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Background Quantitative measurements of mould enrichment of indoor air or house dust might be suitable surrogates to evaluate present but hidden moisture damage. Our intent was to develop a house-dust monitoring method to detect hidden moisture damage excluding the influence of outdoor air, accumulated old dust, and dust swirled up from room surfaces. Methods Based on standardized measurement of mould spores in the 63-?m fraction of house dust yielded by carpets, the background concentrations were determined and compared to simultaneously obtained colony numbers and total spore numbers of the indoor air in 80 non-mouldy living areas during summer and winter periods. Additionally, sampling with a vacuum-cleaner or manual sieve was compared to sampling with a filter holder or sieving machine, and the evaluative power of an established two-step assessment model (lower and upper limits) was compared to that of a one-step model (one limit) in order to derive concentration limits for mould load in house dust. Results Comparison with existing evaluation procedures proved the developed method to be the most reliable means of evaluating hidden moisture damage, yielding the lowest false-positive results (specificity 98.7%). Background measurements and measurements in 14 mouldy rooms show that even by evaluating just the indicator genera in summer and winter, a relatively certain assessment of mould infestation is possible. Conclusion A one-step evaluation is finally possible for house dust. The house-dust evaluation method is based on analysis of the indicator generaAspergillus, Eurotium and Penicillium spp., which depend on the total fungal count. Inclusion of further moisture indicators currently appears questionable, because of outdoor air influence and the paucity of measurements.
Aspergillus section Aspergillus contains economically important, xerophilic fungi that are widely distributed in nature and the human environment and are known for their ability to grow on substrates with low water activity. The taxa were revised based on sequence data from four loci, PCR fingerprinting, micro- and macromorphology, and physiology. The number of taxa was reduced to 17 species, all of which can be distinguished with sequence data from either the caM or RPB2 locus. The original description of A. proliferans was supplemented by a description of its teleomorph. This species seems to be relatively common and often has been confused with A. glaucus. In addition, green sporulating isolates of A. niveoglaucus isolated from food and several other substrates are indistinguishable in phenotype from A. glaucus. A dichotomous key based on ascospore size and ornamentation and the ability to grow at specific combinations of temperature and water activity is provided for identification of species. In response to recent changes in the botanical code, we transferred the Eurotium species to Aspergillus and selected one name for each species. PMID:23396159
Hubka, Vit; Kolarík, Miroslav; Kubátová, Alena; Peterson, Stephen W
Aspergillus floriformis, A. pseudodeflectus, Eurotium xerophilum (st. con.A. xerophilus) andEmericella purpurea (st. con.A. purpureus) are described and illustrated as new species. In addition the morphology of strains identified asAspergillus melleus, A. caespitosus andA. versicolor is discussed.
As part of studies of metabolites from fungi common in the built environment in Canadian homes, we investigated metabolites from strains of three Eurotium species, namely E. herbariorum, E. amstelodami, and E. rubrum as well as a number of isolates provisionally identified as Aspergillus ustus. The latter have been recently assigned as the new species A. insuetus and A. calidoustus. E.
Gregory J. Slack; Eva Puniani; Jens C. Frisvad; Robert A. Samson; J. David Miller
As part of studies of metabolites from fungi common in the built environment in Canadian homes, we investigated metabolites from strains of three Eurotium species, namely E. herbariorum, E. amstelodami, and E. rubrum as well as a number of isolates provisionally identified as Aspergillus ustus. The latter have been recently assigned as the new species A. insuetus and A. calidoustus. E. amstelodami produced neoechinulin A and neoechinulin B, epiheveadride, flavoglaucin, auroglaucin, and isotetrahydroauroglaucin as major metabolites. Minor metabolites included echinulin, preechinulin and neoechinulin E. E. rubrum produced all of these metabolites, but epiheveadride was detected as a minor metabolite. E. herbariorum produced cladosporin as a major metabolite, in addition to those found in E. amstelodami. This species also produced questin and neoechinulin E as minor metabolites. This is the first report of epiheveadride occurring as a natural product, and the first nonadride isolated from Eurotium species. Unlike strains from mainly infection-related samples, largely from Europe, neither ophiobolins G and H nor austins were detected in the Canadian strains of A. insuetus and A. calidoustus tested, all of which had been reported from the latter species. TMC-120 A, B, C and a sesquiterpene drimane are reported with certainty for the first time from indoor isolates, as well as two novel related methyl isoquinoline alkaloids. PMID:19422073
Slack, Gregory J; Puniani, Eva; Frisvad, Jens C; Samson, Robert A; Miller, J David
Feed refused by swine contained a high-propagule density of Eurotium chevalieri Mangin (anamorph, Aspergillus chevalieri (Mangin) Thom and Church), Eurotium amstelodami Mangin (anamorph, Aspergillus amstelodami (Mangin Thom and Church), and Aspergillus candidus Link. Echinulin (8 micrograms/g of feed) was detected in the feed. Isolates of E. chevalieri and E. amstelodami but not A. candidus produced echinulin on rice or cracked corn. Mice refused to drink water containing 90 micrograms of echinulin per ml. This is the first report of the alkaloid echinulin in feed refused by swine.
Vesonder, R F; Lambert, R; Wicklow, D T; Biehl, M L
The occurrence of Aspergillus moulds and aflatoxins in 12 commercially-available dried foods of Asian origin were examined. All food samples, except green beans and three types of dried fruit, contained multiple genera of moulds of which Aspergillus (55%) was the most frequently detected. Penicillium (15%), Rhizopus (11%), Mucor (3%), Monascus (1%), Eurotium (1%) and unidentified (14%) were also observed. The occurrence of aflatoxigenic moulds, however, did not correspond with the occurrence of aflatoxins in foods. Aflatoxigenic Aspergillus spp. (39 isolates) were recovered from long grain rice, fragrant rice, peanuts, black beans and black pepper. The predominant Aspergillus species was A. parasiticus (61%) while Aspergillus oryzae (3%), Aspergillus utus (5%), Aspergillus niger (5%), Aspergillus ochraceus (3%) and unidentified (23%) were also observed. Long grain rice, fragrant rice, peanuts, black beans and black pepper were positive for Aspergillus but contained undetectable aflatoxins. In contrast, Jasmine brown rice and crushed chilli contained 14.7 and 11.4?g/kg of total aflatoxins, respectively, in the absence of Aspergillus so aflatoxigenic Aspergillus was present at some stage of food production. The results from this study emphasise the need for stricter control measures in reducing occurrence of aflatoxins in foods for export and domestic use. PMID:23416649
In France and Finland, farmer's lung disease (FLD), a hypersensitivity pneumonitis common in agricultural areas, is mainly caused by Eurotium species. The presence of antibodies in patients' serum is an important criterion for diagnosis. Our study aimed to improve the serological diagnosis of FLD by using common fungal particles that pollute the farm environment as antigens. Fungal particles of the Eurotium species were observed in handled hay. A strain of Eurotium amstelodami was grown in vitro using selected culture media; and antigen extracts from sexual (ascospores), asexual (conidia), and vegetative (hyphae) forms were made. Antigens were tested by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), which was used to test for immunoglobulin G antibodies from the sera of 17 FLD patients, 40 healthy exposed farmers, and 20 nonexposed controls. The antigens were compared by receiver operating characteristic analysis, and a threshold was then established. The ascospores contained in asci enclosed within cleistothecia were present in 38% of the hay blades observed; conidial heads of aspergillus were less prevalent. The same protocol was followed to make the three antigen extracts. A comparison of the results for FLD patients and exposed controls showed the area under the curve to be 0.850 for the ascospore antigen, 0.731 for the conidia, and 0.690 for the hyphae. The cutoffs that we determined, with the standard deviation for measures being taken into account, showed 67% for sensitivity and 92% for specificity with the ascospore antigen. In conclusion, the serological diagnosis of FLD by ELISA was improved by the adjunction of ascospore antigen.
Eurotium is a widespread storage fungal genus that has been frequently isolated from bakery products. The objective of this study was (i) to obtain a method for studying the growth of xerophilic fungi on bakery products, and (ii) to determine the effects of water activity (aw), temperature, isolate and their interactions on mycelial growth of Eurotium spp. on an analogue
... please visit this page: About CDC.gov . Aspergillosis Aspergillus is a common fungus that can be found ... indoor and outdoor environments. Most people breathe in Aspergillus spores every day without being affected. Aspergillosis is ...
Food and beverage spoilage yeasts often show some degree of substrate specialization. Species of Zygosaccharomyces and related genera (i.e., Lachancea, Torulaspora and Zygotorulaspora) are usually the yeasts that colonize and spoil high sugar and high salt products such as fruit juices and their co...
Poultry feeds are prone to fungal growth and mycotoxin production during processing. The identification of biota with the ability to produce mycotoxins is essential. The aims of this study were (1) to monitor the mycobiota counts at different stages of poultry feed processing; (2) to determine the occurrence of Aspergillus species; (3) to evaluate the natural incidence of aflatoxins and ochratoxin A. The ability of Aspergillus spp. and its teleomorphs isolated here to produce these toxins was also investigated. Samples (144) were collected at random from a factory in Brazil. The occurrence of Aspergillus and Eurotium species was demonstrated on DRBC and DG18 media and the production of aflatoxins and ochratoxin A and their natural incidence were determined by TLC and HPLC methods. A. flavus and E. chevalieri were the most prevalent species isolated. Fungal contamination was not found after the pelleting process, though Aspergillus and Eurotium species were recovered from trough samples. High levels of aflatoxin and ochratoxin A producers were found at all stages of poultry feed processing. Also, high natural contamination with aflatoxins and ochratoxin A was found in the samples. Contact of feed with remainder poultry feed could lead to fungal contamination, so the risk of aflatoxin and/or ochratoxin A contamination of feed must be taken into account. PMID:17216313
Fraga, M E; Curvello, F; Gatti, M J; Cavaglieri, L R; Dalcero, A M; da Rocha Rosa, C A
(WITH 21 FIGURES) The industrial and commercial importance of Aspergillus and Peni- cillium has stimulated extensive study of these form genera. According to Raper and Thorn (1949), more than 700 species have been described as penicillia alone. The emphasis in current literature is on the conidial stages, and the manuals by Raper and Thorn (1949) and Thorn and Raper (1945)
\\u000a The cornea must be perfectly transparent to allow an individual to visualize his\\/her environment. Keratitis, an inflammation\\u000a of the cornea that frequently arises due to infection, is a threat to corneal transparency. Species of Aspergillus may cause keratitis, especially in outdoor workers in agricultural communities in the developing world and in tropical and\\u000a subtropical areas. Aspergillus keratitis frequently occurs following
We isolated and identified a strain of Eurotium rubrum from Meju that has not been reported in Korea. This fungus is yellowish brown; reverse dark brown on CYA and PDA while yellow on 2% MEA at 25?. Cleistothecia are first bright yellow and gradually turned brown. Mycerial growth on CYA attained a diameter of 30 mm at 20?, 37 mm at 25? and 32 mm at 30? after 15 days. The isolate grew slower on 2% MEA (< 20 mm 15 days at 25?) compared to CYA and PDA (< 40 mm 15 days at 25?). Cleistothecia are superficial, yellow to light brown, globose to subglobose, 40~75 µm in diameter. Asci are 8-spored and globose to subglobose 8~11 µm. Ascospores are disciform, 4.0~5.0 µm in length and 4.2~4.5 µm in width. Conidia are ovate or bacillar, finely roughened to densely spinulose, 4.6~6.0 µm in length and 3.0~4.3 µm in width. Compared to known Eurotium rubrum, the Korean isolate showed 99% sequence similarity in ITS rDNA (554 bp) and calmodulin (750 bp) gene and 100% in ?-tubulin (1016 bp) gene. The E. rubrum isolate also had weak ?-glucosidase and protease activities.
Yun, Yeo Hong; Hyun, Min Woo; Suh, Dong Yeon; Kim, Yong Min
Aspergillus Genomes is a public resource for viewing annotated genes predicted by various Aspergillus sequencing projects. It has arisen from the union of two significant resources: the Aspergillus/Aspergillosis website and the Central Aspergillus Data REpository (CADRE). The former has primarily served the medical community, providing information about Aspergillus and associated diseases to medics, patients and scientists; the latter has focused on the fungal genomic community, providing a central repository for sequences and annotation extracted from Aspergillus Genomes. By merging these databases, genomes benefit from extensive cross-linking with medical information to create a unique resource, spanning genomics and clinical aspects of the genus. Aspergillus Genomes is accessible from http://www.aspergillus-genomes.org.uk.
Mabey Gilsenan, Jane E.; Atherton, Graham; Bartholomew, Jennifer; Giles, Peter F.; Attwood, Teresa K.; Denning, David W.; Bowyer, Paul
Human fossils dated between 3.5 and nearly 7 million years old discovered during the last 8 years have been assigned to as many as four new genera of the family Hominidae: Ardipithecus, Orrorin, Kenyanthropus, and Sahelanthropus. These specimens are described as having morphological traits that justify placing them in the family Hominidae while creating a new genus for the classification of each. The discovery of these fossils pushed backward by >2 million years the date of the oldest hominids known. Only two or three hominid genera, Australopithecus, Paranthropus, and Homo, had been previously accepted, with Paranthropus considered a subgenus of Australopithecus by some authors. Two questions arise from the classification of the newly discovered fossils: (i) Should each one of these specimens be placed in the family Hominidae? (ii) Are these specimens sufficiently distinct to justify the creation of four new genera? The answers depend, in turn, on the concepts of what is a hominid and how the genus category is defined. These specimens seem to possess a sufficient number of morphological traits to be placed in the Hominidae. However, the nature of the morphological evidence and the adaptation-rooted concept of what a genus is do not justify the establishment of four new genera. We propose a classification that includes four well defined genera: Praeanthropus, Ardipithecus, Australopithecus, and Homo, plus one tentative incertae sedis genus: Sahelanthropus.
In this work, we investigated the role of bacteria from the genera Bacillus and Pseudomonas and fungi from the generaAspergillus and Penicillium in the leaching process of two different silicates (calamine and garnierite). Since the results obtained with A. niger were better than those with different bacteria, a more detailed investigation of the leaching process with this microorganism was
I. M Castro; J. L. R Fietto; R. X Vieira; M. J. M Trópia; L. M. M Campos; E. B Paniago; R. L Brandăo
In this study, we examined in vitro antibacterial, antifungal, antimalarial, and antileishmanial activities of secondary metabolites (1–8) isolated from the fungus Eurotium repens. All compounds showed mild to moderate antibacterial or antifungal or both activities except 7. The activity of compound 6 was the best of the group tested. The in vitro antimalarial evaluation of these compounds revealed that compounds 1–3, 5, and 6 showed antimalarial activities against both chloroquine-sensitive and chloroquine-resistant strains of Plasmodium falciparum with IC50 values in the range of 1.1–3.0 ?g/ml without showing any cytotoxicity to the mammalian cells. Compound 5 displayed the highest antimalarial activity. Antileishmanial activity against Leishmania donovani promastigotes was observed for compounds 1–6 with IC50 values ranging from 6.2 to 23 ?g/ml. Antileishmanial activity of compounds 5 and 6 (IC50 values of 7.5 and 6.2 ?g/ml, respectively) was more potent than 1–4 (IC50 values ranging from 19–23 ?g/ml). Compounds 7 and 8 did not show any antiprotozoal effect. Preliminary structure and activity relationship studies indicated that antibacterial, antifungal, antimalarial, and antileishmanial activities associated with phenol derivates (1–6) seem to be dependent on the number of double bonds in the side chain, which would be important for lead optimization in the future.
Gao, Jiangtao; Radwan, Mohamed M.; Leon, Francisco; Wang, Xiaoning; Jacob, Melissa R.; Tekwani, Babu L.; Khan, Shabana I.; Lupien, Shari; Hill, Robert A.; Dugan, Frank M.; Cutler, Horace G.
Aspergillus flavus is saprophytic soil fungus that infects and contaminates preharvest and postharvest seed crops with the carcinogenic secondary metabolite aflatoxin. The fungus is also an opportunistic animal and human pathogen causing aspergillosis diseases with incidence increasing in the immunocompromised population. Whole genome sequences of A. flavus have been released and reveal 55 secondary metabolite clusters that are regulated by different environmental regimes and the global secondary metabolite regulators LaeA and VeA. Characteristics of A. flavus associated with pathogenicity and niche specialization include secondary metabolite production, enzyme elaboration, and a sophisticated oxylipin host crosstalk associated with a quorum-like development program. One of the more promising strategies in field control involves the use of atoxic strains of A. flavus in competitive exclusion studies. In this review, we discuss A. flavus as an agricultural and medical threat and summarize recent research advances in genomics, elucidation of parameters of pathogenicity, and control measures. PMID:21513456
A taxonomic revision of 16 of the 21 genera of the large pleurocarpous moss family Hypnaceae is presented for Latin America (Mexico, Caribbean, Central America, and South America). This study includes the genera Ctenidium (Schimp.) Mitt., Elmeriobryum Bro...
Three working concepts or definitions of the genus as a systematic category are available: the “phylogenetic”; or “cladistic”; concept, which views genera as monophyletic clades, the “phenetic”; or “gap”; concept, which views genera as clustered in morphological space, separated from other such groups by many differences, and the “hybridization”; concept, which holds that species in different genera can never hybridize.
Xerophilic moulds cause contamination and spoilage of low moisture foods. This study examined the effect of ozone fumigation on growth of a Eurotium species isolated from naan bread. Two ozone treatments were used - a low-level long-term exposure (0.4 ?mol/mol for 21 days) and high-level short-term exposure (300 ?mol/mol for 5 to 120 min). For the low level exposure the combination of different media sucrose concentrations (0, 5, 10 and 20% w/v) with ozone treatment was also assessed. The growth of the isolate was found to be sensitive to low-level ozone fumigation depending on the media sucrose concentration and duration of the exposure. Low-level ozone exposure significantly (p<0.05) reduced the number of asexual spores formed in media with no added sucrose, an effect not observed in media with higher sucrose levels. Electron microscope observations of colonies indicated that ozone exposed cultures produced lower numbers of cleistothecia. High-level ozone exposure for short durations reduced spore viability although 100% reduction in viability was achieved only after 120 min exposure. This work demonstrates that ozone may be used to reduce spore production in Eurotium but that the ozone effect can be mediated by sucrose levels in the growth medium. PMID:21093088
This supplement to the taxonomic monograph The Genera of Hyphomycetes summarises information on 23 accepted new genera and c. 160 species described in 2011. These include three dematiaceous genera (Funbolia, Noosia, Pyrigemmula, all related to Dothideomycetes), a bulbil-producing genus, Spiroplana (Pleosporales), and two endophytic genera, the sterile Periglandula (Clavicipitaceae), and the hyaline, sympodial Micronematobotrys (Pyronemataceae). Slow-growing, morphologically-reduced, darkly pigmented fungi continue to be the source of new taxa, including the new genus Atramixtia (Dothioraceae). Eight new genera of darkly pigmented chlamydospore-like anamorphs were described from marine or subtidal environments (Glomerulispora, Halozoön, Hiogispora, Matsusporium, Moheitospora, Moleospora, Moromyces), mostly associated with subclades of the Lulworthiales. Several genera that are morphologically similar to but phylogenetically distinct from genera of the Capnodiales (Pseudopassalora, Scleroramularia) were introduced, as well as segregates from the classical concepts of Alternaria (Sinomyces), Chalara and Phialophora (Brachyalara, Infundichalara, Lasiadelphia), and Paecilomyces (Purpureocillium for the former Paecilomyces lilacinus complex). In addition, in anticipation of the new nomenclatural rules, newly configured formerly-teleomorph genera were proposed as segregates from classical hyphomycete genera in the Hypocreales, namely Acremonium (Cosmospora), Fusarium (Cyanonectria, Dialonectria, Geejayessia, Macroconia, Stylonectria), and Volutella (Pseudonectria) and the Trichocomaceae, Eurotiales, Penicillium (Talaromyces for the former Penicillium subg. Biverticillium). Standardized generic mini-diagnoses are provided for the accepted new genera, along with details of distribution, substrates, numbers of new species and phylogenetic affinities within the Dikarya. GenBank accession numbers for ITS DNA-barcodes are provided where available. New information on generic concepts of previously recognised genera, phylogenetic relationships, and corrections of factual errors are also included. Only two newly described genera, Fecundostilbum and Utrechtiana, seem to be synonyms of previously described genera. PMID:22403480
California exports tree nuts to countries where they face stringent standards for aflatoxin contamination. Trade concerns have stimulated efforts to eliminate aflatoxins and Aspergillus flavus from almonds, pistachios and walnuts. Incidence of fungi on tree nuts and associations among fungi on tree nuts were studied. Eleven hundred pistachios, almonds, walnuts and brazil nuts without visible insect damage were plated on salt agar and observed for growth of fungi. Samples came both from California nut orchards and from supermarkets. To distinguish internal fungal colonization of nuts from superficial colonization, half the nuts were surface-sterilized before plating. The most common genera found were Aspergillus, Rhizopus and Penicillium. Each species of nut had a distinct mycoflora. Populations of most fungi were reduced by surface sterilization in all except brazil nuts, suggesting that they were present as superficial inoculum on (rather than in) the nuts. In general, strongly positive associations were observed among species of Aspergillus; nuts infected by one species were likely to be colonized by other species as well. Presence of Penicillium was negatively associated with A. niger and Rhizopus in some cases. Results suggest that harvest or postharvest handling has a major influence on nut mycoflora, and that nuts with fungi are usually colonized by several fungi rather than by single species. PMID:12617503
Some 39 genera of bees, illustrated with full habitus photos, are included in this online article. Information about nests, behavior, floral relationships, as well as conservation are thoroughly covered. Includes an extensive references section.
Aspergillus and Penicillium are ubiquitous fungi, usually found as saprophytes. Only a few species are considered to be important in human or animal disease. However, many otherwise benign species are supreme opportunists and have been found increasingly as invaders of the immuno- compromised. This paper first describes with a broad brush modern approaches to the classifi- cation of these genera,
The combined effects of weak acid preservatives (sorbate, benzoate and propionate), pH (6.0, 7.5) and water activity (aw) levels (0.80, 0.85, 0.90) on growth of four Eurotium species isolated from bakery products on a sponge cake analogue were studied. Even though it is universally known that these preservatives are much more effective at lower pH values, we chose a 6–7.5
M. E. Guynot; A. J. Ramos; D. Sala; V. Sanchis; S. Mar??n
The genus Aspergillus represents a diverse group of fungi that are among the most abundant fungi in the world. Germination of a spore can lead to a vegetative mycelium that colonizes a substrate. The hyphae within the mycelium are highly heterogeneous with respect to gene expression, growth, and secretion. Aspergilli can reproduce both asexually and sexually. To this end, conidiophores and ascocarps are produced that form conidia and ascospores, respectively. This review describes the molecular mechanisms underlying growth and development of Aspergillus.
NMITA, the Neogene Marine Biota of Tropical America (reviewed in the March 15, 2000 Scout Report for Science and Engineering), offers this useful tool for identifying Zooxanthellate coral genera. Users select one state for each of seven characters (Colony Form, Colony Shape, Budding, Columella, Corallite Size, Wall Structure, and Lobes) to automate a search; results highlight one or more genera with the selected characteristics. Requiring baseline knowledge of the characteristics important to coral identification, this tool is made more useful by the inclusion of illustrated hyperlinks for many character states. For students or researchers wishing to learn the important features of Zooxanthellate coral, this will be a useful tool.
Halacarid mites (Halacaroidea: Halacaridae) are meiobenthic organisms. The majority of species and genera are marine, only few are restricted to freshwater. Halacarid mites are present from the tidal area to the deep sea. It is the only mite family completely adapted to permanent life in the sea. The first record was published more than 200 years ago.At present, 51 marine
Many fungal genera have been defined based on single characters considered to be informative at the generic level. In addition, many unrelated taxa have been aggregated in genera because they shared apparently similar morphological characters arising from adaptation to similar niches and convergent evolution. This problem is aptly illustrated in Mycosphaerella. In its broadest definition, this genus of mainly leaf infecting fungi incorporates more than 30 form genera that share similar phenotypic characters mostly associated with structures produced on plant tissue or in culture. DNA sequence data derived from the LSU gene in the present study distinguish several clades and families in what has hitherto been considered to represent the Mycosphaerellaceae. In some cases, these clades represent recognisable monophyletic lineages linked to well circumscribed anamorphs. This association is complicated, however, by the fact that morphologically similar form genera are scattered throughout the order (Capnodiales), and for some species more than one morph is expressed depending on cultural conditions and media employed for cultivation. The present study shows that Mycosphaerella s.s. should best be limited to taxa with Ramularia anamorphs, with other well defined clades in the Mycosphaerellaceae representing Cercospora, Cercosporella, Dothistroma, Lecanosticta, Phaeophleospora, Polythrincium, Pseudocercospora, Ramulispora, Septoria and Sonderhenia. The genus Teratosphaeria accommodates taxa with Kirramyces anamorphs, while other clades supported in the Teratosphaeriaceae include Baudoinea, Capnobotryella, Devriesia, Penidiella, Phaeothecoidea, Readeriella, Staninwardia and Stenella. The genus Schizothyrium with Zygophiala anamorphs is supported as belonging to the Schizothyriaceae, while Dissoconium and Ramichloridium appear to represent a distinct family. Several clades remain unresolved due to limited sampling. Mycosphaerella, which has hitherto been used as a term of convenience to describe ascomycetes with solitary ascomata, bitunicate asci and 1-septate ascospores, represents numerous genera and several families yet to be defined in future studies. PMID:20198164
Crous, P W; Summerell, B A; Carnegie, A J; Wingfield, M J; Hunter, G C; Burgess, T I; Andjic, V; Barber, P A; Groenewald, J Z
The genus Aspergillus represents a diverse group of fungi that are among the most abundant fungi in the world. Germination of a spore can lead to a vegetative mycelium that colonizes a substrate. The hyphae within the mycelium are highly heterogeneous with respect to gene expression, growth, and secretion. Aspergilli can reproduce both asexually and sexually. To this end, conidiophores and ascocarps are produced that form conidia and ascospores, respectively. This review describes the molecular mechanisms underlying growth and development of Aspergillus. PMID:23450714
Krijgsheld, P; Bleichrodt, R; van Veluw, G J; Wang, F; Müller, W H; Dijksterhuis, J; Wösten, H A B
The genus Aspergillus is one of the most important filamentous fungal genera. Aspergillus species are used in the fermentation industry, but they are also responsible of various plant and food secondary rot, with the consequence of possible accumulation of mycotoxins. The aflatoxin producing A. flavus and A. parasiticus, and ochratoxinogenic A. niger, A. ochraceus and A. carbonarius species are frequently encountered in agricultural products. Studies on the biodiversity of toxigenic Aspergillus species is useful to clarify molecular, ecological and biochemical characteristics of the different species in relation to their different adaptation to environmental and geographical conditions, and to their potential toxigenicity. Here we analyzed the biodiversity of ochratoxin producing species occurring on two important crops: grapes and coffee, and the genetic diversity of A. flavus populations occurring in agricultural fields. Altogether nine different black Aspergillus species can be found on grapes which are often difficult to identify with classical methods. The polyphasic approach used in our studies led to the identification of three new species occurring on grapes: A. brasiliensis, A. ibericus, and A. uvarum. Similar studies on the Aspergillus species occurring on coffee beans have evidenced in the last five years that A. carbonarius is an important source of ochratoxin A in coffee. Four new species within the black aspergilli were also identified in coffee beans: A. sclerotioniger, A. lacticoffeatus, A. sclerotiicarbonarius, and A. aculeatinus. The genetic diversity within A. flavus populations has been widely studied in relation to their potential aflatoxigenicity and morphological variants L- and S-strains. Within A. flavus and other Aspergillus species capable of aflatoxin production, considerable diversity is found. We summarise the main recent achievements in the diversity of the aflatoxin gene cluster in A. flavus populations, A. parasiticus and the non-toxigenic A. oryzae. Studies are needed in order to characterise the aflatoxin biosynthetic genes in the new related taxa A. minisclerotigenes and A. arachidicola. PMID:18490950
Perrone, G; Susca, A; Cozzi, G; Ehrlich, K; Varga, J; Frisvad, J C; Meijer, M; Noonim, P; Mahakarnchanakul, W; Samson, R A
The genera Exiguobacterium and Psychrobacter have been frequently detected in and isolated from polar permafrost and ice. These two genera have members that can grow at temperatures as low as ?5 and ?10 °C, respectively. We used quantitative PCR (Q-PCR) to quantify members of these genera in 54 soil or sediment samples from polar, temperate and tropical environments to determine
Debora F Rodrigues; Ederson da C Jesus; Hector L Ayala-del-Río; Vivian H Pellizari; David Gilichinsky; Lycely Sepulveda-Torres; James M Tiedje
Aspergillus brain abscess is a rare clinical entity, which remains a challenge to diagnose and treat. Most fungi are low virulence organisms, often living as commensals. They however, pose a considerable challenge in an immune-compromised host. Systemic steroids are commonly used in treatment of various inflammatory conditions. Despite their relatively safe profile, one peril of such treatment is immune suppression. It is prudent that physicians remain aware of the risk of various opportunistic infections in such patients. We present a case of fatal intra-cranial aspergillosis in an immuno-compromised patient on systemic steroids. PMID:24015447
Members of the genus Aspergillus are the most common fungi and all reproduce asexually by forming long chains of conidiospores (or conidia). The impact of various Aspergillus species on humans ranges from beneficial to harmful. For example, several species including Aspergillus oryzae and Aspergillus niger are used in industry for enzyme production and food processing. In contrast, Aspergillus flavus produce the most potent naturally present carcinogen aflatoxins, which contaminate various plant- and animal-based foods. Importantly, the opportunistic human pathogen Aspergillus fumigatus has become the most prevalent airborne fungal pathogen in developed countries, causing invasive aspergillosis in immunocompromised patients with a high mortality rate. A. fumigatus produces a massive number of small hydrophobic conidia as the primary means of dispersal, survival, genome-protection, and infecting hosts. Large-scale genome-wide expression studies can now be conducted due to completion of A. fumigatus genome sequencing. However, genomics becomes more powerful and informative when combined with genetics. We have been investigating the mechanisms underlying the regulation of asexual development (conidiation) and gliotoxin biosynthesis in A. fumigatus, primarily focusing on a characterization of key developmental regulators identified in the model fungus Aspergillus nidulans. In this review, I will summarize our current understanding of how conidiation in two aspergilli is regulated.
Members of the genus Aspergillus are the most common fungi and all reproduce asexually by forming long chains of conidiospores (or conidia). The impact of various Aspergillus species on humans ranges from beneficial to harmful. For example, several species including Aspergillus oryzae and Aspergillus niger are used in industry for enzyme production and food processing. In contrast, Aspergillus flavus produce the most potent naturally present carcinogen aflatoxins, which contaminate various plant- and animal-based foods. Importantly, the opportunistic human pathogen Aspergillus fumigatus has become the most prevalent airborne fungal pathogen in developed countries, causing invasive aspergillosis in immunocompromised patients with a high mortality rate. A. fumigatus produces a massive number of small hydrophobic conidia as the primary means of dispersal, survival, genome-protection, and infecting hosts. Large-scale genome-wide expression studies can now be conducted due to completion of A. fumigatus genome sequencing. However, genomics becomes more powerful and informative when combined with genetics. We have been investigating the mechanisms underlying the regulation of asexual development (conidiation) and gliotoxin biosynthesis in A. fumigatus, primarily focusing on a characterization of key developmental regulators identified in the model fungus Aspergillus nidulans. In this review, I will summarize our current understanding of how conidiation in two aspergilli is regulated. PMID:23956662
Ochratoxin production was tested in 172 strains representing species in sections Fumigati, Circumdati, Candidi, and Wentii of the genus Aspergillus by an immunochemical method using a monoclonal antibody preparation against ochratoxin A. Ochratoxin A was detected in Aspergillus ochraceus, A. alliaceus, A. sclerotiorum, A. sulphureus, A. albertensis, A. auricomus, and A. wentii strains. This is the first report of production of ochratoxins in the latter three species. Ochratoxin production by these species was confirmed by high-performance thin-layer chromatography and by high-performance liquid chromatography. The chemical methods also indicated the production of ochratoxin B by all of the Aspergillus strains mentioned above.
Varga, J; Kevei, E; Rinyu, E; Teren, J; Kozakiewicz, Z
Ochratoxin production was tested in 172 strains representing species in sections Fumigati, Circumdati, Candidi, and Wentii of the genus Aspergillus by an immunochemical method using a monoclonal antibody preparation against ochratoxin A. Ochratoxin A was detected in Aspergillus ochraceus, A. alliaceus, A. sclerotiorum, A. sulphureus, A. albertensis, A. auricomus, and A. wentii strains. This is the first report of production of ochratoxins in the latter three species. Ochratoxin production by these species was confirmed by high-performance thin-layer chromatography and by high-performance liquid chromatography. The chemical methods also indicated the production of ochratoxin B by all of the Aspergillus strains mentioned above. PMID:8953717
Varga, J; Kevei, E; Rinyu, E; Téren, J; Kozakiewicz, Z
A collection of 178 Aspergillus isolates, recovered from Czech patients, mostly from 2007-2011, was subjected to multilocus DNA sequence typing using the ITS region, ?-tubulin, and calmodulin genes. An unusually wide spectrum of etiologic agents that included 36 species of Aspergillus is discussed in the context of recent taxonomic and clinical reports. Invasive aspergillosis (IA), onychomycosis, and otitis externa were the predominant clinical entities. Five cases due to species newly proven as etiologic agents of human mycoses, as well as cases with unique clinical manifestations caused by unusual agents are discussed in more detail. Three species (i.e., A. insulicola, A. westerdijkiae and A. tritici) were identified as the confirmed etiologic agents of non-dermatophytic onychomycosis. Emericella rugulosa was recovered from a premature newborn with a fatal necrotising disseminated infection and is reported for only the second time as the cause of IA. Furthermore, we document the first infection due to A. calidoustus in a patient with chronic granulomatous disease. The infection manifested as a latent brain aspergilloma with an unusual clinical-laboratory finding. In addition to the well-known agents of human mycosis, several rarely isolated or poorly documented species were identified. An undescribed cryptic species related to A. versicolor was found to be common among isolates linked to proven and probable onychomycosis. An isolate representing A. fresenii, or an unnamed sister species, were causal agents of otomycosis. Three well defined, and tentative new species belonging to section Cervini, Candidi and Aspergillus (Eurotium spp.), were associated with cases of probable onychomycosis. PMID:22458252
Gliotoxin, a mycotoxin with antimicrobial and immunosuppressive capabilities, is produced by several genera of fungi including the pathogenic fungusAspergillus fumigatus. The ability of selected isolates ofA. fumigatus to produce gliotoxin on three different media was tested and a thin layer chromatographic and high performance liquid chromatographic method for quantitation of gliotoxin from rice culture was developed and is described. Rice
J. L. Richard; R. L. Lyon; R. E. Fichtner; P. F. Ross
Liatrinae is a small subtribe of Eupatorieae that occurs in North America with a center of generic-level diversity in the southeastern United States. Molecular phylogenetic data were sought to assess whether two monotypic genera, Garberia and Hartwrightia, are accurately placed in the subtribe, and to resolve questions of the generic-level classification of Carphephorus. Phylogenetic analyses of nuclear ITS/ETS and plastid DNA data indicated that Garberia is the basalmost diverging lineage, and that Hartwrightia is phylogenetically embedded in the subtribe. There was significant incongruence between the ITS/ETS and plastid DNA datasets in the placement of Hartwrightia and another monotypic genus, Litrisa, suggesting that both are of original hybrid origin. The results also showed that Carphephorus s.l. is not monophyletic, and even after removal of the two species of Trilisa, it is still paraphyletic to Liatris. The apparent hybrid origin of Hartwrightia, which is morphologically transgressive relative to its inferred parental lineages, suggests that reticulation between phylogenetically distinct lineages may be a recurrent problem for phylogenetic estimation in Asteraceae. PMID:21292016
Taxonomic studies of acetic acid bacteria were historically surveyed. The genus Acetobacter was first introduced in 1898 with a single species, Acetobacter aceti. The genus Gluconobacter was proposed in 1935 for strains with intense oxidation of glucose to gluconic acid rather than oxidation of ethanol to acetic acid and no oxidation of acetate. The genus "Acetomonas" was described in 1954 for strains with polar flagellation and no oxidation of acetate. The proposals of the two generic names were due to confusion, and "Acetomonas" was a junior subjective synonym of Gluconobacter. The genus Acetobacter was in 1984 divided into two subgenera, Acetobacter and Gluconoacetobacter. The latter was elevated to the genus Gluconacetobacter in 1998. In the acetic acid bacteria, ten genera are presently recognized and accommodated to the family Acetobacteraceae, the Alphaproteobacteria: Acetobacteer, Gluconobacter, Acidomonas, Gluconacetobacter, Asaia, Kozakia, Swaminathania, Saccharibacter, Neoasaia and Granulibacter. In contrast, the genus Frateuria, strains of which were once named 'pseudacetic acid bacteria', was classified into the Gammaproteobacteria. The genus Gluconacetobacter was phylogenetically divided into two groups: the Gluconacetobacter liquefaciens group and the Gluconacetobacter xylinus group. The two groups were discussed taxonomically. PMID:18199517
...docket ID number EPA-HQ-OPP-2010-0101 at http://www.regulations.gov.). 2. U.S. EPA. 2003. Environmental Hazard Assessment for the Microbial Pesticide, Aspergillus flavus AF36 for Conditional Registration in Arizona and...
Secondary metabolite (SM) production by fungi is hypothesized to provide some fitness attribute for the producing organisms. However, most SM clusters are “silent” when fungi are grown in traditional laboratory settings, and it is difficult to ascertain any function or activity of these SM cluster products. Recently, the creation of a chromatin remodeling mutant in Aspergillus nidulans induced activation of several cryptic SM gene clusters. Systematic testing of nine purified metabolites from this mutant identified an emodin derivate with efficacy against both human fungal pathogens (inhibiting both spore germination and hyphal growth) and several bacteria. The ability of catalase to diminish this antimicrobial activity implicates reactive oxygen species generation, specifically, the generation of hydrogen peroxide, as the mechanism of emodin hydroxyl activity.
Giles, Steve S.; Soukup, Alexandra A.; Lauer, Carrie; Shaaban, Mona; Lin, Alexander; Oakley, Berl R.; Wang, Clay C. C.; Keller, Nancy P.
Aspergillus fumigatus remains a major respiratory pathogen in birds. In poultry, infection by A. fumigatus may induce significant economic losses particularly in turkey production. A. fumigatus develops and sporulates easily in poor quality bedding or contaminated feedstuffs in indoor farm environments. Inadequate ventilation and dusty conditions increase the risk of bird exposure to aerosolized spores. Acute cases are seen in young animals following inhalation of spores, causing high morbidity and mortality. The chronic form affects older birds and looks more sporadic. The respiratory tract is the primary site of A. fumigatus development leading to severe respiratory distress and associated granulomatous airsacculitis and pneumonia. Treatments for infected poultry are nonexistent; therefore, prevention is the only way to protect poultry. Development of avian models of aspergillosis may improve our understanding of its pathogenesis, which remains poorly understood.
Abstract Compression fossils of three genera and six species of Mymaridae (Hymenoptera: Chalcidoidea) are described from 46 million year old Kishenehn oil shales in Montana, USA. Two new genera are described: Eoeustochus Huber, gen. n., with two included species, Eoeustochus kishenehn Huber (type species) and Eoeustochus borchersi Huber, sp. n., and Eoanaphes, gen. n., with Eoanaphes stethynioides Huber, sp. n. Three new species of Gonatocerus are also described, Gonatocerus greenwalti Huber, sp. n. , Gonatocerus kootenai Huber, sp. n., and Gonatocerus rasnitsyni Huber, sp. n. Previously described amber fossil genera are discussed and five genera in Baltic amber are tentatively recorded as fossils: Anagroidea, Camptoptera, Dorya, Eustochus, and Mimalaptus.
Compression fossils of three genera and six species of Mymaridae (Hymenoptera: Chalcidoidea) are described from 46 million year old Kishenehn oil shales in Montana, USA. Two new genera are described: Eoeustochus Huber, gen. n., with two included species, Eoeustochus kishenehn Huber (type species) and Eoeustochus borchersi Huber, sp. n., and Eoanaphes, gen. n., with Eoanaphes stethynioides Huber, sp. n. Three new species of Gonatocerus are also described, Gonatocerus greenwalti Huber, sp. n. , Gonatocerus kootenai Huber, sp. n., and Gonatocerus rasnitsyni Huber, sp. n. Previously described amber fossil genera are discussed and five genera in Baltic amber are tentatively recorded as fossils: Anagroidea, Camptoptera, Dorya, Eustochus, and Mimalaptus. PMID:22259294
Fungal glycosylinositolphosphoceramides (GIPCs) are involved in cell growth and fungal-host interactions. In this study, six GIPCs from the mycelium of the human pathogen Aspergillus fumigatus were purified and characterized using Q-TOF mass spectrometry and 1H, 13C, and 31P NMR. All structures have the same inositolphosphoceramide moiety with the presence of a C(18:0)-phytosphingosine conjugated to a 2-hydroxylated saturated fatty acid (2-hydroxy-lignoceric acid). The carbohydrate moiety defines two types of GIPC. The first, a mannosylated zwitterionic glycosphingolipid contains a glucosamine residue linked in alpha1-2 to an inositol ring that has been described in only two other fungal pathogens. The second type of GIPC presents an alpha-Manp-(1-->3)-alpha-Manp-(1-->2)-IPC common core. A galactofuranose residue is found in four GIPC structures, mainly at the terminal position via a beta1-2 linkage. Interestingly, this galactofuranose residue could be substituted by a choline-phosphate group, as observed only in the GIPC of Acremonium sp., a plant pathogen. PMID:17971386
Aspergillus fumigatus is one of the most ubiquitous of the airborne saprophytic fungi. Humans and animals constantly inhale numerous conidia of this fungus. The conidia are normally eliminated in the immunocompetent host by innate immune mechanisms, and aspergilloma and allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis, uncommon clinical syndromes, are the only infections observed in such hosts. Thus, A. fumigatus was considered for years to be a weak pathogen. With increases in the number of immunosuppressed patients, however, there has been a dramatic increase in severe and usually fatal invasive aspergillosis, now the most common mold infection worldwide. In this review, the focus is on the biology of A. fumigatus and the diseases it causes. Included are discussions of (i) genomic and molecular characterization of the organism, (ii) clinical and laboratory methods available for the diagnosis of aspergillosis in immunocompetent and immunocompromised hosts, (iii) identification of host and fungal factors that play a role in the establishment of the fungus in vivo, and (iv) problems associated with antifungal therapy.
