Sample records for general acid catalyst

  1. The glmS Ribozyme Cofactor is a General Acid-Base Catalyst

    PubMed Central

    Viladoms, Julia; Fedor, Martha J.

    2012-01-01

    The glmS ribozyme is the first natural self-cleaving ribozyme known to require a cofactor. The D-glucosamine-6-phosphate (GlcN6P) cofactor has been proposed to serve as a general acid, but its role in the catalytic mechanism has not been established conclusively. We surveyed GlcN6P-like molecules for their ability to support self-cleavage of the glmS ribozyme and found a strong correlation between the pH dependence of the cleavage reaction and the intrinsic acidity of the cofactors. For cofactors with low binding affinities the contribution to rate enhancement was proportional to their intrinsic acidity. This linear free-energy relationship between cofactor efficiency and acid dissociation constants is consistent with a mechanism in which the cofactors participate directly in the reaction as general acid-base catalysts. A high value for the Brønsted coefficient (? ~ 0.7) indicates that a significant amount of proton transfer has already occurred in the transition state. The glmS ribozyme is the first self-cleaving RNA to use an exogenous acid-base catalyst. PMID:23113700

  2. A General, Simple Catalyst for Enantiospecific Cross Couplings of Benzylic Ammonium Triflates and Boronic Acids: No Phosphine Ligand Required.

    PubMed

    Shacklady-McAtee, Danielle M; Roberts, Kelsey M; Basch, Corey H; Song, Ye-Geun; Watson, Mary P

    2014-07-01

    Highly improved conditions for the enantiospecific cross coupling of benzylic ammonium triflates with boronic acids are reported. This method relies on the use of Ni(cod)2 without ancillary phosphine or N-heterocyclic carbene ligands as catalyst. These conditions enable the coupling of new classes of boronic acids and benzylic ammonium triflates. In particular, both heteroaromatic and vinyl boronic acids are well tolerated as coupling partners. In addition, these conditions enable the use of ammonium triflates with a variety of substituents at the benzylic stereocenter. Further, naphthyl-substitution is not required on the benzylic ammonium triflate; ammonium triflates with simple aromatic substituents also undergo this coupling. Good to high yields and levels of stereochemical fidelity are observed. This new catalyst system greatly expands the utility of enantiospecific cross couplings of these amine-derived substrates for the preparation of highly enantioenriched products. PMID:25364060

  3. Formic acid fuel cells and catalysts

    DOEpatents

    Masel, Richard I.; Larsen, Robert; Ha, Su Yun

    2010-06-22

    An exemplary fuel cell of the invention includes a formic acid fuel solution in communication with an anode (12, 134), an oxidizer in communication with a cathode (16, 135) electrically linked to the anode, and an anode catalyst that includes Pd. An exemplary formic acid fuel cell membrane electrode assembly (130) includes a proton-conducting membrane (131) having opposing first (132) and second surfaces (133), a cathode catalyst on the second membrane surface, and an anode catalyst including Pd on the first surface.

  4. Industrial application of solid acid–base catalysts

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kozo Tanabe; Wolfgang F. Hölderich

    1999-01-01

    A statistical survey of industrial processes using solid acid–base catalysts is presented. The number of processes such as alkylation, isomerization, amination, cracking, etherification, etc., and the catalysts such as zeolites, oxides, complex oxides, phosphates, ion-exchange resins, clays, etc., are 127 and 180, respectively. The classification of the types of catalysts into solid acid, solid base, and solid acid–base bifunctional catalysts

  5. A QM/MM study of Kemptide phosphorylation catalyzed by protein kinase A. The role of Asp166 as a general acid/base catalyst.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Gallegos, Ayax; Garcia-Viloca, Mireia; González-Lafont, Àngels; Lluch, José M

    2015-02-01

    In this work a theoretical study of the ?-phosphoryl group transfer from ATP to Ser17 of the synthetic substrate Kemptide (LRRASLG) in protein kinase A (PKA) has been carried out with a solvated model of the PKA-Mg2ATP-Kemptide system based on the X-ray crystallographic structure. We have used high levels (B3LYP/MM and MP2/MM) of theory to determine the overall reaction paths of the so-called concerted loose mechanism trying to clarify some aspects of that mechanism still under debate. Our calculations demonstrate for the first time in a complete model of the ternary system the viability of the final step of the catalytic mechanism in which the protonation of the phosphokemptide product by Asp166 takes place. Asp166 is a base catalyst that abstracts the H?Ser17 of Kemptide thus facilitating the phosphoryl transfer, but it also acts as an acid catalyst by donating the proton just accepted from Ser17 to the O2?ATP atom of the phosphoryl group. PMID:25535906

  6. In situ biodiesel production from greasy sewage sludge using acid and enzymatic catalysts.

    PubMed

    Sangaletti-Gerhard, Naiane; Cea, Mara; Risco, Vicky; Navia, Rodrigo

    2015-03-01

    This study proposes to select the most appropriate sewage sludge (greasy, primary and secondary) for in situ transesterification and to compare the technical, economic and energetic performance of an enzymatic catalyst (Novozym®435) with sulfuric acid. Greasy sludge was selected as feedstock for biodiesel production due to its high lipid content (44.4%) and low unsaponifiable matter. Maximum methyl esters yield (61%) was reached when processing the wet sludge using sulfuric acid as catalyst and n-hexane, followed by dried-greasy sludge catalyzed by Novozym®435 (57% methyl esters). Considering the economic point of view, the process using acid catalyst was more favorable compared to Novozym®435 catalyst due to the high cost of lipase. In general, greasy sludge (wet or dried) showed high potential to produce biodiesel. However, further technical adjustments are needed to make biodiesel production by in situ transesterification using acid and enzymatic catalyst feasible. PMID:25528605

  7. Acid monolayer functionalized iron oxide nanoparticle catalysts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ikenberry, Myles

    Superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticle functionalization is an area of intensely active research, with applications across disciplines such as biomedical science and heterogeneous catalysis. This work demonstrates the functionalization of iron oxide nanoparticles with a quasi-monolayer of 11-sulfoundecanoic acid, 10-phosphono-1-decanesulfonic acid, and 11-aminoundecanoic acid. The carboxylic and phosphonic moieties form bonds to the iron oxide particle core, while the sulfonic acid groups face outward where they are available for catalysis. The particles were characterized by thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), potentiometric titration, diffuse reflectance infrared Fourier transform spectroscopy (DRIFTS), inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES), X-ray photoelectron spectrometry (XPS), and dynamic light scattering (DLS). The sulfonic acid functionalized particles were used to catalyze the hydrolysis of sucrose at 80° and starch at 130°, showing a higher activity per acid site than the traditional solid acid catalyst Amberlyst-15, and comparing well against results reported in the literature for sulfonic acid functionalized mesoporous silicas. In sucrose catalysis reactions, the phosphonic-sulfonic nanoparticles (PSNPs) were seen to be incompletely recovered by an external magnetic field, while the carboxylic-sulfonic nanoparticles (CSNPs) showed a trend of increasing activity over the first four recycle runs. Between the two sulfonic ligands, the phosphonates produced a more tightly packed monolayer, which corresponded to a higher sulfonic acid loading, lower agglomeration, lower recoverability through application of an external magnetic field, and higher activity per acid site for the hydrolysis of starch. Functionalizations with 11-aminoundecanoic acid resulted in some amine groups binding to the surfaces of iron oxide nanoparticles. This amine binding is commonly ignored in iron oxide nanoparticle syntheses and functionalizations for biomedical and catalytic applications, affecting understandings of surface charge and other material properties.

  8. Catalyst and electrode research for phosphoric acid fuel cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Antoine, A. C.; King, R. B.

    1987-01-01

    An account is given of the development status of phosphoric acid fuel cells' high performance catalyst and electrode materials. Binary alloys have been identified which outperform the baseline platinum catalyst; it has also become apparent that pressurized operation is required to reach the desired efficiencies, calling in turn for the use of graphitized carbon blacks in the role of catalyst supports. Efforts to improve cell performance and reduce catalyst costs have led to the investigation of a class of organometallic cathode catalysts represented by the tetraazaannulenes, and a mixed catalyst which is a mixture of carbons catalyzed with an organometallic and a noble metal.

  9. The Effect of Supercritical Fluids on Solid Acid Catalyst Alkylation

    SciTech Connect

    Ginosar, Daniel Michael; Thompson, David Neil; Burch, Kyle Coates; Zalewski, D. J.

    2002-05-01

    The alkylation of isobutane with trans-2-butene was explored over six solid acid catalysts in the liquid, near-critical liquid, and supercritical regions through the addition of an inert cosolvent to the reaction feed mixture. The addition of supercritical cosolvents did not result in sustained catalytic alkylation activity. A modest improvement in product yield was obtained with the addition of methane in the modified-liquid region; however, catalyst longevity and product selectivity were decreased compared to cosolvent-free liquid conditions. This paper describes the catalyst screening and selection process, an exploration of catalyst performance with varying concentrations of methane, and an examination of the effects of seven supercritical fluids on catalyst performance. The catalysts included two zeolites, two sulfated metal oxides, and two Nafion catalysts. Three hydrocarbons, two fluorocarbons, carbon dioxide, and sulfur hexafluoride were explored as inert cosolvents added to the reaction mixture.

  10. Surface acidity and degree of carburization of modified silver catalysts

    SciTech Connect

    Pestryakov, A.N.; Belousova, V.N.; Roznina, M.I. [Tomsk Institute of Construction Engineering (Russian Federation)

    1993-11-10

    The effect has been studied of some compounds as modifying additives on the surface acidity, degree of carburization, aggregation and silver entrainement of silver-pumice catalysts for methanol oxidation. Catalyst samples have been tested in an industrial reactor. The probable mechanism of modifying action of the additives is discussed.

  11. EPA'S CATALYST RESEARCH PROGRAM: ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT OF SULFURIC ACID EMISSIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    A sulfuric acid review conference sponsored by EPA's automotive Catalyst Research Program was held recently at Hendersonville, NC, for researchers whose work is funded by EPA. Emissions characterization research indicated that in-use catalyst-equipped vehicles emit low levels of ...

  12. Method for producing iron-based acid catalysts

    SciTech Connect

    Farcasiu, M.; Kathrein, H.; Kaufman, P.B.; Diehl, J.R.

    1998-04-01

    A method for preparing an acid catalyst with a long shelf-life is described. Crystalline iron oxides are doped with lattice compatible metals which are heated with halogen compounds at elevated temperatures.

  13. Esterification of acidic oils over a versatile amorphous solid catalyst.

    PubMed

    Zaccheria, Federica; Brini, Simona; Psaro, Rinaldo; Scotti, Nicola; Ravasio, Nicoletta

    2009-01-01

    An amorphous SiO(2)-ZrO(2) catalyst shows high activity in the esterification of free fatty acids contained in vegetable oils while at the same time promoting the transesterification of triglycerides. The catalyst is hence a good candidate for a low-waste deacidification pretreatment or for a one-pot biodiesel production process starting from oils with a high acid content. PMID:19479893

  14. Biodiesel production process by homogeneous\\/heterogeneous catalytic system using an acid–base catalyst

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Anastasia Macario; Girolamo Giordano; Barbara Onida; Donato Cocina; Antonio Tagarelli; Angelo Maria Giuffrè

    2010-01-01

    The transesterification of triglycerides contained in waste oilseed fruits with methanol has been studied in heterogeneous\\/homogeneous systems using acid and base catalysts. The acid catalysts (strong acid catalysts: USY, BEA, FAU-X, and weak acid catalysts: MCM-41 and ITQ-6 with Si\\/Al=?) were prepared by hydrothermal synthesis procedures. In order to obtain acid–base catalysts, potassium was loaded on different materials by ionic

  15. Conversion of spent solid phosphoric Acid catalyst to environmentally friendly fertilizer.

    PubMed

    Merwe, Werner van der

    2010-03-01

    Solid phosphoric acid (SPA) catalysts are widely used in the petroleum industry. Despite a high phosphorus content the spent catalyst is generally not reused. Moreover, due to the limited life spans that are achieved industrially, large quantities of spent catalyst requires disposal, often by landfill. SPA can be readily converted to fertilizer, but the presence of carbonaceous deposits on the catalyst presents a potential environmental hazard. This work demonstrates that these deposits are mostly polyaromatic (amorphous carbon) with smaller amounts of oxygenates and aliphatics. Neither the chemical makeup nor the physical structure of the catalyst or the presence of coke precludes it from use as fertilizer. Subsequently, the spent catalyst was milled, neutralized with lime and ammonium hydroxide, and then calcined to yield a phosphate-rich fertilizer. Toxicity characteristic leaching tests of the spent catalyst fertilizer showed low levels of metals and organics, establishing that no harmful compounds are likely to be absorbed into plant life or groundwater. A plant growth study of the spent catalyst fertilizer indicated that it is approximately as effective as superphosphate fertilizer when used in alkaline soil. The spent catalyst fertilizer is environmentally benign and economically efficient. PMID:20146419

  16. Upgrading of natural gasoline with trifluoromethane sulfonic acid, hydrofluoric acid and Lewis acid catalyst

    SciTech Connect

    Olah, G.A.

    1984-09-18

    Natural gasoline of low octane value derived from natural gas is upgraded to higher octane value by means of a liquid ternary catalyst comprising trifluoromethane-sulfonic acid and hydrogen fluoride in conjunction with a Lewis acid of the formula MX /SUB n/ wherein M is selected from Group III-A, IV-B or V elements of the Periodic Table, x is a halogen and n is a number varying from 3 to 6. Effective upgrading is achieved when the Lewis acid:HF mole ratio of the catalyst ranges from 1:2 to 2:1 at temperatures less than about 120/sup 0/ C. under liquid phase conditions.

  17. Heterogeneous catalysts for the production of anthraquinone from 2-benzoylbenzoic acid

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. Tesser; M. Di Serio; M. Ambrosio; E. Santacesaria

    2002-01-01

    In the present paper, the dehydration reaction of 2-benzoylbenzoic acid (BBA) has been investigated in the presence of different heterogeneous catalysts, based on heteropoly acids (polyoxometalates), by using, in a first approach, a batch reactor for screening the best catalysts and, in a second step, a pseudo-continuous multifunctional reactor for determining reaction yields, catalysts productivity and deactivation of the catalyst

  18. Functionalized carbon nanofibers as solid-acid catalysts for transesterification.

    PubMed

    Stellwagen, Daniel R; van der Klis, Frits; van Es, Daan S; de Jong, Krijn P; Bitter, Johannes H

    2013-09-01

    Carbon nanofibers (CNFs) were functionalized with aryl sulfonic acid groups using in situ diazonium coupling. The use of diazonium coupling yielded an acidic carbon material, in which the introduced acidic groups are readily accessible to the triglyceride substrate. The material is an efficient catalyst for the transesterification of triolein and methanol, outperforming conventional sulfonated carbons in both stability and activity per acid site. Upon comparing CNFs with varying degrees of functionalization, a linear correlation between sulfonic acid sites and catalytic performance was found. PMID:23908100

  19. Pyruvic acid production using methylotrophic yeast transformants as catalyst

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Amy Eisenberg; John E. Seip; John E. Gavagan; Mark S. Payne; David L. Anton; Robert DiCosimo

    1997-01-01

    Permeabilized transformants of the methylotrophic yeasts Hansenula polymorpha and Pichia pastoris which express both the glycolate oxidase ((S)-2-hydroxyacid oxidase, EC 1.1.3.15) from spinach and an endogenous catalase (EC 1.11.1.6) have been used as catalysts for the oxidation of l-lactic acid to pyruvic acid. Oxidations of the sodium or ammonium salts of l-lactate at concentrations of up to 1.06 M were

  20. On the acidity and reactivity of highly effective chiral Brønsted acid catalysts: establishment of an acidity scale.

    PubMed

    Kaupmees, Karl; Tolstoluzhsky, Nikita; Raja, Sadiya; Rueping, Magnus; Leito, Ivo

    2013-10-25

    Stronger acid, higher speed: The pKa ?values of a range of binol-derived Brønsted acids of three different types were measured and found to correlate directly with the catalytic properties of the acids: higher rate constants kI were observed for more acidic Brønsted acid catalysts (see plot; binol=1,1'-bi-2-naphthol). PMID:24039083

  1. Corrosion-resistant catalyst supports for phosphoric acid fuel cells

    SciTech Connect

    Kosek, J.A.; Cropley, C.C.; LaConti, A.B.

    1990-01-01

    High-surface-area carbon blacks such as Vulcan XC-72 (Cabot Corp.) and graphitized carbon blacks such as 2700{degree}C heat-treated Black Pearls 2000 (HTBP) (Cabot Corp.) have found widespread applications as catalyst supports in phosphoric acid fuel cells (PAFCs). However, due to the operating temperatures and pressures being utilized in PAFCs currently under development, the carbon-based cathode catalyst supports suffer from corrosion, which decreases the performance and life span of a PAFC stack. The feasibility of using alternative, low-cost, corrosion-resistant catalyst support (CRCS) materials as replacements for the cathode carbon support materials was investigated. The objectives of the program were to prepare high-surface-area alternative supports and to evaluate the physical characteristics and the electrochemical stability of these materials. The O{sub 2} reduction activity of the platinized CRCS materials was also evaluated. 2 refs., 3 figs.

  2. Corrosion-resistant catalyst supports for phosphoric acid fuel cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kosek, J. A.; Cropley, C. C.; Laconti, A. B.

    High-surface-area carbon blacks such as Vulcan XC-72 (Cabot Corp.) and graphitized carbon blacks such as 2700 C heat-treated Black Pearls 2000 (HTBP) (Cabot Corp.) have found widespread applications as catalyst supports in phosphoric acid fuel cells (PAFCs). However, due to the operating temperatures and pressures being utilized in PAFCs currently under development, the carbon-based cathode catalyst supports suffer from corrosion, which decreases the performance and life span of a PAFC stack. The feasibility of using alternative, low-cost, corrosion-resistant catalyst support (CRCS) materials as replacements for the cathode carbon support materials was investigated. The objectives of the program were to prepare high-surface-area alternative supports and to evaluate the physical characteristics and the electrochemical stability of these materials. The O2 reduction activity of the platinized CRCS materials was also evaluated.

  3. Role of solid acid catalysts in bio diesel production.

    PubMed

    Shivayogimath, C B; Sunita, G; Manoj Kumar, B

    2009-07-01

    Biodiesel is gaining importance as an alternate source of attractive fuel because of depleting fossil fuel resources. It is produced by trans-esterification, in which oil or fat reacts with a monohydric alcohol in presence of a catalyst. In the present work, trans-esterification of sunflower oil with methanol is carried out by using zirconia supported isopoly and heteropoly tungstates (HPAs) as catalysts. Effects of reaction parameters, such as catalyst types and its concentration, molar ratio of sunflower oil to methanol, reaction temperature and time, have been optimized to get higher conversion of sunflower oil and the product distribution of fatty acid methyl esters (FAME) in the trans-esterfication reaction. PMID:21117436

  4. Acetic Acid from the Carbonylation of Chloride Methane Over Rhodium Based Catalysts

    E-print Network

    Bao, Xinhe

    Acetic Acid from the Carbonylation of Chloride Methane Over Rhodium Based Catalysts Yafang Fan Æ Chloride methane Á Carbonylation Á Rhodium catalysts 1 Introduction The conversion of natural gas has be carbonylated by carbon monoxide over rhodium-based catalyst to produce acetic acid [14]. The possibility

  5. Starch saccharification by carbon-based solid acid catalyst

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamaguchi, Daizo; Hara, Michikazu

    2010-06-01

    The hydrolysis of cornstarch using a highly active solid acid catalyst, a carbon material bearing SO 3H, COOH and OH groups, was investigated at 353-393 K through an analysis of variance (ANOVA) and an artificial neural network (ANN). ANOVA revealed that reaction temperature and time are significant parameters for the catalytic hydrolysis of starch. The ANN model indicated that the reaction efficiency reaches a maximum at an optimal condition (water, 0.8-1.0 mL; starch, 0.3-0.4 g; catalyst, 0.3 g; reaction temperature, 373 K; reaction time, 3 h). The relationship between the reaction and these parameters is discussed on the basis of the reaction mechanism.

  6. Non-noble catalysts and catalyst supports for phosphoric acid fuel cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcalister, A. J.

    1981-01-01

    Four different samples of the cubic alloys W sub x-1 Ti sub x C sub 1-y were prepared and found to be active and CO tolerant. When the activities of these cubic alloys were weighted by the reciprocal of the square of the W exchange, they displayed magnitudes and dependence on bulk C deficiency comparable to those of highly active forms of WC. It is concluded that they may offer important insight into the nature of the active sites on, and means for improving the performance of, W-C anode catalysts for use in phosphoric acid fuel cells.

  7. Non-noble catalysts and catalyst supports for phosphoric acid fuel cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcalister, A. J.

    1980-01-01

    Tungsten carbide, which is known to be active for hydrogen oxidation and CO tolerant has a hexagonal structure. Titanium carbide is inactive and has a cubic structure. Four different samples of the cubic alloys Wx-1TixC were prepared and found to be active and CO tolerant. These alloys are of interest as possible phosphoric acid fuel cell catalysts. They also are of interest as opportunities to study the activity of W in a different crystalline environment and to correlate the activities of the surface sites with surface composition.

  8. Non-noble catalysts and catalyst supports for phosphoric acid fuel cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcalister, A. J.

    1981-01-01

    Tungsten carbide, which is active for hydrogen oxidation, is CO tolerant and has a hexagonal structure is discussed. Titanium carbide is inactive and has a cubic structure. Four different samples of the cubic alloys W sub x-1Ti sub XC sub 1-y were found to be active and CO tolerant. When the activities of these cubic alloys are weighted by the reciprocal of the square to those of highly forms of WC. They offer important insight into the nature of the active sites on W-C anode catalysts for use in phosphoric acid fuel cells.

  9. Highly efficient esterification of carboxylic acids with alcohols by montmorillonite-enwrapped titanium as a heterogeneous acid catalyst

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tomonori Kawabata; Tomoo Mizugaki; Kohki Ebitani; Kiyotomi Kaneda

    2003-01-01

    Montmorillonite-enwrapped titanium catalyst was found to efficiently promote the esterification of carboxylic acids with alcohols. In comparison to other catalysts reported to date, this heterogeneous catalyst offers a remarkably simple workup procedure, and is reusable without any appreciable loss in its activity and selectivity.

  10. Synthesis of a Novel Carbon Based Strong Acid Catalyst Through Hydrothermal Carbonization

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Xuezheng Liang; Jianguo Yang

    2009-01-01

    A novel carbon based strong acid catalyst has been synthesized through the sulfonation of the carbon materials from glucose.\\u000a The novel acid catalyst was obtained through the hydrothermal carbonization instead of the traditional heat treatment, which\\u000a made the carbonization process under much milder condition with higher yield. The novel heterogeneous catalyst owned the advantages\\u000a of high acidity as much as

  11. Production of glycolic acid from glycerol using novel fine-disperse platinum catalysts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sproge, E.; Chornaja, S.; Dubencovs, K.; Kampars, V.; Kulikova, L.; Serga, V.; Karashanova, D.

    2015-03-01

    Using extractive-pyrolytic method fine-disperse Pt containing composites were synthesized and tested in catalytic glycerol oxidation. Catalyst activity and selectivity to glycolic acid was determined oxidizing glycerol in mild conditions. It was concluded that only iron containing platinum catalysts were selective to glycolic acid. Selectivity to glycolic acid reached 53-60% with glycerol conversion 12-56%.

  12. Synthesis and applications of novel imidazole and benzimidazole based sulfonic acid group functionalized Brönsted acidic ionic liquid catalysts

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rajkumar Kore; Rajendra Srivastava

    2011-01-01

    In this study, a variety of imidazole\\/benzimidazole based sulfonic acid group functionalized Brönsted acidic ionic liquids (BAILs) were synthesized. Catalytic activities of BAILs were assessed using multi-component coupling reactions. Catalytic activities of BAILs were high when compared with those of solid acid catalysts such as H-ZSM-5, H-BETA, and sulfonic acid functionalized SBA-15 catalysts. The Hammett acidity order determined from UV–visible

  13. Selective oxidation of glucose to gluconic acid over Pd–Te supported catalysts

    Microsoft Academic Search

    I. Wito?ska; M. Frajtak; S. Karski

    2011-01-01

    The effect of tellurium introduction on the activity and selectivity of home-made supported palladium catalysts in the oxidation of glucose to gluconic acid was studied. Bimetallic Pd–Te\\/SiO2 and Pd–Te\\/Al2O3 catalysts containing 5wt.% of Pd and 0.3–5wt.% of Te are characterized by both high activity and high selectivity to gluconic acid. However, catalysts 5%Pd–8%Te\\/support show lower conversion but their selectivity to

  14. The effect of acid–base pairing on catalysis: An efficient acid–base functionalized catalyst for aldol condensation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ryan K. Zeidan; Mark E. Davis

    2007-01-01

    Acid–base bifunctionalized heterogeneous catalysts may be capable of exhibiting reactivity not achievable with homogeneous catalysts. We investigated the effect of pKa of the acid component of mesoporous solids containing acid–base bifunctionality on their catalytic ability toward aldol condensation between 4-nitrobenzaldehyde and acetone. We found that higher levels of aldol product conversion were obtained when weaker acid components (phosphoric, carboxylic vs

  15. Novel SBA15 supported heteropoly acid catalysts for benzene alkylation with 1-dodecene

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hai-Ou Zhu; Jun Wang; Chong-Yu Zeng; Dong-Yuan Zhao

    2003-01-01

    Phosphotungstic acid (PW) catalysts supported on the mesoporous molecular sieve SBA-15 have been prepared, characterized and evaluated in the alkylation reaction of benzene with 1-dodecene. SBA-15 supported PW catalysts exhibit much higher catalytic activity, stability and selectivity compared with HY zeolite. It is proposed that the high dispersion of PW on SBA-15, high surface area, mesoporosity and specific acidity of

  16. Comparison of catalysts for direct transesterification of fatty acids in freeze-dried forage samples

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Preparation of fatty acid methyl esters from forages comparing BF3 in CH3OH to HCl in CH3OH as a catalyst in single-step direct transesterification has not been reported. Our objective was to compare 1.09 M methanolic HCl to 7% BF3 in CH3OH as catalysts for direct transesterification of fatty acids ...

  17. Gas Phase Catalytic Oxidation of ?-Picoline to Nicotinic Acid: Catalysts, Mechanism and Reaction Kinetics

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tamara V. Andrushkevich; Elena V. Ovchinnikova

    2012-01-01

    An overview of the fundamental studies on a new method of nicotinic acid synthesis by the gas phase catalytic oxidation of ?-picoline by oxygen is presented. The nature of active component in vanadia catalysts and reactivity of vanadium species are considered. Common features and differences in the mechanistic steps of nicotinic acid formation on various catalysts investigated by in situ

  18. Acidity and catalytic activity of polyfunctional zeolite catalysts in the benzene-propene-diisopropylbenzene system

    Microsoft Academic Search

    I. I. Lishchiner; V. A. Plakhotnik; D. Z. Levin; E. S. Mortikov; V. F. Ilyin

    1983-01-01

    Studies on the effect of the acidity of polyfunctional zeolite catalysts on their activity in benzene alkylation by propene and its transalkylation by diisopropylbenzene (DIPB) have revealed that alkylation and transalkylation of aromatics proceed on catalytic centers of different acidity.

  19. Efficient hydrogen generation from sodium borohydride hydrolysis using silica sulfuric acid catalyst

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manna, Joydev; Roy, Binayak; Sharma, Pratibha

    2015-02-01

    A heterogeneous acid catalyst, silica sulfuric acid, was prepared from silica gel (SiO2) and sulfuric acid (H2SO4). Addition of SO3H functional group to SiO2 has been confirmed through various characterization techniques. The effect of this heterogeneous acid catalyst on hydrogen generation from sodium borohydride hydrolysis reaction was studied for different ratios of catalyst to NaBH4 and at different temperatures. The catalyst exhibited high catalytic activity towards sodium borohydride hydrolysis reaction. The activation energy of the NaBH4 hydrolysis reaction in the presence of silica sulfuric acid was calculated to be the lowest (17 kJ mol-1) among reported heterogeneous catalysts till date.

  20. n-hydrocarbons conversions over metal-modified solid acid catalysts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zarubica, A.; Ran?elovi?, M.; Mom?ilovi?, M.; Radulovi?, N.; Putanov, P.

    2013-12-01

    The quality of a straight-run fuel oil can be improved if saturated n-hydrocarbons of low octane number are converted to their branched counterparts. Poor reactivity of traditional catalysts in isomerization reactions imposed the need for the development of new catalysts among which noble metal promoted acid catalysts, liquid and/or solid acid catalysts take a prominent place. Sulfated zirconia and metal promoted sulfated zirconia exhibit high activity for the isomerization of light alkanes at low temperatures. The present paper highlights the original results which indicate that the modification of sulfated zirconia by incorporation of metals (platinum and rhenium) significantly affects catalytic performances in n-hydrocarbon conversion reactions. Favourable activity/selectivity of the promoted sulfated zirconia depends on the crystal phase composition, critical crystallites sizes, platinum dispersion, total acidity and type of acidity. Attention is also paid to the recently developed solid acid catalysts used in other conversion reactions of hydrocarbons.

  1. Manipulating catalytic pathways: deoxygenation of palmitic acid on multifunctional catalysts.

    PubMed

    Peng, Baoxiang; Zhao, Chen; Kasakov, Stanislav; Foraita, Sebastian; Lercher, Johannes A

    2013-04-01

    The mechanism of the catalytic reduction of palmitic acid to n-pentadecane at 260 °C in the presence of hydrogen over catalysts combining multiple functions has been explored. The reaction involves rate-determining reduction of the carboxylic group of palmitic acid to give hexadecanal, which is catalyzed either solely by Ni or synergistically by Ni and the ZrO2 support. The latter route involves adsorption of the carboxylic acid group at an oxygen vacancy of ZrO2 and abstraction of the ?-H with elimination of O to produce the ketene, which is in turn hydrogenated to the aldehyde over Ni sites. The aldehyde is subsequently decarbonylated to n-pentadecane on Ni. The rate of deoxygenation of palmitic acid is higher on Ni/ZrO2 than that on Ni/SiO2 or Ni/Al2O3, but is slower than that on H-zeolite-supported Ni. As the partial pressure of H2 is decreased, the overall deoxygenation rate decreases. In the absence of H2, ketonization catalyzed by ZrO2 is the dominant reaction. Pd/C favors direct decarboxylation (-CO2), while Pt/C and Raney Ni catalyze the direct decarbonylation pathway (-CO). The rate of deoxygenation of palmitic acid (in units of mmol moltotal metal(-1) h(-1)) decreases in the sequence r(Pt black) ?r(Pd black) >r(Raney Ni) in the absence of H2 . In situ IR spectroscopy unequivocally shows the presence of adsorbed ketene (C=C=O) on the surface of ZrO2 during the reaction with palmitic acid at 260 °C in the presence or absence of H2. PMID:23519964

  2. Heteropoly acid supported on titania as solid acid catalyst in alkylation of p-cresol with tert-butanol

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Suresh M. Kumbar; G. V. Shanbhag; F. Lefebvre; S. B. Halligudi

    2006-01-01

    Butylation of p-cresol with tert-butanol was investigated on titania modified with 12-tungstophosphoric acid (TPA\\/TiO2) catalyst under vapor phase conditions. Catalysts with different TPA loadings (10–25wt.%) and calcination temperatures (650–750°C) were prepared by suspending titanium hydroxide in methanol solution of TPA followed by drying and calcination. These catalysts were characterized by surface area, XRD, 31P MAS NMR, XPS, NH3-TPD, and FTIR

  3. Enhanced production of hydroxymethylfurfural from fructose with solid acid catalysts by simple water removal methods

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ken-ichi Shimizu; Rie Uozumi; Atsushi Satsuma

    2009-01-01

    This paper demonstrates two simple ways to increase 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) yield (selectivity) in fructose dehydration with various solid acid catalysts. One is a water removal from the reaction mixture by a mild evacuation at 0.97×105Pa; it increases HMF yield for various catalysts (heteropoly acid, zeolite, and acidic resin). The removal of water suppresses two undesired reactions: the hydrolysis of HMF

  4. High-temperature sulfuric acid decomposition over complex metal oxide catalysts

    SciTech Connect

    Daniel M. Ginosar; Harry W. Rollins; Lucia M. Petkovic; Kyle C. Burch; Michael J. Rush

    2009-05-01

    Activity and stability of FeTiO3, MnTiO3, NiFe2O4, CuFe2O4, NiCr2O4, 2CuO•Cr2O3, CuO and Fe2O3 for the atmospheric decomposition of concentrated sulfuric acid in sulfur-based thermochemical water splitting cycles are presented. Catalyst activity was determined at temperatures from 725 to 900 °C. Catalytic stability was examined at 850 °C for up to one week of continuous operation. The results were compared to a 1.0 wt% Pt/TiO2 catalyst. Surface area by nitrogen physisorption, X-ray diffraction analyses, and temperature programmed desorption and oxidation were used to characterize fresh and spent catalyst samples. Over the temperature range, the catalyst activity of the complex oxides followed the general trend: 2CuO•Cr2O3 > CuFe2O4 > NiCr2O4 ˜ NiFe2O4 > MnTiO3 ˜ FeTiO3. At temperatures less than 800 °C, the 1.0 wt% Pt/TiO2 catalyst had higher activity than the complex oxides, but at temperatures above 850 °C, the 2CuO•Cr2O3 and CuFe2O4 samples had the highest activity. Surface area was found to decrease for all of the metal oxides after exposure to reaction conditions. In addition, the two complex metal oxides that contained chromium were not stable in the reaction environment; both leached chromium into the acid stream and decomposed into their individual oxides. The FeTiO3 sample also produced a discoloration of the reactor due to minor leaching and converted to Fe2TiO5. Fe2O3, MnTiO3 and NiFe2O4 were relatively stable in the reaction environment. In addition, CuFe2O4 catalyst appeared promising due to its high activity and lack of any leaching issues.

  5. Acid\\/epoxy reaction catalyst screening for low temperature (120 °C) powder coatings

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Glen Merfeld; Chris Molaison; Rainer Koeniger; A. Ersin Acar; Steve Mordhorst; Joe Suriano; Pat Irwin; Ron Singh Warner; Ken Gray; Mark Smith; Kevin Kovaleski; Greg Garrett; Steve Finley; Debora Meredith; Mike Spicer; Tom Naguy

    2005-01-01

    This paper describes efforts to identify and screen suitable acid\\/epoxy reaction catalysts for low temperature curing (?120°C) powder coatings including tertiary amines, ammonium compounds, and metal complexes. Thermal analysis techniques were developed to aid evaluation of catalyst efficacy and a statistical design of experiments was carried out to study several commercially available catalysts. In three different resin\\/crosslinker systems, the effect

  6. Role of dehydration catalyst acid properties on one-step DME synthesis over physical mixtures

    Microsoft Academic Search

    F. S. Ramos; A. M. Duarte de Farias; L. E. P. Borges; J. L. Monteiro; M. A. Fraga; E. F. Sousa-Aguiar; L. G. Appel

    2005-01-01

    The direct synthesis of dimethyl ether (DME) was studied in a continuous high-pressure unit composed basically of a Berty reactor and on-line gas chromatograph. A commercial methanol synthesis catalyst and some solid-acid catalysts (alumina, HZSM-5, tungsten–zirconia and sulfated-zirconia) were used as physical mixtures. The dehydration catalysts were characterised by pyridine adsorption followed by IR spectroscopy and tested in the methanol

  7. Syntheses of biodiesel precursors: sulfonic acid catalysts for condensation of biomass-derived platform molecules.

    PubMed

    Balakrishnan, Madhesan; Sacia, Eric R; Bell, Alexis T

    2014-04-01

    Synthesis of transportation fuel from lignocellulosic biomass is an attractive solution to the green alternative-energy problem. The production of biodiesel, in particular, involves the process of upgrading biomass-derived small molecules to diesel precursors containing a specific carbon range (C11 -C23). Herein, a carbon-upgrading process utilizing an acid-catalyzed condensation of furanic platform molecules from biomass is described. Various types of sulfonic acid catalysts have been evaluated for this process, including biphasic and solid supported catalysts. A silica-bound alkyl sulfonic acid catalyst has been developed for promoting carbon-carbon bond formation of biomass-derived carbonyl compounds with 2-methylfuran. This hydrophobic solid acid catalyst exhibits activity and selectivity that are comparable to those of a soluble acid catalyst. The catalyst can be readily recovered and recycled, possesses appreciable hydrolytic stability in the presence of water, and retains its acidity over multiple reaction cycles. Application of this catalyst to biomass-derived platform molecules led to the synthesis of a variety of furanic compounds, which are potential biodiesel precursors. PMID:24596031

  8. Catalysts

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The Concord Consortium

    2011-12-11

    There are two types of catalysis reactions: homogeneous and heterogeneous. In a homogeneous reaction, the catalyst is in the same phase as the reactants. In a heterogeneous reaction, the catalyst is in a different phase from the reactants. This activity addresses homogeneous catalysis.

  9. Heterogeneous catalysts for the transformation of fatty acid triglycerides and their derivatives to fuel hydrocarbons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yakovlev, Vadim A.; Khromova, Sofia A.; Bukhtiyarov, Valerii I.

    2011-10-01

    The results of studies devoted to the catalysts for transformation of fatty acid triglycerides and their derivatives to fuel hydrocarbons are presented and described systematically. Various approaches to the use of heterogeneous catalysts for the production of biofuel from these raw materials are considered. The bibliography includes 134 references.

  10. Silica sulfuric acid a novel and heterogeneous catalyst for the synthesis of some new oxindole derivatives

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Javad Azizian; Ali A. Mohammadi; Narges Karimi; Mohammad R. Mohammadizadeh; Ali R. Karimi

    2006-01-01

    Silica sulfuric acid catalyzed efficiently the electrophilic substitution reaction of an indoles with various isatins in dicholoro methane to afford the corresponding oxindoles derivatives in high yields under r.t. The catalyst exhibited remarkable reusable activity.

  11. Acidic ionic liquid as "quasi-homogeneous" catalyst for controllable synthesis of cellulose acetate.

    PubMed

    Tian, Dong; Han, Yangyang; Lu, Canhui; Zhang, Xinxing; Yuan, Guiping

    2014-11-26

    In this paper, we demonstrated that acidic ionic liquids (ILs) can be used as "quasi-homogeneous" catalysts for the efficient acetylation of cellulose. Unlike existing techniques that use large amount of ILs as solvent to dissolve and acetylate cellulose, a small amount of acidic ILs was used as catalyst in this study to overcome the low efficiency associated with relatively high viscosity and costs of ILs during homogeneous acetylation. Fully substituted cellulose acetate with a conversion of 88.8% was obtained by using only 9 mol% IL 1-vinyl-3-(3-sulfopropyl) imidazolium hydrogen sulfate as catalyst, which is much higher than that of common commercialized solid acid catalysts. The degree of substitution and solubility of the obtained cellulose acetate can be facilely controlled by varying the concentration of ILs and reaction time. The dual function of swelling and catalyzing of acidic ILs for the acetylation of cellulose is responsible for the excellent catalytic performance. PMID:25256462

  12. Versatile and sustainable synthesis of cyclic imides from dicarboxylic acids and amines by Nb2O5 as a base-tolerant heterogeneous Lewis acid catalyst.

    PubMed

    Ali, Md Ayub; Siddiki, S M A Hakim; Kon, Kenichi; Hasegawa, Junya; Shimizu, Ken-Ichi

    2014-10-27

    Catalytic condensation of dicarboxylics acid and amines without excess amount of activating reagents is the most atom-efficient but unprecedented synthetic method of cyclic imides. Here we present the first general catalytic method, proceeding selectively and efficiently in the presence of a commercial Nb2 O5 as a reusable and base-tolerant heterogeneous Lewis acid catalyst. The method is effective for the direct synthesis of pharmaceutically or industrially important cyclic imides, such as phensuximide, N-hydroxyphthalimide (NHPI), and unsubstituted cyclic imides from dicarboxylic acid or anhydrides with amines, hydroxylamine, or ammonia. PMID:25225033

  13. Heteropoly acids as catalysts for liquid-phase esterification and transesterification

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ali Alsalme; Elena F. Kozhevnikova; Ivan V. Kozhevnikov

    2008-01-01

    Esterification of hexanoic acid and transesterification of ethyl propanoate and ethyl hexanoate with excess methanol (1:20 molar ratio) are tested at 60°C and ambient pressure with a range of HPA catalysts in homogeneous and heterogeneous systems in comparison with conventional homogeneous and solid acid catalysts such as H2SO4, Amberlyst-15 and zeolites HY and H-Beta. The intrinsic catalytic activity (turnover frequency,

  14. Catalytic dehydration of methanol to dimethyl ether (DME) over solid-acid catalysts

    Microsoft Academic Search

    F. Yaripour; F. Baghaei; I. Schmidt; J. Perregaard

    2005-01-01

    A series of solid-acid catalysts with different components contents were prepared by coprecipitation (sol–gel) method. These samples comprised ?-alumina and modified ?-Al2O3 with silica. The effects of silica various contents have been investigated on purpose to determine an optimum one. Dehydration of methanol to dimethyl ether (DME) on solid-acid catalysts was studied in a fixed-bed flow reactor at a temperature

  15. Preparation and characterization of the phenolated wood using hydrochloric acid (HCl) as a catalyst

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. H. Alma; M. Yoshioka; Y. Yao; N. Shiraishi

    1995-01-01

    Summary  Birch (Betula maximowicziana Regel) wood meal was liquefied in the presence of phenol using hydrochloric acid (HCl) as a catalyst at a temperature of\\u000a 150 C for 2 h in an autoclave. It was found out that HCl acid could be used as an effective catalyst for the hydroxy phenylation\\u000a of wood under the experimental conditions. In this study the

  16. Molybdenum phosphosulfide: an active, acid-stable, earth-abundant catalyst for the hydrogen evolution reaction.

    PubMed

    Kibsgaard, Jakob; Jaramillo, Thomas F

    2014-12-22

    Introducing sulfur into the surface of molybdenum phosphide (MoP) produces a molybdenum phosphosulfide (MoP|S) catalyst with superb activity and stability for the hydrogen evolution reaction (HER) in acidic environments. The MoP|S catalyst reported herein exhibits one of the highest HER activities of any non-noble-metal electrocatalyst investigated in strong acid, while remaining perfectly stable in accelerated durability testing. Whereas mixed-metal alloy catalysts are well-known, MoP|S represents a more uncommon mixed-anion catalyst where synergistic effects between sulfur and phosphorus produce a high-surface-area electrode that is more active than those based on either the pure sulfide or the pure phosphide. The extraordinarily high activity and stability of this catalyst open up avenues to replace platinum in technologies relevant to renewable energies, such as proton exchange membrane (PEM) electrolyzers and solar photoelectrochemical (PEC) water-splitting cells. PMID:25359678

  17. Amberlyst 15: A Practical, Mild and Selective Catalyst for Methyl Esterification of Carboxylic Acids

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Marino Petrini; Roberto Ballini; Enrico Marcantoni; Goffredo Rosini

    1988-01-01

    Mild and selective methyl esterification of carboxylic acids are realized using Amberlyst 15 as acid catalyst in methanol. No race mization, epimerization or ketalization products have been observed with this method. Excellent results are obtained in the esterifications of bile acids.

  18. Direct preparation of dichloropropanol from glycerol and hydrochloric acid gas using heteropolyacid (HPA) catalyst by heterogeneous gas phase reaction

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sun Ho Song; Dong Ryul Park; Sung Yul Woo; Won Seob Song; Myong Suk Kwon; In Kyu Song

    2010-01-01

    Direct preparation of dichloropropanol (DCP) from glycerol and hydrochloric acid gas was carried out in a heterogeneous gas phase reactor using H3PMo12?XWXO40 (X=0, 3, 6, 9, and 12), H4SiW12O40, and H4SiMo12O40 heteropolyacid (HPA) catalysts. Acid property of the HPA catalyst was determined by NH3-TPD measurement in order to correlate the catalytic activity with the acid property of the catalyst. Acid

  19. Direct production of biodiesel from high-acid value Jatropha oil with solid acid catalyst derived from lignin

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Solid acid catalyst was prepared from Kraft lignin by chemical activation with phosphoric acid, pyrolysis and sulfuric acid. This catalyst had high acid density as characterized by scanning electron microscope (SEM), energy-dispersive x-ray spectrometry (EDX) and Brunauer, Emmett, and Teller (BET) method analyses. It was further used to catalyze the esterification of oleic acid and one-step conversion of non-pretreated Jatropha oil to biodiesel. The effects of catalyst loading, reaction temperature and oil-to-methanol molar ratio, on the catalytic activity of the esterification were investigated. Results The highest catalytic activity was achieved with a 96.1% esterification rate, and the catalyst can be reused three times with little deactivation under optimized conditions. Biodiesel production from Jatropha oil was studied under such conditions. It was found that 96.3% biodiesel yield from non-pretreated Jatropha oil with high-acid value (12.7 mg KOH/g) could be achieved. Conclusions The catalyst can be easily separated for reuse. This single-step process could be a potential route for biodiesel production from high-acid value oil by simplifying the procedure and reducing costs. PMID:22145867

  20. Synthesis of aliphatic polyesters by polycondensation using inorganic acid as catalyst.

    PubMed

    Sokolsky-Papkov, Marina; Langer, Robert; Domb, Abraham J

    2011-04-01

    An effective route for the synthesis of aliphatic polyesters made from adipic or sebacic acid and alkanediols, using inorganic acid as a catalyst is reported. The monomer composition, reaction time, catalyst type, and reaction conditions were optimized to yield polyesters with weight average molecular weights of 23,000 for adipic acid and 85,000 for sebacic acid-based polyesters. The polymers melt at temperatures of 52-65°C and possess melt viscosity in the range of 5600-19,400cP. This route represents an alternative method for producing aliphatic polyesters for possible use in the preparation of degradable disposable medical supplies. PMID:25473252

  1. The outer-coordination sphere: incorporating amino acids and peptides as ligands for homogeneous catalysts to mimic enzyme function

    SciTech Connect

    Shaw, Wendy J.

    2012-10-09

    Great progress has been achieved in the field of homogeneous transition metal-based catalysis, however, as a general rule these solution based catalysts are still easily outperformed, both in terms of rates and selectivity, by their analogous enzyme counterparts, including structural mimics of the active site. This observation suggests that the features of the enzyme beyond the active site, i.e. the outer-coordination sphere, are important for their exceptional function. Directly mimicking the outer-coordination sphere requires the incorporation of amino acids and peptides as ligands for homogeneous catalysts. This effort has been attempted for many homogeneous catalysts which span the manifold of catalytic reactions and often require careful thought regarding solvent type, pH and characterization to avoid unwanted side reactions or catalyst decomposition. This article reviews the current capability of synthesizing and characterizing this often difficult category of metal-based catalysts. This work was funded by the DOE Office of Science Early Career Research Program through the Office of Basic Energy Sciences. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory is operated by Battelle for the U.S. Department of Energy.

  2. Hydrothermal preparation and characterization of novel corncob-derived solid acid catalysts.

    PubMed

    Ma, Huan; Li, Jiabao; Liu, Weiwei; Cheng, Beijiu; Cao, Xiaoyan; Mao, Jingdong; Zhu, Suwen

    2014-06-11

    Novel corncob-derived solid acid catalysts were successfully synthesized for the first time by the hydrothermal method. The influences of different preparation conditions were investigated, and the structure-function relationships of the resulting catalysts were also discussed on the basis of the analysis of structure and composition. In comparison to conventional solid acid catalysts, the corncob-derived catalyst synthesized under optimized conditions exhibited higher catalytic activity in esterification reactions, yielding nearly 90% methyl oleate in only 2 h. The catalyst retained satisfactory catalytic activity for esterification, even after 8 reaction cycles. Solid-state magic angle spinning (MAS) (13)C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) investigations further indicated that the catalyst was composed of polycyclic aromatic carbon sheets bearing -SO3H, -COOH, and -OH groups in adequate amounts and with proper proportions, contributing to its excellent catalytic activity. This work provides a green method to synthesize solid acid catalysts from biomass wastes and may contribute to a holistic approach for biomass conversion. PMID:24820344

  3. Chance and necessity in the selection of nucleic acid catalysts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lorsch, J. R.; Szostak, J. W.

    1996-01-01

    In Tom Stoppard's famous play [Rosencrantz and Guildenstern are Dead], the ill-fated heroes toss a coin 101 times. The first 100 times they do so the coin lands heads up. The chance of this happening is approximately 1 in 10(30), a sequence of events so rare that one might argue that it could only happen in such a delightful fiction. Similarly rare events, however, may underlie the origins of biological catalysis. What is the probability that an RNA, DNA, or protein molecule of a given random sequence will display a particular catalytic activity? The answer to this question determines whether a collection of such sequences, such as might result from prebiotic chemistry on the early earth, is extremely likely or unlikely to contain catalytically active molecules, and hence whether the origin of life itself is a virtually inevitable consequence of chemical laws or merely a bizarre fluke. The fact that a priori estimates of this probability, given by otherwise informed chemists and biologists, ranged from 10(-5) to 10(-50), inspired us to begin to address the question experimentally. As it turns out, the chance that a given random sequence RNA molecule will be able to catalyze an RNA polymerase-like phosphoryl transfer reaction is close to 1 in 10(13), rare enough, to be sure, but nevertheless in a range that is comfortably accessible by experiment. It is the purpose of this Account to describe the recent advances in combinatorial biochemistry that have made it possible for us to explore the abundance and diversity of catalysts existing in nucleic acid sequence space.

  4. Solid catalysts for multistep reactions: one-pot synthesis of 2,3-dihydro-1,5-benzothiazepines with solid acid and base catalysts.

    PubMed

    Climent, Maria J; Corma, Avelino; Iborra, Sara; Martí, Laura

    2014-04-01

    1,5-Benzothiazepines derivatives were obtained first by starting from 1,3-diphenylpropenone derivatives (chalcones) and 2-aminothiophenol by using aluminosilicate solid catalysts. However, diffusional limitations and the strong adsorption of products on the catalyst are deleterious for catalyst activity and life. Then a structured amorphous mesoporous catalyst with large pores and mild acidity that works at higher temperatures allowed us to obtain high conversions (99 %) and selectivities (98 %) of the desired product. A one-pot synthesis of 1,5-benzothiazepines that starts from benzaldehyde, acetophenone, and 2-aminothiophenol with 95 % yield was performed by combining optimized solid base and acid catalysts in batch mode as well as in a continuous-flow reactor system. Much better conversion and selectivity as well as process intensification has been achieved with the structured mesoporous materials by avoiding intermediate and final neutralization and purification steps required in the synthesis reported previously that uses homogeneous catalysts. PMID:24616280

  5. Cyclobutane amino acids and peptidomimetics, parallel catalyst screening for aziridination

    E-print Network

    Li, Shih-ming

    1996-01-01

    ; and, the octapeptide synthesized in this study adapts an P-hairpin secondary structure, as evidenced by CD and 2D NMR. The second project is parallel catalyst screening for aziridination of olefins. Since aziridines are versatile intermediates...

  6. Stability of Supported Platinum Sulfuric Acid Decomposition Catalysts for use in Thermochemical Water Splitting Cycles

    SciTech Connect

    Daniel M. Ginosar; Lucia M. Petkovic; Anne W. Glenn; Kyle C. Burch

    2007-03-01

    The activity and stability of several metal oxide supported platinum catalysts were explored for the sulfuric acid decomposition reaction. The acid decomposition reaction is common to several sulfur based thermochemical water splitting cycles. Reactions were carried out using a feed of concentrated liquid sulfuric acid (96 wt%) at atmospheric pressure at temperatures between 800 and 850 °C and a weight hour space velocity of 52 g acid/g catalyst/hr. Reactions were run at these high space velocities such that variations in kinetics were not masked by surplus catalyst. The influence of exposure to reaction conditions was explored for three catalysts; 0.1-0.2 wt% Pt supported on alumina, zirconia and titania. The higher surface area Pt/Al2O3 and Pt/ZrO2 catalysts were found to have the highest activity but deactivated rapidly. A low surface area Pt/TiO2 catalyst was found to have good stability in short term tests, but slowly lost activity for over 200 hours of continuous operation.

  7. COMPARISON OF SODIUM HYPOPHOSPHITE WITH HYPOPHOSPHOROUS ACID AS CURING CATALYSTS FOR DP FINISHING WITH BTCA OR CITRIC ACID

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    It has been suggested that when sodium hypophosphite (SHP) is used to catalyze crosslinking of cotton by 1,2,3,4-butanetetracarboxylic acid (BTCA) at 160-190 degrees C, the active catalyst may be free hypophosphorous acid, which could form a mixed linear anhydride with, and subsequently a cyclic anh...

  8. Amino acid derived CuII compounds as catalysts for asymmetric oxidative coupling of 2-naphthol.

    PubMed

    Adão, Pedro; Barroso, Sónia; Carvalho, M Fernanda N N; Teixeira, Carlos M; Kuznetsov, Maxim L; Pessoa, João Costa

    2015-01-28

    We report the synthesis and characterization of several novel aminopyridine - L-amino acid derived Cu(II)-complexes. The ligands are prepared by a one-pot reductive alkylation of the L-amino acid scaffold and the respective aminopyridine Cu(II)-complexes were obtained by reaction with CuCl2 or Cu(acetato)2. All compounds were characterized by spectroscopic techniques, as well as ESI-MS. Two of the Cu(II)-complexes were characterized by single-crystal X-ray diffraction, one of them, [Cu(II)(L)(CH3COO)] (HL = (S)-3-phenyl-2-(pyridin-2-ylmethylamino)propanoic acid), being the first ever reported aminopyridine-class Cu(II) complex bearing a tridentate N,N,O donor set and a monodentate acetato ligand. The complexes are tested as catalysts in the oxidative coupling of 2-naphthol in organic solvent-water mixtures using dioxygen as the terminal oxidant. The effect of variables such as ligand denticity and substituents, as well as solvent, temperature and oxidant intake, on the overall performance is studied. In general, moderate to low conversions of 2-naphthol to 1,1'-bi-2-naphthol (BINOL) are obtained. The catalysts also showed moderate to low enantioselectivity. Some aspects of the reaction mechanism were elucidated by spectroscopy, electrochemical and theoretical studies. It was found that basic additives are important for activity, but these also increase the formation of secondary oxidation products. The addition of peroxide scavengers such as KI resulted in an increase of conversion, the yield of BINOL and enantioselectivity. PMID:25434677

  9. Synthesis of Cumene (Isopropylbenzene) from Diisopropylbenzenes in thepresence of Benzene using Triflic acid as catalyst at room temperature

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. C. Al-Kinany; S. H. Al-Khowaiter; F. H. Al-Malki

    2001-01-01

    Cumene (isopropylbenzene) is presently produced from benzene and propylene usingeither solid phosphoric acid or anhydrous aluminium chloride or zeolite as catalyst. Large amounts of m- and p- diisopropylbenzenes (DIPB) were produced as by-products from the above processes. Therefore, in order to study the activity of trifluoromethane-sulphonic acid (triflic acid) as catalyst to produce higher yield of cumene from DIPB isomers

  10. Kinetics of xylose in hydrolysate using dilute sulphuric acid as catalyst

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Wei Qi; Suping Zhang; Qingli Xu; Zhenxing Zhu; Yongjie Yan Zhengwei Ren; Yongjie Yan

    2009-01-01

    In the technology of manufacturing fuel alcohol from biomass as feedstock, hydrolysis using dilute acid as catalyst is one way to produce fermentable saccharide. In this process, the yield of xylose is always low because of the degrading during the acid environment. In this paper, the degrading kinetics of xylose in the hydrolysate was investigated under the conventional process conditions

  11. Evaluating acid and base catalysts in the methylation of milk and rumen fatty acids with special emphasis on conjugated dienes and total trans fatty acids

    Microsoft Academic Search

    John K. G. Kramer; Vivek Fellner; Michael E. R. Dugan; Frank D. Sauer; Magdi M. Mossoba; Martin P. Yurawecz

    1997-01-01

    Milk analysis is receiving increased attention. Milk contains conjugated octadecadienoic acids (18?2) purported to be anticarcinogenic,\\u000a low levels of essential fatty acids, and trans fatty acids that increase when essential fatty acids are increased in dairy rations. Milk and rumen fatty acid methyl esters\\u000a (FAME) were prepared using several acid-(HCl, BF3, acetyl chloride, H2SO4) or base-catalysts (NaOCH3, tetramethylguanidine, diazomethane), or

  12. Highly efficient tetradentate ruthenium catalyst for ester reduction: especially for hydrogenation of fatty acid esters.

    PubMed

    Tan, Xuefeng; Wang, Yan; Liu, Yuanhua; Wang, Fangyuan; Shi, Liyang; Lee, Ka-Ho; Lin, Zhenyang; Lv, Hui; Zhang, Xumu

    2015-02-01

    A new tetradentate ruthenium complex has been developed for hydrogenation of esters. The catalyst's structure features a pyridinemethanamino group and three tight chelating five-membered rings. The structure character is believed to be responsible for its high stability and high carbonylation-resistant properties. Thus, this catalyst shows outstanding performance in the catalytic hydrogenation of a variety of esters, especially for fatty acid esters, which may be used in practical applications. New insight on designing hydrogenation catalyst for reducing esters to alcohols has been provided through theoretical calculations. PMID:25582610

  13. Application of Supercritical Fluids to Solid Acid Catalyst Alkylation and Regeneration

    SciTech Connect

    Lucia M. Petkovic; Daniel M. Ginosar; David N. Thompson; Kyle C. Burch

    2007-05-01

    Supercritical fluid (SCF) regeneration is a promising alternative method for regenerating solid catalysts deactivated by carbonaceous deposits. The unique solvent and transport properties of SCFs such as solvent strength similar to liquids and transport properties similar to gases make them highly suitable for extraction of fouling materials from porous heterogeneous catalysts. A brief review of the research work performed at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) on the application of supercritical fluids to both isobutane/butene alkylation reaction and solid acid catalyst regeneration is presented in this contribution.

