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1

Air Pollution  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This portal leads to multifaceted information about air pollution. It is divided into sections, each offering links to various topics related to air pollution. The sections are News, General/Overviews, Pictures/Diagrams, Prevention/Screening, Research, Specific Conditions/Aspects Law and Policy, Organizations and Children. Another link allows one to search MEDLINE for recent research articles on air pollution. Additional links lead to environmental health, indoor air pollution, ozone, poisoning, toxicology, and environmental health.

2

Air pollution—a general survey  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chemical pollution from road vehicles is increasing steadily with the increase in the amount of vehicle fuel burnt and is already at noxious levels in crowded city streets. CO1 unburnt and partially burnt hydrocarbons, soot, lead compounds and oxides of nitrogen are the harmful emissions. In a street or a tunnel CO is the villain—even putting the exhaust discharge at

M. W. Thring

1974-01-01

3

The Air Pollution Threat.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Contents: General inventory of air pollution sources and emissions; A summary of federal, state, and local air pollution laws; The quality of air in the sacramento regional area; Projections of population, vehicles, and activities to 1990; Air quality in ...

W. L. Faith

1969-01-01

4

Air Pollution  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Phoenix metropolitan area, like many large cities, has problems with air pollution at certain times of the year. You can do a simple experiment to determine some of the factors that affect air pollution.

Biology

2009-06-11

5

Air Pollution.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A summary of one of our most pressing environmental problems, air pollution, is offered in this book by the Director of Air Pollution Control for the Queensland (Australia) State Government. Discussion of the subject is not restricted to Queensland or Australian problems and policies, however, but includes analysis of air pollution the world over.…

Gilpin, Alan

6

Air Pollution.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Materials related to air pollution are reviewed for the period January 1987, to October 1988. The topics are pollution monitoring, air pollution, and environmental chemistry. The organization consists of two major analytical divisions: (1) gaseous methods; and (2) aerosol and particulate methods. (MVL)

Fox, Donald L.

1989-01-01

7

Air Pollution  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students are introduced to the concept of air quality by investigating the composition, properties, atmospheric layers and everyday importance of air. They explore the sources and effects of visible and invisible air pollution. By learning some fundamental meteorology concepts (air pressure, barometers, prediction, convection currents, temperature inversions), students learn the impact of weather on air pollution control and prevention. Looking at models and maps, they explore the consequences of pollutant transport via weather and water cycles. Students are introduced to acids, bases and pH, and the environmental problem of acid rain, including how engineers address this type of pollution. Using simple models, they study the greenhouse effect, the impact of increased greenhouse gases on the planet's protective ozone layer and the global warming theory. Students explore the causes and effects of the Earth's ozone holes through an interactive simulation. Students identify the types and sources of indoor air pollutants in their school and home, evaluating actions that can be taken to reduce and prevent poor indoor air quality. By building and observing a few simple models of pollutant recovery methods, students explore the modern industrial technologies designed by engineers to clean up and prevent air pollution.

Integrated Teaching And Learning Program

8

Air Pollution.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Pollution of the general environment, which exposes an entire population group for an indeterminate period of time, certainly constitutes a problem in public health. Serious aid pollution episodes have resulted in increased mortality and a possible relationship between chronic exposure to a polluted atmosphere and certain diseases has been…

Barker, K.; And Others

9

Air Pollution.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this book is to describe the basic mechanisms whereby pollution is transported and diffused in the atmosphere. It is designed to give practitioners an understanding of basic mechanics and physics so they may have a correct basis on which to formulate their decisions related to practical air pollution control problems. Since many…

Scorer, Richard S.

10

Air pollution.  

PubMed

Toxic air pollutants are continuously released into the air supply. Various pollutants come from chemical facilities and small businesses, such as automobile service stations and dry cleaning establishments. Others, such as nitrogen oxides, carbon monoxide and other volatile organic chemicals, arise primarily from the incomplete combustion of fossil fuels (coal and petroleum) and are emitted from sources that include car exhausts, home heating and industrial power plants. Pollutants in the atmosphere also result from photochemical transformations; for example, ozone is formed when molecular oxygen or nitrogen interacts with ultraviolet radiation. An association between air pollution exposure and lung cancer has been observed in several studies. The evidence for other cancers is far less conclusive. Estimates of the population attributable risk of cancer has varied substantially over the last 40 years, reflecting the limitations of studies; these include insufficient information on confounders, difficulties in characterizing associations due to a likely lengthy latency interval, and exposure misclassification. Although earlier estimates were less than one percent, recent cohort studies that have taken into account some confounding factors, such as smoking and education amongst others, suggest that approximately 3.6% of lung cancer in the European Union could be due to air pollution exposure, particularly to sulphate and fine particulates. A separate cohort study estimated 5-7% of lung cancers in European never smokers and ex-smokers could be due to air pollution exposure. Therefore, while cigarette smoking remains the predominant risk factor, the proportion of lung cancers attributable to air pollution may be higher than previously thought. Overall, major weaknesses in all air-pollution-and-cancer studies to date have been inadequate characterization of long-term air pollution exposure and imprecise or no measurements of covariates. It has only been in the last decade that measurements to PM2.5 become more widely available. A key weakness of many studies is using fixed-site monitoring data and assuming everyone in a region had the same exposure. This ignores spatial variability, and does not take into account how individuals' exposures differ with pollution sources inside, outside, both at work, home and elsewhere. More recent efforts to model indicators of vehicular traffic, and residential distances to major roads and highway can allow for some of this spatial variability to be better controlled for. However, this still does not take into account differences in activity patterns. If the effect is small, these biases will compromise the ability to detect an association. In most situations, the resulting estimates tend to be biased toward the null (i.e., no effect). For misclassification of exposure the inability to adequately control for confounding variables may cause bias in either direction. Recent improvements in statistical methodology use measurements at fixed sites combined with residential histories to estimate individuals' cumulative exposures. They also recognize measurement errors associated with covariates in the analysis to improve estimates of effects. Other challenges include the fact that measurements of exposure and confounders can change over time and long term data are needed due to the anticipated latency interval between harmful exposures and development of cancer. PMID:21199603

Le, Nhu D; Sun, Li; Zidek, James V

2010-01-01

11

Polluted Air = Polluted Lungs  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

To gain a better understanding of the roles and functions of components of the human respiratory system and our need for clean air, students construct model lungs that include a diaphragm and chest cavity. They see how air moving in and out of the lungs coincides with diaphragm movement. Then student teams design and build a prototype face mask pollution filter. They use their model lungs to evaluate their prototypes to design requirements.

Integrated Teaching And Learning Program

12

ORIGINAL ARTICLE Ambient Air Pollution  

E-print Network

ORIGINAL ARTICLE Ambient Air Pollution and Respiratory Emergency Department Visits Jennifer L. Peel pollution and respiratory outcomes. More refined assessment has been limited by study size and available air in relation to air pollutants using Poisson generalized estimating equations. Results: In single-pollutant

Mulholland, James A.

13

Environmental Pollution Air Pollution Dispersion Practical Air Pollution Dispersion  

E-print Network

Environmental Pollution Air Pollution Dispersion 1 of 5 Practical ­ Air Pollution Dispersion in the lectures how such models can be used to explain observed concentrations of air pollutants in an area to a large extent, downwind air pollution levels on a local or regional scale. The Gaussian Plume Model

Moncrieff, John B.

14

Indoor Air Pollution  

MedlinePLUS

We usually think of air pollution as being outdoors, but the air in your house or office could also be polluted. Sources of indoor pollution include Mold and pollen Tobacco smoke Household products ...

15

Association between Air Pollution and General Outpatient Clinic Consultations for Upper Respiratory Tract Infections in Hong Kong  

PubMed Central

Background and Objectives Many studies have shown the adverse effects of air pollution on respiratory health, but few have examined the effects of air pollution on service utilisation in the primary care setting. The aim of this study was to examine the association between air pollution and the daily number of consultations due to upper respiratory tract infections (URTIs) in general outpatient clinics (GOPCs) in Hong Kong. Methods Daily data on the numbers of consultations due to URTIs in GOPCs, the concentrations of major air pollutants, and the mean values of metrological variables were retrospectively collected over a 3-year period (2008–2010, inclusive). Generalised additive models were constructed to examine the association between air pollution and the daily number of consultations, and to derive the relative risks and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) of GOPC consultations for a unit increase in the concentrations of air pollutants. Results The mean daily consultations due to URTIs in GOPCs ranged from 68.4 to 253.0 over the study period. The summary relative risks (and 95% CI) of daily consultations in all GOPCs for the air pollutants PM10, NO2, O3, and SO2 were 1.005 (1.002, 1.009), 1.010 (1.006, 1.013), 1.009 (1.006, 1.012), and 1.004 (1.000, 1.008) respectively, per 10 µg/m3 increase in the concentration of each pollutant. Conclusion Significant associations were found between the daily number of consultations due to URTIs in GOPCs and the concentrations of air pollutants, implying that air pollution incurs a substantial morbidity and increases the burden of primary health care services. PMID:24466288

Tam, Wilson W. S.; Wong, Tze Wai; Ng, Lorna; Wong, Samuel Y. S.; Kung, Kenny K. L.; Wong, Andromeda H. S.

2014-01-01

16

An integrated assessment of air pollutant abatement opportunities in a computable general equilibrium framework  

E-print Network

Air pollution and anthropogenic greenhouse gas emission reduction policies are desirable to reduce smog, tropospheric concentrations of ozone precursors, acid rain, and other adverse effects on human health, the environment, ...

Waugh, C. (Caleb Joseph)

2012-01-01

17

Air Pollution and ADHD  

MedlinePLUS Videos and Cool Tools

... the lower right-hand corner of the player. Air Pollution and ADHD HealthDay November 6, 2014 Related MedlinePlus Pages Air Pollution Environmental Health Fetal Health and Development Transcript Does ...

18

Air Pollution Control  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pollutants—foreign material in the air—can be man made or occur naturally, and are concentrated where people are concentrated. Pollution is injurious to health and its prevention places an economic burden on the citizen. Amendments to the Clean Air Act, passed in 1970 and in 1977, have been utilized to control air pollution. They encompass different strategies which have met with

Joseph Palomba; J. Jr

1979-01-01

19

Air Pollution Training Programs.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This catalog lists the universities, both supported and not supported by the Division of Air Pollution, which offer graduate programs in the field of air pollution. The catalog briefly describes the programs and their entrance requirements, the requirements, qualifications and terms of special fellowships offered by the Division of Air Pollution.…

Public Health Service (DHEW), Rockville, MD.

20

Reducing indoor air pollution by air conditioning is associated with improvements in cardiovascular health among the general population.  

PubMed

Indoor air pollution is associated with cardiovascular effects, however, little is known about the effects of improving indoor air quality on cardiovascular health. The aim of this study was to explore whether improving indoor air quality through air conditioning can improve cardiovascular health in human subjects. We recruited a panel of 300 healthy subjects from Taipei, aged 20 and over, to participate in six home visits each, to measure a variety of cardiovascular endpoints, including high sensitivity-C-reactive protein (hs-CRP), 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG), fibrinogen in plasma and heart rate variability (HRV). Indoor particles and total volatile organic compounds (VOCs) were measured simultaneously at the participant's home during each visit. Three exposure conditions were investigated in this study: participants were requested to keep their windows open during the first two visits, close their windows during the next two visits, and close the windows and turn on their air conditioners during the last two visits. We used linear mixed-effects models to associate the cardiovascular endpoints with individual indoor air pollutants. The results showed that increases in hs-CRP, 8-OHdG and fibrinogen, and decreases in HRV indices were associated with increased levels of indoor particles and total VOCs in single-pollutant and two-pollutant models. The effects of indoor particles and total VOCs on cardiovascular endpoints were greatest during visits with the windows open. During visits with the air conditioners turned on, no significant changes in cardiovascular endpoints were observed. In conclusion, indoor air pollution is associated with inflammation, oxidative stress, blood coagulation and autonomic dysfunction. Reductions in indoor air pollution and subsequent improvements in cardiovascular health can be achieved by closing windows and turning on air conditioners at home. PMID:23803502

Lin, Lian-Yu; Chuang, Hsiao-Chi; Liu, I-Jung; Chen, Hua-Wei; Chuang, Kai-Jen

2013-10-01

21

Air Pollution, Teachers' Edition.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

One of three in a series about pollution, this teacher's guide for a unit on air pollution is designed for use in junior high school grades. It offers suggestions for extending the information and activities contained in the textual material for students. Chapter 1 discusses the problem of air pollution and involves students in processes of…

Lavaroni, Charles W.; O'Donnell, Patrick A.

22

Discriminatory Air Pollution  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Described are the patterns of air pollution in certain large urban areas. Persons in poverty, in occupations below the management or professional level, in low-rent districts, and in black population are most heavily exposed to air pollution. Pollution paradoxically is largely produced by high energy consuming middle-and upper-class households.…

McCaull, Julian

1976-01-01

23

A simulation study of confounding in generalized linear models for air pollution epidemiology.  

PubMed Central

Confounding between the model covariates and causal variables (which may or may not be included as model covariates) is a well-known problem in regression models used in air pollution epidemiology. This problem is usually acknowledged but hardly ever investigated, especially in the context of generalized linear models. Using synthetic data sets, the present study shows how model overfit, underfit, and misfit in the presence of correlated causal variables in a Poisson regression model affect the estimated coefficients of the covariates and their confidence levels. The study also shows how this effect changes with the ranges of the covariates and the sample size. There is qualitative agreement between these study results and the corresponding expressions in the large-sample limit for the ordinary linear models. Confounding of covariates in an overfitted model (with covariates encompassing more than just the causal variables) does not bias the estimated coefficients but reduces their significance. The effect of model underfit (with some causal variables excluded as covariates) or misfit (with covariates encompassing only noncausal variables), on the other hand, leads to not only erroneous estimated coefficients, but a misguided confidence, represented by large t-values, that the estimated coefficients are significant. The results of this study indicate that models which use only one or two air quality variables, such as particulate matter [less than and equal to] 10 microm and sulfur dioxide, are probably unreliable, and that models containing several correlated and toxic or potentially toxic air quality variables should also be investigated in order to minimize the situation of model underfit or misfit. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 PMID:10064552

Chen, C; Chock, D P; Winkler, S L

1999-01-01

24

Field Operations and Enforcement Manual for Air Pollution Control. Volume II: Control Technology and General Source Inspection.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Field Operations and Enforcement Manual for Air Pollution Control, Volume II, explains in detail the following: technology of source control, modification of operations, particulate control equipment, sulfur dioxide removal systems for power plants, and control equipment for gases and vapors; inspection procedures for general sources, fuel…

Weisburd, Melvin I.

25

Health Effects of Air Pollution  

MedlinePLUS

... Health effects of air pollution Health effects of air pollution Breathing air that is not clean can hurt ... important to know about the health effects that air pollution can have on you and others. Once you ...

26

ORIGINAL ARTICLE Ambient Air Pollution  

E-print Network

ORIGINAL ARTICLE Ambient Air Pollution and Cardiovascular Emergency Department Visits Kristi Busico ambient air pollutants and cardiovascular disease (CVD), the roles of the physicochemical components the relation between ambient air pollution and cardiovascular conditions using ambient air quality data

Mulholland, James A.

27

Controlling Indoor Air Pollution.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses the health risks posed by indoor air pollutants, such as airborne combustion products, toxic chemicals, and radioactivity. Questions as to how indoor air might be regulated. Calls for new approaches to environmental protection. (TW)

Nero, Anthony V, Jr.

1988-01-01

28

Aerodynamics in air pollution modeling  

SciTech Connect

The aerodynamic effects of structures, urban complexes, and significant topographic features on the mechanism of pollutant transport and dispersion processes in the atmosphere are described. Various treatments of these aerodynamic effects in air pollution modeling are discussed. In view of the complex nature of flow disturbance and pollutant dispersion over structures and terrain obstacles and the general uniqueness of each specific situation, both the reliability of the data base and the suitability of a particular air pollution model must be evaluated. Validation and calibration of models against field measurements are strongly recommended. (7 diagrams, 2 graphs, 47 references)

Wang, H.; Liu, H.

1980-03-01

29

Air Pollution and Industry.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book is an authoritative reference and practical guide designed to help the plant engineer identify and solve industrial air pollution problems in order to be able to meet current air pollution regulations. Prepared under the editorial supervision of an experienced chemical engineer, with each chapter contributed by an expert in his field,…

Ross, R. D., Ed.

30

Sensing Air Pollution  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students learn about electricity and air pollution while building devices to measure volatile organic compounds (VOC) by attaching VOC sensors to prototyping boards. In the second part of the activity, students evaluate the impact of various indoor air pollutants using the devices they made.

Integrated Teaching And Learning Program

31

A Generalized Method of Hedonic Prices: Measuring Benefits from Reduced Urban Air Pollution  

Microsoft Academic Search

A generalized hedonic prices model considering household decisions about house location, job and travel as interdependent is used in this paper to estimate the environmental benefits from the reduced exposure of the household to pollution. The data used are obtained from a primary survey of households in the twin cities of Hyderabad and Secunderabad in India. Data are collected about

M. N. Murty; S. C. Gulati

2004-01-01

32

Environmental Chemistry: Air and Water Pollution.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This is a book about air and water pollution whose chapters cover the topics of air pollution--general considerations, carbon monoxide, oxides of nitrogen, hydrocarbons and photochemical oxidants, sulfur oxides, particulates, temperature inversions and the greenhouse effect; and water pollution--general considerations, mercury, lead, detergents,…

Stoker, H. Stephen; Seager, Spencer L.

33

Air pollution and human health  

Microsoft Academic Search

The quantitative effects of air pollution on human health is considered, along with the dollar benefit of pollution abatement. Data is presented showing the correlations between air pollution and several diseases. The economic cost of air pollution-caused disease is estimated, and is used as the basis of benefit cost analysis for air pollution abatement.

L. B. Lave; E. P. Seskin

1970-01-01

34

Cardiovascular Mortality and Long-Term Exposure to Particulate Air Pollution: Epidemiological Evidence of General Pathophysiological Pathways of Disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background—Epidemiologic studies have linked long-term exposure to fine particulate matter air pollution (PM) to broad cause-of-death mortality. Associations with specific cardiopulmonary diseases might be useful in exploring potential mechanistic pathways linking exposure and mortality. Methods and Results—General pathophysiological pathways linking long-term PM exposure with mortality and expected patterns of PM mortality with specific causes of death were proposed a priori.

C. Arden Pope III; Richard T. Burnett; George D. Thurston; Michael J. Thun; Eugenia E. Calle; Daniel Krewski; John J. Godleski

2003-01-01

35

UK Air Pollution Bulletin  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Hourly updates of levels of benzyne, 1-3 butadiene, ozone, nitric oxide, sulfur dioxide, carbon monoxide, and particles in Britain's air are accessible at the UK Air Pollution Bulletin Website. Provided by the United Kingdom Department of Transport, Environment and the Regions, this site gives air quality information along with yearly average concentrations of the above-mentioned chemicals, graphical summaries, historical summaries, and maps and information about monitoring sites. The data pages are arranged in a versatile way so that users can view information by geographic site, pollutant, or year. Daily, weekly, and annual summaries of pollutant concentrations are available.

36

Air pollution and general practitioner access and utilization: a population based study in Sarnia, 'Chemical Valley,' Ontario  

PubMed Central

Background Health impacts of poor environmental quality have been identified in studies around the world and in Canada. While many of the studies have identified associations between air pollution and mortality or morbidity, few have focused on the role of health care as a potential moderator of impacts. This study assessed the determinants of health care access and utilization in the context of ambient air pollution in Sarnia, Ontario, Canada. Methods Residents of Sarnia participated in a Community Health Study administered by phone, while several ambient air pollutants including nitrogen dioxide (NO2), sulphur dioxide (SO2) and the volatile organic compounds benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, mp- and o-xylene (BTEX) were monitored across the city. Land Use Regression models were used to estimate individual exposures to the measured pollutants and logistic regression models were utilized to assess the relative influence of environmental, socioeconomic and health related covariates on general practitioner access and utilization outcomes. Results The results show that general practitioner use increased with levels of exposure to nitrogen dioxide (NO2- Odds Ratio [OR]: 1.16, p < 0.05) and sulphur dioxide (SO2- OR: 1.61, p < 0.05). Low household income was a stronger predictor of having no family doctor in areas exposed to high concentrations of NO2 and SO2. Respondents without regular care living in high pollution areas were also more likely to report travelling or waiting for care in excess of 20 minutes (OR: 3.28, p < 0.05) than their low exposure counterparts (OR: 1.11, p > 0.05). Conclusions This study provides evidence for inequitable health care access and utilization in Sarnia, with particular relevance to its situation as a sentinel high exposure environment. Levels of exposure to pollution appears to influence utilization of health care services, but poor access to primary health care services additionally burden certain groups in Sarnia, Ontario, Canada. PMID:21827645

2011-01-01

37

AIR POLLUTION CONTROL TECHNOLOGIES  

EPA Science Inventory

This is a chapter for John Wiley & Son's Mechanical Engineers' Handbook, and covers issues involving air pollution control. Various technologies for controlling sulfur oxides is considered including fuel desulfurization. It also considers control of nitrogen oxides including post...

38

Air pollution from aircraft  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A series of fundamental problems related to jet engine air pollution and combustion were examined. These include soot formation and oxidation, nitric oxide and carbon monoxide emissions mechanisms, pollutant dispension, flow and combustion characteristics of the NASA swirl can combustor, fuel atomization and fuel-air mixing processes, fuel spray drop velocity and size measurement, ignition and blowout. A summary of this work, and a bibliography of 41 theses and publications which describe this work, with abstracts, is included.

Heywood, J. B.; Fay, J. A.; Chigier, N. A.

1979-01-01

39

One family's air pollution  

SciTech Connect

The author's family pollutes directly or indirectly in five major ways: wastewater discharge; automobile exhaust; home heating oil furnace exhaust; trash disposal; and electricity usage (and the use of other consumer goods whose manufacture and transport caused some level of pollution). He decided to try to quantify how much his family contributed to pollution in one year, 1988. Four sources of air pollution were considered and are quantified: car exhausts, home heating oil exhausts, electricity, and trash disposal (through a waste-to-energy plant).

Getz, N.P.

