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Sample records for genera aspergillus eurotium

  1. Concentration of the genera Aspergillus, Eurotium and Penicillium in 63-μm house dust fraction as a method to predict hidden moisture damage in homes

    PubMed Central

    Baudisch, Christoph; Assadian, Ojan; Kramer, Axel

    2009-01-01

    Background Quantitative measurements of mould enrichment of indoor air or house dust might be suitable surrogates to evaluate present but hidden moisture damage. Our intent was to develop a house-dust monitoring method to detect hidden moisture damage excluding the influence of outdoor air, accumulated old dust, and dust swirled up from room surfaces. Methods Based on standardized measurement of mould spores in the 63-μm fraction of house dust yielded by carpets, the background concentrations were determined and compared to simultaneously obtained colony numbers and total spore numbers of the indoor air in 80 non-mouldy living areas during summer and winter periods. Additionally, sampling with a vacuum-cleaner or manual sieve was compared to sampling with a filter holder or sieving machine, and the evaluative power of an established two-step assessment model (lower and upper limits) was compared to that of a one-step model (one limit) in order to derive concentration limits for mould load in house dust. Results Comparison with existing evaluation procedures proved the developed method to be the most reliable means of evaluating hidden moisture damage, yielding the lowest false-positive results (specificity 98.7%). Background measurements and measurements in 14 mouldy rooms show that even by evaluating just the indicator genera in summer and winter, a relatively certain assessment of mould infestation is possible. Conclusion A one-step evaluation is finally possible for house dust. The house-dust evaluation method is based on analysis of the indicator genera Aspergillus, Eurotium and Penicillium spp., which depend on the total fungal count. Inclusion of further moisture indicators currently appears questionable, because of outdoor air influence and the paucity of measurements. PMID:19615082

  2. Taxonomic revision of Eurotium and transfer of species to Aspergillus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Section Aspergillus contains economically important, xerophilic species widely distributed in nature and the human environment that are known for their ability to grow on substrates with low water activity. The high level of phenoplasticity and frequent occurrence of mutants with atypical morphology...

  3. Eurotium spp. and echinulin in feed refused by swine.

    PubMed Central

    Vesonder, R F; Lambert, R; Wicklow, D T; Biehl, M L

    1988-01-01

    Feed refused by swine contained a high-propagule density of Eurotium chevalieri Mangin (anamorph, Aspergillus chevalieri (Mangin) Thom and Church), Eurotium amstelodami Mangin (anamorph, Aspergillus amstelodami (Mangin Thom and Church), and Aspergillus candidus Link. Echinulin (8 micrograms/g of feed) was detected in the feed. Isolates of E. chevalieri and E. amstelodami but not A. candidus produced echinulin on rice or cracked corn. Mice refused to drink water containing 90 micrograms of echinulin per ml. This is the first report of the alkaloid echinulin in feed refused by swine. PMID:3377495

  4. Biotransformation of the mycotoxin zearalenone by fungi of the genera Rhizopus and Aspergillus.

    PubMed

    Brodehl, Antje; Möller, Anne; Kunte, Hans-Jörg; Koch, Matthias; Maul, Ronald

    2014-10-01

    Zearalenone (ZEN) is a nonsteroidal estrogenic mycotoxin biosynthesized by various Fusarium fungi. These fungal species frequently infest grains; therefore, ZEN represents a common contaminant in cereal products. The biotransformation of ZEN differs significantly from species to species, and several metabolites are known to be formed by animals, plants, and microorganisms. The aim of the present study was to investigate the microbial conversion of ZEN by species of the genera Rhizopus and Aspergillus representing relevant fungi for food processing (e.g. fermentation). To monitor the ZEN metabolism, ZEN was added to liquid cultures of the different fungal species. After a period of 3 days, the media were analyzed by HPLC-MS/MS for metabolite formation. Two Aspergillus oryzae strains and all seven Rhizopus species were able to convert ZEN into various metabolites, including ZEN-14-sulfate as well as ZEN-O-14- and ZEN-O-16-glucoside. Microbial transformation of ZEN into the significantly more estrogenic α-zearalenol (α-ZEL) was also observed. Additionally, a novel fungal metabolite, α-ZEL-sulfate, was detected. Semi-quantification of the main metabolites indicates that more than 50% of initial ZEN may be modified. The results show that fungal strains have the potential to convert ZEN into various metabolites leading to a masking of the toxin, for example in fermented food. PMID:25145804

  5. Biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles by the fungus Arthroderma fulvum and its antifungal activity against genera of Candida, Aspergillus and Fusarium

    PubMed Central

    Xue, Baiji; He, Dan; Gao, Song; Wang, Dongyang; Yokoyama, Koji; Wang, Li

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to find one or more fungal strains that could be utilized to biosynthesize antifungal silver nanoparticles (AgNPs). Using morphological and molecular methods, Arthroderma fulvum was identified as the most effective fungal strain for synthesizing AgNPs. The UV–visible range showed a single peak at 420 nm, which corresponded to the surface plasmon absorbance of AgNPs. X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy demonstrated that the biosynthesized AgNPs were crystalline in nature with an average diameter of 15.5±2.5 nm. Numerous factors could potentially affect the process of biosynthesis, and the main factors are discussed here. Optimization results showed that substrate concentration of 1.5 mM, alkaline pH, reaction temperature of 55°C, and reaction time of 10 hours were the optimum conditions for AgNP biosynthesis. Biosynthesized AgNPs showed considerable activity against the tested fungal strains, including Candida spp., Aspergillus spp., and Fusarium spp., especially Candida spp. PMID:27217752

  6. Antioxidants produced by Eurotium herbariorum of filamentous fungi used for the manufacture of karebushi, dried bonito (Katsuobushi).

    PubMed

    Miyake, Yoshiaki; Ito, Chihiro; Itoigawa, Masataka; Osawa, Toshihiko

    2009-06-01

    Extracts prepared by culturing ten filamentous fungi from Aspergillus and Eurotium species isolated from dried bonito (katsuobushi) were examined for 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging capacity. The extracts prepared by culturing E. herbariorum NE-1 and NE-4, which are used in the molding process for the manufacture of karebushi (a kind of katsuobushi), were shown to have higher activity than the others. Five antioxidants were isolated from the extracts and identified as isodihydroauroglaucin (IDAG), auroglaucin (AG), dihydroauroglaucin (DAG), tetrahydroauroglaucin (TAG), and flavoglaucin (FG) by (1)H-NMR, (13)C-NMR, and EI-MS analyses. Compared with alpha-tocopherol, the isolated antioxidants exhibited high antioxidative activity for the radical scavenging capacity of DPPH and superoxide, but low activity for inhibiting the autoxidation of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA). The isolated antioxidants were produced by the Eurotium species, but not by the Aspergillus species. DAG and TAG exhibited higher radical scavenging capacity than the other antioxidants and were abundantly contained in the extracts of E. herbariorum NE-1 and NE-4. PMID:19502740

  7. A survey on distribution and toxigenicity of Aspergillus section Flavi in poultry feeds.

    PubMed

    Astoreca, A L; Dalcero, A M; Pinto, V Fernández; Vaamonde, G

    2011-03-15

    Thirty-five samples of poultry feeds and corresponding raw materials (maize, soybean and meat meal) from a processing plant were analyzed to evaluate the distribution and toxigenicity of Aspergillus section Flavi isolates. Mycological analysis of the samples indicated the presence of five fungal genera (Aspergillus, Penicillium, Fusarium, Cladosporium, and Eurotium). Aspergillus flavus was the predominant species being present in 48.5% of the analyzed samples. Ninety-one isolates belonging to Aspergillus section Flavi were isolated; ninety were identified as A. flavus and only one as A. parasiticus. Fifty-seven isolates were capable of producing sclerotia, 41 were identified as L-type strains and 16 as type S. Fifty-seven percent of the isolates produced AFB₁ levels ranging from 0.05 μg/kg to 27.7 μg/kg whereas 86.8% produced CPA from 1.5 μg/kg to 137.8 μg/kg. L-strains produced from 0.05 to 14.8 μg/kg of aflatoxin and type S produced levels from 0.05 to 1.65 μg/kg. No significant differences in CPA production among S- and L-strains were observed. Sclerotial isolates produced AFB₁ levels ranging between 0.05 and 27.7 μg/kg and CPA levels from 3.8 to 47.3 μg/kg. More than half of the A. flavus isolates were able to produce AFB and CPA simultaneously. Twenty percent of the 35 samples were contaminated with aflatoxin B₁ whereas 34.3% were contaminated with CPA. The high rate of CPA producing isolates represents a potential risk of contamination with this toxin in poultry feeds. PMID:21354643

  8. Benzyl Derivatives with in Vitro Binding Affinity for Human Opioid Receptors and Cannabinoid Receptors from the Fungus Eurotium repens

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bioassay-guided fractionation of the fungus Eurotium repens resulted in the isolation of two benzyl derivatives, repenol A (1) and repenol B (2). Seven known secondary metabolites were also isolated including five benzaldehyde compounds, flavoglaucin (3), tetrahydroauroglaucin (4), dihydroauroglauci...

  9. Aspergillus cumulatus sp. nov., from rice straw and air for meju fermentation.

    PubMed

    Kim, Dae-Ho; Kim, Seon-Hwa; Kwon, Soon-Wo; Lee, Jong-Kyu; Hong, Seung-Beom

    2014-03-28

    A new species named Aspergillus cumulatus sp. nov. is described in Aspergillus section Aspergillus (Eurotium state). The type strain (KACC 47316(T)) of this species was isolated from rice straw used in meju fermentations in Korea, and other strains were isolated from the air in a meju fermentation room. The species is characterized by growth at a wide range of water activities and the formation of aerial hyphae on malt extract 60% sucrose agar (ME60S) that resemble a cumulus cloud. Furthermore, A. cumulatus produces yellow ascomata containing small lenticular ascospores (5.1-5.7 μm) with a wide furrow, low equatorial crests, and tuberculate convex surface. The species is phylogenetically distinct from the other reported Aspergillus section Aspergillus species based on multilocus sequence typing using rDNA-ITS, β-tubulin, calmodulin, and RNA polymerase II genes. PMID:24473456

  10. Identification and Characterization of Eurotium rubrum Isolated from Meju in Korea

    PubMed Central

    Yun, Yeo Hong; Hyun, Min Woo; Suh, Dong Yeon; Kim, Yong Min

    2009-01-01

    We isolated and identified a strain of Eurotium rubrum from Meju that has not been reported in Korea. This fungus is yellowish brown; reverse dark brown on CYA and PDA while yellow on 2% MEA at 25?. Cleistothecia are first bright yellow and gradually turned brown. Mycerial growth on CYA attained a diameter of 30 mm at 20?, 37 mm at 25? and 32 mm at 30? after 15 days. The isolate grew slower on 2% MEA (< 20 mm 15 days at 25?) compared to CYA and PDA (< 40 mm 15 days at 25?). Cleistothecia are superficial, yellow to light brown, globose to subglobose, 40~75 m in diameter. Asci are 8-spored and globose to subglobose 8~11 m. Ascospores are disciform, 4.0~5.0 m in length and 4.2~4.5 m in width. Conidia are ovate or bacillar, finely roughened to densely spinulose, 4.6~6.0 m in length and 3.0~4.3 m in width. Compared to known Eurotium rubrum, the Korean isolate showed 99% sequence similarity in ITS rDNA (554 bp) and calmodulin (750 bp) gene and 100% in ?-tubulin (1016 bp) gene. The E. rubrum isolate also had weak ?-glucosidase and protease activities. PMID:23983544

  11. Three pairs of variecolortide enantiomers from Eurotium sp. with caspase-3 inhibitory activity.

    PubMed

    Chen, Guo-Dong; Bao, Yan-Ru; Huang, Yuan-Fan; Hu, Dan; Li, Xiao-Xia; Guo, Liang-Dong; Li, Jia; Yao, Xin-Sheng; Gao, Hao

    2014-01-01

    7-O-methylvariecolortide A (1), variecolortide B (2), and variecolortide C (3), the rare variecolortides existing in racemic manner, were isolated from an endolichenic fungal strain Eurotium sp. (No. 17-11-8-1). With the chiral HPLC technology, (-)-(S)-7-O-methylvariecolortide A (1a), (+)-(R)-7-O-methylvariecolortide A (1b), (-)-(S)-variecolortide B (2a), (+)-(R)-variecolortide B (2b), (-)-(S)-variecolortide C (3a), and (+)-(R)-variecolortide C (3b) were successfully separated and obtained. Their absolute configurations were firstly assigned by ECD experiment and ECD calculation. According to the relation of isolated compounds, a plausible biosynthetic pathway for variecolortides was proposed. In caspase-3 enzymatic assay, compounds 1-3 showed inhibitory activity, with IC50 values of 1.7, 0.8 and 15.7 μM, respectively. PMID:24321580

  12. Genomic adaptations of the halophilic Dead Sea filamentous fungus Eurotium rubrum.

    PubMed

    Kis-Papo, Tamar; Weig, Alfons R; Riley, Robert; Peroh, Derek; Salamov, Asaf; Sun, Hui; Lipzen, Anna; Wasser, Solomon P; Rambold, Gerhard; Grigoriev, Igor V; Nevo, Eviatar

    2014-01-01

    The Dead Sea is one of the most hypersaline habitats on Earth. The fungus Eurotium rubrum (Eurotiomycetes) is among the few species able to survive there. Here we highlight its adaptive strategies, based on genome analysis and transcriptome profiling. The 26.2?Mb genome of E. rubrum shows, for example, gains in gene families related to stress response and losses with regard to transport processes. Transcriptome analyses under different salt growth conditions revealed, among other things differentially expressed genes encoding ion and metabolite transporters. Our findings suggest that long-term adaptation to salinity requires cellular and metabolic responses that differ from short-term osmotic stress signalling. The transcriptional response indicates that halophilic E. rubrum actively counteracts the salinity stress. Many of its genes encode for proteins with a significantly higher proportion of acidic amino acid residues. This trait is characteristic of the halophilic prokaryotes as well, supporting the theory of convergent evolution under extreme hypersaline stress. PMID:24811710

  13. Aspergillus: introduction

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Species in the genus Aspergillus possess versatile metabolic activities that impact our daily life both positively and negatively. Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus oryzae are closely related fungi. While the former is able to produce carcinogenic aflatoxins and is an etiological agent of aspergill...

  14. Mycoflora of Soybeans Used for Meju Fermentation

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Dae-Ho; Kim, Seon-Hwa; Kwon, Soon-Wo; Lee, Jong-Kyu

    2013-01-01

    Diverse fungi are present in Korean traditional meju and they are known to play an important role in fermented soybean products. To determine the origin of the fungi in meju, we examined the mycoflora of soybeans from 10 traditional meju factories. The samples were untreated or treated with sodium hypochlorite, and placed on malt extract agar (MEA), dichloran 18% glycerol agar (DG18), and dichloran rose bengal chloramphenicol agar (DRBC) medium. A total of 794 fungal strains were isolated and they were identified as 41 genera and 86 species. From sodium hypochlorite untreated soybeans, the genera, Cladosporium (55%), Eurotium (51%), Fusarium (33%), Penicillium (22%), and Aspergillus (exclusion of Eurotium) (20%), were mainly isolated, and Eurotium herbariorum (22%), Eurotium repens (18%), Cladosporium tenuissimum (18%), F. fujikuroi (18%), Aspergillus oryzae/flavus (7%), and Penicillium steckii (6%) were the predominant species. In case of sodium hypochlorite-treated soybeans, Eurotium (31%) and Cladosporium (5%) were frequently isolated, but Aspergillus (excluding Eurotium), Penicillium and Fusarium which were frequently isolated from untreated soybeans, were rarely isolated. Eurotium herbariorum (21%), Eurotium repens (8%), and Cladosporium tenuissimum (3%) were the predominant species. Of the 41 genera and 86 species isolated from soybeans, 13 genera and 33 species were also found in meju. These results suggest that the fungi on soybeans may influence the mycoflora of meju. PMID:23874133

  15. Phylogeny, identification and nomenclature of the genus Aspergillus

    PubMed Central

    Samson, R.A.; Visagie, C.M.; Houbraken, J.; Hong, S.-B.; Hubka, V.; Klaassen, C.H.W.; Perrone, G.; Seifert, K.A.; Susca, A.; Tanney, J.B.; Varga, J.; Kocsubé, S.; Szigeti, G.; Yaguchi, T.; Frisvad, J.C.

    2014-01-01

    Aspergillus comprises a diverse group of species based on morphological, physiological and phylogenetic characters, which significantly impact biotechnology, food production, indoor environments and human health. Aspergillus was traditionally associated with nine teleomorph genera, but phylogenetic data suggest that together with genera such as Polypaecilum, Phialosimplex, Dichotomomyces and Cristaspora, Aspergillus forms a monophyletic clade closely related to Penicillium. Changes in the International Code of Nomenclature for algae, fungi and plants resulted in the move to one name per species, meaning that a decision had to be made whether to keep Aspergillus as one big genus or to split it into several smaller genera. The International Commission of Penicillium and Aspergillus decided to keep Aspergillus instead of using smaller genera. In this paper, we present the arguments for this decision. We introduce new combinations for accepted species presently lacking an Aspergillus name and provide an updated accepted species list for the genus, now containing 339 species. To add to the scientific value of the list, we include information about living ex-type culture collection numbers and GenBank accession numbers for available representative ITS, calmodulin, β-tubulin and RPB2 sequences. In addition, we recommend a standard working technique for Aspergillus and propose calmodulin as a secondary identification marker. PMID:25492982

  16. Phylogeny, identification and nomenclature of the genus Aspergillus.

    PubMed

    Samson, R A; Visagie, C M; Houbraken, J; Hong, S-B; Hubka, V; Klaassen, C H W; Perrone, G; Seifert, K A; Susca, A; Tanney, J B; Varga, J; Kocsubé, S; Szigeti, G; Yaguchi, T; Frisvad, J C

    2014-06-01

    Aspergillus comprises a diverse group of species based on morphological, physiological and phylogenetic characters, which significantly impact biotechnology, food production, indoor environments and human health. Aspergillus was traditionally associated with nine teleomorph genera, but phylogenetic data suggest that together with genera such as Polypaecilum, Phialosimplex, Dichotomomyces and Cristaspora, Aspergillus forms a monophyletic clade closely related to Penicillium. Changes in the International Code of Nomenclature for algae, fungi and plants resulted in the move to one name per species, meaning that a decision had to be made whether to keep Aspergillus as one big genus or to split it into several smaller genera. The International Commission of Penicillium and Aspergillus decided to keep Aspergillus instead of using smaller genera. In this paper, we present the arguments for this decision. We introduce new combinations for accepted species presently lacking an Aspergillus name and provide an updated accepted species list for the genus, now containing 339 species. To add to the scientific value of the list, we include information about living ex-type culture collection numbers and GenBank accession numbers for available representative ITS, calmodulin, β-tubulin and RPB2 sequences. In addition, we recommend a standard working technique for Aspergillus and propose calmodulin as a secondary identification marker. PMID:25492982

  17. Biodiversity of Aspergillus Species in Some Important Agricultural Products

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The genus Aspergillus is one of the most important filamentous fungal genera. Aspergillus species are used in the fermentation industry, but they are also responsible of various plant and food secondary rot, with the consequence of possible accumulation of mycotoxins. The aflatoxin-producing A. fl...

  18. Sphingomonas and Related Genera

    SciTech Connect

    Balkwill, David L.; Fredrickson, Jim K.; Romine, Margaret F.

    2003-12-31

    INTRODUCTION-The genus Sphingomonas was defined by Yabuuchi et al. (1990) as a group of Gram-negative, rod-shaped, chemoheterotrophic, strictly aerobic bacteria that possess ubiquinone 10 as the major respiratory quinone, contain glycosphingolipids (GSLs) instead of lipopolysaccharide in their cell envelopes, and typically produce yellow-pigmented colonies. By 2001, the genus included more than 20 species that were quite diverse in terms of their phylogenetic, ecological, and physiological properties. As a result, Takeuchi et al. (2001) subdivided Sphingomonas into four genera: Sphingomonas, Sphingobium, Novosphingobium and Sphingopyxis...

  19. Effects of ozone exposure on the xerophilic fungus, Eurotium amstelodami IS-SAB-01, isolated from naan bread.

    PubMed

    Antony-Babu, Sanjay; Singleton, Ian

    2011-01-01

    Xerophilic moulds cause contamination and spoilage of low moisture foods. This study examined the effect of ozone fumigation on growth of a Eurotium species isolated from naan bread. Two ozone treatments were used - a low-level long-term exposure (0.4 μmol/mol for 21 days) and high-level short-term exposure (300 μmol/mol for 5 to 120 min). For the low level exposure the combination of different media sucrose concentrations (0, 5, 10 and 20% w/v) with ozone treatment was also assessed. The growth of the isolate was found to be sensitive to low-level ozone fumigation depending on the media sucrose concentration and duration of the exposure. Low-level ozone exposure significantly (p<0.05) reduced the number of asexual spores formed in media with no added sucrose, an effect not observed in media with higher sucrose levels. Electron microscope observations of colonies indicated that ozone exposed cultures produced lower numbers of cleistothecia. High-level ozone exposure for short durations reduced spore viability although 100% reduction in viability was achieved only after 120 min exposure. This work demonstrates that ozone may be used to reduce spore production in Eurotium but that the ozone effect can be mediated by sucrose levels in the growth medium. PMID:21093088

  20. Aspergillus Associated with Meju, a Fermented Soybean Starting Material for Traditional Soy Sauce and Soybean Paste in Korea

    PubMed Central

    Hong, Seung-Beom

    2015-01-01

    Aspergillus is an important fungal genus used for the fermentation of Asian foods; this genus is referred to as koji mold in Japan and China. A. oryzae, A. sojae, and A. tamari are used in the production of miso and shoyu in Japan, but a comprehensive taxonomic study of Aspergillus isolated from Meju, a fermented soybean starting material for traditional soy sauce and soybean paste in Korea, has not been conducted. In this study, various Aspergillus species were isolated during a study of the mycobiota of Meju, and the aspergilli were identified based on phenotypic characteristics and sequencing of the β-tubulin gene. Most strains of Aspergillus were found to belong to the following sections: Aspergillus (n = 220), Flavi (n = 213), and Nigri (n = 54). The most commonly identified species were A. oryzae (n = 183), A. pseudoglaucus (Eurotium repens) (n = 81), A. chevalieri (E. chevalieri) (n = 62), A. montevidensis (E. amstelodami) (n = 34), A. niger (n = 21), A. tamari (n = 15), A. ruber (E. rubrum) (n = 15), A. proliferans (n = 14), and A. luchuensis (n = 14); 25 species were identified from 533 Aspergillus strains. Aspergillus strains were mainly found during the high temperature fermentation period in the later steps of Meju fermentation. PMID:26539037

  1. Aspergillus flavus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Contamination of certain crops with aflatoxins is a serious concern for agriculture and animal and human health. The predominant species associated with this crop contamination is Aspergillus flavus. The ability of A. flavus to produce other toxins could also be an additional concern. Phylogenetic e...

  2. Aspergillus Genomes and the Aspergillus Cloud

    PubMed Central

    Mabey Gilsenan, Jane E.; Atherton, Graham; Bartholomew, Jennifer; Giles, Peter F.; Attwood, Teresa K.; Denning, David W.; Bowyer, Paul

    2009-01-01

    Aspergillus Genomes is a public resource for viewing annotated genes predicted by various Aspergillus sequencing projects. It has arisen from the union of two significant resources: the Aspergillus/Aspergillosis website and the Central Aspergillus Data REpository (CADRE). The former has primarily served the medical community, providing information about Aspergillus and associated diseases to medics, patients and scientists; the latter has focused on the fungal genomic community, providing a central repository for sequences and annotation extracted from Aspergillus Genomes. By merging these databases, genomes benefit from extensive cross-linking with medical information to create a unique resource, spanning genomics and clinical aspects of the genus. Aspergillus Genomes is accessible from http://www.aspergillus-genomes.org.uk. PMID:19039001

  3. Genera of the human lineage

    PubMed Central

    Cela-Conde, Camilo J.; Ayala, Francisco J.

    2003-01-01

    Human fossils dated between 3.5 and nearly 7 million years old discovered during the last 8 years have been assigned to as many as four new genera of the family Hominidae: Ardipithecus, Orrorin, Kenyanthropus, and Sahelanthropus. These specimens are described as having morphological traits that justify placing them in the family Hominidae while creating a new genus for the classification of each. The discovery of these fossils pushed backward by >2 million years the date of the oldest hominids known. Only two or three hominid genera, Australopithecus, Paranthropus, and Homo, had been previously accepted, with Paranthropus considered a subgenus of Australopithecus by some authors. Two questions arise from the classification of the newly discovered fossils: (i) Should each one of these specimens be placed in the family Hominidae? (ii) Are these specimens sufficiently distinct to justify the creation of four new genera? The answers depend, in turn, on the concepts of what is a hominid and how the genus category is defined. These specimens seem to possess a sufficient number of morphological traits to be placed in the Hominidae. However, the nature of the morphological evidence and the adaptation-rooted concept of what a genus is do not justify the establishment of four new genera. We propose a classification that includes four well defined genera: Praeanthropus, Ardipithecus, Australopithecus, and Homo, plus one tentative incertae sedis genus: Sahelanthropus. PMID:12794185

  4. Regulation of Aspergillus Mycotoxin Biosynthesis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The genus Aspergillus produces a number of mycotoxins that pose adverse economic and health impacts on humans and animals. These include the toxic and carcinogenic polyketide-derived mycotoxins, sterigmatocystin and aflatoxins, produced by Aspergillus nidulans and Aspergillus flavus, respectively. ...

  5. Redefining Ceratocystis and allied genera.

    PubMed

    de Beer, Z W; Duong, T A; Barnes, I; Wingfield, B D; Wingfield, M J

    2014-09-01

    The genus Ceratocystis was established in 1890 and accommodates many important fungi. These include serious plant pathogens, significant insect symbionts and agents of timber degradation that result in substantial economic losses. Virtually since its type was described from sweet potatoes, the taxonomy of Ceratocystis has been confused and vigorously debated. In recent years, particulary during the last two decades, it has become very obvious that this genus includes a wide diversity of very different fungi. These have been roughly lumped together due to their similar morphological structures that have clearly evolved through convergent evolution linked to an insect-associated ecology. As has been true for many other groups of fungi, the emergence of DNA-based sequence data and associated phylogenetic inferences, have made it possible to robustly support very distinct boundaries defined by morphological characters and ecological differences. In this study, DNA-sequence data for three carefully selected gene regions (60S, LSU, MCM7) were generated for 79 species residing in the aggregate genus Ceratocystis sensu lato and these data were subjected to rigorous phylogenetic analyses. The results made it possible to distinguish seven major groups for which generic names have been chosen and descriptions either provided or emended. The emended genera included Ceratocystis sensu stricto, Chalaropsis, Endoconidiophora, Thielaviopsis, and Ambrosiella, while two new genera, Davidsoniella and Huntiella, were described. In total, 30 new combinations have been made. This major revision of the generic boundaries in the Ceratocystidaceae will simplify future treatments and work with an important group of fungi including distantly related species illogically aggregated under a single name. PMID:25492989

  6. Redefining Ceratocystis and allied genera

    PubMed Central

    de Beer, Z.W.; Duong, T.A.; Barnes, I.; Wingfield, B.D.; Wingfield, M.J.

    2014-01-01

    The genus Ceratocystis was established in 1890 and accommodates many important fungi. These include serious plant pathogens, significant insect symbionts and agents of timber degradation that result in substantial economic losses. Virtually since its type was described from sweet potatoes, the taxonomy of Ceratocystis has been confused and vigorously debated. In recent years, particulary during the last two decades, it has become very obvious that this genus includes a wide diversity of very different fungi. These have been roughly lumped together due to their similar morphological structures that have clearly evolved through convergent evolution linked to an insect-associated ecology. As has been true for many other groups of fungi, the emergence of DNA-based sequence data and associated phylogenetic inferences, have made it possible to robustly support very distinct boundaries defined by morphological characters and ecological differences. In this study, DNA-sequence data for three carefully selected gene regions (60S, LSU, MCM7) were generated for 79 species residing in the aggregate genus Ceratocystis sensu lato and these data were subjected to rigorous phylogenetic analyses. The results made it possible to distinguish seven major groups for which generic names have been chosen and descriptions either provided or emended. The emended genera included Ceratocystis sensu stricto, Chalaropsis, Endoconidiophora, Thielaviopsis, and Ambrosiella, while two new genera, Davidsoniella and Huntiella, were described. In total, 30 new combinations have been made. This major revision of the generic boundaries in the Ceratocystidaceae will simplify future treatments and work with an important group of fungi including distantly related species illogically aggregated under a single name. PMID:25492989

  7. Rubrumazines A-C, Indolediketopiperazines of the Isoechinulin Class from Eurotium rubrum MA-150, a Fungus Obtained from Marine Mangrove-Derived Rhizospheric Soil.

    PubMed

    Meng, Ling-Hong; Du, Feng-Yu; Li, Xiao-Ming; Pedpradab, Patchara; Xu, Gang-Ming; Wang, Bin-Gui

    2015-04-24

    Three new indolediketopiperazine alkaloids of the isoechinulin type, rubrumazines A-C (1-3), each possessing an oxygenated prenyl group either at C-7 (1 and 2) or at C-5 (3), along with 13 related analogues (4-16), were isolated and identified from a culture extract of Eurotium rubrum MA-150, a fungus obtained from mangrove-derived rhizospheric soil collected from the Andaman Sea coastline, Thailand. Their structures were established by detailed interpretation of NMR spectroscopic and mass spectrometry data analysis. The structure and absolute configuration of compound 1 were confirmed by X-ray crystallographic analysis, thus providing the first characterized crystal structure of an isoechinulin-type alkaloid. All isolated compounds were evaluated for brine shrimp lethality and antibacterial activity. PMID:25730346

  8. Toxigenic Aspergillus and Penicillium Isolates from Weevil-Damaged Chestnuts

    PubMed Central

    Wells, John M.; Payne, Jerry A.

    1975-01-01

    Aspergillus and Penicillium were among the most common genera of fungi isolated on malt-salt agar from weevil-damaged Chinese chestnut kernels (16.8 and 40.7% occurrence, respectively). Chloroform extracts of 21 of 50 Aspergillus isolates and 18 of 50 representative Penicillium isolates, grown for 4 weeks at 21.1 C on artificial medium, were toxic to day-old cockerels. Twelve of the toxic Aspergillus isolates were identified as A. wentii, eight as A. flavus, and one as A. flavus var. columnaris. Nine of the toxic Penicillium isolates were identified as P. terrestre, three as P. steckii, two each as P. citrinum and P. funiculosum, and one each as P. herquei (Series) and P. roqueforti (Series). Acute diarrhea was associated with the toxicity of A. wentii and muscular tremors with the toxicity of P. terrestre, one isolate of P. steckii, and one of P. funiculosum. PMID:1190758

  9. Hybridization between Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus parasiticus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    To date the sexual stages or teleomorphs have been described for three aflatoxigenic species in Aspergillus section Flavi: Petromyces flavus, P. parasiticus and P. nomius. In this study we examined the possibility of interspecific matings between A. flavus and A. parasiticus. These species can b...

  10. Identification of medically significant fungal genera by polymerase chain reaction followed by restriction enzyme analysis.

    PubMed

    Velegraki, A; Kambouris, M E; Skiniotis, G; Savala, M; Mitroussia-Ziouva, A; Legakis, N J

    1999-04-01

    Rapid non-culture-dependent assays for identification of fungi quicken diagnosis and prompt treatment of invasive fungal disease. Fungal DNA extracts from pure cultures of the most frequently isolated fungal pathogens belonging to the Genera Aspergillus, Candida and Cryptococcus along with less common pathogenic Genera were amplified with the general fungal primer pair internal transcribed spacer-1/4. Subsequently, the amplicon was digested with the restriction endonucleases MspI, HaeIII, HinfI and EcoRI in order to generate genus- or species-specific patterns for identification of the fungus. HinfI produced indistinguishable fingerprints for all Aspergillus species tested. MspI produced species-specific patterns for: Cryptococcus neoformans, Cryptococcus non-neoformans, Candida albicans and Candida tropicalis. EcoRI succeeded in differentiating penicillia from aspergilli and cryptococci from Candida spp. It is concluded that this procedure can differentiate genera and occasionally species of medically important fungi and that following the necessary validation experiments, it can be used directly on clinical samples to assist prompt diagnosis of systemic fungal infections. PMID:10225290

  11. Development in Aspergillus

    PubMed Central

    Krijgsheld, P.; Bleichrodt, R.; van Veluw, G.J.; Wang, F.; Müller, W.H.; Dijksterhuis, J.; Wösten, H.A.B.

    2013-01-01

    The genus Aspergillus represents a diverse group of fungi that are among the most abundant fungi in the world. Germination of a spore can lead to a vegetative mycelium that colonizes a substrate. The hyphae within the mycelium are highly heterogeneous with respect to gene expression, growth, and secretion. Aspergilli can reproduce both asexually and sexually. To this end, conidiophores and ascocarps are produced that form conidia and ascospores, respectively. This review describes the molecular mechanisms underlying growth and development of Aspergillus. PMID:23450714

  12. Biodiversity of Aspergillus species in some important agricultural products.

    PubMed

    Perrone, G; Susca, A; Cozzi, G; Ehrlich, K; Varga, J; Frisvad, J C; Meijer, M; Noonim, P; Mahakarnchanakul, W; Samson, R A

    2007-01-01

    The genus Aspergillus is one of the most important filamentous fungal genera. Aspergillus species are used in the fermentation industry, but they are also responsible of various plant and food secondary rot, with the consequence of possible accumulation of mycotoxins. The aflatoxin producing A. flavus and A. parasiticus, and ochratoxinogenic A. niger, A. ochraceus and A. carbonarius species are frequently encountered in agricultural products. Studies on the biodiversity of toxigenic Aspergillus species is useful to clarify molecular, ecological and biochemical characteristics of the different species in relation to their different adaptation to environmental and geographical conditions, and to their potential toxigenicity. Here we analyzed the biodiversity of ochratoxin producing species occurring on two important crops: grapes and coffee, and the genetic diversity of A. flavus populations occurring in agricultural fields. Altogether nine different black Aspergillus species can be found on grapes which are often difficult to identify with classical methods. The polyphasic approach used in our studies led to the identification of three new species occurring on grapes: A. brasiliensis, A. ibericus, and A. uvarum. Similar studies on the Aspergillus species occurring on coffee beans have evidenced in the last five years that A. carbonarius is an important source of ochratoxin A in coffee. Four new species within the black aspergilli were also identified in coffee beans: A. sclerotioniger, A. lacticoffeatus, A. sclerotiicarbonarius, and A. aculeatinus. The genetic diversity within A. flavus populations has been widely studied in relation to their potential aflatoxigenicity and morphological variants L- and S-strains. Within A. flavus and other Aspergillus species capable of aflatoxin production, considerable diversity is found. We summarise the main recent achievements in the diversity of the aflatoxin gene cluster in A. flavus populations, A. parasiticus and the non-toxigenic A. oryzae. Studies are needed in order to characterise the aflatoxin biosynthetic genes in the new related taxa A. minisclerotigenes and A. arachidicola. PMID:18490950

  13. GENOMICS OF ASPERGILLUS FUMIGATUS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Aspergillus fumigatus is a filamentous fungal saprophyte that is ubiquitous in the environment. It is also a human pathogen and induces allergenic response, negatively impacting health care and associated costs significantly around the world. Much of the basic biology of this organism is only poor...

  14. Galactomannoproteins of Aspergillus fumigatus

    PubMed Central

    Morelle, W.; Bernard, M.; Debeaupuis, J.-P.; Buitrago, M.; Tabouret, M.; Latg, J.-P.

    2005-01-01

    Galactofuranose-containing molecules have been repeatedly shown to be important antigens among human fungal pathogens, including Aspergillus fumigatus. Immunogenic galactofuran determinants have been poorly characterized chemically, however. We reported here the characterization of two glycoproteins of A. fumigatus with an N-glycan containing galactofuranose. These proteins are a phospholipase C and a phytase. Chemical characterization of the N-glycan indicates that it is a mixture of Hex5-13HexNAc2 oligosaccharides, the major molecular species corresponding to Hex6-8HexNAc2. The N-glycan contained one galactofuranose unit that was in a terminal nonreducing position attached to the 2 position of Man. This single terminal nonreducing galactofuranose is essential for the immunoreactivity of the N-glycans assessed either with a monoclonal antibody that recognizes a tetra-?-1,5-galactofuran chain of galactomannan or with Aspergillus-infected patient sera. PMID:16002656

  15. Nine genera of Eucnemidae (Coleoptera) new to Peru, with a key to Peruvian genera

    PubMed Central

    Muona, Jyrki; Linna, Ari; Sääksjärvi, Ilari E.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Thirteen genera of Eucnemidae containing forty species were collected from the Iquitos region in Peru. Nine of the genera are new to the country: Rhagomicrus Fleutiaux, 1902, Adelorhagus Horn, 1890, Adelothyreus Chevrolat, 1867, Microrhagus Dejean, 1833, Dyscharachthis Blackburn, 1900, Heterotaxis Bonvouloir, 1871, Spinifornax Fleutiaux, 1926, Serrifornax Fleutiaux, 1926 and Maelodrus Fleutiaux, 1928. The previous eucnemid record from Peru contained eleven species in ten genera. Only one of the forty species caught, Entomophthalmus americanus Bonvouloir, was previously known and described from the country. Dyscharachthis, Maelodrus and Adelorhagus are recorded from South America for the first time. Many of the collected species seem to favor white-sand forest as their habitat. Possible reasons for this are discussed. A list of eucnemids from Peru is included, containing taxa already recorded from the country and also taxa that are likely to occur there. A key to the Peruvian genera is included. PMID:25834475

  16. Nine genera of Eucnemidae (Coleoptera) new to Peru, with a key to Peruvian genera.

    PubMed

    Vahtera, Varpu; Muona, Jyrki; Linna, Ari; Sääksjärvi, Ilari E

    2015-01-01

    Thirteen genera of Eucnemidae containing forty species were collected from the Iquitos region in Peru. Nine of the genera are new to the country: Rhagomicrus Fleutiaux, 1902, Adelorhagus Horn, 1890, Adelothyreus Chevrolat, 1867, Microrhagus Dejean, 1833, Dyscharachthis Blackburn, 1900, Heterotaxis Bonvouloir, 1871, Spinifornax Fleutiaux, 1926, Serrifornax Fleutiaux, 1926 and Maelodrus Fleutiaux, 1928. The previous eucnemid record from Peru contained eleven species in ten genera. Only one of the forty species caught, Entomophthalmusamericanus Bonvouloir, was previously known and described from the country. Dyscharachthis, Maelodrus and Adelorhagus are recorded from South America for the first time. Many of the collected species seem to favor white-sand forest as their habitat. Possible reasons for this are discussed. A list of eucnemids from Peru is included, containing taxa already recorded from the country and also taxa that are likely to occur there. A key to the Peruvian genera is included. PMID:25834475

  17. Genome sizes for all genera of Cycadales.

    PubMed

    Zonneveld, B J M

    2012-01-01

    Nuclear DNA content (2C) is reported for all genera of the Cycadales, using flow cytometry with propidium iodide. Nuclear DNA content ranges from 24 to 64 pg in cycads. This implies that the largest genome contains roughly 40 10(9) more base pairs than the smallest genome. The narrow range in nuclear DNA content within a genus is remarkable for such an old group. Furthermore, 42 of the 58 plants measured, covering five genera, have 18 chromosomes. They vary from 36.1 to 64.7 pg, covering the whole range of genome sizes (excluding the genome of Cycas). Hence, their does not seem to be a correlation between genome size and the number of chromosomes. PMID:22117644

  18. Variation in fungal microbiome (mycobiome) and aflatoxins during simulated storage of in-shell peanuts and peanut kernels.

    PubMed

    Xing, Fuguo; Ding, Ning; Liu, Xiao; Selvaraj, Jonathan Nimal; Wang, Limin; Zhou, Lu; Zhao, Yueju; Wang, Yan; Liu, Yang

    2016-01-01

    Internal transcribed spacer 2 (ITS2) sequencing was used to characterize the peanut mycobiome during 90 days storage at five conditions. The fungal diversity in in-shell peanuts was higher with 110 operational taxonomic units (OTUs) and 41 genera than peanut kernels (91 OTUs and 37 genera). This means that the micro-environment in shell is more suitable for maintaining fungal diversity. At 20-30 d, Rhizopus, Eurotium and Wallemia were predominant in in-shell peanuts. In peanut kernels, Rhizopus (>30%) and Eurotium (>20%) were predominant at 10-20 d and 30 d, respectively. The relative abundances of Rhizopus, Eurotium and Wallemia were higher than Aspergillus, because they were xerophilic and grew well on substrates with low water activity (aw). During growth, they released metabolic water, thereby favoring the growth of Aspergillus. Therefore, from 30 to 90 d, the relative abundance of Aspergillus increased while that of Rhizopus, Eurotium and Wallemia decreased. Principal Coordinate Analysis (PCoA) revealed that peanuts stored for 60-90 days and for 10-30 days clustered differently from each other. Due to low aw values (0.34-0.72) and low levels of A. flavus, nine of 51 samples were contaminated with aflatoxins. PMID:27180614

  19. Modelling of the growth/no growth interface of Wallemia sebi and Eurotium herbariorum as a function of pH, aw and ethanol concentration.

    PubMed

    Deschuyffeleer, N; Vermeulen, A; Daelman, J; Castelein, E; Eeckhout, M; Devlieghere, F

    2015-01-01

    High sugar products (sugar content > 50%) are generally considered to be stable against all forms of microbial spoilage during a prolonged shelf life of several months. However, one specific subgroup of micro-organisms, the xerophilic moulds, can develop quite fast on the surface of food products with a reduced water activity (< 0.85). The chance whether these xerophilic moulds are able to grow on the food product depends on the combination of intrinsic factors (e.g., water activity and pH) and the storage conditions (e.g., temperature). This study examines the development of growth/no growth models for the xerophilic moulds Wallemia sebi and Eurotium herbariorum in a sugar rich broth. Growth/no growth models are predictive models that are designed to give a prediction about the probability of growth of a spoilage micro-organism under a specific set of environmental conditions. In this research, a water activity between 0.75 and 0.90, a pH between 5.0 and 6.2, an ethanol concentration between 0% and 5% (g EtOH/g H2O) and their interactions were tested. The inoculated media were stored at 22 °C (± 1 °C) during a prolonged test period (up to 120 days). The obtained models were also validated in a chocolate-based food product (ganache). The resulting growth/no growth models show that the growth of W. sebi and E. herbariorum can be inhibited for a prolonged time (> 3 months) if an ethanol concentration of 5% on the water phase is present in the food product, irrespective of water activity values between 0.89 and 0.755. The necessary amount of ethanol for shorter shelf lives can be calculated with the models that were built. Although the models have not been validated thoroughly in actual food products, the preliminary results that were obtained by testing the model on a ganache indicated that the models are capable of delivering safe predictions. PMID:25317503

  20. Morphological and molecular identification of filamentous Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus parasiticus isolated from compound feeds in South Africa.

    PubMed

    Iheanacho, Henry E; Njobeh, Patrick B; Dutton, Francis M; Steenkamp, Paul A; Steenkamp, Lucia; Mthombeni, Julian Q; Daru, Barnabas H; Makun, Anthony H

    2014-12-01

    Isolation of filamentous species of two Aspergillum genera from compound feeds produced in South Africa, and subsequent extraction of their individual DNA in this study, presents a simple but rapid molecular procedure for high through-put analysis of the individual morphological forms. DNA was successfully isolated from the Aspergillus spp. from agar cultures by use of a commercial kit. Agarose gel electrophoresis fractionation of the fungi DNA, showed distinct bands. The DNA extracted by this procedure appears to be relatively pure with a ratio absorbance at 260 and 280 nm. However, the overall morphological and molecular data indicated that 67.5 and 51.1% of feed samples were found to be contaminated with Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus parasiticus, respectively, with poultry feed having the highest contamination mean level of 5.7 × 105 CFU/g when compared to cattle (mean: 4.0 × 106 CFU/g), pig (mean: 2.7 × 104 CFU/g) and horse (1.0 × 102 CFU) feed. This technique presents a readily achievable, easy to use method in the extraction of filamentous fungal DNA and it's identification. Hence serves as an important tool towards molecular study of these organisms for routine analysis check in monitoring and improving compound feed quality against fungal contamination. PMID:25084661

  1. Aspergillus fumigatus in Poultry

    PubMed Central

    Arné, Pascal; Thierry, Simon; Wang, Dongying; Deville, Manjula; Le Loc'h, Guillaume; Desoutter, Anaïs; Féménia, Françoise; Nieguitsila, Adélaïde; Huang, Weiyi; Chermette, René; Guillot, Jacques

    2011-01-01

    Aspergillus fumigatus remains a major respiratory pathogen in birds. In poultry, infection by A. fumigatus may induce significant economic losses particularly in turkey production. A. fumigatus develops and sporulates easily in poor quality bedding or contaminated feedstuffs in indoor farm environments. Inadequate ventilation and dusty conditions increase the risk of bird exposure to aerosolized spores. Acute cases are seen in young animals following inhalation of spores, causing high morbidity and mortality. The chronic form affects older birds and looks more sporadic. The respiratory tract is the primary site of A. fumigatus development leading to severe respiratory distress and associated granulomatous airsacculitis and pneumonia. Treatments for infected poultry are nonexistent; therefore, prevention is the only way to protect poultry. Development of avian models of aspergillosis may improve our understanding of its pathogenesis, which remains poorly understood. PMID:21826144

  2. Aspergillus fumigatus in Poultry.

    PubMed

    Arné, Pascal; Thierry, Simon; Wang, Dongying; Deville, Manjula; Le Loc'h, Guillaume; Desoutter, Anaïs; Féménia, Françoise; Nieguitsila, Adélaïde; Huang, Weiyi; Chermette, René; Guillot, Jacques

    2011-01-01

    Aspergillus fumigatus remains a major respiratory pathogen in birds. In poultry, infection by A. fumigatus may induce significant economic losses particularly in turkey production. A. fumigatus develops and sporulates easily in poor quality bedding or contaminated feedstuffs in indoor farm environments. Inadequate ventilation and dusty conditions increase the risk of bird exposure to aerosolized spores. Acute cases are seen in young animals following inhalation of spores, causing high morbidity and mortality. The chronic form affects older birds and looks more sporadic. The respiratory tract is the primary site of A. fumigatus development leading to severe respiratory distress and associated granulomatous airsacculitis and pneumonia. Treatments for infected poultry are nonexistent; therefore, prevention is the only way to protect poultry. Development of avian models of aspergillosis may improve our understanding of its pathogenesis, which remains poorly understood. PMID:21826144

  3. The Mycobiota of Air Inside and Outside the Meju Fermentation Room and the Origin of Meju Fungi

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Dae-Ho; Kim, Sun-Hwa; Kwon, Soon-wo; Lee, Jong-Kyu

    2015-01-01

    The fungi on Meju are known to play an important role as degrader of macromolecule of soybeans. In order to elucidate the origin of fungi on traditional Meju, mycobiota of the air both inside and outside traditional Meju fermentation rooms was examined. From 11 samples of air collected from inside and outside of 7 Meju fermentation rooms, 37 genera and 90 species of fungi were identified. In outside air of the fermentation room, Cladosporium sp. and Cladosporium cladosporioides were the dominant species, followed by Cladosporium tenuissimum, Eurotium sp., Phoma sp., Sistotrema brinkmannii, Alternaria sp., Aspergillus fumigatus, Schizophyllum commune, and Penicillium glabrum. In inside air of the fermentation room, Cladosporium sp., Aspergillus oryzae, Penicillium chrysogenum, Asp. nidulans, Aspergillus sp., Cla. cladosporioides, Eurotium sp., Penicillium sp., Cla. tenuissimum, Asp. niger, Eur. herbariorum, Asp. sydowii, and Eur. repens were collected with high frequency. The concentrations of the genera Aspergillus, Eurotium, and Penicillium were significantly higher in inside air than outside air. From this result and those of previous reports, the origin of fungi present on Meju was inferred. Of the dominant fungal species present on Meju, Lichtheimia ramosa, Mucor circinelloides, Mucor racemosus, and Scopulariopsis brevicaulis are thought to be originated from outside air, because these species are not or are rarely isolated from rice straw and soybean; however, they were detected outside air of fermentation room and are species commonly found in indoor environments. However, Asp. oryzae, Pen. polonicum, Eur. repens, Pen. solitum, and Eur. chevalieri, which are frequently found on Meju, are common in rice straw and could be transferred from rice straw to Meju. The fungi grow and produce abundant spores during Meju fermentation, and after the spores accumulate in the air of fermentation room, they could influence mycobiota of Meju fermentation in the following year. This could explain why concentrations of the genera Aspergillus, Eurotium, and Penicillium are much higher inside than outside of the fermentation rooms. PMID:26539041

  4. The Mycobiota of Air Inside and Outside the Meju Fermentation Room and the Origin of Meju Fungi.

    PubMed

    Kim, Dae-Ho; Kim, Sun-Hwa; Kwon, Soon-Wo; Lee, Jong-Kyu; Hong, Seung-Beom

    2015-09-01

    The fungi on Meju are known to play an important role as degrader of macromolecule of soybeans. In order to elucidate the origin of fungi on traditional Meju, mycobiota of the air both inside and outside traditional Meju fermentation rooms was examined. From 11 samples of air collected from inside and outside of 7 Meju fermentation rooms, 37 genera and 90 species of fungi were identified. In outside air of the fermentation room, Cladosporium sp. and Cladosporium cladosporioides were the dominant species, followed by Cladosporium tenuissimum, Eurotium sp., Phoma sp., Sistotrema brinkmannii, Alternaria sp., Aspergillus fumigatus, Schizophyllum commune, and Penicillium glabrum. In inside air of the fermentation room, Cladosporium sp., Aspergillus oryzae, Penicillium chrysogenum, Asp. nidulans, Aspergillus sp., Cla. cladosporioides, Eurotium sp., Penicillium sp., Cla. tenuissimum, Asp. niger, Eur. herbariorum, Asp. sydowii, and Eur. repens were collected with high frequency. The concentrations of the genera Aspergillus, Eurotium, and Penicillium were significantly higher in inside air than outside air. From this result and those of previous reports, the origin of fungi present on Meju was inferred. Of the dominant fungal species present on Meju, Lichtheimia ramosa, Mucor circinelloides, Mucor racemosus, and Scopulariopsis brevicaulis are thought to be originated from outside air, because these species are not or are rarely isolated from rice straw and soybean; however, they were detected outside air of fermentation room and are species commonly found in indoor environments. However, Asp. oryzae, Pen. polonicum, Eur. repens, Pen. solitum, and Eur. chevalieri, which are frequently found on Meju, are common in rice straw and could be transferred from rice straw to Meju. The fungi grow and produce abundant spores during Meju fermentation, and after the spores accumulate in the air of fermentation room, they could influence mycobiota of Meju fermentation in the following year. This could explain why concentrations of the genera Aspergillus, Eurotium, and Penicillium are much higher inside than outside of the fermentation rooms. PMID:26539041

  5. Aspergillus fumigatus and Aspergillosis

    PubMed Central

    Latgé, Jean-Paul

    1999-01-01

    Aspergillus fumigatus is one of the most ubiquitous of the airborne saprophytic fungi. Humans and animals constantly inhale numerous conidia of this fungus. The conidia are normally eliminated in the immunocompetent host by innate immune mechanisms, and aspergilloma and allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis, uncommon clinical syndromes, are the only infections observed in such hosts. Thus, A. fumigatus was considered for years to be a weak pathogen. With increases in the number of immunosuppressed patients, however, there has been a dramatic increase in severe and usually fatal invasive aspergillosis, now the most common mold infection worldwide. In this review, the focus is on the biology of A. fumigatus and the diseases it causes. Included are discussions of (i) genomic and molecular characterization of the organism, (ii) clinical and laboratory methods available for the diagnosis of aspergillosis in immunocompetent and immunocompromised hosts, (iii) identification of host and fungal factors that play a role in the establishment of the fungus in vivo, and (iv) problems associated with antifungal therapy. PMID:10194462

  6. Genomics of Aspergillus flavus mycotoxin production

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The aspergilli show immense ecological and metabolic diversity. To date, the sequences of fifteen different Aspergillus genomes have been determined providing scientists with an exciting resource to improve the understanding of Aspergillus molecular genomics. Aspergillus flavus, one of the most wide...

  7. [Ligninolytic Activity of Bacteria of the Genera Azospirillum and Niveispirillum].

    PubMed

    Kupryashina, M A; Petrov, S V; Ponomareva, E G; Nikitina, V E

    2015-01-01

    Capacity of associative soil bacteria of the genera Azospirillum and Niveispirillum for degradation of lignin model compounds was demonstrated. Lignin and Mn-peroxidases were detected in the culture liquid of the type strains of these genera. The data on involvement of nonspecific bacterial peroxidases in lignin degradation were obtained. PMID:26964358

  8. Recommended names for pleomorphic genera in Dothideomycetes.

    PubMed

    Rossman, Amy Y; Crous, Pedro W; Hyde, Kevin D; Hawksworth, David L; Aptroot, André; Bezerra, Jose L; Bhat, Jayarama D; Boehm, Eric; Braun, Uwe; Boonmee, Saranyaphat; Camporesi, Erio; Chomnunti, Putarak; Dai, Dong-Qin; D'souza, Melvina J; Dissanayake, Asha; Gareth Jones, E B; Groenewald, Johannes Z; Hernández-Restrepo, Margarita; Hongsanan, Sinang; Jaklitsch, Walter M; Jayawardena, Ruvishika; Jing, Li Wen; Kirk, Paul M; Lawrey, James D; Mapook, Ausana; McKenzie, Eric H C; Monkai, Jutamart; Phillips, Alan J L; Phookamsak, Rungtiwa; Raja, Huzefa A; Seifert, Keith A; Senanayake, Indunil; Slippers, Bernard; Suetrong, Satinee; Taylor, Joanne E; Thambugala, Kasun M; Tian, Qing; Tibpromma, Saowaluck; Wanasinghe, Dhanushka N; Wijayawardene, Nalin N; Wikee, Saowanee; Woudenberg, Joyce H C; Wu, Hai-Xia; Yan, Jiye; Yang, Tao; Zhang, Ying

    2015-12-01

    This paper provides recommendations of one name for use among pleomorphic genera in Dothideomycetes by the Working Group on Dothideomycetes established under the auspices of the International Commission on the Taxonomy of Fungi (ICTF). A number of these generic names are proposed for protection because they do not have priority and/or the generic name selected for use is asexually typified. These include: Acrogenospora over Farlowiella; Alternaria over Allewia, Lewia, and Crivellia; Botryosphaeria over Fusicoccum; Camarosporula over Anthracostroma; Capnodium over Polychaeton; Cladosporium over Davidiella; Corynespora over Corynesporasca; Curvularia over Pseudocochliobolus; Elsinoë over Sphaceloma; Excipulariopsis over Kentingia; Exosporiella over Anomalemma; Exserohilum over Setosphaeria; Gemmamyces over Megaloseptoria; Kellermania over Planistromella; Kirschsteiniothelia over Dendryphiopsis; Lecanosticta over Eruptio; Paranectriella over Araneomyces; Phaeosphaeria over Phaeoseptoria; Phyllosticta over Guignardia; Podonectria over Tetracrium; Polythrincium over Cymadothea; Prosthemium over Pleomassaria; Ramularia over Mycosphaerella; Sphaerellopsis over Eudarluca; Sphaeropsis over Phaeobotryosphaeria; Stemphylium over Pleospora; Teratosphaeria over Kirramyces and Colletogloeopsis; Tetraploa over Tetraplosphaeria; Venturia over Fusicladium and Pollaccia; and Zeloasperisporium over Neomicrothyrium. Twenty new combinations are made: Acrogenospora carmichaeliana (Berk.) Rossman & Crous, Alternaria scrophulariae (Desm.) Rossman & Crous, Pyrenophora catenaria (Drechsler) Rossman & K.D. Hyde, P. dematioidea (Bubák & Wróbl.) Rossman & K.D. Hyde, P. fugax (Wallr.) Rossman & K.D. Hyde, P. nobleae (McKenzie & D. Matthews) Rossman & K.D. Hyde, P. triseptata (Drechsler) Rossman & K.D. Hyde, Schizothyrium cryptogamum (Batzer & Crous) Crous & Batzer, S. cylindricum (G.Y. Sun et al.) Crous & Batzer, S. emperorae (G.Y. Sun & L. Gao) Crous & Batzer, S. inaequale (G.Y. Sun & L. Gao) Crous & Batzer, S. musae (G.Y. Sun & L. Gao) Crous & Batzer, S. qianense (G.Y. Sun & Y.Q. Ma) Crous & Batzer, S. tardecrescens (Batzer & Crous) Crous & Batzer, S. wisconsinense (Batzer & Crous) Crous & Batzer, Teratosphaeria epicoccoides (Cooke & Massee) Rossman & W.C. Allen, Venturia catenospora (Butin) Rossman & Crous, V. convolvularum (Ondrej) Rossman & Crous, V. oleaginea (Castagne) Rossman & Crous, and V. phillyreae (Nicolas & Aggéry) Rossman & Crous, combs. nov. Three replacement names are also proposed: Pyrenophora grahamii Rossman & K.D. Hyde, Schizothyrium sunii Crous & Batzer, and Venturia barriae Rossman & Crous noms. nov. PMID:26734553

  9. Cyclopiazonic Acid Biosynthesis of Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus oryzae

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cyclopiazonic acid (CPA) is an indole-tetramic acid neurotoxin produced by some of the same strains of A. flavus that produce aflatoxins and by some Aspergillus oryzae strains. Despite its discovery 40 years ago, few reviews of its toxicity and biosynthesis have been reported. This review examines w...

  10. Characterization of Aspergillus species on Brazil nut from the Brazilian Amazonian region and development of a PCR assay for identification at the genus level

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Brazil nut is a protein-rich extractivist tree crop in the Amazon region. Fungal contamination of shells and kernel material frequently includes the presence of aflatoxigenic Aspergillus species from the section Flavi. Aflatoxins are polyketide secondary metabolites, which are hepatotoxic carcinogens in mammals. The objectives of this study were to identify Aspergillus species occurring on Brazil nut grown in different states in the Brazilian Amazon region and develop a specific PCR method for collective identification of member species of the genus Aspergillus. Results Polyphasic identification of 137 Aspergillus strains isolated from Brazil nut shell material from cooperatives across the Brazilian Amazon states of Acre, Amapá and Amazonas revealed five species, with Aspergillus section Flavi species A. nomius and A. flavus the most abundant. PCR primers ASP_GEN_MTSSU_F1 and ASP_GEN_MTSSU_R1 were designed for the genus Aspergillus, targeting a portion of the mitochondrial small subunit ribosomal RNA gene. Primer specificity was validated through both electronic PCR against target gene sequences at Genbank and in PCR reactions against DNA from Aspergillus species and other fungal genera common on Brazil nut. Collective differentiation of the observed section Flavi species A. flavus, A. nomius and A. tamarii from other Aspergillus species was possible on the basis of RFLP polymorphism. Conclusions Given the abundance of Aspergillus section Flavi species A. nomius and A. flavus observed on Brazil nut, and associated risk of mycotoxin accumulation, simple identification methods for such mycotoxigenic species are of importance for Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point system implementation. The assay for the genus Aspergillus represents progress towards specific PCR identification and detection of mycotoxigenic species. PMID:24885088

  11. 76 FR 16297 - Aspergillus flavus

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-23

    ..., 2003 (68 FR 41541) (FRL-7311-6). Those health effects data were the basis for establishing the... Findings In the Federal Register of March 3, 2010 (75 FR 9596) (FRL-8811-2), EPA issued a notice pursuant... exemptions for experimental use of Aspergillus flavus AF36 on pistachio (72 FR 28871, May 23, 2007)...

  12. Sexual recombination in Aspergillus tubingensis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Aspergillus tubingensis from section Nigri (Black Aspergilli) is closely related to A. niger and is used extensively in the industrial production of enzymes and organic acids. We recently discovered sexual reproduction in A. tubingensis and in this study, demonstrate that the progeny are products o...

  13. Aspergillus asperus and Aspergillus collinsii, two new species from Aspergillus section Usti

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In sampling fungi from the built environment, two isolates that could not confidently be placed in described species were encountered. Phenotypic analysis suggested that they belonged in Aspergillus sect. Usti. In order to verify the sectional placement and to assure that they were undescribed rathe...

  14. Taxonomy, chemodiversity, and chemoconsistency of Aspergillus, Penicillium, and Talaromyces species

    PubMed Central

    Frisvad, Jens C.

    2014-01-01

    Aspergillus, Penicillium, and Talaromyces are among the most chemically inventive of all fungi, producing a wide array of secondary metabolites (exometabolites). The three genera are holophyletic in a cladistic sense and polythetic classes in an anagenetic or functional sense, and contain 344, 354, and 88 species, respectively. New developments in classification, cladification, and nomenclature have meant that the species, series, and sections suggested are natural groups that share many extrolites, including exometabolites, exoproteins, exocarbohydrates, and exolipids in addition to morphological features. The number of exometabolites reported from these species is very large, and genome sequencing projects have shown that a large number of additional exometabolites may be expressed, given the right conditions (“cryptic” gene clusters for exometabolites). The exometabolites are biosynthesized via shikimic acid, tricarboxylic acid cycle members, nucleotides, carbohydrates or as polyketides, non-ribosomal peptides, terpenes, or mixtures of those. The gene clusters coding for these compounds contain genes for the biosynthetic building blocks, the linking of these building blocks, tailoring enzymes, resistance for own products, and exporters. Species within a series or section in Aspergillus, Penicillium, and Talaromyces have many exometabolites in common, seemingly acquired by cladogenesis, but some the gene clusters for autapomorphic exometabolites may have been acquired by horizontal gene transfer. Despite genome sequencing efforts, and the many breakthroughs these will give, it is obvious that epigenetic factors play a large role in evolution and function of chemodiversity, and better methods for characterizing the epigenome are needed. Most of the individual species of the three genera produce a consistent and characteristic profile of exometabolites, but growth medium variations, stimulation by exometabolites from other species, and variations in abiotic intrinsic and extrinsic environmental factors such as pH, temperature, redox potential, and water activity will add significantly to the number of biosynthetic families expressed in anyone species. An example of the shared exometabolites in a natural group such as Aspergillus section Circumdati series Circumdati is that most, but not all species produce penicillic acids, aspyrones, neoaspergillic acids, xanthomegnins, melleins, aspergamides, circumdatins, and ochratoxins, in different combinations. PMID:25628613

  15. Bergbambos and Oldeania, new genera of African bamboos (Poaceae, Bambusoideae)

    PubMed Central

    Stapleton, Chris M. A.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Two new monotypic genera, Bergbambos and Oldeania are described for African temperate bamboo species in the tribe Arundinarieae, after a comparison of their morphological characteristics with those of similar species from Asia. Morphological differences are supported by their isolated geographical distributions. Molecular evidence does not support the inclusion of these species in related Asian genera, recognising them instead as distinct lineages. New combinations Bergbambos tessellata and Oldeania alpina are made. PMID:24198715

  16. What Does Genetic Diversity of Aspergillus flavus Tell Us About Aspergillus oryzae?

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus oryzae belong to Aspergillus section Flavi. They are closely related and are of significant economic importance. The former species has the ability to produce harmful aflatoxins while the latter is widely used in food fermentation and industrial enzyme production. ...

  17. Developmental regulators in Aspergillus fumigatus.

    PubMed

    Park, Hee-Soo; Yu, Jae-Hyuk

    2016-03-01

    The filamentous fungus Aspergillus fumigatus is the most prevalent airborne fungal pathogen causing severe and usually fatal invasive aspergillosis in immunocompromised patients. This fungus produces a large number of small hydrophobic asexual spores called conidia as the primary means of reproduction, cell survival, propagation, and infectivity. The initiation, progression, and completion of asexual development (conidiation) is controlled by various regulators that govern expression of thousands of genes associated with formation of the asexual developmental structure conidiophore, and biogenesis of conidia. In this review, we summarize key regulators that directly or indirectly govern conidiation in this important pathogenic fungus. Better understanding these developmental regulators may provide insights into the improvement in controlling both beneficial and detrimental aspects of various Aspergillus species. PMID:26920882

  18. Atypical Aspergillus parasiticus isolates from pistachio with aflR gene nucleotide insertion identical to Aspergillus sojae

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Aflatoxins are the most toxic and carcinogenic secondary metabolites produced primarily by the filamentous fungi Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus parasiticus. The toxins cause devastating economic losses because of strict regulations on distribution of contaminated products. Aspergillus sojae are...

  19. New Toxin from Aspergillus flavus

    PubMed Central

    Kirksey, J. W.; Cole, R. J.

