche modeling of two predominantly restricted TRF tree genera, Isolona and Monodora (Annonaceae). Both these genera, with 20 and 14 species, respectively, are widely distributed in African TRFs, with a few species occurring in slightly less humid regions such as in East Africa. Results A total of 11 sister species pairs were identified most of them occurring in allopatry or with little geographical overlap. Our results provide a mixed answer on the role of ecology in speciation. Although no sister species have identical niches, just under half of the tests suggest that sister species do have more similar niches than expected by chance. PCA analyses also support little ecological differences between sister species. Most speciation events within both genera predate the Pleistocene, occurring during the Late Miocene and Pliocene periods. Conclusions Ecology is almost always involved in speciation, however, it would seem to have had a little role in species generation within Isolona and Monodora at the scale analyzed here. This is consistent with the geographical speciation model for TRF diversification. These results contrast to other studies for non-TRF plant species where ecological speciation was found to be an important factor of diversification. The Pliocene period appears to be a vital time in the generation of African TRF diversity, whereas Pleistocene climatic fluctuations have had a smaller role on speciation than previously thought. Ecological niche modeling, species level phylogeny, ecological speciation, African tropics, Isolona, Monodora, Annonaceae PMID:21985574

2011-01-01

475

Structure analysis of an Aspergillus flavus kernels population in North Italy. First analysis of an Aspergillus flavus kernels population based on vegetative compatibility groups in Northern Italy  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

In order to gain insight into the causal agents of aflatoxin contamination of maize in Italy, populations of Aspergillus flavus on maize produced in the most affected area were characterized. Forty-six percent of A. flavus, isolated from maize kernels collected in 5 districts of northern Italy betwe...

476

Characterization of species of the Aspergillus section Nigri from corn field isolates co-infected with Aspergillus flavus/parasiticus species and the potential for ochratoxin A production.  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Members of the Aspergillus section Nigri, known as black-spored aspergilli, can contaminate several substrates including maize. Although some species within the group can produce plant disease symptoms such as black mold in onions and maize ear rot, the main concern with A. niger aggregate contamina...

477

A molecular phylogeny of Acronychia, Euodia, Melicope and relatives (Rutaceae) reveals polyphyletic genera and key innovations for species richness.  

PubMed

We present the first detailed phylogenetic study of the genus Melicope, the largest genus of the Citrus family (Rutaceae). The phylogenetic analysis sampled about 50% of the 235 accepted species of Melicope as well as representatives of 26 related genera, most notably Acronychia and Euodia. The results based on five plastid and nuclear markers have revealed that Acronychia, Euodia and Melicope are each not monophyletic in their current circumscriptions and that several small genera mainly from Australia and New Caledonia need to be merged with one of the three genera to ensure monophyly at the generic level. The phylogenetic position of the drupaceous Acronychia in relation to Melicope, which has capsular or follicular fruits, remains unclear and Acronychia might be a separate genus or a part of Melicope. The seed coats of Melicope, Acronychia and related genera show adaptations to bird-dispersal, which might be regarded as key innovations for species radiations. Euodia and its relatives, which lack these adaptations, include only about 20 species while the Melicope-Acronychia group consists of about 340 species. The drupaceous genera Comptonella, Dutaillyea, Picrella and Sarcomelicope are nested within Melicope and need to be merged with Melicope. The expanded genus is a prime example of the artificial classification system of Engler, who defined Rutaceous subfamilies mainly based on gynoecial and fruit characters. PMID:24971739

Appelhans, Marc S; Wen, Jun; Wagner, Warren L

2014-10-01

478

Chemical stabilization of glucoamylase from Aspergillus niger against thermal inactivation.  