  14. Platinum catalyst degradation in phosphoric acid fuel cells for stationary applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aindow, T. T.; Haug, A. T.; Jayne, D.

    2011-05-01

    A study is presented on the degradation of platinum alloy cathode catalysts operated in phosphoric acid fuel cells. The impact of time and temperature on the fundamental decay mechanism was studied with a surface area loss model and experimental electrochemical surface area measurements. It is suggested that platinum particle migration on the carbon support surface is the dominant mechanism for surface area change in these catalysts.

  15. Bioleaching of spent refinery processing catalyst using Aspergillus niger with high-yield oxalic acid

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Deenan Santhiya; Yen-Peng Ting

    2005-01-01

    A spent refinery processing catalyst was physically and chemically characterized, and subjected to one-step and two-step bioleaching processes using Aspergillus niger. During bioleaching of the spent catalysts of various particle sizes (“as received”, 100–150?m, <37?m, and x¯=2.97 (average) ?m) and pulp densities, the biomass dry weight and pH were determined. The corresponding leach liquor was analysed for excreted organic acids

  16. Deactivation of solid acid catalysts during isobutane alkylation with C4 olefins

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. A. Querini; E. Roa

    1997-01-01

    Coke formation on solid acid catalysts during isobutane alkylation with C4 olefins was studied. Y-zeolite, mordenite and L-zeolite were investigated, as well as sulfated zirconia catalysts. Zeolites were used in protonic form or after ion exchange with lanthanum nitrate. Studies were carried out in liquid phase in a fixed-bed reactor. It was found that Y-zeolite exchanged with lanthanum, being the

  17. Process for the generation of .alpha., .beta.-unsaturated carboxylic acids and esters using niobium catalyst

    DOEpatents

    Gogate, Makarand Ratnakav (Durham, NC); Spivey, James Jerome (Cary, NC); Zoeller, Joseph Robert (Kingsport, TN)

    1999-01-01

    A process using a niobium catalyst includes the step of reacting an ester or carboxylic acid with oxygen and an alcohol in the presence a niobium catalyst to respectively produce an .alpha.,.beta.-unsaturated ester or carboxylic acid. Methanol may be used as the alcohol, and the ester or carboxylic acid may be passed over the niobium catalyst in a vapor stream containing oxygen and methanol. Alternatively, the process using a niobium catalyst may involve the step of reacting an ester and oxygen in the presence the niobium catalyst to produce an .alpha.,.beta.-unsaturated carboxylic acid. In this case the ester may be a methyl ester. In either case, niobium oxide may be used as the niobium catalyst with the niobium oxide being present on a support. The support may be an oxide selected from the group consisting of silicon oxide, aluminum oxide, titanium oxide and mixtures thereof. The catalyst may be formed by reacting niobium fluoride with the oxide serving as the support. The niobium catalyst may contain elemental niobium within the range of 1 wt % to 70 wt %, and more preferably within the range of 10 wt % to 30 wt %. The process may be operated at a temperature from 150 to 450.degree. C. and preferably from 250 to 350.degree. C. The process may be operated at a pressure from 0.1 to 15 atm. absolute and preferably from 0.5-5 atm. absolute. The flow rate of reactants may be from 10 to 10,000 L/kg.sub.(cat) /h, and preferably from 100 to 1,000 L/kg.sub.(cat) /h.

  18. Synthesis of dimethyl ether (DME) from methanol over solid-acid catalysts

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mingting Xu; Jack H. Lunsford; D. Wayne Goodman; Alak Bhattacharyya

    1997-01-01

    The catalytic conversion of methanol to dimethyl ether (DME) has been studied over a series of solid-acid catalysts, such as ?-Al2O3, H-ZSM-5, amorphous silica-alumina, as well as titania modified zirconia. All the catalysts are active and selective for DME formation. The apparent activation energy for DME formation over ?-Al2O3 is ca. 25 kcal\\/mol, a value that increases to ca. 37

  19. The role of Brønsted acidity in the SCR of NO over Fe-MFI catalysts

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michael Schwidder; M. Santhosh Kumar; Ursula Bentrup; Javier Pérez-Ramírez; Angelika Brückner; Wolfgang Grünert

    2008-01-01

    The selective catalytic reduction (SCR) of NO with isobutane and with NH3 was studied over Fe-MFI catalysts which differ strongly in Brønsted acidity but are similar in Fe content and structure of Fe sites, having shown similar activity in N2O decomposition in related work. The catalysts were prepared by exchange of Na-ZSM-5 (Si\\/Al ca. 14) with Fe2+ ions formed in

  20. Kinetics of benzene alkylation with 1-dodecene over a supported tungstophosphoric acid catalyst

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jinchang Zhang; Biaohua Chen; Chengyue Li; Zuogang Zhu; Langyou Wen; Enze Min

    2003-01-01

    The prepared catalyst of tungstophosphoric acid supported on SiO2 has shown high activity, good selectivity of producing linear alkylbenzene (LAB) and 2-phenyl isomer and sufficient catalytic stability. Kinetics of benzene alkylation with 1-dodecene over this catalyst was investigated in a fixed-bed reactor after eliminating the influence of internal and external transport. Rate models of formation of different isomers of LAB

  1. Phosphotungstic acid supported on magnetic nanoparticles as an efficient reusable catalyst for epoxidation of alkenes

    SciTech Connect

    Kooti, M., E-mail: m_kooti@scu.ac.ir [Department of Chemistry, College of Science, Shahid Chamran University, Ahvaz 61357- 43169 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Afshari, M. [Department of Chemistry, College of Science, Shahid Chamran University, Ahvaz 61357- 43169 (Iran, Islamic Republic of)] [Department of Chemistry, College of Science, Shahid Chamran University, Ahvaz 61357- 43169 (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2012-11-15

    Highlights: ? Phosphotungstic acid supported on functionalized cobalt ferrite was prepared. ? Silica coated cobalt ferrite nanoparticles were used as support. ? This composite was successfully used as catalyst for epoxidation of alkenes. ? Oxidation reactions were carried out in the presence of t-BuOOH as oxidant. ? The catalyst can be readily separated from solution by magnetic field. -- Abstract: A new magnetically separable catalyst consisting of phosphotungstic acid supported on imidazole functionalized silica coated cobalt ferrite nanoparticles was prepared. The synthesized catalyst was characterized by X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), vibrating sample magnetometry (VSM), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR), and inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy (ICP-AES). This immobilized phosphotungstic acid was shown to be an efficient heterogeneous catalyst for the epoxidation of various alkenes using tert-butylhydroperoxide (t-BuOOH) as oxidant. The catalyst is readily recovered by simple magnetic decantation and can be recycled several times with no significant loss of catalytic activity.

  2. CoBr 2-MnBr 2 containing catalysts for catalytic oxidation of p-xylene to terephthalic acid

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kuo-Tseng Li; Shih-Wei Li

    2008-01-01

    Catalytic oxidation of p-xylene (PX) to terephthalic acid (TA) was studied with catalysts containing cobalt acetate, manganese acetate, CoBr2 and MnBr2. The catalysts contain neither highly corrosive hydrogen bromide nor other metal ions, and have the advantage of easy catalyst recovery. The effects of Br\\/Co atomic ratio, reaction time and temperature, PX concentration, oxygen pressure, and catalyst concentration on PX

  3. Oxidation catalyst

    DOEpatents

    Ceyer, Sylvia T. (Cambridge, MA); Lahr, David L. (Cambridge, MA)

    2010-11-09

    The present invention generally relates to catalyst systems and methods for oxidation of carbon monoxide. The invention involves catalyst compositions which may be advantageously altered by, for example, modification of the catalyst surface to enhance catalyst performance. Catalyst systems of the present invention may be capable of performing the oxidation of carbon monoxide at relatively lower temperatures (e.g., 200 K and below) and at relatively higher reaction rates than known catalysts. Additionally, catalyst systems disclosed herein may be substantially lower in cost than current commercial catalysts. Such catalyst systems may be useful in, for example, catalytic converters, fuel cells, sensors, and the like.

  4. Preparation of encaged heteropoly acid catalyst by synthesizing 12-molybdophosphoric acid in the supercages of Y-type zeolite

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Shin R. Mukai; Takao Masuda; Isao Ogino; Kenji Hashimoto

    1997-01-01

    12-molybdophosphoric acid encaged in the supercages of Y-type zeolite was synthesized from molybdenum oxide and phosphoric acid, in a slurry mixture of Y-type zeolite crystals and deionized water. After thorough washing in hot water, the 12-molybdophosphoric acid was found to remain in the Y-type zeolite, at an amount estimated to be 0.09 g (g-support)?1. Catalysts thus obtained were found to

  5. Removal of free fatty acid in waste frying oil by esterification with methanol on zeolite catalysts.

    PubMed

    Chung, Kyong-Hwan; Chang, Duck-Rye; Park, Byung-Geon

    2008-11-01

    The removal of free fatty acid (FFA) in waste frying oil by esterification with methanol was conducted using various zeolite catalysts. The ZSM-5 (MFI), mordenite (MOR), faujasite (FAU), beta (BEA) zeolites, and silicalite were employed with different Si/Al molar ratio in the reaction. The effects of acidic properties and pore structure of the zeolite catalysts were discussed relating to the conversion of the FFA. The MFI zeolite induced an improvement of the removal efficiency of FFA by cracking to the FFA in its pore structure due to its narrow pore mouth. The catalytic activity for FFA removal was lowered with decreasing of acid strength of the zeolites. The strong acid sites of zeolites induced the high conversion of FFA comparatively. The acid strength and pore structure of acidic zeolites affected the catalytic activity in FFA removal. PMID:18387298

  6. Vanadium phosphate catalysts for biodiesel production from acid industrial by-products.

    PubMed

    Domingues, Carina; Correia, M Joana Neiva; Carvalho, Renato; Henriques, Carlos; Bordado, João; Dias, Ana Paula Soares

    2013-04-10

    Biodiesel production from high acidity industrial by-products was studied using heterogeneous acid catalysts. These by-products contain 26-39% of free fatty acids, 45-66% of fatty acids methyl esters and 0.6-1.1% of water and are consequently inadequate for direct basic catalyzed transesterification. Macroporous vanadyl phosphate catalysts with V/P=1 (atomic ratio) prepared via sol-gel like technique was used as catalyst and it was possible to produce in one reaction batch a biodiesel contain 87% and 94% of FAME, depending on the by-product used as raw material. The initial FAME content in the by-products had a beneficial effect on the reactions because they act as a co-solvent, thus improving the miscibility of the reaction mixture components. The water formed during esterification process seems to hinder the esters formation, possibly due to competitive adsorption with methanol and to the promotion of the FAME hydrolysis reaction.The observed catalyst deactivation seems to be related to the reduction of vanadium species. However, spent catalysts can be regenerated, even partially, by reoxidation of the reduced vanadium species with air. PMID:22902409

  7. The Structure and Density of Mo and Acid Sites in Mo-ExchangedH-ZSMZ Catalysts

    SciTech Connect

    Borry III, Richard W.; Kim, Young Ho; Huffsmith, Anne; Reimer,Jeffrey A.; Iglesia, Enrique

    1999-03-01

    Mo/H-ZSM5 (1.0-6.3 wt percent Mo; Mo/Al = 0.11-0.68) catalysts for CH4 aromatization were prepared from physical mixtures of MoO3 and H-ZSM5 (Si/Al= 14.3). X-ray diffraction and elemental analysis of physical mixtures treated in air indicate that MoOx species migrate onto the external ZSM5 surface at about 623 K. Between 773 and 973 K, MoOx species migrate inside zeolite channels via surface and gas phase transport, exchange at acid sites, and react to form H2O. The amount of H2O evolved during exchange and the amount of residual OH groups detected by isotopic equilibration with D2 showed that each Mo atom replaces one H+ during exchange. This stoichiometry and the requirement for charge compensation suggest that exchanged species consist of (Mo2O5)2+ditetrahedral structures interacting with two cation exchange sites. The proposed mechanism may provide a general framework to describe the exchange of multivalent cations onto Al sites in zeolites. As the Mo concentration exceeds that required to form a MoOx monolayer on the external zeolite surface ({approx}4 wt percent Mo for the H-ZSM5 used), Mo species sublime as (MoO3)n oligomers or extract Al from the zeolite framework to form inactive Al2(MoO4)3 domains detectable by 27Al NMR. These (Mo2O5)2+ species reduce to form the active MoCx species during the initial stages of CH4 conversion reactions. Optimum CH4 aromatization rates were obtained on catalysts with intermediate Mo contents ({approx}0.4Mo/Al), because both MoCx and acid sites are required to activate CH4 and to convert the initial C2H4 products into C6+ aromatics favored by thermodynamics.

  8. Alkylation of toluene with methanol over heteropoly acid\\/Y-zeolite catalysts

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Chang Yeop Hwang; Jong Woon Kwak; Wha Young Lee; Ho-In Lee

    1986-01-01

    Alkylation of toluene with methanol has been studied in a fixed bed reactor with a continuous flow system. As a promoter,\\u000a heteropoly acids and their metal salts were impregnated on Y-zeolite. Catalyst impregnated with lower amount of heteropoly\\u000a acid showed higher initial activity, and the catalytic activity was enhanced by more electronegative metal ion of heteropoly\\u000a acid salt impregnated on

  9. Influence of surface acidity in lactose oxidation over supported Pd catalysts

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Anton V. Tokarev; Elena V. Murzina; Prem K. Seelam; Narendra Kumar; Dmitry Yu. Murzin

    2008-01-01

    Lactose oxidation to lactobionic acid was investigated over palladium forms of Beta and MCM-22 zeolites. Different support acidity and the method of palladium introduction were applied. It was observed that the catalyst preparation methods, as well as acidity, influence the activity and selectivity. Pd-H-MCM-22 zeolites were more active, than palladium on conventional supports, for instance silica and alumina, or beta

  10. Model heterogeneous acid catalysts and metal-support interactions: A combined surface science and catalysis study

    SciTech Connect

    Boszormenyi, I.

    1991-05-01

    This (<100 [Angstrom]) silica-alumina layers were tested as potential model heterogeneous acid catalysts for combined surface science and catalysis studies. Three preparation methods were used: oxidation of r3 [times] r3 R30 Al/Si(111) structure in UHV; deposition on Si(lll) from aqueous solution; and argon ion beam sputter deposition in UHV. The homogeneous thin layers are amorphous, and the chemical environment of surface atoms is similar to that of Si, Al and oxygen atoms on high surface area acid catalysts. Since the ion beam-deposited thin layer of silica-alumina has the same composition as the target zeolite this deposition method is a promising tool to prepare model catalysts using practical catalyst targets. The silica-alumina layers are active in cumene cracking, a typical acid catalyzed reaction. In order to clearly distinguish background reactions and the acid catalyzed reaction at least 20 cm[sup 2] catalyst surface area is needed. Two series of model platinum-alumina catalysts were prepared in a combined UHV -- high pressure reactor cell apparatus by depositing alumina on polycrystalline Pt foil and by vapor depositing Pt on a thin alumina layer on Au. Both model surfaces have been prepared with and without chlorine. AES, CO desorption as well as methyl cyclopentane (MCP) hydrogenolysis studies indicate that the Pt surface area is always higher if a chlorination step is involved. Selectivity patterns in MCP ring opening on Pt-on-alumina'' and on alumina-on-Pt'' are different; only the former is a linear combination of selective and statistical ring opening. Product distribution, however, changes with coverage and reaction time. The properties of the two model catalyst systems and role of chlorine in MCP hydrogenolysis are also discussed.

  11. Model heterogeneous acid catalysts and metal-support interactions: A combined surface science and catalysis study

    SciTech Connect

    Boszormenyi, I.

    1991-05-01

    This (<100 {Angstrom}) silica-alumina layers were tested as potential model heterogeneous acid catalysts for combined surface science and catalysis studies. Three preparation methods were used: oxidation of r3 {times} r3 R30 Al/Si(111) structure in UHV; deposition on Si(lll) from aqueous solution; and argon ion beam sputter deposition in UHV. The homogeneous thin layers are amorphous, and the chemical environment of surface atoms is similar to that of Si, Al and oxygen atoms on high surface area acid catalysts. Since the ion beam-deposited thin layer of silica-alumina has the same composition as the target zeolite this deposition method is a promising tool to prepare model catalysts using practical catalyst targets. The silica-alumina layers are active in cumene cracking, a typical acid catalyzed reaction. In order to clearly distinguish background reactions and the acid catalyzed reaction at least 20 cm{sup 2} catalyst surface area is needed. Two series of model platinum-alumina catalysts were prepared in a combined UHV -- high pressure reactor cell apparatus by depositing alumina on polycrystalline Pt foil and by vapor depositing Pt on a thin alumina layer on Au. Both model surfaces have been prepared with and without chlorine. AES, CO desorption as well as methyl cyclopentane (MCP) hydrogenolysis studies indicate that the Pt surface area is always higher if a chlorination step is involved. Selectivity patterns in MCP ring opening on ``Pt-on-alumina`` and on ``alumina-on-Pt`` are different; only the former is a linear combination of selective and statistical ring opening. Product distribution, however, changes with coverage and reaction time. The properties of the two model catalyst systems and role of chlorine in MCP hydrogenolysis are also discussed.

  12. Influence of solid–acid catalysts on steam reforming and hydrolysis of dimethyl ether for hydrogen production

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kajornsak Faungnawakij; Yohei Tanaka; Naohiro Shimoda; Tetsuya Fukunaga; Shunichiro Kawashima; Ryuji Kikuchi; Koichi Eguchi

    2006-01-01

    Influences of solid–acid catalyst on dimethyl ether steam reforming (DME SR) and DME hydrolysis for hydrogen production were investigated. Series of zeolite (JRC-ZHM20(5), JRC-ZHM90(1) as H-mordenite type and JRC-Z5-90H(1) as ZSM-5 type) and of alumina (ALO8, TA1301, TA3301, DK503, NKHD24, NKHO24 and NK324) were used as acidic catalysts for DME hydrolysis. The composite catalysts of the acidic catalyst and CuFe2O4

  13. Ammonolysis of esters of hydroxybenzoic acids on a boron phosphate catalyst

    SciTech Connect

    Suvorov, B.V.; Bukeikhanov, N.R.; Li, L.V.; Zulkasheva, A.Z.

    1987-09-10

    In this investigation boron phosphate catalyst was used for ammonolysis of methyl and ethyl esters of salicylic and 4-hydroxybenzoic acids. It was shown that ammonolysis of methyl and ethyl esters of salicylic and 4-hydroxybenzoic acids in presence of boron phosphate catalyst at a ratio of 3-7 moles of ammonia per mole of ester in a contact time of 1-5 sec at 380-400/sub 0/ can be used for obtaining o- and p- hydroxybenzonitriles in yields of over 90% of the theoretical.

  14. Degradation of oxalic acid from aqueous solutions by ozonation in presence of Ni\\/Al 2O 3 catalysts

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sorin Marius Avramescu; Corina Bradu; Ion Udrea; Nicoleta Mihalache; Florin Ruta

    2008-01-01

    The ozonation of oxalic acid has been carried out in an agitated slurry semi-batch reactor using NiO\\/Al2O3 as catalysts. The presence of catalysts in the ozonation processes significantly improves the oxalic acid removal rate, in comparison to the catalytic process. The influence of calcination temperature on the catalyst activity and on leaching of the active component was assessed. At the

  15. Mesoporous nickel-aluminosilicate nanocomposite: a solid acid catalyst for ether synthesis.

    PubMed

    Neelakandeswari, N; Karvembu, R; Dharmaraj, N

    2013-04-01

    Mesoporous nickel aluminosilicate, a solid acid catalyst prepared by sol-gel technique was utilized as a heterogeneous catalyst for the synthesis of symmetrical ethers by dehydro-condensation of alcohols. The prepared catalysts were characterized by Fourier-transform infra red spectroscopy (FT-IR), powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDAX), N2 adsorption-desorption analysis, temperature programmed desorption of ammonia (TPD) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopic techniques. The presence of the catalyst assisted the etherification reaction in 30 minutes. Ethers formed in these reactions were quantified by gas chromatography (GC) and the identities of few of them were confirmed by nuclear magnetic resonance spectral data (NMR). PMID:23763171

  16. Acid- and base-functionalized core-confined bottlebrush copolymer catalysts for one-pot cascade reactions.

    PubMed

    Xiong, Linfeng; Zhang, Hui; Zhong, Aiqing; He, Zidong; Huang, Kun

    2014-12-01

    We demonstrate a novel method that enables the formation of core-confined bottlebrush copolymers (CCBCs) as catalyst supports. Significantly, owing to the site-isolated effect, these CCBC catalysts with the incompatible acidic para-toluenesulfonic acid (PTSA) and basic 4-(dimethylamino)pyridine (DMAP) groups can conduct a simple two-step sequential reaction in one vessel. PMID:25317577

  17. A new environmental friendly method for the preparation of sugar acids via catalytic oxidation on gold catalysts

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Agnes Mirescu; Ulf Prüße

    2007-01-01

    A novel and efficient way of producing of aldonic acids is reported. The selective catalytic oxidation of monosaccharides (arabinose, ribose, xylose, lyxose, mannose, rhamnose, glucose, galactose, N-acetyl-glucosamine) and disaccharides (lactose, maltose, cellobiose, melibiose) on Au, Pd and Pt catalysts was investigated. By using the gold catalyst, a total selectivity with respect to aldonic acids and a high catalytic activity for

  18. Selective poisoning and deactivation of acid sites on sulfated zirconia catalysts for n-butane isomerization

    SciTech Connect

    Yaluris, G.; Larson, R.B.; Kobe, J.M. [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States)] [and others] [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States); and others

    1996-01-01

    Reaction kinetics measurements, selective poisoning, and microcalorimetry were used to study the activity, selectivity, and deactivation of acid sites on a sulfated zirconia catalyst for n-butane isomerization at 423 K. The sulfated zirconia catalyst has a distribution of acid site strengths, containing 50 {mu}mol/g of strong acid sites characterized by heats of ammonia adsorption from 125 to 165 kJ/mol. The strongest acid sites (heats from 145 to 165 kJ/mol) are responsible for the high initial activity of the catalyst, but these sites deactivate rapidly under reaction conditions. The acid sites exhibiting heats from 125 to 145 kJ/mol are less active than the stronger sites, but deactivate more slowly. Weaker sites have low activity and deactivate more rapidly after the intermediate sites are deactivated or poisoned. Broensted acidity is necessary for extended catalytic activity, although Lewis acid sites may play a role in generating the initial high activity. Acid sites with heats of ammonia adsorption from 125 to 165 kJ/mol show good selectivity for production of isobutane (ca. 93%), while sites with heats from 120 to 125 kJ/mol show lower isobutane selectivity (ca. 80%). 50 refs., 7 figs.

  19. Candida rugosa lipase as an enantioselective catalyst in the esterification of methyl branched carboxylic acids: resolution of rac-3,7-dimethyl-6-octenoic acid (citronellic acid)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ba-Vu Nguyen; Erik Hedenström

    1999-01-01

    Some chiral methyl branched alkanoic and alkenoic acids were used as substrates in esterifications with 1-hexadecanol in cyclohexane at water activity aw=0.8 catalysed by immobilised Candida rugosa lipase (CRL). Citronellic acid was one of several chiral 2- and 3-methyl branched acids that were successfully resolved by the catalyst. With 3-methyl-branched substrates the R-enantiomers reacted fastest, whereas with 2-methyl acids the

  20. Sulfonic acid functionalized mesoporous MCM-41 silica as a convenient catalyst for Bisphenol-A synthesis.

    PubMed

    Das, D; Lee, J F; Cheng, S

    2001-11-01

    Sulfonic acid groups anchored to the surface of mesoporous MCM-41 silica have been identified with S K-edge XANES spectra and the material is an efficient catalyst for the liquid phase condensation of phenol with acetone to form Bisphenol-A with high selectivity. PMID:12240100

  1. Brønsted Acidic Ionic Liquids: Fast, Mild, and Efficient Catalysts for Solvent?Free Tetrahydropyranylation of Alcohols

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Zhiying Duan; Yanlong Gu; Youquan Deng

    2005-01-01

    Brønsted acidic ionic liquids as efficient and reusable catalysts for the protection of alcohols as tetrahydropyranyl (THP) ethers under solvent?free conditions at room temperature was investigated. Good to excellent yields were obtained at a faster rate over [BMIm][HSO4] or [BMIm][H2PO4].

  2. COMPARISON OF CATALYSTS FOR DIRECT TRANSESTERIFICATION OF FATTY ACIDS IN FREEZE-DRIED FORAGE SAMPLES

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Our objective was to compare 1.09 M methanolic HCl to 14% BF3 in methanol as catalysts for direct transesterification of fatty acids in freeze-dried forage samples. Samples included blue grama (Bouteloua gracilis), fringed sage (Artemisia frigida), western wheatgrass (Pascopyrum smithii), needle-an...

  3. Alkene Isomerization Using a Solid Acid as Activator and Support for a Homogeneous Catalyst

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seen, Andrew J.

    2004-01-01

    An upper-level undergraduate experiment that, in addition to introducing students to catalysis using an air sensitive transition-metal complex, introduces the use of a solid acid as an activator and support for the catalyst is developed. The increased stability acquired in the course of the process affords the opportunity to characterize the…

  4. Conversion of lower alcohols into C 2 –C 4 olefins over acid-base catalysts

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. V. Ermakov; V. A. Plakhotnik

    2008-01-01

    The conversion reactions of methanol, ethanol, and their ethers in the presence of acid-base catalysts based on mesoporous\\u000a ZSM-5 and ZSM-11 zeolites, microporous SAPO zeolites, heteropoly acids, and perfluorinated sulfonated cation exchangers are\\u000a discussed. The set of reactions reflects the formation of olefins beginning from ethylene to butenes. The heats of reaction\\u000a were estimated from the calculated values of the

  5. When gold meets chiral Brønsted acid catalysts: extending the boundaries of enantioselective gold catalysis.

    PubMed

    Inamdar, Suleman M; Konala, Ashok; Patil, Nitin T

    2014-12-14

    This review describes the development in the use of Au(I)/Brønsted acid binary catalytic systems to enable an enantioselective transformation in one-pot that cannot be achieved by gold catalysts alone. The examples discussed herein are promising since apart from using chiral ligands there exists a possibility of using chiral Brønsted acids. Clearly, the horizon for enantioselective gold catalysis has been expanded as more options to make the gold-catalyzed reactions enantioselective have become available. PMID:25177929

  6. Synthesis of Nipagin Esters Using Acidic Functional Ionic Liquids as Catalysts

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Guohua Wang; Lu Li; Congxia Xie; Shitao Yu; Fusheng Liu; Xiaoling Ye

    2011-01-01

    Several Brønsted acidic functional ionic liquids (FILs) with an alkane sulfonic acid group were synthesized. These FILs as dual solvent-catalysts for Nipagin esterification reactions were investigated. The results indicated that [HSO3-pMIM]HSO4 has the best catalytic activity and recyclability among the various kinds of FILs investigated, and its structure was characterized by infrared and NMR. The [HSO3-pMIM]HSO4 could be easily separated

  7. Transfer Hydrogenation Reaction Of Ketones And Formic Acid Under Hydrothermal Conditions Without A Catalyst

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, Zheng; Zhang, Yalei; Zhou, Xuefei; Wu, Bing; Cao, Jianglin; Jin, Fangming

    2010-11-01

    The hydrothermal experiments with ketones and formic acid showed that the hydrogen transfer reduction of ketones can be conducted with formic acid as a hydride donor in the presence of NaOH at 300° C. The yield of alcohols was considerably higher at a much lower ratio of hydrogen source to ketones than the traditional Meerwein-Ponndorf-Verley reduction, reaching 60% for isopropanol from acetone and 70% for lactic acid from pyruvic acid. Water molecules as a catalyst may directly participate in the transition state by making a hydrogen-bond ring network with the substrate molecules.

  8. Carbon quantum dots with photo-generated proton property as efficient visible light controlled acid catalyst

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Haitao; Liu, Ruihua; Kong, Weiqian; Liu, Juan; Liu, Yang; Zhou, Lei; Zhang, Xing; Lee, Shuit-Tong; Kang, Zhenhui

    2013-12-01

    Developing light-driven acid catalyst will be very meaningful for the controlled-acid catalytic processes towards a green chemical industry. Here, based on scanning electrochemical microscopy (SECM) and ?pH testing, we demonstrate that the 5-10 nm carbon quantum dots (CQDs) synthesized by electrochemical ablation of graphite have strong light-induced proton properties under visible light in solution, which can be used as an acid catalyst. The 5-10 nm CQDs' catalytic activity is strongly dependent on the illumination intensity and the temperature of the reaction system. As an effective visible light driven and controlled acid-catalyst, 5-10 nm CQDs can catalyze a series of organic reactions (esterification, Beckmann rearrangement and aldol condensation) with high conversion (34.7-46.2%, respectively) in water solution under visible light, while the 1-4 nm CQDs and 10-2000 nm graphite do not have such excellent catalytic activity. The use of 5-10 nm CQDs as a light responsive and controllable photocatalyst is truly a novel application of carbon-based nanomaterials, which may significantly push research in the current catalytic industry, environmental pollution and energy issues.Developing light-driven acid catalyst will be very meaningful for the controlled-acid catalytic processes towards a green chemical industry. Here, based on scanning electrochemical microscopy (SECM) and ?pH testing, we demonstrate that the 5-10 nm carbon quantum dots (CQDs) synthesized by electrochemical ablation of graphite have strong light-induced proton properties under visible light in solution, which can be used as an acid catalyst. The 5-10 nm CQDs' catalytic activity is strongly dependent on the illumination intensity and the temperature of the reaction system. As an effective visible light driven and controlled acid-catalyst, 5-10 nm CQDs can catalyze a series of organic reactions (esterification, Beckmann rearrangement and aldol condensation) with high conversion (34.7-46.2%, respectively) in water solution under visible light, while the 1-4 nm CQDs and 10-2000 nm graphite do not have such excellent catalytic activity. The use of 5-10 nm CQDs as a light responsive and controllable photocatalyst is truly a novel application of carbon-based nanomaterials, which may significantly push research in the current catalytic industry, environmental pollution and energy issues. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c3nr03996j

  9. Mechanochemical Approach for Selective Deactivation of External Surface Acidity of ZSM-5 Zeolite Catalyst.

    PubMed

    Inagaki, Satoshi; Sato, Koki; Hayashi, Shunsuke; Tatami, Junichi; Kubota, Yoshihiro; Wakihara, Toru

    2015-03-01

    The acid sites associated with the external surface of zeolite particles are responsible for undesirable consecutive reactions, such as isomerization, alkylation, and oligomerization, resulting in a lower selectivity to a target product; therefore, the selective modification (deactivation) of the external surface of zeolite particles has been an important issue in zeolite science. Here, a new method for surface deactivation of zeolite catalyst was tested via a mechanochemical approach using powder composer. Postsynthetic mechanochemical treatment of ZSM-5 zeolite causes a selective deactivation of catalytically active sites existing only on the external surface, as a potentially useful catalyst for highly selective production of p-xylene. PMID:25654542

  10. 40 CFR 76.3 - General Acid Rain Program provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 2014-07-01 false General Acid Rain Program provisions. 76.3 Section... AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) ACID RAIN NITROGEN OXIDES EMISSION REDUCTION PROGRAM § 76.3 General Acid Rain Program provisions. The...

  11. 40 CFR 76.3 - General Acid Rain Program provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 2011-07-01 false General Acid Rain Program provisions. 76.3 Section... AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) ACID RAIN NITROGEN OXIDES EMISSION REDUCTION PROGRAM § 76.3 General Acid Rain Program provisions. The...

  12. 40 CFR 76.3 - General Acid Rain Program provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 2013-07-01 false General Acid Rain Program provisions. 76.3 Section... AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) ACID RAIN NITROGEN OXIDES EMISSION REDUCTION PROGRAM § 76.3 General Acid Rain Program provisions. The...

  13. 40 CFR 76.3 - General Acid Rain Program provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 2012-07-01 false General Acid Rain Program provisions. 76.3 Section... AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) ACID RAIN NITROGEN OXIDES EMISSION REDUCTION PROGRAM § 76.3 General Acid Rain Program provisions. The...

  14. 40 CFR 76.3 - General Acid Rain Program provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false General Acid Rain Program provisions. 76.3 Section...CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) ACID RAIN NITROGEN OXIDES EMISSION REDUCTION PROGRAM § 76.3 General Acid Rain Program provisions. The...

  15. The effect of oleic acid stabilizer on the surface properties of bimetallic PtNi catalysts.

    PubMed

    Abu Bakar, N H H; Abu Bakar, M; Bettahar, M M; Ismail, J; Monteverdi, S

    2013-07-01

    A detailed study on the surface properties of oleic acid-stabilized PtNi nanoparticles supported on silica is reported. The oleic acid-stabilized PtNi nanoparticles were synthesized using NaBH4 as the reducing agent at various temperatures and oleic acid concentrations, prior to incorporation onto the silica support. X-ray diffraction studies of the unsupported oleic acid-stabilized PtNi particles revealed that the PtNi existed as alloys. Upon incorporation onto silica support, surface properties of the catalysts were investigated using H2-temperature reduction (H2-TPR), H2-temperature desorption (H2-TPD) and H2-chemisorption techniques. It was found that for the bimetallic catalysts, no oxides or very little oxidation occurred. Furthermore, these catalysts exhibited both Pt and Ni active sites on its surface though the availability of Ni active sites was dominant. A comparison of the surface properties of these materials with those prepared without oleic acid in our previous work [N. H. H. Abu Bakar et al., J. Catal. 265, 63 (2009)] and how they affect the hydrogenation of benzene is also discussed. PMID:23901527

  16. Acid strength of silica-supported oxide catalysts studied by microcalorimetric measurements of pyridine adsorption

    SciTech Connect

    Cardona-Martinez, N.; Dumesic, J.A. (Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison (USA))

    1991-02-01

    Microcalorimetric measurements of the differential heat of pyridine adsorption were used to probe the distribution of acid strength on a series of silica-supported oxide catalysts. Depositing oxides of the following cations onto silica increased the acid strength of the catalyst: Ga{sup 3{plus}}, Zn{sup 2{plus}}, Al{sup 3{plus}}, Fe{sup 3{plus}}, Fe{sup 2{plus}}, Mg{sup 2{plus}}, and Sc{sup 3{plus}}. The acid strength distribution curves for the supported oxide samples showed either two or three regions of constant heat of adsorption while silica had an energetically homogeneous surface. The Ga, Al, and Sc samples were found to have both Bronsted and Lewis acidity while the remaining samples showed only Lewis acidity. Incremental adsorption of pyridine indicated that the initial region of highest heat corresponds to strong Lewis acidity while intermediate heats seemed to be due to weaker Lewis acid sites or a combination of Lewis and Bronsted acid sites. The final region of lowest heat was due to H-bonded pyridine on silica. Estimates of the entropies of adsorption were determined, providing information about the mobility of the adsorbed pyridine molecules. The initial differential heat of adsorption increases proportionally to the Sanderson electronegativity of the added oxide.

  17. Reducing Pt use in the catalysts for formic acid electrooxidation via nanoengineered surface structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liao, Mengyin; Wang, Yulu; Chen, Guoqin; Zhou, Hua; Li, Yunhua; Zhong, Chuan-Jian; Chen, Bing H.

    2014-07-01

    The design of active and durable catalysts for formic acid (FA) electrooxidation requires controlling the amount of three neighboring platinum atoms in the surface of Pt-based catalysts. Such requirement is studied by preparing Pt decorated Pd/C (donated as Pt-Pd/C) with various Pt:Pd molar ratios via galvanic displacement making the amount of three neighboring Pt atoms in the surface of Pt-Pd/C tunable. The decorated nanostructures are confirmed by XPS, HS-LEIS, cyclic voltammetry and chronoamperometric measurements, demonstrating that Pt-Pd/C (the optimal molar ratio, Pt:Pd = 1:250) exhibits superior activity and durability than Pd/C and commercial Pt/C (J-M, 20%) catalysts for FA electrooxidation. The mass activity of Pt-Pd/C (Pt:Pd = 1:250) (3.91 A mg-1) is about 98 and 6 times higher than that of commercial Pt/C (0.04 A mg-1) and Pd/C (0.63 A mg-1) at a given potential of 0.1 V vs SCE, respectively. The controlled synthesis of Pt-Pd/C lead to the formation of largely discontinuous Pd and Pt sites and inhibition of CO formation, exhibiting unprecedented electrocatalytic performance toward FA electrooxidation while the cost of the catalyst almost the same as Pd/C. These findings have profound implications to the design and nanoengineering of decorated surfaces of catalysts for FA electrooxidation.

  18. Improved anode catalysts for coal gas-fueled phosphoric acid fuel cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kackley, N. D.; McCatty, S. A.; Kosek, J. A.

    1990-07-01

    The feasibility of adapting phosphoric acid fuel cells to operate on coal gas fuels containing significant levels of contaminants such as CO, H2S and COS was investigated. The overall goal was the development of low-cost, carbon-supported anode fuel cell catalysts that can efficiently operate with a fossil fuel-derived hydrogen gas feed contaminated with carbon monoxide and other impurities. This development would reduce the cost of gas cleanup necessary in a coal gas-fueled PAFC power plant, thereby reducing the final power cost of the electricity produced. The problem to date was that the contaminant gases typically adsorb on catalytic sites and reduce the activity for hydrogen oxidation. An advanced approach investigated was to modify these alloy catalyst systems to operate efficiently on coal gas containing higher levels of contaminants by increasing the alloy catalyst impurity tolerance and ability to extract energy from the CO present through (1) generation of additional hydrogen by promoting the CO/H2 water shift reaction or (2) direct oxidation of CO to CO2 with the same result. For operation on anode gases containing high levels of CO, a Pt-Ti-Zn and Pt-Ti-Ni anode catalyst showed better performance over a Pt baseline or G87A-17-2 catalyst. The ultimate aim was to allow PAFC-based power plants to operate on coal gas fuels containing increased contaminant concentrations, thereby decreasing the need for and cost of rigorous coal gas cleanup procedures.

  19. Enhancement of Biodiesel Production from Marine Alga, Scenedesmus sp. through In Situ Transesterification Process Associated with Acidic Catalyst

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Ga Vin; Choi, WoonYong; Kang, DoHyung; Lee, ShinYoung; Lee, HyeonYong

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to increase the yield of biodiesel produced by Scenedesmus sp. through in situ transesterification by optimizing various process parameters. Based on the orthogonal matrix analysis for the acidic catalyst, the effects of the factors decreased in the order of reaction temperature (47.5%) > solvent quantity (26.7%) > reaction time (17.5%) > catalyst amount (8.3%). Based on a Taguchi analysis, the effects of the factors decreased in the order of solvent ratio (34.36%) > catalyst (28.62%) > time (19.72%) > temperature (17.32%). The overall biodiesel production appeared to be better using NaOH as an alkaline catalyst rather than using H2SO4 in an acidic process, at 55.07 ± 2.18% (based on lipid weight) versus 48.41 ± 0.21%. However, in considering the purified biodiesel, it was found that the acidic catalyst was approximately 2.5 times more efficient than the alkaline catalyst under the following optimal conditions: temperature of 70°C (level 2), reaction time of 10?hrs (level 2), catalyst amount of 5% (level 3), and biomass to solvent ratio of 1?:?15 (level 2), respectively. These results clearly demonstrated that the acidic solvent, which combined oil extraction with in situ transesterification, was an effective catalyst for the production of high-quantity, high-quality biodiesel from a Scenedesmus sp. PMID:24689039

  20. Tandem isomerization-decarboxylation of unsaturated fatty acids to olefins via ruthenium metal-as-ligand catalysts

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A new facile Ru-catalyzed route to bio-olefins3 from unsaturated fatty acids via readily accessible metal-as-ligand type catalyst precursors, [Ru(CO)2RCO2]n and Ru3(CO)12, will be described. The catalyst apparently functions in a tandem mode by dynamically isomerizing the positions of double bonds i...

  1. Methanol Production By Reduction Of Formic Acid Over Cu Catalyst Under Hydrothermal Conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Min; Wu, Bing; Jin, Fangming; Duan, Xiaokun; Wang, Yuanqing

    2010-11-01

    In this paper, a two-step process for converting carbon dioxide into methanol was established, consisting of conversion of carbon dioxide into formic acid and formic acid into methanol by hydrothermal treatment. For our previous studies has investigated the reduction of carbon dioxide to formic acid under hydrothermal conditions, the focus of this paper was set on the reduction of formic acid into methanol. The synthesis of methanol was examined by varying the following parameters: amount of Cu as catalyst, pH of the reagent, amount of Zn as reductant, reaction time and so on. The highest yield of 27.8% was achieved. The results indicated that Zn or Al was able to reduce formic acid to methanol more efficiently than other metal reductants. It was also found out that the addition of acid or alkali was not favorable for the synthesis of methanol.

  2. Pd/C Synthesized with Citric Acid: An Efficient Catalyst for Hydrogen Generation from Formic Acid/Sodium Formate

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Zhi-Li; Yan, Jun-Min; Wang, Hong-Li; Ping, Yun; Jiang, Qing

    2012-01-01

    A highly efficient hydrogen generation from formic acid/sodium formate aqueous solution catalyzed by in situ synthesized Pd/C with citric acid has been successfully achieved at room temperature. Interestingly, the presence of citric acid during the formation and growth of the Pd nanoparticles on carbon can drastically enhance the catalytic property of the resulted Pd/C, on which the conversion and turnover frequency for decomposition of formic acid/sodium formate system can reach the highest values ever reported of 85% within 160?min and 64?mol H2 mol?1 catalyst h?1, respectively, at room temperature. The present simple, low cost, but highly efficient CO-free hydrogen generation system at room temperature is believed to greatly promote the practical application of formic acid system on fuel cells. PMID:22953041

  3. Geminal Brønsted Acid Ionic Liquids as Catalysts for the Mannich Reaction in Water

    PubMed Central

    He, Leqin; Qin, Shenjun; Chang, Tao; Sun, Yuzhuang; Zhao, Jiquan

    2014-01-01

    Quaternary ammonium geminal Brønsted acid ionic liquids (GBAILs) based on zwitterionic 1,2-bis[N-methyl-N-(3-sulfopropyl)-alkylammonium]ethane (where the carbon number of the alkyl chain is 4, 8, 10, 12, 14, 16, or 18) and p-toluenesulfonic acid monohydrate were synthesized. The catalytic ionic liquids were applied in three-component Mannich reactions with an aldehyde, ketone, and amine at 25 °C in water. The effects of the type and amount of catalyst and reaction time as well as the scope of the reaction were investigated. Results showed that GBAIL-C14 has excellent catalytic activity and fair reusability. The catalytic procedure was simple, and the catalyst could be recycled seven times via a simple separation process without noticeable decreases in catalytic activity. PMID:24837832

  4. Effects of catalyst pore structure and Acid properties on the dehydration of glycerol.

    PubMed

    Choi, Youngbo; Park, Hongseok; Yun, Yang Sik; Yi, Jongheop

    2015-03-01

    Hierarchical porous catalysts have recently attracted increasing interest because of the enhanced accessibility to active sites on such materials. In this context, previously reported hierarchically mesoporous ASN and ASPN materials are evaluated by applying them to the dehydration of glycerol, and demonstrate excellent catalytic performance. In addition, a comprehensive understanding of the effects of pore structures and the acid properties on the reaction through comparative studies with microporous HZSM-5 and mesoporous AlMCM-41 is provided. PMID:25418679

  5. Salt-induced peptide formation from amino acids in the presence of clays and related catalysts

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hoang Le Son; Yuttana Suwannachot; Juraj Bujdak; Bernd M. Rode

    1998-01-01

    The salt-induced peptide formation (SIPF) reaction, starting from the amino acids glycine and\\/or alanine has been performed as wetting\\/drying cycles in the presence of the clay minerals montmorillonite and hectorite and the related catalysts alumina and silica, in order to see whether SIPF and clay-catalysed peptide synthesis reactions could have occurred simultaneously under primitive earth conditions. The results show that

  6. Low equivalent weight short-side-chain perfluorosulfonic acid ionomers in fuel cell cathode catalyst layers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Chao Lei; Dmitri Bessarabov; Siyu Ye; Zhong Xie; Steven Holdcroft; Titichai Navessin

    2011-01-01

    The morphology and fuel cell performance of cathode catalyst layers (CCLs) using low equivalent weight (EW) short-side-chain (SSC) perfluorosulfonic acid ionomers have been investigated in this work. The results were compared with those for a baseline CCL containing 30wt% of the conventional ionomer 1100 EW Nafion®. The CCLs fabricated with 10–20wt% of the Aquivion™ ionomer displayed a similar morphology to

  7. COMPARISON OF CATALYSTS FOR DIRECT TRANSESTERIFICATION OF FATTY ACIDS IN FREEZE DRIED FORAGE SAMPLES

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. R. Weston; J. D. Derner; C. M. Murrieta; B. W. Hess

    2006-01-01

    Our objective was to compare 1.09 M methanolic HCl to 14% BF3 in methanol as catalysts for direct transesterification of fatty acids in freeze-dried forage samples. Samples included blue grama (Bouteloua gracilis), fringed sage (Artemisia frigida), western wheatgrass (Pascopyrum smithii), needle-and-thread (Stipa comata), dalmation toadflax (Linaria dalmatica), needleleaf sedge (Carex eleocharis), and scarlet globemallow (Sphaelercea coccinea). Thin layer chromatographic evaluation

  8. Highly efficient Brønsted acidic ionic liquid-based catalysts for biodiesel synthesis from vegetable oils

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Ghiaci; B. Aghabarari; S. Habibollahi; A. Gil

    2011-01-01

    Biodiesel has been produced by transesterification of canola oil with methanol in the presence of highly Brønsted acidic ionic liquids based on 1-benzyl-1H-benzimidazole, and the effect of reaction temperature, type and amount of catalyst, molar ratio and reaction time investigated. The results show that the 4B ionic liquid has the highest catalytic activity and best recyclability under the optimised reaction

  9. Pt/TiO2 (Rutile) Catalysts for Sulfuric Acid Decomposition in Sulfur-Based Thermochemical Water-Splitting Cycles

    SciTech Connect

    L. M. Petkovic; D. M. Ginosar; H. W. Rollins; K. C. Burch; P. J. Pinhero; H. H. Farrell

    2008-04-01

    Thermochemical cycles consist of a series of chemical reactions to produce hydrogen from water at lower temperatures than by direct thermal decomposition. All the sulfur-based cycles for water splitting employ the sulfuric acid decomposition reaction. This work reports the studies performed on platinum supported on titania (rutile) catalysts to investigate the causes of catalyst deactivation under sulfuric acid decomposition reaction conditions. Samples of 1 wt% Pt/TiO2 (rutile) catalysts were submitted to flowing concentrated sulfuric acid at 1123 K and atmospheric pressure for different times on stream (TOS) between 0 and 548 h. Post-operation analyses of the spent catalyst samples showed that Pt oxidation and sintering occurred under reaction conditions and some Pt was lost by volatilization. Pt loss rate was higher at initial times but total loss appeared to be independent of the gaseous environment. Catalyst activity showed an initial decrease that lasted for about 66 h, followed by a slight recovery of activity between 66 and 102 h TOS, and a period of slower deactivation after 102 h TOS. Catalyst sulfation did not seem to be detrimental to catalyst activity and the activity profile suggested that a complex dynamical situation involving platinum sintering, volatilization, and oxidation, along with TiO2 morphological changes affected catalyst activity in a non-monotonic way.

  10. Conversion of isoamyl alcohol over acid catalysts: Reaction dependence on nature of active centers

    SciTech Connect

    Babu, G.P.; Murthy, R.S.; Krishnan, V. [Hindustan Lever Research Centre, Bombay (India)] [Hindustan Lever Research Centre, Bombay (India)

    1997-02-01

    Acid catalysts are known to catalyze the dehydration of alcohols. In addition some oxide catalysts with basic properties have also been shown to play an important role in such dehydration reactions. The dehydration of aliphatic alcohols to olefins has been studied in detail using alumina silica-alumina and zeolite catalysts. The olefin products further undergo isomerization in presence of acidic sites. The reaction of isoamyl alcohol on catalytic surfaces has not been investigated in greater detail. The dehydration of isoamyl alcohol is of considerable interest in fine chemicals. Isoamyl alcohol may also undergo dehydrogenation as observed in the case of n-butanol. The scope of the present work is to identify the nature of the active sites selective for dehydration and dehydrogenation of isoamyl alcohol and to modify the active sites to promote isomerization of dehydrated products. Four catalytic surfaces on which the acidic strength can be varied, as well as selectively suppressed, are chosen for this study. 17 refs., 1 fig., 3 tabs.

  11. Insights into the Interplay of Lewis and Brnsted Acid Catalysts in Glucose and Fructose Conversion to 5(Hydroxymethyl)furfural and

    E-print Network

    Frenkel, Anatoly

    Insights into the Interplay of Lewis and Brønsted Acid Catalysts in Glucose and Fructose Conversion is an active Lewis acid catalyst in glucose isomerization to fructose, and the combined Lewis and Brønsted acid]2+ . In contrast, Lewis acidity increases the overall rate of consumption of fructose and HMF

  12. Nanoscale organization of thiol and arylsulfonic acid on silica leads to a highly active and selective bifunctional, heterogeneous catalyst.

    PubMed

    Margelefsky, Eric L; Bendjériou, Anissa; Zeidan, Ryan K; Dufaud, Véronique; Davis, Mark E

    2008-10-01

    Ordered mesoporous silicas functionalized with alkylsulfonic acid and thiol group pairs have been shown to catalyze the synthesis of bisphenols from the condensation of phenol and various ketones, with activity and selectivity highly dependent on the distance between the acid and thiol. Here, a new route to thiol/sulfonic acid paired catalysts is reported. A bis-silane precursor molecule containing both a disulfide and a sulfonate ester bond is grafted onto the surface of ordered mesoporous silica, SBA-15, followed by simultaneous disulfide reduction and sulfonate ester hydrolysis. The resulting catalyst, containing organized pairs of arylsulfonic acid and thiol groups, is significantly more active than the alkylsulfonic acid/thiol paired catalyst in the synthesis of bisphenol A and Z, and this increase in activity does not lead to a loss of regioselectivity. The paired catalyst has activity similar to that of a randomly bifunctionalized arylsulfonic acid/thiol catalyst in the bisphenol A reaction but exhibits greater activity and selectivity than the randomly bifunctionalized catalyst in the bisphenol Z reaction. PMID:18788738

  13. Acid-Base Mechanism for Ruthenium-Based Water Oxidation Catalysts

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, L.P.; Wu, Q.; Van Voorhis, T.

    2010-05-17

    We present a detailed theoretical study of the pathway for water oxidation in synthetic ruthenium-based catalysts. As a first step, we consider a recently discovered single center catalyst, where experimental observations suggest a purely single-center mechanism. We find low activation energies (<5 kcal/mol) for each rearrangement in the catalytic cycle. In the crucial step of O-O bond formation, a solvent water acts as a Lewis base and attacks a highly oxidized Ru{sup V} = O. Armed with the structures and energetics of the single-center catalyst, we proceed to consider a representative Ru-dimer which was designed to form O{sub 2} via coupling between the two centers. We discover a mechanism that proceeds in analogous fashion to the monomer case, with all the most significant steps occurring at a single catalytic center within the dimer. This acid-base mechanism suggests a new set of strategies for the rational design of multicenter catalysts: rather than coordinating the relative orientations of the subunits, one can focus on coordinating solvation-shell water molecules or tuning redox potentials.

  14. Synthesis of bio-based methacrylic acid by decarboxylation of itaconic acid and citric acid catalyzed by solid transition-metal catalysts.

    PubMed

    Le Nôtre, Jérôme; Witte-van Dijk, Susan C M; van Haveren, Jacco; Scott, Elinor L; Sanders, Johan P M

    2014-09-01

    Methacrylic acid, an important monomer for the plastics industry, was obtained in high selectivity (up to 84%) by the decarboxylation of itaconic acid using heterogeneous catalysts based on Pd, Pt and Ru. The reaction takes place in water at 200-250?°C without any external added pressure, conditions significantly milder than those described previously for the same conversion with better yield and selectivity. A comprehensive study of the reaction parameters has been performed, and the isolation of methacrylic acid was achieved in 50% yield. The decarboxylation procedure is also applicable to citric acid, a more widely available bio-based feedstock, and leads to the production of methacrylic acid in one pot in 41% selectivity. Aconitic acid, the intermediate compound in the pathway from citric acid to itaconic acid was also used successfully as a substrate. PMID:25045161

  15. Nano scale magnetically recoverable supported heteropoly acid as an efficient catalyst for the synthesis of benzimidazole derivatives in water.

    PubMed

    Rafiee, Ezzat; Rahpeima, Nasibeh; Eavani, Sara

    2014-01-01

    12-Tungstophosphoric acid supported on silica-coated magnetic nano particles was prepared and characterized by transmission electron microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, powder X-ray diffraction and inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy. Acidity of the catalysts was measured by potentiometric titration with n-butylamine. Catalytic activity of the prepared sample was evaluated in the model synthesis of 1,2-disubstituted benzimidazole derivatives in water. The catalyst showed excellent catalytic activity and the corresponding products were obtained in good to excellent yields under mild reaction conditions. Furthermore, the catalyst could be easily recovered using an external magnet and reused several times. The leaching and surface acidity of the recovered catalyst were also investigated. PMID:24664342

  16. Application of solid-acid catalyst and marine macro-algae Gracilaria verrucosa to production of fermentable sugars.

    PubMed

    Jeong, Gwi-Taek; Kim, Sung-Koo; Park, Don-Hee

    2015-04-01

    In this study, the hydrolysis of marine macro-algae Gracilaria verrucosa with a solid-acid catalyst was investigated. To optimize the hydrolysis, four reaction factors, including liquid-to-solid ratio, catalyst loading, reaction temperature, and reaction time, were investigated. In the results, the highest total reducing sugar (TRS) yield, 61g/L (51.9%), was obtained under the following conditions: 1:7.5 solid-to-liquid ratio, 15% (w/v) catalyst loading, 140°C reaction temperature, and 150min reaction time. Under these conditions, 10.7g/L of 5-HMF and 2.5g/L of levulinic acid (LA) were generated. The application of solid-acid catalyst and marine macro-algae resources shows a very high potential for production of fermentable sugars. PMID:25625460

  17. SBA-15-functionalized sulfonic acid confined acidic ionic liquid: a powerful and water-tolerant catalyst for solvent-free esterifications.

    PubMed

    Karimi, Babak; Vafaeezadeh, Majid

    2012-04-01

    Incorporating a hydrophobic Brønsted acid ionic liquid (HBAIL) inside the nanospaces of SBA-15-Pr-SO(3)H led to a hydrophobic super Brønsted acid catalyst, which showed excellent catalytic performance in direct esterification of alcohols and carboxylic acids at ambient temperature under solvent-free conditions. PMID:22361844

  18. Efficient production of hydrogen from formic acid using a Covalent Triazine Framework supported molecular catalyst.

    PubMed

    Bavykina, A V; Goesten, M G; Kapteijn, F; Makkee, M; Gascon, J

    2015-03-01

    A heterogeneous molecular catalyst based on Ir(III) Cp* (Cp*=pentamethylcyclopentadienyl) attached to a covalent triazine framework (CTF) is reported. It catalyses the production of hydrogen from formic acid with initial turnover frequencies (TOFs) up to 27?000?h(-1) and turnover numbers (TONs) of more than one million in continuous operation. The CTF support, with a Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) surface area of 1800?m(2) ?g(-1) , was constructed from an optimal 2:1 ratio of biphenyl and pyridine carbonitrile building blocks. Biphenyl building blocks induce mesoporosity and, therefore, facilitate diffusion of reactants and products whereas free pyridinic sites activate formic acid towards ?-hydride elimination at the metal, rendering unprecedented rates in hydrogen production. The catalyst is air stable, produces CO-free hydrogen, and is fully recyclable. Hydrogen production rates of more than 60?mol?L(-1) ?h(-1) were obtained at high catalyst loadings of 16?wt?% Ir, making it attractive towards process intensification. PMID:25677344

  19. Acid-base properties, deactivation, and in situ regeneration of condensation catalysts for synthesis of methyl methacrylate

    SciTech Connect

    Gogate, M.R.; Spivey, J.J. [Reseach Triangle Institute, Research Triangle Institute, Research Triangle Park, NC (United States); Zoeller, J.R. [Eastman Chemical Co., Kingsport, TN (United States)

    1996-12-31

    Condensation reaction of a propionate with formaldehyde is a novel route for synthesis of methyl methacrylate (MMA). The reaction mechanism involves a proton abstraction from the propionate on the basic sites and activation of the aliphatic aldehyde on the acidic sites of the catalyst. The acid-base properties of ternary V-Si-P oxide catalysts and their relation to the NWA yield in the vapor phase condensation of formaldehyde with propionic anhydride has been studied for the first time. Five different V-Si-P catalysts with different atomic ratios of vanadium, silicon, and phosphorous were synthesized, characterized, and tested in a fixed-bed microreactor system. A V-Si-P 1:10:2.8 catalyst gave the maximum condensation yield of 56% based on HCHO fed at 300{degrees}C and 2 atm and at a space velocity of 290 cc/g cat{center_dot}h. A parameter called the ``q-ratio`` has been defined to correlate the condensation yields to the acid-base properties. The correlation of q-ratio with the condensation yield shows that higher q-ratios are more desirable. The long-term deactivation studies on the V-Si-P 1: 10:2.8 catalyst at 300{degrees}C and 2 atm and at a space velocity of 290 cc/g cat{center_dot}h show that the catalyst activity drops by a factor of nearly 20 over a 180 h period. The activity can be restored to about 78% of the initial activity by a mild oxidative regeneration at 300{degrees}C and 2 atm. The performance of V-Si-P catalyst has been compared to a Ta/SiO{sub 2} catalyst. The Ta- catalyst is more stable and has a higher on-stream catalyst life.