    1973-01-01

    Two nonaflatoxin-producing isolates of Aspergillus flavus produced a new nonfluorescent nitrogen-containing metabolite that was highly toxic to 1-day-old cockerels. The oral mean lethal dose of toxin was 19 mg/kg. Chemical and physical data obtained on the purified toxin demonstrated that it was not one of the previously reported metabolites of A. flavus. The common name „flavutoxin” has been assigned to the toxin. PMID:4202708

  20. CADRE: the Central Aspergillus Data REpository.

    PubMed

    Mabey, J E; Anderson, M J; Giles, P F; Miller, C J; Attwood, T K; Paton, N W; Bornberg-Bauer, E; Robson, G D; Oliver, S G; Denning, D W

    2004-01-01

    CADRE is a public resource for housing and analysing genomic data extracted from species of Aspergillus. It arose to enable maintenance of the complete annotated genomic sequence of Aspergillus fumigatus and to provide tools for searching, analysing and visualizing features of fungal genomes. By implementing CADRE using Ensembl, a framework is in place for storing and comparing several genomes: the resource will thus expand by including other Aspergillus genomes (such as Aspergillus nidulans) as they become available. CADRE is accessible at http://www.cadre. man.ac.uk. PMID:14681443

  1. CADRE: the Central Aspergillus Data REpository

    PubMed Central

    Mabey, J. E.; Anderson, M. J.; Giles, P. F.; Miller, C. J.; Attwood, T. K.; Paton, N. W.; Bornberg-Bauer, E.; Robson, G. D.; Oliver, S. G.; Denning, D. W.

    2004-01-01

    CADRE is a public resource for housing and analysing genomic data extracted from species of Aspergillus. It arose to enable maintenance of the complete annotated genomic sequence of Aspergillus fumigatus and to provide tools for searching, analysing and visualizing features of fungal genomes. By implementing CADRE using Ensembl, a framework is in place for storing and comparing several genomes: the resource will thus expand by including other Aspergillus genomes (such as Aspergillus nidulans) as they become available. CADRE is accessible at http://www.cadre.man.ac.uk. PMID:14681443

  2. The melectine bee genera Brachymelecta and Sinomelecta (Hymenoptera, Apidae)

    PubMed Central

    Engel, Michael S.; Michener, Charles D.

    2012-01-01

    Abstract The enigmatic, cleptoparasitic bee genera Brachymelecta Linsley and Sinomelecta Baker (Apinae: Melectini) are redescribed, each represented by a single species which has not been reencountered since capture of the type series ca. 1878 and 1900, respectively. Both genera are the only melectines to possess two submarginal cells in the forewing but are otherwise wholly dissimilar. Brachymelecta mucida (Cresson), a species known only from the male holotype collected in “Nevada”, is newly described and figured, including the first account of the hidden sterna and genitalia. Sinomelecta oreina Baker is similarly described and figured based on the holotype male and paratype female, apparently collected from the eastern Tibetan Plateau. Both genera are valid and from the available data do not appear to represent merely autapomorphic forms of Melecta Latreille. Indeed, the terminalia of Sinomelecta oreina are in some respects more similar to those of species of Thyreus Panzer. PMID:23275741

  3. Incomplete Lineage Sorting Is Common in Extant Gibbon Genera

    PubMed Central

    Luca, Francesca; Carbone, Lucia; Mootnick, Alan R.; de Jong, Pieter J.; Di Rienzo, Anna

    2013-01-01

    We sequenced reduced representation libraries by means of Illumina technology to generate over 1.5 Mb of orthologous sequence from a representative of each of the four extant gibbon genera (Nomascus, Hylobates, Symphalangus, and Hoolock). We used these data to assess the evolutionary relationships between the genera by evaluating the likelihoods of all possible bifurcating trees involving the four taxa. Our analyses provide weak support for a tree with Nomascus and Hylobates as sister taxa and with Hoolock and Symphalangus as sister taxa, though bootstrap resampling suggests that other phylogenetic scenarios are also possible. This uncertainty is due to short internal branch lengths and extensive incomplete lineage sorting across taxa. The true phylogenetic relationships among gibbon genera will likely require a more extensive whole-genome sequence analysis. PMID:23341974

  4. Cyclopiazonic Acid Biosynthesis of Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus oryzae

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Perng-Kuang; Ehrlich, Kenneth C.; Fujii, Isao

    2009-01-01

    Cyclopiazonic acid (CPA) is an indole-tetramic acid neurotoxin produced by some of the same strains of A. flavus that produce aflatoxins and by some Aspergillus oryzae strains. Despite its discovery 40 years ago, few reviews of its toxicity and biosynthesis have been reported. This review examines what is currently known about the toxicity of CPA to animals and humans, both by itself or in combination with other mycotoxins. The review also discusses CPA biosynthesis and the genetic diversity of CPA production in A. flavus/oryzae populations. PMID:22069533

  5. Laboulbeniales on millipedes: the genera Diplopodomyces and Troglomyces.

    PubMed

    Santamaria, Sergi; Enghoff, Henrik; Reboleira, Ana Sofia P S

    2014-01-01

    The genera Diplopodomyces and Troglomyces (Laboulbeniales, Ascomycota) parasitizing millipedes (Diplopoda) are reviewed. We describe four new species: D. lusitanipodos parasitic on Lusitanipus from Portugal and on Cyphocallipus from Spain, D. veneris on Lusitanipus from Portugal, T. botryandrus on Leptoiulus from Italy and T. rossii on Ophyiulus, Leptoiulus and Typhloiulus from Italy. Diplopodomyces veneris is a dimorphic species, with different morphotypes growing on the male copulatory organs and on the surroundings of the female gonopore respectively. The type species of both genera also have been studied, their descriptions are revised and a neotype for T. manfrediae is designated. New records from Italy are given for D. callipodos and T. manfrediae. PMID:24987128

  6. Distinctions between the snake genera Contia and Eirenis

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stickel, W.H.

    1951-01-01

    Summary: Various workers have believed Contia to be related to or congeneric with either or both Sonora and Eirenis, the latter a genus of Western Asia. Study of hemipenes, teeth, and jaws indicates that these genera are not related to one another. The hemipenes of Eirenis modesta and Contia tenuis are described. Eirenis is thought to be a derivative of the racer group. Relationships of Contia are unknown. It is suggested that some North American genera with xenodontine-type hemipenes may not be of the South American faunal element and may have been in North America at least as long as the Old Northerners.

  7. Pulmonary hyalinizing granuloma associated with Aspergillus infection.

    PubMed

    Pinckard, J Keith; Rosenbluth, Daniel B; Patel, Kishor; Dehner, Louis P; Pfeifer, John D

    2003-01-01

    A 38-year-old immunocompetent man with occupational exposure to Aspergillus presented with dyspnea, pleuritic chest pain, and hemoptysis. Chest roentgenograms and computed tomography scans demonstrated multiple pulmonary nodules bilaterally. An initial set of bronchial washing cultures grew Aspergillus fumigatus, serologic testing showed an elevated anti-Aspergillus titer, and immunodiffusion testing was positive for antibody against A. fumigatus and A. niger. There was no microbiologic or serologic evidence of infection by other pathogens, and no clinical or laboratory evidence of autoimmune disease. An open lung biopsy was diagnostic of pulmonary hyalinizing granuloma. This novel association with Aspergillus infection not only expands the spectrum of pathogens linked to pulmonary hyalinizing granuloma but also documents a new pattern of lung disease that can be caused by Aspergillus. PMID:12598920

  8. Aspergillus tracheobronchitis in a mild immunocompromised host.

    PubMed

    Cho, Byung Ha; Oh, Youngmin; Kang, Eun Seok; Hong, Yong Joo; Jeong, Hye Won; Lee, Ok-Jun; Chang, You-Jin; Choe, Kang Hyeon; Lee, Ki Man; An, Jin-Young

    2014-11-01

    Aspergillus tracheobronchitis is a form of invasive pulmonary aspergillosis in which the Aspergillus infection is limited predominantly to the tracheobronchial tree. It occurs primarily in severely immunocompromised patients such as lung transplant recipients. Here, we report a case of Aspergillus tracheobronchitis in a 42-year-old man with diabetes mellitus, who presented with intractable cough, lack of expectoration of sputum, and chest discomfort. The patient did not respond to conventional treatment with antibiotics and antitussive agents, and he underwent bronchoscopy that showed multiple, discrete, gelatinous whitish plaques mainly involving the trachea and the left bronchus. On the basis of the bronchoscopic and microbiologic findings, we made the diagnosis of Aspergillus tracheobronchitis and initiated antifungal therapy. He showed gradual improvement in his symptoms and continued taking oral itraconazole for 6 months. Physicians should consider Aspergillus tracheobronchitis as a probable diagnosis in immunocompromised patients presenting with atypical respiratory symptoms and should try to establish a prompt diagnosis. PMID:25473411

  9. Evaluating fungal populations by genera/species on wide body commercial passenger aircraft and in airport terminals.

    PubMed

    McKernan, Lauralynn Taylor; Burge, Harriet; Wallingford, Kenneth M; Hein, Misty J; Herrick, Robert

    2007-04-01

    Given the potential health effects of fungi and the amount of time aircrew and passengers spend inside aircraft, it is important to study fungal populations in the aircraft environment. Research objectives included documenting the genera/species of airborne culturable fungal concentrations and total spore concentrations on a twin-aisle wide body commercial passenger aircraft. Twelve flights between 4.5 and 6.5 h in duration on Boeing 767 (B-767) aircraft were evaluated. Two air cooling packs and 50% recirculation rate (i.e. 50:50 mix of outside air and filtered inside air) were utilized during flight operations. Passenger occupancy rates varied from 67 to 100%. N-6 impactors and total spore traps were used to collect sequential, triplicate air samples in the front and rear of coach class during six sampling intervals throughout each flight: boarding, mid-climb, early cruise, mid-cruise, late cruise and deplaning. Comparison air samples were also collected inside and outside the airport terminals at the origin and destination cities resulting in a total of 522 culturable and 517 total spore samples. A total of 45 surface wipe samples were collected using swabs onboard the aircraft and inside the airport terminals. A variety of taxa were observed in the culturable and total spore samples. A frequency analysis of the fungal data indicated that Cladosporium, Aspergillus and Penicillium were predominant genera in the culturable samples whereas Cladosporium, Basidiospores and Penicillium/Aspergillus were predominant in the total spore samples. Fungal populations observed inside the aircraft were comprised of similar genera, detected significantly less frequently and with lower mean concentrations than those observed in typical office buildings. Although sources internal to the aircraft could not be ruled out, our data demonstrate the importance of passenger activity as the source of the fungi observed on aircraft. Isolated fungal peak events occurred occasionally when concentrations of a particular genus or species rose sharply inside the cabin for a limited period. Overall, our research demonstrates that on the sampled flights the B-767 filtration system operated efficiently to remove fungal spores when two air cooling packs and 50% recirculation rate were utilized during flight operations. PMID:17351266

  10. Keys to genera of the spider wasps (Hymenoptera: Pompilidae) of Russia and neighbouring countries, with check-list of genera.

    PubMed

    Loktionov, Valery M; Lelej, Arkady S

    2015-01-01

    Keys to 55 genera of spider wasps of Russia and neighbouring countries in females and males are given. Of them 34 genera are distributed in Russia. An annotated list of genera with type species and distribution data within Russia and biogeographical regions is given. The genus Xenaporus Ashmead, 1902 and X. eremocanus Wolf, 1990 are newly recorded from Russia. According to ICZN 1995 (Opinion 1820) new synonymy (valid name first) is proposed for the type species of genus Cryptocheilus Panzer, 1806: Sphex annulata Fabricius, 1798 (=Pompilus alternatus Lepeletier de Saint Fargeau, 1845, syn. nov.; =Pompilus comparatus Smith, 1855, syn. nov.; =Priocnemis culpabilis Costa, 1893, syn. nov.; Salius annulatilis Richards, 1935, syn. nov.). PMID:26624432

  11. Two novel species of Aspergillus section Nigri from indoor air

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Aspergillus collinsii, Aspergillus floridensis, and Aspergillus trinidadensis are described as novel uniseriate species of Aspergillus section Nigri isolated from air samples. To describe the species we used phenotypes from 7-d Czapek yeast extract agar culture (CYA) and malt extract agar culture (M...

  12. Catalog of the Aphid Genera Described from the New World

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This manuscript presents a synthesis and catalogue of the genera of New World aphids (sensu stricto) from 1758 to 2004. It includes information on 215 generic and subgeneric names, type localities, bibliographic information, etymology, as well as synonymic and other nomenclatural data. Two nomencl...

  13. Leaf-inhabiting genera of the Gnomoniaceae, Diaporthales

    PubMed Central

    Sogonov, M.V.; Castlebury, L.A.; Rossman, A.Y.; Mejía, L.C.; White, J.F.

    2008-01-01

    The Gnomoniaceae are characterised by ascomata that are generally immersed, solitary, without a stroma, or aggregated with a rudimentary stroma, in herbaceous plant material especially in leaves, twigs or stems, but also in bark or wood. The ascomata are black, soft-textured, thin-walled, and pseudoparenchymatous with one or more central or eccentric necks. The asci usually have a distinct apical ring. The Gnomoniaceae includes species having ascospores that are small, mostly less than 25 μm long, although some are longer, and range in septation from non-septate to one-septate, rarely multi-septate. Molecular studies of the Gnomoniaceae suggest that the traditional classification of genera based on characteristics of the ascomata such as position of the neck and ascospores such as septation have resulted in genera that are not monophyletic. In this paper the concepts of the leaf-inhabiting genera in the Gnomoniaceae are reevaluated using multiple genes, specifically nrLSU, translation elongation factor 1-alpha (tef1-α), and RNA polymerase II second largest subunit (rpb2) for 64 isolates. ITS sequences were generated for 322 isolates. Six genera of leaf-inhabiting Gnomoniaceae are defined based on placement of their type species within the multigene phylogeny. The new monotypic genus Ambarignomonia is established for an unusual species, A. petiolorum. A key to 59 species of leaf-inhabiting Gnomoniaceae is presented and 22 species of Gnomoniaceae are described and illustrated. PMID:19287541

  14. Biogeography of two cold-adapted genera: Psychrobacter and Exiguobacterium.

    PubMed

    Rodrigues, Debora F; da C Jesus, Ederson; Ayala-Del-Río, Hector L; Pellizari, Vivian H; Gilichinsky, David; Sepulveda-Torres, Lycely; Tiedje, James M

    2009-06-01

    The genera Exiguobacterium and Psychrobacter have been frequently detected in and isolated from polar permafrost and ice. These two genera have members that can grow at temperatures as low as -5 and -10 degrees C, respectively. We used quantitative PCR (Q-PCR) to quantify members of these genera in 54 soil or sediment samples from polar, temperate and tropical environments to determine to what extent they are selected by cold environments. These results were further analyzed by multiple linear regression to identify the most relevant environmental factors corresponding to their distribution. Exiguobacterium was detected in all three climatic zones at similar densities, but was patchier in the temperate and tropical samples. Psychrobacter was present in almost all polar samples, was at highest densities in Antarctica sediment samples, but was in very low densities and infrequently detected in temperate and tropical soils. Clone libraries, specific for the 16S rRNA gene for each genus, were constructed from a sample from each climatic region. The clone libraries were analyzed for alpha and beta diversities, as well as for variation in population structure by using analysis of molecular variance. Results confirm that both genera were found in all three climatic zones; however, Psychrobacter populations seemed to be much more diverse than Exiguobacterium in all three climatic zones. Furthermore, Psychrobacter populations from Antarctica are different from those in Michigan and Puerto Rico, which are similar to each other. PMID:19322243

  15. Isolation of culturable mycobiota from agricultural soils and determination of tolerance to glyphosate of nontoxigenic Aspergillus section Flavi strains.

    PubMed

    Carranza, Cecilia S; Barberis, Carla L; Chiacchiera, Stella M; Dalcero, Ana María; Magnoli, Carina E

    2016-01-01

    Glyphosate-based herbicides are extensively used in Argentina's agricultural system to control undesirable weeds. This study was conducted to evaluate the culturable mycobiota [colony forming units (CFU) g(-1) and frequency of fungal genera or species] from an agricultural field exposed to pesticides. In addition, we evaluated the tolerance of A. oryzae and nontoxigenic A. flavus strains to high concentrations (100 to 500 mM - 17,000 to 84,500 ppm) of a glyphosate commercial formulation. The analysis of the mycobiota showed that the frequency of the main fungal genera varied according to the analyzed sampling period. Aspergillus spp. or Aspergillus section Flavi strains were isolated from 20 to 100% of the soil samples. Sterilia spp. were also observed throughout the sampling (50 to 100%). Aspergillus section Flavi tolerance assays showed that all of the tested strains were able to develop at the highest glyphosate concentration tested regardless of the water availability conditions. In general, significant reductions in growth rates were observed with increasing concentrations of the herbicide. However, a complete inhibition of fungal growth was not observed with the concentrations assayed. This study contributes to the knowledge of culturable mycobiota from agricultural soils exposed to pesticides and provides evidence on the effective growth ability of A. oryzae and nontoxigenic A. flavus strains exposed to high glyphosate concentrations in vitro. PMID:26549415

  16. Occurrence of Aspergillus section flavi and aflatoxin B1 in corn genotypes and corn meal in Argentina.

    PubMed

    Etcheverry, M; Nesci, A; Barros, G; Torres, A; Chulze, S

    1999-01-01

    A study has been carried out in Argentina on samples of corn genotypes from a breeding station as well as in commercially available corn meal. All samples were analyzed for fungal infection and aflatoxin B1. Mycological analysis of corn genotypes showed the presence of three principal genera of filamentous fungi Fusarium (100%), Penicillium (67%) and Aspergillus (60%). In the genus Fusarium three species were identified, F. moniliforme (42%), F. nygamai (56%) and F. proliferatum (1.8%). Eight species of Penicillium were identified, the predominant species isolated were P. minioluteum, P. funiculosum and P. variabile. In the genus ranked third in isolation frequency, two species were identified, A. flavus and A. parasiticus, the percentage of infection was 78% and 21%, respectively. Only one corn genotype was contaminated with aflatoxin B1 at a level of 5 ppb. The corn meal samples showed great differences in fungal contamination, the values ranging from 1 x 10(1) to 7 x 10(5) cfu g-1. Fusarium (68%), Aspergillus (35%) and Penicillium (21%) were the most frequent genera isolated. Among the genus, Aspergillus, A. parasiticus (38%) was the most frequent species isolated. All the samples of corn meal were negative to aflatoxin B1. These results indicate a low degree of human exposure to aflatoxins in Argentina through the ingestion of maize or corn meal. PMID:10872514

  17. The Botryosphaeriaceae: genera and species known from culture

    PubMed Central

    Phillips, A.J.L.; Alves, A.; Abdollahzadeh, J.; Slippers, B.; Wingfield, M.J.; Groenewald, J.Z.; Crous, P.W.

    2013-01-01

    In this paper we give an account of the genera and species in the Botryosphaeriaceae. We consider morphological characters alone as inadequate to define genera or identify species, given the confusion it has repeatedly introduced in the past, their variation during development, and inevitable overlap as representation grows. Thus it seems likely that all of the older taxa linked to the Botryosphaeriaceae, and for which cultures or DNA sequence data are not available, cannot be linked to the species in this family that are known from culture. Such older taxa will have to be disregarded for future use unless they are epitypified. We therefore focus this paper on the 17 genera that can now be recognised phylogenetically, which concentrates on the species that are presently known from culture. Included is a historical overview of the family, the morphological features that define the genera and species and detailed descriptions of the 17 genera and 110 species. Keys to the genera and species are also provided. Phylogenetic relationships of the genera are given in a multi-locus tree based on combined SSU, ITS, LSU, EF1-α and β-tubulin sequences. The morphological descriptions are supplemented by phylogenetic trees (ITS alone or ITS + EF1-α) for the species in each genus. Taxonomic novelties: New species - Neofusicoccum batangarum Begoude, Jol. Roux & Slippers. New combinations - Botryosphaeria fabicerciana (S.F. Chen, D. Pavlic, M.J. Wingf. & X.D. Zhou) A.J.L. Phillips & A. Alves, Botryosphaeria ramosa (Pavlic, T.I. Burgess, M.J. Wingf.) A.J.L. Phillips & A. Alves, Cophinforma atrovirens (Mehl & Slippers) A. Alves & A.J.L. Phillips, Cophinforma mamane (D.E. Gardner) A.J.L. Phillips & A. Alves, Dothiorella pretoriensis (Jami, Gryzenh., Slippers & M.J. Wingf.) Abdollahz. & A.J.L. Phillips, Dothiorella thailandica (D.Q. Dai., J.K. Liu & K.D. Hyde) Abdollahz., A.J.L. Phillips & A. Alves, Dothiorella uruguayensis (C.A. Pérez, Blanchette, Slippers & M.J. Wingf.) Abdollahz. & A.J.L. Phillips, Lasiodiplodia lignicola (Ariyawansa, J.K. Liu & K.D. Hyde) A.J.L. Phillips, A. Alves & Abdollahz., Neoscytalidium hyalinum (C.K. Campb. & J.L. Mulder) A.J.L. Phillips, Groenewald & Crous, Sphaeropsis citrigena (A.J.L. Phillips, P.R. Johnst. & Pennycook) A.J.L. Phillips & A. Alves, Sphaeropsis eucalypticola (Doilom, J.K. Liu, & K.D. Hyde) A.J.L. Phillips, Sphaeropsis porosa (Van Niekerk & Crous) A.J.L. Phillips & A. Alves. Epitypification (basionym) - Sphaeria sapinea Fries. Neotypifications (basionyms) - Botryodiplodia theobromae Pat., Physalospora agaves Henn, Sphaeria atrovirens var. visci Alb. & Schwein. PMID:24302790

  18. Small heat shock proteins, phylogeny in filamentous fungi and expression analyses in Aspergillus nidulans.

    PubMed

    Wu, Jianbing; Wang, Mingshuang; Zhou, Liting; Yu, Dongliang

    2016-01-10

    Small heat shock proteins (sHSPs) have been characterized in organisms from all three domains of life and viruses and are involved in a wide range of biological functions. However, the evolution and function of sHSP in Aspergillus species are largely unknown. In the present work, sHSPs were identified in 31 filamentous fungi, including species from Aspergillus, Penicillium, Fusarium and Magnaporthe, as well as Botrytis cinerea and Neurospora crassa. Phylogenetic analysis revealed high level of divergence of sHSPs among filamentous fungi that orthologs could be only found between very closely related species. Strikingly, duplication of shsp genes occurred in genera Penicillium and also Aspergillus nidulans was observed, which might be an important pathway of sHSPs evolution. Expression analysis of shsp genes revealed that sHSPs were involved in response of A. nidulans to various conditions, including cold/heat as well as oxidative and osmotic stresses, and that the recent duplicated sHSPs in A. nidulans had highly similar function. PMID:26403724

  19. Secondary metabolite profiles and antifungal drug susceptibility of Aspergillus fumigatus and closely related species, Aspergillus lentulus, Aspergillus udagawae, and Aspergillus viridinutans.

    PubMed

    Tamiya, Hiroyuki; Ochiai, Eri; Kikuchi, Kazuyo; Yahiro, Maki; Toyotome, Takahito; Watanabe, Akira; Yaguchi, Takashi; Kamei, Katsuhiko

    2015-05-01

    The incidence of Aspergillus infection has been increasing in the past few years. Also, new Aspergillus fumigatus-related species, namely Aspergillus lentulus, Aspergillus udagawae, and Aspergillus viridinutans, were shown to infect humans. These fungi exhibit marked morphological similarities to A. fumigatus, albeit with different clinical courses and antifungal drug susceptibilities. The present study used liquid chromatography/time-of-flight mass spectrometry to identify the secondary metabolites secreted as virulence factors by these Aspergillus species and compared their antifungal susceptibility. The metabolite profiles varied widely among A. fumigatus, A. lentulus, A. udagawae, and A. viridinutans, producing 27, 13, 8, and 11 substances, respectively. Among the mycotoxins, fumifungin, fumiquinazoline A/B and D, fumitremorgin B, gliotoxin, sphingofungins, pseurotins, and verruculogen were only found in A. fumigatus, whereas auranthine was only found in A. lentulus. The amount of gliotoxin, one of the most abundant mycotoxins in A. fumigatus, was negligible in these related species. In addition, they had decreased susceptibility to antifungal agents such as itraconazole and voriconazole, even though metabolites that were shared in the isolates showing higher minimum inhibitory concentrations than epidemiological cutoff values were not detected. These strikingly different secondary metabolite profiles may lead to the development of more discriminative identification protocols for such closely related Aspergillus species as well as improved treatment outcomes. PMID:25737146

  20. CADRE: the Central Aspergillus Data REpository 2012

    PubMed Central

    Mabey Gilsenan, Jane; Cooley, John; Bowyer, Paul

    2012-01-01

    The Central Aspergillus Data REpository (CADRE; http://www.cadre-genomes.org.uk) is a public resource for genomic data extracted from species of Aspergillus. It provides an array of online tools for searching and visualising features of this significant fungal genus. CADRE arose from a need within the medical community to understand the human pathogen Aspergillus fumigatus. Due to the paucity of Aspergillus genomic resources 10 years ago, the long-term goal of this project was to collate and maintain Aspergillus genomes as they became available. Since our first release in 2004, the resource has expanded to encompass annotated sequence for eight other Aspergilli and provides much needed support to the international Aspergillus research community. Recent developments, however, in sequencing technology are creating a vast amount of genomic data and, as a result, we shortly expect a tidal wave of Aspergillus data. In preparation for this, we have upgraded the database and software suite. This not only enables better management of more complex data sets, but also improves annotation by providing access to genome comparison data and the integration of high-throughput data. PMID:22080563

  1. CADRE: the Central Aspergillus Data REpository 2012.

    PubMed

    Mabey Gilsenan, Jane; Cooley, John; Bowyer, Paul

    2012-01-01

    The Central Aspergillus Data REpository (CADRE; http://www.cadre-genomes.org.uk) is a public resource for genomic data extracted from species of Aspergillus. It provides an array of online tools for searching and visualising features of this significant fungal genus. CADRE arose from a need within the medical community to understand the human pathogen Aspergillus fumigatus. Due to the paucity of Aspergillus genomic resources 10 years ago, the long-term goal of this project was to collate and maintain Aspergillus genomes as they became available. Since our first release in 2004, the resource has expanded to encompass annotated sequence for eight other Aspergilli and provides much needed support to the international Aspergillus research community. Recent developments, however, in sequencing technology are creating a vast amount of genomic data and, as a result, we shortly expect a tidal wave of Aspergillus data. In preparation for this, we have upgraded the database and software suite. This not only enables better management of more complex data sets, but also improves annotation by providing access to genome comparison data and the integration of high-throughput data. PMID:22080563

  2. Activity of antibiotics against Fusarium and Aspergillus

    PubMed Central

    Day, Shelley; Lalitha, Prajna; Haug, Sara; Fothergill, Annette W.; Cevallos, Vicky; Vijayakumar, Rajendran; Prajna, Namperumalsamy V.; Acharya, Nisha R.; McLeod, Stephen D.; Lietman, Thomas M.

    2008-01-01

    Background/Aims To study the susceptibility of Fusarium and Aspergillus isolated from keratitis to amoxicillin, cefazolin, chloramphenicol, moxifloxacin, tobramycin, and benzalkonium chloride (BAK). Methods 10 isolates of Fusarium and 10 isolates of Aspergillus from cases of fungal keratitis at Aravind Eye Hospital in South India were tested using microbroth dilution for susceptibility to amoxicillin, cefazolin, chloramphenicol, moxifloxacin, tobramycin, and BAK. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) median and 90th percentile were determined. Results BAK had the lowest MIC for both Fusarium and Aspergillus. Chloramphenicol had activity against both Fusarium and Aspergillus, while moxifloxacin and tobramycin had activity against Fusarium but not Aspergillus. Conclusions The susceptibility of Fusarium to tobramycin, moxifloxacin, chloramphenicol, and BAK and of Aspergillus to chloramphenicol and BAK may explain anecdotal reports of fungal ulcers that improved with antibiotic treatment alone. While some of the MICs of antibiotics and BAK are lower than the typically prescribed concentrations, they are not in the range of antifungal agents such as voriconazole, natamycin, and amphotericin B. Antibiotics may, however, have a modest effect on Fusarium and Aspergillus when used as initial treatment prior to identification of the pathologic organism. PMID:18952649

  3. Fungi in healthy and diseased sea fans ( Gorgonia ventalina): is Aspergillus sydowii always the pathogen?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toledo-Hernández, C.; Zuluaga-Montero, A.; Bones-González, A.; Rodríguez, J. A.; Sabat, A. M.; Bayman, P.

    2008-09-01

    Caribbean corals, including sea fans ( Gorgonia spp.), are being affected by severe and apparently new diseases. In the case of sea fans, the pathogen is reported to be the fungus Aspergillus sydowii, and the disease is named aspergillosis. In order to understand coral diseases and pathogens, knowledge of the microbes associated with healthy corals is also necessary. In this study the fungal community of healthy Gorgonia ventalina colonies was contrasted with that of diseased colonies. In addition, the fungal community of healthy and diseased tissue within colonies with aspergillosis was contrasted. Fungi were isolated from healthy and diseased fans from 15 reefs around Puerto Rico, and identified by sequencing the nuclear ribosomal ITS region and by morphology. Thirty fungal species belonging to 15 genera were isolated from 203 G. ventalina colonies. Penicillum and Aspergillus were the most common genera isolated from both healthy and diseased fans. However, the fungal community of healthy fans was distinct and more diverse than that of diseased ones. Within diseased fans, fungal communities from diseased tissues were distinct and more diverse than from healthy tissue. The reduction of fungi in diseased colonies may occur prior to infection due to environmental changes affecting the host, or after infection due to increase in dominance of the pathogen, or because of host responses to infection. Data also indicate that the fungal community of an entire sea fan colony is affected even when only a small portion of the colony suffers from aspergillosis. An unexpected result was that A. sydowii was found in healthy sea fans but never in diseased ones. This result suggests that A. sydowii is not the pathogen causing aspergillosis in the studied colonies, and suggests several fungi common to healthy and diseased colonies as opportunistic pathogens. Given that it is not clear that Aspergillus is the sole pathogen, calling this disease aspergillosis is an oversimplification at best.

  4. Variation in fungal microbiome (mycobiome) and aflatoxin in stored in-shell peanuts at four different areas of China

    PubMed Central

    Ding, Ning; Xing, Fuguo; Liu, Xiao; Selvaraj, Jonathan N.; Wang, Limin; Zhao, Yueju; Wang, Yan; Guo, Wei; Dai, Xiaofeng; Liu, Yang

    2015-01-01

    The contamination of peanuts with Aspergillus sp. and subsequently aflatoxins is considered to be one of the most serious safety problems in the world. Mycobiome in peanuts is critical for aflatoxin production and food safety. To evaluate the biodiversity and ecological characteristics of whole communities in stored peanuts, the barcoded Illumina paired-end sequencing of the internal transcribed spacer 2 (ITS2) region of rDNA was used to characterize the peanut mycobiome monthly over a period of 1 year at four main peanut grown areas, i.e., Liaoning (LN, North East), Shandong (SD, East), Hubei (HB, Central), and Guangdong (GD, South) provinces. The fungal diversity of peanuts stored in SD was the highest with 98 OTUs and 43 genera, followed by LN, HB and GD. In peanuts stored in SD, Rhizopus, Emericella, and Clonostachys were predominant. In peanuts from LN, Penicillium, Eurotium, and Clonostachys were abundant. In peanuts from HB, Penicillium, Eurotium, and Aspergillus were higher. In GD peanuts, Eurotium, Aspergillus, and Emericella were mainly seen. The abundances of Aspergillus in LN, SD, HB, and GD were 0.53, 6.29, 10.86, and 25.75%, respectively. From the North of China to the South, that increased over the latitude, suggesting that the higher temperature and relative humidity might increase the risk of peanuts contaminated with Aspergillus and aflatoxins. During the storage, Aspergillus levels were higher at 7–12 months than in 0–6 months, suggesting that the risk increases over storage time. At 7–10 months, AFB1 was higher in four areas, while declined further. The reduction of AFB1 might be attributed to the inhibition and degradation of AFB1 by Aspergillus niger or to the combination with the compounds of peanuts. This is the first study that identified the mycobiome and its variation in stored peanuts using ITS2 sequencing technology, and provides the basis for a detailed characterization of whole mycobiome in peanuts. PMID:26557107

  5. Genetic diversity of Aspergillus species isolated from onychomycosis and Aspergillus hongkongensis sp. nov., with implications to antifungal susceptibility testing.

    PubMed

    Tsang, Chi-Ching; Hui, Teresa W S; Lee, Kim-Chung; Chen, Jonathan H K; Ngan, Antonio H Y; Tam, Emily W T; Chan, Jasper F W; Wu, Andrea L; Cheung, Mei; Tse, Brian P H; Wu, Alan K L; Lai, Christopher K C; Tsang, Dominic N C; Que, Tak-Lun; Lam, Ching-Wan; Yuen, Kwok-Yung; Lau, Susanna K P; Woo, Patrick C Y

    2016-02-01

    Thirteen Aspergillus isolates recovered from nails of 13 patients (fingernails, n=2; toenails, n=11) with onychomycosis were characterized. Twelve strains were identified by multilocus sequencing as Aspergillus spp. (Aspergillus sydowii [n=4], Aspergillus welwitschiae [n=3], Aspergillus terreus [n=2], Aspergillus flavus [n=1], Aspergillus tubingensis [n=1], and Aspergillus unguis [n=1]). Isolates of A. terreus, A. flavus, and A. unguis were also identifiable by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry. The 13th isolate (HKU49(T)) possessed unique morphological characteristics different from other Aspergillus spp. Molecular characterization also unambiguously showed that HKU49(T) was distinct from other Aspergillus spp. We propose the novel species Aspergillus hongkongensis to describe this previously unknown fungus. Antifungal susceptibility testing showed most Aspergillus isolates had low MICs against itraconazole and voriconazole, but all Aspergillus isolates had high MICs against fluconazole. A diverse spectrum of Aspergillus species is associated with onychomycosis. Itraconazole and voriconazole are probably better drug options for Aspergillus onychomycosis. PMID:26658315

  6. Somatic Embryogenesis in Two Orchid Genera (Cymbidium, Dendrobium).

    PubMed

    da Silva, Jaime A Teixeira; Winarto, Budi

    2016-01-01

    The protocorm-like body (PLB) is the de facto somatic embryo in orchids. Here we describe detailed protocols for two orchid genera (hybrid Cymbidium Twilight Moon 'Day Light' and Dendrobium 'Jayakarta', D. 'Gradita 31', and D. 'Zahra FR 62') for generating PLBs. These protocols will most likely have to be tweaked for different cultivars as the response of orchids in vitro tends to be dependent on genotype. In addition to primary somatic embryogenesis, secondary (or repetitive) somatic embryogenesis is also described for both genera. The use of thin cell layers as a sensitive tissue assay is outlined for hybrid Cymbidium while the protocol outlined is suitable for bioreactor culture of D. 'Zahra FR 62'. PMID:26619873

  7. Biofilm formation by Aspergillus fumigatus.

    PubMed

    Kaur, Savneet; Singh, Shweta

    2014-01-01

    Aspergillus fumigatus is a well adapted, opportunistic fungus that causes a severe and commonly fatal disease, invasive pulmonary aspergillosis (IPA), in highly immunocompromised patients, aspergilloma in patients with lung cavities and allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis (ABPA) in hypersensitive individuals. Recent studies have suggested that biofilm formation by A. fumigatus may be one of the most important virulence factors in IPA and aspergilloma. Several fungal constituents may contribute to the formation of biofilm structures on host cells, including cell wall components, secondary metabolites and drug transporters. The biofilm phenotype of the fungus is refractory to most conventional antifungal treatment options. Thus, an in-depth analysis and understanding of A. fumigatus biofilms is necessary to devise newer and better antifungal targets for treating complex A. fumigatus biofilm-associated diseases. PMID:23962172

  8. The biology of pulmonary aspergillus infections.

    PubMed

    Warris, Adilia

    2014-11-01

    Pulmonary aspergillus infections are mainly caused by Aspergillus fumigatus and can be classified based on clinical syndromes into saphrophytic infections, allergic disease and invasive disease. Invasive pulmonary aspergillosis, occurring in immunocompromised patients, reflects the most serious disease with a high case-fatality rate. Patients with cystic fibrosis and severe asthma might develop allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis, while saphrophytic infections are observed in patients with lung cavities mainly due to tuberculosis. Histopathologically, a differentiation can be made into angio-invasive and airway-invasive disease. If the host response is too weak or too strong, Aspergillus species are able to cause disease characterized either by damage from the fungus itself or through an exaggerated inflammatory response of the host, in both situations leading to overt disease associated with specific clinical signs and symptoms. The unraveling of the specific host - Aspergillus interaction has not been performed to a great extent and needs attention to improve the management of those clinical syndromes. PMID:25135079

  9. Aspergillus infection in the Western Cape.

    PubMed

    Benatar, S R

    1977-03-01

    The inhalation of spores of Aspergillus may result in allergic, infective or saprophytic clinical reactions, depending on the immunological status of the host. Five cases of bronchopulmonary aspergillosis in asthmatics, 62 asthmatics with evidence of skin hypersensitivity to Aspergillus, but without bronchopulmonary aspergillosis, 3 patients with Aspergillus pneumonia and 7 with aspergillomas diagnosed in the Western Cape during the last 18 months, are described. The characteristic features of each type of reaction to Aspergillus are reviewed. The importance of bronchopulmonary aspergillosis and the permanent damage it can produce when it goes unrecognized and untreated, are emphasized. It is hoped that this report will increase local awareness of this complication in asthmatics and thus favour early diagnosis and treatment. PMID:847550

  10. Three new species of Aspergillus section Flavi isolated from almonds and maize in Portugal

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Three new aflatoxin-producing species belonging to Aspergillus section Flavi are described, Aspergillus mottae, Aspergillus sergii and Aspergillus transmontanensis. These species were isolated from Portuguese almonds and maize. An investigation examining morphology, extrolites and molecular data was...

  11. Characterization of the Aspergillus ochraceoroseus aflatoxin/sterigmatocystin biosynthetic gene cluster

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Production of the carcinogenic aflatoxins has been reported from members of Aspergillus section Flavi, Aspergillus section Nidulantes, and a newly proposed section, Aspergillus section Ochraceorosei that consists of Aspergillus ochraceoroseus and A. rambellii. Unlike members of section Flavi, A. oc...

  12. Copper induction and differential expression of laccase in Aspergillus flavus.

    PubMed

    Gomaa, Ola M; Momtaz, Osama A

    2015-03-01

    Aspergillus flavus was isolated from soil and exhibited laccase activity under both constitutive and copper induced conditions. Spiking the medium with 1 mM copper sulfate resulted in an increase in the activity which reached 51.84 U/mL, a distinctive protein band was detected at 60 kDa. The extracellular enzyme was purified 81 fold using gel filtration chromatography and resulted in two different laccase fractions L1 and L2, the latter had a higher enzymatic activity which reached 79.57 U/mL and specific activity of 64.17 U/μg protein. The analysis of the spectrum of the L2 fraction showed a shoulder at 330 nm which is characteristic for T2/T3 copper centers; both copper and zinc were detected suggesting that this is an unconventional white laccase. Primers of laccase gene were designed and synthesized to recover specific gene from A. flavus . Sequence analysis indicated putative laccase (Genbank ID: JF683612) at the amino acid level suggesting a close identity to laccases from other genera containing the copper binding site. Decolorization of textile waste water under different conditions showed possible application in bioremediation within a short period of time. The effect of copper on A. flavus was concentration dependent. PMID:26221119

  13. Copper induction and differential expression of laccase in Aspergillus flavus

    PubMed Central

    Gomaa, Ola M.; Momtaz, Osama A.

    2015-01-01

    Aspergillus flavus was isolated from soil and exhibited laccase activity under both constitutive and copper induced conditions. Spiking the medium with 1 mM copper sulfate resulted in an increase in the activity which reached 51.84 U/mL, a distinctive protein band was detected at 60 kDa. The extracellular enzyme was purified 81 fold using gel filtration chromatography and resulted in two different laccase fractions L1 and L2, the latter had a higher enzymatic activity which reached 79.57 U/mL and specific activity of 64.17 U/μg protein. The analysis of the spectrum of the L2 fraction showed a shoulder at 330 nm which is characteristic for T2/T3 copper centers; both copper and zinc were detected suggesting that this is an unconventional white laccase. Primers of laccase gene were designed and synthesized to recover specific gene from A. flavus . Sequence analysis indicated putative laccase (Genbank ID: JF683612) at the amino acid level suggesting a close identity to laccases from other genera containing the copper binding site. Decolorization of textile waste water under different conditions showed possible application in bioremediation within a short period of time. The effect of copper on A. flavus was concentration dependent. PMID:26221119

  14. Study of Spanish Grape Mycobiota and Ochratoxin A Production by Isolates of Aspergillus tubingensis and Other Members of Aspergillus Section Nigri

    PubMed Central

    Medina, Angel; Mateo, Rufino; Lpez-Ocaa, Laura; Valle-Algarra, Francisco Manuel; Jimnez, Misericordia

    2005-01-01

    The native mycobiota of five grape varieties grown in Spain has been studied. Four (Bobal, Tempranillo, Garnacha, and Monastrell) were red varieties and one (Moscatel) was white. The main fungal genera isolated were Alternaria, Cladosporium, and Aspergillus. The isolation frequency of Aspergillus spp. section Nigri in contaminated samples was 82%. Ochratoxin A (OTA) production was assessed using yeast extract-sucrose broth supplemented with 5% bee pollen. Cultures of 205 isolates from this section showed that 74.2% of Aspergillus carbonarius and 14.3% of Aspergillus tubingensis isolates produced OTA at levels ranging from 1.2 to 3,530 ng/ml and from 46.4 to 111.5 ng/ml, respectively. No Aspergillus niger isolate had the ability to produce this toxin under the conditions assayed. Identification of the A. niger aggregate isolates was based on PCR amplification of 5.8S rRNA genes and its two intergenic spacers, internal transcribed spacer 1 (ITS1) and ITS2, followed by digestion with restriction endonuclease RsaI of the PCR products. The restriction patterns were compared with those from strains of A. niger CECT 2807 and A. tubingensis CECT 20393, held at the Spanish Collection of Type Cultures. DNA sequencing of the ITS1-5.8S rRNA gene-ITS2 region of the OTA-producing isolates of A. tubingensis matched 99 to 100% with the nucleotide sequence of strain A. tubingensis CBS 643.92. OTA determination was accomplished by liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection. OTA confirmation was carried out by liquid chromatography coupled to ion trap mass spectrometry. The results showed that there are significant differences with regard to the isolation frequency of ochratoxinogenic fungi in the different grape varieties. These differences were uncorrelated to berry color. The ability of A. tubingensis to produce OTA and the influence of grape variety on the occurrence of OTA-producing fungi in grapes are described in this report for the first time. PMID:16085865

  15. Recurrent prosthetic valve endocarditis caused by Aspergillus delacroxii (formerly Aspergillus nidulans var. echinulatus)

    PubMed Central

    Uhrin, Gábor Balázs; Jensen, Rasmus Hare; Korup, Eva; Grønlund, Jens; Hjort, Ulla; Moser, Claus; Arendrup, Maiken Cavling; Schønheyder, Henrik Carl

    2015-01-01

    We report Aspergillus delacroxii (formerly Aspergillus nidulans var. echinulatus) causing recurrent prosthetic valve endocarditis. The fungus was the sole agent detected during replacement of a mechanical aortic valve conduit due to abscess formation. Despite extensive surgery and anti-fungal treatment, the patient had a cerebral hemorrhage 4 months post-surgery prompting a diagnosis of recurrent prosthetic valve endocarditis and fungemia. PMID:26909244

  16. Environmental and Developmental Factors Influencing Aflatoxin Production by Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus parasiticus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Aflatoxins are carcinogenic mycotoxins formed by a number of fungi in the genus Aspergillus. The major fungi responsible for aflatoxin formation in crop seeds in the field and in storage are Aspergillus flavus and A. parasiticus. This review emphasizes developmental, environmental, biological and ...

  17. Aspergillus waksmanii sp. nov. and Aspergillus marvanovae sp. nov., two closely related species in section Fumigati

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Two new and phylogenetically closely related species in Aspergillus section Fumigati are described and illustrated. Homothallic A. waksmanii was isolated from New Jersey soil (USA) and is represented by the ex-type isolate NRRL 179T (=CCF 4266= IBT 31900). Aspergillus marvanovae was isolated from wa...

  18. Aspergillus tubingensis and Aspergillus niger as the dominant black Aspergillus, use of simple PCR-RFLP for preliminary differentiation.

    PubMed

    Mirhendi, H; Zarei, F; Motamedi, M; Nouripour-Sisakht, S

    2016-03-01

    This work aimed to identify the species distribution of common clinical and environmental isolates of black Aspergilli based on simple restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis of the β-tubulin gene. A total of 149 clinical and environmental strains of black Aspergilli were collected and subjected to preliminary morphological examination. Total genomic DNAs were extracted, and PCR was performed to amplify part of the β-tubulin gene. At first, 52 randomly selected samples were species-delineated by sequence analysis. In order to distinguish the most common species, PCR amplicons of 117 black Aspergillus strains were identified by simple PCR-RFLP analysis using the enzyme TasI. Among 52 sequenced isolates, 28 were Aspergillus tubingensis, 21 Aspergillus niger, and the three remaining isolates included Aspergillus uvarum, Aspergillus awamori, and Aspergillus acidus. All 100 environmental and 17 BAL samples subjected to TasI-RFLP analysis of the β-tubulin gene, fell into two groups, consisting of about 59% (n=69) A. tubingensis and 41% (n=48) A. niger. Therefore, the method successfully and rapidly distinguished A. tubingensis and A. niger as the most common species among the clinical and environmental isolates. Although tardy, the Ehrlich test was also able to differentiate A. tubingensis and A. niger according to the yellow color reaction specific to A. niger. A. tubingensis and A. niger are the most common black Aspergillus in both clinical and environmental isolates in Iran. PCR-RFLP using TasI digestion of β-tubulin DNA enables rapid screening for these common species. PMID:26852194

  19. Twelve previously unknown phage genera are ubiquitous in global oceans

    SciTech Connect

    Holmfeldt, Karin; Solonenko, Natalie; Shah, Manesh B; Corrier, Kristen L; Riemann, Lasse; Verberkmoes, Nathan C; Sullivan, Matthew B

    2013-01-01

    Viruses are fundamental to ecosystems ranging from oceans to humans, yet our ability to study them is bottlenecked by the lack of ecologically relevant isolates, resulting in unknowns dominating culture-independent surveys. Here we present genomes from 31 phages infecting multiple strains of the aquatic bacterium Cellulophaga baltica (Bacteroidetes) to provide data for an underrepresented and environmentally abundant bacterial lineage. Comparative genomics delineated 12 phage groups that (i) each represent a new genus, and (ii) represent one novel and four wellknown viral families. This diversity contrasts the few well-studied marine phage systems, but parallels the diversity of phages infecting human-associated bacteria. Although all 12 Cellulophaga phages represent new genera, the podoviruses and icosahedral, nontailed ssDNA phages were exceptional, with genomes up to twice as large as those previously observed for each phage type. Structural novelty was also substantial, requiring experimental phage proteomics to identify 83% of the structural proteins. The presence of uncommon nucleotide metabolism genes in four genera likely underscores the importance of scavenging nutrient-rich molecules as previously seen for phages in marine environments. Metagenomic recruitment analyses suggest that these particular Cellulophaga phages are rare and may represent a first glimpse into the phage side of the rare biosphere. However, these analyses also revealed that these phage genera are widespread, occurring in 94% of 137 investigated metagenomes. Together, this diverse and novel collection of phages identifies a small but ubiquitous fraction of unknown marine viral diversity and provides numerous environmentally relevant phage host systems for experimental hypothesis testing.

  20. Twelve previously unknown phage genera are ubiquitous in global oceans

    PubMed Central

    Holmfeldt, Karin; Solonenko, Natalie; Shah, Manesh; Corrier, Kristen; Riemann, Lasse; VerBerkmoes, Nathan C.; Sullivan, Matthew B.

    2013-01-01

    Viruses are fundamental to ecosystems ranging from oceans to humans, yet our ability to study them is bottlenecked by the lack of ecologically relevant isolates, resulting in unknowns dominating culture-independent surveys. Here we present genomes from 31 phages infecting multiple strains of the aquatic bacterium Cellulophaga baltica (Bacteroidetes) to provide data for an underrepresented and environmentally abundant bacterial lineage. Comparative genomics delineated 12 phage groups that (i) each represent a new genus, and (ii) represent one novel and four well-known viral families. This diversity contrasts the few well-studied marine phage systems, but parallels the diversity of phages infecting human-associated bacteria. Although all 12 Cellulophaga phages represent new genera, the podoviruses and icosahedral, nontailed ssDNA phages were exceptional, with genomes up to twice as large as those previously observed for each phage type. Structural novelty was also substantial, requiring experimental phage proteomics to identify 83% of the structural proteins. The presence of uncommon nucleotide metabolism genes in four genera likely underscores the importance of scavenging nutrient-rich molecules as previously seen for phages in marine environments. Metagenomic recruitment analyses suggest that these particular Cellulophaga phages are rare and may represent a first glimpse into the phage side of the rare biosphere. However, these analyses also revealed that these phage genera are widespread, occurring in 94% of 137 investigated metagenomes. Together, this diverse and novel collection of phages identifies a small but ubiquitous fraction of unknown marine viral diversity and provides numerous environmentally relevant phagehost systems for experimental hypothesis testing. PMID:23858439

  1. Thermoarcturidae, a new crustacean family of three genera (Isopoda: Valvifera).

    PubMed

    Poore, Gary C B

    2015-01-01

    A new family Thermoarcturidae of valviferan isopod is erected for three genera, Califarcturus n. gen., Spinarcturus Kensley, 1978 and Thermoarcturus Paul & Menzies, 1971, each represented by one species. All share strong stiff setae on distal articles of pereopods 2-4, uropods with two rami, and a tomentum of fine setae over the cuticle. The members are distinguished from Antarcturidae, Arcturididae, Rectarcturidae and Arcturidae, similar arcturoid families that differ in having rows of filter setae on pereopods 2-4 and usually lack one or more uropodal rami. PMID:26623819

  2. The volatome of Aspergillus fumigatus.

    PubMed

    Heddergott, C; Calvo, A M; Latg, J P

    2014-08-01

    Early detection of invasive aspergillosis is absolutely required for efficient therapy of this fungal infection. The identification of fungal volatiles in patient breath can be an alternative for the detection of Aspergillus fumigatus that still remains problematic. In this work, we investigated the production of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) by A. fumigatus in vitro, and we show that volatile production depends on the nutritional environment. A. fumigatus produces a multiplicity of VOCs, predominantly terpenes and related compounds. The production of sesquiterpenoid compounds was found to be strongly induced by increased iron concentrations and certain drugs, i.e., pravastatin. Terpenes that were always detectable in large amounts were ?-pinene, camphene, and limonene, as well as sesquiterpenes, identified as ?-bergamotene and ?-trans-bergamotene. Other substance classes that were found to be present in the volatome, such as 1-octen-3-ol, 3-octanone, and pyrazines, were found only under specific growth conditions. Drugs that interfere with the terpene biosynthesis pathway influenced the composition of the fungal volatome, and most notably, a block of sesquiterpene biosynthesis by the bisphosphonate alendronate fundamentally changed the VOC composition. Using deletion mutants, we also show that a terpene cyclase and a putative kaurene synthase are essential for the synthesis of volatile terpenes by A. fumigatus. The present analysis of in vitro volatile production by A. fumigatus suggests that VOCs may be used in the diagnosis of infections caused by this fungus. PMID:24906414

  3. Aspergillus cell wall and biofilm.

    PubMed

    Beauvais, Anne; Fontaine, Thierry; Aimanianda, Vishukumar; Latgé, Jean-Paul

    2014-12-01

    The fungal cell is surrounded by a cell wall that acts as a sieve and a reservoir for effector molecules that play an active role during infection. This cell wall is essential for fungal growth as well as for resisting host defense mechanisms. The Aspergillus fumigatus cell wall is almost exclusively composed of polysaccharides. The fibrillar core is composed of a branched β-(1,3)-glucan to which chitin, β-(1,3)-/β-(1,4)-glucan, and galactomannan are covalently bound. The alkali-soluble amorphous fraction is mainly composed of α-(1,3)-glucan that has adhesive property and stabilizes the cell wall. Although the same polysaccharides are found in the cell wall of different A. fumigatus morphotypes (conidia and hyphae), their concentration and localization are different. Conidial (the morphotype that mainly enters host respiratory system) cell wall is covered by an outer layer of rodlets and melanin, which confers hydrophobic properties and imparts immunological inertness. In contrast, outer layer of the hypha contains galactosaminogalactan, recently identified as an A. fumigatus virulence factor. The hypha grows either as a network of agglutinated and hydrophobic mass (called mycelium) embedded in an extracellular matrix (ECM) rich in polysaccharides, hydrophobin, and melanin or segregated without ECM. PMID:24947169

  4. The Volatome of Aspergillus fumigatus

    PubMed Central

    Calvo, A. M.; Latgé, J. P.

    2014-01-01

    Early detection of invasive aspergillosis is absolutely required for efficient therapy of this fungal infection. The identification of fungal volatiles in patient breath can be an alternative for the detection of Aspergillus fumigatus that still remains problematic. In this work, we investigated the production of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) by A. fumigatus in vitro, and we show that volatile production depends on the nutritional environment. A. fumigatus produces a multiplicity of VOCs, predominantly terpenes and related compounds. The production of sesquiterpenoid compounds was found to be strongly induced by increased iron concentrations and certain drugs, i.e., pravastatin. Terpenes that were always detectable in large amounts were α-pinene, camphene, and limonene, as well as sesquiterpenes, identified as α-bergamotene and β-trans-bergamotene. Other substance classes that were found to be present in the volatome, such as 1-octen-3-ol, 3-octanone, and pyrazines, were found only under specific growth conditions. Drugs that interfere with the terpene biosynthesis pathway influenced the composition of the fungal volatome, and most notably, a block of sesquiterpene biosynthesis by the bisphosphonate alendronate fundamentally changed the VOC composition. Using deletion mutants, we also show that a terpene cyclase and a putative kaurene synthase are essential for the synthesis of volatile terpenes by A. fumigatus. The present analysis of in vitro volatile production by A. fumigatus suggests that VOCs may be used in the diagnosis of infections caused by this fungus. PMID:24906414

  5. Asexual Sporulation in Aspergillus nidulans

    PubMed Central

    Adams, Thomas H.; Wieser, Jenny K.; Yu, Jae-Hyuk

    1998-01-01

    The formation of mitotically derived spores, called conidia, is a common reproductive mode in filamentous fungi, particularly among the large fungal class Ascomycetes. Asexual sporulation strategies are nearly as varied as fungal species; however, the formation of conidiophores, specialized multicellular reproductive structures, by the filamentous fungus Aspergillus nidulans has emerged as the leading model for understanding the mechanisms that control fungal sporulation. Initiation of A. nidulans conidipohore formation can occur either as a programmed event in the life cycle in response to intrinsic signals or to environmental stresses such as nutrient deprivation. In either case, a development-specific set of transcription factors is activated and these control the expression of each other as well as genes required for conidiophore morphogenesis. Recent progress has identified many of the earliest-acting genes needed for initiating conidiophore development and shown that there are at least two antagonistic signaling pathways that control this process. One pathway is modulated by a heterotrimeric G protein that when activated stimulates growth and represses both asexual and sexual sporulation as well as production of the toxic secondary metabolite, sterigmatocystin. The second pathway apparently requires an extracellular signal to induce sporulation-specific events and to direct the inactivation of the first pathway, removing developmental repression. A working model is presented in which the regulatory interactions between these two pathways during the fungal life cycle determine whether cells grow or develop. PMID:9529886

  6. Review of the genera of Mycetophagidae (Coleoptera: Tenebrionoidea) with descriptions of new genera and a world generic key.

    PubMed

    Lawrence, John F; Escalona, Hermes E; Leschen, Richard A B; Slipiński, Adam

    2014-01-01

    The world genera of Mycetophagidae are reviewed and four new genera described. Several adult features of Mycetophagidae are discussed, and some newly discovered secondary sexual characters are described and illustrated. A key is given to the adults of all mycetophagid genera. The following new genera and species are proposed: Afrotyphaeola gen. n. (South Africa), A. natalensis sp. n. (South Africa), Neotriphyllus gen. n. (southwestern USA to Central America), Nototriphyllus gen. n. (New Zealand, Madagascar, Chile and Argentina), N. araucania sp. n. (Chile, Argentina), Zeclaviger gen. n. (New Zealand) and Z. explanatus sp. n. (New Zealand). The following synonymies are proposed: Litargus Erichson, 1846 (= Catopius Sharp, 1902) syn. n., Litargus balteatus LeConte, 1856 (= Triphyllus minor Lea, 1895) syn. n., Mycetophagus confusus Horn, 1878 (= Triphyllus perfectus Sharp, 1902) syn. n. The following new combinations are proposed: Litargops intricatus (Blackburn, 1891) (Triphyllus, Litargus) comb. n., L. multiguttatus (Lea, 1895) (Triphyllus, Litargus) comb. n., Litargus irregularis (Sharp) (Catopius) comb. n., Mycetophagus (Paralitargus) didesmus (Say) (Litargus) comb. n., Neotriphyllus confusus (Horn) (Mycetophagus) comb. n. Nototriphyllus aciculatus (Broun, 1880) (Cryptophagus) comb. n., N. adspersus (Broun, 1880) (Cryptophagus) comb. n., N. constans (Broun, 1914) comb. n., N. fuliginosus (Broun, 1880) (Cryptophagus) comb. n., N. hispidellus (Broun, 1880) (Cryptophagus) comb. n., N. integritus (Broun, 1893) comb. n., N. pubescens (Broun, 1909) comb. n., N. madagascariensis (Fairmaire, 1898) (Triphyllus) comb. n., N. punctulatus (Broun, 1880) (Cryptophagus) comb. n., N. rubicundus (Sharp, 1886) (Triphyllus) comb. n., N. serratus (Broun, 1880) (Cryptophagus) comb. n., N. substriatus (Broun, 1880) (Cryptophagus) comb. n. The larva of Nototriphyllus araucania is briefly described and compared with other known myceophagid larvae. The genus Nesolathrus Scott (1922), described in Latridiidae and considered incertae sedis in Mycetophagidae by Lawrence & Newton (1995), is placed in the subfamily Bergininae, following Lawrence & Ślipiński (2013). The tribe Typhaeini Thomson (1863), as delimited by Nikitsky (1993), based on the lateral closure of the mesocoxal cavity by the mesoventrite and metaventrite, is considered to be non-monophyletic. Rhipidonyx adustus Reitter (1876), described in Mycetophagidae, is transferred to Tenebrionidae: Alleculinae, based on the description and examination of a specimen presumed to be the type. PMID:24990043

  7. ASPERGILLUS LUCHUENSIS , AN INDUSTRIALLY IMPORTANT BLACK ASPERGILLUS IN EAST ASIA

    PubMed Central

    Hong, Seung-Beom; Lee, Mina; Kim, Dae-Ho; Varga, Janos; Frisvad, Jens C.; Perrone, Giancarlo; Gomi, Katsuya; Yamada, Osamu; Machida, Masayuki; Houbraken, Jos; Samson, Robert A.

    2013-01-01

    Aspergilli known as black- and white-koji molds which are used for awamori, shochu, makgeolli and other food and beverage fermentations, are reported in the literature as A. luchuensis, A. awamori, A. kawachii, or A. acidus. In order to elucidate the taxonomic position of these species, available ex-type cultures were compared based on morphology and molecular characters. A. luchuensis, A. kawachii and A. acidus showed the same banding patterns in RAPD, and the three species had the same rDNA-ITS, β-tubulin and calmodulin sequences and these differed from those of the closely related A. niger and A. tubingensis. Morphologically, the three species are not significantly different from each other or from A. niger and A. tubingensis. It is concluded that A. luchuensis, A. kawachii and A. acidus are the same species, and A. luchuensis is selected as the correct name based on priority. Strains of A. awamori which are stored in National Research Institute of Brewing in Japan, represent A. niger (n = 14) and A. luchuensis (n = 6). The neotype of A. awamori (CBS 557.65 =  NRRL 4948) does not originate from awamori fermentation and it is shown to be identical with the unknown taxon Aspergillus welwitschiae. Extrolite analysis of strains of A. luchuensis showed that they do not produce mycotoxins and therefore can be considered safe for food and beverage fermentations. A. luchuensis is also frequently isolated from meju and nuruk in Korea and Puerh tea in China and the species is probably common in the fermentation environment of East Asia. A re-description of A. luchuensis is provided because the incomplete data in the original literature. PMID:23723998

  8. A rare case of bilateral aspergillus endophthalmitis.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Saurabh; Loudill, Cameron; Tammara, Anita; Chow, Robert T

    2015-01-01

    Aspergillus endophthalmitis is a devastating inflammatory condition of the intraocular cavities that may result in irreparable loss of vision and rapid destruction of the eye. Almost all cases in the literature have shown an identified source causing aspergillus endophthalmitis as a result of direct extension of disease. We present a rare case of bilateral aspergillus endophthalmitis. A 72-year-old woman with a history of diabetes mellitus, congenital Hirschsprung disease, and recent culture-positive candida pyelonephritis with hydronephrosis status post-surgical stent placement presented with difficulty opening her eyes. She complained of decreased vision (20/200) with pain and redness in both eyes - right worse then left. Examination demonstrated multiple white fungal balls in both retinas consistent with bilateral fungal endophthalmitis. Bilateral vitreous taps for cultures and staining were performed. Patient was given intravitreal injections of amphotericin B, vancomycin, ceftazidime, and started on oral fluconazole. Patient was scheduled for vitrectomy to decrease organism burden and to remove loculated areas of infection that would not respond to systemic antifungal agents. Four weeks after initial presentation, the fungal cultures revealed mold growth consistent with aspergillus. Patient was subsequently started on voriconazole and fluconazole was discontinued due to poor efficacy against aspergillus. Further workup was conducted to evaluate for the source of infection and seeding. Transthoracic cardiogram was unremarkable for any vegetation or valvular abnormalities. MRI of the orbits and sinuses did not reveal any mass lesions or bony destruction. CT of the chest was unremarkable for infection. Aspergillus endophthalmitis may occur because of one of these several mechanisms: hematogenous dissemination, direct inoculation by trauma, and contamination during surgery. Our patient's cause of bilateral endophthalmitis was through an unknown iatrogenic seed. PMID:26653687

  9. A rare case of bilateral aspergillus endophthalmitis

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Saurabh; Loudill, Cameron; Tammara, Anita; Chow, Robert T.

    2015-01-01

    Aspergillus endophthalmitis is a devastating inflammatory condition of the intraocular cavities that may result in irreparable loss of vision and rapid destruction of the eye. Almost all cases in the literature have shown an identified source causing aspergillus endophthalmitis as a result of direct extension of disease. We present a rare case of bilateral aspergillus endophthalmitis. A 72-year-old woman with a history of diabetes mellitus, congenital Hirschsprung disease, and recent culture-positive candida pyelonephritis with hydronephrosis status post-surgical stent placement presented with difficulty opening her eyes. She complained of decreased vision (20/200) with pain and redness in both eyes – right worse then left. Examination demonstrated multiple white fungal balls in both retinas consistent with bilateral fungal endophthalmitis. Bilateral vitreous taps for cultures and staining were performed. Patient was given intravitreal injections of amphotericin B, vancomycin, ceftazidime, and started on oral fluconazole. Patient was scheduled for vitrectomy to decrease organism burden and to remove loculated areas of infection that would not respond to systemic antifungal agents. Four weeks after initial presentation, the fungal cultures revealed mold growth consistent with aspergillus. Patient was subsequently started on voriconazole and fluconazole was discontinued due to poor efficacy against aspergillus. Further workup was conducted to evaluate for the source of infection and seeding. Transthoracic cardiogram was unremarkable for any vegetation or valvular abnormalities. MRI of the orbits and sinuses did not reveal any mass lesions or bony destruction. CT of the chest was unremarkable for infection. Aspergillus endophthalmitis may occur because of one of these several mechanisms: hematogenous dissemination, direct inoculation by trauma, and contamination during surgery. Our patient's cause of bilateral endophthalmitis was through an unknown iatrogenic seed. PMID:26653687

  10. New unidentate jumping spider genera (Araneae: Salticidae) from Australia.

    PubMed

    Richardson, Barry J

    2013-01-01

    The Australian fauna includes large numbers of undescribed, tiny, litter-living, jumping spiders. In this paper four monotypic new genera (Ananeon howardensis n. g. n. sp., Barraina anfracta n. g. n.sp., Frewena maculata n.g. n.s., and Pungalina weiri n.g, n.sp.) are described. Two species (Neon taylori n.sp. and Neon australis n. sp.) representing the two distinctive morphological patterns found in Australian species of this genus are also described. The former, similar in the morphology of the palp and genitalia to that found in many species from eastern Australia, is most similar in morphology to N. sumatranus Logunov 1998 from Indonesia and N. kovblyuki Logunov 2004 from the Crimea. The latter, and other similar species from South Australia and Western Australia, has palp morphology and fringing on L1 very similar to that seen in N. nojimai Ikeda 1995 from Japan. PMID:26106785

  11. New angiosperm genera from cretaceous sections of northern Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alekseev, P. I.; Herman, A. B.; Shchepetov, S. V.