PubMed

The applicability of crosslinking an enzyme to an oxidized polysaccharide by reductive alkylation to enhance thermostability has been investigated for glucoamylase from Aspergillus niger. Direct covalent coupling of the enzyme to periodate-oxidized dextran in the presence of NaBH(3)CN results in a conjugate which has thermal properties similar to those of the native enzyme. Our working hypothesis postulates that enhancement of thermostability will result from rigidification of the protein's conformation subsequent to the formation of multiple covalent bonds between the protein and the support. On the basis of the known characteristics of glucoamylase from Aspergillus niger, it would seem necessary to introduce additional amino groups in the polypeptide chain of the protein. The incorporation of new amino groups was performed in two phases. First, the glycosidic part of glucoamylase was oxidized by periodate and the resulting aldehyde groups were reductively aminated by a diaminoalkane and NaBH(3)CIM. Secondly, additional amino groups were introduced on carboxyl functions into the previously aminated glucoamylase by a diaminoalkane and a water-soluble carbodiimide in the presence of maltose to protect the active site. The final derivative was then coupled to periodate-oxidized dextran T-70 in the presence of NaBH(3)CN. Starting with native glucoamylase, three successive operations give rise to a conjugate which retained 27% of the initial activity when measured with soluble starch and 39% when measured with maltopentaose. Using substrates of various sizes, it was observed that steric hindrance at the active site may result from covalent coupling to dextran T-70. It was demonstrated in heat inactivation experiments that the thermostability of the conjugate was in all cases superior to that of the native enzymes. Finally, it was observed that the operational stability of the conjugate was at least twice that of native glucoamylase at 70 degrees C on 18% maltodextrin. Additional experiments rule out the possibility that thermosta-bilization of the complex is due to other reasons than the increase in the amino content of the protein prior to crosslinking. Neither chemical modification, reticulation nor change in the net charge of the protein resulted in a derivative of glucoamylase which presented enhanced thermostability after conjugation. We conclude that for enzymes which have a low content of available amino groups, the thermostabilization method proposed previously by the present authors may still be applicable if additional amino groups are introduced into the protein prior to its crosslinking to an oxidized polysaccharide. This new example reinforces the generality of this method of stabilization. PMID:18584602

Lenders, J P; Crichton, R R

1988-02-20

479

Systematics and phylogeography of pocket gophers in the genera Cratogeomys and Pappogeomys.  

PubMed

Mitochondrial-DNA sequence data were analyzed from individuals sampled from 38 localities across the complete geographic range of the closely related pocket gopher genera Pappogeomys and Cratogeomys. Results of phylogenetic analysis of 1133 base pairs from the cytochrome b gene are consistent with past hypotheses of relationships among members of the castanops species group within the genus Cratogeomys. However, phylogeographic variation within the gymnurus species group of the genus Cratogeomys differs significantly from relationships reflected by current taxonomy. The data indicate that there are five geographically distinct clades within the gymnurus species group. Members of the two nominal species C. gymnurus and C. tylorhinus are scattered among these clades. The three peripherally isolated species, C. fumosus, C. neglectus, and C. zinseri, do not appear to be genetically distinct from other gymnurus species group taxa. An historical biogeographic hypothesis is proposed that will be tested using nuclear DNA data. PMID:11796037

Demastes, James W; Spradling, Theresa A; Hafner, Mark S; Hafner, David J; Reed, David L

2002-01-01

480

Chloroplast DNA evolution and systematics of Phanerophlebia (Dryopteridaceae) and related fern genera  

PubMed Central

Restriction site variation in chloroplast DNA was examined in the neotropical fern genus Phanerophlebia and in selected species of the related Asiatic genus Cyrtomium and the cosmopolitan progenitor of these two, Polystichum. A total of 103 restriction site mutations was identified; these were used to construct phylogenetic networks and trees based on Wagner and Dollo parsimony and Fitch-Margoliash distance algorithms. The analyses provided evidence that Phanerophlebia did not arise from Cyrtomium. Both genera are convergent descendants from different progenitor groups in Polystichum, and Asiatic Cyrtomium is more closely related to temperate New World Polystichum than it is to neotropical Phanerophlebia. Reticulate venation, previously considered an important taxonomic character for infrageneric classification in Phanerophlebia, most likely evolved independently twice within the genus. Diploid maternal progenitors are suggested for two of four tetraploid speci