1990-02-01

40

Aircraft and air pollution  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Clean Air Act of 1977 directs EPA to issue emission standards for aircraft engines that may contribute to air pollution and thus endanger public health or welfare. Critics argue that the regulations are overly complex and stringent, and that immediate energy shortages may take precedence over the need for aircraft emission controls. Proponents of the regulations claim that ambient

Dennis F. Naugle; Donald L. Fox

1981-01-01

41

Air Pollution Spring 2010  

E-print Network

and particle control Ch 32 # 4 April 1 Aerosol physics and particle control Ch 32 April 6 Photochemical smog Ch 7 # 5 April 8 Review April 13 Mid-term exam 2 April 15 Photochemical smog Ch 7 April 20 Photochemical smog Ch 7 # 6 April 22 Air Pollution Measurement Ch 16, 17, 18 April 27 CO Air Quality Issues

42

Pupils' Understanding of Air Pollution  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper reports on a study of pupils' knowledge and understanding of atmospheric pollution. Specifically, the study is aimed at identifying: 1) the extent to which pupils conceptualise the term "air pollution" in a scientifically appropriate way; 2) pupils' knowledge of air pollution sources and air pollutants; and 3) pupils' knowledge of air

Dimitriou, Anastasia; Christidou, Vasilia

2007-01-01

43

Respiratory Health and Air Pollution  

MedlinePLUS

... CDC.gov . Healthy Places Share Compartir Respiratory Health & Air Pollution Transportation-related pollutants are one of the largest ... Motor vehicles contribute to more than 50% of air pollution in urban areas. The design of communities and ...

44

Aircraft and air pollution  

SciTech Connect

The Clean Air Act of 1977 directs EPA to issue emission standards for aircraft engines that may contribute to air pollution and thus endanger public health or welfare. Critics argue that the regulations are overly complex and stringent, and that immediate energy shortages may take precedence over the need for aircraft emission controls. Proponents of the regulations claim that ambient air standards are freqeuntly violated and will continue to be unless the best available control technology is applied to all sources, including aircraft. The contribution of aircraft to total emissions is discussed. Engineering problems and costs of retrofitting pollution controls on aircrafts are examined.

Naugle, D.F.; Fox, D.L.

1981-04-01

45

Air Pollution: What's the Solution?  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Through this project, students will focus on outdoor air pollution; what it is, what factors contribute to its formation and the health effects from breathing polluted air. Students will use data and animated maps from the Internet and monitor for the presence of air pollution. Students are challenged to think critically and creatively about the problems surrounding air pollution. Students will learn to describe what air pollutants are, when and how outdoor air pollution is formed, and what the health effects are from breathing polluted air, and much more.

2010-01-01

46

Particulate Air Pollution: The Particulars  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes some of the causes and consequences of particulate air pollution. Outlines the experimental procedures for measuring the amount of particulate materials that settles from the air and for observing the nature of particulate air pollution. (JR)

Murphy, James E.

1973-01-01

47

Lung cancer and air pollution.  

PubMed Central

Epidemiologic studies over the last 40 years suggest rather consistently that general ambient air pollution, chiefly due to the incomplete combustion of fossil fuels, may be responsible for increased rates of lung cancer. This evidence derives from studies of lung cancer trends, studies of occupational groups, comparisons of urban and rural populations, and case-control and cohort studies using diverse exposure metrics. Recent prospective cohort studies observed 30 to 50% increases in lung cancer rates associated with exposure to respirable particles. While these data reflect the effects of exposures in past decades, and despite some progress in reducing air pollution, large numbers of people in the United States continue to be exposed to pollutant mixtures containing known or suspected carcinogens. It is not known how many people in the United States are exposed to levels of fine respirable particles that have been associated with lung cancer in recent epidemiologic studies. These observations suggest that the most widely cited estimates of the proportional contribution of air pollution to lung cancer occurrence in the United States based largely on the results of animal studies, may be too low. It is important that better epidemiologic research be conducted to allow improved estimates of lung cancer risk from air pollution among the general population. The development and application of new epidemiologic methods, particularly the improved characterization of population-wide exposure to mixtures of air pollutants and the improved design of ecologic studies, could improve our ability to measure accurately the magnitude of excess cancer associated with air pollution. PMID:8741787

Cohen, A J; Pope, C A

1995-01-01

48

Air pollution and allergens.  

PubMed

It is well known that the prevalence of allergic diseases has increased in recent decades in the industrialized world. Exposure to environmental pollutants may partially account for this increased prevalence. In effect, air pollution is a growing public health problem. In Europe, the main source of air pollution due to particles in suspension is represented by motor vehicles--particularly those that use diesel fuel. Diesel exhaust particles (DEPs) are composed of a carbon core upon which high-molecular weight organic chemical components and heavy metals deposit. Over 80% of all DEPs are in the ultrafine particle range (< 0.1 pm in diameter). Air pollutants not only have a direct or indirect effect upon the individual, but also exert important actions upon aeroallergens. Pollen in heavily polluted zones can express a larger amount of proteins described as being allergenic. Through physical contact with the pollen particles, DEPs can disrupt the former, leading to the release of paucimicronic particles and transporting them by air--thus facilitating their penetration of the human airways. Climate change in part gives rise to variations in the temperature pattern characterizing the different seasons of the year. Thus, plants may vary their pollination calendar, advancing and prolonging their pollination period. In addition, in the presence of high CO2 concentrations and temperatures, plants increase their pollen output. Climate change may also lead to the extinction of species, and to the consolidation of non-native species--with the subsequent risk of allergic sensitization among the exposed human population. In conclusion, there is sufficient scientific evidence on the effect of air pollution upon allergens, increasing exposure to the latter, their concentration and/or biological allergenic activity. PMID:18225705

Bartra, J; Mullol, J; del Cuvillo, A; Dávila, I; Ferrer, M; Jáuregui, I; Montoro, J; Sastre, J; Valero, A

2007-01-01

49

Application to Air Pollution 5.1 Introduction  

E-print Network

Chapter 5 Application to Air Pollution Data 5.1 Introduction Ambient ozone pollution in urban areas to us, O 3 , is a secondary pollutant. There are two main kinds of air pollutants: primary and secondary while the air is being carried by winds, secondary pollutants are generally more widespread than primary

Heckman, Nancy E.

50

Epidemiologic studies of air pollution  

Microsoft Academic Search

Supplementing existing data which indicate an association between disease and air pollution, new epidemiologic studies provide evidence on the relationship of malignant neoplasms of the lung to air pollution, the distribution of deaths resulting from emphysema and the apparent increase in this disease, the relationship of asthmatic attack rates to air pollution as measured by sulfur dioxide, and the effects

R. J. Anderson

1962-01-01

51

Air Pollution Socio-Economic  

E-print Network

Traffic Air Pollution and Socio-Economic Status Gregory C Pratt PhD Kristie Ellickson PhD #12 · Relationships #12;Living near traffic increases exposure to air pollution and is associated with adverse health exposed to traffic and air pollution. They are also more vulnerable and have an increased risk of adverse

Minnesota, University of

52

Air pollution and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.  

PubMed

Limited data suggest that outdoor air pollution (such as ambient air pollution or traffic-related air pollution) and indoor air pollution (such as second-hand smoking and biomass fuel combustion exposure) are associated with the development of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), but there is insufficient evidence to prove a causal relationship at this stage. It also appears that outdoor air pollution is a significant environmental trigger for acute exacerbation of COPD, leading to increasing symptoms, emergency department visits, hospital admissions and even mortality. Improving ambient air pollution and decreasing indoor biomass combustion exposure by improving home ventilation are effective measures that may substantially improve the health of the general public. PMID:22142380

Ko, Fanny W S; Hui, David S C

2012-04-01

53

Indoor air pollution  

SciTech Connect

This article summarizes the health effects of indoor air pollutants and the modalities available to control them. The pollutants discussed include active and passive exposure to tobacco smoke; combustion products of carbon monoxide; nitrogen dioxide; products of biofuels, including wood and coal; biologic agents leading to immune responses, such as house dust mites, cockroaches, fungi, animal dander, and urine; biologic agents associated with infection such as Legionella and tuberculosis; formaldehyde; and volatile organic compounds. An approach to assessing building-related illness and tight building' syndrome is presented. Finally, the article reviews recent data on hospital-related asthma and exposures to potential respiratory hazards such as antineoplastic agents, anesthetic gases, and ethylene oxide.88 references.

Gold, D.R. (Channing Laboratory, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Boston, MA (United States))

1992-06-01

54

Air pollution source identification  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Techniques for air pollution source identification are reviewed, and some results obtained with them are evaluated. Described techniques include remote sensing from satellites and aircraft, on-site monitoring, and the use of injected tracers and pollutants themselves as tracers. The use of a large number of trace elements in ambient airborne particulate matter as a practical means of identifying sources is discussed in detail. Sampling and analysis techniques are described, and it is shown that elemental constituents can be related to specific source types such as those found in the earth's crust and those associated with specific industries. Source identification sytems are noted which utilize charged particle X-ray fluorescence analysis of original field data.

Fordyce, J. S.

1975-01-01

55

Psychological reactions to air pollution  

Microsoft Academic Search

Interviews with a large representative sample of Los Angeles residents reveal that these citizens are somewhat aware and concerned about air pollution, but not knowledgeable about its causes. Direct behaviors to reduce causes of pollution or one's exposure to it are rare. A moderate percentage of people seek out information about air pollution or complain about it. Fewer follow state

G. W. Evans; S. D. Colome; D. F. Shearer

1988-01-01

56

Air pollution needs action now  

Microsoft Academic Search

An increase in the magnitude of the quantities of pollutants being discharged into the atmosphere is associated with population growth, increasing urbanization, and progress in economic well-being. It is estimated that by 1970 the national population will reach 214 million, and that industrial output will approximately double, creating even more air pollution. Air pollution can have adverse effects upon human

1961-01-01

57

In Search of Air Pollution  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Air pollution is no longer just a local issue; it is a global problem. The atmosphere is a very dynamic system. Pollution not only changes in chemical composition after it is emitted, but also is transported on local and global air systems hundreds and even thousands of miles away. Some of the pollutants that are major health concerns are not even…

Beckendorf, Kirk

2006-01-01

58

The Federal Air Pollution Program.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Described is the Federal air pollution program as it was in 1967. The booklet is divided into these major topics: History of the Federal Program; Research; Assistance to State and Local Governments; Abatement and Prevention of Air Pollution; Control of Motor Vehicle Pollution; Information and Education; and Conclusion. Federal legislation has…

National Air Pollution Control Administration (DHEW), Washington, DC.

59

Remote air pollution measurement  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper presents a discussion and comparison of the Raman method, the resonance and fluorescence backscatter method, long path absorption methods and the differential absorption method for remote air pollution measurement. A comparison of the above remote detection methods shows that the absorption methods offer the most sensitivity at the least required transmitted energy. Topographical absorption provides the advantage of a single ended measurement, and differential absorption offers the additional advantage of a fully depth resolved absorption measurement. Recent experimental results confirming the range and sensitivity of the methods are presented.

Byer, R. L.

1975-01-01

60

Air pollution from aircraft  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Forty-one annotated abstracts of reports generated at MIT and the University of Sheffield are presented along with summaries of the technical projects undertaken. Work completed includes: (1) an analysis of the soot formation and oxidation rates in gas turbine combustors, (2) modelling the nitric oxide formation process in gas turbine combustors, (3) a study of the mechanisms causing high carbon monoxide emissions from gas turbines at low power, (4) an analysis of the dispersion of pollutants from aircraft both around large airports and from the wakes of subsonic and supersonic aircraft, (5) a study of the combustion and flow characteristics of the swirl can modular combustor and the development and verification of NO sub x and CO emissions models, (6) an analysis of the influence of fuel atomizer characteristics on the fuel-air mixing process in liquid fuel spray flames, and (7) the development of models which predict the stability limits of fully and partially premixed fuel-air mixtures.

Heywood, J. B.; Fay, J. A.; Chigier, N. A.

1979-01-01

61

Air Pollution, Causes and Cures.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This commentary on sources of air pollution and air purification treatments is accompanied by graphic illustrations. Sources of carbon monoxide, sulfur oxides, nitrogen oxides, and hydrocarbons found in the air are discussed. Methods of removing these pollutants at their source are presented with cut-away diagrams of the facilities and technical…

Manufacturing Chemists Association, Washington, DC.

62

Outdoor air pollution and asthma.  

PubMed

Traffic and power generation are the main sources of urban air pollution. The idea that outdoor air pollution can cause exacerbations of pre-existing asthma is supported by an evidence base that has been accumulating for several decades, with several studies suggesting a contribution to new-onset asthma as well. In this Series paper, we discuss the effects of particulate matter (PM), gaseous pollutants (ozone, nitrogen dioxide, and sulphur dioxide), and mixed traffic-related air pollution. We focus on clinical studies, both epidemiological and experimental, published in the previous 5 years. From a mechanistic perspective, air pollutants probably cause oxidative injury to the airways, leading to inflammation, remodelling, and increased risk of sensitisation. Although several pollutants have been linked to new-onset asthma, the strength of the evidence is variable. We also discuss clinical implications, policy issues, and research gaps relevant to air pollution and asthma. PMID:24792855

Guarnieri, Michael; Balmes, John R

2014-05-01

63

System interactions of air pollutants  

SciTech Connect

The impact of system interactions and simultaneous or sequential exposure to various air pollutants, both man-made and natural ones, requires greater concern in the interpretation of the total adverse impact of various air pollutants. It is clear that there are highly significant system interactions with exposure to various air pollutants, and these must be considered very carefully in the evaluation of their adverse health effects.

Pierson, W.E. (Northwest Asthma and Allergy Center, University of Washington School of Medicine, Seattle (United States))

1992-06-01

64

Intercontinental transport of air pollution  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is an increasing interest on the intercontinental transport of air pollution among the three main emission regions at\\u000a northern mid-latitudes: North America, Europe, and East Asia. Air pollutants with sufficient long lifetime can be transported\\u000a from one continent to another. Observations from ground sites, aircraft and satellites have demonstrated this intercontinental-scale\\u000a transport of air pollutants in the free troposphere.

Lin Zhang

2010-01-01

65

Prevalence rates of respiratory symptoms in Italian general population samples exposed to different levels of air pollution  

SciTech Connect

The authors surveyed two general population samples aged 8 to 64 living in the unpolluted, rural area of the Po Delta (northern Italy) and in the urban area of Pisa (central Italy). Each subject filled out a standardized interviewer-administered questionnaire. The Pisa sample was divided into three groups according to their residence in the urban-suburban areas and to outdoor air pollution exposure (automobile exhaust only or industrial fumes as well). Significantly higher prevalence rates of all the respiratory symptoms and diseases were found in Pisa compared with the Po Delta. Current smoking was more frequent in the rural area, but the urban smokers had a higher lifetime cigarette consumption. Childhood respiratory trouble and recurrent respiratory illnesses were evenly distributed. Exposure to parental smoking in childhood and lower educational level were more frequent in Po Delta, whereas familial history of respiratory/allergic disorders and work and indoor exposures were more often reported in the city. Multiple logistic regression models estimating independently the role of the various risk factors showed significant odds ratios associated with residence in Pisa for all the symptoms but chronic phlegm. The conclusion, these preliminary analyses indicate an urban factor related to the rates of respiratory symptoms and diseases in Italy in the 1980s.

Viegi, G. (Univ. of Pisa (Italy) Univ. of Arizona, Tucson (United States)); Paoletti, P.; Carrozzi, L.; Vellutini, M.; Diviggiano, E.; Pistelli, G.; Giutini, G. (Univ. of Pisa (Italy)); Di Pede, C. (Univ. of Arizona, Tucson (United States) Occupational Medicine Service, Toscana (Italy)); Lebowitz, M.D. (Univ. of Arizona, Tucson (United States))

1991-08-01

66

Intercontinental Transport of Air Pollution  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The development of the global economy goes beyond raising our standards of living. We are in an ear of increasing environmental as well as economic interdependence. Long-range transport of anthropogenic atmospheric pollutants such as ozone, ozone precursors, airborne particles, heavy metals (such as mercury) and persistent organic pollutants are the four major types of pollution that are transported over intercontinental distances and have global environmental effects. The talk includes: 1) an overview of the international agreements related to intercontinental transport of air pollutants, 2) information needed for decision making, 3) overview of the past research on intercontinental transport of air pollutants - a North American's perspective, and 4) future research needs.

Rogers, David; Whung, Pai-Yei; Einaudi, Franco (Technical Monitor)

2001-01-01

67

Air pollution measurements from satellites  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A study is presented on the remote sensing of gaseous and particulate air pollutants which is an extension of a previous report. Pollutants can be observed by either active or passive remote sensing systems. Calculations discussed herein indicate that tropospheric CO, CO2, SO2, NO2, NH3, HCHO, and CH4 can be measured by means of nadir looking passive systems. Additional species such as NO, HNO3, O3, and H2O may be measured in the stratosphere through a horizon experiment. A brief theoretical overview of resonance Raman scattering and resonance fluorescence is given. It is found that radiance measurements are most promising for general global applications, and that stratospheric aerosols may be measured using a sun occultation technique. The instrumentation requirements for both active and passive systems are examined and various instruments now under development are described.

Ludwig, C. B.; Griggs, M.; Malkmus, W.; Bartle, E. R.

1973-01-01

68

Guidelines for evaluating air-pollution impacts on Class I wilderness areas in the Pacific Northwest. Forest Service general technical report  

Microsoft Academic Search

Forest Service air resource managers in the Pacific Northwest are responsible for protecting class 1 wilderness areas from air pollution. To do this, they need scientifically defensible information to determine critical concentrations of air pollution having the potential to impact class 1 wilderness values. This report documents the results of a workshop where current information on air pollution effects on

J. Peterson; D. Schmoldt; D. Peterson; J. Eilers; R. Fisher

1992-01-01

69

PLANT RESPONSE TO AIR POLLUTION  

EPA Science Inventory

Air pollutants have a negative impact on plant growth, primarily through interfering with resource accumulation. ince leaves are in close contact with the atmosphere, many air pollutants, such as O3 and NOx, affect the metabolic function of the leaves and interfere with net carbo...

70

Plant Response to Air Pollution.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Air pollutants have a negative impact on plant growth, primarily through interfering with resource accumulation. Since leaves are in close contact with the atmosphere, many air pollutants, such as O3 and NOx, affect the metabolic function of the leaves an...

J. A. Weber, D. T. Tingey, C. P. Andersen

1993-01-01

71

Allergic diseases and air pollution  

PubMed Central

The prevalence of allergic diseases has been increasing rapidly, especially in developing countries. Various adverse health outcomes such as allergic disease can be attributed to rapidly increasing air pollution levels. Rapid urbanization and increased energy consumption worldwide have exposed the human body to not only increased quantities of ambient air pollution, but also a greater variety of pollutants. Many studies clearly demonstrate that air pollutants potently trigger asthma exacerbation. Evidence that transportation-related pollutants contribute to the development of allergies is also emerging. Moreover, exposure to particulate matter, ozone, and nitrogen dioxide contributes to the increased susceptibility to respiratory infections. This article focuses on the current understanding of the detrimental effects of air pollutants on allergic disease including exacerbation to the development of asthma, allergic rhinitis, and eczema as well as epigenetic regulation. PMID:23956961

Lee, Suh-Young; Chang, Yoon-Seok

2013-01-01

72

Air Quality: Air Pollutants, SLAC Emissions Sources, and Regulatory Reference  

E-print Network

Air Quality: Air Pollutants, SLAC Emissions Sources, and Regulatory Reference Department: Chemical permit regulations are designed to track, record, and control air pollutants belonging to several on chemical classifications. This reference outlines major categories of air pollutants found at SLAC

Wechsler, Risa H.

73

Air pollution: impact and prevention.  

PubMed

Air pollution is becoming a major health problem that affects millions of people worldwide. In support of this observation, the World Health Organization estimates that every year, 2.4 million people die because of the effects of air pollution on health. Mitigation strategies such as changes in diesel engine technology could result in fewer premature mortalities, as suggested by the US Environmental Protection Agency. This review: (i) discusses the impact of air pollution on respiratory disease; (ii) provides evidence that reducing air pollution may have a positive impact on the prevention of disease; and (iii) demonstrates the impact concerted polices may have on population health when governments take actions to reduce air pollution. PMID:22726103

Sierra-Vargas, Martha Patricia; Teran, Luis M

2012-10-01

74

Air pollution: Impact and prevention  

PubMed Central

ABSTRACT Air pollution is becoming a major health problem that affects millions of people worldwide. In support of this observation, the World Health Organization estimates that every year, 2.4 million people die because of the effects of air pollution on health. Mitigation strategies such as changes in diesel engine technology could result in fewer premature mortalities, as suggested by the US Environmental Protection Agency. This review: (i) discusses the impact of air pollution on respiratory disease; (ii) provides evidence that reducing air pollution may have a positive impact on the prevention of disease; and (iii) demonstrates the impact concerted polices may have on population health when governments take actions to reduce air pollution. PMID:22726103

SIERRA-VARGAS, MARTHA PATRICIA; TERAN, LUIS M

2012-01-01

75

Health Effects of Air Pollutants  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Although air quality in large cities and industrial areas of Western Europe was deteriorating since the beginning of the industrial\\u000a revolution in nineteenth century, it was not until the first half of the twentieth century that the adverse health effects\\u000a of air pollution started attracting scientific attention. Two widely quoted air pollution episodes, the Great London Smog\\u000a of 1952 and

Sotiris Vardoulakis; Xiyu Phoon; Caroline Ochieng

76

Initial events in injury to plants by air pollutants  

Microsoft Academic Search

The pool of information on air pollution injury to plants increases in size and complexity each year. In addition, air pollution literature has been unable to generate a cohesive theory which relates the various major air pollutants and their effects on plants. This review attempts to fill this gap; I have chosen not to attempt a general review of literature

R L Heath

1980-01-01

77

Air pollution and plant life  

SciTech Connect

This book addresses air pollution's sources and movement; biochemical, cellular, and whole-plant effects, impacts on agricultural and natural systems; and control. The effects of convective turbulence and atmospheric stability are well illustrated. The diagnosis of air pollution injury to plants and mimicking symptoms are discussed. The environmental and source variables that affect pollutant dispersion are explained by use of the Gaussian dispersion model. An overview is presented of the effects of sulfur dioxide, photochemical oxidants, and fluoride on stomatal function, photosynthesis, respiration, and metabolic processes and products. Information is discussed concerning combinations of air pollutants, impacts on lichens, and effects of trace metals on plants. The relationship between air pollutants and diseases or other stress factors is evaluated.

Treshow, M. (ed.)

1984-01-01

78

Study of air pollutant detectors  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The application of field ionization mass spectrometry (FIMS) to the detection of air pollutants was investigated. Current methods are reviewed for measuring contaminants of fixed gases, sulfur compounds, nitrogen oxides, hydrocarbons, and particulates. Two enriching devices: the dimethyl silicone rubber membrane separator, and the selective adsorber of polyethylene foam were studied along with FIMS. It is concluded that the membrane enricher system is not a suitable method for removing air pollutants. However, the FIMS shows promise as a useable system for air pollution detection.