    2014-11-01

    The Cretaceous floras of northern Asia represented by the Antibes flora of the Chulym-Yenisei area of West Siberia, Kaivayam flora of northwestern Kamchatka, and Grebenka flora of the Anadyr River basin in Chukotka are reviewed. These floras characterize the Late Cretaceous Siberian-Canadian Paleofloristic Region, where they developed in humid warm temperate climatic environments. Two new angiosperm genera are described: genus Chachlovia P. Alekseev et Herman with species C. kiyensis P. Alekseev, sp. nov. and C. dombeyopsoida (Herman) Herman, comb. nov. and genus Soninia Herman et Shczepetov with species S. asiatica P. Alekseev, sp. nov. and S. integerrima Herman et Shczepetov, sp. nov. The species Chachlovia kiyensis and Soninia asiatica were characteristic components of the Antibes flora. Chachlovia dombeyopsoida and Soninia integerrima were constituents of the Kaivayam and Grebenka floras, respectively.

  12. Congruence of morphologically-defined genera with molecular phylogenies

    PubMed Central

    Jablonski, David; Finarelli, John A.

    2009-01-01

    Morphologically-defined mammalian and molluscan genera (herein “morphogenera”) are significantly more likely to be monophyletic relative to molecular phylogenies than random, under 3 different models of expected monophyly rates: ≈63% of 425 surveyed morphogenera are monophyletic and 19% are polyphyletic, although certain groups appear to be problematic (e.g., nonmarine, unionoid bivalves). Compiled nonmonophyly rates are probably extreme values, because molecular analyses have focused on “problem” taxa, and molecular topologies (treated herein as error-free) contain contradictory groupings across analyses for 10% of molluscan morphogenera and 37% of mammalian morphogenera. Both body size and geographic range, 2 key macroevolutionary and macroecological variables, show significant rank correlations between values for morphogenera and molecularly-defined clades, even when strictly monophyletic morphogenera are excluded from analyses. Thus, although morphogenera can be imperfect reflections of phylogeny, large-scale statistical treatments of diversity dynamics or macroevolutionary variables in time and space are unlikely to be misleading. PMID:19416868

  13. Salmonella host range of bacteriophages that infect multiple genera.

    PubMed

    Bielke, L; Higgins, S; Donoghue, A; Donoghue, D; Hargis, B M

    2007-12-01

    Conventionally, bacteriophages are considered viruses capable of amplification only in a narrow range of closely related bacteria. Presently, we selected bacteriophages with the ability to infect more than 1 bacterial genus. Initially, wild-type bacteriophages were selected for ability to form plaques in Salmonella enteritidis agar overlays. For determination of host specificity, a pool of 44 bacteriophages was combined with each bacterial isolate in tryptic soy broth. This mixture was incubated with fresh bacterial culture and media for 4 sequential passes, and the resulting bacteriophage titer was determined using S. enteritidis. One Klebsiella and 3 different Escherichia isolates successfully amplified some bacteriophage(s) from the S. enteritidis-selected bacteriophage pool (experiment 1). Amplification of bacteriophages in each species was confirmed by the formation of increased plaque forming units in a tryptic soy agar overlay with the enteric (alternative host) bacteria, Klebsiella or Escherichia (experiment 2). Two selected bacteriophages, confirmed to amplify in Escherichia or Klebsiella, were further evaluated for ability to amplify in 10 different Salmonella serovars by amplification in broth culture (experiment 3). One had the ability to amplify in 6 different Salmonella serovars, and the other had the ability to amplify in 2 different Salmonella serovars. These experiments suggest that bacteriophage host range is not always genera-restricted and that selection of subpopulations of bacteriophages capable of amplification in alternative genera may provide a tool for selection of broad host-range bacteriophages for the pathogen of interest. Selection of non-pathogenic host isolates to support replication of Salmonella bacteriophages may allow improved safety for bacteriophage application to poultry because this would reduce the necessity for 100% purification of the bacteriophages(s) from resistant host bacteria. PMID:18029799

  14. Phytogeographical Analysis of Seed Plant Genera in China

    PubMed Central

    QIAN, HONG; WANG, SILONG; HE, JIN-SHENG; ZHANG, JUNLI; WANG, LISONG; WANG, XIANLI; GUO, KE

    2006-01-01

    • Background and Aims A central goal of biogeography and ecology is to uncover and understand distributional patterns of organisms. China has long been a focus of attention because of its rich biota, especially with respect to plants. Using 290 floras from across China, this paper quantitatively characterizes the composition of floristic elements at multiple scales (i.e. national, provincial and local), and explores the extent to which climatic and geographical factors associated with each flora can jointly and independently explain the variation in floristic elements in local floras. • Methods A study was made of 261 local floras, 28 province-level floras and one national-level flora across China. Genera of seed plants in each flora were assigned to 14 floristic elements according to their worldwide geographical distributions. The composition of floristic elements was related to climatic and geographical factors. • Key Results and Conclusions Variations in percentages of cosmopolitan, tropical and temperate genera among local floras tend to be greater at higher latitudes than at lower latitudes. Latitude is strongly correlated with the proportions of 13 of the 14 floristic elements. Correlations of the proportions of floristic elements with longitude are much weaker than those with latitude. Climate represented by the first principal component of a principal component analysis was strongly correlated with the proportions of floristic elements in local floras (|r| = 0·75 ± 0·18). Geographical coordinates independently explained about four times as much variation in floristic elements as did climate. Further research is necessary to examine the roles of water–energy dynamics, geology, soils, biotic interactions, and historical factors such as land connections between continents in the past and at present in creating observed floristic patterns. PMID:16945946

  15. Enhanced diversity and aflatoxigenicity in interspecific hybrids of Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus parasiticus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Aspergillus flavus and A. parasiticus are two of the most important aflatoxin-producing species that contaminate agricultural commodities worldwide. Both species are heterothallic and undergo sexual reproduction in laboratory crosses. Here, we examine the possibility of interspecific matings betwe...

  16. Aspergillus species: An emerging pathogen in onychomycosis among diabetics

    PubMed Central

    Wijesuriya, T. M.; Kottahachchi, J.; Gunasekara, T. D. C. P.; Bulugahapitiya, U.; Ranasinghe, K. N. P.; Neluka Fernando, S. S.; Weerasekara, M. M.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Approximately, 33% patients with diabetes are afflicted with onychomycosis. In the past, nondermatophyte molds have been regarded as opportunistic pathogens; recently, Aspergillus species are considered as emerging pathogens of toenail infections. In Sri Lanka, the prevalence of Aspergillus species in onychomycosis among diabetics is not well documented. Objective: To determine the proportion of Aspergillus onychomycosis, risk factors and knowledge among diabetics. Materials and Methods: This was descriptive cross-sectional study. Three hundred diabetic patients were included. Clinical examinations of patients’ toenails were performed by a clinical microbiologist. Laboratory identification was done, and pathogens were identified to the species level by morpho-physiological methods. All inferential statistics were tested at P < 0.05. Results: Among clinically suspected patients, 85% (255/300) were mycologically confirmed to have onychomycosis. Aspergillus species were most commonly isolated n = 180 (71%) followed by dermatophytes, yeasts, and other molds n = 75 (29%). Of the patients having Aspergillus onychomycosis, 149 (83%) were in the > age group. In men, Aspergillus onycomycosis was seen in 82%. Among patients who had Aspergillus nail infection, 114 (63%) had diabetes for a period of > years. Among patients who were engaged in agricultural activities, 77% were confirmed to have infected nails due to Aspergillus species. Conclusion: Aspergillus niger was the most common pathogen isolated from toenail infection. Aspergillus species should be considered as an important pathogen in toenail onychomycosis in diabetic patients. Risk factors associated with Aspergillus onychomycosis were age, gender, duration of diabetes, length of exposure to fungi, and occupation. PMID:26693433

  17. Taxonomic Characterization and Secondary Metabolite Profiling of Aspergillus Section Aspergillus Contaminating Feeds and Feedstuffs.

    PubMed

    Greco, Mariana; Kemppainen, Minna; Pose, Graciela; Pardo, Alejandro

    2015-09-01

    Xerophilic fungal species of the genus Aspergillus are economically highly relevant due to their ability to grow on low water activity substrates causing spoilage of stored goods and animal feeds. These fungi can synthesize a variety of secondary metabolites, many of which show animal toxicity, creating a health risk for food production animals and to humans as final consumers, respectively. Animal feeds used for rabbit, chinchilla and rainbow trout production in Argentina were analysed for the presence of xerophilic Aspergillus section Aspergillus species. High isolation frequencies (>60%) were detected in all the studied rabbit and chinchilla feeds, while the rainbow trout feeds showed lower fungal charge (25%). These section Aspergillus contaminations comprised predominantly five taxa. Twenty isolates were subjected to taxonomic characterization using both ascospore SEM micromorphology and two independent DNA loci sequencing. The secondary metabolite profiles of the isolates were determined qualitatively by HPLC-MS. All the isolates produced neoechinulin A, 17 isolates were positive for cladosporin and echinulin, and 18 were positive for neoechinulin B. Physcion and preechinulin were detected in a minor proportion of the isolates. This is the first report describing the detailed species composition and the secondary metabolite profiles of Aspergillus section Aspergillus contaminating animal feeds. PMID:26364643

  18. Taxonomic Characterization and Secondary Metabolite Profiling of Aspergillus Section Aspergillus Contaminating Feeds and Feedstuffs

    PubMed Central

    Greco, Mariana; Kemppainen, Minna; Pose, Graciela; Pardo, Alejandro

    2015-01-01

    Xerophilic fungal species of the genus Aspergillus are economically highly relevant due to their ability to grow on low water activity substrates causing spoilage of stored goods and animal feeds. These fungi can synthesize a variety of secondary metabolites, many of which show animal toxicity, creating a health risk for food production animals and to humans as final consumers, respectively. Animal feeds used for rabbit, chinchilla and rainbow trout production in Argentina were analysed for the presence of xerophilic Aspergillus section Aspergillus species. High isolation frequencies (>60%) were detected in all the studied rabbit and chinchilla feeds, while the rainbow trout feeds showed lower fungal charge (25%). These section Aspergillus contaminations comprised predominantly five taxa. Twenty isolates were subjected to taxonomic characterization using both ascospore SEM micromorphology and two independent DNA loci sequencing. The secondary metabolite profiles of the isolates were determined qualitatively by HPLC-MS. All the isolates produced neoechinulin A, 17 isolates were positive for cladosporin and echinulin, and 18 were positive for neoechinulin B. Physcion and preechinulin were detected in a minor proportion of the isolates. This is the first report describing the detailed species composition and the secondary metabolite profiles of Aspergillus section Aspergillus contaminating animal feeds. PMID:26364643

  19. Taxonomic revision of Aspergillus section Clavati based on molecular, morphological and physiological data

    PubMed Central

    Varga, J.; Due, M.; Frisvad, J.C.; Samson, R.A.

    2007-01-01

    Aspergillus section Clavati has been revised using morphology, secondary metabolites, physiological characters and DNA sequences. Phylogenetic analysis of β-tubulin, ITS and calmodulin sequence data indicated that Aspergillus section Clavati includes 6 species, A. clavatus (synonyms: A. apicalis, A. pallidus), A. giganteus, A. rhizopodus, A. longivesica, Neocarpenteles acanthosporus and A. clavatonanicus. Neocarpenteles acanthosporus is the only known teleomorph of this section. The sister genera to Neocarpenteles are Neosartorya and Dichotomomyces based on sequence data. Species in Neosartorya and Neocarpenteles have anamorphs with green conidia and share the production of tryptoquivalins, while Dichotomomyces was found to be able to produce gliotoxin, which is also produced by some Neosartorya species, and tryptoquivalines and tryptoquivalones produced by members of both section Clavati and Fumigati. All species in section Clavati are alkalitolerant and acidotolerant and they all have clavate conidial heads. Many species are coprophilic and produce the effective antibiotic patulin. Members of section Clavati also produce antafumicin, tryptoquivalines, cytochalasins, sarcins, dehydrocarolic acid and kotanins (orlandin, desmethylkotanin and kotanin) in species specific combinations. Another species previously assigned to section Clavati, A. ingratus is considered a synonym of Hemicarpenteles paradoxus, which is phylogenetically very distantly related to Neocarpenteles and section Clavati. PMID:18490946

  20. Biotransformation of Stypotriol triacetate by Aspergillus niger

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Areche, Carlos; Vaca, Inmaculada; Labbe, Pamela; Soto-Delgado, Jorge; Astudillo, Luis; Silva, Mario; Rovirosa, Juana; San-Martin, Aurelio

    2011-07-01

    Biological transformation of the meroditerpenoid, stypotriol triacetate ( 1) by the fungi Aspergillus niger, Cunninghamella elegans, Gibberella fujikuroi and Mucor plumbeus was studied. The incubation of 1 with A. niger yielded the new compound 6',14-diacetoxy-stypol-4,5-dione ( 2) whose structure was established by 1H, 13C and 2D NMR and supported by DFT/GIAO.

  1. ASPERGILLUS BOMBYCIS GENOTYPES (RFLP) FROM SILKWORM CULTIVATION

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Eighteen isolates of Aspergillus bombycis from samples of dust, insect frass, and soil collected from 8 silkworm rearing facilities in Japan, as well as single silkworm rearing facilities in Indonesia and Malaysia, were subjected to DNA fingerprinting. PstI digests of total genomic DNA from each is...

  2. Draft Genome Sequences of Fungus Aspergillus calidoustus

    PubMed Central

    Horn, Fabian; Linde, Jörg; Mattern, Derek J.; Walther, Grit; Guthke, Reinhard; Scherlach, Kirstin; Martin, Karin; Brakhage, Axel A.; Petzke, Lutz

    2016-01-01

    Here, we report the draft genome sequence of Aspergillus calidoustus (strain SF006504). The functional annotation of A. calidoustus predicts a relatively large number of secondary metabolite gene clusters. The presented genome sequence builds the basis for further genome mining. PMID:26966204

  3. Recombination and cryptic heterokaryosis in Aspergillus flavus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Aspergillus flavus is a pathogen of many agronomically important crops worldwide and can also cause human and animal diseases. A. flavus is the major producer of aflatoxins (AFs), which are carcinogenic secondary metabolites. In the United States, mycotoxins have been estimated to cause agricultur...

  4. Interaction between maize seed and Aspergillus flavus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Aspergillus flavus is an opportunistic fungal pathogen that colonizes maize seeds and contaminates them with aflatoxin. The fungus is localized in the endosperm and aleurone. To investigate the plant microbe interaction, we conducted histological and molecular studies to characterize the internal co...

  5. Genomics of peanut-Aspergillus flavus interactions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Aflatoxin contamination caused by Aspergillus fungi is a great concern in peanut production worldwide. Pre-harvest Aspergillii infection and aflatoxin contamination are usually severe in peanuts that are grown under drought stressed conditions. Genomic research can provide new tools and resources to...

  6. New species in Aspergillus section Terrei

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Aspergillus section Terrei is reviewed and revised using information from DNA sequences, extrolite examination, and phenotypic assessment in an integrated analysis. The taxonomic status of six species from the section is modified either by describing new species or by providing new names for previou...

  7. Cyclopiazonic acid biosynthesis by Aspergillus flavus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cyclopiazonic acid (CPA) is an indole-tetramic acid mycotoxin produced by some strains of Aspergillus flavus. Characterization of the CPA biosynthesis gene cluster confirmed that formation of CPA is via a three-enzyme pathway. This review examines the structure and organization of the CPA genes, elu...

  8. Kipukasins: Nucleoside derivatives from Aspergillus versicolor.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Seven new aroyl uridine derivatives (kipukasins A-G; 1-7) were isolated from solid-substrate fermentation cultures of two different Hawaiian isolates of Aspergillus versicolor. The structures of compounds 1-7 were determined by analysis of NMR and MS data. The nucleoside portion of lead compound 1...

  9. Phylogeny and subgeneric taxonomy of Aspergillus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The phylogeny of the genus Aspergillus and its teleomorphs is discussed based on multilocus sequence data. DNA sequence analysis was used to formulate a nucleotide sequence framework of the genus and to analyze character changes in relationship to the phylogeny hypothesized from the DNA sequence an...

  10. Aspergillus flavus Genomics for Controlling Aflatoxin Contamination

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The main objectives of the Aspergillus flavus genomics program are to identify genes and regulatory components involved in aflatoxin biosynthesis for solving aflatoxin contamination in agricultural crops. A. flavus Expressed Sequence Tags (EST), microarray and whole genome sequencing have been achi...

  11. Draft Genome Sequences of Fungus Aspergillus calidoustus.

    PubMed

    Horn, Fabian; Linde, Jörg; Mattern, Derek J; Walther, Grit; Guthke, Reinhard; Scherlach, Kirstin; Martin, Karin; Brakhage, Axel A; Petzke, Lutz; Valiante, Vito

    2016-01-01

    Here, we report the draft genome sequence of Aspergillus calidoustus (strain SF006504). The functional annotation of A. calidoustus predicts a relatively large number of secondary metabolite gene clusters. The presented genome sequence builds the basis for further genome mining. PMID:26966204

  12. Evaluation of aflatoxin degradation by Aspergillus flavus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Aflatoxins are highly toxic and hepatocarcinogenic compounds produced by Aspergillus flavus and A. parasiticus during infection of corn (maize), peanuts, cotton seed, and tree nuts (Figure 1). To minimize exposure to aflatoxins the U.S. Food and Drug Administration enforces a 20 ppb limit of aflatox...

  13. Antifungal Therapy of Murine Aspergillus terreus Infection

    PubMed Central

    Graybill, John R.; Hernandez, Steve; Bocanegra, Rosie; Najvar, Laura K.

    2004-01-01

    Aspergillus terreus is a species which is being seen increasingly frequently and which is highly resistant to amphotericin B in vitro and clinically. We evaluated amphotericin B, caspofungin, and posaconazole in a murine model of acute invasive aspergillosis. Caspofungin and posaconazole both appeared beneficial and may be reasonable treatment alternatives for infection with A. terreus. PMID:15388425

  14. Aflatoxin-Producing Aspergillus Species from Thailand

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Aflatoxin-producing Aspergillus species were isolated from soil samples from ten different regions within Thailand. A. flavus was present in soil samples from all of the regions, but unlike previous studies, we found no A. parasiticus or A. flavus isolates capable of both B and G production in any ...

  15. Genomic analysis of aspergillus flavus pathogenesis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Aspergillus flavus and Fusarium verticillioides colonize developing maize seeds and contaminate them with mycotoxins. Maize genotypes differ in resistance to these fungi, but incorporation of adequate resistance into desirable hybrids has been challenging.Little is known about pathogenesis of seeds...

  16. Chronic Invasive Aspergillosis caused by Aspergillus viridinutans

    PubMed Central

    Vinh, Donald C.; Shea, Yvonne R.; Jones, Pamela A.; Freeman, Alexandra F.; Zelazny, Adrian

    2009-01-01

    Aspergillus viridinutans, a mold phenotypically resembling A. fumigatus, was identified by gene sequence analyses from 2 patients. Disease was distinct from typical aspergillosis, being chronic and spreading in a contiguous manner across anatomical planes. We emphasize the recognition of fumigati-mimetic molds as agents of chronic or refractory aspergillosis. PMID:19751595

  17. Mycoflora study in a wheat flour mill of Argentina

    PubMed Central

    Aringoli, E.E.; Cambiagno, D.E.; Chiericatti, C.A.; Basilico, J.C.; Basilico, M.L.Z.

    2012-01-01

    The mycoflora of the environment: wheat conditioning, milling and screening, and filling zone, as well as, raw material -wheat-, intermediate product -grits- and end product -flour- on day 1, and after cleaning improvements -days 45 and 90- were studied in an Argentine wheat mill. Samples were incubated at 28°C for 5–7 days on Malt Extract Agar with chloramphenicol (100 mg L-1) and the results were expressed in colony forming units per cubic meter of air (CFU m-3) or per gram of sample (CFU g-1), respectively. Fungal genera and species were isolated and identified and the potential toxicogenic capacity of the Aspergillus flavus and Fusarium graminearum isolated was studied. Time-Place and Time-Product multifactorial ANOVA were carried out. After cleaning improvements, CFU m-3 of air decreased as a function of time. Cladosporium and Alternaria were abundant in every zone, Aspergillus predominated in the wheat conditioning zone and Penicillium and Eurotium decreased with time. Wheat was more contaminated than grits and flour; Aspergillus, Eurotium and Mucoraceae family were the most abundant. Deoxynivalenol was above the levels allowed in wheat, being acceptable in grits and flour. Aflatoxin and Zearalenone showed acceptable levels. When studied in vitro, 53% of Aspergillus flavus and 100% of Fusarium graminearum isolates, produced Total Aflatoxins, and Deoxynivalenol and Zearalenone, respectively. PMID:24031975

  18. A new family and four new genera in Rhizophydiales (Chytridiomycota).

    PubMed

    Letcher, Peter M; Powell, Martha J; Davis, William J

    2015-01-01

    Many chytrid phylogenies contain lineages representing a lone taxon or a few organisms. One such lineage in recent molecular phylogenies of Rhizophydiales contained two marine chytrids, Rhizophydium littoreum and Rhizophydium aestuarii. To better understand the relationship between these organisms, we increased sampling such that the R. littoreum/R. aestuarii lineage included 10 strains of interest. To place this lineage in Rhizophydiales, we constructed a molecular phylogeny from partial nuc 28S rDNA D1-D3 domains (28S) of these and 80 additional strains in Rhizophydiales and examined thallus morphology and zoospore ultrastructure of our strains of interest. We also analyzed sequences of the nuc rDNA region encompassing the internal transcribed spacers 1 and 2, along with the 5.8S rDNA (ITS) of our 10 strains of interest to assess sequence similarity and phylogenetic placement of strains within the lineage. The 10 strains grouped together in three well supported clades: (i) Rhizophydium littoreum+Phlyctochytrium mangrovei, (ii) three strains of Rhizophydium aestuarii and (iii) five previously unidentified strains. Light microscopic observations revealed four distinct thallus morphologies, and zoospore ultrastructural analyses revealed four distinct constellations of ultrastructural features. On the bases of morphological, ultrastructural and molecular evidence we place these strains in the new family Halomycetaceae and four new genera (Halomyces, Paludomyces, Ulkenomyces, Paranamyces) in Rhizophydiales. PMID:25911694

  19. Distinguishing centrarchid genera by use of lateral line scales

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Roberts, N.M.; Rabeni, C.F.; Stanovick, J.S.

    2007-01-01

    Predator-prey relations involving fishes are often evaluated using scales remaining in gut contents or feces. While several reliable keys help identify North American freshwater fish scales to the family level, none attempt to separate the family Centrarchidae to the genus level. Centrarchidae is of particular concern in the midwestern United States because it contains several popular sport fishes, such as smallmouth bass Micropterus dolomieu, largemouth bass M. salmoides, and rock bass Ambloplites rupestris, as well as less-sought-after species of sunfishes Lepomis spp. and crappies Pomoxis spp. Differentiating sport fish from non-sport fish has important management implications. Morphological characteristics of lateral line scales (n = 1,581) from known centrarchid fishes were analyzed. The variability of measurements within and between genera was examined to select variables that were the most useful in further classifying unknown centrarchid scales. A linear discriminant analysis model was developed using 10 variables. Based on this model, 84.4% of Ambloplites scales, 81.2% of Lepomis scales, and 86.6% of Micropterus scales were classified correctly using a jackknife procedure. ?? Copyright by the American Fisheries Society 2007.

  20. New genera and species of Neotropical Exosternini (Coleoptera, Histeridae)

    PubMed Central

    Caterino, Michael S.; Tishechkin, Alexey K.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract We describe the following 8 new genera and 23 new species of Neotropical Exosternini. Conocassis gen. n. (Conocassis minor sp. n. [type species], Conocassis dromedaria sp. n., Conocassis trisulcata sp. n., and Conocassis invaginata sp. n.), Enkyosoma gen. n. (Enkyosoma rockwelli sp. n.), Pluricosta gen. n. (Pluricosta onthophiloides sp. n.), Pyxister gen. n. (Pyxister devorator sp. n. [type species] and Pyxister labralis sp. n.), Chapischema gen. n. (Chapischema doppelganger sp. n.), Scaptorus gen. n. (Scaptorus pyramus sp. n.), Lacrimorpha gen. n. (Lacrimorpha glabra sp. n. [type species], Lacrimorpha balbina sp. n., Lacrimorpha subdepressa sp. n., and Lacrimorpha acuminata sp. n.), Crenulister gen. n. (Crenulister grossus sp. n. [type species], Crenulister explanatus sp. n., Crenulister dentatus sp. n., Crenulister impar sp. n., Crenulister umbrosus sp. n., Crenulister simplex sp. n., Crenulister paucitans sp. n., Crenulister spinipes sp. n., and Crenulister seriatus sp. n.) These all represent highly distinctive and phylogenetically isolated forms, almost invariably known from very few specimens. All but one species have been collected only by passive flight intercept traps, and nothing significant is known about the biology of any of them. PMID:24624014

  1. Minutisphaera and Natipusilla: two new genera of freshwater Dothideomycetes.

    PubMed

    Ferrer, Astrid; Miller, Andrew N; Shearer, Carol A

    2011-01-01

    Two new genera are established in the Dothideomycetes based on morphological and molecular data (SSU and LSU nuclear ribosomal sequences) to accommodate four ascomycete species collected from woody debris submerged in freshwater habitats. The genus Minutisphaera is represented by a single species, M. fimbriatispora, which was collected from freshwater habitats in temperate forests in North America. It has small, superficial, brown, subglobose, papillate pseudothecia with dark, irregularly twisted hairs around the papillae, fissitunicate asci, septate pseudoparaphyses, and hyaline, one-septate ascospores surrounded by a gelatinous sheath and having spine-like appendages radiating around the ascospore at the septum. Minutisphaera formed a strongly supported clade with Farlowiella carmichaeliana. The second genus, Natipusilla, contains three new species, N. decorospora, N. limonensis and N. naponensis, which were collected from Central and South America. Natipusilla is characterized by small, superficial, light-colored, globose pseudothecia, fissitunicate asci, few or no pseudoparaphyses, and hyaline, one-septate to tardily two- or three-septate ascospores with or without a gelatinous sheath. The three Natipusilla species form a well supported clade, but their relationship to other members of the Dothideomycetes remains unclear. PMID:21415293

  2. Dark septate endophytic pleosporalean genera from semiarid areas.

    PubMed

    Knapp, D G; Kovács, G M; Zajta, E; Groenewald, J Z; Crous, P W

    2015-12-01

    Dark septate endophytes (DSE) are distributed worldwide as root-colonising fungi, and frequent in environments with strong abiotic stress. DSE is not a taxon, but constitutes numerous fungal taxa belonging to several orders of Ascomycota. In this study we investigate three unidentified DSE lineages belonging to Pleosporales that were found previously in semiarid sandy grasslands. For molecular phylogenetic studies seven loci (ITS, partial 18S nrRNA, 28S nrRNA, actin, calmodulin, transcription-elongation factor 1- α and ß -tubulin genes) were amplified and sequenced. Based on morphology and the resulting molecular phylogeny these isolates were found to represent three novel genera within the Pleosporales, namely Aquilomyces, Flavomyces and Darksidea, with eight novel species. Molecular data revealed that monotypic Aquilomyces belongs to Morosphaeriaceae, monotypic Flavomyces represents an incertae sedis lineage related to Massarinaceae, and Darksidea, with six new species, is allied to the Lentitheciaceae. During this study we tested numerous conditions to induce sporulation, and managed for the first time to induce several DSE to form their sexual morphs. PMID:26823630

  3. New taxa in Aspergillus section Usti

    PubMed Central

    Samson, R.A.; Varga, J.; Meijer, M.; Frisvad, J.C.

    2011-01-01

    Based on phylogenetic analysis of sequence data, Aspergillus section Usti includes 21 species, inclucing two teleomorphic species Aspergillus heterothallicus (= Emericella heterothallica) and Fennellia monodii. Aspergillus germanicus sp. nov. was isolated from indoor air in Germany. This species has identical ITS sequences with A. insuetus CBS 119.27, but is clearly distinct from that species based on β-tubulin and calmodulin sequence data. This species is unable to grow at 37 °C, similarly to A. keveii and A. insuetus. Aspergillus carlsbadensis sp. nov. was isolated from the Carlsbad Caverns National Park in New Mexico. This taxon is related to, but distinct from a clade including A. calidoustus, A. pseudodeflectus, A. insuetus and A. keveii on all trees. This species is also unable to grow at 37 °C, and acid production was not observed on CREA. Aspergillus californicus sp. nov. is proposed for an isolate from chamise chaparral (Adenostoma fasciculatum) in California. It is related to a clade including A. subsessilis and A. kassunensis on all trees. This species grew well at 37 °C, and acid production was not observed on CREA. The strain CBS 504.65 from soil in Turkey showed to be clearly distinct from the A. deflectus ex-type strain, indicating that this isolate represents a distinct species in this section. We propose the name A. turkensis sp. nov. for this taxon. This species grew, although rather restrictedly at 37 °C, and acid production was not observed on CREA. Isolates from stored maize, South Africa, as a culture contaminant of Bipolaris sorokiniana from indoor air in Finland proved to be related to, but different from A. ustus and A. puniceus. The taxon is proposed as the new species A. pseudoustus. Although supported only by low bootstrap values, F. monodii was found to belong to section Usti based on phylogenetic analysis of either loci BLAST searches to the GenBank database also resulted in closest hits from section Usti. This species obviously does not belong to the Fennellia genus, instead it is a member of the Emericella genus. However, in accordance with the guidelines of the Amsterdam Declaration on fungal nomenclature (Hawksworth et al. 2011), and based on phylogenetic and physiological evidence, we propose the new combination Aspergillus monodii comb. nov. for this taxon. Species assigned to section Usti can be assigned to three chemical groups based on the extrolites. Aspergillus ustus, A. granulosus and A. puniceus produced ustic acid, while A. ustus and A. puniceus also produced austocystins and versicolorins. In the second chemical group, A. pseudodeflectus produced drimans in common with the other species in this group, and also several unique unknown compounds. Aspergillus calidoustus isolates produced drimans and ophiobolins in common with A. insuetus and A. keveii, but also produced austins. Aspergillus insuetus isolates also produced pergillin while A. keveii isolates produced nidulol. In the third chemical group, E. heterothallica has been reported to produce emethallicins, 5'-hydroxyaveranthin, emeheterone, emesterones, 5'-hydroxyaveranthin. PMID:21892244

  4. New taxa in Aspergillus section Usti.

    PubMed

    Samson, R A; Varga, J; Meijer, M; Frisvad, J C

    2011-06-30

    Based on phylogenetic analysis of sequence data, Aspergillus section Usti includes 21 species, inclucing two teleomorphic species Aspergillus heterothallicus (= Emericella heterothallica) and Fennellia monodii. Aspergillus germanicus sp. nov. was isolated from indoor air in Germany. This species has identical ITS sequences with A. insuetusCBS 119.27, but is clearly distinct from that species based on β-tubulin and calmodulin sequence data. This species is unable to grow at 37 °C, similarly to A. keveii and A. insuetus. Aspergillus carlsbadensis sp. nov. was isolated from the Carlsbad Caverns National Park in New Mexico. This taxon is related to, but distinct from a clade including A. calidoustus, A. pseudodeflectus, A. insuetus and A. keveii on all trees. This species is also unable to grow at 37 °C, and acid production was not observed on CREA. Aspergillus californicus sp. nov. is proposed for an isolate from chamise chaparral (Adenostoma fasciculatum) in California. It is related to a clade including A. subsessilis and A. kassunensis on all trees. This species grew well at 37 °C, and acid production was not observed on CREA. The strain CBS 504.65 from soil in Turkey showed to be clearly distinct from the A. deflectus ex-type strain, indicating that this isolate represents a distinct species in this section. We propose the name A. turkensis sp. nov. for this taxon. This species grew, although rather restrictedly at 37 °C, and acid production was not observed on CREA. Isolates from stored maize, South Africa, as a culture contaminant of Bipolaris sorokiniana from indoor air in Finland proved to be related to, but different from A. ustus and A. puniceus. The taxon is proposed as the new species A. pseudoustus. Although supported only by low bootstrap values, F. monodii was found to belong to section Usti based on phylogenetic analysis of either loci BLAST searches to the GenBank database also resulted in closest hits from section Usti. This species obviously does not belong to the Fennellia genus, instead it is a member of the Emericella genus. However, in accordance with the guidelines of the Amsterdam Declaration on fungal nomenclature (Hawksworth et al. 2011), and based on phylogenetic and physiological evidence, we propose the new combination Aspergillus monodii comb. nov. for this taxon. Species assigned to section Usti can be assigned to three chemical groups based on the extrolites. Aspergillus ustus, A. granulosus and A. puniceus produced ustic acid, while A. ustus and A. puniceus also produced austocystins and versicolorins. In the second chemical group, A. pseudodeflectus produced drimans in common with the other species in this group, and also several unique unknown compounds. Aspergillus calidoustus isolates produced drimans and ophiobolins in common with A. insuetus and A. keveii, but also produced austins. Aspergillus insuetus isolates also produced pergillin while A. keveii isolates produced nidulol. In the third chemical group, E. heterothallica has been reported to produce emethallicins, 5'-hydroxyaveranthin, emeheterone, emesterones, 5'-hydroxyaveranthin. PMID:21892244

  5. A synoptic review of the ant genera (Hymenoptera, Formicidae) of the Philippines

    PubMed Central

    General, David M.; Alpert, Gary D.

    2012-01-01

    Abstract An overview of the history of myrmecology in the Philippine archipelago is presented. Keys are provided to the 11 ant subfamilies and the 92 ant genera known from the Philippines. Eleven ant genera (12%), including 3 undescribed genera, are recorded for the first time from the Philippines. The biology and ecology of the 92 genera, illustrated by full-face and profile photo-images, of Philippine ants are summarized in the form of brief generic accounts. A bibliography of significant taxonomic and behavioral papers on Philippine ants and a checklist of valid species and subspecies and their island distributions are provided. PMID:22767999

  6. Three new monotypic genera of Trichopolydesmidae from Croatia, Balkan Peninsula (Diplopoda, Polydesmida).

    PubMed

    Anti?, Dragan ; Reip, Hans S; Draina, Tvrtko; Ra?a, Ton?i; Makarov, Slobodan E

    2014-01-01

    Three new monotypic genera are described from underground habitats in Croatia: Balkanodesmus biokovensis gen. n., sp. n., Solentanodesmus insularis gen. n., sp. n. and Velebitodesmus cavernicolus gen. n., sp. n. In all three new genera the prefemoral part of the gonopods is orientated transversely to the main body axis, and all three new genera possess numerous metatergal setae arranged in a few transverse irregular rows, a condition observed in several European trichopolydesmids. These three new genera are very close to the genus Verhoeffodesmus. A distribution map and a brief discussion about the relationship with congeners are provided. PMID:25543771

  7. New species in Aspergillus section Terrei

    PubMed Central

    Samson, R.A.; Peterson, S.W.; Frisvad, J.C.; Varga, J.

    2011-01-01

    Section Terrei of Aspergillus was studied using a polyphasic approach including sequence analysis of parts of the β-tubulin and calmodulin genes and the ITS region, macro- and micromorphological analyses and examination of extrolite profiles to describe three new species in this section. Based on phylogenetic analysis of calmodulin and β-tubulin sequences seven lineages were observed among isolates that have previously been treated as A. terreus and its subspecies by Raper & Fennell (1965) and others. Aspergillus alabamensis, A. terreus var. floccosus, A. terreus var. africanus, A. terreus var. aureus, A. hortai and A. terreus NRRL 4017 all represent distinct lineages from the A. terreus clade. Among them, A. terreus var. floccosus, A. terreus NRRL 4017 and A. terreus var. aureus could also be distinguished from A. terreus by using ITS sequence data. New names are proposed for A. terreus var. floccosus, A. terreus var. africanus, A. terreus var. aureus, while Aspergillus hortai is recognised at species level. Aspergillus terreus NRRL 4017 is described as the new species A. pseudoterreus. Also included in section Terrei are some species formerly placed in sections Flavipedes and Versicolores. A. clade including the type isolate of A. niveus (CBS 115.27) constitutes a lineage closely related to A. carneus. Fennellia nivea, the hypothesized teleomorph is not related to this clade. Aspergillus allahabadii, A. niveus var. indicus, and two species originally placed in section Versicolores, A. ambiguus and A. microcysticus, also form well-defined lineages on all trees. Species in Aspergillus section Terrei are producers of a diverse array of secondary metabolites. However, many of the species in the section produce different combinations of the following metabolites: acetylaranotin, asperphenamate, aspochalamins, aspulvinones, asteltoxin, asterric acid, asterriquinones, aszonalenins, atrovenetins, butyrolactones, citreoisocoumarins, citreoviridins, citrinins, decaturins, fulvic acid, geodins, gregatins, mevinolins, serantrypinone, terreic acid (only the precursor 3,6-dihydroxytoluquinone found), terreins, terrequinones, terretonins and territrems. The cholesterol-lowering agent mevinolin was found in A. terreus and A. neoafricanus only. The hepatotoxic extrolite citrinin was found in eight species: A. alabamensis, A. allahabadii, A. carneus, A. floccosus, A. hortai, A. neoindicus, A. niveus and A. pseudoterreus. The neurotoxic extrolite citreoviridin was found in five species: A. neoafricanus, A. aureoterreus, A. pseudoterreus, A. terreus and A. neoniveus. Territrems, tremorgenic extrolites, were found in some strains of A. alabamensis and A. terreus. PMID:21892242

  8. Colorimetric Assay for Antifungal Susceptibility Testing of Aspergillus Species

    PubMed Central

    Meletiadis, Joseph; Mouton, Johan W.; Meis, Jacques F. G. M.; Bouman, Bianca A.; Donnelly, J. Peter; Verweij, Paul E.

    2001-01-01

    A colorimetric assay for antifungal susceptibility testing of Aspergillus species (Aspergillus fumigatus, Aspergillus flavus, Aspergillus terreus, Aspergillus nidulans, and Aspergillus ustus) is described based on the reduction of the tetrazolium salt 2,3-bis(2-methoxy-4-nitro-5-[(sulphenylamino)carbonyl]-2H-tetrazolium-hydroxide (XTT) in the presence of menadione as an electron-coupling agent. The combination of 200 μg of XTT/ml with 25 μM menadione resulted in a high production of formazan within 2 h of exposure, allowing the detection of hyphae formed by low inocula of 102 CFU/ml after 24 h of incubation. Under these settings, the formazan production correlated linearly with the fungal biomass and less-variable concentration effect curves for amphotericin B and itraconazole were obtained. PMID:11526191

  9. In vitro interactions of antifungal agents and tacrolimus against Aspergillus biofilms.

    PubMed

    Gao, Lujuan; Sun, Yi

    2015-11-01

    Aspergillus biofilms were prepared from Aspergillus fumigatus, Aspergillus flavus, and Aspergillus terreus via a 96-well plate-based method, and the combined antifungal activity of tacrolimus with azoles or amphotericin B against Aspergillus biofilms was investigated via a broth microdilution checkerboard technique system. Our results suggest that combinations of tacrolimus with voriconazole or amphotericin B have synergistic inhibitory activity against Aspergillus biofilms. However, combinations of tacrolimus with itraconazole or posaconazole exhibit no synergistic or antagonistic effects. PMID:26303797

  10. Phylogenetic and morphotaxonomic revision of Ramichloridium and allied genera

    PubMed Central

    Arzanlou, M.; Groenewald, J.Z.; Gams, W.; Braun, U.; Shin, H.-D; Crous, P.W.

    2007-01-01

    The phylogeny of the genera Periconiella, Ramichloridium, Rhinocladiella and Veronaea was explored by means of partial sequences of the 28S (LSU) rRNA gene and the ITS region (ITS1, 5.8S rDNA and ITS2). Based on the LSU sequence data, ramichloridium-like species segregate into eight distinct clusters. These include the Capnodiales (Mycosphaerellaceae and Teratosphaeriaceae), the Chaetothyriales (Herpotrichiellaceae), the Pleosporales, and five ascomycete clades with uncertain affinities. The type species of Ramichloridium, R. apiculatum, together with R. musae, R. biverticillatum, R. cerophilum, R. verrucosum, R. pini, and three new species isolated from Strelitzia, Musa and forest soil, respectively, reside in the Capnodiales clade. The human-pathogenic species R. mackenziei and R. basitonum, together with R. fasciculatum and R. anceps, cluster with Rhinocladiella (type species: Rh. atrovirens, Herpotrichiellaceae, Chaetothyriales), and are allocated to this genus. Veronaea botryosa, the type species of the genus Veronaea, also resides in the Chaetothyriales clade, whereas Veronaea simplex clusters as a sister taxon to the Venturiaceae (Pleosporales), and is placed in a new genus, Veronaeopsis. Ramichloridium obovoideum clusters with Carpoligna pleurothecii (anamorph: Pleurothecium sp., Chaetosphaeriales), and a new combination is proposed in Pleurothecium. Other ramichloridium-like clades include R. subulatum and R. epichloës (incertae sedis, Sordariomycetes), for which a new genus, Radulidium is erected. Ramichloridium schulzeri and its varieties are placed in a new genus, Myrmecridium (incertae sedis, Sordariomycetes). The genus Pseudovirgaria (incertae sedis) is introduced to accommodate ramichloridium-like isolates occurring on various species of rust fungi. A veronaea-like isolate from Bertia moriformis with phylogenetic affinity to the Annulatascaceae (Sordariomycetidae) is placed in a new genus, Rhodoveronaea. Besides Ramichloridium, Periconiella is also polyphyletic. Thysanorea is introduced to accommodate Periconiella papuana (Herpotrichiellaceae), which is unrelated to the type species, P. velutina (Mycosphaerellaceae). PMID:18490996

  11. Phylogenetic and morphotaxonomic revision of Ramichloridium and allied genera.

    PubMed

    Arzanlou, M; Groenewald, J Z; Gams, W; Braun, U; Shin, H-D; Crous, P W

    2007-01-01

    The phylogeny of the genera Periconiella, Ramichloridium, Rhinocladiella and Veronaea was explored by means of partial sequences of the 28S (LSU) rRNA gene and the ITS region (ITS1, 5.8S rDNA and ITS2). Based on the LSU sequence data, ramichloridium-like species segregate into eight distinct clusters. These include the Capnodiales (Mycosphaerellaceae and Teratosphaeriaceae), the Chaetothyriales (Herpotrichiellaceae), the Pleosporales, and five ascomycete clades with uncertain affinities. The type species of Ramichloridium, R. apiculatum, together with R. musae, R. biverticillatum, R. cerophilum, R. verrucosum, R. pini, and three new species isolated from Strelitzia, Musa and forest soil, respectively, reside in the Capnodiales clade. The human-pathogenic species R. mackenziei and R. basitonum, together with R. fasciculatum and R. anceps, cluster with Rhinocladiella (type species: Rh. atrovirens, Herpotrichiellaceae, Chaetothyriales), and are allocated to this genus. Veronaea botryosa, the type species of the genus Veronaea, also resides in the Chaetothyriales clade, whereas Veronaea simplex clusters as a sister taxon to the Venturiaceae (Pleosporales), and is placed in a new genus, Veronaeopsis. Ramichloridium obovoideum clusters with Carpoligna pleurothecii (anamorph: Pleurothecium sp., Chaetosphaeriales), and a new combination is proposed in Pleurothecium. Other ramichloridium-like clades include R. subulatum and R. epichloës (incertae sedis, Sordariomycetes), for which a new genus, Radulidium is erected. Ramichloridium schulzeri and its varieties are placed in a new genus, Myrmecridium (incertae sedis, Sordariomycetes). The genus Pseudovirgaria (incertae sedis) is introduced to accommodate ramichloridium-like isolates occurring on various species of rust fungi. A veronaea-like isolate from Bertia moriformis with phylogenetic affinity to the Annulatascaceae (Sordariomycetidae) is placed in a new genus, Rhodoveronaea. Besides Ramichloridium, Periconiella is also polyphyletic. Thysanorea is introduced to accommodate Periconiella papuana (Herpotrichiellaceae), which is unrelated to the type species, P. velutina (Mycosphaerellaceae). PMID:18490996

  12. Phylogenetic and morphotaxonomic revision of Ramichloridium and allied genera.

    TOXLINE Toxicology Bibliographic Information

    Arzanlou M; Groenewald JZ; Gams W; Braun U; Shin HD; Crous PW

    2007-01-01

    The phylogeny of the genera Periconiella, Ramichloridium, Rhinocladiella and Veronaea was explored by means of partial sequences of the 28S (LSU) rRNA gene and the ITS region (ITS1, 5.8S rDNA and ITS2). Based on the LSU sequence data, ramichloridium-like species segregate into eight distinct clusters. These include the Capnodiales (Mycosphaerellaceae and Teratosphaeriaceae), the Chaetothyriales (Herpotrichiellaceae), the Pleosporales, and five ascomycete clades with uncertain affinities. The type species of Ramichloridium, R. apiculatum, together with R. musae, R. biverticillatum, R. cerophilum, R. verrucosum, R. pini, and three new species isolated from Strelitzia, Musa and forest soil, respectively, reside in the Capnodiales clade. The human-pathogenic species R. mackenziei and R. basitonum, together with R. fasciculatum and R. anceps, cluster with Rhinocladiella (type species: Rh. atrovirens, Herpotrichiellaceae, Chaetothyriales), and are allocated to this genus. Veronaea botryosa, the type species of the genus Veronaea, also resides in the Chaetothyriales clade, whereas Veronaea simplex clusters as a sister taxon to the Venturiaceae (Pleosporales), and is placed in a new genus, Veronaeopsis. Ramichloridium obovoideum clusters with Carpoligna pleurothecii (anamorph: Pleurothecium sp., Chaetosphaeriales), and a new combination is proposed in Pleurothecium. Other ramichloridium-like clades include R. subulatum and R. epichloës (incertae sedis, Sordariomycetes), for which a new genus, Radulidium is erected. Ramichloridium schulzeri and its varieties are placed in a new genus, Myrmecridium (incertae sedis, Sordariomycetes). The genus Pseudovirgaria (incertae sedis) is introduced to accommodate ramichloridium-like isolates occurring on various species of rust fungi. A veronaea-like isolate from Bertia moriformis with phylogenetic affinity to the Annulatascaceae (Sordariomycetidae) is placed in a new genus, Rhodoveronaea. Besides Ramichloridium, Periconiella is also polyphyletic. Thysanorea is introduced to accommodate Periconiella papuana (Herpotrichiellaceae), which is unrelated to the type species, P. velutina (Mycosphaerellaceae).

  13. Isolation of protoplasts from Aspergillus nidulans conidiospores.

    PubMed

    Bos, C J; Slakhorst, S M

    1981-04-01

    Protoplasts were prepared from conidiospores of Aspergillus nidulans. The mononucleated conidia gave protoplasts of a uniform size, approximately 5-micron diameter, depending on the strain and the stabilizing medium used. Conidia were preincubated with 2-deoxy-D-glucose in a minimal medium at 37 degrees C for 3 h. The swollen conidia were collected, resuspended in a buffer containing 0.4 M (NH4)2SO4 as stabilizer, and incubated with Oerskovia lytic enzymes at 30 degrees C for 3 or 4 h. Approximately 80% of the conidia were converted into protoplasts. The protoplasts were separated from cell wall fragments and intact conidia by centrifugation over 30% sucrose. This isolation procedure gives a suspension of mononucleated or binucleated protoplasts suitable for recombination experiments and other studies for which a homogenous protoplast suspension is required. The procedure was also successful for Aspergillus niger. PMID:7016284

  14. Aspergillus bertholletius sp. nov. from Brazil Nuts

    PubMed Central

    Taniwaki, Marta H.; Pitt, John I.; Iamanaka, Beatriz T.; Sartori, Daniele; Copetti, Marina V.; Balajee, Arun; Fungaro, Maria Helena P.; Frisvad, Jens C.

    2012-01-01

    During a study on the mycobiota of brazil nuts (Bertholletia excelsa) in Brazil, a new Aspergillus species, A. bertholletius, was found, and is described here. A polyphasic approach was applied using morphological characters, extrolite data as well as partial β-tubulin, calmodulin and ITS sequences to characterize this taxon. A. bertholletius is represented by nineteen isolates from samples of brazil nuts at various stages of production and soil close to Bertholletia excelsa trees. The following extrolites were produced by this species: aflavinin, cyclopiazonic acid, kojic acid, tenuazonic acid and ustilaginoidin C. Phylogenetic analysis using partial β-tubulin and camodulin gene sequences showed that A. bertholletius represents a new phylogenetic clade in Aspergillus section Flavi. The type strain of A. bertholletius is CCT 7615 ( = ITAL 270/06 = IBT 29228). PMID:22952594

  15. Aspergillus bertholletius sp. nov. from Brazil nuts.

    PubMed

    Taniwaki, Marta H; Pitt, John I; Iamanaka, Beatriz T; Sartori, Daniele; Copetti, Marina V; Balajee, Arun; Fungaro, Maria Helena P; Frisvad, Jens C

    2012-01-01

    During a study on the mycobiota of brazil nuts (Bertholletia excelsa) in Brazil, a new Aspergillus species, A. bertholletius, was found, and is described here. A polyphasic approach was applied using morphological characters, extrolite data as well as partial β-tubulin, calmodulin and ITS sequences to characterize this taxon. A. bertholletius is represented by nineteen isolates from samples of brazil nuts at various stages of production and soil close to Bertholletia excelsa trees. The following extrolites were produced by this species: aflavinin, cyclopiazonic acid, kojic acid, tenuazonic acid and ustilaginoidin C. Phylogenetic analysis using partial β-tubulin and camodulin gene sequences showed that A. bertholletius represents a new phylogenetic clade in Aspergillus section Flavi. The type strain of A. bertholletius is CCT 7615 ( = ITAL 270/06 = IBT 29228). PMID:22952594

  16. Pathogenesis of Aspergillus fumigatus in Invasive Aspergillosis

    PubMed Central

    Dagenais, Taylor R. T.; Keller, Nancy P.

    2009-01-01

    Summary: Aspergillus species are globally ubiquitous saprophytes found in a variety of ecological niches. Almost 200 species of aspergilli have been identified, less than 20 of which are known to cause human disease. Among them, Aspergillus fumigatus is the most prevalent and is largely responsible for the increased incidence of invasive aspergillosis (IA) in the immunocompromised patient population. IA is a devastating illness, with mortality rates in some patient groups reaching as high as 90%. Studies identifying and assessing the roles of specific factors of A. fumigatus that contribute to the pathogenesis of IA have traditionally focused on single-gene deletion and mutant characterization. In combination with recent large-scale approaches analyzing global fungal responses to distinct environmental or host conditions, these studies have identified many factors that contribute to the overall pathogenic potential of A. fumigatus. Here, we provide an overview of the significant findings regarding A. fumigatus pathogenesis as it pertains to invasive disease. PMID:19597008

  17. 4-Ethylphenol metabolism by Aspergillus fumigatus

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, K.H.; Trudgill, P.W.; Hopper, D.J.

    1994-06-01

    Many industrial pollutants are phenolic, and the degradation these compounds is important in the carbon cycle. Aspergillus fumigatus ATCC 28282 can grow on p-cresol. However 4-Ethylphenol, the higher homolog of p-cresol, presents different possibilities for putative metabolic pathways. This study shows that A. fumigatus is able to grow and 4-ethylphenol and the pathway is described. 17 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs.

  18. CENTRAL AIRWAYS OBSTRUCTION DUE TO ASPERGILLUS FUMIGATUS FOLLOWING LUNG TRANSPLANTATION

    PubMed Central

    Cerceo, Elizabeth; Kotloff, Robert M.; Hadjiliadis, Denis; Ahya, Vivek N.; Pochettino, Alberto; Gillespie, Colin; Christie, Jason D.

    2016-01-01

    Background Aspergillus fumigatus may affect immunocompromised lung transplant patients in many ways. Method We report a new pulmonary manifestation of Aspergillus fumigatus in a case series of three patients who underwent bilateral lung transplantation. Results All three subjects developed rapid drops in pulmonary function and were found to have large central airways obstruction with thick plugs of mucus, heavily laden with Aspergillus species. Conclusion All three patients presented with atypical features of Aspergillus infection but all responded to treatments with either steroids, antifungals, or both. PMID:19416784

  19. Comparative Reannotation of 21 Aspergillus Genomes

    SciTech Connect

    Salamov, Asaf; Riley, Robert; Kuo, Alan; Grigoriev, Igor

    2013-03-08

    We used comparative gene modeling to reannotate 21 Aspergillus genomes. Initial automatic annotation of individual genomes may contain some errors of different nature, e.g. missing genes, incorrect exon-intron structures, 'chimeras', which fuse 2 or more real genes or alternatively splitting some real genes into 2 or more models. The main premise behind the comparative modeling approach is that for closely related genomes most orthologous families have the same conserved gene structure. The algorithm maps all gene models predicted in each individual Aspergillus genome to the other genomes and, for each locus, selects from potentially many competing models, the one which most closely resembles the orthologous genes from other genomes. This procedure is iterated until no further change in gene models is observed. For Aspergillus genomes we predicted in total 4503 new gene models ( ~;;2percent per genome), supported by comparative analysis, additionally correcting ~;;18percent of old gene models. This resulted in a total of 4065 more genes with annotated PFAM domains (~;;3percent increase per genome). Analysis of a few genomes with EST/transcriptomics data shows that the new annotation sets also have a higher number of EST-supported splice sites at exon-intron boundaries.

  20. Keys to the Common Genera of Marine Plants Taken Aboard the Orange County Floating Marine Laboratory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, H. R.

    Provided is a dichotomous key to the common genera of marine algae and angiosperms which are taken aboard the Orange County Floating Marine Laboratory. It is designed primarily for use by junior and senior high school students. Drawings of representative members of the various genera are included. This work was prepared under an ESEA Title III…

  1. Relationships among genera of the Saccharomycotina (Ascomycota) from multigene phylogenetic analysis of type species

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Phylogenetic relatedness among ascomycetous yeast genera (subphylum Saccharomycotina, phylum Ascomycota) has been uncertain. In the present study, type species of 70 currently recognized genera are compared from divergence in the nearly entire nuclear gene sequences for large subunit rRNA, small sub...

  2. Evidence of Possible Evolutionary Divergence in Plant Genera Based on Antioxidant Properties

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Asai, Elizabeth; Cao, Sharon

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to determine if three Western species of the Panax, Lycium, and Astragalus genera had antibacterial and/or antioxidant properties, and how their properties compared to Eastern herbs in the same genera. The group hypothesized that when compared, the corresponding herbs would have identical antibacterial and…

  3. Eucoilinae of North America: A revised catalog of genera and described species

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This is a catalog of North American taxa of Eucoilinae, with little resemblance to previous regional catalogs, which have been lagging behind in the recent systematic work in the group. The current catalog comprises 34 genera, arranged in six tribes. Of these genera, 9 have only unidentified or unde...

  4. Antibiotic Extraction as a Recent Biocontrol Method for Aspergillus Niger andAspergillus Flavus Fungi in Ancient Egyptian mural paintings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hemdan, R.; et al.

    Biodeterioration of mural paintings by Aspergillus niger and Aspergillus flavus Fungi has been proved in different mural paintings in Egypt nowadays. Several researches have studied the effect of fungi on mural paintings, the mechanism of interaction and methods of control. But none of these researches gives us the solution without causing a side effect. In this paper, for the first time, a recent treatment by antibiotic "6 penthyl α pyrone phenol" was applied as a successful technique for elimination of Aspergillus niger and Aspergillus flavus. On the other hand, it is favorable for cleaning Surfaces of Murals executed by tembera technique from the fungi metabolism which caused a black pigments on surfaces.

  5. Phytochemicals and biological activities of poisonous genera of Ericaceae in China.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiaohong; Jiang, Rui; Liu, Zizhen; Liu, Weirui; Xie, Meng; Wei, Shengli; She, Gaimei

    2014-03-01

    The family Ericaceae is comprised of about 70 genera of which about 20 are found throughout China. Of these Ledum, Rhododendron, Enkianthus, Pieris, Craibiodendron, Gaultheria, Vaccinium, and Leucothoe are regarded as poisonous. Many species of these poisonous genera are used as Chinese herbal medicines for the treatment of, for example, inflammation, asthma, and coughs. Modem research has demonstrated that the toxic ingredients of these poisonous genera are chiefly tetracyclic diterpenes, which have adverse effects on the digestive, cardiovascular and nervous systems. Because various species of these poisonous genera also have medicinal functions, extensive studies of these plants have led to the identification of many kinds of compound. This paper compiles 306 compounds from the eight poisonous genera, reported in 141 references. PMID:24689229

  6. Home at last: the enigmatic genera Eriachaenium and Adenocaulon (Compositae, Mutisioideae, Mutisieae, Adenocaulinae).

    PubMed

    Funk, Vicki A; Pasini, Eduardo; Bonifacino, J Mauricio; Katinas, Liliana

    2016-01-01

    The genera Eriachaenium and Adenocaulon (Compositae) have distinct but complex histories and both have been placed in a number of tribes across the family. For the first time the two genera are included in a molecular study and the results show that they are best placed in the tribe Mutisieae s.s. and are the only genera in the re-instated subtribe Adenocaulinae. When described, this subtribe contained only Adenocaulon and was found in the Inuleae. The study also confirms one of the conclusions of a recent morphological study that Eriachaenium and Adenocaulon are sister taxa. Past difficulties in tribal assignment are attributed to the distinct and unusual morphology of each genus. Both genera and the subtribe are described and a key to separate the genera is provided. PMID:27081341

  7. Home at last: the enigmatic genera Eriachaenium and Adenocaulon (Compositae, Mutisioideae, Mutisieae, Adenocaulinae)

    PubMed Central

    Funk, Vicki A.; Pasini, Eduardo; Bonifacino, J. Mauricio; Katinas, Liliana

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The genera Eriachaenium and Adenocaulon (Compositae) have distinct but complex histories and both have been placed in a number of tribes across the family. For the first time the two genera are included in a molecular study and the results show that they are best placed in the tribe Mutisieae s.s. and are the only genera in the re-instated subtribe Adenocaulinae. When described, this subtribe contained only Adenocaulon and was found in the Inuleae. The study also confirms one of the conclusions of a recent morphological study that Eriachaenium and Adenocaulon are sister taxa. Past difficulties in tribal assignment are attributed to the distinct and unusual morphology of each genus. Both genera and the subtribe are described and a key to separate the genera is provided. PMID:27081341

  8. Discrimination of lichen genera and species using element concentrations

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bennett, J.P.

    2008-01-01

    The importance of organic chemistry in the classification of lichens is well established, but inorganic chemistry has been largely overlooked. Six lichen species were studied over a period of 23 years that were growing in 11 protected areas of the northern Great Lakes ecoregion, which were not greatly influenced by anthropogenic particulates or gaseous air pollutants. The elemental data from these studies were aggregated in order to test the hypothesis that differences among species in tissue element concentrations were large enough to discriminate between taxa faithfully. Concentrations of 16 chemical elements that were found in tissue samples from Cladonia rangiferina, Evernia mesomorpha, Flavopunctelia flaventior, Hypogymnia physodes, Parmelia sulcata, and Punctelia rudecta were analyzed statistically using multivariate discriminant functions and CART analyses, as well as t-tests. Genera and species were clearly separated in element space, and elemental discriminant functions were able to classify 91-100 of the samples correctly into species. At the broadest level, a Zn concentration of 51 ppm in tissues of four of the lichen species effectively discriminated foliose from fruticose species. Similarly, a S concentration of 680 ppm discriminated C. rangiferina and E. mesomorpha, and a Ca concentration of 10 436 ppm discriminated H. physodes from P. sulcata. For the three parmelioid species, a Ca concentration >32 837 ppm discriminated Punctelia rudecta from the other two species, while a Zn concentration of 56 ppm discriminated Parmelia sulcata from F. flaventior. Foliose species also had higher concentrations than did fruticose species of all elements except Na. Elemental signatures for each of the six species were developed using standardized means. Twenty-four mechanisms explaining the differences among species are summarized. Finally, the relationships of four species based on element concentrations, using additive-trees clustering of a Euclidean-distance matrix, produced identical relationships as did analyses based on secondary product chemistry that used additive-trees clustering of a Jaccard similarity matrix. At least for these six species, element composition has taxonomic significance, and may be useful for discriminating other taxa. ?? 2008 British Lichen Society.

  9. Discrimination of lichen genera and species using element concentrations

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bennett, James P.

    2008-01-01

    The importance of organic chemistry in the classification of lichens is well established, but inorganic chemistry has been largely overlooked. Six lichen species were studied over a period of 23 years that were growing in 11 protected areas of the northern Great Lakes ecoregion, which were not greatly influenced by anthropogenic particulates or gaseous air pollutants. The elemental data from these studies were aggregated in order to test the hypothesis that differences among species in tissue element concentrations were large enough to discriminate between taxa faithfully. Concentrations of 16 chemical elements that were found in tissue samples from Cladonia rangiferina, Evernia mesomorpha, Flavopunctelia flaventior, Hypogymnia physodes, Parmelia sulcata, and Punctelia rudecta were analyzed statistically using multivariate discriminant functions and CART analyses, as well as t-tests. Genera and species were clearly separated in element space, and elemental discriminant functions were able to classify 91-100 of the samples correctly into species. At the broadest level, a Zn concentration of 51 ppm in tissues of four of the lichen species effectively discriminated foliose from fruticose species. Similarly, a S concentration of 680 ppm discriminated C. rangiferina and E. mesomorpha, and a Ca concentration of 10 436 ppm discriminated H. physodes from P. sulcata. For the three parmelioid species, a Ca concentration >32 837 ppm discriminated Punctelia rudecta from the other two species, while a Zn concentration of 56 ppm discriminated Parmelia sulcata from F. flaventior. Foliose species also had higher concentrations than did fruticose species of all elements except Na. Elemental signatures for each of the six species were developed using standardized means. Twenty-four mechanisms explaining the differences among species are summarized. Finally, the relationships of four species based on element concentrations, using additive-trees clustering of a Euclidean-distance matrix, produced identical relationships as did analyses based on secondary product chemistry that used additive-trees clustering of a Jaccard similarity matrix. At least for these six species, element composition has taxonomic significance, and may be useful for discriminating other taxa.

  10. Genomic Islands in Pathogenic Filamentous Fungus Aspergillus fumigatus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We present the genome sequences of a new clinical isolate, CEA10, of an important human pathogen, Aspergillus fumigatus, and two closely related, but rarely pathogenic species, Neosartorya fischeri NRRL181 and Aspergillus clavatus NRRL1. Comparative genomic analysis of CEA10 with the recently sequen...

  11. Ecology, development and gene regulation in Aspergillus flavus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Aspergillus flavus is one of the most widely known species of Aspergillus. It was described as a species in 1809 and first reported as a plant pathogen in 1920. More recently, A. flavus has emerged as an important opportunistic pathogen and is now rec¬ognized as the second leading cause of aspergill...

  12. Clonality and sex impact aflatoxigenicity in Aspergillus populations

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Species in Aspergillus section Flavi commonly infect agricultural staples such as corn, peanuts, cottonseed, and tree nuts and produce an array of mycotoxins, the most potent of which are aflatoxins. Aspergillus flavus is the dominant aflatoxin-producing species in the majority of crops. Populatio...

  13. Prospective Multicenter International Surveillance of Azole Resistance in Aspergillus fumigatus

    PubMed Central

    Arendrup, M.C.; Warris, A.; Lagrou, K.; Pelloux, H.; Hauser, P.M.; Chryssanthou, E.; Mellado, E.; Kidd, S.E.; Tortorano, A.M.; Dannaoui, E.; Gaustad, P.; Baddley, J.W.; Uektter, A.; Lass-Flrl, C.; Klimko, N.; Moore, C.B.; Denning, D.W.; Pasqualotto, A.C.; Kibbler, C.; Arikan-Akdagli, S.; Andes, D.; Meletiadis, J.; Naumiuk, L.; Nucci, M.; Melchers, W.J.G.; Verweij, P.E.

