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1

Concentration of the genera Aspergillus, Eurotium and Penicillium in 63-?m house dust fraction as a method to predict hidden moisture damage in homes  

PubMed Central

Background Quantitative measurements of mould enrichment of indoor air or house dust might be suitable surrogates to evaluate present but hidden moisture damage. Our intent was to develop a house-dust monitoring method to detect hidden moisture damage excluding the influence of outdoor air, accumulated old dust, and dust swirled up from room surfaces. Methods Based on standardized measurement of mould spores in the 63-?m fraction of house dust yielded by carpets, the background concentrations were determined and compared to simultaneously obtained colony numbers and total spore numbers of the indoor air in 80 non-mouldy living areas during summer and winter periods. Additionally, sampling with a vacuum-cleaner or manual sieve was compared to sampling with a filter holder or sieving machine, and the evaluative power of an established two-step assessment model (lower and upper limits) was compared to that of a one-step model (one limit) in order to derive concentration limits for mould load in house dust. Results Comparison with existing evaluation procedures proved the developed method to be the most reliable means of evaluating hidden moisture damage, yielding the lowest false-positive results (specificity 98.7%). Background measurements and measurements in 14 mouldy rooms show that even by evaluating just the indicator genera in summer and winter, a relatively certain assessment of mould infestation is possible. Conclusion A one-step evaluation is finally possible for house dust. The house-dust evaluation method is based on analysis of the indicator genera Aspergillus, Eurotium and Penicillium spp., which depend on the total fungal count. Inclusion of further moisture indicators currently appears questionable, because of outdoor air influence and the paucity of measurements. PMID:19615082

Baudisch, Christoph; Assadian, Ojan; Kramer, Axel

2009-01-01

2

An attempt to optimize potassium sorbate use to preserve low pH (4.5–5.5) intermediate moisture bakery products by modelling Eurotium spp., Aspergillus spp. and Penicillium corylophilum growth  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mould growth was modelled on fermented bakery product analogues (FBPA) of two different pH (4.5 and 5.5), different water activity (aw) levels (0.80–0.90) and potassium sorbate concentrations (0–0.3%) by using seven moulds commonly causing spoilage of bakery products (Eurotium spp., Aspergillus spp. and Penicillium corylophilum). For the description of fungal growth (growth rates) as a function of aw, potassium sorbate

M. Elena Guynot; Sonia Marín; Vicente Sanchis; Antonio J. Ramos

2005-01-01

3

Biotransformation of the mycotoxin zearalenone by fungi of the genera Rhizopus and Aspergillus.  

PubMed

Zearalenone (ZEN) is a nonsteroidal estrogenic mycotoxin biosynthesized by various Fusarium fungi. These fungal species frequently infest grains; therefore, ZEN represents a common contaminant in cereal products. The biotransformation of ZEN differs significantly from species to species, and several metabolites are known to be formed by animals, plants, and microorganisms. The aim of the present study was to investigate the microbial conversion of ZEN by species of the genera Rhizopus and Aspergillus representing relevant fungi for food processing (e.g. fermentation). To monitor the ZEN metabolism, ZEN was added to liquid cultures of the different fungal species. After a period of 3 days, the media were analyzed by HPLC-MS/MS for metabolite formation. Two Aspergillus oryzae strains and all seven Rhizopus species were able to convert ZEN into various metabolites, including ZEN-14-sulfate as well as ZEN-O-14- and ZEN-O-16-glucoside. Microbial transformation of ZEN into the significantly more estrogenic ?-zearalenol (?-ZEL) was also observed. Additionally, a novel fungal metabolite, ?-ZEL-sulfate, was detected. Semi-quantification of the main metabolites indicates that more than 50% of initial ZEN may be modified. The results show that fungal strains have the potential to convert ZEN into various metabolites leading to a masking of the toxin, for example in fermented food. PMID:25145804

Brodehl, Antje; Möller, Anne; Kunte, Hans-Jörg; Koch, Matthias; Maul, Ronald

2014-10-01

4

A New Prenylated Indole Diketopiperazine Alkaloid from Eurotium cristatum.  

PubMed

A new prenylated indole diketopiperazine alkaloid, cristatumin F (1), and four known metabolites, echinulin (2), dehydroechinulin (3), neoechinulin A (4) and variecolorin O (5), were isolated from the crude extract of the fungus Eurotium cristatum. The structure of 1 was elucidated primarily by NMR and MS methods. The absolute configuration of 1 was assigned using Marfey's method applied to its acid hydrolyzate. Cristatumin F (1) showed modest radical scavenging activity against DPPH radicals, and exhibited marginal attenuation of 3T3L1 pre-adipocytes. PMID:25372398

Zou, Xianwei; Li, Ying; Zhang, Xiaona; Li, Qian; Liu, Xuan; Huang, Yun; Tang, Tao; Zheng, Saijing; Wang, Weimiao; Tang, Jintian

2014-01-01

5

Antimicrobial and antiprotozoal activities of secondary metabolites from the fungus Eurotium repens  

PubMed Central

In this study, we examined in vitro antibacterial, antifungal, antimalarial, and antileishmanial activities of secondary metabolites (1–8) isolated from the fungus Eurotium repens. All compounds showed mild to moderate antibacterial or antifungal or both activities except 7. The activity of compound 6 was the best of the group tested. The in vitro antimalarial evaluation of these compounds revealed that compounds 1–3, 5, and 6 showed antimalarial activities against both chloroquine-sensitive and chloroquine-resistant strains of Plasmodium falciparum with IC50 values in the range of 1.1–3.0 ?g/ml without showing any cytotoxicity to the mammalian cells. Compound 5 displayed the highest antimalarial activity. Antileishmanial activity against Leishmania donovani promastigotes was observed for compounds 1–6 with IC50 values ranging from 6.2 to 23 ?g/ml. Antileishmanial activity of compounds 5 and 6 (IC50 values of 7.5 and 6.2 ?g/ml, respectively) was more potent than 1–4 (IC50 values ranging from 19–23 ?g/ml). Compounds 7 and 8 did not show any antiprotozoal effect. Preliminary structure and activity relationship studies indicated that antibacterial, antifungal, antimalarial, and antileishmanial activities associated with phenol derivates (1–6) seem to be dependent on the number of double bonds in the side chain, which would be important for lead optimization in the future. PMID:23024574

Gao, Jiangtao; Radwan, Mohamed M.; Leon, Francisco; Wang, Xiaoning; Jacob, Melissa R.; Tekwani, Babu L.; Khan, Shabana I.; Lupien, Shari; Hill, Robert A.; Dugan, Frank M.; Cutler, Horace G.

2011-01-01

6

Sphingomonas and Related Genera  

SciTech Connect

INTRODUCTION-The genus Sphingomonas was defined by Yabuuchi et al. (1990) as a group of Gram-negative, rod-shaped, chemoheterotrophic, strictly aerobic bacteria that possess ubiquinone 10 as the major respiratory quinone, contain glycosphingolipids (GSLs) instead of lipopolysaccharide in their cell envelopes, and typically produce yellow-pigmented colonies. By 2001, the genus included more than 20 species that were quite diverse in terms of their phylogenetic, ecological, and physiological properties. As a result, Takeuchi et al. (2001) subdivided Sphingomonas into four genera: Sphingomonas, Sphingobium, Novosphingobium and Sphingopyxis...

Balkwill, David L.; Fredrickson, Jim K.; Romine, Margaret F.

2003-12-31

7

Mycoflora of Soybeans Used for Meju Fermentation  

PubMed Central

Diverse fungi are present in Korean traditional meju and they are known to play an important role in fermented soybean products. To determine the origin of the fungi in meju, we examined the mycoflora of soybeans from 10 traditional meju factories. The samples were untreated or treated with sodium hypochlorite, and placed on malt extract agar (MEA), dichloran 18% glycerol agar (DG18), and dichloran rose bengal chloramphenicol agar (DRBC) medium. A total of 794 fungal strains were isolated and they were identified as 41 genera and 86 species. From sodium hypochlorite untreated soybeans, the genera, Cladosporium (55%), Eurotium (51%), Fusarium (33%), Penicillium (22%), and Aspergillus (exclusion of Eurotium) (20%), were mainly isolated, and Eurotium herbariorum (22%), Eurotium repens (18%), Cladosporium tenuissimum (18%), F. fujikuroi (18%), Aspergillus oryzae/flavus (7%), and Penicillium steckii (6%) were the predominant species. In case of sodium hypochlorite-treated soybeans, Eurotium (31%) and Cladosporium (5%) were frequently isolated, but Aspergillus (excluding Eurotium), Penicillium and Fusarium which were frequently isolated from untreated soybeans, were rarely isolated. Eurotium herbariorum (21%), Eurotium repens (8%), and Cladosporium tenuissimum (3%) were the predominant species. Of the 41 genera and 86 species isolated from soybeans, 13 genera and 33 species were also found in meju. These results suggest that the fungi on soybeans may influence the mycoflora of meju. PMID:23874133

Kim, Dae-Ho; Kim, Seon-Hwa; Kwon, Soon-Wo; Lee, Jong-Kyu

2013-01-01

8

Aspergillus Genomes and the Aspergillus Cloud  

PubMed Central

Aspergillus Genomes is a public resource for viewing annotated genes predicted by various Aspergillus sequencing projects. It has arisen from the union of two significant resources: the Aspergillus/Aspergillosis website and the Central Aspergillus Data REpository (CADRE). The former has primarily served the medical community, providing information about Aspergillus and associated diseases to medics, patients and scientists; the latter has focused on the fungal genomic community, providing a central repository for sequences and annotation extracted from Aspergillus Genomes. By merging these databases, genomes benefit from extensive cross-linking with medical information to create a unique resource, spanning genomics and clinical aspects of the genus. Aspergillus Genomes is accessible from http://www.aspergillus-genomes.org.uk. PMID:19039001

Mabey Gilsenan, Jane E.; Atherton, Graham; Bartholomew, Jennifer; Giles, Peter F.; Attwood, Teresa K.; Denning, David W.; Bowyer, Paul

2009-01-01

9

Eurothiocin A and B, sulfur-containing benzofurans from a soft coral-derived fungus Eurotium rubrum SH-823.  

PubMed

Two new sulfur-containing benzofuran derivatives, eurothiocin A and B (1 and 2), along with five known compounds, zinniol (3), butyrolactone I (4), aspernolide D (5), vermistatin (6), and methoxyvermistatin (7), were isolated from the cultures of Eurotium rubrum SH-823, a fungus obtained from a Sarcophyton sp. soft coral collected from the South China Sea. The new compounds (1 and 2) share a methyl thiolester moiety, which is quite rare among natural secondary metabolites. The structures of these metabolites were assigned on the basis of detailed spectroscopic analysis. The absolute configurations of 1 and 2 were determined by comparison of the experimental and calculated electronic circular dichroism (ECD) data. Compounds 1 and 2 exhibited more potent inhibitory effects against ?-glucosidase activity than the clinical ?-glucosidase inhibitor acarbose. Further mechanistic analysis showed that both of them exhibited competitive inhibition characteristics. PMID:24955555

Liu, Zhaoming; Xia, Guoping; Chen, Senhua; Liu, Yayue; Li, Hanxiang; She, Zhigang

2014-06-01

10

Genera in paleontology: Definition and significance  

Microsoft Academic Search

Three working concepts or definitions of the genus as a systematic category are available: the “phylogenetic”; or “cladistic”; concept, which views genera as monophyletic clades, the “phenetic”; or “gap”; concept, which views genera as clustered in morphological space, separated from other such groups by many differences, and the “hybridization”; concept, which holds that species in different genera can never hybridize.

Warren D. Allmon

1992-01-01

11

The Tree and Shrub Genera of Borneo  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

James Jarvie of The Arnold Arboretum of Harvard University and Indonesian colleague Ermayanti of Conservation International have put together this database on the tree and shrub genera of Borneo. The illustrated database "offers a DELTA-based interactive key to the 534 tree genera of the island" and is available in English or Indonesian. Also included is a detailed, hyperlinked index of genera and a large selection of pen-and-ink images.

Ermayanti.; Jarvie, James K.

1995-01-01

12

Development in Aspergillus  

PubMed Central

The genus Aspergillus represents a diverse group of fungi that are among the most abundant fungi in the world. Germination of a spore can lead to a vegetative mycelium that colonizes a substrate. The hyphae within the mycelium are highly heterogeneous with respect to gene expression, growth, and secretion. Aspergilli can reproduce both asexually and sexually. To this end, conidiophores and ascocarps are produced that form conidia and ascospores, respectively. This review describes the molecular mechanisms underlying growth and development of Aspergillus. PMID:23450714

Krijgsheld, P.; Bleichrodt, R.; van Veluw, G.J.; Wang, F.; Müller, W.H.; Dijksterhuis, J.; Wösten, H.A.B.

2013-01-01

13

Immunoevasive Aspergillus virulence factors.  

PubMed

Individuals with structural lung disease or defective immunity are predisposed to Aspergillus-associated disease. Manifestations range from allergic to cavitary or angio-invasive syndromes. Despite daily spore inhalation, immunocompetence facilitates clearance through initiation of innate and adaptive host responses. These include mechanical barriers, phagocyte activation, antimicrobial peptide release and pattern recognition receptor activation. Adaptive responses include Th1 and Th2 approaches. Understanding Aspergillus virulence mechanisms remains critical to the development of effective research and treatment strategies to counteract the fungi. Major virulence factors relate to fungal structure, protease release and allergens; however, mechanisms utilized to evade immune recognition continue to be important in establishing infection. These include the fungal rodlet layer, dihydroxynaphthalene-melanin, detoxifying systems for reactive oxygen species and toxin release. One major immunoevasive toxin, gliotoxin, plays a key role in mediating Aspergillus-associated colonization in the context of cystic fibrosis. Here, it down-regulates vitamin D receptor expression which following itraconazole therapy is rescued concurrent with decreased Th2 cytokine (IL-5 and IL-13) concentrations in the CF airway. This review focuses on the interaction between Aspergillus pathogenic mechanisms, host immune responses and the immunoevasive strategies employed by the organism during disease states such as that observed in cystic fibrosis. PMID:24972669

Chotirmall, Sanjay H; Mirkovic, Bojana; Lavelle, Gillian M; McElvaney, Noel G

2014-12-01

14

The Bee Genera of Eastern Canada  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Some 39 genera of bees, illustrated with full habitus photos, are included in this online article. Information about nests, behavior, floral relationships, as well as conservation are thoroughly covered. Includes an extensive references section.

0002-11-30

15

Aspergillus: sex and recombination.  

PubMed

The genus Aspergillus is one of the most widespread groups of fungi on Earth, comprised of about 300-350 species with very diverse lifestyles. Most species produce asexual propagula (conidia) on conidial heads. Despite their ubiquity, a sexual cycle has not yet been identified for most of the aspergilli. Where sexual reproduction is present, species exhibit either homothallic (self fertile) or heterothallic (obligate outcrossing) breeding systems. A parasexual cycle has also been described in some Aspergillus species. As in other fungi, sexual reproduction is governed by mating-type (MAT) genes, which determine sexual identity and are involved in regulating later stages of sexual development. Previous population genetic studies have indicated that some supposedly asexual aspergilli exhibit evidence of a recombining population structure, suggesting the presence of a cryptic sexual cycle. In addition, genome analyses have revealed networks of genes necessary for sexual reproduction in several Aspergillus species, again consistent with latent sexuality in these fungi. Knowledge of MAT gene presence has then successfully been applied to induce sexual reproduction between MAT1-1 and MAT1-2 isolates of certain supposedly asexual aspergilli. Recent progress in understanding the extent and significance of sexual reproduction is described here, with special emphasis on findings that are relevant to clinically important aspergilli. PMID:25118872

Varga, János; Szigeti, Gyöngyi; Baranyi, Nikolett; Kocsubé, Sándor; O'Gorman, Céline M; Dyer, Paul S

2014-12-01

16

Tool For Identifying Zooxanthellate Coral Genera  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

NMITA, the Neogene Marine Biota of Tropical America (reviewed in the March 15, 2000 Scout Report for Science and Engineering), offers this useful tool for identifying Zooxanthellate coral genera. Users select one state for each of seven characters (Colony Form, Colony Shape, Budding, Columella, Corallite Size, Wall Structure, and Lobes) to automate a search; results highlight one or more genera with the selected characteristics. Requiring baseline knowledge of the characteristics important to coral identification, this tool is made more useful by the inclusion of illustrated hyperlinks for many character states. For students or researchers wishing to learn the important features of Zooxanthellate coral, this will be a useful tool.

1996-01-01

17

Original article Nematode genera diversity in cattle  

E-print Network

Original article Nematode genera diversity in cattle: similarity of between-sire progenies Enrique (Received 25 August 1997; accepted I6December 1997) Abstract - Breeding cattle for resistance to nematode of the nematodes involved. Unless we know whether the selected resistance is directed against one or several

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

18

Cryptic Aspergillus nidulans Antimicrobials?  

PubMed Central

Secondary metabolite (SM) production by fungi is hypothesized to provide some fitness attribute for the producing organisms. However, most SM clusters are “silent” when fungi are grown in traditional laboratory settings, and it is difficult to ascertain any function or activity of these SM cluster products. Recently, the creation of a chromatin remodeling mutant in Aspergillus nidulans induced activation of several cryptic SM gene clusters. Systematic testing of nine purified metabolites from this mutant identified an emodin derivate with efficacy against both human fungal pathogens (inhibiting both spore germination and hyphal growth) and several bacteria. The ability of catalase to diminish this antimicrobial activity implicates reactive oxygen species generation, specifically, the generation of hydrogen peroxide, as the mechanism of emodin hydroxyl activity. PMID:21478304

Giles, Steve S.; Soukup, Alexandra A.; Lauer, Carrie; Shaaban, Mona; Lin, Alexander; Oakley, Berl R.; Wang, Clay C. C.; Keller, Nancy P.

2011-01-01

19

Aspergillus fumigatus in Poultry  

PubMed Central

Aspergillus fumigatus remains a major respiratory pathogen in birds. In poultry, infection by A. fumigatus may induce significant economic losses particularly in turkey production. A. fumigatus develops and sporulates easily in poor quality bedding or contaminated feedstuffs in indoor farm environments. Inadequate ventilation and dusty conditions increase the risk of bird exposure to aerosolized spores. Acute cases are seen in young animals following inhalation of spores, causing high morbidity and mortality. The chronic form affects older birds and looks more sporadic. The respiratory tract is the primary site of A. fumigatus development leading to severe respiratory distress and associated granulomatous airsacculitis and pneumonia. Treatments for infected poultry are nonexistent; therefore, prevention is the only way to protect poultry. Development of avian models of aspergillosis may improve our understanding of its pathogenesis, which remains poorly understood. PMID:21826144

Arne, Pascal; Thierry, Simon; Wang, Dongying; Deville, Manjula; Le Loc'h, Guillaume; Desoutter, Anais; Femenia, Francoise; Nieguitsila, Adelaide; Huang, Weiyi; Chermette, Rene; Guillot, Jacques

2011-01-01

20

Some New Genera of Paleozoic Calcareous Sponges  

E-print Network

. 1944. Vodorosli, gubki, gidroidnye polipy i korally verkhnego triasa Kavkazskogo khrebta [Algae, sponges, hydroid polyps, and corals of the Upper Trias of the Caucasus]. Uchemye Zapiski Lenengtadskogo Gosaudarstivennogo Universiteta, Series Geologo... SPONGES Robert M. Finks Department of Geology, Queens College CUNY, Flushing, New York 11367 Abstract.—This paper describes six new genera of Paleozoic calcareous sponges: three inozoans, one sclerosponge, one sphinctozoan, and one heteractinid. The first...

Finks, R. M.

1995-04-01

21

Somatic Embryogenesis in Genera Medicago : an Overview  

Microsoft Academic Search

This chapter outlines the details of somatic embryogenesis in genera Medicago.\\u000a Various factors that influence the process of somatic embryo induction, development, maturation and\\u000a conversion are discussed. The role of genotype, explant choice and preparation hormonal compositions\\u000a and the origin of somatic embryos are also reviewed. Brief attention is paid to the regenerant's\\u000a phenotype and fertility.

A. Iantcheva; M. Vlahova; A. Atanassov

22

Rare and new etiological agents revealed among 178 clinical Aspergillus strains obtained from Czech patients and characterized by molecular sequencing.  

PubMed

A collection of 178 Aspergillus isolates, recovered from Czech patients, mostly from 2007-2011, was subjected to multilocus DNA sequence typing using the ITS region, ?-tubulin, and calmodulin genes. An unusually wide spectrum of etiologic agents that included 36 species of Aspergillus is discussed in the context of recent taxonomic and clinical reports. Invasive aspergillosis (IA), onychomycosis, and otitis externa were the predominant clinical entities. Five cases due to species newly proven as etiologic agents of human mycoses, as well as cases with unique clinical manifestations caused by unusual agents are discussed in more detail. Three species (i.e., A. insulicola, A. westerdijkiae and A. tritici) were identified as the confirmed etiologic agents of non-dermatophytic onychomycosis. Emericella rugulosa was recovered from a premature newborn with a fatal necrotising disseminated infection and is reported for only the second time as the cause of IA. Furthermore, we document the first infection due to A. calidoustus in a patient with chronic granulomatous disease. The infection manifested as a latent brain aspergilloma with an unusual clinical-laboratory finding. In addition to the well-known agents of human mycosis, several rarely isolated or poorly documented species were identified. An undescribed cryptic species related to A. versicolor was found to be common among isolates linked to proven and probable onychomycosis. An isolate representing A. fresenii, or an unnamed sister species, were causal agents of otomycosis. Three well defined, and tentative new species belonging to section Cervini, Candidi and Aspergillus (Eurotium spp.), were associated with cases of probable onychomycosis. PMID:22458252

Hubka, Vit; Kubatova, Alena; Mallatova, Nada; Sedlacek, Petr; Melichar, Jan; Skorepova, Magdalena; Mencl, Karel; Lyskova, Pavlina; Sramkova, Blanka; Chudickova, Milada; Hamal, Petr; Kolarik, Miroslav

2012-08-01

23

A trispecies Aspergillus microarray: Comparative transcriptomics of three Aspergillus species  

PubMed Central

The full-genome sequencing of the filamentous fungi Aspergillus nidulans, Aspergillus niger, and Aspergillus oryzae has opened possibilities for studying the cellular physiology of these fungi on a systemic level. As a tool to explore this, we are making available an Affymetrix GeneChip developed for transcriptome analysis of any of the three above-mentioned aspergilli. Transcriptome analysis of triplicate batch cultivations of all three aspergilli on glucose and xylose media was used to validate the performance of the microarray. Gene comparisons of all three species and cross-analysis with the expression data identified 23 genes to be a conserved response across Aspergillus sp., including the xylose transcriptional activator XlnR. A promoter analysis of the up-regulated genes in all three species indicates the conserved XlnR-binding site to be 5?-GGNTAAA-3?. The composition of the conserved gene-set suggests that xylose acts as a molecule, indicating the presence of complex carbohydrates such as hemicellulose, and triggers an array of degrading enzymes. With this case example, we present a validated tool for transcriptome analysis of three Aspergillus species and a methodology for conducting cross-species evolutionary studies within a genus using comparative transcriptomics. PMID:18332432

Andersen, Mikael R.; Vongsangnak, Wanwipa; Panagiotou, Gianni; Salazar, Margarita P.; Lehmann, Linda; Nielsen, Jens

2008-01-01

24

Tracheobronchial Manifestations of Aspergillus Infections  

PubMed Central

Human lungs are constantly exposed to a large number of Aspergillus spores which are present in ambient air. These spores are usually harmless to immunocompetent subjects but can produce a symptomatic disease in patients with impaired antifungal defense. In a small percentage of patients, the trachea and bronchi may be the main or even the sole site of Aspergillus infection. The clinical entities that may develop in tracheobronchial location include saprophytic, allergic and invasive diseases. Although this review is focused on invasive Aspergillus tracheobronchial infections, some aspects of allergic and saprophytic tracheobronchial diseases are also discussed in order to present the whole spectrum of tracheobronchial aspergillosis. To be consistent with clinical practice, an approach basing on specific conditions predisposing to invasive Aspergillus tracheobronchial infections is used to present the differences in the clinical course and prognosis of these infections. Thus, invasive or potentially invasive Aspergillus airway diseases are discussed separately in three groups of patients: (1) lung transplant recipients, (2) highly immunocompromised patients with hematologic malignancies and/or patients undergoing hematopoietic stem cell transplantation, and (3) the remaining, less severely immunocompromised patients or even immunocompetent subjects. PMID:22194666

Krenke, Rafal; Grabczak, Elzbieta M.

2011-01-01

25

Keratitis caused by Aspergillus pseudotamarii  

PubMed Central

A male patient presented with complaints of redness, pain and defective vision in the left eye. The infiltrate healed completely after two weeks of topical natamycin administration. A polyphasic approach was used to identify the isolate as Aspergillus pseudotamarii, which produced aflatoxins in inducing medium. PMID:24432226

Baranyi, Nikolett; Kocsube, Sandor; Szekeres, Andras; Raghavan, Anita; Narendran, Venkatapathy; Vagvolgyi, Csaba; Panneer Selvam, Kanesan; Babu Singh, Yendremban Randhir; Kredics, Laszlo; Varga, Janos; Manikandan, Palanisamy

2013-01-01

26

Isolation of bacterial antagonists of Aspergillus flavus from almonds.  

PubMed

Bacteria were isolated from California almond orchard samples to evaluate their potential antifungal activity against aflatoxin-producing Aspergillus flavus. Fungal populations from the same samples were examined to determine the incidence of aflatoxigenic Aspergillus species. Antagonistic activities of the isolated bacterial strains were screened against a nonaflatoxigenic nor mutant of A. flavus, which accumulates the pigmented aflatoxin precursor norsolorinic acid (NOR) under conditions conducive to aflatoxin production. Using solid and liquid media in coculture assays, 171 bacteria isolated from almond flowers, immature nut fruits, and mature nut fruits showed inhibition of A. flavus growth and/or inhibition of NOR accumulation. Bacterial isolates were further characterized for production of extracellular enzymes capable of hydrolyzing chitin or yeast cell walls. Molecular and physiological identification of the bacterial strains indicated that the predominant genera isolated were Bacillus, Pseudomonas, Ralstonia, and Burkholderia, as well as several plant-associated enteric and nonenteric bacteria. A set of 20 isolates was selected for further study based on their species identification, antifungal phenotypes, and extracellular enzyme production. Quantitative assays using these isolates in liquid coculture with a wild-type, aflatoxin-producing A. flavus strain showed that a number of strains completely inhibited fungal growth in three different media. These results indicate the potential for development of bacterial antagonists as biological control agents against aflatoxigenic aspergilli on almonds. PMID:16767519

Palumbo, Jeffrey D; Baker, James L; Mahoney, Noreen E

2006-07-01

27

New genera and species of Chrysobalanaceae from Malesia and Oceania  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two new genera of Chrysobalanaceae are described.Hunga distributed in New Caledonia, the Loyalty Islands and Papua and New Guinea, contains eight species, three new, and five formerly\\u000a placed in the generaAngelesia, Licania andParinari.Kostermanthus is described to accommodate two species with united filaments formerly placed inParinari andAcioa. Both new genera are quite as distinct as others of the family and have

Ghillean T. Prance

1979-01-01

28

Compression fossil Mymaridae (Hymenoptera) from Kishenehn oil shales, with description of two new genera and review of Tertiary amber genera  

PubMed Central

Abstract Compression fossils of three genera and six species of Mymaridae (Hymenoptera: Chalcidoidea) are described from 46 million year old Kishenehn oil shales in Montana, USA. Two new genera are described: Eoeustochus Huber, gen. n., with two included species, Eoeustochus kishenehn Huber (type species) and Eoeustochus borchersi Huber, sp. n., and Eoanaphes, gen. n., with Eoanaphes stethynioides Huber, sp. n. Three new species of Gonatocerus are also described, Gonatocerus greenwalti Huber, sp. n. , Gonatocerus kootenai Huber, sp. n., and Gonatocerus rasnitsyni Huber, sp. n. Previously described amber fossil genera are discussed and five genera in Baltic amber are tentatively recorded as fossils: Anagroidea, Camptoptera, Dorya, Eustochus, and Mimalaptus. PMID:22259294

Huber, John T.; Greenwalt, Dale

2011-01-01

29

Onychomycosis caused by Aspergillus versicolor.  

PubMed

We report a case of onychomycosis caused by Aspergillus versicolor in a 66-year-old female patient. The infection was characterised clinically by yellowish pigmentation of the nail plate and mild nail bed hyperkeratosis of the first left toe. All other nails were normal. Three direct microscopical examinations of nail samples revealed the presence of hyaline hyphae as well as conidiophores. Pure colonies of A. versicolor were found in three cultures. The patient was successfully treated with oral itraconazole. PMID:19422523

Veraldi, Stefano; Chiaratti, Anna; Harak, Henry

2010-07-01

30

CADRE: the Central Aspergillus Data REpository  

PubMed Central

CADRE is a public resource for housing and analysing genomic data extracted from species of Aspergillus. It arose to enable maintenance of the complete annotated genomic sequence of Aspergillus fumigatus and to provide tools for searching, analysing and visualizing features of fungal genomes. By implementing CADRE using Ensembl, a framework is in place for storing and comparing several genomes: the resource will thus expand by including other Aspergillus genomes (such as Aspergillus nidulans) as they become available. CADRE is accessible at http://www.cadre.man.ac.uk. PMID:14681443

Mabey, J. E.; Anderson, M. J.; Giles, P. F.; Miller, C. J.; Attwood, T. K.; Paton, N. W.; Bornberg-Bauer, E.; Robson, G. D.; Oliver, S. G.; Denning, D. W.

2004-01-01

31

ELLIPTIC GENERA OF LEVEL N AND ELLIPTIC COHOMOLOGY  

Microsoft Academic Search

. Elliptic genera of level N have been defined by F. Hirzebruch, generalising theearlier notion of elliptic genus due to S. Ochanine. We show that there are correspondingelliptic cohomology theories which are naturally associated to such genera and that these areobtained from the level 1 case by algebraic extension of the coefficient rings from level 1 tolevel N modular forms.Introduction.In

Andrew Baker

1995-01-01

32

Risk assessment of the use of sub-optimal levels of weak-acid preservatives in the control of mould growth on bakery products  

Microsoft Academic Search

The hurdle technology approach was used to prevent fungal growth of common contaminants of bakery products including isolates belonging to the genera Eurotium, Aspergillus and Penicillium. Several levels (0.003%, 0.03% and 0.3%) of calcium propionate, potassium sorbate and sodium benzoate were assayed on a model agar system in a full-factorial experimental design in which the other factors assayed were pH

S Mar??n; M. E Guynot; P Neira; M Bernadó; V Sanchis; A. J Ramos

2002-01-01

33

Cyclopiazonic Acid Biosynthesis of Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus oryzae  

PubMed Central

Cyclopiazonic acid (CPA) is an indole-tetramic acid neurotoxin produced by some of the same strains of A. flavus that produce aflatoxins and by some Aspergillus oryzae strains. Despite its discovery 40 years ago, few reviews of its toxicity and biosynthesis have been reported. This review examines what is currently known about the toxicity of CPA to animals and humans, both by itself or in combination with other mycotoxins. The review also discusses CPA biosynthesis and the genetic diversity of CPA production in A. flavus/oryzae populations. PMID:22069533

Chang, Perng-Kuang; Ehrlich, Kenneth C.; Fujii, Isao

2009-01-01

34

Genome sequencing and analysis of Aspergillus oryzae  

Microsoft Academic Search

The genome of Aspergillus oryzae, a fungus important for the production of traditional fermented foods and beverages in Japan, has been sequenced. The ability to secrete large amounts of proteins and the development of a transformation system have facilitated the use of A. oryzae in modern biotechnology. Although both A. oryzae and Aspergillus flavus belong to the section Flavi of

Masayuki Machida; Kiyoshi Asai; Motoaki Sano; Toshihiro Tanaka; Toshitaka Kumagai; Goro Terai; Ken-Ichi Kusumoto; Toshihide Arima; Osamu Akita; Yutaka Kashiwagi; Keietsu Abe; Katsuya Gomi; Hiroyuki Horiuchi; Katsuhiko Kitamoto; Tetsuo Kobayashi; Michio Takeuchi; David W. Denning; James E. Galagan; William C. Nierman; Jiujiang Yu; David B. Archer; Joan W. Bennett; Deepak Bhatnagar; Thomas E. Cleveland; Natalie D. Fedorova; Osamu Gotoh; Hiroshi Horikawa; Akira Hosoyama; Masayuki Ichinomiya; Rie Igarashi; Kazuhiro Iwashita; Praveen Rao Juvvadi; Masashi Kato; Yumiko Kato; Taishin Kin; Akira Kokubun; Hiroshi Maeda; Noriko Maeyama; Jun-Ichi Maruyama; Hideki Nagasaki; Tasuku Nakajima; Ken Oda; Kinya Okada; Ian Paulsen; Kazutoshi Sakamoto; Toshihiko Sawano; Mikio Takahashi; Kumiko Takase; Yasunobu Terabayashi; Jennifer R. Wortman; Osamu Yamada; Youhei Yamagata; Hideharu Anazawa; Yoji Hata; Yoshinao Koide; Takashi Komori; Yasuji Koyama; Toshitaka Minetoki; Sivasundaram Suharnan; Akimitsu Tanaka; Katsumi Isono; Satoru Kuhara; Naotake Ogasawara; Hisashi Kikuchi

2005-01-01

35

Degradation of ochratoxin A by Aspergillus species  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mycotoxin contamination of agricultural products is a serious health hazard throughout the world. Besides attempts to eliminate mycotoxins from contaminated substrates by physical and chemical methods, the ability of microbes to degrade mycotoxins is now being widely examined. In this study, several Aspergillus species were examined for their ability to degrade ochratoxin A. A. fumigatus and black Aspergillus strains were

János Varga; Krisztina Rigó; József Téren

2000-01-01

36

New taxa of Neosartorya and Aspergillus in Aspergillus section Fumigati.  

PubMed

Three new species of Neosartorya and one new Aspergillus of section Fumigati are proposed using a polyphasic approach based on morphology, extrolite production and partial beta-tubulin, calmodulin, and actin gene sequences. The phylogenetic analyses using the three genes clearly show that the taxa grouped separately from the known species and confirmed the phenotypic differences. Neosartorya denticulata is characterized by its unique denticulate ascospores with a prominent equatorial furrow; N. assulata by well developed flaps on the convex surface of the ascospores which in addition have two distinct equatorial crests and N. galapagensis by a funiculose colony morphology, short and narrow conidiophores and ascospores with two wide equatorial crests with a microtuberculate convex surface. Aspergillus turcosus can be distinguished by velvety, gray turquoise colonies and short, loosely columnar conidial heads. The four new taxa also have unique extrolite profiles, which contain the mycotoxins gliotoxin and viriditoxin in N. denticulate; apolar compounds provisionally named NEPS in N. assulata and gregatins in N. galapagensis. A. turcosus produced kotanins. N. denticulata sp. nov., N. assulata sp. nov., N. galapagensis sp. nov., and A. turcosus sp. nov. are described and illustrated. PMID:17610141

Hong, Seung-Beom; Shin, Hyeon-Dong; Hong, Joonbae; Frisvad, Jens C; Nielsen, Per V; Varga, János; Samson, Robert A

2008-01-01

37

Expression of Innate and Adaptive Immune Mediators in Human Corneal Tissue Infected With Aspergillus or Fusarium  

PubMed Central

Background.?Filamentous fungi of the genera Aspergillus and Fusarium are major causes of corneal ulcers in the United States and in the developing world and result in significant visual impairment and blindness. Methods.?RNA was extracted from 110 patients with corneal ulcers in southern India within 1 week of infection with either Fusarium solani or Aspergillus flavus, and gene expression was determined by quantitative polymerase chain reaction. Posttransplant corneas from later stage disease (>2 weeks after infection) were also examined. Results.?Expression of Dectin-1, Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2), TLR4, TLR9, and NOD-like receptor protein (NLRP)3 messenger RNA was elevated >1000-fold compared with uninfected donor corneas, whereas Dectin-2 was constitutively expressed in uninfected corneas. Furthermore, interleukin 1? (IL-1?) expression was elevated >1000-fold, whereas IL-1? expression was not increased. Expression of IL-8, IL-17, and tumor necrosis factor ? was also elevated. CD3+and CD4+ T cells were detected in infected posttransplant corneas. Expression of IL-17 and interferon ? was elevated but not that of IL-4. There were no significant differences in the host response between Aspergillus- and Fusarium-infected corneas at any time point. Conclusions.?There is a common innate and adaptive immune response to these filamentous fungi, which includes the generation of T-helper 1 and T-helper 17 cells. PMID:21828275

Karthikeyan, Rajapandian Sivaganesa; Leal, Sixto M.; Prajna, Namperumalsamy Venkatesh; Dharmalingam, Kuppamuthu; Geiser, David M.; Lalitha, Prajna

2011-01-01

38

Onychomycosis due to Aspergillus candidus: case report.  

PubMed

A patient is described who suffered from chronic fungal involvement of right great toe nail. Serial cultures of the removed nail demonstrated a non-dermatophyte, Aspergillus candidus, as the causative agent. PMID:125865

Cornere, B M; Eastman, M

1975-07-01

39

Multi-azole resistance in Aspergillus fumigatus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Azole resistance in Aspergillus spp. is unusual. We report a patient who received long-term treatment with itraconazole and voriconazole for bilateral chronic cavitary aspergillosis with aspergillomas whose isolates of Aspergillus fumigatus developed simultaneous resistance to itraconazole and voriconazole. A novel mutation (G138C) in the target gene (cyp51A) encoding 14?-demethylase was detected. The patient had some response to intravenous caspofungin, which

Susan J. Howard; Ian Webster; Caroline B. Moore; Rebecca E. Gardiner; Steven Park; David S. Perlin; David W. Denning

2006-01-01

40

The melectine bee genera Brachymelecta and Sinomelecta (Hymenoptera, Apidae)  

PubMed Central

Abstract The enigmatic, cleptoparasitic bee genera Brachymelecta Linsley and Sinomelecta Baker (Apinae: Melectini) are redescribed, each represented by a single species which has not been reencountered since capture of the type series ca. 1878 and 1900, respectively. Both genera are the only melectines to possess two submarginal cells in the forewing but are otherwise wholly dissimilar. Brachymelecta mucida (Cresson), a species known only from the male holotype collected in “Nevada”, is newly described and figured, including the first account of the hidden sterna and genitalia. Sinomelecta oreina Baker is similarly described and figured based on the holotype male and paratype female, apparently collected from the eastern Tibetan Plateau. Both genera are valid and from the available data do not appear to represent merely autapomorphic forms of Melecta Latreille. Indeed, the terminalia of Sinomelecta oreina are in some respects more similar to those of species of Thyreus Panzer. PMID:23275741

Engel, Michael S.; Michener, Charles D.

2012-01-01

41

Cloning of Aspergillus niger genes in yeast. Expression of the gene coding Aspergillus ? -glucosidase  

Microsoft Academic Search

The possibility of cloning filamentous fungal genes by expression in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae has been studied. A genome bank of Aspergillus niger was made in E. coli using a yeast cosmid shuttle vector and over 10,000 different cosmid clones were individually isolated. Yeast transformants carrying Aspergillus DNA were screened for the expression of the genes for fungal secreted glycoproteins,

Meria E. Penttilä; K. M. Helena Nevalainen; Alain Raynal; Jonathan K. C. Knowles

1984-01-01

42

A revised taxonomy of the iguanodont dinosaur genera and species  

Microsoft Academic Search

Criteria for designating dinosaur genera are inconsistent; some very similar species are highly split at the generic level, other anatomically disparate species are united at the same rank. Since the mid-1800s the classic genus Iguanodon has become a taxonomic grab-bag containing species spanning most of the Early Cretaceous of the northern hemisphere. Recently the genus was radically redesignated when the

Gregory S. Paul

2008-01-01

43

Leaf-inhabiting genera of the Gnomoniaceae, Diaporthales  

PubMed Central

The Gnomoniaceae are characterised by ascomata that are generally immersed, solitary, without a stroma, or aggregated with a rudimentary stroma, in herbaceous plant material especially in leaves, twigs or stems, but also in bark or wood. The ascomata are black, soft-textured, thin-walled, and pseudoparenchymatous with one or more central or eccentric necks. The asci usually have a distinct apical ring. The Gnomoniaceae includes species having ascospores that are small, mostly less than 25 ?m long, although some are longer, and range in septation from non-septate to one-septate, rarely multi-septate. Molecular studies of the Gnomoniaceae suggest that the traditional classification of genera based on characteristics of the ascomata such as position of the neck and ascospores such as septation have resulted in genera that are not monophyletic. In this paper the concepts of the leaf-inhabiting genera in the Gnomoniaceae are reevaluated using multiple genes, specifically nrLSU, translation elongation factor 1-alpha (tef1-?), and RNA polymerase II second largest subunit (rpb2) for 64 isolates. ITS sequences were generated for 322 isolates. Six genera of leaf-inhabiting Gnomoniaceae are defined based on placement of their type species within the multigene phylogeny. The new monotypic genus Ambarignomonia is established for an unusual species, A. petiolorum. A key to 59 species of leaf-inhabiting Gnomoniaceae is presented and 22 species of Gnomoniaceae are described and illustrated. PMID:19287541

Sogonov, M.V.; Castlebury, L.A.; Rossman, A.Y.; Mejia, L.C.; White, J.F.

2008-01-01

44

Texture Analysis for Nematode Genera Classification Bilson Jake Libres Campana  

E-print Network

Texture Analysis for Nematode Genera Classification Bilson Jake Libres Campana Department, 92521 bcampana@cs.ucr.edu ABSTRACT Nematodes are the most diverse animals and the most numerous multi worms to large classes such as Cestoda, which can grow to over 30 meters. Not only are nematodes greatly

Zordan, Victor

45

On the size distribution of live genera. William J. Reed  

E-print Network

of live genera, arising from a simple model of macroevolution in which speciations and extinctions of macroevolution to explain observed abundance distributions, introducing and developing the theory process and thus leading to a model of neutral macroevolution. This has been proposed by Raup (1985), who

Reed, W.J.

46

Technological innovaTion: generaTing economic  

E-print Network

Technological innovaTion: generaTing economic resulTs (Ti:ger® ) EntrEprEnEurship · t, Science, Business, and Law The main hurdles to commercializing research are almost never technology-related but instead involve legal issues and problems interfacing with the public and market, explains TI

Li, Mo

47

Four"Genera+ons"of" IMSC"Spinoffs"  

E-print Network

and they are easy to create in Game Maker. This tutorial shows in a number of easy-to-follow steps how to create1" Four"Genera+ons"of" IMSC"Spinoffs" Luciano"Nocera,"Ph.D." Associate"Director,"Integrated"Media@usc.edu" " " #12;2" IMSC"Spinoffs" ! Computer"Vision"&""Computer"Graphics" Immersive"Audio" Serious"Games" Geospa

Shahabi, Cyrus

48

Key to the Lichen Genera of the Pacific Northwest  

E-print Network

attempts to include all lichenized fungi known from the Pacific Northwest or North America of these are from California, Alaska, and Colorado. Genera of non-lichenized lichenicolous fungi are not included a basidiomycete; fruiting structures mushroom-like or club-shaped ............................................Key

McCune, Bruce

49

The Botryosphaeriaceae: genera and species known from culture  

PubMed Central

In this paper we give an account of the genera and species in the Botryosphaeriaceae. We consider morphological characters alone as inadequate to define genera or identify species, given the confusion it has repeatedly introduced in the past, their variation during development, and inevitable overlap as representation grows. Thus it seems likely that all of the older taxa linked to the Botryosphaeriaceae, and for which cultures or DNA sequence data are not available, cannot be linked to the species in this family that are known from culture. Such older taxa will have to be disregarded for future use unless they are epitypified. We therefore focus this paper on the 17 genera that can now be recognised phylogenetically, which concentrates on the species that are presently known from culture. Included is a historical overview of the family, the morphological features that define the genera and species and detailed descriptions of the 17 genera and 110 species. Keys to the genera and species are also provided. Phylogenetic relationships of the genera are given in a multi-locus tree based on combined SSU, ITS, LSU, EF1-? and ?-tubulin sequences. The morphological descriptions are supplemented by phylogenetic trees (ITS alone or ITS + EF1-?) for the species in each genus. Taxonomic novelties: New species - Neofusicoccum batangarum Begoude, Jol. Roux & Slippers. New combinations - Botryosphaeria fabicerciana (S.F. Chen, D. Pavlic, M.J. Wingf. & X.D. Zhou) A.J.L. Phillips & A. Alves, Botryosphaeria ramosa (Pavlic, T.I. Burgess, M.J. Wingf.) A.J.L. Phillips & A. Alves, Cophinforma atrovirens (Mehl & Slippers) A. Alves & A.J.L. Phillips, Cophinforma mamane (D.E. Gardner) A.J.L. Phillips & A. Alves, Dothiorella pretoriensis (Jami, Gryzenh., Slippers & M.J. Wingf.) Abdollahz. & A.J.L. Phillips, Dothiorella thailandica (D.Q. Dai., J.K. Liu & K.D. Hyde) Abdollahz., A.J.L. Phillips & A. Alves, Dothiorella uruguayensis (C.A. Pérez, Blanchette, Slippers & M.J. Wingf.) Abdollahz. & A.J.L. Phillips, Lasiodiplodia lignicola (Ariyawansa, J.K. Liu & K.D. Hyde) A.J.L. Phillips, A. Alves & Abdollahz., Neoscytalidium hyalinum (C.K. Campb. & J.L. Mulder) A.J.L. Phillips, Groenewald & Crous, Sphaeropsis citrigena (A.J.L. Phillips, P.R. Johnst. & Pennycook) A.J.L. Phillips & A. Alves, Sphaeropsis eucalypticola (Doilom, J.K. Liu, & K.D. Hyde) A.J.L. Phillips, Sphaeropsis porosa (Van Niekerk & Crous) A.J.L. Phillips & A. Alves. Epitypification (basionym) - Sphaeria sapinea Fries. Neotypifications (basionyms) - Botryodiplodia theobromae Pat., Physalospora agaves Henn, Sphaeria atrovirens var. visci Alb. & Schwein. PMID:24302790

Phillips, A.J.L.; Alves, A.; Abdollahzadeh, J.; Slippers, B.; Wingfield, M.J.; Groenewald, J.Z.; Crous, P.W.

2013-01-01

50

Aspergillus cell wall and biofilm.  

PubMed

The fungal cell is surrounded by a cell wall that acts as a sieve and a reservoir for effector molecules that play an active role during infection. This cell wall is essential for fungal growth as well as for resisting host defense mechanisms. The Aspergillus fumigatus cell wall is almost exclusively composed of polysaccharides. The fibrillar core is composed of a branched ?-(1,3)-glucan to which chitin, ?-(1,3)-/?-(1,4)-glucan, and galactomannan are covalently bound. The alkali-soluble amorphous fraction is mainly composed of ?-(1,3)-glucan that has adhesive property and stabilizes the cell wall. Although the same polysaccharides are found in the cell wall of different A. fumigatus morphotypes (conidia and hyphae), their concentration and localization are different. Conidial (the morphotype that mainly enters host respiratory system) cell wall is covered by an outer layer of rodlets and melanin, which confers hydrophobic properties and imparts immunological inertness. In contrast, outer layer of the hypha contains galactosaminogalactan, recently identified as an A. fumigatus virulence factor. The hypha grows either as a network of agglutinated and hydrophobic mass (called mycelium) embedded in an extracellular matrix (ECM) rich in polysaccharides, hydrophobin, and melanin or segregated without ECM. PMID:24947169

Beauvais, Anne; Fontaine, Thierry; Aimanianda, Vishukumar; Latgé, Jean-Paul

2014-12-01

51

The volatome of Aspergillus fumigatus.  

PubMed

Early detection of invasive aspergillosis is absolutely required for efficient therapy of this fungal infection. The identification of fungal volatiles in patient breath can be an alternative for the detection of Aspergillus fumigatus that still remains problematic. In this work, we investigated the production of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) by A. fumigatus in vitro, and we show that volatile production depends on the nutritional environment. A. fumigatus produces a multiplicity of VOCs, predominantly terpenes and related compounds. The production of sesquiterpenoid compounds was found to be strongly induced by increased iron concentrations and certain drugs, i.e., pravastatin. Terpenes that were always detectable in large amounts were ?-pinene, camphene, and limonene, as well as sesquiterpenes, identified as ?-bergamotene and ?-trans-bergamotene. Other substance classes that were found to be present in the volatome, such as 1-octen-3-ol, 3-octanone, and pyrazines, were found only under specific growth conditions. Drugs that interfere with the terpene biosynthesis pathway influenced the composition of the fungal volatome, and most notably, a block of sesquiterpene biosynthesis by the bisphosphonate alendronate fundamentally changed the VOC composition. Using deletion mutants, we also show that a terpene cyclase and a putative kaurene synthase are essential for the synthesis of volatile terpenes by A. fumigatus. The present analysis of in vitro volatile production by A. fumigatus suggests that VOCs may be used in the diagnosis of infections caused by this fungus. PMID:24906414

Heddergott, C; Calvo, A M; Latgé, J P

2014-08-01

52

Aspergillus tracheobronchitis, bronchopleural fistula and empyema after lobectomy for aspergilloma  

PubMed Central

Aspergillus tracheobronchitis and Aspergillus empyema are two rare manifestations of Aspergillus infection. This case report presents a patient with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease who developed a pseudomembranous Aspergillus tracheobronchitis, bronchopleural fistula and empyema 16 months after lobectomy for an aspergilloma. Bronchoscopy proved to be important for assessment of severity. Combined systemic anti-fungal treatment (voriconazole) and open window thoracostomy were used to successfully treat the patient. PMID:25379394

Rummens, Peter; Bruyneel, Marie; Lungarella, Michele; Ninane, Vincent

2014-01-01

53

Aspergillus luchuensis, an industrially important black Aspergillus in East Asia.  

PubMed

Aspergilli known as black- and white-koji molds which are used for awamori, shochu, makgeolli and other food and beverage fermentations, are reported in the literature as A. luchuensis, A. awamori, A. kawachii, or A. acidus. In order to elucidate the taxonomic position of these species, available ex-type cultures were compared based on morphology and molecular characters. A. luchuensis, A. kawachii and A. acidus showed the same banding patterns in RAPD, and the three species had the same rDNA-ITS, ?-tubulin and calmodulin sequences and these differed from those of the closely related A. niger and A. tubingensis. Morphologically, the three species are not significantly different from each other or from A. niger and A. tubingensis. It is concluded that A. luchuensis, A. kawachii and A. acidus are the same species, and A. luchuensis is selected as the correct name based on priority. Strains of A. awamori which are stored in National Research Institute of Brewing in Japan, represent A. niger (n?=?14) and A. luchuensis (n?=?6). The neotype of A. awamori (CBS 557.65?=? NRRL 4948) does not originate from awamori fermentation and it is shown to be identical with the unknown taxon Aspergillus welwitschiae. Extrolite analysis of strains of A. luchuensis showed that they do not produce mycotoxins and therefore can be considered safe for food and beverage fermentations. A. luchuensis is also frequently isolated from meju and nuruk in Korea and Puerh tea in China and the species is probably common in the fermentation environment of East Asia. A re-description of A. luchuensis is provided because the incomplete data in the original literature. PMID:23723998

Hong, Seung-Beom; Lee, Mina; Kim, Dae-Ho; Varga, Janos; Frisvad, Jens C; Perrone, Giancarlo; Gomi, Katsuya; Yamada, Osamu; Machida, Masayuki; Houbraken, Jos; Samson, Robert A

2013-01-01

54

ASPERGILLUS LUCHUENSIS , AN INDUSTRIALLY IMPORTANT BLACK ASPERGILLUS IN EAST ASIA  

PubMed Central

Aspergilli known as black- and white-koji molds which are used for awamori, shochu, makgeolli and other food and beverage fermentations, are reported in the literature as A. luchuensis, A. awamori, A. kawachii, or A. acidus. In order to elucidate the taxonomic position of these species, available ex-type cultures were compared based on morphology and molecular characters. A. luchuensis, A. kawachii and A. acidus showed the same banding patterns in RAPD, and the three species had the same rDNA-ITS, ?-tubulin and calmodulin sequences and these differed from those of the closely related A. niger and A. tubingensis. Morphologically, the three species are not significantly different from each other or from A. niger and A. tubingensis. It is concluded that A. luchuensis, A. kawachii and A. acidus are the same species, and A. luchuensis is selected as the correct name based on priority. Strains of A. awamori which are stored in National Research Institute of Brewing in Japan, represent A. niger (n?=?14) and A. luchuensis (n?=?6). The neotype of A. awamori (CBS 557.65?=? NRRL 4948) does not originate from awamori fermentation and it is shown to be identical with the unknown taxon Aspergillus welwitschiae. Extrolite analysis of strains of A. luchuensis showed that they do not produce mycotoxins and therefore can be considered safe for food and beverage fermentations. A. luchuensis is also frequently isolated from meju and nuruk in Korea and Puerh tea in China and the species is probably common in the fermentation environment of East Asia. A re-description of A. luchuensis is provided because the incomplete data in the original literature. PMID:23723998

Hong, Seung-Beom; Lee, Mina; Kim, Dae-Ho; Varga, Janos; Frisvad, Jens C.; Perrone, Giancarlo; Gomi, Katsuya; Yamada, Osamu; Machida, Masayuki; Houbraken, Jos; Samson, Robert A.

2013-01-01

55

Original article The effect of Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Aspergillus  

E-print Network

Original article The effect of Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Aspergillus oryzae on the digestion cerevisiae / Aspergillus oryzae / protozoa / digestion / fibre Résumé - Effet de Saccharomyces cerevisiae et was to determine the effect of two probiotics, Saccharo- myces cerevisiae (SC) and Aspergillus oryzae (AO), without

Boyer, Edmond

56

Lacrimal sac plugging caused by Aspergillus fumigatus.  

PubMed

Aspergillus fumigatus is a rare cause of canalicular obstruction. We present a case where an aspergillosis plug caused extreme tenderness, epiphoria and discharge from the lacrimal puntum. CT scan showed dilation of the lacrimal sac. Medical treatment did not relieve the symptoms. During a planned DCR the sac was opened before the osteotomy, and found to contain a plug which caused the obstruction. Aspergillus fumigatus was grown from culture. The DCR was abandoned and the patient is symptom free one year after the procedure. PMID:9591962

Kristinsson, J K; Sigurdsson, H

1998-04-01

57

First Nuclear DNA C?values for 28 Angiosperm Genera  

PubMed Central

This paper reports first DNA C?values for 28 angiosperm genera. These include first DNA C?values for 25 families, of which 16 are monocots. Overall familial representation is 47·2 % for angiosperms, but is now much higher for monocots (75 %) and basal angiosperms (73·1 %) than for eudicots (38·7 %). Chromosome counts are reported for 22 taxa, including first records for six genera plus seven species. Unrepresented families will become increasingly enriched for monotypic taxa from obscure locations that are harder to access. Thus, completing familial representation for genome size for angiosperms may prove impossible in any short period, and progress towards this goal will become slower. PMID:12495917

HANSON, LYNDA; BROWN, REBECCA L.; BOYD, AMY; JOHNSON, MARGARET A. T.; BENNETT, MICHAEL D.

2003-01-01

58

PHYLOGENY OF PHOSPHOMANNAN-PRODUCING YEASTS I. The Genera  

PubMed Central

Wickerham, Lynferd J. (U. S. Department of Agriculture, Peoria, Ill.), and Kermit A. Burton. Phylogeny of phosphomannan-producing yeasts. I. The genera. J. Bacteriol. 82:265–268. 1961.—Primitive yeasts of the genera Hansenula, Pichia, and Pachysolen produce extracellular phosphorylated mannans. The phosphomannans cause adherence of the cells to bark beetles that transport the yeasts from the sap-conducting tissues of one tree to another. Two yeasts that produce phosphomannans most abundantly are the most primitive species of Hansenula; H. holstii is heterothallic, and H. capsulata is homothallic. From these two species issued lines of species developing toward independence from trees as their habitat and other lines that developed toward greater dependence upon trees. Most of the primitive species of Pichia are very similar to those species of Hansenula that are highly dependent upon trees. The one available species of Pachysolen resembles species of the less dependent lines. PMID:13785001

Wickerham, Lynferd J.; Burton, Kermit A.

1961-01-01

59

Phylogeny and taxonomy of obscure genera of microfungi.  