Aspergillus bronchitis is poorly understood and described. We extracted clinical data from more than 400 referred patients with persistent chest symptoms who did not fulfill criteria for allergic, chronic, or invasive aspergillosis. Symptomatic patients with a positive culture or real-time PCR for Aspergillus spp. were reviewed. Seventeen patients fulfilled the selected criteria. Fourteen were women, with a mean age of 57 years (range 39-76). Sixteen of the patients had productive cough, eight had voluminous tenacious sputum, and seven had recurrent chest infections. Eight patients had Medical Research Council dyspnea scores of 4-5; 12 had bronchiectasis; and 13 patients grew A. fumigatus, 3 A. niger, and 1 A. terreus. Twelve of the 17 patients (71%) had elevated Aspergillus IgG (47-137 mg/L, mean 89.2) and 5 (29%) had elevated Aspergillus precipitins. Six of 12 (50%) had a major response to antifungal therapy and five of 12 (42%) patients relapsed, requiring long-term therapy. Aspergillus bronchitis is a discrete clinical entity in patients with structural lung disease but who are not significantly immunocompromised. It is distinct from asymptomatic fungal colonization and other forms of aspergillosis, and may respond to antifungal therapy. PMID:23231717
Chrdle, Ales; Mustakim, Sahlawati; Bright-Thomas, Rowland J; Baxter, Caroline G; Felton, Timothy; Denning, David W
The saprophytic fungus Aspergillus fumigatus is a mold which is ubiquitously present in the environment. It produces large numbers of spores, called conidia that we constantly inhale with the breathing air. Healthy individuals normally do not suffer from true fungal infections with this pathogen. A normally robust resistance against Aspergillus is based on the presence of a very effective immunological defense system in the vertebrate body. Inhaled conidia are first encountered by lung-resident alveolar macrophages and then by neutrophil granulocytes. Both cell types are able to effectively ingest and destroy the fungus. Although some responses of the adaptive immune system develop, the key protection is mediated by innate immunity. The importance of phagocytes for defense against aspergillosis is also supported by large numbers of animal studies. Despite the production of aggressive chemicals that can extracellularly destroy fungal pathogens, the main effector mechanism of the innate immune system is phagocytosis. Very recently, the production of extracellular neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) consisting of nuclear DNA has been added to the armamentarium that innate immune cells use against infection with Aspergillus. Phagocyte responses to Aspergillus are very broad, and a number of new observations have added to this complexity in recent years. To summarize established and newer findings, we will give an overview on current knowledge of the phagocyte system for the protection against Aspergillus. PMID:21571589
The aspergilli show immense ecological and metabolic diversity. To date, the sequences of fifteen different Aspergillus genomes have been determined providing scientists with an exciting resource to improve the understanding of Aspergillus molecular genomics. Aspergillus flavus, one of the most wide...
Soil is presumed to be a major source of inoculum for Aspergillus flavus which contaminates cottonseed and produces the potent carcinogen, aflatoxin. Little is known about the mycoflora of the low desert soils of cotton fields where aflatoxin is a chronic problem. In this study, soils from cotton fields in southwestern Arizona and south-eastern California were assayed for filamentous fungi. Forty-two taxa, predominantly in the generaAspergillus, Penicillium and Fusarium, were isolated. To determine whether or not compounds produced by these fungi could be potential inhibitors of A. flavus, extracts of strains of each taxon were tested for their ability to inhibit growth of A. flavus. Twelve taxa produced compounds inhibitory to A. flavus, including several strains of Fusarium solani, Penicillium vinaceum and Aspergillus auricomus. PMID:9926421
The following heteroxenous and cyst-forming coccidian genera, Besnoitia, Cystoisospora, Frenkelia, Hammondia, Neospora, Sarcocystis and Toxoplasma have been compared biologically, and a key to determine their tissue cysts is provided.
Manipulation of the genome of the human pathogen Aspergillus fumigatus is not well developed. Approaches and data from related model organisms are being used to develop molecular genetic systems in A. fumigatus; for example, the molecular typing of strains during infection. A genome-sequencing programme has begun and will form the basis for future development. PMID:11050444
RECENTLY we had occasion to examine the possible production of antibacterial materials by about twenty strains of Aspergillus flavus, A. oryzoe, A. tamarii and A. parasiticus. The culture fluids showed no significant antibacterial titres when a medium of the Czapek type was used; the test organism was Staphylococcus aureus and both the serial dilution method and the plate test1 were
Aspergillus nomius is described and represents a new aflatoxigenic species phenotypically similar to A. flavus. Strains examined were isolated from insects and agricultural commodities. Separation from A. flavus is based on the presence of indeterminate sclerotia and a lower growth temperature. Comparisons of DNA relatedness show A. nomius to have only relatively recently evolved from A. flavus and A. tamarii.
Polyporus accommodates morphologically heterogeneous species and is divided into six infrageneric groups based on macromorphological characters. On the other hand allied genera have macro- and microscopic characters similar to those of Polyporus. The phylogenetic relationships of Polyporus and allied genera were established from sequences of RNA polymerase II second largest subunit (RPB2), nuclear ribosomal large subunit (nucLSU) and mitochondrial ATPase subunit 6 (ATP6). The molecular phylogenetic trees confirmed that Polyporus is a polyphyletic genus and recognized six major clades (1-6) containing species of Polyporus and several allied genera. Among the clades one contained three infrageneric groups of Polyporus and two allied genera, Datronia and Pseudofavolus while one other contained group Polyporellus and Lentinus. Five of the six major clades contained species belonging to a single infrageneric group, Favolus, Melanopus, Polyporellus or Polyporus. This suggests that morphological characters used to define these groups have phylogenetic significance and reveals the need for a taxonomic revision of Polyporus and its allied genera. PMID:18833753
We sequenced reduced representation libraries by means of Illumina technology to generate over 1.5 Mb of orthologous sequence from a representative of each of the four extant gibbon genera (Nomascus, Hylobates, Symphalangus, and Hoolock). We used these data to assess the evolutionary relationships between the genera by evaluating the likelihoods of all possible bifurcating trees involving the four taxa. Our analyses provide weak support for a tree with Nomascus and Hylobates as sister taxa and with Hoolock and Symphalangus as sister taxa, though bootstrap resampling suggests that other phylogenetic scenarios are also possible. This uncertainty is due to short internal branch lengths and extensive incomplete lineage sorting across taxa. The true phylogenetic relationships among gibbon genera will likely require a more extensive whole-genome sequence analysis. PMID:23341974
Wall, Jeffrey D; Kim, Sung K; Luca, Francesca; Carbone, Lucia; Mootnick, Alan R; de Jong, Pieter J; Di Rienzo, Anna
We sequenced reduced representation libraries by means of Illumina technology to generate over 1.5 Mb of orthologous sequence from a representative of each of the four extant gibbon genera (Nomascus, Hylobates, Symphalangus, and Hoolock). We used these data to assess the evolutionary relationships between the genera by evaluating the likelihoods of all possible bifurcating trees involving the four taxa. Our analyses provide weak support for a tree with Nomascus and Hylobates as sister taxa and with Hoolock and Symphalangus as sister taxa, though bootstrap resampling suggests that other phylogenetic scenarios are also possible. This uncertainty is due to short internal branch lengths and extensive incomplete lineage sorting across taxa. The true phylogenetic relationships among gibbon genera will likely require a more extensive whole-genome sequence analysis.
Luca, Francesca; Carbone, Lucia; Mootnick, Alan R.; de Jong, Pieter J.; Di Rienzo, Anna
The enigmatic, cleptoparasitic bee genera Brachymelecta Linsley and Sinomelecta Baker (Apinae: Melectini) are redescribed, each represented by a single species which has not been reencountered since capture of the type series ca. 1878 and 1900, respectively. Both genera are the only melectines to possess two submarginal cells in the forewing but are otherwise wholly dissimilar. Brachymelecta mucida (Cresson), a species known only from the male holotype collected in "Nevada", is newly described and figured, including the first account of the hidden sterna and genitalia. Sinomelecta oreina Baker is similarly described and figured based on the holotype male and paratype female, apparently collected from the eastern Tibetan Plateau. Both genera are valid and from the available data do not appear to represent merely autapomorphic forms of Melecta Latreille. Indeed, the terminalia of Sinomelecta oreina are in some respects more similar to those of species of Thyreus Panzer. PMID:23275741
Ochratoxin A is a toxic and carcinogenic fungal secondary metabolite; its presence in foods is increasingly regulated. Various fungi are known to produce ochratoxins, but it is not known which species produce ochratoxins consistently and which species cause ochratoxin contamination of various crops. We isolated fungi in the Aspergillus ochraceus group (section Circumdati) and Aspergillus alliaceus from tree nut orchards, nuts, and figs in California. A total of 72 isolates were grown in potato dextrose broth and yeast extract-sucrose broth for 10 days at 30°C and tested for production of ochratoxin A in vitro by high-pressure liquid chromatography. Among isolates from California figs, tree nuts, and orchards, A. ochraceus and Aspergillus melleus were the most common species. No field isolates of A. ochraceus or A. melleus produced ochratoxin A above the level of detection (0.01 ?g/ml). All A. alliaceus isolates produced ochratoxin A, up to 30 ?g/ml. We examined 50,000 figs for fungal infections and measured ochratoxin content in figs with visible fungal colonies. Pooled figs infected with A. alliaceus contained ochratoxin A, figs infected with the A. ochraceus group had little or none, and figs infected with Penicillium had none. These results suggest that the little-known species A. alliaceus is an important ochratoxin-producing fungus in California and that it may be responsible for the ochratoxin contamination occasionally observed in figs.
Bayman, Paul; Baker, James L.; Doster, Mark A.; Michailides, Themis J.; Mahoney, Noreen E.
The Aspergillus galactomannan enzyme-linked immunosorbant assay (EIA) has been demonstrated to facilitate rapid and sensitive detection of invasive aspergillosis. However, test specificity has not been fully evaluated in non-Aspergillus fungal species. Of 53 fungal isolates, cross-reactivity was observed with 5 non-Aspergillus spp.: Blastomyces dermatitidis, Nigrospora oryzae, Paecilomyces lilacinus, Penicillium chrysogenum, and Trichothecium roseum. PMID:17662550
Cummings, Jessica R; Jamison, Ginger R; Boudreaux, Jan W; Howles, Merry J; Walsh, Thomas J; Hayden, Randall T
This paper provides a translation of the introduction, titled 'Account of the work' Ratio operis, to the first edition of Genera plantarum, published in 1737 by the Swedish botanist Carl Linnaeus (1707-1778). The text derives its significance from the fact that it is the only published text in which Linnaeus engaged in an explicit discussion of his taxonomic method. Most importantly, it shows that Linnaeus was clearly aware that a classification of what he called 'natural genera' could not be achieved by a top-down approach of logical division, but had to rely on inductive, bottom-up procedures. The translation is supplemented by explanatory notes. PMID:17893065
The effects of incubation temperature (10–30°C), pH (3.0–4.0) and vanillin concentration (350–1200ppm) on the growth ofAspergillus flavus, Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus ochraceusandAspergillus parasiticuswere evaluated using potato–dextrose agar adjusted to water activity (aw) 0.98. The radial growth rates after a lag period followed zero-order kinetics with constants that varied from 0 (no growth) to 0.63mmh?1. The lag period depended on vanillin concentration,
We report a case of onychomycosis caused by Aspergillus versicolor in a 66-year-old female patient. The infection was characterised clinically by yellowish pigmentation of the nail plate and mild nail bed hyperkeratosis of the first left toe. All other nails were normal. Three direct microscopical examinations of nail samples revealed the presence of hyaline hyphae as well as conidiophores. Pure colonies of A. versicolor were found in three cultures. The patient was successfully treated with oral itraconazole. PMID:19422523
Aspergillus tamarii has been found to grow well and to produce high cellulase-free xylanase activity when growing on corn cob powder as the principal\\u000a substrate. Maximum xylanase production (285-350 U\\/mL) was obtained when the strain was grown in media supplemented with high\\u000a corn cob concentration (5-8%, w\\/v) for 5 d. The presence of constitutive levels of xylanase was detected in
Marina K. Kadowaki; Cristina G. M. Souza; Rita C. G. Simăo; Rosane M. Peralta
Conserved regions within the M1 family of metallo-aminopeptidases have been used to clone a zinc aminopeptidase from the industrially used fungus Aspergillus niger. The derived amino acid sequence of ApsA is highly similar to two yeast zinc aminopeptidases, LAPI and AAPI (53.3 and 50.9?verall similarity, respectively), two members of the M1 family of metallo-aminopeptidases. The encoding gene was successfully overexpressed
A new key based on sequentially numbered statements and alphanumeric words has been developed for the adults of North American freshwater calanoid and cyclopoid copepod genera. This sequential key is easy to use because the main characters being used for separating subgroups are expressed by alphanumeric words. Thus, shorter and fewer sentences are necessary than with the conventional dichotomous key.
The plant family Tamaricaceae contains 3-4 genera and some 80 species of shrubs and small trees, usually halophytic. They are native to Europe, Asia, and Africa, but species of Tamarix have become naturalized in Australia and the Americas. This treatment reviews the latest knowledge of vegetative mo...
The Gnomoniaceae are characterised by ascomata that are generally immersed, solitary, without a stroma, or aggregated with a rudimentary stroma, in herbaceous plant material especially in leaves, twigs or stems, but also in bark or wood. The ascomata are black, soft-textured, thin-walled, and pseudoparenchymatous with one or more central or eccentric necks. The asci usually have a distinct apical ring. The Gnomoniaceae includes species having ascospores that are small, mostly less than 25 ?m long, although some are longer, and range in septation from non-septate to one-septate, rarely multi-septate. Molecular studies of the Gnomoniaceae suggest that the traditional classification of genera based on characteristics of the ascomata such as position of the neck and ascospores such as septation have resulted in genera that are not monophyletic. In this paper the concepts of the leaf-inhabiting genera in the Gnomoniaceae are reevaluated using multiple genes, specifically nrLSU, translation elongation factor 1-alpha (tef1-?), and RNA polymerase II second largest subunit (rpb2) for 64 isolates. ITS sequences were generated for 322 isolates. Six genera of leaf-inhabiting Gnomoniaceae are defined based on placement of their type species within the multigene phylogeny. The new monotypic genus Ambarignomonia is established for an unusual species, A. petiolorum. A key to 59 species of leaf-inhabiting Gnomoniaceae is presented and 22 species of Gnomoniaceae are described and illustrated.
Oxygenic photoautotrophs of the genera Synechococcus and Prochlorococcus contribute significantly to primary production and are now widely accepted as the most abundant members of the picophytoplankton in the world's oceans. Since they represent one of the few cultured and representative groups of marine microorganisms, study of their physiology and biochemistry has progressed rapidly since their discovery. The recent and on-going
The genera Exiguobacterium and Psychrobacter have been frequently detected in and isolated from polar permafrost and ice. These two genera have members that can grow at temperatures as low as -5 and -10 degrees C, respectively. We used quantitative PCR (Q-PCR) to quantify members of these genera in 54 soil or sediment samples from polar, temperate and tropical environments to determine to what extent they are selected by cold environments. These results were further analyzed by multiple linear regression to identify the most relevant environmental factors corresponding to their distribution. Exiguobacterium was detected in all three climatic zones at similar densities, but was patchier in the temperate and tropical samples. Psychrobacter was present in almost all polar samples, was at highest densities in Antarctica sediment samples, but was in very low densities and infrequently detected in temperate and tropical soils. Clone libraries, specific for the 16S rRNA gene for each genus, were constructed from a sample from each climatic region. The clone libraries were analyzed for alpha and beta diversities, as well as for variation in population structure by using analysis of molecular variance. Results confirm that both genera were found in all three climatic zones; however, Psychrobacter populations seemed to be much more diverse than Exiguobacterium in all three climatic zones. Furthermore, Psychrobacter populations from Antarctica are different from those in Michigan and Puerto Rico, which are similar to each other. PMID:19322243
Rodrigues, Debora F; da C Jesus, Ederson; Ayala-Del-Río, Hector L; Pellizari, Vivian H; Gilichinsky, David; Sepulveda-Torres, Lycely; Tiedje, James M
Twelve species belonging to six fungal genera were found to be associated with wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) grain samples collected from three main regions in Saudi Arabia. The most common genera (average frequency) were Aspergillus (14.3%), Fusarium (29.1%), Penicillium (9.3%), and Alternaria (8.2%). Nineteen isolates of Aspergillus flavus were screened for their ability to produce aflatoxins using HPLC. Thirteen isolates produced aflatoxins ranging from 0.5 to 2.6 µg/kg. Inter-simple sequence repeats (ISSR), and random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) molecular markers were used, with the aim of genetically characterizing strains of A. flavus to discriminate between aflatoxigenic and non-aflatoxigenic isolates. RAPD and ISSR analysis revealed a high level of genetic diversity in the A. flavus population, useful for genetic characterization. Clustering based on RAPD and ISSR dendograms was unrelated to geographic origin. RAPD and ISSR markers were not suitable to discriminate aflatoxigenic and non-aflatoxigenic isolates, but ISSR primers were better compared to RAPD. PMID:24065675
Al-Wadai, A S; Al-Othman, M R; Mahmoud, M A; Abd El-Aziz, A R M
Although Aspergillus species are not usually considered as serious plant pathogens, Aspergilli are frequently encountered in plant products. The most important consequence of their presence is mycotoxin contamination. The main mycotoxins produced by Aspergilli are the aflatoxins, ochratoxin A and patulin, which are produced by a variety of Aspergillus species in different plant commodities. Phylogenetic analysis of sequences of the
János Varga; Ákos Juhász; Ferenc Kevei; Zofia Kozakiewicz
Cyclopiazonic acid (CPA) is an indole-tetramic acid neurotoxin produced by some of the same strains of A. flavus that produce aflatoxins and by some Aspergillus oryzae strains. Despite its discovery 40 years ago, few reviews of its toxicity and biosynthesis have been reported. This review examines what is currently known about the toxicity of CPA to animals and humans, both by itself or in combination with other mycotoxins. The review also discusses CPA biosynthesis and the genetic diversity of CPA production in A. flavus/oryzae populations. PMID:22069533
Itaconate biosynthesis was studied in intact cells of high-yield (RC4') and low-yield (CM85J) strains of the fungus Aspergillus terreus by methods (tracers, nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, and mass spectroscopy) that did not interfere with metabolism. Itaconate formation in RC4' required de novo protein biosynthesis. Krebs cycle intermediates increased in both strains during the production of itaconic acid. The Embden-Meyerhof-Parnas pathway and the Krebs cycle were shown to be involved in this biosynthesis by using 14C- and 13C-labelled substrates and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. A metabolic pathway for itaconate formation from glucose in A. terreus is proposed. PMID:7768868
Bonnarme, P; Gillet, B; Sepulchre, A M; Role, C; Beloeil, J C; Ducrocq, C
Caribbean corals, including sea fans ( Gorgonia spp.), are being affected by severe and apparently new diseases. In the case of sea fans, the pathogen is reported to be the fungus Aspergillus sydowii, and the disease is named aspergillosis. In order to understand coral diseases and pathogens, knowledge of the microbes associated with healthy corals is also necessary. In this study the fungal community of healthy Gorgonia ventalina colonies was contrasted with that of diseased colonies. In addition, the fungal community of healthy and diseased tissue within colonies with aspergillosis was contrasted. Fungi were isolated from healthy and diseased fans from 15 reefs around Puerto Rico, and identified by sequencing the nuclear ribosomal ITS region and by morphology. Thirty fungal species belonging to 15 genera were isolated from 203 G. ventalina colonies. Penicillum and Aspergillus were the most common genera isolated from both healthy and diseased fans. However, the fungal community of healthy fans was distinct and more diverse than that of diseased ones. Within diseased fans, fungal communities from diseased tissues were distinct and more diverse than from healthy tissue. The reduction of fungi in diseased colonies may occur prior to infection due to environmental changes affecting the host, or after infection due to increase in dominance of the pathogen, or because of host responses to infection. Data also indicate that the fungal community of an entire sea fan colony is affected even when only a small portion of the colony suffers from aspergillosis. An unexpected result was that A. sydowii was found in healthy sea fans but never in diseased ones. This result suggests that A. sydowii is not the pathogen causing aspergillosis in the studied colonies, and suggests several fungi common to healthy and diseased colonies as opportunistic pathogens. Given that it is not clear that Aspergillus is the sole pathogen, calling this disease aspergillosis is an oversimplification at best.
Toledo-Hernández, C.; Zuluaga-Montero, A.; Bones-González, A.; Rodríguez, J. A.; Sabat, A. M.; Bayman, P.
Somatic embryos were induced from immature seeds of eight Citrus relatives including Aegle marmelos, Atalantia ceylanica,\\u000a Citropsis gabunensis, Clausena excavata, Glycosmis pentaphylla, Microcitrus australasica, Murraya paniculata and Severinia\\u000a buxifolia on MT medium supplemented with 0.05 mg l?1 2,4-D, 0.05 mg l?1 BA and 400 mg l?1 malt extract. Approximately 20% of somatic embryos from six of the genera underwent callogenesis
Most species of Citrus and related genera display a similar karyotype with 2n?=?18 and a variable number of terminal heterochromatic blocks positively stained with chromomycin A3 (CMA+ bands). Some of these blocks are 45S rDNA sites, whereas others may correspond to the main GC-rich satellite DNA found in\\u000a several Citrus species. In the present work, the distribution of the 45S
Ana Emília Barros e Silva; André Marques; Karla G. B. dos Santos; Marcelo Guerra
Pollen, spores, hystrichospherids, dinoflagellates, and the fresh-water alga Pediastrum occur in marine clays at the classic Claiborne Bluffs locality, Alabama. The presence of Ephedra pollen provides the first documented Tertiary record of this genus from the southeastern states. The occurrence of several characteristically temperate genera lends support to the idea that a deciduous hardwood forest was present in the Appalachian uplands during the Eocene. PMID:17813748
Species of 7 of the 28 yeast genera in the National Collection of Yeast Cultures exhibited killing activity againstSaccharomyces cerevisiae. The highest incidence of killer yeasts was found in the genusHansenula (12 of the 29 strains examined).Saccharomyces, the best represented genus in the Collection, showed a low incidence of killer activity and many of the killer strains are\\u000a hybrids with
The recently generated molecular phylogeny for the kingdom Fungi, on which a new classification scheme is based, still suffers from an under representation of numerous apparently asexual genera of microfungi. In an attempt to populate the Fungal Tree of Life, fresh samples of 10 obscure genera of hyphomycetes were collected. These fungi were subsequently established in culture, and subjected to DNA sequence analysis of the ITS and LSU nrRNA genes to resolve species and generic questions related to these obscure genera. Brycekendrickomyces (Herpotrichiellaceae) is introduced as a new genus similar to, but distinct from Haplographium and Lauriomyces. Chalastospora is shown to be a genus in the Pleosporales, with two new species, C. ellipsoidea and C. obclavata, to which Alternaria malorum is added as an additional taxon under its oldest epithet, C. gossypii. Cyphellophora eugeniae is newly described in Cyphellophora (Herpotrichiellaceae), and distinguished from other taxa in the genus. Dictyosporium is placed in the Pleosporales, with one new species, D. streliziae. The genus Edenia, which was recently introduced for a sterile endophytic fungus isolated in Mexico, is shown to be a hyphomycete (Pleosporales) forming a pyronellea-like synanamorph in culture. Thedgonia is shown not to represent an anamorph of Mycosphaerella, but to belong to the Helotiales. Trochophora, however, clustered basal to the Pseudocercospora complex in the Mycosphaerellaceae, as did Verrucisporota. Vonarxia, a rather forgotten genus of hyphomycetes, is shown to belong to the Herpotrichiellaceae and Xenostigmina is confirmed as synanamorph of Mycopappus, and is shown to be allied to Seifertia in the Pleosporales. Dichotomous keys are provided for species in the various genera treated. Furthermore, several families are shown to be polyphyletic within some orders, especially in the Capnodiales, Chaetothyriales and Pleosporales. PMID:20198145
Crous, P W; Braun, U; Wingfield, M J; Wood, A R; Shin, H D; Summerell, B A; Alfenas, A C; Cumagun, C J R; Groenewald, J Z
Ethyl acetate extracts and hydrodistillated essential oils from five cultivars of tropical citrus epicarps were evaluated\\u000a for their inhibitory activities against Aspergillus fumigatus, Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus flavus, Aspergillus parasiticus, and Penicillium sp. using disk diffusion and broth microdilution assays. Essential oils prepared from kaffir lime (Citrus hystrix DC) and acid lime (Citrus aurantifolia Swingle) epicarps exhibited stronger antifungal activity to
Granular activated carbon (GAC) beds may be used for removal of dissolved organic matter during the treatment of drinking water. However, they might also change the microbiological quality of the water entering the distribution system either by changing the predominant bacteria or the bacterial density of the treated water. A 3-year pilot plant study of water treatment using GAC beds was conducted at the Baxter Water Treatment Plant in Philadelphia. During the study, bacteria were isolated from the raw water and from the effluents of the GAC treatment units. At the end of the study, bacteria were also isolated from the GAC units and from sand beds operated in parallel with the GAC units. Bacterial genera in the GAC effluents and in the GAC units themselves were similar to those found in the raw water and in the sand beds. Prechlorination and (or) preozonation of the water before GAC treatment had no noticeable effect on the bacterial genera found as compared with GAC unit having no predisinfection. The bacterial genera found in this study were similar to those found in seven other studies of GAC water treatment that used a variety of treatment schemes and a variety of heterotrophic plate count techniques to evaluate bacterial populations. From these several studies it appears that GAC treatment does not change the nature of the bacterial populations associated with drinking water. PMID:3708443
A colorimetric assay for antifungal susceptibility testing of Aspergillus species (Aspergillus fumigatus, Asper- gillus flavus, Aspergillus terreus, Aspergillus nidulans, and Aspergillus ustus) is described based on the reduction of the tetrazolium salt 2,3-bis(2-methoxy-4-nitro-5-((sulphenylamino)carbonyl)-2H-tetrazolium-hydroxide (XTT) in the presence of menadione as an electron-coupling agent. The combination of 200 g of XTT\\/ml with 25 M menadione resulted in a high production of
JOSEPH MELETIADIS; JOHAN W. MOUTON; JACQUES F. G. M. MEIS; BIANCA A. BOUMAN; J. PETER DONNELLY; PAUL E. VERWEIJ
The Central Aspergillus Data REpository (CADRE; http://www.cadre-genomes.org.uk) is a public resource for genomic data extracted from species of Aspergillus. It provides an array of online tools for searching and visualising features of this significant fungal genus. CADRE arose from a need within the medical community to understand the human pathogen Aspergillus fumigatus. Due to the paucity of Aspergillus genomic resources 10 years ago, the long-term goal of this project was to collate and maintain Aspergillus genomes as they became available. Since our first release in 2004, the resource has expanded to encompass annotated sequence for eight other Aspergilli and provides much needed support to the international Aspergillus research community. Recent developments, however, in sequencing technology are creating a vast amount of genomic data and, as a result, we shortly expect a tidal wave of Aspergillus data. In preparation for this, we have upgraded the database and software suite. This not only enables better management of more complex data sets, but also improves annotation by providing access to genome comparison data and the integration of high-throughput data. PMID:22080563
The Central Aspergillus Data REpository (CADRE; http://www.cadre-genomes.org.uk) is a public resource for genomic data extracted from species of Aspergillus. It provides an array of online tools for searching and visualising features of this significant fungal genus. CADRE arose from a need within the medical community to understand the human pathogen Aspergillus fumigatus. Due to the paucity of Aspergillus genomic resources 10 years ago, the long-term goal of this project was to collate and maintain Aspergillus genomes as they became available. Since our first release in 2004, the resource has expanded to encompass annotated sequence for eight other Aspergilli and provides much needed support to the international Aspergillus research community. Recent developments, however, in sequencing technology are creating a vast amount of genomic data and, as a result, we shortly expect a tidal wave of Aspergillus data. In preparation for this, we have upgraded the database and software suite. This not only enables better management of more complex data sets, but also improves annotation by providing access to genome comparison data and the integration of high-throughput data.
Background/Aims To study the susceptibility of Fusarium and Aspergillus isolated from keratitis to amoxicillin, cefazolin, chloramphenicol, moxifloxacin, tobramycin, and benzalkonium chloride (BAK). Methods 10 isolates of Fusarium and 10 isolates of Aspergillus from cases of fungal keratitis at Aravind Eye Hospital in South India were tested using microbroth dilution for susceptibility to amoxicillin, cefazolin, chloramphenicol, moxifloxacin, tobramycin, and BAK. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) median and 90th percentile were determined. Results BAK had the lowest MIC for both Fusarium and Aspergillus. Chloramphenicol had activity against both Fusarium and Aspergillus, while moxifloxacin and tobramycin had activity against Fusarium but not Aspergillus. Conclusions The susceptibility of Fusarium to tobramycin, moxifloxacin, chloramphenicol, and BAK and of Aspergillus to chloramphenicol and BAK may explain anecdotal reports of fungal ulcers that improved with antibiotic treatment alone. While some of the MICs of antibiotics and BAK are lower than the typically prescribed concentrations, they are not in the range of antifungal agents such as voriconazole, natamycin, and amphotericin B. Antibiotics may, however, have a modest effect on Fusarium and Aspergillus when used as initial treatment prior to identification of the pathologic organism.
Day, Shelley; Lalitha, Prajna; Haug, Sara; Fothergill, Annette W.; Cevallos, Vicky; Vijayakumar, Rajendran; Prajna, Namperumalsamy V.; Acharya, Nisha R.; McLeod, Stephen D.; Lietman, Thomas M.
To evaluate the potential for mycotoxin production by fungi in dried vine fruits, the mycobiota was determined both before and after surface disinfection. Predominant genera were Aspergillus (50.2%), Eurotium (21.4%) and Penicillium (13.5%). Aspergillus section Nigri ("black aspergilli") were isolated with relatively high frequency. Aspergillus niger was the most common species but only 3 of 293 isolates screened were ochratoxin A (OTA) producers. Aspergillus carbonarius was less common but 96% of 48 strains screened were ochratoxigenic. OTA was not produced by A. japonicus. Other toxigenic fungi detected were A. ochraceus (3 strains produced OTA), Aspergillus flavus (5 strains produced cyclopiazonic acid but not aflatoxins), P. citrinum (19 strains were strong citrinin producers) and Alternaria alternata (15 strains were producers of tenuazonic acid, alternariol and alternariol methyl ether). In spite of the high incidence of A. carbonarius capable of producing OTA, low levels of this toxin were detected in the samples analysed. PMID:16054260
Romero, S M; Comerio, R M; Larumbe, G; Ritieni, A; Vaamonde, G; Fernández Pinto, V
Two PCR assays have been developed to detect Aspergillus carbonarius and Aspergillus ochraceus, considered the main sources of ochratoxin A (OTA) contaminating commodities, particularly grapes, coffee and derivatives, in warm climates. The species specific primers have been designed on the basis of ITS (internal transcribed spacers of rDNA units) sequence comparisons obtained from Aspergillus strains and have been tested in a number of strains from different origins and hosts. These PCR assays, based on multi-copy sequences, are highly sensitive and specific and represent a good tool for an early detection of OTA-producing Aspergillus species and to prevent OTA entering the food chain. PMID:15967531
Patińo, Belén; González-Salgado, Amaia; González-Jaén, M Teresa; Vázquez, Covadonga
Three new aflatoxin-producing species belonging to Aspergillus section Flavi are described, Aspergillus mottae, Aspergillus sergii and Aspergillus transmontanensis. These species were isolated from Portuguese almonds and maize. An investigation examining morphology, extrolites and molecular data was...
Most species of Citrus and related genera display a similar karyotype with 2n = 18 and a variable number of terminal heterochromatic blocks positively stained with chromomycin A(3) (CMA(+) bands). Some of these blocks are 45S rDNA sites, whereas others may correspond to the main GC-rich satellite DNA found in several Citrus species. In the present work, the distribution of the 45S rDNA and the main satellite DNA isolated from C. sinensis (CsSat) were investigated by in situ hybridization in seven species of Citrus, two species of closely related genera (Fortunella obovata and Poncirus trifoliata) and four species of the subfamily Aurantioideae, which were less related to Citrus (Atalantia monophylla, Murraya paniculata, Severinia buxifolia, and Triphasia trifolia). In Citrus, Fortunella, and Poncirus, most CMA(+) bands colocalized only with CsSat sites, whereas others colocalized only with rDNA sites. However, some of these species displayed a few CMA(+) bands that colocalized with sites of both probes and other CMA(+) bands that did not colocalized with any of the probes. On the other hand, in the four species less related to Citrus, no CsSat signal was found on chromosomes. On Southern blot, the CsSat probe hybridized with genomic DNA from Citrus, Fortunella, and Poncirus at high stringency only, while under the less stringent conditions, it also hybridized with distantly related species. Therefore, CsSat sequences are the principal component of the heterochromatic blocks of Citrus, Poncirus, and Fortunella, whereas CsSat-like sequences seem to be widespread in the subfamily Aurantioideae. These data further suggest that the variable number of terminal CMA(+) bands observed on chromosomes of Citrus and related genera are probably the consequence of amplification or reduction in the number of CsSat-like sequences distributed on chromosome termini, paralleled by mutation and homogenization events, as proposed by the library hypothesis. PMID:20490650
e Silva, Ana Emília Barros; Marques, André; dos Santos, Karla G B; Guerra, Marcelo
The native mycobiota of five grape varieties grown in Spain has been studied. Four (Bobal, Tempranillo, Garnacha, and Monastrell) were red varieties and one (Moscatel) was white. The main fungal genera isolated were Alternaria, Cladosporium, and Aspergillus. The isolation frequency of Aspergillus spp. section Nigri in contaminated samples was 82%. Ochratoxin A (OTA) production was assessed using yeast extract-sucrose broth supplemented with 5% bee pollen. Cultures of 205 isolates from this section showed that 74.2% of Aspergillus carbonarius and 14.3% of Aspergillus tubingensis isolates produced OTA at levels ranging from 1.2 to 3,530 ng/ml and from 46.4 to 111.5 ng/ml, respectively. No Aspergillus niger isolate had the ability to produce this toxin under the conditions assayed. Identification of the A. niger aggregate isolates was based on PCR amplification of 5.8S rRNA genes and its two intergenic spacers, internal transcribed spacer 1 (ITS1) and ITS2, followed by digestion with restriction endonuclease RsaI of the PCR products. The restriction patterns were compared with those from strains of A. niger CECT 2807 and A. tubingensis CECT 20393, held at the Spanish Collection of Type Cultures. DNA sequencing of the ITS1-5.8S rRNA gene-ITS2 region of the OTA-producing isolates of A. tubingensis matched 99 to 100% with the nucleotide sequence of strain A. tubingensis CBS 643.92. OTA determination was accomplished by liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection. OTA confirmation was carried out by liquid chromatography coupled to ion trap mass spectrometry. The results showed that there are significant differences with regard to the isolation frequency of ochratoxinogenic fungi in the different grape varieties. These differences were uncorrelated to berry color. The ability of A. tubingensis to produce OTA and the influence of grape variety on the occurrence of OTA-producing fungi in grapes are described in this report for the first time.
The biochemical activity of hyphomycete genera was studied on their representatives, genera Humicola Traaen and Gilmaniella Barron. The two genera are characterized by a light- or dark gray mycelium; the colonies have black reverse sides and their reproduction is accomplished mostly by aleuriospores. In contrast to the morphology of the genus Humicola (seven species and two varieties; Fassatiovs 1967), the
Abstract A new genus Lyalia is described in Nanophyidae and three species are included in it: Lyalia curvata sp. n. (Vietnam), Lyalia robusta (Pic, 1921), comb. n. (from Nanophyes) (Java, Bali, Laos) and Lyalia albolineata (Pajni & Bhateja, 1982), comb. n. (from Ctenomerus) (India: Assam). Ctenomerus lagerstroemiae G. A. K. Marshall, 1923 is a syn. n. of Lyalia robusta. Thus, the genus Ctenomerus Schoenherr, 1843 is restricted to the Afrotropical Realm. Kantohia gen. n. is erected for Kantohia taiwana (Kantoh & Kojima, 2009) (from Shiva) (Taiwan). A key to the Nanophyinae genera with six desmomeres is presented.
A 66-year-old male with ischaemic cardiomyopathy and chronic lymphocytic leukemia developed signs of severe systemic inflammatory response syndrome. Serial blood cultures were negative and a SeptiFast test detected the presence of Aspergillus fumigatus DNA. Afterwards, detection of galactomannan and 1,3-?-D-glucan showed a positive result. Autopsy revealed the presence of branched fungal structures suggestive of Aspergillus. PMID:21767711
Palomares, José C; Bernal, Samuel; Marín, María; Holgado, Victoria Pérez; Castro, Carmen; Morales, Willy Pinto; Martin, Estrella
A mixture of aminopeptidase and neutral protease from the Aspergillus flavus mold obtained by chromatography on DEAE-Sephadex was fractionated by chromatography on the hydroxyalkyl methacrylate gel with chemically bonded 1,6 hexamethylene diamine and D-leucine. Aminopeptidase thus obtained was electrophoretically homogeneous. Conditions for chromatography were worked out allowing a one stage isolation of a highly active aminopeptidase sample directly from the alcoholic precipitate of the culture medium of the Aspergillus flavus mold. PMID:814927
Phylogenetic analyses and morphological characteristics were used to assess the taxonomic placement of eight plant-pathogenic Sclerotium species. Members of this genus produce only sclerotia and no fruiting bodies or spores, so Sclerotium species have been difficult to place taxonomically. Sequences of rDNA large subunit (LSU) and internal transcribed spacer (ITS) regions were determined for isolates of Sclerotium cepivorum, S. coffeicola, S. denigrans, S. hydrophilum, Ceratorhiza oryzae-sativae, S. perniciosum, S. rhizodes, S. rolfsii and S. rolfsii var. delphinii. Parsimony analysis grouped two species previously thought to be in the Basidiomycota, S. denigrans and S. perniciosum, within the Ascomycota; these species were found to have affinities with the teleomorph genera Sclerotinia and Stromatinia and the asexual Sclerotium cepivorum, which was known earlier to be related to Sclerotinia species. The other Sclerotium species were placed in one of two basidiomycetous groups, genera Athelia or Ceratobasidium. Based on rDNA analysis and morphology the basidiomycetous Sclerotium hydrophilum and S. rhizodes were transferred to genus Ceratorhiza, the anamorph of Ceratobasidium species. Sclerotium coffeicola was found to be close to S. rolfsii var. delphinii and S. rolfsii var. rolfsii, which was shown earlier to have an Athelia teleomorph. PMID:20361501
Xu, Zhihan; Harrington, Thomas C; Gleason, Mark L; Batzer, Jean C
Determining how biological traits are related to the ability of groups of organisms to become economically damaging when established outside of their native ranges is a major goal of population biology, and important in the management of invasive species. Little is known about why some taxonomic groups are more likely to become pests than others among plants. We investigated traits that discriminate vascular plant genera, a level of taxonomic generality at which risk assessment and screening could be more effectively performed, according to the proportion of naturalized species which are pests. We focused on the United States and Canada, and, because our purpose is ultimately regulatory, considered species classified as weeds or noxious. Using contingency tables, we identified 11 genera of vascular plants that are disproportionately represented by invasive species. Results from boosted regression tree analyses show that these categories reflect biological differences. In summary, approximately 25% of variation in genus proportions of weeds or noxious species was explained by biological covariates. Key explanatory traits included genus means for wetland habitat affinity, chromosome number, and seed mass.
Aflatoxins are carcinogenic mycotoxins formed by a number of fungi in the genus Aspergillus. The major fungi responsible for aflatoxin formation in crop seeds in the field and in storage are Aspergillus flavus and A. parasiticus. This review emphasizes developmental, environmental, biological, and chemical factors that influence aflatoxin formation\\u000a by A. flavus and A. parasiticus.
Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus parasiticus produced ethylene during early growth. However, the onset of toxin biosynthesis was marked by the absence of ethylene evolution. 2-Chloroethyl phosphonic acid, an ethylene-generating compound, inhibited aflatoxin biosynthesis in vivo. The reciprocal relationship between the production of aflatoxin and ethylene by the organism may indicate the involvement of the latter in the regulation of aflatoxin biogenesis.
...Aspergillus spp. in serum. The identification aids in the diagnosis of aspergillosis caused by fungi belonging to the genus Aspergillus...lessions in the skin, ear, eyeball cavity, nasal sinuses, lungs, and occasionally the bones. (b) Classification....
Sequencing batch reactors were acclimated under aerobic and alternating anoxic/aerobic conditions. Greater nitrification rates in the alternating reactor were investigated by comparing environmental conditions. In the alternating reactor, pH, alkalinity, oxygen, and nitrite were higher at the onset of aerobic nitrification. Kinetic studies and batch tests, with biomass developed under aerobic and alternating conditions, revealed that these factors were insufficient to explain the divergent nitrification rates. Nitrifying genera vary in nitrification kinetics and sensitivity to environmental conditions. Nitrosospira and Nitrospira spp. could dominate in aerobic reactors, as they are adapted to low nitrite and oxygen conditions. Nitrosomonas and Nitrobacter spp. are better competitors with abundant substrates and have higher nitrite tolerance, so they could excel under alternating conditions. This theoretical explanation is consistent with the kinetics and environmental conditions in these reactors and argues for using alternating treatment, because the harsh conditions select for populations with inherently faster nitrification rates. PMID:18605378
• Background and Aims A central goal of biogeography and ecology is to uncover and understand distributional patterns of organisms. China has long been a focus of attention because of its rich biota, especially with respect to plants. Using 290 floras from across China, this paper quantitatively characterizes the composition of floristic elements at multiple scales (i.e. national, provincial and local), and explores the extent to which climatic and geographical factors associated with each flora can jointly and independently explain the variation in floristic elements in local floras. • Methods A study was made of 261 local floras, 28 province-level floras and one national-level flora across China. Genera of seed plants in each flora were assigned to 14 floristic elements according to their worldwide geographical distributions. The composition of floristic elements was related to climatic and geographical factors. • Key Results and Conclusions Variations in percentages of cosmopolitan, tropical and temperate genera among local floras tend to be greater at higher latitudes than at lower latitudes. Latitude is strongly correlated with the proportions of 13 of the 14 floristic elements. Correlations of the proportions of floristic elements with longitude are much weaker than those with latitude. Climate represented by the first principal component of a principal component analysis was strongly correlated with the proportions of floristic elements in local floras (|r| = 0·75 ± 0·18). Geographical coordinates independently explained about four times as much variation in floristic elements as did climate. Further research is necessary to examine the roles of water–energy dynamics, geology, soils, biotic interactions, and historical factors such as land connections between continents in the past and at present in creating observed floristic patterns.
An organic extract was prepared from the culture medium and mycelia of the marine fungus Aspergillus stromatoides RAPER & FENNELL. The extract was fractionated via column chromatography, and the resulting fractions were tested for their abilities to quench the fluorescence of the calmodulin (CaM) biosensor hCaM M124C-mBBr. From the active fraction, emodin (1) and ?-hydroxyemodin (2) were isolated as CaM inhibitors. Anthraquinones 1 and 2 quenched the fluorescence of the hCaM M124C-mBBr biosensor in a concentration-dependent manner with K(d) values of 0.33 and 0.76 ?M, respectively. The results were compared with those of chlorpromazine (CPZ), a classical inhibitor of CaM, with a K(d) value of 1.25 ?M. Docking analysis revealed that 1 and 2 bind to the same pocket of CPZ. The CaM inhibitor properties of 1 and 2 were correlated with some of their reported biological properties. Citrinin (3), methyl 8-hydroxy-6-methyl-9-oxo-9H-xanthene-1-carboxylate (4), and coniochaetone A (5) were also isolated in the present study. The X-ray structure of 5 is reported for the first time. PMID:23495150
González-Andrade, Martín; Del Valle, Paulina; Macías-Rubalcava, Martha L; Sosa-Peinado, Alejandro; Del Carmen González, María; Mata, Rachel
Our previous studies of Aspergillus fumigatus showed that colonies that grew in the presence of voriconazole (VCZ) were characteristically white without pigmentation. We therefore investigated the effect of various triazoles on conidiation and pigmentation in four commonly isolated Aspergillus species and the results were compared with those obtained for polyene and echinocandin classes of antifungal drugs. Aspergillus cultures were grown
Neeraja L Varanasi; Inthumathi Baskaran; George J Alangaden; Pranatharthi H Chandrasekar; Elias K Manavathu
Aspergilli known as black- and white-koji molds which are used for awamori, shochu, makgeolli and other food and beverage fermentations, are reported in the literature as A. luchuensis, A. awamori, A. kawachii, or A. acidus. In order to elucidate the taxonomic position of these species, available ex-type cultures were compared based on morphology and molecular characters. A. luchuensis, A. kawachii and A. acidus showed the same banding patterns in RAPD, and the three species had the same rDNA-ITS, ?-tubulin and calmodulin sequences and these differed from those of the closely related A. niger and A. tubingensis. Morphologically, the three species are not significantly different from each other or from A. niger and A. tubingensis. It is concluded that A. luchuensis, A. kawachii and A. acidus are the same species, and A. luchuensis is selected as the correct name based on priority. Strains of A. awamori which are stored in National Research Institute of Brewing in Japan, represent A. niger (n?=?14) and A. luchuensis (n?=?6). The neotype of A. awamori (CBS 557.65?=? NRRL 4948) does not originate from awamori fermentation and it is shown to be identical with the unknown taxon Aspergillus welwitschiae. Extrolite analysis of strains of A. luchuensis showed that they do not produce mycotoxins and therefore can be considered safe for food and beverage fermentations. A. luchuensis is also frequently isolated from meju and nuruk in Korea and Puerh tea in China and the species is probably common in the fermentation environment of East Asia. A re-description of A. luchuensis is provided because the incomplete data in the original literature.