    2015-01-01

    To investigate azole resistance in clinical Aspergillus isolates, we conducted prospective multicenter international surveillance. A total of 3,788 Aspergillus isolates were screened in 22 centers from 19 countries. Azole-resistant A. fumigatus was more frequently found (3.2% prevalence) than previously acknowledged, causing resistant invasive and noninvasive aspergillosis and severely compromising clinical use of azoles. PMID:25988348

  14. Nationwide Surveillance of Azole Resistance in Aspergillus Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Vermeulen, Edith; Maertens, Johan; De Bel, Annelies; Nulens, Eric; Boelens, Jerina; Surmont, Ignace; Mertens, Anna; Boel, An

    2015-01-01

    Aspergillus disease affects a broad patient population, from patients with asthma to immunocompromised patients. Azole resistance has been increasingly reported in both clinical and environmental Aspergillus strains. The prevalence and clinical impact of azole resistance in different patient populations are currently unclear. This 1-year prospective multicenter cohort study aimed to provide detailed epidemiological data on Aspergillus resistance among patients with Aspergillus disease in Belgium. Isolates were prospectively collected in 18 hospitals (April 2011 to April 2012) for susceptibility testing. Clinical and treatment data were collected with a questionnaire. The outcome was evaluated to 1 year after a patient's inclusion. A total of 220 Aspergillus isolates from 182 patients were included. The underlying conditions included invasive aspergillosis (n = 122 patients), allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis (APBA) (n = 39 patients), chronic pulmonary aspergillosis (n = 10 patients), Aspergillus bronchitis (n = 7 patients), and aspergilloma (n = 5 patients). The overall azole resistance prevalence was 5.5% (95% confidence interval [CI] 2.8 to 10.2%) and was 7.0% (4/57; 95% CI, 2.3 to 17.2%) in patients with APBA, bronchitis, aspergilloma, or chronic aspergillosis and 4.6% in patients with invasive aspergillosis (5/108; 95% CI, 1.7 to 10.7%). The 6-week survival in invasive aspergillosis was 52.5%, while susceptibility testing revealed azole resistance in only 2/58 of the deceased patients. The clinical impact of Aspergillus fumigatus resistance was limited in our patient population with Aspergillus diseases. PMID:25987612

  15. Sexual reproduction in Aspergillus tubingensis from section Nigri

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A sclerotium-forming member of Aspergillus section Nigri was sampled from a population in a single field in North Carolina, USA, and identified as A. tubingensis based on genealogical concordance analysis. Aspergillus tubingensis was shown to be heterothallic, with individual strains containing ei...

  16. Fatal coinfection with Legionella pneumophila serogroup 8 and Aspergillus fumigatus.

    PubMed

    Guillouzouic, Aurélie; Bemer, Pascale; Gay-Andrieu, Françoise; Bretonnière, Cédric; Lepelletier, Didier; Mahé, Pierre-Joachim; Villers, Daniel; Jarraud, Sophie; Reynaud, Alain; Corvec, Stéphane

    2008-02-01

    Legionella pneumophila is an important cause of community-acquired and nosocomial pneumonia. We report on a patient who simultaneously developed L. pneumophila serogroup 8 pneumonia and Aspergillus fumigatus lung abscesses. Despite appropriate treatments, Aspergillus disease progressed with metastasis. Coinfections caused by L. pneumophila and A. fumigatus remain exceptional. In apparently immunocompetent patients, corticosteroid therapy is a key risk factor for aspergillosis. PMID:17945454

  17. The current status of species recognition and identification in Aspergillus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The genus Aspergillus is a large economically important genus of fungi. In agriculture, some of the 250 species in this genus cause disease in plants and animals and some also produce poisons (mycotoxins) in foods and feeds. Aspergillus is a major killer of immunosuppressed people, such as diabeti...

  18. A first glance into the genome sequence of Aspergillus flavus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Aflatoxins, produced by Aspergillus flavus and A. parasiticus, are toxic and carcinogenic metabolites. They contaminate agricultural crops before harvest and post harvest grains during storage. In order to reduce and eliminate aflatoxin contamination of food and feed, Aspergillus flavus genomics p...

  19. WHOLE GENOME COMPARISON OF ASPERGILLUS FLAVUS AND A. ORYZAE

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Aspergillus flavus is a plant and animal pathogen that also produces the potent carcinogen aflatoxin. Aspergillus oryzae is a closely related species that has been used for centuries in the food fermentation industry and is generally regarded as safe (GRAS). Whole genome sequences for these two fu...

  20. Aspergillus pragensis sp. nov. discovered during molecular reidentification of clinical isolates belonging to Aspergillus section Candidi

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The identity of nine clinical isolates from Czech patients presumably belonging to Aspergillus section Candidi based on morphology of colonies was revised using sequences of ß-tubulin, calmodulin, and internal transcribed spacer (ITS) rDNA. The set of isolates included six isolates from suspected (n...

  1. Effect of serum components on biofilm formation by Aspergillus fumigatus and other Aspergillus species.

    PubMed

    Wuren, Tuya; Toyotome, Takahito; Yamaguchi, Masashi; Takahashi-Nakaguchi, Azusa; Muraosa, Yasunori; Yahiro, Maki; Wang, Dan-Ni; Watanabe, Akira; Taguchi, Hideaki; Kamei, Katsuhiko

    2014-01-01

    Biofilm production by microorganisms is critical for their pathogenicity. Serum promotes biofilm production by Aspergillus fumigatus; however, its effects on other Aspergillus spp. have not been reported. We analyzed biofilm formation by five Aspergillus spp., i.e., A. fumigatus, A. flavus, A. nidulans, A. niger, and A. terreus, and examined the effects of serum/serum proteins such as fetal bovine serum (FBS), fetuin A, and bovine serum albumin (BSA) on hyphal growth, hyphal branching, and extracellular matrix (ECM) formation. The antifungal susceptibility of A. fumigatus isolates that formed biofilms was also examined. All serum/serum proteins promoted the growth of all these fungal species; growth promotion was most evident with FBS, followed by fetuin A and BSA. This effect was most evident in case of A. fumigatus and least evident in case of A. terreus. Electron microscopy showed thick ECM layers surrounding fungal cell walls after culture with FBS, particularly in A. fumigatus. An increase in hyphal branching caused by fetuin A was the highest in case of A. fumigatus and A. nidulans. Biofilm-forming A. fumigatus showed resistance to most antifungal agents, although a synergism of micafungin and amphotericin B was suggested. Our results indicate that serum promotes biofilm formation, including thick ECM, by many Aspergillus spp., particularly A. fumigatus, and that this may be closely related to its virulence. PMID:24858605

  2. Aflatoxin Biosynthesis and Sclerotial Development in Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus parasiticus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Aflatoxins are a family of fungal secondary metabolites. They are produced by species in the genus Aspergillus. Within the last decade, significant advances have been made in understanding the biochemistry, genetics, and gene regulation of aflatoxin biosynthesis. Many scientists have used aflatox...

  3. Aspergillus tanneri sp. nov, a new pathogenic Aspergillus that causes invasive disease refractory to antifungal therapy

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This is the first report documenting fatal invasive aspergillosis caused by a new pathogenic Aspergillus species that is inherently resistant to antifungal drugs. Phenotypic characteristics of A. tanneri combined with the molecular approach enabled diagnosis of this new pathogen. This study undersco...

  4. The population genomics of mycotoxin diversity in Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus parasiticus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Mycotoxins, and especially the aflatoxins, are an enormous problem in agriculture, with aflatoxin B1 being the most carcinogenic known natural compound. The worldwide costs associated with aflatoxin monitoring and crop losses are in the hundreds of millions of dollars. Aspergillus flavus and A. par...

  5. Substrate-induced Lipase Gene Expression and Aflatoxin Production in Aspergillus parasiticus and Aspergillus flavus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Alfatoxins are toxic metabolites with demonstrated carcinogenic activity in vertebrate systems produced by Aspergillus flavus and A. parasiticus when these fungi infect corn, cotton, peanuts and tree nuts. Lipid metabolism has been demonstrated to be utilized by fungi to as nutrition for growth and...

  6. The function and evolution of the Aspergillus genome

    PubMed Central

    Gibbons, John G.; Rokas, Antonis

    2012-01-01

    Species in the filamentous fungal genus Aspergillus display a wide diversity of lifestyles and are of great importance to humans. The decoding of genome sequences from a dozen species that vary widely in their degree of evolutionary affinity has galvanized studies of the function and evolution of the Aspergillus genome in clinical, industrial, and agricultural environments. Here, we synthesize recent key findings that shed light on the architecture of the Aspergillus genome, on the molecular foundations of the genus’ astounding dexterity and diversity in secondary metabolism, and on the genetic underpinnings of virulence in Aspergillus fumigatus, one of the most lethal fungal pathogens. Many of these insights dramatically expand our knowledge of fungal and microbial eukaryote genome evolution and function and argue that Aspergillus constitutes a superb model clade for the study of functional and comparative genomics. PMID:23084572

  7. Nomenclatural considerations in naming species of Aspergillus and its teleomorphs

    PubMed Central

    Pitt, J.I.; Samson, R.A.

    2007-01-01

    The nomenclature of Aspergillus is important in many fields of research and therefore the strategies for stable and efficient naming are important. The conservation of species names as accepted by the Aspergillus community is described. Published lists of accepted names provide that people who use Aspergillus and Penicillium taxonomies need no longer fear the overturning of names currently used. Aspergillus is a good example of a genus where the naming of both anamorph and teleomorph has been applied and arguments are given for maintaining the system of dual nomenclature. A protocol for describing new taxa in Aspergillus and their teleomorphs is proposed, including the availability of living ex type cultures, deposit of type cultures in at least two recognised culture collections, deposits of sequence data in specialised data bases and registration of the new names in MycoBank. PMID:18490944

  8. Origin and diversification of the Milla Clade (Brodiaeoideae, Asparagaceae): a Neotropical group of six geophytic genera.

    PubMed

    Gándara, Etelvina; Specht, Chelsea D; Sosa, Victoria

    2014-06-01

    The Milla clade currently comprises six genera of geophytic plants distributed from Arizona to Guatemala. Three genera (Behria, Jaimehintonia and Petronymphe) are monotypic while the remaining genera (Bessera, Dandya and Milla) contain from two to ten (Milla) species. Parsimony, Maximum Likelihood and Bayesian Inference analyses were conducted with plastid and nuclear DNA sequences from a total of 181 plants belonging to 15 species in all six genera. Molecular dating was performed under a relaxed clock model. We examined the phylogenetic relationships of the genera and species, estimated origin-divergence times for the clade and genera and determined the ancestral distribution area of the clade by optimizing ancestral areas given current biogeographic distributions. The phylogenetic results suggest that final decisions on limits of the six genera in the Milla clade will have to be established until further taxonomic work is completed for Milla, in particular for the group of populations included under the name M. biflora. The later genus is rendered polyphyletic by other genera of the family. The origin of the Milla clade is estimated at 15.8Ma. Ancestral area of the clade most likely was located in the California Floristic Province and dispersal occurred most likely to the Chihuahuan-Coahuila Plateaus and the Trans-Mexican Volcanic Belt and from there to Baja California and the Sierra Madre del Sur. Two hypotheses that need further testing are proposed to explain complex relationships of genera and polyphyly of Milla, one in relation to fragmentation of populations and pollinator shifts and another suggesting that populations remained in refugia in the Trans-Mexican Volcanic Belt. PMID:24594063

  9. Discrimination of Aspergillus lentulus from Aspergillus fumigatus by Raman spectroscopy and MALDI-TOF MS.

    PubMed

    Verwer, P E B; van Leeuwen, W B; Girard, V; Monnin, V; van Belkum, A; Staab, J F; Verbrugh, H A; Bakker-Woudenberg, I A J M; van de Sande, W W J

    2014-02-01

    In 2005, a new sibling species of Aspergillus fumigatus was discovered: Aspergillus lentulus. Both species can cause invasive fungal disease in immune-compromised patients. The species are morphologically very similar. Current techniques for identification are PCR-based or morphology-based. These techniques are labour-intense and not sufficiently discriminatory. Since A. lentulus is less susceptible to several antifungal agents, it is important to correctly identify the causative infectious agent in order to optimize antifungal therapy. In this study we determined whether Raman spectroscopy and/or MALDI-TOF MS were able to differentiate between A. lentulus and A. fumigatus. For 16 isolates of A. lentulus and 16 isolates of A. fumigatus, Raman spectra and peptide profiles were obtained using the Spectracell and MALDI-TOF MS (VITEK MS RUO, bioMérieux) respectively. In order to obtain reliable Raman spectra for A. fumigatus and A. lentulus, the culture medium needed to be adjusted to obtain colourless conidia. Only Raman spectra obtained from colourless conidia were reproducible and correctly identified 25 out of 32 (78 %) of the Aspergillus strains. For VITEK MS RUO, no medium adjustments were necessary. Pigmented conidia resulted in reproducible peptide profiles as well in this case. VITEK MS RUO correctly identified 100 % of the Aspergillus isolates, within a timeframe of approximately 54 h including culture. Of the two techniques studied here, VITEK MS RUO was superior to Raman spectroscopy in the discrimination of A. lentulus from A. fumigatus. VITEK MS RUO seems to be a successful technique in the daily identification of Aspergillus spp. within a limited timeframe. PMID:24030717

  10. ADOPTING SELECTED HYDROGEN BONDING AND IONIC INTERACTIONS FROM ASPERGILLUS FUMIGATUS PHYTASE STRUCTURE IMPROVES THE THERMOSTABILITY OF ASPERGILLUS NIGER PHYA PHYTASE

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Although it has been widely used as a feed supplement to reduce manure phosphorus pollution of swine and poultry, Aspergillus niger PhyA phytase is unable to withstand heat inactivation during feed pelleting. Crystal structure comparisons with its close homolog, the thermostable Aspergillus fumigatu...

  11. Constitutive expression of fluorescent protein by Aspergillus var. niger and Aspergillus carbonarius to monitor fungal colonization in maize plants

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Aspergillus niger and A. carbonarius are two species in the Aspergillus section Nigri (black-spored aspergilli) frequently associated with peanut (Arachis hypogea), maize (Zea mays), and other plants as pathogens. These infections are symptomless and as such are major concerns since some black aspe...

  12. Starch Hydrolysis by Conidia of Aspergillus wentii

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, D. E.; Nelson, G. E. N.; Ciegler, A.

    1968-01-01

    Soluble starch was hydrolyzed to glucose by conidia of Aspergillus wentii NRRL 2001. Peak yields of glucose were achieved in 3 days. A glucoamylase-like enzyme was assumed to be responsible since maltose was not detected during the conversion. Spore age, storage conditions, and temperature affected the level of glucose accumulated. Iodoacetate inhibited catabolism of the glucose formed and this inhibition increased product yield. Spores of other fungi also hydrolyzed starch but none accumulated glucose naturally as did A. wentii spores. PMID:16349820

  13. Fumitoxins, new mycotoxins from Aspergillus fumigatus Fres.

    PubMed Central

    Debeaupuis, J P; Lafont, P

    1978-01-01

    Extracts of cultures of Aspergillus fumigatus isolated from silage were lethal to chicken embryos. Using this test and thin-layer chromatography, four UV-absorbing toxins, designated as fumitoxins A, B, C and D, were isolated. Analysis and mass spectrometry of crystallized fumitoxin A, the most abundant in the extract, established its molecular formula to be C31H42O8. Infrared, UV spectroscopy, and chemical reactions suggested that fumitoxin A is a steroid. Fumitoxins appear to be clearly different from the previously described toxins recognized in A. fumigatus. PMID:358921

  14. Biotransformation of swertiamarin by Aspergillus niger.

    PubMed

    Chang, Jun; Zhou, Bin

    2015-11-01

    The biotransforamtion of swertiamarin has been carried out using Aspergillus niger. The results showed that 60% swertiamarin were metabolized into two metabolites during the 5 days of biotransformation. The metabolites were identified as erythrocentaurin and 5-ethylidene-8-hydroxy-3,4,5,6,7,8-hexahydro-1Hpyrano[3,4-c]-pyridine-1-one, a novel alkaloid, with NMR and MS. The hydrolysis of glucosidic bond catalyzed by β-D-glucosidase was found to be the rate-limiting reaction in pathway of biotransformation of swertiamarin. PMID:26639489

  15. Cloning and Characterization of the Aspergillus ochraceoroseus Aflatoxin Biosynthetic Gene Cluster

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Production of the carcinogenic mycotoxin aflatoxin B1 has been reported from members of Aspergillus section Flavi, Aspergillus section Nidulantes, and a newly proposed section, Aspergillus section Ochraceorosei that consists of Aspergillus ochraceoroseus and the closely related A. rambellii. A. och...

  16. New genera and species of leaf beetles (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) from China and South Korea

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Two new genera from China (Taumaceroides Lopatin and Yunnaniata Lopatin) and 11 new species (Smaragdina quadrimaculata Lopatin, Smaragdina oblongum Lopatin, Hyphaenia volkovitshi Lopatin, Arthrotus daliensis Lopatin, Taumaceroides sinicus Lopatin, Yunnaniata konstantinovi Lopatin, Calomicrus yunnanu...

  17. Key to the recognition of normapolles and some morphologically similar pollen genera

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Batten, D.J.; Christopher, R.A.

    1981-01-01

    A dichotomous key to the recognition of 86 Normapolles and morphologically similar pollen genera is presented. The key is accompanied by line drawings of each genus and an illustrated glossary of descriptive terms. ?? 1981.

  18. A new genus of fossil Mymaridae (Hymenoptera) from Cretaceous amber and key to Cretaceous mymarid genera.

    PubMed

    Poinar, George; Huber, John T

    2011-01-01

    Myanmymar aresconoidesgen n., sp. n. is described from one female in Burmese amber, dated as about 100 my. It is similar to Arescon on wing features but is unique among Mymaridae in having distinctly segmented palpi. It is the fifth mymarid genus definitely referable to the Cretaceous period. A key to Cretaceous mymarid genera is presented and the features of Myanmymar are compared with the other Cretaceous and extant mymarid genera. PMID:22259293

  19. Glucan Synthase Complex of Aspergillus fumigatus

    PubMed Central

    Beauvais, A.; Bruneau, J. M.; Mol, P. C.; Buitrago, M. J.; Legrand, R.; Latgé, J. P.

    2001-01-01

    The glucan synthase complex of the human pathogenic mold Aspergillus fumigatus has been investigated. The genes encoding the putative catalytic subunit Fks1p and four Rho proteins of A. fumigatus were cloned and sequenced. Sequence analysis showed that AfFks1p was a transmembrane protein very similar to other Fksp proteins in yeasts and in Aspergillus nidulans. Heterologous expression of the conserved internal hydrophilic domain of AfFks1p was achieved in Escherichia coli. Anti-Fks1p antibodies labeled the apex of the germ tube, as did aniline blue fluorochrome, which was specific for β(1–3) glucans, showing that AfFks1p colocalized with the newly synthesized β(1–3) glucans. AfRHO1, the most homologous gene to RHO1 of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, was studied for the first time in a filamentous fungus. AfRho proteins have GTP binding and hydrolysis consensus sequences identical to those of yeast Rho proteins and have a slightly modified geranylation site in AfRho1p and AfRho3p. Purification of the glucan synthase complex by product entrapment led to the enrichment of four proteins: Fks1p, Rho1p, a 100-kDa protein homologous to a membrane H+-ATPase, and a 160-kDa protein which was labeled by an anti-β(1–3) glucan antibody and was homologous to ABC bacterial β(1–2) glucan transporters. PMID:11244067

  20. 2-hydroxyisocaproic acid is fungicidal for Candida and Aspergillus species.

    PubMed

    Sakko, M; Moore, C; Novak-Frazer, L; Rautemaa, V; Sorsa, T; Hietala, P; Järvinen, A; Bowyer, P; Tjäderhane, L; Rautemaa, R

    2014-04-01

    The amino acid derivative 2-hydroxyisocaproic acid (HICA) is a nutritional additive used to increase muscle mass. Low levels can be detected in human plasma as a result of leucine metabolism. It has broad antibacterial activity but its efficacy against pathogenic fungi is not known. The aim was to test the efficacy of HICA against Candida and Aspergillus species. Efficacy of HICA against 19 clinical and reference isolates representing five Candida and three Aspergillus species with variable azole antifungal sensitivity profiles was tested using a microdilution method. The concentrations were 18, 36 and 72 mg ml(-1) . Growth was determined spectrophotometrically for Candida isolates and by visual inspection for Aspergillus isolates, viability was tested by culture and impact on morphology by microscopy. HICA of 72 mg ml(-1) was fungicidal against all Candida and Aspergillus fumigatus and Aspergillus terreus isolates. Lower concentrations were fungistatic. Aspergillus flavus was not inhibited by HICA. HICA inhibited hyphal formation in susceptible Candida albicans and A. fumigatus isolates and affected cell wall integrity. In conclusion, HICA has broad antifungal activity against Candida and Aspergillus at concentrations relevant for topical therapy. As a fungicidal agent with broad-spectrum bactericidal activity, it may be useful in the topical treatment of multispecies superficial infections. PMID:24125484

  1. Three new anascosporic genera of the Saccharomycotina: Danielozyma gen. nov., Deakozyma gen. nov. and Middelhovenomyces gen. nov.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Three new non-ascosporic, ascomycetous yeast genera are proposed based on their isolation from currently described species and genera. Phylogenetic placement of the genera was determined from analysis of nuclear gene sequences for D1/D2 large subunit rRNA, small subunit rRNA, translation elongation...

  2. Effect of gamma radiation on Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus ochraceus ultrastructure and mycotoxin production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ribeiro, J.; Cavaglieri, L.; Vital, H.; Cristofolini, A.; Merkis, C.; Astoreca, A.; Orlando, J.; Carú, M.; Dalcero, A.; Rosa, C. A. R.

    2011-05-01

    The aim of this work was to study the effect of gamma radiation (2 kGy) on Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus ochraceus ultrastructure. Moreover, the influence on aflatoxin B 1 and ochratoxin A production was also observed. Irradiated A. flavus strain showed a dull orangish colony while control strain showed the typical green color. Minor differences were observed on stipes, metulae and conidia size between control and irradiated A. flavus and A. ochraceus strains. Irradiated fungi showed ultrastructural changes on cell wall, plasmalema and cytoplasm levels. The levels of mycotoxins produced by irradiated strains were two times greater than those produced by control strains. Successive transferences of irradiated strains on malt extract agar allowed the fungus to recuperate morphological characteristics. Although minor changes in the fungal morphology were observed, ultrastructural changes at cell wall level and the increase of mycotoxin production ability were observed. Inappropriate storage of irradiated food and feed would allow the development of potentially more toxicogenic fungal propagules.

  3. Extrolites of Aspergillus fumigatus and Other Pathogenic Species in Aspergillus Section Fumigati

    PubMed Central

    Frisvad, Jens C.; Larsen, Thomas O.

    2016-01-01

    Aspergillus fumigatus is an important opportunistic human pathogen known for its production of a large array of extrolites. Up to 63 species have been described in Aspergillus section Fumigati, some of which have also been reliably reported to be pathogenic, including A. felis, A. fischeri, A. fumigatiaffinis, A. fumisynnematus, A. hiratsukae, A. laciniosus, A. lentulus, A. novofumigatus, A. parafelis, A. pseudofelis, A. pseudoviridinutans, A. spinosus, A. thermomutatus, and A. udagawae. These species share the production of hydrophobins, melanins, and siderophores and ability to grow well at 37°C, but they only share some small molecule extrolites, that could be important factors in pathogenicity. According to the literature gliotoxin and other exometabolites can be contributing factors to pathogenicity, but these exometabolites are apparently not produced by all pathogenic species. It is our hypothesis that species unable to produce some of these metabolites can produce proxy-exometabolites that may serve the same function. We tabulate all exometabolites reported from species in Aspergillus section Fumigati and by comparing the profile of those extrolites, suggest that those producing many different kinds of exometabolites are potential opportunistic pathogens. The exometabolite data also suggest that the profile of exometabolites are highly specific and can be used for identification of these closely related species. PMID:26779142

  4. A novel fungal fruiting structure formed by Aspergillus niger and Aspergillus carbonarius in grape berries.

    PubMed

    Pisani, Cristina; Nguyen, Trang Thoaivan; Gubler, Walter Douglas

    2015-09-01

    Sour rot, is a pre-harvest disease that affects many grape varieties. Sour rot symptoms include initial berry cracking and breakdown of berry tissue. This is a disease complex with many filamentous fungi and bacteria involved, but is usually initiated by Aspergillus niger or Aspergillus carbonarius. Usually, by the time one sees the rot there are many other organisms involved and it is difficult to attribute the disease to one species. In this study two species of Aspergillus were shown to produce a previously unknown fruiting structure in infected berries. The nodulous morphology, bearing conidia, suggests them to be an 'everted polymorphic stroma'. This structure forms freely inside the berry pulp and assumes multiple shapes and sizes, sometimes sclerotium-like in form. It is composed of a mass of vegetative hyphae with or without tissue of the host containing spores or fruiting bodies bearing spores. Artificially inoculated berries placed in soil in winter showed the possible overwintering function of the fruiting body. Inoculated berry clusters on standing vines produced fruiting structures within 21 d post inoculation when wounds were made at veraison or after (July-September). Histological studies confirmed that the fruiting structure was indeed fungal tissue. PMID:26321727

  5. Survey of Vietnamese peanuts, corn and soil for the presence of Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus parasiticus.

    PubMed

    Tran-Dinh, N; Kennedy, I; Bui, T; Carter, D

    2009-11-01

    Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus parasiticus cause perennial infection of agriculturally important crops in tropical and subtropical areas. Invasion of crops by these fungi may result in contamination of food and feed by potent carcinogenic aflatoxins. Consumption of aflatoxin contaminated foods is a recognised risk factor for human hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and may contribute to the high incidence of HCC in Southeast Asia. This study conducted a survey of Vietnamese crops (peanuts and corn) and soil for the presence of aflatoxigenic fungi and used microsatellite markers to investigate the genetic diversity of Vietnamese Aspergillus strains. From a total of 85 samples comprising peanut (25), corn (45) and soil (15), 106 strains were isolated. Identification of strains by colony morphology and aflatoxin production found all Vietnamese strains to be A. flavus with no A. parasiticus isolated. A. flavus was present in 36.0% of peanut samples, 31.1% of corn samples, 27.3% of farmed soil samples and was not found in virgin soil samples. Twenty-five per cent of the strains produced aflatoxins. Microsatellite analysis revealed a high level of genetic diversity in the Vietnamese A. flavus population. Clustering, based on microsatellite genotype, was unrelated to aflatoxin production, geographic origin or substrate origin. PMID:19693687

  6. Suppression of host defences by Aspergillus fumigatus.

    PubMed Central

    Robertson, M D; Seaton, A; Milne, L J; Raeburn, J A

    1987-01-01

    An important feature of the microbicidal action of phagocytic cells is their ability to produce reactive oxygen intermediates. In an attempt to identify the mechanisms by which the fungus Aspergillus fumigatus resists normal host defences the effect of spores and spore diffusates of A fumigatus on the production of superoxide anion and hydrogen peroxide by primed rodent phagocytic cells has been measured. For comparison we have used the non-pathogenic fungus Penicillium ochrochloron. Production of these reactive oxygen intermediates in response to A fumigatus was significantly lower than that in response to P ochrochloron. A similar reduction was achieved by diffusate prepared from freshly washed spores. The inhibitory component was of low molecular weight (less than 14,000) and its effect was dose dependent. These results suggest that spores of A fumigatus fail to trigger and also inhibit the production of reactive oxygen intermediates by phagocytic cells. PMID:3039682

  7. Environmental fungicides and triazole resistance in Aspergillus.

    PubMed

    Bowyer, Paul; Denning, David W

    2014-02-01

    Fungal diseases are problematic in both human health and agriculture. Treatment options are limited and resistance may emerge. The relatively recent recognition of triazole resistance in Aspergillus fumigatus has prompted questioning of the origin of resistance. While multiple mechanisms are described in clinical isolates from triazole-treated patients, some de novo resistance is also recognised, especially attributable to TR34 /L98H. Such strains probably arose in the environment, and, indeed, multiple studies have now demonstrated TR(34) /L98H triazole resistance strains of A. fumigatus from soil. Docking and other in vitro studies are consistent with environmental resistance induction through exposure to certain triazole fungicides, notably difenoconazole, propiconazole, epoxiconazole, bromuconazole and tebuconazole. This article addresses the potential implications of this issue for both human health and food security. PMID:23616354

  8. Aspergillus flavus endaortitis following aortic valvotomy

    PubMed Central

    Malcolm, A. D.; Bakerspigel, A.; Enriquez, A. A.

    1971-01-01

    Aspergillar endaortitis does not seem to have been described before in the English literature. Our patient had undergone aortic valvotomy and subsequently developed leg pains, migratory arthralgias, periarticular swelling, and general malaise. Mild intermittent pyrexia, evanescent petechiae, splinter haemorrhages, and peripheral small artery occlusion characterized the early course in hospital. Dramatic popliteal artery occlusion led to surgical recovery of embolic material packed with mycelia of Aspergillus flavus, but the patient died despite intravenous amphotericin B therapy. Necropsy revealed endaortitis and aspergilli were demonstrated in the wall of a saccular dilatation of the ascending aorta close to non-absorbable sutures. The relevant literature is reviewed and attention is drawn to the current implications of knowledge relating to risk factors, diagnosis, and treatment. We suggest that cardiovascular aspergillosis will now be encountered more frequently and that a different therapeutic approach is justified. Images PMID:5565790

  9. Microbial transformation of curcumol by Aspergillus niger.

    PubMed

    Chen, Li-Xia; Zhang, Hui; Zhao, Qian; Yin, Shi-Yu; Zhang, Zhong; Li, Tian-Xian; Qiu, Feng

    2013-02-01

    Curcumol is a representative index component for the quality control of the essential oil of Curcuma wenyujin Y.H. Chen et C. Ling, an antivirus and anticancer drug in China. Microbial transformation of curcumol (1) by Aspergillus niger AS 3.739 yielded two products. Their structures were elucidated as 3alpha-hydroxycurcumol (2) and 3alpha-(4'-methoxy-succinyloxy)-curcumol (3) by extensive spectroscopic methods including 2D-NMR and HRESI-MS. Among them, 3 is a new compound. Esterification of the substrate with succinic acid is a novel reaction in the field of microbial transformation of natural products. Compound 2, the major transformation product of 1, was a high regio- and stereo-specific hydroxylation product and showed significant antiviral effects. PMID:23513713

  10. A tyrosinase inhibitor from Aspergillus niger.

    PubMed

    Vasantha, K Y; Murugesh, C S; Sattur, A P

    2014-10-01

    Tyrosinase, in the presence of oxygen, is the main culprit in post harvest browning of food products, resulting in the drop in its commercial value. In an effort to seek natural tyrosinase inhibitors for food applications, a screening programme was undertaken. Of the 26 fungal cultures isolated from soil samples of Agumbe forest, India, one isolate S16, identified as Aspergillus niger, gave an inhibition of 84 % against the enzyme. The inhibitor was isolated by following an enzyme inhibition assay guided purification protocol. The structure of the inhibitor was elucidated and found to be kojic acid. The IC50 of the Competitive inhibitor was found to be 8.8 μg with a Ki of 0.085 mM. PMID:25328242

  11. Transformation of xanthohumol by Aspergillus ochraceus.

    PubMed

    Tronina, Tomasz; Bartma?ska, Agnieszka; Pop?o?ski, Jaros?aw; Huszcza, Ewa

    2014-01-01

    Microbial transformation of xanthohumol isolated from agro-residue (spent hops), by Aspergillus ochraceus was investigated. A new aurone, (Z)-2?-(2?-hydroxyisopropyl)-dihydrofurano[4?,5?:6,7]-3',4'-dihydroxy-4-methoxyaurone, was obtained as a main transformation product. Three minor metabolites were identified as 2?-(2?-hydroxyisopropyl)-dihydrofurano[4?,5?:3',4']-2',4-dihydroxy-6'-methoxychalcone, (2S,2?S)-2?-(2?-hydroxyisopropyl)-dihydrofurano[4?,5?:7,8]-4'-hydroxy-5-methoxyflavanone and (2S,2?R)-2?-(2?-hydroxyisopropyl)-dihydrofurano[4?,5?:7,8]-4'-hydroxy-5-methoxyflavanone. Their structures were elucidated on the basis of spectroscopic evidences. The antioxidant properties of xanthohumol and its metabolites were investigated using the 2,2'-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging method. The major biotransformation product, was 8.6-fold stronger antioxidant than xanthohumol and 2.3-fold than ascorbic acid. PMID:23463662

  12. Synthesis of lead nanoparticles by Aspergillus species.

    PubMed

    Pavani, K V; Kumar, N Sunil; Sangameswaran, B B

    2012-01-01

    In the context of the current demand to develop green technologies in material synthesis, a natural process in the synthesis of lead particles by Aspergillus species to suit such technology is reported. The fungal strain was grown in medium containing different concentrations of lead (0.2-1.5 mM) to determine its resistance to heavy metals. The organism was found to utilize some mechanism and accumulate lead particles outside and inside the cell. The extracellular presence of lead particles in the range of 1.77-5.8 microm was characterized by scanning electron microscopy. The presence of particles of lead in the 5-20 nm size range was found on the cell surface, in the periplasmic space and in the cytoplasm and was analyzed by transmission electron microscopy. PMID:22708348

  13. Biotransformation of artemisinin by Aspergillus niger.

    PubMed

    Zhan, Yulian; Liu, Hua; Wu, Yunshan; Wei, Pingying; Chen, Zhencheng; Williamson, John S

    2015-04-01

    Biotransformation of artemisinin (1) by Aspergillus niger was investigated. During 12 days at 28 °C and pH 6.0, A. niger transformed artemisinin into four products. They were identified as 3β-hydroxy-4,12-epoxy-1-deoxyartemisinin (2), artemisinin G (3), 3,13-epoxyartemisinin (4), and 4α-hydroxy-1-deoxyartemisinin (5). Products 2 and 4 are new compounds and are being reported here for the first time. The product 4 contains a 3,13-epoxy structure. This is the first report of epoxidation of artemisinin using microbial strains. The product 4 still has an intact peroxide bridge and therefore can be used as a scaffold for further structural modification using chemical and biological methods in the search for new antimalarial drugs. PMID:25712678

  14. Sexual reproduction in aflatoxin-producing Aspergillus nomius

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sexual reproduction was examined in the aflatoxin-producing fungus Aspergillus nomius. Crosses between sexually compatible strains resulted in the formation of multiple nonostiolate ascocarps within stromata, which places the teleomorph in the genus Petromyces. Ascocarp and ascospore morphology in...

  15. Characterization of Aspergillus species based on fatty acid profiles.

    PubMed

    Fraga, Marcelo E; Santana, Djalva Maria N; Gatti, Mario Jorge; Direito, Gloria Maria; Cavaglieri, Lilia R; Rosa, Carlos Alberto R

    2008-09-01

    Cellular fatty acid (FA) composition was utilized as a taxonomic tool to discriminate between different Aspergillus species. Several of the tested species had the same FA composition and different relative FA concentrations. The most important FAs were palmitic acid (C16:0), estearic acid (C18:0), oleic acid (C18:1) and linoleic acid (C18:2), which represented 95% of Aspergillus FAs. Multivariate data analysis demonstrated that FA analysis is a useful tool for differentiating species belonging to genus Aspergillus. All the species analyzed showed significantly FA acid profiles (p < 0.001). Furthermore, it will be possible to distinguish among Aspergillus spp. in the Flavi Section. FA composition can serve as a useful tool for the identification of filamentous fungi. PMID:18949322

  16. Epidemiology of Aspergillus terreus at a University Hospital

    PubMed Central

    Baddley, John W.; Pappas, Peter G.; Smith, Anita C.; Moser, Stephen A.

    2003-01-01

    Invasive fungal infections due to Aspergillus species have become a major cause of morbidity and mortality among immunocompromised patients. Aspergillus terreus, a less common pathogen, appears to be an emerging cause of infection at our institution, the University of Alabama hospital in Birmingham. We therefore investigated the epidemiology of A. terreus over the past 6 years by using culture data; antifungal susceptibility testing with amphotericin B, voriconazole, and itraconazole; and molecular typing with random amplification of polymorphic DNA-PCR (RAPD-PCR). During the study period, the percentage of A. terreus isolates relative to those of other Aspergillus species significantly increased, and A. terreus isolates frequently were resistant to amphotericin B. Molecular typing with the RAPD technique was useful in discriminating between patient isolates, which showed much strain diversity. Further surveillance of A. terreus may better define epidemiology and determine whether this organism is becoming more frequent in relation to other Aspergillus species. PMID:14662934

  17. Nutrient environment influences competition among Aspergillus flavus genotypes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Structures of Aspergillus flavus populations, shaped by intraspecific competition, influence the incidences and severities of crop aflatoxin contamination. Competition for nutrients may be one factor modulating intraspecific interactions, but influences of specific types and concentrations of nutrie...

  18. Two novel species of Aspergillus section Nigri from Thai coffee beans.

    PubMed

    Noonim, Paramee; Mahakarnchanakul, Warapa; Varga, Janos; Frisvad, Jens C; Samson, Robert A

    2008-07-01

    Two novel species of Aspergillus section Nigri from Thai coffee beans are described as Aspergillus aculeatinus sp. nov. and Aspergillus sclerotiicarbonarius sp. nov. Their taxonomic status was determined using a polyphasic taxonomic approach with phenotypic (morphology and extrolite profiles) and molecular (beta-tubulin, internal transcribed spacer and calmodulin gene sequences) characteristics. A. aculeatinus sp. nov. is a uniseriate species with a similar morphology to Aspergillus aculeatus and Aspergillus japonicus, but producing smaller conidia (2-5 microm). A. aculeatinus sp. nov. produced neoxaline, secalonic acid D and F, and aculeacins. A. sclerotiicarbonarius sp. nov. is a biseriate species similar to Aspergillus carbonarius and Aspergillus ibericus, but produces abundant sclerotia and some unique indol-alkaloids. The type strain of Aspergillus sclerotiicarbonarius sp. nov. is CBS 121057(T) (=IBT 28362(T)) and the type strain of Aspergillus aculeatinus sp. nov. is CBS 121060(T) (=IBT 29077(T)). PMID:18599725

  19. Production of indole diterpenes by Aspergillus alliaceus.

    PubMed

    Junker, B; Walker, A; Connors, N; Seeley, A; Masurekar, P; Hesse, M

    2006-12-01

    Production of two related indole diterpenes (differing by a dimethyl leucine side chain) by Aspergillus alliaceus was improved through several pilot scale fermentations. Media were optimized through focus primarily on initial increases, as well as mid-cycle additions, of carbon and nitrogen sources. Fermentation conditions were improved by varying ventilation conditions using various combinations of air flowrate and back-pressure set points. Production improvements were quantified based on total indole diterpene concentration as well as the ratio of the major-to-minor by-product components. Those changes with a positive substantial impact primarily on total indole diterpene concentration included early cycle glycerol shots and enhanced ventilation conditions (high air flowrate, low back-pressure). Those changes with a significant impact primarily on ratio included higher initial cerelose, soybean oil, monosodium glutamate, tryptophan, or ammonium sulfate concentrations, higher broth pH, and enhanced ventilation conditions. A few changes (higher initial glycerol and monosodium glutamate concentrations) resulted in less notable and desirable titer or ratio changes when implemented individually, but they were adopted to more fully realize the impact of other improvements or to simplify processing. Overall, total indole diterpene titers were improved at the 600 L pilot scale from 125-175 mg/L with a ratio of about 2.1 to 200-260 mg/L with a ratio of about 3.3-4.5. Thus, the ability to optimize total indole diterpene titer and/or ratio readily exists for secondary metabolite production using Aspergillus cultures. PMID:16878329

  20. Aspergillus Thyroiditis after Allogeneic Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation.

    PubMed

    Ataca, Pinar; Atilla, Erden; Saracoglu, Pelin; Yilmaz, Gulden; Civriz Bozdag, Sinem; Toprak, Selami Kocak; Yuksel, Meltem Kurt; Ceyhan, Koray; Topcuoglu, Pervin

    2015-01-01

    Aspergillus thyroiditis is a rare disorder detected in immunocompromised patients during disseminated infections. Early management is essential to prevent high mortality. A 61-year-old allogeneic stem cell male recipient presented with painful thyroid nodular enlargement. He had low TSH and low free T4 levels. The thyroid ultrasound showed a hypoechoic nodule; biopsy indicated suppurative Aspergillus thyroiditis. He was successfully treated by amphotericin B. PMID:26640727

  1. Aspergillus Thyroiditis after Allogeneic Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Ataca, Pinar; Atilla, Erden; Saracoglu, Pelin; Yilmaz, Gulden; Civriz Bozdag, Sinem; Toprak, Selami Kocak; Yuksel, Meltem Kurt; Ceyhan, Koray; Topcuoglu, Pervin

    2015-01-01

    Aspergillus thyroiditis is a rare disorder detected in immunocompromised patients during disseminated infections. Early management is essential to prevent high mortality. A 61-year-old allogeneic stem cell male recipient presented with painful thyroid nodular enlargement. He had low TSH and low free T4 levels. The thyroid ultrasound showed a hypoechoic nodule; biopsy indicated suppurative Aspergillus thyroiditis. He was successfully treated by amphotericin B. PMID:26640727

  2. Relationships among genera of the Saccharomycotina (Ascomycota) from multigene phylogenetic analysis of type species.

    PubMed

    Kurtzman, Cletus P; Robnett, Christie J

    2013-02-01

    Relationships among ascomycetous yeast genera (subphylum Saccharomycotina, phylum Ascomycota) have been uncertain. In the present study, type species of 70 currently recognized genera are compared from divergence in the nearly entire nuclear gene sequences for large subunit rRNA, small subunit (SSU) rRNA, translation elongation factor-1α, and RNA polymerase II, subunits 1 (RPB1) and 2 (RPB2). The analysis substantiates earlier proposals that all known ascomycetous yeast genera now assigned to the Saccharomycotina represent a single clade. Maximum likelihood analysis resolved the taxa into eight large multigenus clades and four-one- and two-genus clades. Maximum parsimony and neighbor-joining analyses gave similar results. Genera of the family Saccharomycetaceae remain as one large clade as previously demonstrated, to which the genus Cyniclomyces is now assigned. Pichia, Saturnispora, Kregervanrija, Dekkera, Ogataea and Ambrosiozyma are members of a single large clade, which is separate from the clade that includes Barnettozyma, Cyberlindnera, Phaffomyces, Starmera and Wickerhamomyces. Other clades include Kodamaea, Metschnikowia, Debaryomyces, Cephaloascus and related genera, which are separate from the clade that includes Zygoascus, Trichomonascus, Yarrowia and others. This study once again demonstrates that there is limited congruence between a system of classification based on phenotype and a system determined from DNA sequences. PMID:22978764

  3. Aspergillus Mycoviruses Are Targets and Suppressors of RNA Silencing▿ †

    PubMed Central

    Hammond, T. M.; Andrewski, M. D.; Roossinck, M. J.; Keller, N. P.

    2008-01-01

    RNA silencing can function as a virus defense mechanism in a diverse range of eukaryotes, and many viruses are capable of suppressing the silencing machinery targeting them. However, the extent to which this occurs between fungal RNA silencing and mycoviruses is unclear. Here, three Aspergillus dsRNA mycoviruses were partially characterized, and their relationship to RNA silencing was investigated. Aspergillus virus 1816 is related to Agaricus bisporus white button mushroom virus 1 and suppresses RNA silencing through a mechanism that alters the level of small interfering RNA. Aspergillus virus 178 is related to RNA virus L1 of Gremmeniella abietina and does not appear to affect RNA silencing. The third virus investigated, Aspergillus virus 341, is distantly related to Sphaeropsis sapinea RNA virus 2. Detection of mycovirus-derived siRNA from this mycovirus demonstrates that it is targeted for degradation by the Aspergillus RNA silencing machinery. Thus, our results indicate that Aspergillus mycoviruses are both targets and suppressors of RNA silencing. In addition, they suggest that the morphological and physiological changes associated with some mycoviruses could be a result of their antagonistic relationship with RNA silencing. PMID:18065651

  4. Cross-talk between light and glucose regulation controls toxin production and morphogenesis in Aspergillus nidulans

    PubMed Central

    Atoui, A.; Kastner, C.; Larey, C.M.; Thokala, R.; Etxebeste, O.; Espeso, E.A.; Fischer, R.

    2010-01-01

    Light is a major environmental stimulus that has a broad effect on organisms, triggering a cellular response that results in an optimal adaptation enhancing fitness and survival. In fungi, light affects growth, and causes diverse morphological changes such as those leading to reproduction. Light can also affect fungal metabolism, including the biosynthesis of natural products. In this study we show that in Aspergillus nidulans the effect of light on the production of the sterigmatocystin (ST) toxin depends on the glucose concentration. In cultures grown with 1% glucose and exposed to light, ST production was lower than when grown in the dark. This lower ST production coincided with an elevated rate of cellular damage with partial loss of nuclear integrity and vacuolated cytoplasm. However, in cultures grown with 2% glucose these effects were reversed and light enhanced ST production. Glucose abundance also affected the light-dependent subcellular localization of the VeA (velvet) protein, a key regulator necessary for normal light-dependent morphogenesis and secondary metabolism in Aspergilli and other fungal genera. The role of other VeA-associated proteins, particularly the blue light-sensing proteins LreA and LreB (WC-1 and WC-2 orthologs), on conidiation could also be modified by the abundance of glucose. We also show that LreA and LreB, as well as the phytochrome FphA, modulate not only the synthesis of sterigmatocystin, but also the production of the antibiotic penicillin. PMID:20816830

  5. Seed mycoflora of Ephedra aphylla and amino acid profile of seed-borne Aspergillus flavus.

    PubMed

    Al-Qarawi, Abdulaziz A; Hashem, Abeer; Abd-Allah, Elsayed F

    2012-09-01

    Twenty-seven seed samples of Ephedra aphylla were collected from different rangelands in Riyadh region, Saudi Arabia during seed production season of 2010. They were assessed to determine the incidence of seedborne fungal flora using both agar plate and blotter paper methods. The investigation of the seeds yielded thirty four fungal species belonging to twelve genera, which are new record to seed-brone mycoflora of E. aphylla in Saudi Arabia. The agar plate method was found superior over blotter methods. The genus Aspergillus was the most prevalent one followed by Fusarium, Penicillium, Alternaria, and Chaetomium. Only eighteen isolates of A. flavus (? 28.6% of total isolates) were able to produce aflatoxins. Mycelial amino acids profile of selected aflatoxigenic isolates of A. flavus was investigated and five amino acids, namely cystein, lysine, praline, tryptophan and valine were common in mycelia and all of them were aflatoxins producers. Based on the dissimilarity coefficient between the isolates and their amino acids patterns, high diversity among the population of A. flavus has been recorded. PMID:22982635

  6. Biosynthetic Pathway of the Reduced Polyketide Product Citreoviridin in Aspergillus terreus var. aureus Revealed by Heterologous Expression in Aspergillus nidulans.

    PubMed

    Lin, Tzu-Shyang; Chiang, Yi-Ming; Wang, Clay C C

    2016-03-18

    Citreoviridin (1) belongs to a class of F1-ATPase β-subunit inhibitors that are synthesized by highly reducing polyketide synthases. These potent mycotoxins share an α-pyrone polyene structure, and they include aurovertin, verrucosidin, and asteltoxin. The identification of the citreoviridin biosynthetic gene cluster in Aspergillus terreus var. aureus and its reconstitution using heterologous expression in Aspergillus nidulans are reported. Two intermediates were isolated that allowed the proposal of the biosynthetic pathway of citreoviridin. PMID:26954888

  7. Immatures of the New World treehopper tribe Amastrini (Hemiptera, Membracidae, Smiliinae) with a key to genera.

    PubMed

    McKamey, Stuart H; Wallner, Adam M; Porter, Mitchell J

    2015-01-01

    The immatures stages of 8 of the 11 genera (Amastris Stål, Bajulata Ball, Erosne Stål, Harmonides Kirkaldy, Idioderma Van Duzee, Neotynelia Creão-Duarte & Sakakibara, Tynelia Stål, and Vanduzea Goding) of the tribe Amastrini are described for the first time along with brief diagnoses of Membracidae and the subfamily Smiliinae. A key to genera and notes on biology are provided. Multiple species of most genera are illustrated. Based on its distinct nymphal morphology, Vanduzea laeta nolina Ball is elevated to specific rank as Vanduzea nolina stat. n., and Bajulata, despite the superficial similarity of its adults to those of Vanduzea, is confirmed as warranting generic rank based on its unique nymphal morphology. Colombia is a new country record for Tynelia. PMID:26478706

  8. [Discrimination of eleven genera of Chinese herbs in Geraniaceae by FTIR spectroscopy and clustering analysis].

    PubMed

    Sun, Ren-Shuang; Jin, Zhe-Xiong; Zhang, Zhe-Peng; Xu, Chang-Hua; Zhou, Qun; Sun, Su-Qin

    2013-02-01

    A fast identification method of eleven genera of Chinese herbs in Geraniaceae was developed by the combination of Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy with clustering analysis. FTIR spectroscopy was employed to identify and analyze eleven genera of Chinese herbs in Geraniaceae. On the basis of a principal component analysis (PCA) model, three genera of Chinese herbs were rapidly classified by using the method of SIMCA clustering analysis. These samples could be successfully classified by SIMCA. Recognition rate and rejection rate reached up to 98%. The accuracy of clustering reached up to 91% during blind sample testing. It is concluded that in combination with clustering analysis, FTIR method provides an effective way to rapidly evaluate Chinese herbs in Geraniaceae. PMID:23697114

  9. Immatures of the New World treehopper tribe Amastrini (Hemiptera, Membracidae, Smiliinae) with a key to genera

    PubMed Central

    McKamey, Stuart H.; Wallner, Adam M.; Porter, Mitchell J.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The immatures stages of 8 of the 11 genera (Amastris Stål, Bajulata Ball, Erosne Stål, Harmonides Kirkaldy, Idioderma Van Duzee, Neotynelia Creão-Duarte & Sakakibara, Tynelia Stål, and Vanduzea Goding) of the tribe Amastrini are described for the first time along with brief diagnoses of Membracidae and the subfamily Smiliinae. A key to genera and notes on biology are provided. Multiple species of most genera are illustrated. Based on its distinct nymphal morphology, Vanduzea laeta nolina Ball is elevated to specific rank as Vanduzea nolina stat. n., and Bajulata, despite the superficial similarity of its adults to those of Vanduzea, is confirmed as warranting generic rank based on its unique nymphal morphology. Colombia is a new country record for Tynelia. PMID:26478706

  10. DNA barcoding and phylogenetic relationships of genera Picoides and Dendrocopos (Aves: Picidae).

    PubMed

    Huang, Z H; Tu, F Y; Liao, X J

    2015-01-01

    Picoides and Dendrocopos are two closely related genera of woodpeckers (family Picidae), and members of these genera have long been the subjects of phylogenetic debate. Mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI) is a powerful marker for the identification and phylogenetic study of animal species. In the present study, we analyzed the COI barcodes of 21 species from the two genera, and 222 variable sites were identified. Kimura two-parameter distances were calculated between barcodes. The average interspecific genetic distance was more than 20 times higher than the average intraspecific genetic distance. The neighbor-joining method was used to construct a phylogenetic tree, and all of the species could be discriminated by their distinct clades. Picoides arcticus was the first to split from the lineage, and the other species were grouped into two divergent clades. The results of this study indicated that the COI genetic data did not support the monophyly of Picoides and Dendrocopos. PMID:26782484

  11. Provisional keys to the genera of seaweeds of Micronesia, with new records for Guam and Yap

    PubMed Central

    LOBBAN, CHRISTOPHER S.; N'YEURT, ANTOINE D.R.

    2008-01-01

    Artificial keys to the genera of blue-green, red, brown, and green marine benthic algae of Micronesia are given, including virtually all the genera reported from Palau, Guam, Commonwealth of the Northern Marianas, Federated States of Micronesia and the Marshall Islands. Twenty-two new species or genera are reported here for Guam and 7 for Yap; 11 of these are also new for Micronesia. Note is made of several recent published records for Guam and 2 species recently raised from varietal status. Finally, a list is given of nomenclatural changes that affect the 2003 revised checklist. An interactive version of the keys is included in the algal biodiversity website at http://university.uog.edu/botany/474. PMID:18958300

  12. Genera of conjoined bases of linear Hamiltonian systems and limit characterization of principal solutions at infinity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Šepitka, Peter; Šimon Hilscher, Roman

    2016-04-01

    In this paper we derive a general limit characterization of principal solutions at infinity of linear Hamiltonian systems under no controllability assumption. The main result is formulated in terms of a limit involving antiprincipal solutions at infinity of the system. The novelty lies in the fact that the principal and antiprincipal solutions at infinity may belong to two different genera of conjoined bases, i.e., the eventual image of their first components is not required to be the same as in the known literature. For this purpose we extend the theory of genera of conjoined bases, which was recently initiated by the authors. We show that the orthogonal projector representing each genus of conjoined bases satisfies a symmetric Riccati matrix differential equation. This result then leads to an exact description of the structure of the set of all genera, in particular it forms a complete lattice. We also provide several examples, which illustrate our new theory.

  13. Molecular phylogeny of microhylid frogs (Anura: Microhylidae) with emphasis on relationships among New World genera

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Over the last ten years we have seen great efforts focused on revising amphibian systematics. Phylogenetic reconstructions derived from DNA sequence data have played a central role in these revisionary studies but have typically under-sampled the diverse frog family Microhylidae. Here, we present a detailed phylogenetic study focused on expanding previous hypotheses of relationships within this cosmopolitan family. Specifically, we placed an emphasis on assessing relationships among New World genera and those taxa with uncertain phylogenetic affinities (i.e., incertae sedis). Results One mitochondrial and three nuclear genes (about 2.8 kb) were sequenced to assess phylogenetic relationships. We utilized an unprecedented sampling of 200 microhylid taxa representing 91% of currently recognized subfamilies and 95% of New World genera. Our analyses do not fully resolve relationships among subfamilies supporting previous studies that have suggested a rapid early diversification of this clade. We observed a close relationship between Synapturanus and Otophryne of the subfamily Otophryninae. Within the subfamily Gastrophryninae relationships between genera were well resolved. Conclusion Otophryninae is distantly related to all other New World microhylids that were recovered as a monophyletic group, Gastrophryninae. Within Gastrophryninae, five genera were recovered as non-monophyletic; we propose taxonomic re-arrangements to render all genera monophyletic. This hypothesis of relationships and updated classification for New World microhylids may serve as a guide to better understand the evolutionary history of this group that is apparently subject to convergent morphological evolution and chromosome reduction. Based on a divergence analysis calibrated with hypotheses from previous studies and fossil data, it appears that microhylid genera inhabiting the New World originated during a period of gradual cooling from the late Oligocene to mid Miocene. PMID:23228209

  14. Geographic comparison of plant genera used in frugivory among the pitheciids Cacajao, Callicebus, Chiropotes, and Pithecia.

    PubMed

    Boyle, Sarah A; Thompson, Cynthia L; Deluycker, Anneke; Alvarez, Silvia J; Alvim, Thiago H G; Aquino, Rolando; Bezerra, Bruna M; Boubli, Jean P; Bowler, Mark; Caselli, Christini Barbosa; Chagas, Renata R D; Ferrari, Stephen F; Fontes, Isadora P; Gregory, Tremaine; Haugaasen, Torbjørn; Heiduck, Stefanie; Hores, Rose; Lehman, Shawn; de Melo, Fabiano R; Moreira, Leandro S; Moura, Viviane S; Nagy-Reis, Mariana B; Palacios, Erwin; Palminteri, Suzanne; Peres, Carlos A; Pinto, Liliam; Port-Carvalho, Marcio; Rodríguez, Adriana; Dos Santos, Ricardo R; Setz, Eleonore Z F; Shaffer, Christopher A; Silva, Felipe Ennes; Soares da Silva, Rafaela F; Souza-Alves, João P; Trevelin, Leonardo C; Veiga, Liza M; Vieira, Tatiana M; DuBose, Mary E; Barnett, Adrian A

    2016-05-01

    Pitheciids are known for their frugivorous diets, but there has been no broad-scale comparison of fruit genera used by these primates that range across five geographic regions in South America. We compiled 31 fruit lists from data collected from 18 species (three Cacajao, six Callicebus, five Chiropotes, and four Pithecia) at 26 study sites in six countries. Together, these lists contained 455 plant genera from 96 families. We predicted that 1) closely related Chiropotes and Cacajao would demonstrate the greatest similarity in fruit lists; 2) pitheciids living in closer geographic proximity would have greater similarities in fruit lists; and 3) fruit genus richness would be lower in lists from forest fragments than continuous forests. Fruit genus richness was greatest for the composite Chiropotes list, even though Pithecia had the greatest overall sampling effort. We also found that the Callicebus composite fruit list had lower similarity scores in comparison with the composite food lists of the other three genera (both within and between geographic areas). Chiropotes and Pithecia showed strongest similarities in fruit lists, followed by sister taxa Chiropotes and Cacajao. Overall, pitheciids in closer proximity had more similarities in their fruit list, and this pattern was evident in the fruit lists for both Callicebus and Chiropotes. There was no difference in the number of fruit genera used by pitheciids in habitat fragments and continuous forest. Our findings demonstrate that pitheciids use a variety of fruit genera, but phylogenetic and geographic patterns in fruit use are not consistent across all pitheciid genera. This study represents the most extensive examination of pitheciid fruit consumption to date, but future research is needed to investigate the extent to which the trends in fruit genus richness noted here are attributable to habitat differences among study sites, differences in feeding ecology, or a combination of both. Am. J. Primatol. 78:493-506, 2016. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26031411

  15. [Illustrated keys to families and genera of the superfamily Ixodoidea under new taxonomic system].

    PubMed

    Chen, Ze; Li, Si-si; Liu, Jing-ze

    2011-08-01

    Since molecular biology techniques were applied in the phylogeny of ticks in the late 20th century, changes have taken place in the nomenclature and taxonomy of ticks. However, the illustrated keys to families and genera of ticks published in China were incompetence and the taxonomic system was out of date. This article presents a manual of illustrated keys to families and genera of the superfamily Ixodoidea based on the taxonomic system proposed by Barker and Murrell (2004), and provides a foundation for morphological identification of ticks. PMID:21972610

  16. Three New Monotypic Genera of the Caloplacoid Lichens (Teloschistaceae, Lichen-Forming Ascomycetes)

    PubMed Central

    Lőkös, Lászlo; Kim, Jung A.; Kondratiuk, Anna S.; Jeong, Min Hye; Jang, Seol Hwa; Oh, Soon-Ok; Hur, Jae-Seoun

    2015-01-01

    Three monophyletic branches are strongly supported in a phylogenetic analysis of the Teloschistaceae based on combined data sets of internal transcribed spacer and large subunit nrDNA and 12S small subunit mtDNA sequences. These are described as new monotypic genera: Jasonhuria S. Y. Kondr., L. Lőkös et S. -O. Oh, Loekoesia S. Y. Kondr., S. -O. Oh et J. -S. Hur and Olegblumia S. Y. Kondr., L. Lőkös et J. -S. Hur. Three new combinations for the type species of these genera are proposed. PMID:26539034

  17. A reassessment of the Hypoglossum group (Delesseriaceae, Rhodophyta), with a critique of its genera

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wynne, M. J.

    1988-09-01

    A reassessment of the Hypoglossum group (Delesseriaceae, Rhodophyta), with a critique of its genera. Eight genera are assigned to the Hypoglossum Kützing, Phitymophora J. Agardh, Pseudobranchioglossum Bodard, and Zellera Martens. The circumscription of the group is emended to include forms with network-forming ( Zellera) an dspirally twisted ( Duckerella) thalli. The definition of the group is lalso modified to include members (e.g. some species of Hypoglossum) in which tetrasporangia are produced by primary cells as in the Caloglossa group. Exogenous branching, a distinguishing feature of the closely related Caloglossa group, never occurs in the Hypoglossum group.

  18. Expression of the Aspergillus terreus itaconic acid biosynthesis cluster in Aspergillus niger

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Aspergillus terreus is a natural producer of itaconic acid and is currently used to produce itaconic acid on an industrial scale. The metabolic process for itaconic acid biosynthesis is very similar to the production of citric acid in Aspergillus niger. However, a key enzyme in A. niger, cis-aconitate decarboxylase, is missing. The introduction of the A. terreus cadA gene in A. niger exploits the high level of citric acid production (over 200 g per liter) and theoretically can lead to production levels of over 135 g per liter of itaconic acid in A. niger. Given the potential for higher production levels in A. niger, production of itaconic acid in this host was investigated. Results Expression of Aspergillus terreus cis-aconitate decarboxylase in Aspergillus niger resulted in the production of a low concentration (0.05 g/L) of itaconic acid. Overexpression of codon-optimized genes for cis-aconitate decarboxylase, a mitochondrial transporter and a plasma membrane transporter in an oxaloacetate hydrolase and glucose oxidase deficient A. niger strain led to highly increased yields and itaconic acid production titers. At these higher production titers, the effect of the mitochondrial and plasma membrane transporters was much more pronounced, with levels being 5–8 times higher than previously described. Conclusions Itaconic acid can be produced in A. niger by the introduction of the A. terreus cis-aconitate decarboxylase encoding cadA gene. This results in a low itaconic acid production level, which can be increased by codon-optimization of the cadA gene for A. niger. A second crucial requirement for efficient production of itaconic acid is the expression of the A. terreus mttA gene, encoding a putative mitochondrial transporter. Expression of this transporter results in a twenty-fold increase in the secretion of itaconic acid. Expression of the A. terreus itaconic acid cluster consisting of the cadA gene, the mttA gene and the mfsA gene results in A. niger strains that produce over twenty five-fold higher levels of itaconic acid and show a twenty-fold increase in yield compared to a strain expressing only CadA. PMID:24438100

  19. Aspergillus Osteomyelitis: Epidemiology, Clinical Manifestations, Management, and Outcome

    PubMed Central

    Gamaletsou, Maria N.; Rammaert, Blandine; Bueno, Marimelle A.; Moriyama, Brad; Sipsas, Nikolaos V.; Kontoyiannis, Dimitrios P.; Roilides, Emmanuel; Zeller, Valerie; Prinapori, Roberta; Tajaldeen, Saad Jaber; Brause, Barry; Lortholary, Olivier; Walsh, Thomas J.

    2014-01-01

    Background The epidemiology, pathogenesis, diagnosis, and management of Aspergillus osteomyelitis are not well understood. Methods Protocol-defined cases of Aspergillus osteomyelitis published in the English literature were reviewed for comorbidities, microbiology, mechanisms of infection, clinical manifestations, radiological findings, inflammatory biomarkers, antifungal therapy, and outcome. Results Among 180 evaluable patients, 127 (71%) were males. Possible predisposing medical conditions in 103 (57%) included pharmacological immunosuppression, primary immunodeficiency, and neutropenia. Seventy-three others (41%) had prior open fracture, trauma or surgery. Eighty (44%) followed a hematogenous mechanism, 58 (32%) contiguous infections, and 42 (23%) direct inoculation. Aspergillus osteomyelitis was the first manifestation of aspergillosis in 77%. Pain and tenderness were present in 80%. The most frequently infected sites were vertebrae (46%), cranium (23%), ribs (16%), and long bones (13%). Patients with vertebral Aspergillus osteomyelitis had more previous orthopedic surgery (19% vs 0%; P=0.02), while those with cranial osteomyelitis had more diabetes mellitus (32% vs 8%; P=0.002) and prior head/neck surgery (12% vs 0%; P=0.02). Radiologic findings included osteolysis, soft-tissue extension, and uptake on T2-weighted images. Vertebral body Aspergillus osteomyelitis was complicated by spinal-cord compression in 47% and neurological deficits in 41%. Forty-four patients (24%) received only antifungal therapy, while 121(67%) were managed with surgery and antifungal therapy. Overall mortality was 25%. Median duration of therapy was 90 days (range, 10–772 days). There were fewer relapses in patients managed with surgery plus antifungal therapy in comparison to those managed with antifungal therapy alone (8% vs 30%; P=0.006). Conclusions Aspergillus osteomyelitis is a debilitating infection affecting both immunocompromised and immunocompetent patients. The most common sites are vertebrae, ribs, and cranium. Based upon this comprehensive review, management of Aspergillus osteomyelitis optimally includes antifungal therapy and selective surgery to avoid relapse and to achieve a complete response. PMID:24378282

  20. Fungal life in the dead sea.

    PubMed

    Oren, Aharon; Gunde-Cimerman, Nina

    2012-01-01

    The waters of the Dead Sea currently contain about 348 g/l salts (2 M Mg(2+), 0.5 M Ca(2+), 1.5 M Na(+), 0.2 M K(+), 6.5 M Cl(-), 0.1 M Br(-)). The pH is about 6.0. After rainy winters the surface waters become diluted, triggering development of microbial blooms. The 1980 and 1992 blooms were dominated by the unicellular green alga Dunaliella and red Archaea. At least 70 species (in 26 genera) of Oomycota (Chromista), Mucoromycotina, Ascomycota, and Basidiomycota (Fungi) were isolated from near-shore localities and offshore stations, including from deep waters. Aspergillus and Eurotium were most often recovered. Aspergillus terreus, A. sydowii, A. versicolor, Eurotium herbariorum, Penicillium westlingii, Cladosporium cladosporioides, C. sphaerospermum, C. ramnotellum, and C. halotolerans probably form the stable core of the community. The species Gymnascella marismortui may be endemic. Mycelia of Dead Sea isolates of A. versicolor and Chaetomium globosum remained viable for up to 8 weeks in Dead Sea water; mycelia of other species survived for many weeks in 50% Dead Sea water. Many isolates showed a very high tolerance to magnesium salts. There is no direct proof that fungi contribute to the heterotrophic activity in the Dead Sea, but fungi may be present at least locally and temporarily, and their enzymatic activities such as amylase, protease, and cellulase may play a role in the lake's ecosystem. PMID:22222829

  1. Early invasive pulmonary aspergillosis in a kidney transplant recipient caused by Aspergillus lentulus: first Brazilian report.