PubMed

The recently generated molecular phylogeny for the kingdom Fungi, on which a new classification scheme is based, still suffers from an under representation of numerous apparently asexual genera of microfungi. In an attempt to populate the Fungal Tree of Life, fresh samples of 10 obscure genera of hyphomycetes were collected. These fungi were subsequently established in culture, and subjected to DNA sequence analysis of the ITS and LSU nrRNA genes to resolve species and generic questions related to these obscure genera. Brycekendrickomyces (Herpotrichiellaceae) is introduced as a new genus similar to, but distinct from Haplographium and Lauriomyces. Chalastospora is shown to be a genus in the Pleosporales, with two new species, C. ellipsoidea and C. obclavata, to which Alternaria malorum is added as an additional taxon under its oldest epithet, C. gossypii. Cyphellophora eugeniae is newly described in Cyphellophora (Herpotrichiellaceae), and distinguished from other taxa in the genus. Dictyosporium is placed in the Pleosporales, with one new species, D. streliziae. The genus Edenia, which was recently introduced for a sterile endophytic fungus isolated in Mexico, is shown to be a hyphomycete (Pleosporales) forming a pyronellea-like synanamorph in culture. Thedgonia is shown not to represent an anamorph of Mycosphaerella, but to belong to the Helotiales. Trochophora, however, clustered basal to the Pseudocercospora complex in the Mycosphaerellaceae, as did Verrucisporota. Vonarxia, a rather forgotten genus of hyphomycetes, is shown to belong to the Herpotrichiellaceae and Xenostigmina is confirmed as synanamorph of Mycopappus, and is shown to be allied to Seifertia in the Pleosporales. Dichotomous keys are provided for species in the various genera treated. Furthermore, several families are shown to be polyphyletic within some orders, especially in the Capnodiales, Chaetothyriales and Pleosporales. PMID:20198145

Crous, P W; Braun, U; Wingfield, M J; Wood, A R; Shin, H D; Summerell, B A; Alfenas, A C; Cumagun, C J R; Groenewald, J Z

2009-06-01

60

Notes on some African hepatic genera 1–5  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study deals with five genera of hepatics in Africa, Isotachis\\u000a Mitt., Anastrophyllum (Spruce) Steph., Tritomaria\\u000a Schiffn. ex Loeske, Gymnocoleopsis (Schust.) Schust. and Lophozia (Dum.) Dum. All African populations of the genus Isotachis\\u000a Mitt. are considered to be one species, I. aubertii (Schwaegr.) Mitt. Four species of Anastrophyllum (Spruce) Steph. (s.l.), A. auritum (Lehm.) Steph., A. piligerum (Nees) Spruce,

Ji?í Vá?a

1982-01-01

61

Decolourisation and dephenolisation potential of selected Aspergillus section Nigri strains – Aspergillus tubingensis in olive mill wastewater  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aspergillus section Nigri strains Aspergillus aculeatus Ege-K 258, A.\\u000a foeditus var. pallidus Ege-K156, A. niger Ege-K 4 and A. tubingensis Ege-K 265 were used to treat olive mill wastewater (OMW) in an investigation aimed at exploring their dephenolisation and\\u000a decolourisation ability and, consequently, the economic feasibility of using any or all of these strains in a pre-treatment\\u000a step in the

Gaye Öngen; Gaye Güngör; Bahar Kanberoglu

2007-01-01

62

Cerebral Aspergillosis Caused by Aspergillus granulosus?  

PubMed Central

Disseminated disease by Aspergillus granulosus has been reported only once previously in a cardiac transplant recipient. We report a fatal central nervous system infection in a lung transplant recipient. Key features of this species in the section Usti include growth at 37°C and large, randomly spaced aggregates of variably shaped Hülle cells. PMID:19710280

Sutton, Deanna A.; Wickes, Brian L.; Romanelli, Anna M.; Rinaldi, Michael G.; Thompson, Elizabeth H.; Fothergill, Annette W.; Dishop, Megan K.; Elidemir, Okan; Mallory, George B.; Moonnamakal, Siby P.; Adesina, Adekunle M.; Schecter, Marc G.

2009-01-01

63

An Aspergillus myocardial abscess diagnosed by echocardiography.  

PubMed

This is a rare case of Aspergillus myocardial abscess in 19-year-old woman with acute lymphoblastic leukemia treated by chemotherapy. During pancytopenia she developed invasive aspergillosis with myocardial abscess. The presence of specific antigen in the pericardial effusion was diagnostic. She died despite vigorous antifungal therapy. PMID:18222638

Kemdem, Arsène; Ahmad, Imran; Ysebrand, Laure; Nouar, Elias; Silance, Paul-Gael; Aoun, Mickael; Bron, Dominique; Vandenbossche, Jean-Luc

2008-10-01

64

Invasive Aspergillus infections in hematologic malignancy patients.  

PubMed

The incidence of invasive Aspergillus (IA) infections in patients with hematologic malignancies continues to increase. The most common species include Aspergillus fumigatus (approximately 90% of cases), A. flavus, A. niger, A. terreus, and A. nidulans. Most infections involve the pulmonary parenchyma, though systemic dissemination of the fungus from a primary pulmonary focus or the paranasal sinuses after hyphal invasion into blood vessels is frequent. Early diagnosis and initiation of appropriate antifungal therapy has been shown to improve the prognosis of patients afflicted with this condition. The definitive diagnosis of IA is based on showing the hyphal invasion in tissue specimens together with a positive culture for Aspergillus species from the same specimen. The detection of circulating fungal antigens and DNA seems to be a promising, rapid, and sensitive diagnostic tool for early diagnosis of aspergillosis. The current antifungals available for the treatment of IA include amphotericin B deoxycholate and lipid formulations, itraconazole and caspofungin acetate. New investigational antifungal drugs include the triazoles voriconazole, posaconazole and ravuconazole, liposomal nystatin, and 2 echinocandin derivatives (anidulafungin [VER-002] and micafungin [FK463]). Preventive measures include reduction of environmental exposure of patients from sources of infection and anti-fungal prophylaxis. Specialized air-handling systems capable of excluding Aspergillus spores, such as high-efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filtration with or without laminar air flow ventilation has proven to be very efficacious. Targeted antifungal prophylaxis for hematologic patients who are at high risk for developing invasive fungal infections is not currently standardized. PMID:12070828

Perea, Sofia; Patterson, Thomas F

2002-06-01

65

Aspergillus infections: problems in diagnosis and treatment.  

PubMed

Invasive aspergillosis is a common infection in patients who are immunocompromised, particularly in oncology patients, patients receiving other immunosuppressive therapy, bone marrow transplant patients, and HIV-infected patients. The diagnosis of invasive aspergillosis is difficult in the absence of tissue biopsy and histologic confirmation. Therefore, the need for and progress in recent advances in the development of highly sensitive and specific serodiagnostic tests for the early diagnosis of invasive aspergillosis have been reviewed. Anti-Aspergillus antibody detection lacks the utility to lead to early diagnosis of invasive aspergillosis. However, sensitive methods that detect significant amounts of Aspergillus antigen in body fluids, primarily serum, of high risk patients are currently being evaluated and may provide a noninvasive early diagnostic test that is both sensitive and specific. Our recent results with an inhibition enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, which detects small but significant amounts of Aspergillus antigen in serum, in 35 patients with invasive aspergillosis are discussed. Also, current antifungal agents with anti-Aspergillus activity that have the potential for use as therapy or prophylaxis are briefly reviewed. PMID:8789599

Andriole, V T

1996-01-01

66

Properties of cellobiase from Aspergillus niger  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cellobiase enzyme was partially purified from the culture filtrate of Aspergillus niger AS-101 and the general and kinetic properties of the enzyme were examined. The enzyme was unstable on storage. However, it was protected by the addition of BSA, glycerol or sodium azide. Addition of glycerol also protected the enzyme from denaturation due to freezing and thawing. Effect of thiol

Ajay Singh; A. K. Agrawal; A. B. Abidi; N. S. Darmwal

1990-01-01

67

Biosynthesis of ochratoxins by Aspergillus ochraceus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Shaken liquid fermentation of an isolate of Aspergillus ochraceus showed growth-associated production of ochratoxins A and B, followed by production of a related polyketide diaporthin. Later, between 150 and 250 h, mellein accumulated transitorily. In contrast, shaken solid substrate (shredded wheat) fermentation over 14 days produced mainly ochratoxins A and B (ratio ca. 5:1) in very high yield (up to

Jonathan P Harris; Peter G Mantle

2001-01-01

68

TOXINES D'ASPERGILLUS OCHRACEUS WILHELM III. —  

E-print Network

TOXINES D'ASPERGILLUS OCHRACEUS WILHELM III. — TOXICITÃ? AIGUÃ? DE L'OCHRATOXINE A CHEZ LE RAT aiguë de l'ochratoxine A est mesurée chez le Rat et la Souris adultes par les voies orale, intraveineuse importante transformation en ochratoxine ce. Par contre, on enregistre les pertes de poids les plus sensibles

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

69

Microsatellite typing of Aspergillus flavus from clinical and environmental avian isolates  

PubMed Central

Aspergillosis is one of the most common causes of death in captive birds. Aspergillus fumigatus accounts for approximately 95?% of aspergillosis cases and Aspergillus flavus is the second most frequent organism associated with avian infections. In the present study, the fungi were grown from avian clinical samples (post-mortem lung material) and environmental samples (eggs, food and litter). Microsatellite markers were used to type seven clinical avian isolates and 22 environmental isolates of A. flavus. A. flavus was the only species (28?% prevalence) detected in the avian clinical isolates, whereas this species ranked third (19?%) after members of the genera Penicillium (39?%) and Cladosporium (21?%) in the environmental samples. Upon microsatellite analysis, five to eight distinct alleles were detected for each marker. The marker with the highest discriminatory power had eight alleles and a 0.852 D value. The combination of all six markers yielded a 0.991 D value with 25 distinct genotypes. One clinical avian isolate (lung biopsy) and one environmental isolate (egg) shared the same genotype. Microsatellite typing of A. flavus grown from avian and environmental samples displayed an excellent discriminatory power and 100?% reproducibility. This study showed a clustering of clinical and environmental isolates, which were clearly separated. Based upon these results, aspergillosis in birds may be induced by a great diversity of isolates. PMID:22977077

Hadrich, Inès; Drira, Inès; Neji, Sourour; Mahfoud, Nedia; Ranque, Stéphane; Makni, Fattouma

2013-01-01

70

Relationships of the Fossil and Recent Genera of Rabbitfishes (Acanthuroidei: Siganidae).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Four genera of fossil siganid fishes of early Eocene to early Oligocene age are recognized in addition to the single Recent geneus. The osteological features of these five genera are described and illustrated. A phylogenetic analysis utilizing PAUP indica...

J. C. Tyler, A. F. Bannikov

1997-01-01

71

Twelve previously unknown phage genera are ubiquitous in global oceans  

SciTech Connect

Viruses are fundamental to ecosystems ranging from oceans to humans, yet our ability to study them is bottlenecked by the lack of ecologically relevant isolates, resulting in unknowns dominating culture-independent surveys. Here we present genomes from 31 phages infecting multiple strains of the aquatic bacterium Cellulophaga baltica (Bacteroidetes) to provide data for an underrepresented and environmentally abundant bacterial lineage. Comparative genomics delineated 12 phage groups that (i) each represent a new genus, and (ii) represent one novel and four wellknown viral families. This diversity contrasts the few well-studied marine phage systems, but parallels the diversity of phages infecting human-associated bacteria. Although all 12 Cellulophaga phages represent new genera, the podoviruses and icosahedral, nontailed ssDNA phages were exceptional, with genomes up to twice as large as those previously observed for each phage type. Structural novelty was also substantial, requiring experimental phage proteomics to identify 83% of the structural proteins. The presence of uncommon nucleotide metabolism genes in four genera likely underscores the importance of scavenging nutrient-rich molecules as previously seen for phages in marine environments. Metagenomic recruitment analyses suggest that these particular Cellulophaga phages are rare and may represent a first glimpse into the phage side of the rare biosphere. However, these analyses also revealed that these phage genera are widespread, occurring in 94% of 137 investigated metagenomes. Together, this diverse and novel collection of phages identifies a small but ubiquitous fraction of unknown marine viral diversity and provides numerous environmentally relevant phage host systems for experimental hypothesis testing.

Holmfeldt, Karin [University of Arizona] [University of Arizona; Solonenko, Natalie [University of Arizona] [University of Arizona; Shah, Manesh B [ORNL] [ORNL; Corrier, Kristen L [ORNL] [ORNL; Riemann, Lasse [University of Copenhagen] [University of Copenhagen; Verberkmoes, Nathan C [ORNL] [ORNL; Sullivan, Matthew B [University of Arizona] [University of Arizona

2013-01-01

72

Two new genera of Nanophyidae with six desmomeres (Coleoptera, Curculionoidea)  

PubMed Central

Abstract A new genus Lyalia is described in Nanophyidae and three species are included in it: Lyalia curvata sp. n. (Vietnam), Lyalia robusta (Pic, 1921), comb. n. (from Nanophyes) (Java, Bali, Laos) and Lyalia albolineata (Pajni & Bhateja, 1982), comb. n. (from Ctenomerus) (India: Assam). Ctenomerus lagerstroemiae G. A. K. Marshall, 1923 is a syn. n. of Lyalia robusta. Thus, the genus Ctenomerus Schoenherr, 1843 is restricted to the Afrotropical Realm. Kantohia gen. n. is erected for Kantohia taiwana (Kantoh & Kojima, 2009) (from Shiva) (Taiwan). A key to the Nanophyinae genera with six desmomeres is presented. PMID:21998536

Alonso-Zarazaga, Miguel A.; Perrin, Helene

2011-01-01

73

Global Diversity and Phylogeny of Pelagic Shrimps of the Former Genera Sergestes and Sergia (Crustacea, Dendrobranchiata, Sergestidae), with Definition of Eight New Genera  

PubMed Central

We revise the global diversity of the former genera Sergia and Sergestes which include 71 valid species. The revision is based on examination of more than 37,000 specimens from collections in the Natural History Museum of Denmark and the Museum of Natural History, Paris. We used 72 morphological characters (61 binary, 11 multistate) and Sicyonella antennata as an outgroup for cladistic analysis. There is no support for the genera Sergia and Sergestes as they have been defined until now. We define and diagnose eight genera of the former genus Sergia (Sergia and new genera Gardinerosergia, Phorcosergia, Prehensilosergia, Robustosergia, Scintillosergia, Challengerosergia, and Lucensosergia) and seven genera of the former genus Sergestes (Sergestes, Deosergestes, Eusergestes, Allosergestes, Parasergestes, Neosergestes, and a new genus Cornutosergestes). An identification key is presented for all genera of the family Sergestidae. The phylogeny of Sergestidae is mainly based on three categories of characters related to: (1) general decapod morphology, (2) male copulatory organs, and (3) photophores. Only simultaneous use of all three character types resulted in a resolved tree with minimal Bootstrap support 75 for each clade. Most genera are interzonal mesopelagic migrants, some are benthopelagic (Scintillosergia, Lucensosergia), bathypelagic (Sergia), or epipelagic (Cornutosergestes). Within each of meso- and benthopelagic genera there is one species with panoceanic distribution, while most species ranges are restricted to a single ocean. The genera demonstrate two different strategies expressed both in morphology and behavior: protective (Eusergestes, Sergestes, Cornutosergestes, Prehensilosergia, Scintillosergia, Lucensosergia, Challengerosergia, Gardinerosergia, Robustosergia, Phorcosergia, Sergia) and offensive (Neosergestes, Parasergestes, Allosergestes, Deosergestes). PMID:25409458

Vereshchaka, Alexander L.; Olesen, Jørgen; Lunina, Anastasia A.

2014-01-01

74

Aspergillus species identification in the clinical setting  

PubMed Central

Multiple recent studies have demonstrated the limited utility of morphological methods used singly for species identification of clinically relevant aspergilli. It is being increasingly recognised that comparative sequence based methods used in conjunction with traditional phenotype based methods can offer better resolution of species within this genus. Recognising the growing role of molecular methods in species recognition, the recently convened international working group meeting entitled “Aspergillus Systematics in the Genomic Era” has proposed several recommendations that will be useful in such endeavors. Specific recommendations of this working group include the use of the ITS regions for inter section level identification and the ?-tubulin locus for identification of individual species within the various Aspergillus sections. PMID:18490954

Balajee, S.A.; Houbraken, J.; Verweij, P.E.; Hong, S-B.; Yaghuchi, T.; Varga, J.; Samson, R.A.

2007-01-01

75

Sampling of Aspergillus spores in air.  

PubMed

Nosocomially acquired aspergillosis typically occurs in the setting of treatment for leukaemia or other haematological malignancy. As Aspergillus species can be readily found in the environment, it has been widely believed that aspergillosis occurs as a consequence of exogenous acquisition of the fungus. Stringent environmental controls in transplant units have included high-efficiency air filtration, positive-pressure ventilation and frequent room air changes. Although there have been several well-documented examples of aspergillosis outbreaks as a result of hospital demolition and reconstruction, it has not always been possible to demonstrate elevated spore counts in clinical areas during building work. The sampling of air for Aspergillus is very problematic. Careful attention must be given to the design of air sampler, sampling protocols and an understanding of air sampling data. This review outlines many of the physical and environmental parameters that influence meaningful air sampling and recommends a simple procedure that has been tried and tested in many aspergillosis outbreaks. PMID:10662557

Morris, G; Kokki, M H; Anderson, K; Richardson, M D

2000-02-01

76

Pathogenesis of Aspergillus fumigatus in Invasive Aspergillosis  

PubMed Central

Summary: Aspergillus species are globally ubiquitous saprophytes found in a variety of ecological niches. Almost 200 species of aspergilli have been identified, less than 20 of which are known to cause human disease. Among them, Aspergillus fumigatus is the most prevalent and is largely responsible for the increased incidence of invasive aspergillosis (IA) in the immunocompromised patient population. IA is a devastating illness, with mortality rates in some patient groups reaching as high as 90%. Studies identifying and assessing the roles of specific factors of A. fumigatus that contribute to the pathogenesis of IA have traditionally focused on single-gene deletion and mutant characterization. In combination with recent large-scale approaches analyzing global fungal responses to distinct environmental or host conditions, these studies have identified many factors that contribute to the overall pathogenic potential of A. fumigatus. Here, we provide an overview of the significant findings regarding A. fumigatus pathogenesis as it pertains to invasive disease. PMID:19597008

Dagenais, Taylor R. T.; Keller, Nancy P.

2009-01-01

77

4-Ethylphenol metabolism by Aspergillus fumigatus  

SciTech Connect

Many industrial pollutants are phenolic, and the degradation these compounds is important in the carbon cycle. Aspergillus fumigatus ATCC 28282 can grow on p-cresol. However 4-Ethylphenol, the higher homolog of p-cresol, presents different possibilities for putative metabolic pathways. This study shows that A. fumigatus is able to grow and 4-ethylphenol and the pathway is described. 17 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs.

Jones, K.H.; Trudgill, P.W.; Hopper, D.J. [Univ. of Wales (United Kingdom)

1994-06-01

78

Azole Cross-Resistance in Aspergillus fumigatus  

Microsoft Academic Search

We susceptibility tested 17 clinical isolates of Aspergillus fumigatus, for most of which MICs of itraconazole were elevated (MIC at which 50% of the isolates tested are inhibited, 16 g\\/ml), against itraconazole, posaconazole, ravuconazole, and voriconazole. Posaconazole was the most active against itraconazole-suscep- tible isolates. A complex pattern of cross-resistance and hypersusceptibility was seen with voriconazole and ravuconazole, suggesting marked

J. Mosquera; D. W. Denning

2002-01-01

79

Nitrogen metabolite repression in Aspergillus nidulans  

Microsoft Academic Search

In Aspergillus nidulans, mutations, designated areAr, can result in the inability to utilise a wide variety of nitrogen sources including amino acids, purines, amides, nitrate, and nitrite, whilst not affecting growth on ammonium. Other allelic areA mutations, designated areAd, lead to derepression of one or more activities which are ammonium repressible in wild type (areA+) strains, whilst not affecting their

Herbert N. Arst; David J. Cove

1973-01-01

80

Disseminated aspergillosis in a dog due to Aspergillus alabamensis  

PubMed Central

Disseminated aspergillosis is uncommon in dogs and often associated with Aspergillus terreus. A case of disseminated disease in an English springer spaniel is reported from which Aspergillus alabamensis was recovered by culture and identified by molecular means suggesting a potential role for this agent as a primary pathogen of dogs. PMID:24371723

Burrough, Eric; Deitz, Krysta; Kinyon, Joann; Andreasen, Claire; Frana, Timothy; Sutton, Deanna; Thompson, Elizabeth; Fu, Jianmin; Wickes, Brian; Hostetter, Jesse

2012-01-01

81

Isolation of Bacterial Antagonists of Aspergillus flavus from Almonds  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bacteria were isolated from California almond orchard samples to evaluate their potential antifungal activity against aflatoxin-producing Aspergillus flavus. Fungal populations from the same samples were examined to determine the incidence of aflatoxigenic Aspergillus species. Antagonistic activities of the isolated bacterial strains were screened against a nonaflatoxigenic nor mutant of A. flavus, which accumulates the pigmented aflatoxin precursor norsolorinic acid (NOR)

Jeffrey D. Palumbo; James L. Baker; Noreen E. Mahoney

2006-01-01

82

The controlled biosynthesis of cellobiase by Aspergillus fungi  

Microsoft Academic Search

Some mechanisms of cellobiase formation were studied in Aspergillus japonicus 2092 and A. heteromorphus 3010. Formation of cellobiase in both strains was found to be a non-inducible constitutive character. The delay in formation of cellobiase in batch culture with glucose was shown to be determined by catabolic repression. Aspergillus heteromorphus 3010 was more sensitive to catabolic repression than A. japonicus

I. V. Solovyeva; V. M. Ananjin; A. V. Boev; O. N. Okunev

1997-01-01

83

Whole genome comparison of Aspergillus flavus and A. oryzae  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aspergillus flavus is a plant and animal pathogen that also produces the potent carcinogen aflatoxin. Aspergillus oryzae is a closely related species that has been used for centuries in the food fermentation industry and is Generally Regarded As Safe (GRAS). Whole genome sequences for these two fungi are now complete, providing us with the opportunity to examine any genomic differences

G. A. PAYNE; W. C. NIERMAN; Jennifer R. Wortman; B. L. PRITCHARD; D. BROWN; R. A. DEAN; D BHATNAGAR; T. E. CLEVELAND; MASAYUKI MACHIDA; J. YU

2006-01-01

84

A key to the Mexican and Central America Genera of Anthonomini (Curculionidae, Curculioninae)  

PubMed Central

Abstract Presently the only keys available for identification of genera of Anthonomini are limited to those of the United States of America and Canada. A dichotomous key is presented to identify all genera of Mexican and Central American Anthonomini. Previous keys do not include the genera Achia, Botanebius, Loncophorus, Loncophorellus and Melexerus. A brief synopsis is given for each genus and photographs of representative species are included. PMID:23717181

Hernandez, Macotulio Soto; Jones, Robert W.; Castillo, Pedro Reyes

2013-01-01

85

New genera, species, and improved phylogeny of Glissomonadida (Cercozoa).  

PubMed

Glissomonadida is an important cercozoan order of predominantly biflagellate gliding bacterivores found largely in soil and freshwater. Their vast diversity is largely undescribed. We studied 23 mostly newly isolated strains by light microscopy and sequenced their 18S rDNA genes; nine represent new species. For two misidentified ATCC 'Heteromita triangularis' strains, we establish novel gliding genera and species: the sandonid Mollimonas lacrima, the only glissomonad forming anterior and posterior pseudopodia, and Dujardina stenomorpha, a strongly flattened member of the new family Dujardinidae. A new strain from Oxfordshire grassland soil is the first reliably identified isolate of the virtually uniflagellate, smooth-gliding glissomonad genus, AllantionSandon, 1924. Phylogenetic analysis and cytological features reveal Allantion to be a member of Allapsidae. Sandona limna and Bodomorpha prolixa from Lake Baikal and Sandona hexamutans from volcanic Costa Rican soil are described as new species. Fifteen glissomonad strains were from grassland beside Lake Baikal. We describe two as new species of Sandona (S. heptamutans and S. octamutans); the others included strains of Sandona and Allapsa species that have already been described; and three were new species of Sandona and Allapsa but these died before being described. We discuss the ecological and evolutionary significance of these new strains. PMID:21783412

Howe, Alexis T; Bass, David; Chao, Ema E; Cavalier-Smith, Thomas

2011-11-01

86

Compositional diversity of terpenoids in the Himalayan Valeriana genera.  

PubMed

In an effort to determine the chemical diversity of the Valeriana genera of the Northwestern Himalaya (Uttaranchal), V. wallichii, V. himalayana (syn. V. dioica), V. pyrolaefolia, and V. hardwickii var. arnottiana were investigated for their terpenoid compositions by means of GC and GC/MS analyses of their essential oils, as well as by one- and two-dimensional NMR studies of the isolates. Our results establish that V. wallichii DC. includes two stable chemotypes, with no mixed population, chemotype I being characterized by the presence of maaliol (1), and chemotype II having patchouli alcohol (2) and 8-acetoxypatchouli alcohol (3) as major compounds. V. hardwickii var. arnottiana was also found to exist as two independent chemotypes. Here, chemotype I is characterized by alpha-kessyl acetate (4), valeracetate (5), and 8-epikessyl glycol diacetate (6), whereas the chemotype-II species contain maaliol (1) and kessanyl acetate (7). V. himalayana Grub. had maaliol (1), valeranone (8), kessane (9), and alpha-kessyl acetate (4) as major compounds, and V. pyrolaefolia Decne. contained patchouli alcohol (2) and valeranone (8) as markers. PMID:17193199

Mathela, Chandra S; Chanotiya, Chandan S; Sammal, Subhash S; Pant, Anil K; Pandey, Siddharth

2005-09-01

87

A KEY TO THE COMMON GENERA OF NEOGENE SHARK TEETH ROBERT W. PURDY  

E-print Network

A KEY TO THE COMMON GENERA OF NEOGENE SHARK TEETH BY ROBERT W. PURDY Revised April 2003 #12;2 Table . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 Parasymphyseal teeth . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 Anterior teeth

Mathis, Wayne N.

88

A synoptic review of the ant genera (Hymenoptera, Formicidae) of the Philippines  

PubMed Central

Abstract An overview of the history of myrmecology in the Philippine archipelago is presented. Keys are provided to the 11 ant subfamilies and the 92 ant genera known from the Philippines. Eleven ant genera (12%), including 3 undescribed genera, are recorded for the first time from the Philippines. The biology and ecology of the 92 genera, illustrated by full-face and profile photo-images, of Philippine ants are summarized in the form of brief generic accounts. A bibliography of significant taxonomic and behavioral papers on Philippine ants and a checklist of valid species and subspecies and their island distributions are provided. PMID:22767999

General, David M.; Alpert, Gary D.

2012-01-01

89

Phylogenetic and morphotaxonomic revision of Ramichloridium and allied genera  

PubMed Central

The phylogeny of the genera Periconiella, Ramichloridium, Rhinocladiella and Veronaea was explored by means of partial sequences of the 28S (LSU) rRNA gene and the ITS region (ITS1, 5.8S rDNA and ITS2). Based on the LSU sequence data, ramichloridium-like species segregate into eight distinct clusters. These include the Capnodiales (Mycosphaerellaceae and Teratosphaeriaceae), the Chaetothyriales (Herpotrichiellaceae), the Pleosporales, and five ascomycete clades with uncertain affinities. The type species of Ramichloridium, R. apiculatum, together with R. musae, R. biverticillatum, R. cerophilum, R. verrucosum, R. pini, and three new species isolated from Strelitzia, Musa and forest soil, respectively, reside in the Capnodiales clade. The human-pathogenic species R. mackenziei and R. basitonum, together with R. fasciculatum and R. anceps, cluster with Rhinocladiella (type species: Rh. atrovirens, Herpotrichiellaceae, Chaetothyriales), and are allocated to this genus. Veronaea botryosa, the type species of the genus Veronaea, also resides in the Chaetothyriales clade, whereas Veronaea simplex clusters as a sister taxon to the Venturiaceae (Pleosporales), and is placed in a new genus, Veronaeopsis. Ramichloridium obovoideum clusters with Carpoligna pleurothecii (anamorph: Pleurothecium sp., Chaetosphaeriales), and a new combination is proposed in Pleurothecium. Other ramichloridium-like clades include R. subulatum and R. epichloës (incertae sedis, Sordariomycetes), for which a new genus, Radulidium is erected. Ramichloridium schulzeri and its varieties are placed in a new genus, Myrmecridium (incertae sedis, Sordariomycetes). The genus Pseudovirgaria (incertae sedis) is introduced to accommodate ramichloridium-like isolates occurring on various species of rust fungi. A veronaea-like isolate from Bertia moriformis with phylogenetic affinity to the Annulatascaceae (Sordariomycetidae) is placed in a new genus, Rhodoveronaea. Besides Ramichloridium, Periconiella is also polyphyletic. Thysanorea is introduced to accommodate Periconiella papuana (Herpotrichiellaceae), which is unrelated to the type species, P. velutina (Mycosphaerellaceae). PMID:18490996

Arzanlou, M.; Groenewald, J.Z.; Gams, W.; Braun, U.; Shin, H.-D; Crous, P.W.

2007-01-01

90

Antifungal susceptibility profile of cryptic species of Aspergillus.  

PubMed

The use of molecular tools has led to the description of new cryptic species among different Aspergillus species complexes. Their frequency in the clinical setting has been reported to be between 10 and 15 %. The susceptibility to azoles and amphotericin B of many of these species is low, and some of them, such as Aspergillus calidoustus or Aspergillus lentulus, are considered multi-resistant. The changing epidemiology, the frequency of cryptic species, and the different susceptibility profiles make antifungal susceptibility testing an important tool to identify the optimal antifungal agent to treat the infections caused by these species. PMID:24972670

Alastruey-Izquierdo, Ana; Alcazar-Fuoli, Laura; Cuenca-Estrella, Manuel

2014-12-01

91

Effect of gamma radiation on Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus ochraceus ultrastructure and mycotoxin production  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The aim of this work was to study the effect of gamma radiation (2 kGy) on Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus ochraceus ultrastructure. Moreover, the influence on aflatoxin B 1 and ochratoxin A production was also observed. Irradiated A. flavus strain showed a dull orangish colony while control strain showed the typical green color. Minor differences were observed on stipes, metulae and conidia size between control and irradiated A. flavus and A. ochraceus strains. Irradiated fungi showed ultrastructural changes on cell wall, plasmalema and cytoplasm levels. The levels of mycotoxins produced by irradiated strains were two times greater than those produced by control strains. Successive transferences of irradiated strains on malt extract agar allowed the fungus to recuperate morphological characteristics. Although minor changes in the fungal morphology were observed, ultrastructural changes at cell wall level and the increase of mycotoxin production ability were observed. Inappropriate storage of irradiated food and feed would allow the development of potentially more toxicogenic fungal propagules.

Ribeiro, J.; Cavaglieri, L.; Vital, H.; Cristofolini, A.; Merkis, C.; Astoreca, A.; Orlando, J.; Carú, M.; Dalcero, A.; Rosa, C. A. R.

2011-05-01

92

Structural rearrangements, including parallel inversions, within the chloroplast genome of Anemone and related genera  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chloroplast DNA cleavage sites for 10 restriction enzymes were mapped for 46 species representing all sections of Anemone, four closely related genera (Clematis, Pulsatilla, Hepatica, and Knowltonia), and three more distantly related outgroups (Caltha, Ranunculus, and Adonis). Comparison of the maps revealed that the chloroplast genomes of Anemone and related genera have sustained an unusual number and variety of rearrangements.

Sara B. Hoot; Jeffrey D. Palmer

1994-01-01

93

NEW RECORDS AND RANGE EXTENSIONS FOR SEVERAL CHIRONOMID GENERA IN LAKE SUPERIOR  

EPA Science Inventory

Recent USEPA investigations of Lake Superior benthos in Minnesota, Wisconsin, and Michigan waters have resulted in the discovery of six uncommon genera of Chironomidae. Five new records of genera for Lake Superior and five significant Nearctic range extensions are reported. New r...

94

Linnaeus was right all along: Ulva and Enteromorpha are not distinct genera  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ulva, one of the first Linnaean genera, was later circumscribed to consist of green seaweeds with distromatic blades, and Enteromorpha Link was established for tubular forms. Although several lines of evidence suggest that these generic constructs are artificial, Ulva and Enteromorpha have been maintained as separate genera. Our aims were to determine phylogenetic relationships among taxa currently attributed to Ulva,

Hillary S. Hayden; Jaanika Blomster; Christine A. Maggs; Paul C. Silva; Michael J. Stanhope; J. Robert Waaland

2003-01-01

95

Mitinha and Tamanduamyia, two new genera of Mythicomyiinae (Diptera, Mythicomyiidae) from northeast Brazil.  

PubMed

Two new genera and two new species of Mythicomyiinae are described based on material collected in Parque Nacional Serra das Confusões, Piauí state, northeast Brazil, an arid region: Mitinha, gen. nov., type-species M. neri, sp. nov. and Tamanduamyia, gen. nov., type-species T. bandeira, sp. nov. An illustrated key is presented for world Mythicomyiinae genera.  PMID:25081179

Rafael, J A; Limeira-de-Oliveira, F

2014-01-01

96

Flavonoids and verbascoside as chemotaxonomic characters in the genera Oxera and Faradaya (Labiatae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Most known species belonging to the closely related genera Oxera and Faradaya (Labiatae) were investigated for their caffeic acid conjugates and flavonoids. Verbascoside was detected in all species, varying from very high concentrations in Faradaya and the Oxera pulchella-group, to trace amounts in the O. neriifolia-group and O. sulfurea. Rosmarinic acid was absent. The most common flavonoids in both genera

Renée J Grayer; Rogier P. J de Kok

1998-01-01

97

Aspergillus fumigatus specific IgE and IgG antibodies for diagnosis of Aspergillus-related lung diseases.  

PubMed

IgE and IgG antibodies against Aspergillus fumigatus were detected by crossed radio immunoelectrophoresis (CRIE) on the sera of seven patients with aspergilloma, six patients with allergic broncho-pulmonary aspergillosis (ABPA) and 25 patients with extrinsic asthma with Aspergillus allergy. IgE-CRIE analysis indicated the presence of A. fumigatus-specific IgE in sera of patients with ABPA and Aspergillus asthma but not of aspergilloma patients. IgG-CRIE showed that both aspergilloma and ABPA patient sera contained high levels of circulating specific IgG antibodies in contrast to sera of Aspergillus asthma patients, which did not show detectable amounts of Aspergillus-specific IgG antibodies. Specific IgE binding could be demonstrated for the major allergens Ag-10 and AG-40 in all ABPA patients, in 80% of Aspergillus asthma patients but not in sera from aspergilloma patients. Specific IgG antibodies directed towards the major allergens could be detected in most of the aspergilloma patients, between 30-70% of the ABPA patients but not in sera from patients with Aspergillus asthma. PMID:1928661

Wallenbeck, I; Dreborg, S; Zetterström, O; Einarsson, R

1991-07-01

98

Aflatoxin Biosynthesis and Sclerotial Development in Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus parasiticus  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Aflatoxins are a family of fungal secondary metabolites. They are produced by species in the genus Aspergillus. The commonly recognized producers of aflatoxins include A. flavus, A. parasiticus, A. nomius, A. tamarii, A. pseudotamarii, A. bombycis, and A. ochraceoroseus (Cary et al. 2005). Aflatoxin contamination of agricultural commodities can arise from field conditions conducive to fungal\\u000a growth before harvest as

Perng-Kuang Chang

99

Mycoflora study in a wheat flour mill of Argentina  

PubMed Central

The mycoflora of the environment: wheat conditioning, milling and screening, and filling zone, as well as, raw material -wheat-, intermediate product -grits- and end product -flour- on day 1, and after cleaning improvements -days 45 and 90- were studied in an Argentine wheat mill. Samples were incubated at 28°C for 5–7 days on Malt Extract Agar with chloramphenicol (100 mg L-1) and the results were expressed in colony forming units per cubic meter of air (CFU m-3) or per gram of sample (CFU g-1), respectively. Fungal genera and species were isolated and identified and the potential toxicogenic capacity of the Aspergillus flavus and Fusarium graminearum isolated was studied. Time-Place and Time-Product multifactorial ANOVA were carried out. After cleaning improvements, CFU m-3 of air decreased as a function of time. Cladosporium and Alternaria were abundant in every zone, Aspergillus predominated in the wheat conditioning zone and Penicillium and Eurotium decreased with time. Wheat was more contaminated than grits and flour; Aspergillus, Eurotium and Mucoraceae family were the most abundant. Deoxynivalenol was above the levels allowed in wheat, being acceptable in grits and flour. Aflatoxin and Zearalenone showed acceptable levels. When studied in vitro, 53% of Aspergillus flavus and 100% of Fusarium graminearum isolates, produced Total Aflatoxins, and Deoxynivalenol and Zearalenone, respectively. PMID:24031975

Aringoli, E.E.; Cambiagno, D.E.; Chiericatti, C.A.; Basilico, J.C.; Basilico, M.L.Z.

2012-01-01

100

Discrimination of lichen genera and species using element concentrations  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The importance of organic chemistry in the classification of lichens is well established, but inorganic chemistry has been largely overlooked. Six lichen species were studied over a period of 23 years that were growing in 11 protected areas of the northern Great Lakes ecoregion, which were not greatly influenced by anthropogenic particulates or gaseous air pollutants. The elemental data from these studies were aggregated in order to test the hypothesis that differences among species in tissue element concentrations were large enough to discriminate between taxa faithfully. Concentrations of 16 chemical elements that were found in tissue samples from Cladonia rangiferina, Evernia mesomorpha, Flavopunctelia flaventior, Hypogymnia physodes, Parmelia sulcata, and Punctelia rudecta were analyzed statistically using multivariate discriminant functions and CART analyses, as well as t-tests. Genera and species were clearly separated in element space, and elemental discriminant functions were able to classify 91-100 of the samples correctly into species. At the broadest level, a Zn concentration of 51 ppm in tissues of four of the lichen species effectively discriminated foliose from fruticose species. Similarly, a S concentration of 680 ppm discriminated C. rangiferina and E. mesomorpha, and a Ca concentration of 10 436 ppm discriminated H. physodes from P. sulcata. For the three parmelioid species, a Ca concentration >32 837 ppm discriminated Punctelia rudecta from the other two species, while a Zn concentration of 56 ppm discriminated Parmelia sulcata from F. flaventior. Foliose species also had higher concentrations than did fruticose species of all elements except Na. Elemental signatures for each of the six species were developed using standardized means. Twenty-four mechanisms explaining the differences among species are summarized. Finally, the relationships of four species based on element concentrations, using additive-trees clustering of a Euclidean-distance matrix, produced identical relationships as did analyses based on secondary product chemistry that used additive-trees clustering of a Jaccard similarity matrix. At least for these six species, element composition has taxonomic significance, and may be useful for discriminating other taxa. ?? 2008 British Lichen Society.

Bennett, J.P.

2008-01-01

101

Discrimination of lichen genera and species using element concentrations  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The importance of organic chemistry in the classification of lichens is well established, but inorganic chemistry has been largely overlooked. Six lichen species were studied over a period of 23 years that were growing in 11 protected areas of the northern Great Lakes ecoregion, which were not greatly influenced by anthropogenic particulates or gaseous air pollutants. The elemental data from these studies were aggregated in order to test the hypothesis that differences among species in tissue element concentrations were large enough to discriminate between taxa faithfully. Concentrations of 16 chemical elements that were found in tissue samples from Cladonia rangiferina, Evernia mesomorpha, Flavopunctelia flaventior, Hypogymnia physodes, Parmelia sulcata, and Punctelia rudecta were analyzed statistically using multivariate discriminant functions and CART analyses, as well as t-tests. Genera and species were clearly separated in element space, and elemental discriminant functions were able to classify 91-100 of the samples correctly into species. At the broadest level, a Zn concentration of 51 ppm in tissues of four of the lichen species effectively discriminated foliose from fruticose species. Similarly, a S concentration of 680 ppm discriminated C. rangiferina and E. mesomorpha, and a Ca concentration of 10 436 ppm discriminated H. physodes from P. sulcata. For the three parmelioid species, a Ca concentration >32 837 ppm discriminated Punctelia rudecta from the other two species, while a Zn concentration of 56 ppm discriminated Parmelia sulcata from F. flaventior. Foliose species also had higher concentrations than did fruticose species of all elements except Na. Elemental signatures for each of the six species were developed using standardized means. Twenty-four mechanisms explaining the differences among species are summarized. Finally, the relationships of four species based on element concentrations, using additive-trees clustering of a Euclidean-distance matrix, produced identical relationships as did analyses based on secondary product chemistry that used additive-trees clustering of a Jaccard similarity matrix. At least for these six species, element composition has taxonomic significance, and may be useful for discriminating other taxa.

Bennett, James P.

2008-01-01

102

A tyrosinase inhibitor from Aspergillus niger.  

PubMed

Tyrosinase, in the presence of oxygen, is the main culprit in post harvest browning of food products, resulting in the drop in its commercial value. In an effort to seek natural tyrosinase inhibitors for food applications, a screening programme was undertaken. Of the 26 fungal cultures isolated from soil samples of Agumbe forest, India, one isolate S16, identified as Aspergillus niger, gave an inhibition of 84 % against the enzyme. The inhibitor was isolated by following an enzyme inhibition assay guided purification protocol. The structure of the inhibitor was elucidated and found to be kojic acid. The IC50 of the Competitive inhibitor was found to be 8.8 ?g with a Ki of 0.085 mM. PMID:25328242

Vasantha, K Y; Murugesh, C S; Sattur, A P

2014-10-01

103

Histopathological Implications of Aspergillus Infection in Lung  

PubMed Central

This paper opens with a discussion on the significance of invasive fungal infections in advanced contemporary medicine, with an emphasis on the intractability of disease management and the difficulties of diagnosis. This is followed by a discussion concerning classification, histopathological features, and pathophysiology. While it has been largely accepted that Aspergillus species is recognized by cellular receptors and attacked by neutrophils, the radiological and macroscopic findings linking infection with neutropenia remain unconfirmed. In an effort to gain a better understanding of the pathophysiology and pathogenesis of invasive aspergillosis, we wish to emphasize the utility of radiological and histopathological examinations since these can provide detailed information on the extremely complex interaction between the causative microbes and tissue responses. A review of noninvasive or semi-invasive aspergillosis is also provided, with particular emphasis on chronic necrotizing pulmonary aspergillosis, which is recognized as a transition form of simple pulmonary aspergilloma and invasive pulmonary aspergillosis, although few findings have been reported in this area. PMID:24347836

Tochigi, Naobumi; Okubo, Yoichiro; Ando, Tsunehiro; Wakayama, Megumi; Shinozaki, Minoru; Gocho, Kyoko; Hata, Yoshinobu; Ishiwatari, Takao; Nemoto, Tetsuo; Shibuya, Kazutoshi

2013-01-01

104

Research on the strong transglycosylation activity in Aspergillus niger  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Aspergillus niger M-1 strain shows strong transglycosylation activity. A gene of it was introduced into Escherichia coli, and isomalto-oligosaccharides were isolated by a chemical enzymatic method in order to measure the transglycosylation activity.

Lan Yu; Yun-Kai Zhang; Yong-Ling Qin; Yu-Yan Liu; Zhi-Qun Liang

2008-01-01

105

Induction of sorbitol dehydrogenase by sorbitol in Aspergillus niger  

Microsoft Academic Search

Evidence is presented for the simultaneous induction of sorbitol dehydrogenase along with fructokinase and repression of glucokinase by sorbitol in Aspergillus niger. Fructose is the first product of sorbitol catabolism.

B. M. Desai; V. V. Modi; V. K. Shah

1967-01-01

106

21 CFR 866.3040 - Aspergillus spp. serological reagents.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...fungi belonging to the genus Aspergillus. Aspergillosis is a disease marked by inflammatory granulomatous (tumor-like) lessions...eyeball cavity, nasal sinuses, lungs, and occasionally the bones. (b) Classification. Class I (general...

2011-04-01

107

Aspergillus fumigatus endophthalmitis in a patient with acute myeloid leukaemia.  

PubMed

A 55-year-old patient developed progressive loss of vision in one eye following induction chemotherapy for acute myeloid leukaemia (AML). Aspergillus fumigatus was cultured from vitreal aspirates. The patient was treated with intravenous and intravitreal amphotericin B but suffered complete loss of vision in her right eye. We believe this is the first report of culture-proven Aspergillus fumigatus endophthalmitis in a patient treated for a haematological malignancy. PMID:10342076

Follows, G A; Hutchinson, C; Martin, A; Carter, C

1999-04-01

108

Effect of building construction on Aspergillus concentrations in a hospital.  

PubMed

Air samples taken in a hospital undergoing construction and analyzed with a quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) assay for the Aspergillus genus did not show elevated concentrations of Aspergillus or particulate matter with a diameter of 5 microm or less in patient areas. Air samples from the construction zone indicated the containment system, which used polyethylene film barrier and negative pressure, was effective. PMID:18419373

Goebes, Marian D; Baron, Ellen Jo; Mathews, Kathleen L; Hildemann, Lynn M

2008-05-01

109

Heterologous expression of Gaeumannomyces graminis lipoxygenase in Aspergillus nidulans  

PubMed Central

Aspergillus sp. contain ppo genes coding for Ppo enzymes that produce oxylipins from polyunsaturated fatty acids. These oxylipins function as signal molecules in sporulation and influence the asexual to sexual ratio of Aspergillus sp. Fungi like Aspergillus nidulans and Aspergillus niger contain just ppo genes where the human pathogenic Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus fumigatus contain ppo genes as well as lipoxygenases. Lipoxygenases catalyze the synthesis of oxylipins and are hypothesized to be involved in quorum-sensing abilities and invading plant tissue. In this study we used A. nidulans WG505 as an expression host to heterologously express Gaeumannomyces graminis lipoxygenase. The presence of the recombinant LOX induced phenotypic changes in A. nidulans transformants. Also, a proteomic analysis of an A. nidulans LOX producing strain indicated that the heterologous protein was degraded before its glycosylation in the secretory pathway. We observed that the presence of LOX induced the specific production of aminopeptidase Y that possibly degrades the G. graminis lipoxygenase intercellularly. Also the presence of the protein thioredoxin reductase suggests that the G. graminis lipoxygenase is actively repressed in A. nidulans. PMID:25401068

2014-01-01

110

Origin and diversification of the Milla Clade (Brodiaeoideae, Asparagaceae): a Neotropical group of six geophytic genera.  

PubMed

The Milla clade currently comprises six genera of geophytic plants distributed from Arizona to Guatemala. Three genera (Behria, Jaimehintonia and Petronymphe) are monotypic while the remaining genera (Bessera, Dandya and Milla) contain from two to ten (Milla) species. Parsimony, Maximum Likelihood and Bayesian Inference analyses were conducted with plastid and nuclear DNA sequences from a total of 181 plants belonging to 15 species in all six genera. Molecular dating was performed under a relaxed clock model. We examined the phylogenetic relationships of the genera and species, estimated origin-divergence times for the clade and genera and determined the ancestral distribution area of the clade by optimizing ancestral areas given current biogeographic distributions. The phylogenetic results suggest that final decisions on limits of the six genera in the Milla clade will have to be established until further taxonomic work is completed for Milla, in particular for the group of populations included under the name M. biflora. The later genus is rendered polyphyletic by other genera of the family. The origin of the Milla clade is estimated at 15.8Ma. Ancestral area of the clade most likely was located in the California Floristic Province and dispersal occurred most likely to the Chihuahuan-Coahuila Plateaus and the Trans-Mexican Volcanic Belt and from there to Baja California and the Sierra Madre del Sur. Two hypotheses that need further testing are proposed to explain complex relationships of genera and polyphyly of Milla, one in relation to fragmentation of populations and pollinator shifts and another suggesting that populations remained in refugia in the Trans-Mexican Volcanic Belt. PMID:24594063

Gándara, Etelvina; Specht, Chelsea D; Sosa, Victoria

2014-06-01

111

Seed mycoflora of Ephedra aphylla and amino acid profile of seed-borne Aspergillus flavus.  

PubMed

Twenty-seven seed samples of Ephedra aphylla were collected from different rangelands in Riyadh region, Saudi Arabia during seed production season of 2010. They were assessed to determine the incidence of seedborne fungal flora using both agar plate and blotter paper methods. The investigation of the seeds yielded thirty four fungal species belonging to twelve genera, which are new record to seed-brone mycoflora of E. aphylla in Saudi Arabia. The agar plate method was found superior over blotter methods. The genus Aspergillus was the most prevalent one followed by Fusarium, Penicillium, Alternaria, and Chaetomium. Only eighteen isolates of A. flavus (? 28.6% of total isolates) were able to produce aflatoxins. Mycelial amino acids profile of selected aflatoxigenic isolates of A. flavus was investigated and five amino acids, namely cystein, lysine, praline, tryptophan and valine were common in mycelia and all of them were aflatoxins producers. Based on the dissimilarity coefficient between the isolates and their amino acids patterns, high diversity among the population of A. flavus has been recorded. PMID:22982635

Al-Qarawi, Abdulaziz A; Hashem, Abeer; Abd-Allah, Elsayed F

2012-09-01

112

New and revisited species in Aspergillus section Nigri  

PubMed Central

Four new species, Aspergillus eucalypticola, A. neoniger, A. fijiensis and A. indologenus are described and illustrated. Aspergillus eucalypticola was isolated from Eucalyptus leaf from Australia, and is related to A. tubingensis and A. costaricaensis, but could clearly be distinguished from them based on either ?-tubulin or calmodulin sequence data. Aspergillus eucalypticola produced pyranonigrin A, funalenone, aurasperone B and other naphtho-?-pyrones. Aspergillus neoniger is also a biseriate species isolated from desert sand in Namibia, and mangrove water in Venezuela, which produces aurasperone B and pyranonigrin A. Aspergillus fijiensis is a uniseriate species related to A. aculeatinus, and was isolated from soil in Fiji, and from Lactuca sativa in Indonesia. This species is able to grow at 37 °C, and produces asperparalines and okaramins. Aspergillus indologenus was isolated from soil, India. This species also belongs to the uniseriate group of black aspergilli, and was found to be related to, but clearly distinguishable from A. uvarum based on ?-tubulin, calmodulin and ITS sequence data. Aspergillus indologenus produced the insecticidal compounds okaramins A, B, H, and two types of indol-alkaloids which have not been structure elucidated. Two other species, A. violaceofuscus and A. acidus, are revalidated based on molecular and extrolite data. Aspergillus violaceofuscus was found to be related to A. japonicus, and produced some of the same interesting indol-alkaloids as A. indologenus, and also produced several families of partially characterised extrolites that were also found in A. heteromorphus. Aspergillus acidus (previously known as A. foetidus var. pallidus and A. foetidus var. acidus) is also a valid species, while A. foetidus is a synonym of A. niger based on molecular and physiological data. Two other species described previously, A. coreanus and A. lacticoffeatus, were found to be colour mutants of A. acidus and A. niger, respectively. Methods which could be used to distinguish the two closely related and economically important species A. niger and A. awamori are also detailed. Although these species differ in their occurrence and several physiological means (elastase activities, abilities to utilise 2-deoxy-D-glucose as sole carbon source), our data indicate that only molecular approaches including sequence analysis of calmodulin or ?-tubulin genes, AFLP analysis, UP-PCR analysis or mtDNA RFLP analysis can be used reliably to distinguish these sibling species. Aspergillus section Nigri now includes 26 taxa. PMID:21892239

Varga, J.; Frisvad, J.C.; Kocsube, S.; Brankovics, B.; Toth, B.; Szigeti, G.; Samson, R.A.

2011-01-01

113

Fungi at Joint Tropical Research Unit, Innisfail, Queensland. Part 1 Genera of Microfungi Growing on Materials.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The examination and classification of microfungi found growing on a variety of materials at Innisfail, Queensland, Australia are reported. Thirty-five genera of fungi are listed and their occurrence on the materials recorded. (Author)

F. J. Upsher

1972-01-01

114

Aspergillus Osteomyelitis: Epidemiology, Clinical Manifestations, Management, and Outcome  

PubMed Central

Background The epidemiology, pathogenesis, diagnosis, and management of Aspergillus osteomyelitis are not well understood. Methods Protocol-defined cases of Aspergillus osteomyelitis published in the English literature were reviewed for comorbidities, microbiology, mechanisms of infection, clinical manifestations, radiological findings, inflammatory biomarkers, antifungal therapy, and outcome. Results Among 180 evaluable patients, 127 (71%) were males. Possible predisposing medical conditions in 103 (57%) included pharmacological immunosuppression, primary immunodeficiency, and neutropenia. Seventy-three others (41%) had prior open fracture, trauma or surgery. Eighty (44%) followed a hematogenous mechanism, 58 (32%) contiguous infections, and 42 (23%) direct inoculation. Aspergillus osteomyelitis was the first manifestation of aspergillosis in 77%. Pain and tenderness were present in 80%. The most frequently infected sites were vertebrae (46%), cranium (23%), ribs (16%), and long bones (13%). Patients with vertebral Aspergillus osteomyelitis had more previous orthopedic surgery (19% vs 0%; P=0.02), while those with cranial osteomyelitis had more diabetes mellitus (32% vs 8%; P=0.002) and prior head/neck surgery (12% vs 0%; P=0.02). Radiologic findings included osteolysis, soft-tissue extension, and uptake on T2-weighted images. Vertebral body Aspergillus osteomyelitis was complicated by spinal-cord compression in 47% and neurological deficits in 41%. Forty-four patients (24%) received only antifungal therapy, while 121(67%) were managed with surgery and antifungal therapy. Overall mortality was 25%. Median duration of therapy was 90 days (range, 10–772 days). There were fewer relapses in patients managed with surgery plus antifungal therapy in comparison to those managed with antifungal therapy alone (8% vs 30%; P=0.006). Conclusions Aspergillus osteomyelitis is a debilitating infection affecting both immunocompromised and immunocompetent patients. The most common sites are vertebrae, ribs, and cranium. Based upon this comprehensive review, management of Aspergillus osteomyelitis optimally includes antifungal therapy and selective surgery to avoid relapse and to achieve a complete response. PMID:24378282

Gamaletsou, Maria N.; Rammaert, Blandine; Bueno, Marimelle A.; Moriyama, Brad; Sipsas, Nikolaos V.; Kontoyiannis, Dimitrios P.; Roilides, Emmanuel; Zeller, Valerie; Prinapori, Roberta; Tajaldeen, Saad Jaber; Brause, Barry; Lortholary, Olivier; Walsh, Thomas J.

2014-01-01

115

Aspergillus fumigatus Invasion Increases with Progressive Airway Ischemia  

PubMed Central

Despite the prevalence of Aspergillus-related disease in immune suppressed lung transplant patients, little is known of the host-pathogen interaction. Because of the mould’s angiotropic nature and because of its capacity to thrive in hypoxic conditions, we hypothesized that the degree of Aspergillus invasion would increase with progressive rejection-mediated ischemia of the allograft. To study this relationship, we utilized a novel orthotopic tracheal transplant model of Aspergillus infection, in which it was possible to assess the effects of tissue hypoxia and ischemia on airway infectivity. Laser Doppler flowmetry and FITC-lectin were used to determine blood perfusion, and a fiber optic microsensor was used to measure airway tissue oxygen tension. Fungal burden and depth of invasion were graded using histopathology. We demonstrated a high efficacy (80%) for producing a localized fungal tracheal infection with the majority of infection occurring at the donor-recipient anastomosis; Aspergillus was more invasive in allogeneic compared to syngeneic groups. During the study period, the overall kinetics of both non-infected and infected allografts was similar, demonstrating a progressive loss of perfusion and oxygenation, which reached a nadir by days 10-12 post-transplantation. The extent of Aspergillus invasion directly correlated with the degree of graft hypoxia and ischemia. Compared to the midtrachea, the donor-recipient anastomotic site exhibited lower perfusion and more invasive disease; a finding consistent with clinical experience. For the first time, we identify ischemia as a putative risk factor for Aspergillus invasion. Therapeutic approaches focused on preserving vascular health may play an important role in limiting Aspergillus infections. PMID:24155924

Hsu, Joe L.; Khan, Mohammad A.; Sobel, Raymond A.; Jiang, Xinguo; Clemons, Karl V.; Nguyen, Tom T.; Stevens, David A.; Martinez, Marife; Nicolls, Mark R.

2013-01-01

116

New Early Triassic Lingulidae (Brachiopoda) genera and species from South China  

Microsoft Academic Search

Peng, Y. & Shi, G.R., June, 2008. New Early Triassic Lingulidae (Brachiopoda) genera and species from South China. Alcheringa 32, 149–170. ISSN 0311-5518.Two new genera, Sinolingularia gen. nov. and Sinoglottidia gen. nov., together with three new species, Sinolingularia huananensis gen. et sp. nov., Sinolingularia yini gen. et sp. nov. and Sinoglottidia archboldi gen. et sp. nov., are described on the

Yuanqiao Peng; G. R. Shi

2008-01-01

117

New genera of yeasts for over-lees aging of red wine  

Microsoft Academic Search

The osmophilic yeast genera Schizosaccharomyces and Saccharomycodes, and the primary fermentation-phase genera Pichia, were studied for possible use in the over-lees aging of red wines. The molecular architecture and chemical composition shown by the cell walls of these yeasts is quite unusual within the family Saccharomycetaceae. Their kinetics of cell wall polysaccharide release were examined by HPLC-RI molecular exclusion chromatography;

F. Palomero; A. Morata; S. Benito; F. Calderón; J. A. Suárez-Lepe

2009-01-01

118

Nuclear DNA content of Vitis species, cultivars, and other genera of the Vitaceae  

Microsoft Academic Search

The nuclear DNA content was analyzed in Vitis species, hybrid cultivars, and genera of the Vitaceae using flow cytometry. Significant variation was found among Vitis species, hybrids, and other genera of the Vitaceae (Ampelopsis and Parthenocissus). DNA content was estimated to range from 0.98 to 1.05 pg\\/2C within V. labrusca (ns) and 0.86 to 1.00 pg\\/2C within V. vinifera (ns).