  20. Generating hydrogen-rich fuel-cell feeds from dimethyl ether (DME) using physical mixtures of a commercial Cu\\/Zn\\/Al 2O 3 catalyst and several solid–acid catalysts

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Troy A. Semelsberger; Kevin C. Ott; Rodney L. Borup; Howard L. Greene

    2006-01-01

    Homogeneous physical mixtures containing a commercial Cu\\/ZnO\\/Al2O3 catalyst and a solid–acid catalyst were used to examine the acidity effects on dimethyl ether hydrolysis and their subsequent effects on dimethyl ether steam reforming (DME-SR). The acid catalysts used were zeolites Y [Si\\/Al=2.5 and 15: denoted Y(Si\\/Al)], ZSM-5 [Si\\/Al=15, 25, 40, and 140: denoted Z(Si\\/Al)] and other conventional catalyst supports (ZrO2, and

  1. Gas diffusion electrode setup for catalyst testing in concentrated phosphoric acid at elevated temperatures.

    PubMed

    Wiberg, Gustav K H; Fleige, Michael; Arenz, Matthias

    2015-02-01

    We present a detailed description of the construction and testing of an electrochemical cell setup allowing the investigation of a gas diffusion electrode containing carbon supported high surface area catalysts. The setup is designed for measurements in concentrated phosphoric acid at elevated temperature, i.e., very close to the actual conditions in high temperature proton exchange membrane fuel cells (HT-PEMFCs). The cell consists of a stainless steel flow field and a PEEK plastic cell body comprising the electrochemical cell, which exhibits a three electrode configuration. The cell body and flow field are braced using a KF-25 vacuum flange clamp, which allows an easy assembly of the setup. As demonstrated, the setup can be used to investigate temperature dependent electrochemical processes on high surface area type electrocatalysts, but it also enables quick screening tests of HT-PEMFC catalysts under realistic conditions. PMID:25725862

  2. Gas diffusion electrode setup for catalyst testing in concentrated phosphoric acid at elevated temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wiberg, Gustav K. H.; Fleige, Michael; Arenz, Matthias

    2015-02-01

    We present a detailed description of the construction and testing of an electrochemical cell setup allowing the investigation of a gas diffusion electrode containing carbon supported high surface area catalysts. The setup is designed for measurements in concentrated phosphoric acid at elevated temperature, i.e., very close to the actual conditions in high temperature proton exchange membrane fuel cells (HT-PEMFCs). The cell consists of a stainless steel flow field and a PEEK plastic cell body comprising the electrochemical cell, which exhibits a three electrode configuration. The cell body and flow field are braced using a KF-25 vacuum flange clamp, which allows an easy assembly of the setup. As demonstrated, the setup can be used to investigate temperature dependent electrochemical processes on high surface area type electrocatalysts, but it also enables quick screening tests of HT-PEMFC catalysts under realistic conditions.

  3. Manganese as a substitute for rhenium in CO2 reduction catalysts: the importance of acids.

    PubMed

    Smieja, Jonathan M; Sampson, Matthew D; Grice, Kyle A; Benson, Eric E; Froehlich, Jesse D; Kubiak, Clifford P

    2013-03-01

    Electrocatalytic properties, X-ray crystallographic studies, and infrared spectroelectrochemistry (IR-SEC) of Mn(bpy-tBu)(CO)3Br and [Mn(bpy-tBu)(CO)3(MeCN)](OTf) are reported. Addition of Brönsted acids to CO2-saturated solutions of these Mn complexes and subsequent reduction of the complexes lead to the stable and efficient production of CO from CO2. Unlike the analogous Re catalysts, these Mn catalysts require the addition of Brönsted acids for catalytic turnover. Current densities up to 30 mA/cm(2) were observed during bulk electrolysis using 5 mM Mn(bpy-tBu)(CO)3Br, 1 M 2,2,2-trifluoroethanol, and a glassy carbon working electrode. During bulk electrolysis at -2.2 V vs SCE, a TOF of 340 s(-1) was calculated for Mn(bpy-tBu)(CO)3Br with 1.4 M trifluoroethanol, corresponding to a Faradaic efficiency of 100 ± 15% for the formation of CO from CO2, with no observable production of H2. When compared to the analogous Re catalysts, the Mn catalysts operate at a lower overpotential and exhibit similar catalytic activities. X-ray crystallography of the reduced species, [Mn(bpy-tBu)(CO)3](-), shows a five-coordinate Mn center, similar to its rhenium analogue. Three distinct species were observed in the IR-SEC of Mn(bpy-tBu)(CO)3Br. These were of the parent Mn(bpy-tBu)(CO)3Br complex, the dimer [Mn(bpy-tBu)(CO)3]2, and the [Mn(bpy-tBu)(CO)3](-) anion. PMID:23418912

  4. Expeditious Pechmann Condensation by Using Biodegradable Cellulose Sulfuric Acid as a Solid Acid Catalyst

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. Suresh Kuarm; J. Venu Madhav; S. Vijaya Laxmi; B. Rajitha; Y. Thirupathi Reddy; P. Narsimha Reddy; Peter A. Crooks

    2010-01-01

    A facile synthesis of coumarins was performed in excellent yields via Pechmann condensation by using different type of phenols and ethylacetoacetates under solvent–free media using both conventional method and microwave irradiation in short reaction times is described. The reaction workup is very simple, and the catalyst can be easily separated from the reaction mixture and reused several times in subsequent

  5. Kinetics of isobutane selective oxidation over Mo-V-P-As-Cs-Cu-O heteropoly acid catalyst

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Götz-Peter Schindler; Toshiaki Ui; Koichi Nagai

    2001-01-01

    Isobutane oxidation was investigated in wide ranges of experimental conditions over Mo-V-P-As-Cs-Cu-O heteropoly acid catalyst. The kinetics could be described by an empirical set of first order equations. Methacrylic acid is produced by a series of consecutive reactions via isobutylene and methacrolein. Neither methacrolein nor methacrylic acid is formed directly from isobutane. Both overoxidation of methacrylic acid and total oxidation

  6. Lactic acid conversion to 2,3-pentanedione and acrylic acid over silica-supported sodium nitrate: Reaction optimization and identification of sodium lactate as the active catalyst

    SciTech Connect

    Wadley, D.C.; Tam, M.S.; Miller, D.J. [Michigan State Univ., East Lansing, MI (United States)] [and others] [Michigan State Univ., East Lansing, MI (United States); and others

    1997-01-15

    Lactic acid is converted to 2,3-pentanedione, acrylic acid, and other products in vapor-phase reactions over silica-supported sodium lactate formed from sodium nitrate. Multiparameter optimization of reaction conditions using a Box-Benkhen experimental design shows that the highest yield and selectivity to 2,3-pentanedione are achieved at low temperature, elevated pressure, and long contact time, while yield and selectivity to acrylic acid are most favorable at high temperature, low pressure, and short contact time. Post-reaction Fourier transform infrared spectroscopic analyses of the catalyst indicate that sodium nitrate as the initial catalyst material is transformed to sodium lactate at the onset of reaction via proton transfer from lactic acid to nitrate. The resultant nitric acid vaporizes as it is formed, leaving sodium lactate as the sole sodium-bearing species on the catalyst during reaction. 19 refs., 8 figs., 5 tabs.

  7. Synergism of Clay and Heteropoly Acids as Nano-Catalysts for the Development of Green Processes with Potential Industrial Applications

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ganapati D. Yadav

    2005-01-01

    A large number of inorganic oxides, mixed oxides, including alumina, silica, titania, zirconia, zeolites, carbon, clays and ion exchange resins have been employed as both supports and solid acid catalysts. Clay structure collapses at high temperatures and has to be stablilized. The thermal stability and pore size issues were addressed by pillaring of clays. Natural clays are acid treated or

  8. SYNTHESIS AND CHARACTERIZATION OF A NOVEL SOLID ACID CATALYST FOR IMPROVED USE OF WASTE OIL FEEDSTOCK FOR BIODIESEL PRODUCTION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Carbon Catalyst Synthesis - Sucrose was treated directly with excess sulfuric acid sulfuric acid (9:1 mol/mol, 25°C). A carbon foam (nearly 20 fold increase in bulk volume) was immediately formed. The foam was then washed until no sulfate was dete...

  9. One-Pot synthesis of phosphorylated mesoporous carbon heterogeneous catalysts with tailored surface acidity

    SciTech Connect

    Fulvio, Pasquale F [ORNL; Mahurin, Shannon Mark [ORNL; Mayes, Richard T [ORNL; Bauer, Christopher [ORNL; Wang, Xiqing [ORNL; Veith, Gabriel M [ORNL; Dai, Sheng [ORNL

    2012-01-01

    Soft-templated phosphorylated mesoporous carbons with homogeneous distributions of phosphate groups were prepared by a 'one-pot' synthesis method using mixtures of phosphoric acid with hydrochloric, or nitric acids in the presence of Pluronic F127 triblock copolymer. Adjusting the various ratios of phosphoric acid used in these mixtures resulted in carbons with distinct adsorption, structural and surface acidity properties. The pore size distributions (PSDs) from nitrogen adsorption at -196 C showed that mesoporous carbons exhibit specific surface areas as high as 551 m{sup 2}/g and mesopores as large as 13 nm. Both structural ordering of the mesopores and the final phosphate contents were strongly dependent on the ratios of H{sub 3}PO{sub 4} in the synthesis gels, as shown by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray photoelectron (XPS) and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS). The number of surface acid sites determined from temperature programmed desorption of ammonia (NH{sub 3}-TPD) were in the range of 0.3-1.5 mmol/g while the active surface areas are estimated to comprise 5-54% of the total surface areas. Finally, the conversion temperatures for the isopropanol dehydration were lowered by as much as 100 C by transitioning from the least acidic to the most acidic catalysts surface.

  10. A novel catalyst of Fe-octacarboxylic acid phthalocyanine supported by attapulgite for degradation of Rhodamine B

    SciTech Connect

    Fang, Ying [State Key Laboratory for Modification of Chemical Fibers and Polymer Materials, Shanghai 201620 (China) [State Key Laboratory for Modification of Chemical Fibers and Polymer Materials, Shanghai 201620 (China); College of Materials Science and Engineering, Donghua University, Shanghai 201620 (China); Chen, Dajun, E-mail: cdj@dhu.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory for Modification of Chemical Fibers and Polymer Materials, Shanghai 201620 (China) [State Key Laboratory for Modification of Chemical Fibers and Polymer Materials, Shanghai 201620 (China); College of Materials Science and Engineering, Donghua University, Shanghai 201620 (China)

    2010-11-15

    A novel nano-composite catalyst was prepared from immobilization of Fe-octacarboxylic acid phthalocyanine onto the supporting material attapulgite. The morphology and structure of the catalyst were analyzed by scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, Fourier transform infrared and ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy. The catalyst activity was examined through comparative experiments, and results showed that it exhibited high activity for degradation of Rhodamine B in the presence of hydrogen peroxide. The recycling test was also carried out to prove its reusability in catalytic application.

  11. Mercury oxidation by hydrochloric acid over TiO 2 supported metal oxide catalysts in coal combustion flue gas

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hiroyuki Kamata; Shun-ichiro Ueno; Naoki Sato; Toshiyuki Naito

    2009-01-01

    Mercury oxidation by hydrochloric acid over the metal oxides supported by anatase type TiO2 catalysts, 1 wt.% MOx\\/TiO2 where M = V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu, and Mo, was investigated by the Hg0 oxidation and the NO reduction measurements both in the presence and absence of NH3. The catalysts were characterized by BET surface area measurement and Raman spectroscopy. The

  12. Direct conversion of cellulose to glucose and valuable intermediates in mild reaction conditions over solid acid catalysts

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. Lanzafame; D. M. Temi; S. Perathoner; A. N. Spadaro; G. Centi

    The direct hydrolysis of cellulose to glucose, HMF and other soluble by-products at 190°C in water solution using zeolites (H-BEA, H-MOR), sulphated zirconia supported over mesoporous silica (SBA-15), Amberlyst®15, heteropolyacids and AlCl3·6H2O as acid catalysts was studied using a high cellulose to catalyst ratio (10), not-pretreated (neither mechanically nor chemically) cellulose and a static (not mixed) autoclave. Under these conditions,

  13. A comparative study on liquid phase alkylation of 2-methylnaphthalene with long chain olefins using different solid acid catalysts

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nishita Lucas; Ankur Bordoloi; Amol P. Amrute; Palraj Kasinathan; Ajayan Vinu; Walter Bohringer; Jack C. Q. Fletcher; S. B. Halligudi

    2009-01-01

    A comparative study has been made over a variety of solid acid catalysts, which include isopoly and heteropoly ions supported on various supports such as zirconia, titania, a large variety of zeolites and a couple of mesoporous materials for liquid phase alkylation of 2-methylnaphthalene with 1-octene. All the catalyst systems were characterized by nitrogen sorption analysis, X-ray diffraction and NH3-TPD.

  14. Degradation of Acid Blue 74 using Fe-ZSM5 zeolite as a heterogeneous photo-Fenton catalyst

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. B. Kasiri; H. Aleboyeh; A. Aleboyeh

    2008-01-01

    Decolourisation and mineralization of an indigoid dye, C.I. Acid Blue 74, was conducted using Fe-ZSM5 zeolite as a catalyst in the presence of UV-C light and H2O2. The effects of different parameters such as amounts of catalyst, initial concentration of the dye and H2O2 and initial pH of the dye solution on the degradation efficiency of the process were assessed.

  15. Enhanced catalytic performance of Pd catalyst for formic acid electrooxidation in ionic liquid aqueous solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, Yuan-Yuan; Yin, Qian-Ying; Lu, Guo-Ping; Yang, Hai-Fang; Zhu, Xiao; Kong, De-Sheng; You, Jin-Mao

    2014-12-01

    A protic ionic liquid (IL), n-butylammonium nitrate (N4NO3), is prepared and employed as the electrolyte for formic acid electrooxidation reaction (FAOR) on Pd catalysts. The oxidation peak potential of FAOR in the IL solution shows about a 200 mV negative shift as compared with those in traditional H2SO4/HClO4 electrolytes, suggesting that FAOR can be more easily carried out on Pd catalysts in IL media. The catalytic properties of Pd toward FAOR are not only dependent on the concentration of IL, as a consequence of the varied electronic conductivity of the IL solution, but also on the high potential limit of the cyclic voltammograms. When the Pd catalyst is cycled up to 1.0 V (vs. SCE), which induces a significant oxidation of Pd, it shows ca. 4.0 times higher activity than that not subjected to the Pd oxidation (up to 0.6 V). The Pd oxides, which are more easily formed in IL solution than in traditional H2SO4/HClO4 electrolytes, may play a crucial role in increasing the catalytic activities of Pd toward FAOR. Our work would shed new light on the mechanism of FAOR and highlight the potential applications of IL as green and environment-friendly electrolytes in fuel cells and other technologies.

  16. Solid acid catalysts pretreatment and enzymatic hydrolysis of macroalgae cellulosic residue for the production of bioethanol.

    PubMed

    Tan, Inn Shi; Lee, Keat Teong

    2015-06-25

    The aim of this study is to investigate the technical feasibility of converting macroalgae cellulosic residue (MCR) into bioethanol. An attempt was made to present a novel, environmental friendly and economical pretreatment process that enhances enzymatic conversion of MCR to sugars using Dowex (TM) Dr-G8 as catalyst. The optimum yield of glucose reached 99.8% under the optimal condition for solid acid pretreatment (10%, w/v biomass loading, 4%, w/v catalyst loading, 30min, 120°C) followed by enzymatic hydrolysis (45FPU/g of cellulase, 52CBU/g of ?-glucosidase, 50°C, pH 4.8, 30h). The yield of sugar obtained was found more superior than conventional pretreatment process using H2SO4 and NaOH. Biomass loading for the subsequent simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) of the pretreated MCR was then optimized, giving an optimum bioethanol yield of 81.5%. The catalyst was separated and reused for six times, with only a slight drop in glucose yield. PMID:25839825

  17. Direct Synthesis of Phenol from Benzene on an Activated Carbon Catalyst Treated with Nitric Acid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Cui-hong; Xu, Jia-quan; Jin, Ming-ming; Li, Gui-ying; Hu, Chang-wei

    2011-06-01

    Commercially available coal-based activated carbon was treated by nitric acid with different concentrations and the resultant samples were used as catalysts for the direct hydroxylation of benzene to phenol in acetonitrile. Boehm titration, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, scanning electron microscope coupled with an energy dispersive X-ray microanalyzer, and Brunauer-Emmett-Teller method were used to characterize the samples. The number of carboxyl groups on the surface was found to be the main factor affecting the catalytic activity. An optimum catalytic performance with a yield of 15.7% and a selectivity of 87.2% to phenol was obtained.

  18. High-temperature sulfuric acid decomposition over complex metal oxide catalysts

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Daniel M. Ginosar; Harry W. Rollins; Lucia M. Petkovic; Kyle C. Burch; Michael J. Rush

    2009-01-01

    Activity and stability of FeTiO3, MnTiO3, NiFe2O4, CuFe2O4, NiCr2O4, 2CuO·Cr2O3, CuO and Fe2O3 for the atmospheric decomposition of concentrated sulfuric acid in sulfur-based thermochemical water splitting cycles are presented. Catalyst activity was determined at temperatures from 725 to 900°C. Catalytic stability was examined at 850°C for up to 1 week of continuous operation. The results were compared to a 1.0wt%

  19. Effects of metal and acidic sites on the reaction by-products of butyl acetate oxidation over palladium-based catalysts.

    PubMed

    Yue, Lin; He, Chi; Hao, Zhengping; Wang, Shunbing; Wang, Hailin

    2014-03-01

    Catalytic oxidation is widely used in pollution control technology to remove volatile organic compounds. In this study, Pd/ZSM-5 catalysts with different Pd contents and acidic sites were prepared via the impregnation method. All the catalysts were characterized by means of N2 adsorption-desorption, X-ray fluorescence (XRF), H2 temperature programmed reduction (H2-TPR), and NH3 temperature programmed desorption (NH3-TPD). Their catalytic performance was investigated in the oxidation of butyl acetate experiments. The by-products of the reaction were collected in thermal desorption tubes and identified by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. It was found that the increase of Pd content slightly changed the catalytic activity of butyl acetate oxidation according to the yield of CO2 achieved at 90%, but decreased the cracking by-products, whereas the enhancement of strong acidity over Pd-based catalysts enriched the by-product species. The butyl acetate oxidation process involves a series of reaction steps including protolysis, dehydrogenation, dehydration, cracking, and isomerization. Generally, butyl acetate was cracked to acetic acid and 2-methylpropene and the latter was an intermediate of the other by-products, and the oxidation routes of typical by-products were proposed. Trace amounts of 3-methylpentane, hexane, 2-methylpentane, pentane, and 2-methylbutane originated from isomerization and protolysis reactions. PMID:25079284

  20. Sulfonated mesoporous silica-carbon composites and their use as solid acid catalysts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valle-Vigón, Patricia; Sevilla, Marta; Fuertes, Antonio B.

    2012-11-01

    The synthesis of highly functionalized porous silica-carbon composites made up of sulfonic groups attached to a carbon layer coating the pores of three types of mesostructured silica (i.e. SBA-15, KIT-6 and mesocellular silica) is presented. The synthesis procedure involves the following steps: (a) removal of the surfactant, (b) impregnation of the silica pores with a carbon precursor, (c) carbonization and (d) sulfonation. The resulting silica-carbon composites contain ˜30 wt % of carbonaceous matter with a high density of acidic groups attached to the deposited carbon (i.e.sbnd SO3H, sbnd COOH and sbnd OH). The structural characteristics of the parent silica are retained in the composite materials, which exhibit a high surface area, a large pore volume and a well-ordered porosity made up uniform mesopores. The high density of the sulfonic groups in combination with the mesoporous structure of the composites ensures that a large number of active sites are easily accessible to reactants. These sulfonated silica-carbon composites behave as eco-friendly, active, selective, water tolerant and recyclable solid acids. In this study we demonstrate the usefulness of these composites as solid acid catalysts for the esterification of maleic anhydride, succinic acid and oleic acid with ethanol. These composites exhibit a superior intrinsic catalytic activity to other commercial solid acids such as Amberlyst-15.

  1. Preyssler catalyst, [NaP 5W 30O 110] 14?: A green, efficient and reusable catalyst for esterification of salicylic acid with aliphatic and benzylic alcohols

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Fatemeh F. Bamoharram; Majid M. Heravi; Mina Roshani; Manochehr Jahangir; Ali Gharib

    2006-01-01

    A series of eco-friendly solid acid catalysts, including H14[NaP5W30O110], H14–P5, H14[NaP5W29MoO110], H14–P5Mo, and silica supported H14[NaP5W30O110], H14–P5\\/SiO2 have been used as catalysts for esterification of salicylic acid with aliphatic alcohols (methanol, ethanol, 1-propanol, 2-propanol, 1-butanol, t-butanol, 1-pentanol, and 2-pentanol) and benzylic alcohols (benzyl, 2-methylbenzyl, 2-chlorobenzyl, 4-bromobenzyl, 3-nitrobenzyl, and 4-methoxy benzyl) alcohol.The performance of different forms of Preyssler's anion in the

  2. Acylation of Aromatic Ethers Using Different Carboxylic Acid Anhydrides as Acylating Agents in the Presence of Nontoxic, Noncorrosive Resin Amberlyst 15 as a Solid Acid Catalyst

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Manoj A. Pande; Shriniwas D. Samant

    2011-01-01

    Friedel–Crafts acylation of aromatic ethers, anisole, 2-methoxynaphthalene, and dimethoxybenzenes with different acid anhydrides is carried out in the presence of an inexpensive and nonhazardous solid acid, Amberlyst 15. The catalyst is reusable, thus making the process environmentally friendly.

  3. Continuous esterification of free fatty acids in crude biodiesel by an integrated process of supercritical methanol and sodium methoxide catalyst.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Dan; Li, Ruosong; Feng, Mingjun; Fang, Tao

    2014-10-01

    An integrated process of supercritical methanol (SCM) and sodium methoxide catalyst was developed to produce fatty acid methyl esters (FAMEs) via continuous esterification from crude biodiesel. The crude biodiesel with high free fatty acid (FFA) content must be refined to reduce the acid value (AV) for meeting the quality standards. The process parameters were studied by Box-Behnken design (BBD) of response surface methodology (RSM). The experimental results revealed that the AV of crude biodiesel decreased from 18.66 to 0.55 mg KOH g(-1) at the reaction conditions of 350 °C, 0.5 % amount of sodium methoxide catalyst, and 10 MPa. Temperature shows the most significant effect on the esterification, followed by pressure and amount of sodium methoxide catalyst. This integrated process proved to be a potential route to refine the crude biodiesel because of its continuity, high efficiency, and less energy consumption with relatively moderate reaction conditions compared with conventional methods. PMID:25119550

  4. Gallium-containing polymer brush film as efficient supported Lewis acid catalyst in a glass microreactor

    PubMed Central

    Munirathinam, Rajesh; Ricciardi, Roberto; Egberink, Richard J M; Huskens, Jurriaan; Holtkamp, Michael; Wormeester, Herbert; Karst, Uwe

    2013-01-01

    Summary Polystyrene sulfonate polymer brushes, grown on the interior of the microchannels in a microreactor, have been used for the anchoring of gallium as a Lewis acid catalyst. Initially, gallium-containing polymer brushes were grown on a flat silicon oxide surface and were characterized by FTIR, ellipsometry, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). XPS revealed the presence of one gallium per 2–3 styrene sulfonate groups of the polymer brushes. The catalytic activity of the Lewis acid-functionalized brushes in a microreactor was demonstrated for the dehydration of oximes, using cinnamaldehyde oxime as a model substrate, and for the formation of oxazoles by ring closure of ortho-hydroxy oximes. The catalytic activity of the microreactor could be maintained by periodic reactivation by treatment with GaCl3. PMID:24062830

  5. 40 CFR 75.3 - General Acid Rain Program provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...16 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false General Acid Rain Program provisions. 75.3 Section 75.3 Protection...CONTINUOUS EMISSION MONITORING General § 75.3 General Acid Rain Program provisions. The provisions of part 72,...

  6. 40 CFR 75.3 - General Acid Rain Program provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...17 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false General Acid Rain Program provisions. 75.3 Section 75.3 Protection...CONTINUOUS EMISSION MONITORING General § 75.3 General Acid Rain Program provisions. The provisions of part 72,...

  7. 40 CFR 75.3 - General Acid Rain Program provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...16 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false General Acid Rain Program provisions. 75.3 Section 75.3 Protection...CONTINUOUS EMISSION MONITORING General § 75.3 General Acid Rain Program provisions. The provisions of part 72,...

  8. 40 CFR 75.3 - General Acid Rain Program provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...17 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false General Acid Rain Program provisions. 75.3 Section 75.3 Protection...CONTINUOUS EMISSION MONITORING General § 75.3 General Acid Rain Program provisions. The provisions of part 72,...

  9. 40 CFR 75.3 - General Acid Rain Program provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...17 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false General Acid Rain Program provisions. 75.3 Section 75.3 Protection...CONTINUOUS EMISSION MONITORING General § 75.3 General Acid Rain Program provisions. The provisions of part 72,...

  10. Mesoporous siliconiobium phosphate as a pure Brønsted acid catalyst with excellent performance for the dehydration of glycerol to acrolein.

    PubMed

    Choi, Youngbo; Park, Dae Sung; Yun, Hyeong Jin; Baek, Jayeon; Yun, Danim; Yi, Jongheop

    2012-12-01

    The development of solid acid catalysts that contain a high density of Brønsted acid sites with suitable acidity, as well as a long lifetime, is one of great challenges for the efficient dehydration of glycerol to acrolein. Herein, we report on a mesoporous siliconiobium phosphate (NbPSi-0.5) composite, which is a promising solid Brønsted acid that is a potential candidate for such a high-performance catalyst. A variety of characterization results confirm that NbPSi-0.5 contains nearly pure Brønsted acid sites and has well-defined large mesopores. In addition, NbPSi-0.5 contains a similar amount of acid sites and exhibits weaker acidity than that of the highly acidic niobium phosphate and HZSM-5 zeolite. NbPSi-0.5 is quite stable and has a high activity for the dehydration of glycerol. The stability of NbPSi-0.5 is about three times higher than that of the reported catalyst. The significantly enhanced catalytic performance of NbPSi-0.5 can be attributed to 1) nearly pure Brønsted acidity, which suppresses side reactions that lead to coke formation; 2) a significant reduction of pore blocking due to the mesopores; and 3) a decrease in the amount and oxidation temperature of coke. PMID:23132784

  11. Solid acid catalysts for converting alkenes and alkanols to carboxylic acids

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J.-P Lange; L Petrus

    2001-01-01

    Tertiary carboxylic acids are presently manufactured by hydrocarboxylation of branched alkenes in the presence of CO, water and a corrosive homogeneous acid. Acidic ion-exchange resins also catalyse the hydrocarboxylation reaction when operated under specific conditions. Critical factors are the use of a moderately polar, non-basic solvent and the maintenance of a very low alkanol or alkene\\/water concentration in the reactor.

  12. Metal-Organic Framework Based upon the Synergy of a Brønsted Acid Framework and Lewis Acid Centers as a Highly Efficient Heterogeneous Catalyst for Fixed-Bed Reactions.

    PubMed

    Li, Baiyan; Leng, Kunyue; Zhang, Yiming; Dynes, James J; Wang, Jian; Hu, Yongfeng; Ma, Dingxuan; Shi, Zhan; Zhu, Liangkui; Zhang, Daliang; Sun, Yinyong; Chrzanowski, Matthew; Ma, Shengqian

    2015-04-01

    We report a strategy of combining a Brønsted acid metal-organic framework (MOF) with Lewis acid centers to afford a Lewis acid@Brønsted acid MOF with high catalytic activity, as exemplified in the context of MIL-101-Cr-SO3H·Al(III). Because of the synergy between the Brønsted acid framework and the Al(III) Lewis acid centers, MIL-101-Cr-SO3H·Al(III) demonstrates excellent catalytic performance in a series of fixed-bed reactions, outperforming two benchmark zeolite catalysts (H-Beta and HMOR). Our work therefore not only provides a new approach to achieve high catalytic activity in MOFs but also paves a way to develop MOFs as a new type of highly efficient heterogeneous catalysts for fixed-bed reactions. PMID:25773275

  13. Sulfuric acid functional zirconium (or aluminum) incorporated mesoporous MCM-48 solid acid catalysts for alkylation of phenol with tert-butyl alcohol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Tingshun; Cheng, Jinlian; Liu, Wangping; Fu, Lie; Zhou, Xuping; Zhao, Qian; Yin, Hengbo

    2014-10-01

    Several zirconium (or aluminum) incorporated mesoporous MCM-48 solid acid catalysts (SO42-/Zr-MCM-48 and SO42-/Al-MCM-48) were prepared by the impregnation method and their physicochemical properties were characterized by means of XRD, FT-IR, TEM, NH3-TPD and N2 physical adsorption. Also, the catalytic activities of these solid acid catalysts were evaluated by the alkylation of phenol with tert-butyl alcohol. The effect of weight hour space velocity (WHSV), reaction time and reaction temperature on catalytic properties was also studied. The results show that the SO42-/Zr-MCM-48 and SO42-/Al-MCM-48 still have good mesoporous structure and long range ordering. Compared with the Zr (or Al)-MCM-48 samples, SO42-/Zr-MCM-48 and SO42-/Al-MCM-48 solid acid catalysts have strong acidity and exhibit high activities in alkylation reaction of phenol with tert-butyl alcohol. The SO42-/Zr-MCM-48-25 (molar ratio of Si/Zr=0.04) catalyst was found to be the most promising and gave the highest phenol conversion among all catalysts. A maximum phenol conversion of 91.6% with 4-tert-butyl phenol (4-TBP) selectivity of 81.8% was achieved when the molar ratio of tert-butyl alcohol:phenol is 2:1, reaction time is 2 h, the WHSV is 2 h-1 and the reaction temperature is 140 °C.

  14. Production of biodiesel from mixed waste vegetable oil using an aluminium hydrogen sulphate as a heterogeneous acid catalyst.

    PubMed

    Ramachandran, Kasirajan; Sivakumar, Pandian; Suganya, Tamilarasan; Renganathan, Sahadevan

    2011-08-01

    Al(HSO(4))(3) heterogeneous acid catalyst was prepared by the sulfonation of anhydrous AlCl(3). This catalyst was employed to catalyze transesterification reaction to synthesis methyl ester when a mixed waste vegetable oil was used as feedstock. The physical and chemical properties of aluminum hydrogen sulphate catalyst were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) measurements, energy dispersive X-ray (EDAX) analysis and titration method. The maximum conversion of triglyceride was achieved as 81 wt.% with 50 min reaction time at 220°C, 16:1 molar ratio of methanol to oil and 0.5 wt.% of catalyst. The high catalytic activity and stability of this catalyst was related to its high acid site density (-OH, Brönsted acid sites), hydrophobicity that prevented the hydration of -OH group, hydrophilic functional groups (-SO(3)H) that gave improved accessibility of methanol to the triglyceride. The fuel properties of methyl ester were analyzed. The fuel properties were found to be observed within the limits of ASTM D6751. PMID:21621409

  15. Catalyst Activity and Post-operation Analyses of Pt/TiO2 (Rutile) Catalysts Used in the Sulfuric Acid Decomposition Reaction

    SciTech Connect

    Lucia M. Petkovic; Daniel M. Ginosar; Harry W. Rollins; Kyle C. Burch; Patrick J. Pinhero; Helen H. Farrell

    2007-06-01

    Production of hydrogen by splitting of water at lower temperatures than by direct thermal decomposition can be achieved by a series of particular chemical reactions that establish a thermochemical cycle [1]. Among the high number of thermochemical water-splitting cycles proposed in the literature [2], the sulfur-based group is of considerable interest. All the sulfur-based cycles employ the catalytic decomposition of sulfuric acid into SO2 and O2. The produced O2 corresponds to the O2 generated from water in the overall cycle. Research performed at the Idaho National Laboratory [3] has found that even one of the most stables catalysts, Pt supported on low surface area titania, deactivates with time on stream (TOS). To develop an understanding of the factors that cause catalyst deactivation, samples of 1% Pt supported on titania (rutile) catalyst were submitted to flowing concentrated sulfuric acid at 1123 K and atmospheric pressure for different TOSs between 0 and 548 h and a number of chemical and spectroscopic analyses applied to the spent samples.

  16. Production of 5-hydroxymethylfurfural from corn stalk catalyzed by corn stalk-derived carbonaceous solid acid catalyst.

    PubMed

    Yan, Lulu; Liu, Nian; Wang, Yu; Machida, Hiroshi; Qi, Xinhua

    2014-12-01

    A carbonaceous solid acid was prepared by hydrothermal carbonization of corn stalk followed by sulfonation and was characterized by FT-IR, XRD, SEM and elemental analysis techniques. The as-prepared corn stalk-derived carbonaceous solid acid catalyst contained SO3H, COOH, and phenolic OH groups, and was used for the one-step conversion of intact corn stalk to 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (5-HMF) in the ionic liquid 1-butyl-3-methyl imidazolium chloride ([BMIM][Cl]), where a 5-HMF yield of 44.1% was achieved at 150 °C in 30 min reaction time. The catalytic system was applicable to initial corn stalk concentration of up to ca. 10 wt.% for the production of 5-HMF. The synthesized catalyst and the developed process of using corn stalk-derived carbon catalyst for corn stalk conversion provide a green and efficient strategy for crude biomass utilization. PMID:25444888

  17. Sulfonic Acid-functionalized gold nanoparticles: a colloid-bound catalyst for soft lithographic application on self-assembled monolayers.

    PubMed

    Li, Xue-Mei; Paraschiv, Vasile; Huskens, Jurriaan; Reinhoudt, David N

    2003-04-01

    In this report, we present a new lithographic approach to prepare patterned surfaces. Self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) of the acid-labile trimethylsilyl ether (TMS-OC(11)H(22)S)(2) (TMS adsorbate) was formed on gold. 5-Mercapto-2-benzimidazole sulfonic acid sodium salt (MBS-Na(+)) was used as a ligand for gold nanoparticles. These monolayer-protected gold colloids (MPCs) were transformed into the catalytically active H(+)-form by ion exchange. This colloid-bound catalyst hydrolyzed the TMS adsorbate (TMS-OC(11)H(22)S)(2) both in solution and when self-assembled on gold surfaces. Microcontact printing of the active colloid-bound catalyst on the preformed TMS SAM led to the deposition of the colloid onto the SAMs. After the catalyst nanoparticles were rinsed off, a patterned surface was created as shown by AFM. PMID:12670250

  18. A surprising substituent effect provides a superior boronic Acid catalyst for mild and metal-free direct friedel-crafts alkylations and prenylations of neutral arenes.

    PubMed

    Ricardo, Carolynne L; Mo, Xiaobin; McCubbin, J Adam; Hall, Dennis G

    2015-03-01

    The development of more general and efficient catalytic processes for Friedel-Crafts alkylations is an important objective of interest toward the production of pharmaceuticals and commodity chemicals. Herein, 2,3,4,5-tetrafluorophenylboronic acid was identified as a potent air- and moisture-tolerant metal-free catalyst that significantly improves the scope of direct Friedel-Crafts alkylations of a variety of slightly activated and neutral arenes, including polyarenes, with allylic and benzylic alcohols. This method also provides a simple alternative for the direct installation of prenyl units commonly found in naturally occurring arenes. Alkylations with benzylic alcohols occur under exceptionally mild conditions. PMID:25678266

  19. Acid Activated Indian Bentonite, an Efficient Catalyst for Esterification of Carboxylic Acids

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. Vijayakumar; Gopalpur Nagendrappa; B. S. Jai Prakash

    2009-01-01

    The preparation, characterization, and catalytic properties of acid activated Indian bentonite (AAIB) are reported. AAIB has\\u000a been characterized by XRD (basal spacing, 15.05 Å), specific surface area (273 m2\\/g), pore volume and pore diameter using BET method, TGA, SEM, and surface acidity by n-butylamine back titration method and infrared spectroscopy using pyridine as a probe molecule. The activity of Montmorillonite\\u000a K10, ZrO2,

  20. The synergic effect between Mo species and acid sites in Mo/HMCM-22 catalysts for methane aromatization.

    PubMed

    Ma, Ding; Zhu, Qingjun; Wu, Zili; Zhou, Danhong; Shu, Yuying; Xin, Qin; Xu, Yide; Bao, Xinhe

    2005-08-21

    The acid properties of Mo/HMCM-22 catalyst, which is the precursor form of the working catalyst for methane aromatization reaction, and the synergic effect between Mo species and acid sites were studied and characterized by various characterization techniques. It is concluded that Brønsted and Lewis acidities of HMCM-22 are modified due to the introduction of molybdenum. We suggest a monomer of Mo species is formed by the exchange of Mo species with the Brønsted acid sites. On the other hand, coordinate unsaturated sites (CUS) are suggested to be responsible for the formation of newly detected Lewis acid sites. Computer modelling is established and coupling with experimental results, it is then speculated that the effective activation of methane is properly accomplished on Mo species accommodated in the 12 MR supercages of MCM-22 zeolite whereas the Brønsted acid sites in the same channel system play a key role for the formation of benzene. A much more pronounced volcano-typed reactivity curve of the Mo/HMCM-22 catalysts, as compared with that of the Mo/HZSM-5, with respect to Mo loading is found and this can be well understood due to the unique channel structure of MCM-22 zeolite and synergic effect between Mo species and acid sites. PMID:16186916

  1. SYNTHESIS OF ALKYL AND ARYLPHOSPHONIC ACID MONOESTERS BY DIRECT ESTERIFICATION OF DIBASIC PHOSPHONIC ACIDS IN THE PRESENCE OF AN ARSONIC ACID CATALYST

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michael D. Crenshaw

    2004-01-01

    Partial hydrolysis of a diester, hydrolysis of the monochloro monoester, or alcoholysis of a phosphonic acid anhydride generally is used to prepare monoesters of alkyl- and arylphosphonic acids. Limited cases have been reported for the esterification of a dibasic phosphonic acid to yield the monoester, and none of these methods are as simple as the analogous method for preparing carboxylic

  2. UBC Social Ecological Economic Development Studies (SEEDS) Student Report Investigation of Solid Acid Catalyst Functionalization for the Production of Biodiesel

    E-print Network

    Acid Catalyst Functionalization for the Production of Biodiesel Elliot James Nash University of British Functionalization for the Production of Biodiesel By Elliot James Nash Thesis CHBE 493/494 4 April 2013 The Faculty;ii Abstract The adoption of biodiesel as an alternative fuel is gaining momentum despite its large

  3. Applied Catalysis A: General 232 (2002) 203217 Single step solgel made gold on alumina catalyst for selective

    E-print Network

    Gulari, Erdogan

    on alumina was a strong function of the gold loading, the gold precursor and an activation procedure. The AuApplied Catalysis A: General 232 (2002) 203­217 Single step sol­gel made gold on alumina catalyst Abstract We report the effect of gold precursor and reaction conditions on the catalytic activity of gold-alumina

  4. In situ reactive extraction of cottonseeds with methyl acetate for biodiesel production using magnetic solid acid catalysts.

    PubMed

    Wu, Haitang; Liu, Yanping; Zhang, Junhua; Li, Guanglu

    2014-12-01

    A magnetic solid acid catalyst S2O8(2)(-)/ZrO2-TiO2-Fe3O4 was prepared by coprecipitation and impregnation methods and its catalytic activity was investigated for the reactive extraction of cottonseeds with methyl acetate to produce biodiesel. The physicochemical properties of the catalyst were characterized in detail. The influences of Zr/Ti molar ratio and calcination temperature on the catalytic performance were investigated. Moreover, optimization of the reactive extraction process was performed using response surface methodology coupled with central composite design. The catalyst with a Zr/Ti molar ratio of 3/1 calcined at 550°C showed the best activity. An optimum biodiesel yield of 98.5% was obtained under the reaction temperature of 50°C, catalyst amount of 21.3wt.%, methyl acetate/seed ratio of 13.8ml/g and 10.8h of reaction time. Reuse of this catalyst indicated that it had steady catalytic activity and high recovery rate which could be a promising catalyst for biodiesel production from oilseeds. PMID:25463798

  5. New catalysts based on the heteropoly acid-zeolite system for the synthesis of higher ?-olefins by paraffin cracking

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. R. Konuspayev; K. A. Kadirbekov; R. K. Nurbayeva; A. T. Sarsekova

    2011-01-01

    Natural zeolites (clinoptilolite) from the Shankanay deposit in Almaty oblast were used to prepare catalysts for the synthesis\\u000a of higher ?-olefins by paraffin cracking. The modification of zeolite with inorganic and organic heteropoly acids resulted\\u000a in an enhancement of catalytic activity. The olefin yield on the zeolite modified with heteropoly acids was as high as 36.6%\\u000a after one run in

  6. On the Acid-Base Mechanism for Ruthenium Water Oxidation Catalysts

    E-print Network

    Wang, Lee-Ping

    We present a detailed theoretical study of the pathway for water oxidation in synthetic ruthenium-based catalysts. As a first step, we consider a recently discovered single center catalyst, where experimental observations ...

  7. Folic acid in general medicine and dermatology.

    PubMed

    Gisondi, Paolo; Fantuzzi, Francesca; Malerba, Mario; Girolomoni, Giampiero

    2007-01-01

    Folic acid is a vitamin B essential for the integrity and function of DNA. Relative deficiency of folic acid may occur in conditions such as pregnancy and hyperproliferative or chronic inflammatory disorders. Folic acid supplementation has been proven to be beneficial in the prevention of neural tube defects and in limiting methotrexate side effects, and may reduce the risk of colorectal cancer. Folate is a critical vitamin in determining plasma homocysteine levels, which in turn is a major risk factor for cardiovascular diseases. The results of large clinical trials with dietary supplementation of folic acid, vitamin B12 and vitamin B6 have shown that this homocysteine-lowering therapy is effective in the secondary prevention of non-fatal strokes, but had no effect in the prevention of fatal cardiovascular diseases. Hyperhomocysteinemia has also been reported in age-related neurological conditions with cognitive impairment (e.g. dementia), and psychiatric disorders such as depression. Elevated homocysteine levels are frequent in patients with chronic immune-mediated disorders including rheumatoid arthritis, systemic lupus erythematosus, chronic plaque psoriasis and psoriatic arthritis, which have in common a tendency to an accelerated atherosclerosis leading to increased deaths from cardiovascular events. Folic acid supplementation appears as a reasonable therapeutic option in patients affected by chronic inflammatory skin diseases, such as moderate to severe psoriasis; in particular, those with concomitant hyperhomocysteinemia, low plasma folate and additional cardiovascular risk factors. PMID:17538801

  8. Electrocatalytic Performances of Carbon Supported Metallophthalocyanine and Pt\\/Metallophthalocyanine Catalysts Towards Dioxygen Reduction in Acidic Medium

    Microsoft Academic Search

    ?. Koç; M. Çamur; M. Bulut; A. R. Özkaya

    2009-01-01

    Electrocatalytic performances of phthalocyanines (Pcs) involving N-benzyl-4-phenyloxyacetamide moieties, dispersed on a high-surface area carbon substrate, Vulcan XC-72 (VC) and Nafion (Nf),\\u000a towards oxygen reduction in acidic medium were determined and compared. The VC\\/Nf\\/CoPc(5) catalyst showed much higher catalytic activity than those of the other Pc(1–4)-based catalysts (H2Pc 1, ZnPc 2, NiPc 3 and CuPc 4) and that of unsubstituted CoPc-based

  9. Molecular water-oxidation catalyst derived from ruthenium diaqua bis(2,2'-bipyridyl-5,5'-dicarboxylic acid)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Francois P. Rotzinger; Shekhar Munavalli; Pascal Comte; James K. Hurst; M. Gratzel; Fu Jann Pern; Arthur J. Frank

    1987-01-01

    Controlled-potential electrolysis of cis-Ru\\/sup II\\/Lâ(OHâ)â\\/sup 2 +\\/ (where L is 2,2'-bipyridyl-5,5'-dicarboxylic acid) in 0.5 M HâSOâ solutions leads to the formation of a relatively durable and active molecular water-oxidation catalyst. Detailed analyses by UV-visible absorption spectrophotometry, resonance Raman spectrophotometry, electrochemical measurements, HPLC, and elemental analysis indicate that the water-oxidation catalyst is an oxo-bridged dimer, Lâ(HâO)Ru-O-Ru(OHâ)Lâ. The synthesis, spectrophotometric, and redox

  10. The influence of metal and carrier natures on the effectiveness of catalysts of the deoxygenation of fatty acids into hydrocarbons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berenblyum, A. S.; Shamsiev, R. S.; Podoplelova, T. A.; Danyushevsky, V. Ya.

    2012-08-01

    The activity and selectivity of palladium, copper, platinum, and nickel catalysts in the decarbonylation of stearic acid into hydrocarbons were studied at a 14 atm hydrogen pressure and temperatures of 300-350°C. If ?-alumina was used as a carrier, the catalysts formed the series Pd > Cu > Pt > Ni according to desired product yields. Quantum-chemical simulation was performed to show that the free energy of activation increased in the same series. The same metals deposited on mixed tungsten and zirconium oxides catalyzed decarbonylation with a low yield of C17 hydrocarbons, likely because such a superacidic carrier could catalyse cracking of olefins or their oligomers formed.

  11. Low-grade oils and fats: effect of several impurities on biodiesel production over sulfonic acid heterogeneous catalysts.

    PubMed

    Morales, Gabriel; Bautista, L Fernando; Melero, Juan A; Iglesias, Jose; Sánchez-Vázquez, Rebeca

    2011-10-01

    Different lipidic wastes and low-grade oils and fats have been characterized and evaluated as feedstocks for the acid-catalyzed production of FAME. The characterization of these materials has revealed significant contents of free fatty acids, Na, K, Ca, Mg, P, unsaponifiable matter and humidity. Arenesulfonic acid-functionalized SBA-15 silica catalyst has provided yields to FAME close to 80% in the simultaneous esterification-transesterification of the different feedstocks, regardless of their nature and properties, using methanol under the following reaction conditions: 160 °C, 2 h, methanol to oil molar ratio of 30, 8 wt.% catalyst loading, and 2000 rpm stirring rate. Nevertheless, reutilization of the catalyst is compromised by high levels of impurities, especially because of deactivation by strong interaction of unsaponifiable matter with the catalytic sites. The conditioning of these materials by aqueous washing in the presence of cationic-exchange resin Amberlyst-15, followed by a drying step, resulted in a lower deactivation of the catalyst. PMID:21862322

  12. Low-quality vegetable oils as feedstock for biodiesel production using K-pumice as solid catalyst. Tolerance of water and free fatty acids contents.

    PubMed

    Díaz, L; Borges, M E

    2012-08-15

    Waste oils are a promising alternative feedstock for biodiesel production due to the decrease of the industrial production costs. However, feedstock with high free fatty acids (FFA) content presents several drawbacks when alkaline-catalyzed transesterification reaction is employed in biodiesel production process. Nowadays, to develop suitable processes capable of treating oils with high free fatty acids content, a two-step process for biodiesel production is being investigated. The major problem that it presents is that two catalysts are needed to carry out the whole process: an acidic catalyst for free fatty acids esterification (first step) and a basic catalyst for pretreated product transesterification (second step). The use of a bifunctional catalyst, which allows both reactions to take place simultaneously, could minimize the production costs and time. In the present study, the behavior of pumice, a natural volcanic material used as a heterogeneous catalyst, was tested using oils with several FFA and water contents as feedstock in the transesterification reaction to produce biodiesel. Pumice as a bifunctional solid catalyst, which can catalyze simultaneously the esterification of FFA and the transesterification of fatty acid glycerides into biodiesel, was shown to be an efficient catalyst for the conversion of low-grade, nonedible oil feedstock into biodiesel product. Using this solid catalyst for the transesterification reaction, high FAME yields were achieved when feedstock oils presented a FFA content until approximately 2% wt/wt and a water content until 2% wt/wt. PMID:22799882

  13. Study on the structure, acidic properties of V-Zr nanocrystal catalysts in oxidative dehydrogenation of propane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Shu; Ma, Fei; Xu, Aixin; Wang, Lina; Chen, Fang; Lu, Weimin

    2014-01-01

    A series of V-doped zirconia nanocrystal (the molar ratio of V/Zr varying from 0.001 to 0.15) were prepared via hydrothermal method and performed in oxidative dehydrogenation of propane. It was found that vanadium was highly dispersed on the surface and in the bulk of ZrO2. The distribution of the vanadium species, the valence states and the aggregation state of V species on the surface, as well as the acid properties of the catalysts including kinds, number and strength were detected by the various characteristic methods. The correlation between the V content and the surroundings of the different V species has been studied. The function of acid properties, especially Brønsted acid in the catalytic performance has been discussed. Oxidative dehydrogenation reactions were carried out in a continuous flow fixed bed reactor and ZrV0.01 catalyst showed good conversion and selectivity with a yield of propylene of 21.3%.

  14. Simultaneous characterization of acidic and basic properties of solid catalysts by a new TPD method and their correlation to reaction rates

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Teruoki Tago; Yoshihito Okubo; Shin R. Mukai; Tsunehiro Tanaka; Takao Masuda

    2005-01-01

    We propose a new TPD method for simultaneously characterizing the acidic and basic properties of solid catalysts by utilizing the co-adsorption of NH3 and CO2 on catalysts. First CO2 was adsorbed on the catalyst sample; then NH3 was adsorbed on it. Another adsorption sequence of NH3 and CO2, and CO2 and NH3 single adsorptions were also conducted. The TPD measurements

  15. Catalyst-free fatty acid methyl ester production from wet activated sludge under subcritical water and methanol condition.

    PubMed

    Huynh, Lien Huong; Tran Nguyen, Phuong Lan; Ho, Quoc Phong; Ju, Yi-Hsu

    2012-11-01

    Wet activated sludge was converted directly into biodiesel using water as hydrolysis reagent to enhance the extraction of lipid in activated sludge, and as catalyst for the conversion of neutral lipids into biodiesel under subcritical conditions. At 175°C, 3.5MPa, a methanol to sludge ratio of 30 (mL/g) and a sludge water content of 84wt.%, about 90% conversion to fatty acid methyl esters was achieved within 24h without the need for conventional catalysts such as KOH and H(2)SO(4). Since water is employed as a catalyst, its removal is not required; therefore, the processing costs for producing biodiesel from activated sludge are reduced. The method has the potential for applications to other feedstock with high water contents such as micro-algae. PMID:22940307

  16. Acidic Ionic Liquids as Sustainable Approach of Cellulose and Lignocellulosic Biomass Conversion without Additional Catalysts.

    PubMed

    da Costa Lopes, André M; Bogel-?ukasik, Rafa?

    2015-03-01

    The use of ionic liquids (ILs) for biomass processing has attracted considerable attention recently as it provides distinct features for pre-treated biomass and fractionated materials in comparison to conventional processes. Process intensification through integration of dissolution, fractionation, hydrolysis and/or conversion in one pot should be accomplished to maximise economic and technological feasibility. The possibility of using alternative ILs capable not only of dissolving and deconstructing selectively biomass but also of catalysing reactions simultaneously are a potential solution of this problem. In this Review a critical overview of the state of the art and perspectives of the hydrolysis and conversion of cellulose and lignocellulosic biomass using acidic ILs using no additional catalyst are provided. The efficiency of the process is mainly considered with regard to the hydrolysis and conversion yields obtained and the selectivity of each reaction. The process conditions can be easily tuned to obtain sugars and/or platform chemicals, such as furans and organic acids. On the other hand, product recovery from the IL and its purity are the main challenges for the acceptance of this technology as a feasible alternative to conventional processes. PMID:25703380

  17. Ultrasonic enhance acid hydrolysis selectivity of cellulose with HCl-FeCl3 as catalyst.

    PubMed

    Li, Jinbao; Zhang, Xiangrong; Zhang, Meiyun; Xiu, Huijuan; He, Hang

    2015-03-01

    The effect of ultrasonic pretreatment coupled with HCl-FeCl3 catalyst was evaluated to hydrolyze cellulose amorphous regions. The ultrasonic pretreatment leads to cavitation that affects the morphology and microstructure of fibers, enhancing the accessibility of chemical reagent to the loosened amorphous regions of cellulose. In this work, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) was used to identify characteristic absorption bands of the constituents and the crystallinity was evaluated by the X-ray diffraction (XRD) technique. The results indicated that appropriate ultrasonic pretreatment assisted with FeCl3 can enhance the acid hydrolysis of amorphous regions of cellulose, thus improving the crystallinity of the remaining hydrocellulose. It was observed that sonication samples that were pretreated for 300 W and 20 min followed by acid hydrolysis had maximum of 78.9% crystallinity. The crystallinity was 9.2% higher than samples that were not subjected to ultrasound. In addition, the average fines length decreased from 49 ?m to 37 ?m. PMID:25498717

  18. Bioglycerol-based sulphonic acid functionalized carbon: an efficient and recyclable, solid acid catalyst for the regioselective azidolysis of epoxides in aqueous acetonitrile.

    PubMed

    Vijay, Manneganti; Prasad, Rachapudi Badari Narayana; Devi, Bethala Lakshmi Anu Prabhavathi

    2013-01-01

    A convinent and efficient method was developed for the synthesis of 1,2-azidoalcohols by ring opening of terminal epoxides with sodium azide employing glycerol-based sulphonic acid functionalized carbon as heterogeneous catalyst in aqueous acetonitrile. The reaction is highly regioselective and affords the corresponding products in excellent yields (78-100%) under mild reaction conditions. The catalyst exhibited efficient reusability without loosing its activity even after 5 cycles of azidolysis of methyl 10,11-epoxy undecanoate under optimized conditions within 2 h. PMID:24088523

  19. A general route to hollow mesoporous rare-earth silicate nanospheres as a catalyst support.

    PubMed

    Jin, Renxi; Yang, Yang; Zou, Yongcun; Liu, Xianchun; Xing, Yan

    2014-02-17

    Hollow mesoporous structures have recently aroused intense research interest owing to their unique structural features. Herein, an effective and precisely controlled synthesis of hollow rare-earth silicate spheres with mesoporous shells is reported for the first time, produced by a simple hydrothermal method, using silica spheres as the silica precursors. The as-prepared hollow rare-earth silicate spheres have large specific surface area, high pore volume, and controllable structure parameters. The results demonstrate that the selection of the chelating reagent plays critical roles in forming the hollow mesoporous structures. In addition, a simple and low-energy-consuming approach to synthesize highly stable and dispersive gold nanoparticle-yttrium silicate (AuNPs/YSiO) hollow nanocomposites has also been developed. The reduction of 4-nitrophenol with AuNPs/YSiO hollow nanocomposites as the catalyst has clearly demonstrated that the hollow rare-earth silicate spheres are good carriers for Au nanoparticles. This strategy can be extended as a general approach to prepare multifunctional yolk-shell structures with diverse compositions and morphologies simply by replacing silica spheres with silica-coated nanocomposites. PMID:24449457

  20. MIL-101-SO3H: a highly efficient Brønsted acid catalyst for heterogeneous alcoholysis of epoxides under ambient conditions.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Yu-Xiao; Chen, Yu-Zhen; Hu, Yingli; Huang, Gang; Yu, Shu-Hong; Jiang, Hai-Long

    2014-11-10

    For the first time, a ?100% sulfonic acid functionalized metal-organic framework (MOF), MIL-101-SO3H, with giant pores has been prepared by a hydrothermal process followed by a facile postsynthetic HCl treatment strategy. The replete readily accessible Lewis acidic and especially Brønsted acidic sites distributed throughout the framework as well as high stability endow the resultant MOF exceptionally high efficiency and recyclability, which surpass all other MOF-based catalysts, for the ring opening of epoxides with alcohols (especially, methanol) as nucleophiles under ambient conditions. PMID:25291973

  1. An efficient and heterogeneous recyclable silicotungstic acid with modified acid sites as a catalyst for conversion of fructose and sucrose into 5-hydroxymethylfurfural in superheated water.