    PubMed

    Bastos, Viviane Reis de Azevedo; Santos, Daniel Wagner de Castro Lima; Padovan, Ana Carolina Barbosa; Melo, Analy Salles Azevedo; Mazzolin, Milene de Abreu; Camargo, Luis Fernando Aranha; Colombo, Arnaldo Lopes

    2015-04-01

    We report the first Brazilian case of pulmonary invasive aspergillosis caused by Aspergillus lentulus, a new opportunistic Aspergillus species included in the section fumigati that is usually resistant to amphotericin B and azoles. PMID:25515242

  2. What is the importance of classifying Aspergillus disease in cystic fibrosis patients?

    PubMed

    Jones, Andrew M; Horsley, Alex; Denning, David W

    2014-08-01

    Aspergillus species are commonly isolated from lower respiratory tract samples of patients with cystic fibrosis (CF) and markers of immunological sensation to Aspergillus are frequently encountered in this group of patients; however, the contribution of Aspergillus to CF lung disease outside of the typical complications of ABPA and aspergilloma formation remains largely unclear. Patients with CF show discretely different responses to Aspergillus, though the underlying reasons for this variation are unknown. Recent work has begun to allow us to categorize patient responses to Aspergillus based upon molecular markers of infection and immune sensitization. Aspergillus sensitization and/or airway infection is associated with worse FEV1, in CF and other patients (asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, bronchiectasis). Classification of different clinical phenotypes of Aspergillus will enable future studies to determine the natural history of different manifestations of Aspergillus disease and evaluate the effects of intervention with antifungal therapy. PMID:24869560

  3. New Records and Range Extensions for Several Chironomid Genera from Lake Superior

    EPA Science Inventory

    Five genera of chironomids have been reported for the first time in Lake Superior. Chironomids are small flying insects with a sediment-dwelling aquatic larval stage. The chironomids were collected by scientists at the Mid-Continent Ecology Division as part of a research program ...

  4. Synopsis of warty leaf beetles genera of the world (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae: Cryptocephalinae: Chlamisini)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    World genera of Chlamisini are reviewed, diagnosed, and illustrated. A key for their dentification is provided. A replacement name, Kakita Chamorro-Lacayo and Konstantinov is presented for Ceratochlamys Bokermann which is a junior homonym of Ceratochlamys Habe, 1946 (Mollusca). Chlamisus rousei M...

  5. Two new genera and species of Tingidae from Cretaceous amber from Myanmar (Burma) (Hemiptera: Heteroptera).

    PubMed

    Heiss, Ernst; Guilbert, Eric

    2013-01-01

    From the Upper Cretaceous Burmese amber, the first known genera of Tingidae, Spinitingis n. gen. and Burmacader n. gen. with the species Spinitingis ellenbergeri n. sp. and Burmacader multivenosus n. sp., are described and figured. Their systematic placement and relationship to fossil and extant taxa are discussed. PMID:25112636

  6. A revised generic arrangement for the eagle ray family Myliobatidae, with definitions for the valid genera.

    PubMed

    White, William T

    2014-01-01

    The generic arrangement of the eagle rays (Family Myliobatidae) is revised and the genus Pteromylaeus Garman, 1913 is placed into the synonymy of Aetomylaeus Garman, 1908. Definitions are provided for the three valid genera, Aetobatus, Aetomylaeus and Myliobatis, and nomenclatural issues are discussed. Aetobatus differs from the latter two genera in having: a deeply notched nasal curtain, both jaws with a single row of chevron-shaped teeth, broadly rounded pectoral-fin free rear tips, pectoral fins separate from rostral lobe and joining head at level of eye. Aetomylaeus differs from the other two genera in having: pectoral fins separate from rostral lobe and joining head below level of eye, and stinging spine absent or present (usually not well developed when present). Myliobatis differs from the other two genera in having the pectoral fins joined to the rostral lobe by a subocular ridge. A list of valid species is provided, including a list of junior synonyms. Myliobatis australis Macleay, 1881 from southern Australia is placed into the synonymy of the previously considered endemic New Zealand species, M. tenuicaudatus Hector, 1877. PMID:25283197

  7. A plastid gene phylogeny of the non-photosynthetic parasitic Orobanche (Orobanchaceae) and related genera.

    PubMed

    Park, Jeong-Mi; Manen, Jean-François; Colwell, Alison E; Schneeweiss, Gerald M

    2008-07-01

    The phylogenetic relationships of the non-photosynthetic Orobanche sensu lato (Orobanchaceae), which includes some of the economically most important parasitic weeds, remain insufficiently understood and controversial. This concerns both the phylogenetic relationships within the genus, in particular its monophyly or lack thereof, and the relationships to other holoparasitic genera such as Cistanche or Conopholis. Here we present the first comprehensive phylogenetic study of this group based on a region from the plastid genome (rps2 gene). Although substitution rates appear to be elevated compared to the photosynthetic members of Orobanchaceae, relationships among the major lineages Cistanche, Conopholis plus Epifagus, Boschniakia rossica (Cham. & Schltdl.) B. Fedtsch., B. himalaica Hook. f. & Thomson, B. hookeri Walp. plus B. strobilacea A. Gray, and Orobanche s. l. remain unresolved. Resolution within Orobanche, however, is much better. In agreement with morphological, cytological and other molecular phylogenetic evidence, five lineages, corresponding to the four traditionally recognised sections (Gymnocaulis, Myzorrhiza, Orobanche, Trionychon) and O. latisquama Reut. ex Boiss. (of sect. Orobanche), can be distinguished. A combined analysis of plastid rps2 and nuclear ITS sequences of the holoparasitic genera results in more resolved and better supported trees, although the relationships among Orobanche s. l., Cistanche, and the clade including the remaining genera is unresolved. Therefore, rps2 is a marker from the plastid genome that is well-suited to be used in combination with other already established nuclear markers for resolving generic relationships of Orobanche and related genera. PMID:18483784

  8. CLARIFICATION OF THE NOMENCLATURE AND RELATIONSHIPS OF THE GENERA CRYPTOSPORELLA, OPHIOVALSA AND WINTERELLA (GNOMONIACEAE)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fungi of the genera Cryptosporella Sacc, Ophiovalsa Petrak and Winterella (O. Kuntze) J. Reid and Booth have been reported as saprobes, endophytes and pathogens mainly from trees belonging in the Betulaceae and Ulmaceae and have recently been assigned to the family Gnomoniaceae (Diaporthales). These...

  9. Corrections and Additions to the Catalog of the Aphid Genera Described from the New World

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Since the publication of the Catalog of the Aphid Genera Described from the New World (Favret et al. 2008), several errors and omissions have come to light. We here make corrections to seven genus-group names and add 17 valid and nine invalid generic names, raising the total number of available New ...

  10. Type species of genera in Aphididae (Hemiptera Sternorrhyncha) with two new generic synonymies

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The type species of genus-group taxa in the insect family Aphididae are summarized. Type species designations of 16 available genera are amended to adhere to international nomenclatural standards and two synonymies incorrectly recorded in the literature are corrected: Neorhizobius Del Guercio is a s...

  11. MEMBRANE FILTER PROCEDURE FOR ENUMERATING THE COMPONENT GENERA OF THE COLIFORM GROUP IN SEAWATER

    EPA Science Inventory

    A facile, quantitative, membrane filter procedure (mC) for defining the distribution of coliform populations in seawater according to the component genera was developed. The procedure, which utilizes a series of in situ substrate tests to obviate the picking of colonies for ident...

  12. A plastid gene phylogeny of the non-photosynthetic parasitic Orobanche (Orobanchaceae) and related genera

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Park, J.-M.; Manen, J.-F.; Colwell, A.E.; Schneeweiss, G.M.

    2008-01-01

    The phylogenetic relationships of the non-photosynthetic Orobanche sensu lato (Orobanchaceae), which includes some of the economically most important parasitic weeds, remain insufficiently understood and controversial. This concerns both the phylogenetic relationships within the genus, in particular its monophyly or lack thereof, and the relationships to other holoparasitic genera such as Cistanche or Conopholis. Here we present the first comprehensive phylogenetic study of this group based on a region from the plastid genome (rps2 gene). Although substitution rates appear to be elevated compared to the photosynthetic members of Orobanchaceae, relationships among the major lineages Cistanche, Conopholis plus Epifagus, Boschniakia rossica (Cham. & Schltdl.) B. Fedtsch., B. himalaica Hook. f. & Thomson, B. hookeri Walp. plus B. strobilacea A. Gray, and Orobanche s. l. remain unresolved. Resolution within Orobanche, however, is much better. In agreement with morphological, cytological and other molecular phylogenetic evidence, five lineages, corresponding to the four traditionally recognised sections (Gymnocaulis, Myzorrhiza, Orobanche, Trionychon) and O. latisquama Reut. ex Boiss. (of sect. Orobanche), can be distinguished. A combined analysis of plastid rps2 and nuclear ITS sequences of the holoparasitic genera results in more resolved and better supported trees, although the relationships among Orobanche s. l., Cistanche, and the clade including the remaining genera is unresolved. Therefore, rps2 is a marker from the plastid genome that is well-suited to be used in combination with other already established nuclear markers for resolving generic relationships of Orobanche and related genera. ?? 2008 The Botanical Society of Japan and Springer.

  13. Quantitative analysis of oxyresveratrol in different plant parts of Morus species and related Genera by HPTLC

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Four aromatic compounds; oxyresveratrol (1), mulberroside A (2), cudraflavone C (3) and kuwanone J (4) were isolated from the stems of Morus rubra L. The quantitative determination of oxyresveratrol from M. rubra L., M. alba L. and related genera by high performance thin layer chromatography (HPTLC)...

  14. Phylogenetic Relationships of Five Asian Schilbid Genera Including Clupisoma (Siluriformes: Schilbeidae)

    PubMed Central

    Zan, Ruiguang; Chai, Jing; Ma, Wei; Jin, Wei; Duan, Rongyao; Luo, Jing; Murphy, Robert W.; Xiao, Heng; Chen, Ziming

    2016-01-01

    The phylogenetic relationships of Asian schilbid catfishes of the genera Clupisoma, Ailia, Horabagrus, Laides and Pseudeutropius are poorly understood, especially those of Clupisoma. Herein, we reconstruct the phylogeny of 38 species of catfishes belonging to 28 genera and 14 families using the concatenated mitochondrial genes COI, cytb, and 16S rRNA, as well as the nuclear genes RAG1 and RAG2. The resulting phylogenetic trees consistently place Clupisoma as the sister taxon of Laides, and the five representative Asian schilbid genera form two monophyletic groups with the relationships (Ailia (Laides, Clupisoma)) and (Horabagrus, Pseudeutropius). The so-called “Big Asia” lineage relates distantly to African schilbids. Independent analyses of the mitochondrial and nuclear DNA data yield differing trees for the two Asian schilbid groups. Analyses of the mitochondrial gene data support a sister-group relationship for (Ailia (Laides, Clupisoma)) and the Sisoroidea and a sister-taxon association of (Horabagrus, Pseudeutropius) and the Bagridae. In contrast, analyses of the combined nuclear data indicate (Ailia (Laides, Clupisoma)) to be the sister group to (Horabagrus, Pseudeutropius). Our results indicate that the Horabagridae, recognized by some authors as consisting of Horabagrus, Pseudeutropius and Clupisoma does not include the latter genus. We formally erect a new family, Ailiidae fam. nov. for a monophyletic Asian group comprised of the genera Ailia, Laides and Clupisoma. PMID:26751688

  15. An illustrated key to the genera of Thripinae (Thysanoptera, Thripidae) from Iran

    PubMed Central

    Mirab-balou, Majid; Minaei, Kambiz; Chen, Xue-Xin

    2013-01-01

    Abstract An illustrated key is provided for the identification of 35 genera of Thripinae (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) from Iran with comments for each genus. Chirothrips maximi Ananthakrishnan and Limothrips cerealium Haliday are recorded from Iran for the first time. A checklist is provided of Thripinae recorded from this country. PMID:23950669

  16. DNA extraction protocols from dormant buds of twelve woody plant genera

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Standard plant DNA extraction protocols call for samples of newly expanding leaves and shoots yet analysis is sometimes needed when plants are dormant. We evaluated three DNA extraction protocols using dormant buds from 40 species and four hybrids of 12 genera. Two protocols were from ready-to-use ...

  17. Two new genera and five new species of Teloganodidae (Ephemeroptera) from South India.

    PubMed

    Selvakumar, C; Sivaramakrishnan, K G; Jacobus, Luke M; Janarthanan, S; Arumugam, M

    2014-01-01

    Two new genera and five new species of teloganodid mayflies (Ephemeroptera: Pannota: Ephemerelloidea) are described based on larvae from south India: Janohyphella indica, n. gen., n. sp., Indoganodes jobini, n. gen., n. sp., Teloganodes sartorii, n. sp., Dudgeodes palnius, n. sp., and Derlethina tamiraparaniae, n. sp.  Janohyphella, n. gen., is distinguished from the larvae of other teloganodid genera by having a combination of three subequal caudal filaments, lamellate gills on abdominal segments II through V and posterolateral processes well-developed on abdominal segments II through IX, except III. Indoganodes, n. gen., is distinguished from the larvae of other teloganodid genera by having three subequal caudal filaments, lamellate gills on abdominal segments II through VI, posterolateral projections weakly developed on abdominal segments I through V, but distinct on segments VI through IX. Our new species of Dudgeodes Sartori, 2008 and Derlethina Sartori, 2008 represent the first discoveries of these genera outside Southeast Asia, with the latter genus previously considered endemic to Borneo. Emendations to the larval species key of known Oriental Teloganodidae are provided. We hypothesize that the occurrence of the new taxa in southern India is a result of the tectonic events associated with the split-up of Gondwana. This illustrates the profound biogeographical significance of how vicariance led to the establishment of some distinct oriental lineages initially on the rafting Indian Deccan Plate, which might have triggered dispersal events for subsequent species diversification in Southeast Asia.  PMID:25112240

  18. New species of the Eastern Hemisphere genera Afroheriades and Noteriades (Hymenoptera: Megachilidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    New species of the rarely encountered megachilid genera Afroheriades Peters from South Africa, A. hyalinus sp. n., and Noteriades Cockerell from Myanmar and Thailand, N. jenniferae sp. n. and N. spinosus sp. n., are described and illustrated. The species are described to make their names available i...

  19. Biogeography of the Malagasy Celastraceae: Multiple independent origins followed by widespread dispersal of genera from Madagascar.

    PubMed

    Bacon, Christine D; Simmons, Mark P; Archer, Robert H; Zhao, Liang-Cheng; Andriantiana, Jacky

    2016-01-01

    Of the 97 currently recognized genera of Celastraceae, 19 are native to Madagascar, including six endemics. In this study we conducted the most thorough phylogenetic analysis of Celastraceae yet completed with respect to both character and taxon sampling, and include representatives of five new endemic genera. Fifty-one new accessions, together with 328 previously used accessions of Celastrales, were sampled for morphological characters, two rDNA gene regions, and two plastid gene regions. The endemic Malagasy genera are resolved in two separate lineages-Xenodrys by itself and all other endemic genera in a clade that also includes four lineages inferred to have dispersed from Madagascar: Brexia madagascariensis (Mascarene Islands, coastal Africa), Elaeodendron (West Indies, Africa to New Caledonia), and Pleurostylia (Africa to New Caledonia). Of the 12 extant Malagasy Celastraceae lineages identified, eight are clearly of African origin. The origins of the remaining four lineages are less clear, but reasonable possibilities include America, Eurasia, Africa, southern India, Malesia, and Australia. Based on 95% credible age intervals from fossil-calibrated molecular dating, all 12 extant Malagasy Celastraceae lineages appear to have arisen following dispersal after the separation of Madagascar from other landmasses within the last 70 million years. PMID:26432393

  20. New flat mite genera (Acari: Trombidiformes: Tenuipalpidae) associated with Australian sedges (Cyperaceae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Two new genera, Gahniacarus and Cyperacarus, and four new species, G. gersonus, G. tuberculatus, C. naomae and C. foliatus, are described from native Australian sedge species in the genus Gahnia (Cyperaceae). Leg chaetotaxy is provided for all stages of each species. The importance of taxonomic ch...

  1. Degradation of melanin by Aspergillus fumigatus.

    PubMed Central

    Luther, J P; Lipke, H

    1980-01-01

    A strain of Aspergillus fumigatus from composted coffee and garden wastes utilized natural deproteinized insect, banana, hair, octopus, and synthetic tyrosine and dopa melanins as sole sources of carbon. With a sucrose supplement, degradation was essentially complete after 50 days in Czapek medium pH 6.5 at 30 degrees C. The catabolic rate differed for each substrate pigment, as did the molecular weight distribution of products accumulating in the medium. After incubation with L-[U-14C]melanin, over 50% was recovered in a dark fungal pigment, the remainder appearing as cell protein, chitin, lipid, CO2, and polar metabolites. When grown on melanin, the normally pale mycelia darkened with the production of a fungal allomelanin, with infrared spectrum and alkali fusion products differing from those of the substrate pigment. Isotope distribution in amino acids for A. fumigatus grown on labeled melanin supplemented with sucrose suggested separate pools for synthesis of cell proteins and melanoproteins. Deposition of allomelanin increased resistance of conidia, sterigma, and conidiophores to lytic carbohydrases as judged by scanning electron microscopy. Images PMID:6996615

  2. Overexpression of protein disulfide isomerase in Aspergillus.

    PubMed

    El-Adawi, H; Khanh, N Q; Gassen, H

    2000-10-01

    One of the major problems with the production of biotechnologically valuable proteins has been the purification of the product. For Escherichia coli and Saccharomyces cerevisiae, there are several techniques for the purification of intracellular proteins, but these are time consuming and often result in poor yields. Purification can be considerably facilitated, if the product is secreted from the host cell. In the work presented, we have constructed an expression vector (pSGNH2) for the secretion of protein disulfide isomerase (PDI; EC 5.3.4.1) from Aspergillus niger, in which the retention signal His-Asp-Glu-Leu (H-D-E-L) was modified to Ala-Leu-Glu-Gln (A-L-E-Q) via the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) method. The PDI gene was placed under the control of the A. oryzae alpha-amylase promoter. This expression vector was transformed into A. niger NRRL3, resulting in PDI secretion into the medium. The catalytic activity of overexpressed PDI from A. niger was indistinguishable from that of PDI isolated from bovine liver. With further strain improvement and optimization of culture conditions, it could be possible to raise the PDI production to the bioprocessing scale. PMID:10977899

  3. Biodegradation of anthracene by Aspergillus fumigatus.

    PubMed

    Ye, Jin-Shao; Yin, Hua; Qiang, Jing; Peng, Hui; Qin, Hua-Ming; Zhang, Na; He, Bao-Yan

    2011-01-15

    An anthracene-degrading strain, identified as Aspergillus fumigatus, showed a favorable ability in degradation of anthracene. The degradation efficiency could be maintained at about 60% after 5d with initial pH of the medium kept between 5 and 7.5, and the optimal temperature of 30 °C. The activity of this strain was not affected significantly by high salinity. Exploration on co-metabolism showed that the highest degradation efficiency was reached at equal concentration of lactose and anthracene. Excessive carbon source would actually hamper the degradation efficiency. Meanwhile, the strain could utilize some aromatic hydrocarbons such as benzene, toluene, phenol etc. as sole source of carbon and energy, indicating its degradation diversity. Experiments on enzymatic degradation indicated that extracellular enzymes secreted by A. fumigatus could metabolize anthracene effectively, in which the lignin peroxidase may be the most important constituent. Analysis of ion chromatography showed that the release of anions of A. fumigatus was not affected by addition of anthracene. GC-MS analysis revealed that the molecular structure of anthracene changed with the action of the microbe, generating a series of intermediate compounds such as phthalic anhydride, anthrone and anthraquinone by ring-cleavage reactions. PMID:20932640

  4. Genetics of Polyketide Metabolism in Aspergillus nidulans

    PubMed Central

    Klejnstrup, Marie L.; Frandsen, Rasmus J. N.; Holm, Dorte K.; Nielsen, Morten T.; Mortensen, Uffe H.; Larsen, Thomas O.; Nielsen, Jakob B.

    2012-01-01

    Secondary metabolites are small molecules that show large structural diversity and a broad range of bioactivities. Some metabolites are attractive as drugs or pigments while others act as harmful mycotoxins. Filamentous fungi have the capacity to produce a wide array of secondary metabolites including polyketides. The majority of genes required for production of these metabolites are mostly organized in gene clusters, which often are silent or barely expressed under laboratory conditions, making discovery and analysis difficult. Fortunately, the genome sequences of several filamentous fungi are publicly available, greatly facilitating the establishment of links between genes and metabolites. This review covers the attempts being made to trigger the activation of polyketide metabolism in the fungal model organism Aspergillus nidulans. Moreover, it will provide an overview of the pathways where ten polyketide synthase genes have been coupled to polyketide products. Therefore, the proposed biosynthesis of the following metabolites will be presented; naphthopyrone, sterigmatocystin, aspyridones, emericellamides, asperthecin, asperfuranone, monodictyphenone/emodin, orsellinic acid, and the austinols. PMID:24957370

  5. Polyclonal Aspergillus fumigatus infection in captive penguins.

    PubMed

    Alvarez-Perez, Sergio; Mateos, Ana; Dominguez, Lucas; Martinez-Nevado, Eva; Blanco, Jose L; Garcia, Marta E

    2010-08-26

    Aspergillus fumigatus is a known opportunistic pathogen of penguins. Most reports of penguin aspergillosis have focused on clinical, histopathological and microbiological findings. The molecular characterization of A. fumigatus isolates involved in invasive infections in penguins has yet to be addressed. The aim of this work was to study the possible coexistence of different A. fumigatus genotypes in five clinical cases of invasive aspergillosis in captive penguins. Differences in other relevant characteristics of the isolates, including mating type and invasiveness, were also considered. Alkaline protease and elastase production by the A. fumigatus isolates was evaluated by plate assays. Random amplified polymorphic DNA, and microsatellite analysis techniques were used for molecular typing, and mating type (MAT1-1 or MAT1-2) was determined by multiplex PCR. Although all isolates showed protease activity, differences in elastase activity were observed. The typing techniques indicated different genotypes in all the penguins, although one genotype was predominant in some cases. Fungal strains of different mating type were found in two different penguins, confirming infection polyclonality. In conclusion, captive penguins are susceptible to infection by multiple strains of A. fumigatus that differ not only in their genotype, but also in mating type and invasiveness. This finding has important consequences for the diagnosis and treatment of avian aspergillosis. PMID:20219295

  6. Fingernail Onychomycosis Due to Aspergillus niger.

    PubMed

    Kim, Dong Min; Suh, Moo Kyu; Ha, Gyoung Yim; Sohng, Seung Hyun

    2012-11-01

    Onychomycosis is usually caused by dermatophytes, but some species of nondermatophytic molds and yeasts are also associated with nail invasion. Aspergillus niger is a nondermatophytic mold which exists as an opportunistic filamentous fungus in all environments. Here, we report a case of onychomycosis caused by A. niger in a 66-year-old female. The patient presented with a black discoloration and a milky white base and onycholysis on the proximal portion of the right thumb nail. Direct microscopic examination of scrapings after potassium hydroxide (KOH) preparation revealed dichotomous septate hyphae. Repeated cultures on Sabouraud's dextrose agar (SDA) without cycloheximide produced the same black velvety colonies. No colony growth occurred on SDA with cycloheximide slants. Biseriate phialides covering the entire vesicle with radiate conidial heads were observed on the slide culture. The DNA sequence of the internal transcribed spacer region of the clinical sample was a 100% match to that of A. niger strain ATCC 16888 (GenBank accession number AY373852). A. niger was confirmed by KOH mount, colony identification, light microscopic morphology, and DNA sequence analysis. The patient was treated orally with 250 mg terbinafine daily and topical amorolfine 5% nail lacquer for 3 months. As a result, the patient was completely cured clinically and mycologically. PMID:23197914

  7. The Tip Growth Apparatus of Aspergillus nidulans

    PubMed Central

    Taheri-Talesh, Naimeh; Horio, Tetsuya; Araujo-Bazán, Lidia; Dou, Xiaowei; Espeso, Eduardo A.; Peñalva, Miguel A.; Osmani, Stephen A.

    2008-01-01

    Hyphal tip growth in fungi is important because of the economic and medical importance of fungi, and because it may be a useful model for polarized growth in other organisms. We have investigated the central questions of the roles of cytoskeletal elements and of the precise sites of exocytosis and endocytosis at the growing hyphal tip by using the model fungus Aspergillus nidulans. Time-lapse imaging of fluorescent fusion proteins reveals a remarkably dynamic, but highly structured, tip growth apparatus. Live imaging of SYNA, a synaptobrevin homologue, and SECC, an exocyst component, reveals that vesicles accumulate in the Spitzenkörper (apical body) and fuse with the plasma membrane at the extreme apex of the hypha. SYNA is recycled from the plasma membrane by endocytosis at a collar of endocytic patches, 1–2 μm behind the apex of the hypha, that moves forward as the tip grows. Exocytosis and endocytosis are thus spatially coupled. Inhibitor studies, in combination with observations of fluorescent fusion proteins, reveal that actin functions in exocytosis and endocytosis at the tip and in holding the tip growth apparatus together. Microtubules are important for delivering vesicles to the tip area and for holding the tip growth apparatus in position. PMID:18216285

  8. Apical control of conidiation in Aspergillus nidulans.

    PubMed

    Oiartzabal-Arano, Elixabet; Perez-de-Nanclares-Arregi, Elixabet; Espeso, Eduardo A; Etxebeste, Oier

    2016-05-01

    The infection cycle of filamentous fungi consists of two main stages: invasion (growth) and dispersion (development). After the deposition of a spore on a host, germination, polar extension and branching of vegetative cells called hyphae allow a fast and efficient invasion. Under suboptimal conditions, genetic reprogramming of hyphae results in the generation of asexual spores, allowing dissemination to new hosts and the beginning of a new infection cycle. In the model filamentous fungus Aspergillus nidulans, asexual development or conidiation is induced by the upstream developmental activation (UDA) pathway. UDA proteins transduce signals from the tip, the polarity site of hyphae, to nuclei, where developmental programs are transcriptionally activated. The present review summarizes the current knowledge on this tip-to-nucleus communication mechanism, emphasizing its dependence on hyphal polarity. Future approaches to the topic will also be suggested, as stimulating elements contributing to the understanding of how apical signals are coupled with the transcriptional control of development and pathogenesis in filamentous fungi. PMID:26782172

  9. Bioconversion of Capsaicin by Aspergillus oryzae.

    PubMed

    Lee, Minji; Cho, Jeong-Yong; Lee, Yu Geon; Lee, Hyoung Jae; Lim, Seong-Il; Park, So-Lim; Moon, Jae-Hak

    2015-07-01

    This study identified metabolites of capsaicin bioconverted by Aspergillus oryzae, which is generally used for mass production of gochujang prepared by fermenting red pepper powder in Korea. A. oryzae was incubated with capsaicin in potato dextrose broth. Capsaicin decreased depending on the incubation period, but new metabolites increased. Five capsaicin metabolites purified from the ethyl acetate fraction of the capsaicin culture were identified as N-vanillylcarbamoylbutyric acid, N-vanillyl-9-hydroxy-8-methyloctanamide, ω-hydroxycapsaicin, 8-methyl-N-vanillylcarbamoyl-6(E)-octenoic acid, and 2-methyl-N-vanillylcarbamoyl-6(Z)-octenoic acid by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and mass spectrometry (MS). The capsaicin metabolites in gochujang were confirmed and quantitated by selective multiple reaction monitoring detection after liquid chromatography electrospray ionization MS using the isolated compounds as external standards. On the basis of the structures of the capsaicin metabolites, it is proposed that capsaicin metabolites were converted by A. oryzae by ω-hydroxylation, alcohol oxidation, hydrogenation, isomerization, and α- and/or β-oxidation. PMID:26072923

  10. Nitrification of aspartate by Aspergillus flavus.

    PubMed

    Hatcher, H J; Schmidt, E L

    1971-02-01

    Heterotrophic conversion of l-aspartic acid to nitrification products by Aspergillus flavus was studied in a replacement incubation system. Numerous amino acids supported nitrification; aspartate and glutamate were about equivalent as the best sources of nitrate. Addition of sodium bicarbonate to the incubation system substantially enhanced nitrate formation for all nitrifiable amino acids except aspartic acid, but the basis for the bicarbonate effect is obscure. The yield of nitrate from l-aspartate was not approached by forms of aspartic acid resulting from substitution on the beta carbon, the amino nitrogen, or the gamma carboxyl group or by aspartate presented as the d-configuration. There was no relationship between nitrate formation and the occurrence of such possible intermediates as nitrite, bound hydroxylamine, ammonia, aspergillic acid, and beta-nitropropionic acid. Uniformly labeled (14)C-l-aspartate that was nitrified in replacement incubation led to no accumulation of label in possible nitrification products in the culture filtrate. Label was found in components of the mycelium after acid hydrolysis, with heaviest accumulation in what appeared to be glucosamine and an unidentified compound, possibly acetylglucosamine. Detectable label was redistributed into serine, glycine, and threonine. PMID:5549699

  11. Comparative descriptions of non-adult stages of four genera of Gordiids (Phylum: Nematomorpha).

    PubMed

    Szmygiel, Cleo; Schmidt-Rhaesa, Andreas; Hanelt, Ben; Bolek, Matthew G

    2014-01-01

    Freshwater hairworms infect terrestrial arthropods as larvae but are free-living in aquatic habitats as adults. Estimates suggest that only 18% of hairworm species have been described globally and biodiversity studies on this group have been hindered by unreliable ways of collecting adult free living worms over large geographical areas. However, recent work indicates that non-adult cyst stages of hairworms may be the most commonly encountered stages of gordiids in the environment, and can be used for discovering the hidden diversity of this group. Unfortunately, little information is available on the morphological characteristics of non-adult stages of hairworms. To address this problem, we describe and compare morphological characteristics of non-adult stages for nine species of African and North American gordiids from four genera (Chordodes, Gordius, Paragordius, and Neochordodes). Observations were made on the oviposition behavior of adult worms and morphological characteristics were recorded for egg strings, larvae and cysts using light and differential interference contrast microscopy and/or scanning electron microscopy. Our study indicates that three distinct types of oviposition behaviors and three distinct morphological types of egg string, larva, and cysts were present among the four genera of gordiids. Although species identification based on cyst characteristics was not always possible among different species of gordiids, cyst morphology was conserved among some genera and all clades of gordiids. More importantly, our work indicates that gordiid larval morphology can be used for predicting cyst morphology among other gordiid genera. The capability to identify and predict gordiid genera and/or clades based on cyst morphology will be useful for culturing gordiids in the laboratory from field collected cysts and these new techniques will undoubtedly allow others to discover new species of gordiids from around the world. PMID:24871170

  12. Skeletal morphology of two controversial Poecilosclerid genera (Porifera, Demospongiae): Discorhabdella and Crambe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maldonado, M.; Uriz, M. J.

    1996-09-01

    The genera Discorhabdella and Crambe are characterized by bearing uncommon spicule types, i.e. pseudoastrose acanthostyles and sphaeroclones, respectively. They have traditionally been considered to be unrelated taxa, but the present reexamination made evident that an important amount of skeletal features are shared by both. Some of these morphological features, such as the ornamentation on the point of the ectosomal subtylostyles, are reported for the first time. The study also revealed that a tuberose nature of the tyles of the main choanosomal megascleres could be a common ancestral condition in both genera. The morphology of the multi-toothed anchorate chelae showed a gradual transition across the species, suggesting that the morphological diversity in chelae was generated in these genera through a “palmate-anchorate-arcuate” evolutionary sequence. However, the forward or backward direction of this sequence remained unclear from the available evidence. Important levels of skeletal variability were found to affect many of the skeletal characters, especially in the genus Crambe. In some cases, this variability transgressed the limits theoretically defining a species, making evident that the traditional procedure just based on comparison of the skeletons becomes unreliable when tackling the taxonomy of these genera. Most of the skeletal variability seemed to correspond to genetic polymorphisms, except in the case of C. acuata. In this taxon, the skeletal variability could be a result of the existence of a cryptic species, originated by a misconceived synonymy between C. acuata and C. chelastra. Besides the skeletal variability, the obscure taxonomic meaning of many skeletal features favored the existence of conflicting taxonomic proposals for the suprageneric location of these genera, depending on the author’s criteria. This study made evident that any subsequent attempt of phylogenetic inference should be based on an unweighted analysis of the available skeletal information.

  13. One, four or 100 genera? A new classification of the cone snails

    PubMed Central

    Puillandre, N.; Duda, T. F.; Meyer, C.; Olivera, B. M.; Bouchet, P.

    2015-01-01

    We present a new classification for the genus Conus sensu lato (family Conidae), based on molecular phylogenetic analyses of 329 species. This classification departs from both the traditional classification in only one genus and from a recently proposed shell- and radula-based classification scheme that separates members of this group into five families and 115 genera. Roughly 140 genus-group names are available for Recent cone snails. We propose to place all cone snails within a single family (Conidae) containing four genera—Conus, Conasprella, Profundiconus and Californiconus (with Conus alone encompassing about 85% of known species)—based on the clear separation of cone snails into four distinct and well-supported groups/lineages in molecular phylogenetic analyses. Within Conus and Conasprella, we recognize 57 and 11 subgenera, respectively, that represent well-supported subgroupings within these genera, which we interpret as evidence of intrageneric distinctiveness. We allocate the 803 Recent species of Conidae listed as valid in the World Register of Marine Species into these four genera and 71 subgenera, with an estimate of the confidence for placement of species in these taxonomic categories based on whether molecular or radula and/or shell data were used in these determinations. Our proposed classification effectively departs from previous schemes by (1) limiting the number of accepted genera, (2) retaining the majority of species within the genus Conus and (3) assigning members of these genera to species groups/subgenera to enable the effective communication of these groups, all of which we hope will encourage acceptance of this scheme. PMID:26300576

  14. 40 CFR 180.1206 - Aspergillus flavus AF36; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Aspergillus flavus AF36; exemption... FOOD Exemptions From Tolerances § 180.1206 Aspergillus flavus AF36; exemption from the requirement of a... pesticide Aspergillus flavus AF36 in or on cotton, gin byproducts; cotton, hulls; cotton, meal;...

  15. 40 CFR 180.1254 - Aspergillus flavus NRRL 21882; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Aspergillus flavus NRRL 21882... RESIDUES IN FOOD Exemptions From Tolerances § 180.1254 Aspergillus flavus NRRL 21882; exemption from the... of Aspergillus flavus NRRL 21882 on peanut; peanut, hay; peanut, meal; and peanut, refined oil....

  16. 21 CFR 173.120 - Carbohydrase and cellulase derived from Aspergillus niger.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Carbohydrase and cellulase derived from Aspergillus... cellulase derived from Aspergillus niger. Carbohydrase and cellulase enzyme preparation derived from Aspergillus niger may be safely used in food in accordance with the following prescribed conditions:...

  17. Comparative Genomics of Aspergillus flavus and A. oryzae: An Early View

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Aspergillus flavus produces aflatoxins and is the second leading cause of aspergillosis in immunocompromised individuals. Aspergillus oryzae, on the other hand, has been used for centuries in Japan for the fermentation of food. The recently available whole genome sequences of Aspergillus flavus an...

  18. PHYA GENE PRODUCT OF ASPERGILLUS FICUUM AND PENIOPHORA LYCII PRODUCES TWO DISSIMILAR PHYTASES

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    PhyA gene product of Aspergillus ficuum (AF) and Peniophora lycii (PL) as expressed in industrial strains of Aspergillus niger and Aspergillus oryzae, respectively, were purified to homogeneity and then characterized for both physical and biochemical properties. The PL phytase is 26 amino acid resi...

  19. Acute community acquired Aspergillus pneumonia in a presumed immunocompetent host

    PubMed Central

    Sridhar, Varun; Rajagopalan, Natarajan; C, Shivaprasad; Patil, Mahantesh; Varghese, Jaicob

    2012-01-01

    Infection from Aspergillus results in a wide range of diseases from simple Aspergillus pneumonia to fatal invasive Aspergillosis. Though the fungus is known to predominantly affect the immunocompromised host, it has also been known to cause acute pneumonia in immunocompetent hosts which is invariably fatal. It presents as an acute pneumonia with bilateral chest infiltrates on radiograph. Early clinical suspicion and microbiological identification by measures such as broncho alveolar lavage and initiation of therapy with voricanozole significantly increase the chances of survival. In this article the authors discuss a case of acute community acquired Aspergillus pneumonia in an immunocompetent host who survived due to early identification and prompt treatment with appropriate antifungal medication. PMID:22605848

  20. Aspergillus Mediastinitis after Orthotopic Heart Transplantation: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    El-Sayed Ahmed, Magdy M.; Almanfi, Abdelkader; Aftab, Muhammad; Singh, Steve K.; Mallidi, Hari R.

    2015-01-01

    A 55-year-old woman was admitted for orthotopic heart transplantation. Her medical history was notable for multiple cardiovascular problems, including ischemic cardiomyopathy that necessitated circulatory support with a left ventricular assist device. Five weeks after undergoing orthotopic heart transplantation, she developed Aspergillus calidoustus mediastinitis, for which she underwent a prolonged course of antifungal treatment that comprised (in sequence) posaconazole for 11 days, voriconazole for 10 days, and amphotericin B for 42 days. During this period, she also underwent repeated mediastinal drainage and sternal débridement, followed by sternal wiring and coverage with bilateral pectoralis advancement flaps. Four months postoperatively, she was discharged from the hospital with a successfully controlled infection and a healed sternum. To our knowledge, only 3 previous cases of Aspergillus mediastinitis after orthotopic heart transplantation have been reported in the literature, none of which was Aspergillus calidoustus. PMID:26504444

  1. Heterologous expression of Aspergillus terreus fructosyltransferase in Kluyveromyces lactis.

    PubMed

    Spohner, Sebastian C; Czermak, Peter

    2016-06-25

    Fructo-oligosaccharides are prebiotic and hypocaloric sweeteners that are usually extracted from chicory. They can also be produced from sucrose using fructosyltransferases, but the only commercial enzyme suitable for this purpose is Pectinex Ultra, which is produced with Aspergillus aculeatus. Here we used the yeast Kluyveromyces lactis to express a secreted recombinant fructosyltransferase from the inulin-producing fungus Aspergillus terreus. A synthetic codon-optimised version of the putative β-fructofuranosidase ATEG 04996 (XP 001214174.1) from A. terreus NIH2624 was secreted as a functional protein into the extracellular medium. At 60°C, the purified A. terreus enzyme generated the same pattern of oligosaccharides as Pectinex Ultra, but at lower temperatures it also produced oligomers with up to seven units. We achieved activities of up to 986.4U/mL in high-level expression experiments, which is better than previous reports of optimised Aspergillus spp. fermentations. PMID:27084521

  2. Functional Analysis of the Aspergillus nidulans Kinome

    PubMed Central

    De Souza, Colin P.; Hashmi, Shahr B.; Osmani, Aysha H.; Andrews, Peter; Ringelberg, Carol S.; Dunlap, Jay C.; Osmani, Stephen A.

    2013-01-01

    The filamentous fungi are an ecologically important group of organisms which also have important industrial applications but devastating effects as pathogens and agents of food spoilage. Protein kinases have been implicated in the regulation of virtually all biological processes but how they regulate filamentous fungal specific processes is not understood. The filamentous fungus Aspergillus nidulans has long been utilized as a powerful molecular genetic system and recent technical advances have made systematic approaches to study large gene sets possible. To enhance A. nidulans functional genomics we have created gene deletion constructs for 9851 genes representing 93.3% of the encoding genome. To illustrate the utility of these constructs, and advance the understanding of fungal kinases, we have systematically generated deletion strains for 128 A. nidulans kinases including expanded groups of 15 histidine kinases, 7 SRPK (serine-arginine protein kinases) kinases and an interesting group of 11 filamentous fungal specific kinases. We defined the terminal phenotype of 23 of the 25 essential kinases by heterokaryon rescue and identified phenotypes for 43 of the 103 non-essential kinases. Uncovered phenotypes ranged from almost no growth for a small number of essential kinases implicated in processes such as ribosomal biosynthesis, to conditional defects in response to cellular stresses. The data provide experimental evidence that previously uncharacterized kinases function in the septation initiation network, the cell wall integrity and the morphogenesis Orb6 kinase signaling pathways, as well as in pathways regulating vesicular trafficking, sexual development and secondary metabolism. Finally, we identify ChkC as a third effector kinase functioning in the cellular response to genotoxic stress. The identification of many previously unknown functions for kinases through the functional analysis of the A. nidulans kinome illustrates the utility of the A. nidulans gene deletion constructs. PMID:23505451

  3. Identification of Glucose Transporters in Aspergillus nidulans

    PubMed Central

    dos Reis, Thaila Fernanda; Menino, João Filipe; Bom, Vinícius Leite Pedro; Brown, Neil Andrew; Colabardini, Ana Cristina; Savoldi, Marcela; Goldman, Maria Helena S.; Rodrigues, Fernando; Goldman, Gustavo Henrique

    2013-01-01

    To characterize the mechanisms involved in glucose transport, in the filamentous fungus Aspergillus nidulans, we have identified four glucose transporter encoding genes hxtB-E. We evaluated the ability of hxtB-E to functionally complement the Saccharomyces cerevisiae EBY.VW4000 strain that is unable to grow on glucose, fructose, mannose or galactose as single carbon source. In S. cerevisiae HxtB-E were targeted to the plasma membrane. The expression of HxtB, HxtC and HxtE was able to restore growth on glucose, fructose, mannose or galactose, indicating that these transporters accept multiple sugars as a substrate through an energy dependent process. A tenfold excess of unlabeled maltose, galactose, fructose, and mannose were able to inhibit glucose uptake to different levels (50 to 80 %) in these s. cerevisiae complemented strains. Moreover, experiments with cyanide-m-chlorophenylhydrazone (CCCP), strongly suggest that hxtB, -C, and –E mediate glucose transport via active proton symport. The A. nidulans ΔhxtB, ΔhxtC or ΔhxtE null mutants showed ~2.5-fold reduction in the affinity for glucose, while ΔhxtB and -C also showed a 2-fold reduction in the capacity for glucose uptake. The ΔhxtD mutant had a 7.8-fold reduction in affinity, but a 3-fold increase in the capacity for glucose uptake. However, only the ΔhxtB mutant strain showed a detectable decreased rate of glucose consumption at low concentrations and an increased resistance to 2-deoxyglucose. PMID:24282591

  4. The complete nucleotide sequence of a totivirus from Aspergillus foetidus.

    PubMed

    Kozlakidis, Zisis; Herrero, Noemi; Coutts, Robert H A

    2013-01-01

    Virus infection of Aspergillus foetidus was first described in the 1970s, and the purified virus, named Aspergillus foetidus virus (AfV), contains at least two types of icosahedral particles, called AfV-fast (-F) and AfV-slow (-S) virions, based on their relative electrophoretic mobilities. AfV-S consists of a mixture of two viruses, the larger of which, called AfV-S1, is a dsRNA-containing member of the genus Victorivirus in the family Totiviridae, and its complete nucleotide sequence is described here. PMID:22729614

  5. THREE NEW GENERA AND THREE NEW SPECIES OF NEOTROPICAL HYALIODINI, WITH NEW COMBINATIONS AND NEW SYNONYMY (HEMIPTERA: HETEROPTERA: MIRIDAE: DERAEOCORINAE)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Three new genera of Hyaliodini are described to provide names for a forthcoming study on the phylogenetic relationships of the genera within the subfamily Deraeocorinae. The new genus Dicyphanisca is described to accommodate the new species D. marginella from Ecuador; the new genus Froeschnerisca, ...

  6. Phylogenomic and molecular demarcation of the core members of the polyphyletic pasteurellaceae genera actinobacillus, haemophilus, and pasteurella.

    PubMed

    Naushad, Sohail; Adeolu, Mobolaji; Goel, Nisha; Khadka, Bijendra; Al-Dahwi, Aqeel; Gupta, Radhey S

    2015-01-01

    The genera Actinobacillus, Haemophilus, and Pasteurella exhibit extensive polyphyletic branching in phylogenetic trees and do not represent coherent clusters of species. In this study, we have utilized molecular signatures identified through comparative genomic analyses in conjunction with genome based and multilocus sequence based phylogenetic analyses to clarify the phylogenetic and taxonomic boundary of these genera. We have identified large clusters of Actinobacillus, Haemophilus, and Pasteurella species which represent the "sensu stricto" members of these genera. We have identified 3, 7, and 6 conserved signature indels (CSIs), which are specifically shared by sensu stricto members of Actinobacillus, Haemophilus, and Pasteurella, respectively. We have also identified two different sets of CSIs that are unique characteristics of the pathogen containing genera Aggregatibacter and Mannheimia, respectively. It is now possible to demarcate the genera Actinobacillus sensu stricto, Haemophilus sensu stricto, and Pasteurella sensu stricto on the basis of discrete molecular signatures. The other members of the genera Actinobacillus, Haemophilus, and Pasteurella that do not fall within the "sensu stricto" clades and do not contain these molecular signatures should be reclassified as other genera. The CSIs identified here also provide useful diagnostic targets for the identification of current and novel members of the indicated genera. PMID:25821780

  7. Seed plant genera endemic to the Caribbean Island biodiversity hotspot: A review and a molecular phylogentic perspective

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Caribbean Island Biodiversity Hotspot is composed primarily by the Bahamas and Greater and Lesser Antilles. A total of 178 genera (722 spp., ca. 9% of the species endemic to the Antilles) are restricted to this hotspot. Most of these genera are unispecific (53%), a pattern that is also found o...

  8. New species of oribatid mites of the genera Lepidozetes and Scutozetes (Acari, Oribatida, Tegoribatidae) from Nepal.

    PubMed

    Ermilov, Sergey G; Martens, Jochen; Tolstikov, Andrei V

    2013-01-01

    Two new species of oribatid mites, Lepidozetes acutirostrum sp. n. and Scutozetes clavatosensillus sp. n., are described from Nepal. The genera Lepidozetes and Scutozetes are recorded for the first time for the Oriental region. The identification keys to the known species of these genera are provided. PMID:24146586

  9. Phylogenomic and Molecular Demarcation of the Core Members of the Polyphyletic Pasteurellaceae Genera Actinobacillus, Haemophilus, and Pasteurella

    PubMed Central

    Naushad, Sohail; Adeolu, Mobolaji; Goel, Nisha; Khadka, Bijendra; Al-Dahwi, Aqeel; Gupta, Radhey S.

    2015-01-01

    The genera Actinobacillus, Haemophilus, and Pasteurella exhibit extensive polyphyletic branching in phylogenetic trees and do not represent coherent clusters of species. In this study, we have utilized molecular signatures identified through comparative genomic analyses in conjunction with genome based and multilocus sequence based phylogenetic analyses to clarify the phylogenetic and taxonomic boundary of these genera. We have identified large clusters of Actinobacillus, Haemophilus, and Pasteurella species which represent the “sensu stricto” members of these genera. We have identified 3, 7, and 6 conserved signature indels (CSIs), which are specifically shared by sensu stricto members of Actinobacillus, Haemophilus, and Pasteurella, respectively. We have also identified two different sets of CSIs that are unique characteristics of the pathogen containing genera Aggregatibacter and Mannheimia, respectively. It is now possible to demarcate the genera Actinobacillus sensu stricto, Haemophilus sensu stricto, and Pasteurella sensu stricto on the basis of discrete molecular signatures. The other members of the genera Actinobacillus, Haemophilus, and Pasteurella that do not fall within the “sensu stricto” clades and do not contain these molecular signatures should be reclassified as other genera. The CSIs identified here also provide useful diagnostic targets for the identification of current and novel members of the indicated genera. PMID:25821780

  10. Endiandric Acid Derivatives and Other Constituents of Plants from the Genera Beilschmiedia and Endiandra (Lauraceae)

    PubMed Central

    Ndjakou Lenta, Bruno; Chouna, Jean Rodolphe; Nkeng-Efouet, Pepin Alango; Sewald, Norbert

    2015-01-01

    Plants of the Lauraceae family are widely used in traditional medicine and are sources of various classes of secondary metabolites. Two genera of this family, Beilschmiedia and Endiandra, have been the subject of numerous investigations over the past decades because of their application in traditional medicine. They are the only source of bioactive endiandric acid derivatives. Noteworthy is that their biosynthesis contains two consecutive non-enzymatic electrocyclic reactions. Several interesting biological activities for this specific class of secondary metabolites and other constituents of the two genera have been reported, including antimicrobial, enzymes inhibitory and cytotoxic properties. This review compiles information on the structures of the compounds described between January 1960 and March 2015, their biological activities and information on endiandric acid biosynthesis, with 104 references being cited. PMID:26117852

  11. The freshwater snails (Gastropoda) of Iran, with descriptions of two new genera and eight new species

    PubMed Central

    Glöer, Peter; Pešić, Vladimir

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Using published records and original data from recent field work and revision of Iranian material of certain species deposited in the collections of the Natural History Museum Basel, the Zoological Museum Berlin, and Natural History Museum Vienna, a checklist of the freshwater gastropod fauna of Iran was compiled. This checklist contains 73 species from 34 genera and 14 families of freshwater snails; 27 of these species (37%) are endemic to Iran. Two new genera, Kaskakia and Sarkhia, and eight species, i.e., Bithynia forcarti, Bithynia starmuehlneri, Bithynia mazandaranensis, Pseudamnicola georgievi, Kaskakia khorrasanensis, Sarkhia sarabensis, Valvata nowsharensis and Acroloxus pseudolacustris are described as new to science; Ecrobia grimmi (Clessin & Dybowski, 1888), Heleobia dalmatica (Radoman, 1974) and Hippeutis complanatus (Linnaeus, 1758) are reported for the first time from Iran. Additional field work is highly desirable for a more appropriate evaluation of the extant freshwater snail biodiversity in Iran. PMID:22977349

  12. On Pulchritia new genus, with a reappraisal of the genera of Trichotriidae (Rotifera, Monogononta)

    PubMed Central

    Luo, Yongting; Segers, Hendrik

    2013-01-01

    Abstract During the study of rotifers collected in Eastern DR Congo, we rediscovered specimens that correspond to Monostyla dorsicornuta Van Oye, 1926. This species, which we redescribe, had not been seen since it’s summary description, and lacked type material. Our analysis reveals that the animal belongs to Trichotriidae rather than to Lecane (presently considered to include Monostyla) or Lecanidae, but is nevertheless characterised by a foot structure that is remarkably convergent to that of Lecanidae, and different from all other genera of Trichotriidae. We conclude that the species and the closely related South American Macrochaetus kostei (José de Paggi, Branco & Kozlowsky-Suzuki, 2000) belong to a new genus of Trichotriidae; the two offer a rare example of African-South American vicariance in rotifers.We further provide emended diagnoses of the remaining genera of Trichotriidae, to conform these to the new information and to address some inconsistencies in these. PMID:24194651

  13. Conspectus of the Phlaeothripinae genera from China and Southeast Asia (Thysanoptera, Phlaeothripidae).

    PubMed

    Dang, Li-Hong; Mound, Laurence A; Qiao, Ge-Xia

    2014-01-01

    An illustrated identification key is provided to 100 genera of Phlaeothripinae from China and Southeast Asia, together with a diagnosis for each genus, and comments on the species diversity. One new genus with a new species, Akarethrips iotus gen.n. & sp.n., and two new species, Heliothripoides boltoni sp.n. and Terthrothrips strasseni sp.n., are described from specimens collected in Peninsular Malaysia and Java respectively. Three Phlaeothripinae genera are synonymised, Mychiothrips Haga & Okajima syn.n. of Veerabahuthrips Ramakrishna, Syringothrips Priesner syn.n. of GigantothripsZimmermann, and Sauridothrips Priesner syn.n. of Gynaikothrips Zimmermann. In addition, four nomenclatural changes are included, Adelphothrips ignotus (Reyes) comb.n. transferred from Mesothrips, Karnyothrips palmerae (Chen) comb.n from Xylaplothrips, Xylaplothrips bogoriensis (Karny) comb.n from Brachythrips, and Oidanothrips notabilisFeng, Guo & Duan considered as a new synonym of Oidanothrips frontalis (Bagnall). PMID:24871154

  14. Catalogue of the world genera and subgenera of the superfamilies Derodontoidea and Bostrichoidea (Coleoptera: Derodontiformia, Bostrichiformia).

    PubMed

    Zahradník, Petr; Háva, Jiří

    2014-01-01

    A catalogue of all the known genera and subgenera of the Coleoptera series Derodontiformia and Bostrichiformia, each with a single superfamily (Derodontoidea and Bostrichoidea, respectively), is provided. The following new tribes are established and type genera are designated: Apphianini Háva trib. nov., Ranolini Háva trib. nov. (all Dermestidae); Ochinini Zahradník trib. nov., Phanerochilini Zahradník trib. nov. (all Ptinidae). The subgenus Paranovelsis has been removed as a synonym and has been reelevated to generic rank. The following new synonymies are proposed: Megatoma Herbst, 1791 (= Perimegatoma Horn, 1875 syn. nov., Caucasotoma Mroczkowski, 1967 syn. nov.); Trinodes Dejean, 1821 (= Trinodus Gistl, 1856 syn. nov.); Nosodendron Latreille, 1804 (= Nosodendrium Gistl, 1856 syn. nov.); Casapus Wollaston, 1862 (= Pithodes Wollaston, 1862 syn. nov.). PMID:24869695

  15. Aqueous extracts of Tulbaghia violacea inhibit germination of Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus parasiticus conidia.

    PubMed

    Somai, Benesh Munilal; Belewa, Vuyokazi

    2011-06-01

    Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus parasiticus are important plant pathogens and causal agents of pre- and postharvest rots of corn, peanuts, and tree nuts. These fungal pathogens cause significant crop losses and produce aflatoxins, which contaminate many food products and contribute to liver cancer worldwide. Aqueous preparations of Tulbaghia violacea (wild garlic) were antifungal and at 10 mg/ml resulted in sustained growth inhibition of greater than 50% for both A. flavus and A. parasiticus. Light microscopy revealed that the plant extract inhibited conidial germination in a dose-dependent manner. When exposed to T. violacea extract concentrations of 10 mg/ml and above, A. parasiticus conidia began germinating earlier and germination was completed before that of A. flavus, indicating that A. parasiticus conidia were more resistant to the antifungal effects of T. violacea than were A. flavus conidia. At a subinhibitory extract dose of 15 mg/ml, hyphae of both fungal species exhibited increased granulation and vesicle formation, possibly due to increased reactivity between hyphal cellular components and T. violacea extract. These hyphal changes were not seen when hyphae were formed in the absence of the extract. Transmission electron microscopy revealed thickening of conidial cell walls in both fungal species when grown in the presence of the plant extract. Cell walls of A. flavus also became considerably thicker than those of A. parasiticus, indicating differential response to the extract. Aqueous preparations of T. violacea can be used as antifungal treatments for the control of A. flavus and A. parasiticus. Because the extract exhibited a more pronounced effect on A. flavus than on A. parasiticus, higher doses may be needed for control of A. parasiticus infections. PMID:21669082

  16. Two new genera, Hoffmannanthus and Jeffreycia, mostly from East Africa (Erlangeinae, Vernonieae, Asteraceae)

    PubMed Central

    Robinson, Harold; Keeley, Sterling C.; Skvarla, John J.; Chan, Raymund

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Two genera of Vernonieae subtribe Erlangeinae with Type A pollen, 5-ribbed achenes, and blunt-tipped sweeping hairs on the styles are described as new, Hoffmannanthus with one species and with Vernonia brachycalyx O. Hoffm. as type, and Jeffreycia with five known species, with Vernonia zanzibarensis Less. as type. Vernonia abbotiana O. Hoffm. is neotypified and is an older name for V. brachycalyx. PMID:25197225

  17. Labellar Micromorphology of Two Euglossine-pollinated Orchid Genera; Scuticaria Lindl. and Dichaea Lindl.

    PubMed Central

    Davies, Kevin L.; Stpiczyńska, Malgorzata

    2008-01-01

    Background and Aims Until recently, there was no consensus regarding the phylogenetic relationships of the Neotropical orchid genera Scuticaria Lindl. and Dichaea Lindl. However, recent evidence derived from both gross morphological and molecular studies supports the inclusion of Scuticaria and Dichaea in sub-tribes Maxillariinae and Zygopetalinae, respectively. The present paper describes the labellar micromorphology of both genera and seeks to establish whether labellar characters support the assignment of Scuticaria and Dichaea to these sub-tribes. Methods The labella of four species of Scuticaria and 14 species of Dichaea were examined using light microscopy and scanning electron microscopy, and their micromorphology was compared with that of representative species of Maxillariinae sensu lato and Zygopetalinae (Huntleya clade). Key Results and Conclusions In most specimens of Scuticaria examined, the papillose labella bear uniseriate, multicellular, unbranched trichomes. However, in S. steelii (Lindl.) Lindl., branched hairs may also be present and some trichomes may fragment and form pseudopollen. Multicellular, leaf-like scales were also present in one species of Scuticaria. Similar, unbranched hairs are present in certain species of Maxillaria Ruiz & Pav. (Maxillariinae sensu stricto) and Chaubardia Rchb.f. (Huntleya clade). As yet, moniliform, pseudopollen-forming hairs have not been observed for Zygopetalinae, but their presence in Scuticaria steelii, Maxillaria and Heterotaxis Lindl. supports the placing of Scuticaria in Maxillariinae. As other genera are sampled, the presence of branched hairs, hitherto unknown for Maxillariinae sensu lato, may prove to be a useful character in taxonomy and phylogenetic studies. Euglossophily occurs in Dichaea, as well as Chondrorhyncha Lindl. and Pescatorea Rchb.f. (Huntleya clade), and all three genera tend to lack distinctive labellar features. Instead, lip micromorphology is relatively simple and glabrous or papillose. However, two of the Dichaea species examined bear unicellular, labellar trichomes very similar to those found in Bifrenaria Lindl. (pollinated by both euglossine bees and Bombus spp.), and this feature may have arisen by convergence in response to similar pollination pressures. PMID:18765439

  18. Palynological study of the genera Ruellia, Ecbolium, Asystasia, Blepharis and Dicliptera (Acanthaceae) of Yemen

    SciTech Connect

    Al-Hakimi, S. Anisa; Maideen, Haja; Latiff, A.

    2013-11-27

    Pollen morphology of five genera of the family Acanthaceae, namely Ruellia, Blepharis, Asystasia, Ecbolium and Dicliptera (Acanthaceae) of Yemen has been examined using light and scanning electron microscope. Pollen descriptions were provided with two shapes distinguished, spheroidal and prolate. Most of the pollen grains were tricolporate amd psuedocolpi except those of Blepharis which are colpate. The surface is coarsely reticulate, in addition to the lumina that varies in size.

  19. Palynological study of the genera Ruellia, Ecbolium, Asystasia, Blepharis and Dicliptera (Acanthaceae) of Yemen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al-Hakimi, S. Anisa; Maideen, Haja; Latiff, A.

    2013-11-01

    Pollen morphology of five genera of the family Acanthaceae, namely Ruellia, Blepharis, Asystasia, Ecbolium and Dicliptera (Acanthaceae) of Yemen has been examined using light and scanning electron microscope. Pollen descriptions were provided with two shapes distinguished, spheroidal and prolate. Most of the pollen grains were tricolporate amd psuedocolpi except those of Blepharis which are colpate. The surface is coarsely reticulate, in addition to the lumina that varies in size.

  20. Calcium oxalate crystals in the aragonite-producing green alga penicillus and related genera.

    PubMed

    Friedmann, E I; Roth, W C; Turner, J B; McEwen, R S

    1972-09-01

    Calcium oxalate crystals occur in the marine green algae Penicillus, Rhipocephalus, and Udotea, known as producers of sedimentary aragonite needles. In contrast to the externally deposited aragonite crystals which are generally < 15 micrometers long, the oxalate crystals are larger (up to 150 micrometers) and are located in the vacuolar system of the plant. No calcium oxalate was found in the related but noncalcifying genera Avrainvillea and Cladocephalus. PMID:17780990

  1. Male sleeping aggregation of multiple Eucerini bee genera (Hymenoptera: Apidae) in Chapada Diamantina, Bahia, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Hipólito, Juliana; de Oliveira, Favízia F.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Males of some groups of bees have to find a place outside the nests to sleep, sometimes forming “male sleeping aggregations”. Here we report the first record of “dense” male sleeping aggregation of two different genera of Eucerini bees observed in Bahia, Brazil. We discuss the possible aim of this kind of aggregation as well the plant utilized on aggregate. PMID:25349523

  2. Dioecy does not consistently accelerate or slow lineage diversification across multiple genera of angiosperms.

    PubMed

    Sabath, Niv; Goldberg, Emma E; Glick, Lior; Einhorn, Moshe; Ashman, Tia-Lynn; Ming, Ray; Otto, Sarah P; Vamosi, Jana C; Mayrose, Itay

    2016-02-01

    Dioecy, the sexual system in which male and female organs are found in separate individuals, allows greater specialization for sex-specific functions and can be advantageous under various ecological and environmental conditions. However, dioecy is rare among flowering plants. Previous studies identified contradictory trends regarding the relative diversification rates of dioecious lineages vs their nondioecious counterparts, depending on the methods and data used. We gathered detailed species-level data for dozens of genera that contain both dioecious and nondioecious species. We then applied a probabilistic approach that accounts for differential speciation, extinction, and transition rates between states to examine whether there is an association between dioecy and lineage diversification. We found a bimodal distribution, whereby dioecious lineages exhibited higher diversification in certain genera but lower diversification in others. Additional analyses did not uncover an ecological or life history trait that could explain a context-dependent effect of dioecy on diversification. Furthermore, in-depth simulations of neutral characters demonstrated that such bimodality is also found when simulating neutral characters across the observed trees. Our analyses suggest that - at least for these genera with the currently available data - dioecy neither consistently places a strong brake on diversification nor is a strong driver. PMID:26467174

  3. COMPARATIVE SPERM ULTRASTRUCTURE IN FIVE GENERA OF THE NUDIBRANCH FAMILY CHROMODORIDIDAE (GASTROPODA: OPISTHOBRANCHIA).

    PubMed

    Wilson, NERIDA G.; Healy, JOHN M.

    2002-05-01

    Sperm ultrastructure is examined in representatives of five genera of the nudibranch gastropod family Chromodorididae: (Chromodoris, Hypselodoris, Glossodoris, Risbecia and Pectenodoris) and the results compared with previous work on other gastropods, especially other nudibranchs. As chromodoridid phylogeny is still incompletely understood, this study partly focuses on the search for new and as yet untapped sources of informative characters. Like spermatozoa of most other heterobranch gastropods, those of the Chromodorididae are elongate, complex cells composed of an acrosomal complex (small, rounded acrosomal vesicle, and columnar acrosomal pedestal), a condensed nucleus, sub-nuclear ring, a highly modified mid-piece (axoneme + coarse fibres surrounded by a glycogen-containing, helically-coiled mitochondrial derivative) and terminally a glycogen piece (or homologue thereof). The finely striated acrosomal pedestal is a synapomorphy of all genera examined here, but interestingly also occurs in at least one dorid (Rostanga arbutus). Substantial and potentially taxonomically informative differences were also observed between genera in the morphology of the nucleus, the neck region of the mid-piece, and also the terminal glycogen piece. The subnuclear ring is shown for the first time to be a segmented, rather than a continuous structure; similarly, the annular complex is shown to consist of two structures, the annulus proper and the herein-termed annular accessory body. PMID:12011239

  4. Review of the genera Anelaphinis Kolbe, 1892 and Atrichelaphinis Kraatz, 1898 (Coleoptera, Scarabaeidae, Cetoniinae)

    PubMed Central

    Rojkoff, Sébastien; Perissinotto, Renzo

    2015-01-01

    Abstract New material collected recently throughout the Afrotropical region has led to a major reassessment of taxa within the genera Anelaphinis Kolbe, 1892, Atrichelaphinis Kraatz, 1898 and other closely related genera. As a result, the name Megalleucosma Antoine, 1989 is here synonymised with Anelaphinis and a lectotype is designated for the type species, Cetonia dominula Harold, 1879. The genus Atrichelaphinis is redefined and a new subgenus, Atrichelaphinis (Eugeaphinis), is proposed for Elaphinis simillima Ancey, 1883, Elaphinis vermiculata Fairmaire, 1894, Niphetophora rhodesiana Péringuey, 1907, Atrichelaphinis deplanata Moser, 1907 (with Anelaphinis kwangensis Burgeon, 1931 as junior synonym) and Anelaphinis sternalis Moser, 1914. Additionally, three new species and one new subspecies are recognised and described in this new subgenus: Atrichelaphinis (Eugeaphinis) bomboesbergica sp. n. from South Africa; Atrichelaphinis (Eugeaphinis) bjornstadi sp. n. from Tanzania; Atrichelaphinis (Eugeaphinis) garnieri sp. n. from south–east Africa (Tanzania, Zimbabwe); and Atrichelaphinis (Eugeaphinis) deplanata minettii ssp. n. from central Africa (Malawi, Mozambique, Congo-Kinshasa, Congo-Brazzaville, South Africa, Rwanda, Zambia, Zimbabwe). The genus Atrichelaphinis is compared to its closest relatives and two separate keys are proposed, one for Atrichelaphinis and one for the sub-Saharan genera exhibiting completely or partially fused parameres. PMID:25709532

  5. Taxonomy and phylogeny of the genus Megasporoporia and its related genera.

    PubMed

    Li, Haijiao; Cui, Baokai

    2013-01-01

    Taxonomic and phylogenetic studies on Megasporoporia s.l. were carried out. Phylogenetic analysis based on ITS and nLSU sequences showed that Megasporoporia s.l. belonging to the core polyporoid clade, however, it is not monophyletic, and four clades were recognized. The Megasporoporia s.s. clade includes M. setulosa and two new species, M. bannaensis and M. minor spp. nov. Two monophyletic clades were segregated from Megasporoporia s.l., and two new genera were established. Megasporia gen. nov. is composed of M. cystidiolophora, M. ellipsoidea, M. hexagonoides, M. major, M. violacea, and two new species, M. guangdongensis and M. hengduanensis spp. nov. Megasporoporiella gen. nov. including M. cavernulosa, M. rhododendri, M. subcavernulosa, and two new species, M. lacerata and M. pseudocavernulosa spp. nov. Megasporoporia quercina grouped with Grammothele fuligo in the Grammothele clade, so it is transferred to Grammothele and a new combination, G. quercina, is proposed. The main morphological characters of Megasporoporia and the two new genera are discussed, and identification keys to the three genera are provided. PMID:23099513

  6. A review of the physonect siphonophore genera Halistemma (Family Agalmatidae) and Stephanomia (Family Stephanomiidae).