M. A. Lodhi; B. I. Reisch

1995-01-01

119

A new genus of fossil Mymaridae (Hymenoptera) from Cretaceous amber and key to Cretaceous mymarid genera  

PubMed Central

Abstract Myanmymar aresconoides gen n., sp. n. is described from one female in Burmese amber, dated as about 100 my. It is similar to Arescon on wing features but is unique among Mymaridae in having distinctly segmented palpi. It is the fifth mymarid genus definitely referable to the Cretaceous period. A key to Cretaceous mymarid genera is presented and the features of Myanmymar are compared with the other Cretaceous and extant mymarid genera. PMID:22259293

Poinar Jr., George; Huber, John T.

2011-01-01

120

21 CFR 173.120 - Carbohydrase and cellulase derived from Aspergillus niger.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...PERMITTED IN FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION Enzyme Preparations and Microorganisms § 173...Aspergillus niger. Carbohydrase and cellulase enzyme preparation derived from Aspergillus niger... from the carbohydrase and cellulase enzyme product. (d) The additive is...

2010-04-01

121

21 CFR 173.120 - Carbohydrase and cellulase derived from Aspergillus niger.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...PERMITTED IN FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION Enzyme Preparations and Microorganisms § 173...Aspergillus niger. Carbohydrase and cellulase enzyme preparation derived from Aspergillus niger... from the carbohydrase and cellulase enzyme product. (d) The additive is...

2013-04-01

122

21 CFR 173.120 - Carbohydrase and cellulase derived from Aspergillus niger.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...PERMITTED IN FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION Enzyme Preparations and Microorganisms § 173...Aspergillus niger. Carbohydrase and cellulase enzyme preparation derived from Aspergillus niger... from the carbohydrase and cellulase enzyme product. (d) The additive is...

2011-04-01

123

21 CFR 173.120 - Carbohydrase and cellulase derived from Aspergillus niger.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...PERMITTED IN FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION Enzyme Preparations and Microorganisms § 173...Aspergillus niger. Carbohydrase and cellulase enzyme preparation derived from Aspergillus niger... from the carbohydrase and cellulase enzyme product. (d) The additive is...

2012-04-01

124

21 CFR 173.120 - Carbohydrase and cellulase derived from Aspergillus niger.  

...PERMITTED IN FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION Enzyme Preparations and Microorganisms § 173...Aspergillus niger. Carbohydrase and cellulase enzyme preparation derived from Aspergillus niger... from the carbohydrase and cellulase enzyme product. (d) The additive is...

2014-04-01

125

Stress and release : chemical modulation of secondary metabolite production in Aspergillus sp.  

E-print Network

Cyclosporin A induced biosynthesis of colored compounds in three species of Aspergillus. Diode array HPLC MS analysis of culture extracts revealed Aspergillus terreus demonstrated the most profound response, with upregulation ...

Hanlon, Amy

2006-01-01

126

Comparative effects of Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Aspergillus oryzae on rumen fermentations  

E-print Network

Comparative effects of Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Aspergillus oryzae on rumen fermentations F Aubière Cedex, France Saccharomyces cerevisiae (SC) and Aspergillus oryzae (AO) have both been proposed

Boyer, Edmond

127

Spotlight on Aspergillus nidulans photosensory systems.  

PubMed

Aspergilli are ubiquitous soil-borne fungi growing within or on the surface of numerous organic substrates. Growth within a substrate or growth on the surface correlates to different growth conditions for the hyphae due to significant changes in oxygen or reactive oxygen species levels and variations in humidity or temperature. The production of air-borne spores is supported by the substrate-air interphase and also requires a sensing system to adapt appropriately. Here we focus on light as important parameter for the mycelium to discriminate between different habitats. The fungal 'eye' includes several light sensors which react to a broad plethora of wavelengths. Aspergillus nidulans light receptors comprise a phytochrome for red-light sensing, white collar-like blue-light signaling proteins, a putative green-light sensing opsin and a cryptochrome/photolyase as distinct sensory systems. Red- and blue-light receptors are assembled into a light-sensing protein complex. Light receptors transmit their signal to a number of other regulatory proteins including a bridging protein, VeA, as part of a trimeric complex. VeA plays a central role in the balance of asexual and sexual development and in the coordination of morphogenesis and secondary metabolism. PMID:20573560

Bayram, Ozgür; Braus, Gerhard H; Fischer, Reinhard; Rodriguez-Romero, Julio

2010-11-01

128

Fingernail Onychomycosis Due to Aspergillus niger  

PubMed Central

Onychomycosis is usually caused by dermatophytes, but some species of nondermatophytic molds and yeasts are also associated with nail invasion. Aspergillus niger is a nondermatophytic mold which exists as an opportunistic filamentous fungus in all environments. Here, we report a case of onychomycosis caused by A. niger in a 66-year-old female. The patient presented with a black discoloration and a milky white base and onycholysis on the proximal portion of the right thumb nail. Direct microscopic examination of scrapings after potassium hydroxide (KOH) preparation revealed dichotomous septate hyphae. Repeated cultures on Sabouraud's dextrose agar (SDA) without cycloheximide produced the same black velvety colonies. No colony growth occurred on SDA with cycloheximide slants. Biseriate phialides covering the entire vesicle with radiate conidial heads were observed on the slide culture. The DNA sequence of the internal transcribed spacer region of the clinical sample was a 100% match to that of A. niger strain ATCC 16888 (GenBank accession number AY373852). A. niger was confirmed by KOH mount, colony identification, light microscopic morphology, and DNA sequence analysis. The patient was treated orally with 250 mg terbinafine daily and topical amorolfine 5% nail lacquer for 3 months. As a result, the patient was completely cured clinically and mycologically. PMID:23197914

Kim, Dong Min; Ha, Gyoung Yim; Sohng, Seung Hyun

2012-01-01

129

Genetics of Polyketide Metabolism in Aspergillus nidulans  

PubMed Central

Secondary metabolites are small molecules that show large structural diversity and a broad range of bioactivities. Some metabolites are attractive as drugs or pigments while others act as harmful mycotoxins. Filamentous fungi have the capacity to produce a wide array of secondary metabolites including polyketides. The majority of genes required for production of these metabolites are mostly organized in gene clusters, which often are silent or barely expressed under laboratory conditions, making discovery and analysis difficult. Fortunately, the genome sequences of several filamentous fungi are publicly available, greatly facilitating the establishment of links between genes and metabolites. This review covers the attempts being made to trigger the activation of polyketide metabolism in the fungal model organism Aspergillus nidulans. Moreover, it will provide an overview of the pathways where ten polyketide synthase genes have been coupled to polyketide products. Therefore, the proposed biosynthesis of the following metabolites will be presented; naphthopyrone, sterigmatocystin, aspyridones, emericellamides, asperthecin, asperfuranone, monodictyphenone/emodin, orsellinic acid, and the austinols. PMID:24957370

Klejnstrup, Marie L.; Frandsen, Rasmus J. N.; Holm, Dorte K.; Nielsen, Morten T.; Mortensen, Uffe H.; Larsen, Thomas O.; Nielsen, Jakob B.

2012-01-01

130

The Tip Growth Apparatus of Aspergillus nidulans  

PubMed Central

Hyphal tip growth in fungi is important because of the economic and medical importance of fungi, and because it may be a useful model for polarized growth in other organisms. We have investigated the central questions of the roles of cytoskeletal elements and of the precise sites of exocytosis and endocytosis at the growing hyphal tip by using the model fungus Aspergillus nidulans. Time-lapse imaging of fluorescent fusion proteins reveals a remarkably dynamic, but highly structured, tip growth apparatus. Live imaging of SYNA, a synaptobrevin homologue, and SECC, an exocyst component, reveals that vesicles accumulate in the Spitzenkörper (apical body) and fuse with the plasma membrane at the extreme apex of the hypha. SYNA is recycled from the plasma membrane by endocytosis at a collar of endocytic patches, 1–2 ?m behind the apex of the hypha, that moves forward as the tip grows. Exocytosis and endocytosis are thus spatially coupled. Inhibitor studies, in combination with observations of fluorescent fusion proteins, reveal that actin functions in exocytosis and endocytosis at the tip and in holding the tip growth apparatus together. Microtubules are important for delivering vesicles to the tip area and for holding the tip growth apparatus in position. PMID:18216285

Taheri-Talesh, Naimeh; Horio, Tetsuya; Araujo-Bazan, Lidia; Dou, Xiaowei; Espeso, Eduardo A.; Penalva, Miguel A.; Osmani, Stephen A.

2008-01-01

131

In Vitro Activities of Three Licensed Antifungal Agents against Spanish Clinical Isolates of Aspergillus spp  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of the present study was to identify retrospectively trends in the species distributions and the susceptibility patterns of Aspergillus species causing fungal infections in Spanish medical centers from 2000 to 2002. The susceptibilities of 338 isolates to amphotericin B, itraconazole, and voriconazole were tested. Aspergillus fumigatus was the most common species (54.7%), followed by Aspergillus terreus (14.8%) and

Alicia Gomez-Lopez; Guillermo Garcia-Effron; Emilia Mellado; Araceli Monzon; Juan L. Rodriguez-Tudela; Manuel Cuenca-Estrella

2003-01-01

132

Effect of processing for saponin removal on fungal contamination of quinoa seeds (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.).  

PubMed

Incidence of fungal contamination of quinoa seeds from three locations (Salar de Uyuni, Bolivia; Salta and Tucumán provinces, Argentina) was analyzed in samples with and without treatment to remove saponins (wet method). In processed samples, the percentage of infection was reduced. Distribution of the different fungal genera was not homogeneous in the three locations (p<0.05), although Penicillium and Aspergillus were the most prevalent contaminants, regardless the geographic origin of the samples. Other genera, such as Eurotium, Fusarium, Phoma, Ulocladium, Mucor and Rhizopus were less frequently isolated. Absidia, Alternaria, Cladosporium, Dreschlera, Epicoccum and Monascus were sporadically encountered. Significant differences (p<0.05) in the distribution of fungal genera in samples with and without saponins from each location were observed. In all cases, processing caused a decrease of Aspergillus incidence, while increased the proportion of Penicillium, Eurotium, Mucor and Rhizopus indicating that these genera were part of the internal mycota. A. flavus and A. niger were the dominating species of genus Aspergillus. A similar pattern of prevalent Penicillium species was observed in samples with and without saponins, since P. aurantiogriseum, P.chrysogenum, P. citrinum and P. crustosum were always present in high number, although their relative density was variable according to the geographic origin of samples. Mycotoxin-producing ability of most representative species was also determined. Toxigenic strains of A. flavus (aflatoxins and cyclopiazonic acid), A. parasiticus (aflatoxins), P. citrinum (citrinin) and P. griseofulvum (cyclopiazonic acid) were found. None of the A. niger isolates was ochratoxin A producer. The above mentioned mycotoxins were not detected in the samples analyzed. PMID:18501985

Pappier, Ursula; Fernández Pinto, Virginia; Larumbe, Gabriela; Vaamonde, Graciela

2008-07-15

133

Regional Environmental Breadth Predicts Geographic Range and Longevity in Fossil Marine Genera  

PubMed Central

Background Geographic range is a good indicator of extinction susceptibility in fossil marine species and higher taxa. The widely-recognized positive correlation between geographic range and taxonomic duration is typically attributed to either accumulating geographic range with age or an extinction buffering effect, whereby cosmopolitan taxa persist longer because they are reintroduced by dispersal from remote source populations after local extinction. The former hypothesis predicts that all taxa within a region should have equal probabilities of extinction regardless of global distributions while the latter predicts that cosmopolitan genera will have greater survivorship within a region than endemics within the same region. Here we test the assumption that all taxa within a region have equal likelihoods of extinction. Methodology/Principal Findings We use North American and European occurrences of marine genera from the Paleobiology Database and the areal extent of marine sedimentary cover in North America to show that endemic and cosmopolitan fossil marine genera have significantly different range-duration relationships and that broad geographic range and longevity are both predicted by regional environmental breadth. Specifically, genera that occur outside of the focal region are significantly longer lived and have larger geographic ranges and environmental breadths within the focal region than do their endemic counterparts, even after controlling for differences in sampling intensity. Analyses of the number of paleoenvironmental zones occupied by endemic and cosmopolitan genera suggest that the number of paleoenvironmental zones occupied is a key factor of geographic range that promotes genus survivorship. Conclusions/Significance Wide environmental tolerances within a single region predict both broad geographic range and increased longevity in marine genera over evolutionary time. This result provides a specific driving mechanism for the spatial and temporal distributions of marine genera at regional and global scales and is consistent with the niche-breadth hypothesis operating on macroevolutionary timescales. PMID:21573226

Heim, Noel A.; Peters, Shanan E.

2011-01-01

134

[Chronic necrotizing pulmonary aspergillosis caused by Aspergillus niger].  

PubMed

Chronic necrotizing pulmonary aspergillosis (CNPA), also known as semi-invasive pulmonary aspergillosis , is a recently defined entity. CNPA is characterized by a pulmonary infiltration with cavitation of chronic evolution in patients with chronic pulmonary disease, slight immunodeficiency or healthy patients. Good evolution is obtained with antimicotic treatment. The isolation of Aspergillus niger as a cause of CNPA is infrequent and may bear worse prognosis. A patient who presented CNPA by Aspergillus niger is described. The patient had received radiotherapy for epidermal carcinoma of the esophagus. Three other cases have been reported in the literature. The diagnostic aspects, treatment and prognostic factors of CNPA are commented upon. PMID:1766284

Arévalo, M; Solera, J; Rodríguez, F; Vizcaya, M; Vercher, R; Martínez-Moratalla, J

1991-11-01

135

Aspergillus vertebral osteomyelitis after simultaneous kidney-pancreas transplantation.  

PubMed

Aspergillus osteomyelitis is a rare complication of invasive aspergillosis after organ transplantation. This is the report of a 46-year-old man who underwent a simultaneous pancreas and kidney transplantation, complicated by an Aspergillus osteomyelitis and diskitis of the lumbar spine. Prompt diagnosis with needle biopsy, followed by antifungal therapy using caspofungin, a new antifungal agent recommended for the treatment of refractory aspergillosis, in combination with amphotericin B and an early surgical intervention led to clinical resolution of the infection. Reported cases of spinal aspergillosis after transplantation are reviewed in terms of clinical presentation, risk factors, therapeutic options, and outcome. PMID:14987203

Salvalaggio, P R O; Bassetti, M; Lorber, M I; Micheletto, G C; Friedman, A L; Andriole, V T; Basadonna, G P

2003-12-01

136

Molecular phylogeny of Subtribe Artemisiinae (Asteraceae), including Artemisia and its allied and segregate genera  

PubMed Central

Background Subtribe Artemisiinae of Tribe Anthemideae (Asteraceae) is composed of 18 largely Asian genera that include the sagebrushes and mugworts. The subtribe includes the large cosmopolitan, wind-pollinated genus Artemisia, as well as several smaller genera and Seriphidium, that altogether comprise the Artemisia-group. Circumscription and taxonomic boundaries of Artemisia and the placements of these small segregate genera is currently unresolved. Results We constructed a molecular phylogeny for the subtribe using the internal transcribed spacers (ITS) of nuclear ribosomal DNA analyzed with parsimony, likelihood, and Bayesian criteria. The resulting tree is comprised of three major clades that correspond to the radiate genera (e.g., Arctanthemum and Dendranthema), and two clades of Artemisia species. All three clades have allied and segregate genera embedded within each. Conclusions The data support a broad concept of Artemisia s.l. that includes Neopallasia, Crossostephium, Filifolium, Seriphidium, and Sphaeromeria. However, the phylogeny excludes Elachanthemum, Kaschgaria, and Stilnolepis from the Artemisia-group. Additionally, the monophyly of the four subgenera of Artemisia is also not supported, with the exception of subg. Dracunculus. Homogamous, discoid capitula appear to have arisen in parallel four to seven times, with the loss of ray florets. Thus capitular morphology is not a reliable taxonomic character, which traditionally has been one of the defining characters. PMID:12350234

Watson, Linda E; Bates, Paul L; Evans, Timothy M; Unwin, Matthew M; Estes, James R

2002-01-01

137

Twining Genera of (0,4) Supersymmetric Sigma Models on K3  

E-print Network

Conformal field theories with (0,4) worldsheet supersymmetry and K3 target can be used to compactify the E8xE8 heterotic string to six dimensions in a supersymmetric manner. The data specifying such a model includes an appropriate configuration of 24 gauge instantons in the E8xE8 gauge group to satisfy the constraints of anomaly cancellation. In this note, we compute twining genera - elliptic genera with appropriate insertions of discrete symmetry generators in the trace - for (0,4) theories with various instanton embeddings. We do this by constructing linear sigma models which flow to the desired conformal field theories, and using the techniques of localization. We present several examples of such twining genera which are consistent with a moonshine relating these (0,4) models to the finite simple sporadic group M24.

Sarah Harrison; Shamit Kachru; Natalie M. Paquette

2013-09-02

138

Provisional keys to the genera of seaweeds of Micronesia, with new records for Guam and Yap  

PubMed Central

Artificial keys to the genera of blue-green, red, brown, and green marine benthic algae of Micronesia are given, including virtually all the genera reported from Palau, Guam, Commonwealth of the Northern Marianas, Federated States of Micronesia and the Marshall Islands. Twenty-two new species or genera are reported here for Guam and 7 for Yap; 11 of these are also new for Micronesia. Note is made of several recent published records for Guam and 2 species recently raised from varietal status. Finally, a list is given of nomenclatural changes that affect the 2003 revised checklist. An interactive version of the keys is included in the algal biodiversity website at http://university.uog.edu/botany/474. PMID:18958300

LOBBAN, CHRISTOPHER S.; N'YEURT, ANTOINE D.R.

2008-01-01

139

The potential impact of the pulmonary microbiome on immunopathogenesis of Aspergillus-related lung disease.  

PubMed

Aspergillosis is an infection or allergic response caused by fungi of the genus Aspergillus. The most common forms of aspergillosis are allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis, chronic pulmonary aspergillosis, and invasive pulmonary aspergillosis. Aspergillus also plays an important role in fungal sensitized asthma. Humans inhale Aspergillus spores every day and when the host is immunocompromised, Aspergillus spp. may cause severe pulmonary disease. There is increasing evidence that the microbiome plays a significant role in immune regulation, chronic inflammatory diseases, metabolism, and other physiological processes, including recovery from the effects of antibiotic treatment. Bacterial microbiome mediated resistance mechanisms probably play a major role in limiting fungal colonization of the lungs, and may therefore prevent humans from contracting Aspergillus-related diseases. In this perspective, we review this emerging area of research and discuss the role of the microbiome in aspergillosis, role of Aspergillus in the microbiome, and the influence of the microbiome on anti-Aspergillus host defense and its role in preventing aspergillosis. PMID:25256637

Kolwijck, Eva; van de Veerdonk, Frank L

2014-11-01

140

Ecological analysis of secondary metabolite production in Aspergillus spp.  

E-print Network

of the fungi on the selective media used for selected taxa that consisted of Fusari um spp. , Trichoderma spp. , and other Aspergi llus spp. as the dominant genera. Genotype diversity. Based on the restriction fragment patterns, 27 different genotypes were... of the fungi on the selective media used for selected taxa that consisted of Fusari um spp. , Trichoderma spp. , and other Aspergi llus spp. as the dominant genera. Genotype diversity. Based on the restriction fragment patterns, 27 different genotypes were...

Ramaswamy, Anitha

2012-06-07

141

Molecular phylogeny of microhylid frogs (Anura: Microhylidae) with emphasis on relationships among New World genera  

PubMed Central

Background Over the last ten years we have seen great efforts focused on revising amphibian systematics. Phylogenetic reconstructions derived from DNA sequence data have played a central role in these revisionary studies but have typically under-sampled the diverse frog family Microhylidae. Here, we present a detailed phylogenetic study focused on expanding previous hypotheses of relationships within this cosmopolitan family. Specifically, we placed an emphasis on assessing relationships among New World genera and those taxa with uncertain phylogenetic affinities (i.e., incertae sedis). Results One mitochondrial and three nuclear genes (about 2.8 kb) were sequenced to assess phylogenetic relationships. We utilized an unprecedented sampling of 200 microhylid taxa representing 91% of currently recognized subfamilies and 95% of New World genera. Our analyses do not fully resolve relationships among subfamilies supporting previous studies that have suggested a rapid early diversification of this clade. We observed a close relationship between Synapturanus and Otophryne of the subfamily Otophryninae. Within the subfamily Gastrophryninae relationships between genera were well resolved. Conclusion Otophryninae is distantly related to all other New World microhylids that were recovered as a monophyletic group, Gastrophryninae. Within Gastrophryninae, five genera were recovered as non-monophyletic; we propose taxonomic re-arrangements to render all genera monophyletic. This hypothesis of relationships and updated classification for New World microhylids may serve as a guide to better understand the evolutionary history of this group that is apparently subject to convergent morphological evolution and chromosome reduction. Based on a divergence analysis calibrated with hypotheses from previous studies and fossil data, it appears that microhylid genera inhabiting the New World originated during a period of gradual cooling from the late Oligocene to mid Miocene. PMID:23228209

2012-01-01

142

An overlooked source of fungal diversity: novel hyphomycete genera on trichomes of cerrado plants.  

PubMed

Eight monotypic hyphomycete genera new to science are described from the trichomes of native plants growing in the cerrado of Brazil: Trichomatoclava cerradensis, Echinoconidiophorum cerradense, Globoconidiopsis cerradensis, Globoconidium cerradense, Helminthosporiomyces cerradensis, Trichomatosphaera [corrected] cerradensis , Phragmoconidium cerradense, and Vesiculohyphomyces cerradensis gens. spp. nov. Two of the new genera were found on hosts belonging in Myrtaceae, and one of each of the following families: Icacinaceae, Malphigiaceae, Fabaceae, Dilleniaceae, Chrysobalanaceae, and Caryocaraceae. These discoveries suggest that the trichomes of neotropical plants are an unexplored source of novel fungal diversity, and merit more attention in biodiversity surveys. PMID:19059339

Pereira-Carvalho, Rita C; Sepúlveda-Chavera, German; Armando, Eliane A S; Inácio, Carlos A; Dianese, José C

2009-02-01

143

MOSCHweb -- a matrix-based interactive key to the genera of the Palaearctic Tachinidae (Insecta, Diptera)  

PubMed Central

Abstract We provide a general overview of features and technical specifications of an original interactive key web application for the identification of Palaearctic Tachinidae genera. The full list of terminal taxa included in the key, which is the most updated list of genera currently recorded for the Palaearctic Region, is given. We also briefly discuss the need for dealing with detailed and standardized taxa descriptions as a base to keep matrix-based interactive tools easily updated, by proposing a standardized protocol. PMID:22792031

Cerretti, Pierfilippo; Tschorsnig, Hans-Peter; Lopresti, Massimo; Giovanni, Filippo Di

2012-01-01

144

Eutrichosomellini (Hymenoptera: Chalcidoidea: Aphelinidae) from India, with description of two new genera.  

PubMed

Two new genera and four new species of the aphelinid tribe Eutrichosomellini (Chalcidoidea: Aphelinidae: Aphelininae) are described from India. These are Umairia Hayat gen. nov., Zubairia Hayat gen. nov., U. laiba Hayat sp. nov., U. zeera Hayat sp. nov., Z. mirifica Hayat sp. nov., and Eutrichosomella veenakumariae Hayat sp. nov. Two of the species, U. laiba and E. veenakumariae, are reared respectively from the eggs of Papilio polytes L. (Lepidoptera) and cockroach oothecae (Blattodea). Keys to the genera of the tribe Eutrichosomellini, and to the Indian species of Eutrichosomella Girault are given. PMID:24989756

Hayat, Mohammad

2014-01-01

145

Aspergillus, Health Implication & Recommendations for Public Health Food Safety  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent outbreaks of Aspergillosis in chickens on farms throughout Trinidad have left the chicken consuming population shocked and frightened. At present there exists very little published information available to the population on Aspergillosis and its effect on health and food safety. The present paper examines some of the fundamental questions associated with the pathogenesis of Aspergillus, health implications and recommendation

Deryck Damian Pattron

146

ATOXIGENIC STRAINS OF ASPERGILLUS FLAVUS HAVE BEEN APPLIED  

E-print Network

are a group of toxic, carcinogenic fungal metabolites produced by certain isolates of Aspergillus flavus during cottonseed infection. Regulations limit the quantity of aflatoxins permitted in foods and feeds to growers in food-grade 5 gallon polyethylene buckets and was stored on farm without special care until use

Cotty, Peter J.

147

QUANTITATIVE PCR OF SELECTED ASPERGILLUS, PENICILLIUM AND PAECILOMYCES SPECIES  

EPA Science Inventory

A total of 65 quantitative PCR (QPCR) assays, incorporating fluorigenic 5' nuclease (TaqMan®) chemistry and directed at the nuclear ribosomal RNA operon, internal transcribed spacer regions (ITS1 or ITS2) was developed and tested for the detection of Aspergillus, Penicillium and ...

148

Soluble phosphate accumulation by Aspergillus niger from fluorapatite  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to determine conditions that may provide greater solubilization of insouluble phosphate, the fungus Aspergillus niger was grown in a stationary culture containing modified citrate medium supplemented with 800 mg fluorapatite per litre. Solubilization of insouluble phosphate increased with fungal growth, reaching a maximum after 11 days of culture. Soluble phosphate levels were correlated with pH of the culture

Paulo Cesar Cerezine; Ely Nahas; David Ariovaldo Banzatto

1988-01-01

149

Modelling Aspergillus fumigatus infections in racing pigeons (Columba livia domestica)  

Microsoft Academic Search

In vivo modelling of aspergillosis in birds allows the evaluation of control measures and the study of host–pathogen interactions. In this study the impact of the use of different inoculation routes and immunosuppression on the course of an infection with Aspergillus fumigatus in racing pigeons (Columba livia domestica) was examined. A. fumigatus conidia were inoculated in the thoracic air sac,

L. A. Beernaert; F. Pasmans; F. Haesebrouck; A. Martel

2008-01-01

150

Aspochalasin I, a Melanogenesis Inhibitor from Aspergillus sp  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the course of screening for the melanogenesis inhibitors, aspochalasin I was isolated from solid-state culture of Aspergillus sp. Fb020460. Its structure was determined by spectroscopic analysis including mass spectroscopy and NMR analysis. Aspochalasin I potently inhibited melanogenesis in Mel-Ab cells with an IC50 value of 22.4 µM without cytotoxicity.

Soo-Jin Choo; Bong-Sik Yun; In-Ja Ryoo; Young-Hee Kim; Ki-Hwan Bae; Ick-Dong Yoo

2009-01-01

151

Bioleaching of spent fluid catalytic cracking catalyst using Aspergillus niger  

Microsoft Academic Search

The use of the fungus Aspergillus niger for the bioleaching of heavy metals from spent catalyst was investigated, with fluid catalytic cracking (FCC) catalyst as a model. Bioleaching was examined in batch cultures with the spent catalysts at various pulp densities (1–12%). Chemical leaching was also performed using mineral acids (sulphuric and nitric acids) and organic acids (citric, oxalic and

Khin Moh Moh Aung; Yen-Peng Ting

2005-01-01

152

Disseminated aspergillosis attributable to Aspergillus deflectus in a springer spaniel.  

PubMed

Disseminated aspergillosis attributable to Aspergillus deflectus was diagnosed in a Springer Spaniel with lethargy, lameness, anorexia, weight loss, pyrexia, lymphadenopathy, hematuria, and urinary incontinence. Necropsy revealed granulomatous inflammation and numerous fungal hyphae in many organs. The conidial heads of the fungus have a characteristic briar-pipe appearance in culture. PMID:2228770

Kahler, J S; Leach, M W; Jang, S; Wong, A

1990-10-01

153

Comparison of different transformation methods for Aspergillus giganteus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Four different transformation methods were tested and compared in an attempt to facilitate the genetic transformation of Aspergillus giganteus, the producer of an antifungal protein (AFP). The fungus was transformed to hygromycin B resistance, using the hph gene of Escherichia coli by protoplast transformation, electroporation, biolistic transformation, and Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation. Electroporation and biolistic transformation were found to be inappropriate

Vera Meyer; Dirk Mueller; Till Strowig; Ulf Stahl

2003-01-01

154

Integrative analysis of the heat shock response in Aspergillus fumigatus  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Aspergillus fumigatus is a thermotolerant human-pathogenic mold and the most common cause of invasive aspergillosis (IA) in immunocompromised patients. Its predominance is based on several factors most of which are still unknown. The thermotolerance of A. fumigatus is one of the traits which have been assigned to pathogenicity. It allows the fungus to grow at temperatures up to and

Daniela Albrecht; Reinhard Guthke; Axel A Brakhage; Olaf Kniemeyer

2010-01-01

155

Aspergillus flavus: human pathogen, allergen and mycotoxin producer.  

PubMed

Aspergillus infections have grown in importance in the last years. However, most of the studies have focused on Aspergillus fumigatus, the most prevalent species in the genus. In certain locales and hospitals, Aspergillus flavus is more common in air than A. fumigatus, for unclear reasons. After A. fumigatus, A. flavus is the second leading cause of invasive aspergillosis and it is the most common cause of superficial infection. Experimental invasive infections in mice show A. flavus to be 100-fold more virulent than A. fumigatus in terms of inoculum required. Particularly common clinical syndromes associated with A. flavus include chronic granulomatous sinusitis, keratitis, cutaneous aspergillosis, wound infections and osteomyelitis following trauma and inoculation. Outbreaks associated with A. flavus appear to be associated with single or closely related strains, in contrast to those associated with A. fumigatus. In addition, A. flavus produces aflatoxins, the most toxic and potent hepatocarcinogenic natural compounds ever characterized. Accurate species identification within Aspergillus flavus complex remains difficult due to overlapping morphological and biochemical characteristics, and much taxonomic and population genetics work is necessary to better understand the species and related species. The flavus complex currently includes 23 species or varieties, including two sexual species, Petromyces alliaceus and P. albertensis. The genome of the highly related Aspergillus oryzae is completed and available; that of A. flavus in the final stages of annotation. Our understanding of A. flavus lags far behind that of A. fumigatus. Studies of the genomics, taxonomy, population genetics, pathogenicity, allergenicity and antifungal susceptibility of A. flavus are all required. PMID:17526826

Hedayati, M T; Pasqualotto, A C; Warn, P A; Bowyer, P; Denning, D W

2007-06-01

156

Inhibition of growth and mycotoxin production of Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus parasiticus by extracts of Agave species  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this work, the effect of ethanolic, methanolic and aqueous extracts of Agave asperrima and Agave striata on growth and production of aflatoxin (in A&M medium) and cyclopiazonic acid (CPA; in Czpaek-Dox medium) and on growth in corn under storage conditions was determined. Aspergillus strains were inoculated (106 conidia per ml of medium or per 6 g of corn), then

Eduardo Sánchez; Norma Heredia; Santos García

2005-01-01

157

Heterologous expression, purification and characterization of nitrilase from Aspergillus niger K10  

PubMed Central

Background Nitrilases attract increasing attention due to their utility in the mild hydrolysis of nitriles. According to activity and gene screening, filamentous fungi are a rich source of nitrilases distinct in evolution from their widely examined bacterial counterparts. However, fungal nitrilases have been less explored than the bacterial ones. Nitrilases are typically heterogeneous in their quaternary structures, forming short spirals and extended filaments, these features making their structural studies difficult. Results A nitrilase gene was amplified by PCR from the cDNA library of Aspergillus niger K10. The PCR product was ligated into expression vectors pET-30(+) and pRSET B to construct plasmids pOK101 and pOK102, respectively. The recombinant nitrilase (Nit-ANigRec) expressed in Escherichia coli BL21-Gold(DE3)(pOK101/pTf16) was purified with an about 2-fold increase in specific activity and 35% yield. The apparent subunit size was 42.7 kDa, which is approx. 4 kDa higher than that of the enzyme isolated from the native organism (Nit-ANigWT), indicating post-translational cleavage in the enzyme's native environment. Mass spectrometry analysis showed that a C-terminal peptide (Val327 - Asn356) was present in Nit-ANigRec but missing in Nit-ANigWT and Asp298-Val313 peptide was shortened to Asp298-Arg310 in Nit-ANigWT. The latter enzyme was thus truncated by 46 amino acids. Enzymes Nit-ANigRec and Nit-ANigWT differed in substrate specificity, acid/amide ratio, reaction optima and stability. Refolded recombinant enzyme stored for one month at 4°C was fractionated by gel filtration, and fractions were examined by electron microscopy. The late fractions were further analyzed by analytical centrifugation and dynamic light scattering, and shown to consist of a rather homogeneous protein species composed of 12-16 subunits. This hypothesis was consistent with electron microscopy and our modelling of the multimeric nitrilase, which supports an arrangement of dimers into helical segments as a plausible structural solution. Conclusions The nitrilase from Aspergillus niger K10 is highly homologous (?86%) with proteins deduced from gene sequencing in Aspergillus and Penicillium genera. As the first of these proteins, it was shown to exhibit nitrilase activity towards organic nitriles. The comparison of the Nit-ANigRec and Nit-ANigWT suggested that the catalytic properties of nitrilases may be changed due to missing posttranslational cleavage of the former enzyme. Nit-ANigRec exhibits a lower tendency to form filaments and, moreover, the sample homogeneity can be further improved by in vitro protein refolding. The homogeneous protein species consisting of short spirals is expected to be more suitable for structural studies. PMID:21210990

2011-01-01

158

Chromosome size and DNA content of species of anemone L. and related genera (Ranunculaceae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Relative amounts of DNA were determined by Feulgen cytophotometry in 22 diploid species of Ranunculaceae (n=7, 8, 9) representing six genera, and exhibiting large differences in chromosome size, but no marked differences in karyotype pattern. Chemical determination of absolute amounts of DNA for six of these species, allowed conversion of all the photometric data into absolute units of DNA. The

Klaus Rothfels; Elizabeth Sexsmith; Margaret Heimburger; Margarida O. Krause

1966-01-01

159

A Key to the Common Genera of Neogene Shark Teeth Robert W. Purdy  

E-print Network

A Key to the Common Genera of Neogene Shark Teeth by Robert W. Purdy Revised March 2006 #12 Variation 5 Basic Tooth Types 5 Lowers and uppers 5 Parasymphyseal teeth 5 Anterior teeth 6 Intermediate teeth 7 Lateral teeth 7 Posterior teeth 8 Teeth of no distinction 8 Tooth Variation Due to Ontogeny 9

Mathis, Wayne N.

160

A plastid gene phylogeny of the non-photosynthetic parasitic Orobanche (Orobanchaceae) and related genera  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The phylogenetic relationships of the non-photosynthetic Orobanche sensu lato (Orobanchaceae), which includes some of the economically most important parasitic weeds, remain insufficiently understood and controversial. This concerns both the phylogenetic relationships within the genus, in particular its monophyly or lack thereof, and the relationships to other holoparasitic genera such as Cistanche or Conopholis. Here we present the first comprehensive phylogenetic study of this group based on a region from the plastid genome (rps2 gene). Although substitution rates appear to be elevated compared to the photosynthetic members of Orobanchaceae, relationships among the major lineages Cistanche, Conopholis plus Epifagus, Boschniakia rossica (Cham. & Schltdl.) B. Fedtsch., B. himalaica Hook. f. & Thomson, B. hookeri Walp. plus B. strobilacea A. Gray, and Orobanche s. l. remain unresolved. Resolution within Orobanche, however, is much better. In agreement with morphological, cytological and other molecular phylogenetic evidence, five lineages, corresponding to the four traditionally recognised sections (Gymnocaulis, Myzorrhiza, Orobanche, Trionychon) and O. latisquama Reut. ex Boiss. (of sect. Orobanche), can be distinguished. A combined analysis of plastid rps2 and nuclear ITS sequences of the holoparasitic genera results in more resolved and better supported trees, although the relationships among Orobanche s. l., Cistanche, and the clade including the remaining genera is unresolved. Therefore, rps2 is a marker from the plastid genome that is well-suited to be used in combination with other already established nuclear markers for resolving generic relationships of Orobanche and related genera. ?? 2008 The Botanical Society of Japan and Springer.

Park, J.-M.; Manen, J.-F.; Colwell, A.E.; Schneeweiss, G.M.

2008-01-01

161

REVISION OF THE SAVRIES (PISCES, SCOMBERESOCIDAE) WITH DESCRIPTIONS OF TWO NEW GENERA AND ONE NEW SPECIES  

E-print Network

simulans, new genus and species, ofthe central Atlantic and the Indian Oceans, and Elassichthys (new genusREVISION OF THE SAVRIES (PISCES, SCOMBERESOCIDAE) WITH DESCRIPTIONS OF TWO NEW GENERA AND ONE NEW) adocetus, ofthe eastern central Pacific. Some other names applied to Miocene fossils from southern

162

Two new genera and five new species of Teloganodidae (Ephemeroptera) from South India.  

PubMed

Two new genera and five new species of teloganodid mayflies (Ephemeroptera: Pannota: Ephemerelloidea) are described based on larvae from south India: Janohyphella indica, n. gen., n. sp., Indoganodes jobini, n. gen., n. sp., Teloganodes sartorii, n. sp., Dudgeodes palnius, n. sp., and Derlethina tamiraparaniae, n. sp.  Janohyphella, n. gen., is distinguished from the larvae of other teloganodid genera by having a combination of three subequal caudal filaments, lamellate gills on abdominal segments II through V and posterolateral processes well-developed on abdominal segments II through IX, except III. Indoganodes, n. gen., is distinguished from the larvae of other teloganodid genera by having three subequal caudal filaments, lamellate gills on abdominal segments II through VI, posterolateral projections weakly developed on abdominal segments I through V, but distinct on segments VI through IX. Our new species of Dudgeodes Sartori, 2008 and Derlethina Sartori, 2008 represent the first discoveries of these genera outside Southeast Asia, with the latter genus previously considered endemic to Borneo. Emendations to the larval species key of known Oriental Teloganodidae are provided. We hypothesize that the occurrence of the new taxa in southern India is a result of the tectonic events associated with the split-up of Gondwana. This illustrates the profound biogeographical significance of how vicariance led to the establishment of some distinct oriental lineages initially on the rafting Indian Deccan Plate, which might have triggered dispersal events for subsequent species diversification in Southeast Asia.  PMID:25112240

Selvakumar, C; Sivaramakrishnan, K G; Jacobus, Luke M; Janarthanan, S; Arumugam, M

2014-01-01

163

Phylogenetic relationships among genera in the Calanidae (Crustacea: Copepoda) based on morphology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cladistic analysis of Calanidae recovered two major clades: a tropical epipelagic clade composed of species without ontogenetic vertical migration (Canthocalanus + Cosmocalanus + Nannocalanus + Undinula); and a clade of ontogenetically migrating genera (Neocalanus + Calanoides + Calanus + Mesocalanus). The latter clade is least well supported although its Calanoides and Neocalanus lineages are well supported. Morphology-based topologies are largely

Janet M. Bradford-Grieve; Shane T. Ahyong

2010-01-01

164

An illustrated key to the genera of Thripinae (Thysanoptera, Thripidae) from Iran  

PubMed Central

Abstract An illustrated key is provided for the identification of 35 genera of Thripinae (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) from Iran with comments for each genus. Chirothrips maximi Ananthakrishnan and Limothrips cerealium Haliday are recorded from Iran for the first time. A checklist is provided of Thripinae recorded from this country. PMID:23950669

Mirab-balou, Majid; Minaei, Kambiz; Chen, Xue-Xin

2013-01-01

165

Quick Key to the Subfamilies and Genera of Ants of the Savannah River Site.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This taxonomic key was devised to support development of a Rapid Bioassessment Protocol using ants at the Savannah River Site. The emphasis is on rapid and, because the available keys contained a very large number of genera not known to occur at the Savan...

D. Martin

2007-01-01

166

Quick Key to the Subfamilies and Genera of Ants of the Savannah River Site, Aiken, SC.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This taxonomic key was devised to support development of a Rapid Bioassessment Protocol using ants at the Savannah River Site. The emphasis is on 'rapid' and, because the available keys contained a large number of genera not known to occur at the Savannah...

F. D. Martin

2006-01-01

167

Seed Coat Morphology and Its Systematic Implications in Cyanea and Other Genera of Lobelioideae (Campanulaceae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent surveys of seed coat morphology in Lobelioideae (Campanulaceae) have demonstrated the systematic utility of such data in the subfamily and led to a revision of the supraspecific classification ofLobelia. Expanding upon these studies, we examined via scanning electron microscopy 41 seed accessions, emphasizing lobelioid genera in which only one or no species had been examined. Most conformed to previously

Craig C. Buss; Thomas G. Lammers; Robert R. Wise

2001-01-01

168

Variation in seed oil composition of species from the genera Barbarea and Lepidium  

Microsoft Academic Search

The seed oil composition and content in a number of accessions from species of the genera Barbarea and Lepidium were analysed. The oil from most accessions of B. verna contained more than 50% erucic acid, while the oil from B. vulgaris contained ? 30% erucic acid, and 22% each of oleic and linoleic acid. The oil from B. intermedia resembled

P. Nilsson; Arnulf Merker

1998-01-01

169

Microcyclospora and Microcyclosporella: novel genera accommodating epiphytic fungi causing sooty blotch on apple  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent studies have found a wide range of ascomycetes to be associated with sooty blotch and flyspeck (SBFS) blemishes on the surfaces of pomaceous fruits, specifically apples. Based on collections of such fungi from apple orchards in Germany and Slovenia we introduce two novel genera according to analyses of morphological characters and nuclear ribosomal DNA sequences (large subunit and internal

J. Frank; P. W. Crous; J. Z. Groenewald; B. Oertel; K. D. Hyde; P. Phengsintham; H.-J. Schroers

2010-01-01

170

Eight New Genera of Unilocular Foraminifera1 R. TIMOTHY PATTERSON AND RANI H. RICHARDSON  

E-print Network

Eight New Genera of Unilocular Foraminifera1 R. TIMOTHY PATTERSON AND RANI H. RICHARDSON Department taxonomic revisions (Jones, 1984; Patterson & Richardson, 1987) will greatly aid taxonomists and stratig and paleoecological studies. Based on the taxonomic framework developed by Patterson & Richardson (1987), eight new

Patterson, Timothy

171

Growth Anomalies on the Coral Genera Acropora and Porites Are Strongly Associated with Host Density and  

E-print Network

University of Guam Marine Lab, University of Guam (UOG) Station, Mangilao, Guam, 8 University of Hawaii. Geological Survey, National Wildlife Health Center, Honolulu Field Station, Honolulu, Hawaii, United States) found on different host genera (Acropora vs. Porites). As human densities and environmental degradation

Harvell, Catherine Drew

172

Secretory hairs in Gentiana and allied genera (Gentianaceae, subtribe Gentianinae) from the Iberian Peninsula  

Microsoft Academic Search

Eleven species from six different sections of the genus Gentiana, as well as one species each of genera Gentianella (G. campestris), Gentianopsis (G. ciliata), Comastoma (C. tenellum) and Swertia (S. perennis) have been studied by light microscopy for the presence of hairs in floral as well as in vegetative parts. Hairs are produced in the calyx and vegetative leaves of

G. RENOBALES; E. DE DIEGO; B. URCELAY; A. LÓPEZ-QUINTANA

2001-01-01

173

Freshwater turtles, particularly those of the genera Chrysemys and Trachemys, exhibit a remarkable ability to  

E-print Network

of the -adrenergic system in modulating Rsys during anoxia at 5°C and 21°C in the turtle Trachemys scripta, and also words: red-eared slider, Trachemys scripta, anoxia, temperature, cardiovascular, systemic resistance269 Freshwater turtles, particularly those of the genera Chrysemys and Trachemys, exhibit

Farrell, Anthony P.

174

Chromosomal homologies and phylogenetic relationships of the vespertilionid bat genera Euderma, Idionycteris, and Plecotus  

Microsoft Academic Search

The phylogenetic relationships of three plecotine bat genera were studied by comparison of chromosome banding patterns. The G-banded karyotypes of Euderma maculatum and Idionycteris phyllotis were found to be very similar, differing by only two pericentric inversions. Plecotus townsendii possessed a strikingly different G-band karyotype, which differed from that of Euderma and Idionycteris by several fusions and an inversion in

A. D. Stock

1983-01-01

175

Modified CTAB Procedure for DNA Isolation from Epiphytic Cacti of the Genera Hylocereus and Selenicereus (Cactaceae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present a simple protocol for DNA isolation from climbing cacti, genera Hylocereus and Selenicereus. The abundant polysaccharides present in Hylocereus and Se- lenicereus species interfere with DNA isolation, and DNA extracts, rich in polysaccharides, are poor templates for amplification using polymerase chain reaction (PCR). We used roots as the source tissue due to the lower viscosity of the extracts

N. TEL-ZUR; S. ABBO; D. MYSLABODSKI; Y. MIZRAHI

1999-01-01

176

Neosartorya udagawae (Aspergillus udagawae), an Emerging Agent of Aspergillosis: How Different Is It from Aspergillus fumigatus??  

PubMed Central

A recent report on several cases of invasive aspergillosis caused by Neosartorya udagawae suggested distinctive patterns of disease progression between N. udagawae and Aspergillus fumigatus. This prompted us to characterize N. udagawae in comparison to A. fumigatus. Our findings showed that both species exist in two mating types at similar ratios and produce gliotoxin. However, the thermotolerance of the two species differs: while A. fumigatus is able to grow at 55°C but not at 10°C, N. udagawae is able to grow at 10°C but fails to grow at >42°C. Furthermore, compared to A. fumigatus, the conidia of N. udagawae require longer incubation periods to germinate at 37°C and are more susceptible to neutrophil attack as well as hydrogen peroxide; N. udagawae is also less virulent in gp91phox?/? mice. These findings suggest that growth and susceptibility to the host response might account for the reduced virulence of N. udagawae and the subtle distinction in the progression of the disease caused by the two species. PMID:19889894

Sugui, J. A.; Vinh, D. C.; Nardone, G.; Shea, Y. R.; Chang, Y. C.; Zelazny, A. M.; Marr, K. A.; Holland, S. M.; Kwon-Chung, K. J.

2010-01-01

177

Understanding nonaflatoxigenicity of Aspergillus sojae : a windfall of aflatoxin biosynthesis research  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aspergillus section Flavi includes aflatoxin-producing and nonproducing fungi. Aspergillus sojae is unable to produce aflatoxins and is generally recognized as safe for food fermentation. However, because of its taxonomical\\u000a relatedness to aflatoxin-producing Aspergillus parasiticus and A. flavus, it is necessary to decipher the underlying mechanisms for its inability to produce aflatoxins. This review addresses the\\u000a relationship between A. sojae and

Perng-Kuang Chang; Kenichiro Matsushima; Tadashi Takahashi; Jiujiang Yu; Keietsu Abe; Deepak Bhatnagar; Gwo-Fang Yuan; Yasuji Koyama; Thomas E. Cleveland

2007-01-01

178

Opportunistic Mycelial Fungal Infections in Organ Transplant Recipients: Emerging Importance of Non? Aspergillus Mycelial Fungi  

Microsoft Academic Search

To determine the spectrum and impact of mycelial fungal infections, particularly those due to non-Aspergillus molds, 53 liver and heart transplant recipients with invasive mycelial infections were prospectively identified in a multicenter study. Invasive mycelial infections were due to Aspergillus species in 69.8% of patients, to non-Aspergillus hyalohyphomycetes in 9.4%, to phaeohyphomycetes in 9.4%, to zygomycetes in 5.7%, and to

Shahid Husain; Barbara D. Alexander; Patricia Munoz; Robin K. Avery; Sally Houston; Timothy Pruett; Richard Jacobs; Edward A. Dominguez; Jan G. Tollemar; Katherine Baumgarten; Chen M. Yu; Marilyn M. Wagener; Peter Linden; Shimon Kusne; Nina Singh

2003-01-01

179

Cryptococcus neoformans Galactoxylomannan Contains an Epitope(s) That Is Cross-Reactive with Aspergillus Galactomannan  

PubMed Central

We report a case of cryptococcosis in which a serum enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for Aspergillus galactomannan was positive, with no evidence of aspergillosis. Soluble antigens from 19 Cryptococcus neoformans strains and purified carbohydrates of C. neoformans capsule were thus assayed in the Aspergillus galactomannan ELISA. Antigens from all C. neoformans strains, and purified galactoxylomannan, gave a positive reaction, suggesting that C. neoformans galactoxylomannan contains an epitope(s) that is cross-reactive with Aspergillus galactomannan. PMID:15956422

Dalle, Frederic; Charles, Pierre Emmanuel; Blanc, Karine; Caillot, Denis; Chavanet, Pascal; Dromer, Francoise; Bonnin, Alain

2005-01-01

180

Aspergillus as a multi-purpose cell factory: current status and perspectives  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aspergilli have a long history in biotechnology as expression platforms for the production of food ingredients, pharmaceuticals\\u000a and enzymes. The achievements made during the last years, however, have the potential to revolutionize Aspergillus biotechnology and to assure Aspergillus a dominant place among microbial cell factories. This mini-review will highlight most recent breakthroughs in fundamental\\u000a and applied Aspergillus research with a

Vera Meyer; Bo Wu; Arthur F. J. Ram

2011-01-01

181

The Mediterranean red alga Asparagopsis taxiformis has antifungal activity against Aspergillus species.  

PubMed

The red algae Asparagopsis taxiformis collected from the Straits of Messina (Italy) were screened for antifungal activity against Aspergillus species. EUCAST methodology was applied and extracts showed antifungal activity against A. fumigatus, A. terreus and A. flavus. The lowest minimum inhibitory concentrations observed were <0.15 mg ml(-1) and the highest were >5 mg ml(-1) for Aspergillus spp. tested. Agar diffusion assays confirmed antifungal activity of A. taxiformis extracts in Aspergillus species. PMID:23437896

Genovese, Giuseppa; Leitner, Sandra; Minicante, Simona A; Lass-Flörl, Cornelia

2013-09-01

182

Phylogenetic relationships of four endemic genera of the Phasianidae in China based on mitochondrial DNA control-region genes.  

PubMed

The taxonomic status of some genera within the Phasianidae remains controversial. To demonstrate the phylogenetic relationships of four endemic genera (Tetraophasis, Ithaginis, Crossoptilon and Chrysolophus) and other 11 genera of Phasianidae in China, a total of 1070 nucleotides of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) control-region genes were sequenced. There are 376 variable sites including 345 parsimony sites. The genetic distance ranged from 0.067 (Chrysolophus and Phasianus) to 0.181 (Perdix and Bambusicola) among the 15 genera. Maximum likelihood method was used to construct a phylogenetic tree, which grouped all the genera into two deeply divergent clades. Perdix was shown to be a non-partridge genus. Alternatively, it appears ancestral to either partridges or pheasants. The sibling taxa of the four endemic genera were Lophophorus, Tragopan, Lophura and Phasianus, respectively. Calibrated rates of molecular evolution suggested that the divergence time between the four genera and related taxa was 4.00-5.00 million years ago, corresponding to the Pliocene. Considering their molecular phylogenetics, fossil and geographical distribution patterns, the four endemic genera might have originated in the southwestern mountains in China. PMID:19591951

Huang, Zuhao; Liu, Naifa; Xiao, Yi'an; Cheng, Yalin; Mei, Wenfeng; Wen, Longying; Zhang, Lixun; Yu, Xiaoping

2009-11-01

183

A molecular phylogenetic analysis of the family Rhacophoridae with an emphasis on the Asian and African genera  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using characters from mitochondrial DNA to construct maximum parsimony and maximum likelihood trees, we performed a phylogenetic analysis on representative species of 14 genera: 12 that belong to the treefrog family Rhacophoridae and two, Amolops and Rana, that are not rhacophorids. Our results support a phylogenetic hypothesis that depicts a monophyletic family Rhacophoridae. In this family, the Malagasy genera Aglyptodactylus,

Jeffery A Wilkinson; Robert C Drewes; Owatha L Tatum

2002-01-01

184

Assessment of the ochratoxin A production ability of Aspergillus tubingensis.  

PubMed

Aspergillus tubingensis is a black Aspergillus frequently isolated from different agricultural products, including grapes. Conflicting results have been published in recent years about its ability to produce ochratoxin A (OTA), a potent nephrotoxic and carcinogenic mycotoxin. This study re-examined six A. tubingensis strains deposited in international culture collections for OTA production. OTA could not be detected in any A. tubingensis extract using HPLC coupled with a fluorescence detector (FLD), whereas it was easily detected in ochratoxigenic A. niger extracts used as positive control. The same outcome was obtained using LC-MS. The presence of other metabolites with retention times similar to the OTA signal in the A. tubingensis extracts or background noise of the growth media may be reasons for the misinterpretation of the chromatograms obtained by HPLC-FLD. PMID:22827810

Storari, M; Bigler, L; Gessler, C; Broggini, G A L

2012-01-01

185

Aspergillus antigen detection in the diagnosis of invasive aspergillosis.  

PubMed

The utility of serum Aspergillus antigen in invasive aspergillosis was determined by identifying patients with >50 ng/mL Aspergillus carbohydrate antigen by ELISA. Patients were identified from a university hospital over a 65-month period. Nineteen patients with antigenemia had proven invasive aspergillosis, 16 had probable invasive aspergillosis, and 14 had an indeterminate diagnosis. There were 5 patients with false-positive results. Antigen levels were higher in disseminated infection than in invasive pulmonary aspergillosis (median levels, 500 and 121 ng/mL, respectively). Survival also correlated with antigenemia. Serial samples were obtained from 31 of 35 patients with proven or probable invasive aspergillosis. Fifteen of 19 patients with rising or persistent antigenemia died, whereas only 1 of 12 patients who cleared antigenemia died. Higher antigen levels were useful in predicting disseminated disease, and the course of antigenemia correlated with clinical outcome. Antigen detection may be a useful addition in the management of invasive aspergillosis. PMID:7769291

Patterson, T F; Miniter, P; Patterson, J E; Rappeport, J M; Andriole, V T

1995-06-01

186

Salmonella and Aspergillus infections in common loons overwintering in Florida.  

PubMed

During a 5-year period (1970-1975), 190 common loons (Gavia immer) from overwintering populations on the east and west coasts of Florida were examined for evidence of infectious diseases. Salmonella spp (representing 8 serotypes) were isolated from 27 (14%) of the loons, and lesions typical of those produced by Aspergillus fumigatus were found in 34 (18%) of the loons. Seven loons were infected with Salmonella spp and had lesions typical of aspergillus infection. The largest number of loons (124) was obtained during the winter of 1973-1974, in connection with an offshore oil spill. There was no significant difference between the isolation rates of Salmonella spp from oiled vs nonoiled loons, but the occurrence of aspergillosis was higher in nonoiled than in oiled loons. PMID:789314

White, F H; Forrester, D J; Nesbitt, S A

1976-11-01

187

Metabolism of p-cresol by the fungus Aspergillus fumigatus  

SciTech Connect

Cresols are phenolic compounds that are industrial pollutants. Degradation of p-cresol by several species of fungus has been reported. Aspergillus fumigatus ATCC 28282 metabolizes both phenylacetic and homogentisic acids. This study shows that A. fumigatus ATCC 28282 also is capable of growth on p-cresol as its sole carbon source. Two metabolic routes for p-cresol degradation are described in the paper, but the relative contributions of each pathway is not evaluated. 21 refs., 3 figs., 3 tabs.