    PubMed

    Jadhav, Arvind H; Kim, Hern; Hwang, In Taek

    2013-03-01

    Acidity modified silver exchanged silicotungstic acid (AgSTA) catalyst was prepared and characterized by X-ray diffraction, FT-IR spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy, FT-IR pyridine adsorption, SEM imaging, EDX mapping, and antimicrobial activity was also tested. The catalytic activity was evaluated for the dehydration of fructose and sucrose in superheated water. As a result, 98% conversion of fructose with 85.7% HMF yield and 87.4% HMF selectivity in 120 min reaction time at 120 °C reaction temperature using 10 wt.% of AgSTA catalyst was achieved. While, 92% sucrose conversion with 62.5% of HMF yield was obtained from sucrose at uniform condition in 160 min. The effect of reaction parameters, such as reaction temperature, time, catalyst dosage, and effect acidity on HMF yield was also investigated. The AgSTA catalyst was separated from the reaction mixture by filtration process at end of the reaction and reused eight times without loss of catalytic activity. PMID:23435221

  2. Electrochemical catalyst recovery method

    DOEpatents

    Silva, Laura J. (Richland, WA); Bray, Lane A. (Richland, WA)

    1995-01-01

    A method of recovering catalyst material from latent catalyst material solids includes: a) combining latent catalyst material solids with a liquid acid anolyte solution and a redox material which is soluble in the acid anolyte solution to form a mixture; b) electrochemically oxidizing the redox material within the mixture into a dissolved oxidant, the oxidant having a potential for oxidation which is effectively higher than that of the latent catalyst material; c) reacting the oxidant with the latent catalyst material to oxidize the latent catalyst material into at least one oxidized catalyst species which is soluble within the mixture and to reduce the oxidant back into dissolved redox material; and d) recovering catalyst material from the oxidized catalyst species of the mixture. The invention is expected to be particularly useful in recovering spent catalyst material from petroleum hydroprocessing reaction waste products having adhered sulfides, carbon, hydrocarbons, and undesired metals, and as well as in other industrial applications.

  3. Electrochemical catalyst recovery method

    DOEpatents

    Silva, L.J.; Bray, L.A.

    1995-05-30

    A method of recovering catalyst material from latent catalyst material solids includes: (a) combining latent catalyst material solids with a liquid acid anolyte solution and a redox material which is soluble in the acid anolyte solution to form a mixture; (b) electrochemically oxidizing the redox material within the mixture into a dissolved oxidant, the oxidant having a potential for oxidation which is effectively higher than that of the latent catalyst material; (c) reacting the oxidant with the latent catalyst material to oxidize the latent catalyst material into at least one oxidized catalyst species which is soluble within the mixture and to reduce the oxidant back into dissolved redox material; and (d) recovering catalyst material from the oxidized catalyst species of the mixture. The invention is expected to be particularly useful in recovering spent catalyst material from petroleum hydroprocessing reaction waste products having adhered sulfides, carbon, hydrocarbons, and undesired metals, and as well as in other industrial applications. 3 figs.

  4. Oxyhydrochlorination catalyst

    DOEpatents

    Taylor, Charles E. (Pittsburgh, PA); Noceti, Richard P. (Pittsburgh, PA)

    1992-01-01

    An improved catalyst and method for the oxyhydrochlorination of methane is disclosed. The catalyst includes a pyrogenic porous support on which is layered as active material, cobalt chloride in major proportion, and minor proportions of an alkali metal chloride and of a rare earth chloride. On contact of the catalyst with a gas flow of methane, HCl and oxygen, more than 60% of the methane is converted and of that converted more than 40% occurs as monochloromethane. Advantageously, the monochloromethane can be used to produce gasoline boiling range hydrocarbons with the recycle of HCl for further reaction. This catalyst is also of value for the production of formic acid as are analogous catalysts with lead, silver or nickel chlorides substituted for the cobalt chloride.

  5. Development of biomimetic catalytic oxidation methods and non-salt methods using transition metal-based acid and base ambiphilic catalysts

    PubMed Central

    MURAHASHI, Shun-Ichi

    2011-01-01

    This review focuses on the development of ruthenium and flavin catalysts for environmentally benign oxidation reactions based on mimicking the functions of cytochrome P-450 and flavoenzymes, and low valent transition-metal catalysts that replace conventional acids and bases. Several new concepts and new types of catalytic reactions based on these concepts are described. PMID:21558760

  6. Sulfonic acid functionalized ionic liquid in combinatorial approach, a recyclable and water tolerant-acidic catalyst for one-pot Friedlander quinoline synthesis.

    PubMed

    Akbari, Jafar; Heydari, Akbar; Reza Kalhor, Hamid; Kohan, Sirus Azizian

    2010-01-01

    SO(3)H-functionalized ionic liquid was successfully applied as a water tolerant-acidic catalyst for the one-pot domino approach quinoline synthesis in aqueous medium. Various types of quinolines from 2-aminoaryl ketones and beta-ketoesters/ketones were prepared in 85-98% yields using the catalytic system of SO(3)H-functionalized ionic liquid/H(2)O. The ionic liquids was synthesized in a combinatorial fashion. The quinoline products could be conveniently separated from the reaction mixture by filtration, indicating that the whole process was performed in water and exemplifying a green chemistry. More importantly, the catalyst could be easily recycled for five times without loss of much activity. The catalytic system, reported here, possesses advantages of both homogeneous and heterogeneous catalysts. PMID:19883051

  7. Facile and Promising Method for Michael Addition of Indole and Pyrrole to Electron-Deficient trans-?-Nitroolefins Catalyzed by a Hydrogen Bond Donor Catalyst Feist's Acid and Preliminary Study of Antimicrobial Activity

    PubMed Central

    Al Majid, Abdullah M. A.; Islam, Mohammad Shahidul; Barakat, Assem; Al-Agamy, Mohamed H. M.; Naushad, Mu.

    2014-01-01

    The importance of cooperative hydrogen-bonding effects has been demonstrated using novel 3-methylenecyclopropane-1,2-dicarboxylic acid (Feist's acid (FA)) as hydrogen bond donor catalysts for the addition of indole and pyrrole to trans-?-nitrostyrene derivatives. Because of the hydrogen bond donor (HBD) ability, Feist's acid (FA) has been introduced as a new class of hydrogen bond donor catalysts for the activation of nitroolefin towards nucleophilic substitution reaction. It has effectively catalyzed the Michael addition of indoles and pyrrole to ?-nitroolefins under optimum reaction condition to furnish the corresponding Michael adducts in good to excellent yields (up to 98%). The method is general, atom-economical, convenient, and eco-friendly and could provide excellent yields and regioselectivities. Some newly synthesized compounds were for examined in vitro antimicrobial activity and their preliminary results are reported. PMID:24574906

  8. A Simple, Efficient Synthesis of 2-Aryl Benzimidazoles Using Silica Supported Periodic Acid Catalyst and Evaluation of Anticancer Activity

    PubMed Central

    Sontakke, Vyankat A.; Ghosh, Sougata; Lawande, Pravin P.; Chopade, Balu A.; Shinde, Vaishali S.

    2013-01-01

    A new, efficient method for the synthesis of 2-aryl substituted benzimidazole by using silica supported periodic acid (H5IO6-SiO2) as a catalyst has been developed. The salient feature of the present method includes mild reaction condition, short reaction time, high yield and easy workup procedure. The synthesized benzimidazoles exhibited potent anticancer activity against MCF7 and HL60 cell lines. PMID:24052861

  9. Implication of the acid–base properties of V\\/Ti-oxide catalyst in toluene partial oxidation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Liubov Kiwi-Minsker; Dmitri A Bulushev; Fabio Rainone; Albert Renken

    2002-01-01

    The work presents the effect of K-doping on V\\/Ti-oxides taking into account: the surface acid–base properties and the structure of surface vanadia species in respect to the catalyst performance and deactivation. The structure of active surface species determines redox properties, which are related to the catalytic performance by the Mars–van Krevelen mechanism. The reducibility of surface vanadia is studied by

  10. Photocatalytic detoxification of Acid Red 18 by modified ZnO catalyst under sunlight irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Senthilraja, A.; Subash, B.; Dhatshanamurthi, P.; Swaminathan, M.; Shanthi, M.

    2015-03-01

    In this work, hybrid structured Bi-Au-ZnO composite was prepared by precipitation-decomposition method. This method is mild, economical and efficient. Bi-Au-ZnO was characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), energy dispersive spectrum (EDS), diffuse reflectance spectra (DRS), photoluminescence spectra (PL) and BET surface area measurements. Photocatalytic activity of Bi-Au-ZnO was evaluated by irradiating the Acid Red 18 (AR 18) dye solution under sun light. Heterostructured Bi-Au-ZnO photocatalyst showed higher photocatalytic activity than those of individual Bi-ZnO, Au-ZnO, bare ZnO, and TiO2-P25 at pH 11. The effects of operational parameters such as the amount of catalyst dosage, dye concentration, initial pH on photo mineralization of AR 18 dye have been analyzed. The mineralization of AR 18 has been confirmed by chemical oxygen demand (COD) measurements. A possible mechanism is proposed for the degradation of AR 18 under sun light. Finally, Bi-Au-ZnO heterojunction photocatalyst was more stable and could be easily recycled several times opening a new avenue for potential industrial applications.

  11. Photocatalytic detoxification of Acid Red 18 by modified ZnO catalyst under sunlight irradiation.

    PubMed

    Senthilraja, A; Subash, B; Dhatshanamurthi, P; Swaminathan, M; Shanthi, M

    2015-03-01

    In this work, hybrid structured Bi-Au-ZnO composite was prepared by precipitation-decomposition method. This method is mild, economical and efficient. Bi-Au-ZnO was characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), energy dispersive spectrum (EDS), diffuse reflectance spectra (DRS), photoluminescence spectra (PL) and BET surface area measurements. Photocatalytic activity of Bi-Au-ZnO was evaluated by irradiating the Acid Red 18 (AR 18) dye solution under sun light. Heterostructured Bi-Au-ZnO photocatalyst showed higher photocatalytic activity than those of individual Bi-ZnO, Au-ZnO, bare ZnO, and TiO2-P25 at pH 11. The effects of operational parameters such as the amount of catalyst dosage, dye concentration, initial pH on photo mineralization of AR 18 dye have been analyzed. The mineralization of AR 18 has been confirmed by chemical oxygen demand (COD) measurements. A possible mechanism is proposed for the degradation of AR 18 under sun light. Finally, Bi-Au-ZnO heterojunction photocatalyst was more stable and could be easily recycled several times opening a new avenue for potential industrial applications. PMID:25437842

  12. Improvement of the preparation method of “ship-in-the-bottle” type 12-molybdophosphoric acid encaged Y-type zeolite catalysts

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Shin R Mukai; Mitsutaka Shimoda; Litsu Lin; Hajime Tamon; Takao Masuda

    2003-01-01

    In this work, efforts were made to improve the preparation method of “ship-in-the-bottle” type 12-molybdophosphoric acid (PMo12) encaged Y-type zeolite catalysts. First, the possibilities of modifying other popular heteropoly acid synthesis methods to prepare encaged catalysts were examined. It was found that only the conventional method, which uses MoO3 and H3PO4 for PMo12 synthesis, led to a significant amount of

  13. Green acetylation of solketal and glycerol formal by heterogeneous acid catalysts to form a biodiesel fuel additive.

    PubMed

    Dodson, Jennifer R; Leite, Thays d C M; Pontes, Nathália S; Peres Pinto, Bianca; Mota, Claudio J A

    2014-09-01

    A glut of glycerol has formed from the increased production of biodiesel, with the potential to integrate the supply chain by using glycerol additives to improve biodiesel properties. Acetylated acetals show interesting cold flow and viscosity effects. Herein, a solventless heterogeneously catalyzed process for the acetylation of both solketal and glycerol formal to new products is demonstrated. The process is optimized by studying the effect of acetylating reagent (acetic acid and acetic anhydride), reagent molar ratios, and a variety of commercial solid acid catalysts (Amberlyst-15, zeolite Beta, K-10 Montmorillonite, and niobium phosphate) on the conversion and selectivities. High conversions (72-95%) and selectivities (86-99%) to the desired products results from using acetic anhydride as the acetylation reagent and a 1:1 molar ratio with all catalysts. Overall, there is a complex interplay between the solid catalyst, reagent ratio, and acetylating agent on the conversion, selectivities, and byproducts formed. The variations are discussed and explained in terms of reactivity, thermodynamics, and reaction mechanisms. An alternative and efficient approach to the formation of 100% triacetin involves the ring-opening, acid-catalyzed acetylation from solketal or glycerol formal with excesses of acetic anhydride. PMID:25045049

  14. Catalytic Upgrading of bio-oil using 1-octene and 1-butanol over sulfonic acid resin catalysts

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Zhijun; Wang, Qingwen; Tripathi, Prabhat; Pittman, Charles U.

    2011-02-04

    Raw bio-oil from fast pyrolysis of biomass must be refined before it can be used as a transporation fuel, a petroleum refinery feed or for many other fuel uses. Raw bio-oil was upgraded with the neat model olefin, 1-octene, and with 1-octene/1-butanol mixtures over sulfonic acid resin catalysts frin 80 to 150 degrees celisus in order to simultaneously lower water content and acidity and to increase hydrophobicity and heating value. Phase separation and coke formation were key factors limiting the reaction rate during upgrading with neat 1-octene although octanols were formed by 1-octene hydration along with small amounts of octyl acetates and ethers. GC-MS analysis confirmed that olefin hydration, carboxylic acid esterification, acetal formation from aldehydes and ketones and O- and C-alkylations of phenolic compounds occurred simultaneously during upgrading with 1-octene/1-butanol mixtures. Addition of 1-butanol increased olefin conversion dramatically be reducing mass transfer restraints and serving as a cosolvent or emulsifying agent. It also reacted with carboxylic acids and aldehydes/ketones to form esters, and acetals, respectively, while also serving to stabilize bio-oil during heating. 1-Butanol addition also protected the catalysts, increasing catalyst lifetime and reducing or eliminationg coking. Upgrading sharply increased ester content and decreased the amounts of levoglucosan, polyhydric alcohols and organic acids. Upgrading lowered acidity (pH value rise from 2.5 to >3.0), removed the uppleasant ordor and increased hydrocarbon solubility. Water content decreased from 37.2% to < 7.5% dramatically and calorific value increased from 12.6 MJ kg to about 30.0 MJ kg.

  15. Sulfonic Acid Functionalized Nano-?-Al2O3: A New, Efficient, and Reusable Catalyst for Synthesis of 3-Substituted-2H-1,4-Benzothiazines

    PubMed Central

    Li, Wei Lin; Tian, Shuan Bao; Zhu, Feng

    2013-01-01

    A simple and efficient synthetic protocol has been developed for the synthesis of 3-substituted-2H-1,4-benzothiazines by using a novel sulfonic acid functionalized nano-?-Al2O3 catalyst, devoid of corrosive acidic, and basic reagents. The developed method has the advantages of good to excellent yields, short reaction times, operational simplicity, and a recyclable catalyst. The catalyst can be prepared by a simple procedure from inexpensive and readily available nano-?-Al2O3 and has been shown to be recoverable and reusable up to six cycles without any loss of activity. PMID:23935435

  16. Sulfonic acid functionalized nano-?-Al2O3: a new, efficient, and reusable catalyst for synthesis of 3-substituted-2H-1,4-benzothiazines.

    PubMed

    Li, Wei Lin; Tian, Shuan Bao; Zhu, Feng

    2013-01-01

    A simple and efficient synthetic protocol has been developed for the synthesis of 3-substituted-2H-1,4-benzothiazines by using a novel sulfonic acid functionalized nano-?-Al2O3 catalyst, devoid of corrosive acidic, and basic reagents. The developed method has the advantages of good to excellent yields, short reaction times, operational simplicity, and a recyclable catalyst. The catalyst can be prepared by a simple procedure from inexpensive and readily available nano-?-Al2O3 and has been shown to be recoverable and reusable up to six cycles without any loss of activity. PMID:23935435

  17. Transesterification of triacetin with methanol on solid acid and base catalysts

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dora E. López; James G. Goodwin; David A. Bruce; Edgar Lotero

    2005-01-01

    Biodiesel is a particularly attractive renewable fuel as it can be used in existing engines, is environmentally friendly, and is readily synthesized from animal fats and vegetable oils. Heterogeneous catalysts offer exciting possibilities for improving the economics of biodiesel synthesis; however, few published investigations have addressed the use of such catalysts to date. The purpose of this research was to

  18. Zirconium(IV) tungstate nanoparticles prepared through chemical co-precipitation method and its function as solid acid catalyst

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sadanandan, Manoj; Bhaskaran, Beena

    2014-08-01

    In this paper, we report the synthesis of zirconium(IV) tungstate nanoparticles, a new and efficient catalyst for the oxidation of benzyl alcohol and esterification of acetic acid with various alcohols. The nanoparticle catalyst was prepared using the room temperature chemical co-precipitation method. The catalyst was characterized with thermogravimetric and differential thermal analysis, elemental analysis, X-ray diffraction analysis (XRD), fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM), atomic force microscopy (AFM) and the Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) surface area. The crystallite size was found to be ~20 nm as revealed by XRD, HRTEM and AFM. The Na+ exchange capacity was found to be 2.76 meq g-1 and the surface area of the compound measured using BET method was found to be 250-265 m2 g-1. The high value of ion exchange capacity indicates the presence of surface hydroxyl groups. The prepared nanoparticles have proven to be excellent catalysts for both oxidation and ester synthesis under mild reaction conditions. The mechanism of the catalytic reaction was studied as well.

  19. Ti-MCM-41 supported phosphotungstic acid: An effective and environmentally benign catalyst for epoxidation of styrene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, GuangJian; Liu, GuangQing; Xu, MingXia; Yang, ZhenXing; Liu, ZhengWang; Liu, YiWu; Chen, ShiFu; Wang, Lei

    2008-12-01

    Mesoporous Ti-MCM-41 molecular sieve was synthesized under hydrothermal conditions. 5, 10, 20, 30 and 50 wt.% phosphotungstic acid (H 3PW 12O 40) (PW) were supported on Ti-MCM-41 and the resulting catalysts were characterized by powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), N 2 adsorption-desorption, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), UV-vis diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (DRS), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and differential thermal analysis (DTA), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS), and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM). The host material suffers severe structural distortions at higher loading, which lead to a considerable loss of long-range orders. Their catalytic performances were evaluated in the epoxidation of styrene with dilute H 2O 2 (30%) as an oxidizing agent under liquid-phase reaction conditions over PW/Ti-MCM-41 catalysts for selective synthesis of styrene oxide. The influences of various reaction parameters such as temperature, time, solvents, PW loading and catalyst amount, styrene to H 2O 2 mmol ratios and acetonitrile (MeCN) to N, N-dimethylformamide (DMF) volume ratios on the conversion of styrene and yield as well as selectivity of styrene oxide have also been studied in details. The results revealed that 20% PW/Ti-MCM-41 was more active than other catalysts. The PW/Ti-MCM-41, moreover, was found to be reusable and effective for the epoxidation of styrene.

  20. An efficient and general method for resolving cyclopropene carboxylic acids

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lian-an Liao; Fan Zhang; Ni Yan; James A. Golen; Joseph M. Fox

    2004-01-01

    A general method is described for the resolution of cycloprop-2-ene carboxylic acids via diastereomeric N-acyloxazolidines prepared from enantiomerically pure oxazolidinones. Although a number of oxazolidinones were shown to resolve cyclopropene carboxylic acids, the oxazolidinones of S-phenylalaninol, S-phenylglycine and (1S,2R)-cis-1-amino-2-indanol are optimal in terms of resolving power and cost effectiveness. Separations were performed using simple flash chromatography, and because there is

  1. An unprecedented (3,4,24)-connected heteropolyoxozincate organic framework as heterogeneous crystalline Lewis acid catalyst for biodiesel production

    PubMed Central

    Du, Dong-Ying; Qin, Jun-Sheng; Sun, Zhong; Yan, Li-Kai; O'Keeffe, Michael; Su, Zhong-Min; Li, Shun-Li; Wang, Xiao-Hong; Wang, Xin-Long; Lan, Ya-Qian

    2013-01-01

    A novel 3D hexadecanuclear heteropolyoxozincate organic framework, IFMC-200, has been successfully synthesized based on a late transition metal-oxygen cluster. IFMC-200 not only represents the first example of (3,4,24)-connected framework but also contains the first 24-connected single metal cluster in a crystal structure. It exhibits superior thermal stability, good water-stability, and even insensitivity to the existence of acid and base within a certain range of pH values. Furthermore, it performs as a heterogeneous crystalline Lewis acid catalyst with good activity for the conversion of long-chain fatty acids rather than short-chain ones, and high recycling efficiency for esterification reaction of fatty acids with alcohols to produce biodiesel. PMID:24019078

  2. Decolorization of Acid Red 1 by Fenton-like process using rice husk ash-based catalyst.

    PubMed

    Daud, N K; Hameed, B H

    2010-04-15

    The decolorization of Acid Red 1 (AR1) in aqueous solution was investigated by Fenton-like process. The effect of different reaction parameters such as different iron ions loading on rice husk ash (RHA), dosage of catalyst, initial pH, the initial hydrogen peroxide concentration ([H(2)O(2)](o)), the initial concentration of AR1 ([AR1](o)) and the reaction temperature on the decolorization of AR1 was studied. The optimal reacting conditions were found to be 0.070 wt.% of iron (III) oxide loading on RHA, dosage of catalyst=5.0 g L(-1), initial pH=2.0, [H(2)O(2)](o)=8 mM, [AR1](o)=50 mg L(-1) at temperature 30 degrees C. Under optimal condition, 96% decolorization efficiency of AR1 was achieved within 120 min of reaction. PMID:20042285

  3. AcidBase Mechanism for Ruthenium-Based Water Oxidation Catalysts

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L. P. Wang; Q. Wu; T. Van Voorhis

    2010-01-01

    We present a detailed theoretical study of the pathway for water oxidation in synthetic ruthenium-based catalysts. As a first step, we consider a recently discovered single center catalyst, where experimental observations suggest a purely single-center mechanism. We find low activation energies (<5 kcal\\/mol) for each rearrangement in the catalytic cycle. In the crucial step of O-O bond formation, a solvent

  4. Gas-phase phenol methylation over Mg/Me/O (Me = Al, Cr, Fe) catalysts: mechanistic implications due to different acid-base and dehydrogenating properties.

    PubMed

    Crocellà, V; Cerrato, G; Magnacca, G; Morterra, C; Cavani, F; Maselli, L; Passeri, S

    2010-09-28

    This contribution reports about an in situ FT-IR investigation and the catalytic reactivity of Mg/Me(3+) mixed oxides (Me = Cr, Fe, or Al; Mg/Me = 2, atomic ratio) in the gas-phase methylation of phenol with methanol. It is the second of two papers concerning the mentioned systems, and its purpose is twofold: to confute the classic and not accurate theory concerning the reaction mechanism, and to propose a novel interpretation based on the combined use of catalytic tests and in situ molecular spectroscopy. Results here reported highlight that: (i) the reaction mechanism in phenol methylation, when catalysed by basic systems, is not a classical electrophylic substitution, as generally reported in the literature, but proceeds through the formation of formaldehyde as an intermediate, and (ii) the catalytic behaviour in respect to both methanol and phenol reactants is strictly dependent on catalyst features. Although all investigated systems exhibit a basic-type behaviour with regard to phenol, which dissociates to yield an adsorbed phenolate species, the distribution of phenolic compounds obtained with the Mg/Al/O catalyst was that typically observed with acid catalysts, with prevailing formation of anisole when the reaction was carried out below 350 degrees C and of mono and poly-C-alkylated compounds when the reaction temperature was above 350 degrees C. On the contrary, the reactivity shown by both Mg/Fe/O and Mg/Cr/O systems was that reported in the literature as typical of mixed oxides possessing basic features. The extent of methanol decomposition into light compounds was maximum in the case of Mg/Fe/O catalysts, because of the pronounced redox behaviour typical of Fe(3+) species, whereas neither methanol dehydrogenation nor decomposition were ever observed with Mg/Al/O up to 400 degrees C. Reactivity tests and spectroscopic experiments hinted for methanol dehydrogenation to formaldehyde as the first step in the ring-methylation of phenol with Mg/Cr/O and Mg/Fe/O: in that case, o-cresol and 2,6-xylenol were the only reaction products. But, with Mg/Al/O systems, for which no methanol dehydrogenation occurred, the formation of anisole was due to the synergistic effect of stronger basic features and the presence of Lewis acidic sites, that facilitate the reaction between phenol and methanol after activation over the two different types of catalytic sites. PMID:20689870

  5. Sulphamic Acid (H2NSO3H): A Low Cost, Mild and an Efficient Catalyst for the Synthesis of Substituted N-Phenylpyrazoles Under Solvent-Free Conditions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mohan R. Shetty; Shriniwas D. Samant

    2011-01-01

    N-phenylpyrazoles are synthesized by condensing phenylhydrazine and 1,3-diketones in the presence of catalytic amount of sulphamic acid, a mild and an efficient solid acid catalyst, under solvent-free conditions. This condensation proceeds smoothly in shorter reaction time.

  6. Sulfamic Acid (H2NSO3H): A Low-Cost, Mild, and Efficient Catalyst for the Synthesis of Substituted N-Phenylpyrazoles Under Solvent-Free Conditions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mohan R. Shetty; Shriniwas D. Samant

    2012-01-01

    N-Phenylpyrazoles are synthesized by condensing phenylhydrazine and 1,3-diketones in the presence of a catalytic amount of sulfamic acid, a mild and an efficient solid acid catalyst, under solvent-free conditions. This condensation proceeds smoothly in shorter reaction time.

  7. Mesoporous Silica with Site-Isolated Amine and Phosphotungstic Acid Groups: A Solid Catalyst with Tunable Antagonistic Functions for One-Pot Tandem Reactions

    SciTech Connect

    Shiju N. R.; Syed K.; Alberts A.; Brown D. and Rothenberg G.

    2011-09-15

    A bifunctional solid catalyst is prepared by combining acid and base functions on mesoporous silica supports. The co-existence of these functions is shown by a two-step reaction sequence in one pot. Excellent product yields, which cannot be obtained by separated acid and base functions in one pot, show the validity of our concept.

  8. Sulfamic Acid as a Cost-Effective Catalyst for Synthesis of ? -acyloxyacrylate Esters as Candidate Monomers for Bio-Based Polymers by Acylation of Pyruvate Esters

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Zhenxin Zhang; Baochun Ma; Qianqian Zhu; Yong Ding; Changming Wang; Wenfeng Song

    2012-01-01

    Sulfamic acid was used as an efficient catalyst and green alternative for metal-containing acidic material to promote the acylation of pyruvate esters to produce ? -acyloxyacrylate esters which were candidate monomers for bio-based polymers. Polymers from these monomers were useful materials for bio-based plastics which showed high heat resistance and transparency. A series of ? -acyloxyacrylate esters were converted from

  9. Sulfamic Acid as A Cost-Effective Catalyst for Synthesis of ?-Acyloxyacrylate Esters as Candidate Monomers for Biobased Polymers by Acylation of Pyruvate Esters

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Zhenxin Zhang; Baochun Ma; Qianqian Zhu; Yong Ding; Changming Wang; Wenfeng Song

    2012-01-01

    Sulfamic acid was used as an efficient catalyst and green alternative for metal-containing acidic material to promote the acylation of pyruvate esters to produce ?-acyloxyacrylate esters, which were candidate monomers for biobased polymers. Polymers from these monomers were useful materials for bio-based plastics, which showed high heat resistance and transparency. A series of ?-acyloxyacrylate esters were converted from pyruvate esters

  10. Characterizing Surface Acidic Sites in Mesoporous-Silica-Supported Tungsten Oxide Catalysts Using Solid State NMR and Quantum Chemistry Calculations

    SciTech Connect

    Hu, Jian Z.; Kwak, Ja Hun; Wang, Yong; Hu, Mary Y.; Turcu, Romulus VF; Peden, Charles HF

    2011-10-18

    The acidic sites in dispersed tungsten oxide supported on SBA-15 mesoporous silica were investigated using a combination of pyridine titration, both fast-, and slow-MAS {sup 15}N NMR, static {sup 2}H NMR, and quantum chemistry calculations. It is found that the bridged acidic -OH groups in surface adsorbed tungsten dimers (i.e., W-OH-W) are the Broensted acid sites. The unusually strong acidity of these Broensted acid sites is confirmed by quantum chemistry calculations. In contrast, terminal W-OH sites are very stable and only weakly acidic as are terminal Si-OH sites. Furthermore, molecular interactions between pyridine molecules and the dimer Broensted and terminal W-OH sites for dispersed tungsten oxide species is strong. This results in restricted molecular motion for the interacting pyridine molecules even at room temperature, i.e., a reorientation mainly about the molecular 2-fold axis. This restricted reorientation makes it possible to estimate the relative ratio of the Broensted (tungsten dimer) to the weakly acidic terminal W-OH sites in the catalyst using the slow-MAS {sup 1}H-{sup 15}N CP PASS method.

  11. 40 CFR 72.71 - Acceptance of State Acid Rain programs-general.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...2012-07-01 false Acceptance of State Acid Rain programs-general. 72.71 ...CONTINUED) PERMITS REGULATION Acid Rain Phase II Implementation § 72.71 Acceptance of State Acid Rain programs—general. (a)...

  12. 40 CFR 72.71 - Acceptance of State Acid Rain programs-general.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...2014-07-01 false Acceptance of State Acid Rain programs-general. 72.71 ...CONTINUED) PERMITS REGULATION Acid Rain Phase II Implementation § 72.71 Acceptance of State Acid Rain programs—general. (a)...

  13. 40 CFR 72.71 - Acceptance of State Acid Rain programs-general.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...2011-07-01 false Acceptance of State Acid Rain programs-general. 72.71 ...CONTINUED) PERMITS REGULATION Acid Rain Phase II Implementation § 72.71 Acceptance of State Acid Rain programs—general. (a)...

  14. 40 CFR 72.71 - Acceptance of State Acid Rain programs-general.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...2013-07-01 false Acceptance of State Acid Rain programs-general. 72.71 ...CONTINUED) PERMITS REGULATION Acid Rain Phase II Implementation § 72.71 Acceptance of State Acid Rain programs—general. (a)...

  15. 40 CFR 72.71 - Acceptance of State Acid Rain programs-general.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...2010-07-01 false Acceptance of State Acid Rain programs-general. 72.71 Section...PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) PERMITS REGULATION Acid Rain Phase II Implementation § 72.71 Acceptance of State Acid Rain programs—general. (a)...

  16. Fabrication of three dimensional (3D) hierarchical Ag/WO3 flower-like catalyst materials for the selective oxidation of m-xylene to isophthalic acid.

    PubMed

    Acharyya, Shankha S; Ghosh, Shilpi; Bal, Rajaram

    2015-04-01

    A three dimensional (3D) hierarchical silver supported tungsten oxide flower-like microsphere catalyst has been fabricated using a cationic surfactant CTAB. It was found that the crystal-splitting mechanism plays a key role in the formation of this flower-like structure. This catalyst was proved to be highly effective in the liquid phase selective oxidation of m-xylene to isophthalic acid. PMID:25740057

  17. Selective aerobic oxidation of 1,3-propanediol to 3-hydroxypropanoic acid using hydrotalcite supported bimetallic gold nanoparticle catalyst in water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohammad, Mujahid; Nishimura, Shun; Ebitani, Kohki

    2015-02-01

    Selective oxidation of 1,3-propanediol (1,3-PD) to 3-hydroxypropanoic acid (3-HPA), an important industrial building block, was successfully achieved using hydrotalcite-supported bimetallic Au nanoparticle catalysts in water at 343 K under aerobic and base-free conditions. The highest yield of 42% with 73% selectivity towards 3-HPA was afforded by 1wt% Au0.8Pd0.2-PVP/HT catalyst.

  18. Application of nanostuctured materials as acid-catalysts in rice straw pyrolysis for bio-oil production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dang, Phuong T.; Le, Hy G.; Dinh, Thang C.; Hoang, Thang V.; Bui, Linh H. T.; Hoang, Yen; Tran, Hoa K. T.; Vu, Tuan A.

    2008-12-01

    Rice straw, a waste agro-byproduct, which is abundant lignocellulose products from rice production, is a renewable energy sources in Vietnam. Bio-oil from rice straw is produced by thermal and catalytic pyrolysis using a fixed-bed reactor with heating rate 15oC/min, nitrogen as sweeping gas with flow rate 120ml/min. Final temperature of the pyrolysis reaction is a significantly influence on product yield. The gas yield increased and the solid yield decreased as the pyrolysis temperature increasing from 400oC to 600oC. The bio-oil yield reached a maximum of 48.3 % at the pyrolysis temperature of 550oC. Mesoporous Al-SBA-15 was used as acid catalyst in pyrolysis of rice straw. The obtained results showed that, in the presence of catalyst, yield of gas products increased, whereas liquid yield decreased and solid product remained the same as compared to the non-catalytic experiments. The effect of nanostructured catalysts on the product yields and distribution was investigated.

  19. Hazardous waste to materials: recovery of molybdenum and vanadium from acidic leach liquor of spent hydroprocessing catalyst using alamine 308.

    PubMed

    Sahu, K K; Agrawal, Archana; Mishra, D

    2013-08-15

    Recovery of valuable materials/metals from waste goes hand in hand with environmental protection. This paper deals with the development of a process for the recovery of metals such as Mo, V, Ni, Al from spent hydroprocessing catalyst which may otherwise cause a nuisance if dumped untreated. A detailed study on the separation of molybdenum and vanadium from the leach solution of spent hydroprocessing catalyst of composition: 27.15% MoO?, 1.7% V?O?, 3.75% NiO, 54.3% Al?O?, 2.3% SiO? and 10.4% LOI is reported in this paper. The catalyst was subjected to roasting under oxidizing atmosphere at a temperature of about 550 °C and leaching in dilute sulphuric acid to dissolve molybdenum, vanadium, nickel and part of aluminium. Metals from the leach solution were separated by solvent extraction. Both molybdenum and vanadium were selectively extracted with a suitable organic solvent leaving nickel and dissolved aluminium in the raffinate. Various parameters such as initial pH of the aqueous feed, organic to aqueous ratio (O:A), solvent concentration etc. were optimized for the complete extraction and recovery of Mo and V. Molybdenum and vanadium from the loaded organic were stripped by ammonia solution. They were recovered as their corresponding ammonium salt by selective precipitation, and were further calcined to get the corresponding oxides in pure form. PMID:23644591

  20. Acid Strength of Support Materials as a Factor Controlling Oxidation State of Palladium Catalyst for Propane Combustion

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yoshiteru Yazawa; Hisao Yoshida; Nobuyuki Takagi; Shin-ichi Komai; Atsushi Satsuma; Tadashi Hattori

    1999-01-01

    The support effect on the low temperature catalytic combustion of propane over palladium catalyst was studied by using a series of metal oxides as support materials: MgO, ZrO2, Al2O3, SiO2, SiO2–ZrO2, SiO2–Al2O3, and SO42?–ZrO2. The catalytic activity varied with the kind of the support materials; a support material with moderate acid strength gave maximum conversion. In order to discuss more

  1. Acidic task-specific ionic liquid as catalyst of microwave-assisted solvent-free Biginelli reaction

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Arfan; L. Paquin; J. P. Bazureau

    2007-01-01

    A simple and effective synthesis of 3,4-dihydropyrimidin-2(1H)-one and 3,4-dihydropyrimidine-2(1H)-thione derivatives has been developed on the basis of three-component condensation of substituted aromatic and heterocyclic\\u000a aldehydes, methyl acetoacetate, and urea or thiourea in the presence of 10% of an acidic task-specific ionic liquid ([C4mim][HSO4]) as catalyst under microwave irradiation in the absence of a solvent. The proposed procedure ensures short reaction

  2. Preparation and characterizations of highly dispersed carbon supported PdxPty/C catalysts by a modified citrate reduction method for formic acid electrooxidation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Zuopeng; Li, Muwu; Han, Mingjia; Zeng, Jianhuang; Li, Yuexia; Guo, Yanqin; Liao, Shijun

    2014-05-01

    Carbon supported PdxPty/C (atomic ratio x:y from 1:1 to 6:1) have been prepared by a modified citrate reduction method assisted by inorganic stabilizers. Without using high molecular capping agents as stabilizers, the PdxPty/C catalysts are highly dispersed on the carbon support and no particle aggregations are found for the PdxPty/C catalysts. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy reveals either Pt or Pd segregation for the PdxPty/C catalysts depending on Pd/Pt atomic ratio. CO stripping in 0.5 M H2SO4 and repeated formic acid oxidation cyclic voltammetry in 0.5 M HCHO + 0.5 M H2SO4 have been conducted to test out the CO tolerance and stability of the catalysts, respectively. It has been found that, with the increase of Pd/Pt atomic ratio, the CO stripping peak potential increases (less CO tolerant), whereas the catalyst stability towards formic acid oxidation decreases. The as-prepared catalysts reveal excellent mass-normalized formic acid oxidation activity as compared with published results possibly due to high dispersion and the absence of high molecular capping agents.

  3. Piperidine hydrogenolysis on a commercial hydrocracking catalyst: III. The effects of zeolite unit cell size, catalyst sulfur content, and coke deposition on catalyst activity and deactivation

    SciTech Connect

    Hadjiloizou, G.C.; Butt, J.B.; Dranoff, J.S. (Northwestern Univ., Evanston, IL (United States))

    1992-06-01

    A group of fresh, deactivated, and deactivated-regenerated commercial hydrocracking catalysts was characterized using piperdine hydrogenolysis as a probe reaction at 301 C, hydrogen partial pressures of about 16 atm, and initial concentrations of piperidine ranging from 4.14 [times] 10[sup [minus]3] to 11.86 [times] 10[sup [minus]3] g mol/liter. The first part of the study revealed that over the range of unit cell size examined, adsorption equilibrium constants associated with the acidic and metallic catalyst functions decreased while reaction rate constants increased with increasing unit cell size. An inverse relationship between catalyst deactivation and unit cell size was generally observed for both catalyst functions. The second part of the study showed that the regenerated catalysts with constant zeolite unit cell size and low levels of coke had similar acidic function activities. The activity correlation of the metallic function on these regenerated catalysts with low levels of sulfur also indicated the presence of two different types of metal sites. The activity of the metallic and acidic functions of the catalyst was also examined at high levels of sulfur and coke and constant unit cell size. The metallic function activity of these catalysts was found to decrease with the commercial time on stream. Between 2.2 and 2.6 wt% sulfur, the activity of the metallic function decreased linearly with the sulfur content on the catalyst. At higher levels of sulfur the deactivated catalysts had similar metallic function activities. Between 2 and 6 wt% carbon, the activity of the acidic function decreased linearly with the carbon content on the catalyst. At low levels of coke, the effect of the unit cell size on acidic activity prevailed.

  4. Synthesis of phenoxy ethers of methyl lesquerolate over solid acid catalysts

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Lesquerolic acid is the primary fatty acid found in Lesquerella. The seeds are 33% oil of which about 55% is the 20 carbon unsaturated hydroxyl fatty acid, lesquerolic acid. A simple derivatization of this fatty acid could expand its potential as an industrial oil. We have used a heterogeneous Le...

  5. Characterization of 2-aminoisobutyric acid transport in Neurospora crassa: a general amino acid permease-specific substrate.

    PubMed Central

    Ogilvie-Villa, S; DeBusk, R M; DeBusk, A G

    1981-01-01

    We report the characterization of an amino acid 2-aminoisobutyric acid was transported solely by the general amino acid permease and not by the neutral amino acid permease. Furthermore, this substrate was not metabolized after transport. The potential for a system-specific nonmetabolizable substrate as a tool in the analysis of amino acid transport and its regulation is discussed. PMID:6456264

  6. The Catalytic Cracking of Hydrocarbons in a Riser Simulator: The Effect of Catalyst Accessibility and Acidity

    E-print Network

    Al-Khattaf, Sulaiman

    1,4-DIPB and 1,3,5-TIPB than the zeolite catalyst. Benzene selectivity was highest for ZSM-5 cracking of isopropyl-benzene, it is established that the cleavage of the propyl group from the benzene ring is the main reaction pathway with the benzene ring remaining unaltered.7 Moreover, transalkylation

  7. Synthesis of 1?Indanones via Intramolecular Cyclodehydration of 3?Arylpropionic Acids Catalyzed by Heteropoly Acid as Heterogeneous Catalyst

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kun Lan

    2007-01-01

    Intramolecular cyclodehydration of 3?arylpropionic acids catalyzed by heteropoly acids was investigated for the first time. Several 3?arylpropionic acids were refluxed and dehydrated in chlorobenzene in the presence of 0.2 equivalent of heteropoly acids, and 1?indanones were obtained in good yield. At the same time, intermolecular Friedel–Crafts acylation were observed in this experiment.

  8. Selective Hydrogenation of Lactic Acid to 1,2-Propanediol over Highly Active Ruthenium-Molybdenum Oxide Catalysts.

    PubMed

    Takeda, Yasuyuki; Shoji, Tomohiro; Watanabe, Hideo; Tamura, Masazumi; Nakagawa, Yoshinao; Okumura, Kazu; Tomishige, Keiichi

    2015-04-13

    Modification of Ru/C with a small amount of MoOx (Ru?MoOx /C) enhanced the catalytic activity in the hydrogenation of L-lactic acid to form 1,2-propanediol and maintained high selectivity. The turnover frequency based on the amount of Ru over the optimized Ru?MoOx /C catalyst (Mo/Ru molar ratio=1:16) was 114?h(-1) at 393?K, which was about 4 times higher than that over Ru/C. The same effect of MoOx was obtained over Ru?MoOx /SiO2 , although Ru?MoOx /SiO2 showed slightly lower activity than that of Ru?MoOx /C. Ru?MoOx /C achieved a high yield of 95?% in 18?h at 393?K and was applicable to various carboxylic acids to provide the corresponding alcohols in high yields. Modification with MoOx also brought about suppression of racemization and (S)-1,2-propanediol was obtained in high enantiomeric excess at 353?K. Based on kinetic analysis and characterization data, such as XRD, TEM, CO adsorption by a volumetric method, FTIR spectroscopy, and X-ray absorption spectroscopy, for Ru?MoOx /C and Ru?MoOx /SiO2 , the catalyst structure and reaction mechanism are proposed. PMID:25510671

  9. The Aerobic Oxidation of Bromide to Dibromine Catalyzed by Homogeneous Oxidation Catalysts and Initiated by Nitrate in Acetic Acid

    SciTech Connect

    Partenheimer, Walt; Fulton, John L.; Sorensen, Christina M.; Pham, Van Thai; Chen, Yongsheng

    2014-06-01

    A small amount of nitrate, ~0.002 molal, initiates the Co/Mn catalyzed aerobic oxidation of bromide compounds (HBr,NaBr,LiBr) to dibromine in acetic acid at room temperature. At temperatures 40oC or less , the reaction is autocatalytic. Co(II) and Mn(II) themselves and mixed with ionic bromide are known homogeneous oxidation catalysts. The reaction was discovered serendipitously when a Co/Br and Co/Mn/Br catalyst solution was prepared for the aerobic oxidation of methyaromatic compounds and the Co acetate contained a small amount of impurity i.e. nitrate. The reaction was characterized by IR, UV-VIS, MALDI and EXAFS spectroscopies and the coordination chemistry is described. The reaction is inhibited by water and its rate changed by pH. The change in these variables, as well as others, are identical to those observed during homogeneous, aerobic oxidation of akylaromatics. A mechanism is proposed. Accidental addition of a small amount of nitrate compound into a Co/Mn/Br/acetic acid mixture in a large, commercial feedtank is potentially dangerous.

  10. Hollow Ag@Pd core-shell nanotubes as highly active catalysts for the electro-oxidation of formic acid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Yuanyuan; Lu, Yizhong; Han, Dongxue; Zhang, Qixian; Niu, Li

    2012-03-01

    Ag nanowires are prepared as templates by a polyol reduction process. Then Ag nanotubes coated with a thin layer of Pd are synthesized through sequential reduction accompanied with the galvanic displacement reaction. The products show a hollow core-shell nanotubular structure, as demonstrated by detailed characterizations. The Ag@Pd can significantly improve the electrocatalytic activity towards the electro-oxidation of formic acid and enhance the stability of the Pd component. It is proposed that the enhanced electrochemically active surface area and modulated electron structure of Pd by Ag are responsible for the improvement of electrocatalytic activity and durability. The results obtained in this work are different from those previous reports, in which alloy walls with hollow interiors are usually formed. This work provides a new and simple method for synthesizing novel bimetallic core-shell structure with a hollow interior, which can be applied as high-performance catalysts for the electro-oxidation of formic acid.

  11. One-Pot Synthesis of Graphene-Supported Monodisperse Pd Nanoparticles as Catalyst for Formic Acid Electro-oxidation

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Sudong; Dong, Jing; Yao, Zhaohui; Shen, Chengmin; Shi, Xuezhao; Tian, Yuan; Lin, Shaoxiong; Zhang, Xiaogang

    2014-01-01

    To synthesize monodisperse palladium nanoparticles dispersed on reduced graphene oxide (RGO) sheets, we have developed an easy and scalable solvothermal reduction method from an organic solution system. The RGO-supported palladium nanoparticles with a diameter of 3.8?nm are synthesized in N-methyl-2-pyrrolidone (NMP) and in the presence of oleylamine and trioctylphosphine, which facilitates simultaneous reduction of graphene oxide and formation of Pd nanocrystals. So-produced Pd/RGO was tested for potential use as electrocatalyst for the electro-oxidation of formic acid. Pd/RGO catalyzes formic acid oxidation very well compared to Pd/Vulcan XC-72 catalyst. This synthesis method is a new way to prepare excellent electrocatalysts, which is of great significance in energy-related catalysis. PMID:24675779

  12. Catalytic Synthesis of Oxygenates: Mechanisms, Catalysts and Controlling Characteristics

    SciTech Connect

    Kamil Klier; Richard G. Herman

    2005-11-30

    This research focused on catalytic synthesis of unsymmetrical ethers as a part of a larger program involving oxygenated products in general, including alcohols, ethers, esters, carboxylic acids and their derivatives that link together environmentally compliant fuels, monomers, and high-value chemicals. The catalysts studied here were solid acids possessing strong Br�������¸nsted acid functionalities. The design of these catalysts involved anchoring the acid groups onto inorganic oxides, e.g. surface-grafted acid groups on zirconia, and a new class of mesoporous solid acids, i.e. propylsulfonic acid-derivatized SBA-15. The former catalysts consisted of a high surface concentration of sulfate groups on stable zirconia catalysts. The latter catalyst consists of high surface area, large pore propylsulfonic acid-derivatized silicas, specifically SBA-15. In both cases, the catalyst design and synthesis yielded high concentrations of acid sites in close proximity to one another. These materials have been well-characterization in terms of physical and chemical properties, as well as in regard to surface and bulk characteristics. Both types of catalysts were shown to exhibit high catalytic performance with respect to both activity and selectivity for the bifunctional coupling of alcohols to form ethers, which proceeds via an efficient SN2 reaction mechanism on the proximal acid sites. This commonality of the dual-site SN2 reaction mechanism over acid catalysts provides for maximum reaction rates and control of selectivity by reaction conditions, i.e. pressure, temperature, and reactant concentrations. This research provides the scientific groundwork for synthesis of ethers for energy applications. The synthesized environmentally acceptable ethers, in part derived from natural gas via alcohol intermediates, exhibit high cetane properties, e.g. methylisobutylether with cetane No. of 53 and dimethylether with cetane No. of 55-60, or high octane properties, e.g. diisopropylether with blending octane No. of 105, and can replace aromatics in liquid fuels.

  13. Direct carbocyclizations of benzoic acids: catalyst-controlled synthesis of cyclic ketones and the development of tandem aHH (acyl Heck-Heck) reactions.

    PubMed

    Miles, Kelsey C; Le, Chi Chip; Stambuli, James P

    2014-09-01

    The formation of exo-methylene indanones and indenones from simple ortho-allyl benzoic acid derivatives has been developed. Selective formation of the indanone or indenone products in these reactions is controlled by choice of ancillary ligand. This new process has a low environmental footprint as the products are formed in high yields using low catalyst loadings, while the only stoichiometric chemical waste generated from the reactants in the transformation is acetic acid. The conversion of the active cyclization catalyst into the Hermman-Beller palladacycle was exploited in a one-pot tandem acyl Heck-Heck (aHH) reaction, and utilized in the synthesis of donepezil. PMID:25047136

  14. Two-Stage Conversion of High Free Fatty Acid Jatropha curcas Oil to Biodiesel Using Brønsted Acidic Ionic Liquid and KOH as Catalysts

    PubMed Central

    Das, Subrata; Thakur, Ashim Jyoti; Deka, Dhanapati

    2014-01-01

    Biodiesel was produced from high free fatty acid (FFA) Jatropha curcas oil (JCO) by two-stage process in which esterification was performed by Brønsted acidic ionic liquid 1-(1-butylsulfonic)-3-methylimidazolium chloride ([BSMIM]Cl) followed by KOH catalyzed transesterification. Maximum FFA conversion of 93.9% was achieved and it reduced from 8.15?wt% to 0.49?wt% under the optimum reaction conditions of methanol oil molar ratio 12?:?1 and 10?wt% of ionic liquid catalyst at 70°C in 6?h. The ionic liquid catalyst was reusable up to four times of consecutive runs under the optimum reaction conditions. At the second stage, the esterified JCO was transesterified by using 1.3?wt% KOH and methanol oil molar ratio of 6?:?1 in 20?min at 64°C. The yield of the final biodiesel was found to be 98.6% as analyzed by NMR spectroscopy. Chemical composition of the final biodiesel was also determined by GC-MS analysis. PMID:24987726

  15. Oligomerization of 2-methylpropene and transformation of 2,4,4-trimethyl-2-pentene over supported and unsupported perfluorinated resinsulfonic acid catalysts

    SciTech Connect

    Bucsi, I.; Olah, G.A. (Univ. of Southern California, University Park, Los Angeles (United States))

    1992-09-01

    Oligomerization of 2-methylpropene was studied with two types of supported (on alumina and on silicon carbide) as well neat perfluorinated resinsulfonic acid catalysts. The heterogeneous reactions were carried out over the solid acid catalysts in a continuous flow reactor at temperatures between 85 and 170 C under atmospheric pressure. Under the studied conditions (85 to 105 C, 1 atm pressure, WHSV:1-3 g/g {center dot} h) all catalysts studied are suitable for oligomerization of 2-methyl-propene. Product distributions show regular temperature dependence: upon increasing temperature the molecular weight of oligomers decreases, with no difference in the selectivity of the catalysts. Transformation of 2,4,4-trimethyl-2-pentene in the liquid phase at room temperature shows surprising selectivity using either the hydrated or dehydrated forms of the resinsulfonic acids. In the case of the hydrated forms of the acids, only double bond isomerization takes place. With dehydrated acids oligomerization as well as isomerization occurs. Above 50 C the selectivity is lost.

  16. Transport activity-dependent intracellular sorting of the yeast general amino acid permease

    E-print Network

    Cain, Natalie Elaine

    Intracellular trafficking of the general amino acid permease, Gap1p, of Saccharomyces cerevisiae is regulated by amino acid abundance. When amino acids are scarce Gap1p is sorted to the plasma membrane, whereas when amino ...

  17. Non-platinum group metal oxgyen reduction catalysts and their mechanism in both acid and alkaline media: The effect of the catalyst precursor and the ionomer on oxygen reduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robson, Michael H.

    Non-platinum catalysts are an attractive strategy for lowering the cost of fuel cells, but much more development is needed in order to replace platinum, especially at the cathode where oxygen is reduced. Research groups worldwide have donated material for a study in which precursor structure to catalyst activity correlations are made. The donated samples have been divided into three classes based on their precursor; macrocyclic chelates, small molecule, and polymeric precursors. The precursor is one activity-dictating factor among many, but it is one of the most influential. It was found that macrocyclic chelates on average produced the most active catalysts, having the highest limiting, diffusion-limited, kinetic, and exchange current densities, as well as the lowest overpotentials and H2O2 production. This suggests that the M-N4 atomic structure of the precursor remains largely static throughout heat treatment, as the M-Nx motif is the accepted active site conformation. The other classes were somewhat less active, but the breadth of precursor materials that range in structure and functionality, as well as low associated costs, make them attractive precursor materials. Careful precursor selection based on this analysis was applied to a new generation of catalyst derived from iron salt and 4-aminoantipyrine. An extensive investigation of the reduction of oxygen on the material performed in both acid and alkaline media, and it was found that reduction follows a two-step pathway. While the peroxide reducing step is also very fast, the first step is so rapid that, even at low active site density, the material is almost as active as platinum if all diffusion limitations are removed. In addition to bottom-up catalyst design, the catalyst:ionomer complex, by which catalyst is incorporated into the membrane electrode assembly, also affects reductive kinetics. A series of novel anionically conductive ionomers have been evaluated using a well-described cyanamide derived catalyst, and the ionomeric influence on activity was mechanistically evaluated. It was found that the water-uptake percentage of the ionomer and the ion exchange capacity has a major role in catalyzing the reaction. The ionomer content of the complex must balance ionic and electrical charge transfer, as well as manage a certain degree of hydration at the active site. In order for a catalyst to perform optimally in an operational fuel cell, design considerations must be addressed at the precursor, support, synthesis, morphological, and ionomer-complexing levels. If any level of design is neglected, catalytic performance will be sacrificed.

  18. Synthesis of a new fluorescent macrocyclic [alpha]-amino acid derivative via tandem cross-enyne\\/ring-closing metathesis cascade catalyzed by ruthenium based catalysts

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sambasivarao Kotha; Deepti Bansal; Kuldeep Singh; Subhasree Banerjee

    2011-01-01

    A simple methodology to a unique macrocyclic ?-amino acid (AAA) derivative involving three step synthetic sequence has been reported. In addition, various ruthenium based catalysts were studied to enhance the selectivity of the desired macrocyclic AAA derivative 6. The fluorescence behavior of these AAA derivatives 5 and 6 indicate their potential applications in biological sciences as biomarkers, ion sensors and

  19. Fe2(S04)3 * Xh2o in Synthesis: A Convenient and Efficient Catalyst for the Esterification of Aromatic Carboxylic Acids With Alcohols

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gui-Sheng Zhang

    1999-01-01

    Fe2(S04)3 XH2O has been used for the catalyst in the esterification of aromatic carboxylic acids with alcohols. The method offers mild reaction condition, easy work-up, and high yields of the esterification products.

  20. Hydrocracking of polyolefins to liquid fuels over strong solid acid catalysts

    SciTech Connect

    Venkatesh, K.R.; Hu, J.; Tierney, J.W.; Wender, I. [Univ. of Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

    1995-12-31

    Post-consumer plastic makes up about 13 wt% of the 48 million tons of total packaging wastes generated annually. Plastics are non-biodegradable, constitute a increasingly large volume of solid wastes (20 vol. % in 1990), and are not being recycled to a significant extent. Pyrolysis, as an alternative for plastic waste recycling, usually results in unsaturated and unstable oils of low yield and value. Significant amounts of char are formed on pyrolyzing plastic wastes. This paper describes the results of hydrocracking of polyolefins over sulfated zirconia catalysts.

  1. In situ nanocrystalline HZSM-5 zeolites encaged heteropoly acid H 3 PMo 12 O 40 and Ni catalyst for hydroconversion of n-octane

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lidong Chen; Xiangsheng Wang; Xinwen Guo; Hongchen Guo; Hai’ou Liu; Yongying Chen

    2007-01-01

    The heteropoly acid H3PMo12O40 (PMo) and Ni in situ encaged in the secondary pore of nanocrystalline HZSM-5 zeolites was prepared from molybdenum oxide and phosphoric acid and nickel nitrate, in a slurry mixture of nanocrystalline HZSM-5 zeolite crystals and deionized water. Catalysts were characterized by ICP, FT-IR, XRD, 31P MAS-NMR, ESR, Py-IR, NH3-TPD, BET, SEM and TEM. PMo cannot enter

  2. Oxide acid-base reaction relating to the inhibition of vandium attack on REY zeolite catalysts. [Rare earth-exchanged yttrium

    Microsoft Academic Search

    1991-01-01

    Certain materials, especially Sn, passivate the rare earth-exchanged Y zeolite (REY) used in petrochemical fluid-cracking catalysts against vanadium degradation caused by V impurities in the feed oil. The mechanism of passivation was investigated here from the standpoint of high-temperature oxide acid-base reaction; i.e., where the controlling factors were considered to be Lewis acid-base reactions between VâOâ, the RE oxides, SnOâ,

  3. Synergistic Interplay of a Non-Heme Iron Catalyst and Amino Acid Coligands in H2 O2 Activation for Asymmetric Epoxidation of ?-Alkyl-Substituted Styrenes.

    PubMed

    Cussó, Olaf; Ribas, Xavi; Lloret-Fillol, Julio; Costas, Miquel

    2015-02-23

    Highly enantioselective epoxidation of ?-substituted styrenes with aqueous H2 O2 is described by using a chiral iron complex as the catalyst and N-protected amino acids (AAs) as coligands. The amino acids synergistically cooperate with the iron center in promoting an efficient activation of H2 O2 to catalyze epoxidation of this challenging class of substrates with good yields and stereoselectivities (up to 97?%?ee) in short reaction times. PMID:25599973

  4. A kinetic study of plutonium dioxide dissolution in hydrochloric acid using iron (II) as an electron transfer catalyst

    SciTech Connect

    Fife, K.W.