Hong, Seung-Beom; Lee, Mina; Kim, Dae-Ho; Varga, Janos; Frisvad, Jens C.; Perrone, Giancarlo; Gomi, Katsuya; Yamada, Osamu; Machida, Masayuki; Houbraken, Jos; Samson, Robert A.
Aspergilli known as black- and white-koji molds which are used for awamori, shochu, makgeolli and other food and beverage fermentations, are reported in the literature as A. luchuensis, A. awamori, A. kawachii, or A. acidus. In order to elucidate the taxonomic position of these species, available ex-type cultures were compared based on morphology and molecular characters. A. luchuensis, A. kawachii and A. acidus showed the same banding patterns in RAPD, and the three species had the same rDNA-ITS, ?-tubulin and calmodulin sequences and these differed from those of the closely related A. niger and A. tubingensis. Morphologically, the three species are not significantly different from each other or from A. niger and A. tubingensis. It is concluded that A. luchuensis, A. kawachii and A. acidus are the same species, and A. luchuensis is selected as the correct name based on priority. Strains of A. awamori which are stored in National Research Institute of Brewing in Japan, represent A. niger (n?=?14) and A. luchuensis (n?=?6). The neotype of A. awamori (CBS 557.65?=? NRRL 4948) does not originate from awamori fermentation and it is shown to be identical with the unknown taxon Aspergillus welwitschiae. Extrolite analysis of strains of A. luchuensis showed that they do not produce mycotoxins and therefore can be considered safe for food and beverage fermentations. A. luchuensis is also frequently isolated from meju and nuruk in Korea and Puerh tea in China and the species is probably common in the fermentation environment of East Asia. A re-description of A. luchuensis is provided because the incomplete data in the original literature. PMID:23723998
Hong, Seung-Beom; Lee, Mina; Kim, Dae-Ho; Varga, Janos; Frisvad, Jens C; Perrone, Giancarlo; Gomi, Katsuya; Yamada, Osamu; Machida, Masayuki; Houbraken, Jos; Samson, Robert A
Acute aortic occlusion caused by a saddle embolus is a rare vascular emergency. Associated sudden paraplegia secondary to spinal cord ischemia is even more uncommon. Aspergillus surgical site infection is typically linked to cardiac surgery but is exceptional. Here we present a case that combines all of these factors. A 67-year-old man presented with sudden paraplegia from acute aortic occlusion with a saddle embolus from Aspergillus niger aortitis 4 months after aortic valve replacement and aortoplasty. We believe this to be the second reported case of Aspergillus niger aortitis and the first presenting as aortic occlusion with paraplegia. PMID:21715126
Jamieson, Russell W; Wallace, William A; Din, Jehangir N; Raza, Zahid
Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus oryzae belong to Aspergillus section Flavi. They are closely related and are of significant economic importance. The former species has the ability to produce harmful aflatoxins while the latter is widely used in food fermentation and industrial enzyme production. This review summarizes the current understanding of the similarity of the A. flavus and A. oryzae genomes, the genetic diversity in A. flavus and A. oryzae populations, the causes of this diversity, and the relatedness of nonaflatoxigenic A. flavus strains to A. oryzae. PMID:20163884
Presently the only keys available for identification of genera of Anthonomini are limited to those of the United States of America and Canada. A dichotomous key is presented to identify all genera of Mexican and Central American Anthonomini. Previous keys do not include the genera Achia, Botanebius, Loncophorus, Loncophorellus and Melexerus. A brief synopsis is given for each genus and photographs of representative species are included. PMID:23717181
Hernández, Macotulio Soto; Jones, Robert W; Castillo, Pedro Reyes
Invasive aspergillosis is an increasingly frequent opportunistic infection in immunocompromised patients. Only two agents, amphotericin B and itraconazole, are licensed for therapy. Itraconazole acts through inhibition of a P-450 enzyme undertaking sterol 14alpha demethylation. In vitro resistance in Aspergillus fumigatus to itraconazole correlated with in vivo outcome has not been previously described. For three isolates (AF72, AF90, and AF91) of A. fumigatus from two patients with invasive aspergillosis itraconazole MICs were elevated. A neutropenic murine model was used to establish the validity of the MICs. The isolates were typed by random amplification of polymorphic DNA. Analysis of sterols, inhibition of cell-free sterol biosynthesis from [14C] mevalonate, quantitation of P-450 content, and [3H]itraconazole concentration in mycelial pellets were used to determine the mechanisms of resistance. The MICs for the three resistant isolates were >16 microg/ml. In vitro resistance was confirmed in vivo for all three isolates. Molecular typing showed the isolates from the two patients to be genetically distinct. Compared to the susceptible isolate from patient 1, AF72 had a reduced ergosterol content, greater quantities of sterol intermediates, a similar susceptibility to itraconazole in cell-free ergosterol biosynthesis, and a reduced intracellular [3H]itraconazole concentration. In contrast, AF91 and AF92 had slightly higher ergosterol and lower intermediate sterol concentrations, fivefold increased resistance in cell-free systems to the effect of itraconazole on sterol 14alpha demethylation, and intracellular [3H] itraconazole concentrations found in susceptible isolates. Resistance to itraconazole in A. fumigatus is detectable in vitro and is present in wild-type isolates, and at least two mechanisms of resistance are responsible.
Denning, D W; Venkateswarlu, K; Oakley, K L; Anderson, M J; Manning, N J; Stevens, D A; Warnock, D W; Kelly, S L
l-Glutamate uptake, thiourea uptake, and methylammonium uptake and the intracellular ammonium concentration were measured in wild-type and mutant cells of Aspergillus nidulans held in various concentrations of ammonium and urea. The levels of l-glutamate uptake, thiourea uptake, nitrate reductase, and hypoxanthine dehydrogenase activity are determined by the extracellular ammonium concentration. The level of methylammonium uptake is determined by the intracellular ammonium concentration. The uptake and enzyme characteristics of the ammonium-derepressed mutants, meaA8, meaB6, DER3, amrA1, xprD1, and gdhA1, are described. The gdhA mutants lack normal nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate-glutamate dehydrogenase (NADP-GDH) activity and are derepressed with respect to both external and internal ammonium. The other mutant classes are derepressed only with respect to external ammonium. The mutants meaA8, DER3, amrA1, and xprD1 have low levels of one or more of the l-glutamate, thiourea, and methylammonium uptake systems. A model for ammonium regulation in A. nidulans is put forward which suggests: (i) NADP-GDH located in the cell membrane complexes with extracellular ammonium. This first regulatory complex determines the level of l-glutamate uptake, thiourea uptake, nitrate reductase, and xanthine dehydrogenase by repression or inhibition, or both. (ii) NADP-GDH also complexes with intracellular ammonium. This second and different form of regulatory complex determines the level of methylammonium uptake by repression or inhibition, or both.
Pateman, J. A.; Kinghorn, J. R.; Dunn, Etta; Forbes, E.
Aspergillus section Clavati has been revised using morphology, secondary metabolites, physiological characters and DNA sequences. Phylogenetic analysis of beta-tubulin, ITS and calmodulin sequence data indicated that Aspergillus section Clavati includes 6 species, A. clavatus (synonyms: A. apicalis, A. pallidus), A. giganteus, A. rhizopodus, A. longivesica, Neocarpenteles acanthosporus and A. clavatonanicus. Neocarpenteles acanthosporus is the only known teleomorph of this section. The sister genera to Neocarpenteles are Neosartorya and Dichotomomyces based on sequence data. Species in Neosartorya and Neocarpenteles have anamorphs with green conidia and share the production of tryptoquivalins, while Dichotomomyces was found to be able to produce gliotoxin, which is also produced by some Neosartorya species, and tryptoquivalines and tryptoquivalones produced by members of both section Clavati and Fumigati. All species in section Clavati are alkalitolerant and acidotolerant and they all have clavate conidial heads. Many species are coprophilic and produce the effective antibiotic patulin. Members of section Clavati also produce antafumicin, tryptoquivalines, cytochalasins, sarcins, dehydrocarolic acid and kotanins (orlandin, desmethylkotanin and kotanin) in species specific combinations. Another species previously assigned to section Clavati, A. ingratus is considered a synonym of Hemicarpenteles paradoxus, which is phylogenetically very distantly related to Neocarpenteles and section Clavati. PMID:18490946
Glycogen has been found in thermoacidophilic archaebacteria of the genera Sulfolobus, Thermoproteus, Desulfurococcus and Thermococcus. Thermoplasma acidophilum yielded a related, though less defined compound.
Helmut König; Romuald Skorko; Wolfram Zillig; Wolf-Dieter Reiter
Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus parasiticus cause perennial infection of agriculturally important crops in tropical and subtropical areas. Invasion of crops by these\\u000a fungi may result in contamination of food and feed by potent carcinogenic aflatoxins. Consumption of aflatoxin contaminated\\u000a foods is a recognised risk factor for human hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and may contribute to the high incidence of HCC\\u000a in
Intact ladderane phospholipids and core lipids were studied in four species of anaerobic ammonium oxidizing (anammox) bacteria, each representing one of the four known genera. Each species of anammox bacteria contained C18 and C20 ladderane fatty acids with either 3 or 5 linearly condensed cyclobutane rings and a ladderane monoether containing a C20 alkyl moiety with 3 cyclobutane rings. The presence of ladderane lipids in all four anammox species is consistent with their putative physiological role to provide a dense membrane around the anammoxosome, the postulated site of anammox catabolism. In contrast to the core lipids, large variations were observed in the distribution of ladderane phospholipids, i.e. different combinations of hydrophobic tail (ladderane, straight chain and methyl branched fatty acid) types attached to the glycerol backbone sn-1 position, in combination with different types of polar headgroup (phosphocholine, phosphoethanolamine or phosphoglycerol) attached to the sn-3 position. Intact ladderane lipids made up a high percentage of the lipid content in the cells of "Candidatus Kuenenia stuttgartiensis", suggesting that ladderane lipids are also present in membranes other than the anammoxosome. Finally, all four investigated species contained a C27 hopanoid ketone and bacteriohopanetetrol, which, indicates that hopanoids are anaerobically synthesised by anammox bacteria. PMID:18385981
Rattray, Jayne E; van de Vossenberg, Jack; Hopmans, Ellen C; Kartal, Boran; van Niftrik, Laura; Rijpstra, W Irene C; Strous, Marc; Jetten, Mike S M; Schouten, Stefan; Sinninghe Damsté, Jaap S
Predator-prey relations involving fishes are often evaluated using scales remaining in gut contents or feces. While several reliable keys help identify North American freshwater fish scales to the family level, none attempt to separate the family Centrarchidae to the genus level. Centrarchidae is of particular concern in the midwestern United States because it contains several popular sport fishes, such as smallmouth bass Micropterus dolomieu, largemouth bass M. salmoides, and rock bass Ambloplites rupestris, as well as less-sought-after species of sunfishes Lepomis spp. and crappies Pomoxis spp. Differentiating sport fish from non-sport fish has important management implications. Morphological characteristics of lateral line scales (n = 1,581) from known centrarchid fishes were analyzed. The variability of measurements within and between genera was examined to select variables that were the most useful in further classifying unknown centrarchid scales. A linear discriminant analysis model was developed using 10 variables. Based on this model, 84.4% of Ambloplites scales, 81.2% of Lepomis scales, and 86.6% of Micropterus scales were classified correctly using a jackknife procedure. ?? Copyright by the American Fisheries Society 2007.
PCR has been used as an aid in the diagnosis of invasive aspergillosis for almost 2 decades. A lack of standardization has limited both its acceptance as a diagnostic tool and multicenter clinical evaluations, preventing its inclusion in disease-defining criteria. In 2006, the European Aspergillus PCR Initiative was formed. The aim of the initiative was to provide optimal standardized protocols
P. L. White; S. Bretagne; L. Klingspor; W. J. G. Melchers; E. McCulloch; B. Schulz; N. Finnstrom; C. Mengoli; R. A. Barnes; J. P. Donnelly; J. Loeffler
Aspergillus spp. cause disease in a broad range of organisms, but it is unknown if strains are specialized for particular hosts. We evaluated isolates of Aspergillus flavus, Aspergillus fumigatus, and Aspergillus nidulans for their ability to infect bean leaves, corn kernels, and insects (Galleria mellonella). Strains of A. flavus did not affect nonwounded bean leaves, corn kernels, or insects at 22°C, but they killed insects following hemocoelic challenge and caused symptoms ranging from moderate to severe in corn kernels and bean leaves injured during inoculation. The pectinase P2c, implicated in aggressive colonization of cotton bolls, is produced by most A. flavus isolates, but its absence did not prevent colonization of bean leaves. Proteases have been implicated in colonization of animal hosts. All A. flavus strains produced very similar patterns of protease isozymes when cultured on horse lung polymers. Quantitative differences in protease levels did not correlate with the ability to colonize insects. In contrast to A. flavus, strains of A. nidulans and A. fumigatus could not invade living insect or plant tissues or resist digestion by insect hemocytes. Our results indicate that A. flavus has parasitic attributes that are lacking in A. fumigatus and A. nidulans but that individual strains of A. flavus are not specialized to particular hosts.
St. Leger, Raymond J.; Screen, Steven E.; Shams-Pirzadeh, Bijan
Fungal infections of the orbit represent a small minority of orbital infections. However, due to the virulent nature of some of the fungal species, they can have a devastating effect on ocular functions. Most of these fungi are saprophytes, which cause opportunistic infections. Aspergillus is one such fungus that can cause infection at various sites in an immunosuppressed individual. Sinonasal aspergillus infection with orbital extension and orbital aspergillus infection progress relentlessly. They can have a precipitous clinical course resulting in total loss of vision. Fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) is rarely used as a preoperative diagnostic tool in the investigation of orbital mass lesions. Further, fungal infections of orbit are seldom diagnosed on FNAC. Two cases of fungal infection of the orbital and periorbital tissue diagnosed on FNAC are presented. A 50-year-old diabetic male presented with diminishing vision, pain, and forward protrusion of the left eye. On examination, he had upper eye lid fullness. A 55-year-old diabetic male presented with a swelling on the right upper eye lid. The patients were evaluated radiologically and then subjected to FNAC. The smears showed giant cells, histiocytes, epithelioid granulomas, and fungal hyphae. A diagnosis of fungal infection was arrived at which was subsequently confirmed by culture and biopsy. Orbital aspergillus infection can have a precipitous course. Computerized tomography and magnetic resonance imaging of the orbit provide crucial information. However, FNAC can help in making an early definitive diagnosis of fungal infection and thus obviate the need for a biopsy. PMID:21695805
Kuruba, Sree Lakshmi; Prabhakaran, Venkatesh C; Nagarajappa, A H; Biligi, Dayanand S
The genome of Aspergillus oryzae, an important industrial fungus used in the production of oriental fermented foods, such as soy sauce, miso, and sake, has been sequenced. The genome sequence reveals a wealth of genes encoding secreted enzymes. A comparison with the genome sequences of A. nidulans...
The in vivo composition of the mycelial extracellular matrix (ECM) of Aspergillus fumigatus during host invasion is reported here for the first time. A new galactosaminogalactan and the galactomannan were the major polysaccharides of the in vivo ECM. The composition of the ECM in vivo varied with the aspergillosis pathologies. PMID:19889082
Loussert, Céline; Schmitt, Christine; Prevost, Marie-Christine; Balloy, Viviane; Fadel, Elie; Philippe, Bruno; Kauffmann-Lacroix, Catherine; Latgé, Jean Paul; Beauvais, Anne
Summary The in vivo composition of the mycelial extracellu- lar matrix (ECM) of Aspergillus fumigatus during host invasion is reported here for the first time. A new galactosaminogalactan and the galactoman- nan were the major polysaccharides of the in vivo ECM. The composition of the ECM in vivo varied with the aspergillosis pathologies.
Céline Loussert; Christine Schmitt; Marie-Christine Prevost; Viviane Balloy; Elie Fadel; Bruno Philippe; Catherine Kauffmann-Lacroix; Jean Paul Latgé; Anne Beauvais
Aspergillus niger is capable of removing heavy metals such as lead, cadmium and copper from aqueous solutions. The role played by various functional groups in the cell wall of A. niger in biosorption of lead, cadmium and copper was investigated. The biomass was subjected to chemical treatments to modify the functional groups, carboxyl, amino and phosphate, to study their role
Aspergillus terreus is a species which is being seen increasingly frequently and which is highly resistant to amphotericin B in vitro and clinically. We evaluated amphotericin B, caspofungin, and posaconazole in a murine model of acute invasive aspergillosis. Caspofungin and posaconazole both appeared beneficial and may be reasonable treatment alternatives for infection with A. terreus.
Graybill, John R.; Hernandez, Steve; Bocanegra, Rosie; Najvar, Laura K.
Four cold-sensitive mutants of Aspergillus nidulans which produce abnormal ribosome sedimentation profiles have been identified. After growth at 37° C followed by incubation at 20° C, all four mutant strains (designated ARP) produce profiles containing a reduced ratio of large to small ribosomal subunits. In at least three of the ARP strains the altered profile results from decreased production of
We investigated the in vitro interaction of terbinafine with itraconazole, fluconazole, ampho- tericin B and 5-flucytosine, against Aspergillus spp. We tested three isolates of Aspergillus fumi- gatus (one resistant to itraconazole), and two each of Aspergillus flavus, Aspergillus niger and Aspergillus terreus. We employed a broth microdilution-based method derived from an in vivo validated method capable of detecting itraconazole resistance
J. Mosquera; A. Sharp; C. B. Moore; P. A. Warn; D. W. Denning
SUMMARY Aspergillus flavus is an opportunistic pathogen of crops. It is important because it produces aflatoxin as a secondary metabolite in the seeds of a number of crops both before and after harvest. Aflatoxin is a potent carcinogen that is highly regulated in most countries. In the field, aflatoxin is associated with drought-stressed oilseed crops including maize, peanut, cottonseed and tree nuts. Under the right conditions, the fungus will grow and produce aflatoxin in almost any stored crop seed. In storage, aflatoxin can be controlled by maintaining available moisture at levels below that which will support growth of A. flavus. A number of field control measures are being utilized or explored, including: modification of cultural practices; development of resistant crops through molecular and proteomic techniques; competitive exclusion using strains that do not produce aflatoxin; and development of field treatments that would block aflatoxin production. Taxonomy: Aspergillus flavus Link (teleomorph unknown) kingdom Fungi, phyllum Ascomycota, order Eurotiales, class Eurotiomycetes, family Trichocomaceae, genus Aspergillus, species flavus. Host range: Aspergillus flavus has a broad host range as an opportunistic pathogen/saprobe. It is an extremely common soil fungus. The major concern with this fungus in agriculture is that it produces highly carcinogenic toxins called aflatoxins which are a health hazard to animals. In the field, A. flavus is predominantly a problem in the oilseed crops maize, peanuts, cottonseed and tree nuts. Under improper storage conditions, A. flavus is capable of growing and forming aflatoxin in almost any crop seed. It also is a pathogen of animals and insects. In humans it is predominantly an opportunistic pathogen of immunosuppressed patients. Useful websites: http://www.aspergillusflavus.org, http://www.aflatoxin.info/health.asp, plantpathology.tamu.edu/aflatoxin, http://www.aspergillus.org.uk. PMID:20507532
Phylogenetic relatedness among ascomycetous yeast genera (subphylum Saccharomycotina, phylum Ascomycota) has been uncertain. In the present study, type species of 70 currently recognized genera are compared from divergence in the nearly entire nuclear gene sequences for large subunit rRNA, small sub...
An illustrated dichotomous key and synopses of the 32 genera of living pennatulacean octocorals are presented, which incorporate new morphological and distributional data from the examination of recently collected material. In addition, a key to the 15 extant families, lists of valid genera, synonyms, and a table of comparative characters are also included. Lastly, a revised classification and phylogenetic considerations
Seven genera—Brachymystax, Acantholingua, Salmothymus, Hucho, Salvelinus, Salmo, and Oncorhynchus—make up the living Salmoninae. Relationships of 33 extant and 4 fossil salmonid species and subspecies were studied on the basis of 119 characters analyzed by parsimony algorithms. Twelve equally parsimonious trees each requiring 253 steps were calculated. Monophyly of recognized genera is consistent with all 12 estimates. The earliest branch of
Karyotypes of nine species representing nine genera of cyprinid fishes inhabiting California were examined. The nine genera, including Hesperoleucus, Lavinia, Mylopharodon, Pogonichthys, Ptychocheilus, Orthodon, Richardsonius, Gila and Notemigonus, all have diploid chromosome numbers of 50. Notemigonus is the only genus non-native to California, having been introduced from the eastern United States. Measurements of centromeric indices suggested differences in fundamental arm
Abstract Two new species of oribatid mites, Lepidozetes acutirostrum sp. n. and Scutozetes clavatosensillus sp. n., are described from Nepal. The genera Lepidozetes and Scutozetes are recorded for the first time for the Oriental region. The identification keys to the known species of these genera are provided.
Ermilov, Sergey G.; Martens, Jochen; Tolstikov, Andrei V.
and also of the genera Branhamella, Moraxella, and Acinetobacter. Since these organisms must be excluded from the Neisseriaceae, the new family Branhamaceae is proposed to accommodate the genera Branhamella (including the false neisseriae) and Moraxella. This arrangement acknowledges the phylogenetic relationships of these organisms and resolves controversies concerning (i) the recommendation that the genus Moraxella should be divided into the
Taxonomic revision and parsimony-based phylogenetic analysis of species in two closely related genera of predaceous Cheyletidae, Chelacheles Baker and Neochelacheles Smiley & Williams, are conducted. Among species of these genera, C. algericus Fain & Bochkov, syn. nov. and C. humilis Rasool, Chaudhri & Akbar, syn. nov. are synonymised with C. strabismus Baker and C. bakeri Attiah, respectively. Six new species
The number of recognized papillomavirus (PV) species and potential PV genera has dramatically been increasing throughout the past decade. It seems that every host species might potentially harbour a large set of PVs, while the PVs of each species appear to belong to only a few genera.In horses at least three conditions beside the equine sarcoid have been described, being
Christian E. Lange; Kurt Tobler; Mathias Ackermann; Claude Favrot
Chen, W., Shearer, C. A., and Klopp, J. 1995. Phylogenetic ordinal placement based on rDNA sequences of the freshwater genera Ophioceras and Pseudohalonectria. Experimental Mycology 19, 191-201, The ordinal placement of two closely related freshwater genera, Ophioceras and Pseudohalonectria , was assessed by using phylogenetic analysis of morphological characters, partial sequences of the large subunit ribosomal DNA and restriction site
Chloroplast DNA cleavage sites for 10 restriction enzymes were mapped for 46 species representing all sections of Anemone, four closely related genera (Clematis, Pulsatilla, Hepatica, and Knowltonia), and three more distantly related outgroups (Caltha, Ranunculus, and Adonis). Comparison of the maps revealed that the chloroplast genomes of Anemone and related genera have sustained an unusual number and variety of rearrangements.
|Provided is a dichotomous key to the common genera of marine algae and angiosperms which are taken aboard the Orange County Floating Marine Laboratory. It is designed primarily for use by junior and senior high school students. Drawings of representative members of the various genera are included. This work was prepared under an ESEA Title III…
The taxa of the fulgoroid family Flatidae (Homoptera) occurring on the island of Borneo are treated. Seventy-eight species under 33 genera are included with keys, character diagnoses, illustrations and collection data. Two new genera, Boretsis Medler and Ortracis Medler are described. Twelve new species are described and several new synonymies and new combinations are proposed as detailed below.The new species
An "Orthrius-group" of genera is proposed, and defined to include Aphelochroa Quedenfeldt, 1885; Caridopus Schenkling, 1908; Dozocolletus Chevrolat, 1842; Gyponyx Gorham, 1883; Languropilus Pic, 1940; Orthrius Gorham, 1876; Pieleus Pic, 1940; Xenorthrius Gorham, 1892; plus three new genera Neorthriusgen. n., Nonalatusgen. n. and Pseudoastigmusgen. n. A phylogeny of the 11 constituent Orthrius-group genera (analysis of 22 morphological characters using Clerus Geoffroy as the out-group taxon was performed with TNT v1.1) is proposed. Four genera are synonymised: Burgeonus Pic, 1950, syn. n. (with Aphelochroa Quedenfeldt, 1885); Brinckodes Winkler, 1960, syn. n. and Quasibrinckodes Winkler, 1960, syn. n. (both with Dozocolletus Chevrolat, 1842); and Dedana Fairmaire, 1888, syn. n. (with Orthrius Gorham, 1876). The genera Falsoorthrius Pic, 1940 and Mimorthrius Pic, 1940 are transferred from Clerinae to the subfamily Tillinae. PMID:21594111
Abstract An “Orthrius-group” of genera is proposed, and defined to include Aphelochroa Quedenfeldt, 1885; Caridopus Schenkling, 1908; Dozocolletus Chevrolat, 1842; Gyponyx Gorham, 1883; Languropilus Pic, 1940; Orthrius Gorham, 1876; Pieleus Pic, 1940; Xenorthrius Gorham, 1892; plus three new genera Neorthrius gen. n., Nonalatus gen. n. and Pseudoastigmus gen. n. A phylogeny of the 11 constituent Orthrius-group genera (analysis of 22 morphological characters using Clerus Geoffroy as the out-group taxon was performed with TNT v1.1) is proposed. Four genera are synonymised: Burgeonus Pic, 1950, syn. n. (with Aphelochroa Quedenfeldt, 1885); Brinckodes Winkler, 1960, syn. n. and Quasibrinckodes Winkler, 1960, syn. n. (both with Dozocolletus Chevrolat, 1842); and Dedana Fairmaire, 1888, syn. n. (with Orthrius Gorham, 1876). The genera Falsoorthrius Pic, 1940 and Mimorthrius Pic, 1940 are transferred from Clerinae to the subfamily Tillinae.
...and cellulase derived from Aspergillus niger. 173.120 Section 173.120 ...and cellulase derived from Aspergillus niger. Carbohydrase and cellulase enzyme preparation derived from Aspergillus niger may be safely used in food in...
...and cellulase derived from Aspergillus niger. 173.120 Section 173.120 ...and cellulase derived from Aspergillus niger. Carbohydrase and cellulase enzyme preparation derived from Aspergillus niger may be safely used in food in...
Section Terrei of Aspergillus was studied using a polyphasic approach including sequence analysis of parts of the ?-tubulin and calmodulin genes and the ITS region, macro- and micromorphological analyses and examination of extrolite profiles to describe three new species in this section. Based on phylogenetic analysis of calmodulin and ?-tubulin sequences seven lineages were observed among isolates that have previously been treated as A. terreus and its subspecies by Raper & Fennell (1965) and others. Aspergillus alabamensis, A. terreus var. floccosus, A. terreus var. africanus, A. terreus var. aureus, A. hortai and A. terreus NRRL 4017 all represent distinct lineages from the A. terreus clade. Among them, A. terreus var. floccosus, A. terreus NRRL 4017 and A. terreus var. aureus could also be distinguished from A. terreus by using ITS sequence data. New names are proposed for A. terreus var. floccosus, A. terreus var. africanus, A. terreus var. aureus, while Aspergillus hortai is recognised at species level. Aspergillus terreus NRRL 4017 is described as the new species A. pseudoterreus. Also included in section Terrei are some species formerly placed in sections Flavipedes and Versicolores. A. clade including the type isolate of A. niveus (CBS 115.27) constitutes a lineage closely related to A. carneus. Fennellia nivea, the hypothesized teleomorph is not related to this clade. Aspergillus allahabadii, A. niveus var. indicus, and two species originally placed in section Versicolores, A. ambiguus and A. microcysticus, also form well-defined lineages on all trees. Species in Aspergillus section Terrei are producers of a diverse array of secondary metabolites. However, many of the species in the section produce different combinations of the following metabolites: acetylaranotin, asperphenamate, aspochalamins, aspulvinones, asteltoxin, asterric acid, asterriquinones, aszonalenins, atrovenetins, butyrolactones, citreoisocoumarins, citreoviridins, citrinins, decaturins, fulvic acid, geodins, gregatins, mevinolins, serantrypinone, terreic acid (only the precursor 3,6-dihydroxytoluquinone found), terreins, terrequinones, terretonins and territrems. The cholesterol-lowering agent mevinolin was found in A. terreus and A. neoafricanus only. The hepatotoxic extrolite citrinin was found in eight species: A. alabamensis, A. allahabadii, A. carneus, A. floccosus, A. hortai, A. neoindicus, A. niveus and A. pseudoterreus. The neurotoxic extrolite citreoviridin was found in five species: A. neoafricanus, A. aureoterreus, A. pseudoterreus, A. terreus and A. neoniveus. Territrems, tremorgenic extrolites, were found in some strains of A. alabamensis and A. terreus.
Samson, R.A.; Peterson, S.W.; Frisvad, J.C.; Varga, J.
Section Terrei of Aspergillus was studied using a polyphasic approach including sequence analysis of parts of the ?-tubulin and calmodulin genes and the ITS region, macro- and micromorphological analyses and examination of extrolite profiles to describe three new species in this section. Based on phylogenetic analysis of calmodulin and ?-tubulin sequences seven lineages were observed among isolates that have previously been treated as A. terreus and its subspecies by Raper & Fennell (1965) and others. Aspergillus alabamensis, A. terreus var. floccosus, A. terreus var. africanus, A. terreus var. aureus, A. hortai and A. terreus NRRL 4017 all represent distinct lineages from the A. terreus clade. Among them, A. terreus var. floccosus, A. terreus NRRL 4017 and A. terreus var. aureus could also be distinguished from A. terreus by using ITS sequence data. New names are proposed for A. terreus var. floccosus, A. terreus var. africanus, A. terreus var. aureus, while Aspergillus hortai is recognised at species level. Aspergillus terreus NRRL 4017 is described as the new species A. pseudoterreus. Also included in section Terrei are some species formerly placed in sections Flavipedes and Versicolores. A. clade including the type isolate of A. niveus (CBS 115.27) constitutes a lineage closely related to A. carneus. Fennellia nivea, the hypothesized teleomorph is not related to this clade. Aspergillus allahabadii, A. niveus var. indicus, and two species originally placed in section Versicolores, A. ambiguus and A. microcysticus, also form well-defined lineages on all trees. Species in Aspergillus section Terrei are producers of a diverse array of secondary metabolites. However, many of the species in the section produce different combinations of the following metabolites: acetylaranotin, asperphenamate, aspochalamins, aspulvinones, asteltoxin, asterric acid, asterriquinones, aszonalenins, atrovenetins, butyrolactones, citreoisocoumarins, citreoviridins, citrinins, decaturins, fulvic acid, geodins, gregatins, mevinolins, serantrypinone, terreic acid (only the precursor 3,6-dihydroxytoluquinone found), terreins, terrequinones, terretonins and territrems. The cholesterol-lowering agent mevinolin was found in A. terreus and A. neoafricanus only. The hepatotoxic extrolite citrinin was found in eight species: A. alabamensis, A. allahabadii, A. carneus, A. floccosus, A. hortai, A. neoindicus, A. niveus and A. pseudoterreus. The neurotoxic extrolite citreoviridin was found in five species: A. neoafricanus, A. aureoterreus, A. pseudoterreus, A. terreus and A. neoniveus. Territrems, tremorgenic extrolites, were found in some strains of A. alabamensis and A. terreus. PMID:21892242
Samson, R A; Peterson, S W; Frisvad, J C; Varga, J
The importance of organic chemistry in the classification of lichens is well established, but inorganic chemistry has been largely overlooked. Six lichen species were studied over a period of 23 years that were growing in 11 protected areas of the northern Great Lakes ecoregion, which were not greatly influenced by anthropogenic particulates or gaseous air pollutants. The elemental data from these studies were aggregated in order to test the hypothesis that differences among species in tissue element concentrations were large enough to discriminate between taxa faithfully. Concentrations of 16 chemical elements that were found in tissue samples from Cladonia rangiferina, Evernia mesomorpha, Flavopunctelia flaventior, Hypogymnia physodes, Parmelia sulcata, and Punctelia rudecta were analyzed statistically using multivariate discriminant functions and CART analyses, as well as t-tests. Genera and species were clearly separated in element space, and elemental discriminant functions were able to classify 91-100 of the samples correctly into species. At the broadest level, a Zn concentration of 51 ppm in tissues of four of the lichen species effectively discriminated foliose from fruticose species. Similarly, a S concentration of 680 ppm discriminated C. rangiferina and E. mesomorpha, and a Ca concentration of 10 436 ppm discriminated H. physodes from P. sulcata. For the three parmelioid species, a Ca concentration >32 837 ppm discriminated Punctelia rudecta from the other two species, while a Zn concentration of 56 ppm discriminated Parmelia sulcata from F. flaventior. Foliose species also had higher concentrations than did fruticose species of all elements except Na. Elemental signatures for each of the six species were developed using standardized means. Twenty-four mechanisms explaining the differences among species are summarized. Finally, the relationships of four species based on element concentrations, using additive-trees clustering of a Euclidean-distance matrix, produced identical relationships as did analyses based on secondary product chemistry that used additive-trees clustering of a Jaccard similarity matrix. At least for these six species, element composition has taxonomic significance, and may be useful for discriminating other taxa.
A pyrG-Aspergillus strain was transformed with plasmid pDJB-1, derived from pBR325 by insertion of the Neurospora crassa pyr4 gene (orotidine 5'-phosphate carboxylase), giving mitotically unstable transformants. Aspergillus DNA which acted as an “autonomously replicating sequence” (ARS) in yeast was inserted into pDJB-1 and the resulting construct, pDJB12.1, gave mitotically stable transformants when introduced into Aspergillus. Transformants obtained with pDJB-1 and
Horikoshi, Koki (The Institute of Physical and Chemical Research, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo, Japan), and Yonosuke Ikeda. Trehalase in conidia of Aspergillus oryzae. J. Bacteriol. 91:1883–1887. 1966.—Trehalases (soluble trehalase and coat-bound trehalase) were found in the conidia of Aspergillus oryzae, and the total activity of the trehalases increased during the germination process. The soluble trehalase was purified by diethylaminoethyl-cellulose column chromatography; its optimal pH, Michaelis constant, and heat stability were studied. In vitro, the trehalases were competitively inhibited by d-mannitol, which was also contained in the conidia. Since the trehalose content in the conidia decreased at an early stage of germination, it was assumed that trehalase might begin to hydrolyze trehalose after the inhibitory effect of d-mannitol decreased.
During a study on the mycobiota of brazil nuts (Bertholletia excelsa) in Brazil, a new Aspergillus species, A. bertholletius, was found, and is described here. A polyphasic approach was applied using morphological characters, extrolite data as well as partial ?-tubulin, calmodulin and ITS sequences to characterize this taxon. A. bertholletius is represented by nineteen isolates from samples of brazil nuts at various stages of production and soil close to Bertholletia excelsa trees. The following extrolites were produced by this species: aflavinin, cyclopiazonic acid, kojic acid, tenuazonic acid and ustilaginoidin C. Phylogenetic analysis using partial ?-tubulin and camodulin gene sequences showed that A. bertholletius represents a new phylogenetic clade in Aspergillus section Flavi. The type strain of A. bertholletius is CCT 7615 (?=?ITAL 270/06?=?IBT 29228).
Taniwaki, Marta H.; Pitt, John I.; Iamanaka, Beatriz T.; Sartori, Daniele; Copetti, Marina V.; Balajee, Arun; Fungaro, Maria Helena P.; Frisvad, Jens C.
Live-cell imaging techniques are now routinely used to study filamentous fungi. This has been very much facilitated by the development of a wide range of novel microscope technologies, new fluorescent probes (vital dyes and fluorescent proteins), and major advances in computing hardware and software. Here we show what can be achieved with imaging living cells of Aspergillus fumigatus and A. nidulans in vitro using confocal laser scanning microscopy. Basic techniques for successful live-cell imaging are described, and results are shown from imaging the dynamics of the growing colony margin, nuclear division, mitochondria, endoplasmic reticulum, Golgi and asexual structures. Other live-cell imaging studies that have been performed on Aspergillus are also summarized. PMID:19255923
. \\u000a Aspergillus fumigatus can utilize chicken feather keratin as its sole carbon and nitrogen source. Because enzymatic conversion of native keratin\\u000a into readily usable products is of economic interest, this fungus was studied for its capacity to produce and secrete keratin-hydrolyzing\\u000a proteinases. Substantial keratin-azure hydrolyzing activity was present in the culture fluid of keratin-containing media.\\u000a Considerably lower activity was present
Regina M. D. B. Santos; Alexandre A. P. Firmino; Cezar M. de Sá; Carlos R. Felix
A newly isolated strain, TIT-90076, which produces ?-fructofuranosidase (FFase, EC 22.214.171.124) with a high transfructosylating activity was identified as Aspergillus japonicus. The optimal conditions for the enzymatic transfructosylating reaction occur at pH 5.0 and 55°C. Sucrose is the best carbon source and yeast extract the best nitrogen source for enzyme production. Addition of MgSO · 7H2O and K2HPO4 shifted the
In Aspergillus nidulans, mutations, designated areAr, can result in the inability to utilise a wide variety of nitrogen sources including amino acids, purines, amides, nitrate, and nitrite, whilst not affecting growth on ammonium. Other allelic areA mutations, designated areAd, lead to derepression of one or more activities which are ammonium repressible in wild type (areA+) strains, whilst not affecting their
Aspergillus sp. CH-Y-1043 synthesizes pectin lyase when grown on citrus pectin at 37° C. Production is favoured by increased esterification degree of the pectin used as carbon source. This enzyme displays higher activity at pH values of 8.5–8.8 and temperatures of 40–45° C. The optimal substrate for the enzyme was highly esterified pectin and no enzymatic activity was registered on
Luis Delgado; Blanca A. Trejo; Carlos Huitrón; Guillermo Aguilar
Summary A mutant ofAspergillus nidulans resistant to ethidium bromide was isolated and the semi-dominant gene responsible for this resistance was allocated on linkage group II at 17.42±3.05 units of recombination from thewA3 gene. The gene also confers cross-resistance to acriflavin, malachite green and crystal violet. It was also shown that riboflavin is antagonistic to the toxic effect of ethidium bromide,
California exports tree nuts to countries where they face stringent standards for aflatoxin contamination. Trade concerns\\u000a have stimulated efforts to eliminate aflatoxins and Aspergillus flavus from almonds, pistachios and walnuts. Incidence of fungi on tree nuts and associations among fungi on tree nuts were studied.\\u000a Eleven hundred pistachios, almonds, walnuts and brazil nuts without visible insect damage were plated on
Mutant strains of Aspergillus nidulans have been isolated which grow normally on minimal medium at 37°C but not at 20°C. Growth tests indicate that these seventy-five mutant strains (designated CS, cold-sensitive) have a range of defects. Five are auxotrophic at 20°C, one (CS13) requiring isoleucine and another (CS48) choline. Many mutants are osmotic remedials. Some CS strains have altered properties
Biodeterioration of mural paintings by Aspergillus niger and Aspergillus flavus Fungi has been proved in different mural paintings in Egypt nowadays. Several researches have studied the effect of fungi on mural paintings, the mechanism of interaction and methods of control. But none of these researches gives us the solution without causing a side effect. In this paper, for the first time, a recent treatment by antibiotic "6 penthyl ? pyrone phenol" was applied as a successful technique for elimination of Aspergillus niger and Aspergillus flavus. On the other hand, it is favorable for cleaning Surfaces of Murals executed by tembera technique from the fungi metabolism which caused a black pigments on surfaces.
Among the currently described eubacterial phyla, the Proteobacteria represent the largest and one of the most diverse groups of organisms (237). This phylum consists of over 200 genera and contains the majority of Gram- negative species (237). The group c...
D. R. Hendrixson D. S. Merrell J. J. Gilbreath W. L. Cody
Two new genera from China (Taumaceroides Lopatin and Yunnaniata Lopatin) and 11 new species (Smaragdina quadrimaculata Lopatin, Smaragdina oblongum Lopatin, Hyphaenia volkovitshi Lopatin, Arthrotus daliensis Lopatin, Taumaceroides sinicus Lopatin, Yunnaniata konstantinovi Lopatin, Calomicrus yunnanu...
A number of bottom samples taken from the drifting ice station Arlis II (Arctic Research Laboratory Ice Station 2) as it drifted across the Arctic Basin included representatives of two genera of elasipodid holothurians, Elpidia and Kolga. These specimens ...
The present chapter provides a detailed discussion of the genera Rickettsia, Rochalimaea, Ehrlichia, Cowdria, and Neorickettsia only. Species of the genus Rickettsia are generally divided into three groups, the typhus, spotted fever, and scrub typhus rick...
The African genera Paropsiopsis Engl. and Smeathmannia R.Br. (Passifloraceae ż Paropsieae) are revised. The two genera are well separated based on the presence or absence of a second, annuliform, corona, as well as the number of stamens and curvature of their filaments. An overview of important characters and a key to all genera of Paropsieae is provided. In Paropsiopsis all
A key to 17 genera of Mymaridae that have been found in the Hawaiian Islands is presented. Notes on material examined and, where needed, keys to species are provided, except for the three largest genera: Anagrus Haliday, Gonatocerus Nees and Polynema Haliday, which will be treated in other papers. The remaining genera, which include 28 known species in Hawaii, are
At the end of 2002, the number of marine halacarid species was 1018, that of genera 51. A single genus, Copidognathus contains 33% of all species (336). Eleven genera are monotypic. Geographical provinces with a large number of species are\\u000a the tropical western Pacific, temperate northeastern Atlantic, temperate southeastern Pacific, and Mediterranean-Black Sea.\\u000a Most records of halacarid species are from
Abstract Three new species of are described from the manganese nodule province between the Clarion and the Clipperton Fracture Zone of the equatorial North Pacific Ocean, and collected during the Nodinaut expedition on board the r/v l´Atalante in the summer of 2004. The new species belongs to three genera as: Collettea (Collettea longisetosa), Robustochelia (Robustochelia pacifica), and Tumidochelia (Tumidochelia tuberculata). A key to the genus Tumidochelia is presented and the validity of the genera Robustochelia and Collettea is discussed.
Abstract We provide a general overview of features and technical specifications of an original interactive key web application for the identification of Palaearctic Tachinidae genera. The full list of terminal taxa included in the key, which is the most updated list of genera currently recorded for the Palaearctic Region, is given. We also briefly discuss the need for dealing with detailed and standardized taxa descriptions as a base to keep matrix-based interactive tools easily updated, by proposing a standardized protocol.