Jones, K.H.; Trudgill, P.W.; Hopper, D.J. (Univ. of Wales, Aberystwyth (United Kingdom))

1993-04-01

188

Aspergillus antigen testing in bone marrow transplant recipients  

PubMed Central

Aims—To assess the clinical usefulness of a commercial aspergillus antigen enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) in the diagnosis of invasive aspergillosis (IA) in bone marrow transplant recipients, and to compare it with a commercial latex agglutination (LA) test. Methods—In total, 2026 serum samples from 104 bone marrow transplant recipients were tested. These comprised 67 sera from seven patients who had died with confirmed IA, 268 sera from nine patients who had died with suspected IA, and 1691 sera from 88 patients with no clinical, radiological, or microbiological signs of IA. Results—The ELISA was more sensitive than the LA test. All patients who were ELISA positive were also LA positive, and a positive LA result never preceded a positive ELISA. Twelve of 16 patients with confirmed or suspected IA were ELISA positive on two or more occasions, compared with 10 of 15 who were LA positive. ELISA was positive before LA in five patients (range, 2–14 days), and became positive on the same day in the remainder. Aspergillus antigen was detected by ELISA a median of 15 days before death (range, 4–233). Clinical and/or radiological evidence of IA was noted in all patients, and a positive ELISA was never the sole criterion for introduction of antifungal treatment. Two samples (one from each of two patients without IA) gave false positive results. Conclusions—The aspergillus ELISA is a specific indicator of invasive aspergillosis if the criterion of two positive samples is required to confirm the diagnosis. However, the test is insufficiently sensitive to diagnose aspergillosis before other symptoms or signs are apparent, and hence is unlikely to lead to earlier initiation of antifungal treatment. It is therefore unsuitable for screening of asymptomatic patients at risk of invasive aspergillosis, but does have a useful role in confirming the diagnosis in symptomatic patients. Key Words: invasive aspergillosis • aspergillus antigen • Platelia enzyme linked immunosorbent assay PMID:10889818

Williamson, E; Oliver, D; Johnson, E; Foot, A; Marks, D; Warnock, D

2000-01-01

189

Voriconazole for the treatment of refractory Aspergillus fumigatus keratitis  

PubMed Central

We report a case of Aspergillus fumigatus keratitis in a 53-year-old, well-controlled diabetic female who did not respond to standard antifungal treatment. She was started on topical natamycin eye drops, but the infiltrate continued to progress. Topical amphotericin B and systemic ketoconazole was added, however, there was no response and the infiltrate increased further. She was then switched to topical and systemic voriconazole. Steady resolution of the infiltrate was noted within 2 weeks of therapy. PMID:18417831

Mehta, Hitendra B; Garg, Prashant; Kodial, Harish

2008-01-01

190

Novel  Glucosidase from Aspergillus nidulans with Strong Transglycosylation Activity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aspergillus nidulans possessed an -glucosidase with strong transglycosylation activity. The enzyme, desig- nated -glucosidase B (AgdB), was purified and characterized. AgdB was a heterodimeric protein comprising 74- and 55-kDa subunits and catalyzed hydrolysis of maltose along with formation of isomaltose and panose. Approximately 50% of maltose was converted to isomaltose, panose, and other minor transglycosylation products by AgdB, even at

Naoki Kato; Sachie Suyama; Masao Shirokane; Masashi Kato; Tetsuo Kobayashi; Norihiro Tsukagoshi

2002-01-01

191

Removal of heavy metals using the fungus Aspergillus niger  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is a need to develop technologies that can remove toxic heavy metal ions found in wastewaters. Microorganisms are known to remove heavy metal ions from water. In this study the potential of the fungus Aspergillus niger to remove lead, cadmium, copper and nickel ions was evaluated. A. niger biomass pretreated by boiling in 0.1N NaOH solution for 15 min

Anoop Kapoor; T Viraraghavan; D. Roy Cullimore

1999-01-01

192

Chemosensitization prevents tolerance of Aspergillus fumigatus to antimycotic drugs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tolerance of human pathogenic fungi to antifungal drugs is an emerging medical problem. We show how strains of the causative agent of human aspergillosis, Aspergillus fumigatus, tolerant to cell wall-interfering antimycotic drugs become susceptible through chemosensitization by natural compounds. Tolerance of the A. fumigatus mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) mutant, sakA?, to these drugs indicates the osmotic\\/oxidative stress MAPK pathway is

Jong Kim; Bruce Campbell; Noreen Mahoney; Kathleen Chan; Russell Molyneux; Gregory May

2008-01-01

193

Effect of Butyrolactone I on the Producing Fungus, Aspergillus terreus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Butyrolactone I (a-oxo-b-(p-hydroxyphenyl)-g-(p-hydroxy-m-3,3-dimethylallyl-benzyl)-g-methoxycarbonyl- g-butyrolactone) is produced as a secondary metabolite by Aspergillus terreus. Because small butyrolactone- containing molecules act as self-regulating factors in some bacteria, the effects of butyrolactone I on the producing organism were studied; specifically, changes in morphology, sporulation, and secondary metabolism were studied. Threefold or greater increases in hyphal branching (with concomitant decreases in the average hyphal

TIMOTHY G. SCHIMMEL; ALLEN D. COFFMAN; SARAH J. PARSONS

1998-01-01

194

An 88-kilodalton antigen secreted by Aspergillus fumigatus.  

PubMed Central

An 88-kDa component secreted in vitro by Aspergillus fumigatus has been purified by sequential chromatographic procedures. The molecule is a glycoprotein with an N-linked sugar moiety composed of mannose glucose, and galactose (16:10:1). It is recognized by antibodies from patients with aspergilloma and has potential for the immunodiagnosis of aspergilloma. The antigenicity is associated with the polypeptide part of the molecule (79 kDa). Images PMID:8406876

Kobayashi, H; Debeaupuis, J P; Bouchara, J P; Latge, J P

1993-01-01

195

Solid-state fermentation with Aspergillus niger for cellobiase production  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aspergillus niger NRRL3 was cultivated in a moist wheat bran and ground corncob solid medium supplemented with inorganic minerals for the production\\u000a of cellobiase (?-1,4-glucosidase, EC 3.2.1.21). With this method, A. niger NRRL3 was able to produce a high concentration of cellobiase (215 IU\\/gofsolid substrate) after 96 h of incubation. Temperature\\u000a and moisture content affected final cellobiase titers. The best

George T. Tsao; Liming Xia; Ningjun Cao; Cheng S. Gong

2000-01-01

196

Production and immobilization of cellobiase from Aspergillus niger ZU07  

Microsoft Academic Search

A high yield strain Aspergillus niger ZU-07 was used to produce cellobiase. It was found that the spores of A. niger ZU-07 were rich in cellobiase. By entrapping the spores into calcium alginate gels, the cellobiase was immobilized efficiently. The immobilized spores were quite stable, with a half-life 38 days. In repeated batch hydrolysis processes on 10gl?1 cellobiose by the

Xueliang Shen; Liming Xia

2004-01-01

197

Immobilization of ? galactosidase from Aspergillus oryzae via immunoaffinity support  

Microsoft Academic Search

Polyclonal antibody bound cellulose support has been exploited for the immobilization and stabilization of ? galactosidase from Aspergillus oryzae. Immunoaffinity bound ? galactosidase retained 96.5% of the initial activity on the support. Immobilized ? galactosidase showed broad-spectrum pH optima, pH 4.6–5.5 and temperature at 50–60°C whereas the soluble enzyme exhibited activity peak at pH 4.6 and 50°C. Immunoaffinity bound enzyme

Toshiba Haider; Qayyum Husain

2009-01-01

198

Immunochemical detection of ochratoxin A in black Aspergillus strains  

Microsoft Academic Search

One hundred and fifty-seven strains belonging to Aspergillus section Nigri were tested for ochratoxin A production using three different methods: a relatively new immunochemical method based on an\\u000a enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), thin-layer chromatography (TLC) and high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC).\\u000a The monoclonal antibody-based ELISA technique was successfully used to screen for low levels of ochratoxin A in the black\\u000a Aspergilli

József Téren; János Varga; Zsuzsanna Hamari; Ferenc Kevei

1996-01-01

199

Single cell transcriptomics of neighboring hyphae of Aspergillus niger  

PubMed Central

Single cell profiling was performed to assess differences in RNA accumulation in neighboring hyphae of the fungus Aspergillus niger. A protocol was developed to isolate and amplify RNA from single hyphae or parts thereof. Microarray analysis resulted in a present call for 4 to 7% of the A. niger genes, of which 12% showed heterogeneous RNA levels. These genes belonged to a wide range of gene categories. PMID:21816052

2011-01-01

200

Sodium gluconate production by Aspergillus niger with intermittent broth replacement  

Microsoft Academic Search

Intermittent broth replacement was carried out to enhance the productivity and purity of sodium gluconate usingAspergillus niger by reducing the concentration of unmetabolized glucose. As inoculum size increased, length of lag phase was shortened and\\u000a high initial production rate of sodium gluconate was achieved. However, too high inoculum concentration lowered productivity\\u000a during the later stage of fermentation and increased residual

Sang-Yoon Lee; Bu-Su Park; Jin-Hyup Kim; Byung-Gee Kim; Dong-Il Kim

1999-01-01

201

Leaching of copper converter slag with Aspergillus niger culture filtrate  

Microsoft Academic Search

Leaching of copper converter slag of M\\/s Hindustan Copper Ltd, Ghatshila (Bihar, India) was carried out usingAspergillus niger culture filtrate. The effects of the duration of leaching, temperature, pulp density and the addition of hydrochloric acid were studied.A. niger culture filtrate solubilized metals from the converter slag at levels of 18.70% copper, 7.40% nickel and 4.00% cobalt. Addition of hydrochloric

Lal Bihari Sukla; Rabi Narayan Kar; Vinita Panchanadikar

1992-01-01

202

Aspergillus Colonization of the Lung Allograft is a Risk Factor for Bronchiolitis Obliterans Syndrome  

PubMed Central

Multiple infections have been linked with the development of bronchiolitis obliterans syndrome (BOS) post-lung transplantation. Lung allograft airway colonization by Aspergillus species is common among lung transplant recipients. We hypothesized that Aspergillus colonization may promote the development of BOS and may decrease survival post-lung transplantation. We reviewed all lung transplant recipients transplanted in our center between 1/2000 and 6/2006. Bronchoscopy was performed according to a surveillance protocol and when clinically indicated. Aspergillus colonization was defined as a positive culture from bronchoalveolar lavage or two sputum cultures positive for the same Aspergillus species, in the absence of invasive pulmonary Aspergillosis. We found that Aspergillus colonization was strongly associated with BOS and BOS related mortality in Cox regression analyses. Aspergillus colonization typically preceded the development of BOS by a median of 261 days (95% CI 87 to 520). Furthermore, in a multivariate Cox regression model, Aspergillus colonization was a distinct risk factor for BOS, independent of acute rejection. These data suggest a potential causative role for Aspergillus colonization in the development of BOS post-lung transplantation and raise the possibility that strategies aimed to prevent Aspergillus colonization may help delay or reduce the incidence of BOS. PMID:19459819

Weigt, S. Samuel; Elashoff, Robert M.; Huang, Cathy; Ardehali, Abbas; Gregson, Aric L.; Kubak, Bernard; Fishbein, Michael C.; Saggar, Rajeev; Keane, Michael P.; Saggar, Rajan; Lynch, Joseph P.; Zisman, David A.; Ross, David J.; Belperio, John A.

2014-01-01

203

Identificação de um gene que afeta a produção de ocratoxina A em Aspergillus carbonarius.  

E-print Network

??A ocratoxina A é uma micotoxina produzida principalmente por espécies pertencentes aos gêneros Aspergillus e Penicillium, conhecida por apresentar efeitos nefrotóxicos e potencial carcinogênico. Com… (more)

Lígia Uno Lunardi

2009-01-01

204

Galactosaminogalactan, a New Immunosuppressive Polysaccharide of Aspergillus fumigatus  

PubMed Central

A new polysaccharide secreted by the human opportunistic fungal pathogen Aspergillus fumigatus has been characterized. Carbohydrate analysis using specific chemical degradations, mass spectrometry, 1H and 13C nuclear magnetic resonance showed that this polysaccharide is a linear heterogeneous galactosaminogalactan composed of ?1-4 linked galactose and ?1-4 linked N-acetylgalactosamine residues where both monosacharides are randomly distributed and where the percentage of galactose per chain varied from 15 to 60%. This polysaccharide is antigenic and is recognized by a majority of the human population irrespectively of the occurrence of an Aspergillus infection. GalNAc oligosaccharides are an essential epitope of the galactosaminogalactan that explains the universal antibody reaction due to cross reactivity with other antigenic molecules containing GalNAc stretches such as the N-glycans of Campylobacter jejuni. The galactosaminogalactan has no protective effect during Aspergillus infections. Most importantly, the polysaccharide promotes fungal development in immunocompetent mice due to its immunosuppressive activity associated with disminished neutrophil infiltrates. PMID:22102815

Simenel, Catherine; Coddeville, Bernadette; van Vliet, Sandra J.; van Kooyk, Yvette; Bozza, Silvia; Moretti, Silvia; Schwarz, Flavio; Trichot, Coline; Aebi, Markus; Delepierre, Muriel; Elbim, Carole; Romani, Luigina; Latge, Jean-Paul

2011-01-01

205

Recombinant Aspergillus ?-galactosidases as a robust glycomic and biotechnological tool.  

PubMed

Galactosidases are widespread enzymes that are used for manifold applications, including production of prebiotics, biosynthesis of different transgalactosylated products, improving lactose tolerance and in various analytical approaches. The nature of these applications often require galactosidases to be present in a purified form with clearly defined properties, including precisely determined substrate specificities, low sensitivity to inhibitors, and high efficiency and stability under distinct conditions. In this study, we present the recombinant expression and purification of two previously uncharacterized ?-galactosidases from Aspergillus nidulans as well as one ?-galactosidase from Aspergillus niger. All enzymes were active toward p-nitrophenyl-?-D-galactopyranoside as substrate and displayed similar temperature and pH optima. The purified recombinant galactosidases digested various complex substrates containing terminal galactose ?-1,4 linked to either N-acetylglucosamine or fucose, such as N-glycans derived from bovine fibrin and Caenorhabditis elegans. In our comparative study of the recombinant galactosidases with the commercially available galactosidase from Aspergillus oryzae, all enzymes also displayed various degrees of activity toward complex oligosaccharides containing ?-1,3-linked terminal galactose residues. All recombinant enzymes were found to be robust in the presence of various organic solvents, temperature variations, and freeze/thaw cycles and were also tested for their ability to synthesize galactooligosaccharides. Furthermore, the use of fermentors considerably increased the yield of recombinant galactosidases. Taken together, we demonstrate that purified recombinant galactosidases from A. niger and from A. nidulans are suitable for various glycobiological and biotechnological applications. PMID:24037406

Dragosits, Martin; Pflügl, Stefan; Kurz, Simone; Razzazi-Fazeli, Ebrahim; Wilson, Iain B H; Rendic, Dubravko

2014-04-01

206

Association of airborne Aspergillus with asthma exacerbation in Southern Pakistan  

PubMed Central

Background Exposure to airborne fungi has been related with exacerbation of asthma in adults and children leading to increased outpatient, emergency room visits, and hospitalizations. Hypersensitivity to these airborne fungi may be an important initial predisposing factor in the development and exacerbation of asthma. Objective This study was conducted to determine an association between fungal types and spore concentrations with the risk of asthma exacerbation in adults. Methods This cross-sectional study was conducted from May 2008 to August 2009 at the Aga Khan University Hospital Karachi, Pakistan. All adult (age?16 years) patients presenting to the hospital with acute asthma exacerbation were enrolled after informed consent. A home survey was conducted for each patient to assess their environmental characteristics. Indoor air samples were also obtained from the patient's home to determine the type and spore concentration of fungi within the week of their enrollment in the study. Results Three hundred and ninety-one patients with an acute asthma exacerbation were enrolled during the study period. The mean age of participants was 46 years (standard deviation, ±18 years) and 247 (63.2%) were females. A trend of higher asthma enrollment associated with higher Aspergillus concentrations was found in two consecutive summers. A total of nineteen types of fungi were found in air samples. Aspergillus spp. was the most frequently isolated fungus with acute asthma exacerbation. Conclusion An association of higher concentration of indoor Aspergillus spp. with asthma exacerbation in adults was observed in this study. PMID:24809014

Zubairi, Ali Bin Sarwar; Azam, Iqbal; Awan, Safia; Zafar, Afia

2014-01-01

207

Purification and characterization of mycoferritin from Aspergillus parasiticus (255).  

PubMed

As intracellular iron storage molecules, only hydroxymate type siderophores have been reported in ascomycetes and basidiomycetes. This is the first report documenting the presence of mycoferritin in ascomycetes. The fungus, Aspergillus parasiticus (255), is capable of producing mycoferritin only upon induction with iron in yeast extract sucrose (YES) medium. The same has been purified from Aspergillus sps by application of conventional biochemical techniques. The molecular mass, yield, iron and carbohydrate contents of the HPLC purified protein were 460kDa, 0.012mg/g of wet mycelia, 1.6% and 6.0%, respectively. The iron content was much lower than Mortierella alpina mycoferritin (17%). Native PAGE revealed the presence of trimeric and monomeric forms of ferritin. Subunit analysis by SDS-PAGE showed a single protein subunit of approximately 20kDa suggesting structural simplicity of the apoferritin shell. Variation in amino acid composition was noted upon comparison with ferritins of other species. Interestingly, no phenylalanine could be detected in the mycoferritin of Aspergillus sps. The acidic amino acid content was 1.5-1.6 fold higher than mammalian and fish ferritins. The spectral characteristics (UV/VIS and fluorescence) of mycoferritin were akin to equine spleen ferritin. However, circular dichroic spectra revealed a lower degree of helicity. PMID:15837384

Shashidhar, J; Sashidhar, R B; Deshpande, Vijay

2005-04-15

208

The freshwater snails (Gastropoda) of Iran, with descriptions of two new genera and eight new species  

PubMed Central

Abstract Using published records and original data from recent field work and revision of Iranian material of certain species deposited in the collections of the Natural History Museum Basel, the Zoological Museum Berlin, and Natural History Museum Vienna, a checklist of the freshwater gastropod fauna of Iran was compiled. This checklist contains 73 species from 34 genera and 14 families of freshwater snails; 27 of these species (37%) are endemic to Iran. Two new genera, Kaskakia and Sarkhia, and eight species, i.e., Bithynia forcarti, Bithynia starmuehlneri, Bithynia mazandaranensis, Pseudamnicola georgievi, Kaskakia khorrasanensis, Sarkhia sarabensis, Valvata nowsharensis and Acroloxus pseudolacustris are described as new to science; Ecrobia grimmi (Clessin & Dybowski, 1888), Heleobia dalmatica (Radoman, 1974) and Hippeutis complanatus (Linnaeus, 1758) are reported for the first time from Iran. Additional field work is highly desirable for a more appropriate evaluation of the extant freshwater snail biodiversity in Iran. PMID:22977349

Glöer, Peter; Peši?, Vladimir

2012-01-01

209

Palynological study of the genera Ruellia, Ecbolium, Asystasia, Blepharis and Dicliptera (Acanthaceae) of Yemen  

SciTech Connect

Pollen morphology of five genera of the family Acanthaceae, namely Ruellia, Blepharis, Asystasia, Ecbolium and Dicliptera (Acanthaceae) of Yemen has been examined using light and scanning electron microscope. Pollen descriptions were provided with two shapes distinguished, spheroidal and prolate. Most of the pollen grains were tricolporate amd psuedocolpi except those of Blepharis which are colpate. The surface is coarsely reticulate, in addition to the lumina that varies in size.

Al-Hakimi, S. Anisa [School of Environmental and Natural Resource Sciences, Faculty of Science and Technology, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, 43600, Bangi, Selangor, Malaysia and Biology Department, Faculty of Science, Taiz University, Taiz (Yemen); Maideen, Haja; Latiff, A. [School of Environmental and Natural Resource Sciences, Faculty of Science and Technology, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, 43600, Bangi, Selangor (Malaysia)

2013-11-27

210

At Least 23 Genera Instead of One: The Case of Iris L. s.l. (Iridaceae)  

PubMed Central

Background Iris L. s.l. is one of the most diverse and well-known genera in the Asparagales, with approximately 250–300 circumscribed species and significant economic impact. The taxonomy of the genus has suffered dramatic changes in the last century, particularly in the last decades after the application of molecular techniques. As a result several contrasting systematic arrangements are currently available to taxonomists. Many genera that were split from Iris s.str. in the past, on the basis of morphology (e.g., Hermodactylus, Iridodictyum, Juno, Pardanthopsis, and Xiphion, among others), are now a priori re-included in a very widely circumscribed Iris s.l. (incl. Belamcanda). This resulted in a more heterogeneous genus that is more difficult to define on morphological grounds. Testing congruence between taxonomic treatments and the results of recent molecular studies of Iris has never been performed, mostly due to the lack of proper taxonomic context. Results We generated several conventional phylogenies for Iris & outgroups using extensive sampling of taxa (187) and characters (10 plastid loci). We demonstrate that the natural history of Iris, written either as conventional molecular phylogenies or, if viewing in the context of the comparative approach, as a nested most parsimonious hierarchy of patterns, appear to be fully congruent with the narrow taxonomical treatment of the genus, restricted to the rhizomatous “bearded” taxa. The resulting topologies place Belamcanda, Pardanthopsis, and Gattenhofia as sisters to Iris s.str. and genus Siphonostylis as sister to Iris s.l. Conclusion The present study clearly justifies the splitting of Iris s.l. into at least 23 genera, 18 of which have already been accepted in the past by numerous authorities. These genera are characterized by unique combinations of partly overlapping morphological characters and biogeography. Moreover, nearly the same entities, which we here recognize at a generic rank, were for centuries frequently referred to by horticulturists as “working-name” groups. PMID:25170935

Mavrodiev, Evgeny V.; Martinez-Azorin, Mario; Dranishnikov, Peter; Crespo, Manuel B.

2014-01-01

211

Palynological study of the genera Ruellia, Ecbolium, Asystasia, Blepharis and Dicliptera (Acanthaceae) of Yemen  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Pollen morphology of five genera of the family Acanthaceae, namely Ruellia, Blepharis, Asystasia, Ecbolium and Dicliptera (Acanthaceae) of Yemen has been examined using light and scanning electron microscope. Pollen descriptions were provided with two shapes distinguished, spheroidal and prolate. Most of the pollen grains were tricolporate amd psuedocolpi except those of Blepharis which are colpate. The surface is coarsely reticulate, in addition to the lumina that varies in size.

Al-Hakimi, S. Anisa; Maideen, Haja; Latiff, A.

2013-11-01

212

Two new replacement names for the planthopper genera in Dictyopharidae (Hemiptera, Fulgoromorpha)  

PubMed Central

Abstract New replacement names are proposed for two genera of the family Dictyopharidae (Hemiptera: Fulgoromorpha). The following changes are proposed: Neonotostrophia nom. n. for Notostrophia Emeljanov (not Waterhouse); Emeljanovina nom. n. for Glochina Emeljanov (not Meigen); Neonotostrophia nigrosuturalis (Melichar, 1912) comb. n. from Notostrophia nigrosuturalis (Melichar, 1912) = Dictyophara nigrosuturalis Melichar, 1912 and Emeljanovina dixoni (Distant, 1906) comb. n. from Glochina dixoni (Distant, 1906) = Dictyophara dixoni Distant, 1906. PMID:23794929

Xing, Jichun; Chen, Xiangsheng

2013-01-01

213

Trichome morphology of eleven genera of the tribe Alysseae (Brassicaceae) occurring in Bulgaria  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ancev, M. & Goranova, V.: Trichome morphology of eleven genera of the tribe Alysseae (Bras- sicaceae) occurring in Bulgaria. - Willdenowia 36 (Special Issue): 193-204. - ISSN 0511-9618; © 2006 BGBM Berlin-Dahlem. doi:10.3372\\/wi.36.36116 (available via http:\\/\\/dx.doi.org\\/) The leaf and silicule trichomes of 18 species of Alysseae were studied by scanning electron and light microscopy. Four trichome types are distinguished: (1)

M. Ancev; VALENTINA GORANOVA

2006-01-01

214

The Genera of Fungi: fixing the application of type species of generic names.  

PubMed

To ensure a stable platform for fungal taxonomy, it is of paramount importance that the genetic application of generic names be based on their DNA sequence data, and wherever possible, not morphology or ecology alone. To facilitate this process, a new database, accessible at www.GeneraofFungi.org (GoF) was established, which will allow deposition of metadata linked to holo-, lecto-, neo- or epitype specimens, cultures and DNA sequence data of the type species of genera. Although there are presently more than 18 000 fungal genera described, we aim to initially focus on the subset of names that have been placed on the "Without-prejudice List of Protected Generic Names of Fungi" (see IMA Fungus 4(2): 381-443, 2013). To enable the global mycological community to keep track of typification events and avoid duplication, special MycoBank Typification identfiers (MBT) will be issued upon deposit of metadata in MycoBank. MycoBank is linked to GoF, thus deposited metadata of generic type species will be displayed in GoF (and vice versa), but will also be linked to Index Fungorum (IF) and the curated RefSeq Targeted Loci (RTL) database in GenBank at the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI). This initial paper focuses on eight genera of appendaged coelomycetes, the type species of which are neo- or epitypified here: Bartalinia (Bartalinia robillardoides; Amphisphaeriaceae, Xylariales), Chaetospermum (Chaetospermum chaetosporum, incertae sedis, Sebacinales), Coniella (Coniella fragariae, Schizoparmaceae, Diaporthales), Crinitospora (Crinitospora pulchra, Melanconidaceae, Diaporthales), Eleutheromyces (Eleutheromyces subulatus, Helotiales), Kellermania (Kellermania yuccigena, Planistromataceae, Botryosphaeriales), Mastigosporium (Mastigosporium album, Helotiales), and Mycotribulus (Mycotribulus mirabilis, Agaricales). Authors interested in contributing accounts of individual genera to larger multi-authored papers to be published in IMA Fungus, should contact the associate editors listed below for the major groups of fungi on the List of Protected Generic Names for Fungi. PMID:25083414

Crous, Pedro W; Giraldo, Alejandra; Hawksworth, David L; Robert, Vincent; Kirk, Paul M; Guarro, Josep; Robbertse, Barbara; Schoch, Conrad L; Damm, Ulrike; Trakunyingcharoen, Thippawan; Groenewald, Johannes Z

2014-06-01

215

Molecular phylogeny of the lionfish genera Dendrochirus and Pterois (Scorpaenidae, Pteroinae) based on mitochondrial  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study investigates the molecular phylogeny of seven lionfishes of the genera Dendrochirus and Pterois. MP, ML, and NJ phylogenetic analysis based on 964 bp of partial mitochondrial DNA sequences (cytochrome b and 16S rDNA) revealed two main clades: (1) ''Pterois'' clade (Pterois miles and Pterois volitans), and (2) ''Pteropterus-Dendrochirus'' clade (remainder of the sampled species). The position of Dendrochirus

Rainer S; Maroof A. Khalaf; Dietmar Blohm

216

Molecular phylogeny of the lionfish genera Dendrochirus and Pterois (Scorpaenidae, Pteroinae) based on mitochondrial DNA sequences  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study investigates the molecular phylogeny of seven lionfishes of the genera Dendrochirus and Pterois. MP, ML, and NJ phylogenetic analysis based on 964bp of partial mitochondrial DNA sequences (cytochrome b and 16S rDNA) revealed two main clades: (1) “Pterois” clade (Pterois miles and Pterois volitans), and (2) “Pteropterus–Dendrochirus” clade (remainder of the sampled species). The position of Dendrochirus brachypterus

Marc Kochzius; Rainer Söller; Maroof A. Khalaf; Dietmar Blohm

2003-01-01

217

A plastid gene phylogeny of the non-photosynthetic parasitic Orobanche (Orobanchaceae) and related genera  

Microsoft Academic Search

The phylogenetic relationships of the non-photosynthetic Orobanche sensu lato (Orobanchaceae), which includes some of the economically most important parasitic weeds, remain insufficiently\\u000a understood and controversial. This concerns both the phylogenetic relationships within the genus, in particular its monophyly\\u000a or lack thereof, and the relationships to other holoparasitic genera such as Cistanche or Conopholis. Here we present the first comprehensive phylogenetic

Jeong-Mi Park; Jean-François Manen; Alison E. Colwell; Gerald M. Schneeweiss

2008-01-01

218

Structural rearrangements, including parallel inversions, within the chloroplast genome of Anemone and related genera.  

PubMed

Chloroplast DNA cleavage sites for 10 restriction enzymes were mapped for 46 species representing all sections of Anemone, four closely related genera (Clematis, Pulsatilla, Hepatica, and Knowltonia), and three more distantly related outgroups (Caltha, Ranunculus, and Adonis). Comparison of the maps revealed that the chloroplast genomes of Anemone and related genera have sustained an unusual number and variety of rearrangements. A single inversion of a 42-kb segment was found in the large single-copy region of Adonis aestivalis. Two types of rearrangements were found in the chloroplast genome of Clematis, Anemone, Pulsatilla, Hepatica, and Knowltonia: An approximately 4-kb expansion of the inverted repeat and four inversions within the large single-copy region. These rearrangements support the monophyletic status of these genera, clearly separating them from Caltha, Ranunculus, and Adonis. Two further inversions were found in two Clematis species and three Anemone species. While appearing to support a monophyletic grouping for these taxa, these two inversions conflict with data from both chloroplast restriction sites and morphology and are better interpreted as having occurred twice independently. These are the first two documented cases of homoplastic inversions in chloroplast DNA. Finally, the second intron of the chloroplast rps 12 gene was shown to have been lost in the common ancestor of the same three Anemone species that feature the two homoplastic inversions. PMID:8006994

Hoot, S B; Palmer, J D

1994-03-01

219

Seed coat morphology and its systematic implications in Cyanea and other genera of Lobelioideae (Campanulaceae).  

PubMed

Recent surveys of seed coat morphology in Lobelioideae (Campanulaceae) have demonstrated the systematic utility of such data in the subfamily and led to a revision of the supraspecific classification of Lobelia. Expanding upon these studies, we examined via scanning electron microscopy 41 seed accessions, emphasizing lobelioid genera in which only one or no species had been examined. Most conformed to previously described testal patterns. However, five species of the endemic Hawaiian genus Cyanea, comprising the molecularly defined Hardyi Clade, had a unique testal pattern (here termed Type F), characterized by laterally compressed, almost linear, areoles with rounded, knob-like protuberances on the radial walls at opposite ends. This offered a convenient synapomorphy for recognition of a clade originally defined on a molecular basis. A second unique testal pattern was found in the related Hawaiian endemics Brighamia and Delissea, thus supporting their close relationship. In this type (here termed Type G), the seed coat is irregularly wrinkled (rugose), creating broad, rounded ridges that run more-or-less perpendicular to the long axis of the seed and thus to the long axis of the testal cells. Seed coat morphology also supported the monophyly of all 124 species of Hawaiian Lobelioideae and their probable derivation from Asian species of Lobelia subg. Tupa. Additional studies supported close relationships between (1) the neotropical genera Centropogon and Siphocampylus; (2) the western American genera Legenere and Downingia; and (3) Jamaican Hippobroma and Lobelia sect. Tylomium, a group endemic to the West Indies. PMID:11454630

Buss, C C; Lammers, T G; Wise, R R

2001-07-01

220

Jurassic-Early Cretaceous Gondwanan homoxylous woods: a nomenclatural revision of the genera with taxonomic notes.  

PubMed

The homoxylous fossil woods occurring in the Gondwanan continents of South America, Australia, Africa, India and Antarctica during the Jurassic and Early Cretaceous period are considered here. Original descriptions of the genera and wherever possible, the type material, have been consulted. Applying the rules of the International Code of Botanical Nomenclature, the generic names of the homoxylous woods have been revised from a nomenclatural point of view. According to this review, out of 31 generic names used for woods from the given time interval and area, 6 are illegitimate later nomenclatural synonyms, 1 is a later homonym, and 5 can be considered as taxonomical synonyms. Moreover, 9 genera have been used erroneously. We propose one new generic name (Protaxodioxylon n. gen.) and elsewhere we will propose for conservation, with a conserved type one of the illegitimate names and one of the taxonomic synonyms. As a result, we consider that there are only eighteen generic names correctly quoted for the Jurassic-Early Cretaceous of Gondwana, and we provide a taxonomic key for the corresponding genera. This revision is the first step in systematically comparing northern and southern hemisphere woods. PMID:11179718

Bamford, M K.; Philippe, M

2001-04-01

221

Comparative phylogenetic histories of two louse genera found on Catharus thrushes and other birds.  

PubMed

The louse genera Brueelia (Ischnocera) and Myrsidea (Amblycera) are broadly codistributed on songbirds (Passeriformes), but differ in a variety of life history characteristics. We used mitochondrial and nuclear DNA sequences to assess levels of genetic divergence and reconstruct phylogenies of these 2 genera, focusing especially on Catharus thrushes in North America. We then qualitatively compared the phylogenies and levels of divergence within these 2 genera of codistributed parasites. Neither Brueelia nor Myrsidea appears to cospeciate with Catharus thrushes or passerine birds in general. The Myrsidea phylogeny exhibits significant levels of biogeographic structure, whereas the Brueelia phylogeny does not. Myrsidea and Brueelia also differ in their levels of intra-generic genetic divergence, with Myrsidea showing higher levels of genetic divergence and host specificity than Brueelia. Our genetic data support traditional morphology-based taxonomy in several instances in which the same species of Brueelia has been reported on multiple host taxa, e.g., all migrant Catharus spp. carry B. antiqua, with little haplotype divergence. Myrsidea found on each Catharus sp. are in general genetically distinct, except for M. incerta, which parasitizes both Catharus ustulatus and Catharus minimus. The strong biogeographic signal in the Myrsidea phylogeny and higher relative levels of host specificity of Myrsidea spp. suggest that infrequent host-switching, followed by speciation, is shaping the evolutionary history of this group. In contrast, the relatively lower host specificity of Brueelia spp. suggests that host-switching, combined with more frequent ongoing dispersal, has been more important in the evolutionary history of Brueelia. PMID:18821823

Bueter, Chelsea; Weckstein, Jason; Johnson, Kevin P; Bates, John M; Gordon, Caleb E

2009-04-01

222

Constitutive expression of fluorescent protein by Aspergillus var. niger and Aspergillus carbonarius to monitor fungal colonization in maize plants.  

PubMed

Aspergillus niger and Aspergillus carbonarius are two species in the Aspergillus section Nigri (black-spored aspergilli) frequently associated with peanut (Arachis hypogea), maize (Zea mays), and other plants as pathogens. These infections are symptomless and as such are major concerns since some black aspergilli produce important mycotoxins, ochratoxins A, and the fumonisins. To facilitate the study of the black aspergilli-maize interactions with maize during the early stages of infections, we developed a method that used the enhanced yellow fluorescent protein (eYFP) and the monomeric red fluorescent protein (mRFP1) to transform A. niger and A. carbonarius, respectively. The results were constitutive expressions of the fluorescent genes that were stable in the cytoplasms of hyphae and conidia under natural environmental conditions. The hyphal in planta distribution in 21-day-old seedlings of maize were similar wild type and transformants of A. niger and A. carbonarius. The in planta studies indicated that both wild type and transformants internally colonized leaf, stem and root tissues of maize seedlings, without any visible disease symptoms. Yellow and red fluorescent strains were capable of invading epidermal cells of maize roots intercellularly within the first 3 days after inoculation, but intracellular hyphal growth was more evident after 7 days of inoculation. We also tested the capacity of fluorescent transformants to produce ochratoxin A and the results with A. carbonarius showed that this transgenic strain produced similar concentrations of this secondary metabolite. This is the first report on the in planta expression of fluorescent proteins that should be useful to study the internal plant colonization patterns of two ochratoxigenic species in the Aspergillus section Nigri. PMID:23899775

Palencia, Edwin Rene; Glenn, Anthony Elbie; Hinton, Dorothy Mae; Bacon, Charles Wilson

2013-09-01

223

Phytase production by Aspergillus niger CFR 335 and Aspergillus ficuum SGA 01 through submerged and solid-state fermentation.  

PubMed

Fermentation is one of the industrially important processes for the development of microbial metabolites that has immense applications in various fields. This has prompted to employ fermentation as a major technique in the production of phytase from microbial source. In this study, a comparison was made between submerged (SmF) and solid-state fermentations (SSF) for the production of phytase from Aspergillus niger CFR 335 and Aspergillus ficuum SGA 01. It was found that both the fungi were capable of producing maximum phytase on 5th day of incubation in both submerged and solid-state fermentation media. Aspergillus niger CFR 335 and A. ficuum produced a maximum of 60.6 U/gds and 38 U/gds of the enzyme, respectively, in wheat bran solid substrate medium. Enhancement in the enzyme level (76 and 50.7 U/gds) was found when grown in a combined solid substrate medium comprising wheat bran, rice bran, and groundnut cake in the ratio of 2 : 1 : 1. A maximum of 9.6 and 8.2 U/mL of enzyme activity was observed in SmF by A. niger CFR 335 and A.ficuum, respectively, when grown in potato dextrose broth. PMID:24688383

Shivanna, Gunashree B; Venkateswaran, Govindarajulu

2014-01-01

224

An anti-Aspergillus protein from Escherichia coli DH5?: putative inhibitor of siderophore biosynthesis in Aspergillus fumigatus.  

PubMed

An antifungal protein designated as anti-Aspergillus protein (AAP), produced by Escherichia coli DH5?, was purified and characterised. It exhibited a molecular weight of 60 kDa on Sodium dodecyl sulphate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis analysis and depicted 99% purity on ultra performance liquid chromatography. The purified protein manifested antimycotic potential against pathogenic isolates of Aspergillus spp., depicting a minimum inhibitory concentration in the range 15.62-31.25 ?g ml(-1) and 5.0-10.0 ?g per disc, using microbroth dilution, spore germination inhibition and disc diffusion assays respectively. In vitro toxicity tests demonstrated that it showed no toxicity against human erythrocytes at doses up to 1000 ?g ml(-1) . Matrix-assisted laser desorption ionisation-Time-of-flight analysis of trypsin-digested peptides of purified protein and subsequent Mascot search revealed that several peptides of AAP have identity with bacterial siderophore biosynthetic protein, i.e. non-ribosomal peptide synthetase enzyme, involved in critical step of fungal siderophore biosynthesis. Siderophore-based inhibition was further corroborated by Chrome azurol S assay. Hence, the antagonistic effect might be the result of impediment in siderophore-mediated iron uptake and transport process which may cause critical consequences on Aspergillus growth and virulence. PMID:23968167

Balhara, Meenakshi; Ruhil, Sonam; Kumar, Manish; Dhankhar, Sandeep; Chhillar, A K

2014-03-01

225

Utilization of b-glucosidase from aspergillus species in the hydrolysis of cellulose  

SciTech Connect

The batch hydrolysis of cellulose by Trichoderma reesei cellulase was considerably enhanced by the addition of very small amounts of B-glucosidase derived from Aspergillus niger. Addition of larger amounts had no further effect. In simultaneous cellulose hydrolysis and alcohol fermentation experiments the addition of B-glucosidase from Aspergillus niger had no significant effect on alcohol production by the fermenting yeast.

Nybergh, P.M.A.; Bailey, M.J.

1980-01-01

226

Distribution and mycotoxigenic potential of Aspergillus section Nigri species in naturally contaminated almonds.  

PubMed

In a previous study, inedible almond pick-out samples were assayed for aflatoxin and aflatoxigenic Aspergillus species. These samples contained high populations of black-spored Aspergillus section Nigri species. To investigate whether these species may contribute to the total potential mycotoxin content of almonds, Aspergillus section Nigri strains were isolated from these samples and assayed for ochratoxin A (OTA) and fumonisin B2 (FB2). The majority of isolates (117 strains, 68%) were identified as Aspergillus tubingensis, which do not produce either mycotoxin. Of the 47 Aspergillus niger and Aspergillus awamori isolates, 34 strains (72%) produced FB2 on CY20S agar, and representative strains produced lower but measurable amounts of FB2 on almond meal agar. No OTA-producing strains of Aspergillus section Nigri were detected. Almond pick-out samples contained no measurable FB2, suggesting that properly dried and stored almonds are not conducive for FB2 production by resident A. niger and A. awamori populations. However, 3 of 21 samples contained low levels (<1.5 ng/g) of OTA, indicating that sporadic OTA contamination may occur but may be caused by OTA-producing strains of other Aspergillus species. PMID:23575138

Palumbo, Jeffrey D; O'Keeffe, Teresa L

2013-04-01

227

Deletion of creB in Aspergillus oryzae Increases Secreted Hydrolytic Enzyme Activity  

PubMed Central

Aspergillus oryzae has been used in the food and beverage industry for centuries, and industrial strains have been produced by multiple rounds of selection. Targeted gene deletion technology is particularly useful for strain improvement in such strains, particularly when they do not have a well-characterized meiotic cycle. Phenotypes of an Aspergillus nidulans strain null for the CreB deubiquitinating enzyme include effects on growth and repression, including increased activity levels of various enzymes. We show that Aspergillus oryzae contains a functional homologue of the CreB deubiquitinating enzyme and that a null strain shows increased activity levels of industrially important secreted enzymes, including cellulases, xylanases, amylases, and proteases, as well as alleviated inhibition of spore germination on glucose medium. Reverse transcription-quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR) analysis showed that the increased levels of enzyme activity in both Aspergillus nidulans and Aspergillus oryzae are mirrored at the transcript level, indicating transcriptional regulation. We report that Aspergillus oryzae DAR3699, originally isolated from soy fermentation, has a similar phenotype to that of a creB deletion mutant of the RIB40 strain, and it contains a mutation in the creB gene. Collectively, the results for Aspergillus oryzae, Aspergillus nidulans, Trichoderma reesei, and Penicillium decumbens show that deletion of creB may be broadly useful in diverse fungi for increasing production of a variety of enzymes. PMID:23835170

Hunter, A. J.; Morris, T. A.; Jin, B.; Saint, C. P.

2013-01-01

228

Central nervous system Aspergillus infection after epidural analgesia: diagnosis, therapeutic challenges, and literature review  

PubMed Central

Aspergillus terreus was identified in an intra-dural spinal biopsy specimen from an African female with recurrent headache and hydrocephalus. Prior laboratory testing of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) was non-diagnostic, despite extensive central nervous system (CNS) involvement. CNS Aspergillus infection presents a diagnostic and therapeutic challenge and is reviewed in the context of this particularly instructive and difficult case. PMID:19717262

Genzen, Jonathan R.; Kenney, Barton

2009-01-01

229

Rapid detection and quantification of Aspergillus fumigatus in environmental air samples using solid-phase cytometry.  

PubMed

Aspergillus fumigatus is an ubiquitous fungus capable of causing severe infections such as aspergilloma, allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis, and invasive aspergillosis, especially in immunocompromised patients. Monitoring the number of Aspergillus fumigatus spores in the air is crucial for infection control. In the present study, a novel approach for the quantification of Aspergillus fumigatus, based on solid-phase cytometry (SPC) and immunofluorescent labeling, was developed. The sensitivity and specificity of the assay were confirmed by testing pure cultures. Paecilomyces variotii and Rhizopus stolonifer were codetected but could be excluded on the basis of morphology of the microcolonies. The SPC method has considerable advantages compared to the culture-based method, including its low detection limit (4 cells/m3), its speed (results are obtained within 24 h), and the straightforward microscopic identification of Aspergillus fumigatus. Additionally, comparison of results obtained with both methods demonstrated that they are equally accurate for the quantification of Aspergillus fumigatus in environmental air samples. PMID:19534140

Vanhee, Lies M E; Nelis, Hans J; Coenye, Tom

2009-05-01

230

Polyphasic approach to the identification of Aspergillus section Flavi isolated from Brazil nuts.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to use a polyphasic approach to identify Aspergillus section Flavi isolated from Brazil nuts collected in the Amazon forest: investigation of macro- and microscopic morphology, production of extrolites, heat-resistance fungi, and sequencing of DNA regions. The following Aspergillus section Flavi species were identified: Aspergillus flavus (75.5%), Aspergillus nomius (22.3%), and Aspergillus parasiticus (2.2%). All A. nomius and A. parasiticus isolates produced aflatoxins B and G, but not cyclopiazonic acid (CPA). A. flavus isolates were more diversified and a high frequency of mycotoxigenic strains was observed. The polyphasic approach permitted the reliable identification of section Flavi species. The rate of mycotoxigenic strains was high (92.7%) and mainly included A. flavus strains producing elevated levels of aflatoxins and CPA. These results highlight the possibility of co-occurrence of both toxins, increasing their potential toxic effect in this commodity. PMID:23561218

Baquião, Arianne Costa; de Oliveira, Maitê Martins Melo; Reis, Tatiana Alves; Zorzete, Patricia; Diniz Atayde, Danielle; Correa, Benedito

2013-08-15

231

Cryptic Species and Azole Resistance in the Aspergillus niger Complex?†  

PubMed Central

Aspergillus niger is a common clinical isolate. Multiple species comprise the Aspergillus section Nigri and are separable using sequence data. The antifungal susceptibility of these cryptic species is not known. We determined the azole MICs of 50 black aspergilli, 45 from clinical specimens, using modified EUCAST (mEUCAST) and Etest methods. Phylogenetic trees were prepared using the internal transcribed spacer, beta-tubulin, and calmodulin sequences to identify strains to species level and the results were compared with those obtained with cyp51A sequences. We attempted to correlate cyp51A mutations with azole resistance. Etest MICs were significantly different from mEUCAST MICs (P < 0.001), with geometric means of 0.77 and 2.79 mg/liter, respectively. Twenty-six of 50 (52%) isolates were itraconazole resistant by mEUCAST (MICs > 8 mg/liter), with limited cross-resistance to other azoles. Using combined beta-tubulin/calmodulin sequences, the 45 clinical isolates grouped into 5 clades, A. awamori (55.6%), A. tubingensis (17.8%), A. niger (13.3%), A. acidus (6.7%), and an unknown group (6.7%), none of which were morphologically distinguishable. Itraconazole resistance was found in 36% of the isolates in the A. awamori group, 90% of the A. tubingensis group, 33% of the A. niger group, 100% of the A. acidus group, and 67% of the unknown group. These data suggest that cyp51A mutations in section Nigri may not play as important a role in azole resistance as in A. fumigatus, although some mutations (G427S, K97T) warrant further study. Numerous cryptic species are found in clinical isolates of the Aspergillus section Nigri and are best reported as “A. niger complex” by clinical laboratories. Itraconazole resistance was common in this data set, but azole cross-resistance was unusual. The mechanism of resistance remains obscure. PMID:21768508

Howard, Susan J.; Harrison, Elizabeth; Bowyer, Paul; Varga, Janos; Denning, David W.

2011-01-01

232

Healthy Human T-Cell Responses to Aspergillus fumigatus Antigens  

PubMed Central

Background Aspergillus fumigatus is associated with both invasive and allergic pulmonary diseases, in different hosts. The organism is inhaled as a spore, which, if not cleared from the airway, germinates into hyphal morphotypes that are responsible for tissue invasion and resultant inflammation. Hyphae secrete multiple products that function as antigens, evoking both a protective (TH1–TH17) and destructive allergic (TH2) immunity. How Aspergillus allergens (Asp f proteins) participate in the development of allergic sensitization is unknown. Methodology/Principal Findings To determine whether Asp f proteins are strictly associated with TH2 responses, or represent soluble hyphal products recognized by healthy hosts, human T cell responses to crude and recombinant products were characterized by ELISPOT. While responses (number of spots producing IFN-?, IL-4 or IL-17) to crude hyphal antigen preparations were weak, responses to recombinant Asp f proteins were higher. Recombinant allergens stimulated cells to produce IFN-? more so than IL-4 or IL-17. Volunteers exhibited a diverse CD4+ and CD8+ T cell antigen recognition profile, with prominent CD4 TH1-responses to Asp f3 (a putative peroxismal membrane protein), Asp f9/16 (cell wall glucanase), Asp f11 (cyclophilin type peptidyl-prolyl isomerase) and Asp f22 (enolase). Strong IFN-? responses were reproduced in most subjects tested over 6 month intervals. Conclusions Products secreted after conidial germination into hyphae are differentially recognized by protective T cells in healthy, non-atopic individuals. Defining the specificity of the human T cell repertoire, and identifying factors that govern early responses may allow for development of novel diagnostics and therapeutics for both invasive and allergic Aspergillus diseases. PMID:20174463

Chaudhary, Neelkamal; Staab, Janet F.; Marr, Kieren A.

2010-01-01

233

Dated phylogenies of the sister genera Macaranga and Mallotus (Euphorbiaceae): congruence in historical biogeographic patterns?  

PubMed

Molecular phylogenies and estimates of divergence times within the sister genera Macaranga and Mallotus were estimated using Bayesian relaxed clock analyses of two generic data sets, one per genus. Both data sets were based on different molecular markers and largely different samples. Per genus three calibration points were utilised. The basal calibration point (crown node of all taxa used) was taken from literature and used for both taxa. The other three calibrations were based on fossils of which two were used per genus. We compared patterns of dispersal and diversification in Macaranga and Mallotus using ancestral area reconstruction in RASP (S-DIVA option) and contrasted our results with biogeographical and geological records to assess accuracy of inferred age estimates. A check of the fossil calibration point showed that the Japanese fossil, used for dating the divergence of Mallotus, probably had to be attached to a lower node, the stem node of all pioneer species, but even then the divergence time was still younger than the estimated age of the fossil. The African (only used in the Macaranga data set) and New Zealand fossils (used for both genera) seemed reliably placed. Our results are in line with existing geological data and the presence of stepping stones that provided dispersal pathways from Borneo to New Guinea-Australia, from Borneo to mainland Asia and additionally at least once to Africa and Madagascar via land and back to India via Indian Ocean island chains. The two genera show congruence in dispersal patterns, which corroborate divergence time estimates, although the overall mode and tempo of dispersal and diversification differ significantly as shown by distribution patterns of extant species. PMID:24465660

van Welzen, Peter C; Strijk, Joeri S; van Konijnenburg-van Cittert, Johanna H A; Nucete, Monica; Merckx, Vincent S F T

2014-01-01

234

Evidence for positive selection acting on microcystin synthetase adenylation domains in three cyanobacterial genera  

PubMed Central

Background Cyanobacteria produce a wealth of secondary metabolites, including the group of small cyclic heptapeptide hepatotoxins that constitutes the microcystin family. The enzyme complex that directs the biosynthesis of microcystin is encoded in a single large gene cluster (mcy). mcy genes have a widespread distribution among cyanobacteria and are likely to have an ancient origin. The notable diversity within some of the Mcy modules is generated through various recombination events including horizontal gene transfer. Results A comparative analysis of the adenylation domains from the first module of McyB (McyB1) and McyC in the microcystin synthetase complex was performed on a large number of microcystin-producing strains from the Anabaena, Microcystis and Planktothrix genera. We found no decisive evidence for recombination between strains from different genera. However, we detected frequent recombination events in the mcyB and mcyC genes between strains within the same genus. Frequent interdomain recombination events were also observed between mcyB and mcyC sequences in Anabaena and Microcystis. Recombination and mutation rate ratios suggest that the diversification of mcyB and mcyC genes is driven by recombination events as well as point mutations in all three genera. Sequence analysis suggests that generally the adenylation domains of the first domain of McyB and McyC are under purifying selection. However, we found clear evidence for positive selection acting on a number of amino acid residues within these adenylation domains. These include residues important for active site selectivity of the adenylation domain, strongly suggesting selection for novel microcystin variants. Conclusion We provide the first clear evidence for positive selection acting on amino acid residues involved directly in the recognition and activation of amino acids incorporated into microcystin, indicating that the microcystin complement of a given strain may influence the ability of a particular strain to interact with its environment. PMID:18808704

2008-01-01

235

A QUICK KEY TO THE SUBFAMILIES AND GENERA OF ANTS OF THE SAVANNAH RIVER SITE  

SciTech Connect

This taxonomic key was devised to support development of a Rapid Bioassessment Protocol using ants at the Savannah River Site. The emphasis is on 'rapid' and, because the available keys contained a very large number of genera not known to occur at the Savannah River Site, we found that the available keys were unwieldy. Because these keys contained many more genera than we would ever encounter and because this larger number of genera required more couplets in the key and often required examination of characters that are difficult to assess without higher magnifications (60X or higher), more time was required to process samples. In developing this set of keys I emphasized character states that are easier for nonspecialists to recognize. I recognize that the character sets used may lead to some errors but I believe that the error rate will be small and, for the purpose of rapid bioassessment, this error rate will be acceptable provided that overall sample sizes are adequate. Oliver and Beattie (1996a, 1996b) found that for rapid assessment of biodiversity the same results were found when identifications were done to morphospecies by people with minimal expertise as when the same data sets were identified by subject matter experts. Basset et al. (2004) concluded that it was not as important to correctly identify all species as it was to be sure that the study included as many functional groups as possible. If your study requires high levels of accuracy, it is highly recommended that, when you key out a specimen and have any doubts concerning the identification, you should refer to keys in Bolton (1994) or to the other keys used to develop this area specific taxonomic key.

Martin, D

2007-09-04

236

Endemicity and evolutionary value: a study of Chilean endemic vascular plant genera.  

PubMed

This study uses phylogeny-based measures of evolutionary potential (phylogenetic diversity and community structure) to evaluate the evolutionary value of vascular plant genera endemic to Chile. Endemicity is regarded as a very important consideration for conservation purposes. Taxa that are endemic to a single country are valuable conservation targets, as their protection depends upon a single government policy. This is especially relevant in developing countries in which conservation is not always a high resource allocation priority. Phylogeny-based measures of evolutionary potential such as phylogenetic diversity (PD) have been regarded as meaningful measures of the "value" of taxa and ecosystems, as they are able to account for the attributes that could allow taxa to recover from environmental changes. Chile is an area of remarkable endemism, harboring a flora that shows the highest number of endemic genera in South America. We studied PD and community structure of this flora using a previously available supertree at the genus level, to which we added DNA sequences of 53 genera endemic to Chile. Using discrepancy values and a null model approach, we decoupled PD from taxon richness, in order to compare their geographic distribution over a one-degree grid. An interesting pattern was observed in which areas to the southwest appear to harbor more PD than expected by their generic richness than those areas to the north of the country. In addition, some southern areas showed more PD than expected by chance, as calculated with the null model approach. Geological history as documented by the study of ancient floras as well as glacial refuges in the coastal range of southern Chile during the quaternary seem to be consistent with the observed pattern, highlighting the importance of this area for conservation purposes. PMID:24683462

Scherson, Rosa A; Albornoz, Abraham A; Moreira-Muñoz, Andrés S; Urbina-Casanova, Rafael

2014-03-01

237

Five vicarious genera from Gondwana: the Velloziaceae as shown by molecules and morphology  

PubMed Central

Background and Aims The amount of data collected previously for Velloziaceae neither clarified relationships within the family nor helped determine an appropriate classification, which has led to huge discordance among treatment by different authors. To achieve an acceptable phylogenetic result and understand the evolution and roles of characters in supporting groups, a total evidence analysis was developed which included approx. 20 % of the species and all recognized genera and sections of Velloziaceae, plus outgroups representatives of related families within Pandanales. Methods Analyses were undertaken with 48 species of Velloziaceae, representing all ten genera, with DNA sequences from the atpB-rbcL spacer, trnL-trnF spacer, trnL intron, trnH-psbA spacer, ITS ribosomal DNA spacers and morphology. Key Results Four groups consistently emerge from the analyses. Persistent leaves, two phloem strands, stem cortex divided in three regions and violet tepals support Acanthochlamys as sister to Velloziaceae s.s., which are supported mainly by leaves with marginal bundles, transfusion tracheids and inflorescence without axis. Within Velloziaceae s.s., an African Xerophyta + Talbotia clade is uniquely supported by basal loculicidal capsules; an American clade, Barbacenia s.l. + Barbaceniopsis + Nanuza + Vellozia, is supported by only homoplastic characters. Barbacenia s.l. (= Aylthonia + Barbacenia + Burlemarxia + Pleurostima) is supported by a double sheath in leaf vascular bundles and a corona; Barbaceniopsis + Nanuza + Vellozia is not supported by an unambiguous character, but Barbaceniopsis is supported by five characters, including diclinous flowers, Nanuza + Vellozia is supported mainly by horizontal stigma lobes and stem inner cortex cells with secondary walls, and Vellozia alone is supported mainly by pollen in tetrads. Conclusions The results imply recognition of five genera (Acanthochlamys (Xerophyta (Barbacenia (Barbaceniopsis, Vellozia)))), solving the long-standing controversies among recent classifications of the family. They also suggest a Gondwanan origin for Velloziaceae, with a vicariant pattern of distribution. PMID:21693665

Mello-Silva, Renato; Santos, Deborah Yara A. C.; Salatino, Maria Luiza F.; Motta, Lucimar B.; Cattai, Marina B.; Sasaki, Denise; Lovo, Juliana; Pita, Patricia B.; Rocini, Cintia; Rodrigues, Cristiane D. N.; Zarrei, Mehdi; Chase, Mark W.

2011-01-01

238

Delimitation of Neonectria and Cylindrocarpon (Nectriaceae, Hypocreales, Ascomycota) and related genera with Cylindrocarpon-like anamorphs  

PubMed Central

Neonectria is a cosmopolitan genus and it is, in part, defined by its link to the anamorph genus Cylindrocarpon. Neonectria has been divided into informal groups on the basis of combined morphology of anamorph and teleomorph. Previously, Cylindrocarpon was divided into four groups defined by presence or absence of microconidia and chlamydospores. Molecular phylogenetic analyses have indicated that Neonectria sensu stricto and Cylindrocarpon sensu stricto are phylogenetically congeneric. In addition, morphological and molecular data accumulated over several years have indicated that Neonectria sensu lato and Cylindrocarpon sensu lato do not form a monophyletic group and that the respective informal groups may represent distinct genera. In the present work, a multilocus analysis (act, ITS, LSU, rpb1, tef1, tub) was applied to representatives of the informal groups to determine their level of phylogenetic support as a first step towards taxonomic revision of Neonectria sensu lato. Results show five distinct highly supported clades that correspond to some extent with the informal Neonectria and Cylindrocarpon groups that are here recognised as genera: (1) N. coccinea-group and Cylindrocarpon groups 1 & 4 (Neonectria/Cylindrocarpon sensu stricto); (2) N. rugulosa-group (Rugonectria gen. nov.); (3) N. mammoidea/N. veuillotiana-groups and Cylindrocarpon group 2 (Thelonectria gen. nov.); (4) N. radicicola-group and Cylindrocarpon group 3 (Ilyonectria gen. nov.); and (5) anamorph genus Campylocarpon. Characteristics of the anamorphs and teleomorphs correlate with the five genera, three of which are newly described. New combinations are made for species where their classification is confirmed by phylogenetic data. PMID:21523189

Chaverri, P.; Salgado, C.; Hirooka, Y.; Rossman, A.Y.; Samuels, G.J.

2011-01-01

239

Dated Phylogenies of the Sister Genera Macaranga and Mallotus (Euphorbiaceae): Congruence in Historical Biogeographic Patterns?  