    1996-09-01

    Effective dissolution of plutonium dioxide has traditionally been accomplished by contact with strong nitric acid containing a small amount of fluoride at temperatures of {approximately} 100 C. In spite of these aggressive conditions, PuO{sub 2} dissolution is sometimes incomplete requiring additional contact with the solvent. This work focused on an alternative to conventional dissolution in nitric acid where an electron transfer catalyst, Fe(II), was used in hydrochloric acid. Cyclic voltammetry was employed as an in-situ analytical technique for monitoring the dissolution reaction rate. The plutonium oxide selected for this study was decomposed plutonium oxalate with > 95% of the material having a particle diameter (< 70 {micro}m) as determined by a scanning laser microscopy technique. Attempts to dry sieve the oxide into narrow size fractions prior to dissolution in the HCl-Fe(II) solvent system failed, apparently due to significant interparticle attractive forces. Although sieve splits were obtained, subsequent scanning laser microscopy analysis of the sieve fractions indicated that particle segregation was not accomplished and the individual sieve fractions retained a particle size distribution very similar to the original powder assemblage. This phenomena was confirmed through subsequent dissolution experiments on the various screen fractions which illustrated no difference in kinetic behavior between the original oxide assemblage and the sieve fractions.

  5. Surface acidity and basicity of oxide catalysts: From aqueous suspensions to in situ measurements

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. S. Glazneva; N. S. Kotsarenko; E. A. Paukshtis

    2008-01-01

    The catalytic activity of many oxides in various petrochemical and petroleum-refining processes, such as isomerization, alkylation, cracking, aromatization, and many others [1], is due to their Lewis and Brønsted acidities [2]. The research concerning the acid?base properties of inorganic solid surfaces is extensive and has resulted in the modeling of the chemistry of acid?base catalysis and the appearance of new

  6. Studies on the identification of the heteropoly acid generated in the H 3PO 4–WO 3–Nb 2O 5 catalyst and its thermal transformation process

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kazu Okumura; Katsuhiko Yamashita; Kazuhiro Yamada; Miki Niwa

    2007-01-01

    The precursor of the mixed metal oxide catalyst composed of H3PO4–WO3–Nb2O5, which exhibits excellent activity in Friedel–Crafts alkylations, was identified with 31P NMR. It was revealed that the Keggin-type mixed heteropoly acid, H4PNbW11O40, was spontaneously generated during preparation of the H3PO4–WO3–Nb2O5 catalyst. The partial decomposition of H4PNbW11O40 occurred in the temperature range of 673–823 K to give an amorphous oxide

  7. A simple, efficient and environmentally benign synthetic protocol for the synthesis of spirooxindoles using choline chloride-oxalic acid eutectic mixture as catalyst/solvent system.

    PubMed

    Khandelwal, Sarita; Rajawat, Anshu; Tailor, Yogesh Kumar; Kumar, Mahendra

    2014-01-01

    An efficient and environmentally benign domino protocol has been presented for the synthesis of structurally diverse spirooxindoles spiroannulated with pyranopyridopyrimidines, indenopyridopyrimidines, and chromenopyridopyrimidines involving three-component reaction of aminouracils, isatins and cyclic carbonyl compounds in deep eutectic solvent (choline chloride-oxalic acid: 1:1) which acts as efficient catalyst and environmentally benign reaction medium. The present protocol offers several advantages such as operational simplicity with easy workup, shorter reaction times excellent yields with superior atom economy and environmentally benign reaction conditions with the use of cost-effective, recyclable, non-toxic and bio-degradable DES as catalyst/solvent. PMID:25329839

  8. Acidic Cs +, NH 4 +, and K +Salts of 12-Tungstophosphoric Acid as Solid Catalysts for Isobutane\\/2-butene Alkylation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Corma; A. Mart??nez; C. Mart??nez

    1996-01-01

    The caesium, ammonium, and potassium salts of 12-tungstophosphoric acid (HPW) have been prepared with different stoichiometries (1?x?3), and their catalytic behavior measured for the liquid phase alkylation of isobutane with 2-butene at 80°C. The salts with a cation content of 2.5?x?3, and that of Cs+withx=2, showed a much higher surface area than the parent acid, which is partially due to

  9. General Method for Determination of the Surface Composition in Bimetallic Nanoparticle Catalysts from the L Edge X-ray Absorption Near-Edge Spectra

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, Tiapin; Childers, David; Gomez, Carolina; Karim, Ayman M.; Schweitzer, Neil; Kropf, Arthur; Wang, Hui; Bolin, Trudy B.; Hu, Yongfeng; Kovarik, Libor; Meyer, Randall; Miller, Jeffrey T.

    2012-10-31

    Bimetallic PtPd on silica nano-particle catalysts have been synthesized and their average structure determined by Pt L3 and Pd K-edge extended X-ray absorption finestructure (EXAFS) spectroscopy. The bimetallic structure is confirmed from elemental line scans by STEM for the individual 1-2 nm sized particles. A general method is described to determine the surface composition in bimetallic nanoparticles even when both metals adsorb, for example, CO. By measuring the change in the L3 X-ray absorption near-edge structure (XANES) spectra with and without CO in bimetallic particles and comparing these changes to those in monometallic particles of known size the fraction of surface atoms can be determined. The turnover rates (TOR) and neopentane hydrogenolysis and isomerization selectivities based on the surface composition suggest that the catalytic and spectroscopic properties are different from those in monometallic nano-particle catalysts. At the same neo-pentane conversion, the isomerization selectivity is higher for the PtPd catalyst while the TOR is lower than that of both Pt and Pd. As with the catalytic performance, the infrared spectra of adsorbed CO are not a linear combination of the spectra on monometallic catalysts. Density functional theory calculations indicate that the Pt-CO adsorption enthalpy increases while the Pd-CO bond energy decreases. The ability to determine the surface composition allows for a better understanding of the spectroscopic and catalytic properties of bimetallic nanoparticle catalysts.

  10. Design and synthesis of palladium/graphitic carbon nitride/carbon black hybrids as high-performance catalysts for formic acid and methanol electrooxidation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qian, Huayu; Huang, Huajie; Wang, Xin

    2015-02-01

    Here we report a facile two-step method to synthesize high-performance palladium/graphitic carbon nitride/carbon black (Pd/g-C3N4/carbon black) hybrids for electrooxidizing formic acid and methanol. The coating of g-C3N4 on carbon black surface is realized by a low-temperature heating treatment, followed by the uniform deposition of palladium nanoparticles (Pd NPs) via a wet chemistry route. Owning to the significant synergistic effects of the individual components, the preferred Pd/g-C3N4/carbon black electrocatalyst exhibits exceptional forward peak current densities as high as 2155 and 1720 mA mg-1Pd for formic acid oxidation in acid media and methanol oxidation in alkaline media, respectively, far outperforming the commercial Pd-C catalyst. The catalyst also shows reliable stability, demonstrating that the newly-designed hybrids have great promise in constructing high-performance portable fuel cell systems.

  11. CONDENSED MATTER: STRUCTURE, MECHANICAL AND THERMAL PROPERTIES: Electro-oxidation of Formic Acid on Carbon Supported Edge-Truncated Cubic Platinum Nanoparticles Catalysts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, She-Qiang; Fu, Xing-Qiu; Hu, Bing; Deng, Jia-Jun; Chen, Lei

    2009-11-01

    The oxidation of formic acid on edge-truncated cubic platinum nanoparticles/C catalysts is investigated. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analysis indicates that the surface of edge-truncated cubic platinum nanoparticles is composed of two types of coordination sites. The oxidation behavior of formic acid on edge-truncated cubic platinum nanoparticles/C is investigated using cyclic voltammetry. The apparent activation energies are found to be 54.2, 55.0, 61.8, 69.5, 71.9, 69.26, 65.28kJ/mol at 0.15, 0.3, 0.4, 0.5, 0.6, 0.65, 0.7V, respectively. A specific surface area activity of 1.76 mA·cm-2 at 0.4 V indicates that the edge-truncated cubic Platinum nanoparticles are a promising anode catalyst for direct formic acid fuel cells.

  12. Domain-confined catalytic soot combustion over Co3O4 anchored on a TiO2 nanotube array catalyst prepared by mercaptoacetic acid induced surface-grafting.

    PubMed

    Ren, Jiale; Yu, Yifu; Dai, Fangfang; Meng, Ming; Zhang, Jing; Zheng, Lirong; Hu, Tiandou

    2013-12-21

    Herein, we introduce a specially designed domain-confined macroporous catalyst, namely, the Co3O4 nanocrystals anchored on a TiO2 nanotube array catalyst, which was synthesized by using the mercaptoacetic acid induced surface-grafting method. This catalyst exhibits much better performance for catalytic soot combustion than the conventional TiO2 powder supported one in gravitational contact mode (GMC). PMID:24177172

  13. Structural and electrochemical characterization of carbon supported Pt-Pr catalysts for direct ethanol fuel cells prepared using a modified formic acid method in a CO atmosphere.

    PubMed

    Corradini, Patricia Gon; Antolini, Ermete; Perez, Joelma

    2013-07-28

    Pt-Pr/C electrocatalysts were prepared using a modified formic acid method, and their activity for carbon monoxide and ethanol oxidation was compared to Pt/C. No appreciable alloy formation was detected by XRD analysis. By TEM measurements it was found that Pt particle size increases with an increasing Pr content in the catalysts and with decreasing metal precursor addition time. XPS measurements indicated Pt segregation on the catalyst surface and the presence of Pr2O3 and PrO2 oxides. The addition of Pr increased the electro-catalytic activity of Pt for both CO and CH3CH2OH oxidation. The enhanced activity of Pt-Pr/C catalysts was ascribed to both an electronic effect, caused by the presence of Pr2O3, and the bi-functional mechanism, caused by the presence of PrO2. PMID:23752757

  14. Brønsted Acid Co-catalysts in Photocatalytic Radical Addition of ?-Amino C–H Bonds Across Michael Acceptors

    PubMed Central

    Espelt, Laura Ruiz; Wiensch, Eric M.; Yoon, Tehshik P.

    2013-01-01

    In marked contrast to the variety of strategies available for oxidation and nucleophilic functionalization of methylene groups adjacent to amines, relatively few approaches for modification of this position with electrophilic reaction partners have been reported. In the course of an investigation of the reactions of photogenerated ?-amino radicals with electrophiles, we made the surprising observation that the efficiency of radical photoredox functionalization of N-aryl tetrahydroisoquinolines is dramatically increased in the presence of a Brønsted acid co-catalyst. Optimized conditions provide high yields and efficient conversion to radical addition products for a range of structurally modified tetrahydroisoquinolines and enones using convenient household light sources and commercially available Ru(bpy)3Cl2 as a photocatalyst. Our investigations into the origins of this unexpected additive effect have demonstrated that the carbon–carbon bond-forming step is accelerated by TFA and is a rare example of Brønsted acid catalysis in radical addition reactions. Moreover, a significant conclusion arising from these studies is the finding that product formation is dominated by radical chain processes and not by photocatalyst turnover. Together, these findings have important implications for the future design and mechanistic evaluation of photocatalytic radical processses. PMID:23537318

  15. Structure and density of Mo and acid sites in Mo-exchanged H-ZSM5 catalysts for nonoxidative methane conversion

    SciTech Connect

    Borry, R.W. III; Kim, Y.H.; Huffsmith, A.; Reimer, J.A.; Iglesia, E. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab., CA (United States). Materials Sciences Div.]|[Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States). Dept. of Chemical Engineering

    1999-07-15

    Mo/H-ZSM5 (1.0--6.3 wt % Mo; Mo/Al = 0.11--0.68) catalysts for CH{sub 4} aromatization were prepared from physical mixtures of MoO{sub 3} and H-ZSM5 (Si/Al = 14.3). X-ray diffraction and elemental analysis of physical mixtures treated in air indicate that MoO{sub x} species migrate onto the external ZSM5 surface at about 623 K. Between 773 and 973 K, MoO{sub x} species migrate inside zeolite channels via surface and gas phase transport, exchange at acid sites, and react to form H{sub 2}O. The amount of H{sub 2}O evolved during exchange and the amount of residual OH groups detected by isotopic equilibration with D{sub 2} showed that each Mo atom replaces one H{sup +} during exchange. This stoichiometry and the requirement for charge compensation suggest that exchanged species consist of (Mo{sub 2}O{sub 5}){sup 2+} ditetrahedral structures interacting with two cation exchange sites. The proposed mechanism may provide a general framework to describe the exchange of multivalent cations onto Al sites in zeolites. As the Mo concentration exceeds that required to form a MoO{sub x} monolayer on the external zeolite surface ({approximately}4 wt % Mo for the H-ZSM5 used), Mo species sublime as (MoO{sub 3}){sub n} oligomers or extract Al from the zeolite framework to form inactive Al{sub 2}(MoO{sub 4}){sub 3} domains detectable by {sup 27}Al NMR. These (Mo{sub 2}O{sub 5}){sup 2+} species reduce to form the active MoC{sub x} species during the initial stages of CH{sub 4} conversion reactions. Optimum CH{sub 4} aromatization rates were obtained on catalysts with intermediate MO contents ({approximately}0.4 Mo/Al), because both MoC{sub x} and acid sites are required to active CH{sub 4} and to convert the initial C{sub 2}H{sub 4} products into C{sub 6+} aromatics favored by thermodynamics.

  16. CO2-Free Power Generation on an Iron Group Nanoalloy Catalyst via Selective Oxidation of Ethylene Glycol to Oxalic Acid in Alkaline Media

    PubMed Central

    Matsumoto, Takeshi; Sadakiyo, Masaaki; Ooi, Mei Lee; Kitano, Sho; Yamamoto, Tomokazu; Matsumura, Syo; Kato, Kenichi; Takeguchi, Tatsuya; Yamauchi, Miho

    2014-01-01

    An Fe group ternary nanoalloy (NA) catalyst enabled selective electrocatalysis towards CO2-free power generation from highly deliverable ethylene glycol (EG). A solid-solution-type FeCoNi NA catalyst supported on carbon was prepared by a two-step reduction method. High-resolution electron microscopy techniques identified atomic-level mixing of constituent elements in the nanoalloy. We examined the distribution of oxidised species, including CO2, produced on the FeCoNi nanoalloy catalyst in the EG electrooxidation under alkaline conditions. The FeCoNi nanoalloy catalyst exhibited the highest selectivities toward the formation of C2 products and to oxalic acid, i.e., 99 and 60%, respectively, at 0.4?V vs. the reversible hydrogen electrode (RHE), without CO2 generation. We successfully generated power by a direct EG alkaline fuel cell employing the FeCoNi nanoalloy catalyst and a solid-oxide electrolyte with oxygen reduction ability, i.e., a completely precious-metal-free system. PMID:25004118

  17. Identification of the Gene at the pmg Locus, Encoding System II, the General Amino Acid

    E-print Network

    Bowman, Barry

    Identification of the Gene at the pmg Locus, Encoding System II, the General Amino Acid Transporter of the gene at the pmg locus, encoding system II, the general amino acid transporter in Neurospora crassa a deficiency in a transport system for a broad range of amino acids. We have isolated a gene that encodes

  18. Oxidative degradation of different chlorinated phenoxyalkanoic acid herbicides by a hybrid ZrO2 gel-derived catalyst without light irradiation.

    PubMed

    Sannino, Filomena; Pernice, Pasquale; Minieri, Luciana; Camandona, Gaia Aurora; Aronne, Antonio; Pirozzi, Domenico

    2015-01-14

    The oxidative degradation of 2-methyl-4-chlorophenoxyacetic acid (MCPA), 4-(4-chloro-2-methylphenoxy)butanoic acid (MCPB), 4-chlorophenoxyacetic acid (4-CPA) and 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4 D) by ZrO2-acetylacetonate hybrid catalyst (HSGZ) without light irradiation was assessed. The thermal stability of the catalyst was investigated by thermogravimetry, differential thermal analysis, and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. For each herbicide, a virtually complete removal in about 3 days without light irradiation at room temperature was achieved. The removal kinetics of the herbicides has been satisfactorily characterized by a double-stage physico-mathematical model, in the hypothesis that a first-order adsorption on HSGZ surface is followed by the herbicide degradation, catalytically driven by HSGZ surface groups. The long-term use of the HSGZ catalyst was assessed by repeated-batch tests. The specific cost for unit-volume removal of herbicide was evaluated by a detailed cost analysis showing that it is comparable with those pertaining to alternative methods. PMID:25479367

  19. ADSORPTION/DESORPTION STUDIES ON SOLID ACID ALKYLATION CATALYSTS USING A TAPERED ELEMENT OSCILLATING MICROBALANCE (TEOM)

    E-print Network

    Gong, Kening

    2008-10-23

    2-1. Key Operating Parameters of the Reactors for Each Process 20 Table 2-2. Comparison of Material Balance, Raw Material Costs, and Product Sales Revenues for Sulfuric Acid Alkylation Process and Solid Acid/CO2 Alkylation Process 31 Table 2... particles size is 50-53 ?m): (a) mass change due to gas density change at various 224-TMP partial pressures; (b) total mass change (adsorbent is 20.0 mg silica support Davicat SI 1301) and mass change due to gas density change at various 224-TMP partial...

  20. Effects of natural water ions and humic acid on catalytic nitrate reduction kinetics using an alumina supported Pd-Cu catalyst.

    PubMed

    Chaplin, Brian P; Roundy, Eric; Guy, Kathryn A; Shapley, John R; Werth, Charles J

    2006-05-01

    Catalytic nitrate reduction was evaluated for the purpose of drinking water treatment. Common anions present in natural waters and humic acid were evaluated for their effects on NO3(-) hydrogenation over a bimetallic supported catalyst (Pd-Cu/gamma-Al2O3). Groundwater samples, with and without powder activated carbon (PAC) pretreatment, were also evaluated. In the absence of inhibitors the NO3- reduction rate was 2.4 x 10(-01) L/min g cat. However, the addition of constituents (SO4(2-), SO3(2-), HS-, CI-, HCO3-, OH-, and humic acid) on the order of representative concentrations for drinking water decreased the NO3- reduction rate. Sulfite, sulfide, and elevated chloride decreased the NO3- reduction rate by over 2 orders of magnitude. Preferential adsorption of Cl- inhibited NO3- reduction to a greater extent than NO2- reduction. Partial regeneration of catalysts exposed to SO3(2-) was achieved by using a dilute hypochlorite solution, however Cu dissolution occurred. Dissolved constituents in the groundwater sample decreased the NO3- reduction rate to 3.7 x 10(-03) L/min g cat and increased ammonia production. Removal of dissolved organic matter from the groundwater using PAC increased the NO3- reduction rate to 5.06 x 10(-02) L/min g cat and decreased ammonia production. Elemental analyses of catalysts exposed to the natural groundwater suggest that mineral precipitation may also contribute to catalyst fouling. PMID:16719114

  1. Catalyst Alloys Processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tan, Xincai

    2014-10-01

    Catalysts are one of the key materials used for diamond formation at high pressures. Several such catalyst products have been developed and applied in China and around the world. The catalyst alloy most widely used in China is Ni70Mn25Co5 developed at Changsha Research Institute of Mining and Metallurgy. In this article, detailed techniques for manufacturing such a typical catalyst alloy will be reviewed. The characteristics of the alloy will be described. Detailed processing of the alloy will be presented, including remelting and casting, hot rolling, annealing, surface treatment, cold rolling, blanking, finishing, packaging, and waste treatment. An example use of the catalyst alloy will also be given. Industrial experience shows that for the catalyst alloy products, a vacuum induction remelt furnace can be used for remelting, a metal mold can be used for casting, hot and cold rolling can be used for forming, and acid pickling can be used for metal surface cleaning.

  2. The oxidation of tetrabromobisphenol A by potassium monopersulfate with an iron(III)-phthalocyanine-tetrasulfonic acid catalyst in the presence of humic acid.

    PubMed

    Maeno, Shohei; Mizutani, Yusuke; Zhu, Qianqian; Miyamoto, Takafumi; Fukushima, Masami; Kuramitz, Hideki

    2014-01-01

    Tetrabromobisphenol A (TBBPA), a type of brominated flame retardant that shows endocrine disruption effects, has been identified in leachates from landfills. Iron(III)-porphyrins that mimic the active site of peroxidases have been shown to be effective in oxidizing halogenated phenols, such as TBBPA. In the present study, TBBPA was subjected to oxidation with potassium monopersulfate (KHSO5) using an iron(III)-phthalocyanine-tetrasulfonic acid (FePcTS), structural analogue of iron(III)-porphyrin, in the presence of humic acid (HA), a major component in landfill leachates. When TBBPA was oxidized using the above system, the levels of degradation and debromination increased with increasing pH in the presence of HA. Because of landfill leachates are weakly alkaline (around pH 8), oxidation products derived from TBBPA were investigated at pH 8. Approximately 48% of the bromine in the degraded TBBPA was incorporated into HA, and hydroxy-tribromobisphenol A was determined to be the major brominated intermediate in the HA fraction. In the iron(III)-porphyrin catalytic systems, the brominated intermediate incorporated into HA is mainly TBBPA, and no hydroxy-substituted bromophenols are found. Thus, the catalytic power of FePcTS is higher than that of iron(III)-porphyrin catalysts. PMID:24798896

  3. Process of making supported catalyst

    DOEpatents

    Schwarz, James A. (Fayetteville, NY); Subramanian, Somasundaram (Melvindale, MI)

    1992-01-01

    Oxide supported metal catalysts have an additional metal present in intimate association with the metal catalyst to enhance catalytic activity. In a preferred mode, iridium or another Group VIII metal catalyst is supported on a titania, alumina, tungsten oxide, silica, or composite oxide support. Aluminum ions are readsorbed onto the support and catalyst, and reduced during calcination. The aluminum can be added as aluminum nitrate to the iridium impregnate solution, e.g. chloroiridic acid.

  4. Mesoporous Silica-Supported Diarylammonium Catalysts for Esterification of Free Fatty Acids in Greases

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Biodiesel, typically fatty acid methyl esters (FAME), has received much attention because it is a renewable biofuel that contributes little to global warming compared to petroleum-based diesel fuel. The most common method used for biodiesel production is based on the alkali-catalyzed transesterific...

  5. 5790 J. Am. Chem. SOC.1987, 109, 5790-5800 Concerted General Base and Bifunctional General Acid

    E-print Network

    Cox, Michael M.

    5790 J. Am. Chem. SOC.1987, 109, 5790-5800 Concerted General Base and Bifunctional General Acid. It is concluded that the reaction involves concerted general base catalysis of prQton abstraction from pyrazole addition species,p,to reactants suggests that the concerted mechanism is enforced by the absence

  6. General analytical procedure for determination of acidity parameters of weak acids and bases.

    PubMed

    Pilarski, Bogus?aw; Kaliszan, Roman; Wyrzykowski, Dariusz; M?odzianowski, Janusz; Bali?ska, Agata

    2015-01-01

    The paper presents a new convenient, inexpensive, and reagent-saving general methodology for the determination of pK a values for components of the mixture of diverse chemical classes weak organic acids and bases in water solution, without the need to separate individual analytes. The data obtained from simple pH-metric microtitrations are numerically processed into reliable pK a values for each component of the mixture. Excellent agreement has been obtained between the determined pK a values and the reference literature data for compounds studied. PMID:25692072

  7. General Analytical Procedure for Determination of Acidity Parameters of Weak Acids and Bases

    PubMed Central

    Pilarski, Bogus?aw; Kaliszan, Roman; Wyrzykowski, Dariusz; M?odzianowski, Janusz; Bali?ska, Agata

    2015-01-01

    The paper presents a new convenient, inexpensive, and reagent-saving general methodology for the determination of pKa values for components of the mixture of diverse chemical classes weak organic acids and bases in water solution, without the need to separate individual analytes. The data obtained from simple pH-metric microtitrations are numerically processed into reliable pKa values for each component of the mixture. Excellent agreement has been obtained between the determined pKa values and the reference literature data for compounds studied. PMID:25692072

  8. A chemical placebo: NaCl as an effective, cheapest, non-acidic and greener catalyst for Biginelli-type 3,4-dihydropyrimidin-2(1H)-ones (-thiones) synthesis.

    PubMed

    Kolosov, Maksim A; Orlov, Valeriy D; Beloborodov, Dmitriy A; Dotsenko, Victor V

    2009-02-01

    Despite prior reports of several really effective catalytic and non-catalytic approaches towards Biginelli's 3,4-dihydropyrimidin-2(1H)-ones, an overwhelming number of new catalysts for the Biginelli reaction have been recently published. Most of the catalysts are somewhat exotic, expensive, harmful and even uneffective in the absence of acidic additives. Herein we reduce the "yet-another-one-catalyst" idea to absurdity by proposing NaCl promotes the reaction that actually requires no catalyst, neither rare nor expensive. PMID:19082754

  9. Sonochemical synthesis of silica and silica sulfuric acid nanoparticles from rice husk ash: a new and recyclable catalyst for the acetylation of alcohols and phenols under heterogeneous conditions.

    PubMed

    Salavati-Niasari, Masoud; Javidi, Jaber

    2012-11-01

    Silica nanoparticles were synthesized from rice husk ash at room temperature by sonochemical method. The feeding rate of percipiteting agent and time of sonication were investigated. The nanostructure of the synthesized powder was realized by the FE-SEM photomicrograph, FT-IR spectroscopy, XRD and XRF analyses. These analytical observations have revealed that the nano-sized amorphous silica particles are formed and they are spheroidal in shape. The average particle size of the silica powders is found to be around 50 nm. The as-synthesized silica nanoparticles were subsequently modified with chlorosulfonic acid and prepared silica sulfuric acid nanoparticles, which were employed as an efficient catalyst for the acylation of alcohols and phenols with acetic anhydride in excellent yields under solvent-free conditions at room temperature. This reported method is simple, mild, and environmentally viable and catalyst can be simply recovered and reused over 9 times without any significant loss of its catalytic activity. PMID:22934954

  10. New Lewis-Acidic Molybdenum(II) and Tungsten(II) Catalysts for Intramolecular Carbonyl Ene and Prins Reactions. Reversal of the Stereoselectivity of Cyclization of Citronellal.

    PubMed

    Kocovský, Pavel; Ahmed, Ghafoor; Srogl, Jirí; Malkov, Andrei V.; Steele, John

    1999-04-16

    New Mo(II) complexes BnEt(3)N(+)[Mo(CO)(4)ClBr(2)](-) (A) and Mo(CO)(5)(OTf)(2) (B) and their W(II) congeners D and E have been developed as catalysts for the title reactions. Unlike other Lewis acids, the latter catalysts exhibit cis-stereoselectivity in the cyclization of citronellal (1 --> 3 with A and 1 --> 5 with B). Isotopic labeling allowed formulation of the reaction mechanism, according to which these complexes act as bulky Lewis acids, eta(1)-coordinated to the carbonyl oxygen. The stereochemistry appears to be controlled by the protruding ligand L(p), which dictates the boatlike transition state III. The kinetically formed cis-alkenol 3 can be equilibrated by [Mo(CO)(4)Br(2)](2) (C) or ZnCl(2) to its trans-epimer 2 via a retro-ene reaction. PMID:11674345

  11. Transport activity dependent regulation of the yeast general amino acid permease

    E-print Network

    Cain, Natalie E. (Natalie Elaine)

    2011-01-01

    The general amino acid permease Gap1p of Saccharomyces cerevisiae scavenges amino acids from the extracellular medium for use as nitrogen sources in starvation conditions. Because unlimited uptake of both naturally occurring ...

  12. Preparation and evaluation of advanced catalysts for phosphoric acid fuel cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stonehart, P.; Baris, J.; Hockmuth, J.; Pagliaro, P.

    1984-01-01

    The platinum electrocatalysts were characterized for their crystallite sizes and the degree of dispersion on the carbon supports. One application of these electrocatalysts was for anodic oxidation of hydrogen in hot phosphoric acid fuel cells, coupled with the influence of low concentrations of carbon monoxide in the fuel gas stream. In a similar way, these platinum on carbon electrocatalysts were evaluated for oxygen reduction in hot phosphoric acid. Binary noble metal alloys were prepared for anodic oxidation of hydrogen and noble metal-refractory metal mixtures were prepared for oxygen reduction. An exemplar alloy of platinum and palladium (50/50 atom %) was discovered for anodic oxidation of hydrogen in the presence of carbon monoxide, and patent disclosures were submitted. For the cathode, platinum-vanadium alloys were prepared showing improved performance over pure platinum. Preliminary experiments on electrocatalyst utilization in electrode structures showed low utilization of the noble metal when the electrocatalyst loading exceeded one weight percent on the carbon.

  13. Development of efficient Lewis acid catalysts for intramolecular cycloaddition reactions of ester-tethered substrates.

    PubMed

    Taguchi, Takeo; Saito, Akio; Yanai, Hikaru

    2007-01-01

    We have developed novel bidentate Lewis acids that efficiently promote the intramolecular cycloaddition reactions of ester-tethered substrates. Bis-aluminated triflic amide derivatives [TfN(AlR(1)R(2))2], which are generated by simply mixing triflic amide and 2 equiv of methyl aluminum or aluminum hydride, catalyzed intramolecular Diels-Alder (DA) reactions of ester-tethered 1,7,9-trienes and intermolecular DA reactions of alpha,beta-unsaturated lactones. We also found that bimetallic Lewis acid derived from 1,1'-biphenyl-2,2'-di(triflyl)amide and dimethylaluminum chloride promoted the intramolecular [3 + 2] cycloaddition reaction of acrylate derivatives having an allylsilane part. PMID:17549689

  14. Gas-phase isomerization of ethylbenzene over PT-heteropoly acid\\/zeolite catalysts

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gun Dae Lee; Tae Joon Han; Ho-In Lee

    1986-01-01

    The catalytic performance and availability of heleropoly compounds in vapor phase isomerizalion of elhylbenzene to xylene\\u000a have been studied. 12-molybdophosphoric acid and its salts of four first row transition metals (Cr. Fe, Co and Ni) were chosen\\u000a as heteropoly compounds, and they were supported together with platinum over Y-zeolite. The experiments were carried out at\\u000a 400‡C, 18 kg\\/cm2 of H2

  15. Synthesis of fructone over dealmuinated USY supported heteropoly acid and its salt catalysts

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Fumin Zhang; Chaoshu Yuan; Jun Wang; Yan Kong; Haiyang Zhu; Chunyan Wang

    2006-01-01

    12-Phosphotungstic acid (PW) and cesium salt of PW supported on dealuminated ultra-stable Y zeolite (DUSY) with various loadings were prepared by impregnation method, and their physicochemical properties were characterized by X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), N2 adsorption, solid state 31P and 29Si MAS NMR, Hammett indicator and SEM techniques. Their catalytic performances were evaluated in the liquid-phase acetalization of ethyl acetoacetate

  16. Synthesis of porous and acidic complex metal oxide catalyst based on group 5 and 6 elements

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Toru Murayama; Nozomi Kuramata; Shunsuke Takatama; Kosuke Nakatani; Shoko Izumi; Xiaodong Yi; Wataru Ueda

    Complex metal oxides of transition metals using Mo, W, V, Nb and Ta were synthesized by hydrothermal method. The synthesized complex metal oxides were characterized and the solid acid catalytic activity was tested through the Friedel-Crafts alkylation of anisole and benzyl alcohol. X-ray diffraction patterns of the obtained samples showed two peaks at 2?=22° and 46° indicating these materials have

  17. Mesoporous Silica-Supported Diarylammonium Catalysts for Esterification of Free Fatty Acids in Greases

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Helen L. NgoNicholas; Nicholas A. Zafiropoulos; Thomas A. Foglia; Edward T. Samulski; Wenbin Lin

    2010-01-01

    Biodiesel (BD), typically consisting of fatty acid methyl esters (FAME), has received much attention because it is a renewable\\u000a biofuel that contributes little to global warming compared to petroleum-based diesel fuel. The most common method used for\\u000a BD production is based on the alkali-catalyzed transesterification of first-use refined oils and fats with an alcohol (e.g.\\u000a methanol). These technologies, however, require

  18. Polycondensation reaction and its mechanism during lignocellulosic liquefaction by an acid catalyst: a review

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Min Niu; Guang-jie Zhao; Mehmet Hakki Alma

    2011-01-01

    The increase in the residue content resulting from polycondensation would be adverse to the utilization of lignocellulose\\u000a and to the quality of products obtained from liquefied lignocellulosic material. The yield of the residue formed from liquefaction\\u000a and the mechanism of polycondensation were reported mainly by Lin, Yamada and Kobayashi. The major products of cellulosic\\u000a liquefaction are levulinic acid and hydroxymethylfurfural

  19. Catalyst-Free and Site-Specific One-Pot Dual Labeling of a Protein Directed by Two Genetically Incorporated Noncanonical Amino Acids

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Bo; Wang, Zhiyong; Huang, Ying; Liu, Wenshe R.

    2012-01-01

    The genetic incorporation of one azide-containing and one keto-containing noncanonical amino acids into a protein at one amber and one ochre mutation sites respectively followed by their orthogonal reactions with one hydroxylamine-containing and one cyclooctyne-containing dyes allows highly efficient one-pot site-specific dual labeling of the protein in a catalyst-free fashion. PMID:22628069

  20. Green chemistry: Biodiesel made with sugar catalyst

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Masakazu Toda; Atsushi Takagaki; Mai Okamura; Junko N. Kondo; Shigenobu Hayashi; Kazunari Domen; Michikazu Hara

    2005-01-01

    The production of diesel from vegetable oil calls for an efficient solid catalyst to make the process fully ecologically friendly. Here we describe the preparation of such a catalyst from common, inexpensive sugars. This high-performance catalyst, which consists of stable sulphonated amorphous carbon, is recyclable and its activity markedly exceeds that of other solid acid catalysts tested for `biodiesel' production.

  1. [Catalytic application of synthesizing n-butyl acrylate by a new type nanometer complex heteropoly acid catalyst H3PW12O40/SiO2].

    PubMed

    Zhou, Li-qun; Liu, Shi-zhong; Sun, Ju-tang

    2004-10-01

    A new nanometer complex heteropoly acid with Keggin structure, H3PW12O40/SiO2, were prepared by sol-gel method, and were characterized with IR, UV, XRD and TEM techniques. By means of this nanometer catalytic materials, the optimum conditions of the n-butyl acrylate synthesis have been studied. The results show that the complex heteropoly acid H3PW12O40/SiO2 nanoparticles have the mean grain size of 40 nm and they are typical amorphous. A strong chemical interaction exists between H3PW12O40 and silica surface. The nanoparticles have high catalytic activity for synthesizing n-butyl acrylate. The optimum catalytic conditions are as follows: the mole ratio of acrylic acid and n-butyl alcohol is 1:1.2, the reaction temperature is approximately 90-96 degrees C, and the catalyst quantity in the reaction is 10% of the acid mass. The conversion proportion is 94.37% and product yield 91.2% in 5 h. Apparently, the unique structure of the Keggin anions and surface acid center and the high specific surface area and the pseudoliquid phase of H3PW12O40/SiO2 play an important role in the esterification reactions with the acid catalyst. PMID:15760024

  2. Use of pyrolyzed iron ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid modified activated carbon as air-cathode catalyst in microbial fuel cells.

    PubMed

    Xia, Xue; Zhang, Fang; Zhang, Xiaoyuan; Liang, Peng; Huang, Xia; Logan, Bruce E

    2013-08-28

    Activated carbon (AC) is a cost-effective catalyst for the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) in air-cathode microbial fuel cells (MFCs). To enhance the catalytic activity of AC cathodes, AC powders were pyrolyzed with iron ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (FeEDTA) at a weight ratio of FeEDTA:AC = 0.2:1. MFCs with FeEDTA modified AC cathodes and a stainless steel mesh current collector produced a maximum power density of 1580 ± 80 mW/m(2), which was 10% higher than that of plain AC cathodes (1440 ± 60 mW/m(2)) and comparable to Pt cathodes (1550 ± 10 mW/m(2)). Further increases in the ratio of FeEDTA:AC resulted in a decrease in performance. The durability of AC-based cathodes was much better than Pt-catalyzed cathodes. After 4.5 months of operation, the maximum power density of Pt cathode MFCs was 50% lower than MFCs with the AC cathodes. Pyridinic nitrogen, quaternary nitrogen and iron species likely contributed to the increased activity of FeEDTA modified AC. These results show that pyrolyzing AC with FeEDTA is a cost-effective and durable way to increase the catalytic activity of AC. PMID:23902951

  3. Transformations of anthraquinone-1-nitro-2-carboxylic acid during reduction by hydrogen on a catalyst

    SciTech Connect

    Rogovik, V.M.; Dzvinka, R.I.; Vinyukova, M.V.

    1987-11-20

    We studied the catalytic reduction of anthraquinone-1-nitro-2-carboxylic acid by hydrogen under a pressure of 0.1-5.5 MPa and at temperatures of 20-100/sup 0/C in different solvents. The concentration of the substrate was varied from 0.05 to 0.3 mole/dm/sub 3/. A 5% palladium on carbon was used in a thermostated ideal mixing reactor. The process was controlled by the rate of absorption of hydrogen; polarographic, spectral and GLC methods of analysis were used to identify the compounds and to evaluate the quantitative composition of the products.

  4. Iron oxide nanoparticles immobilized to mesoporous NH2-SiO2 spheres by sulfonic acid functionalization as highly efficient catalysts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Guoliang; Qin, Lei; Wu, Yujiao; Xu, Zehai; Guo, Xinwen

    2014-12-01

    A novel SiO2 nanosphere was synthesized by the post-synthetic grafting of sulfonic acid groups on to anionic-surfactant-templated mesoporous NH2-silica (AMAS). This one-pot post-functionalization strategy allowed more metal ions to be homogeneously anchored into the channel of the meso-SiO2 nanosphere. After hydrothermal and calcination treatment, the in situ growth of ?-Fe2O3 on sulfonic acid-functionalized mesoporous NH2-SiO2 (SA-AMAS) exhibited much higher activity in the visible-light assisted Fenton reaction at neutral pH than that for AMAS or meso-SiO2 nanospheres. By analysis, the grafted sulfonic acid group can not only enhance the acid strength of the catalyst, but can also bring more orbital-overlapping between the active sites (FeII and FeIII) and the surface peroxide species, to facilitate the decomposition of H2O2 to hydroxyl radical. The present results provide opportunities for developing heterogeneous catalysts with high-performance in the field of green chemistry and environmental remediation.A novel SiO2 nanosphere was synthesized by the post-synthetic grafting of sulfonic acid groups on to anionic-surfactant-templated mesoporous NH2-silica (AMAS). This one-pot post-functionalization strategy allowed more metal ions to be homogeneously anchored into the channel of the meso-SiO2 nanosphere. After hydrothermal and calcination treatment, the in situ growth of ?-Fe2O3 on sulfonic acid-functionalized mesoporous NH2-SiO2 (SA-AMAS) exhibited much higher activity in the visible-light assisted Fenton reaction at neutral pH than that for AMAS or meso-SiO2 nanospheres. By analysis, the grafted sulfonic acid group can not only enhance the acid strength of the catalyst, but can also bring more orbital-overlapping between the active sites (FeII and FeIII) and the surface peroxide species, to facilitate the decomposition of H2O2 to hydroxyl radical. The present results provide opportunities for developing heterogeneous catalysts with high-performance in the field of green chemistry and environmental remediation. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: BET surface area and textural data, degradation results, FTIR spectra, TEM images, and element analysis. See DOI: 10.1039/c4nr05884d

  5. Efficient synthesis of spironaphthopyrano [2,3-d]pyrimidine-5,3'-indolines under solvent-free conditions catalyzed by SBA-Pr-SO3H as a nanoporous acid catalyst.

    PubMed

    Ziarani, Ghodsi Mohammadi; Lashgari, Negar; Faramarzi, Sakineh; Badiei, Alireza

    2014-01-01

    A green, simple one-pot synthesis of spironaphthopyrano[2,3-d]pyrimidine-5,3'-indoline derivatives by a three-component reaction of isatins, 2-naphthol, and barbituric acids under solvent-free conditions in the presence of SBA-Pr-SO(3)H has been accomplished. Sulfonic acid functionalized SBA-15 (SBA-Pr-SO(3)H) as a heterogeneous nanoporous solid acid catalyst was found to be an efficient and recyclable acid catalyst in this synthesis. PMID:25286212

  6. Development of ternary alloy cathode catalysts for phosphoric acid fuel cells: Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Jalan, V.; Kosek, J.; Giner, J.; Taylor, E. J.; Anderson, E.; Bianchi, V.; Brooks, C.; Cahill, K.; Cropley, C.; Desai, M.; Frost, D.; Morriseau, B.; Paul, B.; Poirier, J.; Rousseau, M.; Swette, L.; Waterhouse, R.

    1988-11-01

    The overall objective of the program was the identification development and incorporation of high activity platinum ternary alloys on corrosion resistant supports, for use in advanced phosphoric acid fuel cells. Two high activity ternary alloys, Pr-Cr-Ce and Pt-Ni-Co, both supported on Vulcan XC-72, were identified during the course of the program. The Pr-Ni-Co system was selected for optimization, including preparation and evaluation on corrosion resistant supports such as 2700/degree/C heat-treated Vulcan XC-72 and 2700/degree/ heat-treated Black Pearls 2000. A series of tests identified optimum metal ratios, heat-treatment temperatures and heat-treatment atmospheres for the Pr-Ni-Co system. During characterization testing, it was discovered that approximately 50% of the nickel and cobalt present in the starting material could be removed, subsequent to alloy formation, without degrading performance. Extremely stable full cell performance was observed for the Pt-Ni-Co system during a 10,000 hour atmosphere pressure life test. Several theories are proposed to explain the enhancement in activity due to alloy formation. Recommendations are made for future research in this area. 62 refs., 23 figs., 27 tabs.

  7. Formic Acid Dehydrogenation on Au-Based Catalysts at Near-Ambient Temperatures

    SciTech Connect

    Ojeda, Manuel; Iglesia, Enrique

    2008-11-24

    Formic acid (HCOOH) is a convenient hydrogen carrier in fuel cells designed for portable use. Recent studies have shown that HCOOH decomposition is catalyzed with Ru-based complexes in the aqueous phase at near-ambient temperatures. HCOOH decomposition reactions are used frequently to probe the effects of alloying and cluster size and of geometric and electronic factors in catalysis. These studies have concluded that Pt is the most active metal for HCOOH decomposition, at least as large crystallites and extended surfaces. The identity and oxidation state of surface metal atoms influence the relative rates of dehydrogenation (HCOOH {yields} H{sub 2} + CO{sub 2}) and dehydration (HCOOH {yields} H{sub 2}O + CO) routes, a selectivity requirement for the synthesis of CO-free H{sub 2} streams for low-temperature fuel cells. Group Ib and Group VIII noble metals catalyze dehydrogenation selectively, while base metals and metal oxides catalyze both routes, either directly or indirectly via subsequent water-gas shift (WGS) reactions.

  8. Phenylenediamine-based FeN(x)/C catalyst with high activity for oxygen reduction in acid medium and its active-site probing.

    PubMed

    Wang, Qiang; Zhou, Zhi-You; Lai, Yu-Jiao; You, Yong; Liu, Jian-Guo; Wu, Xia-Ling; Terefe, Ephrem; Chen, Chi; Song, Lin; Rauf, Muhammad; Tian, Na; Sun, Shi-Gang

    2014-08-01

    High-temperature pyrolyzed FeN(x)/C catalyst is one of the most promising nonprecious metal electrocatalysts for oxygen reduction reaction (ORR). However, it suffers from two challenging problems: insufficient ORR activity and unclear active site structure. Herein, we report a FeN(x)/C catalyst derived from poly-m-phenylenediamine (PmPDA-FeN(x)/C) that possesses high ORR activity (11.5 A g(-1) at 0.80 V vs RHE) and low H2O2 yield (<1%) in acid medium. The PmPDA-FeN(x)/C also exhibits high catalytic activity for both reduction and oxidation of H2O2. We further find that the ORR activity of PmPDA-FeN(x)/C is not sensitive to CO and NO(x) but can be suppressed significantly by halide ions (e.g., Cl(-), F(-), and Br(-)) and low valence state sulfur-containing species (e.g., SCN(-), SO2, and H2S). This result reveals that the active sites of the FeN(x)/C catalyst contains Fe element (mainly as Fe(III) at high potentials) in acid medium. PMID:25033100

  9. An Improved General Amino Acid Replacement Matrix Si Quang Le and Olivier Gascuel

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    An Improved General Amino Acid Replacement Matrix Si Quang Le and Olivier Gascuel Me´thodes et Algorithmes pour la Bioinformatique, LIRMM, CNRS, Universite´ Montpellier II, Montpellier, France Amino acid implementation can be downloaded from http:// atgc.lirmm.fr/LG. Introduction Amino acid replacement matrices

  10. A General Model for Amino Acid Interaction Omar GACI and Stefan BALEV

    E-print Network

    Boyer, Edmond

    A General Model for Amino Acid Interaction Networks Omar GACI and Stefan BALEV Abstract are the protein's amino acids and whose edges are the interactions between them. Using a graph theory approach, we's amino acids which form chemical bonds. In this paper we identify some of the properties of the network

  11. An improved general amino-acid replacement matrix Si Quang LE & Olivier GASCUEL*

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    1/36 An improved general amino-acid replacement matrix Si Quang LE & Olivier GASCUEL* Méthodes et manuscript, published in "Molecular Biology and Evolution 25, 7 (2008) 1307-1320" #12;2/36 Abstract Amino-acid://atgc.lirmm.fr/LG. Keywords: amino-acid substitutions; replacement matrices; JTT ; WAG ; maximum-likelihood estimations

  12. Restricted activation of general amino acid control under conditions of glutamine limitation in Neurospora crassa

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Johanna Kolanus; Jens Michalczyk; Harry J. Flint; Ilse B. Barthelmess

    1990-01-01

    In Neurospora crassa limitation for single amino acids normally results in increased formation of enzymes required for amino acid synthesis via ‘general amino acid control’. Glutamine limitation, however, led to comparatively low and delayed derepression of enzyme synthesis. Nitrate reductase activity increased steeply under these conditions confirming that de novo protein synthesis could occur. Derepression levels were unaffected by addition

  13. EFFECTS OF LEWIS ACID CATALYSTS ON THE HYDROGENATION AND CRACKING OF TWO-RING AROMATIC AND HYDROAROMATIC STRUCTURES RELATED TO COAL

    SciTech Connect

    Salim, Sadie S.; Bell, Alexis T.

    1980-11-01

    An investigation was carried out of the hydrogenation and cracking of two-ring aromatic and hydroaromatic compounds catalyzed by ZnCl{sub 2} and AlCl{sub 3}. The rates of both processes are strongly affected by the Bronsted acidity of the active catalyst [e.g., H{sup +}(MX{sub n}Y){sup -}] and the Bronsted basicity of the aromatic portions of the reactant, the latter characteristic being enhanced by either methyl or hydroxyl substitution. The source of hydrogen used for hydrogenation depends on the choice of catalyst. In the presence of AlCl{sub 3}, Scholl condensation of aromatic nuclei serves as the principle source of hydrogen. Molecular hydrogen is used exclusively, though, when hydrogenation is catalyzed by ZnCl{sub 2}. The formation of reaction products and the trends in reactant reactivity are discussed on the basis of carbonium ion mechanisms.

  14. Iron oxide nanoparticles immobilized to mesoporous NH2-SiO2 spheres by sulfonic acid functionalization as highly efficient catalysts.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Guoliang; Qin, Lei; Wu, Yujiao; Xu, Zehai; Guo, Xinwen

    2015-01-21

    A novel SiO2 nanosphere was synthesized by the post-synthetic grafting of sulfonic acid groups on to anionic-surfactant-templated mesoporous NH2-silica (AMAS). This one-pot post-functionalization strategy allowed more metal ions to be homogeneously anchored into the channel of the meso-SiO2 nanosphere. After hydrothermal and calcination treatment, the in situ growth of ?-Fe2O3 on sulfonic acid-functionalized mesoporous NH2-SiO2 (SA-AMAS) exhibited much higher activity in the visible-light assisted Fenton reaction at neutral pH than that for AMAS or meso-SiO2 nanospheres. By analysis, the grafted sulfonic acid group can not only enhance the acid strength of the catalyst, but can also bring more orbital-overlapping between the active sites (Fe(II) and Fe(III)) and the surface peroxide species, to facilitate the decomposition of H2O2 to hydroxyl radical. The present results provide opportunities for developing heterogeneous catalysts with high-performance in the field of green chemistry and environmental remediation. PMID:25482204

  15. An efficient general method for esterification of aromatic carboxylic acids

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bhaskar D. Hosangadi; Rajesh H. Dave

    1996-01-01

    Treatment of variety of aromatic carboxylic acids with alcohols in the presence of thionyl chloride results in excellent yields of corresponding esters. This esterification system is compatible with a wide assortment of functional groups.

  16. A Materials Approach to Site-Isolation of Grubbs Catalysts from Incompatible Solvents and m -Chloroperoxybenzoic Acid

    Microsoft Academic Search

    2008-01-01

    The development of a method for site-isolation of Grubbs second-generation catalyst from MCPBA is described. In these reac- tions, Grubbs catalyst was dissolved in a solvent consisting of a mixture (1:1 v\\/v) of 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium hexafluorophosphate and methylene chloride and completely encapsulated within a thimble fabricated from poly- dimethylsiloxane (PDMS). A series of molecules that react by cross metathe- sis or

  17. Amino acids regulate the transcription, internal sorting, and intrinsic activity of the general amino acid permease (GAP1) in S. cerevisiae

    E-print Network

    Risinger, April L. (April Lynn)

    2007-01-01

    The high capacity general amino acid permease in Saccharomyces cerevisiae (GAP1) is regulated such that it actively imports amino acids into the cell from the extracellular medium only when internal amino acid levels are ...

  18. Domain-confined catalytic soot combustion over Co3O4 anchored on a TiO2 nanotube array catalyst prepared by mercaptoacetic acid induced surface-grafting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ren, Jiale; Yu, Yifu; Dai, Fangfang; Meng, Ming; Zhang, Jing; Zheng, Lirong; Hu, Tiandou

    2013-11-01

    Herein, we introduce a specially designed domain-confined macroporous catalyst, namely, the Co3O4 nanocrystals anchored on a TiO2 nanotube array catalyst, which was synthesized by using the mercaptoacetic acid induced surface-grafting method. This catalyst exhibits much better performance for catalytic soot combustion than the conventional TiO2 powder supported one in gravitational contact mode (GMC).Herein, we introduce a specially designed domain-confined macroporous catalyst, namely, the Co3O4 nanocrystals anchored on a TiO2 nanotube array catalyst, which was synthesized by using the mercaptoacetic acid induced surface-grafting method. This catalyst exhibits much better performance for catalytic soot combustion than the conventional TiO2 powder supported one in gravitational contact mode (GMC). Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: The images of XRD, UV-vis, EDX and soot-TPR. The table providing information on Co/Ti-NA catalysts. See DOI: 10.1039/c3nr03757f

  19. High activity of carbon nanotubes supported binary and ternary Pd-based catalysts for methanol, ethanol and formic acid electro-oxidation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Fuchun; Ma, Guanshui; Bai, Zhongchao; Hang, Ruiqiang; Tang, Bin; Zhang, Zhonghua; Wang, Xiaoguang

    2013-11-01

    In this study, we have synthesized a series of multi-walled carbon nanotubes supported Pd, PdCu(molar ratio 1:1), PdSn(1:1) and PdCuSn(1:1:1) catalysts by chemical reduction with NaBH4 as a reducing agent. These catalysts are characterized using X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), cyclic voltammetry and chronoamperometry. During the potential cycling activation, it is found that the additive Cu is prone to suffer leaching while the dissolution of Sn rarely occurs. Electrochemical measurements demonstrate that, the co-alloying of Pd with Cu and Sn can trigger the best catalytic activity enhancement as compared with the binary PdCu/CNTs, PdSn/CNTs and mono-component Pd/CNTs catalysts. The PdCuSn/CNTs reveals the most excellent activities toward methanol, ethanol and formic acid electro-oxidation and the corresponding mass activity can attain to 395.94, 872.70 and 534.83 mA mg-1 Pd, respectively. The possible promotion effect of additive Sn or/and Cu on the electrocatalytic activity improvement is also analyzed.

  20. Selective Aerobic Oxidation of 5-HMF into 2,5-Furandicarboxylic Acid with Pt Catalysts Supported on TiO2 - and ZrO2 -Based Supports.

    PubMed

    Ait Rass, Hicham; Essayem, Nadine; Besson, Michèle

    2015-04-13

    Pt catalysts prepared over different metallic oxide supports were investigated in the oxidation of 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) to 2,5-furandicarboxylic acid (FDCA) in alkaline aqueous solutions with air, to examine the combined effect of the support and base addition. The base (nature and amount) played a significant role in the degradation or oxidation of HMF. Increasing amounts of the weak NaHCO3 base improved significantly the overall catalytic activity of Pt/TiO2 and Pt/ZrO2 by accelerating the oxidation steps, especially for the aldehyde group. This was highlighted by a proposed kinetic model that gave very good concentration-time fittings. Moreover, the promotion of the catalyst with bismuth yielded a Pt?Bi/TiO2 catalytic system with improved activity and stability. Y2 O3 ? and La2 O3 ?ZrO2 -supported catalysts exhibited lower activity than Pt/ZrO2 , which suggests no cooperative effect of the weakly basic properties introduced and the homogeneous base. Quantitative oxidation of HMF (0.1?M) and high yields of FDCA (>99?%) were obtained in less than 5?h by using an HMF/Pt molar ratio of 100 and Na2 CO3 as a weak base over Pt?Bi/TiO2 (Bi/Pt=0.22). PMID:25736596

  1. Regeneration of three-way automobile catalysts using biodegradable metal chelating agent--S, S-ethylenediamine disuccinic acid (S, S-EDDS).

    PubMed

    Subramanian, B; Christou, S Y; Efstathiou, A M; Namboodiri, V; Dionysiou, D D

    2011-02-28

    Regeneration of the activity of three-way catalytic converters (TWCs) was tested for the first time using a biodegradable metal chelating agent (S, S-ethylenediamine disuccinic acid (S, S-EDDS). The efficiency of this novel environmentally friendly solvent in removing various contaminants such as P, Zn, Pb, Cu and S from commercial aged three-way catalysts, and improving their catalytic performance towards CO and NO pollutants removal has been investigated. Four samples of catalysts from the front and rear inlets of two different TWCs with different mileages and aged under completely different driving conditions were investigated. The catalysts were characterized using various techniques, such as X-ray diffraction (XRD), Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) surface area measurements (N(2) adsorption at 77 K). Quantitative ICP-MS analyses and SEM-EDS studies show the removal of Zn, P and Pb. SEM-EDS images obtained at low magnification (50 ?m) showed considerable differences in the surface morphology and composition after washing with S, S-EDDS. However, XRD studies indicated neither little to no removal of major contaminant compound phases nor major structural changes due to washing. Correspondingly, little or no enhancement in BET surface area was observed between the used and washed samples. Light-off curves show that the regeneration procedure employed can effectively improve the catalytic performance towards NO pollutant. PMID:21177030

  2. Preparation and structural characterization of Co\\/Al 2O 3 catalysts for the ozonation of pyruvic acid

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. M. Álvarez; F. J. Beltrán; J. P. Pocostales; F. J. Masa

    2007-01-01

    A series of Co\\/Al2O3 catalysts were prepared by the incipient wetness impregnation method using ?-Al2O3 support and (CH3COO)2Co·4H2O solutions, followed by calcination at 500–800°C. Characterization of catalysts was accomplished by several techniques such as thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), physisorption of nitrogen, mercury and helium-based pycnometries, Fourier transform-infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and pH of zero charge

  3. pH-dependent release of trace elements including platinum group elements (PGEs) from gasoline and diesel catalysts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sucha, Veronika; Mihaljevic, Martin; Ettler, Vojtech; Strnad, Ladislav

    2014-05-01

    The release of trace metals and platinum group elements (PGEs) from automobile exhaust catalysts represents a remarkable source of higly dispersed environmental contamination. Especially, PGEs have shown increasing research interest due to their possible bioaccessibility. In our research, we focused on leaching behaviour of trace metals from gasoline and diesel automobile catalysts. While catalysts for gasoline engines contain a mixture of Pt-Pd-Rh or Pd-Rh, catalysts for diesel engines are composed only of Pt. We used dust from two crushed gasoline and two crushed diesel catalysts (new and aged). The dust of gasoline catalysts contains significant concentrations of Pt (700 mg.kg-1), Pd (11 000 mg.kg-1) and Rh (700 mg.kg-1). And the dust of diesel catalysts are composed of Pt (3 900 mg.kg-1) and they contains negligible amounts of Pd dan Rh (< 0.5 mg.kg-1, < 0.1 mg.kg-1, respectively). To evaluate leaching of trace metals from dust we used pH-stat leaching test according to the European standard CEN/TS 14997. The concentrations of cations: PGEs (Pt, Pd a Rh), K, Na, Ca, Mg, Al, Ti, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Cd, Pb, La and Ce were determined by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) and atomic absorption spectrometry (AAS), and anions: F-, Cl-, SO42- and NO3- by high-performance liquid chromatography. Although the dusts from catalysts were relatively stable to acid/base influence, the leaching of trace metals from catalysts showed a dependence on pH. Generally, the highest concentrations were released under acidic conditions. The leaching of PGEs was higher for Pt in diesel catalysts and for Pd and Rh in gasoline catalysts. The highest concentrations of Zn and Pb were observed in old catalysts. The rare earth metals were released more from gasoline catalysts. Catalysts particles represent health risk especially with respect to their PGEs contents.