Cerretti, Pierfilippo; Tschorsnig, Hans-Peter; Lopresti, Massimo; Giovanni, Filippo Di
A complete list of microsporidians parasitic in fish is presented; in each species, the host(s), site of infection and the known geographical distribution is given. Species of a total of 14 genera can be found in fish hosts. These genera do not occur in other hosts and include 80 named species plus 29 records only designated as `sp.' The collective group Microsporidium includes
Myanmymar aresconoidesgen n., sp. n. is described from one female in Burmese amber, dated as about 100 my. It is similar to Arescon on wing features but is unique among Mymaridae in having distinctly segmented palpi. It is the fifth mymarid genus definitely referable to the Cretaceous period. A key to Cretaceous mymarid genera is presented and the features of Myanmymar are compared with the other Cretaceous and extant mymarid genera. PMID:22259293
Aspergillus flavus is one of the most widely known species of Aspergillus. It was described as a species in 1809 and first reported as a plant pathogen in 1920. More recently, A. flavus has emerged as an important opportunistic pathogen and is now rec¬ognized as the second leading cause of aspergill...
This review summarizes the health aspects of the medically important fungal genus Aspergillus. The morphology and systematics of the genus are explained as well as its biogeography. Major mycotoxins, the aspergilli that produce them, affected crops, and symptoms of the toxicoses are summarized, as are the major mycoses caused by aspergilli. The current status of the relationship between Aspergillus in
RNA silencing can function as a virus defense mechanism in a diverse range of eukaryotes, and many viruses are capable of suppressing the silencing machinery targeting them. However, the extent to which this occurs between fungal RNA silencing and mycoviruses is unclear. Here, three Aspergillus dsRNA mycoviruses were partially characterized, and their relationship to RNA silencing was investigated. Aspergillus virus
T. M. Hammond; M. D. Andrewski; M. J. Roossinck; N. P. Keller
Robusta coffee cherries collected before and during sun drying from two coffee farms in Thailand were examined for moulds producing ochratoxin A (OA). Aspergillus ochraceus was only detected in one sample, whereas Aspergillus carbonarius was isolated from 7 out of 14 samples. On ?-irradiated coffee cherries, each of the six tested A. carbonarius strains produced OA. More than 4800 ?g
H. M. L. J Joosten; J Goetz; A Pittet; M Schellenberg; P Bucheli
Aspergillus flavus is a plant and animal pathogen that also produces the potent carcinogen aflatoxin. Aspergillus oryzae is a closely related species that has been used for centuries in the food fermentation industry and is Generally Regarded As Safe (GRAS). Whole genome sequences for these two fungi are now complete, providing us with the opportunity to examine any genomic differences
G. A. PAYNE; W. C. NIERMAN; Jennifer R. Wortman; B. L. PRITCHARD; D. BROWN; R. A. DEAN; D BHATNAGAR; T. E. CLEVELAND; MASAYUKI MACHIDA; J. YU
Antifungal activity and minimal fungicidal concentration (MFC) of extracts of garlic, bakeri garlic, Chinese leek, Chinese chive, scallion, onion bulb and shallot bulb against Aspergillus niger, A. flavus and A. fumigatus were examined. These Allium plants possessed antifungal activity, with garlic showing the lowest MFC. With the exception of scallion, the inhibitory effect of Allium plants against three Aspergillus species
IN the Research Items in NATURE of April 29, an account is given of the production of antibiotics by Aspergillus fumigatus. To supplement this annotation we submit this short account of our own work with the mould Aspergillus fumigatus mut. helvola Yuill. An earlier publication1 has described the isolation of helvolic acid from 2-3-week cultures of this mould grown at
The mycotoxin gliotoxin is produced by fungi of the genus Aspergillus, including the important human pathogen Aspergillus fumigatus. Gliotoxin exerts a broad spectrum of immunosuppressive effects in vitro and is detectable in the sera of patients suffering from invasive aspergillosis. In order to correlate the pathogenic potential of A. fumigatus with the ability to produce gliotoxin and to investigate the
Claudio Kupfahl; Anna Michalka; Cornelia Lass-Flörl; Guido Fischer; Gerhard Haase; Thomas Ruppert; Gernot Geginat; Herbert Hof
The filamentous fungi Aspergillus parasiticus and Aspergillus flavus synthesize aflatoxins when they grow on a variety of susceptible food and feed crops. These mycotoxins are among the most carcinogenic naturally occurring compounds known and they pose significant health risks to humans and animals. We previously demonstrated that ethylene and CO2 act alone and together to reduce aflatoxin synthesis by A.
The genomic study of filamentous fungi has made significant advances in recent years, and the genomes of several species in the genus Aspergillus have been sequenced, including Aspergillus flavus. This ubiquitous mold is present as a saprobe in a wide range of agricultural and natural habits, and can function as an opportunistic animal and plant pathogen. A. flavus produces many
Jiujiang Yu; William C. Nierman; Natalie D. Fedorova; Deepak Bhatnagar; Thomas E. Cleveland; Joan W. Bennett
As intracellular iron storage molecules, only hydroxymate type siderophores have been reported in ascomycetes and basidiomycetes. This is the first report documenting the presence of mycoferritin in ascomycetes. The fungus, Aspergillus parasiticus (255), is capable of producing mycoferritin only upon induction with iron in yeast extract sucrose (YES) medium. The same has been purified from Aspergillus sps by application of
Aspergillus flavus is a plant and animal pathogen that also produces the potent carcinogen aflatoxin. Aspergillus oryzae is a closely related species that has been used for centuries in the food fermentation industry and is generally regarded as safe (GRAS). Whole genome sequences for these two fu...
Aflatoxins, produced by Aspergillus flavus and A. parasiticus, are toxic and carcinogenic metabolites. They contaminate agricultural crops before harvest and post harvest grains during storage. In order to reduce and eliminate aflatoxin contamination of food and feed, Aspergillus flavus genomics p...
This is the first report documenting fatal invasive aspergillosis caused by a new pathogenic Aspergillus species that is inherently resistant to antifungal drugs. Phenotypic characteristics of A. tanneri combined with the molecular approach enabled diagnosis of this new pathogen. This study undersco...
Alfatoxins are toxic metabolites with demonstrated carcinogenic activity in vertebrate systems produced by Aspergillus flavus and A. parasiticus when these fungi infect corn, cotton, peanuts and tree nuts. Lipid metabolism has been demonstrated to be utilized by fungi to as nutrition for growth and...
Aflatoxins are a family of fungal secondary metabolites. They are produced by species in the genus Aspergillus. Within the last decade, significant advances have been made in understanding the biochemistry, genetics, and gene regulation of aflatoxin biosynthesis. Many scientists have used aflatox...
Aspergillus floridensis and A. trinidadensis spp. nov. are described as novel uniseriate species of Aspergillus section Nigri isolated from air samples. To describe the species we used phenotypes from 7-d Czapek yeast extract agar culture (CYA), creatine agar culture (CREA) and malt extract agar culture (MEA), with support by molecular analysis of the ?-tubulin, calmodulin, RNA polymerase II (RPB2), and translation elongation factor-alpha (TEF) gene amplified and sequenced from 56 air isolates and one isolate from almonds belonging to Aspergillus sectionNigri.Aspergillus floridensis is closely related to A. aculeatus, and A. trinidadensis is closely related to A. aculeatinus. Aspergillus brunneoviolaceus (syn. A. fijiensis) and A. uvarum are reported for the first time from the USA and from the indoor air environment. The newly described species do not produce ochratoxin A. PMID:23355969
The minimal fungicidal concentrations (MFCs) of voriconazole and itraconazole for five clinical isolates each of Aspergillus terreus, Aspergillus fumigatus, Aspergillus flavus, and Aspergillus niger were determined by a broth macrodilution method. Conidial suspensions as inocula were compared to hyphae as inocula since the invasive form of aspergillosis is manifested by the appearance of hyphal structures. In addition, cell viability staining
CORNELIA LASS-FLORL; MARKUS NAGL; CORNELIA SPETH; HANNO ULMER; MANFRED P. DIERICH; REINHARD WURZNER
Aspergillus niger, an opportunistic filamentous fungus, was identified as the cause of chronic unilateral otomycosis in a 55-year old, immunocompromised man who had been unresponsive to a variety of treatment regimens. The patient presented with intermittent otalgia and otorrhea and with a perforation of his left tympanic membrane. A niger was identified in a culture specimen obtained from the patient's left ear canal. In immunocompromised patients, it is important that the treatment of otomycosis be prompt and vigorous, to minimize the likelihood of hearing loss and invasive temporal bone infection. PMID:19006061
Background Subtribe Artemisiinae of Tribe Anthemideae (Asteraceae) is composed of 18 largely Asian genera that include the sagebrushes and mugworts. The subtribe includes the large cosmopolitan, wind-pollinated genus Artemisia, as well as several smaller genera and Seriphidium, that altogether comprise the Artemisia-group. Circumscription and taxonomic boundaries of Artemisia and the placements of these small segregate genera is currently unresolved. Results We constructed a molecular phylogeny for the subtribe using the internal transcribed spacers (ITS) of nuclear ribosomal DNA analyzed with parsimony, likelihood, and Bayesian criteria. The resulting tree is comprised of three major clades that correspond to the radiate genera (e.g., Arctanthemum and Dendranthema), and two clades of Artemisia species. All three clades have allied and segregate genera embedded within each. Conclusions The data support a broad concept of Artemisia s.l. that includes Neopallasia, Crossostephium, Filifolium, Seriphidium, and Sphaeromeria. However, the phylogeny excludes Elachanthemum, Kaschgaria, and Stilnolepis from the Artemisia-group. Additionally, the monophyly of the four subgenera of Artemisia is also not supported, with the exception of subg. Dracunculus. Homogamous, discoid capitula appear to have arisen in parallel four to seven times, with the loss of ray florets. Thus capitular morphology is not a reliable taxonomic character, which traditionally has been one of the defining characters.
Watson, Linda E; Bates, Paul L; Evans, Timothy M; Unwin, Matthew M; Estes, James R
Morphological and osteological studies of the Zoarcoidei group have previously been undertaken, but the group (especially the genera Eulophias and Zoarchias) still remains enigmatic. Therefore, we conducted molecular phylogenetic studies on the two genera Eulophias and Zoarchias using two mitochondrial (16S rRNA and COI) and two nuclear genes (RAG2 and RNF213). Our phylogenetic analysis supported the monophyly of the suborder level of the Zoarcoidei, but rejected the previous morphology- and osteology-based classification hypotheses regarding the two genera. Conflict between mtDNA and nDNA phylogenies within the genus Eulophias implies that the genus shows a complicated relationship such as hybridization in the process of the evolutionary history. The genetic distances between the Eulophias (or Zoarchias) and other Zoarcoidei spp. were the greatest, showing different family-level affiliations. In addition, the mtDNA topology showed the two genera were clearly separated from each other as well as from the families Stichaeidae and Zoarcidae. Considering the new molecular phylogeny, we suggest a new classification for the two genera: (1) Eulophias belongs to a new family named as the Eulophiidae; (2) Zoarchias belongs to the family Neozoarcidae (sensu Radchenko et al., 2012b) rather than to Stichaeidae and Zoarcidae. PMID:23845463
We discuss in this work the role of Aspergillus biofilms in the clinical setting by reviewing the most recent findings on this topic. Aspergillus fumigatus can produce in vitro an extracellular hydrophobic matrix with typical biofilm characteristics under all static conditions tested, i.e., agar media, polystyrene and bronchial epithelial cells. Under static conditions the mycelial growth is greater than in shaken, submerged conditions. The extracellular matrix (ECM) is composed of galactomannan, ?-1,3-glucans, monosaccharides and polyols, melanin and proteins including major antigens and hydrophobins. Typical biofilm structures were observed in the aspergillomas from two patients and in a murine model of invasive pulmonary aspergillosis. The results indicate that ?-1,3-glucans plays a predominant role in the agglutination of the hyphae together in aerial conditions, and that nutrient starvation was responsible for mycelial death in aspergilloma. Melanin was produced during the infection, suggesting that this pigment is necessary for lung tissue invasion. All antifungal drugs are significantly less effective when A. fumigatus is grown under biofilm vs. planktonic conditions. Chronic persistence of a unique genotype of A. fumigatus in the respiratory tract of CF-patients and the presence of an ECM in vivo may have some therapeutical application for aspergillosis. The most appropriate antifungal drug should not be selected only on the basis of its efficiency to kill in vitro grown fungal cells, but also on its ability to penetrate the ECM. PMID:21254964
Müller, Frank-Michael C; Seidler, Marc; Beauvais, Anne
Aspergillus terreus is successfully used for industrial production of itaconic acid. The acid is formed from cis-aconitate, an intermediate of the tricarboxylic (TCA) cycle, by catalytic action of cis-aconitate decarboxylase. It could be assumed that strong anaplerotic reactions that replenish the pool of the TCA cycle intermediates would enhance the synthesis and excretion rate of itaconic acid. In the phylogenetic close relative Aspergillus niger, upregulated metabolic flux through glycolysis has been described that acted as a strong anaplerotic reaction. Deregulated glycolytic flux was caused by posttranslational modification of 6-phosphofructo-1-kinase (PFK1) that resulted in formation of a highly active, citrate inhibition-resistant shorter form of the enzyme. In order to avoid complex posttranslational modification, the native A. niger pfkA gene has been modified to encode for an active shorter PFK1 fragment. By the insertion of the modified A. niger pfkA genes into the A. terreus strain, increased specific productivities of itaconic acid and final yields were documented by transformants in respect to the parental strain. On the other hand, growth rate of all transformants remained suppressed which is due to the low initial pH value of the medium, one of the prerequisites for the accumulation of itaconic acid by A. terreus mycelium. PMID:20461508
Artificial keys to the genera of blue-green, red, brown, and green marine benthic algae of Micronesia are given, including virtually all the genera reported from Palau, Guam, Commonwealth of the Northern Marianas, Federated States of Micronesia and the Marshall Islands. Twenty-two new species or genera are reported here for Guam and 7 for Yap; 11 of these are also new for Micronesia. Note is made of several recent published records for Guam and 2 species recently raised from varietal status. Finally, a list is given of nomenclatural changes that affect the 2003 revised checklist. An interactive version of the keys is included in the algal biodiversity website at http://university.uog.edu/botany/474.
This study reports the incidence of ochratoxigenic strains of Aspergillus on Chilean grapes (Vitis vinifera) and wineries, and production of OTA levels in wines with grapes having different levels of contamination with OTA-producing Aspergillus carbonarius was studied. A. carbonarius, A. niger, A. niveus, A. paradoxus, A. versicolor, A. wentii, and A. westerdijkiae were identified on apparently healthy clusters of red and white grape cultivars. However, A. carbonarius and A. niger were the most frequently identified species, more abundant on red than white grape cultivars. Aspergillus spp. populations increased between veraison and harvest, but the isolation frequencies were relatively low over the entire growing season. At the winery, A. carbonarius, A. niger and A. westerdijkiae were occasionally found in the air, exclusively during winemaking. OTA-producing strains were only found among isolates of A. carbonarius, A. niger, A. wenti, and A. westerdijkiae, producing 2 to 17 microg/L of OTA in liquid medium; however, A. westerdijkiae produced the highest OTA concentration in vitro. Red wines elaborated with 0.5% of grapes infected with an OTA-producing strain of A. carbonarius (Aspuc-SB36) exceeded the 2 microg/L of OTA tolerance established for wines by the European Community. Therefore, a threshold below 0.5% infected berries is proposed for red wines. ELISA tests proved to be useful for detecting OTA in broth culture as in wine samples. PMID:19464066
Díaz, Gonzalo A; Torres, René; Vega, Mario; Latorre, Bernardo A
Evidence is presented for the simultaneous induction of sorbitol dehydrogenase along with fructokinase and repression of glucokinase by sorbitol in Aspergillus niger. Fructose is the first product of sorbitol catabolism.
Production of the mycotoxin cyclopiazonic acid by Aspergillus tamarii Kita is reported for the first time. Examination of 23 isolates of the fungus showed that 22 produced the toxin under the culture conditions utilized.
Quantitative preservation of the viability of two isolates of Aspergillus fumigatus was studied over a 15-month period of storage. Significant loss of viability occurred in isolates preserved at -70 degrees C in both phosphate-buffered saline with Tween (PBST) and 0.1% gelatin, immediately, and between 6 and 15 months. Storage in 10% and 25% dimethyl sulphoxide at -70 degrees C was successful up to 8 weeks with gradual loss of viability later. PBST at 4 degrees C or room temperature, or 10% glycerol at -70 degrees C maintained 100% viability of the cultures up to 6 months and 15 months, respectively. To preserve 100% viability, long-term storage of A. fumigatus is best done in 10% glycerol in PBST at -70 degrees C compared with the other methods tested. PMID:1287169
Aspergillar endaortitis does not seem to have been described before in the English literature. Our patient had undergone aortic valvotomy and subsequently developed leg pains, migratory arthralgias, periarticular swelling, and general malaise. Mild intermittent pyrexia, evanescent petechiae, splinter haemorrhages, and peripheral small artery occlusion characterized the early course in hospital. Dramatic popliteal artery occlusion led to surgical recovery of embolic material packed with mycelia of Aspergillus flavus, but the patient died despite intravenous amphotericin B therapy. Necropsy revealed endaortitis and aspergilli were demonstrated in the wall of a saccular dilatation of the ascending aorta close to non-absorbable sutures. The relevant literature is reviewed and attention is drawn to the current implications of knowledge relating to risk factors, diagnosis, and treatment. We suggest that cardiovascular aspergillosis will now be encountered more frequently and that a different therapeutic approach is justified. Images
An illustrated dichotomous key to larvae of all genera of Plecoptera in the West Palaearctic region (i.e., Europe, Asia Minor and the Palaearctic part of northern Africa) is presented. Brief comments on included species are added for each genus, plus diagnostic details of selected bioindicator species. Two appendices provide a key to larvae of the German species of genus Nemoura
1.Interspecific diversity in the visual pigments of stomatopod crustaceans was characterized using microspectrophotometry. We examined the 10 visual pigments in main rhabdoms in retinas of 3 species of each of two genera of stomatopod crustaceans of the superfamily Gonodactyloidea, Gonodactylus (G. oerstedii, G. aloha, and G. curacaoensis) and Odontodactylus (O. scyllarus, O. brevirostris, and O. “havanensis”). Species were selected to
Cytogenetic studies showed that a number of New World primate taxa, particularly the genera Alouatta, Aotus, and Callicebus, have highly derived karyotypes. Cytogenetics in these primates, at every level of analysis, has contributed to the recognition of species and revealed that their number was certainly underestimated by researchers relying solely on traditional morphological data. Further attention was drawn to Alouatta
R. Stanyon; F. Garofalo; E. R. Steinberg; O. Capozzi; S. Di Marco; M. Nieves; N. Archidiacono; M. D. Mudry
Abstract An illustrated key is provided for the identification of 35 genera of Thripinae (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) from Iran with comments for each genus. Chirothrips maximi Ananthakrishnan and Limothrips cerealium Haliday are recorded from Iran for the first time. A checklist is provided of Thripinae recorded from this country.
World genera of Chlamisini are reviewed, diagnosed, and illustrated. A key for their dentification is provided. A replacement name, Kakita Chamorro-Lacayo and Konstantinov is presented for Ceratochlamys Bokermann which is a junior homonym of Ceratochlamys Habe, 1946 (Mollusca). Chlamisus rousei M...
The generic position of the enigmatic smut fungus Ustilago solida is evaluated applying molecular phylogenetic analyses using ITS and LSU rDNA sequences as well as light and scanning electron microscopical investigations of several collections of this species. Ustilago solida has previously been included in five different genera (Ustilago, Urocystis, Sorosporium, Cintractia, and Tolyposporium), however, molecular analyses revealed that this smut does not belong to any of these genera and represents a distinct ustilaginalean lineage. The closest known phylogenetic relative of Ustilago solida is Heterotolyposporium lepidospermatis, the type species of the monotypic genus Heterotolyposporium. Both smuts differ considerably in both LSU sequences and in several morphological traits, such as the structure of sori and the characteristics of spore balls. Accordingly, the new genus Shivasia is described to accommodate Ustilago solida. This smut infects different Schoenus species (Cyperaceae) in Australia and New Zealand. The description of Shivasia increases the number of endemic smut genera in Australasia to ten. Compared to all other continents the number of endemic smut genera is exceptionally high, which may point at fast evolving characters and/or may be caused by the regional history, including the long-term geographic isolation of Australasia. PMID:23355967
This taxonomic key was devised to support development of a Rapid Bioassessment Protocol using ants at the Savannah River Site. The emphasis is on rapid and, because the available keys contained a very large number of genera not known to occur at the Savan...
This taxonomic key was devised to support development of a Rapid Bioassessment Protocol using ants at the Savannah River Site. The emphasis is on 'rapid' and, because the available keys contained a large number of genera not known to occur at the Savannah...
The Trichoptera fauna of the Southern Cone region of South America (Argentina, Chile, Uruguay, Paraguay, and SE Brazil) is well known for its high degree of endemism, at both the species and genus level. This is also true for the saddle or tortoise case-making family Glossosomatidae, represented entirely in the region by members of the subfamily Protoptilinae. The Southern Cone includes six endemic protoptiline genera: Canoptila, Itauara, Mastigoptila, Merionoptila, Scotiotrichia, and Tolhuaca, containing 19 described species. Although not particularly species diverse when compared to the rest of the Neotropical Trichoptera fauna, these endemics are note-worthy: some genera display morphological characteristics that may be considered very primitive and others are very evolutionarily derived. Additionally, there are at least 11 new species whose placement is uncertain. This points out the need to reexamine the taxonomy and evaluate the evolutionary relationships among these genera. Recently several new species of Mastigoptila and Tolhuaca were described, including some females. Taxonomic revisions of the remaining genera based on careful examination of the male and female genitalia, wing venation, and other adult morphological characters, are currently underway. Included in the revisions are descriptions of new species, new illustrations of previously described species, and a phylogenetic assessment.
In an afforested coal mining site at Berzdorf, Germany, the soil nematode community was investigated on the basis of genera distribution, trophic structure, and functional guilds. To assess food web complexity and nutritional status of afforested mine soils, the “weighted faunal analysis” was applied and found to be a useful diagnostic tool to describe the poorly developed, basal or matured
Trees in pastures attract seed dispersers, leading to increased seed arrival under their canopies and more rapid regrowth around them. The characteristics that make some trees better `recruitment foci' than others, however, are poorly understood. In a neotropical pasture, we examined the arrival of seeds to open areas and underneath four genera of trees that varied in canopy architecture and
Relative amounts of DNA were determined by Feulgen cytophotometry in 22 diploid species of Ranunculaceae (n=7, 8, 9) representing six genera, and exhibiting large differences in chromosome size, but no marked differences in karyotype pattern. Chemical determination of absolute amounts of DNA for six of these species, allowed conversion of all the photometric data into absolute units of DNA. The
Klaus Rothfels; Elizabeth Sexsmith; Margaret Heimburger; Margarida O. Krause
A fraction of glycosidic precursors extracted from different non-floral grapes has been reconstituted with a synthetic must and the must has been fermented in duplicate by yeasts belonging to different genera previously selected by their high glycosidase activity (Saccharomyces cerivisiae, Saccharomyces bayanus; S. cerevisiae x S. bayanus, Brettanomyces bruxellensis, Hanseniaspora uvarum, Kloeckera apiculata, Torulaspora delbrueckii and Debaryomyces carsonii). Fermentation was
P. Hernández-Orte; M. Cersosimo; N. Loscos; J. Cacho; E. Garcia-Moruno; V. Ferreira
Geometric morphometric methods (GMMs) were used to determine if scale morphology can discriminate be- tween genera, species, geographic variants, and stocks of mullet (Mugilidae). GMMs were used because they allow standard multivariate analyses while preserving information about scale shape, which is important in making biological interpretations of results. The method was tested on ctenoid scales from mullets collected from different
The aim of this work was to model the growth of Aspergillus parasiticus and Aspergillus ochraceus, both mycotoxin producers, near to the growth\\/no growth boundaries and validate those models in sterile maize grain, peanuts and coffee beans. Malt extract agar was adjusted to six different water activities: 0.93, 0.91, 0.89, 0.87, 0.85 and 0.80. Plates were incubated at 10, 15,
Daiana Garcia; Antonio J. Ramos; Vicente Sanchis; Sonia Marín
Three new genera of Hyaliodini are described to provide names for a forthcoming study on the phylogenetic relationships of the genera within the subfamily Deraeocorinae. The new genus Dicyphanisca is described to accommodate the new species D. marginella from Ecuador; the new genus Froeschnerisca, ...
Abstract The 120 presently recognized genera and seven subgenera of the azooxanthellate Scleractinia are keyed using gross morphological characters of the corallum. All genera are illustrated with calicular and side views of coralla. All termes used in the key are defined in an illustrated glossary. A table of all species-level keys, both comprehensive and faunistic, is provided covering the last 40 years.
Castanea, Juglans, and Quercus are genera containing hardwood forest species that are difficult to propagate asexually by conventional means. Their invitro clonal propagation would assist forest tree improvement and silvacultural research. The research efforts in clonal propagation of these three genera are reviewed with respect to plant growth regulator effects as they are related to primary explant source, multiple shoot
The Caribbean Island Biodiversity Hotspot is composed primarily by the Bahamas and Greater and Lesser Antilles. A total of 178 genera (722 spp., ca. 9% of the species endemic to the Antilles) are restricted to this hotspot. Most of these genera are unispecific (53%), a pattern that is also found o...
The four o'clock family (Nyctaginaceae) has a number of genera with unusual morphological and ecological characters, several of which appear to have a ''tendency'' to evolve repeatedly in Nyctaginaceae. Despite this, the Nyctaginaceae have attracted little attention from botanists. To produce a phylogeny for the Nyctaginaceae, we sampled 51 species representing 25 genera (of 28- 31) for three chloroplast loci
Ten endemic Chinese bird genera are currently recognized: Nipponia, Tetraophasis, Chrysolophus, Crossoptilon, Ithaginis, Pseudopodoces, Rhopophilus, Kozlowia, Urocynchramus and Latoucheornis. Of these genera, Nipponia, Ithaginis, Pseudopodoces, Rhopophilus, Kozlowia, Urocynchramus and Latoucheornis are monotypic, while Tetraophasis, Chrysolophus and Crossoptilon are polytypic. In this paper, we first set up a database of the geographic distribution and suitable habitat requirements for each species of
Fu-Min Lei; Yan-Hua Qu; Qian-Qian Tang; Shu-Cheng An
The relationships between Huperzia and related genera of Lycopodiales were studied by chemotaxonomic analysis of alkaloids Tsuda et al., 1974. Huperzia (18 species, 1 variety and 2 forma) and related genera Phlegmariurus (8 species), Lycopodium (3 species), Lycopodiella (1 species), Palhinhaea (1 species), Diphasiastrum (2 species), and Lycopodiastrum (1 species) were examined by thin layer chromatography for the presence of
The three most abundant and species-rich genera of erpobdellid leeches – Erpobdella, Dina and Trocheta – have traditionally been distinguished by their annulation pattern. Erpobdella has five unsubdivided annuli per somite, in Dina the last annulus is widened and subdivided once, and in Trocheta, the last and often also the first annulus is further subdivided. The last two genera are
The subfamily Tegopalpinae in the family Tenuipalpidae (Acari: Prostigmata) is revised. The genera Tegopalpus Womersley, Philippipalpus Corpuz-Raros and Australopalpus Smiley and Gerson are redescribed (along with a description of the hitherto unknown female of T. conicus). Two new genera, namely Crossipalpus (type species: C. verticillatae) and Meyeraeopalpus (type species: M. delfinadae) are proposed. The following new species Crossipalpus muellerianae, C.
Abstract Braconid genera Histeromerus Wesmael, 1838 from subfamily Histeromerinae and Ecclitura Kokujev, 1902 from subfamily Euphorinae are recorded in the fauna of Italy for the first time. The discussions about taxonomic position, morphological characters and composition of these genera as well as the redescriptions of the genus and species of Ecclitura primoris Kokujev are given.
Nine genera of the subfamily Tachiniscinae are reviewed and described or briefly redescribed, and a key to them, and two genera incertae sedis superficially similar to tachiniscines, is provided. Agnitrena, gen. n. (type species A. igniceps sp. n. from Argentina), related to Neortalotrypeta Norrbom ...
Despite the prevalence of Aspergillus-related disease in immune suppressed lung transplant patients, little is known of the host-pathogen interaction. Because of the mould's angiotropic nature and because of its capacity to thrive in hypoxic conditions, we hypothesized that the degree of Aspergillus invasion would increase with progressive rejection-mediated ischemia of the allograft. To study this relationship, we utilized a novel orthotopic tracheal transplant model of Aspergillus infection, in which it was possible to assess the effects of tissue hypoxia and ischemia on airway infectivity. Laser Doppler flowmetry and FITC-lectin were used to determine blood perfusion, and a fiber optic microsensor was used to measure airway tissue oxygen tension. Fungal burden and depth of invasion were graded using histopathology. We demonstrated a high efficacy (80%) for producing a localized fungal tracheal infection with the majority of infection occurring at the donor-recipient anastomosis; Aspergillus was more invasive in allogeneic compared to syngeneic groups. During the study period, the overall kinetics of both non-infected and infected allografts was similar, demonstrating a progressive loss of perfusion and oxygenation, which reached a nadir by days 10-12 post-transplantation. The extent of Aspergillus invasion directly correlated with the degree of graft hypoxia and ischemia. Compared to the midtrachea, the donor-recipient anastomotic site exhibited lower perfusion and more invasive disease; a finding consistent with clinical experience. For the first time, we identify ischemia as a putative risk factor for Aspergillus invasion. Therapeutic approaches focused on preserving vascular health may play an important role in limiting Aspergillus infections. PMID:24155924
Hsu, Joe L; Khan, Mohammad A; Sobel, Raymond A; Jiang, Xinguo; Clemons, Karl V; Nguyen, Tom T; Stevens, David A; Martinez, Marife; Nicolls, Mark R
Despite the prevalence of Aspergillus-related disease in immune suppressed lung transplant patients, little is known of the host-pathogen interaction. Because of the mould’s angiotropic nature and because of its capacity to thrive in hypoxic conditions, we hypothesized that the degree of Aspergillus invasion would increase with progressive rejection-mediated ischemia of the allograft. To study this relationship, we utilized a novel orthotopic tracheal transplant model of Aspergillus infection, in which it was possible to assess the effects of tissue hypoxia and ischemia on airway infectivity. Laser Doppler flowmetry and FITC-lectin were used to determine blood perfusion, and a fiber optic microsensor was used to measure airway tissue oxygen tension. Fungal burden and depth of invasion were graded using histopathology. We demonstrated a high efficacy (80%) for producing a localized fungal tracheal infection with the majority of infection occurring at the donor-recipient anastomosis; Aspergillus was more invasive in allogeneic compared to syngeneic groups. During the study period, the overall kinetics of both non-infected and infected allografts was similar, demonstrating a progressive loss of perfusion and oxygenation, which reached a nadir by days 10-12 post-transplantation. The extent of Aspergillus invasion directly correlated with the degree of graft hypoxia and ischemia. Compared to the midtrachea, the donor-recipient anastomotic site exhibited lower perfusion and more invasive disease; a finding consistent with clinical experience. For the first time, we identify ischemia as a putative risk factor for Aspergillus invasion. Therapeutic approaches focused on preserving vascular health may play an important role in limiting Aspergillus infections.
Hsu, Joe L.; Khan, Mohammad A.; Sobel, Raymond A.; Jiang, Xinguo; Clemons, Karl V.; Nguyen, Tom T.; Stevens, David A.; Martinez, Marife; Nicolls, Mark R.
...PERMITTED IN FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION Enzyme Preparations and Microorganisms Â§ 173...Aspergillus niger. Carbohydrase and cellulase enzyme preparation derived from Aspergillus niger... from the carbohydrase and cellulase enzyme product. (d) The additive is...
Growth and aflatoxin production by Aspergillus parasiticus NRRL 2999 and Aspergillus parasiticus RC 12 were studied both in sunflower seed and a synthetic culture medium (with and without zinc enrichment).
S. Chulze; S. Fusero; A. Dalcero; M. Etcheverry; E. Varsavsky
In Aspergillus nidulans, Aspergillus flavus, and Aspergillus parasiticus, lipoperoxidative signalling is crucial for the regulation of mycotoxin biosynthesis, conidiogenesis, and sclerotia formation.\\u000a Resveratrol, which is a lipoxygenase (LOX) and cyclooxygenase inhibitor, downmodulates the biosynthesis of ochratoxin A (OTA)\\u000a in Aspergillus ochraceus. In the genome of A. ochraceus, a lox-like sequence (AoloxA; National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI) accession number: DQ087531)
Fusapyrone (FP), an antifungal natural compound, was tested against the three main ochratoxigenic species of the Aspergillus section Nigri. The MICs at 24 h were 6.0, 11.6, and 9.9 g\\/ml for Aspergillus carbonarius, Aspergillus tubingensis, and Aspergillus niger, respectively. Strong inhibition of growth and morphological changes were still observed at half the MIC after 7 days. The application of a
Mara Favilla; Michelangelo Pascale; Alessandra Ricelli; Antonio Evidente; Carmine Amalfitano; Claudio Altomare
The cDNA encoding the precursor of theRhizomucor miehei triglyceride lipase was inserted in anAspergillus oryzae expression vector. In this vector the expression of the lipase cDNA is under control of theAspergillus oryzae ?-amylase gene promoter and theAspergillus niger glucoamylase gene terminator. The recombinant plasmid was introduced intoAspergillus oryzae, and transformed colonies were selected and screened for lipase expression. Lipase-positive transformants
Birgitte Huge-Jensen; Frank Andreasen; Tove Christensen; Mogens Christensen; Lars Thim; Esper Boel
Nucleic acid sequence-based amplification (NASBA), an isothermal amplification technique, was established and evaluated for the detection of Aspergillus RNA and compared with a previously published, well-defined real-time PCR assay amplifying a region of the Aspergillus 18S rRNA gene. NASBA showed a lower detection limit of 1 CFU and detected RNA from five different clinically relevant Aspergillus species, including Aspergillus fumigatus.
JUERGEN LOEFFLER; HOLGER HEBART; PHILIPP COX; NICOLE FLUES; ULRIKE SCHUMACHER; HERMANN EINSELE; Medizinische Klinik
The phylogeny of taxa with poroid and lamellate hymenophores in Auriculariales as yet has not been well studied. Here we sequenced the nLSU and ITS regions of poroid and lamellate representatives from the genera Elmerina, Protodaedalea and Protomerulius to establish the phylogenetic position of these morphologically similar taxa. Our analyses suggest that (i) Elmerina foliacea is divergent from all other Elmerina species sampled; (ii) Protodaedalea hispida (the type of monotypic genus Protodaedalea) and Protomerulius efibulatus should be transferred to Elmerina as E. hispida and E. efibulata respectively; (iii) after exclusion of P. efibulatus, Protomerulius becomes monophyletic and represents the core of a "Protomerulius family" clade that potentially includes species from Tremellodendropsis, Heterochaetella and Protodontia; and (iv) the presence or absence of gloeocystidia serves as the most reliable morphological feature in delimiting Elmerina s.l. and Protomerulius. Concepts of Elmerina s.l. and Protomerulius are redefined, and diagnostic keys for these two genera are provided. PMID:23709572
Hepatozoon spp. (Apicomplexa: Haemogregarinidae) are the most commonly reported hemoparasites from snakes. Of over 300 Hepatozoon species identified, more than 120 were described from snakes. However, recent genetic assessments have found Hepatozoon lineages recovered from both prey and predators, indicating that diet may play an important role in the infection of final vertebrate hosts. Here 4 different snake genera with different diets were assessed. Hepatozoon spp. prevalence varied greatly between the genera, but only lineages already identified from potential prey, i.e., gecko and lacertid lizards, were recovered from the snakes. Interestingly, the Hepatozoon spp. lineage known from geckos was the most common in the snakes, but this does not reflect their diet. Higher parasitemia levels, reported for some geckos relative to lacertid lizards, may play a role. Alternatively, this lineage may be more effective at parasitizing snakes or may occur, despite being unrecorded, in other vertebrate groups consumed by snakes. PMID:22551400
Abstract Using published records and original data from recent field work and revision of Iranian material of certain species deposited in the collections of the Natural History Museum Basel, the Zoological Museum Berlin, and Natural History Museum Vienna, a checklist of the freshwater gastropod fauna of Iran was compiled. This checklist contains 73 species from 34 genera and 14 families of freshwater snails; 27 of these species (37%) are endemic to Iran. Two new genera, Kaskakia and Sarkhia, and eight species, i.e., Bithynia forcarti, Bithynia starmuehlneri, Bithynia mazandaranensis, Pseudamnicola georgievi, Kaskakia khorrasanensis, Sarkhia sarabensis, Valvata nowsharensis and Acroloxus pseudolacustris are described as new to science; Ecrobia grimmi (Clessin & Dybowski, 1888), Heleobia dalmatica (Radoman, 1974) and Hippeutis complanatus (Linnaeus, 1758) are reported for the first time from Iran. Additional field work is highly desirable for a more appropriate evaluation of the extant freshwater snail biodiversity in Iran.
Flexirubins are specific polyene pigments produced by several genera of Bacteroidetes. Colonies and cell extracts of Flavobacterium johnsoniae and Flexibacter elegans have been investigated by Raman spectroscopy to show that this fast and non-destructive technique can be used to differentiate these pigments from carotenoids and to compare the flexirubin content of the two microorganisms. The presence or absence of certain distinguishing features in the CH combination band region at 2500-2750 cm(-1) can assist in the discrimination between the two flexirubins investigated. Raman spectroscopy is thus a suitable tool not only to detect flexirubin pigments in bacterial cells, but also to further characterize the pigments present in members of the Bacteroidetes genera that are rich in flexirubins. PMID:24033756
Jehli?ka, Jan; Osterrothová, Kate?ina; Oren, Aharon; Edwards, Howell G M
Monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) against Aspergillus fumigatus galactomannan were produced in rats. Seven of them, EB-A1 through EB-A7, were characterized in more detail. They were all immunoglobulin M antibodies, reacting in an indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay with purified A. fumigatus galactomannan, with avidity constants of between 2 x 10(9) and 5 x 10(9)/M. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay inhibition experiments with modified galactomannan and synthetic oligomers of beta (1----5)galactofuranose demonstrated that the MAbs bound to an epitope located on the beta(1----5)galactofuranose-containing side chains of the galactomannan molecule. An identical or similar epitope also seemed to be present in other fungi. Immunofluorescence and immunoelectron microscopy experiments with EB-A2 revealed the presence of the antigen in the fungal wall and inside the cell. Immunoblotting experiments demonstrated that the epitope recognized by the MAbs was a common oligosaccharide moiety of a wide range of intracellular and extracellular glycoproteins in A. fumigatus. The characteristics of the MAbs justify their use in the diagnosis of invasive aspergillosis by antigen detection. Images
Stynen, D; Sarfati, J; Goris, A; Prevost, M C; Lesourd, M; Kamphuis, H; Darras, V; Latge, J P
A strain of Aspergillus fumigatus from composted coffee and garden wastes utilized natural deproteinized insect, banana, hair, octopus, and synthetic tyrosine and dopa melanins as sole sources of carbon. With a sucrose supplement, degradation was essentially complete after 50 days in Czapek medium pH 6.5 at 30 degrees C. The catabolic rate differed for each substrate pigment, as did the molecular weight distribution of products accumulating in the medium. After incubation with L-[U-14C]melanin, over 50% was recovered in a dark fungal pigment, the remainder appearing as cell protein, chitin, lipid, CO2, and polar metabolites. When grown on melanin, the normally pale mycelia darkened with the production of a fungal allomelanin, with infrared spectrum and alkali fusion products differing from those of the substrate pigment. Isotope distribution in amino acids for A. fumigatus grown on labeled melanin supplemented with sucrose suggested separate pools for synthesis of cell proteins and melanoproteins. Deposition of allomelanin increased resistance of conidia, sterigma, and conidiophores to lytic carbohydrases as judged by scanning electron microscopy. Images
Aspergillus fumigatus ATCC 28282 was found to be capable of growth on 4-ethylphenol as its sole carbon and energy source. A pathway for the metabolism of this compound has been proposed. The initial step involves hydroxylation of the methylene group of 4-ethylphenol to form 1-(4'-hydroxyphenyl)ethanol, followed by oxidation to 4-hydroxyacetophenone. The hydroxylase was NADPH and oxygen dependent, which is a characteristic of a monooxygenase type of enzyme. The 1-(4'-hydroxyphenyl)ethanol isolated from growth medium was a racemic mixture of R-(+) and S-(-) enantiomers. 4-Hydroxyacetophenone undergoes an NADPH-dependent Baeyer-Villiger type of oxygenation to give 4-hydroxyphenyl acetate, which is hydrolyzed to form hydroquinone (1,4-dihydroxybenzene). Hydroxylation of hydroquinone by an NADPH-dependent enzyme produces 1,2,4-trihydroxybenzene, the ring fission substrate, which is cleaved by ortho fission to form maleylacetate. The pathway was elucidated by various kinds of investigations. Analysis of culture medium sampled during growth on 4-ethylphenol revealed the transient appearance of 1-(4'-hydroxyphenyl)ethanol, 4-hydroxyacetophenone, and hydroquinone. Cells grown on 4-ethylphenol were able to oxidize all of these compounds immediately, whereas oxidation by succinate-grown cells showed a lag period. Extracts prepared from cells grown on 4-ethylphenol contained enzyme activities for all of the proposed steps. Apart from a low level of esterase activity towards 4-hydroxyphenyl acetate, extracts prepared from cells grown on succinate did not contain any of these enzyme activities.
Azole resistance has appeared recently in Aspergillus fumigatus and increased dangerously in the last decade. The main resistance mechanism is a point mutation of CYP51A, the gene encoding 14?-sterol demethylase, the target enzyme of azole antifungal drugs. This mutation can induce resistance to itraconazole alone or multi-azole resistance. CYP51A mutation can occur in two cases. The first usually concerns patients receiving long-term azole therapy, most of the time for chronic aspergillosis, and involves a wide range of mutations. The second is due to the use of azole fungicides in agriculture. The latter favors a single mutagenesis event: a substitution of leucine for histidine at codon 98 and the tandem repeat of a 34-base pair tandem sequence in the CYP51A gene promoter region. This confers cross-resistance to all azole antifungal drugs. This emerging and environmentally linked issue is of growing concern for the management of antifungal therapy. This mechanism of resistance was first described in the Netherlands and is now reported worldwide. It may have become the leading mechanism of azole resistance in A. fumigatus. Azoles are major agents for the treatment of aspergillosis, and the only oral antifungals. Infection with antifungal-resistant strains is correlated with treatment failure. This emerging phenomenon stresses the urgent need for new preventive strategies (controlled use of antifungals and azole prophylaxis), new diagnostic strategies (early detection of resistance), and new therapeutic strategies in the management of A. fumigatus infections. PMID:23562488
Aspergillus fumigatus is a known opportunistic pathogen of penguins. Most reports of penguin aspergillosis have focused on clinical, histopathological and microbiological findings. The molecular characterization of A. fumigatus isolates involved in invasive infections in penguins has yet to be addressed. The aim of this work was to study the possible coexistence of different A. fumigatus genotypes in five clinical cases of invasive aspergillosis in captive penguins. Differences in other relevant characteristics of the isolates, including mating type and invasiveness, were also considered. Alkaline protease and elastase production by the A. fumigatus isolates was evaluated by plate assays. Random amplified polymorphic DNA, and microsatellite analysis techniques were used for molecular typing, and mating type (MAT1-1 or MAT1-2) was determined by multiplex PCR. Although all isolates showed protease activity, differences in elastase activity were observed. The typing techniques indicated different genotypes in all the penguins, although one genotype was predominant in some cases. Fungal strains of different mating type were found in two different penguins, confirming infection polyclonality. In conclusion, captive penguins are susceptible to infection by multiple strains of A. fumigatus that differ not only in their genotype, but also in mating type and invasiveness. This finding has important consequences for the diagnosis and treatment of avian aspergillosis. PMID:20219295
Alvarez-Perez, Sergio; Mateos, Ana; Dominguez, Lucas; Martinez-Nevado, Eva; Blanco, Jose L; Garcia, Marta E
Aspergillus fumigatus is the most pathogenic species among the Aspergilli, and the major fungal agent of human pulmonary infection. To prosper in diverse ecological niches, Aspergilli have evolved numerous mechanisms for adaptive gene regulation, some of which are also crucial for mammalian infection. Among the molecules which govern such responses, integral membrane receptors are thought to be the most amenable to therapeutic modulation. This is due to the localization of these molecular sensors at the periphery of the fungal cell, and to the prevalence of small molecules and licensed drugs which target receptor-mediated signaling in higher eukaryotic cells. In this review we highlight the progress made in characterizing receptor-mediated environmental adaptation in A. fumigatus and its relevance for pathogenicity in mammals. By presenting a first genomic survey of integral membrane proteins in this organism, we highlight an abundance of putative seven transmembrane domain (7TMD) receptors, the majority of which remain uncharacterized. Given the dependency of A. fumigatus upon stress adaptation for colonization and infection of mammalian hosts, and the merits of targeting receptor-mediated signaling as an antifungal strategy, a closer scrutiny of sensory perception and signal transduction in this organism is warranted.