PubMed Central

Molecular phylogenies and estimates of divergence times within the sister genera Macaranga and Mallotus were estimated using Bayesian relaxed clock analyses of two generic data sets, one per genus. Both data sets were based on different molecular markers and largely different samples. Per genus three calibration points were utilised. The basal calibration point (crown node of all taxa used) was taken from literature and used for both taxa. The other three calibrations were based on fossils of which two were used per genus. We compared patterns of dispersal and diversification in Macaranga and Mallotus using ancestral area reconstruction in RASP (S-DIVA option) and contrasted our results with biogeographical and geological records to assess accuracy of inferred age estimates. A check of the fossil calibration point showed that the Japanese fossil, used for dating the divergence of Mallotus, probably had to be attached to a lower node, the stem node of all pioneer species, but even then the divergence time was still younger than the estimated age of the fossil. The African (only used in the Macaranga data set) and New Zealand fossils (used for both genera) seemed reliably placed. Our results are in line with existing geological data and the presence of stepping stones that provided dispersal pathways from Borneo to New Guinea-Australia, from Borneo to mainland Asia and additionally at least once to Africa and Madagascar via land and back to India via Indian Ocean island chains. The two genera show congruence in dispersal patterns, which corroborate divergence time estimates, although the overall mode and tempo of dispersal and diversification differ significantly as shown by distribution patterns of extant species. PMID:24465660

van Welzen, Peter C.; Strijk, Joeri S.; van Konijnenburg-van Cittert, Johanna H. A.; Nucete, Monica; Merckx, Vincent S. F. T.

2014-01-01

240

Nucleoside derivatives from the marine-derived fungus Aspergillus versicolor.  

PubMed

Four nucleoside derivatives (1-4) were isolated from the fungus Aspergillus versicolor derived from the gorgonian Dichotella gemmacea collected in the South China Sea. Their structures were elucidated by comprehensive spectroscopic method of NMR and MS analysis. All isolated metabolites were evaluated for their cytotoxicity, antibacterial activity and lethality towards brine shrimp Artemia salina. Compounds 1/2 exhibited selective antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus epidermidis with an MIC value of 12.5 ?M. It should be noted that 1 and 2, whose structures were listed in SciFinder Scholar, had no associated reference. This is the first report about their isolation, structure elucidation and biological activities. PMID:24670197

Chen, Min; Fu, Xiu-Mei; Kong, Chui-Jian; Wang, Chang-Yun

2014-01-01

241

Production of d-amino acid oxidase from Aspergillus sojae  

Microsoft Academic Search

d-Amino acid oxidase activities for d-glutamate (d-Glu), d-aspartate (d-Asp) and d-alanine (d-Ala) were found in cell-free extract of Aspergillus sojae (A. sojae). The enzyme activities for these three substrates increased over 30-fold by the addition of 0.25% d-Ala to the culture medium. Glycerol was an effective carbon source for increasing the enzyme activities. d-Ala, d-serine (d-Ser), and d-tryptophan (d-Trp) were

Mamoru Wakayama; Yuka Takeuchi; Katsuyuki Tasaka; Kenji Sakai; Mitsuaki Moriguchi

1996-01-01

242

Characterization of two forms of glucoamylase from aspergillus niger  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aspergillus niger glucoamylases GI and GII (E.C. 3.2.1.3) were isolated from a commercial enzyme preparation by ammonium sulfate\\u000a precipitation followed by DEAE-cellulose ion exchange chromatography. Both enzymes consist of a single glycosylated polypeptide\\u000a chain. The molecular weights of GI and GII were determined by sedimentation equilibrium ultracentrifugation to 52,000 and\\u000a 46,000, respectively, and by molecular sieving to 65,000 and 55,000.

Birte Svensson; Torben Graves Svendsen; IB Svendsen; Takuo Sakai; Martin Ottesen

1982-01-01

243

?-1,3-glucan modifying enzymes in Aspergillus fumigatus  

PubMed Central

In Aspergillus fumigatus like in other filamentous ascomycetes, ?-1,3-glucan constitutes a prominent cell wall component being responsible for rigidity of the cell wall structure. In filamentous fungi, softening of the cell wall is absolutely required during conidial germination and hyphal branching. Because of the central structure of ?-1,3-glucans, it is expected that ?-1,3-glucanases play a major role in cell wall softening. Based on in silico and experimental data, this review gives an overview of ?-1,3-glucan modifying enzymes in A. fumigatus genome and their putative role during morphogenesis. PMID:23616783

Mouyna, Isabelle; Hartl, Lukas; Latge, Jean-Paul

2013-01-01

244

Riboflavin production by Aspergillus terreus from beet-molasses.  

PubMed

Aspergillus terreus was used for riboflavin (vitamin B2) production in a medium containing beet molasses as the sole carbon source. Growth and the vitamin production of the fungus were markedly affected by the composition of the culture medium. A maximum riboflavin yield was achieved at the late exponential growth phase (16 day-old cultures) in the presence of (g/l): centrifuged beet-molasses, 90; L-asparagine, 1; MgSO4.7H2O, 0.5; K2HPO4/kH2PO4 (1:1), 5; and the medium initially adjusted to pH 8. PMID:8172689

Sabry, S A; Ghanem, K M; Ghozlan, H A

1993-12-01

245

Steady-state shear characteristics of Aspergillus niger broths  

SciTech Connect

It can be difficult to obtain reliable rheological data for filamentous fermentation broths using conventional instruments. One common approach is to measure the torque drawn by an impeller rotating in the suspension. Many previous workers have assumed that the applicable shear rate in such a device is related to the impeller speed by a fluid-independent constant determined by calibration with Newtonian and non-Newtonian fluids. The rheology of Aspergillus niger broths have been characterized using the impeller viscometer approach. The changes in the broth rheology were measured, and used to interpret the growth of biomass and the evolution of the microorganism morphology.

Svihla, C.K.; Dronawat, S.N.; Hanley, T.R. [Univ. of Louisville, KY (United States)

1995-12-31

246

Production and immobilization of cellobiase from Aspergillus niger A20  

Microsoft Academic Search

The production of cellobiase was investigated using a submerged culture of Aspergillus niger A20. The maximum production occurred when the pH was controlled and maintained at 4.0 during the fermentation process. Lactose (0.2%, w\\/v) and cellulose (1.5%, w\\/v) were the most favourable carbon sources. Yeast extract (0.05%, w\\/v) peptone (0.025%, w\\/v), urea (0.025%, w\\/v) and (NH4)2SO4 (0.07%, w\\/ v) were

Ahmed F. Abdel-Fattah; Mona Y. Osman; Mohamed A. Abdel-Naby

1997-01-01

247

Production of extremophilic bacterial cellulase enzymes in aspergillus niger.  

SciTech Connect

Enzymes can be used to catalyze a myriad of chemical reactions and are a cornerstone in the biotechnology industry. Enzymes have a wide range of uses, ranging from medicine with the production of pharmaceuticals to energy were they are applied to biofuel production. However, it is difficult to produce large quantities of enzymes, especially if they are non-native to the production host. Fortunately, filamentous fungi, such as Aspergillus niger, are broadly used in industry and show great potential for use a heterologous enzyme production hosts. Here, we present work outlining an effort to engineer A. niger to produce thermophilic bacterial cellulases relevant to lignocellulosic biofuel production.

Gladden, John Michael

2013-09-01

248

First reported infections caused by three newly described genera in the family Xanthomonadaceae.  

PubMed

Members of the family of Xanthomonadaceae are typically characterized as environmental organisms. With the exception of Stenotrophomonas maltophilia, these organisms are infrequently implicated as human pathogens. We describe three cases of central venous catheter-associated bloodstream infections caused by Dokdonella koreensis, Aquimonas voraii, and a Luteibacter sp., all newly named genera within the family Xanthomonadaceae. The three patients all had histories of underlying hematological disorders, presented with fever, and recovered fully following treatment. These isolates required 16S rRNA gene sequencing for identification and, unlike S. maltophilia, demonstrated susceptibility to most antibiotics tested. This report represents the first description of human infections caused by these organisms. PMID:17122001

LaSala, P Rocco; Segal, Jonathan; Han, Faye S; Tarrand, Jeffrey J; Han, Xiang Y

2007-02-01

249

First Reported Infections Caused by Three Newly Described Genera in the Family Xanthomonadaceae?  

PubMed Central

Members of the family of Xanthomonadaceae are typically characterized as environmental organisms. With the exception of Stenotrophomonas maltophilia, these organisms are infrequently implicated as human pathogens. We describe three cases of central venous catheter-associated bloodstream infections caused by Dokdonella koreensis, Aquimonas voraii, and a Luteibacter sp., all newly named genera within the family Xanthomonadaceae. The three patients all had histories of underlying hematological disorders, presented with fever, and recovered fully following treatment. These isolates required 16S rRNA gene sequencing for identification and, unlike S. maltophilia, demonstrated susceptibility to most antibiotics tested. This report represents the first description of human infections caused by these organisms. PMID:17122001

LaSala, P. Rocco; Segal, Jonathan; Han, Faye S.; Tarrand, Jeffrey J.; Han, Xiang Y.

2007-01-01

250

THE LICHENICOLOUS FUNGI ON SPECIES OF THE GENERA BAEOMYCES , DIBAEIS , AND ICMADOPHILA IN NORWAY  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lichenicolous fungi on species of the generaBaeomyces,Dibaeis, andIcmadophilain Norway includeAcarosporium lichenicolaIhlen & Tønsberg sp. nov.,Cercidospora parvaHafellner & Ihlen sp. nov.,Phoma maculiformansIhlen sp. nov.,Micarea inquinans(reported new to Scandinavia),Arthrorhaphis vacillans,Pyrenidium actinellums. lat.,Sphaerellothecium coniodes(all new to Norway),Arthrorhaphis alpina,A. citrinella,A. grisea,A. muddii,Dactylospora athallina,D. attendenda,Epilichen glauconigellus,E. scabrosus,Stigmidium icmadophilae,Thelocarpon epibolum, andT. lichenicola. Their anatomy and morphology are described, and a key to the taxa provided. Host

P. G. IHLEN

1998-01-01

251

Nuclear DNA Content of 26 Orchid (Orchidaceae) Genera with Emphasis on Dendrobium  

Microsoft Academic Search

2C DNA content values for 70 orchid species from 26 genera, including 37Dendrobiumspecies from eight taxonomic sections, were analysed using flow cytometry. The resulting nuclear DNA content values for species other thanDendrobiumranged from 1.91 pg 2C?1to 15.19 pg 2C?1nuclei forCadetia tayloriandVanilla phaeantha, respectively.Dendrobiumnuclear DNA content values ranged from 1.53 pg 2C?1to 4.23 pg 2C?1nuclei forD. cruentumandD. spectabile, respectively. DNA content

W. E JONES; A. R KUEHNLE; K ARUMUGANATHAN

1998-01-01

252

A general overview of the typical 18 frontal-ventral-transverse cirri Oxytrichidae s. l. genera (Ciliophora, Hypotrichia)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Oxytrichidae s. l. ciliates usually have 18 frontal-ventral-transverse cirri which are clustered to six distinct groups usually originating from six longitudinal primordia segregating 1, 3, 3, 3, 4, 4 cirri. During morphogenesis, three dorsal kineties anlagen are primarily formed. Fragmentation of kinety 3 usually present, while sometimes secondarily lost. Dorsomarginal kineties are formed, while sometimes lost. Oxytrichids tend to have overlapping characters, e.g. cell shape and size, infraciliature, pellicle features. This makes a great problem for genera separation. In the present work, all typical 18 frontal-ventral-transverse-cirri Oxytrichidae s. l. genera were revised systematically based on their living morphology, ciliature patterns and dorsal morphogenetic features. The outline of the genera, the schematic illustrations, and the key to typical 18 frontal-ventral-transverse-cirri genera of Oxytrichidae s. l. were clarified. Additionally, some morphological and morphogenetic patterns were summarized and compared.

Shao, Chen; Lu, Xiaoteng; Ma, Honggang

2014-10-01

253

Comprehensive database on Induan (Lower Triassic) to Sinemurian (Lower Jurassic) marine bivalve genera and their paleobiogeographic record  

E-print Network

Marine bivalve genera that were described or mentioned for Triassic and Lower Jurassic deposits worldwide are reviewed in terms of their validity, stratigraphic range, paleogeographic distribution, paleoautecology, and shell mineralogy. Data were...

Ros-Franch, Sonia; Marquez-Aliaga, Ana; Damborenea, Susana

2014-04-10

254

Chromosome numbers and karyotype evolution in holoparasitic Orobanche (Orobanchaceae) and related genera  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Chromosome numbers and karyotypes of species of Orobanche, Cistanche, and Diphelypaea (Orobanchaceae) were investigated, and 108 chromosome counts of 53 taxa, 19 counted for the first time, are presented with a thorough compilation of previously published data. Additionally, karyotypes of representatives of these genera, including Orobanche sects. Orobanche and Trionychon, are reported. Cistanche (x = 20) has large meta- to submetacentric chromosomes, while those of Diphelypaea (x = 19) are medium-sized submeta-to acrocentrics. Within three analyzed sections of Orobanche, sects. Myzorrhiza (x = 24) and Trionychon (x = 12) possess medium-sized submeta- to acrocentrics, while sect. Orobanche (x = 19) has small, mostly meta- to submetacentric, chromosomes. Polyploidy is unevenly distributed in Orobanche and restricted to a few lineages, e.g., O. sect. Myzorrhiza or Orobanche gracilis and its relatives (sect. Orobanche). The distribution of basic chromosome numbers supports the groups found by molecular phylogenetic analyses: Cistanche has x = 20, the Orobanche-group (Orobanche sect. Orobanche, Diphelypaea) has x = 19, and the Phelipanche-group (Orobanche sects. Gymnocaulis, Myzorrhiza, Trionychon) has x = 12, 24. A model of chromosome number evolution in Orobanche and related genera is presented: from two ancestral base numbers, xh = 5 and xh = 6, independent polyploidizations led to x = 20 (Cistanche) and (after dysploidization) x = 19 (Orobanche-group) and to x = 12 and x = 24 (Phelipanche-group), respectively.

Schneeweiss, G.M.; Palomeque, T.; Colwell, A.E.; Weiss-Schneeweiss, H.

2004-01-01

255

Anomopterellidae Restored, with Two New Genera and Its Phylogeny in Evanioidea (Hymenoptera)  

PubMed Central

Background Anomopterellidae was originally classified as a family within the Evanioidea, and later lowered to a subfamily, Anomopterellinae, of Praeaulacidae. Up to date, only Rasnitsyn 1975, with four species, was assigned to Anomopterellinae. Due to their special wing venation and their metasomal attachment similar to those known in Evanioidea, the systematic position of Anomopterellinae in Evanioidea has been in contention. Principal Findings Here we report a new fossil genus Synaphopterella gen. nov. and six species from the Middle Jurassic of China and transfer Anomopterella stenocera Rasnitsyn, 1975, from Upper Jurassic of Kazakhstan, to Choristopterella gen. nov. We place these three genera in the restored family Anomopterellidae and provide a key to known genera and species. Conclusions/Significance Based on new fossil specimens and phylogenetic analyses, Praeaulacidae has the most basal position in Evanioidea and it is justifiable to restore Anomopterellidae Rasnitsyn, 1975 as a full family. Comparing the size of all described anomopterellids from China, Mongolia and Kazakhstan, we conclude that the species from China have larger bodies and forewings. Diversity of the Praeaulacidae and Anomopterellidae in the late Middle Jurassic of Daohugou suggests that Evanioidea appeared at least before the late Middle Jurassic. PMID:24340047

Li, Longfeng; Rasnitsyn, Alexandr P.; Shih, Chungkun; Ren, Dong

2013-01-01

256

Taxonomic notes on the afrotropical genera Hapalogenius Hagedorn, Hylesinopsis Eggers, and Rhopalopselion Hagedorn (Coleoptera, Curculionidae, Scolytinae)  

PubMed Central

Abstract Taxonomic confusion among the afrotropical scolytine genera Hapalogenius Hagedorn, Hylesinopsis Eggers and Rhopalopselion Hagedorn, and their synonyms is discussed with especial reference to the catalogues of Wood and Bright (1992), and Alonso-Zarazaga and Lyal (2009). A key is given to separate the three genera recognised, and the species considered to be included in each genus are listed. Hylesinopsis is resurrected from synonymy with Hapalogenius, and shown not to be closely related to it. Chilodendron Schedl is considered to be a synonym of Hylesinopsis and not of Xylechinus Chapuis. The following new synonymy is proposed at specific level: Hapalogenius africanus (Eggers) (= Hapalogenius lesnei Eggers, = Metahylesinus brincki Schedl); Hapalogenius fuscipennis (Chapuis) (= Hapalogenius bimaculatus Eggers); Hapalogenius oblongus (Eggers) (= Metahylesinus striatus Schedl); Hylesinopsis fasciata (Hagedorn) (= Kissophagus punctatus Eggers); Phrixosoma niger Eggers (= Hapalogenius niger Schedl). The following species are returned to Hylesinopsis from Hapalogenius to which they were transferred by Alonso-Zarazaga and Lyal (2009): Hylesinopsis alluaudi (Lepesme), Hylesinopsis angolensis (Schedl), Hylesinopsis arabiae (Schedl), Hylesinopsis atra (Nunberg), Hylesinopsis confusa (Eggers), Hylesinopsis decellei (Nunberg), Hylesinopsis dubia Eggers, Hylesinopsis emarginata (Nunberg), Hylesinopsis fasciata (Hagedorn), Hylesinopsis ficus (Schedl), Hylesinopsis granulata (Lepesme), Hylesinopsis hirsuta (Schedl), Hylesinopsis joveri (Schedl), Hylesinopsis pauliani (Lepesme), Hylesinopsis punctata (Eggers), Hylesinopsis saudiarabiae (Schedl). The following new combination is given: Hylesinopsis leprosula (Browne) from Cryphalus Erichson. New distributional records are given for some species. PMID:21594177

Beaver, Roger A

2010-01-01

257

Comprehensive Secondary Structure Elucidation of Four Genera of the Family Pospiviroidae  

PubMed Central

Viroids are small, circular, single stranded RNA molecules that infect plants. Since they are non-coding, their structures play a critical role in their life cycles. To date, little effort has been spend on elucidating viroid structures in solution due to both the experimental difficulties and the time-consuming nature of the methodologies implicated. Recently, the technique of high-throughput selective 2?-hydroxyl acylation analyzed by primer extension (SHAPE) was adapted for the probing of the members of family Avsunviroidae, all of whom replicate in the chloroplast and demonstrate ribozyme activity. In the present work, twelve viroid species belonging to four different genera of the family Pospiviroidae, whose members are characterized by the presence of a central conserved region (CCR) and who replicate in nucleus of the host, were probed. Given that the structures of five distinct viroid species from the family Pospiviroidae have been previously reported, an overview of the different structural characteristics for all genera and the beginning of a manual classification of the different viroids based on their structural features are presented here. PMID:24897295

Giguere, Tamara; Raj Adkar-Purushothama, Charith; Perreault, Jean-Pierre

2014-01-01

258

Phylogenetic relationships among Lactuca (Asteraceae) species and related genera based on ITS-1 DNA sequences.  

PubMed

Internal transcribed spacer (ITS-1) sequences from 97 accessions representing 23 species of Lactuca and related genera were determined and used to evaluate species relationships of Lactuca sensu lato (s.l.). The ITS-1 phylogenies, calculated using PAUP and PHYLIP, correspond better to the classification of Feráková than to other classifications evaluated, although the inclusion of sect. Lactuca subsect. Cyanicae is not supported. Therefore, exclusion of subsect. Cyanicae from Lactuca sensu Feráková is proposed. The amended genus contains the entire gene pool (sensu Harlan and De Wet) of cultivated lettuce (Lactuca sativa). The position of the species in the amended classification corresponds to their position in the lettuce gene pool. In the ITS-1 phylogenies, a clade with L. sativa, L. serriola, L. dregeana, L. altaica, and L. aculeata represents the primary gene pool. L. virosa and L. saligna, branching off closest to this clade, encompass the secondary gene pool. L. virosa is possibly of hybrid origin. The primary and secondary gene pool species are classified in sect. Lactuca subsect. Lactuca. The species L. quercina, L. viminea, L. sibirica, and L. tatarica, branching off next, represent the tertiary gene pool. They are classified in Lactuca sect. Lactucopsis, sect. Phaenixopus, and sect. Mulgedium, respectively. L. perennis and L. tenerrima, classified in sect. Lactuca subsect. Cyanicae, form clades with species from related genera and are not part of the lettuce gene pool. PMID:21680311

Koopman, W J; Guetta, E; van de Wiel, C C; Vosman, B; van den Berg, R G

1998-11-01

259

Monoclonal antibodies against a 97-kilodalton antigen from Aspergillus flavus.  

PubMed Central

We prepared a panel of five monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) directed against Aspergillus flavus that all reacted against one 97-kDa antigen by western blot (immunoblot). Flow cytometry demonstrated that these antibodies bound (in increasing degrees) to all morphologic stages of A. flavus growth: conidia, swollen conidia, and hyphae. Cross-reactivity among species was examined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay of fungal culture filtrates. Four MAbs reacted with 10 of 11 A. flavus isolates, and the fifth one reacted with 9 of them. One MAb also reacted with A. fumigatus, two reacted with A. niger, A. wentii, and A. nidulans, and all five reacted with A. ochraceus. None reacted with A. terreus, A. glaucus, A. versicolor, or a Penicillium species. Each MAb bound to A. flavus hyphae in formalin-fixed paraffin sections of a muscle biopsy from a confirmed human case of invasive aspergillosis. In summary, these MAbs identified a 97-kDa antigen found on A. flavus that is both surface bound and an exoantigen. Either the same or a cross-reacting antigen is present in A. fumigatus and other Aspergillus species. Images PMID:7496924

Hetherington, S V; Henwick, S; Parham, D M; Patrick, C C

1994-01-01

260

The Antifungal Protein from Aspergillus giganteus Causes Membrane Permeabilization  

PubMed Central

We investigated the inhibitory effects of the antifungal protein (AFP) from Aspergillus giganteus on the growth of several filamentous fungi. For this purpose, the MICs of AFP were determined and ranged from 0.1 ?g/ml for Fusarium oxysporum to 200 ?g/ml for Aspergillus nidulans. The antifungal activity of AFP was diminished in the presence of cations. We were able to show that incubation of AFP-sensitive fungi with the protein resulted in membrane permeabilization using an assay based on the uptake of the fluorescent dye SYTOX Green. No permeabilization by AFP could be detected at concentrations below the species-specific MIC. Furthermore, AFP-induced permeabilization could readily be detected after 5 min of incubation. Localization experiments with fluorescein isothiocyanate-labeled AFP and immunofluorescence staining with an AFP-specific antibody supported the observation that the protein interacts with membranes. After treatment of AFP-sensitive fungi with AFP, the protein was localized at the plasma membrane, whereas it was mainly detected inside the cells of AFP-resistant fungi. We conclude from these data that the growth-inhibitory effect of AFP is caused by permeabilization of the fungal membranes. PMID:12543664

Theis, T.; Wedde, M.; Meyer, V.; Stahl, U.

2003-01-01

261

Ageratum conyzoides essential oil as aflatoxin suppressor of Aspergillus flavus.  

PubMed

Aflatoxin B(1) (AFB(1)) is a highly toxic and carcinogenic metabolite produced by Aspergillus species on food and agricultural commodities. Inhibitory effects of essential oil of Ageratum conyzoides, on the mycelial growth and aflatoxin B(1) production by Aspergillus flavus were studied. Cultures were incubated in yeast extract-sucrose (YES) broth for days at 25 degrees C at the following different concentrations of the essential oil (from 0.0 to 30mug/mL). The essential oil inhibited fungal growth to different extents depending on the concentration, and completely inhibited aflatoxin production at concentrations above 0.10microg/mL. The analysis of the oil by GC/MS showed that its main components are precocene II (46.35%), precocene I (42.78%), cumarine (5.01%) and Trans-caryophyllene (3.02%). Comparison by transmission electron microscopy of the fungal cells, control and those incubated with different concentrations of essential oil, showed ultra-structural changes which were concentration dependent of the essential oil of A. conyzoides. Such ultra-structural changes were more evident in the endomembrane system, affecting mainly the mitochondria. Degradation was also observed in both surrounding fibrils. The ability to inhibit aflatoxin production as a new biological activity of A.conyzoides L. indicates that it may be considered as a useful tool for a better understanding of the complex pathway of aflatoxin biosynthesis. PMID:19906457

Nogueira, Juliana H C; Gonçalez, Edlayne; Galleti, Silvia R; Facanali, Roseane; Marques, Márcia O M; Felício, Joana D

2010-01-31

262

Transesterification of triglycerides by dried biomass of Aspergillus sp.  

PubMed

Fungus isolate, Aspergillus sp. (RBD01), which was isolated from biocontaminated clarified butter was evaluated for its potential to transesterify used edible and non-edible oils for generation of alkyl esters, when used as biocatalyst as dry biomass. The work aimed at determining the potential of dry biomass of Aspergillus sp. (RBD01) to transesterify used cottonseed oil and non-edible oils viz., jatropha and karanj under various culture conditions. A conversion of oil (cotton seed) to ethyl ester to the extent of 84% was obtained at reaction temperature of 35°C, with 20% biomass and step-wise addition of ethanol at 1:5 molar ratio (oil to ethanol), within total reaction time of 36 h. Under similar conditions, transesterification of Jatropha and Karanj oils resulted in only 75 and 78.2% ethyl ester. Further, with reference to the effect of frying on transesterification, increase in frying time decreased the extent of transesterification from 84% to 30%. PMID:23648404

Aulakh, Satnam Singh; Prakash, N Tejo; Prakash, Ranjana

2013-01-01

263

Terrein biosynthesis in Aspergillus terreus and its impact on phytotoxicity.  

PubMed

Terrein is a fungal metabolite with ecological, antimicrobial, antiproliferative, and antioxidative activities. Although it is produced by Aspergillus terreus as one of its major secondary metabolites, not much is known about its biosynthetic pathway. Here, we describe an unexpected discovery of the terrein biosynthesis gene locus made while we were looking for a PKS gene involved in production of conidia coloration pigments common for Aspergilli. The gene, ATEG_00145, here named terA, is essential for terrein biosynthesis and heterologous production of TerA in Aspergillus niger revealed an unusual plasticity in the products formed, yielding a mixture of 4-hydroxy-6-methylpyranone, orsellinic acid, and 6,7-dihydroxymellein. Biochemical and molecular genetic analyses indicate a low extension cycle specificity of TerA. Furthermore, 6-hydroxymellein was identified as a key intermediate in terrein biosynthesis. We find that terrein production is highly induced on plant-derived media, that terrein has phytotoxic activity on plant growth, and induces lesions on fruit surfaces. PMID:24816227

Zaehle, Christoph; Gressler, Markus; Shelest, Ekaterina; Geib, Elena; Hertweck, Christian; Brock, Matthias

2014-06-19

264

Testing an innovative device against airborne Aspergillus contamination.  

PubMed

Aspergillus fumigatus is a major airborne nosocomial pathogen that is responsible for severe mycosis in immunocompromised patients. We studied the efficacy of an innovative mobile air-treatment device in eliminating A. fumigatus from the air following experimental massive contamination in a high-security room. Viable mycological particles were isolated from sequential air samples in order to evaluate the device's effectiveness in removing the fungus. The concentration of airborne conidia was reduced by 95% in 18 min. Contamination was reduced below the detection threshold in 29 min, even when the machine was at the lowest airflow setting. In contrast, during spontaneous settling with no air treatment, conidia remained airborne for more than 1 h. This indoor air contamination model provided consistent and reproducible results. Because the air purifier proved to be effective at eliminating a major contaminant, it may prove useful in preventing air-transmitted disease agents. In an experimental space mimicking a hospital room, the AirLyse air purifier, which uses a combination of germicidal ultraviolet C irradiation and titanium photocatalysis, effectively eliminated Aspergillus conidia. Such a mobile device may be useful in routine practice for lowering microbiological air contamination in the rooms of patients at risk. PMID:24965945

Desoubeaux, Guillaume; Bernard, Marie-Charlotte; Gros, Valérie; Sarradin, Pierre; Perrodeau, Elodie; Vecellio, Laurent; Piscopo, Antoine; Chandenier, Jacques; Bernard, Louis

2014-08-01

265

Environmental investigations and molecular typing of Aspergillus in a Chinese hospital.  

PubMed

Invasive fungal infections due to Aspergillus species have become a major cause of morbidity and mortality among immunocompromised patients. In order to determine the possible relationship between environmental contamination by Aspergillus and the occurrence of invasive aspergillosis, a 1-year prospective study was carried out in a tertiary hospital in China. Air, surface, and tap water sampling was performed twice monthly at the bone marrow transplant (BMT) department, intensive care unit (ICU), neurosurgery intensive care unit (NICU), and outdoors. Nose, pharynx, and sputum samples were collected from high-risk patients. Isolates of Aspergillus from the environment and patients were genotyped by random amplification of polymorphic DNA (RAPD) assay to investigate the origin of infection. Mean total Aspergillus count was 7.73, 8.94, 13.19, and 17.32 cfu/m(3) in the BMT department, ICU, NICU, and outdoors, respectively. RAPD analysis by R108 primer demonstrated that strains isolated from patients in NICU were identical to the environmental strain. Strains isolated from patients in ICU differed from the environmental strain. Aspergillus contamination was found in the BTM department, NICU, and ICU. Clinical and environmental strains from NICU had identical genotypes. These findings suggest that Aspergillus is found in the hospital environment including the air, surface, and tap water. The genotypes of Aspergillus were identical from patients and the environment, suggesting that clinical infection may originate from the hospital environment. PMID:24442359

Ao, Jun-hong; Hao, Zhen-feng; Zhu, He; Wen, Liang; Yang, Rong-ya

2014-02-01

266

Bioaccumulation potential of Aspergillus niger and Aspergillus flavus for removal of heavy metals from paper mill effluent.  

PubMed

In the present study Aspergillus niger and Aspergillus flavus isolated from paper mill effluent showed tolerance and accumulation of toxic metals Ni, Zn, Cd, Pb, Cr and Cu from synthetic medium and paper mill effluent. Physico-chemical and heavy metals characterization of industrially treated paper mill effluent showed insignificant reduction in BOD, hardness, TDS and heavy metals as compared to permissible limits of BIS and WHO. A. niger and A. flavus were treated with synthetic medium containing 100-1000 mg l(-1) of six heavy metals. A. niger was able to tolerate and grow in 1000 mg l(-1) Pb, 500 mg l(-1) Cu, 250 mg l(-1) Zn and 100 mg l(-1) Cr, Ni respectively. No growth of A. niger was observed in 100 mg l-(-1) of Cd. A. flavus was capable to tolerate and grow in 1000 mg l(-1) Pb, Zn and Ni, 100mg l(-1) Cu. A. flavus growth was completely inhibited in 100 mg l(-1) of Cd and Cr. The Cd, Zn, Cu and Pb reduction were found significant (p < 0.05) in the paper effluent inoculated with A. niger and A. flavus biomass compared to industrial treated effluent. A. niger and A. flavus accumulated maximum of Pb (75.82%) followed by Zn (49.40%) > Cu (45.34%) > Ni (25.20%), while only 41% Cr was accumulated by A. nigerfrom 100 mg l(-1) of Cr solution. PMID:23741802

Thippeswamy, B; Shivakumar, C K; Krishnappa, M

2012-11-01

267

A Saccharomyces cerevisiae Wine Strain Inhibits Growth and Decreases Ochratoxin A Biosynthesis by Aspergillus carbonarius and Aspergillus ochraceus  

PubMed Central

The aim of this study was to select wine yeast strains as biocontrol agents against fungal contaminants responsible for the accumulation of ochratoxin A (OTA) in grape and wine and to dissect the mechanism of OTA detoxification by a Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain (DISAABA1182), which had previously been reported to reduce OTA in a synthetic must. All of the yeast strains tested displayed an ability to inhibit the growth of Aspergillus carbonarius both in vivo and in vitro and addition of culture filtrates from the tested isolates led to complete inhibition of OTA production. S. cerevisiae DISAABA1182 was selected and further tested for its capacity to inhibit OTA production and pks (polyketide synthase) transcription in A. carbonarius and Aspergillus ochraceus in vitro. In order to dissect the mechanism of OTA detoxification, each of these two fungi was co-cultured with living yeast cells exposed to yeast crude or to autoclaved supernatant: S. cerevisiae DISAABA1182 was found to inhibit mycelial growth and OTA production in both Aspergilli when co-cultured in the OTA-inducing YES medium. Moreover, a decrease in pks transcription was observed in the presence of living cells of S. cerevisiae DISAABA1182 or its supernatant, while no effects were observed on transcription of either of the constitutively expressed calmodulin and ?-tubulin genes. This suggests that transcriptional regulation of OTA biosynthetic genes takes place during the interaction between DISAABA1182 and OTA-producing Aspergilli. PMID:23223175

Cubaiu, Loredana; Abbas, Hamid; Dobson, Alan D. W.; Budroni, Marilena; Migheli, Quirico

2012-01-01

268

Aspergillus terreus endogenous endophthalmitis: Report of a case and review of literature  

PubMed Central

We report a rare case of Aspergillus terreus endogenous endophthalmitis in an immunocompetent patient with subretinal abscess and also review the reported cases. A 50-year-old healthy male presented with sudden painful loss of vision in right eye. He was diagnosed with endogenous endophthalmitis and underwent urgent vitrectomy. Aspergillus terreus growth was obtained in culture. At final follow-up, there was complete resolution of the infection but visual acuity was poor due to macular scar. Aspergillus terreus is a rare cause of endophthalmitis with usually poor outcomes. Newer antifungals like Voriconazole can be sometimes associated with better prognosis. PMID:25230968

Panigrahi, Pradeep Kumar; Roy, Rupak; Pal, Swakshyar Saumya; Mukherjee, Anjan; Lobo, Aneesha

2014-01-01

269

Isolation and process parameter optimization of Aspergillus sp. for removal of chromium from tannery effluent.  

PubMed

Five morphologically different fungi were isolated from leather tanning effluent in which Aspergillus sp. and Hirsutella sp. had higher potential to remove chromium. The potential of Aspergillus sp. for removal of chromium was evaluated in shake flask culture in different pH, temperature, inoculums size, carbon and nitrogen source. The maximum chromium was removed at pH 6, temperature 30 degrees C, sodium acetate (0.2%) and yeast extract (0.1%). Aspergillus sp. was applied in 2l bioreactor for removal of chromium, and it was observed that 70% chromium was removed after 3 days. PMID:16023341

Srivastava, Shaili; Thakur, Indu Shekhar

2006-07-01

270

Highlights of the Didymellaceae: A polyphasic approach to characterise Phoma and related pleosporalean genera  

PubMed Central

Fungal taxonomists routinely encounter problems when dealing with asexual fungal species due to poly- and paraphyletic generic phylogenies, and unclear species boundaries. These problems are aptly illustrated in the genus Phoma. This phytopathologically significant fungal genus is currently subdivided into nine sections which are mainly based on a single or just a few morphological characters. However, this subdivision is ambiguous as several of the section-specific characters can occur within a single species. In addition, many teleomorph genera have been linked to Phoma, three of which are recognised here. In this study it is attempted to delineate generic boundaries, and to come to a generic circumscription which is more correct from an evolutionary point of view by means of multilocus sequence typing. Therefore, multiple analyses were conducted utilising sequences obtained from 28S nrDNA (Large Subunit - LSU), 18S nrDNA (Small Subunit - SSU), the Internal Transcribed Spacer regions 1 & 2 and 5.8S nrDNA (ITS), and part of the ?-tubulin (TUB) gene region. A total of 324 strains were included in the analyses of which most belonged to Phoma taxa, whilst 54 to related pleosporalean fungi. In total, 206 taxa were investigated, of which 159 are known to have affinities to Phoma. The phylogenetic analysis revealed that the current Boeremaean subdivision is incorrect from an evolutionary point of view, revealing the genus to be highly polyphyletic. Phoma species are retrieved in six distinct clades within the Pleosporales, and appear to reside in different families. The majority of the species, however, including the generic type, clustered in a recently established family, Didymellaceae. In the second part of this study, the phylogenetic variation of the species and varieties in this clade was further assessed. Next to the genus Didymella, which is considered to be the sole teleomorph of Phoma s. str., we also retrieved taxa belonging to the teleomorph genera Leptosphaerulina and Macroventuria in this clade. Based on the sequence data obtained, the Didymellaceae segregate into at least 18 distinct clusters, of which many can be associated with several specific taxonomic characters. Four of these clusters were defined well enough by means of phylogeny and morphology, so that the associated taxa could be transferred to separate genera. Aditionally, this study addresses the taxonomic description of eight species and two varieties that are novel to science, and the recombination of 61 additional taxa. PMID:20502538

Aveskamp, M.M.; de Gruyter, J.; Woudenberg, J.H.C.; Verkley, G.J.M.; Crous, P.W.

2010-01-01

271

Little ecological divergence associated with speciation in two African rain forest tree genera  

PubMed Central

Background The tropical rain forests (TRF) of Africa are the second largest block of this biome after the Amazon and exhibit high levels of plant endemism and diversity. Two main hypotheses have been advanced to explain speciation processes that have led to this high level of biodiversity: allopatric speciation linked to geographic isolation and ecological speciation linked to ecological gradients. Both these hypotheses rely on ecology: in the former conservation of ecological niches through time is implied, while in the latter adaptation via selection to alternative ecological niches would be a prerequisite. Here, we investigate the role of ecology in explaining present day species diversity in African TRF using a species level phylogeny and ecological niche modeling of two predominantly restricted TRF tree genera, Isolona and Monodora (Annonaceae). Both these genera, with 20 and 14 species, respectively, are widely distributed in African TRFs, with a few species occurring in slightly less humid regions such as in East Africa. Results A total of 11 sister species pairs were identified most of them occurring in allopatry or with little geographical overlap. Our results provide a mixed answer on the role of ecology in speciation. Although no sister species have identical niches, just under half of the tests suggest that sister species do have more similar niches than expected by chance. PCA analyses also support little ecological differences between sister species. Most speciation events within both genera predate the Pleistocene, occurring during the Late Miocene and Pliocene periods. Conclusions Ecology is almost always involved in speciation, however, it would seem to have had a little role in species generation within Isolona and Monodora at the scale analyzed here. This is consistent with the geographical speciation model for TRF diversification. These results contrast to other studies for non-TRF plant species where ecological speciation was found to be an important factor of diversification. The Pliocene period appears to be a vital time in the generation of African TRF diversity, whereas Pleistocene climatic fluctuations have had a smaller role on speciation than previously thought. Ecological niche modeling, species level phylogeny, ecological speciation, African tropics, Isolona, Monodora, Annonaceae PMID:21985574

2011-01-01

272

Drought meets acid: three new genera in a dothidealean clade of extremotolerant fungi  

PubMed Central

Fungal strains isolated from rocks and lichens collected in the Antarctic ice-free area of the Victoria Land, one of the coldest and driest habitats on earth, were found in two phylogenetically isolated positions within the subclass Dothideomycetidae. They are here reported as new genera and species, Recurvomyces mirabilis gen. nov., sp. nov. and Elasticomyces elasticus gen. nov., sp. nov. The nearest neighbours within the clades were other rock-inhabiting fungi from dry environments, either cold or hot. Plant-associated Mycosphaerella-like species, known as invaders of leathery leaves in semi-arid climates, are also phylogenetically related with the new taxa. The clusters are also related to the halophilic species Hortaea werneckii, as well as to acidophilic fungi. One of the latter, able to grow at pH 0, is Scytalidium acidophilum, which is ascribed here to the newly validated genus Acidomyces. The ecological implications of this finding are discussed. PMID:19287523

Selbmann, L.; de Hoog, G.S.; Zucconi, L.; Isola, D.; Ruisi, S.; van den Ende, A.H.G. Gerrits; Ruibal, C.; De Leo, F.; Urzì, C.; Onofri, S.

2008-01-01

273

Proposal for two new genera, Brevibacillus gen. nov. and Aneurinibacillus gen. nov.  

PubMed

16S rRNA gene sequences of the type strains of 11 species belonging to the Bacillus brevis and Bacillus aneurinolyticus groups were determined. On the basis of the results of gene sequence analyses, these species were separated into two clusters. The B. brevis cluster included 10 species, namely, Bacillus brevis, Bacillus agri, Bacillus centrosporus, Bacillus choshinensis, Bacillus parabrevis, Bacillus reuszeri, Bacillus formosus, Bacillus borstelensis, Bacillus laterosporus, and Bacillus thermoruber. Bacillus aneurinolyticus and Bacillus migulanus belonged to the B. aneurinolyticus cluster. Moreover, the two clusters were phylogenetically distinct from other Bacillus, Amphibacillus, Sporolactobacillus, Paenibacillus, and Alicyclobacillus species. On the basis of our data, we propose reclassification of the B. brevis cluster as Brevibacillus gen. nov. and reclassification of the B. aneurinolyticus cluster as Aneurinibacillus gen. nov. By using 16S rRNA gene sequence alignments, two specific PCR amplification primers were designed for differentiating the two new genera from each other and from other aerobic, endospore-forming organisms. PMID:8863420

Shida, O; Takagi, H; Kadowaki, K; Komagata, K

1996-10-01

274

Phenolic acids and depsides from some species of the Erodium genera.  

PubMed

Six natural polyphenolic compounds, brevifolin carboxylic acid, brevifolin, ellagic acid, methyl gallate, gallic acid and protocatechuic acid have been isolated from the methanol extract of the whole plant of Erodium cicutarium (L.) L.'Hérit. (Geraniaceae). Structures were determined by conventional methods of analysis and confirmed by MS and NMR spectral analysis. The distribution of these compounds in the other species of the Erodium genera (E. botrys, E. chium, E. ciconium, E. cicutarium, E. glutinosum subsp. dunense, E. gruinum, E. manescavi, E. pelargoniiflorum, E. petraeum) were examined by HPLC with a RP-18 column, and MGD-TLC methods on unmodified silica gel and silica gel chemically modified with polar and nonpolar groups (HPTLC-Si 60 LiChrospher, HPTLC-NH2, HPTLC-DIOL, HPTLC RP-18W). PMID:11837680

Fecka, I; Kowalczyk, A; Cisowski, W

2001-01-01

275

The Multitentaculate Cirratulidae of the Genera Cirriformia and Timarete (Annelida: Polychaeta) from Shallow Waters of Brazil  

PubMed Central

A large number multitentaculate cirratulids have been described worldwide but most are only known through the original descriptions. Type material, voucher and recently collected specimens from Brazil were revisited in order to reveal their true identity and confirm the records of widely distributed species in this region. Six species are described, three of which are new, Cirriformia capixabensis sp. nov., Cirriformia chicoi sp. nov. and Timarete ceciliae sp. nov. COI and 16S sequences were obtained and used for inter-specific comparisons. Timarete caribous is reported from several localities along the Brazilian coast and a new synonym, Cirratulus melanacanthus, is proposed. The species Timarete oculata, originally described from Brazil and lumped into the Timarete filigera species complex, is herein revalidated and redescribed. The occurrence of the species Timarete filigera and Cirriformia tentaculata is not confirmed from the Brazilian coast. Descriptions, illustrations and a key to genera and species are provided. PMID:25393759

Magalhães, Wagner F.; Seixas, Victor Corrêa; Paiva, Paulo Cesar; Elias, Rodolfo

2014-01-01

276

Molecular Phylogeny of the Myxobolus and Henneguya Genera with Several New South American Species  

PubMed Central

The present study consists of a detailed phylogenetic analysis of myxosporeans of the Myxobolus and Henneguya genera, including sequences from 12 Myxobolus/Henneguya species, parasites of South American pimelodids, bryconids and characids. Maximum likelihood and maximum parsimony analyses, based on 18 S rDNA gene sequences, showed that the strongest evolutionary signal is the phylogenetic affinity of the fish hosts, with clustering mainly occurring according to the order and/or family of the host. Of the 12 South American species studied here, six are newly described infecting fish from the Brazilian Pantanal wetland. Henneguya maculosus n. sp. and Myxobolus flavus n. sp. were found infecting both Pseudoplatystoma corruscans and Pseudoplatystoma reticulatum; Myxobolus aureus n. sp. and Myxobolus pantanalis n. sp. were observed parasitizing Salminus brasiliensis and Myxobolus umidus n. sp. and Myxobolus piraputangae n. sp. were detected infecting Brycon hilarii. PMID:24040037

Carriero, Mateus Maldonado; Adriano, Edson A.; Silva, Marcia R. M.; Ceccarelli, Paulo S.; Maia, Antonio A. M.

2013-01-01

277

Identification of pavinane alkaloids in the genera Argemone and Eschscholzia by GC-MS.  

PubMed

The genera Eschscholtzia and Argemone (Papaveraceae) represent a rich source of pavinane alkaloids, the identification of which in alkaloid extracts is generally problematic without standards. The alkaloid extracts of three Argemone and four Eschscholtzia species were analyzed using GC-MS. The alkaloids were identified based on comparison of their mass spectra with commercial libraries, with reported data in the literature and with spectra of reference compounds. A total of 23 alkaloids of six structural types (pavinane, protopine, benzylisoquinoline, benzophenanthridine, aporphine and protoberberine) were identified. The fragmentation pathway of pavinane alkaloids was used for their identification. O-Methylneocaryachine has been reported for the first time from a natural sources and the alkaloid pattern of Eschscholzia pulchella has been analyzed and described for the first time. PMID:23156990

Cahlíková, Lucie; Kucera, Radim; Host'álková, Anna; Klimes, Jirí; Opletal, Lubomír

2012-10-01

278

Chloroplast DNA evolution and systematics of Phanerophlebia (Dryopteridaceae) and related fern genera  

PubMed Central

Restriction site variation in chloroplast DNA was examined in the neotropical fern genus Phanerophlebia and in selected species of the related Asiatic genus Cyrtomium and the cosmopolitan progenitor of these two, Polystichum. A total of 103 restriction site mutations was identified; these were used to construct phylogenetic networks and trees based on Wagner and Dollo parsimony and Fitch-Margoliash distance algorithms. The analyses provided evidence that Phanerophlebia did not arise from Cyrtomium. Both genera are convergent descendants from different progenitor groups in Polystichum, and Asiatic Cyrtomium is more closely related to temperate New World Polystichum than it is to neotropical Phanerophlebia. Reticulate venation, previously considered an important taxonomic character for infrageneric classification in Phanerophlebia, most likely evolved independently twice within the genus. Diploid maternal progenitors are suggested for two of four tetraploid species analyzed, and species-level distinctions for two closely related taxa of Phanerophlebia are questioned. PMID:16593923

Yatskievych, George; Stein, Diana B.; Gastony, Gerald J.

1988-01-01

279

LABORATORY TRANSMISSION OF JAPANESE B ENCEPHALITIS VIRUS BY SEVEN SPECIES (THREE GENERA) OF NORTH AMERICAN MOSQUITOES.  

PubMed

In the present studies ten common species of Western North American mosquitoes have been tested for their ability to act as vectors of Japanese B encephalitis virus (see summary Table XII). The strain of Japanese B encephalitis virus which was used was adapted to direct mouse brain passage, probably a disadvantage, but no freshly isolated strain was available. Of the ten species of mosquitoes tested, seven were demonstrated to be laboratory vectors. These seven species represent three genera (Culex, Aedes, and Culiseta). In previously reported work Japanese and Russians had only incriminated five species of two genera (Aedes and Culex) (1-3). Transmission was made to mice 21 times and to a chicken once. Two attempts to infect mosquitoes from an infected chicken were unsuccessfui, but no significance is attached to so few experiments. Repeated tests for virus in the eggs, or in imagines reared from eggs of infected female mosquitoes have been negative. In this we failed to confirm results claimed by Japanese investigators (5, 6). These data, in addition to the published accounts by Japanese and Russian workers of the natural epidemiology of this disease lead us to believe that this virus might well establish itself in North America, especially if introduced in those areas where our native encephalitides are now endemic. These studies also indicate that species of mosquitoes (Culex tarsalis, Culex pipiens, See PDF for Structure Aedes dorsalis, and Culiseta inornata) now known to be fully incriminated vectors of the Western equine or St. Louis encephalitis viruses can also serve as laboratory vectors of the Japanese B virus. Methods for the effective abatement of these species should be further developed and put into practice if future epidemics of encephalitis of the Western equine, St. Louis, or Japanese B types in Western North America are to be prevented or brought under control. PMID:19871524

Reeves, W C; Hammon, W M

1946-02-28

280

A phylogenetic and biogeographic analysis of the genera of Spirorchinae (Digenea: Spirorchidae) parasitic in freshwater turtles.  

PubMed

Cladistic analysis of the freshwater genera of Spirorchinae (Schistosomatoidea: Spirorchidae sensu Yamaguti, 1971) plus Haematotrema Stunkard, 1923, and Aphanospirorchis Platt, 1990, was completed. The Spirorchinae were considered monophyletic based on synapomorphies of the esophagus. Three lineages, Spirhapalum (Europe/Asia), Plasmiorchis+Hemiorchis (India), and Spirorchis + Henotosoma + Haematotrema + Aphanospirorchis (North America), were identified. Nelsen consensus analysis was used as the basis for recognizing 3 valid monophyletic genera: Spirhapalum, Plasmiorchis, and Spirorchis. Hapalotrematinae sensu Smith, 1972 (e.g., Hapalorhynchus/Coeuritrema), is considered the most plesiomorphic group of spirorchids. Freshwater representatives of the hapalotrematines have been reported from 7 of 12 extant turtle families, including the relatively primitive Pelomedusidae (Pleurodira) and exhibit a worldwide distribution. It is hypothesized that this group arose in the early Triassic period, prior to the breakup of Pangea. Thus, it represents a primitive lineage that was present during the diversification of turtle lineages in the mid-Mesozoic era. Spirorchinae arose later (late Cretaceous period) as a Laurasian component parasitic in the more recent pond turtles (Emydidae + Bataguridae). Species of Spirhapalum retained a relatively plesiomorphic distribution, and they are found in emydids (Europe) and batagurids (Asia). Species of Spirorchis arose and diversified with North America emydids following the separation of North America and Europe in the late Cretaceous or early Tertiary periods. Species of Plasmiorchis are hypothesized to be derived from Asian ancestors that accompanied the colonization of India by Asian batagurids during the early Tertiary period. The presence of Spirorchis species in snapping turtles (Chelydridae/North America) and of Plasmiorchis species in Indian soft-shelled turtle (Trionychidae) are considered independent colonization events. PMID:1635020

Platt, T R

1992-08-01

281

Comparative Chloroplast Genomics Reveals the Evolution of Pinaceae Genera and Subfamilies  

PubMed Central

As the largest and the basal-most family of conifers, Pinaceae provides key insights into the evolutionary history of conifers. We present comparative chloroplast genomics and analysis of concatenated 49 chloroplast protein-coding genes common to 19 gymnosperms, including 15 species from 8 Pinaceous genera, to address the long-standing controversy about Pinaceae phylogeny. The complete cpDNAs of Cathaya argyrophylla and Cedrus deodara (Abitoideae) and draft cpDNAs of Larix decidua, Picea morrisonicola, and Pseudotsuga wilsoniana are reported. We found 21- and 42-kb inversions in congeneric species and different populations of Pinaceous species, which indicates that structural polymorphics may be common and ancient in Pinaceae. Our phylogenetic analyses reveal that Cedrus is clustered with Abies–Keteleeria rather than the basal-most genus of Pinaceae and that Cathaya is closer to Pinus than to Picea or Larix–Pseudotsuga. Topology and structural change tests and indel-distribution comparisons lend further evidence to our phylogenetic finding. Our molecular datings suggest that Pinaceae first evolved during Early Jurassic, and diversification of Pinaceous subfamilies and genera took place during Mid-Jurassic and Lower Cretaceous, respectively. Using different maximum-likelihood divergences as thresholds, we conclude that 2 (Abietoideae and Larix–Pseudotsuga–Piceae–Cathaya–Pinus), 4 (Cedrus, non-Cedrus Abietoideae, Larix–Pseudotsuga, and Piceae–Cathaya–Pinus), or 5 (Cedrus, non-Cedrus Abietoideae, Larix–Pseudotsuga, Picea, and Cathaya–Pinus) groups/subfamilies are more reasonable delimitations for Pinaceae. Specifically, our views on subfamilial classifications differ from previous studies in terms of the rank of Cedrus and with recognition of more than two subfamilies. PMID:20651328

Lin, Ching-Ping; Huang, Jen-Pan; Wu, Chung-Shien; Hsu, Chih-Yao; Chaw, Shu-Miaw

2010-01-01

282

A molecular phylogeny of Acronychia, Euodia, Melicope and relatives (Rutaceae) reveals polyphyletic genera and key innovations for species richness.  

PubMed

We present the first detailed phylogenetic study of the genus Melicope, the largest genus of the Citrus family (Rutaceae). The phylogenetic analysis sampled about 50% of the 235 accepted species of Melicope as well as representatives of 26 related genera, most notably Acronychia and Euodia. The results based on five plastid and nuclear markers have revealed that Acronychia, Euodia and Melicope are each not monophyletic in their current circumscriptions and that several small genera mainly from Australia and New Caledonia need to be merged with one of the three genera to ensure monophyly at the generic level. The phylogenetic position of the drupaceous Acronychia in relation to Melicope, which has capsular or follicular fruits, remains unclear and Acronychia might be a separate genus or a part of Melicope. The seed coats of Melicope, Acronychia and related genera show adaptations to bird-dispersal, which might be regarded as key innovations for species radiations. Euodia and its relatives, which lack these adaptations, include only about 20 species while the Melicope-Acronychia group consists of about 340 species. The drupaceous genera Comptonella, Dutaillyea, Picrella and Sarcomelicope are nested within Melicope and need to be merged with Melicope. The expanded genus is a prime example of the artificial classification system of Engler, who defined Rutaceous subfamilies mainly based on gynoecial and fruit characters. PMID:24971739

Appelhans, Marc S; Wen, Jun; Wagner, Warren L

2014-10-01

283

Airborne fungi in child day care centers in Edirne City, Turkey.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to determine the concentration, in terms of monthly and seasonal distribution and in relation to meteorological factors, of indoor and outdoor microfungi at selected sites in several child day care centers in the city of Edirne, Turkey. Samples were collected at one month intervals over a period of 12 months between January-December 2004, by exposing petri plates containing Peptone Dextrose Agar with Rose-Bengal and Streptomycin medium to the air for 10-15 min. A total of 2,071 microfungal colonies were counted on 192 petri plates. Thirty microfungal genera (Acremonium, Alternaria, Arthrinium, Aspergillus, Bahusakala, Beauveria, Ceuthospora, Chaetomium, Cladosporium, Curvularia, Drechslera, Epicoccum, Eurotium, Fusarium, Mycotypha, Myrotechium, Paecilomyces, Penicillium, Pestalotiopsis, Phoma, Ramichloridium, Rhizopus, Scopulariopsis, Stachybotrys, Stemphylium, Torula, Trichoderma, Trichothecium, Ulocladium, Verticillium) and 75 microfungal species were isolated from the air indoor and outdoor of the day care centers. The dominant microfungal genera were Cladosporium, Penicillium and Alternaria (44.11%, 18.94%, 14.67% of the total respectively), while the genus with the most species richness was Penicillium (26 species). Alternaria, Cladosporium, Penicillium and non-sporulating microfungi were found every month. Cladosporium was the dominant genus in both indoor and outdoor air. Although the predominant genus was the same in both indoor and outdoor air, Cladosporium was followed by Penicillium, Alternaria and Aspergillus genera in indoor air and by Alternaria, Penicillium and Aspergillus genera in outdoor air. While a positive correlation was found between the concentration of monthly outdoor microfungi and monthly average temperature, a negative correlation was found between the concentration of monthly outdoor microfungi and monthly average wind velocity. Also, some relationships were found between the monthly concentrations of the most predominant microfungal genera (Cladosporium, Penicillium and Alternaria) and various meteorological factors. PMID:18264791

Aydogdu, Halide; Asan, Ahmet

2008-12-01

284

Halophilic Aspergillus penicillioides from athalassohaline, thalassohaline, and polyhaline environments  

PubMed Central

Aspergillus penicillioides is a true halophile, present in diverse econiches – from the hypersaline athalassohaline, and thalassohaline environments, to polyhaline systems, and in different geographical locations. Twenty seven isolates from these environments, were seen to be moderate halophiles, euryhaline in nature. They had an obligate need of a low aw and were unable to grow on a regular defined medium such as Czapek Dox Agar, as well as on varied nutrient rich agar media such as Malt Extract, Potato Dextrose and Sabouraud Agar; however, growth was obtained on all these media when amended with 10% solar salt. In absence of added salt, the conidia either did not germinate, or when germinated, distortions and lysis were seen in the short mycelial forms; on media with salt, the mycelia and vesicles appeared normal. PMID:25140168

Nazareth, Sarita W.; Gonsalves, Valerie

2014-01-01

285

In-silico analysis of Aspergillus niger beta-glucosidases  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Genomic data mining was carried out and revealed a total of seventeen ?-glucosidases in filamentous fungi Aspergillus niger. Two of them belonged to glycoside hydrolase family 1 (GH1) while the rest belonged to genes in family 3 (GH3). These proteins were then named according to the nomenclature as proposed by the International Union of Biochemistry (IUB), starting from the lowest pI and glycoside hydrolase family. Their properties were predicted using various bionformatic tools showing the presence of domains for signal peptide and active sites. Interestingly, one particular domain, PA14 (protective antigen) was present in four of the enzymes, predicted to be involved in carbohydrate binding. A phylogenetic tree grouped the two glycoside hydrolase families with GH1 and GH3 related organisms. This study showed that the various domains present in these ?-glucosidases are postulated to be crucial for the survival of this fungus, as supported by other analysis.