Gutshall, P. L.; Bowles, C. Q.

1974-01-01

79

Air Pollution and Mortality: Estimating Regional and National DoseResponse Relationships  

E-print Network

Air Pollution and Mortality: Estimating Regional and National Dose­Response Relationships Francesca was linear. KEY WORDS: Air pollution; Data augmentation; Generalized additive model; Hierarchical model, possibly nonrepresentative, locations. The National Morbidity, Mortality, and Air Pollution Study (NMMAPS

Dominici, Francesca

80

Remote Measurement of Air Pollutants.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report describes progress on a program to develop advanced electro-optical techniques for the remote measurement of gaseous air pollutants. The major effort is devoted to analysis and optimization of the infrared DIAL system. Other activities involve...

E. R. Murray, E. K. Proctor, R. L. Byer

1975-01-01

81

Air-Stream Pollution Control.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The control of air and stream pollution represents a continuous challenge to the nation. The importance of the various papers presented by distinguished authorities at the seminar urged the value of making available complete texts to a wider audience conc...

1973-01-01

82

HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANT RESEARCH (AIR POLLUTION TECHNOLOGY BRANCH, AIR POLLUTION PREVENTION AND CONTROL DIVISION, NRMRL)  

EPA Science Inventory

Title III of the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments lists 189 compounds and compound classes as hazardous air pollutants (HAPs) (also referred to as "air toxics"). The compounds include benzene, toluene, formaldehyde, mercury, arsenic, and polyaromatic hydrocarbons and are emitted fro...

83

Air pollution and agriculture today  

Microsoft Academic Search

Agriculture still suffers huge financial losses each year from air pollution, but is now itself being examined with increasing vigilance as a source of pollution. Controlled fire has always been used by farmers for the preservation of food, for the destruction of pests and diseases, and for the disposal of wastes. Disposal of waste, including straw, stubble, tree pruning, dead

V. P. Osterli; L. B. McNelly

1968-01-01

84

WESTERN FORESTS AND AIR POLLUTION  

EPA Science Inventory

This book addresses the relationships between air pollution in western United States and trends in the growth and condition of Western coniferous forests. he major atmospheric pollutants to which forest in this region are exposed are sulfur and nitrogen compounds and ozone. The p...

85

Air pollution: brown skies research  

Microsoft Academic Search

Direct information on the health effects of air pollution in humans relies mainly on chamber studies and epidemiological studies. Although chamber studies have limitations they allow the acute effects of individual pollutants to be studied in well characterised subjects under controlled conditions. Most chamber studies have shown relatively small falls in lung function and relatively small increases in bronchial reactivity

A. E. Tattersfield

1996-01-01

86

Air Pollution Training Institute Virtual Classroom: Basic Air Pollution Meteorology  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This Air Pollution Training Institute (APTI) course uses video presentations, text materials, and reading assignments to present basic meteorology, meteorological effects on air pollution, meteorological instrumentation, air quality modeling, and regulatory programs requiring a knowledge of meteorology. It consists of seven lessons that cover solar and terrestrial radiation, cyclones and anticyclones, wind speed and direction, atmospheric circulation, and many other topics. To finish the course, an online quiz is offered. Students may take the quiz for APTI Continuing Education Unit (CEU) credits; registration is required to receive CEU credits.

87

Hybrid regional air pollution models  

SciTech Connect

This discussion deals with a family of air quality models for predicting and analyzing the fine particulate loading in the atmosphere, for assessing the extent and degree of visibility impairment, and for determining the potential of pollutants for increasing the acidity of soils and water. The major horizontal scales of interest are from 400km to 2000km; and the time scales may vary from several hours, to days, weeks, and a few months or years, depending on the EPA regulations being addressed. First the role air quality models play in the general family of atmospheric simulation models is described. Then, the characteristics of a well-designed, comprehensive air quality model are discussed. Following this, the specific objectives of this workshop are outlined, and their modeling implications are summarized. There are significant modeling differences produced by the choice of the coordinate system, whether it be the fixed Eulerian system, the moving Lagrangian system, or some hybrid of the two. These three systems are briefly discussed, and a list of hybrid models that are currently in use are given. Finally, the PNL regional transport model is outlined and a number of research needs are listed.

Drake, R.L.

1980-03-01

88

A Mobile GPRS-Sensors Array for Air Pollution Monitoring  

Microsoft Academic Search

An online GPRS-Sensors Array for air pollution monitoring has been designed, implemented, and tested. The proposed system consists of a Mobile Data-Acquisition Unit (Mobile-DAQ) and a fixed Internet-Enabled Pollution Monitoring Server (Pollution-Server). The Mobile-DAQ unit integrates a single-chip microcontroller, air pollution sensors array, a General Packet Radio Service Modem (GPRS-Modem), and a Global Positioning System Module (GPS-Module). The Pollution-Server is

A. R. Al-Ali; Imran Zualkernan; Fadi Aloul

2010-01-01

89

Title III hazardous air pollutants  

SciTech Connect

The author presents an overview of the key provisions of Title III of the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990. The key provisions include the following: 112(b) -- 189 Hazardous Air Pollutants (HAP); 112(a) -- Major Source: 10 TPY/25 TPY; 112(d) -- Application of MACT; 112(g) -- Modifications; 112(I) -- State Program; 112(j) -- The Hammer; and 112(r) -- Accidental Release Provisions.

Todd, R.

1995-12-31

90

Lidar probes air pollution  

Microsoft Academic Search

Our research group has one of the most useful systems for study- ing the presence of atmospheric pollutants (ozone, SO2, NO2, benzene, toluene, and p-xylene, among others). Researchers dream of developing models to explain complex phenomena. However, even the best models require real data to validate the predictions. For atmospheric dispersion models, a light detec- tion and ranging (lidar) system

Jose Moreno; Stella Moreno-Grau; Antonio Garc

2008-01-01

91

Volcanic Air Pollution  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The phenomenon is a series of photographs of 'vog' or volcanic smog caused by the long-lasting eruption of Kilauea Volcano, Hawaii. Text included with the images describes how vog is created. An additional digitally enhanced map shows effects of trade winds on pollution concentration.

92

Air Pollution in the World's Megacities.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reports findings of the Global Environment Monitoring System study concerning air pollution in the world's megacities. Discusses sources of air pollution, air pollution impacts, air quality monitoring, air quality trends, and control strategies. Provides profiles of the problem in Beijing, Los Angeles, Mexico City, India, Cairo, Sao Paulo, and…

Richman, Barbara T., Ed.

1994-01-01

93

Air pollution source identification  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The techniques available for source identification are reviewed: remote sensing, injected tracers, and pollutants themselves as tracers. The use of the large number of trace elements in the ambient airborne particulate matter as a practical means of identifying sources is discussed. Trace constituents are determined by sensitive, inexpensive, nondestructive, multielement analytical methods such as instrumental neutron activation and charged particle X-ray fluorescence. The application to a large data set of pairwise correlation, the more advanced pattern recognition-cluster analysis approach with and without training sets, enrichment factors, and pollutant concentration rose displays for each element is described. It is shown that elemental constituents are related to specific source types: earth crustal, automotive, metallurgical, and more specific industries. A field-ready source identification system based on time and wind direction resolved sampling is described.

Fordyce, J. S.

1975-01-01

94

Leaves and Air Pollution  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, students investigate the effects of automobile pollution on plant growth by making measurements on two populations of leaves, one from within 10 meters of a busy road and a population of the same species situated more than 20 meters away. They will choose a method for measuring the leaves, create a table for their data, and test their hypotheses by performing a t-test.

Laposata, Matt

95

Changing the Paradigm of Air Pollution Monitoring  

EPA Science Inventory

Historically, approaches for monitoring air pollution generally use expensive, complex, stationary equipment,1,2 which limits who collects data, why data are collected, and how data are accessed. This paradigm is changing with the materialization of lower-cost, easy-to...

96

The economics of enforcing air pollution controls  

Microsoft Academic Search

The likely effects of alternative implementation and enforcement policies available to control agencies on the control of industrial air pollution are examined from an economic point of view. Policy alternatives studied include legal enforcement through the new source performance standards set forth by the Environmental Protection Agency and two effluent fee enforcement policies. A generalized model of the effects of

Paul B. Downing; William Watson Jr.

1974-01-01

97

Improving Home Indoor Air Quality There are three general ways of improving air quality in  

E-print Network

10/19/2009 Improving Home Indoor Air Quality There are three general ways of improving air quality-slab ventilation) if radon levels are high. Note that radon is generally not a major indoor air pollution properly to get rid of pollution when it is present (ventilation), and (3) remove the pollution from air

Lightsey, Glenn

98

Stochastic microenvironment models for air pollution exposure  

Microsoft Academic Search

Exposure assessment is a crucial link in air pollution risk assessment and management. With the recent advances in instrumentation, it has become possible to measure air pollution exposures in the vicinity of the individual human subjects, using either personal monitoring or microenvironment monitoring. For many important pollutants such as CO, NO2, and VOC, the air pollution exposure depends crucially on

1991-01-01

99

Air Pollutant Data for Linking Studies  

E-print Network

Air Pollutant Data for Linking Studies New Jersey Department of Health and Senior Services #12;New Jersey Close-up View View from Space #12;Air Pollutant/Health Linking Studies in New Jersey · CDC 03074 pollutants and asthma hospitalization #12;Asthma and Hazardous Air Pollutants · Study A ­ All 566

100

ECONOMICS AND PERFORMANCE MODELING (AIR POLLUTION TECHNOLOGY BRANCH, AIR POLLUTION PREVENTION AND CONTROL DIVISION, NRMRL)  

EPA Science Inventory

NRMRL's Air Pollution Prevention and Control Division's Air Pollution Technology Branch (APTB) is active in the development, refinement, and maintenance of economic and performance evaluation models that provide agency-wide support for estimating costs for air pollution preventio...

101

In Brief: Air pollution app  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A new smartphone application takes advantage of various technological capabilities and sensors to help users monitor air quality. Tapping into smartphone cameras, Global Positioning System (GPS) sensors, compasses, and accelerometers, computer scientists with the University of Southern California's (USC) Viterbi School of Engineering have developed a new application, provisionally entitled “Visibility.” Currently available for the Android telephone operating system, the application is available for free download at http://robotics.usc.edu/˜mobilesensing/Projects/AirVisibilityMonitoring. An iPhone application may be introduced soon. Smartphone users can take a picture of the sky and then compare it with models of sky luminance to estimate visibility. While conventional air pollution monitors are costly and thinly deployed in some areas, the smartphone application potentially could help fill in some blanks in existing air pollution maps, according to USC computer science professor Gaurav Sukhatme.

Showstack, Randy

2010-10-01

102

Solid Waste, Air Pollution and Health  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article examines the relationships among solid waste disposal, air pollution, and human disease. It is estimated that solid waste disposal contributes 9.7 percent of the total air pollution and 9.9 percent of the total air pollution health effect. Certain disposal-resource recovery systems can be implemented to meet air quality standards. (MR)

Kupchik, George J.; Franz, Gerald J.

1976-01-01

103

Product Guide/1972 [Air Pollution Control Association].  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reprinted in this pamphlet is the fifth annual directory of air pollution control products as compiled in the "Journal of the Air Pollution Control Association" for December, 1971. The 16-page guide lists manufacturers of emission control equipment and air pollution instrumentation under product classifications as derived from McGraw-Hill's "Air

Journal of the Air Pollution Control Association, 1971

1971-01-01

104

Simultaneous Exposure to Multiple Air Pollutants Influences Alveolar Epithelial Cell Ion Transport  

EPA Science Inventory

Purpose. Air pollution sources generally release multiple pollutants simultaneously and yet, research has historically focused on the source-to-health linkages of individual air pollutants. We recently showed that exposure of alveolar epithelial cells to a combination of particul...

105

Health effects of air pollution  

Microsoft Academic Search

This discussion, which is directed to informed laymen, physicians, and the staff and volunteers of the American Lung Association and its constitutents, is meant to outline the available knowledge about the effects of air pollution on human health. Particular attention is given to the respiratory system. Following an introductory section dealing with the purpose and scope of the monograph, the

C. M. Shy; J. R. Goldsmith; J. D. Hackney; M. D. Lebowitz; D. B. Menzel

1978-01-01

106

Remote Measurement of Air Pollutants.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report describes progress during the first six months of 1975 on a program to develop advanced electro-optical techniques for the remote measurement of gaseous air pollutants. The major effort during this reporting period is devoted to performing the...

E. K. Proctor, R. L. Byer

1975-01-01

107

Remote Measurement of Air Pollutants.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This brief report describes progress during the first quarter of 1975 on a program to develop advanced electro-optical techniques for the remote measurement of gaseous air pollutants. The research effort is divided between two groups. One group is perform...

E. K. Proctor, R. L. Byer

1975-01-01

108

Air Pollution. Part A: Analysis.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Two facets of the engineering control of air pollution (the analysis of possible problems and the application of effective controls) are covered in this two-volume text. Part A covers Analysis, and Part B, Prevention and Control. (This review is concerned with Part A only.) This volume deals with the terminology, methodology, and symptomatology…

Ledbetter, Joe O.

109

AIR POLLUTION EFFECTS ON BIODIVERSITY  

EPA Science Inventory

To address the issues of air pollution impacts on biodiversity, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Environmental Research Laboratory in Corvallis, OR, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service National Fisheries Research Center in Leetown, and the Electric Power Research Institut...

110

Air pollution problems in nurseries  

Microsoft Academic Search

As urbanization and industrialization intensify, harmful gaseous and particulate emissions will continue to affect nursery and ornamental plantings. Although efforts are being made to control emissions at their sources, plant damage will increase because of our inability to curb chronic air pollution. Nursery crops are injured primarily by ozone, fluorides, and sulfur dioxide, but other phytotoxicants, such as hydrogen chloride,

Dochinger

1974-01-01

111

Clean Air Slots Amid Atmospheric Pollution  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This article investigates the mechanism for those layers in the atmosphere that are free of air borne pollution even though the air above and below them carry pollutants. Atmospheric subsidence is posed as a mechanism for this phenomenon.

Hobbs, Peter V.

2002-01-01

112

Air pollution research needs with animals  

Microsoft Academic Search

Information in this paper is directed toward anyone concerned with problems of air pollution on or from animal agriculture. Based on published reports, air pollution problems relating to livestock are identified. These are discussed under two categories: pollutants from industrial-urban sources affecting livestock and pollutants originating from animal production units. The available knowledge concerning these problems is briefly described. Specific

Aschbacher

1972-01-01

113

Plant response to air pollution. Book chapter  

Microsoft Academic Search

Air pollutants have a negative impact on plant growth, primarily through interfering with resource accumulation. Since leaves are in close contact with the atmosphere, many air pollutants, such as O3 and NOx, affect the metabolic function of the leaves and interfere with net carbon fixation by the plant canopy. Air pollutants that are first deposited on the soil, such as

J. A. Weber; D. T. Tingey; C. P. Andersen

1993-01-01

114

Air pollution ranks as largest health risk  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The World Health Organization (WHO) reports that 7 million people died in 2012 from air-pollution-related sicknesses, marking air pollution as the single largest environmental health risk. This finding, a result of better knowledge and assessment of the diseases, is more than double previous estimates of the risk of death from air pollution.

Wendel, JoAnna

2014-04-01

115

Air Pollution Deaths in Europe 2020  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper discusses air pollution mortality in Europe by projecting future incomes and the associated air pollution until 2020. A gravity model for transboundary emissions is introduced to investigate the role of emission trade between countries. Important determinants of air pollution deaths, such as urbanization and technical progress in medicine are evaluated. The results show that in spite of considerable

Ulla Lehmijoki; Elena Rovenskaya

116

REGIONAL AIR POLLUTION STUDY, EMISSION INVENTORY SUMMARIZATION  

EPA Science Inventory

As part of the Regional Air Pollution Study (RAPS), data for an air pollution emission inventory are summarized for point and area sources in the St. Louis Air Quality Control Region. Data for point sources were collected for criteria and noncriteria pollutants, hydrocarbons, sul...

117

3, 35433588, 2003 3-D air pollution  

E-print Network

ACPD 3, 3543­3588, 2003 3-D air pollution modelling L. M. Frohn et al. Title Page Abstract hemispheric nested air pollution model L. M. Frohn, J. H. Christensen, J. Brandt, C. Geels, and K. M. Hansen 2003 Correspondence to: L. M. Frohn (lmf@dmu.dk) 3543 #12;ACPD 3, 3543­3588, 2003 3-D air pollution

Boyer, Edmond

118

Air Pollution, ATS555 Colorado State University  

E-print Network

Air Pollution, ATS555 Colorado State University Fall 2014 Mondays and Wednesdays @ 4:00 � 5:30 Room://ramct.colostate.edu/) Textbooks: Air Pollution: Its Origin and Control, 3rd Edition, by Wark, Warner and Davis, Addison Wesley. Specific objectives include: 1. Develop an understanding of types and sources of air pollution. 2. Examine

Collett Jr., Jeffrey L.

119

The Crisis in Air Pollution Manpower Development  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Three studies conducted by the National Air Pollution Manpower Development Advisory Committee concluded there is a crisis in air pollution manpower development within the United States today. The studies investigated the existing federal manpower program, air pollution educational requirements and the quality of graduate level university programs.…

Moeller, Dade W.

1974-01-01

120

Scottish Air Pollution and Health Workshop  

E-print Network

Scottish Air Pollution and Health Workshop Session 4 Joint Research Policy Needs and Interactions needs and how can we work together effectively on these to reduce the adverse effects of air pollution together effectively on these to reduce the adverse effects of air pollution in Scotland. Modelling

121

Quantifying precipitation suppression due to air Pollution  

E-print Network

Quantifying precipitation suppression due to air Pollution First author: Amir Givati The Hebrew January 2004 #12;ABSTRACT: Urban and industrial air pollution has been shown qualitatively to suppress. The evidence suggests that air pollution aerosols that are incorporated in orographic clouds slow down cloud

Li, Zhanqing

122

Air pollution and Acid Rain, Report 10. The effects of air pollution and acid rain on fish, wildlife, and their habitats: urban ecosystems  

SciTech Connect

Report 10 of the series synthesizing the results of scientific research related to the effects of air pollution and acid depositon on fish and wildlife resources deals with the urban ecosystem. General aspects of urban ecosystem relevant to a discussion of air pollution effects are presented with an outline of various other types of ecosystem stresses. This report describes plant, animal, and ecosystem responses to air pollution within the following pollutant categories: photochemical oxidates, atmospheric metals, acidifying air pollutants and miscellaneous urban air pollutants. The potential use of biological indicators in monitering ambient urban air pollution is introduced. 206 references, 8 figures, 19 tables.

Peterson, M.A.

1982-06-01

123

Associations between criteria air pollutants and asthma  

SciTech Connect

The evidence that asthma is increasing in prevalence is becoming increasingly compelling. This trend has been demonstrated in the United States, the United Kingdom, New Zealand, Australia, and several other Western countries. In the US, the increase is largest in the group under 18 years of age. There is mounting evidence that certain environmental air pollutants are involved in exacerbating asthma. This is based primarily on epidemiologic studies and more recent clinical studies. The U.S. Clean Air Act of 1970 provides special consideration to the class of outdoor air pollutants referred to as criteria pollutants, including O{sub 3}, sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}), particulate matter (PM), NO{sub x}, CO, and Pb. Standards for these pollutants are set by the US EPA with particular concern for populations at risk. Current evidence suggests that asthmatics are more sensitive to the effects of O{sub 3}, SO{sub 2} PM, and NO{sub 2}, and are therefore at risk. High SO{sub 2} and particulate concentrations have been associated with short-term increases in morbidity and mortality in the general population during dramatic air pollution episodes in the past. Controlled exposure studies have clearly shown that asthmatics are sensitive to low levels of SO{sub 2}. Exercising asthmatics exposed to SO{sub 2} develop bronchoconstriction within minutes, even at levels of 0.25 ppm. Responses are modified by air temperature, humidity, and exercise level. Recent epidemiologic studies have suggested that exposure to Pm is strongly associated with morbidity and mortality in the general population and that hospital admissions for bronchitis and asthma were associated with PM{sub 10} levels. In controlled clinical studies, asthmatics appear to be no more reactive to aerosols than healthy subjects. Consequently, it is difficult to attribute the increased mortality observed in epidemiologic studies to specific effects demonstrated in controlled human studies. 106 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.

Koren, H.S. [Environmental Protection Agency, Chapel Hill, NC (United States)

1995-09-01

124

Air Pollution: History Air Pollution: Any atmospheric constituent present as a result of  

E-print Network

Air Pollution: History Air Pollution: Any atmospheric constituent present as a result, or materials. Before 1200 AD · Air pollution results from wood burning, tanning, decaying trash, smelting = industrial revolution ­ x100 increase in G.B. coal combustion between 1800-1900 estimated air pollution in G

Weber, Rodney

125

Urban structure and air pollution  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Representative driving cycles across the Perth, Western Australia, metropolitan region illustrate a direct relationship to urban land use. Movement away from the central business district results in fewer traffic events, higher speeds, longer cruise periods and shorter stops. The consequent reduction in root mean square acceleration leads to a corresponding reduction in vehicle emission factors. Urban planning implications are pursued and highlight the importance of public transport as an option in reducing urban air pollution.

Lyons, T. J.; Kenworthy, J. R.; Newman, P. W. G.