An anthracene-degrading strain, identified as Aspergillus fumigatus, showed a favorable ability in degradation of anthracene. The degradation efficiency could be maintained at about 60% after 5d with initial pH of the medium kept between 5 and 7.5, and the optimal temperature of 30 °C. The activity of this strain was not affected significantly by high salinity. Exploration on co-metabolism showed that the highest degradation efficiency was reached at equal concentration of lactose and anthracene. Excessive carbon source would actually hamper the degradation efficiency. Meanwhile, the strain could utilize some aromatic hydrocarbons such as benzene, toluene, phenol etc. as sole source of carbon and energy, indicating its degradation diversity. Experiments on enzymatic degradation indicated that extracellular enzymes secreted by A. fumigatus could metabolize anthracene effectively, in which the lignin peroxidase may be the most important constituent. Analysis of ion chromatography showed that the release of anions of A. fumigatus was not affected by addition of anthracene. GC-MS analysis revealed that the molecular structure of anthracene changed with the action of the microbe, generating a series of intermediate compounds such as phthalic anhydride, anthrone and anthraquinone by ring-cleavage reactions. PMID:20932640
It is often assumed that all species of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) have the same function because of the ubiquity\\u000a of the arbuscular mycorrhizal symbiosis and the fact that all AMF occupy the same plant\\/soil niche. Despite apparent differences\\u000a in the timing of evolutionary divergence and the morphological characteristics of AMF from the different genera, the majority\\u000a of studies on
John C. Dodd; Claire L. Boddington; Alia Rodriguez; Carmen Gonzalez-Chavez; Irdika Mansur
All genera ofAnnonaceae endemic in Australia (Ancana, Fitzalania, Haplostichanthus) show almost exactly the same type of disulcate (disulculate) pollen with intact exine extending over the sulci. Tetrad stages inHaplostichanthus andAncana reveal a latudinal subequatiorial orientation of the two sulci at the proximal hemisphere. Sometimes they fuse into a ±zonosulcate aperture.Fissistigma pollen grains are ±globose and have a flattened pole with
The tribe Miliuseae (Annonaceae) comprises six genera distributed in Asia: Alphonsea, Mezzettia, Miliusa, Orophea, Platymitra, and Phoenicanthus. A phylogenetic study to investigate the putative monophyly of the tribe and the intergeneric relationships is presented here. Nucleotide sequences of the plastid gene rbcL, trnL intron, and trnL-trnF intergenic spacer were analyzed from 114 Annonaceae taxa, including 24 Miliuseae species and two
JOHAN B. MOLS; BARBARA GRAVENDEEL; L. W. Chatrou; MICHAEL D. PIRIE; PAUL C. BYGRAVE; M. W. Chase; P. J. A. Kessler
Calcium oxalate crystals occur in the marine green algae Penicillus, Rhipocephalus, and Udotea, known as producers of sedimentary aragonite needles. In contrast to the externally deposited aragonite crystals which are generally < 15 micrometers long, the oxalate crystals are larger (up to 150 micrometers) and are located in the vacuolar system of the plant. No calcium oxalate was found in the related but noncalcifying genera Avrainvillea and Cladocephalus. PMID:17780990
Friedmann, E I; Roth, W C; Turner, J B; McEwen, R S
We have undertaken a systematic study to test the transformation of various species of gram-negative bacteria using the electroporation method. The data obtained show very clearly that a great variety of gram-negative bacteria — 15 different species belonging to 11 different genera — including freshly isolated wild-type strains can be transformed efficiently by use of the electric-field mediated transformation technique.
Reinhard Wirth; Anita Friesenegger; Stefan Fiedler
Summary Fauna of soil nematodes was studied in three main forest types of the Vihorlat Mountains, Querceto-Fageto-Aceretum at Remetské Hámre (RH), Fagetum at Morské oko (MO), and Fageto-Aceretum at Sninský kame? (SK). Each forest type was represented by five sites. In total 198 species and 98 genera of soil nematodes\\u000a were distinguished. Most species belonged to rare taxa with the frequency
Mitochondrial DNA polymorphism was employed to assess cytoplasmic diversity among cytoypes of the genus Cichorium and related genera of the tribe Lactuceae (Asteraceae). Hybridization patterns of total DNA using six restriction enzymes and five heterologous mtDNA probes were examined. From estimates of mtDNA diversity, Cichorium spinosum appeared as an ecotype of C. intybus rather than a separate species. Interspecific mtDNA
A. Vermeulen; B. Desprez; D. Lancelin; H. Bannerot
A comparative study of leaf architecture and anatomy of 42 species of Bernardia and other genera related of Acalyphoideae was undertaken to identify characters that support infrageneric and specific delimitation.\\u000a Thirty variable foliar architectural and anatomical characters were studied. Some characters are consistent (e.g., venation\\u000a pattern, secondary and tertiary vein arrangement, presence or absence of agrophic veins, type of areoles,
Angélica Cervantes; Teresa Terrazas; Héctor M. Hernández
Background Aspergillus tubingensis is a black Aspergillus belonging to the Aspergillus section Nigri, which includes species that morphologically resemble Aspergillus niger. Recent developments in species determination have resulted in clinical isolates presumed to be Aspergillus niger being reclassified as Aspergillus tubingensis by sequencing. We present a report of a patient with an osteomyelitis of the maxillary bone with a probable invasive Aspergillus tubingensis infection. Case presentation We describe an immune compromised patient suffering from osteomyelitis of the maxillary bone after tooth extraction. The osteomyelitis probably resulted in dentogenic pansinusitis presenting as an acute ethmoiditis. Histologic examination of biopsy samples showed osteomyelitis, and inflammation of the surrounding connective tissue. Cultures of the alveolar wound grew Aspergillus tubingensis. The patient was treated with liposomal amphoterocin B, which was changed to oral treatment with voriconazole based on susceptibility testing (MIC for voriconazole was 1 ?g/ml). Conclusion This case shows that Aspergillus tubingensis may have the potential to cause severe invasive infections in immunocompromised hosts. A larger proportion of Aspergillus tubingensis isolates are less susceptible to azoles compared to Aspergillus niger. Therefore, correct species identification and susceptibility testing is crucial for the choice of anti-fungal treatment, screening of azole resistance, and characterization of the pathogenic potential of the various species within Aspergillus section Nigri.
Two new species in the Aspergillus ochraceus group are described and compared to related taxa. Aspergillus bridgeri, from soils collected in a native community dominated by Atriplex gardneri in Wyoming, somewhat resembles A. elegans and A. lanosus, but differs in cultural and morphological details. Aspergillus campestris, from a native prairie in northern North Dakota, resembles A. dimorphicus in having metulae
The aspergilli comprise a diverse group of filamentous fungi spanning over 200 million years of evolution. Here we report the genome sequence of the model organism Aspergillus nidulans, and a comparative study with Aspergillus fumigatus, a serious human pathogen, and Aspergillus oryzae, used in the production of sake, miso and soy sauce. Our analysis of genome structure provided a quantitative
James E. Galagan; Sarah E. Calvo; Christina Cuomo; Li-Jun Ma; Jennifer R. Wortman; Serafim Batzoglou; Su-In Lee; Meray Bastürkmen; Christina C. Spevak; John Clutterbuck; Vladimir Kapitonov; Jerzy Jurka; Claudio Scazzocchio; Mark Farman; Jonathan Butler; Seth Purcell; Steve Harris; Gerhard H. Braus; Oliver Draht; Silke Busch; Christophe D'Enfert; Christiane Bouchier; Gustavo H. Goldman; Deborah Bell-Pedersen; Sam Griffiths-Jones; John H. Doonan; Jaehyuk Yu; Kay Vienken; Arnab Pain; Michael Freitag; Eric U. Selker; David B. Archer; Miguel Á. Peńalva; Berl R. Oakley; Michelle Momany; Toshihiro Tanaka; Toshitaka Kumagai; Kiyoshi Asai; Masayuki Machida; William C. Nierman; David W. Denning; Mark Caddick; Michael Hynes; Mathieu Paoletti; Reinhard Fischer; Bruce Miller; Paul Dyer; Matthew S. Sachs; Stephen A. Osmani; Bruce W. Birren
Aflatoxin is a carcinogenic secondary metabolite produced by the agriculturally important species Aspergillus flavus and A. parasiticus and several closely related species in Aspergillus section Flavi. Recently, several rare Aspergillus species not closely related to A. flavus have been found to pr...
PhyA gene product of Aspergillus ficuum (AF) and Peniophora lycii (PL) as expressed in industrial strains of Aspergillus niger and Aspergillus oryzae, respectively, were purified to homogeneity and then characterized for both physical and biochemical properties. The PL phytase is 26 amino acid resi...
Eighteen yeast species of the genera Rhodotorula, Rhodosporidium, Sporobolomyces, and Sporidiobolus, each one represented by its type strain, were investigated with the objective of evaluating their carotenoid composition. The pigments were extracted from yeast cells, quantified by high pressure liquid chromatography diode array detector and the main compounds were confirmed by atmospheric pressure chemical ionization quadrupole mass spectrometry. Significant (P < 0.01) differences among several species and (or) genera were observed. Thirteen strains were seen to be able to produce carotenoids, from 16.4 to 184 microg/g cell dry mass and from 6.0 to 1993.4 microg/L culture. The main carotenoids produced were identified as torularhodin, torulene, gamma-carotene, and beta-carotene. The correlation matrix calculated on the basis of the carotenoid composition data matrix indicated significant (P < 0.01) relationships between torulene and torularhodin (r = 0.81), gamma-carotene and torulene (r = 0.49), beta-carotene and torulene (r = -0.72), as well as beta-carotene and gamma-carotene (r = 0.64). These significant correlation coefficients may suggest that species belonging to the genera Rhodosporidium, Sporobolomyces, and Sporidiobolus possess a carotenoid biosynthetic pathway analogous to that elsewhere postulated for Rhodotorula species. PMID:17898860
Neighbor-joining, maximum-parsimony, minimum-evolution, maximum-likelihood and Bayesian trees constructed based on 16S rDNA sequences of 181 type strains of Bacillus species and related taxa manifested nine phylogenetic groups. The phylogenetic analysis showed that Bacillus was not a monophyletic group. B. subtilis was in Group 1. Group 4, 6 and 8 respectively consisted of thermophiles, halophilic or halotolerant bacilli and alkaliphilic bacilli. Group 2, 4 and 8 consisting of Bacillus species and related genera demonstrated that the current taxonomic system did not agree well with the 16S rDNA evolutionary trees. The position of Caryophanaceae and Planococcaceae in Group 2 suggested that they might be transferred into Bacillaceae, and the heterogeneity of Group 2 implied that some Bacillus species in it might belong to several new genera. Group 9 was mainly comprised of the genera (excluding Bacillus) of Bacillaceae, so some Bacillus species in Group 9: B. salarius, B. qingdaonensis and B. thermcloacae might not belong to Bacillus. Four Bacillus species, B. schlegelii, B. tusciae, B. edaphicus and B. mucilaginosus were clearly placed outside the nine groups.
Seventeen human clinical isolates representing four species of Desulfovibrio were characterized using 16S rRNA gene sequences and tests for catalase, indole, nitrate, bile, urease, formate-fumarate stimulation, desulfoviridin, motility, and hydrogen sulfide production, plus susceptibility to antimicrobial agents. Eighty additional strains representing 10 phenotypically similar genera (Bilophila, Selenomonas, Capnocytophaga, Campylobacter, Bacteroides, Sutterella, Anaerobiospirillum, Dialister, Veillonella, and Mobiluncus) were included for comparison. All Desulfovibrio species produced H2S and were desulfoviridin positive, and all Desulfovibrio species except D. piger were motile. The four Desulfovibrio species could be distinguished from each other using tests for catalase, indole, nitrate, urease, and growth on bile, with the following results (positive [+], negative [-], growth [G], and no growth [NG]): for D. piger, -, -, -, -, and G, respectively; for D. fairfieldensis, +, -, +, -, and G, respectively; for D. desulfuricans, -, -, +, +, and NG, respectively; and for D. vulgaris, -, +, -, -, and G, respectively. Resistance to the 10-microg colistin disk separated the Desulfovibrio species from most of the other genera, which were usually susceptible. These simple tests were useful for characterizing the Desulfovibrio species and differentiating them from other phenotypically similar genera. PMID:16081948
Warren, Yumi A; Citron, Diane M; Merriam, C Vreni; Goldstein, Ellie J C
The ordinal placement of two closely related freshwater genera, Ophioceras and Pseudohalonectria, was assessed by using phylogenetic analysis of morphological characters, partial sequences of the large subunit ribosomal DNA and restriction site variations in the internal transcribed spacer (ITS). The two genera have some morphological features that are used to define taxa in both the Sordariales and Diaporthales, and, hence, their phylogenetic relationships are unclear. Equally weighted analyses of thirty-eight morphological characters produced unresolved phylogenetic trees and unequivocal conclusions could not be drawn based on the morphological data. The polymerase chain reaction-amplified ITS region was variable in length between the two genera and restriction sites in the ITS region were determined. Analysis of variation in restriction sites in the ITS region placed Ophioceras and Pseudohalonectria in one clade with taxa sampled from Sordariales. About 350 basepairs of DNA sequence from the 5' end of the large subunit rDNA were also determined. In phylogenetic analysis of the sequence data with Hypocrea lutea and Nectria cinnabarina as outgroups, Ophioceras and Pseudohalonectria showed a closer relationship to Neurospora crassa, Schizothecium sp., and Sordaria fimicola of the Sordariales than to Cryphonectria parasitica and Endothia gyrosa of the Diaporthales. PMID:7553269
Recent surveys of seed coat morphology in Lobelioideae (Campanulaceae) have demonstrated the systematic utility of such data in the subfamily and led to a revision of the supraspecific classification of Lobelia. Expanding upon these studies, we examined via scanning electron microscopy 41 seed accessions, emphasizing lobelioid genera in which only one or no species had been examined. Most conformed to previously described testal patterns. However, five species of the endemic Hawaiian genus Cyanea, comprising the molecularly defined Hardyi Clade, had a unique testal pattern (here termed Type F), characterized by laterally compressed, almost linear, areoles with rounded, knob-like protuberances on the radial walls at opposite ends. This offered a convenient synapomorphy for recognition of a clade originally defined on a molecular basis. A second unique testal pattern was found in the related Hawaiian endemics Brighamia and Delissea, thus supporting their close relationship. In this type (here termed Type G), the seed coat is irregularly wrinkled (rugose), creating broad, rounded ridges that run more-or-less perpendicular to the long axis of the seed and thus to the long axis of the testal cells. Seed coat morphology also supported the monophyly of all 124 species of Hawaiian Lobelioideae and their probable derivation from Asian species of Lobelia subg. Tupa. Additional studies supported close relationships between (1) the neotropical genera Centropogon and Siphocampylus; (2) the western American genera Legenere and Downingia; and (3) Jamaican Hippobroma and Lobelia sect. Tylomium, a group endemic to the West Indies. PMID:11454630
Kalapuya is described as a new, monotypic truffle genus in the Morchellaceae known only from the Pacific northwestern United States. Its relationship to other hypogeous genera within Morchellaceae is explored by phylogenetic analysis of the ribosomal LSU and EF1alpha protein coding region. The type species, K. brunnea, occurs in Douglas-fir forests up to about 50 y old on the west slope of the Cascade Range in Oregon and in the Coastal Ranges of Oregon and northern California. It has a roughened, warty, reddish brown to brown peridium, a solid whitish gleba that develops grayish brown mottling as the spores mature, and produces a cheesy-garlicky odor at maturity. Its smooth, ellipsoid spores resemble those of Morchella spp. but are much larger. The four hypogeous genera known in the Morchellaceae, Kalapuya, Fischerula, Imaia and Leucangium, are distinct from the epigeous genera Morchella and Verpa, but it is uncertain whether they resulted from a single transition to a hypogeous fruiting habit or from multiple independent transitions. Kalapuya, locally known as the Oregon brown truffle, has been commercially harvested for culinary use. PMID:20943505
Trappe, Matthew J; Trappe, James M; Bonito, Gregory M
The homoxylous fossil woods occurring in the Gondwanan continents of South America, Australia, Africa, India and Antarctica during the Jurassic and Early Cretaceous period are considered here. Original descriptions of the genera and wherever possible, the type material, have been consulted. Applying the rules of the International Code of Botanical Nomenclature, the generic names of the homoxylous woods have been revised from a nomenclatural point of view. According to this review, out of 31 generic names used for woods from the given time interval and area, 6 are illegitimate later nomenclatural synonyms, 1 is a later homonym, and 5 can be considered as taxonomical synonyms. Moreover, 9 genera have been used erroneously. We propose one new generic name (Protaxodioxylon n. gen.) and elsewhere we will propose for conservation, with a conserved type one of the illegitimate names and one of the taxonomic synonyms. As a result, we consider that there are only eighteen generic names correctly quoted for the Jurassic-Early Cretaceous of Gondwana, and we provide a taxonomic key for the corresponding genera. This revision is the first step in systematically comparing northern and southern hemisphere woods. PMID:11179718
Four different genera of diaporthalean coelomycetous fungi associated with leaf spots of tree hosts are morphologically treated and phylogenetically compared based on the DNA sequence data of the large subunit nuclear ribosomal DNA gene (LSU) and the internal transcribed spacers and 5.8S rRNA gene of the nrDNA operon. These include two new Australian genera, namely Auratiopycnidiella, proposed for a leaf spotting fungus occurring on Tristaniopsis laurina in New South Wales, and Disculoides, proposed for two species occurring on leaf spots of Eucalyptus leaves in Victoria. Two new species are described in Aurantiosacculus, a hitherto monotypic genus associated with leaf spots of Eucalyptus in Australia, namely A. acutatus on E. viminalis, and A. eucalyptorum on E. globulus, both occurring in Tasmania. Lastly, an epitype specimen is designated for Erythrogloeum hymenaeae, the type species of the genus Erythrogloeum, and causal agent of a prominent leaf spot disease on Hymenaea courbaril in South America. All four genera are shown to be allied to Diaporthales, although only Aurantiosacculus (Cryphonectriaceae) could be resolved to family level, the rest being incertae sedis. PMID:23105154
Crous, P W; Summerell, B A; Alfenas, A C; Edwards, J; Pascoe, I G; Porter, I J; Groenewald, J Z
Background The generaAspergillus and Penicillium include some of the most beneficial as well as the most harmful fungal species such as the penicillin-producer Penicillium chrysogenum and the human pathogen Aspergillus fumigatus, respectively. Their mitochondrial genomic sequences may hold vital clues into the mechanisms of their evolution, population genetics, and biology, yet only a handful of these genomes have been fully sequenced and annotated. Results Here we report the complete sequence and annotation of the mitochondrial genomes of six Aspergillus and three Penicillium species: A. fumigatus, A. clavatus, A. oryzae, A. flavus, Neosartorya fischeri (A. fischerianus), A. terreus, P. chrysogenum, P. marneffei, and Talaromyces stipitatus (P. stipitatum). The accompanying comparative analysis of these and related publicly available mitochondrial genomes reveals wide variation in size (25–36 Kb) among these closely related fungi. The sources of genome expansion include group I introns and accessory genes encoding putative homing endonucleases, DNA and RNA polymerases (presumed to be of plasmid origin) and hypothetical proteins. The two smallest sequenced genomes (A. terreus and P. chrysogenum) do not contain introns in protein-coding genes, whereas the largest genome (T. stipitatus), contains a total of eleven introns. All of the sequenced genomes have a group I intron in the large ribosomal subunit RNA gene, suggesting that this intron is fixed in these species. Subsequent analysis of several A. fumigatus strains showed low intraspecies variation. This study also includes a phylogenetic analysis based on 14 concatenated core mitochondrial proteins. The phylogenetic tree has a different topology from published multilocus trees, highlighting the challenges still facing the Aspergillus systematics. Conclusions The study expands the genomic resources available to fungal biologists by providing mitochondrial genomes with consistent annotations for future genetic, evolutionary and population studies. Despite the conservation of the core genes, the mitochondrial genomes of Aspergillus and Penicillium species examined here exhibit significant amount of interspecies variation. Most of this variation can be attributed to accessory genes and mobile introns, presumably acquired by horizontal gene transfer of mitochondrial plasmids and intron homing.
Australian stiletto flies of the sister-genera Acupalpa Kröber, 1912 and Pipinnipons Winterton, 2001 (Diptera: Therevidae: Agapophytinae) are revised. Twelve new species of Acupalpa are described, while Acupalpa imitans (White, 1915), comb. n. is transferred from Pipinnipons and Acupalpa albimanis (Kröber, 1914), comb. n. is transferred from Ectinorhynchus Macquart as a senior synonym of Acupalpa pollinosa Mann. The total number of species of Acupalpa is therefore increased to 19: Acupalpa albimanis (Kröber), comb. n., Acupalpa albitarsa Mann, Acupalpa bohartisp. n., Acupalpa divisa (Walker), Acupalpa dolichorhynchasp. n., Acupalpa glossasp. n., Acupalpa imitans (White), comb. n., Acupalpa irwini Winterton, Acupalpa melanophaeossp. n.,Acupalpa miaboolyasp. n., Acupalpa minutasp. n., Acupalpa minutoidessp. n., Acupalpa notomelassp. n., Acupalpa novayamarnasp. n., Acupalpa rostrata Kröber, Acupalpa semirufa Mann, Acupalpa westralicasp. n., Acupalpa yalgoosp. n. and Acupalpa yanchepsp. n. Three new species of Pipinnipons are described, increasing the total number of species to five: Pipinnipons chauncyvallissp. n., Pipinnipons fascipennis (Kröber), Pipinnipons kampmeieraesp. n., Pipinnipons kroeberi Winterton, and P. sphecodasp. n.Pipinnipons and Acupalpa are rediagnosed in light of the new species presented herein and revised keys to species are included. A dichotomous key to genera of Australasian Therevidae is included. As an empirical example of cybertaxonomy, taxonomic descriptions were composed using a character matrix developed in Lucid Builder (in Structured Descriptive Data (SDD) format) to generate natural language descriptions supplemented by online specimen and image databases. Web resources are provided throughout the document including: a) links to high resolution colour images of all species on Morphbank, b) registration of authors, publications, taxon names and other nomenclatural acts in Zoobank, with assignment of Life Science Identifiers (LSIDs) for each, c) links to Genbank accession records for DNA sequences, and d) assignment of LSIDs to specimen records with links to respective records in an online Therevidae specimen database. PMID:21594068
Abstract Australian stiletto flies of the sister-genera Acupalpa Kröber, 1912 and Pipinnipons Winterton, 2001 (Diptera: Therevidae: Agapophytinae) are revised. Twelve new species of Acupalpa are described, while Acupalpa imitans (White, 1915), comb. n. is transferred from Pipinnipons and Acupalpa albimanis (Kröber, 1914), comb. n. is transferred from Ectinorhynchus Macquart as a senior synonym of Acupalpa pollinosa Mann. The total number of species of Acupalpa is therefore increased to 19: Acupalpa albimanis (Kröber), comb. n., Acupalpa albitarsa Mann, Acupalpa boharti sp. n., Acupalpa divisa (Walker), Acupalpa dolichorhyncha sp. n., Acupalpa glossa sp. n., Acupalpa imitans (White), comb. n., Acupalpa irwini Winterton, Acupalpa melanophaeos sp. n., Acupalpa miaboolya sp. n., Acupalpa minuta sp. n., Acupalpa minutoides sp. n., Acupalpa notomelas sp. n., Acupalpa novayamarna sp. n., Acupalpa rostrata Kröber, Acupalpa semirufa Mann, Acupalpa westralica sp. n., Acupalpa yalgoo sp. n. and Acupalpa yanchep sp. n. Three new species of Pipinnipons are described, increasing the total number of species to five: Pipinnipons chauncyvallis sp. n., Pipinnipons fascipennis (Kröber), Pipinnipons kampmeierae sp. n., Pipinnipons kroeberi Winterton, and P. sphecoda sp. n. Pipinnipons and Acupalpa are rediagnosed in light of the new species presented herein and revised keys to species are included. A dichotomous key to genera of Australasian Therevidae is included. As an empirical example of cybertaxonomy, taxonomic descriptions were composed using a character matrix developed in Lucid Builder (in Structured Descriptive Data (SDD) format) to generate natural language descriptions supplemented by online specimen and image databases. Web resources are provided throughout the document including: a) links to high resolution colour images of all species on Morphbank, b) registration of authors, publications, taxon names and other nomenclatural acts in Zoobank, with assignment of Life Science Identifiers (LSIDs) for each, c) links to Genbank accession records for DNA sequences, and d) assignment of LSIDs to specimen records with links to respective records in an online Therevidae specimen database.
A 52-year-old woman was hospitalized because of severe cough in August 1994. She had engaged in culturing roses in greenhouses since 1968, and had developed a cough during the summer of 1990. Chest radiography showed diffuse ground-glass opacity in both lung fields, and she suffered from hypoxemia (PaO2 = 45.6 torr) while breathing room air. The lymphocyte count in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid was increased, and transbronchial lung biopsy specimens showed lymphocyte alveolitis in the alveolar spaces. After admission, the patient's symptoms improved rapidly without medication. However, on her return to work, the cough and hypoxemia reappeared. In her rose culture, she had used Rockwool, and Aspergillus niger was detected predominantly in the Rockwool. Precipitins against the extracts of Aspergillus niger were detected with the double immunodiffusion test and the inhalation provocation test yielded clinical symptoms. Our diagnosis was hypersensitivity pneumonitis caused by Aspergillus niger. PMID:15357273
An Aspergillus fungal ball is a rare cause of ureteral obstruction attributed to indwelling catheters, stents, antibiotics, anastomotic leaks, obstruction, and immunosuppressive therapy and other immunocompromised states. We describe a case of unilateral ureteral obstruction caused by Aspergillus terreus following ureteroscopic lithotripsy and ureteral stenting in a 45-year-old diabetic man. The patient was successfully treated with endoscopic removal of the fungal mass and oral voriconazole. We also review briefly the clinical features, treatment, and outcome in 9 previously reported diabetic patients with ureteral obstruction due to aspergillosis. Obstructive uropathy related to Aspergillus mass may be suspected in diabetic patients with a history of manipulation, impaired kidney function, and persistent passage of a soft mass in urine. Direct microscopy and culture of multiple urine and ureteral washing are necessary for early diagnosis. Antifungal therapy and endoscopic removal of the mass are needed to reduce morbidity. PMID:23485541
The mycotoxin gliotoxin is produced by fungi of the genus Aspergillus, including the important human pathogen Aspergillus fumigatus. Gliotoxin exerts a broad spectrum of immunosuppressive effects in vitro and is detectable in the sera of patients suffering from invasive aspergillosis. In order to correlate the pathogenic potential of A. fumigatus with the ability to produce gliotoxin and to investigate the taxonomic distribution of gliotoxin-producing Aspergillus strains among clinical isolates, a total of 158 Aspergillus isolates comprising four different species (A. fumigatus, n=100; A. terreus, n=27; A. niger, n=16; A. flavus, n=15) were collected from different medical centers (some originating from probable cases of aspergillosis) and from environmental samples in Germany and Austria. Remarkably, gliotoxin was detected in most culture filtrates of A. fumigatus of both clinical (98%) and environmental (96%) origin. The toxin was also detected, with decreasing frequency, in culture filtrates of A. niger (56%), A. terreus (37%), and A. flavus (13%). The highest gliotoxin concentrations were detected in A. fumigatus strains of clinical (max. 21.35 microg/ml, mean 5.75 microg/ml) and environmental (max. 26.25 microg/ml, mean 5.27 microg/ml) origin. Gliotoxin productivity of other Aspergillus species was significantly lower. Culture supernatants of A. fumigatus strains lacking gliotoxin production showed a significantly lower cytotoxicity on macrophage-like cells and T-cells in vitro. In contrast, lack of gliotoxin production in the other Aspergillus species tested had no significant influence on the cytotoxic effect of culture supernatant on these immune cells. PMID:17574915
Background Microsatellites (or short tandem repeats, STRs) are the genetic markers of choice for studying Aspergillus fumigatus molecular epidemiology due to its reproducibility and high discrimination power. However, the specificity of these markers must be investigated in a group of isolates from closely related species. The aim of this work was to test a microsatellite-based PCR multiplex previously designed for A. fumigatus in a set of species belonging to section Fumigati, namely Aspergillus fumigatiaffinis, Aspergillus lentulus, Aspergillus novofumigatus, Aspergillus unilateralis, Aspergillus viridinutans, Neosartorya fischeri, Neosartorya hiratsukae, Neosartorya pseudofischeri and Neosartorya udagawae. Results The reference A. fumigatus strain ATCC 46645 was easily genotyped in standard conditions showing a final electrophoretic profile of 8 expected peaks corresponding to each microsatellite locus. Inversely, no peaks were observed for all other species from section Fumigati, with an exception for marker MC6b in A. unilateralis. By screening the genome sequence of Neosartorya fischeri NRRL 181, the results showed that MC3, MC6a and MC7 might be employed for N. fischeri genotyping since these markers present several repeats of each motif. The accumulation of insertions and deletions was frequently observed in the genomic regions surrounding the microsatellites, including those where the A. fumigatus primers are located. The amplification of microsatellite markers in less stringent amplification conditions resulted in a distinct electrophoretic profile for species within section Fumigati. Conclusions Therefore, the microsatellite-based PCR multiplex allow simple identification of A. fumigatus and, with a slight modification of temperature conditions, it also allows discriminating other pathogenic species within section Fumigati, particularly A. fumigatiaffinis, N. fischeri and N. udagawae.
Background and Aims Sapindaceae is one of 16 angiosperm families whose seeds have physical dormancy (PY). However, the extent and nature of PY within this family is poorly known. The primary aims of this study were: (1) to evaluate seed characteristics and determine presence (or not) of PY within nine genera of Australian Sapindaceae; and (2) to compare the frequency of PY across the phylogenetic tree within Australian Sapindaceae. Methods Viability, imbibition and seed characteristics were assessed for 14 taxa from nine genera of Sapindaceae. For five species of Dodonaea, optimal conditions for germination and dormancy break were evaluated. An in situ burial experiment was performed on D. hackettiana seeds to identify the factor(s) responsible for overcoming PY. Classes of dormancy and of non-dormancy for 26 genera of Sapindaceae were mapped onto a phylogenetic tree for the family. Key Results Mean seed viability across all taxa was 69·7 %. Embryos were fully developed and folded (seven genera) or bent (two genera); no endosperm was present. Seeds of all five Dodonaea spp. and of Distichostemon hispidulus had PY. Hot-water treatment released PY in these six species. Optimal germination temperature for seeds of the four Dodonaea spp. that germinated was 15–20 °C. Following 5 months burial in soil, 36·4 % of D. hackettiana seeds had lost PY and germinated by the beginning of the winter wet season (May). Laboratory and field data indicate that dormancy was broken by warm, moist temperatures (?50 °C) during summer. Conclusions PY occurs infrequently in genera of Sapindaceae native to Australia. Seeds of Dodonaea and Distichostemon had PY, whereas those of the other seven genera did not. Seeds of these two genera and of Diplopeltis (a previous study) are the only three of the 20 native Australian genera of Sapindaceae for which germination has been studied that have PY; all three belong to subfamily Dodonaeoideae.
Cook, A.; Turner, S. R.; Baskin, J. M.; Baskin, C. C.; Steadman, K. J.; Dixon, K. W.
Robusta coffee cherries collected before and during sun drying from two coffee farms in Thailand were examined for moulds producing ochratoxin A (OA). Aspergillus ochraceus was only detected in one sample, whereas Aspergillus carbonarius was isolated from 7 out of 14 samples. On gamma-irradiated coffee cherries, each of the six tested A. carbonarius strains produced OA. More than 4800 microg kg(-1) of toxin were detected under optimal conditions (25 degrees C, a(w) 0.99). OA production was strongly reduced (230 microg kg(-1)) at an a(w) of 0.94. PMID:11322699
Joosten, H M; Goetz, J; Pittet, A; Schellenberg, M; Bucheli, P
Aspergillus species have the ability to produce a wide range of secondary metabolites including polyketides that are generated by multi-domain polyketide synthases (PKSs). Recent biochemical studies using dissected single or multiple domains from PKSs have provided deep insight into how these PKSs control the structural outcome. Moreover, the recent genome sequencing of several species has greatly facilitated the understanding of the biosynthetic pathways for these secondary metabolites. In this review, we will highlight the current knowledge regarding polyketide biosynthesis in Aspergillus based on the domain architecture of non-reducing, highly reducing, and partially reducing PKSs, and PKS-non-ribosomal peptide synthetases.
Chiang, Yi-Ming; Oakley, Berl R.; Keller, Nancy P.
A Ca2+\\/calmodulin (CaM)-dependent multifunctional protein kinase has been isolated from Aspergillus nidulans and purified to homogeneity. Unlike any CaM-dependent multifunctional protein kinase described previously, the native enzyme from Aspergillus behaves as a monomer. The calculated molecular weight is 41,200. NaDodSO4\\/PAGE reveals a single protein band with an apparent Mr of 51,000. Two-dimensional isoelectric focusing\\/NaDodSO4\\/PAGE of the purified enzyme showed one
Diana C. Bartelt; Seth Fidel; Len H. Farber; Donald J. Wolff; Robin L. Hammell
The patient presented with dry cough, lending, fever and progressive dyspnea for two weeks. The patient had a prior respiratory infection history and the symptoms were not obvious, Early X-ray showed lung infection. Under the fibrolaryngoscope, the lingual surfaces of the epiglottis, epiglottic vallecula, and bilateral vocal cords were covered by yellow pseudomembrane. The motion of vocal cords was normal with poor glottic closure, and no ulcer was noted. Endotracheal mucosa was swelling and congested with an uneven surface, and purulent discharge and pseudomembrane was formed. Pathological examination revealed Aspergillus. The disease was diagnosed as Aspergillus laryngotracheobronchitis. PMID:23272504
Ureteral obstruction as a result of a primary aspergillus infection is rare. Early clinical suspicion in immunosuppressed patients is essential to diagnosis. We report a case of a 50-year-old diabetic woman presenting with acute renal failure, sepsis, and bilateral ureteral obstruction. Initial management included bilateral percutaneous nephrostomy tubes. Urine culture from both the left and right renal pelvis grew Aspergillus flavus. The left-sided obstruction resolved with antifungal therapy. However, her right ureteral obstruction persisted and was managed with ureteroscopy and removal of the fungal bezoar. PMID:16724902
Smaldone, Marc C; Cannon, Glenn M; Benoit, Ronald M
The filamentous fungus Aspergillus fumigatus is an important opportunistic pathogen that can cause high mortality levels in susceptible patient populations. The increasing dependence on antifungal drugs to control A. fumigatus has led to the inevitable acquisition of drug-resistant forms of this pathogen. In other fungal pathogens, drug resistance is often associated with an increase in transcription of genes such as ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters that directly lead to tolerance to commonly employed antifungal drugs. In A. fumigatus, tolerance to azole drugs (the major class of antifungal) is often associated with changes in the sequence of the azole target enzyme as well as changes in the transcription level of this gene. The target gene for azole drugs in A. fumigatus is referred to as cyp51A. In order to dissect transcription of cyp51A transcription and other genes of interest, we constructed a set of firefly luciferase reporter genes designed for use in A. fumigatus. These reporter genes can either replicate autonomously or be targeted to the pyrG locus, generating an easily assayable uracil auxotrophy. We fused eight different A. fumigatus promoters to luciferase. Faithful behaviors of these reporter gene fusions compared to their chromosomal equivalents were evaluated by 5? rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE) and quantitative reverse transcription-PCR (qRT-PCR) analysis. We used this reporter gene system to study stress-regulated transcription of a Hsp70-encoding gene, map an important promoter element in the cyp51A gene, and correct an annotation error in the actin gene. We anticipate that this luciferase reporter gene system will be broadly applicable in analyses of gene expression in A. fumigatus.
In the koji molds Aspergillus sojae and Aspergillus oryzae, exogenous DNA is integrated in the genome, in most cases irrespective of the sequence homology, suggesting that DNA integration occurs predominantly through a nonhomologous end joining pathway where two ku genes, namely, ku70 and ku80, play a key role. To determine the effect of ku gene disruption on the gene targeting frequency, we constructed ku70-, ku80-, and ku70-ku80-disrupted strains of A. sojae and A. oryzae. The gene targeting frequency of the tannase gene in ku70 and ku80 strains of both Aspergillus species was markedly enhanced as compared with that of the parental strains. The gene targeting frequency of the aflR and ku80 genes was also enhanced in an A. sojae ku70 background. Therefore, the koji mold strains with ku-disrupted genes will be excellent tools as hosts for efficient gene targeting. PMID:16470383
Abstract The Afrotropical Mantispidae genera have previously been neglected and are poorly known. The genera are revised and redescribed. A new genus Afromantispa Snyman and Ohl is described with Afromantispa tenella comb. n.as type species. Perlamantispa (Handschin, 1960) is synonymised with Sagittalata Handschin, 1959. The new combinations within the genus include Sagittalata austroafrica comb. n., Sagittalata bequaerti comb. n., Sagittalata dorsalis comb. n., Sagittalata girardi comb. n., Sagittalata nubila comb. n., Sagittalata perla comb. n., Sagittalata pusilla comb. n., Sagittalata similata comb. n., Sagittalata royi comb. n., Sagittalata tincta comb. n. and Sagittalata vassei comb. n. An illustrated key to the genera Afromantispa gen. n., Sagittalata Handschin, 1959, Mantispa Illiger, 1798, Cercomantispa Handschin, 1959, Rectinerva Handschin, 1959, Nampista Navás, 1914, and Pseudoclimaciella Handschin, 1960 is provided. The wing venation of Mantispidae is redescribed. Similarities between the genera are discussed. Subsequent studies will focus on revising the taxonomic status of species, which are not dealt with in this study.
Dichotomous keys for the identification of ophidiiform genera are provided. For each genus a brief account is presented including synonymy, a short diagnosis, a list of species, distribution, reference, when possible comments on relationships, and for mos...
Background Nitrilases attract increasing attention due to their utility in the mild hydrolysis of nitriles. According to activity and gene screening, filamentous fungi are a rich source of nitrilases distinct in evolution from their widely examined bacterial counterparts. However, fungal nitrilases have been less explored than the bacterial ones. Nitrilases are typically heterogeneous in their quaternary structures, forming short spirals and extended filaments, these features making their structural studies difficult. Results A nitrilase gene was amplified by PCR from the cDNA library of Aspergillus niger K10. The PCR product was ligated into expression vectors pET-30(+) and pRSET B to construct plasmids pOK101 and pOK102, respectively. The recombinant nitrilase (Nit-ANigRec) expressed in Escherichia coli BL21-Gold(DE3)(pOK101/pTf16) was purified with an about 2-fold increase in specific activity and 35% yield. The apparent subunit size was 42.7 kDa, which is approx. 4 kDa higher than that of the enzyme isolated from the native organism (Nit-ANigWT), indicating post-translational cleavage in the enzyme's native environment. Mass spectrometry analysis showed that a C-terminal peptide (Val327 - Asn356) was present in Nit-ANigRec but missing in Nit-ANigWT and Asp298-Val313 peptide was shortened to Asp298-Arg310 in Nit-ANigWT. The latter enzyme was thus truncated by 46 amino acids. Enzymes Nit-ANigRec and Nit-ANigWT differed in substrate specificity, acid/amide ratio, reaction optima and stability. Refolded recombinant enzyme stored for one month at 4°C was fractionated by gel filtration, and fractions were examined by electron microscopy. The late fractions were further analyzed by analytical centrifugation and dynamic light scattering, and shown to consist of a rather homogeneous protein species composed of 12-16 subunits. This hypothesis was consistent with electron microscopy and our modelling of the multimeric nitrilase, which supports an arrangement of dimers into helical segments as a plausible structural solution. Conclusions The nitrilase from Aspergillus niger K10 is highly homologous (?86%) with proteins deduced from gene sequencing in Aspergillus and Penicillium genera. As the first of these proteins, it was shown to exhibit nitrilase activity towards organic nitriles. The comparison of the Nit-ANigRec and Nit-ANigWT suggested that the catalytic properties of nitrilases may be changed due to missing posttranslational cleavage of the former enzyme. Nit-ANigRec exhibits a lower tendency to form filaments and, moreover, the sample homogeneity can be further improved by in vitro protein refolding. The homogeneous protein species consisting of short spirals is expected to be more suitable for structural studies.
Geodynamic processes influenced the complex evolution of the Paratethys, an extended marginal sea, which is characterised by intermittently open and closed marine seaways with its surrounding oceans. Especially in the Miocene, this led to substantial changes in marine environments and ecosystems by changing basin geometries, water circulation, water depth, water chemistry, climate etc. Investigations of stable isotopes of fossil carbonate shells provide information about paleoenvironmental parameters of the ancient seawater. Oxygen and carbon isotope data of selected gastropod genera, mainly Turritellidae, are used to reconstruct paleoenvironmental parameters of different time slices of the Miocene of Austrian Neogene basins. Recent Turritellidae live in a wide range of environments, mainly shallow infaunal or epifaunal, but prefer fully marine conditions. Stable isotope investigations of recent specimens support their usefulness as isotopic indicators for environmental parameters. For detecting diagenetic alterations of the aragonitic gastropod shells, samples were analysed for their shell mineralogy and microstructures with X-ray diffraction analyses and scanning electron microscopy prior to stable isotope analyses. Several microsamples for isotope analyses of each shell were taken to test the intrashell variability. Oxygen and carbon isotopes for Karpatian and Badenian turritellids from the Vienna Basin and the Korneuburg Basin show slightly lighter oxygen and carbon isotope values for the Karpatian. In addition to turritellids, two other gastropod genera (Ocenebra and Granulolabium), both preferring an intertidal habitat and tolerating some salinity fluctuations, were investigated, yielding information about mixing of seawater with freshwater. So parameters for different environments can be obtained, and also comparisons of different gastropod genera are possible. The study was supported by the Austrian Science Foundation (FWF), project "Stable isotopes and changing Miocene palaeoenvironments in the East Alpine region" (P-14366 BIO), and project "Evolution Versus Migration: Changes in Austrian Marine Miocene Molluscan Paleocommunities" (P-13745 BIO).