Yeo S., L.; Shazilah, K.; Suhaila, S.; Abu Bakar F., D.; Murad A. M., A.

2014-09-01

286

Characterization of the hexahydropolyprenols of Aspergillus fumigatus fresenius  

PubMed Central

The isolation and properties of a group of alcohols from the mycelium of Aspergillus fumigatus Fresenius are described. Mass-, nuclear-magnetic-resonance- and infrared-spectrometric studies coupled with evidence from ozonolytic degradation and chromatography show the mixture to contain hexahydroprenols-18, -19, -20, -21, -22, -23 and -24. Each contains a saturated `hydroxy-terminal' isoprene residue, a saturated ?-terminal isoprene residue and a saturated ?-isoprene residue (adjacent to the ?-residue). The presence of only two trans-isoprene residues is also a feature of the series of alcohols, but the precise position of these in each molecule is not known. ImagesFig. 4. (a)Fig. 4. (b) PMID:6029603

Stone, K. J.; Butterworth, P. H. W.; Hemming, F. W.

1967-01-01

287

Aspergillus clavatus tremorgenic neurotoxicosis in cattle fed sprouted grains.  

PubMed

Beef and dairy cattle from four different herds in southern and central Queensland fed hydroponically-produced sprouted barley or wheat grain heavily infested with Aspergillus clavatus developed posterior ataxia with knuckling of fetlocks, muscular tremors and recumbency, but maintained appetite. A few animals variously had reduced milk production, hyperaesthesia, drooling of saliva, hypermetria of hind limbs or muscle spasms. Degeneration of large neurones was seen in the brain stem and spinal cord grey matter. The syndrome was consistent with A clavatus tremorgenic mycotoxicosis of ruminants. The cases are the earliest known to be associated with this fungus in Australia. They highlight a potential hazard of hydroponic fodder production systems, which appear to favour A clavatus growth on sprouted grain, exacerbated in some cases by equipment malfunctions that increase operating temperatures. PMID:15887390

McKenzie, R A; Kelly, M A; Shivas, R G; Gibson, J A; Cook, P J; Widderick, K; Guilfoyle, A F

2004-10-01

288

The reliability of the Aspergillus nidulans physical map.  

PubMed

Here we report an evaluation of the Aspergillus nidulans physical map (a cosmid contig map) emphasizing quantification and description of obvious mapping errors. Classification and appraisal of mapping errors should be helpful to researchers working on particular regions of the map. We estimate between 47 (4.1%) and 63 (5.4%) probe/clone-linking errors. The majority of identified false links (38) permit reciprocal exchanges among linking clones located on disconnected mapping regions. The order of adjacent clones or probes on the affected contigs remains unchanged. In addition we describe an Internet-accessible resource in which genetic and physical maps were integrated through a graphic interface. A simple search engine allows retrieval of cosmids from redundant clone lists and provides links to the minimal clone order. Integration of genetic and physical maps provides an additional level of accountability in which mapping discrepancies are visually located. PMID:10882534

Prade, R A

2000-04-01

289

Medium optimization for the production of antioxidants from Aspergillus candidus.  

PubMed

The objective of this study was to optimize the factors for the production of antioxidant from Aspergillus candidus CCRC 31543. Extracts of broth filtrate had higher antioxidant activity (inhibition of peroxidation [IP] >98%) when sucrose or lactose was used as a carbon source. Sucrose in the medium also resulted in a higher yield of extracts. Ethyl acetate extracts had the highest yield and antioxidant activity compared with the other two solvents. For the production of antioxidant, inorganic nitrogen sources were found to be more suitable than organic nitrogen sources, and ammonium sulfate was better than sodium nitrate. Yeast extract had a strong influence on the yield of antioxidant extracts. Both mycelium and broth filtrate of A. candidus CCRC 31543 showed similar antioxidant activity (IP = 95%), and they also had similar extraction yields. PMID:10382656

Yen, G C; Chang, Y C

1999-06-01

290

Chemosensitization prevents tolerance of Aspergillus fumigatus to antimycotic drugs.  

PubMed

Tolerance of human pathogenic fungi to antifungal drugs is an emerging medical problem. We show how strains of the causative agent of human aspergillosis, Aspergillus fumigatus, tolerant to cell wall-interfering antimycotic drugs become susceptible through chemosensitization by natural compounds. Tolerance of the A. fumigatus mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) mutant, sakADelta, to these drugs indicates the osmotic/oxidative stress MAPK pathway is involved in maintaining cell wall integrity. Using deletion mutants of the yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, we first identified thymol and 2,3-dihydroxybenzaldehyde (2,3-D) as potent chemosensitizing agents that target the cell wall. We then used these chemosensitizing agents to act as synergists to commercial antifungal drugs against tolerant strains of A. fumigatus. Thymol was an especially potent chemosensitizing agent for amphotericin B, fluconazole or ketoconazole. The potential use of natural, safe chemosensitizing agents in antifungal chemotherapy of human mycoses as an alternative to combination therapy is discussed. PMID:18486603

Kim, Jong; Campbell, Bruce; Mahoney, Noreen; Chan, Kathleen; Molyneux, Russell; May, Gregory

2008-07-18

291

Effect of Butyrolactone I on the Producing Fungus, Aspergillus terreus†  

PubMed Central

Butyrolactone I [?-oxo-?-(p-hydroxyphenyl)-?-(p-hydroxy-m-3,3-dimethylallyl-benzyl)-?-methoxycarbonyl-?-butyrolactone] is produced as a secondary metabolite by Aspergillus terreus. Because small butyrolactone-containing molecules act as self-regulating factors in some bacteria, the effects of butyrolactone I on the producing organism were studied; specifically, changes in morphology, sporulation, and secondary metabolism were studied. Threefold or greater increases in hyphal branching (with concomitant decreases in the average hyphal growth unit), submerged sporulation, and secondary metabolism were observed when butyrolactone I was added to cultures of A. terreus. Among the secondary metabolites whose production was increased by this treatment was the therapeutically important compound lovastatin. These findings indicate that butyrolactone I induces morphological and sporulation changes in A. terreus and enhances secondary metabolite production in a manner similar to that previously reported for filamentous bacteria. PMID:9758788

Schimmel, Timothy G.; Coffman, Allen D.; Parsons, Sarah J.

1998-01-01

292

Bioconversion of tea polyphenols to bioactive theabrownins by Aspergillus fumigatus.  

PubMed

Theabrownins (TB) are water-soluble phenolic compounds associated with the various health benefits of Pu-erh tea, a post-fermented Chinese dark tea. This work reports on the production of theabrownins from infusions of sun-dried green tea leaves using a pure culture of Aspergillus fumigatus isolated from a solid-state Pu-erh tea fermentation. A theabrownins yield of 158 g kg(-1) sun-dried green tea leaves was obtained in 6 days at 45 °C in an aerobic fermentation. In a 2 l fermenter, the yield of theabrownins was 151 g kg(-1) sun-dried green tea leaves in 48 h of aerobic culture (45 °C, 1 vvm aeration rate, 250 rpm agitation speed). Extracellular polyphenol oxidase and peroxidase of A. fumigatus contributed to this bioconversion. Repeated batch fermentation process was used for producing theabrownins but was less productive than the batch process. PMID:25214210

Wang, Qiuping; Gong, Jiashun; Chisti, Yusuf; Sirisansaneeyakul, Sarote

2014-12-01

293

Nanosulfur: A Potent Fungicide Against Food Pathogen, Aspergillus niger  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Elemental sulfur (S0), man's oldest eco-friendly fungicide for curing fungal infections in plants and animals, is registered in India as a non-systemic and contact fungicide. However due to its high volume requirement, Indian agrochemical industry and farmers could not effectively use this product till date. We hypothesize that intelligent nanoscience applications might increase the visibility of nanosulfur in Indian agriculture as a potent and eco-safe fungicide. Sulfur nanoparticles (NPs) were synthesized bottom-up via a liquid synthesis method with average particle size in the range of 50-80 nm and the shapes of the NPs were spherical. A comparative study of elemental and nano-sulfur produced has been tested against facultative fungal food pathogen, Aspergillus niger. Results showed that nanosulfur is more efficacious than its elemental form.

Choudhury, Samrat Roy; Nair, Kishore K.; Kumar, Rajesh; Gogoi, Robin; Srivastava, Chitra; Gopal, Madhuban; Subhramanyam, B. S.; Devakumar, C.; Goswami, Arunava

2010-10-01

294

Categorisation of sugar acid dehydratases in Aspergillus niger.  

PubMed

In the genome of Aspergillus niger five genes were identified coding for proteins with homologies to sugar acid dehydratases. The open reading frames were expressed in Saccharomyces cerevisiae and the activities tested with a library of sugar acids. Four genes were identified to code for proteins with activities with sugar acids: an l-galactonate dehydratase (gaaB), two d-galactonate dehydratases (dgdA, dgdB) and an l-rhamnonate dehydratase (lraC). The specificities of the proteins were characterised. The l-galactonate dehydratase had highest activity with l-fuconate, however it is unclear whether the enzyme is involved in l-fuconate catabolism. None of the proteins showed activity with galactaric acid or galactarolactone. PMID:24382357

Motter, Francine A; Kuivanen, Joosu; Keränen, Hanna; Hilditch, Satu; Penttilä, Merja; Richard, Peter

2014-03-01

295

Fumiquinones A and B, nematicidal quinones produced by Aspergillus fumigatus.  

PubMed

New nematicides named fumiquinones A (1) and B (2), together with spinulosin (3), LL-S490beta (4), and pseurotin A (5), were isolated from Aspergillus fumigatus and their structures were established by spectroscopic methods including 2D-NMR. Compound 1 showed effective nematicidal activities against Bursaphelenchus xylophilus and Pratylenchus penetrans without inhibiting plant growth except for lettuce seedlings. Compound 2 showed effective nematicidal activity against B. xylophilus, but had no inhibitory activity against P. penetrans. Compounds 3-5 showed effective nematicidal activities against B. xylophilus without any plant growth inhibition. Compounds 1-5 had no nematicidal activity against Caenorhabditis elegans. This is the first report of the nematicidal activities of compounds 3-5. PMID:17617730

Hayashi, Asami; Fujioka, Shozo; Nukina, Manabu; Kawano, Tsuyoshi; Shimada, Atsumi; Kimura, Yasuo

2007-07-01

296

Impact of Aspergillus fumigatus in allergic airway diseases  

PubMed Central

For decades, fungi have been recognized as associated with asthma and other reactive airway diseases. In contrast to type I-mediated allergies caused by pollen, fungi cause a large number of allergic diseases such as allergic bronchopulmonary mycoses, rhinitis, allergic sinusitis and hypersensitivity pneumonitis. Amongst the fungi, Aspergillus fumigatus is the most prevalent cause of severe pulmonary allergic disease, including allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis (ABPA), known to be associated with chronic lung injury and deterioration in pulmonary function in people with chronic asthma and cystic fibrosis (CF). The goal of this review is to discuss new understandings of host-pathogen interactions in the genesis of allergic airway diseases caused by A. fumigatus. Host and pathogen related factors that participate in triggering the inflammatory cycle leading to pulmonary exacerbations in ABPA are discussed. PMID:22410255

2011-01-01

297

Fungal siderophore metabolism with a focus on Aspergillus fumigatus  

PubMed Central

Covering: up to 2014 Siderophores are chelators synthesized by microbes to sequester iron. This article summarizes the knowledge on the fungal siderophore metabolism with a focus on Aspergillus fumigatus. In recent years, A. fumigatus became a role model for fungal biosynthesis, uptake and degradation of siderophores as well as regulation of siderophore-mediated iron handling and the elucidation of siderophore functions. Siderophore functions comprise uptake, intracellular transport and storage of iron. This proved to be crucial not only for adaptation to iron starvation conditions but also for germination, asexual and sexual propagation, antioxidative defense, mutual interaction, microbial competition as well as virulence in plant and animal hosts. Recent studies also indicate the high potential of siderophores and its biosynthetic pathway to improve diagnosis and therapy of fungal infections. PMID:25140791

2014-01-01

298

New pathway for the biodegradation of indole in Aspergillus niger.  

PubMed Central

Indole and its derivatives form a class of toxic recalcitrant environmental pollutants. The growth of Aspergillus niger was inhibited by very low concentrations (0.005 to 0.02%) of indole, even when 125- to 500-fold excess glucose was present in the medium. When 0.02% indole was added, the fungus showed a lag phase for about 30 h and the uptake of glucose was inhibited. Indole was metabolized by a new pathway via indoxyl (3-hydroxyindole), N-formylanthranilic acid, anthranilic acid, 2,3-dihydroxybenzoic acid, and catechol, which was further degraded by ortho cleavage. The enzymes N-formylanthranilate deformylase, anthranilate hydroxylase, 2,3-dihydroxybenzoate decarboxylase, and catechol dioxygenase were induced by indole as early as after 5 h of growth, and their activities were demonstrated in a cell-free system. PMID:2310183

Kamath, A V; Vaidyanathan, C S

1990-01-01

299

A fungal sexual revolution: Aspergillus and Penicillium show the way.  

PubMed

Fungi have some of the most diverse sex lives in nature, ranging from self-fertility to obligate outcrossing systems with several thousand different sexes, although at least 20% of fungal species have no known sexual stage. However, recent evidence suggests that many supposed 'asexual' species do indeed have the potential to undergo sexual reproduction. Using experimental and genomic findings from Aspergillus and Penicillium species as examples, it is argued that evidence such as the presence and expression of apparently functional sex-related genes, the distribution of mating-type genes, detection of recombination from population genetic analyses, and the discovery of extant sexual cycles reveal an on-going revolution in the understanding of fungal asexuality. PMID:22032932

Dyer, Paul S; O'Gorman, Céline M

2011-12-01

300

Secondary metabolites from an algicolous Aspergillus versicolor strain.  

PubMed

Two new compounds, asperversin A (1) and 9?-O-2(2,3-dimethylbut-3-enyl)brevianamide Q (2), and nine known compounds, brevianamide K (3), brevianamide M (4), aversin (5), 6,8-di-O-methylnidurufin (6), 6,8-di-O-methylaverufin (7), 6-O-methylaverufin (8), 5?,8?-epidioxyergosta-6,22-dien-3?-ol (9), ergosta-7,22-diene-3?,5?,6?-triol (10), and 6?-methoxyergosta-7,22-diene-3?,5?-diol (11), were obtained from the culture of Aspergillus versicolor, an endophytic fungus isolated from the marine brown alga Sargassum thunbergii. The structures of these compounds were established by spectroscopic techniques. Compounds 4, 7 and 8 exhibited antibacterial activities against Escherichia coli and Staphyloccocus aureus, and 7 also showed lethality against brine shrimp (Artemia salina) with an LC?? value of 0.5 ?g/mL. PMID:22363226

Miao, Feng-Ping; Li, Xiao-Dong; Liu, Xiang-Hong; Cichewicz, Robert H; Ji, Nai-Yun

2012-01-01

301

Two new compounds from gorgonian-associated fungus Aspergillus sp.  

PubMed

One new gamma-lactone derivative 5-hydroxy-3-isopropyl-4-methoxyfuranone (1) and one new lactam derivative dehydrated-marinamide (2), along with two known compounds marinamide (3) and marinamide methyl ester (4) were isolated from the fermentation broth of the marine gorgonian-associated fungus Aspergillus sp. SCSGAF0093. Their structures were elucidated on the basis of spectroscopic and spectrometric analysis. Compound 1 showed significant toxicity to brine shrimp (Artemia salina) with a median lethal concentration (LC50) of 1.25 microM, and 3 inhibited protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B (PTP1B) with a half maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) of 23.3 microg/mL. PMID:24079168

Xu, Xin-Ya; Zhang, Xiao-Yong; He, Fei; Peng, Jiang; Nong, Xu-Hua; Qi, Shu-Hua

2013-08-01

302

Fumonisin and ochratoxin production in industrial Aspergillus niger strains.  

PubMed

Aspergillus niger is perhaps the most important fungus used in biotechnology, and is also one of the most commonly encountered fungi contaminating foods and feedstuffs, and occurring in soil and indoor environments. Many of its industrial applications have been given GRAS status (generally regarded as safe). However, A. niger has the potential to produce two groups of potentially carcinogenic mycotoxins: fumonisins and ochratoxins. In this study all available industrial and many non-industrial strains of A. niger (180 strains) as well as 228 strains from 17 related black Aspergillus species were examined for mycotoxin production. None of the related 17 species of black Aspergilli produced fumonisins. Fumonisins (B(2), B(4), and B(6)) were detected in 81% of A. niger, and ochratoxin A in 17%, while 10% of the strains produced both mycotoxins. Among the industrial strains the same ratios were 83%, 33% and 26% respectively. Some of the most frequently used strains in industry NRRL 337, 3112 and 3122 produced both toxins and several strains used for citric acid production were among the best producers of fumonisins in pure agar culture. Most strains used for other biotechnological processes also produced fumonisins. Strains optimized through random mutagenesis usually maintained their mycotoxin production capability. Toxigenic strains were also able to produce the toxins on media suggested for citric acid production with most of the toxins found in the biomass, thereby questioning the use of the remaining biomass as animal feed. In conclusion it is recommended to use strains of A. niger with inactive or inactivated gene clusters for fumonisins and ochratoxins, or to choose isolates for biotechnological uses in related non-toxigenic species such as A. tubingensis, A. brasiliensis, A vadensis or A. acidus, which neither produce fumonisins nor ochratoxins. PMID:21853139

Frisvad, Jens C; Larsen, Thomas O; Thrane, Ulf; Meijer, Martin; Varga, Janos; Samson, Robert A; Nielsen, Kristian F

2011-01-01

303

Fumonisin and Ochratoxin Production in Industrial Aspergillus niger Strains  

PubMed Central

Aspergillus niger is perhaps the most important fungus used in biotechnology, and is also one of the most commonly encountered fungi contaminating foods and feedstuffs, and occurring in soil and indoor environments. Many of its industrial applications have been given GRAS status (generally regarded as safe). However, A. niger has the potential to produce two groups of potentially carcinogenic mycotoxins: fumonisins and ochratoxins. In this study all available industrial and many non-industrial strains of A. niger (180 strains) as well as 228 strains from 17 related black Aspergillus species were examined for mycotoxin production. None of the related 17 species of black Aspergilli produced fumonisins. Fumonisins (B2, B4, and B6) were detected in 81% of A. niger, and ochratoxin A in 17%, while 10% of the strains produced both mycotoxins. Among the industrial strains the same ratios were 83%, 33% and 26% respectively. Some of the most frequently used strains in industry NRRL 337, 3112 and 3122 produced both toxins and several strains used for citric acid production were among the best producers of fumonisins in pure agar culture. Most strains used for other biotechnological processes also produced fumonisins. Strains optimized through random mutagenesis usually maintained their mycotoxin production capability. Toxigenic strains were also able to produce the toxins on media suggested for citric acid production with most of the toxins found in the biomass, thereby questioning the use of the remaining biomass as animal feed. In conclusion it is recommended to use strains of A. niger with inactive or inactivated gene clusters for fumonisins and ochratoxins, or to choose isolates for biotechnological uses in related non-toxigenic species such as A. tubingensis, A. brasiliensis, A vadensis or A. acidus, which neither produce fumonisins nor ochratoxins. PMID:21853139

Frisvad, Jens C.; Larsen, Thomas O.; Thrane, Ulf; Meijer, Martin; Varga, Janos; Samson, Robert A.; Nielsen, Kristian F.

2011-01-01

304

Reducing the cost of resistance; experimental evolution in the filamentous fungus Aspergillus nidulans  

E-print Network

., 2000; Lipsitch, 2001). Clearly, the phenomenon of compensatory evolution in antibiotic-resistant experimental studies have investigated com- pensatory evolution in antibiotic-resistant prokaryotes (see alsoReducing the cost of resistance; experimental evolution in the filamentous fungus Aspergillus

Kassen, Rees

305

OPPORTUNISTIC ASPERGILLUS PATHOGENS MEASURED IN HOME AND HOSPITAL TAP WATER BY MOLD SPECIFIC QUANTITATIVE PCR (MSQPCR)  

EPA Science Inventory

Opportunistic fungal pathogens are a concern because of the increasing number of immunocompromised patients. The goal of this research was to test a simple extraction method and rapid quantitative PCR (QPCR) measurement of the occurrence of potential pathogens, Aspergillus fumiga...

306

Pulmonary endarterectomy for saddling pulmonary embolism by Aspergillus fungus in an immunocompetent patient  

PubMed Central

We present a case of Tricuspid valve Aspergillus endocarditis with saddle shaped massive pulmonary embolism occurring in an immunocompetent host. The patient was managed uniquely by pulmonary endarterectomy (PEA) and combination antifungal chemotherapy with Liposomal amphotericin-B + caspofungin.

Minhas, Harpreet Singh; Jain, Gagan; Mangukia, Chirantan; Goyal, Mayank

2014-01-01

307

40 CFR 180.1206 - Aspergillus flavus AF36; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS TOLERANCES AND EXEMPTIONS FOR PESTICIDE CHEMICAL RESIDUES IN FOOD Exemptions...tolerance is established for residues of the microbial pesticide Aspergillus flavus AF36 in or...

2010-07-01

308

40 CFR 180.1206 - Aspergillus flavus AF36; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS TOLERANCES AND EXEMPTIONS FOR PESTICIDE CHEMICAL RESIDUES IN FOOD Exemptions...tolerance is established for residues of the microbial pesticide Aspergillus flavus AF36 in or...

2011-07-01

309

Structural analysis of cerebrosides from Aspergillus fungi: the existence of galactosylceramide in A. oryzae.  

PubMed

Glucosylceramide and galactosylceramide were detected in three Aspergillus species: Aspergillus oryzae, Aspergillus sojae and Aspergillus. awamori, using borate-coated TLC. The cerebrosides from A. oryzae were further purified by ion exchange and iatrobeads column chromatographies with or without borate, and determined the composition of sugar, fatty acid and sphingoid base by GC/MS, MALDI-TOF/MS and (1)H-NMR. We identified them as ?-glucosylceramide and ?-galactosylceramide. The ceramide moiety of both cerebrosides consisted mainly of 2-hydroxystearic acid and either 9-methyl-octadeca-4, 8-sphingadienine or octadeca-4, 8-sphingadienine. To our knowledge, this is the first study to provide evidence for the presence of ?-galactosylceramide in A. oryzae. PMID:25129050

Tani, Yasushi; Amaishi, Yasunori; Funatsu, Tori; Ito, Masahiro; Itonori, Saki; Hata, Yoji; Ashida, Hisashi; Yamamoto, Kenji

2014-12-01

310

A patient with allergic bronchopulmonary mycosis caused by Aspergillus fumigatus and Candida albicans.  

PubMed

Allergic Bronchopulmonary Mycosis (ABPM) is an exagregated immunologic response to fungal colonization in the lower airways. It may cause by many kinds of fungal, but Aspergillus fumigatus is the most common cause of ABPM, although other Aspergillus and other fungal organisms, like Candida albicans, have been implicated. Aspergllus fumigatus and Candida albicans may be found as outdoor and indoor fungi, and cause the sensitization, elicitation of the disease pathology, and its clinical manifestations. Several diagnostic procedurs may be impicated to support the diagnosis of ABPM caused by Aspergillus fumigatus and Candida albicans. A case of allergic bronchopulmonary mycosis caused by Aspergillus fumigatus and Candida albicans in a 48 year old man was discussed. The patient was treated with antifungal, corticosteroids, and antibiotic for the secondary bacterial infection. The patient's condition is improved without any significant side effects. PMID:23314973

Wardhana; Datau, E A

2012-10-01

311

Osteomyelitis caused by Aspergillus species: a review of 310 reported cases.  

PubMed

Aspergillus osteomyelitis is a rare infection. We reviewed 310 individual cases reported in the literature from 1936 to 2013. The median age of patients was 43 years (range, 0-86 years), and 59% were males. Comorbidities associated with this infection included chronic granulomatous disease (19%), haematological malignancies (11%), transplantation (11%), diabetes (6%), pulmonary disease (4%), steroid therapy (4%), and human immunodeficiency virus infection (4%). Sites of infection included the spine (49%), base of the skull, paranasal sinuses and jaw (18%), ribs (9%), long bones (9%), sternum (5%), and chest wall (4%). The most common infecting species were Aspergillus fumigatus (55%), Aspergillus flavus (12%), and Aspergillus nidulans (7%). Sixty-two per cent of the individual cases were treated with a combination of an antifungal regimen and surgery. Amphotericin B was the antifungal drug most commonly used, followed by itraconazole and voriconazole. Several combination or sequential therapies were also used experimentally. The overall crude mortality rate was 25%. PMID:24303995

Gabrielli, E; Fothergill, A W; Brescini, L; Sutton, D A; Marchionni, E; Orsetti, E; Staffolani, S; Castelli, P; Gesuita, R; Barchiesi, F

2014-06-01

312

Preparation, characterization and application of Aspergillus sp. xylanase immobilized on Eudragit S-100  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aspergillus sp. 5 (strain 5) and Aspergillus sp. 44 (strain 44) produced xylanase (34.3 and 32.7 IU ml?1, respectively) with very low levels of cellulases when grown on 1% wheat bran medium. Xylanase was non-covalently immobilized on Eudragit S-100 for saccharification. The system retained 70 and 80% of strain 5 and strain 44 xylanase activity, respectively. On immobilization, optimum temperature

P. V Gawande; M. Y Kamat

1998-01-01

313

Purification of Aspergillus sp xylanase by precipitation with an anionic polymer Eudragit S100  

Microsoft Academic Search

The separation of xylanases from the crude culture filtrates of Aspergillus sp 5 and Aspergillus sp 44 was carried out using affinity precipitation with a commercially available enteric polymer Eudragit S100. With affinity precipitation the yield of enzyme was 85.3, 82.7% with 10.8, 4.08-folds (specific activity of ammonium sulphate precipitate was taken as 100%) increases in the specific activity of

P. V Gawande; M. Y Kamat

1999-01-01

314

Iron starvation leads to increased expression of Cu\\/Zn-superoxide dismutase in Aspergillus  

Microsoft Academic Search

In a search for iron-regulated proteins of Aspergillus nidulans and Aspergillus fumigatus a 16-kDa protein was identified which is about 5-fold upregulated during iron starvation in both species and which can be approximately 500-fold enriched by simple one-step chromatography on Amberlite XAD-16 resin. N-terminal protein sequence analysis and cloning of the respective A. nidulans cDNA identified this protein as a

Harald Oberegger; Ivo Zadra; Michelle Schoeser; Hubertus Haas

2000-01-01

315

Rapid detection of Aspergillus flavus in rice using biofunctionalized carbon nanotube field effect transistors  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the present study, we have used carbon nanotube field effect transistors (FET) that have been functionalized with protein\\u000a G and IgG to detect Aspergillus flavus in contaminated milled rice. The adsorbed protein G on the carbon nanotubes walls enables the IgG anti-Aspergillus antibodies to be well oriented and therefore to display full antigen binding capacity for fungal antigens. A

Raquel A. Villamizar; Alicia Maroto; F. Xavier Rius

2011-01-01

316

Fatal Aspergillus pancarditis after incompatible blood transfusion intended to be an autologous blood transfusion  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aspergillus pancarditis is a rare infection, and it has rarely been reported after blood transfusion. In this report, we describe a fatal case of Aspergillus pancarditis in a patient who received antibiotics and corticoids after an incompatible blood transfusion intended to be an autologous blood transfusion. A 64-year-old man suffering from herniation of intervertebral disk between C4 and C5 received

Isao Ohya; Yasuo Bunai; Masatake Tsujinaka; Kayoko Akaza; Isao Nakamura

2001-01-01

317

Microcolony Imaging of Aspergillus fumigatus Treated with Echinocandins Reveals Both Fungistatic and Fungicidal Activities  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundThe echinocandins are lipopeptides that can be employed as antifungal drugs that inhibit the synthesis of 1,3-?-glucans within the fungal cell wall. Anidulafungin and caspofungin are echinocandins used in the treatment of Candida infections and have activity against other fungi including Aspergillus fumigatus. The echinocandins are generally considered fungistatic against Aspergillus species.MethodsCulture of A. fumigatus from conidia to microcolonies on

Colin J. Ingham; Peter M. Schneeberger

2012-01-01

318

Efficient expression and secretion of Aspergillus niger RH5344 polygalacturonase in Saccharomyces cerevisiae  

Microsoft Academic Search

An Aspergillus niger endopolygalacturonase (EC 3.2.1.15) cDNA was expressed in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Secretion of the protein into the growth medium was efficiently directed by the fungal leader sequence, and processing occurred at the same site as in Aspergillus. The expression level was significantly enhanced by using a “short” version of the yeast ADHI promoter. An additional increase in

C. Lang; A. C. Looman

1995-01-01

319

Immunoperoxidase staining for identification of Aspergillus species in routinely processed tissue sections  

Microsoft Academic Search

AIMS: To evaluate the performance of an immunoperoxidase stain using the monoclonal antibody EB-A1 to detect Aspergillus species in formalin fixed, paraffin wax embedded tissue. METHODS: The monoclonal antibody EB-A1 directed against galactomannan was used to detect Aspergillus species in 23 patients with suspected or confirmed invasive aspergillosis. Immunostaining was performed on formalin fixed, paraffin wax embedded tissue using the

P. E. Verweij; F. Smedts; T. Poot; P. Bult; J. A. A. Hoogkamp-Korstanje; J. F. G. M. Meis

1996-01-01

320

Effects of extracts of fiberglass insulations on the growth of Aspergillus fumigatus and A. versicolor  

Microsoft Academic Search

Water extracts of thermal and acoustic fiberglass insulations used in the duct work of heating, ventilation and air conditioning (HVAC) systems supported germination of conidia and growth ofAspergillus versicolor (Vuillemin) Tiraboschi 1908–9 andAspergillus fumigatus Fresenius 1863. Urea, formaldehyde and unidentified organics were detected in the extracts. Formaldehyde in concentrations similar to those found in the extracts restricted the growth of

Ifeoma M. Ezeonu; Daniel L. Price; Sidney A. Crow; Donald G. Ahearn

1995-01-01

321

Analyses of black Aspergillus species of peanut and maize for ochratoxins and fumonisins.  

PubMed

The genus Aspergillus section Nigri, or the black aspergilli, represents genetically closely related species that produce the mycotoxins, ochratoxins and the fumonisins. Fumonisin B1 (FB1) is of an added concern because it is also a virulence factor for maize. Our preliminary data indicated that black aspergilli could develop asymptomatic infections with maize and peanuts plants. Symptomless infections are potential problems, because under favorable conditions, there is a potential for accumulation of ochratoxins and the fumonisins in contaminated postharvest crops. In the present report, the ability of black aspergilli from peanuts and maize to produce ochratoxin A and FB1 on maize kernels was assessed. One hundred fifty strains from peanuts and maize were isolated from several southeastern and midwestern states. Aspergillus nigri (A. nigri var. nigri) was the dominant species (87%), while Aspergillus foetidus, Aspergillus japonicus, Aspergillus tubingensis, and Aspergillus carbonarius were infrequently isolated. None of the wild isolates produced detectable amounts of ochratoxins. However, we do report the occurrence of the fumonisins B1, B2, and B3. Of 54 field isolates, 30% (n = 16) produced FB1, 61% (n = 33) produced FB2, and 44% (n = 24) produced FB3. The amounts of fumonisins produced during the test period of 30 days suggest that these strains might be weak to moderate producers of fumonisin on maize. To our knowledge, this is a first report of FB1 and FB3 production by isolates of black aspergilli from an American cereal and legume. PMID:24780336

Palencia, Edwin R; Mitchell, Trevor R; Snook, Maurice E; Glenn, Anthony E; Gold, Scott; Hinton, Dorothy M; Riley, Ronald T; Bacon, Charles W

2014-05-01

322

Neotropical genera of Naucoridae (Hemiptera: Heteroptera: Nepomorpha): new species of Placomerus and Procryphocricos from Guyana and Venezuela.  

PubMed

The Neotropical fauna of saucer bugs (Naucoridae) currently includes four monotypic genera. Recent extensive collecting in Venezuela has produced three new species in two of these genera. In addition, undetermined Guyanan specimens of one of the new species were found in the United States National Museum of Natural History. Thus, described here are Placomerus obscuratus n. sp. from Guyana and Venezuela with brachypterous and macropterous hindwing forms, and two species of Procryphocricos from Venezuela. Procryphocricos quiu n. sp. is described from the brachypterous forewing form and Procryphocricos macoita n. sp. from both brachypterous and macropterous forms. Previously described species also are discussed. PMID:24869509

Sites, Robert W; Camacho, Jesús

2014-01-01

323

Combined Expression of Aspergillus nidulans Endoxylanase X24 and Aspergillus oryzae (alpha)-Amylase in Industrial Baker's Yeasts and Their Use in Bread Making  

PubMed Central

The Aspergillus nidulans endoxylanase X24 and the Aspergillus oryzae (alpha)-amylase cDNAs were placed under the control of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae actin promoter (pACT1) and introduced into baker's yeast. Bread made with transformants expressing both enzymes (YEpACT-AMY-ACT-X24) showed a 30% increase in volume and reduced firmness in comparison with that produced with a commercial strain. Endoxylanase X24 and (alpha)-amylase seem to act synergistically to improve the quality of bread in terms of volume and density. PMID:16535419

Monfort, A.; Blasco, A.; Prieto, J. A.; Sanz, P.

1996-01-01

324

SOURCES OF THE ARCTIC FLORA: ORIGINS OF ARCTIC SPECIES IN RANUNCULUS AND RELATED GENERA.  

PubMed

The arctic biome is a relatively young ecosystem with ~2300 species of vascular plants. We studied the genus Ranunculus as an example of the origin and evolution of the arctic flora. For this purpose we used molecular phylogenetic and clock analyses based on evaluation of nuclear ITS and chloroplast matK-trnK DNA sequences in 194 taxa of Ranunculus and closely related genera. Taxa occurring in the Arctic arose form seven phylogenetic lineages of Ranunculus and also in the genera Coptidium and Halerpestes. Two clades of Ranunculus are species-rich in the Arctic, i.e., Ranunculus sect. Ranunculus and R. sect. Auricomus (both from R. subg. Ranunculus), but this is due to a number of arctic "microtaxa" morphologically barely separate from R. acris in the former clade and the widely agamospermic species complex of R. auricomus in the latter. Lineages with species adapted to wetlands or aquatic habitats are significant groups represented in the arctic flora (R. subg. Ranunculus sectt. Flammula and Hecatonia/Xanthobatrachium, R. subg. Batrachium, genus Coptidium) but show no clear signs of radiation in the Arctic or the northern boreal zone, except for sectt. Hecatonia/Xanthobatrachium, with R. hyperboreus and R. sceleratus subsp. reptabundus. Astonishingly few of the otherwise numerous lineages of Ranunculus with distributions in the higher mountain systems of Eurasia and North America have acted as "founding sources" for the arctic flora. The only clear example is that of the arctic-alpine R. glacialis and the Beringian R. chamissonis from the lineage of subg. R. sectt. Aconitifolii/Crymodes, although there might be others in sect. Auricomus not recovered in the current molecular data. Lineages that gave rise to arctic taxa diverged from each other from the early Miocene (R. glacialis/R. chamissonis, Coptidium, lineages in Halerpestes) and continued at an even rate throughout the Tertiary. There are no signs that the intense climate changes of the late Pliocene and the Quaternary substantially accelerated or impeded diversification in Ranunculus. Only the crown group split of R. acris and its relatives is clearly of Quaternary age. A detailed comparison concerning morphology, karyology, and life form excludes fundamental differences between taxa of Ranunculus in the Arctic and their respective closest relatives in regions south of it. Ecological traits, e.g., preferences for dry or moist soils or growth in open and sheltered conditions, also do not differ between arctic and nonarctic? taxa. Migration into the Arctic thus started from different phylogenetic lineages and at different times, without development of obvious special traits in the adaptation to arctic environments. This recurrent pattern in Ranunculus differs from that seen in other arctic genera, e.g., Artemisia, in which special traits of adaptation to arctic environments are found. In Ranunculus, the origin of the open arctic biome primarily favored range expansions of taxa/species already adapted to wet habitats in cold areas and depending on rapid dispersal. PMID:20582248

Hoffmann, Matthias H; von Hagen, K Bernhard; Hörandl, Elvira; Röser, Martin; Tkach, Natalia V

2010-01-01

325

SOURCES OF THE ARCTIC FLORA: ORIGINS OF ARCTIC SPECIES IN RANUNCULUS AND RELATED GENERA  

PubMed Central

The arctic biome is a relatively young ecosystem with ~2300 species of vascular plants. We studied the genus Ranunculus as an example of the origin and evolution of the arctic flora. For this purpose we used molecular phylogenetic and clock analyses based on evaluation of nuclear ITS and chloroplast matK-trnK DNA sequences in 194 taxa of Ranunculus and closely related genera. Taxa occurring in the Arctic arose form seven phylogenetic lineages of Ranunculus and also in the genera Coptidium and Halerpestes. Two clades of Ranunculus are species-rich in the Arctic, i.e., Ranunculus sect. Ranunculus and R. sect. Auricomus (both from R. subg. Ranunculus), but this is due to a number of arctic “microtaxa” morphologically barely separate from R. acris in the former clade and the widely agamospermic species complex of R. auricomus in the latter. Lineages with species adapted to wetlands or aquatic habitats are significant groups represented in the arctic flora (R. subg. Ranunculus sectt. Flammula and Hecatonia/Xanthobatrachium, R. subg. Batrachium, genus Coptidium) but show no clear signs of radiation in the Arctic or the northern boreal zone, except for sectt. Hecatonia/Xanthobatrachium, with R. hyperboreus and R. sceleratus subsp. reptabundus. Astonishingly few of the otherwise numerous lineages of Ranunculus with distributions in the higher mountain systems of Eurasia and North America have acted as “founding sources” for the arctic flora. The only clear example is that of the arctic-alpine R. glacialis and the Beringian R. chamissonis from the lineage of subg. R. sectt. Aconitifolii/Crymodes, although there might be others in sect. Auricomus not recovered in the current molecular data. Lineages that gave rise to arctic taxa diverged from each other from the early Miocene (R. glacialis/R. chamissonis, Coptidium, lineages in Halerpestes) and continued at an even rate throughout the Tertiary. There are no signs that the intense climate changes of the late Pliocene and the Quaternary substantially accelerated or impeded diversification in Ranunculus. Only the crown group split of R. acris and its relatives is clearly of Quaternary age. A detailed comparison concerning morphology, karyology, and life form excludes fundamental differences between taxa of Ranunculus in the Arctic and their respective closest relatives in regions south of it. Ecological traits, e.g., preferences for dry or moist soils or growth in open and sheltered conditions, also do not differ between arctic and nonarctic? taxa. Migration into the Arctic thus started from different phylogenetic lineages and at different times, without development of obvious special traits in the adaptation to arctic environments. This recurrent pattern in Ranunculus differs from that seen in other arctic genera, e.g., Artemisia, in which special traits of adaptation to arctic environments are found. In Ranunculus, the origin of the open arctic biome primarily favored range expansions of taxa/species already adapted to wet habitats in cold areas and depending on rapid dispersal. PMID:20582248

Hoffmann, Matthias H.; von Hagen, K. Bernhard; Horandl, Elvira; Roser, Martin; Tkach, Natalia V.

2010-01-01

326

Myrmecophilous rove beetles (Coleoptera: Staphylinidae) associated with Aenictus hodgsoni (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) from Thailand, with description of two new genera and three new species.  

PubMed

Three species of rove beetles (subfamily Aleocharinae) were collected from colonies of Aenictus hodgsoni Forel, 1901 in Khao Yai National Park, Thailand. They are classified into three genera, including two new genera, and described herein as: Aenictobia siamensis Maruyama, sp. n. (tribe Aenictoteratini), Aenictosymbia cornuta Maruyama, gen. & sp. n. (tribe Lomechusini) and Aenictoxenides mirabilis Maruyama, gen. & sp. n. (tribe Pygostenini). The systematic positions of the new genera are discussed. PMID:24870681

Maruyama, Munetoshi; Komatsu, Takashi; Katayama, Yuji; Song, Xiao-Bin; Sakchoowong, Watana

2014-01-01

327

The Aspergillus Genome Database: multispecies curation and incorporation of RNA-Seq data to improve structural gene annotations  

PubMed Central

The Aspergillus Genome Database (AspGD; http://www.aspgd.org) is a freely available web-based resource that was designed for Aspergillus researchers and is also a valuable source of information for the entire fungal research community. In addition to being a repository and central point of access to genome, transcriptome and polymorphism data, AspGD hosts a comprehensive comparative genomics toolbox that facilitates the exploration of precomputed orthologs among the 20 currently available Aspergillus genomes. AspGD curators perform gene product annotation based on review of the literature for four key Aspergillus species: Aspergillus nidulans, Aspergillus oryzae, Aspergillus fumigatus and Aspergillus niger. We have iteratively improved the structural annotation of Aspergillus genomes through the analysis of publicly available transcription data, mostly expressed sequenced tags, as described in a previous NAR Database article (Arnaud et al. 2012). In this update, we report substantive structural annotation improvements for A. nidulans, A. oryzae and A. fumigatus genomes based on recently available RNA-Seq data. Over 26 000 loci were updated across these species; although those primarily comprise the addition and extension of untranslated regions (UTRs), the new analysis also enabled over 1000 modifications affecting the coding sequence of genes in each target genome. PMID:24194595

Cerqueira, Gustavo C.; Arnaud, Martha B.; Inglis, Diane O.; Skrzypek, Marek S.; Binkley, Gail; Simison, Matt; Miyasato, Stuart R.; Binkley, Jonathan; Orvis, Joshua; Shah, Prachi; Wymore, Farrell; Sherlock, Gavin; Wortman, Jennifer R.

2014-01-01

328

Revision of hemoproteid genera and description and redescription of two species of chelonian hemoproteid parasites.  

PubMed

Pigmented hemosporidian parasites that do not exhibit erthyrocytic schizogony, and infect birds, chelonians, and squamates, have been classified in various genera over time. These classifications have reflected vertebrate hosts, insect vectors, and variations in morphology and life history observed in representative species. Side-necked turtles ( Podocnemis spp.) from the Peruvian Amazon were screened for hemoparasites and 2 species of hemosporid parasites infecting these hosts were observed. Molecular phylogenetic analysis of these new isolates, along with parasites from lizards, a snake, and a variety of Haemoproteus species from birds from both the Haemoproteus and Parahaemoproteus subgenera, strongly support the separation of the non-avian parasites into a separate genus. The name with precedent for this group is Haemocystidium Castellani and Willey 1909, and we propose that subgeneric classification of Haemocystidium and Simondia be applied to parasites of squamates and chelonians, respectively. We offer a description of Haemocystidium (Simondia) pacayae n. sp. and a redescription of Haemocystidium (Simondia) peltocephali ( Lainson and Naiff 1998 , n. comb.) Morphologically, the parasites are quite similar, with H. pacayae slightly more elongated than H. peltocephali. The discovery and identification of parasite species is urgent, especially in endangered species and wildlife inhabiting rapidly declining ecosystems such as the Amazon. PMID:24032642

Pineda-Catalan, Oscar; Perkins, Susan L; Peirce, Michael A; Engstrand, Rachel; Garcia-Davila, Carmen; Pinedo-Vasquez, Miguel; Aguirre, A Alonso

2013-12-01

329

Evolutionary relationships of Pemphigus and allied genera (Hemiptera: Aphididae: Eriosomatinae) and their primary endosymbiont, Buchnera aphidicola.  

PubMed

Aphids harbor primary endosymbionts, Buchnera aphidicola, in specialized cells within their body cavities. Aphids and Buchnera have strict mutualistic relationships in nutrition exchange. This ancient association has received much attention from researchers who are interested in endosymbiotic evolution. Previous studies have found parallel phylogenetic relationships between non-galling aphids and Buchnera at lower taxonomic levels (genus, species). To understand whether relatively isolated habitats such as galls have effect on the parallel relationships between aphids and Buchnera, the present paper investigated the phylogenetic relationships of gall aphids from Pemphigus and allied genera, which induce pseudo-galls or galls on Populus spp. (poplar) and Buchnera. The molecular phylogenies inferred from three aphid genes (COI, COII and EF-1?) and two Buchnera genes (gnd, 16S rRNA gene) indicated significant congruence between aphids and Buchnera at generic as well as interspecific levels. Interestingly, both aphid and Buchnera phylogenies supported three main clades corresponding to the galling locations of aphids, namely leaf, the joint of leaf blade and petiole, and branch of the host plant. The results suggest phylogenetic conservatism of gall characters, which indicates gall characters are more strongly affected by aphid phylogeny, rather than host plants. PMID:24482319

Liu, Lin; Li, Xing-Yi; Huang, Xiao-Lei; Qiao, Ge-Xia

2014-06-01

330

LABORATORY TRANSMISSION OF ST. LOUIS ENCEPHALITIS VIRUS BY THREE GENERA OF MOSQUITOES.  

PubMed

1. St. Louis virus has been successfully transmitted in the laboratory by the following 9 species of mosquitoes from 3 genera: Culex tarsalis, Culex pipiens, Culex coronator, Aedes lateralis, Aedes taeniorhynchus, Aedes vexans, Aedes nigromaculis, Theobaldia incidens, and Theobaldia inornata. 2. Though transmission has not been demonstrated, survival of the virus for more than a few days was shown to occur in Culex quinquefasciatus, Culex stigmatosoma, Psorophora ciliata, and Anopheles maculipennis freeborni. 3. In experiments with Culex tarsalis, infection occurred from feeding on chickens and ducks which had been previously inoculated by the subcutaneous route. After an incubation period these mosquitoes infected other chickens and virus was in turn demonstrated in the blood of these. This is interpreted as proof that fowl may serve as reservoirs of virus in nature. Since mosquitoes have been repeatedly found naturally infected with St. Louis virus and epidemiologic evidence supports their incrimination, their rôle as vectors is now established. The fully incriminated species is Culex tarsalis. PMID:19871325

Hammon, W M; Reeves, W C

1943-10-01

331

Tempo and mode of evolutionary radiation in Diabroticina beetles (genera Acalymma, Cerotoma, and Diabrotica)  

PubMed Central

Abstract Adaptive radiation is an aspect of evolutionary biology encompassing microevolution and macroevolution, for explaining the principles of lineage divergence. There are intrinsic as well as extrinsic factors that can be postulated to explain that adaptive radiation has taken place in specific lineages. The Diabroticina beetles are a prominent example of differential diversity that could be examined in detail to explain the diverse paradigms of adaptive radiation. Macroevolutionary analyses must present the differential diversity patterns in a chronological framework. The current study reviews the processes that shaped the differential diversity of some Diabroticina lineages (i.e. genera Acalymma, Cerotoma, and Diabrotica). These diversity patterns and the putative processes that produced them are discussed within a statistically reliable estimate of time. This was achieved by performing phylogenetic and coalescent analyses for 44 species of chrysomelid beetles. The data set encompassed a total of 2,718 nucleotide positions from three mitochondrial and two nuclear loci. Pharmacophagy, host plant coevolution, competitive exclusion, and geomorphological complexity are discussed as putative factors that might have influenced the observed diversity patterns. The coalescent analysis concluded that the main radiation within Diabroticina beetles occurred between middle Oligocene and middle Miocene. Therefore, the radiation observed in these beetles is not recent (i.e. post-Panamanian uplift, 4 Mya). Only a few speciation events in the genus Diabrotica might be the result of the Pleistocene climatic oscillations. PMID:24163585

Eben, Astrid; Espinosa de los Monteros, Alejandro

2013-01-01

332

Tempo and mode of evolutionary radiation in Diabroticina beetles (genera Acalymma, Cerotoma, and Diabrotica).  

PubMed

Adaptive radiation is an aspect of evolutionary biology encompassing microevolution and macroevolution, for explaining the principles of lineage divergence. There are intrinsic as well as extrinsic factors that can be postulated to explain that adaptive radiation has taken place in specific lineages. The Diabroticina beetles are a prominent example of differential diversity that could be examined in detail to explain the diverse paradigms of adaptive radiation. Macroevolutionary analyses must present the differential diversity patterns in a chronological framework. The current study reviews the processes that shaped the differential diversity of some Diabroticina lineages (i.e. genera Acalymma, Cerotoma, and Diabrotica). These diversity patterns and the putative processes that produced them are discussed within a statistically reliable estimate of time. This was achieved by performing phylogenetic and coalescent analyses for 44 species of chrysomelid beetles. The data set encompassed a total of 2,718 nucleotide positions from three mitochondrial and two nuclear loci. Pharmacophagy, host plant coevolution, competitive exclusion, and geomorphological complexity are discussed as putative factors that might have influenced the observed diversity patterns. The coalescent analysis concluded that the main radiation within Diabroticina beetles occurred between middle Oligocene and middle Miocene. Therefore, the radiation observed in these beetles is not recent (i.e. post-Panamanian uplift, 4 Mya). Only a few speciation events in the genus Diabrotica might be the result of the Pleistocene climatic oscillations. PMID:24163585

Eben, Astrid; Espinosa de Los Monteros, Alejandro

2013-01-01

333

Two New Genera of Jumping Spiders from Hainan Island, China (Araneae, Salticidae).  

PubMed

Two new genera of the spider family Salticidae, Corusca gen. nov. and Insula gen. nov., are described. Nine new species of the genus Corusca gen. nov. and 11 new species of the genus Insula gen. nov. are reported from Hainan, Southern China: Corusca acris sp. nov. (male), C. bawangensis sp. nov. (male), C. falcata sp. nov. (male), C. gracilis sp. nov. (male and female), C. jianfengensis sp. nov. (male and female), C. sanyaensis sp. nov. (male and female), C. setifera sp. nov. (male and female), C. viriosa sp. nov. (male and female), C. wuzhishanensis sp. nov. (male and female), Insula curva sp. nov. (male and female), I. hebetata sp. nov. (male and female), I. limuensis sp. nov. (male and female), I. longa sp. nov. (male and female), I. minuta sp. nov. (male and female), I. nigricula sp. nov. (male and female), I. ramosa sp. nov. (male and female), I. scutata sp. nov. (male and female), I. squamata sp. nov. (male and female), I. tumida sp. nov. (male and female), I. uncinata sp. nov. (male and female). The males of two known species, Corusca liaoi (Peng & Li, 2006) and Insula maculata (Peng & Kim, 1997), which are transferred from Eupoa, are reported for the first time. PMID:25320769

Zhou, Yuanye; Li, Shuqiang

2013-01-01

334

Microcyclospora and Microcyclosporella: novel genera accommodating epiphytic fungi causing sooty blotch on apple.  

PubMed

Recent studies have found a wide range of ascomycetes to be associated with sooty blotch and flyspeck (SBFS) blemishes on the surfaces of pomaceous fruits, specifically apples. Based on collections of such fungi from apple orchards in Germany and Slovenia we introduce two novel genera according to analyses of morphological characters and nuclear ribosomal DNA sequences (large subunit and internal transcribed spacer regions). Microcyclosporella is represented by a single species, M. mali, and is presently known from Germany and Slovenia. Microcyclosporella is Pseudocercosporella-like in morphology, but genetically and morphologically distinct from Pseudocercosporella s.str., for which an epitype is designated based on a fresh collection of P. bakeri from Laos. Furthermore, Pseudocercosporella is shown to be paraphyletic within the Capnodiales. Microcyclospora gen. nov. is Pseudocercospora-like in morphology, but is genetically and morphologically distinct from Pseudocercospora s.str., which is based on P. vitis. Three species, Microcyclospora malicola, M. pomicola (both collected in Germany), and M. tardicrescens (collected in Slovenia) are described. Finally, a new species of Devriesia, D. pseudoamericana, is described from pome fruit surfaces collected in Germany. Devriesia is shown to be paraphyletic, and to represent several lineages of which only Devriesia s.str. is thermotolerant. Further collections are required, however, before the latter generic complex can be resolved. PMID:20664763

Frank, J; Crous, P W; Groenewald, J Z; Oertel, B; Hyde, K D; Phengsintham, P; Schroers, H-J

2010-06-01

335

Ticks Associated with Macquarie Island Penguins Carry Arboviruses from Four Genera  

PubMed Central

Macquarie Island, a small subantarctic island, is home to rockhopper, royal and king penguins, which are often infested with the globally distributed seabird tick, Ixodes uriae. A flavivirus, an orbivirus, a phlebovirus, and a nairovirus were isolated from these ticks and partial sequences obtained. The flavivirus was nearly identical to Gadgets Gully virus, isolated some 30 year previously, illustrating the remarkable genetic stability of this virus. The nearest relative to the orbivirus (for which we propose the name Sandy Bay virus) was the Scottish Broadhaven virus, and provided only the second available sequences from the Great Island orbivirus serogroup. The phlebovirus (for which we propose the name Catch-me-cave virus) and the previously isolated Precarious Point virus were distinct but related, with both showing homology with the Finnish Uukuniemi virus. These penguin viruses provided the second and third available sequences for the Uukuniemi group of phleboviruses. The nairovirus (for which we propose the name Finch Creek virus) was shown to be related to the North American Tillamook virus, the Asian Hazara virus and Nairobi sheep disease virus. Macquarie Island penguins thus harbour arboviruses from at least four of the seven arbovirus-containing genera, with related viruses often found in the northern hemisphere. PMID:19194498

Major, Lee; Linn, May La; Slade, Robert W.; Schroder, Wayne A.; Hyatt, Alex D.; Gardner, Joy; Cowley, Jeff; Suhrbier, Andreas

2009-01-01

336

Retroelement Genome Painting: Cytological Visualization of Retroelement Expansions in the Genera Zea and Tripsacum  

PubMed Central

Divergence of abundant genomic elements among the Zea and Tripsacum genera was examined cytologically and a tool kit established for subsequent studies. The LTR regions from the CRM, Huck, Grande, Prem1, Prem2/Ji, Opie, Cinful-1, and Tekay retroelement families were used as FISH probes on mitotic chromosome spreads from a “trispecies” hybrid containing chromosomes from each of three species: Zea mays (2n = 20), Z. diploperennis (2n = 20), and Tripsacum dactyloides (2n = 36). Except for Tekay, which painted both Zea and Tripsacum chromosomes with nearly equal intensity, the retroelement probes hybridized strongly to the Zea chromosomes, allowing them to be distinguished from those of Tripsacum. Huck and Grande hybridized more intensely to maize than to Z. diploperennis chromosomes. Tripsacum genomic clones containing retroelement sequences were isolated that specifically paint Tripsacum chromosomes. The retroelement paints proved effective for distinguishing different genomes in interspecific hybrids and visualizing alien chromatin from T. dactyloides introgressed into maize lines. Other FISH probes (180-bp knob, TR-1, 5S, NOR, Cent4, CentC, rp1, rp3, and ?-ZeinA) could be simultaneously visualized with the retroelement probes, emphasizing the value of the retroelement probes for cytogenetic studies of Zea and Tripsacum. PMID:16582446

Lamb, Jonathan C.; Birchler, James A.

2006-01-01

337

Late Cretaceous radiolarians of the genera Cuboctostylus Bragina and Hexacromyum Haeckel: Their stratigraphic and paleobiogeographical distribution  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recently, representatives of the genus Cuboctostylus Bragina (order Entactinaria) were included in the Upper Cretaceous radiolarian regional stratigraphic scale of Sakhalin. The Late Cretaceous species Hexacromyum pergamenti Bragina (order Spumellaria) has morphological similarity to representatives of the genus Cuboctostylus. Peculiar features of H. pergamenti internal structure are considered. Collections of Upper Cretaceous radiolarians from southern Cyprus, Serbia, northern Turkey, Crimean Mountains, East European Platform, northwestern Kamchatka, eastern slope of the Sredinnyi Range in Kamchatka, and Shikotan Island (Lesser Kurile Range) were used for the analysis of the taxonomic composition of Late Cretaceous representatives of the genera Cuboctostylus Bragina and Hexacromyum Haeckel as well as their stratigraphic and paleobiogeographic distribution. It is established that Cuboctostylus is distributed from tropical to south boreal realms. This genus is shown to exist through almost the entire Late Cretaceous: from the middle Cenomanian to initial Maastrichtian. Hexacromyum Haeckel populated both the south boreal realm and marginal areas of the Tethys Ocean in the Late Cretaceous. The new data presented may be used for distant interregional correlations. Cuboctostylus stellatus sp. nov. and several other Cuboctostylus taxa identified in open nomenclature are described; some morphological features of Hexacromyum pergamenti are specified.

Bragina, L. G.