126

Exercise and outdoor ambient air pollution  

PubMed Central

Objectives—To establish by literature survey: (a) levels at which air pollutants are considered damaging to human health and to exercisers in particular; (b) the current ambient levels experienced in the United Kingdom; (c) whether athletes are especially at risk. Methods—Six major urban air pollutants were examined: carbon monoxide (CO); nitrogen oxides (NOX); ozone (O3); particulate matter (PM10); sulphur dioxide (SO2); volatile organic compounds (VOCs). Results—CO is detrimental to athletic performance. NO2 is of concern to human health, but outdoor levels are low. O3 poses a potentially serious risk to exercising athletes. Decrements in lung function result from exposure, and there is evidence that athletic performance may be affected. Detrimental effects may occur at low ambient levels, but there is no scientific consensus on this matter. PM10 is causing concern in the scientific community. Blood lead accumulation during exercise indicates that personal exposure to toxic compounds associated with PM10 may be magnified. Generally, outdoor ambient levels of SO2 are too low to cause a problem to the athlete, except the asthmatic athlete. The few studies on exposure of exercisers to VOCs are reviewed. Conclusions—Athletes and exercisers should avoid exercising by the road side even though levels of the more noxious air pollutants have been controlled in the United Kingdom. O3 is particularly damaging to athletes; it reaches its highest concentrations on hot bright days in rural areas. Key Words: exercise; air pollution PMID:11477012

Carlisle, A; Sharp, N

2001-01-01

127

Response mechanisms of conifers to air pollutants  

SciTech Connect

Conifers are known to respond to SO{sub 2}, O{sub 3}, NO{sub x} and acid deposition. Of these pollutants, O{sub 3} is likely the most widespread and phytotoxic compound, and therefore of great interest to individuals concerned with forest resources Direct biological responses have a toxicological effects on metabolism which can then scale to effects on tree growth and forest ecology, including processes of competition and succession. Air pollution can cause reductions in photosynthesis and stomatal conductance, which are the physiological parameters most rigorously studied for conifers. Some effects air pollutants can have on plants are influenced by the presence of co-occurring environmental stresses. For example, drought usually reduces vulnerability of plants to air pollution. In addition, air pollution sensitivity may differ among species and with plant/leaf age. Plants may make short-term physiological adjustments to compensate for air pollution or may evolve resistance to air pollution through the processes of selection. Models are necessary to understand how physiological processes, growth processes, and ecological processes are affected by air pollutants. The process of defining the ecological risk that air pollutants pose for coniferous forests requires approaches that exploit existing databases, environmental monitoring of air pollutants and forest resources, experiments with well-defined air pollution treatments and environmental control/monitoring, modeling, predicting air pollution-caused changes in productivity and ecological processes over time and space, and integration of social values.

Matyssek, R.; Reich, P.; Oren, R.; Winner, W.E.

1995-07-01

128

POLUTE. Forest Air Pollutant Uptake Model  

SciTech Connect

POLUTE is a computer model designed to estimate the uptake of air pollutants by forests. The model utilizes submodels to describe atmospheric diffusion immediately above and within the canopy, and into the sink areas within or on the trees. The program implementing the model is general and can be used, with only minor changes, for any gaseous pollutant. The model provides an estimate describing the response of the vegetarian-atmosphere system to the environment as related to three types of processes: atmospheric diffusion, diffusion near and inside the absorbing plant, and the physical and chemical processes at the sink on or within the plant.

Murphy, C.E. Jr. [Savannah River Plant, Aiken, SC (United States); Sinclair, T.R. [Cornell University, Ithaca, NY (United States)

1992-02-13

129

Air Pollution and Cardiovascular Injury Epidemiology, Toxicology, and Mechanisms  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent epidemiologic studies show that increased levels of air pollutants are positively associated with cardio- vascular morbidity and mortality. Inhalation of air pollutants affects heart rate, heart rate variability, blood pres- sure, vascular tone, blood coagulability, and the progression of atherosclerosis. Several categories within the general population (i.e., people with pre-existing cardiovascular disease and diabetic and elderly individuals) are considered

Boris Z. Simkhovich; Michael T. Kleinman; Robert A. Kloner

130

Air Pollution Health Effects: Toward an Integrated Assessment  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we develop a methodology for integrating the health effects from exposure to air pollution into the MIT Emissions Prediction and Policy Analysis (EPPA) model, a computable general equilibrium model of the economy that has been widely used to study climate change policy. The approach incorporates market and non-market effects of air pollution on human health, and is

Trent Yang; John Reilly; Sergey Paltsev

131

Risk Assessment for Toxic Air Pollutants: A Citizen's Guide  

MedlinePLUS

... Air Pollutants: A Citizen's Guide Risk Assessment for Toxic Air Pollutants: A Citizen's Guide Originally published as ... 3-90-024 March 1991 INTRODUCTION What are Toxic Air Pollutants? Toxic air pollutants are poisonous substances ...

132

Air Pollution Controls for Urban Transportation.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Eight reports are presented which deal with problems of air quality and air pollution controls relating to urban transportation, such as: the process for incorporating air quality considerations into the transportation planning and decision-making process...

S. J. Bellomo, A. M. Voorhees

1973-01-01

133

Ambient air pollution and brain cancer mortality  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective  Growing evidence that ultrafine particles in ambient air can cause brain lesions in animals led us to investigate whether\\u000a particulate components of air pollution may be associated with brain cancer risk in humans. Air pollution has been associated\\u000a with respiratory disorders and cardiovascular morbidity and mortality, but associations between air pollutants and brain cancer\\u000a have not been investigated in adults.

Roberta McKean-Cowdin; Eugenia E. Calle; John M. Peters; Jane Henley; Lindsay Hannan; George D. Thurston; Michael J. Thun; Susan Preston-Martin

2009-01-01

134

Air pollution studies in the Norwegian Arctic  

Microsoft Academic Search

Measurements of sulfur pollutants at stations in the Norwegian Arctic, 1977-1983, show persistent annual variations with maximum values in the winter season. These are mostly due to low-level transport of polluted air from industrial areas in northern USSR. The pulsating character of the air pollution episodes is related to the synoptic scale pressure variations. Aircraft measurements in March 1983 show

E. Joranger; B. Ottar

1984-01-01

135

Global Air Pollution Crossroads over the Mediterranean  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Mediterranean Intensive Oxidant Study, performed in the summer of 2001, uncovered air pollution layers from the surface to an altitude of 15 kilometers. In the boundary layer, air pollution standards are exceeded throughout the region, caused by West and East European pollution from the north. Aerosol particles also reduce solar radiation penetration to the surface, which can suppress precipitation.

J. Lelieveld; H. Berresheim; S. Borrmann; P. J. Crutzen; F. J. Dentener; H. Fischer; J. Feichter; P. J. Flatau; J. Heland; R. Holzinger; R. Korrmann; M. G. Lawrence; Z. Levin; K. M. Markowicz; N. Mihalopoulos; A. Minikin; V. Ramanathan; M. de Reus; G. J. Roelofs; H. A. Scheeren; J. Sciare; H. Schlager; M. Schultz; P. Siegmund; B. Steil; E. G. Stephanou; P. Stier; M. Traub; C. Warneke; J. Williams; H. Ziereis

2002-01-01

136

A PROPOSED UNIFORM AIR POLLUTION INDEX  

EPA Science Inventory

A uniform air pollution index for the U.S. is proposed. The index was developed from ten criteria identified in a survey of all the air pollution indices currently in use in the U.S. and Canada. The proposed index, named the Pollutant Standards Index (PSI), was designed to overco...

137

Airplanes on Air Pollution: Discover-AQ  

NASA Video Gallery

NASA's launching a new mission, summer 2011, designed to gather data on air pollution and help expand our understanding of how it affects us, and that could allow pollutants to be monitored more pr...

138

Mold as an Indoor Air Pollutant Objectives  

E-print Network

and Follow-up Curriculum: 1. A more extended series of lessons on Indoor Air Quality taken from the "HealthyMold as an Indoor Air Pollutant Objectives: At the end of the lesson, the participant will have sheet "Mold or Toxic Mold? An Indoor Air Pollutant" 2. Transparency copies of PowerPoint presentation

139

MOBILE MONITORING SYSTEM FOR GASEOUS AIR POLLUTION  

Microsoft Academic Search

The concept of a mobile monitoring system for chemical agents control in the air is presented. The proposed system can be applied to measure industrial and car traffic air pollution. A monitoring station is relatively small and can be placed on cars or public transportation vehicles. Measured concent rations of air pollutants are collected and transferred via the GSM network

G. Narutowicza Informatics

140

Mapping Air Pollutants From Remotely Sensed Imageries  

Microsoft Academic Search

Degradation of air quality standard is a long standing problem in the South East Asian region. Apart from huge amounts of air pollution produced by the annual burning of biomass such as wood, leaves, trees, grass and trash, industrialisation, globalisation and urban growth are the major factors that contributing to the environmental issues. The problems of air pollution within Malaysia

Sayed Jamaludin; S. Ali; Suharti Ismail

141

AT 560 (2 Credits) Air Pollution Measurement  

E-print Network

AT 560 (2 Credits) Air Pollution Measurement Spring 2013 Instructor: Jeff Collett, 491 Resolution and Student Conduct Services." #12;ATS 560 - Air Pollution Measurement Spring 2013 Schedule Useful in experimental air quality monitoring and re- search. 2. Become familiar with the process of designing, proposing

142

REGIONAL AIR POLLUTION STUDY, NON-CRITERIA POLLUTANT INVENTORY  

EPA Science Inventory

In conjunction with the Regional Air Pollution Study (RAPS) being conducted in the St. Louis Air Quality Control Region (AQCR), an inventory of non-criteria pollutants was assembled for point sources. The inventory was based on the following data: (1) The National Emissions Data ...

143

The Particulate Air Pollution Controversy  

PubMed Central

Scientists, regulators, legislators, and segments of industry and the lay public are attempting to understand and respond to epidemiology findings of associations between measures of modern particulate air pollutants (PM) and adverse health outcomes in urban dwellers. The associations have been interpreted to imply that tens of thousands of Americans are killed annually by small daily increments in PM. These epidemiology studies and their interpretations have been challenged, although it is accepted that high concentrations of air pollutants have claimed many lives in the past. Although reproducible and statistically significant, the relative risks associated with modern PM are very small and confounded by many factors. Neither toxicology studies nor human clinical investigations have identified the components and/or characteristics of PM that might be causing the health-effect associations. Currently, a massive worldwide research effort is under way in an attempt to identify whom might be harmed and by what substances and mechanisms. Finding the answers is important, because control measures have the potential not only to be costly but also to limit the availability of goods and services that are important to public health. PMID:19330148

Phalen, Robert F.

2004-01-01

144

Air pollution and asthma severity in adults  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background\\/objectives:There is evidence that exposure to air pollution affects asthma, but the effect of air pollution on asthma severity has not been addressed. The aim was to assess the relation between asthma severity during the past 12 months and home outdoor concentrations of air pollution.Methods:Asthma severity over the past 12 months was assessed in two complementary ways among 328 adult

E Rage; V Siroux; N Künzli; I Pin; F Kauffmann

2009-01-01

145

Hazardous air pollutants and asthma.  

PubMed Central

Asthma has a high prevalence in the United States, and persons with asthma may be at added risk from the adverse effects of hazardous air pollutants (HAPs). Complex mixtures (fine particulate matter and tobacco smoke) have been associated with respiratory symptoms and hospital admissions for asthma. The toxic ingredients of these mixtures are HAPs, but whether ambient HAP exposures can induce asthma remains unclear. Certain HAPs are occupational asthmagens, whereas others may act as adjuncts during sensitization. HAPs may exacerbate asthma because, once sensitized, individuals can respond to remarkably low concentrations, and irritants lower the bronchoconstrictive threshold to respiratory antigens. Adverse responses after ambient exposures to complex mixtures often occur at concentrations below those producing effects in controlled human exposures to a single compound. In addition, certain HAPs that have been associated with asthma in occupational settings may interact with criteria pollutants in ambient air to exacerbate asthma. Based on these observations and past experience with 188 HAPs, a list of 19 compounds that could have the highest impact on the induction or exacerbation of asthma was developed. Nine additional compounds were identified that might exacerbate asthma based on their irritancy, respirability, or ability to react with biological macromolecules. Although the ambient levels of these 28 compounds are largely unknown, estimated exposures from emissions inventories and limited air monitoring suggest that aldehydes (especially acrolein and formaldehyde) and metals (especially nickel and chromium compounds) may have possible health risk indices sufficient for additional attention. Recommendations for research are presented regarding exposure monitoring and evaluation of biologic mechanisms controlling how these substances induce and exacerbate asthma. PMID:12194881

Leikauf, George D

2002-01-01

146

Urban air pollution and respiratory infections.  

PubMed

Public awareness of the impact of air quality on health is increasing worldwide. Indoor and outdoor air pollutants impair children's growing lungs, and increase the risk of respiratory infections. In many cities, children face indoor air pollution from fuels used for cooking and heating, as well as outdoor pollution from vehicle exhausts. Research identifies at-risk groups and seeks to establish biological plausibility for the associations already observed; and looks towards identifying the harmful pollutants that are responsible for respiratory morbidity and mortality. These findings may then serve to influence public debate and future policy at national and international level to improve air quality in cities, and improve children's health. PMID:24704510

Brugha, Rossa; Grigg, Jonathan

2014-06-01

147

AIR POLLUTION TECHNOLOGY BRANCH (AIR POLLUTION PREVENTION AND CONTROL DIVISION, NRMRL)  

EPA Science Inventory

Fundamental and applied combustion research has been conducted by the Air Pollution Prevention and Control Division's Air Pollution Technology Branch (APTB)and its predecessors since EPA's inception. APTB has been instrumental in the development and successful application of flue...

148

The myths of indoor air pollution  

SciTech Connect

A popular myth holds that building energy conservation measures, implemented since the oil crises of the 1970s, cause indoor air pollution problems. This myth ignores the fact that most indoor air pollutant sources have little or nothing to do with energy conservation. Air studied inside buildings before 1973 was found to be more polluted than outdoor air even during severe air pollution events. In fact, only two types of conservation measures directly increase indoor air pollutant concentrations: inappropriately reduced ventilation and using sealants and caulks that emit pollutants. The myth ignores the fundamental responsibility (and ability) of architects, engineers, and building operators to create indoor environments that are both extremely habitable and environmentally responsible. Architects and other building design professionals must provide safe, healthy, and comfortable environments; minimize damage to the environment; and conserve energy and other resources. Achieving good indoor air quality (IAQ) is as essential as providing comfortable, healthy thermal conditions and functional, aesthetically sound lighting and acoustical environments. Reducing ventilation to conserve energy certainly increases concentrations of pollutants emitted from indoor sources. Adequate ventilation is essential to achieving and maintaining good IAQ. But there are many factors that determine IAQ and their interdependence is strong. Although ventilation is an important way to limit pollutant concentrations, limiting pollutant sources is far more effective. Pollutants from indoor sources that cannot be eliminated should be minimized by careful planning, design, specification, and construction. The preventive approach costs very little and it saves energy. 6 refs., 7 tabs.

Levin, H.

1993-03-01

149

Combined air and water pollution control system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A bioaquatic air pollution control system for controlling both water and atmospheric pollution is disclosed. The pollution control system includes an exhaust for directing polluted gases out of a furnace and a fluid circulating system which circulates fluid, such as waste water, from a source, past the furnace where the fluid flow entrains the pollutants from the furnace. The combined fluid and pollutants are then directed through a rock/plant/microbial filtering system. A suction pump pumps the treated waste water from the filter system past the exhaust to again entrain more pollutants from the furnace where they are combined with the fluid (waste water) and directed to the filter system.

Wolverton, Billy C. (inventor); Jarrell, Lamont (inventor)

1990-01-01

150

INTEGRATED AIR POLLUTION CONTROL SYSTEM (IAPCS) COST MODEL (AIR POLLUTION TECHNOLOGY BRANCH, AIR POLLUTION PREVENTION AND CONTROL DIVISION, NRMRL)  

EPA Science Inventory

The Air Pollution Technology Branch's (APPCD, NRMRL) Integrated Air Pollution Control System Cost Model is a compiled model written in FORTRAN and C language that is designed to be used on an IBM or compatible PC with 640K or lower RAM and at least 1.5 Mb of hard drive space. It ...

151

Air pollution control device configurations  

SciTech Connect

An analysis of those candidate air pollutant abatement schemes identified previously by Acurex Corporation in the report Environmental Control Technologies for a Northern California Coal-Fired Power Plant (300-039) for possible use of PG and E's proposed Montezuma 1 and 2 (previously called Fossil 1 and 2) electric generating plants is presented. Emphasis is placed on the effects of the arrangement of the control components, namely the baghouse, selective catalytic reduction (SCR), and flue gas desulfurization units. Three basic configurations were identified as workable arrangements. The configurations were analyzed with respect to their capital, operating and maintenance cost impacts, reliability implications, and overall system removal efficiencies. Since there is no actual experience reported for these configurations with coal-fired boilers, reliability and overall efficiency estimates were described qualitatively.

Not Available

1980-03-01

152

AIR_POLLUTION_Onto: an Ontology for Air Pollution Analysis and Control  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper describes an ontology for air pollution analysis and control, AIR_POLLUTION_Onto, and presents its use in two case\\u000a studies, an expert system, and a multiagent system, both dedicated to monitoring and control of air pollution in urban regions.

Mihaela M. Oprea

2009-01-01

153

APEX (Air Pollution Exercise) Volume 21: Legal References: Air Pollution Control Regulations.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Legal References: Air Pollution Control Regulations Manual is the last in a set of 21 manuals (AA 001 009-001 029) used in APEX (Air Pollution Exercise), a computerized college and professional level "real world" game simulation of a community with urban and rural problems, industrial activities, and air pollution difficulties. The manual…

Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC. Office of Manpower Development.

154

ATMOSPHERIC AIR POLLUTION AND BIRTH WEIGHT  

Microsoft Academic Search

We examine the impact of air pollution (PM10 measure) on birth weight, proba- bility of being Low Birth Weight (less than 2500 grams), and Very Low Birth Weight (less than 1500 grams). We exploit the unique interaction between rainfall and pollution accumulation in Santiago, Chile to pin down the causal relationship between atmospheric pollution and birth outcomes. While controlling for

PRASHANT BHARADWAJ; JUAN EBERHARD

155

Biomarkers of genotoxicity of urban air pollution  

Microsoft Academic Search

Epidemiologic studies indicate that prolonged exposure to high pollution levels is associated with increased risk of cancer, especially lung cancer. However, under conditions of moderate or low air pollution, epidemiologic evidence does not permit reliable conclusions. Biomarker-based population studies may serve as complementary tools providing a better understanding of the relative contribution of ambient atmospheric pollution to the overall genotoxic

S. A Kyrtopoulos; P Georgiadis; H Autrup; N Demopoulos; P Farmer; A Haugen; K Katsouyanni; B Lambert; S Ovrebo; R Sram; G Stefanou; J Topinka

2001-01-01

156

Air Pollution and Its Control, Second Edition.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A concise appraisal of our contemporary status and future prospects with regard to air pollution and its control are offered in this text for concerned laymen. What air pollution is, how it endangers health, the cost of controlling it, what is being done about it now, and what should be done are some of the basic questions considered. Topics cover…

Sproull, Wayne T.

157

Air pollution control technologies. Chapter 65  

Microsoft Academic Search

The chapter discusses the use of technologies for reducing air pollution emissions from stationary sources, with emphasis on the control of combustion generated air pollution. Major stationary sources include utility power boilers, industrial boilers and heaters, metal smelting and processing plants, and chemical and other manufacturing plants. The three primary approaches are pre-process control, process modification, and post-process control. Early

1998-01-01

158

AIR POLLUTION ASPECTS OF SLUDGE INCINERATION  

EPA Science Inventory

Incineration offers the opportunity to reduce municipal sludge to a sterile landfill and remove offensive factors, but it also has the potential to be a significant contributor to the air pollution problem in an urban community. This publication explains the air pollution problem...

159

Air Pollution and Sudden Infant Death Syndrome  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background. Sudden infant death syn- drome (SIDS) affects 1 in 1000 live births and is the most common cause of infant death after the perinatal period. Objective. To determine the influence of air pollution on the incidence of SIDS. Methods. Time-series analyses were performed to compare the daily mortality rates for SIDS and the daily air pollution concentrations in each

Robert Dales; Richard T. Burnett; Marc Smith-Doiron; David M. Stieb; Jeffrey R. Brook

2009-01-01

160

Measurement of Air Pollutants in the Troposphere  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article describes the principles, applications and performances of methods to measure gas-phase air pollutants that either utilise passive or active sampling with subsequent laboratory analysis or involve automated "in situ" sampling and analysis. It focuses on air pollutants that have adverse impacts on human health (nitrogen dioxide, carbon…

Clemitshaw, Kevin C.

2011-01-01

161

Air pollution and respiratory viral infection  

EPA Science Inventory

Despite current regulations, which limit the levels of certain air pollutants, there are still a number of adverse health effects that result from exposure to these agents. Numerous epidemiological studies have noted an association between the levels of air pollution and hospital...

162

Urban air pollution: State of the science  

Microsoft Academic Search

Urban air pollution is comprised in a highly complex mixture of gaseous and particulate components. Much progress has been made in our understanding of the detailed chemistry and physics of air pollution, but important areas of uncertainty still remain. 67 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

J. H. Seinfeld

1989-01-01

163

Career Guide for Air Pollution Control  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This guide to career opportunities in air pollution control includes resource information in this area and provides a listing of colleges and universities offering environmental science programs. The guide was prepared by the S-11 Education and Training Committee of the Air Pollution Control Association. (Author/BT)

Baldwin, Lionel V.

1975-01-01

164

Air Pollution: Mechanisms of Neuroinflammation & CNS Disease  

PubMed Central

Emerging evidence implicates air pollution as a chronic source of neuroinflammation, reactive oxygen species (ROS), and neuropathology instigating central nervous system (CNS) disease. Stroke incidence, and Alzheimer’s and Parkinson’s disease pathology are linked to air pollution. Recent reports reveal that air pollution components reach the brain. Further, systemic effects known to impact lung and cardiovascular disease also impinge upon CNS health. While mechanisms driving air pollution-induced CNS pathology are poorly understood, new evidence suggests that activation of microglia and changes in the blood brain barrier may be key to this process. Here, we summarize recent findings detailing the mechanisms through which air pollution reaches the brain and activates the resident innate immune response to become a chronic source of pro-inflammatory factors and ROS culpable in CNS disease. PMID:19716187

Block, Michelle L.; Calderon-Garciduenas, Lilian

2009-01-01

165

Cancer risk of air pollution: epidemiological evidence.  

PubMed Central

Epidemiological studies on the effect of urban air pollution on lung cancer were surveyed. Overall, the studies from many countries point to a smoking-adjusted risk in urban areas over countryside areas that is higher by a factor of up to 1.5. The extent to which urban air pollution contributes to this excess remains unknown. Studies on diesel-exposed occupational groups show that urban air pollution may have a causative role in lung cancer. Model calculations on unit risk factors of known human carcinogens were carried out to rank carcinogens according to their current ambient air concentrations. PMID:7529702

Hemminki, K; Pershagen, G

1994-01-01

166

Outdoor air pollution: a global perspective.  