    PubMed

    Pugh, P R; Baxter, E J

    2014-01-01

    Re-descriptions are given for all the known species in the siphonophore physonect genera Halistemma (Family Agalmatidae) and Stephanomia (Family Stephanomiidae fam. nov.) based almost entirely on specimens collected by submersibles or ROVs. A new Halistemma species, H. maculatum sp. nov., is also described. Until now two of the Halistemma species were known only from incomplete specimens, such that for one, H. cupulifera Lens & van Riemsdijk, only the tentilla had been described, while for the other, H. striata Totton, only the nectophores were known. The species Stephanomia amphytridis Lesueur & Petit, originally established on the basis of only an illustration of part of the siphosome, is poorly known and several descriptions in the past have been based on further siphosomal material that actually belonged to a species of Halistemma. A specimen of that species, which included the nectosome, was recently described by Mapstone (2004) as H. amphytridis, but Pugh (2006) considered that it actually belonged to H. foliacea Quoy & Gaimard. That specimen has been re-examined for this study. The taxonomic position of the two genera is discussed. Although only distantly related the species of the two genera have a post-larval form referred to as the Nectalia stage. Haeckel (1888b) originally described a specimen at this stage as a separate species, Nectalia loligo. Nectalia stage specimens of two Halistemma species and of S. amphytridis were present in the material and their relationship with Haeckel's specimen is discussed. PMID:25543672

  7. Phylogenetic relationships between Bacillus species and related genera inferred from 16s rDNA sequences

    PubMed Central

    Wei Wang, Mi Sun

    2009-01-01

    Neighbor-joining, maximum-parsimony, minimum-evolution, maximum-likelihood and Bayesian trees constructed based on 16S rDNA sequences of 181 type strains of Bacillus species and related taxa manifested nine phylogenetic groups. The phylogenetic analysis showed that Bacillus was not a monophyletic group. B. subtilis was in Group 1. Group 4, 6 and 8 respectively consisted of thermophiles, halophilic or halotolerant bacilli and alkaliphilic bacilli. Group 2, 4 and 8 consisting of Bacillus species and related genera demonstrated that the current taxonomic system did not agree well with the 16S rDNA evolutionary trees. The position of Caryophanaceae and Planococcaceae in Group 2 suggested that they might be transferred into Bacillaceae, and the heterogeneity of Group 2 implied that some Bacillus species in it might belong to several new genera. Group 9 was mainly comprised of the genera (excluding Bacillus) of Bacillaceae, so some Bacillus species in Group 9: B. salarius, B. qingdaonensis and B. thermcloacae might not belong to Bacillus. Four Bacillus species, B. schlegelii, B. tusciae, B. edaphicus and B. mucilaginosus were clearly placed outside the nine groups. PMID:24031394

  8. Jurassic-Early Cretaceous Gondwanan homoxylous woods: a nomenclatural revision of the genera with taxonomic notes.

    PubMed

    Bamford, M K.; Philippe, M

    2001-04-01

    The homoxylous fossil woods occurring in the Gondwanan continents of South America, Australia, Africa, India and Antarctica during the Jurassic and Early Cretaceous period are considered here. Original descriptions of the genera and wherever possible, the type material, have been consulted. Applying the rules of the International Code of Botanical Nomenclature, the generic names of the homoxylous woods have been revised from a nomenclatural point of view. According to this review, out of 31 generic names used for woods from the given time interval and area, 6 are illegitimate later nomenclatural synonyms, 1 is a later homonym, and 5 can be considered as taxonomical synonyms. Moreover, 9 genera have been used erroneously. We propose one new generic name (Protaxodioxylon n. gen.) and elsewhere we will propose for conservation, with a conserved type one of the illegitimate names and one of the taxonomic synonyms. As a result, we consider that there are only eighteen generic names correctly quoted for the Jurassic-Early Cretaceous of Gondwana, and we provide a taxonomic key for the corresponding genera. This revision is the first step in systematically comparing northern and southern hemisphere woods. PMID:11179718

  9. Ribosomal and RPB2 DNA sequence analyses suggest that Sporidesmium and morphologically similar genera are polyphyletic.

    PubMed

    Shenoy, Belle Damodara; Jeewon, Rajesh; Wu, Wenping P; Bhat, Darbhe Jayarama; Hyde, Kevin D

    2006-08-01

    Sporidesmium and morphologically similar dematiaceous, hyphomycetous genera are characterised by holoblastic phragmoconidia produced on proliferating or non-proliferating conidiophores. They include a number of asexual (anamorphic) genera taxonomically segregated from Sporidesmium sensu lato and are similar in having schizolytic conidial secession. The taxonomy of these ubiquitous asexual fungi and their affinities with known Ascomycetes are, however, still obscure. This study incorporates a phylogenetic investigation, based on the LSU nu-rDNA and RNA polymerase II second largest subunit (RPB2) gene sequence, to assess the possible familial placement of Ellisembia, Linkosia, Repetophragma, Sporidesmiella, Sporidesmium and Stanjehughesia, and justify whether anamorphic characters are proper phylogenetic indicators. Phylogenies provide conclusive evidence to suggest that Sporidesmium is not monophyletic and species are phylogenetically distributed in two major ascomycete classes, Dothideomycetes and Sordariomycetes. Morphologies currently used in their classification have undergone convergent evolution and are not phylogenetically reliable. The possible teleomorphic affinities of these anamorphic genera are discussed in light of morphology and molecular data. As these anamorphs, in most cases, are the sole known morph of the holomorph, it is proposed that in the absence of or failure to detect their teleomorphic phase, the anamorph names should be used for the holomorph. PMID:16908125

  10. Revision of the stiletto fly genera Acupalpa Kröber and Pipinnipons Winterton (Diptera, Therevidae, Agapophytinae) using cybertaxonomic methods, with a key to Australasian genera

    PubMed Central

    Winterton, Shaun L.

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Australian stiletto flies of the sister-genera Acupalpa Kröber, 1912 and Pipinnipons Winterton, 2001 (Diptera: Therevidae: Agapophytinae) are revised. Twelve new species of Acupalpa are described, while Acupalpa imitans (White, 1915), comb. n. is transferred from Pipinnipons and Acupalpa albimanis (Kröber, 1914), comb. n. is transferred from Ectinorhynchus Macquart as a senior synonym of Acupalpa pollinosa Mann. The total number of species of Acupalpa is therefore increased to 19: Acupalpa albimanis (Kröber), comb. n., Acupalpa albitarsa Mann, Acupalpa boharti sp. n., Acupalpa divisa (Walker), Acupalpa dolichorhyncha sp. n., Acupalpa glossa sp. n., Acupalpa imitans (White), comb. n., Acupalpa irwini Winterton, Acupalpa melanophaeos sp. n., Acupalpa miaboolya sp. n., Acupalpa minuta sp. n., Acupalpa minutoides sp. n., Acupalpa notomelas sp. n., Acupalpa novayamarna sp. n., Acupalpa rostrata Kröber, Acupalpa semirufa Mann, Acupalpa westralica sp. n., Acupalpa yalgoo sp. n. and Acupalpa yanchep sp. n. Three new species of Pipinnipons are described, increasing the total number of species to five: Pipinnipons chauncyvallis sp. n., Pipinnipons fascipennis (Kröber), Pipinnipons kampmeierae sp. n., Pipinnipons kroeberi Winterton, and P. sphecoda sp. n. Pipinnipons and Acupalpa are rediagnosed in light of the new species presented herein and revised keys to species are included. A dichotomous key to genera of Australasian Therevidae is included. As an empirical example of cybertaxonomy, taxonomic descriptions were composed using a character matrix developed in Lucid Builder (in Structured Descriptive Data (SDD) format) to generate natural language descriptions supplemented by online specimen and image databases. Web resources are provided throughout the document including: a) links to high resolution colour images of all species on Morphbank, b) registration of authors, publications, taxon names and other nomenclatural acts in Zoobank, with assignment of Life Science Identifiers (LSIDs) for each, c) links to Genbank accession records for DNA sequences, and d) assignment of LSIDs to specimen records with links to respective records in an online Therevidae specimen database. PMID:21594068

  11. Air sampling of Aspergillus fumigatus and other thermotolerant fungi: comparative performance of the Sartorius MD8 airport and the Merck MAS-100 portable bioaerosol sampler.

    PubMed

    Engelhart, Steffen; Glasmacher, Axel; Simon, Arne; Exner, Martin

    2007-12-01

    The purpose of our field study was to compare the performance of two portable bioaerosol samplers (Sartorius MD8 airport, and Merck MAS-100) for sampling Aspergillus fumigatus and other airborne thermotolerant fungi. From October 2001 to November 2001, a total of 336 samples were analyzed at 12 sampling days. During the sampling period fungal plate counts ranged from <1 to 300 CFU/m(3) for total thermotolerant fungi and from <1 to 76 CFU/m(3) for A. fumigatus. As compared to the MD8, the relative recovery of the MAS 100 was 0.96 for total thermotolerant fungi and 0.84 for A. fumigatus. We found a good correlation (Pearson's r=0.94 for single, 0.95 for the mean of two, and 0.96 for the mean of three sequential samples) between both portable bioaerosol samplers. The spectrum of thermotolerat fungal genera and Aspergillus species showed only minor differences. We conclude that under the given conditions the results of both samplers are approximately comparable. PMID:17142101

  12. 21 CFR 866.3040 - Aspergillus spp. serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Aspergillus spp. serological reagents. 866.3040 Section 866.3040 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES...) lessions in the skin, ear, eyeball cavity, nasal sinuses, lungs, and occasionally the bones....

  13. Field ecology, fungal sex and food contamination involving Aspergillus species

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Several species within the genus Aspergillus are capable of producing a myriad of toxic secondary metabolites, with aflatoxin being of most concern. These fungi happen to colonize important agricultural commodities, thereby having the potential to contaminate our food with carcinogenic aflatoxins. P...

  14. 21 CFR 866.3040 - Aspergillus spp. serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Aspergillus spp. serological reagents. 866.3040 Section 866.3040 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3040...

  15. Systemic movement of Aspergillus parasiticus in maize stalks and ears

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Preharvest infection of corn (Zea mays) kernels by Aspergillus flavus and A. parasiticus is a chronic problem in the southern United States. It has been reported that these fungi infect developing kernels via the silk. This study was conducted to explore other avenues of infection of corn ears by ...

  16. Regulation of Aspergillus flavus Aflatoxin Biosynthesis and Development

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The filamentous fungus Aspergillus flavus produces a family of potent mutagenic and carcinogenic compounds collectively known as aflatoxins (AF). These secondary metabolites contaminate a number of oilseed crops during growth of the fungus and this can result in severe negative economic and health i...

  17. Production of the Enzyme Naringinase by Aspergillus niger

    PubMed Central

    Bram, B.; Solomons, G. L.

    1965-01-01

    The formation of naringinase, a glycolytic enzyme produced by Aspergillus niger, is repressed by glucose. Production of the enzyme is decreased below pH 4.0 and is stimulated by the presence of substrate. Fermentation conditions are described which cause the formation of the enzyme in approximately a fivefold greater concentration than that previously described. PMID:5866035

  18. Cryptic Sexuality Influences Aflatoxigenicity in Aspergillus parasiticus and A. flavus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Ascomycetous fungi of the genus Aspergillus comprise a wide variety of species of biotechnological importance as well as pathogens and toxin producers. Recent studies report A. fumigatus to be heterothallic and possibly undergoing sexual reproduction. We therefore investigated whether compatible mat...

  19. Sexual reproduction in Aspergillus flavus sclerotia naturally produced in corn

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Aspergillus flavus is the major producer of carcinogenic aflatoxins worldwide in crops. Populations of A. flavus are characterized by high genetic variation and the source of this variation is likely sexual reproduction. The fungus is heterothallic and laboratory crosses produce ascospore-bearing ...

  20. Aflatoxin production and oxidative stress in Aspergillus flavus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The colonization of crops by Aspergillus flavus results in the production of aflatoxins. Aflatoxin production is also exacerbated by abiotic stresses in the field. Here, we investigated the role of reactive oxygen species (ROS), which accumulate in plant tissues in response to drought and heat stres...

  1. Characterization of toxigenic and atoxigenic Aspergillus flavus isolates from pistachio

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Thirty eight Aspergillus flavus isolates collected from a pistachio orchard in California were analyzed for production of aflatoxin (AF), cyclopiazonic acid (CPA), vegetative compatibility groups (VCGs) and mating types. All toxigenic isolates produced both AFB1 and CPA. Twenty-one percent of the i...

  2. RNA interference-mediated control of Aspergillus flavus in maize

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Introduction: Aflatoxigenic Aspergillus flavus is a frequent contaminant of agricultural commodities such as corn, peanut, tree nuts and cottonseed. Ingestion of foods, especially corn, contaminated with aflatoxins has been implicated in acute toxicoses while chronic, low-level exposure can lead to...

  3. Potential of Aspergillus flavus Genomics for Applications in Biotechnology

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Aspergillus flavus is a common saprophyte and opportunistic pathogen that survives in the natural environment by extracting nutrition from plant debris, insect carcasses and a variety of other carbon sources. A. flavus produces numerous secondary metabolites and hydrolytic enzymes. The primary obj...

  4. Polyphasic taxonomy of Aspergillus section Fumigati and its teleomorph Neosartorya

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We revised the taxonomy of Aspergillus section Fumigati along with its teleomorph genus Neosartorya. Our species concept is based phenotype (morphology and extrolite profiles) and molecular (beta-tubulin and calmodulin gene sequences) characters in a polyphasic approach. Four new taxa are proposed:...

  5. Nuclear heterogeneity in conidial populations of Aspergillus flavus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Aspergillus flavus is a major producer of aflatoxin and an opportunistic pathogen for a wide range of hosts. Understanding genotypic and phenotypic variations within strains of A. flavus is important for controlling disease and reducing aflatoxin contamination. A. flavus is multinucleate and predomi...

  6. Genomic sequence for the aflatoxigenic filamentous fungus Aspergillus nomius

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The genome of the A. nomius type strain was sequenced using a personal genome machine. Annotation of the genes was undertaken, followed by gene ontology and an investigation into the number of secondary metabolite clusters. Comparative studies with other Aspergillus species involved shared/unique ge...

  7. Integrated Database for Functional Analysis in Aspergillus flavus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Aspergillus flavus is a plant and animal pathogen that also produces the carcinogen, aflatoxin. Because of its economic importance and well characterized pathway of aflatoxin biosynthesis, several labs are studying the development, metabolism, ecology and pathogenicity of this fungus. To facilitate...

  8. Draft Genome Sequence of Aspergillus niger Strain An76

    PubMed Central

    Gong, Weili; Cheng, Zhi; Zhang, Huaiqiang; Liu, Lin; Gao, Peiji

    2016-01-01

    The filamentous fungus Aspergillus niger has become one of the most important fungi in industrial biotechnology, and it can efficiently secrete both polysaccharide-degrading enzymes and organic acids. We report here the 6,074,961,332-bp draft sequence of A. niger strain An76, and the findings provide important information related to its lignocellulose-degrading ability. PMID:26893421

  9. Recombination and cryptic heterokaryosis in experimental populations of Aspergillus flavus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Aspergillus flavus infects both plants and animals, and is of toxicological importance due to its production of aflatoxins (AFs) and other mycotoxins. Mycotoxins can cause agricultural losses totaling upwards of $1.4 billion annually. Recent efforts to reduce AF concentrations have focused on the us...

  10. Evolutionary relationships among Aspergillus flavus vegetative compatibility groups

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Aspergillus flavus is a fungal plant pathogen of many diverse crops including cotton, peanuts, maize, almond, and pistachio. During infection by A. flavus, crops are frequently contaminated with highly carcinogenic aflatoxins. A. flavus populations are composed of numerous vegetative compatibility g...

  11. Heritability study of eGFP-transformed Aspergillus flavus strains

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Pre-harvest prevention of aflatoxin contamination of corn, cottonseed, and peanut through field inoculation with non-aflatoxigenic Aspergillus flavus appears to be the only method for biocontrol currently being used. Until recently, evidence for out-crossing in A. flavus was observed in agar slants...

  12. Glucoamylase production by a newly isolated strain of Aspergillus niger

    SciTech Connect

    Sinkar, V.P.; Lewis, N.F.

    1982-01-01

    Glucoamylase production by Aspergillus niger 57 was studied in complex and synthetic media under stationary vs. submerged conditions. Stationary cultivation resulted in significantly greater yields than did submerged culture. Crude enzyme activity was optimum at 60 degrees and pH 4.0.

  13. Population ecology of Aspergillus flavus associated with Mississippi Delta Soils

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Understanding the source of Aspergillus flavus is required to effectively manage within-field aflatoxin contamination of maize (Zea mays L.). Studies assessed the density of A. flavus propagules and other soil microflora (Fusarium spp., total fungi) associated with Mississippi Delta soils, and corr...

  14. Cryptic Sexuality in Aspergillus parasiticus and A. flavus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Ascomycetous fungi of the genus Aspergillus comprise a wide variety of species of biotechnological importance (e.g. A. sojae, A. oryzae, A. niger) as well as pathogens and toxin producers (e.g. A. flavus, A. parasiticus, A. fumigatus, A. nidulans). With the exception of A. nidulans, which is a homot...

  15. Population structure of Aspergillus flavus before and after biocontrol treatment

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Aspergillus flavus is a fungal pathogen of many important crops worldwide. We sampled A. flavus strains from a cornfield in Rocky Mount, North Carolina, over a period of two years. Plots were inoculated at tasselling with either AF36 or NRRL 21882 (=Afla-Guard) biocontrol strains, both of which are ...

  16. Draft Genome Sequence of Aspergillus niger Strain An76.

    PubMed

    Gong, Weili; Cheng, Zhi; Zhang, Huaiqiang; Liu, Lin; Gao, Peiji; Wang, Lushan

    2016-01-01

    The filamentous fungus Aspergillus niger has become one of the most important fungi in industrial biotechnology, and it can efficiently secrete both polysaccharide-degrading enzymes and organic acids. We report here the 6,074,961,332-bp draft sequence of A. niger strain An76, and the findings provide important information related to its lignocellulose-degrading ability. PMID:26893421

  17. A Highly Efficient Gene-Targeting System for Aspergillus parasiticus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Gene targeting via homologous recombination is often used to elucidate gene function. For filamentous fungi, the majority of transforming DNA integrates ectopically. Deletion of Aspergillus parasiticus ku70, a gene of the non-homologous end-joining pathway, drastically increased the gene targeting...

  18. Health Effects of Aspergillus in Food and Air

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This review summarizes the health aspects of the medically important fungal genus Aspergillus. The morphology and systematics of the genus are explained as well as its biogeography. Major mycotoxins, the aspergilli that produces them, affected crops and symptoms of the toxicoses are summarized, as...

  19. Genomic profile of maize response to Aspergillus flavus infection

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of this experiment was to identify differentially expressed genes for Aspergillus flavus resistance in the Va35 (susceptible) and Mp313E (resistant) maize (Zea mays L.) lines using cDNA microarray analysis. Out of the 5065 ESTs analyzed, 2.4% of the total ESTs analyzed were significant...

  20. Population shifts and mating-type heterokaryosis in Aspergillus flavus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Aspergillus flavus is a fungal pathogen of many agronomically important crops worldwide. We sampled A. flavus strains from a cornfield in Rocky Mount, NC. This field was planted in 2010 and plots were inoculated at tasselling with either AF36 or NRRL 21882 (=Afla-Guard) biocontrol strains, both of...

  1. Population dynamics of Aspergillus flavus following biocontrol treatment of corn

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Aspergillus flavus is a fungal pathogen of many agronomically important crops worldwide. We sampled A. flavus strains from a cornfield in Rocky Mount, North Carolina, over a period of two years. The field was planted in 2010 and plots were inoculated at tasselling with either AF36 or NRRL 21882 (=Af...

  2. The maize rachis affects Aspergillus flavus movement during ear development

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Aspergillus flavus expressing green fluorescent protein (GFP) was used to follow infection in ears of maize hybrids resistant and susceptible to the fungus. Developing ears were needle-inoculated with GFP-transformed A. flavus 20 days after silk emergence, and GFP fluorescence in the pith was evalu...

  3. QUANTITATIVE PCR OF SELECTED ASPERGILLUS, PENICILLIUM AND PAECILOMYCES SPECIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    A total of 65 quantitative PCR (QPCR) assays, incorporating fluorigenic 5' nuclease (TaqMan®) chemistry and directed at the nuclear ribosomal RNA operon, internal transcribed spacer regions (ITS1 or ITS2) was developed and tested for the detection of Aspergillus, Penicillium and ...

  4. The origins of aflatoxin chemotype diversity in Aspergillus populations

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Species in Aspergillus section Flavi commonly infect agricultural staples such as corn, peanuts, cottonseed, and tree nuts and produce an array of mycotoxins, the most potent of which are aflatoxins, which can be classified into B and G toxin chemotype classes. Experimental matings in the laboratory...

  5. Biodiversity of Aspergillus section Flavi in the United States

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fungi belonging to Aspergillus section Flavi are of great economic importance in the United States due to the formation of toxic and carcinogenic aflatoxins in agricultural commodities. Development of control strategies against A. flavus and A. parasiticus, the major aflatoxin-producing species, is...

  6. Mating-type heterokaryosis in Aspergillus flavus in North Carolina

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Aspergillus flavus is a well-known pathogen of many important agricultural commodities and is a major producer of aflatoxins (AFs), which are carcinogenic polyketides that pose a serious health risk to humans and animals. Recently, heterokaryosis and the presence of cryptic alleles were shown to ex...

  7. Evidence of aneuploidy modulating aflatoxigenicity in Aspergillus flavus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Aspergillus flavus is a well-known pathogen of many important agricultural commodities and is a major producer of aflatoxins, which are carcinogenic polyketides that pose a serious health risk to humans and animals. Aflatoxin contamination in peanut exports worldwide accounts for as much as $450 mi...

  8. Sexual Reproduction in Aflatoxin-Producing Aspergillus nomius

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Aflatoxins are fungal secondary metabolites that exhibit carcinogenic, hepatotoxic and immunosuppressive properties. Aspergillus nomius is a potent producer of aflatoxins and was formerly considered to be strictly asexual in reproduction. In this research, mating-type genes MAT1-1 and MAT1-2 were ...

  9. QUANTITATIVE PCR OF SELECTED ASPERGILLUS, PENICILLIUM AND PAECILOMYCES SPECIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    A total of 65 quantitative PCR (QPCR) assays, incorporating fluorigenic 5' nuclease (TaqMan) chemistry and directed at the nuclear ribosomal RNA operon, internal transcribed spacer regions (ITS1 or ITS2) was developed and tested for the detection of Aspergillus, Penicillium and ...

  10. 21 CFR 866.3040 - Aspergillus spp. serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Aspergillus spp. serological reagents. 866.3040 Section 866.3040 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3040...

  11. 21 CFR 866.3040 - Aspergillus spp. serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Aspergillus spp. serological reagents. 866.3040 Section 866.3040 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3040...

  12. 21 CFR 866.3040 - Aspergillus spp. serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Aspergillus spp. serological reagents. 866.3040 Section 866.3040 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3040...

  13. Detection of Aspergillus species in BACTEC blood cultures.

    PubMed

    Rosa, Carla; Araujo, Ricardo; Rodrigues, Acácio G; Pinto-de-Sousa, M Isaura; Pina-Vaz, Cidália

    2011-10-01

    Invasive aspergillosis is associated with high morbidity and mortality rates; nevertheless, blood cultures almost invariably yield a negative result. The recovery and detection time of Aspergillus fumigatus, Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus terreus were studied in BACTEC Plus Aerobic/F, Mycosis-IC/F and Myco/F Lytic vials, incubated in the BACTEC 9240 and 9000 MB automated systems. Two different approaches were used for subculture in solid medium: (i) the routine method, using a sterile airway needle/subculture unit, and (ii) a novel procedure, using instead a tuberculin disposable syringe and collecting a larger aliquot (100 µl), following vigorous agitation of the vials. A. fumigatus was detected at inoculum concentrations of >3 conidia per 10 ml after 21-40 h, in both BACTEC Plus Aerobic/F and BACTEC Mycosis-IC/F vials. A few more hours were needed to detect A. flavus and A. terreus. The novel subculture procedure of BACTEC culture vials on solid medium resulted in several positive results that were not detected by the routine sampling procedure. BACTEC Plus Aerobic/F vials show an advantage particularly in patients under antifungal treatment. In cases of polymicrobial bloodstream infections (concurrent bacterial growth), the inoculation of blood samples into a BACTEC Mycosis-IC/F vial achieved the best results. Further multicentre studies are needed to validate this improved automated detection of Aspergillus spp. from blood cultures in clinical laboratories, as this diagnostic procedure allows antifungal susceptibility testing of moulds. PMID:21680767

  14. METHODS TO SAMPLE AIR BORNE PROPAGULES OF ASPERGILLUS FLAVUS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Several techniques (cyclone samplers, filter samplers and rotorods) were evaluated for detection of airborne Aspergillus flavus Link propagules in a cultivated region of southwest Arizona. Cyclone samplers operated continuously for 168 h (7 d) collected a dry sample that was ideal for quantificatio...

  15. Chemosensitization prevents tolerance of Aspergillus fumigatus to antimycotic drugs

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Tolerance of human pathogenic fungi to antifungal drugs is an emerging medical problem. We show how strains of the causative agent of human aspergillosis, Aspergillus fumigatus, tolerant to cell wall-interfering antimycotic drugs become susceptible through chemosensitization by natural compounds. To...

  16. Mating-type heterokaryosis and population shifts in Aspergillus flavus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Aspergillus flavus is a fungal pathogen of many agronomically important crops worldwide. We sampled A. flavus strains from a cornfield in Rocky Mount, NC. This field was planted in 2010 and plots were inoculated at tasselling with either AF36 or NRRL 21882 (=Afla-Guard) biocontrol strains, both of...

  17. Amylase activity of Aspergillus strains--producers of organic acids.

    PubMed

    Tsekova, K; Dentchev, D; Vicheva, A; Dekovska, M

    1993-01-01

    The ability of fungi from genus Aspergillus (producers of organic acids) to synthesize amylase enzymes (alpha-amylase and glucoamylase) was investigated. The productivity of the strains on Czapek-Dox agar and in liquid Czapec-Dox media with 3% soluble starch as a carbon source was established. PMID:8285132

  18. Heterologous expression, purification and characterization of nitrilase from Aspergillus niger K10

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Nitrilases attract increasing attention due to their utility in the mild hydrolysis of nitriles. According to activity and gene screening, filamentous fungi are a rich source of nitrilases distinct in evolution from their widely examined bacterial counterparts. However, fungal nitrilases have been less explored than the bacterial ones. Nitrilases are typically heterogeneous in their quaternary structures, forming short spirals and extended filaments, these features making their structural studies difficult. Results A nitrilase gene was amplified by PCR from the cDNA library of Aspergillus niger K10. The PCR product was ligated into expression vectors pET-30(+) and pRSET B to construct plasmids pOK101 and pOK102, respectively. The recombinant nitrilase (Nit-ANigRec) expressed in Escherichia coli BL21-Gold(DE3)(pOK101/pTf16) was purified with an about 2-fold increase in specific activity and 35% yield. The apparent subunit size was 42.7 kDa, which is approx. 4 kDa higher than that of the enzyme isolated from the native organism (Nit-ANigWT), indicating post-translational cleavage in the enzyme's native environment. Mass spectrometry analysis showed that a C-terminal peptide (Val327 - Asn356) was present in Nit-ANigRec but missing in Nit-ANigWT and Asp298-Val313 peptide was shortened to Asp298-Arg310 in Nit-ANigWT. The latter enzyme was thus truncated by 46 amino acids. Enzymes Nit-ANigRec and Nit-ANigWT differed in substrate specificity, acid/amide ratio, reaction optima and stability. Refolded recombinant enzyme stored for one month at 4°C was fractionated by gel filtration, and fractions were examined by electron microscopy. The late fractions were further analyzed by analytical centrifugation and dynamic light scattering, and shown to consist of a rather homogeneous protein species composed of 12-16 subunits. This hypothesis was consistent with electron microscopy and our modelling of the multimeric nitrilase, which supports an arrangement of dimers into helical segments as a plausible structural solution. Conclusions The nitrilase from Aspergillus niger K10 is highly homologous (≥86%) with proteins deduced from gene sequencing in Aspergillus and Penicillium genera. As the first of these proteins, it was shown to exhibit nitrilase activity towards organic nitriles. The comparison of the Nit-ANigRec and Nit-ANigWT suggested that the catalytic properties of nitrilases may be changed due to missing posttranslational cleavage of the former enzyme. Nit-ANigRec exhibits a lower tendency to form filaments and, moreover, the sample homogeneity can be further improved by in vitro protein refolding. The homogeneous protein species consisting of short spirals is expected to be more suitable for structural studies. PMID:21210990

  19. AMINO ACID SUPPLEMENTATION REVEALS DIFFERENTIAL REGULATION OF AFLATOXIN BIOSYNTHESIS IN ASPERGILLUS FLAVUS NRRL 3357 AND ASPERGILLUS PARASITICUS SRRC 143

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Aflatoxins are toxic and carcinogenic secondary metabolites produced by the fungi Aspergillus flavus and A. parasiticus. In order to better understand the molecular mechanisms that regulate aflatoxin production, the biosynthesis of the toxin in A. flavus and A. parasiticus grown in yeast extract su...

  20. Expression of Aspergillus hemoglobin domain activities in Aspergillus oryzae grown on solid substrates improves growth rate and enzyme production.

    PubMed

    te Biesebeke, Rob; Boussier, Amandine; van Biezen, Nick; Braaksma, Machtelt; van den Hondel, Cees A M J J; de Vos, Willem M; Punt, Peter J

    2006-01-01

    DNA fragments coding for hemoglobin domains (HBD) were isolated from Aspergillus oryzae and Aspergillus niger. The HBD activities were expressed in A. oryzae by introduction of HBD gene fragments under the control of the promoter of the constitutively expressed gpdA gene. In the transformants, oxygen uptake was significantly higher, and during growth on solid substrates the developed biomass was at least 1.3 times higher than that of the untransformed wild-type strain. Growth rate of the HBD-activity-producing strains was also significantly higher compared to the wild type. During growth on solid cereal substrates, the amylase and protease activities in the extracts of the HBD-activity-producing strains were 30-150% higher and glucoamylase activities were at least 9 times higher compared to the wild-type strain. These results suggest that the Aspergillus HBD-encoding gene can be used in a self-cloning strategy to improve biomass yield and protein production of Aspergillus species. PMID:16927259

  1. [Indoor fungal exposure: What impact on clinical and biological status regarding Aspergillus during cystic fibrosis].

    PubMed

    Pricope, D; Deneuville, E; Frain, S; Chevrier, S; Belaz, S; Roussey, M; Gangneux, J-P

    2015-06-01

    The sources of exposure during diseases due to Aspergillus fungi in cystic fibrosis patients are still poorly explored. We assessed home fungal exposure in patients suffering from cystic fibrosis and analysed its impact on the presence of Aspergillus biological markers, the colonisation of airways, as well as the sensitization and Aspergillus serology. Between March 2012 and August 2012, 34 patients benefited from a visit performed by a home environment medical adviser including sampling for mycological analysis. The number of colonies of Aspergillus was not significantly different in the various sampling sites (P=0.251), but the number of non-Aspergillus colonies was much higher in the kitchen (P=0.0045). Subsequently, home fungal exposure was compared between the groups "absence of Aspergillus-related markers" and "presence of Aspergillus-related markers". Home exposure to Aspergillus (P=0.453) and non-Aspergillus (P=0.972) flora was not significant between the 2 groups. Within this series of 34 patients that should be expanded, we note an absence of clear relationship between home exposure and the Aspergillus-linked markers in patients suffering from cystic fibrosis. This result should be taken into account regarding too restrictive hygiene advices provided to families, given the fact that fungal exposure can also results from activities performed away from home. PMID:25910711

  2. Metabolomics Analysis Reveals Specific Novel Tetrapeptide and Potential Anti-Inflammatory Metabolites in Pathogenic Aspergillus species

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Kim-Chung; Tam, Emily W. T.; Lo, Ka-Ching; Tsang, Alan K. L.; Lau, Candy C. Y.; To, Kelvin K. W.; Chan, Jasper F. W.; Lam, Ching-Wan; Yuen, Kwok-Yung; Lau, Susanna K. P.; Woo, Patrick C. Y.

    2015-01-01

    Infections related to Aspergillus species have emerged to become an important focus in infectious diseases, as a result of the increasing use of immunosuppressive agents and high fatality associated with invasive aspergillosis. However, laboratory diagnosis of Aspergillus infections remains difficult. In this study, by comparing the metabolomic profiles of the culture supernatants of 30 strains of six pathogenic Aspergillus species (A. fumigatus, A. flavus, A. niger, A. terreus, A. nomius and A. tamarii) and 31 strains of 10 non-Aspergillus fungi, eight compounds present in all strains of the six Aspergillus species but not in any strain of the non-Aspergillus fungi were observed. One of the eight compounds, Leu–Glu–Leu–Glu, is a novel tetrapeptide and represents the first linear tetrapeptide observed in Aspergillus species, which we propose to be named aspergitide. Two other closely related Aspergillus-specific compounds, hydroxy-(sulfooxy)benzoic acid and (sulfooxy)benzoic acid, may possess anti-inflammatory properties, as 2-(sulfooxy)benzoic acid possesses a structure similar to those of aspirin [2-(acetoxy)benzoic acid] and salicylic acid (2-hydroxybenzoic acid). Further studies to examine the potentials of these Aspergillus-specific compounds for laboratory diagnosis of aspergillosis are warranted and further experiments will reveal whether Leu–Glu–Leu–Glu, hydroxy-(sulfooxy)benzoic acid and (sulfooxy)benzoic acid are virulent factors of the pathogenic Aspergillus species. PMID:26090713

  3. Loss of msnA a putative stress regulatory gene in Aspergillus parasiticus and Aspergillus flavus increased production of conidia aflatoxins and kojic acid

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Production of the harmful carcinogenic aflatoxins by Aspergillus parasiticus and Aspergillus flavus has been postulated to be a mechanism to relieve oxidative stress. The msnA gene, the ortholog of Saccharomyces cerevisiae MSN2 associated with multi-stress response, of the two species was disrupted....

  4. Endemicity and evolutionary value: a study of Chilean endemic vascular plant genera

    PubMed Central

    Scherson, Rosa A; Albornoz, Abraham A; Moreira-Muñoz, Andrés S; Urbina-Casanova, Rafael

    2014-01-01

    This study uses phylogeny-based measures of evolutionary potential (phylogenetic diversity and community structure) to evaluate the evolutionary value of vascular plant genera endemic to Chile. Endemicity is regarded as a very important consideration for conservation purposes. Taxa that are endemic to a single country are valuable conservation targets, as their protection depends upon a single government policy. This is especially relevant in developing countries in which conservation is not always a high resource allocation priority. Phylogeny-based measures of evolutionary potential such as phylogenetic diversity (PD) have been regarded as meaningful measures of the “value” of taxa and ecosystems, as they are able to account for the attributes that could allow taxa to recover from environmental changes. Chile is an area of remarkable endemism, harboring a flora that shows the highest number of endemic genera in South America. We studied PD and community structure of this flora using a previously available supertree at the genus level, to which we added DNA sequences of 53 genera endemic to Chile. Using discrepancy values and a null model approach, we decoupled PD from taxon richness, in order to compare their geographic distribution over a one-degree grid. An interesting pattern was observed in which areas to the southwest appear to harbor more PD than expected by their generic richness than those areas to the north of the country. In addition, some southern areas showed more PD than expected by chance, as calculated with the null model approach. Geological history as documented by the study of ancient floras as well as glacial refuges in the coastal range of southern Chile during the quaternary seem to be consistent with the observed pattern, highlighting the importance of this area for conservation purposes. PMID:24683462

  5. Dated Phylogenies of the Sister Genera Macaranga and Mallotus (Euphorbiaceae): Congruence in Historical Biogeographic Patterns?

    PubMed Central

    van Welzen, Peter C.; Strijk, Joeri S.; van Konijnenburg-van Cittert, Johanna H. A.; Nucete, Monica; Merckx, Vincent S. F. T.

    2014-01-01

    Molecular phylogenies and estimates of divergence times within the sister genera Macaranga and Mallotus were estimated using Bayesian relaxed clock analyses of two generic data sets, one per genus. Both data sets were based on different molecular markers and largely different samples. Per genus three calibration points were utilised. The basal calibration point (crown node of all taxa used) was taken from literature and used for both taxa. The other three calibrations were based on fossils of which two were used per genus. We compared patterns of dispersal and diversification in Macaranga and Mallotus using ancestral area reconstruction in RASP (S-DIVA option) and contrasted our results with biogeographical and geological records to assess accuracy of inferred age estimates. A check of the fossil calibration point showed that the Japanese fossil, used for dating the divergence of Mallotus, probably had to be attached to a lower node, the stem node of all pioneer species, but even then the divergence time was still younger than the estimated age of the fossil. The African (only used in the Macaranga data set) and New Zealand fossils (used for both genera) seemed reliably placed. Our results are in line with existing geological data and the presence of stepping stones that provided dispersal pathways from Borneo to New Guinea-Australia, from Borneo to mainland Asia and additionally at least once to Africa and Madagascar via land and back to India via Indian Ocean island chains. The two genera show congruence in dispersal patterns, which corroborate divergence time estimates, although the overall mode and tempo of dispersal and diversification differ significantly as shown by distribution patterns of extant species. PMID:24465660

  6. Redescription of Psilotricha acuminata Stein, 1859 and revisions of the genera Psilotricha and Urospinula (Ciliophora, Hypotrichida).

    PubMed

    Esteban, G F; Olmo, J L; Finlay, B J

    2001-01-01

    Psilotricha acuminata was described by Stein in 1859 as the type species of the ciliate genus Psilotricha Stein, 1859. The ciliate has rarely been found since, and its infraciliature has never been described with the aid of silver-impregnation techniques. We have found P. acuminata Stein, 1859 in soil samples from upland grassland in Scotland (U.K.). Living and healthy organisms of P. acuminata are oblong in outline, and dorso-ventrally compressed. They closely resemble ciliates of the genus Euplotes. The main morphological features used for identification of P. acuminata are the very long and sparse cirri, and the two macronuclei. When the ciliate crawls, the cirri appear stiff and directed backwards. Specimens observed from the ventral side have a protruding anterior end, a rounded or acuminate posterior pole, and a "beak-like" projection to the left side of the posterior end. The ciliate shares characters with the Euplotidae (body shape and reduced ciliature) and with the Oxytrichidae (marginal rows, macronuclei, reduced number of transverse cirri). Because the arrangement of the silver-impregnated infraciliature was unknown, and as the only description of the ciliate was that of Stein (1859a, b), the genus Psilotricha became confused with other hypotrich genera, especially Urospinula Corliss, 1960. Here we provide a full redescription of P. acuminata based on living and silver-impregnated specimens, and a revision of the genera Psilotricha Stein, 1859 and Urospinula Corliss, 1960. We resurrect the genus Urospinula, and give an emended diagnosis for both genera. The species now included within the genus Psilotricha are P. acuminata Stein, 1859 (type species); Psilotricha viridis (Penard, 1922) Kahl, 1932; and Psilotricha geleii (Gelei, 1954) Stiller, 1974. Psilotricha viridis sensu Kahl, 1932 and Psilotricha dragescoi Grolière, 1975 are considered incertae sedis. PMID:11411836

  7. A QUICK KEY TO THE SUBFAMILIES AND GENERA OF ANTS OF THE SAVANNAH RIVER SITE

    SciTech Connect

    Martin, D

    2007-09-04

    This taxonomic key was devised to support development of a Rapid Bioassessment Protocol using ants at the Savannah River Site. The emphasis is on 'rapid' and, because the available keys contained a very large number of genera not known to occur at the Savannah River Site, we found that the available keys were unwieldy. Because these keys contained many more genera than we would ever encounter and because this larger number of genera required more couplets in the key and often required examination of characters that are difficult to assess without higher magnifications (60X or higher), more time was required to process samples. In developing this set of keys I emphasized character states that are easier for nonspecialists to recognize. I recognize that the character sets used may lead to some errors but I believe that the error rate will be small and, for the purpose of rapid bioassessment, this error rate will be acceptable provided that overall sample sizes are adequate. Oliver and Beattie (1996a, 1996b) found that for rapid assessment of biodiversity the same results were found when identifications were done to morphospecies by people with minimal expertise as when the same data sets were identified by subject matter experts. Basset et al. (2004) concluded that it was not as important to correctly identify all species as it was to be sure that the study included as many functional groups as possible. If your study requires high levels of accuracy, it is highly recommended that, when you key out a specimen and have any doubts concerning the identification, you should refer to keys in Bolton (1994) or to the other keys used to develop this area specific taxonomic key.

  8. Endemicity and evolutionary value: a study of Chilean endemic vascular plant genera.

    PubMed

    Scherson, Rosa A; Albornoz, Abraham A; Moreira-Muñoz, Andrés S; Urbina-Casanova, Rafael

    2014-03-01

    This study uses phylogeny-based measures of evolutionary potential (phylogenetic diversity and community structure) to evaluate the evolutionary value of vascular plant genera endemic to Chile. Endemicity is regarded as a very important consideration for conservation purposes. Taxa that are endemic to a single country are valuable conservation targets, as their protection depends upon a single government policy. This is especially relevant in developing countries in which conservation is not always a high resource allocation priority. Phylogeny-based measures of evolutionary potential such as phylogenetic diversity (PD) have been regarded as meaningful measures of the "value" of taxa and ecosystems, as they are able to account for the attributes that could allow taxa to recover from environmental changes. Chile is an area of remarkable endemism, harboring a flora that shows the highest number of endemic genera in South America. We studied PD and community structure of this flora using a previously available supertree at the genus level, to which we added DNA sequences of 53 genera endemic to Chile. Using discrepancy values and a null model approach, we decoupled PD from taxon richness, in order to compare their geographic distribution over a one-degree grid. An interesting pattern was observed in which areas to the southwest appear to harbor more PD than expected by their generic richness than those areas to the north of the country. In addition, some southern areas showed more PD than expected by chance, as calculated with the null model approach. Geological history as documented by the study of ancient floras as well as glacial refuges in the coastal range of southern Chile during the quaternary seem to be consistent with the observed pattern, highlighting the importance of this area for conservation purposes. PMID:24683462

  9. Delimitation of Neonectria and Cylindrocarpon (Nectriaceae, Hypocreales, Ascomycota) and related genera with Cylindrocarpon-like anamorphs

    PubMed Central

    Chaverri, P.; Salgado, C.; Hirooka, Y.; Rossman, A.Y.; Samuels, G.J.

    2011-01-01

    Neonectria is a cosmopolitan genus and it is, in part, defined by its link to the anamorph genus Cylindrocarpon. Neonectria has been divided into informal groups on the basis of combined morphology of anamorph and teleomorph. Previously, Cylindrocarpon was divided into four groups defined by presence or absence of microconidia and chlamydospores. Molecular phylogenetic analyses have indicated that Neonectria sensu stricto and Cylindrocarpon sensu stricto are phylogenetically congeneric. In addition, morphological and molecular data accumulated over several years have indicated that Neonectria sensu lato and Cylindrocarpon sensu lato do not form a monophyletic group and that the respective informal groups may represent distinct genera. In the present work, a multilocus analysis (act, ITS, LSU, rpb1, tef1, tub) was applied to representatives of the informal groups to determine their level of phylogenetic support as a first step towards taxonomic revision of Neonectria sensu lato. Results show five distinct highly supported clades that correspond to some extent with the informal Neonectria and Cylindrocarpon groups that are here recognised as genera: (1) N. coccinea-group and Cylindrocarpon groups 1 & 4 (Neonectria/Cylindrocarpon sensu stricto); (2) N. rugulosa-group (Rugonectria gen. nov.); (3) N. mammoidea/N. veuillotiana-groups and Cylindrocarpon group 2 (Thelonectria gen. nov.); (4) N. radicicola-group and Cylindrocarpon group 3 (Ilyonectria gen. nov.); and (5) anamorph genus Campylocarpon. Characteristics of the anamorphs and teleomorphs correlate with the five genera, three of which are newly described. New combinations are made for species where their classification is confirmed by phylogenetic data. PMID:21523189

  10. Five vicarious genera from Gondwana: the Velloziaceae as shown by molecules and morphology

    PubMed Central

    Mello-Silva, Renato; Santos, Déborah Yara A. C.; Salatino, Maria Luiza F.; Motta, Lucimar B.; Cattai, Marina B.; Sasaki, Denise; Lovo, Juliana; Pita, Patrícia B.; Rocini, Cintia; Rodrigues, Cristiane D. N.; Zarrei, Mehdi; Chase, Mark W.

    2011-01-01

    Background and Aims The amount of data collected previously for Velloziaceae neither clarified relationships within the family nor helped determine an appropriate classification, which has led to huge discordance among treatment by different authors. To achieve an acceptable phylogenetic result and understand the evolution and roles of characters in supporting groups, a total evidence analysis was developed which included approx. 20 % of the species and all recognized genera and sections of Velloziaceae, plus outgroups representatives of related families within Pandanales. Methods Analyses were undertaken with 48 species of Velloziaceae, representing all ten genera, with DNA sequences from the atpB-rbcL spacer, trnL-trnF spacer, trnL intron, trnH-psbA spacer, ITS ribosomal DNA spacers and morphology. Key Results Four groups consistently emerge from the analyses. Persistent leaves, two phloem strands, stem cortex divided in three regions and violet tepals support Acanthochlamys as sister to Velloziaceae s.s., which are supported mainly by leaves with marginal bundles, transfusion tracheids and inflorescence without axis. Within Velloziaceae s.s., an African Xerophyta + Talbotia clade is uniquely supported by basal loculicidal capsules; an American clade, Barbacenia s.l. + Barbaceniopsis + Nanuza + Vellozia, is supported by only homoplastic characters. Barbacenia s.l. (= Aylthonia + Barbacenia + Burlemarxia + Pleurostima) is supported by a double sheath in leaf vascular bundles and a corona; Barbaceniopsis + Nanuza + Vellozia is not supported by an unambiguous character, but Barbaceniopsis is supported by five characters, including diclinous flowers, Nanuza + Vellozia is supported mainly by horizontal stigma lobes and stem inner cortex cells with secondary walls, and Vellozia alone is supported mainly by pollen in tetrads. Conclusions The results imply recognition of five genera (Acanthochlamys (Xerophyta (Barbacenia (Barbaceniopsis, Vellozia)))), solving the long-standing controversies among recent classifications of the family. They also suggest a Gondwanan origin for Velloziaceae, with a vicariant pattern of distribution. PMID:21693665

  11. Terfezia disappears from the American truffle mycota as two new genera and Mattirolomyces species emerge.

    PubMed

    Kovács, Gábor M; Trappe, James M; Alsheikh, Abdulmagid M; Hansen, Karen; Healy, Rosanne A; Vági, Pál

    2011-01-01

    Reexamination and molecular phylogenetic analyses of American Terfezia species and Mattirolomyces tiffanyae revealed that their generic assignments were wrong. Therefore we here propose these combinations: Mattirolomyces spinosus comb. nov. (≡ Terfezia spinosa), Stouffera longii gen. & comb. nov. (≡ Terfezia longii) and Temperantia tiffanyae gen. & comb. nov. (≡ Mattirolomyces tiffanyae). In addition we describe a new species, Mattirolomyces mexicanus spec. nov. All species belong to the Pezizaceae. Based on these results Terfezia is not known from North America, Mattirolomyces is represented by two species and two new monotypic genera are present. PMID:21262987

  12. East African odontopygid millipedes 3: Two new genera; Lamelloramus and Aquattuor proposed to contain three new species (Diplopoda; Spirostreptida; Odontopygidae).

    PubMed

    Frederiksen, Sara B

    2013-01-01

    Two new genera and three new species in the millipede family Odontopygidae are described; Lamelloramus rhombi- formis, L. triangularis and Aquattuor denticulatus. All three species are found in the East Usambara Mountains. PMID:26312268

  13. Spionidae (Annelida) from Lizard Island, Great Barrier Reef, Australia: the genera Aonides, Dipolydora, Polydorella, Prionospio, Pseudopolydora, Rhynchospio, and Tripolydora.

    PubMed

    Radashevsky, Vasily I

    2015-01-01

    Nineteen species in seven genera of spionid polychaetes are described and illustrated based on new material collected from the intertidal and shallow waters around the Lizard Island Group, northern Great Barrier Reef. Only one of these species had been previously reported from the Reef. Six species are described as new to science, and the taxonomy of seven species should be clarified in the future. Prionospio sensu lato is the most diverse group with 11 species identified in the present study. One species is identified in each of the genera Dipolydora, Polydorella, Rhynchospio and Tripolydora, and two species are identified in each of the genera Aonides and Pseudopolydora. The fauna of spionid polychaetes of the Great Barrier Reef seems to be more diverse than previously described and more species are expected to be found in the future. An identification key is provided to 16 genera of Spionidae reported from or likely to be found on the Great Barrier Reef. PMID:26624082

  14. A general overview of the typical 18 frontal-ventral-transverse cirri oxytrichidae s. l. genera (Ciliophora, Hypotrichia)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shao, Chen; Lu, Xiaoteng; Ma, Honggang

    2015-06-01

    Oxytrichidae s. l. ciliates usually have 18 frontal-ventral-transverse cirri which are clustered to six distinct groups usually originating from six longitudinal primordia segregating 1, 3, 3, 3, 4, 4 cirri. During morphogenesis, three dorsal kineties anlagen are primarily formed. Fragmentation of kinety 3 usually present, while sometimes secondarily lost. Dorsomarginal kineties are formed, while sometimes lost. Oxytrichids tend to have overlapping characters, e.g. cell shape and size, infraciliature, pellicle features. This makes a great problem for genera separation. In the present work, all typical 18 frontal-ventral-transverse-cirri Oxytrichidae s. l. genera were revised systematically based on their living morphology, ciliature patterns and dorsal morphogenetic features. The outline of the genera, the schematic illustrations, and the key to typical 18 frontal-ventral-transverse-cirri genera of Oxytrichidae s. l. were clarified. Additionally, some morphological and morphogenetic patterns were summarized and compared.

  15. Palaearctic osmiine bees of the genera Hofferia and Stenoheriades (Megachilidae, Osmiini): biology, taxonomy and key to species.

    PubMed

    Müller, Andreas; Trunz, Vincent

    2014-01-01

    Hofferia and Stenoheriades are closely related, species-poor genera of the osmiine bees (Megachilidae). Analysis of female pollen loads and field observations indicate that species of both genera have a strong affinity to Asteraceae as pollen hosts. Both genera use insect burrows in dead wood as nesting site, and Hofferia schmiedeknechti was found to build cell walls and nest plug with resin partly mixed with small pebbles. The taxonomic revision of the Palaearctic Hofferia and Stenoheriades species revealed the existence of a still undescribed species in the Levant, Stenoheriades levantica spec. nov.. Stenoheriades hofferi (Tkalců, 1984) is synonymized with S. coelostoma (Benoist, 1935), which is distinct from S. asiatica (Friese, 1921), and Heriades integra Benoist, 1934, formerly considered a Stenoheriades species, is synonymized with Osmia (Hoplosmia) scutellaris Morawitz, 1868. Keys for the delimitation of Hofferia and Stenoheriades from the other Palaearctic osmiine bee genera and for the identification of the Palaearctic species are given.  PMID:24870894

  16. Taxonomy and systematics of the herichthyins (Cichlidae: Tribe Heroini),with the description of eight new Middle American Genera.

    PubMed

    Mcmahan, Caleb D; Matamoros, Wilfredo A; Piller, Kyle R; Chakrabarty, Prosanta

    2015-01-01

    In recent years great strides have been made for improving our understanding of the evolutionary relationships among neotropical cichlids, particularly within the clade Heroini and its crown clade the herichthyins. Most phylogenetic studies have largely converged on congruent topologies for relationships among species and major lineages within the herichthyins. One major aspect missing from previous studies of these cichlids is a formal taxonomic revision, including the redefining of genera. Based on analysis of 52 species and three mitochondrial and two nuclear loci, we generate a Bayesian phylogeny for the herichthyin cichlids, and formally revise the taxonomy for genera within this clade using morphological features. Eight new genera are recognized and a key to all 16 genera of herichthyin cichlids is also presented. PMID:26623572

  17. Variants of Aspergillus alutaceus var. alutaceus (formerly Aspergillus ochraceus) with altered ochratoxin A production.

    PubMed Central

    Chelack, W S; Borsa, J; Szekely, J G; Marquardt, R R; Frohlich, A A

    1991-01-01

    The present studies, using Aspergillus alutaceus var. alutaceus Berkeley et Curtis (formerly A. ochraceus Wilhelm) NRRL 3174 along with three other wild-type strains, were undertaken in an attempt to understand the effects of irradiation and other treatments on mycotoxin production in grain. Bedford barley was inoculated with spores of NRRL 3174, gamma irradiated, and incubated at 28 degrees C and 25% moisture. After 10 days of incubation, two colony types, ochre (parental) and yellow (variant), were isolated from the grain. Further culturing of the yellow variant resulted in the spontaneous appearance of a white variant that exhibited greatly enhanced fluorescence under UV light. In subsequent work, we have also isolated variants producing a soluble red pigment. In addition, in model experiments involving irradiation (1 kGy) of pure cultures, induction frequencies ranging between 2 and 4% (survival basis) were observed for the yellow and red variants. Inoculation of these variants into wheat and incubation for 14 days at 28 degrees C and 32% moisture resulted in ochratoxin A production in the relative amounts of 0.09:1:4.6:9.3 for the red, ochre (parental), yellow, and white variants, respectively. Additional characteristics of these isolates are described. Confirmation that the white high-ochratoxin-A-producing variants were derived from the parental strain was demonstrated by obtaining revertant sectors in monoclonal cultures of the variants. Images PMID:1768122

  18. Color mutants of Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus parasiticus in a study of preharvest invasion of peanuts.

    PubMed Central

    Cole, R J; Hill, R A; Blankenship, P D; Sanders, T H

    1986-01-01

    A comparison of the invasion of flowers, aerial pegs, and kernels by wild-type and mutant strains of Aspergillus flavus or A. parasiticus along with aflatoxin analyses of kernels from different drought treatments have supported the hypothesis that preharvest contamination with aflatoxin originates mainly from the soil. Evidence in support of soil invasion as opposed to aerial invasion was the following. A greater percentage of invasion of kernels rather than flower or aerial pegs by either wild-type A. flavus or mutants. Significant invasion by an A. parasiticus color mutant occurred only in peanuts from soil supplemented with the mutant, whereas adjacent plants in close proximity but in untreated soil were only invaded by wild-type A. flavus or A. parasiticus. Aflatoxin data from drought-stressed, visibly undamaged peanut kernels showed that samples from soil not supplemented with a mutant strain contained a preponderance of aflatoxin B's (from wild-type A. flavus) whereas adjacent samples from mutant-supplemented soil contained a preponderance of B's plus G's (from wild-type and mutant A. parasiticus). Preliminary data from two air samplings showed an absence of propagules of A. flavus or A. parasiticus in air around the experimental facility. PMID:3098167

  19. Descriptions of new species of the genera Sarima Melichar and Sarimodes Matsumura from southern China (Hemiptera, Fulgoromorpha, Issidae)

    PubMed Central

    Meng, Rui; Wang, Yinglun

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Two Issini genera, Sarima Melichar, 1903 and Sarimodes Matsumura, 1916, are examined. One new Sarima species: Sarima bifurcus sp. n. and two new Sarimodes species Sarimodes clavatus sp. n. and Sarimodes parallelus sp. n. are added from South China. A checklist of species in the genus Sarima with data on distribution is provided. The distribution and morphological peculiarities of the genera Sarima and Sarimodes are briefly discussed. PMID:26877702

  20. In Vitro Interactions between Target of Rapamycin Kinase Inhibitor and Antifungal Agents against Aspergillus Species.

    PubMed

    Gao, Lujuan; Ding, Xiaozhen; Liu, Zhun; Wu, Qingzhi; Zeng, Tongxiang; Sun, Yi

    2016-06-01

    In vitro interactions of INK128, a target of rapamycin (TOR) kinase inhibitor, and antifungals, including itraconazole, voriconazole, posaconazole, amphotericin B, and caspofungin, against Aspergillus spp. were assessed with the broth microdilution checkerboard technique. Our results suggested synergistic effects between INK128 and all azoles tested, against multiple Aspergillus fumigatus and Aspergillus flavus isolates. However, no synergistic effects were observed when INK128 was combined with amphotericin B or caspofungin. No antagonism was observed for any combination. PMID:26976874

  1. The Mediterranean red alga Asparagopsis taxiformis has antifungal activity against Aspergillus species.

    PubMed

    Genovese, Giuseppa; Leitner, Sandra; Minicante, Simona A; Lass-Flörl, Cornelia

    2013-09-01

    The red algae Asparagopsis taxiformis collected from the Straits of Messina (Italy) were screened for antifungal activity against Aspergillus species. EUCAST methodology was applied and extracts showed antifungal activity against A. fumigatus, A. terreus and A. flavus. The lowest minimum inhibitory concentrations observed were <0.15 mg ml(-1) and the highest were >5 mg ml(-1) for Aspergillus spp. tested. Agar diffusion assays confirmed antifungal activity of A. taxiformis extracts in Aspergillus species. PMID:23437896

  2. Comprehensive Secondary Structure Elucidation of Four Genera of the Family Pospiviroidae

    PubMed Central

    Giguère, Tamara; Raj Adkar-Purushothama, Charith; Perreault, Jean-Pierre

    2014-01-01

    Viroids are small, circular, single stranded RNA molecules that infect plants. Since they are non-coding, their structures play a critical role in their life cycles. To date, little effort has been spend on elucidating viroid structures in solution due to both the experimental difficulties and the time-consuming nature of the methodologies implicated. Recently, the technique of high-throughput selective 2′-hydroxyl acylation analyzed by primer extension (SHAPE) was adapted for the probing of the members of family Avsunviroidae, all of whom replicate in the chloroplast and demonstrate ribozyme activity. In the present work, twelve viroid species belonging to four different genera of the family Pospiviroidae, whose members are characterized by the presence of a central conserved region (CCR) and who replicate in nucleus of the host, were probed. Given that the structures of five distinct viroid species from the family Pospiviroidae have been previously reported, an overview of the different structural characteristics for all genera and the beginning of a manual classification of the different viroids based on their structural features are presented here. PMID:24897295

  3. Phylogenetic relationships of Pestalotiopsis and allied genera inferred from ribosomal DNA sequences and morphological characters.

    PubMed

    Jeewon, Rajesh; Liew, Edward C Y; Hyde, Kevin D

    2002-12-01

    The taxonomy of the coelomycetous fungus Pestalotiopsis and other closely related genera based on morphological characters has been equivocal. To gain insight in the phylogenetic relationships of Pestalotiopsis and its allies, part of the large subunit (28S) ribosomal DNA region was examined and compared with existing morphological information. Phylogenetic analyses were conducted using parsimony, distance, and likelihood criteria. Results of the analyses showed that Bartalinia, Pestalotiopsis, Seimatosporium, and Seiridium represent distinct monophyletic groups with high bootstrap support. However, Truncatella species are paraphyletic with Bartalinia, sharing a common ancestor. Pestalotia species sequenced clustered together with Pestalotiopsis. These genera should be recognized as distinct natural groups except for Monochaetia and Discosia, which need to be further resolved. Tree topologies are generally in concordance with previous morphological hypotheses, most notably the placement of all Pestalotia species, except the type P. pezizoides, in Pestalotiopsis. Well-supported clades corresponding to groupings based on conidial morphology were resolved and the relative importance of morphological characters for generic delimitation is discussed. Molecular data also provide further evidence to support the association of these coelomycetes with the Amphisphaeriaceae. PMID:12450745

  4. Investigation of sporulation in the Desulfotomaculum genus: a genomic comparison with the genera Bacillus and Clostridium.

    PubMed

    Dalla Vecchia, Elena; Visser, Michael; Stams, Alfons J M; Bernier-Latmani, Rizlan

    2014-12-01

    The genus Desulfotomaculum, belonging to the Firmicutes, comprises strictly anaerobic and endospore-forming bacteria capable of dissimilatory sulfate reduction. These microorganisms are metabolically versatile and are widely distributed in the environment. Spore formation allows them to survive prolonged environmental stress. Information on the mechanism of sporulation in Desulfotomaculum species is scarce. Herein, this process was probed from a genomic standpoint, using the Bacillus subtilis model system as a reference and clostridial sporulation for comparison. Desulfotomaculum falls somewhere in between the Bacillus and Clostridium in terms of conservation of sporulation proteins. Furthermore, it showcased the conservation of a core regulatory cascade throughout genera, while uncovering variability in the initiation of sporulation and the structural characteristics of spores from different genera. In particular, while in Clostridium species sporulation is not initiated by a phosphorelay, Desulfotomaculum species harbour homologues of the B. subtilis proteins involved in this process. Conversely, both Clostridium and Desulfotomaculum species conserve very few B. subtilis structural proteins, particularly those found in the outer layers of the spore. Desulfotomaculum species seem to share greater similarity to the outer layers of Clostridium difficile. PMID:25132579

  5. Thirteen novel deoxynivalenol-degrading bacteria are classified within two genera with distinct degradation mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Sato, Ikuo; Ito, Michihiro; Ishizaka, Masumi; Ikunaga, Yoko; Sato, Yukari; Yoshida, Shigenobu; Koitabashi, Motoo; Tsushima, Seiya

    2012-02-01

    The mycotoxin deoxynivalenol (DON), a secondary metabolite produced by species of the plant pathogen Fusarium, causes serious problems in cereal crop production because of its toxicity towards humans and livestock. A biological approach for the degradation of DON using a DON-degrading bacterium (DDB) appears to be promising, although information about DDBs is limited. We isolated 13 aerobic DDBs from a variety of environmental samples, including field soils and wheat leaves. Of these 13 strains, nine belonged to the Gram-positive genus Nocardioides and other four to the Gram-negative genus Devosia. The degradation phenotypes of the two Gram types were clearly different; all washed cells of the 13 strains degraded 100 μg mL(-1) DON to below the detection limit (0.5 μg mL(-1)), but the conditions inducing the DON-degrading activities differed between the two Gram types. The HPLC profiles of the DON metabolites were also distinct between the two genera, although all strains produced 3-epi-deoxynivalenol. The Gram-positive strains showed DON assimilation in media containing DON as a carbon source, whereas the Gram-negatives did not. Our results suggest that aerobic DDBs are distributed within at least two phylogenetically restricted genera, suggesting independent evolution of the DON-degradation mechanisms. PMID:22098388

  6. Molecular phylogeny of the lionfish genera Dendrochirus and Pterois (Scorpaenidae, Pteroinae) based on mitochondrial DNA sequences.