Abstract New data on the Pselaphodes complex of genera (Pselaphitae: Tyrini) from China is presented. The generic limits of Labomimus Sharp and Pselaphodes Westwood are discussed and expanded. A revised key to the genera of the Pselaphodes complex is provided. New geographic evidence suggests that previously believed wide-spread species Pselaphodes tianmuensis Yin, Li & Zhao contains a number of related species, resulting in a division of the species to nine separate taxa. Fourteen new species belonging to three genera are diagnosed, described and illustrated: Dayao emeiensis Yin & Li, sp. n. (Sichuan), Labomimus fimbriatus Yin & Hlavá?, sp. n. (Yunnan), Labomimus jizuensis Yin & Hlavá?, sp. n. (Yunnan), Labomimus simplicipalpus Yin & Hlavá?, sp. n. (Sichuan), Pselaphodes anhuianus Yin & Li, sp. n. (Anhui), Pselaphodes daii Yin & Hlavá?, sp. n. (Sichuan), Pselaphodes grebennikovi Yin & Hlavá?, sp. n. (Yunnan), Pselaphodes hainanensis Yin & Li, sp. n. (Hainan), Pselaphodes kuankuoshuiensis Yin & Li, sp. n. (Guizhou), Pselaphodes longilobus Yin & Hlavá?, sp. n. (Hunbei, Yunnan), Pselaphodes monoceros Yin & Hlavá?, sp. n. (Xizang), Pselaphodes pengi Yin & Li, sp. n. (Sichuan), Pselaphodes tiantongensis Yin & Li, sp. n. (Zhejiang) and Pselaphodes wrasei Yin & Li, sp. n. (Yunnan). Labomimus sichuanicus Hlavá?, Nomura & Zhou (Sichuan) is redescribed and illustrated based on a paratype and the material from the type locality. Two recently described species, Pselaphodes tibialis Yin & Li (Yunnan), and Pselaphodes venustus Yin & Li (Yunnan), are transferred to Labomimus (comb. n.) due to the presence of a median metaventral fovea. New locality data is provided for Pselaphodes aculeus Yin, Li & Zhao (Anhui, Fujian, Guangxi, Hainan, Yunnan), Pselaphodes maoershanus Yin & Li (Guangxi, Guizhou), Pselaphodes tianmuensis (Zhejiang, Anhui, Fujian, Jiangxi, Guangxi) and Pselaphodes pectinatus Yin, Li & Zhao (Hainan), with the aedeagus newly illustrated for the latter species.
The number of recognized papillomavirus (PV) species and potential PV genera has dramatically been increasing throughout the past decade. It seems that every host species might potentially harbour a large set of PVs, while the PVs of each species appear to belong to only a few genera. In horses at least three conditions beside the equine sarcoid have been described, being supposedly PV induced namely classical equine papillomas, genital papillomas and aural plaques. We were able to identify the DNA of novel equine PVs (EcPVs) in the two latter disorders where PV involvement had been predicted. Both PV genomes were entirely cloned and sequenced. Both EcPV genomes, one derived from a penile papilloma, the other derived from an ear papilloma contain the characteristic open reading frames (ORFs) E6, E7, E1, E2, L2 and L1, a large non-coding region between the late and early region as well as a small non-coding region between the early and the late region. The viruses were consequently designated as EcPV2 and EcPV3. The genomes of the three equine PVs were analysed and compared with each other and further PVs. Upon phylogenetic analyses the equine PVs group well together. Pairwise alignment of the L1 nucleotide sequences reveals that EcPV1 shares 54.9% identities with EcPV2 and 53.2% with EcPV3. EcPV2 and EcPV3 share 51.3% identities. As the three EcPVs share less than 60% of nucleotide identities in L1, they may be regarded as belonging to different genera. PMID:21109367
Lange, Christian E; Tobler, Kurt; Ackermann, Mathias; Favrot, Claude
In order to determine the phylogenetic structure of the actinomycete family Micromonosporuceae, the 16s ribosomal DNA sequences of 17 type species of the genera Actinoplanes, Ductylosporungium, and Pilimelia were compared with the 16s ribosomal DNA sequences of species of the genera CuteUutosporu, Cutenuloplanes, and Couchioplanes and with those of species of the genus Micromonospora and other actinomycete genera for which
CATHRIN KOCH; REINER M. KROPPENSTEDT; FRED A. RAINEY; ERKO STACKEBRANDT
A total of 149 species and 209 strains of Korean Aphyllophorales in Seoul National University Fungus Collection (SFC) were analyzed by taxonomic and phylogenetic methods. Among those examined fungal specimens, 9 genera Abundisporus, Antrodiella, Cyphellopsis, Dendrothele, Dichomitus, Laxitextum, Piloderma, Skeletocutis and Tubulicrinis, and 23 species, Abundisporus fuscopurpureus, Antrodiella semisupina, Auriporia pileata, Cantharellus subalbidus, Clavulina cinerea, Cyphellopsis confusa, Dendrothele acerina, Dichomitus campestris, Haplotrichum aureum, Heterobasidion annosum, Hyphoderma argillaceum, Hyphodontia tropica, Inonotus dryophilus, Ischnoderma benzoinum, Laxitextum bicolor, Phanerochaete radicata, Phellinus lonicericola, Piloderma byssinum, Skeletocutis nivea, Tomentella terrestris, Trametes elegans, Trametes tenuis, and Tubulicrinis accedens were confirmed as new to Korea and registered here with descriptions. PMID:24039493
Reexamination and molecular phylogenetic analyses of American Terfezia species and Mattirolomyces tiffanyae revealed that their generic assignments were wrong. Therefore we here propose these combinations: Mattirolomyces spinosus comb. nov. (? Terfezia spinosa), Stouffera longii gen. & comb. nov. (? Terfezia longii) and Temperantia tiffanyae gen. & comb. nov. (? Mattirolomyces tiffanyae). In addition we describe a new species, Mattirolomyces mexicanus spec. nov. All species belong to the Pezizaceae. Based on these results Terfezia is not known from North America, Mattirolomyces is represented by two species and two new monotypic genera are present. PMID:21262987
Kovács, Gábor M; Trappe, James M; Alsheikh, Abdulmagid M; Hansen, Karen; Healy, Rosanne A; Vági, Pál
The chloroplast and mitochondrial DNA diversity of 61 genotypes belonging to 18 Vasconcellea species, the so-called highland papayas, was studied by PCR-RFLP analysis of two non-coding cpDNA regions ( trnM- rbcL and trnK1- trnK2) and one non-coding mtDNA region ( nad4/1- nad4/2). This sample set was supplemented with six genotypes belonging to three other Caricaceae genera: the monotypic genus Carica, including only the cultivated papaya, and the genera Jacaratia and Cylicomorpha. Moringa ovalifolia was added as an outgroup species. The PCR-amplified cpDNA regions were digested with 18 restriction endonucleases, the mtDNA region with 11. A total of 22 point mutations and four insertion/deletions were scored in the sample. A higher level of interspecific variation was detected in the two cpDNA regions in comparison to the analysis of the mtDNA. Wagner parsimony and Neighbor-Joining analysis resulted in dendrograms with similar topologies. PCR-RFLP analysis supported the monophyly of Caricaceae, but among the 26 mutations scored, an insufficient number of markers discriminated between the different Caricaceae genera included in this study. Hence the inference of the intergeneric relationships within Caricaceae was impossible. However, some conclusions can be noted at a lower taxonomic level. The Caricaceae species were divided into two lineages. One group included only Vasconcellea spp., whereas the second included the remaining Vasconcellea spp., together with the papaya genotypes and those from the other Caricaceae genera. This may indicate a higher level of inter-fertility for the Vasconcellea species from the latter clade in interspecific crossings with papaya. The putative progenitors of the natural sterile hybrid V. x heilbornii, i.e. V. stipulata and V. cundinamarcensis, were only distantly related to V. x heilbornii. This indicates that probably none of these species was involved as the maternal progenitor in the origin of V. x heilbornii. Surprisingly, V. x heilbornii had organellar genome patterns identical with V. weberbaueri, suggesting a possible involvement of this species in the origin of V. x heilbornii. On the basis of discrepancy between morphological traits and the cpDNA profiles of some pairs of Vasconcellea species, we believe that besides V. x heilbornii, some other species have originated through interspecific hybridization. A reticulate evolution for Vasconcellea has therefore been suggested. Finally, intraspecific cpDNA variation was detected in V. microcarpa, thus providing molecular evidence for the high diversity previously indicated by morphological observations. PMID:14752605
Van Droogenbroeck, B; Kyndt, T; Maertens, I; Romeijn-Peeters, E; Scheldeman, X; Romero-Motochi, J P; Van Damme, P; Goetghebeur, P; Gheysen, G
Scleractinian corals are increasingly used as recorders of modern and paleoclimates. The microstructure of four common reef-building\\u000a coral genera is documented here: Acropora, Pocillopora, Goniastrea, and Porites. This study highlights the complexity and spatial variability of skeletal growth in different coral genera and suggests that\\u000a a single growth model is too generalized to allow the accurate depiction of the variability
We obtain general formulae expressing Hirzebruch genera of a manifold with Z/p-action in terms of invariants of this action (the sets of weights of fixed points). As an illustration, we consider numerous particular cases of well-known genera, in particular, the elliptic genus. We also describe the connection with the so-called Conner-Floyd equations for the weights of fixed points.
Comparative analysis of the genes coding for 16s rRNA of the type strains of Xenorhubdus and Photorhubdus species indicates the close phylogenetic relationship of these two genera. However, distance matrix analyses do not unambiguously separate the symbionts of entomopathogenic nematodes according to their assignment into different genera. When various 16s rRNA gene sequences from a selection of members of the
Calcineurin is implicated in a myriad of human diseases as well as homeostasis and virulence in several major human pathogenic microorganisms. The fungus Aspergillus fumigatus is a leading cause of infectious death in the rapidly expanding immunocompromised patient population. Current antifungal treatments for invasive aspergillosis are often ineffective, and novel therapeutic approaches are urgently needed. We demon- strate that a
William J. Steinbach; Robert A. Cramer; B. Z. Perfect; Y. G. Asfaw; T. C. Sauer; L. K. Najvar; W. R. Kirkpatrick; T. F. Patterson; D. K. Benjamin; J. Heitman; J. R. Perfect
BackgroundAspergillosis of the paranasal sinuses is infrequent and usually involves the species Aspergillus fumigatus and A. flavus. The maxillary sinus is the most common sinus to be affected. Invasive cranio-orbital aspergillosis originating in the sphenoid sinus is rare and mostly occurs in immunocompromised patients with poor outcomes. We present a case of invasive A. terreus sphenoidal sinusitis with intraorbital and
Ali Akhaddar; Miloudi Gazzaz; Abderrahmane Albouzidi; Badr Lmimouni; Brahim Elmostarchid; Mohammed Boucetta
We identified five genes encoding components of the TOR signaling pathway within Aspergillus nidulans. Unlike the situation in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, there is only a single Tor kinase, as in plant and animal systems, and mutant phenotypes suggest that the TOR pathway plays only a minor role in regulating nitrogen metabolism. PMID:16151253
Fitzgibbon, Gregory J; Morozov, Igor Y; Jones, Meriel G; Caddick, Mark X
We identified five genes encoding components of the TOR signaling pathway within Aspergillus nidulans. Unlike the situation in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, there is only a single Tor kinase, as in plant and animal systems, and mutant phenotypes suggest that the TOR pathway plays only a minor role in regulating nitrogen metabolism.
Fitzgibbon, Gregory J.; Morozov, Igor Y.; Jones, Meriel G.; Caddick, Mark X.
Based on counts of Aspergillus species re- ported in over 250 studies of microfungi from soils and litter, chi-square analyses were conducted on spe- cies occurrence in five biomes and five latitude rang- es to determine variations from expected distribu- tions. There was no overall trend in distribution of the members of the entire genus by biome, however, individual sections
In this study, urease production was investigated among thirteen strains of Aspergillus niger; seven strains isolated from soils of Semnan province in Iran and six strains obtained from Persian Type Culture Collection (PTCC). The enzyme production was screened in two submerged media quantitatively. The registered PTCC 5011 and the native S31 strains showed more urease production than the other eleven
Mohammad Faezi Ghasemi; Mohammad Reza Bakhtiari; Masoud Fallahpour; Ashrafossadat Noohi; Nasrin Moazami; Zohreh Amidi
The antifungal effectiveness of liquids used as intraocular tamponading agents in vitrectomy was tested against a strain of Aspergillus niger. This microorganism is a frequent causative factor of endophthalmitis. The strain belonged to the ATCC collection (A. niger ATCC 16404). The samples tested were: (a) perfluorocarbons: perfluorodecalin and perfluoroctane, (b) silicone oils: Siloil 1,000 and Siloil 5,000, and (c) balanced
Calliope Economou-Stamatelopoulou; George P. Roussopoulos; John C. Prouskas; Michael Apostolopoulos
Filamentous fungi, such as Aspergillus niger , produce high levels of polysaccharide degrading enzymes and are frequently used as production organisms for industrial enzyme preparations. The application of these polysaccharidases as xylanases and cellulases comprises e.g. the use in food and feed and in biopulping and bleaching in pulp- and paper-industry. In recent years many structural genes encoding cellulases and
Immature fig fruits did not support colonization and aflatoxin production by Aspergillus flavus Lk. but became susceptible when ripe. While sun-drying on the tree, fruits were particularly vulnerable to fungal infection and colonization. Aflatoxin accumulation equaled levels frequently reported for such seeds as peanuts and cereal grains.
Ascomycetous fungi of the genus Aspergillus comprise a wide variety of species of biotechnological importance (e.g. A. sojae, A. oryzae, A. niger) as well as pathogens and toxin producers (e.g. A. flavus, A. parasiticus, A. fumigatus, A. nidulans). With the exception of A. nidulans, which is a homot...
In a survey of the occurrence of ochratoxin A (OA)-positive strains isolated from feedstuffs, two of the 19 isolates of Aspergillus niger var. niger that were studied produced OA in 2% yeast extract-15% sucrose broth and in corn cultures. This is the first report of production of OA by this species.
Abarca, M L; Bragulat, M R; Castella, G; Cabanes, F J
Cockerels aged 8 days were each given intraperitoneally a 1 ml suspension of Aspergillus flavus grown on Sabouraud's dextrose agar containing 10 colony forming units per ml. No clinical signs were observed but mortality was 37.5%. Liver and kidney were enlarged at necropsy. Granulomatous nodules were found in the serosa and lung parenchyma up to day 16 post?infection but by
The objective of this experiment was to identify differentially expressed genes for Aspergillus flavus resistance in the Va35 (susceptible) and Mp313E (resistant) maize (Zea mays L.) lines using cDNA microarray analysis. Out of the 5065 ESTs analyzed, 2.4% of the total ESTs analyzed were significant...
A gene encoding endochitinase activity was isolated by PCR from Saccharomyces cerevisiae NCYC686 and placed under the control of fungal transcriptional elements regulating glucoamylase expression. Following transformation of Aspergillus awamori with this expression construct, heterologous endochitinase was induced in positive transformants by the addition of starch to the growth medium. A series of optimisation and process development studies were then
Abstract: Aspergillus section Circumdati contains species with yellow to ochre conidia and non-black sclerotia that produce atleast one of the following extrolites: ochratoxins, penicillic acids, xanthomegnins or melleins. The exception to this is A. robustus, which produces black sclerotia, phototropic conidiophores and none of the extrolites listed above. Based on a polyphasic approach using morphological characters, extrolites and partial ?-tubulin
Jens C. Frisvad; J. Mick Frank; Jos A. M. P. Houbraken; Angelina F. A. Kuijpers; Robert A. Samson
Citric acid was produced using Aspergillus niger immobilized on polyurethane foam in a bubble column reactor. Most of the adsorbed cells remained on the support and, as a result, high oxygen tension was maintained during the reactor operation. However, uncontrolled growth of the pellets made continuous reactor operation difficult. The citric acid productivity obtained from 15 vol.% foam particles containing
Aspergillus oryzae is the most important fungus for the traditional fermentation in China and is particularly important in soy sauce fermentation. We report the 36,547,279-bp draft genome sequence of A. oryzae 3.042 and compared it to the published genome sequence of A. oryzae RIB40.
Two different humanized immunoglobulin G1() antibodies and an Fab fragment were produced by Aspergillus niger. The antibodies were secreted into the culture supernatant. Both light and heavy chains were initially synthesized as fusion proteins with native glucoamylase. After antibody assembly, cleavage by A. niger KexB protease allowed the release of free antibody. Purification by hydrophobic charge induction chromatog- raphy proved
Michael Ward; Cherry Lin; Doreen C. Victoria; Bryan P. Fox; Judith A. Fox; David L. Wong; Hendrik J. Meerman; Jeff P. Pucci; Robin B. Fong; Meng H. Heng; Naoya Tsurushita; Christine Gieswein; Minha Park; Huaming Wang
The genomic sequences of three species of Aspergillus, including the model organism A. nidulans (which is homothallic: having no differentiated mating types, a strain being able to cross with itself), suggest that A. fumigatus and A. oryzae, considered to be asexual, might in fact be heterothallic (having two differentiated mating types, a strain being able to cross only with strains
Probiotics are widely accepted as an alternative to in-feed antibiotics in poultry production. So far, the frequently used microorganisms in probiotics are strains of lactic acid producing bacteria having specificity of adhering to the intestinal epithelium. Recently, a probiotic containing novel strain such as Aspergillus oryzae is also in practice, but its effect on performance of poultry is limited. The
Summary Hyphal invasion of blood vessels is a prominent feature of invasive aspergillosis. During invasive pulmonary aspergillosis, Aspergillus fumigatus hyphae invade the abluminal endothelial cell surface, whereas they invade the luminal endothelial cell surface during haematogenous dissemination. We investigated the endothelial cell response to ablumi- nal and luminal infection with A. fumigatus hyphae in vitro. We found that these hyphae
Yasuki Kamai; Albert S. Lossinsky; Hong Liu; Donald C. Sheppard; Scott G. Filler
Cyclophilins are an evolutionarily conserved family of proteins which serve as the intracellular receptors for the immunosuppressive drug cyclosporin A. Here we report the characterization of the first cyclophilin cloned from the filamentous fungus Aspergillus nidulans (CYPB). Sequence analysis of the cypB gene predicts an encoded protein with highest homology to the murine cyclophilin B protein. The sequence similarity includes
A 82 kb Aspergillus parasiticus genomic DNA region representing the completed sequence of the well-organized aflatoxin pathway gene cluster has been sequenced and annotated. In addition to the 19 reported and characterized aflatoxin pathway genes and the 4 sugar utilization genes in this cluster, w...
Lovastatin is a secondary metabolite produced by Aspergillus terreus. A chemically defined medium was developed in order to investigate the influence of carbon and nitrogen sources on lovastatin biosynthesis. Among several organic and inorganic defined nitrogen sources metabolized by A. terreus, glutamate and histidine gave the highest lovastatin biosynthesis level. For cultures on glucose and glutamate, lovastatin synthesis initiated when
Color elimination by Aspergillus niger from wastewater from molasses alcoholic fermentation was studied. The influences of the nutrient concentrations, initial pH and carbon source on this color elimination were analyzed. It worked in a discontinuous process in shaken cultures and in a continuous process in a bubble reactor. During the batch process, through all experiments the maximal color elimination was
M. Peńa Miranda; G. González Benito; N. San Cristobal; C. Heras Nieto
Cultures of Aspergillus niger NRRL-599 in fluid Sabouraud medium were grown with quinazoline and phthalazine for 7 days. Metabolites were purified by high-performance liquid chromatography and identified by mass spectrometry and proton nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Quinazoline was oxidized to 4-quinazolinone and 2,4-quinazolinedione, and phthalazine was oxidized to 1-phthalazinone. PMID:21169055
Sutherland, John B; Heinze, Thomas M; Schnackenberg, Laura K; Freeman, James P; Williams, Anna J
Aspergillus flavus is a fungal pathogen of many agronomically important crops worldwide. We sampled A. flavus strains from a cornfield in Rocky Mount, NC. This field was planted in 2010 and plots were inoculated at tasselling with either AF36 or NRRL 21882 (=Afla-Guard) biocontrol strains, both of...
BACKGROUND: Aspergillus fumigatus is a thermotolerant human-pathogenic mold and the most common cause of invasive aspergillosis (IA) in immunocompromised patients. Its predominance is based on several factors most of which are still unknown. The thermotolerance of A. fumigatus is one of the traits which have been assigned to pathogenicity. It allows the fungus to grow at temperatures up to and
Daniela Albrecht; Reinhard Guthke; Axel A Brakhage; Olaf Kniemeyer
Aspergillus niger was found capable of rapidly converting about 97% of the sugar from brewery spent grain liquor to fungal mass. The yield of dry mycelium, based on the sugar consumed, was approximately 57%. This fungus produced 1.10% titratable acid calculated as citric acid and reduced the biochemical oxygen demand by 96%.
Hang, Y. D.; Splittstoesser, D. F.; Woodams, E. E.
SUMMARY The isolation and genetic analysis of a new class of mutants of the mould Aspergillus nidulans is described. The mutants were detected by their inability to utilize specific carbohydrates as sole carbon source for growth. All of the mutants are recessive and analysis of 27 mutants has resulted in the description of 10 new loci concerned with the utilization
A case of invasive pulmonary aspergillosis in an allogeneic bone marrow transplant recipient caused by Aspergillus ustus is presented. A. ustus was also recovered from the hospital environment, which may indicate that the infection was nosocomially acquired. A literature review revealed seven cases of invasive infections caused by A. ustus, and three of these were primarily cutaneous infections. In vitro
PAUL E. VERWEIJ; MARJOLEIN F. Q. VAN DEN BERGH; PETER M. RATH; ANDREAS VOSS; JACQUES F. G. M. MEIS
This study provides the first phylogenetic analysis of a large sample of the two largest genera of seed-beetles, Acanthoscelides Schilsky and Bruchidius Schilsky, which mostly feed on legumes (Fabaceae). The goal of this study was to investigate evolutionary patterns in relation to biogeography and host-plant associations. We used three mitochondrial molecular markers and parsimony and Bayesian inference methods to reconstruct the phylogeny of 76 species. In addition, we critically reviewed host-plant records in the literature for these two bruchid genera. Our results demonstrated the existence of two major clades, one New World and one largely Old World, which generally correspond to the two genera. Yet, current classification of several species is erroneous, so that both genera as currently defined are paraphyletic. We highlighted a strong trend toward specialization (with high taxonomic conservatism in host-plant use) exhibited by the two studied genera. However, we showed the existence of several host shifts during the evolution of this group of bruchids. Our phylogenetic hypotheses and our evaluation of host-plant associations both suggest that the two genera have undergone parallel evolution, as they have independently colonized similar host plants in their respective areas of distribution. Our estimation of divergence times indicated a more ancient origin for bruchids than that suggested by the fossil records. Interestingly, the suggested timing of diversification is consistent with the hypothesis of a radiation that could have occurred contemporaneously with the diversification of their legume hosts. PMID:16262855
Kergoat, G J; Alvarez, N; Hossaert-McKey, M; Faure, N; Silvain, J-F
The diagnosis of invasive aspergillosis which is a serious infection of immunocompromized patients, depends on the detection of Aspergillus galactomannan antigen in the serum by enzyme immunoassay (EIA) in routine laboratories. However, it has been previously reported that false positive results in Aspergillus galactomannan test may be obtained in the sera of patients sera receiving piperacillin-tazobactam (PIP-TAZ). The aim of this study was to investigate the presence and levels of Aspergillus galactomannan antigen in the content of PIP-TAZ and some other antimicrobial agents that are often used for the treatment of infections in immunocompromised patients. The level of galactomannan antigen was determined for PIP-TAZ, ampicillin-sulbactam, ampicillin, penicillin G, ceftriaxone, cefepime, imipenem, clarithromycin, ciprofloxacin, vancomycin, gentamicin, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, ornidazole, fluconazole and amphotericin B, by a commercial EIA (Platelia Aspergillus EIA, Bio-Rad, France) kit. Galactomannan index (GI) was estimated with the ratio of absorbance values of antimicrobials to cut-off value and evaluated as positive when GI was found >0.5. Amongst the 15 antibiotics studied, the only positive result was detected for ampicillin with the highest index value (GI = 0.540), followed by PIP-TAZ with a relatively high value (GI = 0.235) even though it was not in the range of positivity. GI values have ranged from 0.011 to 0.188 for the other antibiotics. In conclusion, the use of especially ampicillin (and probably PIP-TAZ) therapy should be questioned in patients whose sera are being tested for Aspergillus galactomannan antigen by EIA in order to evaluate the positive results in terms of false positivities due to cross reactivity. PMID:18173075
Infections due to Aspergillus species cause significant morbidity and mortality. Most are attributed to Aspergillus fumigatus, followed by Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus terreus. Aspergillus niger is a mould that is rarely reported as a cause of pneumonia. A 72-year-old female with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and temporal arteritis being treated with steroids long term presented with haemoptysis and pleuritic chest pain. Chest radiography revealed areas of heterogeneous consolidation with cavitation in the right upper lobe of the lung. Induced bacterial sputum cultures, and acid-fast smears and cultures were negative. Fungal sputum cultures grew A. niger. The patient clinically improved on a combination therapy of empiric antibacterials and voriconazole, followed by voriconazole monotherapy. After 4 weeks of voriconazole therapy, however, repeat chest computed tomography scanning showed a significant progression of the infection and near-complete necrosis of the right upper lobe of the lung. Serum voriconazole levels were low-normal (1.0 microg ml(-1), normal range for the assay 0.5-6.0 microg ml(-1)). A. niger was again recovered from bronchoalveolar lavage specimens. A right upper lobectomy was performed, and lung tissue cultures grew A. niger. Furthermore, the lung histopathology showed acute and organizing pneumonia, fungal hyphae and oxalate crystallosis, confirming the diagnosis of invasive A. niger infection. A. niger, unlike A. fumigatus and A. flavus, is less commonly considered a cause of invasive aspergillosis (IA). The finding of calcium oxalate crystals in histopathology specimens is classic for A. niger infection and can be helpful in making a diagnosis even in the absence of conidia. Therapeutic drug monitoring may be useful in optimizing the treatment of IA given the wide variations in the oral bioavailability of voriconazole. PMID:20299503
Person, A K; Chudgar, S M; Norton, B L; Tong, B C; Stout, J E
Aflatoxins are toxic and carcinogenic secondary metabolites produced by the fungi Aspergillus flavus and A. parasiticus. In order to better understand the molecular mechanisms that regulate aflatoxin production, the biosynthesis of the toxin in A. flavus and A. parasiticus grown in yeast extract su...
DNA fragments coding for hemoglobin domains (HBD) were isolated from Aspergillus oryzae and Aspergillus niger. The HBD activities were expressed in A. oryzae by introduction of HBD gene fragments under the control of the promoter of the constitutively expressed gpdA gene. In the transformants, oxygen uptake was significantly higher, and during growth on solid substrates the developed biomass was at least 1.3 times higher than that of the untransformed wild-type strain. Growth rate of the HBD-activity-producing strains was also significantly higher compared to the wild type. During growth on solid cereal substrates, the amylase and protease activities in the extracts of the HBD-activity-producing strains were 30-150% higher and glucoamylase activities were at least 9 times higher compared to the wild-type strain. These results suggest that the Aspergillus HBD-encoding gene can be used in a self-cloning strategy to improve biomass yield and protein production of Aspergillus species. PMID:16927259
te Biesebeke, Rob; Boussier, Amandine; van Biezen, Nick; Braaksma, Machtelt; van den Hondel, Cees A M J J; de Vos, Willem M; Punt, Peter J
We have evaluated the Platelia Aspergillus enzyme immunoassay for detection of galactomannan in bron- choalveolar lavage (BAL) specimens in solid organ transplant patients with aspergillosis. The precision and reproducibility in serum or BAL to which galactomannan was added were similar. Sensitivity was 81.8% in patients with aspergillosis, and specificity was 95.8% in lung transplant patients who underwent BAL for surveillance
S. Husain; C. J. Clancy; M. H. Nguyen; S. Swartzentruber; H. Leather; A. M. LeMonte; M. M. Durkin; K. S. Knox; C. A. Hage; C. Bentsen; N. Singh; J. R. Wingard; L. J. Wheat
Forty-seven isolates of Aspergillus parasiticus were analyzed for production of aflatoxins B1, B2, G1, G2, and cyclopiazonic acid. None produced cyclopiazonic acid, whereas 46 of 47 produced aflatoxins B1 and G1. These data are related to previous studies pertaining to A. flavus and illustrate species validity from a biochemical standpoint.
Changes in aflatoxin biosynthesis in Aspergillus flavus and A. parasticus grown in yeast extract sucrose medium were compared to yeast extract sucrose media supplemented with several common amino acids. Yeast extract sucrose media supplemented with 50 mM tryptophan was found to significantly reduce...
Background.?Human papillomaviruses (HPVs) primarily sort into 3 genera: Alphapapillomavirus (?-HPV), predominantly isolated from mucosa, and Betapapillomavirus (?-HPV) and Gammapapillomavirus (?-HPV), predominantly isolated from skin. HPV types might infect body sites that are different from those from which they were originally isolated. Methods.?We investigated the spectrum of HPV type distribution in oral rinse samples from 2 populations: 52 human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)–positive men and women and 317 men who provided a sample for genomic DNA for a prostate cancer study. HPV types were detected with the MY09/MY11 and FAP59/64 primer systems and identified by dot blot hybridization and/or direct sequencing. Results.?Oral rinse specimens from 35 (67%) of 52 HIV-positive individuals and 117 (37%) of 317 older male participants tested positive for HPV DNA. We found 117 type-specific HPV infections from the HIV-positive individuals, including 73 ?-HPV, 33 ?-HPV, and 11 ?-HPV infections; whereas, the distribution was 46 ?-HPV, 108 ?-HPV, and 14 ?-HPV infections from 168 type-specific infections from the 317 male participants. Conclusions.?The oral cavity contains a wide spectrum of HPV types predominantly from the ?-HPV and ?-HPV genera, which were previously considered to be cutaneous types. These results could have significant implications for understanding the biology of HPV and the epidemiological associations of HPV with oral and skin neoplasia.
Polyamine patterns of coryne- and nocardioform representatives of the class Actinobacteria with LL-diaminopimelic acid in the peptidoglycan, comprising strains of the genera Aeromicrobium, Nocardioides, Intrasporangium, Terrabacter, Terracoccus, Propioniferax, Friedmanniella, Microlunatus, Luteococcus and Sporichthya, were analysed. The different polyamine patterns were in good agreement with the phylogenetic heterogeneity within this group of actinomycetes. Strains of the closely related genera Nocardioides and Aeromicrobium were characterized by the presence of cadaverine. The second cluster, consisting of the type strains of the species Friedmanniella antarctica, Propioniferax innocua, Microlunatus phosphovorus and Luteococcus japonicus, displayed as a common feature the presence of the two predominant compounds spermidine and spermine. The presence of putrescine was common to the type strains of the species Intrasporangium calvum, Terrabacter tumescens and Terracoccus luteus. Sporichthya polymorpha, which is a representative of a separate line of descent, displayed spermidine as the predominant polyamine. These data indicate that polyamine patterns are suitable for the classification of actinomycetes with LL-diaminopimelic acid in the peptidoglycan. PMID:10028260
Chromosome numbers and karyotypes of species of Orobanche, Cistanche, and Diphelypaea (Orobanchaceae) were investigated, and 108 chromosome counts of 53 taxa, 19 counted for the first time, are presented with a thorough compilation of previously published data. Additionally, karyotypes of representatives of these genera, including Orobanche sects. Orobanche and Trionychon, are reported. Cistanche (x = 20) has large meta- to submetacentric chromosomes, while those of Diphelypaea (x = 19) are medium-sized submeta-to acrocentrics. Within three analyzed sections of Orobanche, sects. Myzorrhiza (x = 24) and Trionychon (x = 12) possess medium-sized submeta- to acrocentrics, while sect. Orobanche (x = 19) has small, mostly meta- to submetacentric, chromosomes. Polyploidy is unevenly distributed in Orobanche and restricted to a few lineages, e.g., O. sect. Myzorrhiza or Orobanche gracilis and its relatives (sect. Orobanche). The distribution of basic chromosome numbers supports the groups found by molecular phylogenetic analyses: Cistanche has x = 20, the Orobanche-group (Orobanche sect. Orobanche, Diphelypaea) has x = 19, and the Phelipanche-group (Orobanche sects. Gymnocaulis, Myzorrhiza, Trionychon) has x = 12, 24. A model of chromosome number evolution in Orobanche and related genera is presented: from two ancestral base numbers, xh = 5 and xh = 6, independent polyploidizations led to x = 20 (Cistanche) and (after dysploidization) x = 19 (Orobanche-group) and to x = 12 and x = 24 (Phelipanche-group), respectively.
Schneeweiss, G. M.; Palomeque, T.; Colwell, A. E.; Weiss-Schneeweiss, H.
Phylogenetic relationships within Limonium (Plumbaginaceae) are evaluated using sequence data from three plastid regions (rbcL, the trnL intron, and the trnL-trnF intergenic spacer). Sixty-six species representing the major genera of Staticoideae, including representatives of all sections and genera formerly included in Limonium, have been analyzed using four species of Plumbaginoideae as an outgroup. Analyses of each separate and combined data set yield similar results. Afrolimon is embedded in Limonium and related to L. vulgare, the type of Limonium. Limonium is split into two major clades corresponding to subgenera, but otherwise the current infrageneric classification proved to be artificial. Some groups restricted to particular areas can be recognized, and their synapomorphies are discussed. The presence of an isolated taxon in the Canary Islands is used as a calibration point for age estimates of the major events in the genus, including migrations to the Southern Hemisphere, the Canary Islands, and Asia. The rapid radiation of Limonium in the Mediterranean basin appears to coincide with the desiccation of the Mediterranean Sea in the Messinian (late Miocene). PMID:21646141
Lledó, M Dolores; Crespo, Manuel B; Fay, Michael F; Chase, Mark W
In 1987 and 1988 fossils of two previously unknown genera and species of Egyptian early Tertiary Anthropoidea were discovered in the Fayum Depression of Egypt. These are much older than all other Fayum, Oligocene primates and are believed to be Eocene in age. These genera, here named Catopithecus and Proteopithecus, come from a new Fayum site, L-41, and resemble Oligopithecus from the Jebel Qatrani Formation (lower sequence) at quarry E. They are here placed with the latter in a subfamily, Oligopithecinae, that is ranked in the Propliopithecidae. The level of L-41 is separated from quarry E by at least one major unconformity and 47 m of section. Only a maxilla of Proteopithecus is known. Its molars and premolars resemble those of later Fayum Propliopithecus and Aegyptopithecus and do not resemble those of Apidium and Parapithecus, all of which come from the Jebel Qatrani Formation, upper sequence. The type specimen of Catopithecus confirms a lower dental formula of 2-1-2-3, as in Catarrhini. These species appear to be the oldest primates undoubtedly related to humans. Their dental anatomy points to a derivation of Anthropoidea from Eocene adapids. Images
Previous reports suggest that fungivorous nematodes are the only trophic group in forest soils affected by elevated CO2. However, there can be ambiguity within trophic groups, and we examined data at a genus level to determine whether the conclusion remains similar. Nematodes were extracted from roots and soil of loblolly pine (Pinus taeda) and sweet gum (Liquidambar styraciflua) forests fumigated with either ambient air or CO2-enriched air. Root length and nematode biomass were estimated using video image analysis. Most common genera included Acrobeloides, Aphelenchoides, Cephalobus, Ditylenchus, Ecphyadorphora, Filenchus, Plectus, Prismatolaimus, and Tylencholaimus. Maturity Index values and diversity increased with elevated CO2 in loblolly pine but decreased with elevated CO2 in sweet gum forests. Elevated CO2 treatment affected the occurrence of more nematode genera in sweet gum than loblolly pine forests. Numbers were similar but size of Xiphinema decreased in elevated CO2. Abundance, but not biomass, of Aphelenchoides was reduced by elevated CO2. Treatment effects were apparent at the genus levels that were masked at the trophic level. For example, bacterivores were unaffected by elevated CO2, but abundance of Cephalobus was affected by CO2 treatment in both forests. PMID:24115786
The fern family Polypodiaceae plays an important role in Neotropical epiphyte diversity. Most of its American representatives are assembled in a monophyletic clade that, apart from the grammitids, nearly exclusively comprises species restricted to the New World. The phylogenetic relationships of these ferns are still insufficiently understood and many taxonomic problems, such as natural circumscriptions of the genera Polypodium and Pleopeltis, were unresolved. Here we address one of the two main lineages within New World Polypodiaceae including Pecluma, Phlebodium, Pleopeltis, and Polypodium. Our study is based on DNA sequence data from four plastid regions that were generated for 72 species representing all putative major taxonomic groups within this lineage. The analyses reveal three major clades: (1) Polypodium plus Pleurosoriopsis; (2) Pecluma plus Phlebodium, and some species of Polypodium; and (3) Pleopeltis and related genera. The last clade contains species of Pleopeltis and Polypodium as well as Microphlebodium, Neurodium, Dicranoglossum, and Pseudocolysis. All species included in the clade display conspicuous persistent peltate laminar scales that are not found in other species of this lineage. Our results suggest a reconsideration of the generic concept of Pleopeltis with peltate laminar scales being the genus' key character. PMID:19435610
Otto, Elisabeth M; Janssen, Thomas; Kreier, Hans-Peter; Schneider, Harald
Previous reports suggest that fungivorous nematodes are the only trophic group in forest soils affected by elevated CO2. However, there can be ambiguity within trophic groups, and we examined data at a genus level to determine whether the conclusion remains similar. Nematodes were extracted from roots and soil of loblolly pine (Pinus taeda) and sweet gum (Liquidambar styraciflua) forests fumigated with either ambient air or CO2-enriched air. Root length and nematode biomass were estimated using video image analysis. Most common genera included Acrobeloides, Aphelenchoides, Cephalobus, Ditylenchus, Ecphyadorphora, Filenchus, Plectus, Prismatolaimus, and Tylencholaimus. Maturity Index values and diversity increased with elevated CO2 in loblolly pine but decreased with elevated CO2 in sweet gum forests. Elevated CO2 treatment affected the occurrence of more nematode genera in sweet gum than loblolly pine forests. Numbers were similar but size of Xiphinema decreased in elevated CO2. Abundance, but not biomass, of Aphelenchoides was reduced by elevated CO2. Treatment effects were apparent at the genus levels that were masked at the trophic level. For example, bacterivores were unaffected by elevated CO2, but abundance of Cephalobus was affected by CO2 treatment in both forests.
Body wall cuticle of adult females of eight genera within the Heteroderidae was examined by transmission electron microscopy for comparison with previously studied species within the family. Cuticle structure was used to test some current hypotheses of phylogeny of Heteroderidae and to evaluate intrageneric variability in cuticle layering. Verutus, Rhizonema, and Meloidodera possess striated cuticle surfaces and have the simplest layering, suggesting that striations have not necessarily arisen repeatedly in Heteroderidae through convergent or parallel evolution. Atalodera and Thecavermiculatus possess similar cuticles with derived characteristics, strengthening the hypothesis that the two genera are sister groups. Similarly, the cuticle of Cactodera resembles the specialized cuticle of Globodera and Punctodera in having a basal layer (D) and a surface layer infused with electron-dense substance. Heterodera betulae has a unique cuticle in which the thickest layer (C) is infiltrated with an electron-dense matrix. Little intrageneric difference was found between cuticles of two species of Meloidodera or between two species of Atalodera. However, Atalodera ucri has a basal layer (E) not found in other Heteroderidae. The most striking intrageneric variation in cuticle structure was observed between the thin three-layered cuticle of Sarisodera africana and the much thicker four-layered cuticle of Sarisodera hydrophila; results do not support monophyly of Sarisodera. PMID:19294096
Body wall cuticle of adult females of eight genera within the Heteroderidae was examined by transmission electron microscopy for comparison with previously studied species within the family. Cuticle structure was used to test some current hypotheses of phylogeny of Heteroderidae and to evaluate intrageneric variability in cuticle layering. Verutus, Rhizonema, and Meloidodera possess striated cuticle surfaces and have the simplest layering, suggesting that striations have not necessarily arisen repeatedly in Heteroderidae through convergent or parallel evolution. Atalodera and Thecavermiculatus possess similar cuticles with derived characteristics, strengthening the hypothesis that the two genera are sister groups. Similarly, the cuticle of Cactodera resembles the specialized cuticle of Globodera and Punctodera in having a basal layer (D) and a surface layer infused with electron-dense substance. Heterodera betulae has a unique cuticle in which the thickest layer (C) is infiltrated with an electron-dense matrix. Little intrageneric difference was found between cuticles of two species of Meloidodera or between two species of Atalodera. However, Atalodera ucri has a basal layer (E) not found in other Heteroderidae. The most striking intrageneric variation in cuticle structure was observed between the thin three-layered cuticle of Sarisodera africana and the much thicker four-layered cuticle of Sarisodera hydrophila; results do not support monophyly of Sarisodera.
Production of the harmful carcinogenic aflatoxins by Aspergillus parasiticus and Aspergillus flavus has been postulated to be a mechanism to relieve oxidative stress. The msnA gene, the ortholog of Saccharomyces cerevisiae MSN2 associated with multi-stress response, of the two species was disrupted....
Universal or "broad-range" PCR-based ribosomal DNA (rDNA) was performed on a collection of 58 isolates (n = 30 bacteria + 28 fungi), originating from environmental air from several locations within a busy clinical microbiology laboratory, supporting a university teaching hospital. A total of 10 bacterial genera were identified including both Gram-positive and Gram-negative genera. Gram-positive organisms accounted for 27/30 (90%) of total bacterial species, consisting of seven genera and included (in descending order of frequency) Staphylococcus, Micrococcus, Corynebacterium, Paenibacillus, Arthrobacter, Janibacter and Rothia. Gram-negative organisms were less frequently isolated 3/30 (10%) and comprised three genera, including Moraxella, Psychrobacter and Haloanella. Eight fungal genera were identified among the 28 fungal organisms isolated, including (in descending order of frequency) Cladosporium, Penicillium, Aspergillus, Thanatephorus, Absidia, Eurotium, Paraphaeosphaeria and Tritirachium, with Cladosporium accounting for 10/28 (35.7%) of the total fungal isolates. In conclusion, this study identified the presence of 10 bacterial and eight fungal genera in the air within the laboratory sampled. Although this reflected diversity of the microorganisms present, none of these organisms have been described previously as having an inhalational route of laboratory-acquired infection. Therefore, we believe that the species of organisms identified and the concentration levels of these airborne contaminants determined, do not pose a significant health and safety threat for immunocompotent laboratory personnel and visitors. PMID:20183192
Fungal taxonomists routinely encounter problems when dealing with asexual fungal species due to poly- and paraphyletic generic phylogenies, and unclear species boundaries. These problems are aptly illustrated in the genus Phoma. This phytopathologically significant fungal genus is currently subdivided into nine sections which are mainly based on a single or just a few morphological characters. However, this subdivision is ambiguous as several of the section-specific characters can occur within a single species. In addition, many teleomorph genera have been linked to Phoma, three of which are recognised here. In this study it is attempted to delineate generic boundaries, and to come to a generic circumscription which is more correct from an evolutionary point of view by means of multilocus sequence typing. Therefore, multiple analyses were conducted utilising sequences obtained from 28S nrDNA (Large Subunit - LSU), 18S nrDNA (Small Subunit - SSU), the Internal Transcribed Spacer regions 1 & 2 and 5.8S nrDNA (ITS), and part of the ?-tubulin (TUB) gene region. A total of 324 strains were included in the analyses of which most belonged to Phoma taxa, whilst 54 to related pleosporalean fungi. In total, 206 taxa were investigated, of which 159 are known to have affinities to Phoma. The phylogenetic analysis revealed that the current Boeremaean subdivision is incorrect from an evolutionary point of view, revealing the genus to be highly polyphyletic. Phoma species are retrieved in six distinct clades within the Pleosporales, and appear to reside in different families. The majority of the species, however, including the generic type, clustered in a recently established family, Didymellaceae. In the second part of this study, the phylogenetic variation of the species and varieties in this clade was further assessed. Next to the genus Didymella, which is considered to be the sole teleomorph of Phoma s. str., we also retrieved taxa belonging to the teleomorph genera Leptosphaerulina and Macroventuria in this clade. Based on the sequence data obtained, the Didymellaceae segregate into at least 18 distinct clusters, of which many can be associated with several specific taxonomic characters. Four of these clusters were defined well enough by means of phylogeny and morphology, so that the associated taxa could be transferred to separate genera. Aditionally, this study addresses the taxonomic description of eight species and two varieties that are novel to science, and the recombination of 61 additional taxa.