PubMed

Although the air quality in Western countries has continued to improve over the past decades, rapid economic growth in developing countries has left air quality in many cities notoriously poor. The World Health Organization estimates that urban outdoor air pollution is estimated to cause 1.3 million deaths worldwide per year. The primary health concerns of outdoor air pollution come from particulate matter less than 2.5 ?m (PM2.5) and ozone (O3). Short-term exposure to PM2.5 increases cardiopulmonary morbidity and mortality. Long-term exposure to PM2.5 has been linked to adverse perinatal outcomes and lung cancer. Excessive O3 exposure is known to increase respiratory morbidity. Patients with chronic cardiopulmonary diseases are more susceptible to the adverse effects of air pollution. Counseling these patients about air pollution and the associated risks should be part of the regular management plans in clinical practice. PMID:25285972

Huang, Yuh-Chin T

2014-10-01

167

POLLUTANT VARIABILITY IN THE REGIONAL AIR POLLUTION STUDY  

EPA Science Inventory

Pollutant variability in the area represented by a stationary point monitoring site causes an uncertainty in representative sampling. This uncertainty has been determined for selected sites in the Regional Air Pollution Study (RAPS) in St. Louis by using portable sampling and mon...

168

Air pollutant production by algal cell cultures  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The production of phytotoxic air pollutants by cultures of Chlorella vulgaris and Euglena gracilis is considered. Algal and plant culture systems, a fumigation system, and ethylene, ethane, cyanide, and nitrogen oxides assays are discussed. Bean, tobacco, mustard green, cantaloupe and wheat plants all showed injury when fumigated with algal gases for 4 hours. Only coleus plants showed any resistance to the gases. It is found that a closed or recycled air effluent system does not produce plant injury from algal air pollutants.

Fong, F.; Funkhouser, E. A.

1982-01-01

169

Associations between criteria air pollutants and asthma.  

PubMed

The evidence that asthma is increasing in prevalence is becoming increasingly compelling. This trend has been demonstrated not only in the United States, but also in the United Kingdom, New Zealand, Australia, and several other Western countries. In the United States, the increase is largest in the group under 18 years of age. There is mounting evidence that certain environmental air pollutants are involved in exacerbating asthma. This is based primarily on epidemiologic studies and more recent clinical studies. The U.S. Clean Air Act of 1970 provides special consideration to the class of outdoor air pollutants referred to as criteria pollutants, including O3, sulfur dioxide (SO2), particulate matter (PM), NOx, CO, and Pb. Standards for these pollutants are set by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency with particular concern for populations at risk. Current evidence suggests that asthmatics are more sensitive to the effects of O3, SO2, PM, and NO2, and are therefore at risk. High SO2 and particulate concentrations have been associated with short-term increases in morbidity and mortality in the general population during dramatic air pollution episodes in the past. Controlled exposure studies have clearly shown that asthmatics are sensitive to low levels of SO2. Exercising asthmatics exposed to SO2 develop bronchoconstriction within minutes, even at levels of 0.25 ppm. Responses are modified by air temperature, humidity, and exercise level. Recent epidemiologic studies have suggested that exposure to PM is strongly associated with morbidity and mortality in the general population and that hospital admissions for bronchitis and asthma were associated with PM10 levels. In controlled clinical studies, asthmatics appear to be no more reactive to aerosols than healthy subjects. Consequently, it is difficult to attribute the increased mortality observed in epidemiologic studies to specific effects demonstrated in controlled human studies. Epidemiologic studies of hospital admissions for asthma have implicated O3 as contributing to the exacerbation of asthma; however, most study designs could not separate the O3 effects from the concomitant effects of acid aerosols and SO2. Controlled human clinical studies have suggested that asthmatics have similar changes in spirometry and airway reactivity in response to O3 exposure compared to healthy adults. However, a possible role of O3 in worsening atopic asthma has recently been suggested in studies combining allergen challenge following exposure to O3. Attempts at identification of factors that predispose asthmatics to responsiveness to NO2 has produced inconsistent results and requires further investigation. In summary, asthmatics have been shown to be a sensitive subpopulation relative to several of the criteria pollutants. Further research linking epidemiologic, clinical, and toxicologic approaches is required to better understand and characterize the risk of exposing asthmatics to these pollutants. PMID:8549479

Koren, H S

1995-09-01

170

Air pollution and the respiratory system.  

PubMed

Over the past 250 years-since the Industrial Revolution accelerated the process of pollutant emission, which, until then, had been limited to the domestic use of fuels (mineral and vegetal) and intermittent volcanic emissions-air pollution has been present in various scenarios. Today, approximately 50% of the people in the world live in cities and urban areas and are exposed to progressively higher levels of air pollutants. This is a non-systematic review on the different types and sources of air pollutants, as well as on the respiratory effects attributed to exposure to such contaminants. Aggravation of the symptoms of disease, together with increases in the demand for emergency treatment, the number of hospitalizations, and the number of deaths, can be attributed to particulate and gaseous pollutants, emitted by various sources. Chronic exposure to air pollutants not only causes decompensation of pre-existing diseases but also increases the number of new cases of asthma, COPD, and lung cancer, even in rural areas. Air pollutants now rival tobacco smoke as the leading risk factor for these diseases. We hope that we can impress upon pulmonologists and clinicians the relevance of investigating exposure to air pollutants and of recognizing this as a risk factor that should be taken into account in the adoption of best practices for the control of the acute decompensation of respiratory diseases and for maintenance treatment between exacerbations. PMID:23147058

Arbex, Marcos Abdo; Santos, Ubiratan de Paula; Martins, Lourdes Conceição; Saldiva, Paulo Hilário Nascimento; Pereira, Luiz Alberto Amador; Braga, Alfésio Luis Ferreira

2012-01-01

171

Physical activity, air pollution and the brain.  

PubMed

This review introduces an emerging research field that is focused on studying the effect of exposure to air pollution during exercise on cognition, with specific attention to the impact on concentrations of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and inflammatory markers. It has been repeatedly demonstrated that regular physical activity enhances cognition, and evidence suggests that BDNF, a neurotrophin, plays a key role in the mechanism. Today, however, air pollution is an environmental problem worldwide and the high traffic density, especially in urban environments and cities, is a major cause of this problem. During exercise, the intake of air pollution increases considerably due to an increased ventilation rate and particle deposition fraction. Recently, air pollution exposure has been linked to adverse effects on the brain such as cognitive decline and neuropathology. Inflammation and oxidative stress seem to play an important role in inducing these health effects. We believe that there is a need to investigate whether the well-known benefits of regular physical activity on the brain also apply when physical activity is performed in polluted air. We also report our findings about exercising in an environment with ambient levels of air pollutants. Based on the latter results, we hypothesize that traffic-related air pollution exposure during exercise may inhibit the positive effect of exercise on cognition. PMID:25119155

Bos, Inge; De Boever, Patrick; Int Panis, Luc; Meeusen, Romain

2014-11-01

172

Effects of Ambient Air Pollution on Hemostasis and Inflammation  

PubMed Central

Background Air pollution has consistently been associated with increased morbidity and mortality due to respiratory and cardiovascular disease. Underlying biological mechanisms are not entirely clear, and hemostasis and inflammation are suggested to be involved. Objectives Our aim was to study the association of the variation in local concentrations of airborne particulate matter (PM) with aerodynamic diameter < 10 ?m, carbon monoxide, nitrogen monoxide, nitrogen dioxide, and ozone with platelet aggregation, thrombin generation, fibrinogen, and C-reactive protein (CRP) levels in healthy individuals. Methods From 40 healthy volunteers, we collected 13 consecutive blood samples within a 1-year period and measured light-transmittance platelet aggregometry, thrombin generation, fibrinogen, and CRP. We performed regression analysis using generalized additive models to study the association between the hemostatic and inflammatory variables, and local environmental concentrations of air pollutants for time lags within 24 hr before blood sampling or 24–96 hr before blood sampling. Results In general, air pollutants were associated with platelet aggregation [average, +8% per interquartile range (IQR), p < 0.01] and thrombin generation (average, +1% per IQR, p < 0.05). Platelet aggregation was not affected by in vitro incubation of plasma with PM. We observed no relationship between any of the air pollutants and fibrinogen or CRP levels. Conclusions Air pollution increased platelet aggregation as well as coagulation activity but had no clear effect on systemic inflammation. These prothrombotic effects may partly explain the relationship between air pollution and the risk of ischemic cardiovascular disease. PMID:19590696

Rudez, Goran; Janssen, Nicole A.H.; Kilinc, Evren; Leebeek, Frank W.G.; Gerlofs-Nijland, Miriam E.; Spronk, Henri M.H.; Cate, Hugo ten; Cassee, Flemming R.; de Maat, Moniek P.M.

2009-01-01

173

International Collaboration on Air Pollution and Pregnancy Outcomes (ICAPPO).  

PubMed

Reviews find a likely adverse effect of air pollution on perinatal outcomes, but variation of findings hinders the ability to incorporate the research into policy. The International Collaboration on Air Pollution and Pregnancy Outcomes (ICAPPO) was formed to better understand relationships between air pollution and adverse birth outcomes through standardized parallel analyses in datasets from different countries. A planning group with 10 members from 6 countries was formed to coordinate the project. Collaboration participants have datasets with air pollution values and birth outcomes. Eighteen research groups with data for approximately 20 locations in Asia, Australia, Europe, North America, and South America are participating, with most participating in an initial pilot study. Datasets generally cover the 1990s. Number of births is generally in the hundreds of thousands, but ranges from around 1,000 to about one million. Almost all participants have some measure of particulate matter, and most have ozone, nitrogen dioxide, sulfur dioxide and carbon monoxide. Strong enthusiasm for participating and a geographically-diverse range of participants should lead to understanding uncertainties about the role of air pollution in perinatal outcomes and provide decision-makers with better tools to account for pregnancy outcomes in air pollution policies. PMID:20644693

Woodruff, Tracey J; Parker, Jennifer D; Adams, Kate; Bell, Michelle L; Gehring, Ulrike; Glinianaia, Svetlana; Ha, Eun-Hee; Jalaludin, Bin; Slama, Rémy

2010-06-01

174

Winds of change: reducing transboundary air pollutants.  

PubMed Central

Sulfur dioxide, nitrogen oxides, volatile organic compounds, persistent organic pollutants, particulate matter, and heavy metals---air pollutants once thought to be problems that could be solved locally, where the effects occur---are all currently being discussed in international forums. A spate of meetings and agreements in recent months has shown many international governments to be more willing than ever to try to limit the amount of their air pollution that drifts into other countries. Prompting this policy shift are increasing emissions in some parts of the world, better monitoring, and an improved understanding of air pollution transport and the effects of air pollution. In most regions of the world, however, no international agreements on air pollution exist at all, while in others, many overlapping local, multilateral, and global agreements address the problem simultaneously. According to the World Health Organization, air pollution causes nearly 3 million deaths per year, and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency estimates that ground-level ozone causes damage to U.S. crops totaling $1-2 billion each year. PMID:10753105

Reuther, C G

2000-01-01

175

Health effects of outdoor air pollution  

PubMed Central

Abstract Objective To inform family physicians about the health effects of air pollution and to provide an approach to counseling vulnerable patients in order to reduce exposure. Sources of information MEDLINE was searched using terms relevant to air pollution and its adverse effects. We reviewed English-language articles published from January 2008 to December 2009. Most studies provided level II evidence. Main message Outdoor air pollution causes substantial morbidity and mortality in Canada. It can affect both the respiratory system (exacerbating asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease) and the cardiovascular system (triggering arrhythmias, cardiac failure, and stroke). The Air Quality Health Index (AQHI) is a new communication tool developed by Health Canada and Environment Canada that indicates the level of health risk from air pollution on a scale of 1 to 10. The AQHI is widely reported in the media, and the tool might be of use to family physicians in counseling high-risk patients (such as those with asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, or cardiac failure) to reduce exposure to outdoor air pollution. Conclusion Family physicians can use the AQHI and its health messages to teach patients with asthma and other high-risk patients how to reduce health risks from air pollution. PMID:21841106

Abelsohn, Alan; Stieb, Dave M.

2011-01-01

176

A New Model for Investigating the Mortality Effects of Multiple Air Pollutants in Air Pollution Mortality Time-Series Studies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Because the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency regulates air pollutants independently, the majority of time-series studies on air pollution and mortality have focused on estimating the adverse health effects of a single pollutant. However, due to the sometimes high correlation between air pollutants, the results from studies that focus on a single air pollutant can be difficult to interpret. In addition,

Steven Roberts

2006-01-01

177

Air-pollution effects on biodiversity  

SciTech Connect

To address the issues of air pollution impacts on biodiversity, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Environmental Research Laboratory in Corvallis, OR, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service National Fisheries Research Center in Leetown, and the Electric Power Research Institute convened a workshop to evaluate current knowledge, identify information gaps, provide direction to research and assess policy issues. In order to obtain the most current and authoritative information possible, air pollution and biodiversity experts were invited to participate in a workshop and author the papers that make up this report. Each paper was presented and discussed, then collected in this document. The material has been organized into four parts: an introduction, an overview of air pollution exposure and effects, the consequences of air pollution on biodiversity, and policy issues and research needs.

Barker, J.R.; Tingey, D.T.

1992-04-01

178

AIR POLLUTION EFFECTS ON TERRESTRIAL ECOSYSTEMS  

EPA Science Inventory

This report presents information on the effects of ozone, nitrogen oxides, sulfur oxides, particulate matter, and acidic disposition on terrestrial ecosystems. A brief explanation of ecosystem dynamics is presented to provide a framework for discussion of air pollutant effects. D...

179

China's response to the air pollution shock  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Faced with serious air pollution, China is aggressively reshaping its energy system, building on recent progress with renewables and on available supplies of gas. This should help contain global warming and provide new impetus to climate change negotiations.

Sheehan, Peter; Cheng, Enjiang; English, Alex; Sun, Fanghong

2014-05-01

180

AIR POLLUTION, OXIDATIVE STRESS AND NEUROTOXICITY.  

EPA Science Inventory

Increased incidents of classic and variant forms of neurodegenerative diseases suggest that environmental chemicals and susceptibility factors (e.g., genetics, diseased states, obesity, etc.) may be contributory. Particulate matter (PM) is a type of air pollution that is associat...

181

HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS: DRY-DEPOSITION PHENOMENA  

EPA Science Inventory

Dry-deposition rates were evaluated for two hazardous organic air pollutants, nitrobenzene and perchloroethylene, to determine their potential for removal from the atmosphere to three building material surfaces, cement, tar paper, and vinyl asbestos tile. Dry-deposition experimen...

182

Plant response to air pollution. Book chapter  

SciTech Connect

Air pollutants have a negative impact on plant growth, primarily through interfering with resource accumulation. Since leaves are in close contact with the atmosphere, many air pollutants, such as O3 and NOx, affect the metabolic function of the leaves and interfere with net carbon fixation by the plant canopy. Air pollutants that are first deposited on the soil, such as heavy metals, first affect the functioning of roots and interfere with soil resource capture by the plant. These reductions in resource capture (production of carbohydrate through photosynthesis, mineral nutrient uptake and water uptake from the soil) will affect plant growth through changes in resource allocation to the various plant structures. When air pollution stress co-occurs with other stresses, e.g. water stress, the outcome on growth will depend on a complex interaction of processes within the plant. In agroecosystems, these changes may be manifest in reduced economic yield.

Weber, J.A.; Tingey, D.T.; Andersen, C.P.

1993-01-01

183

GENERATION OF FUMES SIMULATING PARTICULATE AIR POLLUTANTS  

EPA Science Inventory

The report describes techniques developed for generating large quantities of reproducible, stable, inorganic, fine-particle aerosol fumes. These fumes simulated particulate air pollutants emitted from power generation, basic oxygen furnaces, electric arc furnaces, and zinc smelti...

184

ALTITUDE AS A FACTOR IN AIR POLLUTION  

EPA Science Inventory

Air pollution is affected by change in altitude. Cities with surface elevations above 1500 meters have atmospheric pressures which are approximately fifteen percent (15%) below pressures at sea level. Consequently, mobile sources designed to operate at pressures of one atmosphere...

185

Health Damages from Air Pollution in China  

E-print Network

In China, elevated levels of urban air pollution result in substantial adverse health impacts for its large and rapidly growing urban population. An expanded version of the Emissions Prediction and Policy Analysis (EPPA), ...

Matus, Kira

186

Effects of Air Pollution Control on Climate  

E-print Network

Urban air pollution and climate are closely connected due to shared generating processes (e.g., combustion) for emissions of the driving gases and aerosols. They are also connected because the atmospheric lifecycles of ...

Prinn, Ronald G.

187

ASTM Validates Air Pollution Test Methods  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) has validated six basic methods for measuring pollutants in ambient air as the first part of its Project Threshold. Aim of the project is to establish nationwide consistency in measuring pollutants; determining precision, accuracy and reproducibility of 35 standard measuring methods. (BL)

Chemical and Engineering News, 1973

1973-01-01

188

Airports, Air Pollution, and Contemporaneous Health  

Microsoft Academic Search

Airports are some of the largest sources of air pollution in the United States. We demonstrate that daily airport runway congestion contributes significantly to local pollution levels and contemporaneous health of residents living nearby and downwind from airports. Our research design exploits the fact that network delays originating from large airports on the East Coast increase runway congestion in California,

Wolfram Schlenker; Reed Walker

2011-01-01

189

Traffic, Outdoor Air Pollution, and Asthma  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is well known that outdoor air pollution can affect the health of patients with asthma. Epidemiologic studies have shown that increased levels of outdoor pollutants are associated with acute and chronic changes in lung function, increased risk for asthma exacerbations, increased risk for work or school absenteeism, and need for rescue bronchodilators. For- tunately, we have also learned that

Fernando Holguin

2008-01-01

190

EPA'S INDOOR AIR/POLLUTION PREVENTION WORKSHOP  

EPA Science Inventory

The paper discusses a workshop held as a step toward EPA's prioritizing potential areas of research for applying pollution prevention to indoor air quality (IAQ). he workshop involved technical experts in the fields of IAQ, pollution prevention, and selected industries. orkshop g...

191

Fluorides as air pollutants affecting plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

The sources of fluorides as air pollutants, the mechanisms of fluoride uptake by plants are described. The symptoms of fluoride toxicity in plants are described. Environmental influences on the pathogenicity of fluorides are discussed; among them are: climatic factors, soil factors, pollutant interactions, and biological factors. The effects of fluoride on host-parasite interactions are also discussed along with fluoride injury

M Treshow

1971-01-01

192

[Air Pollution Unit, Edmonds School District.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This interdisciplinary program, developed for secondary students, contains 16 air pollution activities that can either be used directly in, or as a supplement to, curriculum in Science, Photography, Mathematics, English, Social Studies, Industrial Arts and Home Economics. The topics to be investigated include: pollutants from automobiles, exhaust…

Edmonds School District 15, Lynnwood, WA.

193

Rapid guide to hazardous air pollutants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Concise and easy to use, this book brings together a wealth of hard-to-gather information in one compact pocket guide. It offers--in alphabetical order--detailed profiles of the 189 elements and compounds determined to be hazardous air pollutants by the 1990 Amendments of the Clean Air Act. The profile for each pollutant includes: fundamental identification data (CAS number, molecular formula, formula weight,

H. J. Beim; J. Spero; L. Theodore

1998-01-01

194

Adverse Health Effects of Air Pollution  

E-print Network

or Exacerbated by Air Pollution Each Year in Dallas County ? Asthma attacks ? ER visits for asthma ? Heart attacks ? Hospitalizations ? Early deaths ? Increases in autism? ? Increases in ADD? 10,263 547 476 288 290 What Causes the Problem... ? Increases in autism? ? Increases in ADD? 10,263 547 476 288 290 Adverse Health Effects of Air Pollution Robert W. Haley, M.D. Professor of Medicine Director, Division of Epidemiology University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center...

Haley, R. W.

2011-01-01

195

Air pollution study of Laredo Customs Station  

E-print Network

AIR POLLUTION STUDY OF LAREDO CUSTOMS STATION A Thesis by VIDYADHAR YESHWANT WELLING Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas A8M University in Partial fulfillment of the requirement for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE December 1972... Major Subject: Mechanical Engineering AIR POLLUTION STUDY OF LAREDO CUSTOMS STATION A Thesis by VIDYADHAR YESHHANT NELLING Approved as to style and content by: (Chairman of Committee) n Head of Depar ment Member em er em er Mem er em er...

Welling, Vidyadhar Yeshwant

2012-06-07

196

Clean Air Slots Amid Atmospheric Pollution  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Layering in the Earth's atmosphere is most commonly seen where parts of the atmosphere resist the incursion of air parcels from above and below - for example, when there is an increase in temperature with height over a particular altitude range. Pollutants tend to accumulate underneath the resulting stable layers. which is why visibility often increases markedly above certain altitudes. Here we describe the occurrence of an opposite effect, in which stable layers generate a layer of remarkably clean air (we refer to these layers as clean-air 'slots') sandwiched between layers of polluted air. We have observed clean-air slots in various locations around the world, but they are particularly well defined and prevalent in southern Africa during the dry season August-September). This is because at this time in this region, stable layers are common and pollution from biomass burning is widespread.

Hobbs, Peter V.

2002-01-01

197

Air pollution modelling in Erzurum city.  

PubMed

Various techniques have been applied to air pollution modelling. In this study, a model was developed by applying a continuity equation to the air control volume over Erzurum city centre. Model parameters were calculated by regression analysis, using SO2 and particle concentrations taken in 1989-1990 and 1990-1991 winter seasons. Multiple correlation coefficients, R2, for all analyses were of the same order of 97%. According to this model, daily polluting concentrations are not only influenced by daily meterological parameters but also by the values of previous days. The proposed model allows estimation of daily polluting concentrations by means of meteorological data. PMID:15091907

Topçu, N; Keskinler, B; Bayramo?lu, M; Akçay, M

1993-01-01

198

THE GEOMET INDOOR-OUTDOOR AIR POLLUTION MODEL  

EPA Science Inventory

This report documents the formulation of the GEOMET Indoor-Outdoor Air Pollution (GIOAP) model. The model estimates indoor air pollutant concentrations as a function of outdoor pollutant levels, indoor pollutant generation sources rates, pollutant chemical decay rates, and air ex...

199

Instrumentation for Air Pollution Monitoring  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes the techniques which form the basis of current commercial instrumentation for monitoring five major gaseous atmospheric pollutants (sulfur dioxide, oxides of nitrogen, oxidants, carbon monoxide, and hydrocarbons). (JR)

Hollowell, Craig D.; McLaughlin, Ralph D.

1973-01-01

200

AIR CLEANERS FOR INDOOR AIR POLLUTION CONTROL (CHAPTER 10)  

EPA Science Inventory

The chapter describes an experimental study to evaluate performance characteristics of currently available controls for indoor air pollutants, including both particles and gases. he study evaluated the particle-size-dependent collection efficiency of seven commercially available ...