2013-01-01

338

Character-based DNA barcoding allows discrimination of genera, species and populations in Odonata  

PubMed Central

DNA barcoding has become a promising means for identifying organisms of all life stages. Currently, phenetic approaches and tree-building methods have been used to define species boundaries and discover ‘cryptic species’. However, a universal threshold of genetic distance values to distinguish taxonomic groups cannot be determined. As an alternative, DNA barcoding approaches can be ‘character based’, whereby species are identified through the presence or absence of discrete nucleotide substitutions (character states) within a DNA sequence. We demonstrate the potential of character-based DNA barcodes by analysing 833 odonate specimens from 103 localities belonging to 64 species. A total of 54 species and 22 genera could be discriminated reliably through unique combinations of character states within only one mitochondrial gene region (NADH dehydrogenase 1). Character-based DNA barcodes were further successfully established at a population level discriminating seven population-specific entities out of a total of 19 populations belonging to three species. Thus, for the first time, DNA barcodes have been found to identify entities below the species level that may constitute separate conservation units or even species units. Our findings suggest that character-based DNA barcoding can be a rapid and reliable means for (i) the assignment of unknown specimens to a taxonomic group, (ii) the exploration of diagnosability of conservation units, and (iii) complementing taxonomic identification systems. PMID:17999953

Rach, J; DeSalle, R; Sarkar, I.N; Schierwater, B; Hadrys, H

2007-01-01

339

A molecular phylogeny and classification of Leptochloa (Poaceae: Chloridoideae: Chlorideae) sensu lato and related genera  

PubMed Central

Background and Aims Leptochloa (including Diplachne) sensu lato (s.l.) comprises a diverse assemblage of C4 (NAD-ME and PCK) grasses with approx. 32 annual or perennial species. Evolutionary relationships and a modern classification of Leptochloa spp. based on the study of molecular characters have only been superficially investigated in four species. The goals of this study were to reconstruct the evolutionary history of Leptochloa s.l. with molecular data and broad taxon sampling. Methods A phylogenetic analysis was conducted of 130 species (mostly Chloridoideae), of which 22 are placed in Leptochloa, using five plastid (rpL32-trn-L, ndhA intron, rps16 intron, rps16-trnK and ccsA) and the nuclear ITS 1 and 2 (ribosomal internal transcribed spacer regions) to infer evolutionary relationships and revise the classification. Key results Leptochloa s.l. is polyphyletic and strong support was found for five lineages. Embedded within the Leptochloa sensu stricto (s.s.) clade are two Trichloris spp. and embedded in Dinebra are Drake-brockmania and 19 Leptochloa spp. Conclusions The molecular results support the dissolution of Leptochloa s.l. into the following five genera: Dinebra with 23 species, Diplachne with two species, Disakisperma with three species, Leptochloa s.s. with five species and a new genus, Trigonochloa, with two species. PMID:22628365

Peterson, Paul M.; Romaschenko, Konstantin; Snow, Neil; Johnson, Gabriel

2012-01-01

340

Diatoms from the Colombian and Peruvian Amazon: the Genera Encyonema, Encyonopsis and Gomphonema (Cymbellales: Bacillariophyceae).  

PubMed

The diatom flora of the Colombian and Peruvian Amazon is far less studied than the flora of the Brazilian sector of the basin. Here we present results related to the genera Encyonema, Encyonopsis and Gomphonema. Plankton and periphyton samples were collected in lotic and lentic waterbodies from the Amazonian-Andean region, the Amazon River, Japurá River and Porvenir River basins during 1993, 1994, 2001 and 2003. At each sampling station pH, temperature, water transparency and conductivity were registered. Samples were analyzed with phase contrast microscope (LM) and scanning electron microscope (SEM). Ten taxa are new records for the area; Encyonema for the Peruvian and Colombian Amazon and Encyonopsis for the Colombian Sector. Encyonema neogracile var. tenuipunctatum, E. vulgare, Encyonopsis frequentis, Gomphonema augur var. sphaerophorum and G. contraturris are recorded for the first time in Colombia; Encyonema venezolanum and G. neoapiculatum in Colombia and Peru and the latter also for Amazonia. E. angustecapitatum was mentioned in Colombia before at a pond located at 3000 m asl. We describe a new species from Porvenir River, Amazonas, Colombia: Encyonema amazonianum. PMID:20411706

Vouilloud, Amelia A; Sala, Silvia E; Avellaneda, Marcela Núñez; Duque, Santiago R

2010-03-01

341

Tolerance to agricultural pesticides of strains belonging to four genera of Rhizobiaceae.  

PubMed

In order to determine their tolerance to pesticides, 122 strains of rhizobia isolated from different geographical regions, and belonging to the genera Rhizobium, Mesorhizobium, Sinorhizobium and Bradyrhizobium were tested against eight herbicides, four fungicides and five insecticides. Sensitivity to the pesticides was measured by using the filter paper disk method at four concentrations, 0.45, 4.5, 45 and 450 ?g per disk. When the pesticides were used at 0.45 ?g per disk, a concentration similar to that found when pesticides are applied under field conditions, no inhibition was observed. Strains growth was affected at concentrations of 45 and 450 ?g pesticide per disk. These higher concentrations can be encountered when seeds are treated with pesticides. Pesticides tolerance level was correlated to pesticide function, i.e rhizobial strains were more tolerant to insecticides, followed by herbicides and then fungicides. Two fungicides, captan and mancozeb, inhibited the highest number of strains. Only one insecticide, carbaryl, affected the growth of some rhizobial strains. Strains isolated from the arctic (Mesorhizobium spp. and R. leguminosarum bv. viciae), a putative pesticides-free environment, were either less or equally affected by pesticides compared to strains isolated from agricultural regions. PMID:20936564

Drouin, Pascal; Sellami, Moez; Prévost, Danielle; Fortin, Josée; Antoun, Hani

2010-11-01

342

LABORATORY TRANSMISSION OF ST. LOUIS ENCEPHALITIS VIRUS BY THREE GENERA OF MOSQUITOES  

PubMed Central

1. St. Louis virus has been successfully transmitted in the laboratory by the following 9 species of mosquitoes from 3 genera: Culex tarsalis, Culex pipiens, Culex coronator, Aedes lateralis, Aedes taeniorhynchus, Aedes vexans, Aedes nigromaculis, Theobaldia incidens, and Theobaldia inornata. 2. Though transmission has not been demonstrated, survival of the virus for more than a few days was shown to occur in Culex quinquefasciatus, Culex stigmatosoma, Psorophora ciliata, and Anopheles maculipennis freeborni. 3. In experiments with Culex tarsalis, infection occurred from feeding on chickens and ducks which had been previously inoculated by the subcutaneous route. After an incubation period these mosquitoes infected other chickens and virus was in turn demonstrated in the blood of these. This is interpreted as proof that fowl may serve as reservoirs of virus in nature. Since mosquitoes have been repeatedly found naturally infected with St. Louis virus and epidemiologic evidence supports their incrimination, their rôle as vectors is now established. The fully incriminated species is Culex tarsalis. PMID:19871325

Hammon, W. McD.; Reeves, W. C.

1943-01-01

343

Genetic diversity of rhizobial symbionts isolated from legume species within the genera Astragalus, Oxytropis, and Onobrychis.  

PubMed Central

The genetic diversity of 44 rhizobial isolates from Astragalus, Oxytropis, and Onobrychis spp. originating from different geographic locations was evaluated by mapped restriction site polymorphism (MRSP) analysis of 16S rRNA genes and by PCR DNA fingerprinting with repetitive sequences (REP-PCR). A comparison of tree topologies of reference strains constructed with data obtained by MRSP and by 16S rRNA gene sequence analyses showed that the topologies were in good agreement, indicating that the MSRP approach results in reasonable estimates of rhizobial phylogeny. The isolates were distributed into 14 distinct 16S rRNA gene types clustering into three major groups which corresponded with three of the genera within the legume symbionts. Most of the isolates were within the genus Mesorhizobium. Five were identified with different genomic species nodulating Lotus spp. and Cicer arietinum. Three Astragalus isolates were classified as Bradyrhizobium, one being similar to Bradyrhizobium elkanii and another being similar to Bradyrhizobium japonicum. Six of the isolates were related to species within the genus Rhizobium. Two were similar to Rhizobium leguminosarum, and the remainder were identified as Rhizobium gallicum. DNA fingerprinting by REP-PCR revealed a high level of diversity within single 16S ribosomal DNA types. The 44 isolates were distributed into 34 REP groups. Rhizobial classification at the genus and probably also the species levels was independent of geographic origin and host plant affinity. PMID:9406393

Laguerre, G; van Berkum, P; Amarger, N; Prevost, D

1997-01-01

344

New Cricket Genera and Species (Orthoptera: Grylloidea) from the Pacific Region Deposited in the Bishop Museum, Honolulu  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ten new genera and 99 new species of crickets from Fiji and the western Pacific are validated through bibliographic reference to their original description and the addition of type depositories. In two recent papers on Pacific crickets (Otte & Cowper, 2007; Otte, 2007) the type depositories were inadvertently omitted for the new species described, which resulted in them being invalid

DANIEL OTTE

345

Diversity and functionality of Bacillus and related genera isolated from spontaneously fermented soybeans (Indian Kinema) and locus beans (African Soumbala)  

Microsoft Academic Search

A total of 126 isolates of Bacillus and related genera from indigenous, spontaneously fermented soybeans (Kinema) and locust beans (Soumbala) were characterized with the purpose of defining interspecific, as well as intraspecific relationships among the components of their microflora. B. subtilis was the dominant species, and species diversity was more pronounced in Soumbala than in Kinema. While from Kinema, six

P. K. Sarkar; B. Hasenack; M. J. R. Nout

2002-01-01

346

Diversity and functionality of Bacillus and related genera isolated from spontaneously fermented soybeans (Indian Kinema) and locust beans (African Soumbala)  

Microsoft Academic Search

A total of 126 isolates of Bacillus and related genera from indigenous, spontaneously fermented soybeans (Kinema) and locust beans (Soumbala) were characterized with the purpose of defining interspecific, as well as intraspecific relationships among the components of their microflora. B. subtilis was the dominant species, and species diversity was more pronounced in Soumbala than in Kinema. While from Kinema, six

P. K Sarkar; B Hasenack; M. J. R Nout

2002-01-01

347

Development of novel chloroplast microsatellite markers to identify species in the Agrostis complex (Poaceae) and related genera.  

PubMed

We needed a reliable way to identify species and confirm potential interspecific and intergeneric hybrids in a landscape level study of gene flow from transgenic glyphosate-resistant Agrostis stolonifera (Poaceae) to compatible relatives. We developed 12 new polymorphic chloroplast microsatellite markers to aid in identifying species recipient of transgenic pollen both within the Agrostis complex and the related genera Polypogon. PMID:21565082

Zapiola, Maria L; Cronn, Richard C; Mallory-Smith, Carol A

2010-07-01

348

Bioinformatic and functional analysis of RNA secondary structure elements among different genera of human and animal caliciviruses  

Microsoft Academic Search

The mechanism and role of RNA structure elements in the replication and translation of Caliciviridae remains poorly understood. Several algorithmically independent methods were used to predict second- ary structures within the Norovirus, Sapovirus, Vesivirus and Lagovirus genera. All showed pro- found suppression of synonymous site variability (SSSV) at genomic 5' ends and the start of the sub-genomic (sg) transcript, consistent

Peter Simmonds; Ioannis Karakasiliotis; Dalan Bailey; Yasmin Chaudhry; David J. Evans; Ian G. Goodfellow

2008-01-01

349

Genetic characterization of CCL3, CCL4 and CCL5 in leporid genera Oryctolagus, Sylvilagus and Lepus.  

PubMed

The genetic diversity of C-C motif chemokine receptor 5 (CCR5) ligands CCL3, CCL4 and CCL5 in the leporid genera Oryctolagus, Sylvilagus and Lepus was studied. Our results demonstrate that the three CCR5 chemokine ligands are under strong purifying selection as a result of possible functional binding constraints. PMID:24103103

de Matos, A Lemos; Lanning, D K; Esteves, P J

2014-04-01

350

Revision of the Illustrated Taxonomic Keys to Genera and Species of Mosquite Larvae of Korea (Diptera, Culicidae).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Illustrated Taxonomic Keys to Genera and Species of Mosquito Larvae of Korea, which was written preliminarily in 1991 by entomologists of the 5th Medical Detachment, 8th U.S. Army, has been utilized for years as the most comprehensive and convenient taxon...

K. W. Lee

1999-01-01

351

PHYLOGENETIC RELATIONSHIP OF THE RED TIDE DINOFLAGELLATE GYMNODINIUM BREVE TO OTHER MEMBERS OF THE GENERA GYMNODINIUM AND GYRODINIUM  

EPA Science Inventory

Phylogenetic relationships between the red-tide dinoflagellate Gymnodinium breve and other members of the genera Gymnodinium and Gyrodinium have not been studied at the molecular level. G. breve is most noted for its production of brevetoxin, which has been linked to extensive f...

352

DNA Fingerprinting of Individual Species and Intergeneric and Interspecific Hybrids of the Genera Bos and Bison, Subfamily Bovinae  

Microsoft Academic Search

Genome fingerprinting with a hypervariable minisatellite sequence of phage M13 DNA was used to study the genetic variation in individual species of the genera Bosand Bison(subfamily Bovinae) and in their interspecific and intergeneric hybrids. DNA fingerprints were obtained for domestic cow Bos taurus primigenius, vatussy Bos taurus macroceros, banteng Bos javanicus, gaur Bos gaurus, wisent Bison bonasus, bison Bison bison,

V. A. Vasil'ev; E. P. Steklenev; E. V. Morozova; S. K. Semyenova

2002-01-01

353

Molecular phylogeny and systematics of the genus Draba (Brassicaceae) and identification of its most closely related genera  

Microsoft Academic Search

Phylogenetic analyses of sequence data from the internal transcribed spacer regions of the nuclear ribosomal DNA (ITS) and the plastid trnL–F region were conducted to reconstruct the phylogenetic history of Draba and related genera. Out of the ?370 Draba species, 169 geographically and morphologically representative species are sampled here, including such “controversial” segregates as Abdra, Arabis, Athysanus, Drabopsis, Erophila, Graellsia,

Ingrid Jordon-Thaden; Irina Hase; Ihsan Al-Shehbaz; Marcus A. Koch

2010-01-01

354

On the reclassification of species assigned to Candida and other anamorphic ascomycetous yeast genera based on phylogenetic circumscription.  

PubMed

Multigene phylogenies have been instrumental in revising the classification of ascosporic (teleomorph) yeasts in a natural system based on lines of descent. Although many taxonomic changes have already been implemented for teleomorph taxa, this is not yet the case for the large genus Candida and smaller anascosporic (anamorph) genera. In view of the recently introduced requirement that a fungal species or higher taxon be assigned only a single valid name under the new International Code of Nomenclature for algae, fungi, and plants (Melbourne Code), the current species of Candida and other anamorph yeast genera must undergo revision to make genus membership consistent with phylogenetic affinities. A review of existing data and analyses shows that certain Candida species may be assigned to teleomorph genera with high confidence using multigene phylogenies. Candida species that form well-circumscribed phylogenetic clades without any teleomorph member justify the creation of new genera. However, a considerable number of Candida species sit at the end of isolated and often long branches, and hence cannot be assigned to larger species groups. They should be maintained in Candida sensu lato until studied by multigene analyses in datasets with comprehensive taxon sampling. The principle of name stability has to be honoured to the largest extent compatible with a natural classification of Candida species. PMID:24748333

Daniel, Heide-Marie; Lachance, Marc-André; Kurtzman, Cletus P

2014-07-01

355

Sex, drugs and recombination: the wild life of Aspergillus.  

PubMed

Throughout the eukaryotes, sexual reproduction is an almost universal phenomenon. However, within the Kingdom Fungi, this relationship is not so clear-cut. Fungi exhibit a spectrum of reproductive modes and life-cycles; amongst the better known species, sexual reproduction is often facultative, can be rare, and in over half of the known Ascomycota (the moulds) is unknown (Taylor et al. 1999). However, over the last decade, it has become apparent that many of these asexual mitosporic taxa undergo cryptic recombination via unobserved mechanisms and that wholly asexual fungi are, in fact, a rarity (Taylor et al. 1999, 2001; Heitman 2010). This revolution in our understanding of fungal sexuality has come about in two ways: Firstly, sexual reproduction leaves an imprint on fungal genomes by maintaining genes required for mating and by generating patterns of mutation and recombination restricted to meiotic processes. Secondly, scientists have become better at catching fungi in flagrante delicto. The genus Aspergillus is one such fungus where a combination of population genetics, genomics and taxonomy has been able to intuit the existence of sex, then to catch the fungus in the act and formally describe their sexual stages. So, why are sexy moulds exciting? One species in particular, Aspergillus flavus, is notorious for its ability to produce a diverse array of secondary metabolites, of which the polyketide aflatoxins (AF) are carcinogenic and others (such as cyclopiazonic acid) are toxigenic. Because of the predilection of A. flavus to grow on crops, such as peanuts, corn and cotton, biocontrol is widely used to mitigate infection by pre-applying nonaflatoxigenic (AF-) strains to competitively exclude the wild-type AF+ strains. However, the eventual fate in nature of these biocontrol strains is not known. In this issue of Molecular Ecology, Olarte et al. (2012) make an important contribution by using laboratory crosses of A. flavus to show that not only is AF highly heritable, but AF- strains can become AF+ via crossing over during meiosis. This observation has raised the spectre of cross-breeding and non-mendelian inheritance of AF between native and biocontrol strains of the fungus, leading to an increase in the natural diversity of the fungus with perhaps unanticipated consequences. PMID:22393930

Fisher, Matthew C; Henk, Daniel A

2012-03-01

356

Zinc Acquisition: A Key Aspect in Aspergillus fumigatus Virulence.  

PubMed

Zinc is an essential micronutrient required for the growth of all microorganisms. To grow in the lungs of a susceptible patient Aspergillus fumigatus must obtain zinc from the surrounding tissues. The concentration of Zn(2+) ions in living tissues is much lower than that required for optimal fungal growth in vitro because most of them are tightly bound to proteins at the physiological pH. However, A. fumigatus has several zinc transporters (ZrfA, ZrfB and ZrfC) that enable it to uptake zinc efficiently under the extreme zinc-limiting conditions provided by a susceptible host. The ZafA transcriptional regulator induces the expression of these transporters and is essential for virulence. ZrfC is required for fungal growth within the host tissues, whereas ZrfA and ZrfB play an accessory role. The zinc-scavenging capacity of ZrfC relies on its unusually long N-terminus. In addition, ZrfC also enables A. fumigatus to overcome the inhibitory effect of calprotectin, which is an antimicrobial Zn/Mn-chelating protein synthesized in high amounts by neutrophils, even in immunosuppressed non-leucopenic animals. In summary, the regulation of zinc homeostasis and zinc acquisition could be promising targets for the discovery and development of a new generation of antifungals for the treatment of invasive pulmonary aspergillosis. PMID:24947168

Amich, Jorge; Calera, José Antonio

2014-12-01

357

Occurrence of Aspergillus fumigatus during composting of sewage sludge.  

PubMed Central

Aspergillus fumigatus, a medically important fungal opportunist and respiratory allergen, was isolated from woodchips and sewage sludge used in the production of compost at the U.S. Department of Agriculture's composting research facility in Beltsville, Md. It was also regularly isolated as a dominant fungus during forced aeration composting and after 30 days in an unaerated stationary curing pile; in both cases, the fungus was found in pile zones with temperatures less than 60 degrees C. Compost stored outdoors in stationary unaerated piles from 1 to 4 months after screening out of woodchips contained easily detectable amounts of A. fumigatus in the exterior pile zones (0- to 25-cm depths). Semiquantitative studies of the airspora at the composting site revealed that A. fumigatus constituted 75% of the total viable mycoflora captured. At locations 320 m to 8 km from the compost site, the fungus constituted only 2% of the total viable mycoflora in the air. Of 21 samples of commercially available potting soil, one had levels of A. fumigatus nearly equivalent to those of 1-month-old storage compost; 15 others had lower but detectable levels. PMID:339835

Millner, P D; Marsh, P B; Snowden, R B; Parr, J F

1977-01-01

358

Investigation of Aspergillus fumigatus biofilm formation by various “omics” approaches  

PubMed Central

In the lung, Aspergillus fumigatus usually forms a dense colony of filaments embedded in a polymeric extracellular matrix called biofilm (BF). This extracellular matrix embeds and glues hyphae together and protects the fungus from an outside hostile environment. This extracellular matrix is absent in fungal colonies grown under classical liquid shake conditions (PL), which were historically used to understand A. fumigatus pathobiology. Recent works have shown that the fungus in this aerial grown BF-like state exhibits reduced susceptibility to antifungal drugs and undergoes major metabolic changes that are thought to be associated to virulence. These differences in pathological and physiological characteristics between BF and liquid shake conditions suggest that the PL condition is a poor in vitro disease model. In the laboratory, A. fumigatus mycelium embedded by the extracellular matrix can be produced in vitro in aerial condition using an agar-based medium. To provide a global and accurate understanding of A. fumigatus in vitro BF growth, we utilized microarray, RNA-sequencing, and proteomic analysis to compare the global gene and protein expression profiles of A. fumigatus grown under BF and PL conditions. In this review, we will present the different signatures obtained with these three “omics” methods. We will discuss the advantages and limitations of each method and their complementarity. PMID:23407341

Muszkieta, Laetitia; Beauvais, Anne; Pähtz, Vera; Gibbons, John G.; Anton Leberre, Véronique; Beau, Rémi; Shibuya, Kazutoshi; Rokas, Antonis; Francois, Jean M.; Kniemeyer, Olaf; Brakhage, Axel A.; Latgé, Jean P.

2013-01-01

359

Calnexin Overexpression Increases Manganese Peroxidase Production in Aspergillus niger  

PubMed Central

Heme-containing peroxidases from white rot basidiomycetes, in contrast to most proteins of fungal origin, are poorly produced in industrial filamentous fungal strains. Factors limiting peroxidase production are believed to operate at the posttranslational level. In particular, insufficient availability of the prosthetic group which is required for peroxidase biosynthesis has been proposed to be an important bottleneck. In this work, we analyzed the role of two components of the secretion pathway, the chaperones calnexin and binding protein (BiP), in the production of a fungal peroxidase. Expression of the Phanerochaete chrysosporium manganese peroxidase (MnP) in Aspergillus niger resulted in an increase in the expression level of the clxA and bipA genes. In a heme-supplemented medium, where MnP was shown to be overproduced to higher levels, induction of clxA and bipA was also higher. Overexpression of these two chaperones in an MnP-producing strain was analyzed for its effect on MnP production. Whereas bipA overexpression seriously reduced MnP production, overexpression of calnexin resulted in a four- to fivefold increase in the extracellular MnP levels. However, when additional heme was provided in the culture medium, calnexin overexpression had no synergistic effect on MnP production. The possible function of these two chaperones in MnP maturation and production is discussed. PMID:11823227

Conesa, Ana; Jeenes, David; Archer, David B.; van den Hondel, Cees A. M. J. J.; Punt, Peter J.

2002-01-01

360

Studies on the Production of Fungal Peroxidases in Aspergillus niger  

PubMed Central

To get insight into the limiting factors existing for the efficient production of fungal peroxidase in filamentous fungi, the expression of the Phanerochaete chrysosporium lignin peroxidase H8 (lipA) and manganese peroxidase (MnP) H4 (mnp1) genes in Aspergillus niger has been studied. For this purpose, a protease-deficient A. niger strain and different expression cassettes have been used. Northern blotting experiments indicated high steady-state mRNA levels for the recombinant genes. Manganese peroxidase was secreted into the culture medium as an active protein. The recombinant protein showed specific activity and a spectrum profile similar to those of the native enzyme, was correctly processed at its N terminus, and had a slightly lower mobility on sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Recombinant MnP production could be increased up to 100 mg/liter upon hemoglobin supplementation of the culture medium. Lignin peroxidase was also secreted into the extracellular medium, although the protein was not active, presumably due to incorrect processing of the secreted enzyme. Expression of the lipA and mnp1 genes fused to the A. niger glucoamylase gene did not result in improved production yields. PMID:10877800

Conesa, Ana; van den Hondel, Cees A. M. J. J.; Punt, Peter J.

2000-01-01

361

Aspergillus Enzymes Involved in Degradation of Plant Cell Wall Polysaccharides  

PubMed Central

Degradation of plant cell wall polysaccharides is of major importance in the food and feed, beverage, textile, and paper and pulp industries, as well as in several other industrial production processes. Enzymatic degradation of these polymers has received attention for many years and is becoming a more and more attractive alternative to chemical and mechanical processes. Over the past 15 years, much progress has been made in elucidating the structural characteristics of these polysaccharides and in characterizing the enzymes involved in their degradation and the genes of biotechnologically relevant microorganisms encoding these enzymes. The members of the fungal genus Aspergillus are commonly used for the production of polysaccharide-degrading enzymes. This genus produces a wide spectrum of cell wall-degrading enzymes, allowing not only complete degradation of the polysaccharides but also tailored modifications by using specific enzymes purified from these fungi. This review summarizes our current knowledge of the cell wall polysaccharide-degrading enzymes from aspergilli and the genes by which they are encoded. PMID:11729262

de Vries, Ronald P.; Visser, Jaap

2001-01-01

362

Ethylene Inhibits Aflatoxin Biosynthesis in Aspergillus parasiticus Grown on Peanuts  

PubMed Central

The filamentous fungi Aspergillus parasiticus and A. flavus synthesize aflatoxins when they grow on a variety of susceptible food and feed crops. These mycotoxins are among the most carcinogenic naturally occurring compounds known and they pose significant health risks to humans and animals. We previously demonstrated that ethylene and CO2 act alone and together to reduce aflatoxin synthesis by A. parasiticus grown on laboratory media. To demonstrate the potential efficacy of treatment of stored seeds and grains with these gases, we tested ethylene and CO2 for ability to inhibit aflatoxin accumulation on Georgia Green peanuts stored for up to 5 days. We demonstrated an inverse relationship between A. parasiticus spore inoculum size and the level of toxin accumulation. We showed that ethylene inhibits aflatoxin synthesis in a dose-dependent manner on peanuts; CO2 also inhibits aflatoxin synthesis over a narrow dose range. Treatments had not discernable effect on mold growth. These observations support further exploration of this technology to reduce aflatoxin contamination of susceptible crops in the field and during storage. PMID:17418318

Gunterus, A.; Roze, L.V.; Beaudry, R.; Linz, J. E.

2007-01-01

363

Identification of the Predominant Volatile Compounds Produced by Aspergillus flavus  

PubMed Central

A culture of Aspergillus flavus grown on moistened wheat meal was homogenized with a blendor, and the resulting slurry was vacuum-distilled at 5 mm of Hg and 35 C. The aqueous distillate was collected in traps cooled to -10 to -80 C. The culture volatiles were extracted from the distillate with CH2Cl2, and, after removal of the bulk of the solvent, the concentrated volatiles were examined by packed-column gas chromatography. Nineteen peaks were observed, and coupled gas chromatography-mass spectrometry was employed to identify the larger components. The compounds identified were: 3-methyl-butanol, 3-octanone, 3-octanol, 1-octen-3-ol, 1-octanol, and cis-2-octen-1-ol. The two octenols were the predominant compounds, and sufficient sample was trapped from the gas chromatograph for infrared analyses; this confirmed the mass spectral identifications and permitted the assignment of the cis designation to 2-octen-1-ol. Both oct-1-en-3-ol and cis-2-octen-1-ol are thought to be responsible for the characteristic musty-fungal odor of certain fungi; the latter compound may be a useful chemical index of fungal growth. PMID:4629700

Kaminski, E.; Libbey, L. M.; Stawicki, S.; Wasowicz, E.

1972-01-01

364

Evidence of multiple extracellular phospholipase activities of Aspergillus fumigatus.  

PubMed Central

Extracellular phospholipase activity has been implicated in the pathogenesis of several bacterial infections. Recently, extracellular phospholipase activity has been proposed as a virulence factor in the opportunistic yeast Candida albicans. Aspergillus fumigatus is the most pathogenic member of its genus, responsible for > 90% of infections. Previously, no specific virulence factors have been determined. We investigated the ability of A. fumigatus to produce extracellular phospholipases at 37 degrees C. Fast atom bombardment was used to compare lipid-containing media before and at 5-h intervals during shaking culture of A. fumigatus. Lipids were extracted and analyzed. Many anions corresponding to phospholipid breakdown products were identified. Specific anion species identified indicated phospholipase A, B, C (PLC), and D activities. PLC activity was further investigated by using the synthetic substrate p-nitrophenylphosphorylcholine. PLC activity was initially observed after 30 h of growth and accumulated in broth cultures up to 50 h. At 55 h, there was a sharp increase in PLC activity which coincided with cultures reaching the stationary phase. Activity of the PLC was measured at different temperatures, with greater activity occurring at 37 degrees C than at lower temperatures. Phospholipases could represent a virulence determinant in A. fumigatus. PMID:8641777

Birch, M; Robson, G; Law, D; Denning, D W

1996-01-01

365

Xylanolytic complex from Aspergillus giganteus: production and characterization.  

PubMed

An Aspergillus giganteus strain was isolated as an excellent producer of xylanase associated with low levels of cellulase. Optimal xylanase production was obtained in liquid Vogel medium containing xylan as carbon source, pH 6.5 to 7.0, at 25 degrees C and under shaking at 120 rpm during 84 h. Among the several carbon sources tested, higher xylanase production was verified in xylan, xylose, sugar-cane bagasse, wheat bran and corn cob cultures, respectively. Optimal conditions for activity determination were 50 degrees C and pH 6.0. The xylanolytic complex of A. giganteus showed low thermal stability with T(50) of 2 h, 13 min and 1 min when it was incubated at 40, 50 and 60 degrees C, respectively, and high stability from pH 4.5 to 10.5, with the best interval between 7.0 to 7.5. This broad range of stability in alkali pH indicates a potential applicability in some industrial processes, which require such condition. Xylanolytic activity of A. giganteus was totally inhibited by Hg(+2), Cu(+2) and SDS at 10 mM. The analysis of the products from the oat spelts xylan hydrolysis through thin-layer chromatography indicated endoxylanase activity, lack of debranching enzymes and beta-xylosidase activity in assay conditions. PMID:12872308

Coelho, Glauciane Danusa; Carmona, Eleonora Cano

2003-01-01

366

Control of Ras-Mediated Signaling in Aspergillus fumigatus.  

PubMed

Pathogenic fungi employ numerous mechanisms to flourish in the stressful environment encountered within their mammalian hosts. Central to this arsenal for filamentous fungi is invasive growth within the host microenvironment, mediated by establishment and maintenance of polarized hyphal morphogenesis. In Aspergillus fumigatus, the RasA signal transduction pathway has emerged as a significant regulator of hyphal morphogenesis and virulence, among other processes. The factors contributing to the regulation of RasA itself are not as thoroughly understood, although proper temporal activation of RasA and spatial localization of RasA to the plasma membrane are known to play major roles. Interference with RasA palmitoylation or prenylation results in mislocalization of RasA and is associated with severe growth deficits. In addition, dysregulation of RasA activation results in severe morphologic aberrancies and growth deficits. This review highlights the relationship between RasA signaling, hyphal morphogenesis, and virulence in A. fumigatus and focuses on potential determinants of spatial and temporal RasA regulation. PMID:24952717

Norton, Tiffany S; Fortwendel, Jarrod R

2014-12-01

367

Production, purification, and characterization of exoglucanase by Aspergillus fumigatus.  

PubMed

Fungi are considered good producers of industrially valuable enzymes with higher enzymatic activities. Among these cellulases are group of extracellular enzymes commonly employed in many industries for the hydrolysis of cellulolytic material. Aspergillus fumigatus produced exoglucanase having high enzymatic activity (83 U/gds) during the solid-state fermentation of wheat straw under optimum physical and nutritional conditions. Maximum production was obtained after 72 h of fermentation, at 55 °C temperature, pH 5.5, 80 % moisture level, and 2 mL fungal inoculum. Production was further increased by the addition of fructose (0.3 %) as additional carbon source, peptone (0.4 %) as nitrogen source, Tween-80 (0.3 %) as surfactant, and ammonium sulfate (0.2 %) in media. Exoglucanase was 2.30-folds purified by adding 40 % ammonium sulfate with volumetric activity 95.4 U/gds and specific activity 14.74 U/mg. Further, it was 5.18-folds purified by gel filtration chromatography with volumetric activity 115.2 U/gds and specific activity 33.10 U/mg. Purified exoglucanase has maximum activity at 55 °C and pH 4.8 using 1 % Avicel aqueous solution as substrate. The K(m) and V(max) were 4.34 mM and 7.29 ?M/min, respectively. Calcium, magnesium, and zinc ions have positive effect on exoglucanase activity. PMID:23615734

Mahmood, Raja Tahir; Asad, Muhammad Javaid; Mehboob, Nazia; Mushtaq, Maria; Gulfraz, Muhammad; Asgher, Muhammad; Minhas, Nasir M; Hadri, Saqib Hussain

2013-06-01

368

Identification of many crystal forms of Aspergillus nidulans dehydroquinate synthase.  

PubMed

Extensive crystallization trials of Aspergillus nidulans dehydroquinate synthase, a potential novel target for antimicrobial drugs, in complexes with different ligands have resulted in the identification of nine crystal forms. Crystals of unliganded DHQS, binary complexes with either the substrate analogue, carbaphosphonate or the cofactor NADH, as well as the ternary DHQS-carbaphosphonate-cofactor complex, were obtained. The ternary complex crystallizes from ammonium sulfate and CoCl(2) in space group P2(1)2(1)2, with unit-cell parameters a = 133.8, b = 86.6, c = 74.9 A. The binary carbaphosphonate complex crystallizes from PEG 6000 in space group P2(1)2(1)2(1), with a = 70.0, b = 64.0, c = 197.6 A, and the binary cofactor complex crystallizes from PEG 3350 and sodium potassium tartrate in space group P2(1), with a = 83.7, b = 70.4, c = 144.3 A, beta = 89.2 degrees. DHQS in the absence of ligands crystallizes in space group P2(1), with a = 41.0, b = 68.9, c = 137.7 A, beta = 94.8 degrees. Each of these crystal forms are suitable for high-resolution structure determination. Structures of a range of DHQS-ligand complexes will be of value in the structure-based design of novel antimicrobial drugs. PMID:11173489

Nichols, C E; Ren, J; Lamb, H; Haldane, F; Hawkins, A R; Stammers, D K

2001-02-01

369

Some studies of alpha-amylase production using Aspergillus oryzae.  

PubMed

The extracellular alpha-amylase production by Aspergillus oryzae was studied in submerged fermentation using an Adlof-Kuhner orbital shaker. The effect of initial pH values in the range of 4 to 7.5 on enzyme production was investigated and initial pH medium of 6.2 +/- 0.1 resulted in enhanced alpha-amylase production. The effect of carbon and nitrogen source and composition was examined and it has been observed that corn starch concentration of 15 g L(-1) has sound effect on enzyme production. The medium containing corn starch, sodium nitrate resulted in considerable higher enzyme production. Further, the yeast extract of 2.5 g L(-1) in the medium produced higher enzyme in view to other organic nitrogen sources. The effect of temperature on alpha-amylase production from 20 to 40 degrees C has been studied and at 35 +/- 1 degrees C higher alpha-amylase has been obtained. The effect of shaker's speed on alpha-amylase production from 50 to 200 rpm was investigated. And at about 180 rpm higher enzyme production has been observed. In the present study, it has been found that glucose has repressing effect on a-amylase production using A. oryzae PTCC5164. PMID:19260332

Esfahanibolandbalaie, Z; Rostami, K; Mirdamadi, S S

2008-11-15

370

Salmonella Biofilm Formation on Aspergillus niger Involves Cellulose - Chitin Interactions  

PubMed Central

Salmonella cycles between host and nonhost environments, where it can become an active member of complex microbial communities. The role of fungi in the environmental adaptation of enteric pathogens remains relatively unexplored. We have discovered that S. enterica Typhimurium rapidly attaches to and forms biofilms on the hyphae of the common fungus, Aspergillus niger. Several Salmonella enterica serovars displayed a similar interaction, whereas other bacterial species were unable to bind to the fungus. Bacterial attachment to chitin, a major constituent of fungal cell walls, mirrored this specificity. Pre-incubation of S. Typhimurium with N-acetylglucosamine, the monomeric component of chitin, reduced binding to chitin beads by as much as 727-fold and inhibited attachment to A. niger hyphae considerably. A cellulose-deficient mutant of S. Typhimurium failed to attach to chitin beads and to the fungus. Complementation of this mutant with the cellulose operon restored binding to chitin beads to 79% of that of the parental strain and allowed for attachment and biofilm formation on A. niger, indicating that cellulose is involved in bacterial attachment to the fungus via the chitin component of its cell wall. In contrast to cellulose, S. Typhimurium curli fimbriae were not required for attachment and biofilm development on the hyphae but were critical for its stability. Our results suggest that cellulose–chitin interactions are required for the production of mixed Salmonella-A. niger biofilms, and support the hypothesis that encounters with chitinaceous alternate hosts may contribute to the ecological success of human pathogens. PMID:22003399

Brandl, Maria T.; Carter, Michelle Q.; Parker, Craig T.; Chapman, Matthew R.; Huynh, Steven; Zhou, Yaguang

2011-01-01

371

Modelling Aspergillus fumigatus infections in racing pigeons (Columba livia domestica).  

PubMed

In vivo modelling of aspergillosis in birds allows the evaluation of control measures and the study of host-pathogen interactions. In this study the impact of the use of different inoculation routes and immunosuppression on the course of an infection with Aspergillus fumigatus in racing pigeons (Columba livia domestica) was examined. A. fumigatus conidia were inoculated in the thoracic air sac, lung or trachea in immunocompetent or immunosuppressed pigeon squabs. Immunosuppression was induced by three dexamethasone injections before inoculation. Mortality in the A. fumigatus-inoculated groups varied between 1/4 and 4/4. The highest and more acute mortality was seen in immunocompetent pigeons inoculated in the thoracic air sac and in pigeons inoculated in the thoracic air sac or lung after immunosuppression. Pigeons inoculated in the lung or inoculated intratracheally after immunosuppression developed an aspergillosis infection with a slower course of disease and more prominent clinical symptoms. Using microsatellite length polymorphism, it was confirmed that all mycoses were caused by the inoculated strain except for one isolate in a dexamethasone-treated pigeon. In conclusion, inoculation in the lung is selected as the preferred model for chronic aspergillosis in pigeons, and inoculation in the thoracic air sac as the preferred model for acute aspergillosis. The use of immunosuppressed birds seems to be contra-indicated due to the risk of opportunistic infections. PMID:18798031

Beernaert, L A; Pasmans, F; Haesebrouck, F; Martel, A

2008-10-01

372

Biological detoxification of zearalenone by Aspergillus niger strain FS10.  

PubMed

Zearalenone (ZEN) contamination of corn and cereal products is a serious health hazard throughout the world and its elimination by microbial methods is now being widely examined. In this study, an Aspergillus niger strain, FS10, isolated from Chinese fermented soybean, was shown to reduce levels of ZEN in corn steep liquor (CSL). Spores, mycelium and culture filtrate of the strain FS10 were tested for their ability to remove ZEN. The results indicated that strain FS10 could remove 89.56% of ZEN from potato dextrose broth (PDB) medium. Mycelium and culture filtrate decreased the ZEN content by 43.10% and 68.16%, respectively. The contaminated corn steep liquor initially contained ZEN 29?g/ml, 60.01% of which could be removed by strain FS10. To demonstrate the loss of toxicity in vivo, the culture filtrate incubated with the contaminated corn steep liquor for 48h was administered to rats. The results indicated that the contaminated corn steep liquor severely damaged liver and kidney tissue. Rats administered with contaminated corn steep liquor treated with the strain FS10 culture filtrate showed significantly less severe liver and kidney damage, and organ index values were comparable to the non-ZEN-exposed control (p<0.05). Our study suggests an effective approach to reduce the hazards of ZEN in corn steep liquor. PMID:25007785

Sun, Xiulan; He, Xingxing; Xue, Kathy Siyu; Li, Yun; Xu, Dan; Qian, He

2014-10-01

373

Genome shuffling of Aspergillus niger for improving transglycosylation activity.  

PubMed

Isomaltooligosaccharides (IMO), the glucosylsaccharides used as food additives, are made from saccharified starch by enzymes or microbial cells with transglycosylation activity. This study aimed to generate shuffled futants of Aspergillus niger with enhanced transglycosylation activity for industrial IMO production. The starting mutant population was generated by (60)Co-? radiation; mutants with higher transglycosylation activity were selected and subjected to recursive protoplast fusion. The resulting fusants were screened by a novel high-throughput method based on detecting non-fermentable reducing sugar. After three rounds of genome shuffling, the best performing strain GS3-3 was obtained, its transglycosylation activity (14.91 U/mL) was increased by 194.1 % compared to that of original strain C-6181. In fermentor test, transglycosylation activity of GS3-3 was obtained at 16.61 U/mL. The mycelia of GS3-3 were reused ten times to produce IMO syrup from liquefied cassava starch containing about 280 g/L total sugar within 4 days. The conversion of liquefied cassava starch to IMO was at 71.3-72.1 %, which was higher than the best conversion (68 %) ever reported. GS3-3 shows a great potential for industrial IMO production. PMID:24043449

Li, Wei; Chen, Guiguang; Gu, Lingli; Zeng, Wei; Liang, Zhiqun

2014-01-01

374

Expression and Secretion of Defined Cutinase Variants by Aspergillus awamori  

PubMed Central

Several cutinase variants derived by molecular modelling and site-directed mutagenesis of a cutinase gene from Fusarium solani pisi are poorly secreted by Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The majority of these variants are successfully produced by the filamentous fungus Aspergillus awamori. However, the L51S and T179Y mutations caused reductions in the levels of extracellular production of two cutinase variants by A. awamori. Metabolic labelling studies were performed to analyze the bottleneck in enzyme production by the fungus in detail. These studies showed that because of the single L51S substitution, rapid extracellular degradation of cutinase occurred. The T179Y substitution did not result in enhanced sensitivity towards extracellular proteases. Presumably, the delay in the extracellular accumulation of this cutinase variant is caused by the enhanced hydrophobicity of the molecule. Overexpression of the A. awamori gene encoding the chaperone BiP in the cutinase-producing A. awamori strains had no significant effect on the secretion efficiency of the cutinases. A cutinase variant with the amino acid changes G28A, A85F, V184I, A185L, and L189F that was known to aggregate in the endoplasmic reticulum of S. cerevisiae, resulting in low extracellular protein levels, was successfully produced by A. awamori. An initial bottleneck in secretion occurred before or during translocation into the endoplasmic reticulum but was rapidly overcome by the fungus. PMID:9687432

van Gemeren, I. A.; Beijersbergen, A.; van den Hondel, C. A. M. J. J.; Verrips, C. T.

1998-01-01

375

Using Aspergillus nidulans to identify antifungal drug resistance mutations.  

PubMed

Systemic fungal infections contribute to at least 10% of deaths in hospital settings. Most antifungal drugs target ergosterol (polyenes) or its biosynthetic pathway (azoles and allylamines), or beta-glucan synthesis (echinocandins). Antifungal drugs that target proteins are prone to the emergence of resistant strains. Identification of genes whose mutations lead to targeted resistance can provide new information on those pathways. We used Aspergillus nidulans as a model system to exploit its tractable sexual cycle and calcofluor white as a model antifungal agent to cross-reference our results with other studies. Within 2 weeks from inoculation on sublethal doses of calcofluor white, we isolated 24 A. nidulans adaptive strains from sectoring colonies. Meiotic analysis showed that these strains had single-gene mutations. In each case, the resistance was specific to calcofluor white, since there was no cross-resistance to caspofungin (echinocandin). Mutation sites were identified in two mutants by next-generation sequencing. These were confirmed by reengineering the mutation in a wild-type strain using a gene replacement strategy. One of these mutated genes was related to cell wall synthesis, and the other one was related to drug metabolism. Our strategy has wide application for many fungal species, for antifungal compounds used in agriculture as well as health care, and potentially during protracted drug therapy once drug resistance arises. We suggest that our strategy will be useful for keeping ahead in the drug resistance arms race. PMID:24363365

He, Xiaoxiao; Li, Shengnan; Kaminskyj, Susan G W

2014-02-01

376

Novel Sexual-Cycle-Specific Gene Silencing in Aspergillus nidulans  

PubMed Central

We report a novel sexual-cycle-specific gene-silencing system in the genetic model Aspergillus nidulans. Duplication of the mating type matAHMG gene in this haploid organism triggers Mat-induced silencing (MatIS) of both endogenous and transgenic matA genes, eliminates function of the encoded SRY structural ortholog, and results in formation of barren fruiting bodies. MatIS is spatiotemporally restricted to the prezygotic stage of the sexual cycle and does not interfere with vegetative growth, asexual reproduction, differentiation of early sexual tissues, or fruiting body development. MatIS is reversible upon deletion of the matA transgene. In contrast to other sex-specific silencing phenomena, MatIS silencing has nearly 100% efficiency and appears to be independent of homologous duplicated DNA segments. Remarkably, transgene-derived matA RNA might be sufficient to induce MatIS. A unique feature of MatIS is that RNA-mediated silencing is RNA interference/Argonaute-independent and is restricted to the nucleus having the duplicated gene. The silencing phenomenon is recessive and does not spread between nuclei within the common cytoplasm of a multinucleate heterokaryon. Gene silencing induced by matA gene duplication emerges as a specific feature associated with matAHMG regulation during sexual development. PMID:23341415

Czaja, Wioletta; Miller, Karen Y.; Miller, Bruce L.

2013-01-01

377

Interaction of Aspergillus fumigatus Spores with Human Leukocytes and Serum  

PubMed Central

Serum was necessary for optimal phagocytosis of Aspergillus fumigatus spores by human leukocytes, and its opsonic capacity was greatly diminished by heat inactivation (56 C, 30 min). A germination assay, described in this report, was developed to study the fate of phagocytized spores. After incubation for 3 hr with normal leukocytes and serum, spores ingested by peripheral blood neutrophils and monocytes remained viable. Since we had previously found that myeloperoxidase (MPO), a lysosomal enzyme of human neutrophils and monocytes, exerted fungicidal activity against Candida albicans when combined with H2O2 and chloride or iodide, the effects of these substances on A. fumigatus spores were examined. Spore viability was not impaired by MPO alone, H2O2 alone, or KI alone, but high concentrations of KI and H2O2 in combination caused marked inhibition of subsequent germination. MPO imparted fungicidal activity to concentrations of KI and H2O2 that lacked any effect in its absence. NaCl, in combination with MPO and H2O2, was far less effective than the iodide salt against A. fumigatus. The relative ineffectiveness of chloride in this system could underly the apparent inability of human neutrophils to kill ingested A. fumigatus spores, despite their competence to kill C. albicans. Images PMID:16557740

Lehrer, Robert I.; Jan, Ronald G.

1970-01-01

378

Modulation of antimicrobial metabolites production by the fungus Aspergillus parasiticus  

PubMed Central

Biosynthesis of active secondary metabolites by fungi occurs as a specific response to the different growing environments. Changes in this environment alter the chemical and biological profiles leading to metabolites diversification and consequently to novel pharmacological applications. In this work, it was studied the influence of three parameters (fermentation length, medium composition and aeration) in the biosyntheses of antimicrobial metabolites by the fungus Aspergillus parasiticus in 10 distinct fermentation periods. Metabolism modulation in two culturing media, CYA and YES was evaluated by a 22 full factorial planning (ANOVA) and on a 23 factorial planning, role of aeration, medium composition and carbohydrate concentration were also evaluated. In overall, 120 different extracts were prepared, their HPLC profiles were obtained and the antimicrobial activity against A. flavus, C. albicans, E. coli and S. aureus of all extracts was evaluated by microdilution bioassay. Yield of kojic acid, a fine chemical produced by the fungus A. parasiticus was determined in all extracts. Statistical analyses pointed thirteen conditions able to modulate the production of bioactive metabolites by A. parasiticus. Effect of carbon source in metabolites diversification was significant as shown by the changes in the HPLC profiles of the extracts. Most of the extracts presented inhibition rates higher than that of kojic acid as for the extract obtained after 6 days of fermentation in YES medium under stirring. Kojic acid was not the only metabolite responsible for the activity since some highly active extracts showed to possess low amounts of this compound, as determined by HPLC. PMID:24948950

Bracarense, Adriana A.P.; Takahashi, Jacqueline A.

2014-01-01

379

Adsorption profile of lead on Aspergillus versicolor: a mechanistic probing.  

PubMed

The adsorption of lead on Aspergillus versicolor biomass (AVB) has been investigated in aqueous solution with special reference to binding mechanism in order to explore the possibilities of the biomass to address environmental pollution. AVB, being the most potent of all the fungal biomasses tested, has been successfully employed for reducing the lead content of the effluents of battery industries to permissible limit (1.0 mg L(-1)) before discharging into waterbodies. The results establish that 1.0 g of the biomass adsorbs 45.0 mg of lead and the adsorption process is found to depend on the pH of the solution with an optimum at pH 5.0. The rate of adsorption of lead by AVB is very fast initially attaining equilibrium within 3h following pseudo second order rate model. The adsorption process can better be described by Redlich-Peterson isotherm model compared to other ones tested. Scanning electron micrograph demonstrates conspicuous changes in the surface morphology of the biomass as a result of lead adsorption. Zeta potential values, chemical modification of the functional groups and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy reveal that binding of lead on AVB occurs through complexation as well as electrostatic interaction. PMID:21159429

Bairagi, Himadri; Khan, Md Motiar R; Ray, Lalitagauri; Guha, Arun K

2011-02-15

380

Purification and properties of the elastase from Aspergillus fumigatus.  

PubMed Central

Elastase, a potential virulence factor from the opportunistic pathogen Aspergillus fumigatus, was purified 220-fold from culture broth by fast-performance liquid chromatography employing anion exchange (Q Sepharose fast flow), cation exchange (S Sepharose fast flow), and gel filtration (Superose 12). Purified to near homogeneity, the elastase had an apparent molecular mass of 32 kDa by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (silver stain) but a mass of about 19.1 kDa as determined by gel filtration on Superdex 75. The elastase is not glycosylated and is positively charged at neutral pH, having a pI of 8.75. Inhibition by 0.2 mM phenylmethylsulfonyl fluoride (100%) and 0.21 mM leupeptin (60%) implies that the elastase is a serine protease. However, the enzyme is also inhibited by 5 mM EDTA (100%) and 10 mM 1,10-orthophenanthroline (30%), suggesting a requirement for divalent cations. The enzyme acts optimally at pH 7.4 and 45 degrees C in 50 mM sodium borate buffer, but in Tris HCl, the pH optimum shifts to 8.8. Images PMID:1541545

Frosco, M; Chase, T; Macmillan, J D

1992-01-01

381

Transcriptome analysis of Aspergillus niger grown on sugarcane bagasse  

PubMed Central

Background Considering that the costs of cellulases and hemicellulases contribute substantially to the price of bioethanol, new studies aimed at understanding and improving cellulase efficiency and productivity are of paramount importance. Aspergillus niger has been shown to produce a wide spectrum of polysaccharide hydrolytic enzymes. To understand how to improve enzymatic cocktails that can hydrolyze pretreated sugarcane bagasse, we used a genomics approach to investigate which genes and pathways are transcriptionally modulated during growth of A. niger on steam-exploded sugarcane bagasse (SEB). Results Herein we report the main cellulase- and hemicellulase-encoding genes with increased expression during growth on SEB. We also sought to determine whether the mRNA accumulation of several SEB-induced genes encoding putative transporters is induced by xylose and dependent on glucose. We identified 18 (58% of A. niger predicted cellulases) and 21 (58% of A. niger predicted hemicellulases) cellulase- and hemicellulase-encoding genes, respectively, that were highly expressed during growth on SEB. Conclusions Degradation of sugarcane bagasse requires production of many different enzymes which are regulated by the type and complexity of the available substrate. Our presently reported work opens new possibilities for understanding sugarcane biomass saccharification by A. niger hydrolases and for the construction of more efficient enzymatic cocktails for second-generation bioethanol. PMID:22008461

2011-01-01

382

Analysis of a novel calcium auxotrophy in Aspergillus nidulans  

PubMed Central

In Aspergillus nidulans a combination of null mutations in halA, encoding a protein kinase, and sltA, encoding a zinc-finger transcription factor having no yeast homologues, results in an elevated calcium requirement (‘calcium auxotrophy’) without impairing net calcium uptake. sltA? (±halA?) mutations result in hypertrophy of the vacuolar system. In halA?sltA? (and sltA?) strains, transcript levels for pmcA and pmcB, encoding vacuolar Ca2+-ATPase homologues, are highly elevated, suggesting a regulatory relationship between vacuolar membrane area and certain vacuolar membrane ATPase levels. Deletion of both pmcA and pmcB strongly suppresses the ‘calcium auxotrophy’. Therefore the ‘calcium auxotrophy’ possibly results from excessive vacuolar calcium sequestration, causing cytosolic calcium deprivation. Null mutations in nhaA, homologous to Saccharomyces cerevisiaeNHA1, encoding a plasma membrane Na+/H+ antiporter effluxing Na+ and K+, and a non-null mutation in trkB, homologous to S. cerevisiaeTRK1, encoding a plasma membrane high affinity K+ transporter, also suppress the calcium auxotrophy. PMID:20438880

Findon, Helen; Calcagno-Pizarelli, Ana-Maria; Martinez, Jose L.; Spielvogel, Anja; Markina-Inarrairaegui, Ane; Indrakumar, Tanya; Ramos, Jose; Penalva, Miguel A.; Espeso, Eduardo A.; Arst, Herbert N.

2010-01-01

383

Immunological aspects of Candida and Aspergillus systemic fungal infections.  

PubMed

Patients with allogeneic stem cell transplantation (SCT) have a high risk of invasive fungal infections (IFIs) even after neutrophil regeneration. Immunological aspects might play a very important role in the IFI development in these patients. Some data are available supporting the identification of high-risk patients with IFI for example patients receiving stem cells from TLR4 haplotype S4 positive donors. Key defense mechanisms against IFI include the activation of neutrophils, the phagocytosis of germinating conidia by dendritic cells, and the fight of the cells of the innate immunity such as monocytes and natural killer cells against germlings and hyphae. Furthermore, immunosuppressive drugs interact with immune effector cells influencing the specific fungal immune defense and antimycotic drugs might interact with immune response. Based on the current knowledge on immunological mechanism in Aspergillus fumigatus, the first approaches of an immunotherapy using human T cells are in development. This might be an option for the future of aspergillosis patients having a poor prognosis with conventional treatment. PMID:23401680

Mueller-Loebnitz, Christoph; Ostermann, Helmut; Franzke, Anke; Loeffler, Juergen; Uharek, Lutz; Topp, Max; Einsele, Hermann

2013-01-01

384

Anti-inflammatory drimane sesquiterpene lactones from an Aspergillus species.  

PubMed

IFN-? inducible protein 10 (IP-10, CXCL10) is a 10 kDa chemokine, which is secreted from various cell types after exposure to pro-inflammatory stimuli. This chemokine is a ligand for the CXCR3 receptor and regulates immune responses by activating and recruiting leukocytes such as T cells, eosinophils, monocytes, and NK cells to sites of inflammation. Altered expression of CXCL10 has been associated with chronic inflammatory and infectious diseases and therefore CXCL10 represents a promising target for the development of new anti-inflammatory drugs. In a search for inhibitors of CXCL10 promoter activity, three structurally related drimane sesquiterpene lactones (compounds 1-3) were isolated from fermentations of an Aspergillus species. Compounds 1 and 2 inhibited the IFN-?/TNF-?/IL-1? induced CXCL10 promoter activity in transiently transfected human DLD-1 colon carcinoma cells in a dose-dependent manner with IC50 values of 12.4 ?M for 1 and 55 ?M for 2, whereas 3 was devoid of any biological activity. Moreover, compounds 1 and 2 reduced CXCL10 mRNA levels and synthesis in IFN-?/TNF-?/IL-1? stimulated DLD-1 cells. PMID:24792812

Felix, Silke; Sandjo, Louis P; Opatz, Till; Erkel, Gerhard

2014-06-01

385

New Insight into Amphotericin B Resistance in Aspergillus terreus  

PubMed Central

Amphotericin B (AMB) is the predominant antifungal drug, but the mechanism of resistance is not well understood. We compared the in vivo virulence of an AMB-resistant Aspergillus terreus (ATR) isolate with that of an AMB-susceptible A. terreus isolate (ATS) using a murine model for disseminated aspergillosis. Furthermore, we analyzed the molecular basis of intrinsic AMB resistance in vitro by comparing the ergosterol content, cell-associated AMB levels, AMB-induced intracellular efflux, and prooxidant effects between ATR and ATS. Infection of immunosuppressed mice with ATS or ATR showed that the ATS strain was more lethal than the ATR strain. However, AMB treatment improved the outcome in ATS-infected mice while having no positive effect on the animals infected with ATR. The in vitro data demonstrated that ergosterol content is not the molecular basis for AMB resistance. ATR absorbed less AMB, discharged more intracellular compounds, and had better protection against oxidative damage than the susceptible strain. Our experiments showed that ergosterol content plays a minor role in intrinsic AMB resistance and is not directly associated with intracellular cell-associated AMB content. AMB might exert its antifungal activity by oxidative injury rather than by an increase in membrane permeation. PMID:23318794

Hortnagl, Caroline; Jukic, Emina; Erbeznik, Thomas; Pumpel, Thomas; Dietrich, Hermann; Nagl, Markus; Speth, Cornelia; Rambach, Gunter; Lass-Florl, Cornelia

2013-01-01

386

Ribotoxin genes in isolates of Aspergillus section Clavati  

PubMed Central

Ribotoxins are ribosome inactivator proteins with high specificity against the sarcin/ricin domain of the 28S ribosomal RNA. We examined the presence of ribotoxin genes in isolates of species recently assigned to Aspergillus section Clavati using specific primer pairs. All species assigned to this section have been found to carry ribotoxin genes. Phylogenetic analysis of the sequences of the amplified gene fragments allowed us to classify the genes to different groups including the ?-sarcin, gigantin, c-sarcin and mitogillin/restrictocin families. Two species, A. longivesica and N. acanthosporus produced ribotoxins which were only distantly related to gigantins and c-sarcins, respectively. Comparison of the protein sequences of the genes to known ribotoxin sequences revealed that all of them carry the presumed catalytic residues of ribotoxins, the cystein residues, and also the two Trp residues of ?-sarcin conserved in all ribotoxins known so far. These data indicate that these genes probably encode active ribotoxins. Further studies are in progress to examine the secretion and activities of these new ribotoxins. PMID:18600469

Samson, Robert A.