Post-transplantation histoplasmosis may be acquired via inhalation, may result from endogenous reactivation, or may be derived from the allograft. The Histoplasma and Aspergillus enzyme-linked immunoassays are increasingly being relied upon for rapid diagnosis of fungal infections, especially in immunocompromised patients. We describe 4 cases of solid organ transplant recipients who had histoplasmosis and a falsely positive Aspergillus galactomannan (GM) obtained from the serum or bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid. We also report our experience, testing for Histoplasma antigen (Ag) in specimens positive for Aspergillus GM. From January 2007 through December 2010, of 2432 unique patients who had positive Aspergillus GM tests, 514 (21%) were tested for Histoplasma Ag, and 27 were found to be positive. Most specimens that tested positive for both Aspergillus and Histoplasma were obtained by BAL. False-positive tests for Aspergillus GM can occur in immunosuppressed patients who have histoplasmosis, and may obscure the correct diagnosis. PMID:22093368
Vergidis, P; Walker, R C; Kaul, D R; Kauffman, C A; Freifeld, A G; Slagle, D C; Kressel, A K; Wheat, L J
Aspergillus niger and A. tubingensis, species belonging to section Nigri, are commonly found in plant products and processed food, such as grapes, cereals, coffee, and derived products. These two species are very difficult to differentiate by classical morphological criteria and some isolates are known to produce ochratoxin A. The exact identification of these two species is very important to avoid the overestimation of toxicological contamination and related risks. A polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based identification and detection assay was developed as a tool to identify A. niger and A. tubingensis, using molecular differences obtained by sequencing the calmodulin gene. Two pairs of species-specific primers were designed and empirically evaluated for PCR identification of A. niger and A. tubingensis. Species-specific PCR products generated by each primer set were 505 bp (A. tubingensis) and 245 bp (A. niger) in length, which could be potentially useful for a multiplex PCR assay. The sensitivity of this assay was about 10 pg DNA in a 25-microl PCR reaction volume, using pure total DNA of the two species. The method described in this study represents a rapid and reliable procedure to assess the presence in food products of two ochratoxigenic species of section Nigri. PMID:17886188
A recent report on several cases of invasive aspergillosis caused by Neosartorya udagawae suggested distinctive patterns of disease progression between N. udagawae and Aspergillus fumigatus. This prompted us to characterize N. udagawae in comparison to A. fumigatus. Our findings showed that both species exist in two mating types at similar ratios and produce gliotoxin. However, the thermotolerance of the two species differs: while A. fumigatus is able to grow at 55 degrees C but not at 10 degrees C, N. udagawae is able to grow at 10 degrees C but fails to grow at >42 degrees C. Furthermore, compared to A. fumigatus, the conidia of N. udagawae require longer incubation periods to germinate at 37 degrees C and are more susceptible to neutrophil attack as well as hydrogen peroxide; N. udagawae is also less virulent in gp91(phox-/-) mice. These findings suggest that growth and susceptibility to the host response might account for the reduced virulence of N. udagawae and the subtle distinction in the progression of the disease caused by the two species. PMID:19889894
Sugui, J A; Vinh, D C; Nardone, G; Shea, Y R; Chang, Y C; Zelazny, A M; Marr, K A; Holland, S M; Kwon-Chung, K J
Using characters from mitochondrial DNA to construct maximum parsimony and maximum likelihood trees, we performed a phylogenetic analysis on representative species of 14 genera: 12 that belong to the treefrog family Rhacophoridae and two, Amolops and Rana, that are not rhacophorids. Our results support a phylogenetic hypothesis that depicts a monophyletic family Rhacophoridae. In this family, the Malagasy genera Aglyptodactylus, Boophis, Mantella, and Mantidactylus form a well-supported sister clade to all other rhacophorid genera, and Mantella is the sister taxon to Mantidactylus. Within the Asian/African genera, the genus Buergeria forms a well-supported clade of four species. The genera, except for Chirixalus, are generally monophyletic. An exception to this is that Polypedates dennysii clusters with species of Rhacophorus, suggesting that the taxonomy of the rhacophorids should be revised to reflect this relationship. Chirixalus is not monophyletic. Unexpectedly, there is strong support for Chirixalus doriae from Southeast Asia forming a clade with species of the African genus Chiromantis, suggesting that Chiromantis dispersed to Africa from Asia. Also, there is strong support for the sister taxon relationship of Chirixalus eiffingeri and Chirixalus idiootocus apart from other congeners. PMID:12144761
Wilkinson, Jeffery A; Drewes, Robert C; Tatum, Owatha L
The 16S rRNA gene sequences of 19 strains, 11 strains representing validated Aureobacterium or Microbacterium species and eight strains of non-valid species or isolates, were determined. These sequences were aligned with the sequences of other validated Aureobacterium and Microbacterium species and related actinobacteria. A comparative sequence analysis of 43 strains revealed that the species of the genera Aureobacterium and Microbacterium form a monophyletic association in which species of both genera are intermixed. The high similarity in phylogenetic properties found in the species within both genera and the close relationship in physiological and chemotaxonomic features other than the diamino acid in the cell wall, provided strong evidence that the genera Aureobacterium and Microbacterium should be unified. An emended genus Microbacterium is proposed for the two combined genera. The following validated Aureobacterium species were combined to the genus Microbacterium: Aureobacterium arabinogalactanolyticum to Microbacterium arabinogalactanolyticum, Aureobacterium barkeri to Microbacterium barkeri, Aureobacterium esteraromaticum to Microbacterium esteraromaticum, Aureobacterium flavescens to Microbacterium flavescens, Aureobacterium keratanolyticum to Microbacterium liquefaciens, Aureobacterium luteolum to Microbacterium luteolum, Aureobacterium saperdae to Microbacterium saperdae, Aureobacterium schleiferi to Microbacterium schleiferi, Aureobacterium terrae to Microbacterium terrae, Aureobacterium terregens to Microbacterium terregens, Aureobacterium testaceum to Microbacterium testaceum, and Aureobacterium trichothecenolyticum to Microbacterium trichothecenolyticum. PMID:9734028
Aspergillus section Flavi includes aflatoxin-producing and nonproducing fungi. Aspergillus sojae is unable to produce aflatoxins and is generally recognized as safe for food fermentation. However, because of its taxonomical\\u000a relatedness to aflatoxin-producing Aspergillus parasiticus and A. flavus, it is necessary to decipher the underlying mechanisms for its inability to produce aflatoxins. This review addresses the\\u000a relationship between A. sojae and
Perng-Kuang Chang; Kenichiro Matsushima; Tadashi Takahashi; Jiujiang Yu; Keietsu Abe; Deepak Bhatnagar; Gwo-Fang Yuan; Yasuji Koyama; Thomas E. Cleveland
We report three cases of invasive Geotrichum capitatum infection in patients with acute leukemia for which an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for Aspergillus galactomannan was positive, with no evidence of aspergillosis. Supernatants obtained from suspensions of 17 G. capitatum strains gave positive reactions with the Aspergillus galactomannan ELISA. These clinical and laboratory data seem to suggest that G. capitatum produces a soluble antigen that is cross-reactive with Aspergillus galactomannan.
Objectives: The in vitro effects of caspofungin combined with voriconazole and amphotericin B were tested in triplicate experiments against nine clinical isolates of Aspergillus fumigatus, Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus terreus. Methods: The isolates were tested against a range of concentrations of voriconazole (0.015-1.0 mg\\/L), caspofungin (0.125-256 mg\\/L) and five concentrations of amphotericin B (0.1-0.5 mg\\/L) with a microdilution chequerboard method
Elizabeth M. O'Shaughnessy; Joseph Meletiadis; Theodouli Stergiopoulou; Joanne P. Demchok; Thomas J. Walsh
The present study consists of a detailed phylogenetic analysis of myxosporeans of the Myxobolus and Henneguya genera, including sequences from 12 Myxobolus/Henneguya species, parasites of South American pimelodids, bryconids and characids. Maximum likelihood and maximum parsimony analyses, based on 18 S rDNA gene sequences, showed that the strongest evolutionary signal is the phylogenetic affinity of the fish hosts, with clustering mainly occurring according to the order and/or family of the host. Of the 12 South American species studied here, six are newly described infecting fish from the Brazilian Pantanal wetland. Henneguya maculosus n. sp. and Myxobolus flavus n. sp. were found infecting both Pseudoplatystoma corruscans and Pseudoplatystoma reticulatum; Myxobolus aureus n. sp. and Myxobolus pantanalis n. sp. were observed parasitizing Salminus brasiliensis and Myxobolus umidus n. sp. and Myxobolus piraputangae n. sp. were detected infecting Brycon hilarii.
Carriero, Mateus Maldonado; Adriano, Edson A.; Silva, Marcia R. M.; Ceccarelli, Paulo S.; Maia, Antonio A. M.
There is a remarkable connection between quantum generating functions of field theory and formal power series associated with dimensions of chains and homologies of suitable Lie algebras. We discuss the homological aspects of this connection with its applications to partition functions of the minimal three-dimensional gravities in the space-time asymptotic to AdS, which also describe the three-dimensional Euclidean black holes, the pure N=1 supergravity, and a sigma model on N-fold generalized symmetric products. We also consider in the same context elliptic genera of some supersymmetric sigma models. These examples can be considered as a straightforward application of the machinery of modular forms and spectral functions (with values in the congruence subgroup of SL(2,Z)) to partition functions represented by means of formal power series that encode Lie algebra properties.
In this study the author reported upon a practical new system for screening and identifying the microbial agents causing urinary tract infections. This system is composed of a combination of 3 screening procedures (pH-value + nitrite-test + catalase-test) and 8 selective culture media for the purpose of genus identification within 24 hours (Uripret-G). A total of 130 cultures was investigated. The employed microorganisms were mainly recovered from urine samples. They included the following species: Candida albicans, Citrobacter freundii, Enterobacter aerogenes, Enterobacter cloacae, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Proteus inconstans, Proteus mirabilis, Proteus morganii, Proteus rettgeri, Proteus vulgaris, Serratia liquefaciens, Serratia marcescens, Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Streptococcus faecalis and Streptococcus faecium. Employing coded cultures not only monoinfections but also multiinfections in urine samples were simulated. Under the circumstances of investigation it was possible with the help of the new system to reidentify the genera of all but two of the 130 employed microorganisms. PMID:11179
Phylogenetic relationship of Limonium and other genera of Plumbaginaceae in China were studied using the cp rbcL, matK and the intergene spacer of trnL-trnF. The analysis showed that Plumbaginaceae was strongly supported monophyletic group sister to Polygonacea, and two tribes were comfirmed by phylogenetic analysis in Plumbaginaceae. Preliminary genetic diversity of Limonium sinense in China was also analyzed in this study by nrDNA (ITS) and cp DNA (two regions of intergenic spacers, trnL-trnF and psbA-trnH). The results showed that the population genetic diversity was low perhaps for human activities and breeding system of this species. These results have been used to understand the evolutionary and demographic history of L. sinense, which is a requisite to establish efficient conservation measures for this species. PMID:22759517
The genera Eschscholtzia and Argemone (Papaveraceae) represent a rich source of pavinane alkaloids, the identification of which in alkaloid extracts is generally problematic without standards. The alkaloid extracts of three Argemone and four Eschscholtzia species were analyzed using GC-MS. The alkaloids were identified based on comparison of their mass spectra with commercial libraries, with reported data in the literature and with spectra of reference compounds. A total of 23 alkaloids of six structural types (pavinane, protopine, benzylisoquinoline, benzophenanthridine, aporphine and protoberberine) were identified. The fragmentation pathway of pavinane alkaloids was used for their identification. O-Methylneocaryachine has been reported for the first time from a natural sources and the alkaloid pattern of Eschscholzia pulchella has been analyzed and described for the first time. PMID:23156990
Fungal strains isolated from rocks and lichens collected in the Antarctic ice-free area of the Victoria Land, one of the coldest and driest habitats on earth, were found in two phylogenetically isolated positions within the subclass Dothideomycetidae. They are here reported as new genera and species, Recurvomyces mirabilisgen. nov., sp. nov. and Elasticomyces elasticusgen. nov., sp. nov. The nearest neighbours within the clades were other rock-inhabiting fungi from dry environments, either cold or hot. Plant-associated Mycosphaerella-like species, known as invaders of leathery leaves in semi-arid climates, are also phylogenetically related with the new taxa. The clusters are also related to the halophilic species Hortaea werneckii, as well as to acidophilic fungi. One of the latter, able to grow at pH 0, is Scytalidium acidophilum, which is ascribed here to the newly validated genus Acidomyces. The ecological implications of this finding are discussed. PMID:19287523
Selbmann, L; de Hoog, G S; Zucconi, L; Isola, D; Ruisi, S; van den Ende, A H G Gerrits; Ruibal, C; De Leo, F; Urzě, C; Onofri, S
Fungal strains isolated from rocks and lichens collected in the Antarctic ice-free area of the Victoria Land, one of the coldest and driest habitats on earth, were found in two phylogenetically isolated positions within the subclass Dothideomycetidae. They are here reported as new genera and species, Recurvomyces mirabilis gen. nov., sp. nov. and Elasticomyces elasticus gen. nov., sp. nov. The nearest neighbours within the clades were other rock-inhabiting fungi from dry environments, either cold or hot. Plant-associated Mycosphaerella-like species, known as invaders of leathery leaves in semi-arid climates, are also phylogenetically related with the new taxa. The clusters are also related to the halophilic species Hortaea werneckii, as well as to acidophilic fungi. One of the latter, able to grow at pH 0, is Scytalidium acidophilum, which is ascribed here to the newly validated genus Acidomyces. The ecological implications of this finding are discussed.
Selbmann, L.; de Hoog, G.S.; Zucconi, L.; Isola, D.; Ruisi, S.; van den Ende, A.H.G. Gerrits; Ruibal, C.; De Leo, F.; Urzi, C.; Onofri, S.
The orthid brachiopod genera Hebertella, Dalmanella, and Heterorthina are abundant in Middle and Upper Ordovician strata in Kentucky. 'Nine species are described: Hebertella frankfortensis Foerste; H. parksensis Foerste; H. occidentalis (Hall); Dalmanella bassleri Foerste; D. fertilis (Ulrich); D. meeki (Miller); D. multisecta (Meek); D. sulcata Cooper; and Heterorthina macfarlani Neuman. The species designations Hebertella sinuata (Hall), H. subjugata (Hall), and H. latasulcata Foerste are placed in synonymy with H. occidentalis (Hall). The stratigraphic distribution of each species is given. Large collections of silicified specimens allowed the recognition of the considerable variability characteristic of most of the species. External morphology distinguishes species of Hebertella, whereas internal features are critical to recognition of species of Dalmanella and Heterorthina.
The present study consists of a detailed phylogenetic analysis of myxosporeans of the Myxobolus and Henneguya genera, including sequences from 12 Myxobolus/Henneguya species, parasites of South American pimelodids, bryconids and characids. Maximum likelihood and maximum parsimony analyses, based on 18 S rDNA gene sequences, showed that the strongest evolutionary signal is the phylogenetic affinity of the fish hosts, with clustering mainly occurring according to the order and/or family of the host. Of the 12 South American species studied here, six are newly described infecting fish from the Brazilian Pantanal wetland. Henneguya maculosus n. sp. and Myxobolus flavus n. sp. were found infecting both Pseudoplatystoma corruscans and Pseudoplatystoma reticulatum; Myxobolus aureus n. sp. and Myxobolus pantanalis n. sp. were observed parasitizing Salminus brasiliensis and Myxobolus umidus n. sp. and Myxobolus piraputangae n. sp. were detected infecting Brycon hilarii. PMID:24040037
Carriero, Mateus Maldonado; Adriano, Edson A; Silva, Márcia R M; Ceccarelli, Paulo S; Maia, Antonio A M
Striking differences in the production of specific inhibitory agents affecting other strains of the same (or of related) species were found between genera of the family Enterobacteriaceae. We tested 50-163 strains each of the potentially pathogenic genera: Escherichia, Citrobacter, Enterobacter, Kluyvera, and Leclercia for their ability to produce bacteriophages, high-molecular-weight (HMW) and low-molecular-weight (LMW) bacteriocins and siderophores against the same sets of strains, using the cross-test method. The genus Escherichia differs substantially from all other Enterobacteriaceae, harboring a notable proportion of lysogenic (36.6%) and colicinogenic (13.9%) strains. Only 18.2% of the Citrobacter strains are lysogenic and only rarely are they colicinogenic, although in 7.3%, they produce phage tail-like bacteriocins. On the other hand, Kluyvera strains were only in 1.8% lysogenic, no colicinogenic strains were found, but in 7.3%, they produced siderophores causing zones of growth inhibition in agar cultures of strains of the same genus. In Leclercia, 10.0% of the strains were lysogenic, 2.0% produced HMW bacteriocins, no colicinogenic strains were found and 2.0% produced siderophores. Enterobacter has shown 23.1% of strains producing siderophores, whereas merely 7.7% were lysogenic, 1.9% colicinogenic and 3.8% formed phage tail-like bacteriocins. HMW bacteriocins of Enterobacter strains disposed of an unusually wide spectrum of activity. The siderophore activity spectrum was rather wide in any genus, but the siderophores were usually not produced by strains producing phages or colicins. PMID:17211543
Phytase from Aspergillus niger increases the availability of phosphorus from feed for monogastric animals by releasing phosphate from the substrate phytic acid. A phytase cDNA was constitutively expressed in transgenic tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) plants. Secretion of the protein to the extracellular fluid was established by use of the signal sequence from the tobacco pathogen-related protein S. The specific phytase activity in isolated extracellular fluid was found to be approximately 90-fold higher than in total leaf extract, showing that the enzyme was secreted. This was confirmed by use of immunolocalization. Despite differences in glycosylation, specific activities of tobacco and Aspergillus phytase were identical. Phytase was found to be biologically active and to accumulate in leaves up to 14.4% of total soluble protein during plant maturation. Comparison of phytase accumulation and relative mRNA levels showed that phytase stably accumulated in transgenic leaves during plant growth.
Verwoerd, T C; van Paridon, P A; van Ooyen, A J; van Lent, J W; Hoekema, A; Pen, J
Background Fungal keratitis has been rarely reported following intracorneal ring segment (ICRS) inmplantation. This paper aims to report a case of fungal keratitis with aspergillus fumigatus following ICRS implantation for correction of keratoconus. Methods A retrospective chart review was done. Data including demographics, clinical history and presentation, microbiological analysis as well as clinical management were recorded. Results A 34?year old male presented with pain, photophobia, redness and decreased vision in his right eye ten days after ICRS implantation for correction of keratoconus. Slit-lamp examination showed chemosis, ciliary injection, corneal abcess with ill defined edges and hypopyon. Microbiological analysis and culture of the corneal scrapes were positive for aspergillus fumigatus. The patient did not respond to medical treatment and ended up with corneal transplantation. Conclusion Although rare, fungal keratitis is a serious vision threatening complication that can complicate intrastromal ring implantation. Prompt and aggressive treatment is essential to prevent irreversible reduction of vision.
A 68-year-old woman presented with pain in her left eye. Necrosis with calcium plaques was observed on the medial part of the sclera. Aspergillus fumigatus was isolated from the culture of the necrotic area. On systemic work-up including serum and urine electrophoresis studies, the serum monoclonal protein of immunoglobulin G was detected. The patient was diagnosed with monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance and fungal scleritis. Despite intensive treatment with topical and oral antifungal agents, scleral inflammation and ulceration progressed, and scleral perforation and endophthalmitis developed. Debridement, antifungal irrigation, and tectonic scleral grafting were performed. The patient underwent a combined pars plana vitrectomy with an intravitreal injection of an antifungal agent. However, scleral and intraocular inflammation progressed, and the eye was enucleated. Aspergillus fumigatus was isolated from the cultures of the eviscerated materials. Giemsa staining of the excised sclera showed numerous fungal hyphae.
Jo, Dong Hyun; Oh, Joo Youn; Kim, Mee Kum; Heo, Jang Won; Lee, Jin Hak
In order to increase physiological activity of soyasaponin, enzyme hydrolysis of soyasaponin was studied. The enzyme which hydrolyzes soyasaponin to lower sugar soyasaponin was obtained from Aspergillus sp.39s. And it was purified by the method of biologic chromatography system. The method of SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis was used to determine the molecular weight of the enzyme produced by Aspergillus sp.39s. The molecular weight was about 50 kDa. The optimum pH and temperature of soyasaponin-?-galactosidase produced from sp.39s was 5.0 and 40°C respectively. Soyasaponin-?-galactosidase was comparatively stable in the pH range from 3.0 to 7.0 and in the temperature range from 20°C to 60°C.
Tian, Jing; Zhao, Ping; Xu, Longquan; Fei, Xu; Wang, Yi
After aflatoxins, ochratoxin A (OTA) is the most studied mycotoxin due to the toxicological significance in human and animal diets. OTA presence has been extensively reported worldwide in the last decade in several agricultural products. The main OTA producer in tropical and temperate climates is Aspergillus carbonarius followed by species belonging to A. niger aggregate. Currently, many scientists worldwide have studied the influence of water activity and temperature for growth and biosynthesis of OTA by these species on synthetic media. This article reviews ecophysiological studies of Aspergillus section Nigri strains on synthetic media and natural substrates. The results of these investigations suggest that significant amounts of OTA can be produced in only five days and that the use of different storage practices, such as aW and temperature levels below 0.930 and 15 °C, respectively, allow controlling fungal contamination and minimizing the OTA production in several products as peanuts, corn, dried grapes and derived products for human consumption.
Astoreca, Andrea L.; Magnoli, Carina E.; Dalcero, Ana M.
The substituted pterocarpenes named aracarpene-1 (1) and aracarpene-2 (2) were isolated from wounded peanut seeds challenged by a strain of Aspergillus caelatus. The structures of these putative phytoalexins were determined by interpretation of NMR and MS data. The aracarpenes were investigated for their antifungal and antibacterial activities as well as antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and cytotoxic activities in mammalian cells. Aracarpene-2 demonstrated high antibacterial properties against tested gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria, whereas aracarpene-1 displayed low antibacterial properties against the same bacteria. Both compounds had no antifungal activity against Aspergillus flavus. Together with peanut stilbenoids that are also produced in the challenged seeds, these compounds may represent a class of low-molecular weight peanut metabolites with a defensive role(s) against pathogenic microorganisms. PMID:21030054
Sobolev, Victor S; Neff, Scott A; Gloer, James B; Khan, Shabana I; Tabanca, Nurhayat; De Lucca, Anthony J; Wedge, David E
An elastinolytic proteinase of Aspergillus flavus has been isolated to homogeneity, and its physical and biochemical properties have been characterized. Two purification protocols were compared; an initial step of ion-exchange chromatography was found to be equivalent to ammonium sulfate precipitation at neutral pH. A combination of gel filtration and adsorption chromatographies on the resultant crude enzyme produced highly purified elastase with yields of 5 to 10%. The enzyme is a 23-kilodalton protein with a pI of 7.6. The enzyme activity is markedly inhibited by numerous metal ions. Aspergillus elastase appears to be a metalloproteinase EC 3.4.24.X), as determined by its sensitivity to 1,10-phenanthroline. Images
An effective selective medium for the enumeration of Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus parasiticus has been developed by modification of Bothast and Fennell's Aspergillus Differential Medium. Results can be obtained with the new medium, Aspergillus flavus and parasiticus Agar (AFPA), after 42 h incubation at 30 degrees C. The medium is thus suitable for use in quality control as a guide to the presence of A. flavus and, potentially, of aflatoxins. AFPA has been extensively tested on peanuts and soils. Results were reproducible and comparable with those on standard fungal enumeration media incubated for much longer periods. A very low percentage of false positive or negatives was found. PMID:6406419
Serum was collected from 50 patients with cystic fibrosis, and IgG antibodies to Aspergillus fumigatus were measured by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). In addition, total IgE and Aspergillus specific IgE antibodies were measured in 41 of the 50. A close association was found between pulmonary function and clinical state, and IgG antibodies to Aspergillus. There was no association between pulmonary function or clinical state and IgE antibodies. It is postulated that in patients with cystic fibrosis, Aspergillus fumigatus may contribute to deterioration in pulmonary function by local pathogenicity, or by hypersensitivity mechanisms mediated by IgG.
Forsyth, K D; Hohmann, A W; Martin, A J; Bradley, J
The bioleaching experiment was conducted for the removal of heavy metals from mine tailings. A fungal strain was isolated from the gold mine tailings and it has been identified as Aspergillus fumigatus based on its 18S rDNA analysis. Bioleaching using A. fumigatus was carried out in bioleaching step processes (one-step and two-step) at various tailings concentrations (1%, 2%, 4%, and
Aspergillus niger FCBP-198 was genetically modified for its ability to reveal extra cellular ?-amylase enzyme activity. From 76 efficient mutants isolated after ultraviolet (UV) irradiation, An-UV-5.6 was selected as the most efficient UV mutant, with 76.41 units mL of ?-amylase activity compared to wild (34.45 units mL). In case of ethyl methane sulphonate (EMS), among 242 survivors, 74 were assayed
To get insight into the limiting factors existing for the efficient production of fungal peroxidase in filamen- tous fungi, the expression of the Phanerochaete chrysosporium lignin peroxidase H8 (lipA) and manganese peroxidase (MnP) H4 (mnp1) genes in Aspergillus niger has been studied. For this purpose, a protease-deficient A. niger strain and different expression cassettes have been used. Northern blotting experiments
ANA CONESA; CEES A. M. J. J. VAN DEN HONDEL; PETER J. PUNT
A keratinase enzyme was isolated and purified from a feather-degrading culture of Aspergillus oryzae. Fractional precipitation of the crude enzyme with ethanol, acetone and ammonium sulfate yielded 21 fractions. The fraction obtained at 75–85% ammonium sulfate saturation showed the highest activity and about 3.3-fold purification. This fraction was further purified by gel filtration in Sephadex G-75 followed by ion exchange
We present a case of rapid progressive unilateral visual loss in a 69-year-old woman who presented with facial pain, ipsilateral proptosis and restriction of eye movements, and nasal symptoms suggestive of sinusitis. A diagnosis of allergic aspergillus sinusitis was made on the basis of local histopathology and systemic features. Over a three-week period vision deteriorated to bare perception of light
Tolerance of human pathogenic fungi to antifungal drugs is an emerging medical problem. We show how strains of the causative agent of human aspergillosis, Aspergillus fumigatus, tolerant to cell wall-interfering antimycotic drugs become susceptible through chemosensitization by natural compounds. Tolerance of the A. fumigatus mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) mutant, sakA?, to these drugs indicates the osmotic\\/oxidative stress MAPK pathway is
Jong Kim; Bruce Campbell; Noreen Mahoney; Kathleen Chan; Russell Molyneux; Gregory May
A triple ?1,3 glucan synthase mutant of Aspergillus fumigatus obtained by successive deletions of the three ?1,3 glucan synthase genes (AGS1, AGS2, and AGS3) has a cell wall devoid of ?1,3 glucans. The lack of ?1,3 glucans affects neither conidial germination nor mycelial vegetative growth and is compensated by an increase in ?1,3 glucan and/or chitin content.
The extranuclear mitochondrial oligomycin-resistant mutation ofAspergillus nidulans, (oliA1), was transferred asexually into four nuclear oligomycin-resistant strains of different phenotypes. In all four cases, the possession of the nuclear plus extranuclear mutation led to an increase in the in vivo level of oligomycin resistance. In two cases, the altered cytochrome spectrum and impaired growth ability determined by (oliA1) were suppressed by
Filamentous cosmopolitan fungi of the genus Aspergillus can be harmful in two ways, directly they can be opportunistic pathogens causing aspergillosis and indirectly due to aflatoxin\\u000a production on food products which can lead to aflatoxicosis. Therefore, a number of methods have been proposed so far for\\u000a detection of the fungi with lowest possible concentration at the earliest. Molecular methods such
The detection of galactomannan antigen in urine was investigated in 26 bone marrow transplant recipients using anAspergillus latex agglutination test (Pastorex). After modification of the method, which was originally devised for serum testing, the detection limit in native urine was approximately 20 ng\\/ml. Antigen was found in 79 (36.4 %) of 217 serial urine samples, compared to 40 (11.8 %)
The effects of pH, initial substrate concentration and addition of sodium chloride on saccharification of Job's tears flour during fermen tation of Aspergillus oryzae were examined. The result of proximate analysis of Job's Tears flo ur showed that it contained 64.3% carbohydrate, 12.4% protein, 4.8% fat, 6.6% insolub le fiber, 1.7% ash and 10.2% moisture. The saccharification rate based on
Sasivimol Chuen-Im Ahmed; Wanida Chiansanoi; Sivatat Cosa
Disseminated aspergillosis in dogs has been associated with Aspergillus terreus or A. deflectus infection. We report a case of disseminated A. versicolor infection presenting as diskospondylitis, osteomyelitis, and pyelonephritis. The diagnosis was made based on clinical, radiographic, and pathological findings. The etiologic agent was identified by fungal culture and internal transcribed spacer (ITS) ribosomal DNA (rDNA) sequencing. This is the first description of canine aspergillosis caused by A. versicolor.
Corapi, Wayne; Quist, Erin; Griffin, Sarah; Zhang, Michael
Conidiation in the filamentous ascomycete Aspergillus nidulans requires activation of brlA, a well-characterized transcriptional regulator of genes that are induced specifically during asexual development. We have isolated and characterized developmental mutations in six loci, designated fluG, flbA, flbB, flbC, flbD, and flbE, that result in defective development and reduced brlA expression. These mutants grow indeterminately to produce masses of aerial
Jenny Wieser; Bee Na Lee; John W. Fondon; Thomas H. Adams
Resistance to the morpholine-fungicide fenpropimorph was studied in Aspergillus niger and A. nidulans. Mass selection of conidia of A. nidulans on agar amended with the fungicide at different concentrations did not yield of resistant mutants, even after UV-treatment\\u000a of the conidia. In contrast, similar experiments with A. niger generated many fenpropimorph-resistant mutants. The mutants displayed cross-resistance to fenpropidin and generally
A. J. G. Engels; E. F. Holub; K. Swart; M. A. De Waard
Single cell profiling was performed to assess differences in RNA accumulation in neighboring hyphae of the fungus Aspergillus niger. A protocol was developed to isolate and amplify RNA from single hyphae or parts thereof. Microarray analysis resulted in a present call for 4 to 7% of the A. niger genes, of which 12% showed heterogeneous RNA levels. These genes belonged to a wide range of gene categories.
Cell-free extracts of nitrate-grown mycelia of Aspergillus terreus could catalyze the hydrolytic deami- nation of cytidine to uridine and ammonia followed by the hydrolytic cleavage of the N-glycosidic bond of the produced uridine to the corresponding base (uracil) and ribose. The same extracts could not catalyze the hydrolytic deamination of cytosine. Addition of inorganic arsenate to the reaction mixture containing
Osama M. Abdel-Fatah; Maysa A. Elsayed; Ali M. Elshafei
Hydrolysis of olive oil, soybean oil, mink fat, lard, palm oil, coconut oil, and a hydrogenated, hardened oil with lipase\\u000a from anAspergillus sp. has been studied. The lipase had high specific activity (60,000 U\\/g) and did not show any positional specificity. The\\u000a lipase proved to be a more effective catalyst than Lipolase fromA. oryzae, with an optimal activity at 37°C
There is a need to develop technologies that can remove toxic heavy metal ions found in wastewaters. Microorganisms are known to remove heavy metal ions from water. In this study the potential of the fungus Aspergillus niger to remove lead, cadmium, copper and nickel ions was evaluated. A. niger biomass pretreated by boiling in 0.1N NaOH solution for 15 min
The antifungal effects of lauric acid and four lauric acid derivatives (monolauroylglycerol, D-laurate A, T-laurate A, 6-O-lauroysucrose) were tested on the spore germination and the growth rate of Aspergillus niger DMF 0801. The results showed that the tested substances varied in their antifungal activity and they also confirmed the relation of the structure of tested substances and their antifungal effects.
Zde?ka ?iháková; Milada Plocková; Vladimír Filip; Jan Šmidrkal
The authors describe the case of a 53-year-old woman who suffered from an Aspergillus fumigatus infection of the L2\\/3 intervertebral disc space unrelated to previous operations on her lumbar spine. After surgical debridement combined with amphotericin therapy she died on the 23rd postoperative day from a fulminant bacterial sepsis of pulmonary origin. Although she had intermittently used steroids for bronchial
D-Mannitol is the predominant carbon compound in conidiospores of the filamentous fungus Aspergillus niger and makes up 10 to 15?f the dry weight. A number of physiological functions have been ascribed to mannitol, including serving as a reserve carbon source, as an antioxidant, and to store reducing power. In this study, we cloned and characterized the A. niger mpdA gene,
George J. G. Ruijter; Maarten Bax; Hema Patel; Simon J. Flitter; Vondervoort van de P. J. I; Vries de R. P; Kuyk van P. A; Jaap Visser
Experiments were conducted to evaluate the effects of relative humidity (r.h.; 75%, 80%, 85%, 97%) and temperature (10, 13, 15, 25, 30°C) on aflatoxin production in previously dried (3.5% moisture content; m.c.) Brazil nuts. Initially Aspergillus spp. were isolated from the surfaces of whole in-shell (WIS) Brazil nuts imported from Peru using A. flavus and A. parasiticus agar (AFPA). Isolates
K. Arrus; G. Blank; D. Abramson; R. Clear; R. A. Holley
Adaptation of filamentous fungi to short-term salt stress has been analysed by a continuous measurement system. Spores of Aspergillus niger were immobilized on the polylysine-coated glass bottom of a culture vessel, which enabled the exchange of a medium containing salt (NaCl) without disturbing continuous observation. Repeated contacts with 0.75% NaCl produced hypha insensitive to this concentration of NaCl. When the
An exoinulinase has been isolated, purified and characterised from a commercially available broth of Aspergillus ficuum. The enzyme was purified 4.2-fold in a 21% yield with a specific activity of 12,300 U mg?1(protein) after dialysis, ammonium sulphate fractionation and Sephacryl S-200 size exclusion and ion exchange chromatography.\\u000a The molecular weight of this enzyme was estimated to be 63 kDa by SDS-PAGE. It
THE recent development in this laboratory of methods for producing acid proteinase of Aspergillus saitoi (EC, 126.96.36.199, aspergillopeptidase A) from culture filtrate has made available sufficient material for a correlative study of its enzymatic properties1,2. The optimal pH for milk casein digestion is in the pH range of 2.5-3.0 and the proteinase is fairly stable over the pH range of
The effect of low-dose microwave radiation (LDMR; 2.45 GHz, 1.5 W\\/g) on biochemical characteristics and mortality of Aspergillus parasiticus was investigated and compared to the effects of conventional heating treatment (water bath), in order to provide a theoretical basis for microwave control of mildew in rice and other food products. The effects of LT50 (52 ± 2 °C) and LT100 (72 ± 2 °C) with microwave treatment on
An 88-kDa component secreted in vitro by Aspergillus fumigatus has been purified by sequential chromatographic procedures. The molecule is a glycoprotein with an N-linked sugar moiety composed of mannose glucose, and galactose (16:10:1). It is recognized by antibodies from patients with aspergilloma and has potential for the immunodiagnosis of aspergilloma. The antigenicity is associated with the polypeptide part of the molecule (79 kDa). Images
A comprehensive approach of bioprocess design at various levels was used to optimize microbial production of extracellular\\u000a fructofuranosidase, important as biocatalyst to derive fructooligosaccharides with broad application in food or pharmaceutical\\u000a industry. For production, the recombinant strain Aspergillus niger SKAn1015 was used, which expresses the fructofuranosidase encoding gene suc1 under control of a strong constitutive promoter. In a first screening
Habib Driouch; Andreas Roth; Petra Dersch; Christoph Wittmann
..beta..-Xylosidase from a commercial Aspergillus niger preparation was purified by differential ammonium sulfate precipitation and either gel permeation or cation exchange chromatography, giving 16-fold purification in 32% yield for the first technique or 27-fold purification in 19% yield for the second. Enzyme prepared by this method was immobilized to 10 different carriers, but only when it was bound to alumina with TiCl/sub 4/ and to alkylamine porous silica with glutaraldehyde were substantial efficiencies and stabilities achieved.
High ethanol and stillage solids have been achieved using whole corn mashes. Ethanol yields of 14% (v\\/v) (89.5% of theory) and stillage levels of approximately 23% (w\\/v) were obtained in 74–90 hours using mild acid pretreatment with Aspergillus oryzae wheat bran koji saccharification. High ethanol yields were also obtained with bacterial amylase, instead of the acid treatment, when the sterilization
ATP:citrate lyase (ACL), an important enzyme in lipid synthesis, has been purified from Aspergillus nidulans to a specific activity of 19.6 ?mol min?1 mg?1, almost twice that of any other purified ACL and shown to be distinct from any previously purified ACL. The enzyme is a 371±31 kDa hexamer of 3?, 3? proteins, unlike the 4? tetramer found in rats
Ian P. Adams; Stephen Dack; F. Mark Dickinson; Colin Ratledge
Abstract The phylogenetic relationships of the genera of Listroderini LeConte, 1876 are analyzed based on 58 morphological characters. The genera are grouped in four clades, which are given subtribal status: Macrostyphlina new subtribe (Adioristidius, Amathynetoides, Andesianellus, Macrostyphlus, Nacodius and Puranius), Palaechthina Brinck, 1948 (Anorthorhinus, Gunodes, Haversiella, Inaccodes, Listronotus, Neopachytychius, Palaechthus, Palaechtodes, Steriphus and Tristanodes), Falklandiina new subtribe (Falklandiellus, Falklandiopsis, Falklandius, Gromilus, Lanteriella, Liparogetus, Nestrius and Telurus), and Listroderina (Acroriellus, Acrorius, Acrostomus, Antarctobius, Germainiellus, Hyperoides, Lamiarhinus, Listroderes, Methypora, Philippius, Rupanius and Trachodema). The subtribes are characterized and keys to identify them and their genera are provided. Listroderini have four main biogeographical patterns: Andean (Macrostyphlina), Andean-New Zealand (Falklandiina), Andean-Neotropical-Australian (Listroderina) and Andean-Neotropical-Australian-New Zealand-Nearctic-Tristan da Cunha-Gough islands (Palaechthina). Geographical paralogy, particularly evident in the Subantarctic subregion of the Andean region, suggests that Listroderini are an ancient Gondwanic group, in which several extinction events might have obscured relationships among the areas.
A new polysaccharide secreted by the human opportunistic fungal pathogen Aspergillus fumigatus has been characterized. Carbohydrate analysis using specific chemical degradations, mass spectrometry, 1H and 13C nuclear magnetic resonance showed that this polysaccharide is a linear heterogeneous galactosaminogalactan composed of ?1-4 linked galactose and ?1-4 linked N-acetylgalactosamine residues where both monosacharides are randomly distributed and where the percentage of galactose per chain varied from 15 to 60%. This polysaccharide is antigenic and is recognized by a majority of the human population irrespectively of the occurrence of an Aspergillus infection. GalNAc oligosaccharides are an essential epitope of the galactosaminogalactan that explains the universal antibody reaction due to cross reactivity with other antigenic molecules containing GalNAc stretches such as the N-glycans of Campylobacter jejuni. The galactosaminogalactan has no protective effect during Aspergillus infections. Most importantly, the polysaccharide promotes fungal development in immunocompetent mice due to its immunosuppressive activity associated with disminished neutrophil infiltrates.
Purpose To report the clinical, microbiologic, confocal scan and histopathologic features of Aspergillus flavus keratitis which developed immediately after deep anterior lamellar keratoplasty (DALK). Case Report A 28-year-old woman underwent DALK using the big-bubble technique for keratoconus. The operation was uneventful, yielding a bare Descemet’s membrane (DM) followed by transplantation of a corneal graft devoid of DM and endothelium. Four days after keratoplasty, mild infiltrates were noticed in the inferonasal margin of the graft, which rapidly progressed to involve the adjacent recipient cornea. Confocal scan findings suggested filamentous fungal keratitis, leading to initiation of topical and systemic antifungal medications followed by immediate replacement of the graft. Histopathologic examination disclosed keratitis caused by a filamentous fungus, which was determined by microbiologic cultures to be Aspergillus flavus. Early diagnosis and appropriate management resulted in complete recovery from this potentially devastating infection. Conclusion Aspergillus Flavus can cause graft ulcers immediately after DALK. Confocal scan proved to be a valuable tool for early diagnosis and prompt intervention to control this otherwise devastating infection.
To study the effects of selection marker, promoter type, and copy number on heterologous expression in Aspergillus nidulans, strains were constructed with single- and multicopy plasmid integrations bearing a reporter gene (lacZ) under the control of either an inducible (alcA) or constitutive (gpdA) promoter and one of three Aspergillus nutritional marker genes (argB, trpC, or niaD). beta-Galactosidase activity in the transformants varied over three orders of magnitude, with the majority of levels in the range of 5x10(3)-1x10(4) U/mg. Significant differences in mean expression levels were found when comparing single-copy transformants with the same promoter but a different marker. Transformants with the argB marker had the highest average expression, approximately threefold over the trpC or niaD clones. For each promoter, maximal expression for the set was seen in the range of the single-copy clones, implying that increasing the copy number does not reliably increase expression in Aspergillus. PMID:16699756
Allergic Aspergillus sinusitis (AAS) is a three decade old clinicopathologic entity in which mucoid impaction akin to that of allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis (ABPA) occurs in the paranasal sinuses. Features such as radiographic evidence of pansinusitis, passage of nasal plugs and recurrent nasal polyposis in patients with an atopic background is suggestive of AAS. Histopathlogic confirmation from the inspissated mucus is a sine qua non for the diagnosis. Heterogeneous densities on computed tomography of the paranasal sinuses are caused by the 'allergic mucin' in the sinuses. Many patients give a history of having undergone multiple surgical procedures for symptomatic relief. The current approach to treatment appears to include an initial surgical debridement followed by postoperative oral corticosteroids for long durations. Although both ABPA and AAS are classified as Aspergillus-related hypersensitivity respiratory disorders, their co-occurrence appears to be an infrequently recognised phenomenon. This could perhaps be attributed to the fact that these two diseases are often treated by two different specialties. A high index of suspicion is required to establish the diagnoses of ABPA and AAS. All patients with asthma and/or rhinosinusitis along with sensitisation to Aspergillus antigens are at an increased risk of developing ABPA and/or AAS. ABPA must be excluded in all patients with AAS and vice versa. Early diagnosis and initiation of appropriate therapy could plausibly alter the course of the disease processes and prevent the possible development of long term sequelae.