201

Lake Effects on Air Pollution Dispersion  

Microsoft Academic Search

Local wind regimes induced by a lake or a shoreline may have a major influence on air pollution dispersion. Pressure differences due to differential heating of the air, e.g., that due to differences in surface characteristics, are the driving forces of lake and land breeze circulations and slope and valley winds. Differences in roughness between land and lake surfaces will

E. Wendell Hewson; Lars E. Olsson

1967-01-01

202

Urban air pollution: The global perspective  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since the mid-1970s, the World Health Organization, in collaboration with the United Nations Environment Programme, through the Global Environment Monitoring System, has been operating a worldwide network for monitoring of air quality. In 1988, information for the period 1973-1984 was analyzed to assess global and regional trends. Data are available from about 50 countries and for the air pollutants SPM,

Ozolins

2008-01-01

203

Air pollution by concentrated animal feeding operations  

Microsoft Academic Search

With large concentrations of animals at individual facilities, animal production may be accompanied by environmental problems. One concern is whether adverse health effects may occur due to the emission of contaminants into the air. Concentrated animal feeding operations (CAFOs) emit ammonia, hydrogen sulfide, particulate matter, volatile organic compounds, and other hazardous air pollutants. Under current environmental regulations in the United

Parag Patel; Terence J. Centner

2010-01-01

204

Air Pollution Potential from Electroplating Operations.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Measurements were made of emission rates from electroplating operations considered to have maximum air pollution potential. Sampling was performed at McClellan and additional data from a previous survey at Hill Air Force Base was used. Values obtained were extremely low. Based on existing Federal standards, no collectors are specifically required…

Diamond, Philip

205

Topics in Air Pollution Control (SI: 428).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This course provides information about air pollution control efforts since the passage of the Clean Air Act and places in perspective various issues that have arisen since passage of the act--significant deterioration, maintenance of standards, indirect source review, and transportation controls. Court decisions affecting these issues are cited…

Rampacek, Anne; Chaput, Linda

206

Particulate Air Pollution and Mortality: The Particle Epidemiology Evaluation Project  

Microsoft Academic Search

The second colloquium on particulate air pollution marks the reemergence of air pollution, generated by combustion sources, as a serious public health concern throughout the developed world. This article provides a perspective on the epidemiologic evidence on particulate air pollution and health. It addresses the evolution of methods for investigating air pollution and mortality and morbidity and the inter-pretational framework

Jonathan M. Samet; Scott L. Zeger; Julia E. Kelsall; Jing Xu

1998-01-01

207

Aircraft noise, air pollution, and mortality from myocardial infarction  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVE: Myocardial infarction has been associated with both transportation noise and air pollution. We examined residential exposure to aircraft noise and mortality from myocardial infarction, taking air pollution into account. METHODS: We analyzed the Swiss National Cohort, which includes geocoded information on residence. Exposure to aircraft noise and air pollution was determined based on geospatial noise and air-pollution (PM10) models

A. Huss; A. Spoerri; M. Egger; M. Roosli

2010-01-01

208

Measuring air pollution using a mobile, bicycle-based platform  

E-print Network

Measuring air pollution using a mobile, bicycle-based platform Steve Hankey University-walkability Physical activity Air pollution 2 #12;Approach: Mobile, bicycle-based sampling Air pollution measurements;Results: Exposure by mode 11 #12;Next steps: Land-use regression model Air pollution measurements LUR

Minnesota, University of

209

Air pollution and mortality: A history  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Mortality is the most important health effect of ambient air pollution and has been studied the longest. The earliest evidence relates to fog episodes but with the development of more precise methods of investigation it is still possible to discern short-term temporal associations with daily mortality at the historically low levels of air pollution that now exist in most developed countries. Another early observation was that mortality was higher in more polluted areas. This has been confirmed by modern cohort studies that account for other potential explanations for such associations. There does not appear to be a threshold of effect within the ambient range of concentrations. Advances in the understanding of air pollution and mortality have been driven by the combined development of methods and biomedical concepts. The most influential methodological developments have been in time-series techniques and the establishment of large cohort studies, both of which are underpinned by advances in data processing and statistical analysis. On the biomedical side two important developments can be identified. One has been the application of the concept of multifactorial disease causation to explaining how air pollution may affect mortality at low levels and why thresholds are not obvious at the population level. The other has been an increasing understanding of how air pollution may plausibly have pathophysiological effects that are remote from the lung interface with ambient air. Together, these advances have had a profound influence on policies to protect public health. Throughout the history of air pollution epidemiology, mortality studies have been central and this will continue because of the widespread availability of mortality data on a large population scale and the weight that mortality carries in estimating impacts for policy development.

Anderson, H. R.

210

The association between air pollution and mortality in Thailand  

PubMed Central

Bayesian statistical inference with a case-crossover design was used to examine the effects of air pollutants {Particulate matter <10??m in aerodynamic diameter (PM10), sulphur dioxide (SO2), and ozone (O3)} on mortality. We found that all air pollutants had significant short-term impacts on non-accidental mortality. An increase of 10??g/m3 in PM10, 10?ppb in O3, 1?ppb in SO2 were associated with a 0.40% (95% posterior interval (PI): 0.22, 0.59%), 0.78% (95% PI: 0.20, 1.35%) and 0.34% (95% PI: 0.17, 0.50%) increase of non-accidental mortality, respectively. O3 air pollution is significantly associated with cardiovascular mortality, while PM10 is significantly related to respiratory mortality. In general, the effects of all pollutants on all mortality types were higher in summer and winter than those in the rainy season. This study highlights the effects of exposure to air pollution on mortality risks in Thailand. Our findings support the Thailand government in aiming to reduce high levels of air pollution. PMID:24981315

Guo, Yuming; Li, Shanshan; Tawatsupa, Benjawan; Punnasiri, Kornwipa; Jaakkola, Jouni J. K.; Williams, Gail

2014-01-01

211

Ambient air pollution, climate change, and population health in China.  

PubMed

As the largest developing country, China has been changing rapidly over the last three decades and its economic expansion is largely driven by the use of fossil fuels, which leads to a dramatic increase in emissions of both ambient air pollutants and greenhouse gases (GHGs). China is now facing the worst air pollution problem in the world, and is also the largest emitter of carbon dioxide. A number of epidemiological studies on air pollution and population health have been conducted in China, using time-series, case-crossover, cross-sectional, cohort, panel or intervention designs. The increased health risks observed among Chinese population are somewhat lower in magnitude, per amount of pollution, than the risks found in developed countries. However, the importance of these increased health risks is greater than that in North America or Europe, because the levels of air pollution in China are very high in general and Chinese population accounts for more than one fourth of the world's totals. Meanwhile, evidence is mounting that climate change has already affected human health directly and indirectly in China, including mortality from extreme weather events; changes in air and water quality; and changes in the ecology of infectious diseases. If China acts to reduce the combustion of fossil fuels and the resultant air pollution, it will reap not only the health benefits associated with improvement of air quality but also the reduced GHG emissions. Consideration of the health impact of air pollution and climate change can help the Chinese government move forward towards sustainable development with appropriate urgency. PMID:21440303

Kan, Haidong; Chen, Renjie; Tong, Shilu

2012-07-01

212

Development of an air pollution evaluation system by linking air pollution total quantity control and land use management  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study considers air pollution total quantity control and land use management to establish a methodology for estimating unit emission loads of land use types. An air pollution evaluation system (APES) is developed, based on air pollution evaluation theory and procedure by linking air pollution total quantity control and land use management. The APES consists of an information management subsystem,

2001-01-01

213

Air pollution and associated respiratory morbidity in Delhi.  

PubMed

As a rapidly expanding centre of government, trade, commerce and industry, Delhi, the Indian capital, presents an instructive location for studying the possible association between air pollution and adverse health effects. This study tries to determine the association, if any, between the air pollutants--sulphur dioxide, nitrogen dioxide, carbon monoxide, ozone, suspended particulate matter and respiratory suspended particulate matter--and daily variations in respiratory morbidity in Delhi during the years 2004--2005. Data analysis was based on the Generalized Additive Poisson regression model including a Lowess smoothing function for the entire patient population and subgroups defined by season. The best fitting lag period for each pollutant was found by testing its concentration at varying lags. The model demonstrated associations between daily visits and some of the pollutants (O3, NO2 and RSPM) but their strongest components were observed at varying lags. A single pollutant model showed that a 10 microg m(-3) rise in pollutant level led to statistically significant relative risks (RR): 1.033 for O3, 1.004 for NO2, 1.006 for RSPM. The effect of particulate was relatively low, presumably because unlike other pollutants, particulate matter is not a single pollutant but rather a class of pollutants. This study, continued on a long term basis, can provide guidelines for anticipation/preparedness in the management of health care and hospital admissions. PMID:18581819

Jayaraman, Girija; Nidhi

2008-06-01

214

Chemical air pollutants and otorhinolaryngeal toxicity  

SciTech Connect

Air pollution and the specific issue regarding the impact of airborne chemical agents to human health are familiar topics to most members of the environmental health science and environmental medicine communities. Some aspects, however, have received relatively less attention. Much has been published regarding the impact of air pollutants on the human upper and lower respiratory system, including interaction with the rhinologic (nasal) system. Relatively fewer data have been published, however, regarding the potential impact of air pollutants in reference specifically to the otologic (auditory and vestibular) and the laryngeal (larynx) system. Adverse impact to the ears, nose and throat, referred to as the otorhinolaryngeal system'', warrants attention as an important environmental health issue. Toxic interactions from exposure to many chemical air pollutants not only causes potential respiratory irritation and lung disease, but can also result in impaired hearing, balance, sense of smell, taste, and speech due to interaction with related target systems. This may be significant to environmental health risk assessment of chemical air pollutants if multi-target site models are considered.

Bisesi, M.S.; Rubin, A.M. (Medical Coll. of Ohio, Toledo, OH (United States). Occupational Health and Otolaryngology)

1994-03-01

215

Air pollution: a smoking gun for cancer  

PubMed Central

Once considered a taboo topic or stigma, cancer is the number one public health enemy in the world. Once a product of an almost untouchable industry, tobacco is indisputably recognized as a major cause of cancer and a target for anticancer efforts. With the emergence of new economic powers in the world, especially in highly populated countries such as China, air pollution has rapidly emerged as a smoking gun for cancer and has become a hot topic for public health debate because of the complex political, economic, scientific, and technologic issues surrounding the air pollution problem. This editorial and the referred articles published in this special issue of the Chinese Journal of Cancer discuss these fundamental questions. Does air pollution cause a wide spectrum of cancers? Should air pollution be considered a necessary evil accompanying economic transformation in developing countries? Is an explosion of cancer incidence coming to China and how soon will it arrive? What must be done to prevent this possible human catastrophe? Finally, the approaches for air pollution control are also discussed. PMID:24636233

Zhang, Wei; Qian, Chao-Nan; Zeng, Yi-Xin

2014-01-01

216

Air pollution: a smoking gun for cancer.  

PubMed

Once considered a taboo topic or stigma, cancer is the number one public health enemy in the world. Once a product of an almost untouchable industry, tobacco is indisputably recognized as a major cause of cancer and a target for anticancer efforts. With the emergence of new economic powers in the world, especially in highly populated countries such as China, air pollution has rapidly emerged as a smoking gun for cancer and has become a hot topic for public health debate because of the complex political, economic, scientific, and technologic issues surrounding the air pollution problem. This editorial and the referred articles published in this special issue of the Chinese Journal of Cancer discuss these fundamental questions. Does air pollution cause a wide spectrum of cancers? Should air pollution be considered a necessary evil accompanying economic transformation in developing countries? Is an explosion of cancer incidence coming to China and how soon will it arrive? What must be done to prevent this possible human catastrophe? Finally, the approaches for air pollution control are also discussed. PMID:24636233

Zhang, Wei; Qian, Chao-Nan; Zeng, Yi-Xin

2014-04-01

217

78 FR 12267 - Revision of Air Quality Implementation Plan; California; Placer County Air Pollution Control...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Plan; California; Placer County Air Pollution Control District and Feather River...revision to the Placer County Air Pollution Control District (PCAPCD) and...modification of stationary sources of air pollution within each District. EPA...

2013-02-22

218

78 FR 58460 - Revision of Air Quality Implementation Plan; California; Placer County Air Pollution Control...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Plan; California; Placer County Air Pollution Control District and Feather River...revision to the Placer County Air Pollution Control District (PCAPCD) and...modification of stationary sources of air pollution within each District. We...

2013-09-24

219

Effect of air pollution on daily mortality in Hong Kong.  

PubMed Central

In different weather conditions, constituents and concentrations of pollutants, personal exposure, and biologic responses to air pollution may vary. In this study we assessed the effects of four air pollutants on mortality in both cool and warm seasons in Hong Kong, a subtropical city. Daily counts of mortality, due to all nonaccidental causes, and cardiovascular and respiratory diseases were modeled with daily pollutant concentrations [24-hr means for nitrogen dioxide, sulfur dioxide, and particulate matter < 10 microm in aerodynamic diameter (PM(10)); 8-hr mean for ozone]. using Poisson regression. We controlled for confounding factors by fitting the terms in models, in line with those recommended by the APHEA (Air Pollution and Health: a European Approach) protocol. Exposure-response relationships in warm and cool seasons were examined using generalized additive modeling. During the cool season, for a linear extrapolation of 10th-90th percentiles in the pollutant concentrations of all oxidant pollutants, NO(2), SO(2), and O(3), we found significant effects on all the mortality outcomes under study, with relative risks (RR) of 1.04-1.10 (p < 0.038, except p = 0.079 for SO(2) on respiratory mortality). We observed consistent positive exposure-response relationships during the cool season but not during the warm season. The effects of PM(10) were marginally significant (RR = 1.06; p = 0.054) for respiratory mortality but not for the other outcomes (p > 0.135). In this subtropical city, local air quality objectives should take into account that air pollution has stronger health effects during the cool rather than warm season and that oxidant pollutants are more important indicators of health effects than particulates. PMID:11335180

Wong, C M; Ma, S; Hedley, A J; Lam, T H

2001-01-01

220

BIOASSAY OF COMPLEX MIXTURES OF INDOOR AIR POLLUTANTS  

EPA Science Inventory

Indoor air pollution is a complex mixture of chemicals originating from outdoor air and indoor sources. oxicology studies of these mixtures are limited by difficulties in obtaining indoor air samples or appropriately simulated exposures. he concentration of pollutants from indoor...

221

AIR POLLUTION CONTROL ALTERNATIVES FOR SHALE OIL PRODUCTION OPERATIONS  

EPA Science Inventory

The report consolidates, evaluates, and presents available air pollution emission data and air pollution control technology relevant to oil shale production, for use by project developers in preparing environmental impact statements and permit applications under Clean Air Act and...

222

APPROACH TO ESTIMATING PARTICIPANT POLLUTANT EXPOSURES IN THE MULTI-ETHNIC STUDY OF ATHEROSCLEROSIS AND AIR POLLUTION (MESA AIR)  

PubMed Central

Most published epidemiology studies of long-term air pollution health effects have relied on central site monitoring to investigate regional-scale differences in exposure. Few cohort studies have had sufficient data to characterize localized variations in pollution, despite the fact that large gradients can exist over small spatial scales. Similarly, previous data have generally been limited to measurements of particle mass or several of the criteria gases. The Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis and Air Pollution (MESA Air) is an innovative investigation undertaken to link subclinical and clinical cardiovascular health effects with individual-level estimates of personal exposure to ambient-origin pollution. This project improves on prior work by implementing an extensive exposure assessment program to characterize long-term average concentrations of ambient-generated PM2.5, specific PM2.5 chemical components, and co-pollutants, with particular emphasis on capturing concentration gradients within cities. This paper describes exposure assessment in MESA Air, including questionnaires, community sampling, home monitoring, and personal sampling. Summary statistics describing the performance of the sampling methods are presented along with descriptive statistics of the air pollution concentrations by city. PMID:19673252

Cohen, Martin A.; Adar, Sara D.; Allen, Ryan W.; Avol, Edward; Curl, Cynthia L.; Gould, Timothy; Hardie, David; Ho, Anne; Kinney, Patrick; Larson, Timothy V.; Sampson, Paul; Sheppard, Lianne; Stukovsky, Karen D.; Swan, Susan S.; Liu, L-J Sally; Kaufman, Joel D.

2009-01-01

223

Air Pollution in the Pacific Northwest  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students are introduced to measuring and identifying sources of air pollution, as well as how environmental engineers try to control and limit the amount of air pollution. In Part 1, students are introduced to nitrogen dioxide as an air pollutant and how it is quantified. Major sources are identified, using EPA bar graphs. Students identify major cities and determine their latitudes and longitudes. They estimate NO2 values from color maps showing monthly NO2 averages from two sources: a NASA satellite and the WSU forecast model AIRPACT. In Part 2, students continue to estimate NO2 values from color maps and use Excel to calculate differences and ratios to determine the model's performance. They gain experience working with very large numbers written in scientific notation, as well as spreadsheet application capabilities.

CREAM GK-12 Program, Engineering Education Research Center, College of Engineering and Architecture,

224

Urban air pollution and solar energy  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The design and performance of solar energy systems for many potential applications (industrial/residential heat, electricity generation by solar concentration and photovoltaics) will be critically affected by local insolation conditions. The effects of urban air pollution are considered and reviewed. A study of insolation data for Alhambra, California (9 km south of Pasadena) shows that, during a recent second-stage photochemical smog alert (greater than or equal to 0.35 ppm ozone), the direct-beam insolation at solar noon was reduced by 40%, and the total global by 15%, from clean air values. Similar effects have been observed in Pasadena, and are attributable primarily to air pollution. Effects due to advecting smog have been detected 200 km away, in the Mojave Desert. Preliminary performance and economic simulations of solar thermal and photovoltaic power systems indicate increasing nonlinear sensitivity of life cycle plant cost to reductions in insolation levels due to pollution.

Gammon, R. B.; Huning, J. R.; Reid, M. S.; Smith, J. H.

1981-01-01

225

Inhalation intake of ambient air pollution in California's South Coast Air Basin  

E-print Network

in location, and (3) relationships between air-pollutionlocation (latitude and longitude) over time; temporally and spatially resolved ambient pollutant concentrations, determined from an Eulerian photochemical air pollution

Marshall, Julian D.; Granvold, Patrick W.; Hoats, Abigail S.; McKone, Thomas E.; Deakin, Elizabeth; Nazaroff, William W.

2006-01-01

226

Biological effects of air pollution in Sao Paulo and Cubatao  

SciTech Connect

Rats were used as biological indicators of air quality in two heavily polluted Brazilian towns: Sao Paulo and Cubatao. They were exposed for 6 months to ambient air in areas where the pollution was known to be severe. The following parameters were studied and compared to those of control animals: respiratory mechanics, mucociliary transport, morphometry of respiratory epithelium and distal air spaces, and general morphological alterations. The results showed lesions of the distal and upper airways in rats exposed in Cubatao, whereas the animals from Sao Paulo showed only alterations of the upper airways but of greater intensity than those observed in the Cubatao group. There are both qualitative and quantitative differences in the pollutants of these places: in Sao Paulo automobile exhaust gases dominate and in Cubatao the pollution is due mainly to particulates of industrial sources. The correlation of the pathological findings with the pollutants is discussed and it is concluded that biological indicators are useful to monitor air pollutions which reached dangerous levels in Sao Paulo and Cubatao.

Boehm, G.M.S.; Saldiva, P.H.; Pasqualucci, C.A.; Massad, E.; Martins M de, E.; Zin, W.A.; Cardoso, W.V.; Criado, P.M.; Komatsuzaki, M.; Sakae, R.S. (Instituto do Coracao, Faculdade de Medicina da USP, Sao Paulo (Brazil))

1989-08-01

227

Air pollution and Acid Rain, Report 10. The effects of air pollution and acid rain on fish, wildlife, and their habitats: urban ecosystems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Report 10 of the series synthesizing the results of scientific research related to the effects of air pollution and acid depositon on fish and wildlife resources deals with the urban ecosystem. General aspects of urban ecosystem relevant to a discussion of air pollution effects are presented with an outline of various other types of ecosystem stresses. This report describes plant,

1982-01-01

228

Air Pollution and Acid Rain, Report No. 7. Effects of air pollution and acid rain on fish, wildlife, and their habitats: grasslands  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report on grassland ecosystems is part of a series synthesizing the results of scientific research related to the effects of air pollution and acid deposition on fish and wildlife resources. General aspects of grassland ecosystems relevant to a discussion of air pollution effects are presented along with a brief introduction to various other types of ecosystem stresses. The bulk

1982-01-01

229

Air Pollution in the Mexico Megacity  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Mexico City is a megacity whose metropolitan area includes the country federal district, 18 municipalities of the State of Mexico. In year 1992, only 16 municipalities of the State of Mexico were part of MCMA. In year 1940 the Mexico City population was 1.78 millions in an area of 118 km2, in year 2000 the population was 17.9 millions in an area of 1,500 km2. Population has grown a ten fold whereas population density has dropped 20%. Total number of private cars has grown from 2,341,731 in year 1998 to 2,967,893 in year 2004. Nowadays, people and goods travel longer at lower speed to reach school, work and selling points. In addition highly efficient public transport lost a significant share of transport demand from 19.1 in 1986 to 14.3 in 1998. Air pollution is a public concern since early eighties last century; systematic public efforts have been carried out since late eighties. Energy consumption has steadily increased in the MCMA whereas emissions have also decreased. From year 2000 to 2004, the private cars fleet increased 17% whereas CO, NOx and COV emissions decreased between 20-30%. Average concentrations of criteria pollutants have decreased The number of days that the one-hour national standard for bad air quality was exceeded in year 1990 was 160. In year 2005 was 70. Research efforts and public policies on air pollution have been focused on public health. We are now better able to estimate the cost in human lives due to air pollution, or the cost in labor lost due to illness. Little if none at all work has been carried out to look at the effect of air pollution on private and public property or onto the cultural heritage. Few reports have can be found on the impact of air pollution in rural areas, including forest and crops, around the mega city. Mexico City is in the south end of a Valley with mountain ranges higher than 1000 m above the average city altitude. In spite the heavy loss of forested areas to the city, the mountains still retain large forest under strong demographic pressure and under heavy impact of air pollution. Flow patterns induced by complex terrain in the center of Mexico induce strong interaction between the mega city and the rural areas in the Mexico Basin. In and out mesoscale transport to and from the neighboring valleys with cities already larger than one million inhabitants increase the complexity of air pollution processes. Fast urbanization in these valleys suggests even more complicated and full of concerns scenarios. Some recent results on these issues will be shown.

Ruiz-Suarez, L. G.