    PubMed

    Kochzius, Marc; Söller, Rainer; Khalaf, Maroof A; Blohm, Dietmar

    2003-09-01

    This study investigates the molecular phylogeny of seven lionfishes of the genera Dendrochirus and Pterois. MP, ML, and NJ phylogenetic analysis based on 964 bp of partial mitochondrial DNA sequences (cytochrome b and 16S rDNA) revealed two main clades: (1) "Pterois" clade (Pterois miles and Pterois volitans), and (2) "Pteropterus-Dendrochirus" clade (remainder of the sampled species). The position of Dendrochirus brachypterus either basal to the main clades or in the "Pteropterus-Dendrochirus" clade cannot be resolved. However, the molecular phylogeny did not support the current separation of the genera Pterois and Dendrochirus. The siblings P. miles and P. volitans are clearly separated and our results support the proposed allopatric or parapatric distribution in the Indian and Pacific Ocean. However, the present analysis cannot reveal if P. miles and P. volitans are separate species or two populations of a single species, because the observed separation in different clades can be either explained by speciation or lineage sorting. Molecular clock estimates for the siblings P. miles and P. volitans suggest a divergence time of 2.4-8.3 mya, which coincide with geological events that created vicariance between populations of the Indian and Pacific Ocean. PMID:12927126

  7. Molecular and classical chromosomal techniques reveal diversity in bushcricket genera of Barbitistini (Orthoptera).

    PubMed

    Warchałowska-Śliwa, E; Grzywacz, B; Maryańska-Nadachowska, A; Karamysheva, T V; Heller, K-G; Lehmann, A W; Lehmann, G U C; Chobanov, D P

    2013-11-01

    The cytogenetic characteristics of 17 species of bushcricket belonging to eight genera of the tribe Barbitistini were examined by fluorescence in situ hybridization with 18S rDNA and (TTAGGn) telomeric as probes and by C-banding, silver, and fluorochrome staining. These markers were used to understand chromosomal organization and evolutionary relationships between genera or species within the same genus. The number of 18S rDNA clusters per haploid genome that co-localized with active nucleolus organizer regions (NORs) ranged from one to five, with the most common pattern being the presence of one NOR-bearing chromosome. This ribosomal cistron was preferentially located in the paracentromeric region of autosomes and very rarely in the sex chromosome. The results demonstrated coincidence between the localization of major ribosomal genes and active NORs and the position of C-band and GC-rich regions. The rDNA/NOR distribution and the composition of chromosome heterochromatin proved to be good cytogenetic markers for distinguishing species and phylogenetic lines and for understanding the genomic differentiation and evolution of Barbitistini. A comparison of cytogenetic and morphological or behavioral traits suggests that morphological and behavioral specialization in this group was not followed by major karyotype modification (except for Leptophyes). However, the occurrence and distribution of different repetitive DNA sites tends to vary among the taxa. PMID:24299106

  8. Patterns of diversification in islands: A comparative study across three gecko genera in the Socotra Archipelago.

    PubMed

    Garcia-Porta, Joan; Morales, Hernán E; Gómez-Díaz, Elena; Sindaco, Roberto; Carranza, Salvador

    2016-05-01

    In this study we used the complete fauna of geckos of the Socotra Archipelago to test whether the three gecko genera co-occurring in the islands (Pristurus, Hemidactylus and Haemodracon) produced similar outcomes of morphological and climatic diversification. To test this, we produced a time-calibrated tree of 346 geckos including all 16 endemic species of the archipelago and 26 potential close-relatives in the continent. Our dating estimates revealed that most of the diversity of geckos in the archipelago was the consequence of in situ diversification. However not all genera shared similar patterns of diversification. While in Hemidactylus and Haemodracon this involved great differences in body size and low levels of climatic diversification (mostly involving sympatric distributions), an opposite pattern appeared in Pristurus in which most of the diversification involved shifts in climatic envelopes (mostly involving allopatric and parapatric distributions) but almost no size differentiation. Consistently with this, Pristurus was the only genus in which rates of size diversification in islands were substantially lower than in the continent. This illustrates how different groups can greatly differ in their patterns of intra-island diversification and highlights the importance of taxon-dependent factors at determining different patterns of diversification in the same insular context. PMID:26911521

  9. 18S rDNA Phylogeny of Lamproderma and Allied Genera (Stemonitales, Myxomycetes, Amoebozoa)

    PubMed Central

    Fiore-Donno, Anna Maria; Kamono, Akiko; Meyer, Marianne; Schnittler, Martin; Fukui, Manabu; Cavalier-Smith, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    The phylogenetic position of the slime-mould genus Lamproderma (Myxomycetes, Amoebozoa) challenges traditional taxonomy: although it displays the typical characters of the order Stemonitales, it appears to be sister to Physarales. This study provides a small subunit (18S or SSU) ribosomal RNA gene-based phylogeny of Lamproderma and its allies, with new sequences from 49 specimens in 12 genera. We found that the order Stemonitales and Lamproderma were both ancestral to Physarales and that Lamproderma constitutes several clades intermingled with species of Diacheopsis, Colloderma and Elaeomyxa. We suggest that these genera may have evolved from Lamproderma by multiple losses of fruiting body stalks and that many taxonomic revisions are needed. We found such high genetic diversity within three Lamproderma species that they probably consist of clusters of sibling species. We discuss the contrasts between genetic and morphological divergence and implications for the morphospecies concept, highlighting the phylogenetically most reliable morphological characters and pointing to others that have been overestimated. In addition, we showed that the first part (∼600 bases) of the SSU rDNA gene is a valuable tool for phylogeny in Myxomycetes, since it displayed sufficient variability to distinguish closely related taxa and never failed to cluster together specimens considered of the same species. PMID:22530009

  10. Nematode Genera in Forest Soil Respond Differentially to Elevated CO2.

    PubMed

    Neher, Deborah A; Weicht, Thomas R

    2013-09-01

    Previous reports suggest that fungivorous nematodes are the only trophic group in forest soils affected by elevated CO2. However, there can be ambiguity within trophic groups, and we examined data at a genus level to determine whether the conclusion remains similar. Nematodes were extracted from roots and soil of loblolly pine (Pinus taeda) and sweet gum (Liquidambar styraciflua) forests fumigated with either ambient air or CO2-enriched air. Root length and nematode biomass were estimated using video image analysis. Most common genera included Acrobeloides, Aphelenchoides, Cephalobus, Ditylenchus, Ecphyadorphora, Filenchus, Plectus, Prismatolaimus, and Tylencholaimus. Maturity Index values and diversity increased with elevated CO2 in loblolly pine but decreased with elevated CO2 in sweet gum forests. Elevated CO2 treatment affected the occurrence of more nematode genera in sweet gum than loblolly pine forests. Numbers were similar but size of Xiphinema decreased in elevated CO2. Abundance, but not biomass, of Aphelenchoides was reduced by elevated CO2. Treatment effects were apparent at the genus levels that were masked at the trophic level. For example, bacterivores were unaffected by elevated CO2, but abundance of Cephalobus was affected by CO2 treatment in both forests. PMID:24115786

  11. Nematode Genera in Forest Soil Respond Differentially to Elevated CO2

    PubMed Central

    Neher, Deborah A.; Weicht, Thomas R.

    2013-01-01

    Previous reports suggest that fungivorous nematodes are the only trophic group in forest soils affected by elevated CO2. However, there can be ambiguity within trophic groups, and we examined data at a genus level to determine whether the conclusion remains similar. Nematodes were extracted from roots and soil of loblolly pine (Pinus taeda) and sweet gum (Liquidambar styraciflua) forests fumigated with either ambient air or CO2-enriched air. Root length and nematode biomass were estimated using video image analysis. Most common genera included Acrobeloides, Aphelenchoides, Cephalobus, Ditylenchus, Ecphyadorphora, Filenchus, Plectus, Prismatolaimus, and Tylencholaimus. Maturity Index values and diversity increased with elevated CO2 in loblolly pine but decreased with elevated CO2 in sweet gum forests. Elevated CO2 treatment affected the occurrence of more nematode genera in sweet gum than loblolly pine forests. Numbers were similar but size of Xiphinema decreased in elevated CO2. Abundance, but not biomass, of Aphelenchoides was reduced by elevated CO2. Treatment effects were apparent at the genus levels that were masked at the trophic level. For example, bacterivores were unaffected by elevated CO2, but abundance of Cephalobus was affected by CO2 treatment in both forests. PMID:24115786

  12. The phylogenetic placement of Hollandichthys Eigenmann 1909 (Teleostei: Characidae) and related genera.

    PubMed

    Thomaz, Andréa T; Malabarba, Luiz R; Bonatto, Sandro L

    2010-12-01

    The phylogenetic relationships among characids are complex with many genera remaining of uncertain systematic position inside the family. The genus Hollandichthys is one of these problematic genera. It has been considered as incertae sedis inside this family until two recently published phylogenies, one morphological and one molecular, arrived at alternative hypothesizes as to the relationships of Hollandichthys with Pseudochalceus or Rachoviscus, respectively. In this paper, we infer the phylogenetic relations of these taxa based on five genes (three mitochondrial - COI, ND2 and 16S; and two nuclear - Sia and Trop), totaling up to 2719 bp. The 41 analyzed species in the Characidae include four incertae sedis characid taxa once hypothesized as related to Hollandichthys, but never analyzed in a single phylogeny (Rachoviscus, Pseudochalceus, Nematocharax and Hyphessobrycon uruguayensis). Here we propose Rachoviscus as the sister-group of Hollandichthys, grouped in the large clade C previously defined, along with the remaining incertae sedis taxa studied here. In addition, we support the evidence that insemination evolved independently at least three times in the Characidae. PMID:20965264

  13. Phenotypic characterization, cellular fatty acid composition, and DNA relatedness of aerococci and comparison to related genera.

    PubMed

    Bosley, G S; Wallace, P L; Moss, C W; Steigerwalt, A G; Brenner, D J; Swenson, J M; Hebert, G A; Facklam, R R

    1990-03-01

    Aerococci can be misidentified as streptococci, enterococci, pediococci, lactococci, or leuconostocs. To distinguish the genus and determine if another species is needed in the present taxon, we analyzed 37 aerococci for cellular fatty acids and compared them with 377 strains of gram-positive cocci, including the species type strains from each of the related genera. The cellular fatty acid profile of aerococci was distinguishable from other genera. Two relatively novel fatty acids found in the aerococci were identified as C16:1 omega 9c and C16:1 omega 9t. Eleven strains of aerococci (including a strain originally identified as "Gaffkya" species) were chosen for DNA-DNA reassociation studies with the type strain Aerococcus viridans ATCC 11563; DNAs from eight of these strains were more than 75% related to the type strain and had 1 to 4% divergence in related sequences. The remaining three strains were 60 to 70% related to the type strain, had 7 to 11.5% divergence, and may represent a second species, Aerococcus genospecies 2. beta-Glucuronidase, alpha-galactosidase, and beta-galactosidase were useful in characterizing the aerococci. PMID:2324269

  14. Chromosome numbers and karyotype evolution in holoparasitic Orobanche (Orobanchaceae) and related genera

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schneeweiss, G.M.; Palomeque, T.; Colwell, A.E.; Weiss-Schneeweiss, H.

    2004-01-01

    Chromosome numbers and karyotypes of species of Orobanche, Cistanche, and Diphelypaea (Orobanchaceae) were investigated, and 108 chromosome counts of 53 taxa, 19 counted for the first time, are presented with a thorough compilation of previously published data. Additionally, karyotypes of representatives of these genera, including Orobanche sects. Orobanche and Trionychon, are reported. Cistanche (x = 20) has large meta- to submetacentric chromosomes, while those of Diphelypaea (x = 19) are medium-sized submeta-to acrocentrics. Within three analyzed sections of Orobanche, sects. Myzorrhiza (x = 24) and Trionychon (x = 12) possess medium-sized submeta- to acrocentrics, while sect. Orobanche (x = 19) has small, mostly meta- to submetacentric, chromosomes. Polyploidy is unevenly distributed in Orobanche and restricted to a few lineages, e.g., O. sect. Myzorrhiza or Orobanche gracilis and its relatives (sect. Orobanche). The distribution of basic chromosome numbers supports the groups found by molecular phylogenetic analyses: Cistanche has x = 20, the Orobanche-group (Orobanche sect. Orobanche, Diphelypaea) has x = 19, and the Phelipanche-group (Orobanche sects. Gymnocaulis, Myzorrhiza, Trionychon) has x = 12, 24. A model of chromosome number evolution in Orobanche and related genera is presented: from two ancestral base numbers, xh = 5 and xh = 6, independent polyploidizations led to x = 20 (Cistanche) and (after dysploidization) x = 19 (Orobanche-group) and to x = 12 and x = 24 (Phelipanche-group), respectively.

  15. 18S rDNA phylogeny of lamproderma and allied genera (Stemonitales, Myxomycetes, Amoebozoa).

    PubMed

    Fiore-Donno, Anna Maria; Kamono, Akiko; Meyer, Marianne; Schnittler, Martin; Fukui, Manabu; Cavalier-Smith, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    The phylogenetic position of the slime-mould genus Lamproderma (Myxomycetes, Amoebozoa) challenges traditional taxonomy: although it displays the typical characters of the order Stemonitales, it appears to be sister to Physarales. This study provides a small subunit (18S or SSU) ribosomal RNA gene-based phylogeny of Lamproderma and its allies, with new sequences from 49 specimens in 12 genera. We found that the order Stemonitales and Lamproderma were both ancestral to Physarales and that Lamproderma constitutes several clades intermingled with species of Diacheopsis, Colloderma and Elaeomyxa. We suggest that these genera may have evolved from Lamproderma by multiple losses of fruiting body stalks and that many taxonomic revisions are needed. We found such high genetic diversity within three Lamproderma species that they probably consist of clusters of sibling species. We discuss the contrasts between genetic and morphological divergence and implications for the morphospecies concept, highlighting the phylogenetically most reliable morphological characters and pointing to others that have been overestimated. In addition, we showed that the first part (~600 bases) of the SSU rDNA gene is a valuable tool for phylogeny in Myxomycetes, since it displayed sufficient variability to distinguish closely related taxa and never failed to cluster together specimens considered of the same species. PMID:22530009

  16. Two new genera of Lumbriculidae (Annelida, Clitellata) from North Carolina, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fend, S.V.; Lenat, D.R.

    2007-01-01

    Recent benthic macroinvertebrate collections from North Carolina contained many undescribed oligochaete taxa, mostly belonging to the family Lumbriculidae. Three of the new species had arrangements of spermathecae and atria previously unreported for the family, and were assigned to new two genera. Pilaridrilus is distinguished by the location of spermathecal pores five segments behind the male pores. The single species, Pilaridrilus uliginosus, also has unusually complex penes and spermathecae. Martinidrilus is distinguished by spermathecae beginning more than two segments anterior to the atrial segment, and also by the the vasa deferentia, which join a common duct before joining the atria. The two Martinidrilus species also have unusual digitiform blood vessels in posterior segments. Martinidrilus carolinensis has lateral spermathecae in VI, and Martinidrilus arenosus has dorsolateral spermathecae in VII and VIII. Because arrangement and morphology of reproductive organs do not resemble those of described lumbriculids, the phylogenetic affinities of the new species are not clear. These new genera and species were generally collected from areas of high water quality, suggesting that lumbriculids can be useful in water quality monitoring and conservation evaluation. Copyright ?? 2007 Magnolia Press.

  17. Isolation and Characterization of Halotolerant Soil Fungi from the Great Salt Plains of Oklahoma.

    PubMed

    Evans, Sarah; Hansen, Ryan W; Schneegurt, Mark A

    2013-12-01

    The Great Salt Plains (GSP) of Oklahoma is an inland terrestrial hypersaline environment where saturated brines leave evaporite crusts of NaCl. The current report examines the fungal community, complementing earlier reports on the bacterial and archaeal communities. Twenty-five fungal isolates from GSP soils were obtained on medium containing 10% NaCl and characterized. Based on 18S rRNA gene sequence analysis, all of the isolates fall within the Ascomycetes, with a predominance of Trichocomaceae, represented by Aspergillus, Eurotium, and Penicillium species. Representatives of Anthrinium, Cladosporium, Debaryomyces, Fusarium, and Ulocladium also were isolated. Overall the isolates were widely halotolerant, with best growth observed at lower salinities and no halophilism. The fungal genera observed were all cosmopolitan, without strong specialization. Taken together, these results support the conclusion that hypersaline environments do not have a characteristic community, in contrast to what was observed at the GSP for bacteria and archaea. PMID:25249710

  18. Isolation and Characterization of Halotolerant Soil Fungi from the Great Salt Plains of Oklahoma

    PubMed Central

    EVANS, Sarah; HANSEN, Ryan W.; SCHNEEGURT, Mark A.

    2014-01-01

    The Great Salt Plains (GSP) of Oklahoma is an inland terrestrial hypersaline environment where saturated brines leave evaporite crusts of NaCl. The current report examines the fungal community, complementing earlier reports on the bacterial and archaeal communities. Twenty-five fungal isolates from GSP soils were obtained on medium containing 10% NaCl and characterized. Based on 18S rRNA gene sequence analysis, all of the isolates fall within the Ascomycetes, with a predominance of Trichocomaceae, represented by Aspergillus, Eurotium, and Penicillium species. Representatives of Anthrinium, Cladosporium, Debaryomyces, Fusarium, and Ulocladium also were isolated. Overall the isolates were widely halotolerant, with best growth observed at lower salinities and no halophilism. The fungal genera observed were all cosmopolitan, without strong specialization. Taken together, these results support the conclusion that hypersaline environments do not have a characteristic community, in contrast to what was observed at the GSP for bacteria and archaea. PMID:25249710

  19. Aspergillus fumigatus, a rare cause of fatal coronary artery occlusion.

    PubMed

    Kuijer, P M; Kuijper, E J; van den Tweel, J G; van der Lelie, J

    1992-01-01

    Endocarditis by Aspergillus species in patients without prior cardiovascular surgery is extremely rare and difficult to diagnose. We report and discuss a 69-year-old patient with hairy cell leukemia who developed severe bilateral pneumonia and metastatic subcutaneous nodules from which A. fumigatus was cultured. He died after 18 days of treatment with an adequate dose (0.7 mg/kg/day) of amphotericin B intravenously. Fungal endocarditis and a myocardial infarction due to a septic thrombotic occlusion of the left coronary artery by A. fumigatus appeared to be the cause of death. A. fumigatus could still be cultured from the aortic valve postmortem despite a total dose of 756 mg amphotericin B. In case of metastatic spread of Aspergillus spp., endocarditis should be suspected. PMID:1563813

  20. Rapid and Sensitive Plate Method for Detection of Aspergillus fumigatus

    PubMed Central

    Bauters, T. G. M.; Nelis, H. J.

    2000-01-01

    The routine identification of Aspergillus fumigatus in clinical samples involves, apart from direct examination, the isolation of the organism on a plate followed by its microscopic characterization. This approach lacks sensitivity, specificity, and speed. A new procedure has been developed combining microcolony formation on a nylon membrane filter at 45°C with the detection of a specific 4-methylumbelliferyl-α-l-arabinopyranoside cleaving enzyme activity in digitonin permeabilized cells. The test takes approximately 14 h and has an efficiency of 98.2% and false-positive and -negative rates of 0 and 3.1%, respectively. When applied to 188 clinical samples taken from patients with proven or nonproven presence of Aspergillus species, a good agreement with the conventional plate-microscopy method was obtained. PMID:11015405

  1. Production of biologically active recombinant human lactoferrin in Aspergillus oryzae.

    PubMed

    Ward, P P; Lo, J Y; Duke, M; May, G S; Headon, D R; Conneely, O M

    1992-07-01

    We report the production of recombinant human lactoferrin in Aspergillus oryzae. Expression of human lactoferrin (hLF), a 78 kD glycoprotein, was achieved by placing the cDNA under the control of the A. oryzae alpha-amylase promoter and the 3' flanking region of the A. niger glucoamylase gene. Using this system, hLF is expressed and secreted into the growth medium at levels up to 25 mg/l. The recombinant lactoferrin is indistinguishable from human milk lactoferrin with respect to its size, immunoreactivity, and iron-binding capacity. The recombinant protein appears to be appropriately N-linked glycosylated and correctly processed at the N-terminus by the A. oryzae secretory apparatus. Lactoferrin is the largest heterologous protein and the first mammalian glycoprotein expressed in the Aspergillus system to date. Hence, this expression system appears suitable for the large-scale production and secretion of biologically active mammalian glycoproteins. PMID:1368268

  2. Aspergillus infection in urinary tract post-ureteric stenting.

    PubMed

    Rao, P

    2015-01-01

    Fungal infections of the urinary tract are usually encountered following prolonged antibiotic use, instrumentation and indwelling urinary catheters. These type of infections are mostly seen in immuno-compromised patients. Candida is the most common among the fungal infections of urinary tract followed by Aspergillus infection. Here is a case report of a 26 year old diabetic female who presented with abdominal pain, fever, nausea and vomiting. She had undergone double-J stenting 15-20 days back. The cause of the symptoms was not detected till the patient underwent C.T Scan-KUB with excretory urography which showed the displaced D-J stent. Then on performing replacement of D-J stent, cystoscopy was done and the tissue sample was sent for microbiological and histopathological examination. On Microbiological examination, Aspergillus flavus was isolated from the tissue, which was culprit behind the disease. Patient was then treated with anti-fungal drugs, following which she gradually improved. PMID:25865996

  3. Isolation and characterization of an elastinolytic proteinase from Aspergillus flavus.

    PubMed Central

    Rhodes, J C; Amlung, T W; Miller, M S

    1990-01-01

    An elastinolytic proteinase of Aspergillus flavus has been isolated to homogeneity, and its physical and biochemical properties have been characterized. Two purification protocols were compared; an initial step of ion-exchange chromatography was found to be equivalent to ammonium sulfate precipitation at neutral pH. A combination of gel filtration and adsorption chromatographies on the resultant crude enzyme produced highly purified elastase with yields of 5 to 10%. The enzyme is a 23-kilodalton protein with a pI of 7.6. The enzyme activity is markedly inhibited by numerous metal ions. Aspergillus elastase appears to be a metalloproteinase EC 3.4.24.X), as determined by its sensitivity to 1,10-phenanthroline. Images PMID:2115025

  4. [Nasal, pulmonary, and abomasal aspergillosis (Aspergillus fumigatus) in a calf].

    PubMed

    Breuer, W; Stoll, A; Hörmansdorfer, S; Knubben-Schweizer, G; Hafner-Marx, A; Deischl, K

    2015-07-01

    This study presents a case of nasal aspergillosis in a 17-days old calf (German Fleckvieh): it had been admitted moribund to the Clinic for Ruminants of the University of Munich, and died after a short time. Pathologically, the calf was diagnosed with purulent-necrotizing rhinitis, necrotizing pneumonia, and diphtheroid-necrotizing abomasitis. Histologically, fungal elements were found in all the localizations mentioned before, and mycologically, Aspergillus fumigatus was cultured from nasal cavity. Pathogenesis is discussed. PMID:26753360

  5. Infected Baerveldt Glaucoma Drainage Device by Aspergillus niger

    PubMed Central

    Salim, Nurul-Laila; Azhany, Yaakub; Abdul Rahman, Zaidah; Yusof, Roziawati; Liza-Sharmini, Ahmad Tajudin

    2015-01-01

    Fungal endophthalmitis is rare but may complicate glaucoma drainage device surgery. Management is challenging as the symptoms and signs may be subtle at initial presentation and the visual prognosis is usually poor due to its resistant nature to treatment. At present there is lesser experience with intravitreal injection of voriconazole as compared to Amphotericin B. We present a case of successfully treated Aspergillus endophthalmitis following Baerveldt glaucoma drainage device implantation with intravitreal and topical voriconazole. PMID:26064735

  6. Cytotoxic polyketides from a marine-derived fungus Aspergillus glaucus.

    PubMed

    Du, Lin; Zhu, Tianjiao; Liu, Hongbing; Fang, Yuchun; Zhu, Weiming; Gu, Qianqun

    2008-11-01

    Eight new aromatic polyketides (2, 4-6, 8, 14, 16, and 17) together with eight known analogues (3, 7, 9-13, and 15) were isolated from the marine-derived fungus Aspergillus glaucus. The structures and stereochemistry of the new compounds were elucidated by spectroscopic and chemical methods, and their cytotoxicities were evaluated against the HL-60 and A-549 cell lines. PMID:18986198

  7. Aspergillus versicolor, a New Causative Agent of Canine Disseminated Aspergillosis

    PubMed Central

    Corapi, Wayne; Quist, Erin; Griffin, Sarah; Zhang, Michael

    2012-01-01

    Disseminated aspergillosis in dogs has been associated with Aspergillus terreus or A. deflectus infection. We report a case of disseminated A. versicolor infection presenting as diskospondylitis, osteomyelitis, and pyelonephritis. The diagnosis was made based on clinical, radiographic, and pathological findings. The etiologic agent was identified by fungal culture and internal transcribed spacer (ITS) ribosomal DNA (rDNA) sequencing. This is the first description of canine aspergillosis caused by A. versicolor. PMID:22031699

  8. The 18-kilodalton antigen secreted by Aspergillus fumigatus.

    PubMed Central

    Latgé, J P; Moutaouakil, M; Debeaupuis, J P; Bouchara, J P; Haynes, K; Prévost, M C

    1991-01-01

    One of the major antigens secreted in vitro by Aspergillus fumigatus is an 18-kDa basic protein which has been purified by cation-exchange chromatography. It is recognized by sera from aspergilloma patients. It is also the major circulating antigen found in urine of patients with invasive aspergillosis. Our results indicated that this antigen has potential for the diagnosis of both aspergilloma and invasive aspergillosis. Images PMID:1855978

  9. Purification and immobilization of Aspergillus niger. beta. -xylosidase

    SciTech Connect

    Oguntimein, G.B.; Reilly, P.J.

    1980-01-01

    ..beta..-Xylosidase from a commercial Aspergillus niger preparation was purified by differential ammonium sulfate precipitation and either gel permeation or cation exchange chromatography, giving 16-fold purification in 32% yield for the first technique or 27-fold purification in 19% yield for the second. Enzyme prepared by this method was immobilized to 10 different carriers, but only when it was bound to alumina with TiCl/sub 4/ and to alkylamine porous silica with glutaraldehyde were substantial efficiencies and stabilities achieved.

  10. Metabolism of p-cresol by the fungus Aspergillus fumigatus

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, K.H.; Trudgill, P.W.; Hopper, D.J. )

    1993-04-01

    Cresols are phenolic compounds that are industrial pollutants. Degradation of p-cresol by several species of fungus has been reported. Aspergillus fumigatus ATCC 28282 metabolizes both phenylacetic and homogentisic acids. This study shows that A. fumigatus ATCC 28282 also is capable of growth on p-cresol as its sole carbon source. Two metabolic routes for p-cresol degradation are described in the paper, but the relative contributions of each pathway is not evaluated. 21 refs., 3 figs., 3 tabs.

  11. Aspergillus fumigatus-Related Species in Clinical Practice

    PubMed Central

    Lamoth, Frédéric

    2016-01-01

    Aspergillus fumigatus is the main etiologic agent of invasive aspergillosis (IA). Other Aspergillus species belonging to the section Fumigati (A. fumigatus complex) may occasionally be the cause of IA. These strains are often misidentified, as they cannot be distinguished from A. fumigatus by conventional morphological analysis and sequencing methods. This lack of recognition may have important consequences as these A. fumigatus-related species often display some level of intrinsic resistance to azoles and other antifungal drugs. A. lentulus, A. udagawae, A. viridinutans, and A. thermomutatus (Neosartorya pseudofischeri) have been associated with refractory cases of IA. Microbiologists should be able to suspect the presence of these cryptic species behind a putative A. fumigatus isolate on the basis of some simple characteristics, such as defect in sporulation and/or unusual antifungal susceptibility profile. However, definitive species identification requires specific sequencing analyses of the beta-tubulin or calmodulin genes, which are not available in most laboratories. Multiplex PCR assays or matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization – time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) gave promising results for rapid and accurate distinction between A. fumigatus and other Aspergillus spp. of the section Fumigati in clinical practice. Improved diagnostic procedures and antifungal susceptibility testing may be helpful for the early detection and management of these particular IA cases.

  12. Allergic Aspergillus sinusitis and its association with allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis

    PubMed Central

    Panjabi, Chandramani

    2011-01-01

    Allergic Aspergillus sinusitis (AAS) is a three decade old clinicopathologic entity in which mucoid impaction akin to that of allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis (ABPA) occurs in the paranasal sinuses. Features such as radiographic evidence of pansinusitis, passage of nasal plugs and recurrent nasal polyposis in patients with an atopic background is suggestive of AAS. Histopathlogic confirmation from the inspissated mucus is a sine qua non for the diagnosis. Heterogeneous densities on computed tomography of the paranasal sinuses are caused by the 'allergic mucin' in the sinuses. Many patients give a history of having undergone multiple surgical procedures for symptomatic relief. The current approach to treatment appears to include an initial surgical debridement followed by postoperative oral corticosteroids for long durations. Although both ABPA and AAS are classified as Aspergillus-related hypersensitivity respiratory disorders, their co-occurrence appears to be an infrequently recognised phenomenon. This could perhaps be attributed to the fact that these two diseases are often treated by two different specialties. A high index of suspicion is required to establish the diagnoses of ABPA and AAS. All patients with asthma and/or rhinosinusitis along with sensitisation to Aspergillus antigens are at an increased risk of developing ABPA and/or AAS. ABPA must be excluded in all patients with AAS and vice versa. Early diagnosis and initiation of appropriate therapy could plausibly alter the course of the disease processes and prevent the possible development of long term sequelae. PMID:22053309

  13. In vitro activity of disinfectants against Aspergillus spp.

    PubMed

    Mattei, A S; Madrid, I M; Santin, R; Schuch, L F D; Meireles, M C A

    2013-01-01

    Fungi of the Aspergillus genus are widespread and contaminate the environment. Thousands of conidia are released from each phialide and dispersed in the air every day. These fungi are considered important mycose-causing agents in hospitals. Due to this, research to determine prevalent fungi from the Aspergillus genus in hospital environments, and an adequate disinfection program in these areas is are needed. This study evaluated the susceptibility of Aspergillus spp. isolated from a veterinary environment against four disinfectants. Successive dilutions of disinfectants (log2) were used according to CLSI M38-A2 microdilution technique adapted to chemical agents against 18 isolates of this genus. After 72 hours of incubation, the Minimum Inhibiting Concentration and Minimum Fungicidal Concentration capable of inhibiting 50% and 90% of the isolates were determined. Chlorexidine-cetrimine, benzalconium chloride and a chlorophenol derivative proved to be effective against all isolates with a lower MIC than that suggested by the manufacturer, except for the A. flavus strain. Sodium hypochlorite was ineffective against three A. fumigatus, three A. flavus and one A. niger isolate. These results demonstrated that all studied disinfectants were effective against environmental isolates, with the exception of sodium hypochlorite, which showed lower effectiveness. PMID:24294243

  14. Association of airborne Aspergillus with asthma exacerbation in Southern Pakistan

    PubMed Central

    Zubairi, Ali Bin Sarwar; Azam, Iqbal; Awan, Safia; Zafar, Afia

    2014-01-01

    Background Exposure to airborne fungi has been related with exacerbation of asthma in adults and children leading to increased outpatient, emergency room visits, and hospitalizations. Hypersensitivity to these airborne fungi may be an important initial predisposing factor in the development and exacerbation of asthma. Objective This study was conducted to determine an association between fungal types and spore concentrations with the risk of asthma exacerbation in adults. Methods This cross-sectional study was conducted from May 2008 to August 2009 at the Aga Khan University Hospital Karachi, Pakistan. All adult (age≥16 years) patients presenting to the hospital with acute asthma exacerbation were enrolled after informed consent. A home survey was conducted for each patient to assess their environmental characteristics. Indoor air samples were also obtained from the patient's home to determine the type and spore concentration of fungi within the week of their enrollment in the study. Results Three hundred and ninety-one patients with an acute asthma exacerbation were enrolled during the study period. The mean age of participants was 46 years (standard deviation, ±18 years) and 247 (63.2%) were females. A trend of higher asthma enrollment associated with higher Aspergillus concentrations was found in two consecutive summers. A total of nineteen types of fungi were found in air samples. Aspergillus spp. was the most frequently isolated fungus with acute asthma exacerbation. Conclusion An association of higher concentration of indoor Aspergillus spp. with asthma exacerbation in adults was observed in this study. PMID:24809014

  15. In vitro activity of disinfectants against Aspergillus spp

    PubMed Central

    Mattei, A.S.; Madrid, I.M.; Santin, R.; Schuch, L.F.D.; Meireles, M.C.A.

    2013-01-01

    Fungi of the Aspergillus genus are widespread and contaminate the environment. Thousands of conidia are released from each phialide and dispersed in the air every day. These fungi are considered important mycose-causing agents in hospitals. Due to this, research to determine prevalent fungi from the Aspergillus genus in hospital environments, and an adequate disinfection program in these areas is are needed. This study evaluated the susceptibility of Aspergillus spp. isolated from a veterinary environment against four disinfectants. Successive dilutions of disinfectants (log2) were used according to CLSI M38-A2 microdilution technique adapted to chemical agents against 18 isolates of this genus. After 72 hours of incubation, the Minimum Inhibiting Concentration and Minimum Fungicidal Concentration capable of inhibiting 50% and 90% of the isolates were determined. Chlorexidine-cetrimine, benzalconium chloride and a chlorophenol derivative proved to be effective against all isolates with a lower MIC than that suggested by the manufacturer, except for the A. flavus strain. Sodium hypochlorite was ineffective against three A. fumigatus, three A. flavus and one A. niger isolate. These results demonstrated that all studied disinfectants were effective against environmental isolates, with the exception of sodium hypochlorite, which showed lower effectiveness. PMID:24294243

  16. Molecular analysis of Aspergillus section Flavi isolated from Brazil nuts.

    PubMed

    Gonçalves, Juliana Soares; Ferracin, Lara Munique; Carneiro Vieira, Maria Lucia; Iamanaka, Beatriz Thie; Taniwaki, Marta Hiromi; Pelegrinelli Fungaro, Maria Helena

    2012-04-01

    Brazil nuts are an important export market in its main producing countries, including Brazil, Bolivia, and Peru. Approximately 30,000 tons of Brazil nuts are harvested each year. However, substantial nut contamination by Aspergillus section Flavi occurs with subsequent production of aflatoxins. In our study, Aspergillus section Flavi were isolated from Brazil nuts (Bertholletia excelsa), and identified by morphological and molecular means. We obtained 241 isolates from nut samples, 41% positive for aflatoxin production. Eighty-one isolates were selected for molecular investigation. Pairwise genetic distances among isolates and phylogenetic relationships were assessed. The following Aspergillus species were identified: A. flavus, A. caelatus, A. nomius, A. tamarii, A. bombycis, and A. arachidicola. Additionally, molecular profiles indicated a high level of nucleotide variation within β-tubulin and calmodulin gene sequences associated with high genetic divergence from RAPD data. Among the 81 isolates analyzed by molecular means, three of them were phylogenetically distinct from all other isolates representing the six species of section Flavi. A putative novel species was identified based on molecular profiles. PMID:22805966

  17. Complement Attack against Aspergillus and Corresponding Evasion Mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    Speth, Cornelia; Rambach, Günter

    2012-01-01

    Invasive aspergillosis shows a high mortality rate particularly in immunocompromised patients. Perpetually increasing numbers of affected patients highlight the importance of a clearer understanding of interactions between innate immunity and fungi. Innate immunity is considered to be the most significant host defence against invasive fungal infections. Complement represents a crucial part of this first line defence and comprises direct effects against invading pathogens as well as bridging functions to other parts of the immune network. However, despite the potency of complement to attack foreign pathogens, the prevalence of invasive fungal infections is increasing. Two possible reasons may explain that phenomenon: First, complement activation might be insufficient for an effective antifungal defence in risk patients (due to, e.g., low complement levels, poor recognition of fungal surface, or missing interplay with other immune elements in immunocompromised patients). On the other hand, fungi may have developed evasion strategies to avoid recognition and/or eradication by complement. In this review, we summarize the most important interactions between Aspergillus and the complement system. We describe the various ways of complement activation by Aspergillus and the antifungal effects of the system, and also show proven and probable mechanisms of Aspergillus for complement evasion. PMID:22927844

  18. Pseudallescheria boydii with Aspergillus fumigatus and Aspergillus terreus in a Critically Ill Hematopoietic Stem Cell Recipient with ARDS.

    PubMed

    Lahmer, Tobias; Messer, Marlena; Ehmer, Ursula; Eser, Stefan; Beitz, Analena; Fekecs, Lisa; Schmid, Roland M; Huber, Wolfgang

    2016-04-01

    Pseudallescheria boydii is a fungal organism known to affect immunocompromised patients. This organism is known to cause, in severe cases, invasive infection of various organs such as the central nervous, cardiovascular, and respiratory systems. We report an unusual case of pulmonary P. boydii pneumonia in an immunocompromised critically ill patient with a co-infection of Aspergillus fumigatus and Aspergillus terreus with ARDS. This case highlights the importance of a high index of suspicion for superimposed fungal infections in patients who are critically ill and immunocompromised. Uncommon fungal pathogens should be considered in the differential diagnosis of respiratory failure, especially if diagnostic markers such as galactomannan (from BAL and serum) or 1,3-beta-D-glucan are elevated. Further diagnostic interventions are warranted when insufficient clinical improvement is observed to prevent treatment failure and adverse outcomes. PMID:26455910

  19. Highlights of the Didymellaceae: A polyphasic approach to characterise Phoma and related pleosporalean genera.

    PubMed

    Aveskamp, M M; de Gruyter, J; Woudenberg, J H C; Verkley, G J M; Crous, P W

    2010-01-01

    Fungal taxonomists routinely encounter problems when dealing with asexual fungal species due to poly- and paraphyletic generic phylogenies, and unclear species boundaries. These problems are aptly illustrated in the genus Phoma. This phytopathologically significant fungal genus is currently subdivided into nine sections which are mainly based on a single or just a few morphological characters. However, this subdivision is ambiguous as several of the section-specific characters can occur within a single species. In addition, many teleomorph genera have been linked to Phoma, three of which are recognised here. In this study it is attempted to delineate generic boundaries, and to come to a generic circumscription which is more correct from an evolutionary point of view by means of multilocus sequence typing. Therefore, multiple analyses were conducted utilising sequences obtained from 28S nrDNA (Large Subunit - LSU), 18S nrDNA (Small Subunit - SSU), the Internal Transcribed Spacer regions 1 & 2 and 5.8S nrDNA (ITS), and part of the beta-tubulin (TUB) gene region. A total of 324 strains were included in the analyses of which most belonged to Phoma taxa, whilst 54 to related pleosporalean fungi. In total, 206 taxa were investigated, of which 159 are known to have affinities to Phoma. The phylogenetic analysis revealed that the current Boeremaean subdivision is incorrect from an evolutionary point of view, revealing the genus to be highly polyphyletic. Phoma species are retrieved in six distinct clades within the Pleosporales, and appear to reside in different families. The majority of the species, however, including the generic type, clustered in a recently established family, Didymellaceae. In the second part of this study, the phylogenetic variation of the species and varieties in this clade was further assessed. Next to the genus Didymella, which is considered to be the sole teleomorph of Phoma s. str., we also retrieved taxa belonging to the teleomorph genera Leptosphaerulina and Macroventuria in this clade. Based on the sequence data obtained, the Didymellaceae segregate into at least 18 distinct clusters, of which many can be associated with several specific taxonomic characters. Four of these clusters were defined well enough by means of phylogeny and morphology, so that the associated taxa could be transferred to separate genera. Aditionally, this study addresses the taxonomic description of eight species and two varieties that are novel to science, and the recombination of 61 additional taxa. PMID:20502538

  20. Little ecological divergence associated with speciation in two African rain forest tree genera

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The tropical rain forests (TRF) of Africa are the second largest block of this biome after the Amazon and exhibit high levels of plant endemism and diversity. Two main hypotheses have been advanced to explain speciation processes that have led to this high level of biodiversity: allopatric speciation linked to geographic isolation and ecological speciation linked to ecological gradients. Both these hypotheses rely on ecology: in the former conservation of ecological niches through time is implied, while in the latter adaptation via selection to alternative ecological niches would be a prerequisite. Here, we investigate the role of ecology in explaining present day species diversity in African TRF using a species level phylogeny and ecological niche modeling of two predominantly restricted TRF tree genera, Isolona and Monodora (Annonaceae). Both these genera, with 20 and 14 species, respectively, are widely distributed in African TRFs, with a few species occurring in slightly less humid regions such as in East Africa. Results A total of 11 sister species pairs were identified most of them occurring in allopatry or with little geographical overlap. Our results provide a mixed answer on the role of ecology in speciation. Although no sister species have identical niches, just under half of the tests suggest that sister species do have more similar niches than expected by chance. PCA analyses also support little ecological differences between sister species. Most speciation events within both genera predate the Pleistocene, occurring during the Late Miocene and Pliocene periods. Conclusions Ecology is almost always involved in speciation, however, it would seem to have had a little role in species generation within Isolona and Monodora at the scale analyzed here. This is consistent with the geographical speciation model for TRF diversification. These results contrast to other studies for non-TRF plant species where ecological speciation was found to be an important factor of diversification. The Pliocene period appears to be a vital time in the generation of African TRF diversity, whereas Pleistocene climatic fluctuations have had a smaller role on speciation than previously thought. Ecological niche modeling, species level phylogeny, ecological speciation, African tropics, Isolona, Monodora, Annonaceae PMID:21985574

  1. Highlights of the Didymellaceae: A polyphasic approach to characterise Phoma and related pleosporalean genera

    PubMed Central

    Aveskamp, M.M.; de Gruyter, J.; Woudenberg, J.H.C.; Verkley, G.J.M.; Crous, P.W.

    2010-01-01

    Fungal taxonomists routinely encounter problems when dealing with asexual fungal species due to poly- and paraphyletic generic phylogenies, and unclear species boundaries. These problems are aptly illustrated in the genus Phoma. This phytopathologically significant fungal genus is currently subdivided into nine sections which are mainly based on a single or just a few morphological characters. However, this subdivision is ambiguous as several of the section-specific characters can occur within a single species. In addition, many teleomorph genera have been linked to Phoma, three of which are recognised here. In this study it is attempted to delineate generic boundaries, and to come to a generic circumscription which is more correct from an evolutionary point of view by means of multilocus sequence typing. Therefore, multiple analyses were conducted utilising sequences obtained from 28S nrDNA (Large Subunit - LSU), 18S nrDNA (Small Subunit - SSU), the Internal Transcribed Spacer regions 1 & 2 and 5.8S nrDNA (ITS), and part of the β-tubulin (TUB) gene region. A total of 324 strains were included in the analyses of which most belonged to Phoma taxa, whilst 54 to related pleosporalean fungi. In total, 206 taxa were investigated, of which 159 are known to have affinities to Phoma. The phylogenetic analysis revealed that the current Boeremaean subdivision is incorrect from an evolutionary point of view, revealing the genus to be highly polyphyletic. Phoma species are retrieved in six distinct clades within the Pleosporales, and appear to reside in different families. The majority of the species, however, including the generic type, clustered in a recently established family, Didymellaceae. In the second part of this study, the phylogenetic variation of the species and varieties in this clade was further assessed. Next to the genus Didymella, which is considered to be the sole teleomorph of Phoma s. str., we also retrieved taxa belonging to the teleomorph genera Leptosphaerulina and Macroventuria in this clade. Based on the sequence data obtained, the Didymellaceae segregate into at least 18 distinct clusters, of which many can be associated with several specific taxonomic characters. Four of these clusters were defined well enough by means of phylogeny and morphology, so that the associated taxa could be transferred to separate genera. Aditionally, this study addresses the taxonomic description of eight species and two varieties that are novel to science, and the recombination of 61 additional taxa. PMID:20502538

  2. Decontamination of Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus parasiticus spores on hazelnuts via atmospheric pressure fluidized bed plasma reactor.

    PubMed

    Dasan, Beyhan Gunaydin; Mutlu, Mehmet; Boyaci, Ismail Hakki

    2016-01-01

    In this study, an atmospheric pressure fluidized bed plasma (APFBP) system was designed and its decontamination effect on aflatoxigenic fungi (Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus parasiticus) on the surface of hazelnuts was investigated. Hazelnuts were artificially contaminated with A. flavus and A. parasiticus and then were treated with dry air plasma for up to 5min in the APFBP system at various plasma parameters. Significant reductions of 4.50 log (cfu/g) in A. flavus and 4.19 log (cfu/g) in A. parasiticus were achieved after 5min treatments at 100% V - 25kHz (655W) by using dry air as the plasma forming gas. The decontamination effect of APFBP on A. flavus and A. parasiticus spores inoculated on hazelnuts was increased with the applied reference voltage and the frequency. No change or slight reductions were observed in A. flavus and A. parasiticus load during the storage of plasma treated hazelnuts whereas on the control samples fungi continued to grow under storage conditions (30days at 25°C). Temperature change on hazelnut surfaces in the range between 35 and 90°C was monitored with a thermal camera, and it was demonstrated that the temperature increase taking place during plasma treatment did not have a lethal effect on A. flavus and A. parasiticus spores. The damage caused by APFBP treatment on Aspergillus spp. spores was also observed by scanning electron microscopy. PMID:26398284

  3. Aspergillus steynii and Aspergillus westerdijkiae as potential risk of OTA contamination in food products in warm climates.

    PubMed

    Gil-Serna, Jessica; Patiño, Belén; Cortes, Laura; Gonzalez-Jaen, Maria Teresa; Vazquez, Covadonga

    2015-04-01

    Aspergillus steynii and Aspergillus westerdijkiae are the main ochratoxin A (OTA) producing species of Aspergillus section Circumdati. Due to its recent description, few data are available about the influence of ecophysiological factors on their growth and OTA production profiles. In this work, the effect of temperature (20, 24 and 28 °C) and water activity (aw) (0.928, 0.964 and 0.995) on growth, sporulation and OTA production by these fungi was examined in CYA and media prepared from paprika, green coffee, anise, grapes, maize and barley. Growth was positively affected by the highest temperature and aw values indicating that both species might be expected in warm climates or storage conditions. However, optimal growth conditions showed differences depending on the medium. OTA production was markedly affected by substrate and showed qualitative and quantitative differences. Both species, especially A. steynii, represent a great potential risk of OTA contamination due to their high production in a variety of conditions and substrates, in particular in barley and paprika-based media. Additionally, neither growth nor sporulation did result good indicators of OTA production by A. steynii or A. westerdijkiae; therefore, specific and highly-sensitive detection methods become essential tools for control strategies to reduce OTA risk by these species. PMID:25475281

  4. Overexpression of Aspergillus tubingensis faeA in protease-deficient Aspergillus niger enables ferulic acid production from plant material.

    PubMed

    Zwane, Eunice N; Rose, Shaunita H; van Zyl, Willem H; Rumbold, Karl; Viljoen-Bloom, Marinda

    2014-06-01

    The production of ferulic acid esterase involved in the release of ferulic acid side groups from xylan was investigated in strains of Aspergillus tubingensis, Aspergillus carneus, Aspergillus niger and Rhizopus oryzae. The highest activity on triticale bran as sole carbon source was observed with the A. tubingensis T8.4 strain, which produced a type A ferulic acid esterase active against methyl p-coumarate, methyl ferulate and methyl sinapate. The activity of the A. tubingensis ferulic acid esterase (AtFAEA) was inhibited twofold by glucose and induced twofold in the presence of maize bran. An initial accumulation of endoglucanase was followed by the production of endoxylanase, suggesting a combined action with ferulic acid esterase on maize bran. A genomic copy of the A. tubingensis faeA gene was cloned and expressed in A. niger D15#26 under the control of the A. niger gpd promoter. The recombinant strain has reduced protease activity and does not acidify the media, therefore promoting high-level expression of recombinant enzymes. It produced 13.5 U/ml FAEA after 5 days on autoclaved maize bran as sole carbon source, which was threefold higher than for the A. tubingensis donor strain. The recombinant AtFAEA was able to extract 50 % of the available ferulic acid from non-pretreated maize bran, making this enzyme suitable for the biological production of ferulic acid from lignocellulosic plant material. PMID:24664515

  5. An anti-Aspergillus protein from Escherichia coli DH5α: putative inhibitor of siderophore biosynthesis in Aspergillus fumigatus.

    PubMed

    Balhara, Meenakshi; Ruhil, Sonam; Kumar, Manish; Dhankhar, Sandeep; Chhillar, A K

    2014-03-01

    An antifungal protein designated as anti-Aspergillus protein (AAP), produced by Escherichia coli DH5α, was purified and characterised. It exhibited a molecular weight of 60 kDa on Sodium dodecyl sulphate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis analysis and depicted 99% purity on ultra performance liquid chromatography. The purified protein manifested antimycotic potential against pathogenic isolates of Aspergillus spp., depicting a minimum inhibitory concentration in the range 15.62-31.25 μg ml(-1) and 5.0-10.0 μg per disc, using microbroth dilution, spore germination inhibition and disc diffusion assays respectively. In vitro toxicity tests demonstrated that it showed no toxicity against human erythrocytes at doses up to 1000 μg ml(-1) . Matrix-assisted laser desorption ionisation-Time-of-flight analysis of trypsin-digested peptides of purified protein and subsequent Mascot search revealed that several peptides of AAP have identity with bacterial siderophore biosynthetic protein, i.e. non-ribosomal peptide synthetase enzyme, involved in critical step of fungal siderophore biosynthesis. Siderophore-based inhibition was further corroborated by Chrome azurol S assay. Hence, the antagonistic effect might be the result of impediment in siderophore-mediated iron uptake and transport process which may cause critical consequences on Aspergillus growth and virulence. PMID:23968167

  6. Biological activities of ophiobolin K and 6-epi-ophiobolin K produced by the endophytic fungus Aspergillus calidoustus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The endophytic fungus, Aspergillus calidoustus, was isolated from the plant species Acanthospermum australe (Asteraceae). A dichloromethane extract of the fungus displayed antifungal, antiprotozoal, and cytotoxic activities. Aspergillus calidoustus was identified using molecular, physiological and m...

  7. New genera, species and records of Phaneropterinae (Orthoptera, Phaneropteridae) from sub-Saharan Africa

    PubMed Central

    Massa, Bruno

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The results of the study of many specimens preserved in different European museums are reported. The tribe Terpnistrini Brunner von Wattenwyl, 1878 is resurrected. The distribution of the following species is enhanced: Pardalota asymmetrica Karsch, 1896, Diogena denticulata Chopard, 1954, Diogena fausta (Burmeister, 1838), Plangiopsis adeps Karsch, 1896, Poreuomena sanghensis Massa, 2013 and Tylopsis continua (Walker, 1869). Further, for their peculiar characteristics, two African representatives of the American genus Symmetropleura Brunner von Wattenwyl, 1878 are included in two new genera: Symmetrokarschia africana (Brunner von Wattenwyl, 1878), comb. n. and Symmetroraggea dirempta (Karsch, 1889), comb. n. A new genus and species from the Democratic Republic of Congo, Angustithorax spiniger gen. n., sp. n., and a new genus and species from Tanzania, Arostratum oblitum gen. n., sp. n. are described. Finally Melidia claudiae sp. n. and Atlasacris brevipennis sp. n. are described and compared with related species. PMID:25632250

  8. Drought meets acid: three new genera in a dothidealean clade of extremotolerant fungi

    PubMed Central

    Selbmann, L.; de Hoog, G.S.; Zucconi, L.; Isola, D.; Ruisi, S.; van den Ende, A.H.G. Gerrits; Ruibal, C.; De Leo, F.; Urzì, C.; Onofri, S.

    2008-01-01

    Fungal strains isolated from rocks and lichens collected in the Antarctic ice-free area of the Victoria Land, one of the coldest and driest habitats on earth, were found in two phylogenetically isolated positions within the subclass Dothideomycetidae. They are here reported as new genera and species, Recurvomyces mirabilis gen. nov., sp. nov. and Elasticomyces elasticus gen. nov., sp. nov. The nearest neighbours within the clades were other rock-inhabiting fungi from dry environments, either cold or hot. Plant-associated Mycosphaerella-like species, known as invaders of leathery leaves in semi-arid climates, are also phylogenetically related with the new taxa. The clusters are also related to the halophilic species Hortaea werneckii, as well as to acidophilic fungi. One of the latter, able to grow at pH 0, is Scytalidium acidophilum, which is ascribed here to the newly validated genus Acidomyces. The ecological implications of this finding are discussed. PMID:19287523

  9. A novel set of polyvalent primers that detect members of the genera Bromovirus and Cucumovirus.

    PubMed

    Seo, Jang-Kyun; Lee, Ye-Ji; Kim, Mi-Kyeong; Lee, Su-Heon; Kim, Kook-Hyung; Choi, Hong-Soo

    2014-07-01

    Rapid detection and diagnosis of plant virus infection is one of the most important steps in preventing damages caused by viral diseases. Bromoviruses and cucumoviruses belong to the family Bromoviridae, which is one of the most important families of plant viruses, and infect a broad range of host plants including various economically important crops. In this study, an RT-PCR assay was developed for the universal detection of bromoviruses and cucumoviruses using a set of primers designed to target the conserved sequences in viral RNA1. The assay detected three species of Cucumovirus (Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV), Peanut stunt virus (PSV) and Tomato aspermy virus (TAV)) and two species of Bromovirus (Brome mosaic virus (BMV) and Cowpea chlorotic mottle virus (CCMV)) with high specificity and sensitivity. The assay developed in this study is predicted to have the potential to detect all major members of the genera Bromovirus and Cucumovirus and to be used as a routine diagnostic assay. PMID:24717165

  10. A review of the omicrine genera Omicrogiton, Mircogioton and Peratogonus of China (Coleoptera, Hydrophilidae, Sphaeridiinae)

    PubMed Central

    Jia, Fenglong; Lin, Renchao; Li, Bijun; Fikáček, Martin

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The Chinese species of the genera Omicrogiton Orchymont, 1919, Peratogonus Sharp, 1884 and Mircogioton Orchymont, 1937 are reviewed, diagnosed and keyed. Mircogioton and Omicrogiton are reported for the first time from China, Peratogonus for the first time for mainland China. Five species are recognized: Omicrogiton coomani Balfour-Browne, 1939 (Guangdong, Hongkong), Omicrogiton hainanensis sp. n. (Hainan), Omicrogiton roberti sp. n. (Hainan), Mircogioton coomani Orchymont, 1937 (Yunnan), and Peratogonus reversus Sharp, 1884 (Guangdong, Jiangxi, Taiwan). Lectotype of Omicrogiton coomani is designated. Mircogioton cognitus (Malcolm, 1981), syn. n. is considered a junior subjective synonym of Mircogioton coomani Orchymont, 1939. Species of Mircogioton and Omicrogiton inhabit decaying banana trunks, whereas Peratogonus reversus was always collected from moist forest leaf litter. PMID:26257554

  11. Multigene phylogeny of the Phallales (Phallomycetidae, Agaricomycetes) focusing on some previously unrepresented genera.

    PubMed

    Trierveiler-Pereira, Larissa; da Silveira, Rosa Mara B; Hosaka, Kentaro

    2014-01-01

    Phylogenetic relationships within the Phallales were estimated via combined sequences: nuclear ribosomal large subunit (LSU), second largest subunit of RNA polymerase (rpb2), and mitochondrial ATPase subunit 6 (atp6). The ingroup is represented by 62 taxa comprising 18 genera and 44 species, including members of the Clathraceae, Claustulaceae, Gastrosporiaceae, Lysuraceae, Phallaceae and Protophallaceae. Sixty-one new sequences were generated, including tropical and subtropical taxa. This is one of the first studies discussing the phylogenetic placement of Abrachium, Asero, Blumenavia, Gastrosporium, Jansia and Xylophallus. Gastrosporiaceae was demonstrated to be sister to Phallaceae and an emended description of the order is presented. Asero was demonstrated to be polyphyletic and as a result, A. arachnoidea is transferred to Lysurus. PMID:24891413

  12. Molecular Phylogeny of the Myxobolus and Henneguya Genera with Several New South American Species

    PubMed Central

    Carriero, Mateus Maldonado; Adriano, Edson A.; Silva, Márcia R. M.; Ceccarelli, Paulo S.; Maia, Antonio A. M.

    2013-01-01

    The present study consists of a detailed phylogenetic analysis of myxosporeans of the Myxobolus and Henneguya genera, including sequences from 12 Myxobolus/Henneguya species, parasites of South American pimelodids, bryconids and characids. Maximum likelihood and maximum parsimony analyses, based on 18 S rDNA gene sequences, showed that the strongest evolutionary signal is the phylogenetic affinity of the fish hosts, with clustering mainly occurring according to the order and/or family of the host. Of the 12 South American species studied here, six are newly described infecting fish from the Brazilian Pantanal wetland. Henneguya maculosus n. sp. and Myxobolus flavus n. sp. were found infecting both Pseudoplatystoma corruscans and Pseudoplatystoma reticulatum; Myxobolus aureus n. sp. and Myxobolus pantanalis n. sp. were observed parasitizing Salminus brasiliensis and Myxobolus umidus n. sp. and Myxobolus piraputangae n. sp. were detected infecting Brycon hilarii. PMID:24040037

  13. The brachiopod genera Hebertella, Dalmanella, and Heterorthina from the Ordovician of Kentucky

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Walker, L.G.

    1982-01-01

    The orthid brachiopod genera Hebertella, Dalmanella, and Heterorthina are abundant in Middle and Upper Ordovician strata in Kentucky. 'Nine species are described: Hebertella frankfortensis Foerste; H. parksensis Foerste; H. occidentalis (Hall); Dalmanella bassleri Foerste; D. fertilis (Ulrich); D. meeki (Miller); D. multisecta (Meek); D. sulcata Cooper; and Heterorthina macfarlani Neuman. The species designations Hebertella sinuata (Hall), H. subjugata (Hall), and H. latasulcata Foerste are placed in synonymy with H. occidentalis (Hall). The stratigraphic distribution of each species is given. Large collections of silicified specimens allowed the recognition of the considerable variability characteristic of most of the species. External morphology distinguishes species of Hebertella, whereas internal features are critical to recognition of species of Dalmanella and Heterorthina.

  14. The Multitentaculate Cirratulidae of the Genera Cirriformia and Timarete (Annelida: Polychaeta) from Shallow Waters of Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Magalhães, Wagner F.; Seixas, Victor Corrêa; Paiva, Paulo Cesar; Elias, Rodolfo

    2014-01-01

    A large number multitentaculate cirratulids have been described worldwide but most are only known through the original descriptions. Type material, voucher and recently collected specimens from Brazil were revisited in order to reveal their true identity and confirm the records of widely distributed species in this region. Six species are described, three of which are new, Cirriformia capixabensis sp. nov., Cirriformia chicoi sp. nov. and Timarete ceciliae sp. nov. COI and 16S sequences were obtained and used for inter-specific comparisons. Timarete caribous is reported from several localities along the Brazilian coast and a new synonym, Cirratulus melanacanthus, is proposed. The species Timarete oculata, originally described from Brazil and lumped into the Timarete filigera species complex, is herein revalidated and redescribed. The occurrence of the species Timarete filigera and Cirriformia tentaculata is not confirmed from the Brazilian coast. Descriptions, illustrations and a key to genera and species are provided. PMID:25393759

  15. Australian species of spore-feeding Thysanoptera in the genera Carientothrips and Nesothrips (Thysanoptera: Idolothripinae).

    PubMed

    Eow, Li-Xin; Mound, Laurence A; Tree, Desley J; Cameron, Stephen L

    2014-01-01

    The species from Australia in the genera Carientothrips and Nesothrips are reviewed and an illustrated key is provided. Carientothrips is distinguished based on the unusual form of the maxillary palps. Two species, badius Hood comb.n. and capricornis Mound comb.n., are transferred to Nesothrips from Carientothrips; and Nesothrips melinus Mound syn.n. is synonymised with Carientothrips miskoi Mound. In Carientothrips the following six new species are described: alienatus sp.n., calami sp.n., horni sp.n., palumai sp.n., snowi sp.n., tasmanica sp.n.; while flavitibia Moulton stat.rev. is recalled from synonymy with C. mjobergi (Karny). In Nesothrips four new species are described: barrowi sp.n., brigalowi sp.n., coorongi sp.n., rossi sp.n.; while rhizophorae (Girault) syn.n. is placed as a synonym of minor Bagnall. PMID:24989736

  16. Some American Jurassic ammonites of the genera Quenstedticeras, Cardioceras, and Amoeboceras, family Cardioceratida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Reeside, John B., Jr.

    1919-01-01

    The species cordiforme Meek and Hayden, distans Whitfield, canadense Whiteaves, and dubium Hyatt (probably including whitneyi J. P. Smith), variously assigned to the genera Amaltheus, Quenstediceras, Amoeboceras, and Cardioceras, and subtumidum Whitfield and Hovey, assigned to Aegoceras, include all the previously described species of Jurassic ammonites that are considered in this paper. Material accumulated in the National Museum at Washington, mainly through the efforts of field parties of the United States Geological Survey, has shown, however, the presence of a number of undescribed forms of considerable scientific interest. These new species were obtained mainly from the Sundance formation of Wyoming. One comes from the Ellis formation of Montana, one from Jurassic beds near Lillooet, British Columbia, and three from the Cardioceras-bearing beds near the base of the Naknek formation of Alaska.

  17. Expanding the biotechnology potential of lactobacilli through comparative genomics of 213 strains and associated genera

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Zhihong; Harris, Hugh M. B.; McCann, Angela; Guo, Chenyi; Argimón, Silvia; Zhang, Wenyi; Yang, Xianwei; Jeffery, Ian B; Cooney, Jakki C.; Kagawa, Todd F.; Liu, Wenjun; Song, Yuqin; Salvetti, Elisa; Wrobel, Agnieszka; Rasinkangas, Pia; Parkhill, Julian; Rea, Mary C.; O'Sullivan, Orla; Ritari, Jarmo; Douillard, François P.; Paul Ross, R.; Yang, Ruifu; Briner, Alexandra E.; Felis, Giovanna E.; de Vos, Willem M.; Barrangou, Rodolphe; Klaenhammer, Todd R.; Caufield, Page W.; Cui, Yujun; Zhang, Heping; O'Toole, Paul W.

    2015-01-01

    Lactobacilli are a diverse group of species that occupy diverse nutrient-rich niches associated with humans, animals, plants and food. They are used widely in biotechnology and food preservation, and are being explored as therapeutics. Exploiting lactobacilli has been complicated by metabolic diversity, unclear species identity and uncertain relationships between them and other commercially important lactic acid bacteria. The capacity for biotransformations catalysed by lactobacilli is an untapped biotechnology resource. Here we report the genome sequences of 213 Lactobacillus strains and associated genera, and their encoded genetic catalogue for modifying carbohydrates and proteins. In addition, we describe broad and diverse presence of novel CRISPR-Cas immune systems in lactobacilli that may be exploited for genome editing. We rationalize the phylogenomic distribution of host interaction factors and bacteriocins that affect their natural and industrial environments, and mechanisms to withstand stress during technological processes. We present a robust phylogenomic framework of existing species and for classifying new species. PMID:26415554

  18. Comparative electrocardiography in four species of macaws (genera Anodorhynchus and Ara).

    PubMed

    Casares, M; Enders, F; Montoya, J A

    2000-06-01

    Electrocardiograms (ECGs) were recorded during isoflurane anaesthesia from 52 macaws of four species of the genera Anodorhynchus and Ara in order to establish electrocardiographic reference values. The birds examined were clinically healthy macaws of the following species: hyacinth macaw (HM; Anodorhynchus hyacinthinus, n = 14); green-winged macaw (GWM; Ara chloroptera, n = 11); blue-throated macaw (BTM; Ara glaucogularis, n = 15); and red-fronted macaw (RFM; Ara rubrogenys, n = 12). All ECGs were recorded using a paper speed of 50 mm/s and a calibration of 10 mm = 1 mV. Significant differences were determined between species for the heart rate, duration and amplitude of the P wave, amplitude of the T wave, and amplitude of the QRS complex, specially comparing the RFM to the other macaw species. No significant differences were found between two species of similar body weight: the HM and the GWM. PMID:10932524

  19. [Metabolites of Toxigenic Fungi in Lichens of the Genera Nephroma, Peltigera, Umbilicaria, and Xanthoria].

    PubMed

    Burkin, A A; Kononenko, G P

    2015-01-01

    The component composition of mycotoxin complexes is characterized in foliose lichens of the genera Nephroma, Peltigera, Umbilicaria, and Xanthoria. The interspecies differences in the genus Peltigera are expressed by the number of metabolites detected, from seven in P. aphthosa to three in P. canina, P. didactyla, P. praetextata, and P. rufescens. In Nephroma arcticum eight mycotoxins occurred regularly, with mycophenolic acid in especially high quantities in comparison with other lichens. In Umbilicaria, of six permanent components the content of alternariole is the highest, and in Xanthoria the content of emodine is the highest. Variation of the quantitative content of mycotoxins in general and of species of lichens is discussed, as is expansion of the background spectrum of these metabolites in collections from different territories. PMID:26852476

  20. [Keys to families and genera of gerromorpha and nepomorpha (Insecta: Heteroptera) in the central Amazonia, Brazil].

    PubMed

    Pereira, Domingos L V; de Melo, Alan L; Hamada, Neusa

    2007-01-01

    Few studies have been done in Brazil on aquatic and semi-aquatic Gerromorpha and Nepomorpha (Heteroptera), Minas Gerais being the state where these insects have been studied the most. The present study presents keys for identification of Gerromorpha and Nepomorpha adults, thus providing a tool for ecological studies on aquatic insects in Central Amazonia. The specimens used to elaborate the taxonomic keys were collected in Presidente Figueiredo county in streams and artificial lakes and in Manaus county in streams, white-water floodplain (várzea) lakes and Rio Negro black-water flooded forest (igapó). Specimens from the invertebrate collection of the Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas da Amazonia (INPA) were also examined and included in the keys. Thirty one genera from 13 families of the infra-orders mentioned. PMID:17607454

  1. Expanding the biotechnology potential of lactobacilli through comparative genomics of 213 strains and associated genera.