  4. SUPPORTING INFORMATION Highly Active Ruthenium Metathesis Catalysts Exhibiting

    E-print Network

    Adolphs, Ralph

    S1 SUPPORTING INFORMATION Highly Active Ruthenium Metathesis Catalysts Exhibiting Unprecedented1. Isolated Yields for Homodimerizations Using Catalyst 9.................................S3 Table .........................................................S13 General Procedure for the Synthesis of 17 Using Catalyst 9

  5. Heterogeneous base catalysts for edible palm and non-edible Jatropha-based biodiesel production

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Transesterification catalyzed by solid base catalyst is a brilliant technology for the noble process featuring the fast reaction under mild reacting condition in biodiesel production. Heterogeneous base catalysts are generally more reactive than solid acid catalysts which require extreme operating condition for high conversion and biodiesel yield. In the present study, synthesis of biodiesel was studied by using edible (palm) or non-edible (Jatropha) feedstock catalyzed by heterogeneous base catalysts such as supported alkali metal (NaOH/Al2O3), alkaline-earth metal oxide (MgO, CaO and SrO) and mixed metal oxides catalysts (CaMgO and CaZnO). Results The chemical characteristic, textural properties, basicity profile and leaching test of synthesized catalysts were studied by using X-ray diffraction, BET measurement, TPD-CO2 and ICP-AES analysis, respectively. Transesterification activity of solid base catalysts showed that?>?90% of palm biodiesel and?>?80% of Jatropha biodiesel yield under 3 wt.% of catalyst, 3 h reaction time, methanol to oil ratio of 15:1 under 65°C. This indicated that other than physicochemical characteristic of catalysts; different types of natural oil greatly influence the catalytic reaction due to the presence of free fatty acids (FFAs). Conclusions Among the solid base catalysts, calcium based mixed metal oxides catalysts with binary metal system (CaMgO and CaZnO) showed capability to maintain the transesterification activity for 3 continuous runs at?~?80% yield. These catalysts render high durability characteristic in transesterification with low active metal leaching for several cycles. PMID:24812574

  6. An Intuitive and General Approach to Acid-Base Equilibrium Calculations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Felty, Wayne L.

    1978-01-01

    Describes the intuitive approach used in general chemistry and points out its pedagogical advantages. Explains how to extend it to acid-base equilibrium calculations without the need to introduce additional sophisticated concepts. (GA)

  7. Epoxidation catalyst and process

    DOEpatents

    Linic, Suljo (Ann Arbor, MI); Christopher, Phillip (Ann Arbor, MI)

    2010-10-26

    Disclosed herein is a catalytic method of converting alkenes to epoxides. This method generally includes reacting alkenes with oxygen in the presence of a specific silver catalyst under conditions suitable to produce a yield of the epoxides. The specific silver catalyst is a silver nanocrystal having a plurality of surface planes, a substantial portion of which is defined by Miller indices of (100). The reaction is performed by charging a suitable reactor with this silver catalyst and then feeding the reactants to the reactor under conditions to carry out the reaction. The reaction may be performed in batch, or as a continuous process that employs a recycle of any unreacted alkenes. The specific silver catalyst has unexpectedly high selectivity for epoxide products. Consequently, this general method (and its various embodiments) will result in extraordinarily high epoxide yields heretofore unattainable.

  8. Catalysts and method

    DOEpatents

    Taylor, Charles E. (Pittsburgh, PA); Noceti, Richard P. (Pittsburgh, PA)

    1991-01-01

    An improved catlayst and method for the oxyhydrochlorination of methane is disclosed. The catalyst includes a pyrogenic porous support on which is layered as active material, cobalt chloride in major proportion, and minor proportions of an alkali metal chloride and of a rare earth chloride. On contact of the catalyst with a gas flow of methane, HC1 and oxygen, more than 60% of the methane is converted and of that converted more than 40% occurs as monochloromethane. Advantageously, the monochloromethane can be used to produce gasoline boiling range hydrocarbons with the recycle of HCl for further reaction. This catalyst is also of value for the production of formic acid as are analogous catalysts with lead, silver or nickel chlorides substituted for the cobalt chloride.

  9. Electron-Withdrawing Trifluoromethyl Groups in Combination with Hydrogen Bonds in Polyols: Brønsted Acids, Hydrogen-Bond Catalysts, and Anion Receptors

    SciTech Connect

    Shokri, Alireza; Wang, Xue B.; Kass, Steven R.

    2013-06-26

    Electron withdrawing trifluoromethyl groups were characterized in combination with hydrogen bond interactions in three polyols (i.e., CF3CH(OH)CH2CH(OH)CF3, 1; (CF3)2C(OH)C(OH)(CF3)2, 2; ((CF3)2C(OH)CH2)2CHOH, 3) by pKa measurements in DMSO and H2O, negative ion photoelectron spectroscopy and binding constant determinations with Cl–. Their catalytic behavior in several reactions were also examined and compared to a BrØnsted acid (HOAc) and a commonly employed thiourea ((3,5-(CF3)3C6H3NH)2CS). The combination of inductive stabilization and hydrogen bonds was found to afford potent acids which are effective catalysts. It also appears that hydrogen bonds can transmit the inductive effect over distance even in an aqueous environment, and this has far reaching implications.

  10. Catalyst of a metal heteropoly acid salt that is insoluble in a polar solvent on a non-metallic porous support and method of making

    DOEpatents

    Wang, Yong [Richland, WA; Peden, Charles H. F. [West Richland, WA; Choi, Saemin [Richland, WA

    2002-10-29

    The present invention includes a catalyst having (a) a non-metallic support having a plurality of pores; (b) a metal heteropoly acid salt that is insoluble in a polar solvent on the non-metallic support; wherein at least a portion of the metal heteropoly acid salt is dispersed within said plurality of pores. The present invention also includes a method of depositing a metal heteropoly acid salt that is insoluble in a polar solvent onto a non-metallic support having a plurality of pores. The method has the steps of: (a) obtaining a first solution containing a first precursor of a metal salt cation; (b) obtaining a second solution containing a second precursor of a heteropoly acid anion in a solvent having a limited dissolution potential for said first precursor; (c) impregnating the non-metallic support with the first precursor forming a first precursor deposit within the plurality of pores, forming a first precursor impregnated support; (d) heating said first precursor impregnated support forming a bonded first precursor impregnated support; (e) impregnating the second precursor that reacts with the precursor deposit and forms the metal heteropoly acid salt.

  11. Catalyst Of A Metal Heteropoly Acid Salt That Is Insoluble In A Polar Solvent On A Non-Metallic Porous Support And Method Of Making

    DOEpatents

    Wang. Yong (Richland, WA); Peden. Charles H. F. (West Richland, WA); Choi. Saemin (Richland, WA)

    2004-11-09

    The present invention includes a catalyst having (a) a non-metallic support having a plurality of pores; (b) a metal heteropoly acid salt that is insoluble in a polar solvent on the non-metallic support; wherein at least a portion of the metal heteropoly acid salt is dispersed within said plurality of pores. The present invention also includes a method of depositing a metal heteropoly acid salt that is insoluble in a polar solvent onto a non-metallic support having a plurality of pores. The method has the steps of: (a) obtaining a first solution containing a first precursor of a metal salt cation; (b) obtaining a second solution containing a second precursor of a heteropoly acid anion in a solvent having a limited dissolution potential for said first precursor; (c) impregnating the non-metallic support with the first precursor forming a first precursor deposit within the plurality of pores, forming a first precursor impregnated support; (d) heating said first precursor impregnated support forming a bonded first precursor impregnated support; (e) impregnating the second precursor that reacts with the precursor deposit and forms the metal heteropoly acid salt.

  12. Mechanistic insights into the partial oxidation of acetic acid by O2 at the dual perimeter sites of a Au/TiO2 catalyst.

    PubMed

    Green, Isabel Xiaoye; Tang, Wenjie; Neurock, Matthew; Yates, John T

    2013-01-01

    The unique interfacial sites of Au nanoparticles supported on TiO2 are known to catalyze the activation of oxygen and it's addition to small molecules including H2, CO, NO and propylene. Herein we extend these ideas and show that the unique Au-Ti dual perimeter sites that form at the Au/TiO2 interface can also catalyze more demanding C-H and C-O bond activation reactions involved in the deoxygenation organic acids such as acetic acid. We have shown previously that acetic acid can be partially oxidized on a Au/TiO2 catalyst to form a novel gold ketenylidene (Au2==C==C==O) intermediate. In the present work we use in situ infrared spectroscopy and first-principle density functional theory (DFT) to examine the mechanism and the kinetics by which this reaction proceeds. The reaction was found to be localized at the dual perimeter sites of the Au/TiO2 catalyst, where 02 was activated. In contrast to Au/TiO2, no ketenylidene formation was observed on a similar Au/SiO2 catalyst or a TiO2 blank sample. The reaction involves the activation of multiple C-H bonds as well as the C-O bond in the adsorbed CH3COO species. C-O bond scission is postulated to occur at the TiO2 sites, while C-H bond scission occurs on Au sites, both near the active Au-Ti4+ dual perimeter sites. 18O2 isotopic labeling indicated that the O moiety of the ketenylidene species originates from the acetic acid during the oxidation process involving molecular O2. The rate-limiting step was found to be the C--O bond scission resulting in an apparent overall activation energy of 1.72 eV as determined from DFT calculations. This is in very good agreement with the experimentally measured apparent activation energy of 1.7 +/- 0.2 eV. A deuterium kinetic isotope effect of approximately 4 indicates that C-H bond activation is kinetically involved in the overall acetate oxidation reaction. PMID:24015587

  13. Incorporating Amino Acid Esters into Catalysts for Hydrogen Oxidation: Steric and Electronic Effects and the Role of Water as a Base

    SciTech Connect

    Lense, Sheri; Ho, Ming-Hsun; Chen, Shentan; Jain, Avijita; Raugei, Simone; Linehan, John C.; Roberts, John A.; Appel, Aaron M.; Shaw, Wendy J.

    2012-10-08

    Four derivatives of a hydrogen oxidation catalyst, [Ni(PCy2NBn-R2)]2+ (Cy=cyclohexyl, Bn=benzyl, R= OMe, COOMe, CO-Alanine-methyl ester or CO-Phenylalanine-methyl ester), have been prepared to investigate steric and electronic effects on catalysis. Each complex was characterized spectroscopically and electrochemically, and thermodynamic data were determined. Crystal structures are also reported for the -OMe and -COOMe derivatives. All four catalysts were found to be active for H2 oxidation. The methyl ester (R = COOMe) and amino acid ester containing complexes (R = CO-Alanine-methyl ester or CO-Phenylalanine-methyl ester) had slower rates (4 s-1) than that of the parent complex (10 s-1), in which R = H, consistent with the lower amine pKa’s and less favorable ?GH2’s found for these electron-withdrawing substituents. Dynamic processes for the amino acid ester containing complexes were also investigated and found not to hinder catalysis. The electron-donating methoxy ether derivative (R = OMe) was prepared to compare electronic effects and has a similar catalytic rate as the parent complex. In the course of these studies, it was found that water could act as a weak base for H2 oxidation, although catalytic turnover requires a significantly higher potential and utilizes a different sequence of catalytic steps than when using a base with a higher pKa. Importantly, these catalysts provide a foundation upon which larger peptides can be attached to [Ni(PCy2NBn2)2]2+ hydrogen oxidation catalysts in order to more fully investigate and implement the effects of the outer-coordination sphere. This work was funded by the DOE Office of Science Early Career Research Program through the Office of Basic Energy Sciences (SL and WJS), by the Center for Molecular Electrocatalysis, an Energy Frontier Research Center funded by the US Department of Energy, Office of Science, Office of Basic Energy Sciences (JR), and by the US DOE Basic Energy Sciences, Chemical Sciences, Geoscience and Biosciences Division (AMA, AJ). Pacific Northwest National Laboratory is operated by Battelle for the U.S. Department of Energy.

  14. Presynaptic GABA Band ?-hydroxybutyric acid-mediated mechanisms in generalized absence seizures

    Microsoft Academic Search

    O. C. Snead

    1996-01-01

    ?-Hydroxybutyric acid (GHB) is a naturally occurring compound which has the ability to induce generalized absence seizures when given to animals. This effect of GHB may be blocked by either GHB or GABAB receptor antagonists. We sought to test the hypothesis that pre-synaptic GHB- and GABAB-mediated mechanisms in thalamus and cortex are operative in the GHB model of generalized absence

  15. Pore structure modification of diatomite as sulfuric acid catalyst support by high energy electron beam irradiation and hydrothermal treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Chong; Zhang, Guilong; Wang, Min; Chen, Jianfeng; Cai, Dongqing; Wu, Zhengyan

    2014-08-01

    High energy electron beam (HEEB) irradiation and hydrothermal treatment (HT), were applied in order to remove the impurities and enlarge the pore size of diatomite, making diatomite more suitable to be a catalyst support. The results demonstrated that, through thermal, charge, impact and etching effects, HEEB irradiation could make the impurities in the pores of diatomite loose and remove some of them. Then HT could remove rest of them from the pores and contribute significantly to the modification of the pore size distribution of diatomite due to thermal expansion, water swelling and thermolysis effects. Moreover, the pore structure modification improved the properties (BET (Brunauer-Emmett-Teller) specific surface area, bulk density and pore volume) of diatomite and the catalytic efficiency of the catalyst prepared from the treated diatomite.

  16. Electrochemical studies of ceramic carbon electrodes for fuel cell systems: A catalyst layer without sulfonic acid groups

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jennie I. Eastcott; E. Bradley Easton

    2009-01-01

    Ceramic carbon electrodes (CCEs) have been produced via the sol–gel process using 20% Pt on Vulcan XC72 carbon black and tetra ethyl orthosilicate (TEOS) as the organosilane precursor. This process produces a homogenous distribution of SiO2 and carbon supported Pt catalyst. Electrochemical experiments (cyclic voltammetry, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy) were performed to determine the effect of SiO2 loading on the active

  17. Partial oxidation of toluene to benzaldehyde and benzoic acid over model vanadia\\/titania catalysts: role of vanadia species

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dmitri A. Bulushev; Fabio Rainone; Lioubov Kiwi-Minsker

    2004-01-01

    Pure and K-doped vanadia\\/titania prepared by different methods have been studied in order to elucidate the role of vanadia species (monomeric, polymeric, bulk) in catalytic toluene partial oxidation. The ratio of different vanadia species was controlled by treating the catalysts in diluted HNO3, which removes bulk vanadia and polymeric vanadia species, but not the monomeric ones, as was shown by

  18. Engelhard acquires German catalyst maker

    SciTech Connect

    NONE

    1996-10-16

    Engelhard will acquire the precious- and base-metal catalyst businesses of Doduco GmbH & Co. (Pforzheim, Germany), a privately held supplier of catalysts to the chemical and pharmaceutical industries. {open_quotes}This is an excellent product expansion for us, one that we believe can be leveraged throughout Europe and, later, globally,{close_quotes} says James A. Martin, group v.p., president, and general manager of Engelhard`s chemical catalysts group.

  19. [(p-Cymene)RuCl2 ]2 : an efficient catalyst for highly regioselective allylic alkylations of chelated amino acid ester enolates.

    PubMed

    Bayer, Anton; Kazmaier, Uli

    2014-08-11

    Chelated amino acid ester enolates are excellent nucleophiles for ruthenium-catalyzed allylic alkylations. Although [Cp*Ru(MeCN)3 ]PF6 was found to be the most reactive catalyst investigated, with the resulting allyl complexes reacting at temperatures as low as -78?°C, unfortunately the process took place with only moderate regio- and diastereoselectivity. In contrast, [(p-cymene)RuCl2 ]2 allowed allylations to be performed with a high degree of regioretention. Secondary allyl carboxylates with a terminal double bond were found to be the most reactive substrates, giving rise to the branched amino acids with perfect regioretention and chirality transfer. In this case, no isomerization of the Ru-allyl complex formed in situ was observed, in contrast to the analogues palladium complexes. This isomerization-free protocol can also be used for the synthesis of (Z)-configured ?,?-unsaturated amino acid derivatives, starting from (Z)-allylic substrates. Here, the more reactive phosphates were found to be superior to the carboxylates, providing the required amino acids in almost quantitative yield with perfect regio- and stereoretention. Therefore, the Ru-catalyzed allylation reactions are well positioned to overcome the drawbacks of Pd-catalyzed processes. PMID:25044060

  20. Kinetic Demonstration of Intermolecular General Acid (GA) Catalysis in Thiolysis of 9-Anilinoacridine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niyaz Khan, Mohammad

    1998-05-01

    All acids other than hydronium ion (known as specific acid) are called general acids (GA) and all bases other than hydroxide ion (known as specific base) are defined as general bases (GB). If a reaction is sensitive to acid catalysis, it may involve both specific acid and GA catalysis. It is now generally believed that most enzyme-catalyzed reactions involve the occurrence of intramolecular and intermolecular general acid-base (GA-GB) catalysis (1). Since this fact was realized a huge amount of work has been carried out using simpler nonenzymatic reactions with the purpose of developing an understanding of the mechanistic aspects of such catalysis (2). After nearly five decades of active research and numerous publications on GA-GB catalysis, introduction of an experiment on GA for students majoring in enzymology/physical organic chemistry at advanced undergraduate/postgraduate level is appropriate. A kinetic experiment involving the reaction of 2-mercaptoethanol (2-ME) with 9-anilinoacridine (9-ANA) is designed to demonstrate intermolecular GA catalysis.

  1. Enhancement of alkylation catalysts for improved supercritical fluid regeneration

    DOEpatents

    Ginosar, Daniel M. (Idaho Falls, ID); Petkovic, Lucia M. (Idaho Falls, ID)

    2010-12-28

    A method of modifying an alkylation catalyst to reduce the formation of condensed hydrocarbon species thereon. The method comprises providing an alkylation catalyst comprising a plurality of active sites. The plurality of active sites on the alkylation catalyst may include a plurality of weakly acidic active sites, intermediate acidity active sites, and strongly acidic active sites. A base is adsorbed to a portion of the plurality of active sites, such as the strongly acidic active sites, selectively poisoning the strongly acidic active sites. A method of modifying the alkylation catalyst by providing an alkylation catalyst comprising a pore size distribution that sterically constrains formation of the condensed hydrocarbon species on the alkylation catalyst or by synthesizing the alkylation catalyst to comprise a decreased number of strongly acidic active sites is also disclosed, as is a method of improving a regeneration efficiency of the alkylation catalyst.

  2. Molecular water oxidation catalyst

    DOEpatents

    Gratzel, Michael (St. Sulpice, CH); Munavalli, Shekhar (Bel Air, MD); Pern, Fu-Jann (Lakewood, CO); Frank, Arthur J. (Lakewood, CO)

    1993-01-01

    A dimeric composition of the formula: ##STR1## wherein L', L", L'", and L"" are each a bidentate ligand having at least one functional substituent, the ligand selected from bipyridine, phenanthroline, 2-phenylpyridine, bipyrimidine, and bipyrazyl and the functional substituent selected from carboxylic acid, ester, amide, halogenide, anhydride, acyl ketone, alkyl ketone, acid chloride, sulfonic acid, phosphonic acid, and nitro and nitroso groups. An electrochemical oxidation process for the production of the above functionally substituted bidentate ligand diaqua oxo-bridged ruthenium dimers and their use as water oxidation catalysts is described.

  3. Oriented and selective enzyme immobilization on functionalized silica carrier using the cationic binding module Z basic2: design of a heterogeneous D-amino acid oxidase catalyst on porous glass.

    PubMed

    Bolivar, Juan M; Nidetzky, Bernd

    2012-06-01

    D-amino acid oxidase from Trigonopsis variabilis (TvDAO) is applied in industry for the synthesis of pharmaceutical intermediates. Because free TvDAO is extremely sensitive to exposure to gas-liquid interfaces, biocatalytic processing is usually performed with enzyme immobilizates that offer enhanced stability under bubble aeration. We herein present an "Immobilization by Design" approach that exploits engineered charge complementarity between enzyme and carrier to optimize key features of the immobilization of TvDAO. A fusion protein between TvDAO and the positively charged module Z(basic2) was generated, and a corresponding oppositely charged carrier was obtained by derivatization of mesoporous glass with 3-(trihydroxysilyl)-1-propane-sulfonic acid. Using 250 mM NaCl for charge screening at pH 7.0, the Z(basic2) fusion of TvDAO was immobilized directly from E. coli cell extract with almost absolute selectivity and full retention of catalytic effectiveness of the isolated enzyme in solution. Attachment of the homodimeric enzyme to the carrier was quasi-permanent in low-salt buffer but fully reversible upon elution with 5 M NaCl. Immobilized TvDAO was not sensitive to bubble aeration and received substantial (? tenfold) stabilization of the activity at 45°C as compared to free enzyme, suggesting immobilization via multisubunit oriented interaction of enzyme with the insoluble carrier. The Z(basic2) enzyme immobilizate was demonstrated to serve as re-usable heterogeneous catalyst for D-amino acid oxidation. Z(basic2) -mediated binding on a sulfonic acid group-containing glass carrier constitutes a generally useful strategy of enzyme immobilization that supports transition from case-specific empirical development to rational design. PMID:22249953

  4. Laser-induced removal of a dye C.I. Acid Red 87 using n-type WO3 semiconductor catalyst.

    PubMed

    Qamar, M; Gondal, M A; Hayat, K; Yamani, Z H; Al-Hooshani, K

    2009-10-30

    Water contamination by organic substances such as dyes is of great concern worldwide due to their utilization in many industrial processes and environmental concerns. To cater the needs for waste water treatment polluted with organic dyes, laser-induced photocatalytic process was investigated for removal of a dye derivative namely Acid Red 87 using n-type WO3 semiconductor catalyst. The degradation was investigated in aqueous suspensions of tungsten oxide under different experimental conditions using laser instead of conventional UV lamp as an irradiation source. The degradation process was monitored by measuring the change in dye concentration as a function of laser irradiation time by employing UV spectroscopic analysis. The degradation of dye was studied by varying different parameters such as laser energy, reaction pH, substrate concentration, catalyst concentration, and in the presence of electron acceptors such as hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), and potassium bromate (KBrO3). The degradation rates were found to be strongly dependent on all the above-mentioned parameters. Our experimental results revealed that the dye degradation process was very fast (within few minutes) under laser irradiation as compared to conventional setups using broad spectral lamps (hours or days) and this laser-induced photocatalytic degradation method could be an effective means to eliminate the pollutants present in liquid phase. The experience gained through this study could be beneficial for treatment of waste water contaminated with organic dyes and other organic pollutants. PMID:19540669

  5. A comparative study of the catalytic behavior of SBA15 supported heteropoly acid H 3 PW 12 O 40 and H-Y catalysts in the alkylation of benzene with 1-dodecene

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hai-Ou Zhu; Xiao-Qian Ren; Jun Wang

    2004-01-01

    The SBA-15 supported 12-phosphotungstic acid catalyst exhibits much higher catalytic activity, selectivity and stability than\\u000a H-Y zeolite in the alkylation of benzene with 1-dodecene at reaction temperature of 80C, with the 1-dodecene conversion of\\u000a nearly 90%, 2-phenyldodecane selectivity of nearly 40%, and monoalkylbenzene selectivity of 100%.

  6. Meso/Macroporous nitrogen-doped carbon architectures with iron carbide encapsulated in graphitic layers as an efficient and robust catalyst for the oxygen reduction reaction in both acidic and alkaline solutions.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Meiling; Zhu, Jianbing; Feng, Ligang; Liu, Changpeng; Xing, Wei

    2015-04-01

    Meso-/macroporous nitrogen-doped carbon architectures with iron carbide encapsulated in graphitic layers are fabricated by a facile approach. This efficient and robust material exhibits superior catalytic performance toward the oxygen reduction reaction in both acidic and alkaline solutions and is the most promising alternative to a Pt catalyst for use in electrochemical energy devices. PMID:25757871

  7. Ascorbic Acid as a Standard for Iodometric Titrations. An Analytical Experiment for General Chemistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silva, Cesar R.; Simoni, Jose A.; Collins, Carol H.; Volpe, Pedro L. O.

    1999-10-01

    Ascorbic acid is suggested as the weighable compound for the standardization of iodine solutions in an analytical experiment in general chemistry. The experiment involves an iodometric titration in which iodine reacts with ascorbic acid, oxidizing it to dehydroascorbic acid. The redox titration endpoint is determined by the first iodine excess that is complexed with starch, giving a deep blue-violet color. The results of the titration of iodine solution using ascorbic acid as a calibration standard were compared with the results acquired by the classic method using a standardized solution of sodium thiosulfate. The standardization of the iodine solution using ascorbic acid was accurate and precise, with the advantages of saving time and avoiding mistakes due to solution preparation. The colorless ascorbic acid solution gives a very clear and sharp titration end point with starch. It was shown by thermogravimetric analysis that ascorbic acid can be dried at 393 K for 2 h without decomposition. This experiment allows general chemistry students to perform an iodometric titration during a single laboratory period, determining with precision the content of vitamin C in pharmaceutical formulations.

  8. PIRANHA USE GENERAL INSTRUCTIONS Piranha etch is used to remove organic residues from substrates. The standard acid piranha

    E-print Network

    Kim, Philip

    PIRANHA USE ­ GENERAL INSTRUCTIONS Piranha etch is used to remove organic residues from substrates. The standard acid piranha used in the CEPSR Clean Room is a 3:1 mixture of concentrated sulfuric acid (H2SO4) with hydrogen peroxide (H2O2); 3 parts acid and 1 part peroxide. Acid piranha is a self-starting reaction

  9. ZrOCl2 x 8H2O: an efficient, cheap and reusable catalyst for the esterification of acrylic acid and other carboxylic acids with equimolar amounts of alcohols.

    PubMed

    Sun, Hong-Bin; Hua, Ruimao; Yin, Yingwu

    2006-01-01

    Esterifications of carboxylic acids with equimolar amount of alcohols could be efficiently catalyzed by ZrOCl(2) x 8H(2)O. Acrylate esters were obtained in good yields under solvent-free conditions at ambient temperature. The esterification of other carboxylic acids with alcohols also proceeded at ambient temperature or at 50 oC to afford esters in high yields. If the esterification was performed in toluene under azeotropic reflux conditions to remove water, both the catalytic activity of ZrOCl(2) x 8H(2)O and the rate of esterification could be increased greatly. Furthermore, in the present catalytic system, the esters could be easily separated from the reaction mixtures and the catalyst could be easily recovered and reused. PMID:17962757

  10. In situ FTIR investigation of acetic acid electrooxidation on carbon supported Pt-Sn based trimetallic catalysts: Influence of the nature of the third metal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beyhan, Seden; Léger, Jean-Michel; Kad?rgan, Figen

    2014-12-01

    The effect of adding a third metal (Ni, Co, Pd, Rh) to Pt-Sn/C catalyst has been investigated for the adsorption and oxidation of acetic acid in acidic medium using in situ Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. The results showed that the decomposition of acetic acid on the surface leads to the formation of different intermediate species and products such as acetate, acetyl, carbonate, CO and CO2. The reaction pathway of CO2 production proceeds via the formation of acetyl or carbonate through surface acetate species. It has been found that the selectivity of the acetate was enhanced by the addition of any third metal. However, the presence of Pd or Co increases the relative intensity of IR band for CO2. This is probably due to success in facilitating of the Csbnd C bond cleavage of acetyl. On the other hand, the conversion of acetate to carbonate is strongly affected by the adsorbed water, as is evident from the pronounced changes in the OH stretching region with the presence of Pd or Ni.

  11. Preparation of fibrous titania oxynitride - carbon catalyst and oxygen reduction reaction analysis in both acidic and alkaline media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kinumoto, Taro; Sou, Yoshinori; Ono, Kohei; Matsuoka, Miki; Arai, Yasuhiko; Tsumura, Tomoki; Toyoda, Masahiro

    2015-01-01

    A fibrous catalyst of titania oxynitride and carbon is prepared and its catalytic behavior in the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) are investigated in both HClO4 and KOH aqueous solutions. TiO2 particles are successfully deposited on activated carbon fibers by a liquid phase deposition technique using (NH4)2TiF6 and H3BO3. The catalyst obtained after subsequent ammonia nitridation at 1273 K had a fibrous structure with TiOxNy and TiN components. Interestingly, the product demonstrates catalytic activity for the ORR in not only HClO4 but also KOH aqueous solution. The onset potential in HClO4 solution is assumed to be moderate, at 0.85 V; on the other hand, that in KOH solution is relatively high at 0.95 V. Furthermore, it is considered from the Tafel plot analysis of the KOH solution result that the ORR mechanism follows a peroxide intermediate pathway and the rate-determining step would be a one-electron-transfer reaction to oxygen molecules adsorbed on the active site.

  12. Method of performing sugar dehydration and catalyst treatment

    SciTech Connect

    Hu, Jianli [Kennewick, WA; Holladay, Johnathan E [Kennewick, WA; Zhang, Xinjie [Burlington, MA; Wang, Yong [Richland, WA

    2010-06-01

    The invention includes a method of treating a solid acid catalyst. After exposing the catalyst to a mixture containing a sugar alcohol, the catalyst is washed with an organic solvent and is then exposed to a second reaction mixture. The invention includes a process for production of anhydrosugar alcohol. A solid acid catalyst is provided to convert sugar alcohol in a first sample to an anhydrosugar alcohol. The catalyst is then washed with an organic solvent and is subsequently utilized to expose a second sample. The invention includes a method for selective production of an anhydrosugar. A solid acid catalyst is provided within a reactor and anhydrosugar alcohol is formed by flowing a starting sugar alcohol into the reactor. The acid catalyst is then exposed to an organic solvent which allows a greater amount of additional anhydrosugar to be produced than would occur without exposing the acid catalyst to the organic solvent.

  13. Synthesis and characterization of ternary Pt-Ni-M/C (M=Cu, Fe, Ce, Mo, W) nano-catalysts for low temperature fuel cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahmed, Riaz; Jamil, Rabia; Shahid Ansari, Muhammad

    2014-06-01

    Ternary metal catalysts were synthesized by impregnation method. The mixture of metal solutions was reduced slowly under inert atmosphere and the reduced metals were deposited on the Vulcan Carbon(VC). Tungsten, molybdenum, cerium, iron and copper were added to specified amounts of platinum and nickel. Addition of nickel generally improves catalytic activity of platinum. The XRD of the catalysts was done and the crystallite size and other parameters were calculated. Crystallite sizes were in the range of 5 to 16 nm. Electrochemical surface areas of the catalysts were determined by cyclic voltammetry (CV) in acidic media and are compared. Electro oxidation of methanol on the catalysts was done and peak potential, peak current, mass activity of the catalysts were calculated and are compared. These parameters were determined in acidic and basic media. It was found that mass activity increased significantly in basic media. Rate constants for the electro oxidation of methanol were also calculated in acidic and basic media and are compared and discussed. Rate constants were generally higher in basic media. Ternary catalysts showed improved catalytic activity than the binary catalyst. Nano alloying improved the catalytic activity and stability of the ternary catalysts.

  14. Amino Acid Complementarity: A Biochemical Exemplar of Stoichiometry for General and Health Sciences Chemistry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vitz, Ed

    2005-01-01

    The standard introduction to stoichiometry and simple exemplars can motivate students to learn the stoichiometric studies and the condensation reaction that occurs between amino acids to form the peptide bond. This topic can be integrated into general chemistry courses as an alternative to inclusion of a separate biochemistry course that could be…

  15. Generalization of morphine and lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD) stimulus properties to narcotic analgesics

    Microsoft Academic Search

    I. D. Hirschhorn; J. A. Rosecrans

    1976-01-01

    The present investigation sought to determine whether the stimulus properties of morphine and lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD) would generalize to several narcotic analgesics which vary in their subjective effects. Morphine and saline served as discriminative stimuli for one group of rats in a 2-lever discrimination task. LSD and saline were discriminative stimuli for a second group. Depression of one lever

  16. Naturally occurring alkaline amino acids function as efficient catalysts on Knoevenagel condensation at physiological pH: a mechanistic elucidation.

    PubMed

    Li, Weina; Fedosov, Sergey; Tan, Tianwei; Xu, Xuebing; Guo, Zheng

    2014-05-01

    To maintain biological functions, thousands of different reactions take place in human body at physiological pH (7.0) and mild conditions, which is associated with health and disease. Therefore, to examine the catalytic function of the intrinsically occurring molecules, such as amino acids at neutral pH, is of fundamental interests. Natural basic ?-amino acid of L-lysine, L-arginine, and L-histidine neutralized to physiological pH as salts were investigated for their ability to catalyze Knoevenagel condensation of benzaldehyde and ethyl cyanoacetate. Compared with their free base forms, although neutralized alkaline amino acid salts reduced the catalytic activity markedly, they were still capable to perform an efficient catalysis at physiological pH as porcine pancreatic lipase (PPL), one of the best enzymes that catalyze Knoevenagel condensation. In agreement with the fact that the three basic amino acids were well neutralized, stronger basic amino acid Arg and Lys showed more obvious variation in NH bend peak from the FTIR spectroscopy study. Study of ethanol/water system and quantitative kinetic analysis suggested that the microenvironment in the vicinity of amino acid salts and protonability/deprotonability of the amine moiety may determine their catalytic activity and mechanism. The kinetic study of best approximation suggested that the random binding might be the most probable catalytic mechanism for the neutralized alkaline amino acid salt-catalyzed Knoevenagel condensation. PMID:24682854

  17. A new sol-gel synthesis of 45S5 bioactive glass using an organic acid as catalyst.

    PubMed

    Faure, J; Drevet, R; Lemelle, A; Ben Jaber, N; Tara, A; El Btaouri, H; Benhayoune, H

    2015-02-01

    In this paper a new sol-gel approach was explored for the synthesis of the 45S5 bioactive glass. We demonstrate that citric acid can be used instead of the usual nitric acid to catalyze the sol-gel reactions. The substitution of nitric acid by citric acid allows to reduce strongly the concentration of the acid solution necessary to catalyze the hydrolysis of silicon and phosphorus alkoxides. Two sol-gel powders with chemical compositions very close to that of the 45S5 were obtained by using either a 2M nitric acid solution or either a 5mM citric acid solution. These powders were characterized and compared to the commercial Bioglass®. The surface properties of the two bioglass powders were assessed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and by Brunauer-Emmett-Teller method (BET). The Fourier transformed infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and the X-ray diffraction (XRD) revealed a partial crystallization associated to the formation of crystalline phases on the two sol-gel powders. The in vitro bioactivity was then studied at the key times during the first hours of immersion into acellular Simulated Body Fluid (SBF). After 4h immersion into SBF we clearly demonstrate that the bioactivity level of the two sol-gel powders is similar and much higher than that of the commercial Bioglass®. This bioactivity improvement is associated to the increase of the porosity and the specific surface area of the powders synthesized by the sol-gel process. Moreover, the nitric acid is efficiently substituted by the citric acid to catalyze the sol-gel reactions without alteration of the bioactivity of the 45S5 bioactive glass. PMID:25492213

  18. Sulfonic acid-functionalized silica-coated magnetic nanoparticles as an efficient reusable catalyst for the synthesis of 1-substituted 1H-tetrazoles under solvent-free conditions.

    PubMed

    Naeimi, Hossein; Mohamadabadi, Samaneh

    2014-09-14

    Regarding green chemistry goals, silica-coated magnetite nanoparticles open up a new avenue to introduce a very useful and efficient system for facilitating catalyst recovery in different organic reactions. Therefore, in this paper the preparation of sulfonic acid-functionalized silica-coated magnetic nanoparticles with core-shell structure (Fe3O4@silica sulfonic acid) is presented by using Fe3O4 spheres as the core and silica sulfonic acid nanoparticles as the shell. The catalyst was characterized by infrared spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction analysis, dynamic light scattering, thermogravimetric analysis and vibrating sample magnetometry. Nanocatalyst can be recovered using an external magnet and reused for subsequent reactions 6 times without noticeable deterioration in catalytic activity. PMID:25030453

  19. Phosphonic acid functionalized ordered mesoporous material: a new and ecofriendly catalyst for one-pot multicomponent Biginelli reaction under solvent-free conditions.

    PubMed

    Pramanik, Malay; Bhaumik, Asim

    2014-01-22

    We report a new ordered 2D hexagonal mesoporous organosilica material (PAFMS-1) bearing phosphonic acid functionality at the surface. This hybrid material showed high Brunauer-Emmett-Teller surface area (565 m(2) g(-1)) and ordered assembly of mesoporoes with an average pore diameter of ca. 2.1 nm. This novel hybrid mesoporous material has been synthesized via cocondensation of (triethoxysilyl)(propyliminomethyl)biphenylmethyl phosphoester (PEFOS) and tetraethyl orthosilicate (TEOS) in the presence of cationic surfactant cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) at 373 K. The phosphoester-functionalized organosilane (PEFOS) precursor has been synthesized for the first time by a simple SN2 reaction followed by Suzuki coupling and a Mannich reaction. The material has been characterized by powder X-ray diffraction, N2 sorption, and transmission electron microscopy image analysis, whereas the presence of organic moieties (an aromatic biphenyl ring and an aliphatic side chain), phosphrous, and silicon in the pore wall of the material have been characterized by solid-state magic-angle-spinning NMR, X-ray photoelectron, and Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopic tools. Further, the surface acid strength of the hybrid material has been determined by FT-IR analysis of the samples via temperature-programmed pyridine adsorption studies. The material has been utilized as a reusable heterogeneous catalyst for the synthesis of biologically important and value added multifunctionalized 3,4-dihydropyridin-2-1H-(ones)/3,4-dihydropyridin-2-1H-(thiones) (DHPMs) through a multicomponent Biginelli condensation reaction under solvent-free conditions at 333 K. The phosphonic acid functionalized 2D hexagonal mesoporous material showed much higher catalytic activity in this multicomponent condensation reaction over sulfonic acid functionalized mesoporous silica (MCM-41-SO3H) bearing an aliphatic chain in the hybrid framework. PMID:24372168

  20. The identification of the acid–base catalyst of ?-arabinofuranosidase from Geobacillus stearothermophilus T-6, a family 51 glycoside hydrolase

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dalia Shallom; Valery Belakhov; Dmitry Solomon; Sara Gilead-Gropper; Timor Baasov; Gil Shoham; Yuval Shoham

    2002-01-01

    The ?-L-arabinofuranosidase from Geobacillus stearothermophilus T-6 (AbfA T-6) belongs to the retaining family 51 glycoside hydrolases. The conserved Glu175 was proposed to be the acid–base catalytic residue. AbfA T-6 exhibits residual activity towards aryl ?-D-xylopyranosides. This phenomenon was used to examine the catalytic properties of the putative acid–base mutant E175A. Data from kinetic experiments, pH profiles, azide rescue, and the

  1. No catalyst addition and highly efficient dissociation of H2O for the reduction of CO2 to formic acid with Mn.

    PubMed

    Lyu, Lingyun; Zeng, Xu; Yun, Jun; Wei, Feng; Jin, Fangming

    2014-05-20

    The "greenhouse effect" caused by the increasing atmospheric CO2 level is becoming extremely serious, and thus, the reduction of CO2 emissions has become an extensive, urgent, and long-term task. The dissociation of water for CO2 reduction with solar energy is regarded as one of the most promising methods for the sustainable development of the environment and energy. However, a high solar-to-fuel efficiency keeps a great challenge. In this work, the first observation of a highly effective, highly selective, and robust system of dissociating water for the reduction of carbon dioxide (CO2) into formic acid with metallic manganese (Mn) is reported. A considerably high formic acid yield of more than 75% on a carbon basis from NaHCO3 was achieved with 98% selectivity in the presence of simple commercially available Mn powder without the addition of any catalyst, and the proposed process is exothermic. Thus, this study may provide a promising method for the highly efficient dissociation of water for CO2 reduction by combining solar-driven thermochemistry with the reduction of MnO into Mn. PMID:24787746

  2. Chemo-Enzymatic Synthesis of Each Enantiomer of Orthogonally-Protected 4,4-Difluoroglutamic Acid – A Candidate Monomer for Chiral Brønsted-Acid Peptide-Based Catalysts

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yang

    2011-01-01

    We have accomplished an asymmetric synthesis of each enantiomer of 4,4-difluoroglutamic acid. This ?-amino acid has been of interest in medicinal chemistry circles. Key features of the synthesis include highly scalable procedures, a Reformatsky-based coupling reaction, and straightforward functional group manipulations to make the parent amino acid. Enantioenrichment derives from an enzymatic resolution of the synthetic material. Conversion of the optically enriched compounds to orthogonally protected forms allows selective formation of peptide bonds. 4,4- Difluoroglutamic acid, in a suitably protected form, is also shown to exhibit enhanced catalytic activity in both an oxidation reaction and a reduction reaction, in comparison to the analogous glutamic acid derivative. PMID:22039908

  3. Coal catalysts

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kroenig

    1944-01-01

    Some considerations in the selection of a catalyst for the liquid phase of coal hydrogenation are discussed. Some of the previous history of such selections is mentioned. At one stage of the development, the principal catalyst had been iron sulfate (FeSOâ.7HâO). Later, for reasons of cost and availability of large supplies, selections had turned to mixtures of iron sulfate and

  4. Membrane occluded catalysts: a higher order mimic with improved performance

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rudy F. Parton; Ivo F. J. Vankelecom; Diedrik Tas; Kristien B. M. Janssen; Peter-Paul Knops-Gerrits; P. A. Jacobs

    1996-01-01

    A general method to immobilise homogeneous catalysts and to improve the performance of heterogeneous catalysts is discussed. The method consists in embedding the catalysts in hydrophobic PDMS (polydimethylsiloxane)-membranes. Inspired on a complete structural mimic of cytochrome P-450 up to the level of the membrane, this technique gives superior properties to the membrane resident catalyst. The scope and limitations of this

  5. Efficient combination of promoter and catalyst for chromic acid oxidation of propan-2-ol to acetone in aqueous acid media at room temperature.

    PubMed

    Mukherjee, Kakali; Saha, Rumpa; Ghosh, Aniruddha; Ghosh, Sumanta K; Saha, Bidyut

    2013-01-15

    Oxidation of propan-2-ol to acetone was carried out in aqueous media at room temperature. The effect of promoter (PA, bpy, phen), micellar catalyst (SDS, CPC, TX-100) and their combination has been studied. The reactions were performed under the condition [Propan-2-ol]T?[Cr(VI)]T at 30°C. Then kobs and half life of all the reaction were determined to identify which promoter and which combination are the most effective for this oxidation. Among the promoters phen accelerates the reaction most in aqueous media. In absence of promoters anionic surfactant SDS increases the rate more effectively than neutral surfactant TX-100. CPC retards the rate in comparison to aqueous media. The rate of the oxidation is highest in presence of the combination of bpy and SDS. PMID:23123236

  6. TiO2 and Al2O3 promoted Pt/C nanocomposites as low temperature fuel cell catalysts for electro oxidation of methanol in acidic media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naeem, Rabia; Ahmed, Riaz; Shahid Ansari, Muhammad

    2014-06-01

    Carbon corrosion and platinum dissolution are the two major catalyst layer degradation problems in polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells (PEMFC). Ceramic addition can reduce the corrosion of carbon and increase the stability of catalysts. Pt/TiO2, Pt/TiO2-C, Pt/Al2O3 and Pt/Al2O3-C catalysts were synthesized and characterized. Electrochemical surface area of Pt/TiO2-C and Pt/Al2O3-C nanocomposite catalysts was much higher than the Pt/TiO2 and Pt/Al2O3 catalysts. Peak current, specific activity and mass activity of the catalysts was also determined by cyclic voltammetry and were much higher for the carbon nanocomposites. Exchange current densities were determined from Tafel plots. Heterogeneous rates of reaction of electro oxidation of methanol were determined for all the catalysts and were substantially higher for titania catalysts as compared to alumina added catalysts. Mass activity of Pt/TiO2-C was much higher than mass activity of Pt/Al2O3-C. Stability studies showed that addition of ceramics have increased the catalytic activity and durability of the catalysts considerably.

  7. Supported fischer-tropsch catalyst and method of making the catalyst

    DOEpatents

    Dyer, Paul N. (Allentown, PA); Pierantozzi, Ronald (Orefield, PA); Withers, Howard P. (Douglassville, PA)

    1987-01-01

    A Fischer-Tropsch catalyst and a method of making the catalyst for a Fischer-Tropsch process utilizing the catalyst by which synthesis gas, particularly carbon-monoxide rich synthesis gas, is selectively converted to higher hydrocarbons of relatively narrow carbon number range is disclosed. In general, the selective and notably stable catalyst, consist of an inert carrier first treated with a Group IV B metal compound (such as zirconium or titanium), preferably an alkoxide compound, and subsequently treated with an organic compound of a Fischer-Tropsch metal catalyst, such as cobalt, iron or ruthenium carbonyl. Reactions with air and water and calcination are specifically avoided in the catalyst preparation procedure.

  8. Catalyst for selective conversion of synthesis gas and method of making the catalyst

    DOEpatents

    Dyer, Paul N. (Allentown, PA); Pierantozzi, Ronald (Macungie, PA)

    1986-01-01

    A Fischer-Tropsch (F-T) catalyst, a method of making the catalyst and an F-T process utilizing the catalyst by which synthesis gas, particularly carbon-monoxide rich synthesis gas is selectively converted to higher hydrocarbons of relatively narrow carbon number range. In general, the selective and notably stable catalyst, consists of an inert carrier first treated with a Group IV B metal compound (such as zirconium or titanium), preferably an alkoxide compound, and subsequently treated with an organic compound of an F-T metal catalyst, such as cobalt, iron or ruthenium carbonyl. Reactions with air and water and calcination are specifically avoided in the catalyst preparation procedure.

  9. A General, Highly Enantioselective Method for the Synthesis of D and L r-Amino Acids and Allylic Amines

    E-print Network

    Walsh, Patrick J.

    A General, Highly Enantioselective Method for the Synthesis of D and L r-Amino Acids and Allylic of amino acids is a subject of intense interest in the field of asymmetric catalysis. Traditionally. In this paper, we report on a different approach to amino acids based on an expeditious route to enantiopure

  10. Application of in situ catalyst potential measurements for estimation of reaction performance: Lactose oxidation over Au and Pd catalysts

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. V. Tokarev; E. V. Murzina; J.-P. Mikkola; J. Kuusisto; L. M. Kustov; D. Yu. Murzin

    2007-01-01

    Gold and palladium catalysts were successfully applied in aerobic d-lactose oxidation. Comparison between these catalysts revealed, that gold catalysts are more active and selective for the production of the first reaction product, lactobionic acid, while Pd can be of importance when the product of second consecutive reaction, 2-keto-lactobionic acid is aimed at. The electrochemical catalyst potential response was measured in

  11. Preparation of poly( p-styrenesulfonic acid) grafted multi-walled carbon nanotubes and their application as a solid-acid catalyst

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Xiao-Hong Zhang; Qian-Qian Tang; Dong Yang; Wei-Ming Hua; Ying-Hong Yue; Bei-Di Wang; Xiao-Huan Zhang; Jian-Hua Hu

    2011-01-01

    Poly(p-styenesulfonate acid)-grafted multi-walled carbon nanotubes (PSSA-g-MWCNTs) were prepared by in situ polymerization of sodium p-styrenesulfonate in the presence of MWCNTs, followed by refluxing with concentrated hydrochloric acid. In this reaction system, sodium p-styrenesulfonate served not only as the reaction monomer but also as an amphiphilic dispersant to disperse pristine MWCNTs in water, which is critical for the grafting PSSA onto

  12. Pd–heteropoly acid as a bifunctional heterogeneous catalyst for one-pot conversion of citronellal to menthol

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kelly A. da Silva Rocha; Patricia A. Robles-Dutenhefner; Edesia M. B. Sousa; Elena F. Kozhevnikova; Ivan V. Kozhevnikov; Elena V. Gusevskaya

    2007-01-01

    Pd–H3PW12O40\\/SiO2 catalyzes the one-pot transformation of (+)-citronellal to menthol via acid-catalyzed cyclization followed by Pd-catalyzed hydrogenation, with 92% yield of menthol at 100% citronellal conversion and 85% stereoselectivity for the desired (?)-menthol.

  13. A recyclable catalyst for asymmetric transfer hydrogenation with a formic acid-triethylamine mixture in ionic liquid.

    PubMed

    Kawasaki, Ikuo; Tsunoda, Kazuya; Tsuji, Tomoko; Yamaguchi, Tomoko; Shibuta, Hiroki; Uchida, Nozomi; Yamashita, Masayuki; Ohta, Shunsaku

    2005-04-28

    A novel task-specific ionic ligand with an imidazolium salt moiety was synthesized, and its catalytic ability and recyclability for asymmetric transfer hydrogenation of acetophenone derivatives with a formic acid-triethylamine azeotropic mixture in an ionic liquid [bmim][PF6] was examined. PMID:15846424

  14. Generation of ricinoleic acid from castor oil using the lipase from ground oat ( Avena sativa L.) seeds as a catalyst

    Microsoft Academic Search

    George J. Piazza; Harold M. Farrell

    1991-01-01

    Summary The lipase found in oat seeds acts upon castor oil in organic solvent, yielding approximately 90% ricinoleic acid. Initial velocity is a poor predictor of the time required for complete lipolysis except at low oil concentrations. Equations were developed to estimate kinetic parameters necessary to accurately predict the degree of lipolysis.

  15. Two coordination polymers constructed from a multidentate carboxylic acid ligand with a tertiary amine serve as acid-base catalysts for the synthesis of chloropropene carbonate from CO2 under atmospheric pressure.

    PubMed

    Chen, Chao; Zhang, Jun; Li, Guanghua; Shen, Pan; Jin, Haichao; Zhang, Ning

    2014-10-01

    Two new coordination polymers, [Ni(H2O)(Hpdcd)(H2O)2]·DMF (1) and [Co(H2O)(Hpdcd)(H2O)2]·DMF (2) (H3pdcd = 1-(4-carboxyphenyl)-2,5-dimethyl, 1H-pyrrole-3,4-dicarboxylic acid), which were designed based on a tertiary amine ligand, were synthesized and characterized using multiple spectroscopy techniques, including single-crystal X-ray diffraction. These two 1D linear chains possess the properties of both a Lewis acid and organic base, which was confirmed by temperature programmed desorption of ammonia and on-line mass spectrometry (NH3-TPD-MS), and selective sorption for carbon dioxide. Due to their acid-base properties, the compounds exhibited high catalytic activity, in the absence of co-catalysts, for solvent-free synthesis of chloropropene carbonate from CO2 and epichlorohydrin under atmospheric CO2 pressure. The yields of chloropropene carbonate were 88% and 87% for 1 and 2, respectively, under the optimized conditions. PMID:25113602

  16. General Roles of Abscisic and Jasmonic Acids in Gene Activation as a Result of Mechanical Wounding

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Thomas Hildmann; Marcus Ebneth; Hugo Peiia-Cortth; Jose J. Sánchez-Serrano; Lothar Willmitzer; Salomti Prat

    1992-01-01

    Exogenous application of abscisic acid (ABA) has been shown to induce a systemic pattern of proteinase inhibitor II (pin2) mRNA accumulation identical to that induced by mechanical wounding. Evidence is presented that the ABA-specific response is not restricted to pin2 genes but appears to,be part of a general reaction to wound stress. Four other wound- induced, ABAresponsive genes that encode

  17. Boron Stress Activates the General Amino Acid Control Mechanism and Inhibits Protein Synthesis

    PubMed Central

    Uluisik, Irem; Kaya, Alaattin; Fomenko, Dmitri E.; Karakaya, Huseyin C.; Carlson, Bradley A.; Gladyshev, Vadim N.; Koc, Ahmet

    2011-01-01

    Boron is an essential micronutrient for plants, and it is beneficial for animals. However, at high concentrations boron is toxic to cells although the mechanism of this toxicity is not known. Atr1 has recently been identified as a boron efflux pump whose expression is upregulated in response to boron treatment. Here, we found that the expression of ATR1 is associated with expression of genes involved in amino acid biosynthesis. These mechanisms are strictly controlled by the transcription factor Gcn4 in response to boron treatment. Further analyses have shown that boron impaired protein synthesis by promoting phosphorylation of eIF2? in a Gcn2 kinase dependent manner. The uncharged tRNA binding domain (HisRS) of Gcn2 is necessary for the phosphorylation of eIF2? in the presence of boron. We postulate that boron exerts its toxic effect through activation of the general amino acid control system and inhibition of protein synthesis. Since the general amino acid control pathway is conserved among eukaryotes, this mechanism of boron toxicity may be of general importance. PMID:22114689

  18. Influence of acid catalysts on the structural and magnetic properties of nanocrystalline barium ferrite prepared by sol–gel method

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ebrahim Paimozd; Ali Ghasemi; Abdolhamid Jafari; Hassan Sheikh

    2008-01-01

    BaFe12O19 powders with nanocrystalline size were prepared by sol–gel techniques. Nitric, hydrochloric, acetic and stearic acid were used to improve the magnetic properties. Amorphous gels were formed with Fe\\/Ba molar ratio of 10.5. Then powders were obtained by subsequent heat treatment at 800–1000°C for 1h. Barium ferrite powder was also synthesized by solid state reaction at 1210°C. X-ray diffraction, scanning

  19. Preparing poly(aryl ethers) using alkaline earth metal carbonates, organic acid salts, and optionally copper compounds, as catalysts

    SciTech Connect

    Winslow, P.A.; Kelsey, D.R.; Matzner, M.

    1988-09-27

    This patent describes an improved process for preparing poly(aryl ethers) and poly(aryl ether ketones) by the reaction of a mixture of at least one bisphenol and at least one dihalobenzenoid compound, and/or a halophenol. The improvement comprises providing to the reaction, a base which is a combination of an alkaline earth metal carbonate and/or bicarbonate and a potassium, rubidium, or cesium salt of an organic acid or combination of organic salts thereof.

  20. Fuel cells and fuel cell catalysts

    DOEpatents

    Masel, Richard I.; Rice, Cynthia A.; Waszczuk, Piotr; Wieckowski, Andrzej

    2006-11-07

    A direct organic fuel cell includes a formic acid fuel solution having between about 10% and about 95% formic acid. The formic acid is oxidized at an anode. The anode may include a Pt/Pd catalyst that promotes the direct oxidation of the formic acid via a direct reaction path that does not include formation of a CO intermediate.

  1. Chloroaluminate(III) ionic liquid mediated synthesis of transition metal–cyclophane; complexes: their role as solvent and Lewis acid catalyst 1 Dedicated to Professor Brian Johnson on the occasion of his 60th birthday. 1

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David Crofts; Paul J Dyson; Katharine M Sanderson; Narmatha Srinivasan; Thomas Welton

    1999-01-01

    The preparation of transition metal–cyclophane complexes using the ionic liquid system [bmim]Cl–AlCl3 ([bmim]+=1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium cation) as both the solvent and Lewis acid catalyst is described. Both known and novel complexes are prepared. Simple arene complexes of manganese have also been prepared in order to demonstrate the chemistry and these reactions are compared with the literature preparations conducted in conventional organic solvents.

  2. ZrOCl 2·8H 2O as a highly efficient and the moisture tolerant Lewis acid catalyst for Michael addition of amines and indoles to ?, ?-unsaturated ketones under solvent-free conditions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Habib Firouzabadi; Nasser Iranpoor; Maasoumeh Jafarpour; Arash Ghaderi

    2006-01-01

    The 1,4-conjugate addition of indoles and amines to cyclic and acyclic ?, ?-unsaturated ketones for C–N bond formation was efficiently carried out under solvent-free conditions at 50°C using a catalytic amount of ZrOCl2·8H2O as a moisture tolerant Lewis acid. The reusability of the catalyst has been successfully examined without noticeable loss of its catalytic activity.

  3. Acidic Cs{sup +}, NH{sub 4}{sup +}, and K{sup +} salts of 12-tungstophosphoric acid as solid catalysts for isobutane/2-butene alkylation

    SciTech Connect

    Corma, A.; Martinez, A.; Martinez, C. [Universidad Politecnica de Valencia (Spain)] [Universidad Politecnica de Valencia (Spain)

    1996-12-01

    The cesium, ammonium, and potassium salts of 12-tungstophosphoric acid (HPW) have been prepared with different stoichiometries (1{le}x{le}3) and their catalytic behavior measured for the liquid phase alkylation of isobutane with 2-butene at 80{degrees}C. The salts with a cation content of 2.5 {le}x{le}3, and that of Cs{sup +} with x=2, showed a much higher surface area than the parent acid, which is partially due to the formation of micropores. The micropores presented a fairly homogeneous distribution, with an average diameter in the range of 6-11 {Angstrom}, depending on the type of cation and cation content. The activity of the heteropoly acid and their monovalent type B salts for isobutane alkylation could be correlated with the surface acidity of the solids. Thus, the initial (1 min TOS) olefin conversion went through a maximum for the NH{sub 4}{sup +} and K{sup +} salts with a cation content of x = 2.5, and in the range of 2{le}x{le}2.5 in the case of the Cs{sup +} compounds. (NH{sub 4}){sup 2.5}PW showed a very high initial cracking activity (ca. 72 wt% C{sub 5}-C{sub 7} in C{sub 5+}), suggesting the presence of surface acid sites of a higher acid strength in the ammonium salt, as compared to the caesium and potassium salts with similar composition. In all cases the desired trimethylpentanes (TMPs) were the predominant compounds in the C{sub 8} fraction formed in the initial reaction stages. The deactivation rate also depended on the nature of the cation exchanged in the heteropoly salts. 57 refs., 7 figs., 4 tabs.