2007-05-01

230

Air pollution means big dollar losses to growers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Agricultural losses up to $500 million per year are being caused by increasing air pollution levels. In New Jersey, air pollution injuries over 57 different crops, with leafy vegetables such as lettuce and spinach being hardest hit. Air pollution has become the worst single problem in northern Jersey. The Connecticut cigar wrapper industry is threatened by pollution; $5 million worth

1970-01-01

231

Effects of exposure to air pollution on blood coagulation  

Microsoft Academic Search

See also Vermylen J, Hoylaerts MF. The procoagulant effects of air pollution. This issue, pp 250-1. Summary. Background: Consistent evidence has indicated that air pollution increases the risk of cardiovascular diseases. The underlying mechanisms linking air pollutants to increased cardiovascular risk are unclear. Objectives: We investigated the association between the pollution levels and changes in such global coagulation tests as

A. BACCARELLI; A. ZANOBETTI; I. MARTINELLI; P. GRILLO; L. HOU; S. GIACOMINI; M. BONZINI; G. LANZANI; P. M. MANNUCCI; P. A. BERTAZZI; J. SCHWARTZ

2007-01-01

232

Measuring Bicyclists' Uptake of Traffic-Related Air Pollution  

E-print Network

Measuring Bicyclists' Uptake of Traffic-Related Air Pollution Alex Bigazzi PSU Transportation doses 4.Health effects 4Urban Bicyclists' Pollution Uptake #12;Bicyclists' Exposure to Air Pollution 5 reduce exposure risks for bikers? Urban transportation system Bicyclists' uptake of air pollution #12

Bertini, Robert L.

233

Impact of air pollutants on athletic performance  

SciTech Connect

Human controlled and observational studies both lead to the conclusion of air pollution adversely affecting athletic performance during training and competition. The dosage of various air pollutants during exercise is much higher due to the marked increase in ventilatory rate and concomitant nasal and oral breathing. This is particularly true for sulfur dioxide which is a highly water-soluble gas and is normally absorbed in the upper airway during nasal breathing. With heavy exercise, oral pharyngeal breathing is the predominant mode of breathing and much larger amounts of sulfur dioxide are delivered to the lower airway resulting in significant impact upon the lower respiratory tract. More recently, several controlled human studies have shown that a combination of exercise and air pollutants such as ozone (O3) or sulfur dioxides (SO2) cause a significant increase in bronchoconstriction and air flow obstruction when compared to the same exposure at rest. In strenuous athletic competition such as the Olympic Games where small increments of time often determine the ultimate success of athletes, the impact of air pollutants and subsequent adverse ventilatory changes can affect athletic performance. 62 references.

Pierson, W.E. (Univ. of Washington, Seattle (USA))

1989-05-01

234

Measuring Welfare Loss Caused by Air Pollution in Europe: A CGE Analysis  

E-print Network

To evaluate the socio-economic impacts of air pollution, we develop an integrated approach based on computable general equilibrium (CGE). Applying our approach to Europe shows that even there, where air quality is relatively ...

Paltsev, Sergey

235

PRECOMBUSTION REMOVAL OF HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANT PRECURSORS  

SciTech Connect

In response to growing environmental concerns reflected in the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendment (CAAA), the United States Department of Energy (DOE) sponsored several research and development projects in late 1995 as part of an initiative entitled Advanced Environmental Control Technologies for Coal-Based Power Systems. The program provided cost-shared support for research and development projects that could accelerate the commercialization of affordable, high-efficiency, low-emission, coal-fueled electric generating technologies. Clean coal technologies developed under this program would serve as prototypes for later generations of technologies to be implemented in the industrial sector. In order to identify technologies with the greatest potential for commercial implementation, projects funded under Phase I of this program were subject to competitive review by DOE before being considered for continuation funding under Phase II. One of the primary topical areas identified under the DOE initiative relates to the development of improved technologies for reducing the emissions of air toxics. Previous studies have suggested that many of the potentially hazardous air pollutant precursors (HAPPs) occur as trace elements in the mineral matter of run-of-mine coals. As a result, these elements have the potential to be removed prior to combustion at the mine site by physical coal cleaning processes (i.e., coal preparation). Unfortunately, existing coal preparation plants are generally limited in their ability to remove HAPPs due to incomplete liberation of the mineral matter and high organic associations of some trace elements. In addition, existing physical coal cleaning plants are not specifically designed or optimized to ensure that high trace element rejections may be achieved.

Unknown

2000-10-09

236

Effects of future anthropogenic pollution emissions on global air quality  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The atmospheric chemistry general circulation model EMAC is used to estimate the impact of anthropogenic emission changes on global and regional air quality in recent and future years (2005, 2010, 2025 and 2050). The emission scenario assumes that population and economic growth largely determine energy consumption and consequent pollution sources ("business as usual"). By comparing with recent observations, it is shown that the model reproduces the main features of regional air pollution distributions though with some imprecision inherent to the coarse horizontal resolution (around 100 km). To identify possible future hot spots of poor air quality, a multi pollutant index (MPI) has been applied. It appears that East and South Asia and the Arabian Gulf regions represent such hotspots due to very high pollutant concentrations. In East Asia a range of pollutant gases and particulate matter (PM2.5) are projected to reach very high levels from 2005 onward, while in South Asia air pollution, including ozone, will grow rapidly towards the middle of the century. Around the Arabian Gulf, where natural PM2.5 concentrations are already high (desert dust), ozone levels will increase strongly. By extending the MPI definition, we calculated a Per Capita MPI (PCMPI) in which we combined population projections with those of pollution emissions. It thus appears that a rapidly increasing number of people worldwide will experience reduced air quality during the first half of the 21st century. It is projected that air quality for the global average citizen in 2050 will be comparable to the average in East Asia in the year 2005.

Pozzer, A.; Zimmermann, P.; Doering, U.; van Aardenne, J.; Dentener, F.; Lelieveld, J.

2012-04-01

237

Effectiveness of Houseplants in Reducing the Indoor Air Pollutant Ozone  

E-print Network

14 times as many deaths occur from poor indoor air quality compared with ambient air pollutionEffectiveness of Houseplants in Reducing the Indoor Air Pollutant Ozone Heather L. Papinchak1 , E ndoor air pollution is ranked as one of the world's greatest public health risks (Wolverton, 1997

Decoteau, Dennis R.

238

Controlling Air Pollution; A Primer on Stationary Source Control Techniques.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This companion document to "Air Pollution Primer" is written for the nonexpert in air pollution; however, it does assume a familiarity with air pollution problems. This work is oriented toward providing the reader with knowledge about current and proposed air quality legislation and knowledge about available technology to meet these standards for…

Corman, Rena

239

Numerical simulation air pollution in urban areas  

SciTech Connect

A three-dimensional, grid-based numerical air pollution model for the estimation and prediction of air pollutant concentrations in an urban area is developed. Based on the species continuity equation, the modeling system incorporates the combined influences of advective transport, turbulent diffusion, chemical transformation, source emissions and surface removal processes. The model is applied to study the behavior of SO{sub 2} and sulfate concentration distributions in an urban area using the St. Louis Regional Air Pollution Study (RAPS) data. Statistical techniques for the evaluation of the numerical model performance include paired analysis and resampling analysis. The comparisons of the numerical model with the new version of Pollution Episodic Model (PEM-2) and the RAM, a Gaussian model, are also performed using RAPS data base. A comparison between predicted and observed concentrations indicates that the numerical model can satisfactorily simulate the dynamics of the pollutant concentrations in the urban area. The results indicate that besides the uncertainty in the emission rate, the proper characterization of the emissions-as a point source or as an area source-is also critical to the accurate simulation of the concentration field in the urban areas.

Ku, J.Y.

1984-01-01

240

Health impact of air pollution to children.  

PubMed

Health impact of air pollution to children was studied over the last twenty years in heavily polluted parts of the Czech Republic during. The research program (Teplice Program) analyzed these effects in the polluted district Teplice (North Bohemia) and control district Prachatice (Southern Bohemia). Study of pregnancy outcomes for newborns delivered between 1994 and 1998 demonstrated that increase in intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR) was associated with PM10 and c-PAHs exposure (carcinogenic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons) in the first month of gestation. Morbidity was followed in the cohort of newborns (N=1492) up to the age of 10years. Coal combustion in homes was associated with increased incidence of lower respiratory track illness and impaired early childhood skeletal growth up to the age of 3years. In preschool children, we observed the effect of increased concentrations of PM2.5 and PAHs on development of bronchitis. The Northern Moravia Region (Silesia) is characterized by high concentrations of c-PAHs due to industrial air pollution. Exposure to B[a]P (benzo[a]pyrene) in Ostrava-Radvanice is the highest in the EU. Children from this part of the city of Ostrava suffered higher incidence of acute respiratory diseases in the first year of life. Gene expression profiles in leukocytes of asthmatic children compared to children without asthma were evaluated in groups from Ostrava-Radvanice and Prachatice. The results suggest the distinct molecular phenotype of asthma bronchiale in children living in polluted Ostrava region compared to children living in Prachatice. The effect of exposure to air pollution to biomarkers in newborns was analyzed in Prague vs. Ceske Budejovice, two locations with different levels of pollution in winter season. B[a]P concentrations were higher in Ceske Budejovice. DNA adducts and micronuclei were also elevated in cord blood in Ceske Budejovice in comparison to Prague. Study of gene expression profiles in the cord blood showed differential expression of 104 genes. Specifically, biological processes related to immune and defense response were down-regulated in Ceske Budejovice. Our studies demonstrate that air pollution significantly affect child health. Especially noticeable is the increase of respiratory morbidity. With the development of molecular epidemiology, we can further evaluate the health risk of air pollution using biomarkers. PMID:23312845

Sram, Radim J; Binkova, Blanka; Dostal, Miroslav; Merkerova-Dostalova, Michaela; Libalova, Helena; Milcova, Alena; Rossner, Pavel; Rossnerova, Andrea; Schmuczerova, Jana; Svecova, Vlasta; Topinka, Jan; Votavova, Hana

2013-08-01

241

Air-pollution effects on biodiversity  

Microsoft Academic Search

To address the issues of air pollution impacts on biodiversity, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Environmental Research Laboratory in Corvallis, OR, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service National Fisheries Research Center in Leetown, and the Electric Power Research Institute convened a workshop to evaluate current knowledge, identify information gaps, provide direction to research and assess policy issues. In order to

J. R. Barker; D. T. Tingey

1992-01-01

242

MESOSCALE AIR POLLUTION TRANSPORT IN SOUTHEAST WISCONSIN  

EPA Science Inventory

This research program comprised a comprehensive study of mesoscale meteorological regimes on the western shore of Lake Michigan and their effect upon air pollution dispersion and transport. It is felt that the results are applicable in a generic way to other mid-latitude coastal ...

243

Breathing Easy About New Air Pollution Standards  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

A town meeting is the backdrop for a role-playing case about ground-level ozone air pollution. The case consists of a flier and scripts drawn from public comment records on the government mandate to reduce ground-level ozone by limiting nitrogen oxide emissions. Students play the parts of stakeholders and develop recommendations for reducing emissions.

Rowberg, Kathryn L.

2000-01-01

244

COLD REGIONS AIR POLLUTION: BIBLIOGRAPHY AND SUMMARY  

EPA Science Inventory

Through a series of workshops on cold climate environmental research priorities, conducted in 1982 by Battelle for the Environmental Protection Agency and the Department of Energy, air pollution was identified as the topic of highest priority. The current state of knowledge on ai...

245

Associations between criteria air pollutants and asthma  

Microsoft Academic Search

The evidence that asthma is increasing in prevalence is becoming increasingly compelling. This trend has been demonstrated in the United States, the United Kingdom, New Zealand, Australia, and several other Western countries. In the US, the increase is largest in the group under 18 years of age. There is mounting evidence that certain environmental air pollutants are involved in exacerbating

H. Koren

1995-01-01

246

Control Techniques for Particulate Air Pollutants.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Included is a comprehensive review of the approaches commonly recommended for controlling the sources of particulate air pollution. Not all possible combinations of control techniques that might bring about more stringent control of each individual source are reviewed. The many agricultural, commercial, domestic, industrial, and municipal…

National Air Pollution Control Administration (DHEW), Washington, DC.

247

INTRODUCTIOn* Arctic air pollution, commonly observedas Arctic  

E-print Network

Pergamon INTRODUCTIOn* Arctic air pollution, commonly observedas Arctic haze, is now a wellAsia(Eurasia) to the Arctic on winds that favor transport to the north in winter over that in summer. Hence. the suspendedparticulate matter and acidic gasesmeas- ured in the Arctic region undergo strong seasonal variationsin

Short, Daniel

248

REGIONAL AIR POLLUTION STUDY: HEAT EMISSION INVENTORY  

EPA Science Inventory

As part of the St. Louis Regional Air Pollution Study (RAPS), a heat emission inventory has been assembled. Heat emissions to the atmosphere originate, directly or indirectly, from the combustion of fossil fuels (there are no nuclear plants in the St. Louis AQCR). With the except...

249

Air pollution, acid rain and the environment  

SciTech Connect

This book reports on the Watt Committee's working group on acid rain, which was set up in 1981. The authors consider the relationship between natural and the man-made factors and the effects of possible remedial strategies. In the first phase of the study, the group looked at the fate of airborne pollution, vegetation and soils, freshwater and remedial strategy. In this report, which contains the results of a further phase of study, these topics are included and have been brought up to date. The scope of the report is extended to include buildings and non-living materials. Consideration is given to the problem of acid rain and air pollution worldwide. Emphasis is placed on the United Kingdom. The main conclusion is that more research is necessary on some aspects of acid rain and air pollution, but that some of the reports widespread damage caused by acid rain cannot be confirmed.

Mellanby, K.

1988-01-01

250

Urban Air Pollution in Russia: Observations and Assessment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Urban air pollution is actual topic because of its influence on air quality and climate processes on both regional and global scale. There is a lack of up-to-date information about real state of air quality in Russian cities because of very few contemporary observations. Obukhov Institute of Atmospheric Physics possesses significant database of automated measurements of air composition including data of train-based TROICA experiments in 1995-2010 as well as permanent observations in Moscow since 2002. In general numerous crosses of about 100 urban settlements of different size and location have been performed that allowed us to compose detailed pattern of urban air pollution in Russia nowadays. All cities were separated at three groups: megacities (more then 500 000 citizens), middle cities (50 000-500 000 citizens) and little cities (less then 50 000 citizens). Each urban settlement has been divided into railway station area, urban zone and city (or town) surroundings. Concentrations of main polluting gases (NO, NO2, CO, SO2, NMHC, O3) and aerosols have been averaged for each settlement as well as for each group of urban settlements for day and night, and for winter and summer. Main features of air urban pollution in Russia are presented. Variations of main pollutants including anthropogenic VOCs because of daytime and seasons, as well as temperature vertical structure are studied. Concentrations of O3, CO, SO2 and NMHC are usually below MPC level. NO2 is often enhanced especially near auto-roads. In general, polluting gases have greater concentrations in winter time due to heating and stronger temperature inversions. Particulate matter is likely to be the most persistent pollutant that determines more than 90% of pollution cases. Strong pollution cases are often caused by extraordinary situations like fires, industrial pollution under unfavorable meteorological conditions. High ozone photochemical generation is quite rare. Spatial pollution structure is usually in good agreement with so called "heat islands" revealed over cities due to mobile observations. From 50 to 75% of all cases temperature growth over cities makes up from 0 to 1 ° C, while in large cities there is substantial proportion of higher values of temperature growth - from 4 to 12% is in the range 2-3 ° C of the temperature rise, and almost as many (from 4 to 9%) cases reveal temperature increase of more than 3 ° C. Air quality level was assessed on base of new approach elaborated at OIAP to assess air quality in Russian cities. It accounts for both world famous methods and official Russian legislation. General level of air pollution in Russian cities is low or moderate mostly due to favorable location and climate conditions. Extreme concentrations can happen in warm period because of wild and anthropogenic fires and other severe pollution cases. Most of high concentrations within cities during TROICA campaigns were observed near railway stations where influence of local pollution sources (diesel trains, train stoves, boiler rooms and so on) is very large.

Skorokhod, Andrey; Elansky, Nikolai; Lavrova, Olga; Pankratova, Natalia; Belikov, Igor; Falaleeva, Victoria; Mel'nikova, Irina; Remizov, Andrey; Sitnikova, Irina

2013-04-01

251

Air pollution kills. So what? Air quality engineering to improve public health  

E-print Network

9/14/12 1 Air pollution kills. So what? Air quality engineering to improve public health;9/14/12 2 Air Quality Engineering H Air Quality Engineering H #12;9/14/12 3 Really? Air pollution running out of coffins and florists were running out of flowers. -- BBC #12;9/14/12 4 Air pollution

Levinson, David M.

252

Air pollution modifies floral scent trails  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Floral hydrocarbons provide essential signals to attract pollinators. As soon as they are emitted to the atmosphere, however, hydrocarbons are destroyed by chemical reactions involving pollutants such as ozone. It is therefore likely that increased air pollution interferes with pollinator attracting hydrocarbon signals. To test this hypothesis, a Lagrangian diffusion model was used to determine the position of air parcels away from hydrocarbon sources and to estimate the rate of chemical destruction of hydrocarbons as air parcels moved across the landscape. The hydrocarbon compounds linalool, ?-myrcene, and ?-ocimene were chosen because they are known to be common scents released from flowers. The suppressed ambient abundances of volatile organic compounds were determined in response to increased regional levels of ozone, hydroxyl, and nitrate radicals. The results indicate that the documented increases in air pollution concentrations, from pre-industrial to present times, can lead to reductions in volatile compound concentrations insects detect as they pollinate flowers. For highly reactive volatiles the maximum downwind distance from the source at which pollinators can detect the scents may have changed from kilometers during pre-industrial times to <200 m during the more polluted conditions of present times. The increased destruction of floral signals in polluted air masses may have important implications for both pollinators and signaling plants. When patches of flowers are further apart than the visual range of pollinators, such as in fragmented landscapes, the loss of scent signals may mean that pollinators spend more time searching for patches and less time foraging. This decrease in pollinator foraging efficiency will simultaneously decrease the pollinator's reproductive output and the amount of pollen flow in flowering plants.

McFrederick, Quinn S.; Kathilankal, James C.; Fuentes, Jose D.

253

The RAPS (regional air pollution study) helicopter air pollution measurement program, St. Louis, Missouri, 1974-76. Final report  

Microsoft Academic Search

This research program was initiated with the overall objective of providing measurement of air pollution and temperature gradient over the St. Louis, Missouri\\/Illinois, metropolitan area to complement surface measurements of air pollution by the Regional Air Monitoring System (RAMS) of the Regional Air Pollution Study (RAPS). This report describes in detail the helicopter data collection program and catalogs the missions

D. T. Mage; R. B. Evans; C. Fitzsimmons; N. Hester; F. Johnson

1979-01-01

254

Air pollution exposure prediction approaches used in air pollution epidemiology studies  

EPA Science Inventory

Epidemiological studies of the health effects of air pollution have traditionally relied upon surrogates of personal exposures, most commonly ambient concentration measurements from central-site monitors. However, this approach may introduce exposure prediction errors and miscla...

255

Effective Stack Design in Air Pollution Control.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Stack design problems fall into two general caterories--(1) those of building re-entry, and (2) those of general area pollution. Extensive research has developed adequate information, available in the literature, to permit effective stack design. A major roadblock to effective design has been the strong belief by architects and engineers that high…

Clarke, John H.

1968-01-01

256

RESEARCH AREA -- MUNICIPAL WASTE COMBUSTION (AIR POLLUTION TECHNOLOGY BRANCH, AIR POLLUTION PREVENTION AND CONTROL DIVISION, NRMRL)  

EPA Science Inventory

The municipal waste combustion (MWC) program supports the development of revised rules for air pollutant emissions from the MWC source category. Basic research is performed on MWC pollutant formation and control mechanisms for acid gas, trace organic, and trace metal emissions. T...

257

From diagnosis to prognosis for forecasting air pollution using neural networks: Air pollution monitoring in Bilbao  

Microsoft Academic Search

This work focuses on the prediction of hourly levels up to 8h ahead for five pollutants (SO2, CO, NO2, NO and O3) and six locations in the area of Bilbao (Spain). To that end, 216 models based on neural networks (NNs) were built. The database used to fit the NNs were historical records of the traffic, meteorological and air pollution

Gabriel Ibarra-berastegi; Ana Elias; Astrid Barona; Jon Saenz; Agustin Ezcurra; Javier Diaz De Argandoña

2008-01-01

258

Urban air pollution and health inequities: a workshop report.  

PubMed Central

Over the past three decades, an array of legislation with attendant regulations has been implemented to enhance the quality of the environment and thereby improve the public's health. Despite the many beneficial changes that have followed, there remains a disproportionately higher prevalence of harmful environmental exposures, particularly air pollution, for certain populations. These populations most often reside in urban settings, have low socioeconomic status, and include a large proportion of ethnic minorities. The disparities between racial/ethnic minority and/or low-income populations in cities and the general population in terms of environmental exposures and related health risks have prompted the "environmental justice" or "environmental equity" movement, which strives to create cleaner environments for the most polluted communities. Achieving cleaner environments will require interventions based on scientific data specific to the populations at risk; however, research in this area has been relatively limited. To assess the current scientific information on urban air pollution and its health impacts and to help set the agenda for immediate intervention and future research, the American Lung Association organized an invited workshop on Urban Air Pollution and Health Inequities held 22-24 October 1999 in Washington, DC. This report builds on literature reviews and summarizes the discussions of working groups charged with addressing key areas relevant to air pollution and health effects in urban environments. An overview was provided of the state of the science for health impacts of air pollution and technologies available for air quality monitoring and exposure assessment. The working groups then prioritized research needs to address the knowledge gaps and developed recommendations for community interventions and public policy to begin to remedy the exposure and health inequities. PMID:11427385

2001-01-01

259

Sources of Indoor Air Pollution- Improving Indoor Air Quality  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

There are three basic strategies to improve indoor air quality: source control, improved ventilation, and air cleaners. This site offers the reader some insights to improving air quality through increased ventilation, air cleaners for particle removal, and other common sense methods that may be employed. Many times the quality of the air in our homes and public or office buildings is marginal at best. The sources of indoor pollution may be outside of our ability to rectify or it may be as simple as adjusting the flame on our furnace or kitchen stove or maybe something as simple as opening a door or window. However, in many instances we have no control over the air quality because of the materials used in the construction of the building.

2007-01-21

260

Physical and Economic Damage Functions for Air Pollutants by Receptor.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This study is primarily concerned with evaluating regional economic damages to human health, material, and vegetation and of property soiling resulting from air pollution. This study represents a step forward in methodological development of air pollution...