    PubMed

    Sun, Zhihong; Harris, Hugh M B; McCann, Angela; Guo, Chenyi; Argimón, Silvia; Zhang, Wenyi; Yang, Xianwei; Jeffery, Ian B; Cooney, Jakki C; Kagawa, Todd F; Liu, Wenjun; Song, Yuqin; Salvetti, Elisa; Wrobel, Agnieszka; Rasinkangas, Pia; Parkhill, Julian; Rea, Mary C; O'Sullivan, Orla; Ritari, Jarmo; Douillard, François P; Paul Ross, R; Yang, Ruifu; Briner, Alexandra E; Felis, Giovanna E; de Vos, Willem M; Barrangou, Rodolphe; Klaenhammer, Todd R; Caufield, Page W; Cui, Yujun; Zhang, Heping; O'Toole, Paul W

    2015-01-01

    Lactobacilli are a diverse group of species that occupy diverse nutrient-rich niches associated with humans, animals, plants and food. They are used widely in biotechnology and food preservation, and are being explored as therapeutics. Exploiting lactobacilli has been complicated by metabolic diversity, unclear species identity and uncertain relationships between them and other commercially important lactic acid bacteria. The capacity for biotransformations catalysed by lactobacilli is an untapped biotechnology resource. Here we report the genome sequences of 213 Lactobacillus strains and associated genera, and their encoded genetic catalogue for modifying carbohydrates and proteins. In addition, we describe broad and diverse presence of novel CRISPR-Cas immune systems in lactobacilli that may be exploited for genome editing. We rationalize the phylogenomic distribution of host interaction factors and bacteriocins that affect their natural and industrial environments, and mechanisms to withstand stress during technological processes. We present a robust phylogenomic framework of existing species and for classifying new species. PMID:26415554

  2. Comparative Chloroplast Genomics Reveals the Evolution of Pinaceae Genera and Subfamilies

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Ching-Ping; Huang, Jen-Pan; Wu, Chung-Shien; Hsu, Chih-Yao; Chaw, Shu-Miaw

    2010-01-01

    As the largest and the basal-most family of conifers, Pinaceae provides key insights into the evolutionary history of conifers. We present comparative chloroplast genomics and analysis of concatenated 49 chloroplast protein-coding genes common to 19 gymnosperms, including 15 species from 8 Pinaceous genera, to address the long-standing controversy about Pinaceae phylogeny. The complete cpDNAs of Cathaya argyrophylla and Cedrus deodara (Abitoideae) and draft cpDNAs of Larix decidua, Picea morrisonicola, and Pseudotsuga wilsoniana are reported. We found 21- and 42-kb inversions in congeneric species and different populations of Pinaceous species, which indicates that structural polymorphics may be common and ancient in Pinaceae. Our phylogenetic analyses reveal that Cedrus is clustered with Abies–Keteleeria rather than the basal-most genus of Pinaceae and that Cathaya is closer to Pinus than to Picea or Larix–Pseudotsuga. Topology and structural change tests and indel-distribution comparisons lend further evidence to our phylogenetic finding. Our molecular datings suggest that Pinaceae first evolved during Early Jurassic, and diversification of Pinaceous subfamilies and genera took place during Mid-Jurassic and Lower Cretaceous, respectively. Using different maximum-likelihood divergences as thresholds, we conclude that 2 (Abietoideae and Larix–Pseudotsuga–Piceae–Cathaya–Pinus), 4 (Cedrus, non-Cedrus Abietoideae, Larix–Pseudotsuga, and Piceae–Cathaya–Pinus), or 5 (Cedrus, non-Cedrus Abietoideae, Larix–Pseudotsuga, Picea, and Cathaya–Pinus) groups/subfamilies are more reasonable delimitations for Pinaceae. Specifically, our views on subfamilial classifications differ from previous studies in terms of the rank of Cedrus and with recognition of more than two subfamilies. PMID:20651328

  3. A phylogenetic and biogeographic analysis of the genera of Spirorchinae (Digenea: Spirorchidae) parasitic in freshwater turtles.

    PubMed

    Platt, T R

    1992-08-01

    Cladistic analysis of the freshwater genera of Spirorchinae (Schistosomatoidea: Spirorchidae sensu Yamaguti, 1971) plus Haematotrema Stunkard, 1923, and Aphanospirorchis Platt, 1990, was completed. The Spirorchinae were considered monophyletic based on synapomorphies of the esophagus. Three lineages, Spirhapalum (Europe/Asia), Plasmiorchis+Hemiorchis (India), and Spirorchis + Henotosoma + Haematotrema + Aphanospirorchis (North America), were identified. Nelsen consensus analysis was used as the basis for recognizing 3 valid monophyletic genera: Spirhapalum, Plasmiorchis, and Spirorchis. Hapalotrematinae sensu Smith, 1972 (e.g., Hapalorhynchus/Coeuritrema), is considered the most plesiomorphic group of spirorchids. Freshwater representatives of the hapalotrematines have been reported from 7 of 12 extant turtle families, including the relatively primitive Pelomedusidae (Pleurodira) and exhibit a worldwide distribution. It is hypothesized that this group arose in the early Triassic period, prior to the breakup of Pangea. Thus, it represents a primitive lineage that was present during the diversification of turtle lineages in the mid-Mesozoic era. Spirorchinae arose later (late Cretaceous period) as a Laurasian component parasitic in the more recent pond turtles (Emydidae + Bataguridae). Species of Spirhapalum retained a relatively plesiomorphic distribution, and they are found in emydids (Europe) and batagurids (Asia). Species of Spirorchis arose and diversified with North America emydids following the separation of North America and Europe in the late Cretaceous or early Tertiary periods. Species of Plasmiorchis are hypothesized to be derived from Asian ancestors that accompanied the colonization of India by Asian batagurids during the early Tertiary period. The presence of Spirorchis species in snapping turtles (Chelydridae/North America) and of Plasmiorchis species in Indian soft-shelled turtle (Trionychidae) are considered independent colonization events. PMID:1635020

  4. LABORATORY TRANSMISSION OF JAPANESE B ENCEPHALITIS VIRUS BY SEVEN SPECIES (THREE GENERA) OF NORTH AMERICAN MOSQUITOES.

    PubMed

    Reeves, W C; Hammon, W M

    1946-02-28

    In the present studies ten common species of Western North American mosquitoes have been tested for their ability to act as vectors of Japanese B encephalitis virus (see summary Table XII). The strain of Japanese B encephalitis virus which was used was adapted to direct mouse brain passage, probably a disadvantage, but no freshly isolated strain was available. Of the ten species of mosquitoes tested, seven were demonstrated to be laboratory vectors. These seven species represent three genera (Culex, Aedes, and Culiseta). In previously reported work Japanese and Russians had only incriminated five species of two genera (Aedes and Culex) (1-3). Transmission was made to mice 21 times and to a chicken once. Two attempts to infect mosquitoes from an infected chicken were unsuccessfui, but no significance is attached to so few experiments. Repeated tests for virus in the eggs, or in imagines reared from eggs of infected female mosquitoes have been negative. In this we failed to confirm results claimed by Japanese investigators (5, 6). These data, in addition to the published accounts by Japanese and Russian workers of the natural epidemiology of this disease lead us to believe that this virus might well establish itself in North America, especially if introduced in those areas where our native encephalitides are now endemic. These studies also indicate that species of mosquitoes (Culex tarsalis, Culex pipiens, See PDF for Structure Aedes dorsalis, and Culiseta inornata) now known to be fully incriminated vectors of the Western equine or St. Louis encephalitis viruses can also serve as laboratory vectors of the Japanese B virus. Methods for the effective abatement of these species should be further developed and put into practice if future epidemics of encephalitis of the Western equine, St. Louis, or Japanese B types in Western North America are to be prevented or brought under control. PMID:19871524

  5. A molecular phylogeny of Acronychia, Euodia, Melicope and relatives (Rutaceae) reveals polyphyletic genera and key innovations for species richness.

    PubMed

    Appelhans, Marc S; Wen, Jun; Wagner, Warren L

    2014-10-01

    We present the first detailed phylogenetic study of the genus Melicope, the largest genus of the Citrus family (Rutaceae). The phylogenetic analysis sampled about 50% of the 235 accepted species of Melicope as well as representatives of 26 related genera, most notably Acronychia and Euodia. The results based on five plastid and nuclear markers have revealed that Acronychia, Euodia and Melicope are each not monophyletic in their current circumscriptions and that several small genera mainly from Australia and New Caledonia need to be merged with one of the three genera to ensure monophyly at the generic level. The phylogenetic position of the drupaceous Acronychia in relation to Melicope, which has capsular or follicular fruits, remains unclear and Acronychia might be a separate genus or a part of Melicope. The seed coats of Melicope, Acronychia and related genera show adaptations to bird-dispersal, which might be regarded as key innovations for species radiations. Euodia and its relatives, which lack these adaptations, include only about 20 species while the Melicope-Acronychia group consists of about 340 species. The drupaceous genera Comptonella, Dutaillyea, Picrella and Sarcomelicope are nested within Melicope and need to be merged with Melicope. The expanded genus is a prime example of the artificial classification system of Engler, who defined Rutaceous subfamilies mainly based on gynoecial and fruit characters. PMID:24971739

  6. DETERMINATION OF AFLATOXIN PRODUCTION BY ASPERGILLUS SPECIES FROM THE MISSISSIPPI DELTA BY VARIOUS METHODS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study evaluated several methods to detect aflatoxins in Aspergillus. Aspergillus isolates (517) were obtained from various Mississippi Delta crops (corn, peanut, rice, cotton) and soils. Cultural methods included fluorescence on Beta-cyclodextrin media (FL), yellow pigment (YP), and color cha...

  7. 21 CFR 173.120 - Carbohydrase and cellulase derived from Aspergillus niger.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... PERMITTED IN FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION Enzyme Preparations and Microorganisms § 173.120 Carbohydrase and cellulase derived from Aspergillus niger. Carbohydrase and cellulase enzyme preparation derived from... Aspergillus niger from the carbohydrase and cellulase enzyme product. (d) The additive is used or intended...

  8. 21 CFR 173.120 - Carbohydrase and cellulase derived from Aspergillus niger.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... PERMITTED IN FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION Enzyme Preparations and Microorganisms § 173.120 Carbohydrase and cellulase derived from Aspergillus niger. Carbohydrase and cellulase enzyme preparation derived from... Aspergillus niger from the carbohydrase and cellulase enzyme product. (d) The additive is used or intended...

  9. 21 CFR 173.120 - Carbohydrase and cellulase derived from Aspergillus niger.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... PERMITTED IN FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION Enzyme Preparations and Microorganisms § 173.120 Carbohydrase and cellulase derived from Aspergillus niger. Carbohydrase and cellulase enzyme preparation derived from... Aspergillus niger from the carbohydrase and cellulase enzyme product. (d) The additive is used or intended...

  10. 21 CFR 173.120 - Carbohydrase and cellulase derived from Aspergillus niger.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... Enzyme Preparations and Microorganisms § 173.120 Carbohydrase and cellulase derived from Aspergillus niger. Carbohydrase and cellulase enzyme preparation derived from Aspergillus niger may be safely used... the carbohydrase and cellulase enzyme product. (d) The additive is used or intended for use as...

  11. Distribution and mycotoxigenic potential of Aspergillus section Nigri species in naturally-contaminated almonds

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In a previous study, inedible almond pick-out samples were assayed for aflatoxin and aflatoxigenic Aspergillus species. These samples were observed to contain high populations of black-spored Aspergillus section Nigri species. To investigate whether these species may contribute to the total potent...

  12. Introduction to the Toxin Reviews Special Issue "Aspergillus, Aflatoxin, Cyclopiazonic Acid, and Biological Control"

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This special issue of Toxin Reviews, Aspergillus, Aflatoxin, CPA and Biological Control of Aflatoxin", is different from previous publications because it focuses on solving the problem of mycotoxin contamination through the use of biological control strains of Aspergillus, which is applicable to th...

  13. Secondary Metabolite Profiling, Growth Profiles and Other Tools for Species Recognition and Important Aspergillus Mycotoxins

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Species in the genus Aspergillus have been classified primarily based on morphological features. Sequencing of house-hold genes has also been used in Aspergillus taxonomy and phylogeny, while extrolites and physiological features have been used less frequently. Three independent ways of classifyin...

  14. Utilization of b-glucosidase from aspergillus species in the hydrolysis of cellulose

    SciTech Connect

    Nybergh, P.M.A.; Bailey, M.J.

    1980-01-01

    The batch hydrolysis of cellulose by Trichoderma reesei cellulase was considerably enhanced by the addition of very small amounts of B-glucosidase derived from Aspergillus niger. Addition of larger amounts had no further effect. In simultaneous cellulose hydrolysis and alcohol fermentation experiments the addition of B-glucosidase from Aspergillus niger had no significant effect on alcohol production by the fermenting yeast.

  15. Non-aflatoxigenic Aspergillus flavus isolates reduce aflatoxins, cyclopiazonic acid and fumonisin in corn (maize)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Aspergillus flavus strains vary widely in their production of aflatoxins and cyclopiazonic acid (CPA). A total of 500 Aspergillus strains isolated from a variety of sources showed 16.4% were negative for both aflatoxin and CPA, 41.3% were positive for both mycotoxins, 13.0% were positive only fo...

  16. Sterigmatocystin production by nine newly described Aspergillus species in section Versicolores grown on two different media

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Nine recently described Aspergillus species and four known species in section Versicolores were tested for their ability to produce Nine recently described Aspergillus species and four known species in section Versicolores were tested for their ability to produce sterigmatocystin (ST) on two liquid ...

  17. Draft Genome Sequence of the Pathogenic Filamentous Fungus Aspergillus lentulus IFM 54703T

    PubMed Central

    Kusuya, Yoko; Sakai, Kanae; Kamei, Katsuhiko

    2016-01-01

    Aspergillus lentulus, a sibling species of Aspergillus fumigatus, has been reported as a causative agent of aspergillosis, and exhibited low susceptibility to azole. Here, we present the draft genome sequence of A. lentulus strain IFM 54703T for the first time. PMID:26769945

  18. Deletion of creB in Aspergillus oryzae Increases Secreted Hydrolytic Enzyme Activity

    PubMed Central

    Hunter, A. J.; Morris, T. A.; Jin, B.; Saint, C. P.

    2013-01-01

    Aspergillus oryzae has been used in the food and beverage industry for centuries, and industrial strains have been produced by multiple rounds of selection. Targeted gene deletion technology is particularly useful for strain improvement in such strains, particularly when they do not have a well-characterized meiotic cycle. Phenotypes of an Aspergillus nidulans strain null for the CreB deubiquitinating enzyme include effects on growth and repression, including increased activity levels of various enzymes. We show that Aspergillus oryzae contains a functional homologue of the CreB deubiquitinating enzyme and that a null strain shows increased activity levels of industrially important secreted enzymes, including cellulases, xylanases, amylases, and proteases, as well as alleviated inhibition of spore germination on glucose medium. Reverse transcription-quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR) analysis showed that the increased levels of enzyme activity in both Aspergillus nidulans and Aspergillus oryzae are mirrored at the transcript level, indicating transcriptional regulation. We report that Aspergillus oryzae DAR3699, originally isolated from soy fermentation, has a similar phenotype to that of a creB deletion mutant of the RIB40 strain, and it contains a mutation in the creB gene. Collectively, the results for Aspergillus oryzae, Aspergillus nidulans, Trichoderma reesei, and Penicillium decumbens show that deletion of creB may be broadly useful in diverse fungi for increasing production of a variety of enzymes. PMID:23835170

  19. Development and evaluation of peanut germplasm with resistance to Aspergillus flavus from core collection

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.), one of the main oil and cash crops in the world, is susceptible to Aspergillus flavus, resulting in loss in quality. Aspergillus flavus infection is a problem for peanut production and industry in China. Therefore, it is imperative to develop new peanut germplasm with ...

  20. Sexual reproduction influences aflatoxin chemotype diversity in worldwide populations of Aspergillus flavus and A. parasiticus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Aflatoxins are toxic polyketides produced by several Aspergillus species that contaminate food crops worldwide. Aspergillus flavus and A. parasiticus are the most common agents of aflatoxin contamination of oil-rich crops. The genes involved in aflatoxin biosynthesis are clustered and convert acetat...

  1. Aspergillus mastoiditis in an immunocompetent patient: a case report and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Youssef, Mona; Bassim, Marc; Shabb, Nina; Kanj, Souha S

    2014-04-01

    Aspergillus mastoiditis usually occurs in immunocompromised patients. There are a few isolated reports in the literature involving immunocompetent patients. We hereby describe the case of an immunocompetent patient diagnosed with invasive Aspergillus mastoiditis, which was treated successfully, and review the literature pertaining to this condition. The common clinical presentations, putative pathophysiology, and recommended therapy are discussed. PMID:24484416

  2. NsdC and NsdD affect Aspergillus flavus morphogenesis and aflatoxin production

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The transcription factors NsdC and NsdD have been shown to be necessary for sexual development in Aspergillus nidulans. Herein we examine the role of these proteins in development and aflatoxin production of the agriculturally important, aflatoxin-producing fungus, Aspergillus flavus. We found tha...

  3. RNA interference reduces aflatoxin accumulation by Aspergillus flavus in peanut seeds

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Aflatoxins are among the most powerful carcinogens in nature. They are produced by the fungal pathogen Aspergillus flavus Link and other Aspergillus species. Aflatoxins accumulate in many crops, including rice, wheat, oats, pecans, pistachios, soybean, cassava, almonds, peanuts, beans, corn and cot...

  4. Isolation and identification of Aspergillus spp. from brown kiwi (Apteryx mantelli) nocturnal houses in New Zealand.

    PubMed

    Glare, Travis R; Gartrell, Brett D; Brookes, Jenny J; Perrott, John K

    2014-03-01

    Aspergillosis, a disease caused by infection with Aspergillus spp., is a common cause of death in birds globally and is an irregular cause of mortality of captive kiwi (Apteryx spp.). Aspergillus spp. are often present in rotting plant material, including the litter and nesting material used for kiwi in captivity. The aim of this study was to survey nocturnal kiwi houses in New Zealand to assess the levels of Aspergillus currently present in leaf litter. Samples were received from 11 nocturnal kiwi houses from throughout New Zealand, with one site supplying multiple samples over time. Aspergillus was isolated and quantified by colony counts from litter samples using selective media and incubation temperatures. Isolates were identified to the species level by amplification and sequencing of ITS regions of the ribosomal. Aspergillus spp. were recovered from almost every sample; however, the levels in most kiwi houses were below 1000 colony-forming units (CFU)/g of wet material. The predominant species was Aspergillus fumigatus, with rare occurrences of Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus nidulans, and Aspergillus parasiticus. Only one site had no detectable Aspergillus. The limit of detection was around 50 CFU/g wet material. One site was repeatedly sampled as it had a high loading of A. fumigatus at the start of the survey and had two recent clinical cases of aspergillosis diagnosed in resident kiwi. Environmental loading at this site with Aspergillus spp. reduced but was not eliminated despite changes of the litter. The key finding of our study is that the background levels of Aspergillus spores in kiwi nocturnal houses in New Zealand are low, but occasional exceptions occur and are associated with the onset of aspergillosis in otherwise healthy birds. The predominant Aspergillus species present in the leaf litter was A. fumigatus, but other species were also present. Further research is needed to confirm the optimal management of leaf litter to minimize Aspergillus spore counts. However, in the interim, our recommendations are that leaf litter should be freshly collected from areas of undisturbed forest areas and spread immediately after collection, without interim storage. PMID:24758108

  5. Major range extensions for two genera of the parasitoid subtribe Facitorina, with a new generic synonymy (Braconidae, Rogadinae, Yeliconini)

    PubMed Central

    Butcher, Buntika A.; Quicke, Donald L. J.; Shreevihar, Santhosh; Ranjith, Avunjikkattu Parambil

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The genera Conobregma van Achterberg and Facitorus van Achterberg are recorded from the Afrotropical region and the Indian subcontinent, respectively, for the first time, and two new species are described and illustrated: Conobregma bradpitti Quicke & Butcher, sp. n. from South Africa and Facitorus nasseri Ranjith & Quicke, sp. n. from India. Conobregma bradpitti sp. n. is intermediate between Conobregma which was described originally from the New World, and Asiabregma Belokobylskij, Zaldivar-Riverón & Maetô, which was coined for the S. E. Asian and East Palaearctic (Japanese) species described under the name Conobregma, plus more recently discovered taxa, but the differences between these genera are few and slight. Of the four previously proposed diagnostic characters for separating Asiabregma from Conobregma, the new species shares two with each, and therefore, the two genera are formally synonymised. Facitorus was previously known only from the East Palaearctic region and from S. E. Asia (Japan, Nepal, Taiwan and Vietnam). PMID:27199598

  6. [Position of the genera Lycenchelys gill and Lycodapus gilbert in the family Zoarcidae (Perciformes: Zoarcoidei) inferred from molecular genetic analysis].

    PubMed

    Radchenko, O A; Chereshnev, I A; Petrovskaia, A V

    2012-03-01

    Sequence variation ofthe mitochondrial COI, cytochrome b, and 16S RNA genes, as well as nuclear RNF213 gene was examined in the genera Lycenchelys and Lycodapus with the purpose of determination of their positions in the system of the family Zoarcidae. It was demonstrated that the genus Lycodapus was considerably closer to the generic group of Lycogramminae (Lycogrammoides, Bothrocara, Allolepis, Bothrocarhichthys) than the genus Lycenchelys. However, on the phylogenetic trees both of these genera were located in the clade of the subfamily Lycodinae. Genetic heterogeneity of the genus Lycenchelys, represented by two species groups differing in distribution patterns (northeastern Pacific and Antarctic) and showing more profound differences than the genera of subfamily Lycodinae, was demonstrated. PMID:22679783

  7. New species of the spider genera Aysenia and Aysenoides from Chile and Argentina: description and phylogenetic relationships (Araneae: Anyphaenidae, Amaurobioidinae).

    PubMed

    Laborda, Alvaro; Ramírez, Martín J; Pizarro-Araya, Jaime

    2013-01-01

    New spider species of the genera Aysenia Tullgren and Aysenoides Ramírez are described and their phylogenetic relationships discussed. The new species Aysenia paposo, from the coastal desert in northern Chile is sister to Aysenia araucana Ramírez. The diagnosis of Aysenia araucana is updated and new somatic variability is reported for the species. We present new records for other species of Aysenia and Aysenoides. The new species Aysenoides simoi, from temperate forests in Chile and adjacent Argentina is sister to Aysenoides nahuel. The phylogenetic analysis confirmed the monophyly of both genera. The support values of the genera are relatively high, but some internal branches show low support values. The genus Aysenia is supported by three synapomorphies, two of these from leg spination and one from the male genitalia. Aysenoides is supported by three synapomorphies from male and female genitalia. PMID:25277558

  8. Polyphasic approach to the identification of Aspergillus section Flavi isolated from Brazil nuts.

    PubMed

    Baquião, Arianne Costa; de Oliveira, Maitê Martins Melo; Reis, Tatiana Alves; Zorzete, Patricia; Diniz Atayde, Danielle; Correa, Benedito

    2013-08-15

    The aim of this study was to use a polyphasic approach to identify Aspergillus section Flavi isolated from Brazil nuts collected in the Amazon forest: investigation of macro- and microscopic morphology, production of extrolites, heat-resistance fungi, and sequencing of DNA regions. The following Aspergillus section Flavi species were identified: Aspergillus flavus (75.5%), Aspergillus nomius (22.3%), and Aspergillus parasiticus (2.2%). All A. nomius and A. parasiticus isolates produced aflatoxins B and G, but not cyclopiazonic acid (CPA). A. flavus isolates were more diversified and a high frequency of mycotoxigenic strains was observed. The polyphasic approach permitted the reliable identification of section Flavi species. The rate of mycotoxigenic strains was high (92.7%) and mainly included A. flavus strains producing elevated levels of aflatoxins and CPA. These results highlight the possibility of co-occurrence of both toxins, increasing their potential toxic effect in this commodity. PMID:23561218

  9. Post-operative Aspergillus mediastinitis in a man who was immunocompetent: a case report

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Introduction Aspergillus spp. infections mainly affect patients who are immunocompromised, and are extremely rare in immunocompetent individuals. Case presentation Aspergillus post-operative mediastinitis is considered to be a devastating infection, usually affecting patients undergoing cardiothoracic surgery with specific predisposing factors. We describe the case of an immunocompetent 68-year-old Caucasian man with severe chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension, who underwent pulmonary thromboendarterectomy and developed post-operative mediastinitis due to Aspergillus flavus. The environmental control did not reveal the source of A. flavus infection and, despite combined antifungal therapy, our patient died as a result of septic shock and multiple organ failure. Conclusion Aspergillus mediastinitis mainly affects patients after cardiosurgery operations with predisposing factors, and it is unusual in patients who are immunocompetent. The identification of the Aspergillus spp. source is often difficult, and there are no guidelines for the administration of pre-emptive therapy in this population of at-risk patients. PMID:20863378

  10. Fruit flies as a minihost model for studying drug activity and virulence in Aspergillus.

    PubMed

    Lionakis, M S; Kontoyiannis, D P

    2005-05-01

    Invasive aspergillosis (IA) is a significant cause of morbidity and mortality in profoundly immunosuppressed patients. The mediocre efficacy of antifungals for IA in clinical practice and an incomplete understanding of the pathogenesis of IA contribute to its overall poor prognosis. Although logistically difficult for large scale use, conventional animal models of IA provide valuable information regarding both antifungal drug efficacy and Aspergillus mutant virulence. However, in the era of introduction of molecular biology techniques for studying Aspergillus and increasing antifungal options, the existing in vivo models of IA might be well complemented by nonvertebrate minihost models such as the Drosophila melanogaster (fruit fly). Drosophila may offer the distinct advantage of performing fast, inexpensive high-throughput screening of compounds for anti-Aspergillus activity and putative Aspergillus mutants for their role in Aspergillus virulence. PMID:16110801

  11. Characteristic clinical features of Aspergillus appendicitis: Case report and literature review

    PubMed Central

    Gjeorgjievski, Mihajlo; Amin, Mitual B; Cappell, Mitchell S

    2015-01-01

    This work aims to facilitate diagnosing Aspergillus appendicitis, which can be missed clinically due to its rarity, by proposing a clinical pentad for Aspergillus appendicitis based on literature review and one new case. The currently reported case of pathologically-proven Aspergillus appendicitis was identified by computerized search of pathology database at William Beaumont Hospital, 1999-2014. Prior cases were identified by computerized literature search. Among 10980 pathology reports of pathologically-proven appendicitis, one case of Aspergillus appendicitis was identified (rate = 0.01%). A young boy with profound neutropenia, recent chemotherapy, and acute myelogenous leukemia presented with right lower quadrant pain, pyrexia, and generalized malaise. Abdominal computed tomography scan showed a thickened appendiceal wall and periappendiceal inflammation, suggesting appendicitis. Emergent laparotomy showed an inflamed, thickened appendix, which was resected. The patient did poorly postoperatively with low-grade-fevers while receiving antibacterial therapy, but rapidly improved after initiating amphotericin therapy. Microscopic examination of a silver stain of the appendectomy specimen revealed fungi with characteristic Aspergillus morphology, findings confirmed by immunohistochemistry. Primary Aspergillus appendicitis is exceptionally rare, with only 3 previously reported cases. All three cases presented with (1)-neutropenia, (2)-recent chemotherapy, (3)-acute leukemia, and (4)-suspected appendicitis; (5)-the two prior cases initially treated with antibacterial therapy, fared poorly before instituting anti-Aspergillus therapy. The current patient satisfied all these five criteria. Based on these four cases, a clinical pentad is proposed for Aspergillus appendicitis: clinically-suspected appendicitis, neutropenia, recent chemotherapy, acute leukemia, and poor clinical response if treated solely by antibacterial/anti-candidial therapy. Patients presenting with this proposed pentad may benefit from testing for Aspergillus infection by silver-stains/immunohistochemistry and considering empirical anti-Aspergillus therapy pending a tissue diagnosis. PMID:26640349

  12. Characteristic clinical features of Aspergillus appendicitis: Case report and literature review.

    PubMed

    Gjeorgjievski, Mihajlo; Amin, Mitual B; Cappell, Mitchell S

    2015-11-28

    This work aims to facilitate diagnosing Aspergillus appendicitis, which can be missed clinically due to its rarity, by proposing a clinical pentad for Aspergillus appendicitis based on literature review and one new case. The currently reported case of pathologically-proven Aspergillus appendicitis was identified by computerized search of pathology database at William Beaumont Hospital, 1999-2014. Prior cases were identified by computerized literature search. Among 10980 pathology reports of pathologically-proven appendicitis, one case of Aspergillus appendicitis was identified (rate = 0.01%). A young boy with profound neutropenia, recent chemotherapy, and acute myelogenous leukemia presented with right lower quadrant pain, pyrexia, and generalized malaise. Abdominal computed tomography scan showed a thickened appendiceal wall and periappendiceal inflammation, suggesting appendicitis. Emergent laparotomy showed an inflamed, thickened appendix, which was resected. The patient did poorly postoperatively with low-grade-fevers while receiving antibacterial therapy, but rapidly improved after initiating amphotericin therapy. Microscopic examination of a silver stain of the appendectomy specimen revealed fungi with characteristic Aspergillus morphology, findings confirmed by immunohistochemistry. Primary Aspergillus appendicitis is exceptionally rare, with only 3 previously reported cases. All three cases presented with (1)-neutropenia, (2)-recent chemotherapy, (3)-acute leukemia, and (4)-suspected appendicitis; (5)-the two prior cases initially treated with antibacterial therapy, fared poorly before instituting anti-Aspergillus therapy. The current patient satisfied all these five criteria. Based on these four cases, a clinical pentad is proposed for Aspergillus appendicitis: clinically-suspected appendicitis, neutropenia, recent chemotherapy, acute leukemia, and poor clinical response if treated solely by antibacterial/anti-candidial therapy. Patients presenting with this proposed pentad may benefit from testing for Aspergillus infection by silver-stains/immunohistochemistry and considering empirical anti-Aspergillus therapy pending a tissue diagnosis. PMID:26640349

  13. A peanut seed lipoxygenase responsive to Aspergillus colonization.

    PubMed

    Burow, G B; Gardner, H W; Keller, N P

    2000-03-01

    Several lines of evidence have indicated that lipoxygenase enzymes (LOX) and their products, especially 9S- and 13S-hydroperoxy fatty acids, could play a role in the Aspergillus/seed interaction. Both hydroperoxides exhibit sporogenic effects on Aspergillus spp. (Calvo, A., Hinze, L., Gardner, H.W. and Keller, N.P. 1999. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 65: 3668-3673) and differentially modulate aflatoxin pathway gene transcription (Burow, G.B., Nesbitt, T.C., Dunlap, J. and Keller, N.P. 1997. Mol. Plant-Microbe Interact. 10: 380-387). To examine the role of seed LOXs at the molecular level, a peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) seed gene, PnLOX1, was cloned and characterized. Analysis of nucleotide sequence suggests that PnLOX1 encodes a predicted 98 kDa protein highly similar in sequence and biochemical properties to soybean LOX2. The full-length PnLOX1 cDNA was subcloned into an expression vector to determine the type(s) of hydroperoxide products the enzyme produces. Analysis of the oxidation products of PnLOX1 revealed that it produced a mixture of 30% 9S-HPODE (9S-hydroperoxy-10E, 12Z-octadecadienoic acid) and 70% 13S-HPODE (13S-hydroperoxy-9Z, 11E-octadecadienoic acid) at pH 7. PnLOX1 is an organ-specific gene which is constitutively expressed in immature cotyledons but is highly induced by methyl jasmonate, wounding and Aspergillus infections in mature cotyledons. Examination of HPODE production in infected cotyledons suggests PnLOX1 expression may lead to an increase in 9S-HPODE in the seed. PMID:10809442

  14. Utilisation of differential killer toxin sensitivity patterns for fingerprinting and clustering yeast strains belonging to different genera.

    PubMed

    Buzzini, P; Martini, A

    2000-10-01

    The differential killer sensitivity of 103 yeast cultures belonging to 12 species (genera Debaryomyces, Kluyveromyces, Saccharomyces, and Zygosaccharomyces), all previously taxonomically certified by nDNA-nDNA reassociation, against a given panel of 39 killer yeasts was used as a fingerprinting tool. All strains, with the only exception of eight cultures belonging to the species Zygosaccharomyces bailii, were characterised by a specific, individual sensitivity pattern (killer formula). Cluster analysis of binary sequences based on killer sensitivity of strains belonging to different genera is presented and discussed. PMID:11108026

  15. MOSCHweb — a matrix-based interactive key to the genera of the Palaearctic Tachinidae (Insecta, Diptera)

    PubMed Central

    Cerretti, Pierfilippo; Tschorsnig, Hans-Peter; Lopresti, Massimo; Giovanni, Filippo Di

    2012-01-01

    Abstract We provide a general overview of features and technical specifications of an original interactive key web application for the identification of Palaearctic Tachinidae genera. The full list of terminal taxa included in the key, which is the most updated list of genera currently recorded for the Palaearctic Region, is given. We also briefly discuss the need for dealing with detailed and standardized taxa descriptions as a base to keep matrix-based interactive tools easily updated, by proposing a standardized protocol. PMID:22792031

  16. Genera of the Scirtothrips genus-group (Thysanoptera, Thripidae) with a new species of Siamothrips from Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Ng, Y F; Mound, L A

    2015-01-01

    The Scirtothrips genus-group is here considered to comprise 11 genera, and an identification key to these is presented. These genera are Ajothrips Bhatti, Anascirtothrips Bhatti, Biltothrips Bhatti, Cercyothrips Morgan, Drepanothrips Uzel, Ephedrothrips zur Strassen, Kenyattathrips Mound, Parascirtothrips Masumoto & Okajima, Scirtidothrips Hood, Scirtothrips Shull and Siamothrips Okajima. One genus, Sericopsothrips Hood, is considered a new synonym of Scirtothrips, with the only species now referred to as Scirtothrips palloris (Hood) comb.n. A second species in the genus Siamothrips is described from Malaysia as Siamothrips initium sp.n. PMID:26624136

  17. Inhibition of Aspergillus parasiticus and cancer cells by marine actinomycete strains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Ping; Yan, Peisheng

    2014-12-01

    Ten actinomycete strains isolated from the Yellow Sea off China's coasts were identified as belonging to two genera by 16S rDNA phylogenetic analysis: Streptomyces and Nocardiopsis. Six Streptomyces strains (MA10, 2SHXF01-3, MA35, MA05-2, MA05-2-1 and MA08-1) and one Nocardiopsis strain (MA03) were predicted to have the potential to produce aromatic polyketides based on the analysis of the KSα (ketoacyl-synthase) gene in the type II PKS (polyketides synthase) gene cluster. Four strains (MA03, MA01, MA10 and MA05-2) exhibited significant inhibitory effects on mycelia growth (inhibition rate >50%) and subsequent aflatoxin production (inhibition rate >75%) of the mutant aflatoxigenic Aspergillus parasiticus NFRI-95. The ethyl acetate extracts of the broth of these four strains displayed significant inhibitory effects on mycelia growth, and the IC50 values were calculated (MA03: 0.275 mg mL-1, MA01: 0.106 mg mL-1, MA10: 1.345 mg mL-1 and MA05-2: 1.362 mg mL-1). Five strains (2SHXF01-3, MA03, MA05-2, MA01 and MA08-1) were selected based on their high cytotoxic activities. The ethyl acetate extract of the Nocardiopsis strain MA03 was particularly noted for its high antitumor activity against human carcinomas of the cervix (HeLa), lung (A549), kidney (Caki-1) and liver (HepG2) (IC50: 2.890, 1.981, 3.032 and 2.603 μg mL-1, respectively). The extract also remarkably inhibited colony formation of HeLa cells at an extremely low concentration (0.5 μg mL-1). This study highlights that marine-derived actinomycetes are a huge resource of compounds for the biological control of aflatoxin contamination and the development of novel drugs for human carcinomas.

  18. Effect of Carbon, Nitrogen Sources and Water Activity on Growth and Ochratoxin Production of Aspergillus carbonarius (Bainier) Thom

    PubMed Central

    Hashem, Abeer; Fathi Abd-Allah, Elsayed; Sultan Al-Obeed, Rashid; Abdullah Alqarawi, Abdulaziz; Alwathnani, Hend Awad

    2015-01-01

    Background: Ochratoxin A (OTA) is a toxic secondary metabolite produced by fungi belonging to Aspergillus and Penicillium genera. The production of OTA is influenced by environmental conditions and nutritional requirements. The postharvest application of bunches of table grape fruit (TGF), with water activity of 0.8 aw, was highly effective for controlling OTA contamination in vitro and in vivo (table grape). Objectives: The aim of this study was to determine the influence of environmental conditions and nutritional requirements on growth and OTA production by Aspergillus carbonarius, as well as, the impact of water activity on OTA production and growth characters of A. carbonarius. Furthermore, we also examined the influence of the application of different levels of water activity (aw 0.8) on the preservation of the general appearance of TGF and control of their contamination with OTA. Materials and Methods: The growth and OTA production by A. carbonarius were studied using glucose-ammonium nitrate salt broth medium. Effect of water activity was studied using glycerol (0.80, 0.85, 0.90, and 0.98 aw). The bunches of table grape fruits were immersed in glycerol solution (equivalent to 0.80 aw) and placed as a double layer in cardboard boxes (25 × 35 × 10 cm). The boxes were stored at 20°C for 15 days to simulate local market conditions. Results: The maximum OTA production by A. carbonarius was observed on broth medium after eight days of incubation at 20°C, with pH 4, and fructose and ammonium nitrate supplementation as carbon and nitrogen sources, respectively. The water activity (0.9, 0.85 aw) caused significant decrease in OTA production by A. carbonarius. The postharvest application of water activity (0.8 aw) was highly effective for maintenance of the table grape quality, which was expressed as weight loss, firmness and decay, while it also controlled OTA contamination of fruits under concept of local market conditions. Conclusions: Our results reported that deterioration of TGF by A. carbonarius could be minimized by application of aw. Our experiments were performed under conditions of local markets, which support the economy of many thousands of families in Egypt, especially in the poor rural areas. In future adequate research is required to use these technologies commercially. PMID:25825649

  19. Interstrain variability in the virulence of Aspergillus fumigatus and Aspergillus terreus in a Toll-deficient Drosophila fly model of invasive aspergillosis.

    PubMed

    Ben-Ami, Ronen; Lamaris, Gregory A; Lewis, Russell E; Kontoyiannis, Dimitrios P

    2010-03-01

    Members of the genus Aspergillus are opportunistic fungal pathogens characterized by their genomic diversity. However, whether variations among Aspergillus strains and species at the genome level translate into significant differences in virulence is unclear. Therefore, we studied the interstrain and interspecies variations in virulence for a collection of Aspergillus fumigatus and Aspergillus terreus isolates using a previously described model of invasive aspergillosis in Toll-deficient fruit flies. We then looked for associations between survival in the fly model and strain relatedness as defined by repetitive-sequence polymerase chain reaction (rep-PCR). We observed no significant differences in the survival of flies infected with A. fumigatus vs. A. terreus or flies infected with colonizing vs. invasive isolates of either species. However, in both Aspergillus species we observed significant interstrain variability in fly survival (P<0.001 by the log-rank test). Using rep-PCR, we identified two dominant A. fumigatus clades that were associated with significantly different survival rates in Toll-deficient flies (P=0.007). We conclude that the fly model of invasive aspergillosis enables high-throughput screening of Aspergillus species for variations in virulence and may uncover distinct A. fumigatus clades that differ in their pathogenicity. PMID:19642052

  20. Production of extremophilic bacterial cellulase enzymes in aspergillus niger.

    SciTech Connect

    Gladden, John Michael

    2013-09-01

    Enzymes can be used to catalyze a myriad of chemical reactions and are a cornerstone in the biotechnology industry. Enzymes have a wide range of uses, ranging from medicine with the production of pharmaceuticals to energy were they are applied to biofuel production. However, it is difficult to produce large quantities of enzymes, especially if they are non-native to the production host. Fortunately, filamentous fungi, such as Aspergillus niger, are broadly used in industry and show great potential for use a heterologous enzyme production hosts. Here, we present work outlining an effort to engineer A. niger to produce thermophilic bacterial cellulases relevant to lignocellulosic biofuel production.

  1. Environmental Isolates of Azole-Resistant Aspergillus fumigatus in Germany

    PubMed Central

    Tnnermann, Jana; Dudakova, Anna; Tangwattanachuleeporn, Marut; Weig, Michael; Gro, Uwe

    2015-01-01

    Azole antifungal drug resistance in Aspergillus fumigatus is an emerging problem in several parts of the world. Here we investigated the distribution of such strains in soils from Germany. At a general positivity rate of 12%, most prevalently, we found strains with the TR34/L98H and TR46/Y121F/T289A alleles, dispersed along a corridor across northern Germany. Comparison of the distributions of resistance alleles and genotypes between environment and clinical samples suggests the presence of local clinical clusters. PMID:25941229

  2. Lumazine Peptides from the Marine-Derived Fungus Aspergillus terreus

    PubMed Central

    You, Minjung; Liao, Lijuan; Hong, Soo Hyun; Park, Wanki; Kwon, Dah In; Lee, Jeeyeon; Noh, Minsoo; Oh, Dong-Chan; Oh, Ki-Bong; Shin, Jongheon

    2015-01-01

    Terrelumamides A (1) and B (2), two new lumazine-containing peptides, were isolated from the culture broth of the marine-derived fungus Aspergillus terreus. From the results of combined spectroscopic and chemical analyses, the structures of these compounds were determined to be linear assemblies of 1-methyllumazine-6-carboxylic acid, an amino acid residue and anthranilic acid methyl ester connected by peptide bonds. These new compounds exhibited pharmacological activity by improving insulin sensitivity, which was evaluated in an adipogenesis model using human bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells. In addition, the compounds exhibited fluorescence changes upon binding to DNA, demonstrating their potential applications to DNA sequence recognition. PMID:25775424

  3. Properties of soluble and immobilized Aspergillus niger. beta. -xylosidase

    SciTech Connect

    Oguntimein, G.B.; Reilly, P.J.

    1980-01-01

    Aspergillus niger ..beta..-xylosidase was characterized when in soluble form and when immobilized to alkylamine porous silica with glutaraldehyde and to alumina with titanium tetrachloride. Energies of activation averaged 13.4 kcal/mol for the soluble enzyme, 9.0 kcal/mol when immobilized to alumina, and 8.0 kcal/mol when bound to silica. The highest activity of all forms of ..beta..-xylosidase was found near pH 3. The soluble enzyme was highly stable at pH 4, where lowest rates of decay occurred, and temperatures of 65/sup 0/C and below.

  4. Steady-state shear characteristics of Aspergillus niger broths

    SciTech Connect

    Svihla, C.K.; Dronawat, S.N.; Hanley, T.R.

    1995-12-31

    It can be difficult to obtain reliable rheological data for filamentous fermentation broths using conventional instruments. One common approach is to measure the torque drawn by an impeller rotating in the suspension. Many previous workers have assumed that the applicable shear rate in such a device is related to the impeller speed by a fluid-independent constant determined by calibration with Newtonian and non-Newtonian fluids. The rheology of Aspergillus niger broths have been characterized using the impeller viscometer approach. The changes in the broth rheology were measured, and used to interpret the growth of biomass and the evolution of the microorganism morphology.

  5. Keratitis due to Aspergillus flavus successfully treated with thiabendazole.

    PubMed Central

    Upadhyay, M P; West, E P; Sharma, A P

    1980-01-01

    A case of Aspergillus flavus keratitis treated successfully with 4% suspension of thiabendazole is reported. This seems to be the first case of successful treatment of keratomycosis with thiabendazole. All other reported cases treated with this drug either had their eyes removed or did not retain any useful vision. Its ability to penetrate ocular tissues, ability to remain in concentrations higher than the minimal inhibitory concentration of many fungi, and broad spectrum of activity make it a worthwhile drug for further investigation in keratomycosis. Images PMID:6766732

  6. Identification of Aspergillus nomius in Bees Visiting Brazil Nut Flowers.

    PubMed

    Massi, Fernanda Pelisson; Penha, Rafael Elias Silva; Cavalcante, Marcelo Casimiro; Viaro, Helena Paula; da Silva, Josué José; de Souza Ferranti, Larissa; Fungaro, Maria Helena Pelegrinelli

    2015-01-01

    We designed a primer pair (BtubNomF/BtubNomR) specifically for amplifying Aspergillus nomius DNA. In vitro assays confirmed BtubNomF/BtubNomR specificity, corroborating its usefulness in detecting and identifying A. nomius. We then investigated the occurrence of A. nomius in floral visitors of Bertholletia excelsa trees by means of PCR, and A. nomius was detected in the following bees: Xylocopa frontalis, Bombus transversalis, Centris denudans, C. ferruginea, and Epicharis flava. The presence of A. nomius in bees visiting Brazil nuts opens up new avenues for obtaining novel insights into the process whereby Brazil nuts are contaminated by aflatoxin-producing fungi. PMID:26063353

  7. Identification of Aspergillus nomius in Bees Visiting Brazil Nut Flowers

    PubMed Central

    Massi, Fernanda Pelisson; Penha, Rafael Elias Silva; Cavalcante, Marcelo Casimiro; Viaro, Helena Paula; da Silva, Josué José; de Souza Ferranti, Larissa; Fungaro, Maria Helena Pelegrinelli

    2015-01-01

    We designed a primer pair (BtubNomF/BtubNomR) specifically for amplifying Aspergillus nomius DNA. In vitro assays confirmed BtubNomF/BtubNomR specificity, corroborating its usefulness in detecting and identifying A. nomius. We then investigated the occurrence of A. nomius in floral visitors of Bertholletia excelsa trees by means of PCR, and A. nomius was detected in the following bees: Xylocopa frontalis, Bombus transversalis, Centris denudans, C. ferruginea, and Epicharis flava. The presence of A. nomius in bees visiting Brazil nuts opens up new avenues for obtaining novel insights into the process whereby Brazil nuts are contaminated by aflatoxin-producing fungi. PMID:26063353

  8. Experimental efficacy of anidulafungin against Aspergillus terreus species complex.

    PubMed

    Sanchis, Marta; Capilla, Javier; Mayayo, Emilio; Pastor, Francisco J; Guarro, Josep

    2015-08-01

    Whereas echinocandins are alternatives for the treatment of invasive aspergillosis, the efficacy of anidulafungin (AFG) against Aspergillus terreus infection has not yet been explored. We have evaluated the in vitro activity, as well as the in vivo efficacy of AFG in neutropenic mice infected by A. terreus species complex. Time-kill studies showed in vitro fungistatic activity of AFG against two strains. AFG at doses of 5 and 10 mg/kg/day significantly reduced the fungal load in kidney of mice, but only the higher dose was able to prolong survival. PMID:25980004

  9. SOURCES OF THE ARCTIC FLORA: ORIGINS OF ARCTIC SPECIES IN RANUNCULUS AND RELATED GENERA

    PubMed Central

    Hoffmann, Matthias H.; von Hagen, K. Bernhard; Hörandl, Elvira; Röser, Martin; Tkach, Natalia V.

    2010-01-01

    The arctic biome is a relatively young ecosystem with ~2300 species of vascular plants. We studied the genus Ranunculus as an example of the origin and evolution of the arctic flora. For this purpose we used molecular phylogenetic and clock analyses based on evaluation of nuclear ITS and chloroplast matK-trnK DNA sequences in 194 taxa of Ranunculus and closely related genera. Taxa occurring in the Arctic arose form seven phylogenetic lineages of Ranunculus and also in the genera Coptidium and Halerpestes. Two clades of Ranunculus are species-rich in the Arctic, i.e., Ranunculus sect. Ranunculus and R. sect. Auricomus (both from R. subg. Ranunculus), but this is due to a number of arctic “microtaxa” morphologically barely separate from R. acris in the former clade and the widely agamospermic species complex of R. auricomus in the latter. Lineages with species adapted to wetlands or aquatic habitats are significant groups represented in the arctic flora (R. subg. Ranunculus sectt. Flammula and Hecatonia/Xanthobatrachium, R. subg. Batrachium, genus Coptidium) but show no clear signs of radiation in the Arctic or the northern boreal zone, except for sectt. Hecatonia/Xanthobatrachium, with R. hyperboreus and R. sceleratus subsp. reptabundus. Astonishingly few of the otherwise numerous lineages of Ranunculus with distributions in the higher mountain systems of Eurasia and North America have acted as “founding sources” for the arctic flora. The only clear example is that of the arctic-alpine R. glacialis and the Beringian R. chamissonis from the lineage of subg. R. sectt. Aconitifolii/Crymodes, although there might be others in sect. Auricomus not recovered in the current molecular data. Lineages that gave rise to arctic taxa diverged from each other from the early Miocene (R. glacialis/R. chamissonis, Coptidium, lineages in Halerpestes) and continued at an even rate throughout the Tertiary. There are no signs that the intense climate changes of the late Pliocene and the Quaternary substantially accelerated or impeded diversification in Ranunculus. Only the crown group split of R. acris and its relatives is clearly of Quaternary age. A detailed comparison concerning morphology, karyology, and life form excludes fundamental differences between taxa of Ranunculus in the Arctic and their respective closest relatives in regions south of it. Ecological traits, e.g., preferences for dry or moist soils or growth in open and sheltered conditions, also do not differ between arctic and nonarctic̣ taxa. Migration into the Arctic thus started from different phylogenetic lineages and at different times, without development of obvious special traits in the adaptation to arctic environments. This recurrent pattern in Ranunculus differs from that seen in other arctic genera, e.g., Artemisia, in which special traits of adaptation to arctic environments are found. In Ranunculus, the origin of the open arctic biome primarily favored range expansions of taxa/species already adapted to wet habitats in cold areas and depending on rapid dispersal. PMID:20582248

  10. Revision of hemoproteid genera and description and redescription of two species of chelonian hemoproteid parasites.

    PubMed

    Pineda-Catalan, Oscar; Perkins, Susan L; Peirce, Michael A; Engstrand, Rachel; Garcia-Davila, Carmen; Pinedo-Vasquez, Miguel; Aguirre, A Alonso

    2013-12-01

    Pigmented hemosporidian parasites that do not exhibit erthyrocytic schizogony, and infect birds, chelonians, and squamates, have been classified in various genera over time. These classifications have reflected vertebrate hosts, insect vectors, and variations in morphology and life history observed in representative species. Side-necked turtles ( Podocnemis spp.) from the Peruvian Amazon were screened for hemoparasites and 2 species of hemosporid parasites infecting these hosts were observed. Molecular phylogenetic analysis of these new isolates, along with parasites from lizards, a snake, and a variety of Haemoproteus species from birds from both the Haemoproteus and Parahaemoproteus subgenera, strongly support the separation of the non-avian parasites into a separate genus. The name with precedent for this group is Haemocystidium Castellani and Willey 1909, and we propose that subgeneric classification of Haemocystidium and Simondia be applied to parasites of squamates and chelonians, respectively. We offer a description of Haemocystidium (Simondia) pacayae n. sp. and a redescription of Haemocystidium (Simondia) peltocephali ( Lainson and Naiff 1998 , n. comb.) Morphologically, the parasites are quite similar, with H. pacayae slightly more elongated than H. peltocephali. The discovery and identification of parasite species is urgent, especially in endangered species and wildlife inhabiting rapidly declining ecosystems such as the Amazon. PMID:24032642

  11. Complementation for an essential ancillary nonstructural protein function across parvovirus genera

    PubMed Central

    Mihaylov, Ivailo S.; Cotmore, Susan F.; Tattersall, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Parvoviruses encode a small number of ancillary proteins that differ substantially between genera. Within the genus Protoparvovirus, minute virus of mice (MVM) encodes three isoforms of its ancillary protein NS2, while human bocavirus 1 (HBoV1), in the genus Bocaparvovirus, encodes an NP1 protein that is unrelated in primary sequence to MVM NS2. To search for functional overlap between NS2 and NP1, we generated murine A9 cell populations that inducibly express HBoV1 NP1. These were used to test whether NP1 expression could complement specific defects resulting from depletion of MVM NS2 isoforms. NP1 induction had little impact on cell viability or cell cycle progression in uninfected cells, and was unable to complement late defects in MVM virion production associated with low NS2 levels. However, NP1 did relocate to MVM replication centers, and supports both the normal expansion of these foci and overcomes the early paralysis of DNA replication in NS2-null infections. PMID:25194919

  12. Diatoms from the Colombian and Peruvian Amazon: the Genera Encyonema, Encyonopsis and Gomphonema (Cymbellales: Bacillariophyceae).

    PubMed

    Vouilloud, Amelia A; Sala, Silvia E; Avellaneda, Marcela Núñez; Duque, Santiago R

    2010-03-01

    The diatom flora of the Colombian and Peruvian Amazon is far less studied than the flora of the Brazilian sector of the basin. Here we present results related to the genera Encyonema, Encyonopsis and Gomphonema. Plankton and periphyton samples were collected in lotic and lentic waterbodies from the Amazonian-Andean region, the Amazon River, Japurá River and Porvenir River basins during 1993, 1994, 2001 and 2003. At each sampling station pH, temperature, water transparency and conductivity were registered. Samples were analyzed with phase contrast microscope (LM) and scanning electron microscope (SEM). Ten taxa are new records for the area; Encyonema for the Peruvian and Colombian Amazon and Encyonopsis for the Colombian Sector. Encyonema neogracile var. tenuipunctatum, E. vulgare, Encyonopsis frequentis, Gomphonema augur var. sphaerophorum and G. contraturris are recorded for the first time in Colombia; Encyonema venezolanum and G. neoapiculatum in Colombia and Peru and the latter also for Amazonia. E. angustecapitatum was mentioned in Colombia before at a pond located at 3000 m asl. We describe a new species from Porvenir River, Amazonas, Colombia: Encyonema amazonianum. PMID:20411706

  13. DNA barcodes reveal microevolutionary signals in fire response trait in two legume genera

    PubMed Central

    Bello, Abubakar; Daru, Barnabas H.; Stirton, Charles H.; Chimphango, Samson B. M.; van der Bank, Michelle; Maurin, Olivier; Muasya, A. Muthama

    2015-01-01

    Large-scale DNA barcoding provides a new technique for species identification and evaluation of relationships across various levels (populations and species) and may reveal fundamental processes in recently diverged species. Here, we analysed DNA sequence variation in the recently diverged legumes from the Psoraleeae (Fabaceae) occurring in the Cape Floristic Region (CFR) of southern Africa to test the utility of DNA barcodes in species identification and discrimination. We further explored the phylogenetic signal on fire response trait (reseeding and resprouting) at species and generic levels. We showed that Psoraleoid legumes of the CFR exhibit a barcoding gap yielding the combination of matK and rbcLa (matK + rbcLa) data set as a better barcode than single regions. We found a high score (100 %) of correct identification of individuals to their respective genera but a very low score (<50 %) in identifying them to species. We found a considerable match (54 %) between genetic species and morphologically delimited species. We also found that different lineages showed a weak but significant phylogenetic conservatism in their response to fire as reseeders or resprouters, with more clustering of resprouters than would be expected by chance. These novel microevolutionary patterns might be acting continuously over time to produce multi-scale regularities of biodiversity. This study provides the first insight into the DNA barcoding campaign of land plants in species identification and detection of the phylogenetic signal in recently diverged lineages of the CFR. PMID:26507570

  14. Phylogeny and evolution of apusomonadida (protozoa: apusozoa): new genera and species.

    PubMed

    Cavalier-Smith, Thomas; Chao, Ema E

    2010-10-01

    Apusomonadida (Apusomonas; Amastigomonas) are understudied gliding zooflagellates. We divide Amastigomonas into five genera, three new: Podomonas; Manchomonas; Multimonas. Microscopy and 18S rDNA sequences establish three new marine species (Podomonas magna; P. capensis; Multimonas media) and a new cyst-forming non-marine species from the surface of ivy leaves (Thecamonas oxoniensis). We consider the soil and freshwater Amastigomonas debruynei, caudata, and borokensis generically distinct from marine Thecamonas. We establish the new combination Multimonas marina (formerly Cercomonas or Amastigomonas). We studied by DIC microscopy and 18S rDNA sequencing three strains microscopically indistinguishable from marine Thecamonas trahens and argue that marine strains of almost identical sequence and appearance (visible largely acronematic cilia) were previously misidentified as Am. debruynei. We argue that 'Amastigomonas sp.' ATCC50062, whose 18S rRNA was sequenced previously and whose complete genome is being sequenced, is T. trahens. We include electron micrographs of T. aff. trahens, P. capensis and magna; ultrastructural cytoskeletal differences between P. capensis, Thecamonas, and Manchomonas (=Amastigomonas) bermudensis comb. n. allow novel functional interpretations of apusomonad evolution. On 18S rDNA trees Apusomonas and Manchomonas form a robust clade (Apusomonadinae), but Thecomonas trahens, T. oxoniensis, Multimonas, and Podomonas all branch deeply but unstably. Apusomonadida and Planomonas are weakly sister to opisthokonts. PMID:20537943

  15. In situ analysis of anastomosis in representative genera of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi.

    PubMed

    Purin, Sonia; Morton, Joseph B

    2011-08-01

    Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) form obligate symbiotic associations with plants. As a result, the role of hyphal interactions in the establishment and maintenance of common mycorrhizal networks is poorly understood because of constraints on methods for in situ analysis. We designed a rhizohyphatron that allows the examination of intact mycelia growing from whole mycorrhizal plants. Plants preinoculated with spores were cultivated in a compartment with a connecting tube from which hyphae extend through a fine nylon mesh onto agar-coated slides. Species selected from each of the five AMF genera were used to assess and characterize the anastomosis behavior in the rhizohyphatron. Hyphal networks of Paraglomus occultum, Ambispora leptoticha, Scutellospora heterogama, and Gigaspora gigantea growing on the agar-coated slides showed no evidence of hyphal fusion. In contrast, anastomosis occurred in the hyphal networks of Glomus clarum and Glomus intraradices at an average frequency of less than 15% for both species. The rhizohyphatron developed in this study will provide knowledge of the biology and genetics of self/non-self recognition in AMF and help to better understand Glomeromycotan life history strategies. PMID:21221661

  16. Ticks associated with macquarie island penguins carry arboviruses from four genera.

    PubMed

    Major, Lee; Linn, May La; Slade, Robert W; Schroder, Wayne A; Hyatt, Alex D; Gardner, Joy; Cowley, Jeff; Suhrbier, Andreas

    2009-01-01

    Macquarie Island, a small subantarctic island, is home to rockhopper, royal and king penguins, which are often infested with the globally distributed seabird tick, Ixodes uriae. A flavivirus, an orbivirus, a phlebovirus, and a nairovirus were isolated from these ticks and partial sequences obtained. The flavivirus was nearly identical to Gadgets Gully virus, isolated some 30 year previously, illustrating the remarkable genetic stability of this virus. The nearest relative to the orbivirus (for which we propose the name Sandy Bay virus) was the Scottish Broadhaven virus, and provided only the second available sequences from the Great Island orbivirus serogroup. The phlebovirus (for which we propose the name Catch-me-cave virus) and the previously isolated Precarious Point virus were distinct but related, with both showing homology with the Finnish Uukuniemi virus. These penguin viruses provided the second and third available sequences for the Uukuniemi group of phleboviruses. The nairovirus (for which we propose the name Finch Creek virus) was shown to be related to the North American Tillamook virus, the Asian Hazara virus and Nairobi sheep disease virus. Macquarie Island penguins thus harbour arboviruses from at least four of the seven arbovirus-containing genera, with related viruses often found in the northern hemisphere. PMID:19194498

  17. Association of Growth Substrates and Bacterial Genera with Benzo[a]pyrene Mineralization in Contaminated Soil

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Maiysha D.; Rodgers-Vieira, Elyse A.; Hu, Jing; Aitken, Michael D.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) is a carcinogenic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) that is not known to be a bacterial growth substrate. Organisms capable of cometabolizing BaP in complex field-contaminated systems have not previously been identified. We evaluated BaP mineralization by a bacterial community from a bioreactor treating PAH-contaminated soil during coincubation with or after pre-enrichment on various PAHs as growth substrates. Pyrosequence libraries of 16S rRNA genes were used to identify bacteria that were enriched on the added growth substrate as a means of associating specific organisms with BaP mineralization. Coincubating the bioreactor-treated soil with naphthalene, phenanthrene, or pyrene inhibited BaP mineralization, whereas pre-enriching the soil on the same three PAHs enhanced BaP mineralization. Combined, these results suggest that bacteria in the bioreactor community that are capable of growing on naphthalene, phenanthrene, and/or pyrene can metabolize BaP, with coincubation competitively inhibiting BaP metabolism. Anthracene, fluoranthene, and benz[a]anthracene had little effect on BaP mineralization compared to incubations without an added growth substrate under either coincubation or pre-enrichment conditions. Substantial increases in relative abundance after pre-enrichment with phenanthrene, naphthalene, or pyrene, but not the other PAHs, suggest that members of the genera Cupriavidus and Luteimonas may have been associated with BaP mineralization. PMID:25469077

  18. Occurrence of Borrelia burgdorferi s.l. in different genera of mosquitoes (Culicidae) in Central Europe.

    PubMed

    Melaun, Christian; Zotzmann, Sina; Santaella, Vanesa Garcia; Werblow, Antje; Zumkowski-Xylander, Helga; Kraiczy, Peter; Klimpel, Sven

    2016-03-01

    Lyme disease or Lyme borreliosis is a vector-borne infectious disease caused by spirochetes of the Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato complex. Some stages of the borrelial transmission cycle in ticks (transstadial, feeding and co-feeding) can potentially occur also in insects, particularly in mosquitoes. In the present study, adult as well as larval mosquitoes were collected at 42 different geographical locations throughout Germany. This is the first study, in which German mosquitoes were analyzed for the presence of Borrelia spp. Targeting two specific borrelial genes, flaB and ospA encoding for the subunit B of flagellin and the outer surface protein A, the results show that DNA of Borrelia afzelii, Borrelia bavariensis and Borrelia garinii could be detected in ten Culicidae species comprising four distinct genera (Aedes, Culiseta, Culex, and Ochlerotatus). Positive samples also include adult specimens raised in the laboratory from wild-caught larvae indicating that transstadial and/or transovarial transmission might occur within a given mosquito population. PMID:26631488

  19. Nanoalumina promotes the horizontal transfer of multiresistance genes mediated by plasmids across genera

    PubMed Central

    Qiu, Zhigang; Yu, Yunmei; Chen, Zhaoli; Jin, Min; Yang, Dong; Zhao, Zuguo; Wang, Jingfeng; Shen, Zhiqiang; Wang, Xinwei; Qian, Di; Huang, Aihua; Zhang, Buchang; Li, Jun-Wen

    2012-01-01

    Antibiotic resistance is a worldwide public health concern. Conjugative transfer between closely related strains or species of bacteria is an important method for the horizontal transfer of multidrug-resistance genes. The extent to which nanomaterials are able to cause an increase in antibiotic resistance by the regulation of the conjugative transfer of antibiotic-resistance genes in bacteria, especially across genera, is still unknown. Here we show that nanomaterials in water can significantly promote the horizontal conjugative transfer of multidrug-resistance genes mediated by the RP4, RK2, and pCF10 plasmids. Nanoalumina can promote the conjugative transfer of the RP4 plasmid from Escherichia coli to Salmonella spp. by up to 200-fold compared with untreated cells. We also explored the mechanisms behind this phenomenon and demonstrate that nanoalumina is able to induce oxidative stress, damage bacterial cell membranes, enhance the expression of mating pair formation genes and DNA transfer and replication genes, and depress the expression of global regulatory genes that regulate the conjugative transfer of RP4. These findings are important in assessing the risk of nanomaterials to the environment, particularly from water and wastewater treatment systems, and in the estimation of the effect of manufacture and use of nanomaterials on the environment. PMID:22411796

  20. The comparative biology of diving in two genera of European Dytiscidae (Coleoptera).

    PubMed

    Calosi, P; Bilton, D T; Spicer, J I; Verberk, W C E P; Atfield, A; Garland, T

    2012-02-01

    Surfacing behaviour is fundamental in the ecology of aquatic air-breathing organisms; however, it is only in vertebrates that the evolutionary ecology of diving has been well characterized. Here, we explore the diving behaviour of dytiscid beetles, a key group of surface-exchanging freshwater invertebrates, by comparing the dive responses of 25 taxa (Deronectes and Ilybius spp.) acclimated at two temperatures. The allometric slopes of dive responses in these dytiscids appear similar to those of vertebrate ectotherms, supporting the notion that metabolic mode shapes the evolution of diving performance. In both genera, beetles spend more time submerged than on the surface, and surface time does not vary with the temperature of acclimation. However, presumably in order to meet increased oxygen demand at higher temperatures, Deronectes species increase surfacing frequency, whereas Ilybius species decrease dive time, an example of 'multiple solutions.' Finally, widespread northern species appear to possess higher diving performances than their geographically restricted southern relatives, something which may have contributed to their range expansion ability. PMID:22151892