  4. Human CYP4F3s are the main catalysts in the oxidation of fatty acid epoxides.

    PubMed

    Le Quéré, Valérie; Plée-Gautier, Emmanuelle; Potin, Philippe; Madec, Stéphanie; Salaün, Jean-Pierre

    2004-08-01

    CYP4F isoforms are involved in the oxidation of important cellular mediators such as leukotriene B4 (LTB4) and prostaglandins. The proinflammatory agent LTB4 and cytotoxic leukotoxins have been associated with several inflammatory diseases. We present evidence that the hydroxylation of Z 9(10)-epoxyoctadecanoic, Z 9(10)-epoxyoctadec-Z 12-enoic, and Z 12(13)-epoxyoctadec-Z 9-enoic acids and that of monoepoxides from arachidonic acid [epoxyeicosatrienoic acid (EET)] is important in the regulation of leukotoxin and EET activity. These three epoxidized derivatives from the C18 family (C18-epoxides) were converted to 18-hydroxy-C18-epoxides by human hepatic microsomes with apparent Km values of between 27.6 and 175 microM. Among recombinant P450 enzymes, CYP4F2 and CYP4F3B catalyzed mainly the omega-hydroxylation of C18-epoxides with an apparent Vmax of between 0.84 and 15.0 min(-1), whereas the apparent Vmax displayed by CYP4F3A, the isoform found in leukocytes, ranged from 3.0 to 21.2 min(-1). The rate of omega-hydroxylation by CYP4A11 was experimentally found to be between 0.3 and 2.7 min(-1). CYP4F2 and CYP4F3 exhibited preferences for omega-hydroxylation of Z 8(9)-EET, whereas human liver microsomes preferred Z 11(12)-EET and, to a lesser extent, Z 8(9)-EET. Moreover, vicinal diol from both C18-epoxides and EETs were omega-hydroxylated by liver microsomes and by CYP4F2 and CYP4F3. These data support the hypothesis that the human CYP4F subfamily is involved in the omega-hydroxylation of fatty acid epoxides. These findings demonstrate that another pathway besides conversion to vicinal diol or chain shortening by beta-oxidation exists for fatty acid epoxide inactivation. PMID:15145985

  5. Reforming catalyst

    SciTech Connect

    Baird, W.C. Jr.; Swan, G.A.

    1991-11-19

    This patent describes a catalyst useful for reforming a naphtha feed at high severity reforming conditions. It comprises the metals, platinum, rhenium and iridium on a refractory porous inorganic oxide support, the support consisting essentially of alumina, wherein the concentration by weight of each of the metals platinum and rhenium is at least 0.1 percent and iridium at least 0.15 percent and at least one of the metals is present in a concentration of at least 0.3 percent, and the sum-total; concentration of the metals is greater than 0.9 percent, and wherein each catalyst particle contains all three of the metals platinum, rhenium and iridium. This patent also describes this composition wherein the catalyst contains from about 0.1 percent to about 3 percent of a halogen and from about 0.05 percent to about 0.02 percent sulfur.

  6. Non-covalent interactions in water electrolysis: influence on the activity of Pt(111) and iridium oxide catalysts in acidic media.

    PubMed

    Ganassin, Alberto; Colic, Viktor; Tymoczko, Jakub; Bandarenka, Aliaksandr S; Schuhmann, Wolfgang

    2014-11-21

    Electrolyte components, which are typically not considered to be directly involved in catalytic processes at solid-liquid electrified interfaces, often demonstrate a significant or even drastic influence on the activity, stability and selectivity of electrocatalysts. While there has been certain progress in the understanding of these electrolyte effects, lack of experimental data for various important systems frequently complicates the rational design of new active materials. Modern proton-exchange membrane (PEM) electrolyzers utilize Pt- and Ir-based electrocatalysts, which are among the very few materials that are both active and stable under the extreme conditions of water splitting. We use model Pt(111) and Ir-oxide films grown on Ir(111) electrodes and explore the effect of alkali metal cations and sulfate-anions on the hydrogen evolution and the oxygen evolution reactions in acidic media. We demonstrate that sulfate anions decrease the activity of Ir-oxide towards the oxygen evolution reaction while Rb(+) drastically promotes hydrogen evolution reaction at the Pt(111) electrodes as compared to the reference HClO4 electrolytes. Issues related to the activity benchmarking for these catalysts are discussed. PMID:25412811

  7. Ultrasound assisted production of fatty acid methyl esters from transesterification of triglycerides with methanol in the presence of KOH catalyst: optimization, mechanism and kinetics.

    PubMed

    Thanh, Le Tu; Okitsu, Kenji; Maeda, Yasuaki; Bandow, Hiroshi

    2014-03-01

    Ultrasound assisted transesterification of triglycerides (TG) with methanol in the presence of KOH catalyst was investigated, where the changes in the reactants and products (diglycerides (DG), monoglycerides (MG), fatty acid methyl esters (FAME) and glycerin (GL)) concentrations were discussed to understand the reaction mechanism and kinetics under ultrasound irradiation. The optimum reaction condition for the FAME production was the concentration of KOH 1.0 wt.%, molar ratio of TG to methanol of 1:6, and irradiation time of 25 min. The rate constants during the TG transesterification with methanol into GL and FAME were estimated by a curve fitting method with simulated curves to the obtained experimental results. The rate constants of [Formula: see text] were estimated to be 0.21, 0.008, 0.23, 0.005, 0.14 and 0.001 L mol(-1)min(-1), respectively. The rate determining step for the TG transesterification with methanol into GL and FAME was the reaction of MG with methanol into GL and FAME. PMID:24161255

  8. Amino acid modified Ni catalyst exhibits reversible H2 oxidation/production over a broad pH range at elevated temperatures

    SciTech Connect

    Dutta, Arnab; DuBois, Daniel L.; Roberts, John A.; Shaw, Wendy J.

    2014-11-18

    Hydrogenases interconvert H2 and protons at high rates and with high energy efficiencies, providing inspiration for the development of molecular catalysts. Studies designed to determine how the protein scaffold can influence a catalytically active site has led to the synthesis of amino acid derivatives, [Ni(PCy2NAmino acid2)2]2+ (CyAA), of [Ni(PR2NR'2)2]2+ complexes. It is shown that these CyAA derivatives can catalyze fully reversible H2 production/oxidation, a feature reminiscent of enzymes. The reversibility is achieved in acidic aqueous solutions, 0.25% H2/Ar, and elevated temperatures (tested up to 348 K) for the glycine (CyGly), arginine (CyArg), and arginine methyl ester (CyArgOMe) derivatives. As expected for a reversible process, the activity is dependent upon H2 and proton concentration. CyArg is significantly faster in both directions than the other two derivatives (~300 s-1 H2 production and 20 s-1 H2 oxidation; pH=1, 348 K). The significantly slower rates for CyArgOMe (35 s-1 production and 7 s-1 oxidation) compared to CyArg suggests an important role for the COOH group during catalysis. That CyArg is faster than CyGly (3 s-1 production and 4 s-1 oxidation under the same conditions) suggests that the additional structural features imparted by the guanidinium groups facilitate fast and reversible H2 addition/release. These observations demonstrate that appended, outer coordination sphere amino acids work in synergy with the active site and can play an equally important role for synthetic molecular electrocatalysts as the protein scaffold does for redox active enzymes. This work was funded by the Office of Science Early Career Research Program through the US DOE, BES (AD, WJS), and the Center for Molecular Electrocatalysis, an Energy Frontier Research Center funded by the US DOE, BES (DLD, JASR). PNNL is operated by Battelle for the US DOE.

  9. Selective staining of Brønsted acidity in zeolite ZSM-5-based catalyst extrudates using thiophene as a probe.

    PubMed

    Whiting, Gareth T; Meirer, Florian; Valencia, Diego; Mertens, Machteld M; Bons, Anton-Jan; Weiss, Brian M; Stevens, Paul A; de Smit, Emiel; Weckhuysen, Bert M

    2014-10-21

    Optical absorption and confocal fluorescence micro-spectroscopy were applied to investigate Brønsted acidity in millimetre-sized extrudates of Na(H)-ZSM-5 and SiO2 with varying ZSM-5 content. Partially (residual Na present) and fully proton-exchanged extrudates were employed, using thiophene oligomerization as a probe reaction. Time-resolved in situ optical absorption spectra and time dependent DFT calculations revealed several initial reaction pathways during the oligomerization reaction. In particular, it was found that protonated thiophene monomers reacted by either oligomerization (via reaction with un-reacted thiophene monomers) or ring-opening, depending on the Brønsted acid site density in each sample. Moreover, fully-exchanged extrudates not only have significantly higher reactivity than partially-exchanged samples, but they also favour the formation of ring-opening products, that are not formed on the partially-exchanged samples. Confocal fluorescence microscopy was employed to visualise non-invasively in 3D, the heterogeneity and homogeneity of thiophene oligomers on partially- and fully-exchanged extrudates, respectively. Furthermore, it was observed that extrudates with high binder content produce a higher relative amount of conjugated species, related with a higher quantity of available monomer in the binder, which is able to react further with intermediates adsorbed on active sites. Moreover, these conjugated species appear to form near the external surface of ZSM-5 crystals/agglomerates. PMID:25188580

  10. The electron is a catalyst

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Studer, Armido; Curran, Dennis P.

    2014-09-01

    The electron is an efficient catalyst for conducting various types of radical cascade reaction that proceed by way of radical and radical ion intermediates. But because electrons are omnipresent, catalysis by electrons often passes unnoticed. In this Review, a simple analogy between acid/base catalysis and redox catalysis is presented. Conceptually, the electron is a catalyst in much the same way that a proton is a catalyst. The 'electron is a catalyst' paradigm unifies mechanistically an assortment of synthetic transformations that otherwise have little or no apparent relationship. Diverse radical cascades, including unimolecular radical substitution reactions (SRN1-type chemistry), base-promoted homolytic aromatic substitutions (BHAS), radical Heck-type reactions, radical cross-dehydrogenative couplings (CDC), direct arene trifluoromethylations and radical alkoxycarbonylations, can all be viewed as electron-catalysed reactions.

  11. Catalyst activator

    DOEpatents

    McAdon, Mark H. (Midland, MI); Nickias, Peter N. (Midland, MI); Marks, Tobin J. (Evanston, IL); Schwartz, David J. (Lake Jackson, TX)

    2001-01-01

    A catalyst activator particularly adapted for use in the activation of metal complexes of metals of Group 3-10 for polymerization of ethylenically unsaturated polymerizable monomers, especially olefins, comprising two Group 13 metal or metalloid atoms and a ligand structure including at least one bridging group connecting ligands on the two Group 13 metal or metalloid atoms.

  12. Process for Making a Noble Metal on Tin Oxide Catalyst

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, Patricia; Miller, Irvin; Upchurch, Billy

    2010-01-01

    To produce a noble metal-on-metal oxide catalyst on an inert, high-surface-area support material (that functions as a catalyst at approximately room temperature using chloride-free reagents), for use in a carbon dioxide laser, requires two steps: First, a commercially available, inert, high-surface-area support material (silica spheres) is coated with a thin layer of metal oxide, a monolayer equivalent. Very beneficial results have been obtained using nitric acid as an oxidizing agent because it leaves no residue. It is also helpful if the spheres are first deaerated by boiling in water to allow the entire surface to be coated. A metal, such as tin, is then dissolved in the oxidizing agent/support material mixture to yield, in the case of tin, metastannic acid. Although tin has proven especially beneficial for use in a closed-cycle CO2 laser, in general any metal with two valence states, such as most transition metals and antimony, may be used. The metastannic acid will be adsorbed onto the high-surface-area spheres, coating them. Any excess oxidizing agent is then evaporated, and the resulting metastannic acid-coated spheres are dried and calcined, whereby the metastannic acid becomes tin(IV) oxide. The second step is accomplished by preparing an aqueous mixture of the tin(IV) oxide-coated spheres, and a soluble, chloride-free salt of at least one catalyst metal. The catalyst metal may be selected from the group consisting of platinum, palladium, ruthenium, gold, and rhodium, or other platinum group metals. Extremely beneficial results have been obtained using chloride-free salts of platinum, palladium, or a combination thereof, such as tetraammineplatinum (II) hydroxide ([Pt(NH3)4] (OH)2), or tetraammine palladium nitrate ([Pd(NH3)4](NO3)2).

  13. Binary ferrihydrite catalysts

    DOEpatents

    Huffman, G.P.; Zhao, J.; Feng, Z.

    1996-12-03

    A method of preparing a catalyst precursor comprises dissolving an iron salt and a salt of an oxoanion forming agent, in water so that a solution of the iron salt and oxoanion forming agent salt has a ratio of oxoanion/Fe of between 0.0001:1 to 0.5:1. Next is increasing the pH of the solution to 10 by adding a strong base followed by collecting of precipitate having a binary ferrihydrite structure. A binary ferrihydrite catalyst precursor is also prepared by dissolving an iron salt in water. The solution is brought to a pH of substantially 10 to obtain ferrihydrite precipitate. The precipitate is then filtered and washed with distilled water and subsequently admixed with a hydroxy carboxylic acid solution. The admixture is mixed/agitated and the binary ferrihydrite precipitate is then filtered and recovered. 3 figs.

  14. Binary ferrihydrite catalysts

    DOEpatents

    Huffman, Gerald P. (Lexington, KY); Zhao, Jianmin (Lexington, KY); Feng, Zhen (Lexington, KY)

    1996-01-01

    A method of preparing a catalyst precursor comprises dissolving an iron salt and a salt of an oxoanion forming agent, in water so that a solution of the iron salt and oxoanion forming agent salt has a ratio of oxoanion/Fe of between 0.0001:1 to 0.5:1. Next is increasing the pH of the solution to 10 by adding a strong base followed by collecting of precipitate having a binary ferrihydrite structure. A binary ferrihydrite catalyst precursor is also prepared by dissolving an iron salt in water. The solution is brought to a pH of substantially 10 to obtain ferrihydrite precipitate. The precipitate is then filtered and washed with distilled water and subsequently admixed with a hydroxy carboxylic acid solution. The admixture is mixed/agitated and the binary ferrihydrite precipitate is then filtered and recovered.

  15. Applications of hydrogenation and dehydrogenation on noble metal catalysts

    E-print Network

    Wang, Bo

    2009-05-15

    Hydrogenation and dehydrogenation on Pd- and Pt- catalysts are encountered in many industrial hydrocarbon processes. The present work considers the development of catalysts and their kinetic modeling along a general and rigorous approach. The first...

  16. Lactose oxidation over palladium catalysts supported on active carbons and on carbon nanofibres

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Anton V. Tokarev; Elena V. Murzina; Kari Eränen; Heidi Markus; Arie J. Plomp; Johannes H. Bitter; Päivi Mäki-Arvela; Dmitry Yu. Murzin

    2009-01-01

    Liquid-phase lactose oxidation was investigated over supported Pd\\/C and Pd-carbon nanofibre catalysts, which were characterized\\u000a by several methods. A complex relationship between catalyst activity and catalyst acidity was established, i.e. optimum catalyst\\u000a acidity resulted in the highest activity in lactose oxidation. In-situ catalyst potential measurements during lactose oxidation\\u000a gave information about the extent of accumulation of oxygen on the metal

  17. Resin catalysts and method of preparation

    DOEpatents

    Smith, Jr., Lawrence A. (P.O. Box 34687, Houston, TX 77243)

    1986-01-01

    Heat stabilized catalyst compositions are prepared from nuclear sulfonic acid, for example, macroporous crosslinked polyvinyl aromatic compounds containing sulfonic acid groups are neutralized with a metal of Al, Fe, Zn, Cu, Ni, ions or mixtures and alkali, alkaline earth metals or ammonium ions by contacting the resin containing the sulfonic acid with aqueous solutions of the metals salts and alkali, alkaline earth metal or ammonium salts. The catalysts have at least 50% of the sulfonic acid groups neutralized with metal ions and the balance of the sulfonic acid groups neutralized with alkali, alkaline earth ions or ammonium ions.

  18. Cationic Ruthenium Catalysts for Olefin Hydrovinylation

    E-print Network

    Sanchez, Richard P., Jr

    2010-01-14

    Stereoselective carbon?carbon bond formation is one of the most important types of bond construction in organic chemistry. A mild and acid free catalyst system for the hydrovinylation reaction utilizing a cationic, ruthenium center is described. A...

  19. The Existence of Quantum Entanglement Catalysts

    E-print Network

    Xiaoming Sun; Runyao Duan; Mingsheng Ying

    2005-01-18

    Without additional resources, it is often impossible to transform one entangled quantum state into another with local quantum operations and classical communication. Jonathan and Plenio [Phys. Rev. Lett. 83, 3566(1999)] presented an interesting example showing that the presence of another state, called a catalyst, enables such a transformation without changing the catalyst. They also pointed out that in general it is very hard to find an analytical condition under which a catalyst exists. In this paper we study the existence of catalysts for two incomparable quantum states. For the simplest case of $2\\times 2$ catalysts for transformations from one $4\\times 4$ state to another, a necessary and sufficient condition for existence is found. For the general case, we give an efficient polynomial time algorithm to decide whether a $k\\times k$ catalyst exists for two $n\\times n$ incomparable states, where $k$ is treated as a constant.

  20. Supported phosphate and carbonate salts for heterogeneous catalysis of triglycerides to fatty acid methyl esters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Britton, Stephanie Lynne

    Fatty acid methyl esters made from vegetable oil, or biodiesel, have been identified as a substitute for diesel derived from crude oil. Biodiesel is currently made using a homogeneous base catalyst to perform the transesterification of triglycerides with methanol to generate fatty acid methyl esters (FAME). The use of a homogeneous catalyst necessitates additional purification of the product and byproducts before sale, and the catalyst is consumed and discarded. The development of a heterogeneous basic catalyst for the production of FAME is desirable. Tribasic phosphate salts and dibasic carbonate salts are active for the production of FAME but generally operate as homogeneous catalysts. Supporting these phosphate and carbonate salts on mesoporous MCM-41, microporous silica gel, and nonporous a-alumina proved successful to greater or lesser degrees depending on the identity of the support and pretreatment of the support. Although these salts were supported and were active for the production of FAME from canola oil, they proved to be operating as homogeneous catalysts due to leaching of the active species off the surface of the support. Further investigation of the active species present in the tribasic phosphate catalysts identified the active support as orthophosphate, and NMR studies revealed the phosphorus to be present as orthophosphate and diphosphate in varying proportions in each catalyst. Evaluation of the acid-washing support pretreatment process revealed that the exposure of the support to acid plays a large role in the development of activity on the surface of the catalyst, but manipulation of these parameters did not prevent leaching of the active site off the surface of the catalyst. Alternate methods of support pretreatment were no more effective in preventing leaching. Tribasic phosphate supported on silica gel is not effective as a heterogeneous catalyst for FAME production from triglycerides because of the lack of stability of the phosphate on the support. The support is not stable under the reaction conditions, and alternatives should be explored to develop a heterogeneous base catalyst for the production of FAME.

  1. Microspherical catalysts

    SciTech Connect

    Hettinger, W. P.; Beck, H. W.

    1985-10-22

    A catalyst which is a hollow microsphere comprising an outer shell in which there are feeder pores and an active ingredient arranged within the shell. The microsphere has a diameter ranging from 20 to 120 microns and the shell has a thickness ranging from 0.1 to 20.0 microns. The active ingredient fills 1.0% to 100% of the void space within the microsphere.

  2. Mesoporous Ti(0.5)Cr(0.5)N supported PdAg nanoalloy as highly active and stable catalysts for the electro-oxidation of formic acid and methanol.

    PubMed

    Cui, Zhiming; Yang, Minghui; DiSalvo, Francis J

    2014-06-24

    We report a robust noncarbon Ti0.5Cr0.5N support synthesized by an efficient solid-solid phase separation method. This ternary nitride exhibits highly porous, sintered, and random network structure with a crystallite size of 20-40 nm, resulting in a high specific surface area. It is not only kinetically stable in both acid and alkaline media, but also electrochemically stable in the potential range of fuel cell operation. Two typical anode reactions, formic acid oxidation in acid media and methanol oxidation in alkaline media, are employed to investigate the possibility of Ti0.5Cr0.5N as an alternative to carbon. Bimetallic PdAg nanoparticles (?4 nm) act as anode catalysts for the two anode reactions. PdAg/Ti0.5Cr0.5N exhibits much higher mass activity and durability for the two reactions than PdAg/C and Pd/C catalyst, suggesting that mesoporous Ti0.5Cr0.5N is a very promising support in both acid and alkaline media. PMID:24836603

  3. Bimetallic complexes and polymerization catalysts therefrom

    DOEpatents

    Patton, Jasson T. (Midland, MI); Marks, Tobin J. (Evanston, IL); Li, Liting (Evanston, IL)

    2000-11-28

    Group 3-6 or Lanthanide metal complexes possessing two metal centers, catalysts derived therefrom by combining the same with strong Lewis acids, Bronsted acid salts, salts containing a cationic oxidizing agent or subjected to bulk electrolysis in the presence of compatible, inert non-coordinating anions and the use of such catalysts for polymerizing olefins, diolefins and/or acetylenically unsaturated monomers are disclosed.

  4. Biodiesel production using heterogenous catalyst

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The current transesterification of triacylglycerides (TAG) to produce biodiesel is based on the homogenous catalyst method using strong base such as hydroxides or methoxides. However, this method results in a number of problems: (1) acid pre-treatment is required of feedstocks high in free fatty ac...

  5. Pillared montmorillonite catalysts for coal liquefaction

    SciTech Connect

    Sharma, R.K.; Olson, E.S. [Univ. of North Dakota, Grand Forks, ND (United States)

    1994-12-31

    Pillared clays contain large micropores and have considerable potential for catalytic hydrogenation and cleavage of coal macromolecules. Pillared montmorillonite-supported catalysts were prepared by the intercalation of polynuclear hydroxychromium cations and subsequent impregnation of nickel and molybdenum. Infrared and thermogravimetric studies of pyridine-adsorbed catalysts indicated the presence of both Lewis and Bronsted acid sites. Thus, the catalysts have both acidic properties that can aid in hydrocracking and cleavage of carbon-heteroatom bonds as well as hydrogen-activating bimetallic sites. These catalysts were applied to the hydrodesulfurization and liquefaction of coal-derived intermediates. The reactions of model organosulfur compounds and coal liquids were carried out at 300{degrees}-400{degrees}C for 3 hours in the presence of 1000 psi of molecular hydrogen. Reaction products were analyzed by GC/FT-IR/MS/AED. The catalysts have been found to be very effective in removing sulfur from model compounds as well as liquefaction products.

  6. Changes in the activity of the general amino acid permease from Saccharomyces cerevisiae var. ellipsoideus during fermentation.

    PubMed

    Lglesias, R; Ferreras, J M; Arias, F J; Muñoz, R; Girbès, T

    1990-10-20

    The evolution of the activity of the general amino acid permease and ethanol and glucose concentrations in the medium were studied in a mild fermentation process carried out by a wine strain of Saccharomyces cerevisiae var. ellipsoideus isolated from grape musts in spontaneous fermentation. The cells displayed a reduction in the activity of the general amino acid permease parallel to the increase of ethanol in the medium. This ethanol increase was not enough to promote a substantial inhibition on the total polypeptide synthesis measured as polyuridylic-acid-directed polyphenylalanine synthesis. PMID:18597277

  7. Using stacked generalization to predict membrane protein types based on pseudo-amino acid composition.

    PubMed

    Wang, Shuang-Quan; Yang, Jie; Chou, Kuo-Chen

    2006-10-21

    Membrane proteins are vitally important for many biological processes and have become an attractive target for both basic research and drug design. Knowledge of membrane protein types often provides useful clues in deducing the functions of uncharacterized membrane proteins. With the unprecedented increasing of newly found protein sequences in the post-genomic era, it is highly demanded to develop an automated method for fast and accurately identifying the types of membrane proteins according to their amino acid sequences. Although quite a few identifiers have been developed in this regard through various approaches, such as covariant discriminant (CD), support vector machine (SVM), artificial neural network (ANN), and K-nearest neighbor (KNN), classifier the way they operate the identification is basically individual. As is well known, wise persons usually take into account the opinions from several experts rather than rely on only one when they are making critical decisions. Likewise, a sophisticated identifier should be trained by several different modes. In view of this, based on the frame of pseudo-amino acid that can incorporate a considerable amount of sequence-order effects, a novel approach called "stacked generalization" or "stacking" has been introduced. Unlike the "bagging" and "boosting" approaches which only combine the classifiers of a same type, the stacking approach can combine several different types of classifiers through a meta-classifier to maximize the generalization accuracy. The results thus obtained were very encouraging. It is anticipated that the stacking approach may also hold a high potential to improve the identification quality for, among many other protein attributes, subcellular location, enzyme family class, protease type, and protein-protein interaction type. The stacked generalization classifier is available as a web-server named "SG-MPt_Pred" at: http://202.120.37.186/bioinf/wangsq/service.htm. PMID:16806277

  8. PseAAC-General: Fast Building Various Modes of General Form of Chou’s Pseudo-Amino Acid Composition for Large-Scale Protein Datasets

    PubMed Central

    Du, Pufeng; Gu, Shuwang; Jiao, Yasen

    2014-01-01

    The general form pseudo-amino acid composition (PseAAC) has been widely used to represent protein sequences in predicting protein structural and functional attributes. We developed the program PseAAC-General to generate various different modes of Chou’s general PseAAC, such as the gene ontology mode, the functional domain mode, and the sequential evolution mode. This program allows the users to define their own desired modes. In every mode, 544 physicochemical properties of the amino acids are available for choosing. The computing efficiency is at least 100 times that of existing programs, which makes it able to facilitate the extensive studies on proteins and peptides. The PseAAC-General is freely available via SourceForge. It runs on both Linux and Windows. PMID:24577312

  9. Catalyst regeneration process including metal contaminants removal

    DOEpatents

    Ganguli, Partha S. (Lawrenceville, NJ)

    1984-01-01

    Spent catalysts removed from a catalytic hydrogenation process for hydrocarbon feedstocks, and containing undesired metals contaminants deposits, are regenerated. Following solvent washing to remove process oils, the catalyst is treated either with chemicals which form sulfate or oxysulfate compounds with the metals contaminants, or with acids which remove the metal contaminants, such as 5-50 W % sulfuric acid in aqueous solution and 0-10 W % ammonium ion solutions to substantially remove the metals deposits. The acid treating occurs within the temperature range of 60.degree.-250.degree. F. for 5-120 minutes at substantially atmospheric pressure. Carbon deposits are removed from the treated catalyst by carbon burnoff at 800.degree.-900.degree. F. temperature, using 1-6 V % oxygen in an inert gas mixture, after which the regenerated catalyst can be effectively reused in the catalytic process.

  10. Plasma and erythrocyte membrane phospholipids and fatty acids in Italian general population and hemodialysis patients

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Dyslipidemia and abnormal phospholipid metabolism are frequent in uremic patients and increase their risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD): ?-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) may reduce this risk in the general population. In this study we compared the plasma and erythrocyte cell membrane composition of PUFAs in a group of Caucasian hemodialysis (HD) patients and in a control group of healthy subjects and evaluated the erythrocyte/cell membrane fatty acid ratio as a marker of the dietary intake of phospholipids. The relationship between ?-3 and ?-6 fatty acids and the possible differences in PUFAs concentrations were also investigated. Methods and results After obtaining a fully informed consent, a total of ninety-nine HD patients and 160 non uremic control subjects from “Tor Vergata” University Hospital were enrolled into the study. None of them took antioxidant drugs or dietary supplements for at least 90 days prior to the observation. Blood samples were analysed by gas-chromatographic coupled to a mass spectrometric detector. The daily intake of total calories, proteins, lipids and carbohydrates is significantly lower in HD patients than in controls (p?

  11. Lipoic Acid Synthesis: A New Family of Octanoyltransferases Generally Annotated as Lipoate Protein Ligases†

    PubMed Central

    Christensen, Quin H.; Cronan, John E.

    2010-01-01

    Bacillus subtilis lacks a recognizable homologue of the LipB octanoyltransferase, an enzyme essential for lipoic acid synthesis in Escherichia coli. LipB transfers the octanoyl moiety from octanoyl-acyl carrier protein to the lipoyl domains of the 2-oxoacid dehydrogenases via a thioester-linked octanoyl-LipB intermediate. The octanoylated dehydrogenase is then converted to the enzymatically active lipoylated species by insertion of two sulfur atoms into the octanoyl moiety by the S-adenosyl-L-methionine radical enzyme, LipA (lipoate synthase). Bacillus subtilis synthesizes lipoic acid and contains a LipA homologue that is fully functional in E. coli. Therefore, the lack of a LipB homologue presented the puzzle of how B. subtilis synthesizes the LipA substrate. We report that B. subtilis encodes an octanoyltransferase that has virtually no sequence resemblance to E. coli LipB, but instead has a sequence that resembles that of the E. coli lipoate ligase, LplA. Based on this resemblance these genes have generally been annotated as encoding a lipoate ligase, an enzyme that in E. coli scavenges lipoic acid from the environment, but which plays no role in de novo synthesis. We have named the B. subtilis octanoyltransferase LipM and find that, like LipB, the LipM reaction proceeds through a thioester-linked acyl enzyme intermediate. The LipM active site nucleophile was identified as C150 by the finding that this thiol becomes modified when LipM is expressed in E. coli. The level of the octanoyl-LipM intermediate can be significantly decreased by blocking fatty acid synthesis during LipM expression and C150 was confirmed as an essential active site residue by site-directed mutagenesis. LipM homologues seem the sole type of octanoyltransferase present in the Firmicutes and are also present in the Cyanobacteria. LipM type octanoyltransferases represent a new clade of the PF03099 protein family suggesting that octanoyltransfer activity has evolved at least twice within this superfamily. PMID:20882995

  12. GOASVM: A Subcellular Location Predictor by Incorporating Term-Frequency Gene Ontology into the General Form of Chou's Pseudo Amino Acid Composition

    E-print Network

    Mak, Man-Wai

    into the General Form of Chou's Pseudo Amino Acid Composition Shibiao Wana , Man-Wai Maka, , Sun-Yuan Kungb a frequencies and distant homologs to represent a protein in the general form of Chou's pseudo amino acid only uses the amino-acid sequences of query proteins as input. They can be further classified

  13. Catalysts for conversion of syngas to liquid motor fuels

    DOEpatents

    Rabo, Jule A. (Armonk, NY); Coughlin, Peter K. (Yorktown Heights, NY)

    1987-01-01

    Synthesis gas comprising carbon monoxide and hydrogen is converted to C.sub.5.sup.+ hydrocarbons suitable for use as liquid motor fuels by contact with a dual catalyst composition capable of ensuring the production of only relatively minor amounts of heavy products boiling beyond the diesel oil range. The catalyst composition, having desirable stability during continuous production operation, employs a Fischer-Tropsch catalyst, together with a co-catalyst/support component. The latter component is a steam-stabilized zeolite Y catalyst of hydrophobic character, desirably in acid-extracted form.

  14. Effect of L-azetidine 2-carboxilic acid on the activity of the general amino-acid permease from Saccharomyces cerevisiae var. ellipsoideus.

    PubMed

    Iglesias, R; Ferreras, J M; Arias, F J; Muñoz, R; Rojo, M A; Girbés, T

    1991-01-01

    Addition of the L-proline analogue L-azetidine 2-carboxylic acid to growing cultures of Saccharomyces cerevisiae var. ellipsoideus promoted fast deactivation of the general aminoacid permease, measured as L-valine uptake, without an immediate decrease in the growth rate. Cells preincubated with the analogue for 3 h were unable to restore either growth ability or general aminoacid permease activity in analogue-free medium. Eadie-Hofstee plots of L-valine uptake in the presence of the analogue are consistent with a strong reduction in the number of active molecules of the general amino-acid permease located in the plasma membrane. Inhibitory effects on protein synthesis were seen after preincubations of the yeast with the analogue for 3 h although a 30 min preincubation had no effect. PMID:2048935

  15. Catalysts from synthetic genetic polymers.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Alexander I; Pinheiro, Vitor B; Smola, Matthew J; Morgunov, Alexey S; Peak-Chew, Sew; Cozens, Christopher; Weeks, Kevin M; Herdewijn, Piet; Holliger, Philipp

    2015-02-19

    The emergence of catalysis in early genetic polymers such as RNA is considered a key transition in the origin of life, pre-dating the appearance of protein enzymes. DNA also demonstrates the capacity to fold into three-dimensional structures and form catalysts in vitro. However, to what degree these natural biopolymers comprise functionally privileged chemical scaffolds for folding or the evolution of catalysis is not known. The ability of synthetic genetic polymers (XNAs) with alternative backbone chemistries not found in nature to fold into defined structures and bind ligands raises the possibility that these too might be capable of forming catalysts (XNAzymes). Here we report the discovery of such XNAzymes, elaborated in four different chemistries (arabino nucleic acids, ANA; 2'-fluoroarabino nucleic acids, FANA; hexitol nucleic acids, HNA; and cyclohexene nucleic acids, CeNA) directly from random XNA oligomer pools, exhibiting in trans RNA endonuclease and ligase activities. We also describe an XNA-XNA ligase metalloenzyme in the FANA framework, establishing catalysis in an entirely synthetic system and enabling the synthesis of FANA oligomers and an active RNA endonuclease FANAzyme from its constituent parts. These results extend catalysis beyond biopolymers and establish technologies for the discovery of catalysts in a wide range of polymer scaffolds not found in nature. Evolution of catalysis independent of any natural polymer has implications for the definition of chemical boundary conditions for the emergence of life on Earth and elsewhere in the Universe. PMID:25470036

  16. Long-Life Catalyst

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    STC Catalysts, Inc. (SCi) manufactures a noble metal reducible oxide catalyst consisting primarily of platinum and tin dioxide deposited on a ceramic substrate. It is an ambient temperature oxidation catalyst that was developed primarily for Carbon Dioxide Lasers.The catalyst was developed by the NASA Langley Research Center for the Laser Atmospheric Wind Sounder Program (LAWS) which was intended to measure wind velocity on a global basis. There are a number of NASA owned patents covering various aspects of the catalyst.

  17. Synthesis and Understanding of Novel Catalysts

    SciTech Connect

    Stair, Peter C. [Northwestern University] [Northwestern University

    2013-07-09

    The research took advantage of our capabilities to perform in-situ and operando Raman spectroscopy on complex systems along with our developing expertise in the synthesis of uniform, supported metal oxide materials to investigate relationships between the catalytically active oxide composition, atomic structure, and support and the corresponding chemical and catalytic properties. The project was organized into two efforts: 1) Synthesis of novel catalyst materials by atomic layer deposition (ALD). 2) Spectroscopic and chemical investigations of coke formation and catalyst deactivation. ALD synthesis was combined with conventional physical characterization, Raman spectroscopy, and probe molecule chemisorption to study the effect of supported metal oxide composition and atomic structure on acid-base and catalytic properties. Operando Raman spectroscopy studies of olefin polymerization leading to coke formation and catalyst deactivation clarified the mechanism of coke formation by acid catalysts.

  18. FLUIDIZABLE CATALYSTS FOR PRODUCING HYDROGEN BY STEAM REFORMING BIOMASS PYROLYSIS LIQUIDS

    E-print Network

    FLUIDIZABLE CATALYSTS FOR PRODUCING HYDROGEN BY STEAM REFORMING BIOMASS PYROLYSIS LIQUIDS Kimberly-fluidizable (fixed-bed) commercial catalysts.1 These multicomponent catalysts, which generally contain Ni, K, Ca decreased with time because of char and coke deposition on the catalyst surface and in the bed itself thus

  19. Circulating Levels of Fatty Acid-Binding Protein Family and Metabolic Phenotype in the General Population

    PubMed Central

    Watanabe, Yuki; Hoshina, Kyoko; Fuseya, Takahiro; Mita, Tomohiro; Okazaki, Yusuke; Koyama, Masayuki; Tanaka, Marenao; Akasaka, Hiroshi; Ohnishi, Hirofumi; Yoshida, Hideaki; Saitoh, Shigeyuki; Miura, Tetsuji

    2013-01-01

    Objective Fatty acid-binding proteins (FABPs) are a family of 14-15-kDa proteins, and some FABPs have been to be used as biomarkers of tissue injury by leak from cells. However, recent studies have shown that FABPs can be secreted from cells into circulation. Here we examined determinants and roles of circulating FABPs in a general population. Methods From the database of the Tanno-Sobetsu Study, a study with a population-based cohort design, data in 2011 for 296 subjects on no medication were retrieved, and FABP1?5 in their serum samples were assayed. Results Level of FABP4, but not the other isoforms, showed a gender difference, being higher in females than in males. Levels of all FABPs were negatively correlated with estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR), but a distinct pattern of correlation with other clinical parameters was observed for each FABP isoform; significant correlates were alanine aminotransferase (ALT), blood pressure (BP), and brain natriuretic peptide (BNP) for FABP1, none besides eGFR for FABP2, age, BP, and BNP for FABP3, age, waist circumference (WC), BP, BNP, lipid variables, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP), and HOMA-R for FABP4, and age, WC, BP, ALT, BNP, and HOMA-R for FABP5. FABP4 is the most strongly related to metabolic markers among FABPs. In a multivariate regression analysis, FABP4 level was an independent predictor of HOMA-R after adjustment of age, gender, WC, BP, HDL cholesterol, and hsCRP. Conclusions Each FABP isoform level showed a distinct pattern of correlation with clinical parameters, although levels of all FABPs were negatively determined by renal function. Circulating FABP4 appears to be a useful biomarker for detecting pre-clinical stage of metabolic syndrome, especially insulin resistance, in the general population. PMID:24278421

  20. Methane oxidation over dual redox catalysts

    SciTech Connect

    Klier, K.; Herman, R.G.; Di Cosimo, J.I.

    1992-02-01

    The effect of doping lanthana-based catalysts with antimony and bismuth on the catalytic behavior toward the selective oxidation of methane has been studied. New catalytic results have been obtained upon doping the Sr/La{sub 2}O{sub 3} catalyst, obtained from AMOCO Oil Co., with the acidic Sb and Fe dopants. Both activity and selectivity of the original Sr/La{sub 2}O{sub 3} catalyst can be modified by introducing small amounts of either dopant. Iron doping lowered selectivity to C{sub 2} products whereas antimony increased the selectivity while decreasing the reaction temperature by 100{degrees}C.

  1. General method for purification of ?-amino acid-n-carboxyanhydrides using flash chromatography.

    PubMed

    Kramer, Jessica R; Deming, Timothy J

    2010-12-13

    We describe the application of flash column chromatography on silica gel as a rapid and general method to obtain pure ?-amino acid-N-carboxyanhydride (NCA) monomers, the widely used precursors for the synthesis of polypeptides, without the need for recrystallization. This technique was effective at removing all common impurities from NCAs and was found to work for a variety of NCAs, including those synthesized using different routes, as well as those bearing either hydrophilic or hydrophobic side chains. All chromatographed NCAs required no further purification and could be used directly to form high molecular weight polypeptides. This procedure is especially useful for the preparation of highly functional and low melting NCAs that are difficult to crystallize and, consequently, to polymerize. This method solves many long-standing problems in NCA purification and provides rapid access to NCAs that were previously inaccessible in satisfactory quality for controlled polymerization. This method is also practical in that it requires less time than recrystallization and often gives NCAs in improved yields. PMID:21047056

  2. Oxygen reduction in acid media by a Ru x Fe y Se z (CO) n cluster catalyst dispersed on a glassy carbon-supported Nafion film

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. González-Cruz; O. Solorza-Feria

    2003-01-01

      \\u000a Electrocatalytic oxygen reduction was studied on a RuxFeySez(CO)n cluster catalyst with Vulcan carbon powder dispersed into a Nafion film coated on a glassy carbon electrode. The synthesis\\u000a of the electrocatalyst as a mixture of crystallites and amorphous nanoparticles was carried out by refluxing the transition\\u000a metal carbonyl compounds in an organic solvent. Electrocatalysis by the cluster compound is discussed,

  3. Fluidized catalyst process for production and hydration of olefins

    SciTech Connect

    Harandi, M.N.

    1993-08-03

    A continuous multi-stage process is described for increasing octane quality and yield of liquid hydrocarbons from an integrated fluidized catalytic cracking unit and hydration reaction zone comprising: contacting heavy hydrocarbon feedstock in a primary fluidized bed reaction stage with cracking catalyst comprising particulate solid large pore acid aluminosilicate zeolite catalyst at conversion conditions to produce a hydrocarbon effluent comprising gas containing C2-C6 olefins, intermediate hydrocarbons in the gasoline and distillate range, and cracked bottoms; regenerating primary stage zeolite cracking catalyst in a primary stage regeneration zone and returning at least a portion of regenerated zeolite cracking catalyst to the primary reaction stage; reacting an olefinic stream containing at least one iso-olefin with water in a secondary fluidized bed hydration reactor stage in contact with a closed fluidized bed of acid zeolite catalyst particles comprising solid acid zeolite under hydration reaction conditions to effectively convert said isoolefin to alkyl alkanol; adding fresh acid zeolite particles to the secondary stage reactor in an amount sufficient to maintain average equilibrium catalyst particle activity for effective alkanol synthesis reaction without regeneration of the secondary catalyst bed; withdrawing a portion of equilibrium catalyst from the secondary fluidized bed reactor stage; and passing said withdrawn catalyst portion to the primary fluidized bed reaction stage for contact with the petroleum feedstock.

  4. Sulfonic acid functionalized poly(ethylene glycol dimethacrylate-1-vinyl-1,2,4-triazole) as a high-performance solid acid catalyst for the esterification of lactic acid with methanol.

    PubMed

    Erdem, Beyhan; Kara, Ali

    2012-02-01

    Sulfonic acid functionalized poly(ethylene glycol dimethacrylate-1-vinyl-1,2,4-triazole), poly(EGDMA-VTAZ-SO(3)H), is evaluated in the esterification of lactic acid with methanol. From nitrogen physisorption data, high surface area (220 m(2)/g) and type IV isotherm are obtained. Conversion measurements indicate a stronger interaction of poly(EGDMA-VTAZ-20%SO(3)H) with water molecules than that occurring in poly(EGDMA-VTAZ-10%SO(3)H). Hence, the higher catalytic activity of poly(EGDMA-VTAZ-10%SO(3)H) is related to the more hydrophobic microenvironment of -SO(3)H sites, which reduces the acid site deactivation associated with adsorption of water generated during the reaction. Moreover, apparent activation energy is found to be 48.02 kJ mol(-1), which can be comparable with the literature values. PMID:22082796

  5. Ruthenium-based olefin metathesis catalysts bearing pH-responsive ligands: External control of catalyst solubility and activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balof, Shawna Lynn

    2011-12-01

    Sixteen novel, Ru-based olefin metathesis catalysts bearing pH responsive ligands were synthesized. The pH-responsive groups employed with these catalysts included dimethylamino (NMe2) modified NHC ligands as well as N-donor dimethylaminopyridine (DMAP) and 3-(o-pyridyl)propylidene ligands. These pH-responsive ligands provided the means by which the solubility and/or activity profiles of the catalysts produced could be controlled via acid addition. The main goal of this dissertation was to design catalyst systems capable of performing ring opening metathesis (ROMP) and ring closing metathesis (RCM) reactions in both organic and aqueous media. In an effort to quickly gain access to new catalyst structures, a template synthesis for functionalized NHC ligand precursors was designed, in addition to other strategies, to obtain ligand precursors with ancillary NMe2 groups. Kinetic studies for the catalysts produced from these precursors showed external control of catalyst solubility was afforded via protonation of the NMe2 groups of their NHC ligands. Additionally, this protonation afforded external control of catalyst propagation rates for several catalysts. This is the first known independent external control for the propagation rates of ROMP catalysts. The incorporation of pH-responsive N-donor ligands into catalyst structures also provided the means for the external control of metathesis activity, as the protonation of these ligands resulted in an increased initiation rate based on their fast and irreversible dissociation from the metal center. The enhanced external control makes these catalysts applicable to a wide range of applications, some of which have been explored by us and/or through collaboration. Three of the catalysts designed showed remarkable metathesis activity in aqueous media. These catalysts displayed comparable RCM activity in aqueous media to a class of water-soluble catalysts reported by Grubbs et al., considered to be the most active catalyst for aqueous olefin metathesis reactions. In ROMP reactions these particular catalysts dramatically outperformed the literature catalysts, accomplishing ROMP full conversion rates within 15 minutes compared to several hours observed with the literature catalyst. These catalysts were also able to accomplish these reactions at lower catalyst loadings than ever reported with the literature catalyst, making them the most active aqueous olefin metathesis catalysts to date.

  6. Microbial recovery of metals from spent catalysts

    SciTech Connect

    Sperl, P.L.; Sperl, G.T.

    1990-01-01

    The second quarter of 1990 was one of peripheral progress on the project of reclaiming molybdenum and nickel from spent coal liquefaction catalysts. We defined some important parameters for future research and we were able to clear up ambiguities in some of the past approaches and the problems uniquely associated with the ability of T. ferrooxidans to leach both Ni{sup ++} and molybdate from spent, alumina supported catalyst from the Wilsonville pilot project. We were also able to show the T. ferrooxidans was very sensitive to molybdate and extremely sensitive to tungstate, but showed relatively little sensitivity for the related elements chromate, vanadate and for the catalyst associated metal, Ni{sup ++}. There appears to be no negative synergistic effects between Ni{sup ++} and molybdate for growth, which bodies well for processes to reclaim both these metals from spent coal liquefaction catalysts. We have shown that T. ferrooxidans is indeed capable of leaching molybdate and Ni{sup ++} from spent catalysts if the catalyst is washed extensively with both an organic solvent such as tetrahydrofuran to remove the oily contaminants and an aqueous acidic medium to remove readily solubilized N{sup ++} and molybdate. It is possible to extract into an acidic medium enough molybdate from THF washed spent catalyst within 24 hr to completely inhibit the growth of all tested T. ferrooxidans strains. The stage is now set for the development of a molybdate tolerant strain to be used for actual leaching of the spent catalyst. We are currently seeking simpler ways of pretreating the raw spent catalyst in order to make it more amenable to microbial leaching and possibly produce an economic and feasible technology.

  7. Process and catalyst for carbonylating olefins

    DOEpatents

    Zoeller, Joseph Robert (Kingsport, TN)

    1998-06-02

    Disclosed is an improved catalyst system and process for preparing aliphatic carbonyl compounds such as aliphatic carboxylic acids, alkyl esters of aliphatic carboxylic acids and anhydrides of aliphatic carboxylic acids by carbonylating olefins in the presence of a catalyst system comprising (1) a first component selected from at least one Group 6 metal, i.e., chromium, molybdenum, and/or tungsten and (2) a second component selected from at least one of certain halides and tertiary and quaternary compounds of a Group 15 element, i.e., nitrogen, phosphorus and/or arsenic, and (3) as a third component, a polar, aprotic solvent. The process employing the improved catalyst system is carried out under carbonylating conditions of pressure and temperature discussed herein. The process constitutes and improvement over known processes since it can be carried out at moderate carbonylation conditions without the necessity of using an expensive noble metal catalyst, volatile, toxic materials such as nickel tetracarbonyl, formic acid or a formate ester. Further, the addition of a polar, aprotic solvent to the catalyst system significantly increases, or accelerates, the rate at which the carbonylation takes place.

  8. Reproductive Factors and Serum Uric Acid Levels in Females from the General Population: The KORA F4 Study

    PubMed Central

    Stöckl, Doris; Döring, Angela; Thorand, Barbara; Heier, Margit; Belcredi, Petra; Meisinger, Christa

    2012-01-01

    Objective Hyperuricemia is associated with an increased risk of metabolic and cardiovascular diseases. There are pronounced sex differences in the levels of uric acid. It is largely unknown whether or not reproductive parameters which induce hormonal changes are responsible for this. We examined if there are associations between reproductive parameters and uric acid levels in a female population-based sample. Methods In this cross-sectional analysis, data of 1530 women aged 32 to 81 years participating in the KORA F4 study, conducted between 2006 and 2008 in Southern Germany were used. Reproductive parameters were obtained by standardized interviews. Uric acid levels were tested by the uricase method. The whole study sample and stratified in pre- and postmenopausal women was analyzed. Results Menopausal status and earlier age at menarche were associated with higher serum uric acid levels (age-adjusted: p-values 0.003, <0.001 respectively; after multivariable adjustment, including BMI: p-values 0.002, 0.036). A history of oral contraceptive use showed an association with uric acid levels only after multivariable adjustment (p-value 0.009). Hot flushes showed an association with uric acid levels only after age-adjustment (p-value 0.038), but lost significance after adding other confounders. Other reproductive factors, including parity, current or ever use of hormone replacement therapy, current use of oral contraceptives, hysterectomy, bilateral oophorectomy, or depressive mood related to menopausal transition were not associated with uric acid levels. Conclusions Postmenopausal status, earlier age at menarche and a history of oral contraceptive use were independently associated with higher serum uric acid concentrations in women from the general population. Further studies, especially longitudinal population-based studies investigating the relationship of female reproductive parameters with uric acid levels are necessary to confirm our findings. PMID:22427861

  9. Promotion of silver catalysts for selective oxidation of methanol

    SciTech Connect

    Pestryakov, A.N.; Roznina, M.I.; Belousova, V.N.

    1994-04-10

    The catalytic and physicochemical properties of supported silver catalysts modified by oxides of rare and rare-earth metals have been studied. The effects of modifiers on electronic structure, degree of dispersion and surface diffusion of the supported metal, on Broensted`s acidity, and coking degree of the catalyst surface have been determined. The promotion effect of cerium and zirconium oxides on the catalyst have been found also.

  10. Catalytic coprocessing: Effect of catalyst type and sequencing

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Christine W. Curtis; Kan Joe Tsai; James A. Guin

    1987-01-01

    The importance of catalyst accessibility, loading, and type in coprocessing coal with heavy residua was evaluated by examining the changes in the product slate and the production of upgraded products. A commercial hydrotreating catalyst (NiMo\\/AlâOâ), bulk metal sulfides (FeSâ and MoSâ), a homogeneous catalyst (HâS), and four oil-soluble metal salts or organic acids were used. The more accessible NiMo\\/AlâOâ powder

  11. Mechanism of hydrodenitrogenation preparation of supported Ru catalysts

    SciTech Connect

    Miranda, R.

    1992-01-01

    A series of Ru oxide catalysts has been prepared and partially characterized. Starting from Ru(NO)(NO[sub 3])[sub 3] to avoid residual Cl in the catalysts, Ru[sup +3] oxides have been prepared in loadings of 1,4 and 8 wt%, over silica, gamma-alumina and silica-aluminas of controlled acidity. The highly dispersed oxides are produced in order to study the controllability of the various types of catalytic functionalities present on HDN catalysts.

  12. Molecularly engineering homogenous catalysts

    E-print Network

    Hughes, Reagan Rebekah

    2013-02-22

    have developed new strategies for homogeneous catalyst recovery. Poly (N-isopropylacrylamide) and poly (N-octadecylacrylamide) supports, for example, yield recoverable catalysts that are selectively soluble in the lower (polar) phase and the upper (non...

  13. Solid acids as substitutes for sulfuric acid in the liquid phase nitration of toluene to nitrotoluene and dinitrotoluene

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Andreas Kogelbauer; Diego Vassena; Roel Prins; John N Armor

    2000-01-01

    Our results demonstrate that sulfuric acid supported on preshaped silica is a good catalyst for the nitration of toluene to dinitrotoluene using 65wt.% nitric acid with respect to catalyst performance (activity, selectivity, regenerability) and catalyst handling (storage, stirring, separation). It is imperative to carefully control the water content of the catalyst prior to reaction in order to obtain high activity.

  14. General and Facile Surface Functionalization of Hydrophobic Nanocrystals with Poly(amino acid) for Cell Luminescence Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Sheng; Bai, Min; Wang, Leyu

    2013-01-01

    Hydrophobic nanocrystals with various shape, size, and chemical composition were successfully functionalized by poly(amino acid) with one particle per micelle without aggregation or precipitation via a facile, general, and low-cost strategy. Via simply tuning the pH value, multifunctional nanocomposites consisting of different nanocrystals were also fabricated. Due to the poly(amino acid) coating, these nanocrystals are highly water-stable, biocompatible, and bioconjugatable with chemical and biological moieties. Meanwhile, their shape, size, optical/magnetic properties are well retained, which is highly desirable for bioapplications. This developed strategy presents a novel opportunity to apply hydrophobic nanocrystals to various biomedical fields. PMID:23778122

  15. The Definition of Generalized Helicoidal Parameters and of Axis Curvature for Irregular Nucleic Acids

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Richard Lavery; Heinz Sklenar

    1988-01-01

    An algorithm is presented which solves the problem of obtaining a rigorous helicoidal description of an irregular nucleic acid segment. Central to this approach is the definition of a function describing simultaneously the curvature of the nucleic acid segment in question and the corresponding stepwise variation of helicoidal parameters along the segment. Minimisation of this function leads to an optimal

  16. Lewis Base Catalysts 6: Carbene Catalysts

    PubMed Central

    Moore, Jennifer L.

    2013-01-01

    The use of N-heterocyclic carbenes as catalysts for organic transformations has received increased attention in the past 10 years. A discussion of catalyst development and nucleophilic characteristics precedes a description of recent advancements and new reactions using N-heterocyclic carbenes in catalysis. PMID:21494949

  17. The Candida albicans GAP Gene Family Encodes Permeases Involved in General and Specific Amino Acid Uptake and Sensing?†

    PubMed Central

    Kraidlova, Lucie; Van Zeebroeck, Griet; Van Dijck, Patrick; Sychrová, Hana

    2011-01-01

    The Saccharomyces cerevisiae general amino acid permease Gap1 (ScGap1) not only mediates the uptake of most amino acids but also functions as a receptor for the activation of protein kinase A (PKA). Fungal pathogens can colonize different niches in the host, each containing various levels of different amino acids and sugars. The Candida albicans genome contains six genes homologous to the S. cerevisiae GAP1. The expression of these six genes in S. cerevisiae showed that the products of all six C. albicans genes differ in their transport capacities. C. albicans Gap2 (CaGap2) is the true orthologue of ScGap1 as it transports all tested amino acids. The other CaGap proteins have narrower substrate specificities though CaGap1 and CaGap6 transport several structurally unrelated amino acids. CaGap1, CaGap2, and CaGap6 also function as sensors. Upon detecting some amino acids, e.g., methionine, they are involved in a rapid activation of trehalase, a downstream target of PKA. Our data show that CaGAP genes can be functionally expressed in S. cerevisiae and that CaGap permeases communicate to the intracellular signal transduction pathway similarly to ScGap1. PMID:21764911

  18. Catalyst deoiling process

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. B. Olson; R. T. Plichta; D. W. Coyne

    1987-01-01

    A deoiling process is described comprising the steps of: removing a slurry of spent catalyst and oil from an ebullated bed reactor; transporting the slurry of spent catalyst and oil from the reactor to a vessel; cooling the slurry of spent catalyst and oil in the vessel to a temperature below the flash point of the oil; conveying the cooled

  19. Hydrodesulfurization catalyst by Chevrel phase compounds

    DOEpatents

    McCarty, K.F.; Schrader, G.L.

    1985-05-20

    A process is disclosed for the hydrodesulfurization of sulfur-containing hydrocarbon fuel with reduced ternary molybdenum sulfides, known as Chevrel phase compounds. Chevrel phase compounds of the general composition M/sub x/Mo/sub 6/S/sub 8/, with M being Ho, Pb, Sn, Ag, In, Cu, Fe, Ni, or Co, were found to have hydrodesulfurization activities comparable to model unpromoted and cobalt-promoted MoS/sub 2/ catalysts. The most active catalysts were the ''large'' cation compounds (Ho, Pb, Sn), and the least active catalysts were the ''small'' cation compounds (Cu, Fe, Ni, Co.).

  20. Accuracy assessment of the linear Poisson-Boltzmann equation and reparametrization of the OBC generalized Born model for nucleic acids and nucleic acid-protein complexes.

    PubMed

    Fogolari, Federico; Corazza, Alessandra; Esposito, Gennaro

    2015-04-15

    The generalized Born model in the Onufriev, Bashford, and Case (Onufriev et al., Proteins: Struct Funct Genet 2004, 55, 383) implementation has emerged as one of the best compromises between accuracy and speed of computation. For simulations of nucleic acids, however, a number of issues should be addressed: (1) the generalized Born model is based on a linear model and the linearization of the reference Poisson-Boltmann equation may be questioned for highly charged systems as nucleic acids; (2) although much attention has been given to potentials, solvation forces could be much less sensitive to linearization than the potentials; and (3) the accuracy of the Onufriev-Bashford-Case (OBC) model for nucleic acids depends on fine tuning of parameters. Here, we show that the linearization of the Poisson Boltzmann equation has mild effects on computed forces, and that with optimal choice of the OBC model parameters, solvation forces, essential for molecular dynamics simulations, agree well with those computed using the reference Poisson-Boltzmann model. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:25581160

  1. Rapeseed oil methyl esters preparation using heterogeneous catalysts

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. Gryglewicz

    1999-01-01

    The classical method of fatty acids methyl esters (FAME) production is based on triglyceride transesterification to methyl esters. Sodium hydroxide dissolved in methanol is used as a catalyst. The purpose of this work was to examine a heterogeneous catalyst, in particular calcium compounds, to produce methyl esters of rapeseed oil. This research showed that the transesterification of rapeseed oil by

  2. Cobalt Fischer-Tropsch catalysts having improved selectivity

    DOEpatents

    Miller, James G. (Pearl River, NY); Rabo, Jule A. (Armonk, NY)

    1989-01-01

    A cobalt Fischer-Tropsch catalyst having an improved steam treated, acid extracted LZ-210 support is taught. The new catalyst system demonstrates improved product selectivity at Fischer-Tropsch reaction conditions evidenced by lower methane production, higher C.sub.5.sup.+ yield and increased olefin production.