2008-01-01

387

Spatial Patterns and Associations between Species Belonging to Four Genera of the Lauraceae Family  

PubMed Central

Spatial distribution pattern of biological related species present unique opportunities and challenges to explain species coexistence. In this study, we explored the spatial distributions and associations among congeneric species at both the species and genus levels to explain their coexistence through examining the similarities and differences at these two levels. We first used DNA and cluster analysis to confirmed the relative relationship of eight species within a 20 ha subtropical forest in southern China. We compared Diameter at breast height (DBH) classes, aggregation intensities and spatial patterns, associations, and distributions of four closely related species pairs to reveal similarities and differences at the species and genus levels. These comparisons provided insight into the mechanisms of coexistence of these congeners. O-ring statistics were used to measure spatial patterns of species. ?0–10, the mean conspecific density within 10 m of a tree, was used as a measure of the intensity of aggregation of a species, and g-function was used to analyze spatial associations. Our results suggested that spatial aggregations were common, but the differences between spatial patterns were reduced at the genus level. Aggregation intensity clearly reduced at the genus level. Negative association frequencies decreased at the genus level, such that independent association was commonplace among all four genera. Relationships between more closely related species appeared to be more competitive at both the species and genus levels. The importance of competition on interactions is most likely influenced by similarity in lifestyle, and the habitat diversity within the species’ distribution areas. Relatives with different lifestyles likely produce different distribution patterns through different interaction process. In order to fully understand the mechanisms generating spatial distributions of coexisting siblings, further research is required to determine the spatial patterns and associations at other classification levels. PMID:25365507

Li, Lin; Ye, Wan Hui; Wei, Shi Guang; Lian, Ju Yu; Huang, Zhong Liang

2014-01-01

388

LABORATORY TRANSMISSION OF WESTERN EQUINE ENCEPHALOMYELITIS VIRUS BY MOSQUITOES OF THE GENERA CULEX AND CULISETA.  

PubMed

1. Western equine virus has been successfully transmitted in the laboratory by 3 species of mosquitoes from 2 genera not previously reported as laboratory vectors: Culex tarsalis, Culiseta inornata, and Culiseta incidens. 2. Though transmission was not demonstrated, survival of the virus for more than a few days was shown to occur in Culex stigmatosoma and Psorophora confinnis. Possibly transmission occurred by the former. 3. In experiments with Culex tarsalis, infection of the mosquitoes occurred from feeding on an inoculated guinea pig, a duck, and virus-blood suspensions. After an incubation period of 10 to 30 days at a temperature above 25 degrees C. these mosquitoes infected chickens and a guinea pig by their bite and virus was in turn demonstrated in the blood of the chickens and in the brain of the guinea pig. A total of 12 transmissions occurred. The fact that mosquitoes can be infected from fowl and in turn transmit to fowl, together with much other supporting data from field and laboratory, is interpreted as strengthening evidence that fowl serve as reservoirs of virus in nature. 4. Since Culex tarsalis mosquitoes have been repeatedly found infected with Western equine virus and epidemiologic evidence supports their incrimination, the vector rôle of this species is now established, and it may be regarded as fully incriminated. 5. Culiseta inornata has also been found infected in nature and now proven a laboratory vector. This species does not fit the epidemiological picture in the Yakima Valley as well as C. tarsalis, but may play an important rôle elsewhere. 6. Anopheles maculipennis freeborni and Culex pipiens found naturally infected have not transmitted the virus under laboratory conditions. PMID:19871339

Hammon, W M; Reeves, W C

1943-12-01

389

New Genera of RNA Viruses in Subtropical Seawater, Inferred from Polymerase Gene Sequences? †  

PubMed Central

Viruses are an integral component of the marine food web, contributing to the disease and mortality of essentially every type of marine life, yet the diversity of viruses in the sea, especially those with RNA genomes, remains very poorly characterized. Isolates of RNA-containing viruses that infect marine plankton are still rare, and the only cultivation-independent surveys of RNA viral diversity reported so far were conducted for temperate coastal waters of British Columbia. Here, we report on our improvements to a previously used protocol to investigate the diversity of marine picorna-like viruses and our results from applying this protocol in subtropical waters. The original protocol was simplified by using direct filtration, rather than tangential flow filtration, to harvest viruses from seawater, and new degenerate primers were designed to amplify a fragment of the RNA-dependent RNA polymerase gene by reverse transcription-PCR from RNA extracted from the filters. Whereas the original protocol was unsuccessful in a preliminary test, the new protocol resulted in amplification of picorna-like virus sequences in every sample of subtropical and temperate coastal seawater assayed. These polymerase sequences formed a diverse, but monophyletic cluster along with other sequences amplified previously from seawater and sequences from isolates infecting marine protists. Phylogenetic analysis suggested that our sequences represent at least five new genera and 24 new species of RNA viruses. These results contribute to our understanding of RNA virus diversity and suggest that picorna-like viruses are a source of mortality for a wide variety of marine protists. PMID:17644642

Culley, Alexander I.; Steward, Grieg F.

2007-01-01

390

LABORATORY TRANSMISSION OF WESTERN EQUINE ENCEPHALOMYELITIS VIRUS BY MOSQUITOES OF THE GENERA CULEX AND CULISETA  

PubMed Central

1. Western equine virus has been successfully transmitted in the laboratory by 3 species of mosquitoes from 2 genera not previously reported as laboratory vectors: Culex tarsalis, Culiseta inornata, and Culiseta incidens. 2. Though transmission was not demonstrated, survival of the virus for more than a few days was shown to occur in Culex stigmatosoma and Psorophora confinnis. Possibly transmission occurred by the former. 3. In experiments with Culex tarsalis, infection of the mosquitoes occurred from feeding on an inoculated guinea pig, a duck, and virus-blood suspensions. After an incubation period of 10 to 30 days at a temperature above 25°C. these mosquitoes infected chickens and a guinea pig by their bite and virus was in turn demonstrated in the blood of the chickens and in the brain of the guinea pig. A total of 12 transmissions occurred. The fact that mosquitoes can be infected from fowl and in turn transmit to fowl, together with much other supporting data from field and laboratory, is interpreted as strengthening evidence that fowl serve as reservoirs of virus in nature. 4. Since Culex tarsalis mosquitoes have been repeatedly found infected with Western equine virus and epidemiologic evidence supports their incrimination, the vector rôle of this species is now established, and it may be regarded as fully incriminated. 5. Culiseta inornata has also been found infected in nature and now proven a laboratory vector. This species does not fit the epidemiological picture in the Yakima Valley as well as C. tarsalis, but may play an important rôle elsewhere. 6. Anopheles maculipennis freeborni and Culex pipiens found naturally infected have not transmitted the virus under laboratory conditions. PMID:19871339

Hammon, W. McD.; Reeves, W. C.

1943-01-01

391

The Doryctinae (Braconidae) of Costa Rica: genera and species of the tribe Heterospilini  

PubMed Central

Abstract A comprehensive taxonomic study is presented for the four genera and 286 species of the doryctine tribe Heterospilini occurring in Costa Rica. The tribe is represented almost entirely by the 280 species of the genus Heterospilus Haliday. Keys for identification of the genera and species are provided and the genera and species are described and illustrated. An interactive key to the species of Heterospilus also was prepared using Lucid Builder. The following new genus and species are described from Costa Rica: Paraheterospilus gen. n., P. ceciliaensis sp. n., P. eumekus sp. n., P. wilbotgardus sp. n., Heterospilus achi sp. n., H. achterbergi sp. n., H. aesculapius sp. n., H. agujas sp. n., H. agujasensis sp. n., H. alajuelus sp. n., H. albocoxalis sp. n., H. alejandroi sp. n., H. amuzgo sp. n., H. angelicae sp. n., H. angustus sp. n., H. aphrodite sp. n., H. apollo sp. n., H. arawak sp. n., H. areolatus sp. n., H. artemis sp. n., H. athena sp. n., H. attraholucus sp. n., H. aubreyae sp. n., H. austini sp. n., H. azofeifai sp. n., H. bacchus sp. n., H. barbalhoae sp. n., H. bennetti sp. n., H. bicolor sp. n., H. boharti sp. n., H. borucas sp. n., H. braeti sp. n., H. brethesi sp. n., H. breviarius sp. n., H. brevicornus sp. n., H. bribri sp. n., H. brullei sp. n., H. bruesi sp. n., H. cabecares sp. n., H. cacaoensis sp. n., H. cachiensis sp. n., H. cameroni sp. n., H. cangrejaensis sp. n., H. careonotaulus sp. n., H. caritus sp. n., H. carolinae sp. n., H. cartagoensis sp. n., H. catiensis sp. n., H. catorce sp. n., H. cero sp. n., H. chaoi sp. n., H. chilamatensis sp. n., H. chocho sp. n., H. chorotegus sp. n., H. chorti sp. n., H. cinco sp. n., H. cocopa sp. n., H. colliletus sp. n., H. colonensis sp. n., H. complanatus sp. n., H. conservatus sp. n., H. cora sp. n., H. corcovado sp. n., H. corrugatus sp. n., H. costaricensis sp. n., H. cressoni sp. n., H. cuatro sp. n., H. curtisi sp. n., H. cushmani sp. n., H. dani sp. n., H. demeter sp. n., H. dianae sp. n., H. diecinueve sp. n., H. dieciocho sp. n., H. dieciseis sp. n., H. diecisiete sp. n., H. diez sp. n., H. doce sp. n., H. dos sp. n., H. dulcus sp. n., H. eberhardi sp. n., H. ektorincon sp. n., H. emilius sp. n., H. empalmensis sp. n., H. enderleini sp. n., H. escazuensis sp. n., H. fahringeri sp. n., H. fischeri sp. n., H. flavidus sp. n., H. flavisoma sp. n., H. flavostigmus sp. n., H. foersteri sp. n., H. fonsecai sp. n., H. fournieri sp. n., H. gahani sp. n., H. garifuna sp. n., H. gauldi sp. n., H. golfodulcensis sp. n., H. gouleti sp. n., H. granulatus sp. n., H. grisselli sp. n., H. guanacastensis sp. n., H. guapilensis sp. n., H. hachaensis sp. n., H. halidayi sp. n., H. hansoni sp. n., H. hansonorum sp. n., H. haplocarinus sp. n., H. hedqvisti sp. n., H. hera sp. n., H. heredius sp. n., H. hespenheidei sp. n., H. holleyae sp. n., H. huddlestoni sp. n., H. huetares sp. n., H. hypermekus sp. n., H. itza sp. n., H. ixcatec sp. n., H. ixil sp. n., H. jabillosensis sp. n., H. jakaltek sp. n., H. janzeni sp. n., H. jennieae sp. n., H. jonmarshi sp. n., H. jupiter sp. n., H. kellieae sp. n., H. kiefferi sp. n., H. kikapu sp. n., H. kulai sp. n., H. kuna sp. n., H. lapierrei sp. n., H. lasalturus sp. n., H. laselvus sp. n., H. leenderti sp. n., H. leioenopus sp. n., H. leiponotaulus sp. n., H. lenca sp. n., H. levis sp. n., H. leviscutum sp. n., H. levitergum sp. n., H. limonensis sp. n., H. longinoi sp. n., H. longisulcus sp. n., H. longius sp. n., H. luteogaster sp. n., H. luteoscutum sp. n., H. luteus sp. n., H. macrocarinus sp. n., H. macrocaudatus sp. n., H. magnus sp. n., H. malaisei sp. n., H. mam sp. n., H. maritzaensis sp. n., H. mars sp. n., H. masneri sp. n., H. masoni sp. n., H. mellosus sp. n., H. menkei sp. n., H. mercury sp. n., H. milleri sp. n., H. miskito sp. n., H. mixtec sp. n., H. monteverde sp. n., H. mopanmaya sp. n., H. muertensis sp. n., H. muesebecki sp. n., H. nahua sp. n., H. neesi sp. n., H. nemestrinus sp. n., H. nephilim sp. n., H. nephus sp. n., H. nigracapitus sp. n., H. nigragonatus sp. n., H. nigricoxus sp. n., H. nixoni

Marsh, Paul M.; Wild, Alexander L.; Whitfield, James B.

2013-01-01

392

lies and genera of plants in our spring flora. It is hoped that know-ing how to identify the spring flora will encourage individuals to  

E-print Network

lies and genera of plants in our spring flora. It is hoped that know- ing how to identify the spring flora will encourage individuals to participate in conservation efforts. METHODS The decision in Stucky's Local Flora classes. STUCKY, J.M. 2 KEYS TO THE FAMILIES AND GENERA OF NATIVE AND NATURALIZED

Krings, Alexander

393

Generation of Large Chromosomal Deletions in Koji Molds Aspergillus oryzae and Aspergillus sojae via a Loop-Out Recombination?  

PubMed Central

We established a technique for efficiently generating large chromosomal deletions in the koji molds Aspergillus oryzae and A. sojae by using a ku70-deficient strain and a bidirectional marker. The approach allowed deletion of 200-kb and 100-kb sections of A. oryzae and A. sojae, respectively. The deleted regions contained putative aflatoxin biosynthetic gene clusters. The large genomic deletions generated by a loop-out deletion method (resolution-type recombination) enabled us to construct multiple deletions in the koji molds by marker recycling. No additional sequence remained in the resultant deletion strains, a feature of considerable value for breeding of food-grade microorganisms. Frequencies of chromosomal deletions tended to decrease in proportion to the length of the deletion range. Deletion efficiency was also affected by the location of the deleted region. Further, comparative genome hybridization analysis showed that no unintended deletion or chromosomal rearrangement occurred in the deletion strain. Strains with large deletions that were previously extremely laborious to construct in the wild-type ku70+ strain due to the low frequency of homologous recombination were efficiently obtained from ?ku70 strains in this study. The technique described here may be broadly applicable for the genomic engineering and molecular breeding of filamentous fungi. PMID:18952883

Takahashi, Tadashi; Jin, Feng Jie; Sunagawa, Misao; Machida, Masayuki; Koyama, Yasuji

2008-01-01

394

Field efficacy of a mixture of atoxigenic Aspergillus flavus Link: Fr vegetative compatibility groups in preventing aflatoxin contamination  

E-print Network

Field efficacy of a mixture of atoxigenic Aspergillus flavus Link: Fr vegetative compatibility of Arizona, Tucson 85721, USA h i g h l i g h t s A mixture of 4 atoxigenic strains of Aspergillus flavus. Application of strain mixture in maize fields did not increase moldiness of grain. Preharvest application

Cotty, Peter J.

395

Misidentification of Aspergillus nomius and Aspergillus tamarii as Aspergillus flavus: Characterization by Internal Transcribed Spacer, ?-Tubulin, and Calmodulin Gene Sequencing, Metabolic Fingerprinting, and Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption Ionization-Time of Flight Mass Spectrometry  

PubMed Central

Aspergillus nomius and Aspergillus tamarii are Aspergillus species that phenotypically resemble Aspergillus flavus. In the last decade, a number of case reports have identified A. nomius and A. tamarii as causes of human infections. In this study, using an internal transcribed spacer, ?-tubulin, and calmodulin gene sequencing, only 8 of 11 clinical isolates reported as A. flavus in our clinical microbiology laboratory by phenotypic methods were identified as A. flavus. The other three isolates were A. nomius (n = 2) or A. tamarii (n = 1). The results corresponded with those of metabolic fingerprinting, in which the A. flavus, A. nomius, and A. tamarii strains were separated into three clusters based on ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC MS) analysis. The first two patients with A. nomius infections had invasive aspergillosis and chronic cavitary and fibrosing pulmonary and pleural aspergillosis, respectively, whereas the third patient had A. tamarii colonization of the airway. Identification of the 11 clinical isolates and three reference strains by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization–time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) showed that only six of the nine strains of A. flavus were identified correctly. None of the strains of A. nomius and A. tamarii was correctly identified. ?-Tubulin or the calmodulin gene should be the gene target of choice for identifying A. flavus, A. nomius, and A. tamarii. To improve the usefulness of MALDI-TOF MS, the number of strains for each species in MALDI-TOF MS databases should be expanded to cover intraspecies variability. PMID:24452174

Tam, Emily W. T.; Chen, Jonathan H. K.; Lau, Eunice C. L.; Ngan, Antonio H. Y.; Fung, Kitty S. C.; Lee, Kim-Chung; Lam, Ching-Wan; Yuen, Kwok-Yung

2014-01-01

396

a Comparitive Study Using Geometric and Vertical Profile Features Derived from Airborne LIDAR for Classifying Tree Genera  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present a comparative study between two different approaches for tree genera classification using descriptors derived from tree geometry and those derived from the vertical profile analysis of LiDAR point data. The different methods provide two perspectives for processing LiDAR point clouds for tree genera identification. The geometric perspective analyzes individual tree crowns in relation to valuable information related to characteristics of clusters and line segments derived within crowns and overall tree shapes to highlight the spatial distribution of LiDAR points within the crown. Conversely, analyzing vertical profiles retrieves information about the point distributions with respect to height percentiles; this perspective emphasizes of the importance that point distributions at specific heights express, accommodating for the decreased point density with respect to depth of canopy penetration by LiDAR pulses. The targeted species include white birch, maple, oak, poplar, white pine and jack pine at a study site northeast of Sault Ste. Marie, Ontario, Canada.

Ko, C.; Sohn, G.; Remmel, T. K.

2012-07-01

397

Seasonal water stress tolerance and habitat associations within four neotropical tree genera.  

PubMed

We investigated the relationship between habitat association and physiological performance in four congeneric species pairs exhibiting contrasting distributions between seasonally flooded and terra firme habitats in lowland tropical rain forests of French Guiana, including Virola and Iryanthera (Myristicaceae), Symphonia (Clusiaceae), and Eperua (Caesalpiniaceae). We analyzed 10-year data sets of mapped and measured saplings (stems >150 cm in height and <10 cm diameter at breast height [dbh]) and trees (stems > or =10 cm dbh) across 37.5 ha of permanent plots covering a 300-ha zone, within which seasonally flooded areas (where the water table never descends below 1 m) have been mapped. Additionally, we tested the response of growth, survival, and leaf functional traits of these species to drought and flood stress in a controlled experiment. We tested for habitat preference using a modification of the torus translation method. Strong contrasting associations of the species pairs of Iryanthera, Virola, and Symphonia were observed at the sapling stage, and these associations strengthened for the tree stage. Neither species of Eperua was significantly associated with flooded habitats at the sapling stage, but E. falcata was significantly and positively associated with flooded forests at the tree stage, and trees of E. grandiflora were found almost exclusively in nonflooded habitats. Differential performance provided limited explanatory support for the observed habitat associations, with only congeners of Iryanthera exhibiting divergent sapling survival and tree growth. Seedlings of species associated with flooded forest tended to have higher photosynthetic capacity than their congeners at field capacity. In addition, they tended to have the largest reductions in leaf gas exchange and growth rate in response to experimental drought stress and the least reductions in response to experimental inundation. The corroboration of habitat association with differences in functional traits and, to a lesser extent, measures of performance provides an explanation for the regional coexistence of these species pairs. We suggest that specialization to seasonally flooded habitats may explain patterns of adaptive radiation in many tropical tree genera and thereby provide a substantial contribution to regional tree diversity. PMID:17479765

Baraloto, Christopher; Morneau, François; Bonal, Damien; Blanc, Lilian; Ferry, Bruno

2007-02-01

398

Monilochaetes and allied genera of the Glomerellales, and a reconsideration of families in the Microascales  

PubMed Central

We examined the phylogenetic relationships of two species that mimic Chaetosphaeria in teleomorph and anamorph morphologies, Chaetosphaeria tulasneorum with a Cylindrotrichum anamorph and Australiasca queenslandica with a Dischloridium anamorph. Four data sets were analysed: a) the internal transcribed spacer region including ITS1, 5.8S rDNA and ITS2 (ITS), b) nc28S (ncLSU) rDNA, c) nc18S (ncSSU) rDNA, and d) a combined data set of ncLSU-ncSSU-RPB2 (ribosomal polymerase B2). The traditional placement of Ch. tulasneorum in the Microascales based on ncLSU sequences is unsupported and Australiasca does not belong to the Chaetosphaeriaceae. Both holomorph species are nested within the Glomerellales. A new genus, Reticulascus, is introduced for Ch. tulasneorum with associated Cylindrotrichum anamorph; another species of Reticulascus and its anamorph in Cylindrotrichum are described as new. The taxonomic structure of the Glomerellales is clarified and the name is validly published. As delimited here, it includes three families, the Glomerellaceae and the newly described Australiascaceae and Reticulascaceae. Based on ITS and ncLSU rDNA sequence analyses, we confirm the synonymy of the anamorph genera Dischloridium with Monilochaetes. Consequently Dischloridium laeënse, type species of the genus, and three related species are transferred to the older genus Monilochaetes. The teleomorph of D. laeënse is described in Australiasca as a new species. The Plectosphaerellaceae, to which the anamorph genus Stachylidium is added, is basal to the Glomerellales in the three-gene phylogeny. Stilbella annulata also belongs to this family and is newly combined in Acrostalagmus. Phylogenetic analyses based on ncLSU, ncSSU, and combined ncLSU-ncSSU-RPB2 sequences clarify family relationships within the Microascales. The family Ceratocystidaceae is validated as a strongly supported monophyletic group consisting of Ceratocystis, Cornuvesica, Thielaviopsis, and the type species of Ambrosiella. The new family Gondwanamycetaceae, a strongly supported sister clade to the Ceratocystidaceae, is introduced for the teleomorph genus Gondwanamyces and its Custingophora anamorphs. Four families are accepted in the Microascales, namely the Ceratocystidaceae, Gondwanamycetaceae, Halosphaeriaceae, and Microascaceae. Because of a suggested affinity of a Faurelina indica isolate to the Microascales, the phylogenetic position of the Chadefaudiellaceae is reevaluated. Based on the results from a separate ncLSU analysis of the Dothideomycetes, Faurelina is excluded from the Microascales and placed in the Pleosporales. PMID:21523193

Reblova, M.; Gams, W.; Seifert, K.A.

2011-01-01

399

Palynological contribution to the systematics of Rindera and the allied genera Paracaryum and Solenanthus (Boraginaceae-Cynoglosseae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bigazzi, M., Nardi, E. & Selvi, F.: Palynological contribution to the systematics ofRindera and the al- lied genera Paracaryum and Solenanthus (Boraginaceae-Cynoglosseae). - Willdenowia 36 (Special Issue): 37-46. - ISSN 0511-9618; © 2006 BGBM Berlin-Dahlem. doi:10.3372\\/wi.36.36103 (available via http:\\/\\/dx.doi.org\\/) The pollen of thirteen species of Rindera, ten of Solenanthus and eight of Paracaryum was examined by light and scanning electron

MASSIMO BIGAZZI; ENIO NARDI; FEDERICO SELVI

2006-01-01

400

A molecular method for identification of the morphologically plastic invasive algal genera Eucheuma and Kappaphycus (Rhodophyta, Gigartinales) in Hawaii  

Microsoft Academic Search

A paucity of diagnostic morphological characters for identification and high morphological plasticity within the genera Eucheuma and Kappaphycus has led to confusion about the distributions and spread of three introduced eucheumoid species in Hawaii. Entities previously\\u000a identified as E. denticulatum, K. alvarezii, and K. striatum have had profound negative effects on Oahu’s coral reef ecosystems. The use of molecular tools

Kimberly Y. Conklin; Akira Kurihara; Alison R. Sherwood

2009-01-01

401

Eosinophil Deficiency Compromises Lung Defense against Aspergillus fumigatus  

PubMed Central

Exposure to the mold Aspergillus fumigatus may result in allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis, chronic necrotizing pulmonary aspergillosis, or invasive aspergillosis (IA), depending on the host's immune status. Neutrophil deficiency is the predominant risk factor for the development of IA, the most life-threatening condition associated with A. fumigatus exposure. Here we demonstrate that in addition to neutrophils, eosinophils are an important contributor to the clearance of A. fumigatus from the lung. Acute A. fumigatus challenge in normal mice induced the recruitment of CD11b+ Siglec F+ Ly-6Glo Ly-6Cneg CCR3+ eosinophils to the lungs, which was accompanied by an increase in lung Epx (eosinophil peroxidase) mRNA levels. Mice deficient in the transcription factor dblGATA1, which exhibit a selective deficiency in eosinophils, demonstrated impaired A. fumigatus clearance and evidence of germinating organisms in the lung. Higher burden correlated with lower mRNA expression of Epx (eosinophil peroxidase) and Prg2 (major basic protein) as well as lower interleukin 1? (IL-1?), IL-6, IL-17A, granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF), granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF), and CXCL1 levels. However, examination of lung inflammatory cell populations failed to demonstrate defects in monocyte/macrophage, dendritic cell, or neutrophil recruitment in dblGATA1-deficient mice, suggesting that the absence of eosinophils in dlbGATA1-deficient mice was the sole cause of impaired lung clearance. We show that eosinophils generated from bone marrow have potent killing activity against A. fumigtaus in vitro, which does not require cell contact and can be recapitulated by eosinophil whole-cell lysates. Collectively, our data support a role for eosinophils in the lung response after A. fumigatus exposure. PMID:24379296

Lilly, Lauren M.; Scopel, Michaella; Nelson, Michael P.; Burg, Ashley R.; Dunaway, Chad W.

2014-01-01

402

Upstream and downstream processing of lovastatin by Aspergillus terreus.  

PubMed

The present study describes the enhanced production and purification of lovastatin by Aspergillus terreus in submerged batch fermentation. The enhancement of lovastatin production from A. terreus was attempted by random mutagenesis using ultraviolet radiations and nitrous acid. UV mutants exhibited increased efficiency for lovastatin production as compared with nitrous acid mutants. Among all the mutants developed, A. terreus UV-4 was found to be the hyper producer of lovastatin. This mutant gave 3.5-fold higher lovastatin production than the wild culture of A. terreus NRRL 265. Various cultural conditions were also optimized for hyper-producing mutant strain. 5 % glucose as carbon source, 1.5 % corn steep liquor as nitrogen source, initial pH value of 6, 120 h of incubation period, and 28 °C of incubation temperature were found as best parameters for higher lovastatin production in shake flasks. Production of lovastatin by wild and mutant strains of A. terreus was also scaled up to laboratory scale fermentor. The fermentation process was conducted at 28 °C, 200 rpm agitation, and 1vvm air flow rate without pH control. After the optimization of cultural conditions in 250 ml Erlenmeyer flasks and scaling up to laboratory scale fermentor, the mutant A. terreus UV-4 gave eightfold higher lovastatin production (3249.95 ?g/ml) than its production by wild strain in shake flasks. Purification of lovastatin was carried out by solvent extraction method which yielded 977.1 mg/l of lovastatin with 98.99 % chromatographic purity and 26.76 % recovery. The crystal structure of lovastatin was determined using X-ray diffraction analysis which is first ever reported. PMID:24671671

Mukhtar, Hamid; Ijaz, Syeda Sidra; Ikram-ul-Haq

2014-09-01

403

Spatial Differentiation in the Vegetative Mycelium of Aspergillus niger? †  

PubMed Central

Fungal mycelia are exposed to heterogenic substrates. The substrate in the central part of the colony has been (partly) degraded, whereas it is still unexplored at the periphery of the mycelium. We here assessed whether substrate heterogeneity is a main determinant of spatial gene expression in colonies of Aspergillus niger. This question was addressed by analyzing whole-genome gene expression in five concentric zones of 7-day-old maltose- and xylose-grown colonies. Expression profiles at the periphery and the center were clearly different. More than 25% of the active genes showed twofold differences in expression between the inner and outermost zones of the colony. Moreover, 9% of the genes were expressed in only one of the five concentric zones, showing that a considerable part of the genome is active in a restricted part of the colony only. Statistical analysis of expression profiles of colonies that had either been or not been transferred to fresh xylose-containing medium showed that differential expression in a colony is due to the heterogeneity of the medium (e.g., genes involved in secretion, genes encoding proteases, and genes involved in xylose metabolism) as well as to medium-independent mechanisms (e.g., genes involved in nitrate metabolism and genes involved in cell wall synthesis and modification). Thus, we conclude that the mycelia of 7-day-old colonies of A. niger are highly differentiated. This conclusion is also indicated by the fact that distinct zones of the colony grow and secrete proteins, even after transfer to fresh medium. PMID:17951513

Levin, Ana M.; de Vries, Ronald P.; Conesa, Ana; de Bekker, Charissa; Talon, Manuel; Menke, Hildegard H.; van Peij, Noel N. M. E.; Wösten, Han A. B.

2007-01-01

404

Microbial strain improvement for enhanced polygalacturonase production by Aspergillus sojae.  

PubMed

Strain improvement is a powerful tool in commercial development of microbial fermentation processes. Strains of Aspergillus sojae which were previously identified as polygalacturonase producers were subjected to the cost-effective mutagenesis and selection method, the so-called random screening. Physical (ultraviolet irradiation at 254 nm) and chemical mutagens (N-methyl-N'-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine) were used in the development and implementation of a classical mutation and selection strategy for the improved production of pectic acid-degrading enzymes. Three mutation cycles of both mutagenic treatments and also the combination of them were performed to generate mutants descending from A. sojae ATCC 20235 and mutants of A. sojae CBS 100928. Pectinolytic enzyme production of the mutants was compared to their wild types in submerged and solid-state fermentation. Comparing both strains, higher pectinase activity was obtained by A. sojae ATCC 20235 and mutants thereof. The highest polygalacturonase activity (1,087.2?±?151.9 U/g) in solid-state culture was obtained by mutant M3, which was 1.7 times increased in comparison to the wild strain, A. sojae ATCC 20235. Additional, further mutation of mutant M3 for two more cycles of treatment by UV irradiation generated mutant DH56 with the highest polygalacturonase activity (98.8?±?8.7 U/mL) in submerged culture. This corresponded to 2.4-fold enhanced polygalacturonase production in comparison to the wild strain. The results of this study indicated the development of a classical mutation and selection strategy as a promising tool to improve pectinolytic enzyme production by both fungal strains. PMID:24695827

Heerd, Doreen; Tari, Canan; Fernández-Lahore, Marcelo

2014-09-01

405

Eisosome Organization in the Filamentous AscomyceteAspergillus nidulans?†  

PubMed Central

Eisosomes are subcortical organelles implicated in endocytosis and have hitherto been described only in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. They comprise two homologue proteins, Pil1 and Lsp1, which colocalize with the transmembrane protein Sur7. These proteins are universally conserved in the ascomycetes. We identify in Aspergillus nidulans (and in all members of the subphylum Pezizomycotina) two homologues of Pil1/Lsp1, PilA and PilB, originating from a duplication independent from that extant in the subphylum Saccharomycotina. In the aspergilli there are several Sur7-like proteins in each species, including one strict Sur7 orthologue (SurG in A. nidulans). In A. nidulans conidiospores, but not in hyphae, the three proteins colocalize at the cell cortex and form tightly packed punctate structures that appear different from the clearly distinct eisosome patches observed in S. cerevisiae. These structures are assembled late during the maturation of conidia. In mycelia, punctate structures are present, but they are composed only of PilA, while PilB is diffused in the cytoplasm and SurG is located in vacuoles and endosomes. Deletion of each of the genes does not lead to any obvious growth phenotype, except for moderate resistance to itraconazole. We could not find any obvious association between mycelial (PilA) eisosome-like structures and endocytosis. PilA and SurG are necessary for conidial eisosome organization in ways that differ from those for their S. cerevisiae homologues. These data illustrate that conservation of eisosomal proteins within the ascomycetes is accompanied by a striking functional divergence. PMID:20693301

Vangelatos, Ioannis; Roumelioti, Katerina; Gournas, Christos; Suarez, Teresa; Scazzocchio, Claudio; Sophianopoulou, Vicky

2010-01-01

406

A new look at age and area: the geographic and environmental expansion of genera during the Ordovician Radiation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Although available paleobiological data indicate that the geographic ranges of marine species are maintained throughout their entire observable durations, other evidence suggests, by contrast, that the ranges of higher taxa expand as they age, perhaps in association with increased species richness. Here, I utilize a database of Ordovician genus occurrences collected from the literature for several paleocontinents to demonstrate that a significant aging of the global biota during the Ordovician Radiation was accompanied by a geographic and environmental expansion of genus ranges. The proportion of genera occurring in two or more paleocontinents in the database, and two or more environmental zones within a six-zone onshore-offshore framework, increased significantly in the Caradocian and Ashgillian. Moreover, widespread genera tended to be significantly older than their endemic counterparts, suggesting a direct link between their ages and their environmental and geographic extents. Expansion in association with aging was corroborated further by demonstrating this pattern directly among genera that ranged from the Tremadocian through the Ashgillian. Taken together, these results are significant not only for what they reveal about the kinetics of a major, global-scale diversification, but also for what they suggest about the interpretation of relationships between diversity trends at the alpha (within-community) and beta (between-community) levels.

Miller, A. I.

1997-01-01

407

A new look at age and area: the geographic and environmental expansion of genera during the Ordovician Radiation.  

PubMed

Although available paleobiological data indicate that the geographic ranges of marine species are maintained throughout their entire observable durations, other evidence suggests, by contrast, that the ranges of higher taxa expand as they age, perhaps in association with increased species richness. Here, I utilize a database of Ordovician genus occurrences collected from the literature for several paleocontinents to demonstrate that a significant aging of the global biota during the Ordovician Radiation was accompanied by a geographic and environmental expansion of genus ranges. The proportion of genera occurring in two or more paleocontinents in the database, and two or more environmental zones within a six-zone onshore-offshore framework, increased significantly in the Caradocian and Ashgillian. Moreover, widespread genera tended to be significantly older than their endemic counterparts, suggesting a direct link between their ages and their environmental and geographic extents. Expansion in association with aging was corroborated further by demonstrating this pattern directly among genera that ranged from the Tremadocian through the Ashgillian. Taken together, these results are significant not only for what they reveal about the kinetics of a major, global-scale diversification, but also for what they suggest about the interpretation of relationships between diversity trends at the alpha (within-community) and beta (between-community) levels. PMID:11541189

Miller, A I

1997-01-01

408

A common origin for woody Sonchus and five related genera in the Macaronesian islands: molecular evidence for extensive radiation.  

PubMed Central

Woody Sonchus and five related genera (Babcockia, Taeckholmia, Sventenia, Lactucosonchus, and Prenanthes) of the Macaronesian islands have been regarded as an outstanding example of adaptive radiation in angiosperms. Internal transcribed spacer region of the nuclear rDNA (ITS) sequences were used to demonstrate that, despite the extensive morphological and ecological diversity of the plants, the entire alliance in insular Macaronesia has a common origin. The sequence data place Lactucosonchus as sister group to the remainder of the alliance and also indicate that four related genera are in turn sister groups to subg. Dendrosonchus and Taeckholmia. This implies that the woody members of Sonchus were derived from an ancestor similar to allied genera now present on the Canary Islands. It is also evident that the alliance probably occurred in the Canary Islands during the late Miocene or early Pliocene. A rapid radiation of major lineages in the alliance is consistent with an unresolved polytomy near the base and low ITS sequence divergence. Increase of woodiness is concordant with other insular endemics and refutes the relictural nature of woody Sonchus in the Macaronesian islands. PMID:8755546

Kim, S C; Crawford, D J; Francisco-Ortega, J; Santos-Guerra, A

1996-01-01

409

Locational Diversity of Alpha Satellite DNA and Intergeneric Hybridization Aspects in the Nomascus and Hylobates Genera of Small Apes  

PubMed Central

Recently, we discovered that alpha satellite DNA has unique and genus-specific localizations on the chromosomes of small apes. This study describes the details of alpha satellite localization in the genera Nomascus and Hylobates and explores their usefulness in distinguishing parental genome sets in hybrids between these genera. Fluorescence in situ hybridization was used to establish diagnostic criteria of alpha satellite DNA markers in discriminating small ape genomes. In particular we established the genus specificity of alpha satellite distribution in three species of light-cheeked gibbons (Nomascus leucogenys, N. siki, and N. gabriellae) in comparison to that of Hylobates lar. Then we determined the localization of alpha satellite DNA in a hybrid individual which resulted from a cross between these two genera. In Nomascus the alpha satellite DNA blocks were located at the centromere, telomere, and four interstitial regions. In Hylobates detectable amounts of alpha satellite DNA were seen only at centromeric regions. The differences in alpha satellite DNA locations between Nomascus and Hylobates allowed us to easily distinguish the parental chromosomal sets in the genome of intergeneric hybrid individuals found in Thai and Japanese zoos. Our study illustrates how molecular cytogenetic markers can serve as diagnostic tools to identify the origin of individuals. These molecular tools can aid zoos, captive breeding programs and conservation efforts in managing small apes species. Discovering more information on alpha satellite distribution is also an opportunity to examine phylogenetic and evolutionary questions that are still controversial in small apes. PMID:25290445

Baicharoen, Sudarath; Miyabe-Nishiwaki, Takako; Arsaithamkul, Visit; Hirai, Yuriko; Duangsa-ard, Kwanruen; Siriaroonrat, Boripat; Domae, Hiroshi; Srikulnath, Kornsorn; Koga, Akihiko; Hirai, Hirohisa

2014-01-01

410

The subtribes and genera of the tribe Listroderini (Coleoptera, Curculionidae, Cyclominae): Phylogenetic analysis with systematic and biogeographical accounts  

PubMed Central

Abstract The phylogenetic relationships of the genera of Listroderini LeConte, 1876 are analyzed based on 58 morphological characters. The genera are grouped in four clades, which are given subtribal status: Macrostyphlina new subtribe (Adioristidius, Amathynetoides, Andesianellus, Macrostyphlus, Nacodius and Puranius), Palaechthina Brinck, 1948 (Anorthorhinus, Gunodes, Haversiella, Inaccodes, Listronotus, Neopachytychius, Palaechthus, Palaechtodes, Steriphus and Tristanodes), Falklandiina new subtribe (Falklandiellus, Falklandiopsis, Falklandius, Gromilus, Lanteriella, Liparogetus, Nestrius and Telurus), and Listroderina (Acroriellus, Acrorius, Acrostomus, Antarctobius, Germainiellus, Hyperoides, Lamiarhinus, Listroderes, Methypora, Philippius, Rupanius and Trachodema). The subtribes are characterized and keys to identify them and their genera are provided. Listroderini have four main biogeographical patterns: Andean (Macrostyphlina), Andean-New Zealand (Falklandiina), Andean-Neotropical-Australian (Listroderina) and Andean-Neotropical-Australian-New Zealand-Nearctic-Tristan da Cunha-Gough islands (Palaechthina). Geographical paralogy, particularly evident in the Subantarctic subregion of the Andean region, suggests that Listroderini are an ancient Gondwanic group, in which several extinction events might have obscured relationships among the areas. PMID:23794805

Morrone, Juan J.

2013-01-01

411

Production of gibberellic acid by Aspergillus niger using some food industry wastes.  

PubMed

The production of gibberellic acid by Aspergillus niger and the possibility of utilizing food industry waste and residues as the sources of carbon in media were investigated. Media prepared from molasses, vinasse, whey, sugar-beet waste and fruit pomace were used and GA3 yields were found in concentrations 310, 273.14, 120, 73, 118.13 mg/l in such media, respectively. It was observed that food industry wastes can be used as cheap sources of carbon for gibberellic acid production by Aspergillus niger. PMID:9127484

Cihangir, N; Aksöz, N

1996-01-01

412

Scaffold hopping of sampangine: discovery of potent antifungal lead compound against Aspergillus fumigatus and Cryptococcus neoformans.  

PubMed

Discovery of novel antifungal agents against Aspergillus fumigatus and Cryptococcus neoformans remains a significant challenge in current antifungal therapy. Herein the antifungal natural product sampangine was used as the lead compound for novel antifungal drug discovery. A series of D-ring scaffold hopping derivatives were designed and synthesized to improve antifungal activity and water solubility. Among them, the thiophene derivative S2 showed broad-spectrum antifungal activity, particularly for Aspergillus fumigatus and Cryptococcus neoformans. Moreover, compound S2 also revealed better water solubility than sampangine, which represents a promising antifungal lead compound for further structural optimization. PMID:25115626

Jiang, Zhigan; Liu, Na; Dong, Guoqiang; Jiang, Yan; Liu, Yang; He, Xiaomeng; Huang, Yahui; He, Shipeng; Chen, Wei; Li, Zhengang; Yao, Jianzhong; Miao, Zhenyuan; Zhang, Wannian; Sheng, Chunquan

2014-09-01

413

Microfungi in cultivated fields in Eski?ehir provience (Turkey).  

PubMed

The soil microfungi flora was investigated in four locations of Eski?ehir (Turkey). 56 soil samples were seasonaly collected from 14 stations in the areas of Karacahöyük, Bahçecik, OGU I, and OGU II. A total of 110 species belonging to 32 genera were encountered including Absidia, Acremonium, Alternaria, Aspergillus, Beauveria, Botryoderma, Chaetomium, Chrysosporium, Cladosporium, Eupenicillium, Eurotium, Fusarium, Geotrichum, Gliocladium, Gonytrichum, Metarrhizium, Mucor, Myrothecium, Paecilomyces, Penicillium, Phoma, Plectosphaerella, Rhizoctania, Rhizopus, Scopulariopsis, Septonema, Stachybotrys, Trichocladium, Trichoderma, Ulocladium, Verticillium, and Wardomyces. Twenty five species were more frequent (all locations) while twenty seven species were rare (only one sample). Mainly, Acremonium kiliense, Aspergillus ochraceus, A. terricola var. americanus, A. versicolor, Cladosporium cladosporioides, Fusarium oxysporum, F. solani, Gliocladium roseum, Penicillium chrysogenum, P. corylophum, P. expansum, P. griseofulvum, P. implicatum, P. restrictum, and Stachybotrys chartarum were the most common and abundant microfungi in all locations. Five species Aspergillus subsessilis, A. terreus var. africanus, Eupenicillium egyptiacum, Paecilomyces ramosus, and Penicillium novae-zeelandiae are likely to be newly recorded for Turkey. The microfungi number in Eski?ehir soils was between 25,000-234,000 CFU/g (mean value at 126,375 CFU/g). PMID:16028200

Demirel, Rasime; Ilhan, Semra; Asan, Ahmet; Kinaci, Engin; Oner, Setenay

2005-01-01

414

Antifungal effects of citronella oil against Aspergillus niger ATCC 16404.  

PubMed

Essential oils are aromatic oily liquids obtained from some aromatic plant materials. Certain essential oils such as citronella oil contain antifungal activity, but the antifungal effect is still unknown. In this study, we explored the antifungal effect of citronella oil with Aspergillus niger ATCC 16404. The antifungal activity of citronella oil on conidia of A. niger was determined by poisoned food technique, broth dilution method, and disc volatility method. Experimental results indicated that the citronella oil has strong antifungal activity: 0.125 (v/v) and 0.25 % (v/v) citronella oil inhibited the growth of 5?×?10? spore/ml conidia separately for 7 and 28 days while 0.5 % (v/v) citronella oil could completely kill the conidia of 5?×?10? spore/ml. Moreover, the fungicidal kinetic curves revealed that more than 90 % conidia (initial concentration is 5?×?10? spore/ml) were killed in all the treatments with 0.125 to 2 % citronella oil after 24 h. Furthermore, with increase of citronella oil concentration and treatment time, the antifungal activity was increased correspondingly. The 0.5 % (v/v) concentration of citronella oil was a threshold to kill the conidia thoroughly. The surviving conidia treated with 0.5 to 2 % citronella oil decreased by an order of magnitude every day, and no fungus survived after 10 days. With light microscope, scanning electron microscope, and transmission electron microscope, we found that citronella oil could lead to irreversible alteration of the hyphae and conidia. Based on our observation, we hypothesized that the citronella oil destroyed the cell wall of the A. niger hyphae, passed through the cell membrane, penetrated into the cytoplasm, and acted on the main organelles. Subsequently, the hyphae was collapsed and squashed due to large cytoplasm loss, and the organelles were severely destroyed. Similarly, citronella oil could lead to the rupture of hard cell wall and then act on the sporoplasm to kill the conidia. Nevertheless, the citronella oil provides a potential of being a safe and environmentally friendly fungicide in the future. PMID:23081773

Li, Wen-Ru; Shi, Qing-Shan; Ouyang, You-Sheng; Chen, Yi-Ben; Duan, Shun-Shan

2013-08-01

415

The biochemistry of citric acid accumulation by Aspergillus niger.  

PubMed

Fungi, in particular Aspergilli, are well known for their potential to overproduce a variety of organic acids. These microorganisms have an intrinsic ability to accumulate these substances and it is generally believed that this provides the fungi with an ecological advantage, since they grow rather well at pH 3 to 5, while some species even tolerate pH values as low as 1.5. Organic acid production can be stimulated and in a number of cases conditions have been found that result in almost quantitative conversion of carbon substrate into acid. This is exploited in large-scale production of a number of organic acids like citric-, gluconic- and itaconic acid. Both in production volume as well as in knowledge available, citrate is by far the major organic acid. Citric acid (2-hydroxy-propane-1,2,3-tricarboxylic acid) is a true bulk product with an estimated global production of over 900 thousand tons in the year 2000. Till the beginning of the 20th century, it was exclusively extracted from lemons. Since the global market was dominated by an Italian cartel, other means of production were sought. Chemical synthesis was possible, but not suitable due to expensive raw materials and a complicated process with low yield. The discovery of citrate accumulation by Aspergillus niger led to a rapid development of a fermentation process, which only a decade later accounted for a large part of the global production. The application of citric acid is based on three of its properties: (1) acidity and buffer capacity, (2) taste and flavour, and (3) chelation of metal ions. Because of its three acid groups with pKa values of 3.1, 4.7 and 6.4, citrate is able to produce a very low pH in solution, but is also useful as a buffer over a broad range of pH values (2 to 7). Citric acid has a pleasant acid taste which leaves little aftertaste. It sometimes enhances flavour, but is also able to mask sweetness, such as the aspartame taste in diet beverages. Chelation of metal ions is a very important property that has led to applications such as antioxidant and preservative. Moreover, it is a "natural" substance and fully biodegradable. PMID:11791342

Karaffa, L; Sándor, E; Fekete, E; Szentirmai, A

2001-01-01

416

Raw starch conversion by Saccharomyces cerevisiae expressing Aspergillus tubingensis amylases  

PubMed Central

Background Starch is one of the most abundant organic polysaccharides available for the production of bio-ethanol as an alternative transport fuel. Cost-effective utilisation of starch requires consolidated bioprocessing (CBP) where a single microorganism can produce the enzymes required for hydrolysis of starch, and also convert the glucose monomers to ethanol. Results The Aspergillus tubingensis T8.4 ?-amylase (amyA) and glucoamylase (glaA) genes were cloned and expressed in the laboratory strain Saccharomyces cerevisiae Y294 and the semi-industrial strain, S. cerevisiae Mnu?1. The recombinant AmyA and GlaA displayed protein sizes of 110–150 kDa and 90 kDa, respectively, suggesting significant glycosylation in S. cerevisiae. The Mnu?1[AmyA-GlaA] and Y294[AmyA-GlaA] strains were able to utilise 20 g l-1 raw corn starch as sole carbohydrate source, with ethanol titers of 9.03 and 6.67 g l-1 (0.038 and 0.028 g l-1 h-1), respectively, after 10 days. With a substrate load of 200 g l-1 raw corn starch, Mnu?1[AmyA-GlaA] yielded 70.07 g l-1 ethanol (0.58 g l-1 h-1) after 120 h of fermentation, whereas Y294[AmyA-GlaA] was less efficient at 43.33 g l-1 ethanol (0.36 g l-1 h-1). Conclusions In a semi-industrial amylolytic S. cerevisiae strain expressing the A. tubingensis ?-amylase and glucoamylase genes, 200 g l-1 raw starch was completely hydrolysed (saccharified) in 120 hours with 74% converted to released sugars plus fermentation products and the remainder presumably to biomass. The single-step conversion of raw starch represents significant progress towards the realisation of CBP without the need for any heat pretreatment. Furthermore, the amylases were produced and secreted by the host strain, thus circumventing the need for exogenous amylases. PMID:24286270

2013-01-01

417

Monoclonal Antibodies to Hyphal Exoantigens Derived from the Opportunistic Pathogen Aspergillus terreus  

EPA Science Inventory

Aspergillus terreus has been difficult to identify in cases of aspergillosis, and clinical identification has been restricted to the broad identification of aspergillosis lesions in affected organs or the detection of fungal carbohydrates. As a result, there is a clinical need to...

418

Optimal Susceptibility Testing Conditions for Detection of Azole Resistance in Aspergillus spp.: NCCLS Collaborative Evaluation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The most important role of susceptibility testing is to identify potentially resistant isolates for the agent being evaluated. Standard testing guidelines recently have been proposed for antifungal susceptibility testing of filamentous fungi (molds). This collaborative (eight centers) study evaluated further newly proposed guidelines (NCCLS, proposed standard M38-P, 1998) and other testing conditions for antifungal susceptibility testing of Aspergillus spp. to

A. Espinel-Ingroff; M. Bartlett; V. Chaturvedi; M. Ghannoum; K. C. Hazen; M. A. Pfaller; M. Rinaldi; T. J. Walsh

2001-01-01

419

Emergence of azole resistance in Aspergillus fumigatus and spread of a single resistance mechanism  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Resistance to triazoles was recently reported in Aspergillus fumigatus isolates cultured from patients with invasive aspergillosis. The prevalence of azole resistance in A. fumigatus is unknown. We investigated the prevalence and spread of azole resistance using our culture collection that contained A. fumigatus isolates collected between 1994 and 2007. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We investigated the prevalence of itraconazole (ITZ)

Eveline Snelders; Judith Kuijpers; Anthonius J. M. M. Rijs; János Varga; Robert A. Samson; Emilia Mellado; A. Rogier T. Donders; Willem J. G. Melchers; Paul E. Verweij

2008-01-01

420

An Antibacterial Substance from Aspergillus clavatus and Penicillium claviforme and its Probable Identity with Patulin  

Microsoft Academic Search

B. P. WIESNER, in a communication in NATURE1 in which he acknowledges the help and advice of Prof. H. Raistrick, Mr. George Smith and Dr. Harry Coke, reported the preparation from Aspergillus clavatus metabolism solutions of a concentrate possessing relatively high antibacterial activity. Similar active non-crystalline concentrates were obtained from the same fungus by S. A. Waksman et al.2 and

F. Bergel; A. L. Morrison; A. R. Moss; R. Klein; H. Rinderknecht; J. L. Ward

1943-01-01

421

Aspergillus flavus genomics as a tool for studying the mechanism of aflatoxin formation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aspergillus flavus is a weak pathogen that infects plants, animals and humans. When it infects agricultural crops, however, it produces one of the most potent carcinogens known (aflatoxins). To devise strategies to control aflatoxin contamination of pre-harvest agricultural crops and post-harvest grains during storage, we launched the A. flavus genomics program. The major objective of this program is the identification

Jiujiang Yu; Gary A. Payne; William C. Nierman; Masayuki Machida; Joan W. Bennett; Bruce C. Campbell; Jane F. Robens; Deepak Bhatnagar; Ralph A. Dean; Thomas E. Cleveland

2008-01-01

422

150 PHYTOPATHOLOGY Variation in Competitive Ability Among Isolates of Aspergillus flavus  

E-print Network

competitive ability, sporulation, and aflatoxin reduction on target hosts. Aflatoxins, potent and carcinogenic mycotoxins produced by fungi in Aspergillus section Flavi, are frequent contaminants of food and feed crops, including maize, cotton, peanut, and tree nuts (21). Levels of aflatoxins in food and feed crops

Cotty, Peter J.

423

Cloning and characterization of a type III polyketide synthase from Aspergillus niger  

E-print Network

Cloning and characterization of a type III polyketide synthase from Aspergillus niger Jinglin Li in plant, bacteria, and fungi. Here we report the cloning and characterization of a putative type III PKS-pyrone synthase, and benzalacetone synthase have been cloned and characterized.4­6 They deviate from

Zhao, Huimin

424

Expression of the Aspergillus niger glucose oxidase gene in Penicillium nalgiovense.  

PubMed

The glucose oxidase gene (god) from Aspergillus niger was expressed in Penicillium nalgiovense under control of the latter's homologous transcription signals. The GOD protein was synthesized in an active form, leading to increased glucose oxidase activity. The expression vector was introduced into P. nalgiovense along with a selectable plasmid carrying the dominant amdS marker gene of A. nidulans. PMID:24414658

Geisen, R

1995-05-01

425

Production of aflatoxin by Aspergillus parasiticus NRRL-2999 during growth in the presence of curing salts  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aspergillus parasiticus NRRL-2999 was inoculated into meat mixtures with curing salts and into yeast extractsucrose (YES) and sucrose-ammonium salts (SAS) broth with and without curing salts to determine if the presence of curing salts significantly affected growth and aflatoxin production by the mold. The effect of individual curing salts or curing salt mixtures on growth and toxin elaboration by the

K. R. Meier; E. H. Marth

1977-01-01

426

Gram-scale production of a basidiomycetous laccase in Aspergillus niger.  

PubMed

We report on the expression in Aspergillus niger of a laccase gene we used to produce variants in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Grams of recombinant enzyme can be easily obtained. This highlights the potential of combining this generic laccase sequence to the yeast and fungal expression systems for large-scale productions of variants. PMID:23867099

Mekmouche, Yasmina; Zhou, Simeng; Cusano, Angela M; Record, Eric; Lomascolo, Anne; Robert, Viviane; Simaan, A Jalila; Rousselot-Pailley, Pierre; Ullah, Sana; Chaspoul, Florence; Tron, Thierry

2014-01-01

427

Inhibition of heat resistant molds: Aspergillus fumigatus and Paecilomyces variotii by some plant essential oils  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, the inhibitory properties of some essential oils including citrus (Citrus sinensis L. Osbeck), laurel (Laurus nobilis L.), myrtle (Myrtus communis L.), oregano (Origanum vulgare L.), and savory (Satureja thymbra L.) were investigated against the heat resistant molds Aspergillus fumigatus and Paecilomyces variotii isolated from margarine in a previous study in order to assess the potential for using

Tuncay Gumus; Ahmet Sukru Demirci; Osman Sagdic; Muhammet Arici

2010-01-01

428

Induction of mutation in Aspergillus niger for conversion of cellulose into glucose  

SciTech Connect

Plant wastes are very important part of biomass used and investigated for energy, chemical, and fuel production. Cellulose is the major renewable form of carbohydrate in the world, about 10{sup 11} tons of which is synthesized annually. For general use, it must be hydrolyzed first, either chemically or by cellulases derived from a few specialized microorganisms. Enzymes are acceptable environmentally but expensive to produce. Certainly, induction of mutations and selection of high cellulose microbial strains with significant adaptability to degrade cellulose to glucose is promising solutions. Induction of mutations in other fungi and Aspergillus sp. rather than Aspergillus niger was reported. Aspergillus ustus and Trichoderma harzianum were induced by gamma irradiation indicating mutants that excrete higher cellulose yields, particularly exocellobiohydrolase (Avicelase) than their respective wild types. Mutants from the celluiolytic fungus Penicillium pinophilum were induced by chemical and UV-irradiation. Enhancing the production of endo-1,4-{Beta}-D-glucanase (CMCase) and particularly {Beta}-glucosidase was obtained by gamma irradiation of Altemaria alternate. To overcome the lower activity of {beta}-glucosidase in certain fungi species rather than A. niger, mixed cultures of different species were tried. Thus, Aspergillus phonicis with Trichoderma reesei Rut 30, produced a cellulose complex that improved activity twofold over cellulose from Trichoderma alone.

Helmi, S.; Khalil, A.E.; Tahoun, M.K.; Khairy, A.H. [Univ. of Alexandria Research Centre, Alexandria (Egypt)

1991-12-31

429

Virulence and Cultural Characteristics of Two Aspergillus flavus Strains Pathogenic on Cotton  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cotty, P. J. 1989. Virulence and cultural characteristics of two Aspergillusjlavus strains pathogenic on cotton. Phytopathology 79:808-814. Seventy Aspergillus flavus isolates from Arizona desert valleys were sorted into two distinct strains on the basis of sclerotial size, cultural characteristics, and virulence to cotton. Strain L isolates produced large sclerotia (over 400 \\/lm in diameter), and strain S isolates produced small

P. J. Cotty

1989-01-01

430

Isolation and transcriptional characterization of a morphological modifier: the Aspergillus nidulans stunted ( stuA ) gene  

Microsoft Academic Search

The functions of at least four potential regulatory genes are known to overlap temporally during elaboration of the multicellular asexual reproductive apparatus (conidiophore) of Aspergillus nidulans. One of these, the stuA (stunted) gene, has been previously classified as a morphological modifier essential for correct spatial organization of the conidiophore. The gene was cloned by complementation of a strain carrying the

Karen Y. Miller; Tina M. Toennis; Thomas H. Adams; Bruce L. Miller

1991-01-01

431

Posttranscriptional Control Mediates Cell Type-Specific Localization of Catalase A during Aspergillus nidulans Development  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two differentially regulated catalase genes have been identified in the fungus Aspergillus nidulans. The catA gene belongs to a class whose transcripts are specifically induced during asexual sporulation (conidiation) and encodes a catalase accumulated in conidia. Using a developmental mutant a