The potential association between hygienic conditions in the environment of lactating cows and the presence of gliotoxinogenic Aspergillus fumigatus strains was studied. Milk samples (individual cow's milk [ICM], bulk tank milk [BTM]) from 44 dairy farms were sampled. In ICM samples, eight different species of Aspergillus were identified. A. flavus and A. fumigatus were predominant, with 37.8% and 26.1% relative densities, respectively. A. fumigatus strains were isolated from 61.4% of the BTM samples, and 34% of these strains were able to produce gliotoxin. Principal component analysis was used to associate the presence of A. fumigatus with some hygienic and sanitary practices. A significant and positive correlation was observed between dry cow therapy and forestripping. The presence of A. fumigatus gliotoxin producers in milk was associated with high somatic cells count (SCC) samples. Good hygienic and sanitary practices were associated with absence of A. fumigatus and relatively low SCCs of <250,000 cells/ml. In general, a high percentage of dairy farms were positive for A. fumigatus in BTM samples. This is the first work that indicates the positive effects of adequate hygienic and sanitary practices in dairy herds on the control of A. fumigatus and related species. By reducing the frequency of Aspergillus spp. in the dairy environment, the risk of farm handlers' exposure and the risk of intramammary fungal infections would also be reduced. PMID:23467846
Pellegrino, M; Alonso, V; Vissio, C; Larriestra, A; Chiacchiera, S M; Bogni, C; Cavaglieri, L
Invasive aspergillosis shows a high mortality rate particularly in immunocompromised patients. Perpetually increasing numbers of affected patients highlight the importance of a clearer understanding of interactions between innate immunity and fungi. Innate immunity is considered to be the most significant host defence against invasive fungal infections. Complement represents a crucial part of this first line defence and comprises direct effects against invading pathogens as well as bridging functions to other parts of the immune network. However, despite the potency of complement to attack foreign pathogens, the prevalence of invasive fungal infections is increasing. Two possible reasons may explain that phenomenon: First, complement activation might be insufficient for an effective antifungal defence in risk patients (due to, e.g., low complement levels, poor recognition of fungal surface, or missing interplay with other immune elements in immunocompromised patients). On the other hand, fungi may have developed evasion strategies to avoid recognition and/or eradication by complement. In this review, we summarize the most important interactions between Aspergillus and the complement system. We describe the various ways of complement activation by Aspergillus and the antifungal effects of the system, and also show proven and probable mechanisms of Aspergillus for complement evasion.
During a survey on the incidence of Aspergillus in clinical environments, we found some interesting isolates that were morphologically similar to Aspergillus parasiticus, but differed in the color of the colonies and in the pattern of their conidial ornamentation. In the present study, those isolates were characterized using a polyphasic approach. A phylogenetic analysis was carried out, based on partial fragments of the acetamidase (amdS) and O-methyltransferase (omtS) genes and the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region of rDNA. This information was combined with a detailed morphological and physiological study that included aflatoxin production and assimilation profiles of different carbon and nitrogen sources. The phenotypic and genotypic results support the proposal of a new species, Aspergillus novoparasiticus, phylogenetically placed in a distinct sister clade to that of A. parasiticus. The former has lobate-reticulate conidia and does not produce aspergillic acid on AFPA or organic acids on CREA, while A. parasiticus has echinulate conidia and produces aspergillic and organic acids. In addition, this new species, as well as A. parasiticus, produces aflatoxins B1, B2, G1 and G2. PMID:21745163
Gonçalves, Sarah S; Stchigel, Alberto M; Cano, Josep F; Godoy-Martinez, Patricio C; Colombo, Arnaldo L; Guarro, Josep
Thirty heterokaryons, formed by protoplast fusion of Aspergillus nidulans and Aspergillus tubingensis, were selected on the basis of their ability to grow on 2-deoxyglucose (0.2 %, w/v) and intermediate spore color. These heterokaryons were studied for cellulase production using shake flask and solid substrate cultures at 40 °C. Fusants 51 and 28 exhibited appreciably higher levels of endoglucanase, cellobiohydrolase, ?-glucosidase, and FPase activities when compared with parental strains. Employing proteomic-based approaches, the differential expression of proteins in secretome of fusants and parental strains were analyzed using two-dimensional electrophoresis. The expression of some of the proteins in the fusants was found to be up/downregulated. The upregulated proteins in the fusant 51 were identified by liquid chromatography-mass spectroscopy as endoxylanase, endochitinase, ?-glucosidase, as well as hypothetical proteins. The cellulases produced by fusants 28 and 51 showed improved saccharification of alkali treated rice straw when compared with the parental strains. PMID:23197346
Kaur, Baljit; Sharma, Manju; Soni, Rohit; Oberoi, H S; Chadha, B S
Invasive bronchopulmonary aspergillosis (IBPA) is a life-threatening disease in immunocompromised patients. Although Aspergillus terreus is frequently found in the environment, A. fumigatus is by far the main cause of IBPA. However, once A. terreus establishes infection in the host, disease is as fatal as A. fumigatus infections. Thus, we hypothesized that the initial steps of disease establishment might be fundamentally different between these two species. Since alveolar macrophages represent one of the first phagocytes facing inhaled conidia, we compared the interaction of A. terreus and A. fumigatus conidia with alveolar macrophages. A. terreus conidia were phagocytosed more rapidly than A. fumigatus conidia, possibly due to higher exposure of ?-1,3-glucan and galactomannan on the surface. In agreement, blocking of dectin-1 and mannose receptors significantly reduced phagocytosis of A. terreus, but had only a moderate effect on phagocytosis of A. fumigatus. Once phagocytosed, and in contrast to A. fumigatus, A. terreus did not inhibit acidification of phagolysosomes, but remained viable without signs of germination both in vitro and in immunocompetent mice. The inability of A. terreus to germinate and pierce macrophages resulted in significantly lower cytotoxicity compared to A. fumigatus. Blocking phagolysosome acidification by the v-ATPase inhibitor bafilomycin increased A. terreus germination rates and cytotoxicity. Recombinant expression of the A. nidulans wA naphthopyrone synthase, a homologue of A. fumigatus PksP, inhibited phagolysosome acidification and resulted in increased germination, macrophage damage and virulence in corticosteroid-treated mice. In summary, we show that A. terreus and A. fumigatus have evolved significantly different strategies to survive the attack of host immune cells. While A. fumigatus prevents phagocytosis and phagolysosome acidification and escapes from macrophages by germination, A. terreus is rapidly phagocytosed, but conidia show long-term persistence in macrophages even in immunocompetent hosts. PMID:22319619
In order to investigate the influence of different hyphal inoculum sizes on minimal inhibition concentrations (MICs) and minimum fungicidal concentrations (MFCs) of amphotericin B (AMB), voriconazole and itraconazole, five isolates each of Aspergillus fumigatus, Aspergillus flavus, Aspergillus niger and Aspergillus terreus were studied using a broth microdilution method. Three inoculum sizes were used: 1×103–5×103, 1×104–5×104 and 1×105–5×105 cfu\\/ml. MICs and
Cornelia Lass-Flörl; C Speth; G Kofler; M. P Dierch; E Gunsilius; R Würzner
The arctic biome is a relatively young ecosystem with ~2300 species of vascular plants. We studied the genus Ranunculus as an example of the origin and evolution of the arctic flora. For this purpose we used molecular phylogenetic and clock analyses based on evaluation of nuclear ITS and chloroplast matK-trnK DNA sequences in 194 taxa of Ranunculus and closely related genera. Taxa occurring in the Arctic arose form seven phylogenetic lineages of Ranunculus and also in the genera Coptidium and Halerpestes. Two clades of Ranunculus are species-rich in the Arctic, i.e., Ranunculus sect. Ranunculus and R. sect. Auricomus (both from R. subg. Ranunculus), but this is due to a number of arctic "microtaxa" morphologically barely separate from R. acris in the former clade and the widely agamospermic species complex of R. auricomus in the latter. Lineages with species adapted to wetlands or aquatic habitats are significant groups represented in the arctic flora (R. subg. Ranunculus sectt. Flammula and Hecatonia/Xanthobatrachium, R. subg. Batrachium, genus Coptidium) but show no clear signs of radiation in the Arctic or the northern boreal zone, except for sectt. Hecatonia/Xanthobatrachium, with R. hyperboreus and R. sceleratus subsp. reptabundus. Astonishingly few of the otherwise numerous lineages of Ranunculus with distributions in the higher mountain systems of Eurasia and North America have acted as "founding sources" for the arctic flora. The only clear example is that of the arctic-alpine R. glacialis and the Beringian R. chamissonis from the lineage of subg. R. sectt. Aconitifolii/Crymodes, although there might be others in sect. Auricomus not recovered in the current molecular data. Lineages that gave rise to arctic taxa diverged from each other from the early Miocene (R. glacialis/R. chamissonis, Coptidium, lineages in Halerpestes) and continued at an even rate throughout the Tertiary. There are no signs that the intense climate changes of the late Pliocene and the Quaternary substantially accelerated or impeded diversification in Ranunculus. Only the crown group split of R. acris and its relatives is clearly of Quaternary age. A detailed comparison concerning morphology, karyology, and life form excludes fundamental differences between taxa of Ranunculus in the Arctic and their respective closest relatives in regions south of it. Ecological traits, e.g., preferences for dry or moist soils or growth in open and sheltered conditions, also do not differ between arctic and nonarctic? taxa. Migration into the Arctic thus started from different phylogenetic lineages and at different times, without development of obvious special traits in the adaptation to arctic environments. This recurrent pattern in Ranunculus differs from that seen in other arctic genera, e.g., Artemisia, in which special traits of adaptation to arctic environments are found. In Ranunculus, the origin of the open arctic biome primarily favored range expansions of taxa/species already adapted to wet habitats in cold areas and depending on rapid dispersal. PMID:20582248
Hoffmann, Matthias H; von Hagen, K Bernhard; Hörandl, Elvira; Röser, Martin; Tkach, Natalia V
The arctic biome is a relatively young ecosystem with ~2300 species of vascular plants. We studied the genus Ranunculus as an example of the origin and evolution of the arctic flora. For this purpose we used molecular phylogenetic and clock analyses based on evaluation of nuclear ITS and chloroplast matK-trnK DNA sequences in 194 taxa of Ranunculus and closely related genera. Taxa occurring in the Arctic arose form seven phylogenetic lineages of Ranunculus and also in the genera Coptidium and Halerpestes. Two clades of Ranunculus are species-rich in the Arctic, i.e., Ranunculus sect. Ranunculus and R. sect. Auricomus (both from R. subg. Ranunculus), but this is due to a number of arctic “microtaxa” morphologically barely separate from R. acris in the former clade and the widely agamospermic species complex of R. auricomus in the latter. Lineages with species adapted to wetlands or aquatic habitats are significant groups represented in the arctic flora (R. subg. Ranunculus sectt. Flammula and Hecatonia/Xanthobatrachium, R. subg. Batrachium, genus Coptidium) but show no clear signs of radiation in the Arctic or the northern boreal zone, except for sectt. Hecatonia/Xanthobatrachium, with R. hyperboreus and R. sceleratus subsp. reptabundus. Astonishingly few of the otherwise numerous lineages of Ranunculus with distributions in the higher mountain systems of Eurasia and North America have acted as “founding sources” for the arctic flora. The only clear example is that of the arctic-alpine R. glacialis and the Beringian R. chamissonis from the lineage of subg. R. sectt. Aconitifolii/Crymodes, although there might be others in sect. Auricomus not recovered in the current molecular data. Lineages that gave rise to arctic taxa diverged from each other from the early Miocene (R. glacialis/R. chamissonis, Coptidium, lineages in Halerpestes) and continued at an even rate throughout the Tertiary. There are no signs that the intense climate changes of the late Pliocene and the Quaternary substantially accelerated or impeded diversification in Ranunculus. Only the crown group split of R. acris and its relatives is clearly of Quaternary age. A detailed comparison concerning morphology, karyology, and life form excludes fundamental differences between taxa of Ranunculus in the Arctic and their respective closest relatives in regions south of it. Ecological traits, e.g., preferences for dry or moist soils or growth in open and sheltered conditions, also do not differ between arctic and nonarctic? taxa. Migration into the Arctic thus started from different phylogenetic lineages and at different times, without development of obvious special traits in the adaptation to arctic environments. This recurrent pattern in Ranunculus differs from that seen in other arctic genera, e.g., Artemisia, in which special traits of adaptation to arctic environments are found. In Ranunculus, the origin of the open arctic biome primarily favored range expansions of taxa/species already adapted to wet habitats in cold areas and depending on rapid dispersal.
Hoffmann, Matthias H.; von Hagen, K. Bernhard; Horandl, Elvira; Roser, Martin; Tkach, Natalia V.
Based on a considerably enlarged sampling, a phylogenetic analysis of the largest group of didymocarpoid Gesneriaceae, the\\u000a “advanced Asiatic and Malesian genera”, was performed, covering all but 3 of the 60 genera presently recognised in this group\\u000a (20 of these, mostly from China, are monotypic). The results suggest that no fewer than 17 out of the 57 genera examined are
Michael MollerAlan; Alan Forrest; Yi-Gang Wei; Anton Weber
The generic boundaries of the Diphyllidea are reassessed based on parsimony and likelihood phylogenetic analyses of 28S rDNA (ribonucleic acid large subunit), 18S rDNA (ribonucleic acid small subunit), and COI (cytochrome oxidase subunit I) sequence data for 31 species representing morphological variation across the order. Trees resulting from these analyses yielded a number of well-supported clades that are congruent with unique morphological features mandating generic revision of the order and erection of at least two new genera. Species originally assigned to Echinobothriumvan Beneden, 1849 but bearing a corona of spines on the region of the scolex anterior to the bothria and posterior to the apical organ armature are transferred to Coronocestus n. gen.; members of this genus typically parasitize triakid sharks, although one report from a hemiscylliid shark exists. Species with lateral hooklets arranged in continuous bands, rather than in two distinct clusters, are transferred to Halysioncum n. gen.; all species parasitize batoids, mostly myliobatids and rhinopterids, but a few records also exist from arhynchobatids, rhinobatids, platyrhinids and urotrygonids. Our analyses support transfer of the five species originally assigned to MacrobothridiumKhalil and Abdul-Salam, 1989 owing to their lack of cephalic peduncle spines to Echinobothrium. As a consequence, Echinobothrium sensu stricto includes species both with and without spines on the cephalic peduncle, but all members of the genus possess lateral hooklets arranged in clusters on either side of the dorsal and ventral apical hooks. With respect to diphyllideans parasitizing catsharks, AhamulinaMarques, Jensen and Caira, 2012 is unique in possessing apical hooks but lacking lateral hooklets and DitrachybothridiumRees, 1959 is unique in entirely lacking scolex armature. By far the majority of species of Echinobothrium sensu stricto parasitize skates of the family Rajidae, guitarfish of the family Rhinobatidae, and stingrays of the dasyatid genera Taeniura Müller and Henle, Dasyatis Rafinesque, and Himantura Müller and Henle, although a single species each has been reported from Anacanthobatidae, Rhynchobatidae, Platyrhinidae and Myliobatidae. It now seems clear that while by far the majority of diphyllideans parasitize batoids, the diphyllideans parasitizing sharks, and catsharks in particular, remain problematic. Additional collections from these carcharhiniform hosts are likely to be particularly illuminating. PMID:23603519
Caira, Janine N; Marques, Fernando P L; Jensen, Kirsten; Kuchta, Roman; Ivanov, Veronica
Aspergillus isolates (n 103) collected from cancer patients were screened to determine the taxonomic distribution and quantity of gliotoxin production. Gliotoxin was detected in 93% of Aspergillus fumigatus, 75% of A. niger, 25% of A. terreus, and 4% of A. flavus cultures. Gliotoxin concentrations were highest in cultures of A. fumigatus. Aspergillus fumigatus produces several secondary metabo- lites during invasive
Russell E. Lewis; Nathan P. Wiederhold; Michail S. Lionakis; Randall A. Prince; Dimitrios P. Kontoyiannis
The objective of this investigation was to contribute towards the knowledge of microbiology of honey, more than 50 samples of honey from Slovakia and other countries were mycologically investigated in terms of the overall fungal diversity and toxicological potential of isolated fungi from Penicillium genera. The study revealed that out of 13 genera recovered, Penicillium was the most frequent and diverse genus, followed by Aspergillus and Cladosporium being found in 65.91 % (29 samples), 34.1 % (15 samples) and 29.55 % (13 samples), respectively. The most frequently encountered taxa from Penicillium genera were Penicillium chrysogenum (found in 22.73 %), Penicillium brevicompactum (13.64 %), Penicillium crustosum (11.36 %) and Penicillium griseofulvum (11.36 %). In addition, the following genera were recorded (in descending order) Mycelia (18.18 %), Fusarium (11.36 %), Mucor (9.09 %), Acremonium (6.82 %), Alternaria (4.55 %), Epicoccum (4.55 %), and finally Botrytis, Eurotium Trichoderma and Phoma all were encountered in 2.27 % of the samples being represented. The mean value counts of total fungi ranged from 0.00 to 2 × 10(2) cfu.g(-1). Outcomes from mycotoxin screening within the appropriate potentially toxinogenic species from Penicillium genera showed a number of mycotoxin producers, namely those forming citrinin (n = 1), cyclopiazonic acid (n = 5), griseofulvin (n = 5), patulin (n = 5), penitrem A (n = 2) and roquefortin C (n = 13). PMID:22702826
The transcription factors NsdC and NsdD have been shown to be necessary for sexual development in Aspergillus nidulans. Herein we examine the role of these proteins in development and aflatoxin production of the agriculturally important, aflatoxin-producing fungus, Aspergillus flavus. We found tha...
Microbiologic cultures of fungi are routinely incubated at ambient temperatures in room air, and the rate of recovery of Aspergillus species from clinical specimens is poor. Failure of current culture methods to mimic the physiologic temperature and low-oxygen environment found in hypha-laden infected tissue may underlie this poor recovery. Experiments were performed to compare the recovery of Aspergillus spp. incubated at 35 degrees C in 6% O(2)-10% CO(2) with that at 25 degrees C in room air. The samples tested included Aspergillus-infected tissue specimens from a dog model and human autopsies, experimental anaerobically stressed Aspergillus inocula, and 10,062 consecutive clinical specimens. Culture at 35 degrees C in 6% O(2)-10% CO(2) significantly enhanced the recovery of Aspergillus spp. from the infected autopsy tissue samples. Incubation at 35 degrees C alone resulted in approximately 10-fold-improved culture recovery from the experimentally stressed hyphae, and the 6% O(2)-10% CO(2) atmosphere independently favored growth under temperature-matched conditions. Finally, incubation at 35 degrees C (in room air) improved the overall recovery of Aspergillus spp. from clinical specimens by 31%. Culture at 35 degrees C in a microaerobic atmosphere significantly enhances the recovery of Aspergillus spp. from various sources. Aspergillus hyphae growing in infected tissue appear to be adapted to the physiologic temperature and hypoxic milieu. PMID:15634998
Tarrand, Jeffrey J; Han, Xiang Y; Kontoyiannis, Dimitrios P; May, Gregory S
Replacement of phenylalanine with leucine at position 391 in squalene epoxidase was identified as being responsible for terbinafine resistance in mutants of Aspergillus nidulans. The equivalent mutation was engi- neered into the ergA gene of Aspergillus fumigatus, resulting in an F389L substitution that also conferred resistance to this pathogenic mold.
E. M. F. Rocha; R. E. Gardiner; N. M. Martinez-Rossi; D. S. Perlin
A study was undertaken to isolate an indigenous Aspergillus oryzae strain for use in saccharification of high amylose rice starch. Bread, black gram, soya grains, 'kevum', and cooked rice samples assumed to be contaminated with Aspergillus oryzae were used in the isolation. Ten pure cultures obtained by culturing and sub- culturing on Potato Dextrose Agar (PDA) were maintained on PDA
S. S. Sooriyamoorthy; K. F. S. T. Silva; M. H. W. Gunawardhane; C. K. Illeperuma
Citric acid production by Aspergillus niger NCIM 548 and Candida lipolytica NCIM 3472 has been studied in shake culture using glucose and molasses as carbon sources. Methanol addition (3% v\\/v) at 40 h of fermentation enhanced the production of citric acid by Aspergillus niger whereas a reduction in citric acid production by Candida lipolytica was observed with addition of methanol.
Aspergillus species are the most frequent cause of invasive mold infections in immunocompromised patients. Although over 180 species are found within the genus, 3 species, Aspergillus flavus, A. fumigatus, and A. terreus, account for most cases of invasive aspergillosis (IA), with A. nidulans, A. niger, and A. ustus being rare causes of IA. The ability to distinguish between the various
Aspergillus fumigatus, a common mold, rarely infects humans, except during prolonged neutropenia or in cases of chronic gran- ulomatous disease (CGD), a primary immunodeficiency caused by mutations in the NADPH oxidase that normally produces fungicidal reactive oxygen species. Filamentous hyphae of Aspergillus are killed by normal, but not CGD polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMN); however, the few studies on PMN-mediated host defenses
Kol A. Zarember; Janyce A. Sugui; Yun C. Chang; Kyung J. Kwon-Chung; John I. Gallin
Aspergillus fumigatus is a pathogenic fungus capable of causing both allergic lung disease and invasive aspergillosis, a serious, life-threatening condition in neutropenic patients. Aspergilli express an array of mycotoxins and enzymes which may facilitate fungal colonisation of host tissue. In this study we investigated the possibility of using the insect, Galleria mellonella, for in vivo pathogenicity testing of Aspergillus species.
Emer P. Reeves; C. G. M. Messina; S. Doyle; K. Kavanagh
Background: Aspergillus flavus is the second most important Aspergillus species causing human infections particularly fungal sinusitis. Since little is known about aflatoxin producing ability of clinical isolates, this study was undertaken to de- tect the aflatoxigenic isolates amongst these isolates. Methods: A total of 23 isolates of A. spp. which were recovered from patients proved to have fungal sinusitis by
P Dehghan; F Zaini; S Rezaei; A Jebali; P Kordbacheh; M Mahmoudi
Four agar media used to isolate aflatoxin producing fungi were compared for utility in isolating fungi in theAspergillus flavus group from agricultural soils collected in 15 fields and four states in the southern United States. The four media wereAspergillus flavus andparasiticus Agar (AFPA, 14), the rose bengal agar described by Bell and Crawford (BCRB; 3), a modified rose bengal agar
Emericella desertorum Samson et Mouchacca spec. nov. is described and illustrated. It differs from the other Emericella species by the large ascospores with low crests. An Aspergillus conidial state was not observed. Additional information on the morphology and physiology of Emericella fruticulosa (Raper et Fennell) Malloch et Cain and Aspergillus egyptiacus Moubasher et Moustafa is given. The osmophilic and halophilic
Species in the genus Aspergillus have been classified primarily based on morphological features. Sequencing of house-hold genes has also been used in Aspergillus taxonomy and phylogeny, while extrolites and physiological features have been used less frequently. Three independent ways of classifyin...
In a previous study, inedible almond pick-out samples were assayed for aflatoxin and aflatoxigenic Aspergillus species. These samples contained high populations of black-spored Aspergillus section Nigri species. To investigate whether these species may contribute to the total potential mycotoxin content of almonds, Aspergillus section Nigri strains were isolated from these samples and assayed for ochratoxin A (OTA) and fumonisin B2 (FB2). The majority of isolates (117 strains, 68%) were identified as Aspergillus tubingensis, which do not produce either mycotoxin. Of the 47 Aspergillus niger and Aspergillus awamori isolates, 34 strains (72%) produced FB2 on CY20S agar, and representative strains produced lower but measurable amounts of FB2 on almond meal agar. No OTA-producing strains of Aspergillus section Nigri were detected. Almond pick-out samples contained no measurable FB2, suggesting that properly dried and stored almonds are not conducive for FB2 production by resident A. niger and A. awamori populations. However, 3 of 21 samples contained low levels (<1.5 ng/g) of OTA, indicating that sporadic OTA contamination may occur but may be caused by OTA-producing strains of other Aspergillus species. PMID:23575138
Aflatoxins (AF) are highly carcinogenic secondary metabolites produced mainly by Aspergillus flavus and A. parasiticus. The main focus of our lab is to understand the genetic factors that control AF production using A. parasiticus as a model system. Many eukaryotes, including Aspergillus spp., mod...
The batch hydrolysis of cellulose by Trichoderma reesei cellulase was considerably enhanced by the addition of very small amounts of B-glucosidase derived from Aspergillus niger. Addition of larger amounts had no further effect. In simultaneous cellulose hydrolysis and alcohol fermentation experiments the addition of B-glucosidase from Aspergillus niger had no significant effect on alcohol production by the fermenting yeast.
Aspergillus infections in pediatric bone marrow transplant (BMT) patients are usually fatal. We began the use of a prophylactic nasal spray of amphotericin in 1990. This nasal spray was provided in addition to low-dose intravenous amphotericin. During the time of this study, the number of fatal cases of aspergillus in the pediatric BMT population was reduced significantly from 13.8% to
ME Trigg; D Morgan; TL Burns; H Kook; SL Rumelhart; RH Giller
Aspergillus spp. are responsible for an increasing number of fungal infections in immunocompromised and transplant patients. Local anaesthetics (LAs) are growth inhibitors of bacteria and yeasts. Subinhibitory concentrations of the LAs lidocaine and bupivacaine blocked the germination of Aspergillus fumigatus, Aspergillusflavus and Aspergillusniger whilst also showing a positive interaction in vitro with the antifungal activity of amphotericin B, itraconazole and
The purpose of this study was to determine the concentration, in terms of monthly and seasonal distribution and in relation to meteorological factors, of indoor and outdoor microfungi at selected sites in several child day care centers in the city of Edirne, Turkey. Samples were collected at one month intervals over a period of 12 months between January-December 2004, by exposing petri plates containing Peptone Dextrose Agar with Rose-Bengal and Streptomycin medium to the air for 10-15 min. A total of 2,071 microfungal colonies were counted on 192 petri plates. Thirty microfungal genera (Acremonium, Alternaria, Arthrinium, Aspergillus, Bahusakala, Beauveria, Ceuthospora, Chaetomium, Cladosporium, Curvularia, Drechslera, Epicoccum, Eurotium, Fusarium, Mycotypha, Myrotechium, Paecilomyces, Penicillium, Pestalotiopsis, Phoma, Ramichloridium, Rhizopus, Scopulariopsis, Stachybotrys, Stemphylium, Torula, Trichoderma, Trichothecium, Ulocladium, Verticillium) and 75 microfungal species were isolated from the air indoor and outdoor of the day care centers. The dominant microfungal genera were Cladosporium, Penicillium and Alternaria (44.11%, 18.94%, 14.67% of the total respectively), while the genus with the most species richness was Penicillium (26 species). Alternaria, Cladosporium, Penicillium and non-sporulating microfungi were found every month. Cladosporium was the dominant genus in both indoor and outdoor air. Although the predominant genus was the same in both indoor and outdoor air, Cladosporium was followed by Penicillium, Alternaria and Aspergillusgenera in indoor air and by Alternaria, Penicillium and Aspergillusgenera in outdoor air. While a positive correlation was found between the concentration of monthly outdoor microfungi and monthly average temperature, a negative correlation was found between the concentration of monthly outdoor microfungi and monthly average wind velocity. Also, some relationships were found between the monthly concentrations of the most predominant microfungal genera (Cladosporium, Penicillium and Alternaria) and various meteorological factors. PMID:18264791
Phylogenetic relationships between the red-tide dinoflagellate Gymnodinium breve and other members of the genera Gymnodinium and Gyrodinium have not been studied at the molecular level. G. breve is most noted for its production of brevetoxin, which has been linked to extensive f...
Advances in phylogenetic systematics have clarified the position of most major homobasidiomycete lineages. In contrast, the status of the Crepidotaceae, a historically controversial family of dark-spored agarics, remains unaddressed. In this paper, current morphology- based classifications of the agaric genera of the Crepidotaceae were evaluated by parsimony and constraint analyses of sequence data from the nuclear large subunit rDNA. Taxa
The generic richness and abundance of Bethylidae collected in four different hillside areas of Atlantic rain forest from Espírito Santo, Brazil were studied. The sites are Santa Maria de Jetibá (SMJ), Domingos Martins (DM), Pancas (P) and Atílio Vivacqua (AV). A total of 2,840 specimens of 12 genera were collected. Lepidosternopsis Ogloblin and Bakeriella Kieffer are first recorded from the State. Richness of taxa was calculated using first-order Jackknife richness with EstimateS program. Genera accumulation curves were ran to evaluate the samples. Abundance data were adjusted to the geometric distribution. Parameter k was used to compare areas. The generic profile was not equal for the sites we studied. The areas were considered disturbed. SMJ and DM presented genera richness bigger than in P and AV. The differences in the sites reflect the different preservation of each environment. Pseudisobrachium Kieffer and Dissomphalus Ashmead are most dominant genera in SMJ, DM and P, and Anisepyris Kieffer in AV. This study emphasizes the fact of Dissomphalus as the most abundant genus in rain forests. The generic profile found in AV is similar to that of some areas of Brazilian savannah. PMID:18506293
Mugrabi, Daniele F; Alencar, Isabel D C C; Barreto, Francisco C C; Azevedo, Celso O
The mechanism and role of RNA structure elements in the replication and translation of Caliciviridae remains poorly understood. Several algorithmically independent methods were used to predict second- ary structures within the Norovirus, Sapovirus, Vesivirus and Lagovirus genera. All showed pro- found suppression of synonymous site variability (SSSV) at genomic 5' ends and the start of the sub-genomic (sg) transcript, consistent
Peter Simmonds; Ioannis Karakasiliotis; Dalan Bailey; Yasmin Chaudhry; David J. Evans; Ian G. Goodfellow
A total of 126 isolates of Bacillus and related genera from indigenous, spontaneously fermented soybeans (Kinema) and locust beans (Soumbala) were characterized with the purpose of defining interspecific, as well as intraspecific relationships among the components of their microflora. B. subtilis was the dominant species, and species diversity was more pronounced in Soumbala than in Kinema. While from Kinema, six
This report analyzes and compares environmental conditions associated with the 57 most common genera of phytoplankton encountered in the National Eutrophication Survey of 250 lakes in 17 eastern and southeastern States during 1973. Among the findings of this study are: (1) There ...
The superfamily Artematopoidea is defined, to include the families Artematopidae (Eurypogonidae auctt.), Callirhipidae (Rhipiceridae pars auctt.) and Brachypsectridae, and a new key to superfamilies of Elateriformia is provided. The known genera of Artematopidae, together with two new ones for Baltic Amber fossils, are distinguished in a key. Phylogenetic relations of and within the new superfamily are discussed.
Summary Ultrastructural studies of glutaraldehyde-fixed viruses of the Bunyaviridae were performed by negative-stain electron microscopy. The surface structure of viruses of each genus was compared with that of the other genera and with Hantaan virus, the prototype of a proposed new genus of Bunyaviridae. Viruses of each genus had a surface structure distinct for that genus. In addition, Hantaan virus
Helen Lindsey-Regnery; Donna R. Sasso; J. B. McCormick; E. Palmer
Since the first volume of Bergey's Manual of ~~stematic Bacteriology was published, in 1984, two additional genera and several new species of stem- and root-nodulating bacteria have been proposed; further changes to the taxonomy of this group of organisms appear likely. This paper briefly reviews the current status of \\
P. H. GRAHAM; M. J. SADOWSKY; H. H. KEYSER; Y. M. BAR; R. S. BRADLEY; J. E. COOPER
We analyzed sequence variation for chalcone synthase (Chs) and alcohol dehydrogenase (Adh) loci in 28 species in the genera Arabidopsis and Arabis and related taxa from tribe Arabideae. Chs was single-copy in nearly all taxa examined, while Adh duplications were found in several species. Phylogenies constructed from both loci confirmed that the closest relatives of Arabidopsis thaliana include Arabidopsis lyrata,
Marcus A. Koch; Bernhard Haubold; Thomas Mitchell-Olds
A revision of the genera Myxobolus and Myxosoma is presented. On the basis of Lom & Noble (1984), all species are designated as Myxobolus. A total of 444 species of Myxobolus, including three subspecies, are listed together with their hosts. All former Myxosoma species are assigned to the genus Myxobolus and those which were previously homonyms or synonyms have been
The African bagrid genera Auchenoglanis and Parauchenoglanis are reviewed. Due to an incorrect type-species designation, a new usage is given to Parauchenoglanis and a new genus Anaspidoglanis is described. Within the Auchenoglanidinae, Auchenoglanis and Parauchenoglanis seem more closely related to each other than to Anaspidoglanis.
G. G. Teugels; L. Risch; L. De Vos; D. F. E. Thys van den Audenaerde
A facile, quantitative, membrane filter procedure (mC) for defining the distribution of coliform populations in seawater according to the component genera was developed. The procedure, which utilizes a series of in situ substrate tests to obviate the picking of colonies for identification, also provides an estimate of the total coliform density. When pure cultures of Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, and Enterobacter cloacae were suspended in seawater and held at 4 C for 24 h, between 56 and 100% of the cells which grew on nutrient agar spread plates at 35 C could be recovered by the mC procedure. Confirmation as coliforms of typical colonies from natural samples was about 95%. Assay variability was found to be insignificant. The recovery of coliforms from marine waters by the mC procedure was comparable to those obtainable by current methods. Klebsiella was differentiated by the urease reaction and E. coli by its ability to form indole. The confirmation frequencies for colonies designated as Klebsiella and E. coli by the in situ tests approached 95% for the former and 98% for the latter.
Recently, representatives of the genus Cuboctostylus Bragina (order Entactinaria) were included in the Upper Cretaceous radiolarian regional stratigraphic scale of Sakhalin. The Late Cretaceous species Hexacromyum pergamenti Bragina (order Spumellaria) has morphological similarity to representatives of the genus Cuboctostylus. Peculiar features of H. pergamenti internal structure are considered. Collections of Upper Cretaceous radiolarians from southern Cyprus, Serbia, northern Turkey, Crimean Mountains, East European Platform, northwestern Kamchatka, eastern slope of the Sredinnyi Range in Kamchatka, and Shikotan Island (Lesser Kurile Range) were used for the analysis of the taxonomic composition of Late Cretaceous representatives of the genera Cuboctostylus Bragina and Hexacromyum Haeckel as well as their stratigraphic and paleobiogeographic distribution. It is established that Cuboctostylus is distributed from tropical to south boreal realms. This genus is shown to exist through almost the entire Late Cretaceous: from the middle Cenomanian to initial Maastrichtian. Hexacromyum Haeckel populated both the south boreal realm and marginal areas of the Tethys Ocean in the Late Cretaceous. The new data presented may be used for distant interregional correlations. Cuboctostylus stellatus sp. nov. and several other Cuboctostylus taxa identified in open nomenclature are described; some morphological features of Hexacromyum pergamenti are specified.
Macquarie Island, a small subantarctic island, is home to rockhopper, royal and king penguins, which are often infested with the globally distributed seabird tick, Ixodes uriae. A flavivirus, an orbivirus, a phlebovirus, and a nairovirus were isolated from these ticks and partial sequences obtained. The flavivirus was nearly identical to Gadgets Gully virus, isolated some 30 year previously, illustrating the remarkable genetic stability of this virus. The nearest relative to the orbivirus (for which we propose the name Sandy Bay virus) was the Scottish Broadhaven virus, and provided only the second available sequences from the Great Island orbivirus serogroup. The phlebovirus (for which we propose the name Catch-me-cave virus) and the previously isolated Precarious Point virus were distinct but related, with both showing homology with the Finnish Uukuniemi virus. These penguin viruses provided the second and third available sequences for the Uukuniemi group of phleboviruses. The nairovirus (for which we propose the name Finch Creek virus) was shown to be related to the North American Tillamook virus, the Asian Hazara virus and Nairobi sheep disease virus. Macquarie Island penguins thus harbour arboviruses from at least four of the seven arbovirus-containing genera, with related viruses often found in the northern hemisphere.
Major, Lee; Linn, May La; Slade, Robert W.; Schroder, Wayne A.; Hyatt, Alex D.; Gardner, Joy; Cowley, Jeff; Suhrbier, Andreas
Floral ontogeny of taxa of two subtribes (Labicheinae, Dialiinae) of caesalpinioid tribe Cassieae, characterized by reduced number of floral organs, was compared. All three taxa studied are distichous; Petalostylis labicheoides flowers are solitary in leaf axils, Labichea lanceolata has few-flowered racemes, and Dialium guineense has numerous-flowered cymes. The first sepal primordium in each is initiated abaxially and nonmedianly. Order of organogenesis in Petalostylis is: five sepals bidirectionally, five petals and carpel simultaneously, then five stamens bidirectionally, starting abaxially. The order in Labichea is: five sepals helically (one lagging in time), five petals unidirectionally starting abaxially, the carpel and petals concurrently, then two stamens successively, starting laterally. Order in Dialium is: five sepals bidirectionally, the single petal adaxially, and lastly the carpel and two stamens concurrently. Specializations include (1) reduction of the five sepals to four by fusion in Petalostylis and Labichea; (2) reduction of petal number to one in Dialium; (3) reduction of stamen number to two in Labichea and Dialium, and reduction of functional stamens to three in Petalostylis; and (4) an elaborate, late-developing style in Petalostylis. Floral asymmetry, another specialization, characterizes Labichea, expressed by dissimilar stamens, while the other genera have zygomorphic flowers. Floral ontogenies are compared with other taxa of Cassieae. PMID:21684904
The diatom flora of the Colombian and Peruvian Amazon is far less studied than the flora of the Brazilian sector of the basin. Here we present results related to the genera Encyonema, Encyonopsis and Gomphonema. Plankton and periphyton samples were collected in lotic and lentic waterbodies from the Amazonian-Andean region, the Amazon River, Japurá River and Porvenir River basins during 1993, 1994, 2001 and 2003. At each sampling station pH, temperature, water transparency and conductivity were registered. Samples were analyzed with phase contrast microscope (LM) and scanning electron microscope (SEM). Ten taxa are new records for the area; Encyonema for the Peruvian and Colombian Amazon and Encyonopsis for the Colombian Sector. Encyonema neogracile var. tenuipunctatum, E. vulgare, Encyonopsis frequentis, Gomphonema augur var. sphaerophorum and G. contraturris are recorded for the first time in Colombia; Encyonema venezolanum and G. neoapiculatum in Colombia and Peru and the latter also for Amazonia. E. angustecapitatum was mentioned in Colombia before at a pond located at 3000 m asl. We describe a new species from Porvenir River, Amazonas, Colombia: Encyonema amazonianum. PMID:20411706
Vouilloud, Amelia A; Sala, Silvia E; Avellaneda, Marcela Núńez; Duque, Santiago R
This paper continues a revision of generic concepts in the parmelioid lichens using molecular data in order to reach a consensus among lichenologists over which segregates proposed over the last two decades should be accepted. Here we employ data from three gene portions to provide a basis for a revised generic concept of the brown parmelioid lichens hitherto classified in Melanelia. The phylogeny was studied using a Bayesian analysis of a combined data set of nuclear ITS, LSU rDNA and mitochondrial SSU rDNA sequences. 173 new sequences were obtained from 38 specimens of 15 Melanelia species, 37 related parmelioid species, and eight non-parmelioid species. The results indicate that Melanelia is not monophyletic but falls into four different clades. The genus Melanelia is restricted here to a small group of saxicolous lichens related to the type species M. stygia, and with bifusiform conidia, while the remaining species, most of which are primarily corticolous and have mainly cylindrical to filiform conidia, belong to two other clades recognised as two new genera: Melanelixia and Melanohalea, to accommodate the M. exasperata and M. glabra groups, respectively. 27 new combinations are made. The epicortex of Melanelixia species have pores or special structures termed here 'fenestrations', while most Melanohalea species are pseudocyphellate. Pleurosticta links to the Melanohalea clade but without strong support, and the phylogenetic position of M. disjuncta and its related species remains uncertain, linking with the Xanthoparmelia (syn. Neofuscelia) clade but also without strong support. PMID:15449592
Blanco, Oscar; Crespo, Ana; Divakar, Pradeep K; Esslinger, Theodore L; Hawksworth, David L; Lumbsch, H Thorsten
Phylogenetic relationships and identifications in the aplacophoran taxon Solenogastres (Neomeniomorpha) are in flux largely because descriptions of hard parts--sclerites, radulae, copulatory spicules--and body shape have often not been adequately illustrated or utilized. With easily recognizable and accessible hard parts, descriptions of Solenogastres are of greater use, not just to solenogaster taxonomists, but also to ecologists, paleontologists, and evolutionary biologists. Phylogenetic studies of Aplacophora, Mollusca, and the Lophotrochozoa as a whole, whether morphological or molecular, would be enhanced. As an example, morphologic characters, both isolated hard parts and internal anatomy, are provided for two genera in the Dondersiidae. Five species are described or redescribed and earlier descriptions corrected and enhanced. Three belong to Dondersia: D. festiva Hubrecht, D. incali (Scheltema), and D. namibiensis n. sp., the latter differentiated unambiguously from D. incali only by sclerites and copulatory spicules. Two species belong to Lyratoherpia: L. carinata Salvini-Plawen and L. californica (Heath). Notes are given for other species in Dondersiidae: L. bracteata Salvini-Plawen, Ichthyomenia ichthyodes (Pruvot), and Heathia porosa (Heath). D. indica Stork is synonymized with D. annulata. A cladistic morphological analysis was conducted to examine the utility of hard parts for reconstructing solenogaster phylogeny. Results indicate monophyly of Dondersia and Lyratoherpia as described here. PMID:22815372
Scheltema, Amélie H; Schander, Christoffer; Kocot, Kevin M
Ascidians have developed multiple defensive strategies mostly related to physical, nutritional or chemical properties of the tunic. One of such is chemical defense based on secondary metabolites. We analyzed a series of colonial Antarctic ascidians from deep-water collections belonging to the genera Aplidium and Synoicum to evaluate the incidence of organic deterrents and their variability. The ether fractions from 15 samples including specimens of the species A. falklandicum, A. fuegiense, A. meridianum, A. millari and S. adareanum were subjected to feeding assays towards two relevant sympatric predators: the starfish Odontaster validus, and the amphipod Cheirimedon femoratus. All samples revealed repellency. Nonetheless, some colonies concentrated defensive chemicals in internal body-regions rather than in the tunic. Four ascidian-derived meroterpenoids, rossinones B and the three derivatives 2,3-epoxy-rossinone B, 3-epi-rossinone B, 5,6-epoxy-rossinone B, and the indole alkaloids meridianins A-G, along with other minoritary meridianin compounds were isolated from several samples. Some purified metabolites were tested in feeding assays exhibiting potent unpalatabilities, thus revealing their role in predation avoidance. Ascidian extracts and purified compound-fractions were further assessed in antibacterial tests against a marine Antarctic bacterium. Only the meridianins showed inhibition activity, demonstrating a multifunctional defensive role. According to their occurrence in nature and within our colonial specimens, the possible origin of both types of metabolites is discussed. PMID:23015772
Núńez-Pons, Laura; Carbone, Marianna; Vázquez, Jennifer; Rodríguez, Jaime; Nieto, Rosa María; Varela, María Mercedes; Gavagnin, Margherita; Avila, Conxita
To generate inexpensive and efficient DNA markers for addressing a number of population genetics problems and identification of wild hybrids in Vasconcellea, we have evaluated the use of simple sequence repeat (SSR) primers previously developed for other species. A set of 103 Vasconcellea accessions and some individuals of the related genera Carica and Jacaratia were analyzed with 10 primer pairs directing amplification of chloroplast microsatellites in Nicotiana tabacum and 9 nuclear SSR primer pairs recently identified in Vasconcellea x heilbornii. Heterologous amplification of chloroplast SSRs was successful for 8 of the 10 loci, of which 6 showed polymorphism. Seven of the 9 nuclear SSR primer pairs were useful in Vasconcellea and often also in Jacaratia and Carica, all revealing polymorphism. Exclusive haplotypes for each described taxon were identified based on chloroplast microsatellite data. Clustering based on separate nuclear and chloroplast data resulted in a clear grouping per taxon, but only low resolution was obtained above species level. The codominancy of nuclear SSRs and the general high polymorphism rate of SSR markers will make them more useful in future population genetics studies and diversity assessment in conservation programs. PMID:16936787
Kyndt, T; Droogenbroeck, B Van; Haegeman, A; Roldán-Ruiz, I; Gheysen, G