  3. Cerium-containing catalysts for converting ethanol into ethylene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dosumov, K.; Ergazieva, G. E.; Churina, D. Kh.; Tel'baeva, M. M.

    2014-10-01

    Ce/?-Al2O3 and CeLa/?-Al2O3 catalysts are studied via electron microscopy and temperature-programmed desorption of ammonia. Their activity in the dehydration of ethanol is investigated. Doping Ce/?-Al2O3 catalyst with lanthanum is shown to increase its dispersion and the number of active acid sites, thereby improving its activity.

  4. Acyclic chiral amines and amino acids as inexpensive and readily tunable catalysts for the direct asymmetric three-component Mannich reaction.

    PubMed

    Ibrahem, Ismail; Zou, Weibiao; Engqvist, Magnus; Xu, Yongmei; Córdova, Armando

    2005-11-18

    The direct three-component asymmetric Mannich reaction catalyzed by acyclic chiral amines or amino acids is presented. Simple acyclic chiral amines and amino acids--such as alanine-tetrazole (9), alanine, valine, and serine-catalyzed the three-component asymmetric Mannich reactions between unmodified ketones, p-anisidine, and aldehydes with high chemo- and stereoselectivity, furnishing the corresponding Mannich bases with up to >99 % ee. This study demonstrates that the whole range of amino acids in nature, as well as nonproteogenic amino acid derivatives, can be considered in the design and tuning of novel, inexpensive organocatalysts for the direct asymmetric Mannich reaction. PMID:16189842

  5. Acute generalized exanthematous pustulosis: A rare side effect of a common over-the-counter drug, Acetylsalicylic acid.

    PubMed

    Bahuguna, Amit

    2013-07-01

    Acute generalized exanthematous pustulosis is an uncommon cutaneous reaction characterized by sudden onset of generalized non-follicular aseptic pustules. It is most often secondary to drugs but causes as varied from viral infection to insect bites are reported. A case report of a 48-year-old male who developed pustular eruptions after taking acetylsalicylic acid is reported here. Clinicians need to be aware of this entity when dealing with pustular rash as this rare side effect of a very common drug is both, easy to miss and easy to manage. PMID:23984244

  6. There is no universal mechanism for the cleavage of RNA model compounds in the presence of metal ion catalysts.

    PubMed

    Korhonen, Heidi; Koivusalo, Timo; Toivola, Suvi; Mikkola, Satu

    2013-12-28

    The transesterification of uridine 3'-phosphodiesters with a wide range of leaving group alcohols has been studied in the presence of monometallic and bimetallic complexes. The catalysis of isomerization of the phosphodiester bond was studied with a nucleoside 3'-phosphonate as a substrate. The results obtained are consistent with a step-wise mechanism, where metal ions are able to enhance both the nucleophilic attack and the departure of the leaving group. The mechanism of the catalysis depends on the acidity of the catalyst and of the leaving group alcohol: a change from general base catalysis to general acid catalysis is proposed. Catalysis of the isomerization requires efficient stabilization of the phosphorane by strong interactions with the catalyst. Catalytic strategies utilised by bimetallic complexes are also briefly discussed. PMID:24135854

  7. Catalyst by Design

    SciTech Connect

    Narula, Chaitanya Kumar [ORNL] [ORNL; DeBusk, Melanie Moses [ORNL] [ORNL

    2014-01-01

    The development of new catalytic materials is still dominated by trial and error methods. Although it has been successful, the empirical development of catalytic materials is time consuming and expensive with no guarantee of success. In our laboratories, we are developing a comprehensive catalysts by design that involves state-of-the-art first principle density functional theory calculations, experimental design of catalyst sites, and sub- ngstr m resolution imaging with an aberration-corrected electron microscope to characterize the microstructure. In this chapter, we focus on supported platinum cluster catalyst systems which are one of the most important industrial catalysts and attempt to demonstrate the feasibility of the catalyst by design concept.

  8. Brønsted Base Catalysts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ting, Amal; Goss, Jennifer M.; McDougal, Nolan T.; Schaus, Scott E.

    Chiral organic Brønsted bases have emerged as highly efficient catalysts for enantioselective transformations. Since their early use in enantiomeric separation processes, chiral organic Brønsted base catalysis has advanced significantly to include both natural and designed catalysts. Insight into the mode of action of the organocatalysts has promoted modifications in catalyst structures to expand the application to numerous asymmetric reactions. Bifunctional catalysts, containing both Brønsted base and H-activating functionalities, have proven to be very applicable to an array of reaction types. The development of Brønsted base catalysts containing or not containing H-activating moieties, has greatly impacted asymmetric organocatalysis. This overview illustrates the recent developments in this emerging field.

  9. Cellular responses to L-serine in Saccharomyces cerevisiae: roles of general amino acid control, compartmentalization, and aspartate synthesis.

    PubMed

    Lee, Johnny C-Y; Tsoi, Abraham; Kornfeld, Geoffrey D; Dawes, Ian W

    2013-11-01

    In addition to its other roles, L-serine functions in one-carbon metabolism and is interconvertable with glycine via serine hydroxymethyltransferases. However, the transcriptional response by Saccharomyces cerevisiae to L-serine addition is markedly different from that to glycine, with L-serine acting as a nutrient source rather than one-carbon units. Following addition of excess L-serine, 743 genes showed significant expression changes. Induced functions included amino acid synthesis, some stress responses, and FeS metabolism, while ribosomal RNA processing, ribosome biogenesis and hexose transport were repressed. A co-regulated network of ten transcription factors could together control more than 90% of the induced and repressed genes forming a general response to changes induced by other amino acids or stresses and including the general amino acid control system usually activated in response to starvation for amino acids. A specific response to L-serine was induction of CHA1 encoding serine (threonine) dehydratase. L-serine addition resulted in a substantial transient increase in L-aspartate, which is, rather than L-glutamate, the major metabolite for short-term storage of ammonia derived from degradation of L-serine. L-aspartate synthesis was exclusively through mitochondrial metabolism of L-serine to pyruvate and ammonia, involving Cha1p, cytoplasmic pyruvate carboxylases Pyc1p and Pyc2p, and the cytoplasmic aspartate aminotransferase Aat2p. PMID:23837815

  10. The pKa of the General Acid/Base Carboxyl Group of a Glycosidase Cycles during Catalysis: A 13

    E-print Network

    McIntosh, Lawrence P.

    The pKa of the General Acid/Base Carboxyl Group of a Glycosidase Cycles during Catalysis: A 13 C-NMR Study of Bacillus circulans Xylanase Lawrence P. McIntosh,*,,§ Greg Hand, Philip E. Johnson,,§ Manish D obtained from a study of the pH dependence of kcat/Km and demonstrate that, at the enzyme's pH optimum of 5

  11. Reducing fischer-tropsch catalyst attrition losses in high agitation reaction systems

    DOEpatents

    Singleton, Alan H. (Baden, PA); Oukaci, Rachid (Gibsonia, PA); Goodwin, James G. (Cranberry Township, PA)

    2001-01-01

    A method for reducing catalyst attrition losses in hydrocarbon synthesis processes conducted in high agitation reaction systems; a method of producing an attrition-resistant catalyst; a catalyst produced by such method; a method of producing an attrition-resistant catalyst support; and a catalyst support produced by such method. The inventive method of reducing catalyst attrition losses comprises the step of reacting a synthesis gas in a high agitation reaction system in the presence of a catalyst. In one aspect, the catalyst preferably comprises a .gamma.-alumina support including an amount of titanium effective for increasing the attrition resistance of the catalyst. In another aspect, the catalyst preferably comprises a .gamma.-alumina support which has been treated, after calcination, with an acidic, aqueous solution. The acidic aqueous solution preferably has a pH of not more than about 5. In another aspect, the catalyst preferably comprises cobalt on a .gamma.-alumina support wherein the cobalt has been applied to the .gamma.-alumina support by totally aqueous, incipient wetness-type impregnation. In another aspect, the catalyst preferably comprises cobalt on a .gamma.-alumina support with an amount of a lanthana promoter effective for increasing the attrition resistance of the catalyst. In another aspect, the catalyst preferably comprises a .gamma.-alumina support produced from boehmite having a crystallite size, in the 021 plane, in the range of from about 30 to about 55 .ANG.ngstrons. In another aspect, the inventive method of producing an attrition-resistant catalyst comprises the step of treating a .gamma.-alumina support, after calcination of and before adding catalytic material to the support, with an acidic solution effective for increasing the attrition resistance of the catalyst. In another aspect, the inventive method of producing an attrition-resistant catalyst support comprises the step of treating calcined .gamma.-alumina with an acidic, aqueous solution effective for increasing the attrition resistance of the .gamma.-alumina.

  12. System for reactivating catalysts

    DOEpatents

    Ginosar, Daniel M. (Idaho Falls, ID); Thompson, David N. (Idaho Falls, ID); Anderson, Raymond P. (Idaho Falls, ID)

    2010-03-02

    A method of reactivating a catalyst, such as a solid catalyst or a liquid catalyst is provided. The method comprises providing a catalyst that is at least partially deactivated by fouling agents. The catalyst is contacted with a fluid reactivating agent that is at or above a critical point of the fluid reactivating agent and is of sufficient density to dissolve impurities. The fluid reactivating agent reacts with at least one fouling agent, releasing the at least one fouling agent from the catalyst. The at least one fouling agent becomes dissolved in the fluid reactivating agent and is subsequently separated or removed from the fluid reactivating agent so that the fluid reactivating agent may be reused. A system for reactivating a catalyst is also disclosed.

  13. MOLECULAR SIEVES AS CATALYSTS FOR METHANOL DEHYDRATION IN THE LPDMEtm PROCESS

    SciTech Connect

    Andrew W. Wang

    2002-04-01

    Several classes of molecular sieves were investigated as methanol dehydration catalysts for the LPDME{trademark} (liquid-phase dimethyl ether) process. Molecular sieves offer a number of attractive features as potential catalysts for the conversion of methanol to DME. These include (1) a wide range of acid strengths, (2) diverse architectures and channel connectivities that provide latitude for steric control, (3) high active site density, (4) well-investigated syntheses and characterization, and (5) commercial availability in some cases. We directed our work in two areas: (1) a general exploration of the catalytic behavior of various classes of molecular sieves in the LPDME{trademark} system and (2) a focused effort to prepare and test zeolites with predominantly Lewis acidity. In our general exploration, we looked at such diverse materials as chabazites, mordenites, pentasils, SAPOs, and ALPOs. Our work with Lewis acidity sought to exploit the structural advantages of zeolites without the interfering effects of deleterious Broensted sites. We used zeolite Ultrastable Y (USY) as our base material because it possesses a high proportion of Lewis acid sites. This work was extended by modifying the USY through ion exchange to try to neutralize residual Broensted acidity.

  14. Heterogenization of Homogeneous Catalysts: the Effect of the Support

    SciTech Connect

    Earl, W.L.; Ott, K.C.; Hall, K.A.; de Rege, F.M.; Morita, D.K.; Tumas, W.; Brown, G.H.; Broene, R.D.

    1999-06-29

    We have studied the influence of placing a soluble, homogeneous catalyst onto a solid support. We determined that such a 'heterogenized' homogeneous catalyst can have improved activity and selectivity for the asymmetric hydrogenation of enamides to amino acid derivatives. The route of heterogenization of RhDuPhos(COD){sup +} cations occurs via electrostatic interactions with anions that are capable of strong hydrogen bonding to silica surfaces. This is a novel approach to supported catalysis. Supported RhDuPhos(COD){sup +} is a recyclable, non-leaching catalyst in non-polar media. This is one of the few heterogenized catalysts that exhibits improved catalytic performance as compared to its homogeneous analog.

  15. Catalyst patterning for nanowire devices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Li, Jun (Inventor); Cassell, Alan M. (Inventor); Han, Jie (Inventor)

    2004-01-01

    Nanowire devices may be provided that are based on carbon nanotubes or single-crystal semiconductor nanowires. The nanowire devices may be formed on a substrate. Catalyst sites may be formed on the substrate. The catalyst sites may be formed using lithography, thin metal layers that form individual catalyst sites when heated, collapsible porous catalyst-filled microscopic spheres, microscopic spheres that serve as masks for catalyst deposition, electrochemical deposition techniques, and catalyst inks. Nanowires may be grown from the catalyst sites.

  16. General route for preparing ?-nitrocarbonyl compounds using copper thermal redox catalysis.

    PubMed

    Gietter, Amber A S; Gildner, Peter G; Cinderella, Andrew P; Watson, Donald A

    2014-06-01

    Using a simple copper catalyst, the alkylation of nitroalkanes with ?-bromocarbonyls is now possible. This method provides a general, functional group tolerant route to ?-nitrocarbonyl compounds, including nitro amides, esters, ketones, and aldehydes. The highly sterically dense, functional group rich products from these reactions can be readily elaborated into a range of complex nitrogen-containing molecules, including highly substituted ?-amino acids. PMID:24870052

  17. Textured catalysts and methods of making textured catalysts

    DOEpatents

    Werpy, Todd (West Richland, WA); Frye, Jr., John G. (Richland, WA); Wang, Yong (Richland, WA); Zacher, Alan H. (Kennewick, WA)

    2007-03-06

    A textured catalyst having a hydrothermally-stable support, a metal oxide and a catalyst component is described. Methods of conducting aqueous phase reactions that are catalyzed by a textured catalyst are also described. The invention also provides methods of making textured catalysts and methods of making chemical products using a textured catalyst.

  18. Development of Novel Supported Gold Catalysts: A Materials Perspective

    SciTech Connect

    Dai, Sheng [ORNL; Ma, Zhen [ORNL

    2011-01-01

    Since Haruta et al. discovered that small gold nanoparticles finely dispersed on certain metal oxide supports can exhibit surprisingly high activity in CO oxidation below room temperature, heterogeneous catalysis by supported gold nanoparticles has attracted tremendous attention. The majority of publications deal with the preparation and characterization of conventional gold catalysts (e.g., Au/TiO{sub 2}), the use of gold catalysts in various catalytic reactions, as well as elucidation of the nature of the active sites and reaction mechanisms. In this overview, we highlight the development of novel supported gold catalysts from a materials perspective. Examples, mostly from those reported by our group, are given concerning the development of simple gold catalysts with single metal-support interfaces and heterostructured gold catalysts with complicated interfacial structures. Catalysts in the first category include active Au/SiO{sub 2} and Au/metal phosphate catalysts, and those in the second category include catalysts prepared by pre-modification of supports before loading gold, by post-modification of supported gold catalysts, or by simultaneous dispersion of gold and an inorganic component onto a support. CO oxidation has generally been employed as a probe reaction to screen the activities of these catalysts. These novel gold catalysts not only provide possibilities for applied catalysis, but also furnish grounds for fundamental research.

  19. The Acid-Base Chemistry of Nicotine: Extensions, Analogies, and a Generalization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ault, Addison

    2001-04-01

    Some solutes can exist in aqueous solution in more than one form. Nicotine is an example of such a solute, as are amino acids and other substances that can exist in more than one state of ionization in water. This paper shows how to express the fractional concentrations of the two or more forms in which such substances can be present in an aqueous solution and how to figure out under what conditions any one form will be the major form present. Nicotine serves as the introductory example. Other examples include amino acids and enzymes.

  20. Method for regeneration and activity improvement of syngas conversion catalyst

    DOEpatents

    Lucki, Stanley J. (Runnemede, NJ); Brennan, James A. (Cherry Hill, NJ)

    1980-01-01

    A method is disclosed for the treatment of single particle iron-containing syngas (synthes.s gas) conversion catalysts comprising iron, a crystalline acidic aluminosilicate zeolite having a silica to alumina ratio of at least 12, a pore size greater than about 5 Angstrom units and a constraint index of about 1-12 and a matrix. The catalyst does not contain promoters and the treatment is applicable to either the regeneration of said spent single particle iron-containing catalyst or for the initial activation of fresh catalyst. The treatment involves air oxidation, hydrogen reduction, followed by a second air oxidation and contact of the iron-containing single particle catalyst with syngas prior to its use for the catalytic conversion of said syngas. The single particle iron-containing catalysts are prepared from a water insoluble organic iron compound.

  1. Recognition of specific patterns of amino acid inhibition of growth in higher plants, uncomplicated by glutamine-reversible `general amino acid inhibition'

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Carol A Bonner; Roy A Jensen

    1997-01-01

    The complexity of the regulatory mechanisms that govern amino acid biosynthesis, particularly in multibranched pathways, frequently results in sensitivity to growth inhibition by exogenous amino acids. Usually the inhibition caused by a given amino acid(s) is relieved by another amino acid(s), thus indicating the cause of inhibition to be a specific interference with endogenous formation of the latter amino acid(s).

  2. Sulfonic acid functionalized silica: an efficient heterogeneous catalyst for a three-component synthesis of 1,4-dihydropyridines under solvent-free conditions.

    PubMed

    Das, Biswanath; Suneel, Kanaparthy; Venkateswarlu, Katta; Ravikanth, Bommena

    2008-03-01

    Sulfonic acid functionalized silica catalyzed the three-component reaction of aromatic amines, alpha,beta-unsaturated aldehydes and beta-keto esters forming the corresponding 1,4-dihydropyridines in short reaction times and in high yields. PMID:18310950

  3. The identification of the acid^base catalyst of K-arabinofuranosidase from Geobacillus stearothermophilus T-6, a family 51 glycoside hydrolase

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dalia Shallom; Valery Belakhov; Dmitry Solomon; Sara Gilead-Gropper; Timor Baasov; Gil Shoham; Yuval Shoham

    The K K-L-arabinofuranosidase from Geobacillus stearo- thermophilus T-6 (AbfA T-6) belongs to the retaining family 51 glycoside hydrolases. The conserved Glu175 was proposed to be the acid^base catalytic residue. AbfA T-6 exhibits residual activity towards aryl L L-D-xylopyranosides. This phenomenon was used to examine the catalytic properties of the putative acid^base mutant E175A. Data from kinetic experiments, pH profiles, azide

  4. ESTIMATION OF PHOSPHATE ESTER HYDROLYSIS RATE CONSTANTS. II. ACID AND GENERAL BASE CATALYZED HYDROLYSIS

    EPA Science Inventory

    SPARC (SPARC Performs Automated Reasoning in Chemistry) chemical reactivity models were extended to calculate acid and neutral hydrolysis rate constants of phosphate esters in water. The rate is calculated from the energy difference between the initial and transition states of a ...

  5. Supported catalysts: synthesis and characterization. Final report

    Microsoft Academic Search

    1980-01-01

    The basic steps in the synthesis of supported catalysts are: nucleation, growth and coagulation. The nucleation process is one of polymerization-condensation of the starting inorganic monomer. Silicic acid or hydrated aluminum ions polymerize individually to form long polymeric chains. In the case of metal systems the metal ion and the organic reducing agent form co-polymers which, on reaching a certain

  6. Epoxidation of Methyl Oleate using Heterogeneous Catalyst

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In this work we studied the catalytic activity of commercial alumina, and laboratory synthesized alumina doped with Lewis acid metals, in the epoxidation of methyl oleate with aqueous hydrogen peroxide. It was observed that the reaction yields increased when the amount of catalyst, the quantity of ...

  7. Methods of making textured catalysts

    DOEpatents

    Werpy, Todd (West Richland, WA); Frye, Jr., John G. (Richland, WA); Wang, Yong (Richland, WA); Zacher, Alan H. (Kennewick, WA)

    2010-08-17

    A textured catalyst having a hydrothermally-stable support, a metal oxide and a catalyst component is described. Methods of conducting aqueous phase reactions that are catalyzed by a textured catalyst are also described. The invention also provides methods of making textured catalysts and methods of making chemical products using a textured catalyst.

  8. A 1.9 Å Crystal Structure of the HDV Ribozyme Precleavage Suggests both Lewis Acid and General Acid Mechanisms Contribute to Phosphodiester Cleavage

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Jui-Hui; Yajima, Rieko; Chadalavada, Durga M.; Chase, Elaine; Bevilacqua, Philip C.; Golden, Barbara L. (Purdue); (Penn)

    2010-11-01

    The hepatitis delta virus (HDV) ribozyme and HDV-like ribozymes are self-cleaving RNAs found throughout all kingdoms of life. These RNAs fold into a double-nested pseudoknot structure and cleave RNA, yielding 2{prime},3{prime}-cyclic phosphate and 5{prime}-hydroxyl termini. The active site nucleotide C75 has a pK{sub a} shifted >2 pH units toward neutrality and has been implicated as a general acid/base in the cleavage reaction. An active site Mg{sup 2+} ion that helps activate the 2{prime}-hydroxyl for nucleophilic attack has been characterized biochemically; however, this ion has not been visualized in any previous structures. To create a snapshot of the ribozyme in a state poised for catalysis, we have crystallized and determined the structure of the HDV ribozyme bound to an inhibitor RNA containing a deoxynucleotide at the cleavage site. This structure includes the wild-type C75 nucleotide and Mg{sup 2+} ions, both of which are required for maximal ribozyme activity. This structure suggests that the position of C75 does not change during the cleavage reaction. A partially hydrated Mg{sup 2+} ion is also found within the active site where it interacts with a newly resolved G {center_dot} U reverse wobble. Although the inhibitor exhibits crystallographic disorder, we modeled the ribozyme-substrate complex using the conformation of the inhibitor strand observed in the hammerhead ribozyme. This model suggests that the pro-RP oxygen of the scissile phosphate and the 2{prime}-hydroxyl nucleophile are inner-sphere ligands to the active site Mg{sup 2+} ion. Thus, the HDV ribozyme may use a combination of metal ion Lewis acid and nucleobase general acid strategies to effect RNA cleavage.

  9. CATALYSTS NHI Thermochemical Systems FY 2009 Year-End Report

    SciTech Connect

    Daniel M. Ginosar

    2009-09-01

    Fiscal Year 2009 work in the Catalysts project focused on advanced catalysts for the decomposition of sulfuric acid, a reaction common to both the Sulfur-Iodine (S-I) cycle and the Hybrid Sulfur cycle. Prior years’ effort in this project has found that although platinum supported on titanium oxide will be an acceptable catalyst for sulfuric acid decomposition in the integrated laboratory scale (ILS) project, the material has short comings, including significant cost and high deactivation rates due to sintering and platinum evaporation. For pilot and larger scale systems, the catalyst stability needs to be improved significantly. In Fiscal Year 2008 it was found that at atmospheric pressure, deactivation rates of a 1 wt% platinum catalyst could be reduced by 300% by adding either 0.3 wt% iridium (Ir) or 0.3 wt% ruthenium (Ru) to the catalyst. In Fiscal Year 2009, work focused on examining the platinum group metal catalysts activity and stability at elevated pressures. In addition, simple and complex metal oxides are known to catalyze the sulfuric acid decomposition reaction. These metal oxides could offer activities comparable to platinum but at significantly reduced cost. Thus a second focus for Fiscal Year 2009 was to explore metal oxide catalysts for the sulfuric acid decomposition reaction. In Fiscal Year 2007 several commercial activated carbons had been identified for the HI decomposition reaction; a reaction specific to the S-I cycle. Those materials should be acceptable for the pilot scale project. The activated carbon catalysts have some disadvantages including low activity at the lower range of reactor operating temperature (350 to 400°C) and a propensity to generate carbon monoxide in the presence of water that could contaminate the hydrogen product, but due to limited funding, this area had low priority in Fiscal Year 2009. Fiscal Year 2009 catalyst work included five tasks: development, and testing of stabilized platinum based H2SO4 catalysts, development and testing of metal oxide based H2SO4 catalysts, support of the ILS for catalyst studies, conducting a long term catalyst stability test at anticipated operating temperatures and pressures, and developing capabilities for conducting pressurized catalyst tests.

  10. Catalyst deoiling process

    SciTech Connect

    Olson, C.B.; Plichta, R.T.; Coyne, D.W.

    1987-04-28

    A deoiling process is described comprising the steps of: removing a slurry of spent catalyst and oil from an ebullated bed reactor; transporting the slurry of spent catalyst and oil from the reactor to a vessel; cooling the slurry of spent catalyst and oil in the vessel to a temperature below the flash point of the oil; conveying the cooled slurry at an upward angle of inclination in a screw conveyor in a spiral flow pattern while countercurrently draining oil from the slurry to substantially separate the oil from the spent catalyst; and discharging the spent catalyst from the screw conveyor into a bin after the oil has been substantially separated from the spent catalyst.

  11. Piperidine hydrogenolysis on a commercial hydrocracking catalyst. II. The effects of initial piperidine concentration, temperature, catalyst presulfidation, and hydrogen partial pressure on catalyst activity, deactivation, and coke formation

    SciTech Connect

    Hadjiloizou, G.C.; Butt, J.B.; Dranoff, J.S. (Northwestern Univ., Evanston, IL (United States))

    1992-05-01

    The formation of coke in the piperidine hydrogenolysis reaction over a fresh sulfided hydrocracking catalyst was examined at temperatures ranging from 281 to 321 C, hydrogen partial pressures of 11.2 to 15.9 atm (1.1 to 1.6 MPa), and initial concentrations of piperidine of 3.94 [times] 10[sup [minus]3] to 11.84 [times] 10[sup [minus]3]g mol/liter using elemental analysis, [sup 13]C NMR spectroscopy, and ESCA. The results indicated that most of the coke present on the catalyst after 17 h on stream was deposited in the initial 90 min of the reaction. Coke formation and hence catalyst deactivation were found to increase with both reaction temperature and initial concentration of piperidine. Reducing the catalyst instead of sulfiding it had no effect on the final coke content. Nitrogen was found to be present on the catalyst surface after reaction indicating that nitrogen-containing compound were participating in the formation of coke. The H/C ratio of the coke decreased very slowly with reaction time and was invariant to changes in temperature, initial concentration of piperidine, or catlayst pretreatment method. Comparing the activity of reduced versus sulfided fresh catalysts in the hydrogenolysis of piperidine, it was found that under the present conditions, catalyst presulfidation increased the activity of the metallic catalyst function and decreased the rate of catalyst deactivation. Furthermore, decreasing the partial pressure of hydrogen resulted in an activity decrease of the metallic catalyst function and had a negative effect on the overall catalyst activity maintenance. The intrinsic activity of the acidic catalyst function was not affected by the change in hydrogen partial pressure.

  12. Measurement and modeling of acid dissociation constants of tri-peptides containing Glu, Gly, and His using potentiometry and generalized multiplicative analysis of variance.

    PubMed

    Khoury, Rima Raffoul; Sutton, Gordon J; Hibbert, D Brynn; Ebrahimi, Diako

    2013-02-28

    We report pK(a) values with measurement uncertainties for all labile protons of the 27 tri-peptides prepared from the amino acids glutamic acid (E), glycine (G) and histidine (H). Each tri-peptide (GGG, GGE, GGH, …, HHH) was subjected to alkali titration and pK(a) values were calculated from triplicate potentiometric titrations data using HyperQuad 2008 software. A generalized multiplicative analysis of variance (GEMANOVA) of pK(a) values for the most acidic proton gave the optimum model having two terms, an interaction between the end amino acids plus an isolated main effect of the central amino acid. PMID:23247603

  13. The generalized lewis acid-base titration of palladium and niobium

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Cima; L. Brewer

    1988-01-01

    The high thermodynamic stability of alloys composed of platinum group metals and group IVB and VB metals has been explained\\u000a by an electronic interaction analogous to the Lewis acid-base concept for nontransition elements. The analogy is further demonstrated\\u000a by the titration of palladium by addition of niobium. The activity of niobium in solid palladium was measured as a function\\u000a of

  14. An FT-IR study on Diels Alder reactions catalysed by heteropoly acid containing sol gel silica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kukovecz, Á.; Kónya, Z.; Kiricsi, I.

    2001-05-01

    Following the general trend of using heterogeneous catalysts whenever possible, the replacement of traditional homogeneous Lewis acid catalysts for the Diels-Alder reaction is currently considered in the literature. In this contribution, we report the successful application of sol-gel derived tungstophosphoric acid-silica composites as catalysts in the reaction of 1,3-cyclohexadiene and 2-propenal. The reaction was monitored by in situ FT-IR spectroscopy following the changes in the fine structure of the ?(C?O) band. The catalytic activity of the sol-gel immobilised heteropoly acids seems to be comparable with that of more conventional sol-gel silica-aluminas and their selectivity is even better because Broensted acid sites are destroyed upon calcination of the dry gel.

  15. Preparation and evaluation of advanced electro-catalysts for phosphoric acid fuel cells. Eighth quarterly report, October-December 1981. [Platinum

    SciTech Connect

    Stonehart, P.; Baris, J.; Hochmuth, J.; Pagliaro, P.

    1981-12-31

    In the development of new and highly efficient porous electrocatalysts, two cooperative phenomena are required. The first is an increase in the electrocatalytic activity of the catalyst particle, and the second is the availability of that electrocatalyst particle for the electrochemical reaction. These two processes interact with each other in such a way that improvements in the electrochemical activity must be coupled with improvements in the availability of the electrocatalyst for reaction. Since cost effective and highly reactive electrocatalysts have been developed under this program, the utilization of the electrocatalyst particles in the porous electrode structures is addressed. Based on the performance of the electrocatalysts in porous electrode structures, it is shown that a large percentage of the electrocatalyst in anode structures is not utilized. This low utilization translates directly and dramatically into a noble metal cost penalty for the fuel cell. Dramatic improvements in the cost effectiveness of the fuel cell will be achieved by improvements in electrocatalyst catalyzation technology and electrode structure technology.

  16. CATALYSTS FOR HIGH CETANE ETHERS AS DIESEL FUELS

    SciTech Connect

    Kamil Klier; Richard G. Herman; Heock-Hoi Kwon; James G. C. Shen; Qisheng Ma; Robert A. Hunsicker; Andrew P. Butler; Scott J. Bollinger

    2003-03-01

    A tungstena-zirconia (WZ) catalyst has been investigated for coupling methanol and isobutanol to unsymmetrical ethers, i.e. methyl isobutyl ether (MIBE) and compared with earlier studied sulfated-zirconia (SZ) and Nafion-H catalysts. In all cases, the ether synthesis mechanism is a dual site S{sub N}2 process involving competitive adsorption of reactants on proximal acid sites. At low reaction temperatures, methylisobutylether (MIBE) is the predominant product. However, at temperatures >135 C the WZ catalyst is very good for dehydration of isobutanol to isobutene. The surface acid sites of the WZ catalyst and a Nafion-H catalyst were diagnosed by high resolution X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) of N 1s shifts after adsorption of amines. Using pyridine, ethylenediamine, and triethylamine, it is shown that WZ has heterogeneous strong Broensted acid sites. Theoretical study located the transition state of the alcohol coupling reaction on proximal Broensted acid sites and accounted well for XPS core-level shifts upon surface acid-base interactions. While computations have not been carried out with WZ, it is shown that the SZ catalyst is a slightly stronger acid than CF{sub 3}SO{sub 3}H (a model for Nafion-H) by 1.3-1.4 kcal/mol. A novel sulfated zirconia catalyst having proximal strong Broensted acid sites was synthesized and shown to have significantly enhanced activity and high selectivity in producing MIBE or isobutene from methanol/isobutanol mixtures. The catalyst was prepared by anchoring 1,2-ethanediol bis(hydrogen sulfate) salt precursor onto zirconium hydroxide, followed by calcination to remove the -(CH{sub 2}CH{sub 2})- bridging residues.

  17. Enantioselective conjugate additions of ?-amino radicals via cooperative photoredox and Lewis acid catalysis.

    PubMed

    Ruiz Espelt, Laura; McPherson, Iain S; Wiensch, Eric M; Yoon, Tehshik P

    2015-02-25

    We report the highly enantioselective addition of photogenerated ?-amino radicals to Michael acceptors. This method features a dual-catalyst protocol that combines transition metal photoredox catalysis with chiral Lewis acid catalysis. The combination of these two powerful modes of catalysis provides an effective, general strategy to generate and control the reactivity of photogenerated reactive intermediates. PMID:25668687

  18. Integration of General Amino Acid Control and Target of Rapamycin (TOR) Regulatory Pathways in Nitrogen Assimilation in Yeast*

    PubMed Central

    Staschke, Kirk A.; Dey, Souvik; Zaborske, John M.; Palam, Lakshmi Reddy; McClintick, Jeanette N.; Pan, Tao; Edenberg, Howard J.; Wek, Ronald C.

    2010-01-01

    Two important nutrient-sensing and regulatory pathways, the general amino acid control (GAAC) and the target of rapamycin (TOR), participate in the control of yeast growth and metabolism during changes in nutrient availability. Amino acid starvation activates the GAAC through Gcn2p phosphorylation of translation factor eIF2 and preferential translation of GCN4, a transcription activator. TOR senses nitrogen availability and regulates transcription factors such as Gln3p. We used microarray analyses to address the integration of the GAAC and TOR pathways in directing the yeast transcriptome during amino acid starvation and rapamycin treatment. We found that GAAC is a major effector of the TOR pathway, with Gcn4p and Gln3p each inducing a similar number of genes during rapamycin treatment. Although Gcn4p activates a common core of 57 genes, the GAAC directs significant variations in the transcriptome during different stresses. In addition to inducing amino acid biosynthetic genes, Gcn4p in conjunction with Gln3p activates genes required for the assimilation of secondary nitrogen sources such as ?-aminobutyric acid (GABA). Gcn2p activation upon shifting to secondary nitrogen sources is suggested to occur by means of a dual mechanism. First, Gcn2p is induced by the release of TOR repression through a mechanism involving Sit4p protein phosphatase. Second, this eIF2 kinase is activated by select uncharged tRNAs, which were shown to accumulate during the shift to the GABA medium. This study highlights the mechanisms by which the GAAC and TOR pathways are integrated to recognize changing nitrogen availability and direct the transcriptome for optimal growth adaptation. PMID:20233714

  19. Fusidic acid cream in the treatment of impetigo in general practice: double blind randomised placebo controlled trial

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sander Koning; Suijlekom-Smit van L. W. A; J. L. Nouwen; C. M. Verduin; R. M. D. Bernsen; A. P. Oranje; Siep Thomas; Wouden van der J. C

    2002-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To test the hypothesis that fusidic acid would not increase the\\u000a treatment effect of disinfecting with povidone-iodine alone in children\\u000a with impetigo. DESIGN: Randomised placebo controlled trial. SETTING:\\u000a General practices in Greater Rotterdam. PARTICIPANTS: 184 children aged\\u000a 0-12 years with impetigo. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Clinical cure and\\u000a bacterial cure after one week. RESULTS: After one week of treatment 55%

  20. Regeneration of Three-Way Automobile Catalysts using Biodegradable Metal Chelating Agent ? S, S-Ethylenediamine Disuccinic Acid (S, S-EDDS)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Regeneration of the activity of three-way catalytic converters (TWCs) was tested for the first time using a biodegradable metal chelating agent (S, S. Ethylenediamine disuccinic acid (S, S-EDDS). The efficiency of this novel environmentally friendly solvent in removing various c...

  1. Method for producing iron-based catalysts

    DOEpatents

    Farcasiu, Malvina (Pittsburgh, PA); Kaufman, Phillip B. (Library, PA); Diehl, J. Rodney (Pittsburgh, PA); Kathrein, Hendrik (McMurray, PA)

    1999-01-01

    A method for preparing an acid catalyst having a long shelf-life is provided comprising doping crystalline iron oxides with lattice-compatible metals and heating the now-doped oxide with halogen compounds at elevated temperatures. The invention also provides for a catalyst comprising an iron oxide particle having a predetermined lattice structure, one or more metal dopants for said iron oxide, said dopants having an ionic radius compatible with said lattice structure; and a halogen bound with the iron and the metal dopants on the surface of the particle.

  2. Nanostructured catalyst supports

    DOEpatents

    Zhu, Yimin; Goldman, Jay L.; Qian, Baixin; Stefan, Ionel C.

    2012-10-02

    The present invention relates to SiC nanostructures, including SiC nanopowder, SiC nanowires, and composites of SiC nanopowder and nanowires, which can be used as catalyst supports in membrane electrode assemblies and in fuel cells. The present invention also relates to composite catalyst supports comprising nanopowder and one or more inorganic nanowires for a membrane electrode assembly.

  3. Reducible oxide based catalysts

    DOEpatents

    Thompson, Levi T.; Kim, Chang Hwan; Bej, Shyamal K.

    2010-04-06

    A catalyst is disclosed herein. The catalyst includes a reducible oxide support and at least one noble metal fixed on the reducible oxide support. The noble metal(s) is loaded on the support at a substantially constant temperature and pH.

  4. The use of imidazolium ionic liquid/copper complex as novel and green catalyst for chemiluminescent detection of folic acid by Mn-doped ZnS nanocrystals.

    PubMed

    Azizi, Seyed Naser; Shakeri, Parmis; Chaichi, Mohammad Javad; Bekhradnia, Ahmadreza; Taghavi, Mehdi; Ghaemy, Mousa

    2014-03-25

    A novel chemiluminescence (CL) method using water-soluble Mn-doped ZnS quantum dots (QDs) as CL emitter is proposed for the chemiluminometric determination of folic acid in pharmaceutical formulation. Water-soluble Mn-doped ZnS QDs were synthesized by using L-cysteine as stabilizer in aqueous solutions. The nanoparticles were structurally and optically characterized by X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), dynamic light scattering (DLS), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), UV-Vis absorption spectroscopy and photoluminescence (PL) emission spectroscopy. The CL of ZnS QDs induced by directly chemical oxidation and its ionic liquid-sensitized effect in aqueous solution were then investigated. It was found that oxidants, especially hydrogen peroxide, could directly oxidize ZnS QDs to produce weak CL emission in basic conditions. In the presence of 1,3-dipropylimidazolium bromide/copper a drastic light emission enhancement is observed, related to a strong interaction between Cu(2+) and the imidazolium ring. Therefore, a new CL analysis system was developed for the determination of folic acid. Under the optimum conditions, there is a good linear relationship between the relative CL intensity and the concentration of folic acid in the range of 1×10(-9)-1×10(-)(6) M of folic acid with a correlation coefficient (R(2)) of 0.9991. The limit of detection of this system was found to be 1×10(-)(10) M. This method is not only simple, sensitive and low cost, but also reliable for practical applications. PMID:24322762

  5. The use of imidazolium ionic liquid/copper complex as novel and green catalyst for chemiluminescent detection of folic acid by Mn-doped ZnS nanocrystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Azizi, Seyed Naser; Shakeri, Parmis; Chaichi, Mohammad Javad; Bekhradnia, Ahmadreza; Taghavi, Mehdi; Ghaemy, Mousa

    2014-03-01

    A novel chemiluminescence (CL) method using water-soluble Mn-doped ZnS quantum dots (QDs) as CL emitter is proposed for the chemiluminometric determination of folic acid in pharmaceutical formulation. Water-soluble Mn-doped ZnS QDs were synthesized by using L-cysteine as stabilizer in aqueous solutions. The nanoparticles were structurally and optically characterized by X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), dynamic light scattering (DLS), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), UV-Vis absorption spectroscopy and photoluminescence (PL) emission spectroscopy. The CL of ZnS QDs induced by directly chemical oxidation and its ionic liquid-sensitized effect in aqueous solution were then investigated. It was found that oxidants, especially hydrogen peroxide, could directly oxidize ZnS QDs to produce weak CL emission in basic conditions. In the presence of 1,3-dipropylimidazolium bromide/copper a drastic light emission enhancement is observed, related to a strong interaction between Cu2+ and the imidazolium ring. Therefore, a new CL analysis system was developed for the determination of folic acid. Under the optimum conditions, there is a good linear relationship between the relative CL intensity and the concentration of folic acid in the range of 1 × 10-9-1 × 10-6 M of folic acid with a correlation coefficient (R2) of 0.9991. The limit of detection of this system was found to be 1 × 10-10 M. This method is not only simple, sensitive and low cost, but also reliable for practical applications.

  6. Friedel-Crafts acylation reactions using heterogeneous catalysts stimulated by conventional and microwave heating

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. Bond; J. A. Gardner; R. W. McCabe; D. J. Shorrock

    2007-01-01

    The acylation of anisole with decanoic acid over a range of solid-acid catalysts has been studied under conventional heating and microwave stimulation. The microwave-irradiated experiments exhibited increased reaction rates, the extent of which was dependent upon the nature of the catalyst. The origin of this microwave enhancement has been attributed to the selective desorption of water from the surface of

  7. Isobutane\\/butene alkylation on solid catalysts. Where do we stand?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Weitkamp; Y. Traa

    1999-01-01

    Liquid-phase processes with concentrated sulfuric acid or hydrogen fluoride as catalysts are currently being used in petroleum refining for the manufacture of alkylation gasoline from isobutane and butenes. While the product, i.e., alkylate, is a most valuable gasoline component, the existing processes for its manufacture are less satisfactory. Replacement of the liquid catalysts by a solid acid is an important

  8. Esterification Reaction Utilizing Sense of Smell and Eyesight for Conversion and Catalyst Recovery Monitoring

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Janssens, Nikki; Wee, Lik H.; Martens, Johan A.

    2014-01-01

    The esterification reaction of salicylic acid with ethanol is performed in presence of dissolved 12-tungstophosphoric Brønsted-Lowry acid catalyst, a Keggin-type polyoxometalate (POM). The monitoring of the reaction with smell and the recovery of the catalyst with sight is presented. Formation of the sweet-scented ester is apparent from the smell.…

  9. Single-site heterogeneous catalysts.

    PubMed

    Thomas, John Meurig; Raja, Robert; Lewis, Dewi W

    2005-10-14

    Intellectually, the advantages that flow from the availability of single-site heterogeneous catalysts (SSHC) are many. They facilitate the determination of the kinetics and mechanism of catalytic turnover-both experimentally and computationally-and make accessible the energetics of various intermediates (including short-lived transition states). These facts in turn offer a rational strategic principle for the design of new catalysts and the improvement of existing ones. It is generally possible to prepare soluble molecular fragments that circumscribe the single-site, thus enabling a direct comparison to be made, experimentally, between the catalytic performance of the same active site when functioning as a heterogeneous (continuous solid) as well as a homogeneous (dispersed molecular) catalyst. This approach also makes it possible to modify the immediate atomic environment as well as the central atomic structure of the active site. From the practical standpoint, SSHC exhibit very high selectivities leading to the production of sharply defined molecular products, just as do their homogeneous analogues. Given that mesoporous silicas with very large internal surface areas are ideal supports for SSHC, and that more than a quarter of the elements of the Periodic Table may be grafted as active sites onto such silicas, there is abundant scope for creating new catalytic opportunities. PMID:16211650

  10. Competing reaction processes on a lattice as a paradigm for catalyst deactivation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abad, E.; Kozak, J. J.

    2015-02-01

    We mobilize both a generating function approach and the theory of finite Markov processes to compute the probability of irreversible absorption of a randomly diffusing species on a lattice with competing reaction centers. We consider an N-site lattice populated by a single deep trap, and N -1 partially absorbing traps (absorption probability 0 catalyst deactivation processes on planar surfaces and on catalyst pellets where only a single catalytic site remains fully active (deep trap), the other sites being only partially active as a result of surface poisoning. The central result of our study is that the predicted dependence of the reaction efficiency on system size N and on s is in qualitative accord with previously reported experimental results, notably catalysts exhibiting selective poisoning due to surface sites that have different affinities for chemisorption of the poisoning agent (e.g., acid zeolite catalysts). Deviations from the efficiency of a catalyst with identical sites are quantified, and we find that such deviations display a significant dependence on the topological details of the surface (for fixed values of N and s we find markedly different results for, say, a planar surface and for the polyhedral surface of a catalyst pellet). Our results highlight the importance of surface topology for the efficiency of catalytic conversion processes on inhomogeneous substrates, and in particular for those aimed at industrial applications. From our exact analysis we extract results for the two limiting cases s ?1 and s ?0 , corresponding respectively to weak and strong catalyst poisoning (decreasing s leads to a monotonic decrease in the efficiency of catalytic conversion). The results for the s ?0 case are relevant for the dual problem of light-energy conversion via trapping of excitations in the chlorophyll antenna network. Here, decreasing the probability of excitation trapping s at sites other than the target molecule does not result in a decrease of the efficiency as in the catalyst case, but rather in enhanced efficiency of light-energy conversion, which we characterize in terms of N and s . The one-dimensional case and its connection with a modified version of the gambler's ruin problem are discussed. Finally, generalizations of our model are described briefly.

  11. Probing the Active Site of MIO-dependent Aminomutases, Key Catalysts in the Biosynthesis of amino Acids Incorporated in Secondary Metabolites

    SciTech Connect

    Cooke, H.; Bruner, S

    2010-01-01

    The tyrosine aminomutase SgTAM produces (S)-{beta}-tyrosine from L-tyrosine in the biosynthesis of the enediyne antitumor antibiotic C-1027. This conversion is promoted by the methylideneimidazole-5-one (MIO) prosthetic group. MIO was first identified in the homologous family of ammonia lyases, which deaminate aromatic amino acids to form {alpha},{beta}-unsaturated carboxylates. Studies of substrate specificity have been described for lyases but there have been limited reports in altering the substrate specificity of aminomutases. Furthermore, it remains unclear as to what structural properties are responsible for catalyzing the presumed readdition of the amino group into the {alpha},{beta}-unsaturated intermediates to form {beta}-amino acids. Attempts to elucidate specificity and mechanistic determinants of SgTAM have also proved to be difficult as it is recalcitrant to perturbations to the active site via mutagenesis. An X-ray cocrystal structure of the SgTAM mutant of the catalytic base with L-tyrosine verified important substrate binding residues as well as the enzymatic base. Further mutagenesis revealed that removal of these crucial interactions renders the enzyme inactive. Proposed structural determinants for mutase activity probed via mutagenesis, time-point assays and X-ray crystallography revealed a complicated role for these residues in maintaining key quaternary structure properties that aid in catalysis.

  12. Liquid phase methanol synthesis catalyst

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H Mabuse; K Hagihara; T Watanabe; M Saito

    1997-01-01

    This work focuses on the investigation of the stability of catalyst activity in the liquid phase methanol synthesis process. The effects of various kinds of metfhods to inhibit the deactivation of catalyst have been experimentally examined. The activity of catalyst was stabilized without lowering of activity by a suitable hydrothermal treatment, although the activity of the untreated catalyst decreased gradually

  13. Chemically modified rhodium-alumina catalysts for CO hydrogenation

    SciTech Connect

    Sudhakar, C.; Bhore, N.; Bischoff, K.B.; Manogue, W.H.; Mills, G.A.

    1986-03-01

    The catalytic hydrogenation of CO offers special opportunities to understand the relationship between catalyst structure and performance. Wide variations in product distributions are engendered by variations in catalyst composition, particularly for platinum group metals (PGM) on oxide supports, further modified by third components. The system rhodium/alumina is being investigated; rhodium because of its transitional place in the PGM series, and alumina because it can display a wide range of properties including surface acidity. The concept adopted is to visualize the catalyst as having distinct functionalities responsible for each type of product and to seek to identify the catalyst structure responsible for each of these. Ultimately, the objective is to devise a comprehensive reaction mechanism network and to provide the basis for 'tailor making' better catalysts useful for production of oxygenated chemicals and especially octane-enhancing fuels.

  14. Two Catalysts for Selective Oxidation of Contaminant Gases

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wright, John D.

    2011-01-01

    Two catalysts for the selective oxidation of trace amounts of contaminant gases in air have been developed for use aboard the International Space Station. These catalysts might also be useful for reducing concentrations of fumes in terrestrial industrial facilities especially facilities that use halocarbons as solvents, refrigerant liquids, and foaming agents, as well as facilities that generate or utilize ammonia. The first catalyst is of the supported-precious-metal type. This catalyst is highly active for the oxidation of halocarbons, hydrocarbons, and oxygenates at low concentrations in air. This catalyst is more active for the oxidation of hydrocarbons and halocarbons than are competing catalysts developed in recent years. This catalyst completely converts these airborne contaminant gases to carbon dioxide, water, and mineral acids that can be easily removed from the air, and does not make any chlorine gas in the process. The catalyst is thermally stable and is not poisoned by chlorine or fluorine atoms produced on its surface during the destruction of a halocarbon. In addition, the catalyst can selectively oxidize ammonia to nitrogen at a temperature between 200 and 260 C, without making nitrogen oxides, which are toxic. The temperature of 260 C is higher than the operational temperature of any other precious-metal catalyst that can selectively oxidize ammonia. The purpose of the platinum in this catalyst is to oxidize hydrocarbons and to ensure that the oxidation of halocarbons goes to completion. However, the platinum exhibits little or no activity for initiating the destruction of halocarbons. Instead, the attack on the halocarbons is initiated by the support. The support also provides a high surface area for exposure of the platinum. Moreover, the support resists deactivation or destruction by halogens released during the destruction of halocarbons. The second catalyst is of the supported- metal-oxide type. This catalyst can selectively oxidize ammonia to nitrogen at temperatures up to 400 C, without producing nitrogen oxides. This catalyst converts ammonia completely to nitrogen, even when the concentration of ammonia is very low. No other catalyst is known to oxidize ammonia selectively at such a high temperature and low concentration. Both the metal oxide and the support contribute to the activity and selectivity of this catalyst.

  15. Ethanol production from glucose and xylose obtained from steam exploded water-extracted olive tree pruning using phosphoric acid as catalyst.

    PubMed

    Negro, M J; Alvarez, C; Ballesteros, I; Romero, I; Ballesteros, M; Castro, E; Manzanares, P; Moya, M; Oliva, J M

    2014-02-01

    In this work, the effect of phosphoric acid (1% w/w) in steam explosion pretreatment of water extracted olive tree pruning at 175°C and 195°C was evaluated. The objective is to produce ethanol from all sugars (mainly glucose and xylose) contained in the pretreated material. The water insoluble fraction obtained after pretreatment was used as substrate in a simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) process by a commercial strain of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The liquid fraction, containing mainly xylose, was detoxified by alkali and ion-exchange resin and then fermented by the xylose fermenting yeast Scheffersomyces stipitis. Ethanol yields reached in a SSF process were close to 80% when using 15% (w/w) substrate consistency and about 70% of theoretical when using prehydrolysates detoxified by ion-exchange resins. Considering sugars recovery and ethanol yields about 160g of ethanol from kg of water extracted olive tree pruning could be obtained. PMID:24345569

  16. Catalyst Activity Comparison of Alcohols over Zeolites

    SciTech Connect

    Ramasamy, Karthikeyan K.; Wang, Yong

    2013-01-01

    Alcohol transformation to transportation fuel range hydrocarbon on HZSM-5 (SiO2 / Al2O3 = 30) catalyst was studied at 360oC and 300psig. Product distributions and catalyst life were compared using methanol, ethanol, 1-propanol or 1-butanol as a feed. The catalyst life for 1-propanol and 1-butanol was more than double compared to that for methanol and ethanol. For all the alcohols studied, the product distributions (classified to paraffin, olefin, napthene, aromatic and naphthalene compounds) varied with time on stream (TOS). At 24 hours TOS, liquid product from 1-propanol and 1-butanol transformation primarily contains higher olefin compounds. The alcohol transformation process to higher hydrocarbon involves a complex set of reaction pathways such as dehydration, oligomerization, dehydrocyclization, and hydrogenation. Compared to ethylene generated from methanol and ethanol, oligomerization of propylene and butylene has a lower activation energy and can readily take place on weaker acidic sites. On the other hand, dehydrocyclization of propylene and butylene to form the cyclic compounds requires the sits with stronger acid strength. Combination of the above mentioned reasons are the primary reasons for olefin rich product generated in the later stage of the time on stream and for the extended catalyst life time for 1 propanol and 1 butanol compared to methanol and ethanol conversion over HZSM-5.

  17. Catalyst for microelectromechanical systems microreactors

    DOEpatents

    Morse, Jeffrey D. (Martinez, CA); Sopchak, David A. (Livermore, CA); Upadhye, Ravindra S. (Pleasanton, CA); Reynolds, John G. (San Ramon, CA); Satcher, Joseph H. (Patterson, CA); Gash, Alex E. (Brentwood, CA)

    2011-11-15

    A microreactor comprising a silicon wafer, a multiplicity of microchannels in the silicon wafer, and a catalyst coating the microchannels. In one embodiment the catalyst coating the microchannels comprises a nanostructured material. In another embodiment the catalyst coating the microchannels comprises an aerogel. In another embodiment the catalyst coating the microchannels comprises a solgel. In another embodiment the catalyst coating the microchannels comprises carbon nanotubes.

  18. DELETERIOUS IMPACT OF ?-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID TYPE A RECEPTOR PREFERRING GENERAL ANESTHETIC WHEN USED IN THE PRESENCE OF PERSISTENT INFLAMMATION

    PubMed Central

    Boegel, Kevin; Gyulai, Ferenc E.; Moore, Kerry; Gold, Michael S.

    2011-01-01

    Background Experimental data suggest ?-aminobutyric acid-A receptor preferring general anesthetics (GA) may increase post-operative pain in patients with persistent inflammation (PI). This study was designed to begin to test this prediction. Methods Groups of rats were defined by the presence of inflammation, surgical intervention and/or the type of GA used for a three-hour period of anesthesia. PI was induced with complete Freund's adjuvant. The surgical intervention was a plantar incision. Three mechanistically distinct GAs were used: pentobarbital, ketamine/xylazine and isoflurane. Ongoing pain and hypersensitivity was assessed with guarding behavior analysis and the von Frey test, respectively. Results There was no influence of GA type on the magnitude or time course of recovery from post-operative hypersensitivity in the absence of PI. In the presence of PI, however, recovery from hypersensitivity was significantly slower in the pentobarbital group than in ketamine/xylazine or isoflurane groups. The pentobarbital effect was significant within three days of surgery, and persisted through the remainder of the testing period. A comparable delay in recovery was observed in pentobarbital-anesthetized inflamed rats not subjected to hindpaw incision. The time to 50% recovery in pentobarbital treated inflamed groups was almost double that in the other groups. No differences were observed between ketamine/xylazine and isoflurane. Pentobarbital exposure did not increase guarding scores. Conclusions These results suggest that ?-aminobutyric acid-A receptor preferring GAs may have deleterious consequences when used in the presence of PI. PMID:21841466

  19. The use of catalyst to enhance the wet oxidation process.

    PubMed

    Maugans, C; Kumfer, B

    2007-01-01

    Wet oxidation tests were performed on two pure compound streams: acetic acid and ammonia; and on two wastewater streams: acrylic acid wastewater and sulphide laden spent caustic. Test results showed that Mn/Ce and Pt/TiO2 were effective catalysts that greatly enhanced acetic acid, ammonia and acrylic acid wastewater destruction. However, the Mn/Ce catalyst performance appears to be inhibited by concentrated salts dissolved in solution. This could limit the applicability of this catalyst for the treatment of brackish wastewaters. Zr, Ce and Ce nanoparticles were also shown to exhibit some catalytic activity, however not to the extent of the Mn/Ce and the Pt/TiO2. PMID:17674847

  20. Toward molecular catalysts by computer.

    PubMed

    Raugei, Simone; DuBois, Daniel L; Rousseau, Roger; Chen, Shentan; Ho, Ming-Hsun; Bullock, R Morris; Dupuis, Michel

    2015-02-17

    Conspectus Rational design of molecular catalysts requires a systematic approach to designing ligands with specific functionality and precisely tailored electronic and steric properties. It then becomes possible to devise computer protocols to design catalysts by computer. In this Account, we first review how thermodynamic properties such as redox potentials (E°), acidity constants (pKa), and hydride donor abilities (?GH(-)) form the basis for a framework for the systematic design of molecular catalysts for reactions that are critical for a secure energy future. We illustrate this for hydrogen evolution and oxidation, oxygen reduction, and CO conversion, and we give references to other instances where it has been successfully applied. The framework is amenable to quantum-chemical calculations and conducive to predictions by computer. We review how density functional theory allows the determination and prediction of these thermodynamic properties within an accuracy relevant to experimentalists (?0.06 eV for redox potentials, ?1 pKa unit for pKa values, and 1-2 kcal/mol for hydricities). Computation yielded correlations among thermodynamic properties as they reflect the electron population in the d shell of the metal center, thus substantiating empirical correlations used by experimentalists. These correlations point to the key role of redox potentials and other properties (pKa of the parent aminium for the proton-relay-based catalysts designed in our laboratory) that are easily accessible experimentally or computationally in reducing the parameter space for design. These properties suffice to fully determine free energies maps and profiles associated with catalytic cycles, i.e., the relative energies of intermediates. Their prediction puts us in a position to distinguish a priori between desirable and undesirable pathways and mechanisms. Efficient catalysts have flat free energy profiles that avoid high activation barriers due to low- and high-energy intermediates. The criterion of a flat energy profile can be mathematically resolved in a functional in the reduced parameter space that can be efficaciously calculated by means of the correlation expressions. Optimization of the functional permits the prediction by computer of design points for optimum catalysts. Specifically, the optimization yields the values of the thermodynamic properties for efficient (high rate and low overpotential) catalysts. We are on the verge of design of molecular electrocatalysts by computer. Future efforts must focus on identifying actual ligands that possess these properties. We believe that this can also be achieved through computation, using Taft-like relationships linking molecular composition and structure with electron-donating ability and steric effects. We note also that the approach adopted here of using free energy maps to decipher catalytic pathways and mechanisms does not account for kinetic barriers associated with elementary steps along the catalytic pathway, which may make thermodynamically accessible intermediates kinetically inaccessible. Such an extension of the approach will require further computations that, however, can take advantage of Polanyi-like linear free energy relationships linking activation barriers and reaction free energies. PMID:25574854