B. Liu, E. S. Yu

1976-01-01

261

40 CFR 52.274 - California air pollution emergency plan.  

...8-hour averaging times; communication procedures for...prevention of air pollution emergency episodes—4- and 8-hour...prevention of air pollution emergency episodes—Priority II particulate matter emergency episode contingency...

2014-07-01

262

76 FR 67369 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Plan, Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution Control District and Imperial County Air Pollution Control District AGENCY: Environmental...the San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution Control District...

2011-11-01

263

76 FR 60376 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, Santa Barbara Air Pollution Control...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Implementation Plan, Santa Barbara Air Pollution Control District, Sacramento...revisions to the Santa Barbara Air Pollution Control District (SBAPCD...52 Environmental protection, Air pollution control, Incorporation by...

2011-09-29

264

76 FR 30080 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, Placer County Air Pollution Control...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Implementation Plan, Placer County Air Pollution Control District and Ventura County Air Pollution Control District AGENCY: Environmental...revisions to the Placer County Air Pollution Control District (PCAPCD)...

2011-05-24

265

76 FR 30025 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, Placer County Air Pollution Control...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Implementation Plan, Placer County Air Pollution Control District and Ventura County Air Pollution Control District AGENCY: Environmental...revisions to the Placer County Air Pollution Control District (PCAPCD)...

2011-05-24

266

AIR LECTURES HANDOUT 3 P Rhines 21 Feb 03 AIR: THE SMALL (AIR POLLUTION)  

E-print Network

AIR LECTURES HANDOUT 3 P Rhines 21 Feb 03 AIR: THE SMALL (AIR POLLUTION) SMOG ­ cold London fog ­ coal smoke in winter (home heating) with clear air, radiational cooling stratifies air SMOG- warm sources in areas of low dispersion. The production of smog ceases at night...often on windless hot sunny

267

Ozone, air pollution, and respiratory health.  

PubMed

Of the outdoor air pollutants regulated by the Clean Air Act of 1970 (and recently revised in 1990), ozone has been the one pollutant most difficult to control within the federal standards. The known human health effects are all on the respiratory system. At concentrations of ozone which occur during summer air-pollution episodes in many urban metropolitan areas of the United States, a portion of the healthy population is likely to experience symptoms and reversible effects on lung function, particularly if exercising heavily outdoors. More prolonged increase in airway responsiveness and the presence of inflammatory cells and mediators in the airway lining fluid may also result from these naturally occurring exposures. Serial exposures to peak levels of ozone on several consecutive days are more characteristic of pollution episodes in the Northeast United States and may be associated with recurrent symptoms. No "high-risk" or more sensitive group has been found, in contrast to the case of sulfur dioxide, to which asthmatics are more susceptible than normals. The occurrence of multiple exposure episodes within a single year over many years in some areas of California has led to studies looking for chronic effects of ozone exposure on the lung. To date, no conclusive studies have been reported, although further work is under way. Much of what we know about the effects of this gas on the lung are based on controlled exposures to pure gas within an environmental exposure laboratory. Interactions between substances which commonly co-occur in air-pollution episodes are also under investigation. PMID:1750227

Beckett, W S

1991-01-01

268

Air quality and pollution control in Taiwan  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Due to limited land and great emphasis on economic growth in the past, Taiwan has an extremely heavy environmental burden. Population density, factory density, as well as densities of motor vehicles are several times higher than those in the United States and Japan. According to the statistics of 1991, the Pollutant Standards Index (PSI) fell mostly in the "moderate" category, i.e., in the range of 50-100. There were 16.25% of the monitored days with PSI above 100, and 0.51% with PSI beyond 200. Suspended particulates were the major pollutant responsible for PSI above 100, followed by carbon monoxide, ozone, and sulfur dioxide. The measures adopted to control air pollution can be divided into four categories, namely law and regulations, control measures on stationary sources, mobile sources and construction projects. The latest amended Air Pollution Control Act was promulgated on 1 February 1992. Several major revisions were introduced to make the amended Act much more stringent than the 1982 amendment, especially on the offenses likely to endanger public health and welfare. In regard to stationary sources, a permit system was enacted to regulate the establishment and alteration of stationary sources. Designated stationary sources are required to be equipped with automatic monitoring facilities. An inspection and enforcement program have expanded to cover more than 10,000 factories. Major control measures for motor vehicles include introducing stringent emission standards for gasoline-fueled vehicles and diesel cars, setting up ratification and approval program for new vehicle model, promoting the inspection/maintenance program on in-used motorcycles and encouraging the use of unleaded and low sulfur fuels. In order to control the pollution caused by construction work, constructors are required to use low-pollution machinery and engineering methods and incorporate pollution prevention into the construction budget.

Fang, Shu-Hwei; Chen, Hsiung-Wen

269

Chemiluminescent detection of organic air pollutants  

SciTech Connect

Chemiluminescent reactions can be used for specific and highly sensitive detection of a number of air pollutants. Among these are chemiluminescent reactions of ozone with NO or organics and reactions of luminol with a variety of oxidants. Reported here are studies exploring (1) the use of the temperature dependence of the chemiluminescent reactions of ozone with organic pollutants as a means of differentiating types of hydrocarbon classes and (2) the use of luminol techniques to monitor atmospheric concentrations of nitrogen dioxide (NO{sub 2}) and organic oxidants, specifically peroxyacyl nitrates (PANs). Coupling gas chromatography to the chemiluminescent detectors allows the measurement of individual species at very low concentrations.

Marley, N.A.; Gaffney, J.S.; Chen, Yu-Harn

1996-04-01

270

Meteorological impact on air pollutant transport in highly urbanized region.  

E-print Network

??Meteorological impacts on air pollutant transport in highly urbanized region were investigated using the mesoscale meteorological models and air quality model. Two meteorological impacts were… (more)

Ruan, Tao

2010-01-01

271

AQUIMS: A computerized system for interpreting and integrating information on air pollution effects on natural resources  

SciTech Connect

Interpreting data and information concerning air pollutant effects on natural resources is difficult due to the many interacting biotic and abiotic factors, the diversity of information on this subject, and the paucity of on-site experts. In response to this data management need, the National Park Service, Fish and Wildlife Service, and Penn State University have produced a computerized, Windows-based air quality information management system (AQUIMS). The prototype provides information on the effects of two pollutants, tropospheric ozone and acidic deposition. AQUIMS provides the user with general site information, site-specific pollution monitoring data, information on natural resources sensitive to air pollution, annotated bibliographies, slide libraries of pristine and affected resources, pertinent databases, and an embedded expert system that helps the user assess the potential effects of air pollution. AQUIMS allows resource managers, policy experts, and air pollution researchers to access information faster and better analyze pollution effects.

Nash, B.; Tonnessen, K.; Maniero, T. [National Park Service, Denver, CO (United States)] [and others

1996-12-31

272

Air pollutants and health outcomes: Assessment of confounding by influenza  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We assessed confounding of associations between short-term effects of air pollution and health outcomes by influenza using Hong Kong mortality and hospitalization data for 1996-2002. Three measures of influenza were defined: (i) intensity: weekly proportion of positive influenza viruses, (ii) epidemic: weekly number of positive influenza viruses ?4% of the annual number for ?2 consecutive weeks, and (iii) predominance: an epidemic period with co-circulation of respiratory syncytial virus <2% of the annual positive isolates for ?2 consecutive weeks. We examined effects of influenza on associations between nitrogen dioxide (NO 2), sulfur dioxide (SO 2), particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter ?10 ?m (PM 10) and ozone (O 3) and health outcomes including all natural causes mortality, cardiorespiratory mortality and hospitalization. Generalized additive Poisson regression model with natural cubic splines was fitted to control for time-varying covariates to estimate air pollution health effects. Confounding with influenza was assessed using an absolute difference of >0.1% between unadjusted and adjusted excess risks (ER%). Without adjustment, pollutants were associated with positive ER% for all health outcomes except asthma and stroke hospitalization with SO 2 and stroke hospitalization with O 3. Following adjustment, changes in ER% for all pollutants were <0.1% for all natural causes mortality, but >0.1% for mortality from stroke with NO 2 and SO 2, cardiac or heart disease with NO 2, PM 10 and O 3, lower respiratory infections with NO 2 and O 3 and mortality from chronic obstructive pulmonary disease with all pollutants. Changes >0.1% were seen for acute respiratory disease hospitalization with NO 2, SO 2 and O 3 and acute lower respiratory infections hospitalization with PM 10. Generally, influenza does not confound the observed associations of air pollutants with all natural causes mortality and cardiovascular hospitalization, but for some pollutants and subgroups of cardiorespiratory mortality and respiratory hospitalization there was evidence to suggest confounding by influenza.

Thach, Thuan-Quoc; Wong, Chit-Ming; Chan, King-Pan; Chau, Yuen-Kwan; Neil Thomas, G.; Ou, Chun-Quan; Yang, Lin; Peiris, Joseph S. M.; Lam, Tai-Hing; Hedley, Anthony J.

2010-04-01

273

International Collaboration on Air Pollution and Pregnancy Outcomes (ICAPPO)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Reviews find a likely adverse effect of air pollution on perinatal outcomes, but variation of findings hinders the ability to incorporate the research into policy. The International Collaboration on Air Pollution and Pregnancy Outcomes (ICAPPO) was formed to better understand relationships between air pollution and adverse birth outcomes through standardized parallel analyses in datasets from different countries. A planning group

Tracey J. Woodruff; Jennifer D. Parker; Kate Adams; Michelle L. Bell; Ulrike Gehring; Svetlana Glinianaia; Eun-Hee Ha; Bin Jalaludin; Rémy Slama

2010-01-01

274

Health, Wealth, and Air Pollution: Advancing Theory and Methods  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of both ambient air pollution and socioeconomic position (SEP) on health are well documented. A limited number of recent studies suggest that SEP may itself play a role in the epi- demiology of disease and death associated with exposure to air pollution. Together with evidence that poor and working-class communities are often more exposed to air pollution, these

Marie S. O'Neill; Michael Jerrett; Ichiro Kawachi; Jonathan I. Levy; Aaron J. Cohen; Nelson Gouveia; Paul Wilkinson; Tony Fletcher; Luis Cifuentes; Joel Schwartz

2003-01-01

275

Air pollution and stock returns in the US  

Microsoft Academic Search

Health related research documents that air pollution has negative mood effects. Experimental works in psychology relate bad mood to increased risk aversion. Studies in financial economics report an observed link between mood effects and stock market returns. This study therefore investigates whether the mood effects caused by air pollution can have economic implications. It examines the relationship between air pollution

Tamir Levy; Joseph Yagil

2011-01-01

276

Air Pollution XVI 247 Emissions of Nitrogen Dioxide from Modern  

E-print Network

Air Pollution XVI 247 Emissions of Nitrogen Dioxide from Modern Diesel Vehicles G.A. Bishop and D;Air Pollution XVI 248 The DPF is an extremely effective means to achieve particle reduction goals increase, are of concern to air pollution photochemistry because NO2 leads directly, through solar

Denver, University of

277

Air Pollution and Blood Markers of Cardiovascular Risk  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent studies have linked air pollution to tens of thousands of premature cardiovascular deaths per year. The mechanisms of such associations remain unclear. In this study we examine the association between blood markers of cardiovascular risk and air pollution in a national sample of the U.S. population. Air pollution concentrations were merged to subjects in the Third National Health and

Joel Schwartz

2001-01-01

278

A REVIEW OF AIR POLLUTANT DAMAGE TO MATERIALS  

EPA Science Inventory

Report prepared as U.S. contribution to Panel 3 of NATO Committee on Challenges of Modern Society Pilot Study on Air Pollution Control Strategies and Impact Modeling. Panel 3 focuses on air pollutant impact and will publish 4 reports on air pollutants effects; this is the first i...

279

30 CFR 784.26 - Air pollution control plan.  

...2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Air pollution control plan. 784.26 Section...OPERATION PLAN § 784.26 Air pollution control plan. For all surface...the application shall contain an air pollution control plan which includes...

2014-07-01

280

Proceedings of 10th International Symposium "Transport and Air Pollution"  

E-print Network

Proceedings of 10th International Symposium "Transport and Air Pollution" September 17-19, 2001 ­ Boulder, Colorado USA Air pollution mapping over a city ­ virtual stations and morphological indicators Surveillance et l'tude de la Pollution atmosphrique en Alsace), Schiltigheim, FRANCE Abstract Air quality

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

281

IMMEDIATE COMMUNICATION Air pollution impairs cognition, provokes depressive-like  

E-print Network

IMMEDIATE COMMUNICATION Air pollution impairs cognition, provokes depressive-like behaviors Institute, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH, USA Particulate matter air pollution is a pervasive the effects of prolonged exposure to air pollution are well characterized with respect to pulmonary

Nelson, Randy J.

282

Air Pollution Impacts on Ecosystems and Biological Diversity  

E-print Network

Air Pollution Impacts on Ecosystems and Biological Diversity in the Eastern United States Threats CITATION Lovett, G.M., and T.H. Tear. 2008. Threats from Above: Air Pollution Impacts on Ecosystems by its parent as it takes its first swim. � Daniel Poleschook Jr. and Ginger Gumm #12;Air Pollution

283

30 CFR 780.15 - Air pollution control plan.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Air pollution control plan. 780.15 Section...OPERATION PLAN § 780.15 Air pollution control plan. (a) For...the application shall contain an air pollution control plan which includes...

2011-07-01

284

REVIEW Open Access Climate change, air pollution and extreme events  

E-print Network

REVIEW Open Access Climate change, air pollution and extreme events leading to increasing dramatically during the past few decades not only in industrialized countries. Urban air pollution from motor be explained only in changes occurred in the environment. Despite some differences in the air pollution profile

285

ENV 6105 Page 1 of 6 Fall 2011 Air Pollution  

E-print Network

ENV 6105 Page 1 of 6 Fall 2011 Syllabus Air Pollution ENV 6105.901 (ref# 90504) Fall 2011 Course Description: A study of air pollution. Emphasis is given to principles underlying our understanding of ambient air pollution, its sources, its effects, and mechanisms for its management. Credit Hours and Work

Stuart, Amy L.

286

Urban Form and Air Pollution in US Urban Areas!  

E-print Network

Urban Form and Air Pollution in US Urban Areas! Center for Transportation Studies Research of Minnesota Grant No. 0853467 #12;Air Pollution Impacts on Health 2 EPA, 2010 Ozone PM2.5 PM10 Lead Nitrogen #12;Purpose and Research Questions 4 Purpose: Explore relationship between air pollution and urban

Minnesota, University of

287

40 CFR 49.137 - Rule for air pollution episodes.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-07-01 false Rule for air pollution episodes. 49.137 Section...Region 10 § 49.137 Rule for air pollution episodes. (a) What is the...to prevent the occurrence of an air pollution emergency within the Indian...

2012-07-01

288

30 CFR 780.15 - Air pollution control plan.  

...2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Air pollution control plan. 780.15 Section...OPERATION PLAN § 780.15 Air pollution control plan. (a) For...the application shall contain an air pollution control plan which includes...

2014-07-01

289

SOLVING VERTICAL TRANSPORT AND CHEMISTRY IN AIR POLLUTION MODELS  

E-print Network

SOLVING VERTICAL TRANSPORT AND CHEMISTRY IN AIR POLLUTION MODELS P.J.F. BERKVENS #3; , M.A. BOTCHEV; transport-chemistry problems from air pollution modelling, standard ODE solvers are not feasible due causing large errors for such species. In the framework of an operational global air pollution model, we

Botchev, Mike

290

40 CFR 49.137 - Rule for air pollution episodes.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 false Rule for air pollution episodes. 49.137 Section...Region 10 § 49.137 Rule for air pollution episodes. (a) What is the...to prevent the occurrence of an air pollution emergency within the Indian...

2013-07-01

291

30 CFR 780.15 - Air pollution control plan.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Air pollution control plan. 780.15 Section...OPERATION PLAN § 780.15 Air pollution control plan. (a) For...the application shall contain an air pollution control plan which includes...

2013-07-01

292

Modeling impact of urban air pollution on health  

E-print Network

Modeling impact of urban air pollution on health: Preliminary results and testing a methodology with hospitals for the study of air pollution impact on specific deceases (old people admitted in emergency morbidity data and pollutants concentrations at the regional/urban scale Health and air quality in France

Menut, Laurent

293

30 CFR 780.15 - Air pollution control plan.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Air pollution control plan. 780.15 Section...OPERATION PLAN § 780.15 Air pollution control plan. (a) For...the application shall contain an air pollution control plan which includes...

2012-07-01

294

Session 2: Modelling air pollution across a range of scales  

E-print Network

Session 2: Modelling air pollution across a range of scales Ruth Doherty, Massimo Vieno, Ian Mac) EMEP2009 (less complex) Observations Modelling regional air pollution #12;Nested regions: 50 to 5 to 1 km2 O3 concentration (ppb) NO2 concentration (�g m-3) #12;Modelling Urban air pollution Regional

295

30 CFR 784.26 - Air pollution control plan.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Air pollution control plan. 784.26 Section...OPERATION PLAN § 784.26 Air pollution control plan. For all surface...the application shall contain an air pollution control plan which includes...

2013-07-01

296

40 CFR 49.137 - Rule for air pollution episodes.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-07-01 false Rule for air pollution episodes. 49.137 Section...Region 10 § 49.137 Rule for air pollution episodes. (a) What is the...to prevent the occurrence of an air pollution emergency within the Indian...

2011-07-01

297

30 CFR 784.26 - Air pollution control plan.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Air pollution control plan. 784.26 Section...OPERATION PLAN § 784.26 Air pollution control plan. For all surface...the application shall contain an air pollution control plan which includes...

2011-07-01

298

Development of Foamed Emulsion Bioreactor for Air Pollution Control  

E-print Network

Development of Foamed Emulsion Bioreactor for Air Pollution Control Eunsung Kan, Marc A. Deshusses: 10.1002/bit.10767 Abstract: A new type of bioreactor for air pollution con- trol has been developed used bioreactors for air pollution control. © 2003 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Biotechnol Bioeng 84: 240

299

40 CFR 49.137 - Rule for air pollution episodes.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 false Rule for air pollution episodes. 49.137 Section...Region 10 § 49.137 Rule for air pollution episodes. (a) What is the...to prevent the occurrence of an air pollution emergency within the Indian...

2010-07-01

300

San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution Control District  

E-print Network

#12;San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution Control District Best Available Control Technology.4.2 #12;San Joaquin Valley Air Pollution Control Distri RECEIVED ~ 2 ED ECEIVED www.valleyalr.org SJVAPCD-2370·(661)326-6900"FAX(661)326-6985 #12;San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution Control District TITLE V MODIFICATION

301

A review of methods for predicting air pollution dispersion  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Air pollution modeling, and problem areas in air pollution dispersion modeling were surveyed. Emission source inventory, meteorological data, and turbulent diffusion are discussed in terms of developing a dispersion model. Existing mathematical models of urban air pollution, and highway and airport models are discussed along with their limitations. Recommendations for improving modeling capabilities are included.

Mathis, J. J., Jr.; Grose, W. L.

1973-01-01

302

The Role of Sea Spray in Cleansing Air Pollution over  

E-print Network

The Role of Sea Spray in Cleansing Air Pollution over Ocean via Cloud Processes Daniel Rosenfeld, Ronen Lahav, Alexander Khain, Mark Pinsky Particulate air pollution has been shown to strongly suppress by collecting small cloud droplets that form on the pollution particles, thereby cleansing the air. Therefore

Daniel, Rosenfeld

303

Hierarchical Bayesian models for space-time air pollution data  

E-print Network

Hierarchical Bayesian models for space-time air pollution data Sujit K. Sahu June 14, 2011 sets have led to a step change in the analysis of space-time air pollution data. Accurate predictions-time air pollution data and illustrate the benefits of modeling with a real data example on monitoring

Sahu, Sujit K

304

30 CFR 784.26 - Air pollution control plan.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Air pollution control plan. 784.26 Section...OPERATION PLAN § 784.26 Air pollution control plan. For all surface...the application shall contain an air pollution control plan which includes...

2012-07-01

305

VALMET-A valley air pollution model  

SciTech Connect

Following a thorough analysis of meteorological data obtained from deep valleys of western Colorado, a modular air-pollution model has been developed to simulate the transport and diffusion of pollutants released from an elevated point source in a well-defined mountain valley during the nighttime and morning transition periods. This initial version of the model, named VALMET, operates on a valley cross section at an arbitrary distance down-valley from a continuous point source. The model has been constructed to include parameterizations of the major physical processes that act to disperse pollution during these time periods. The model has not been fully evaluated. Further testing, evaluations, and development of the model are needed. Priorities for further development and testing are provided.

Whiteman, C.D.; Allwine, K.J.

1983-09-01

306

Oxidative Stress and Air Pollution Exposure  

PubMed Central

Air pollution is associated with increased cardiovascular and pulmonary morbidity and mortality. The mechanisms of air pollution-induced health effects involve oxidative stress and inflammation. As a matter of fact, particulate matter (PM), especially fine (PM2.5, PM?

Lodovici, Maura; Bigagli, Elisabetta

2011-01-01

307

Air pollution effects on the guard cells of the injury resistant leaf of Laurus nobilis L  

SciTech Connect

The need for cleaner air has led to detailed investigations not only on the sources and types of air pollutants but also on the effect that these compounds have on various life forms. The plants are the first [open quotes]victims[close quotes] of the air pollutants. Extensive literature exists on the structural damages and functional problems that plants suffer after being exposed to air pollutants. Many investigators prefer to deal with damages, caused to various organs, in plants growing in non polluted environments, after being fumigated with certain air pollutants. Others investigate the problems in plants growing in polluted areas thus being subject to long-term exposure to air pollutants. Generally it seems that primary producers suffer injuries, most of the time serious, that finally lead to the suppression of photosynthesis with all the undesirable consequences that this situation has for the ecosystem. Unfortunately Athens is not only the most polluted city in Greece but also an example to be avoided among the most polluted cities in the world. Serious problems occur in plants living in this environment. One exception is Laurus nobilis, introduced as an injury resistant species. These researchers studied the plant cells and the structure of their organelles, focusing on the guard cells of the leaves. They occur on the underside of leaves and they are directly affected by polluted air. Studies show that the air pollution injury resistance of Laurus is genetic. 25 refs., 21 figs

Christodoulakis, N.S. (Univ. of Athens (Greece))

1993-09-01

308

Personal exposure of children to air pollution  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Changes over recent decades in outdoor concentrations of air pollutants are well documented. However, the impacts of air pollution on an individual's health actually relate not to these outdoor concentrations but to their personal exposure in the different locations in which they spend time. Assessing how personal exposures differ from outdoor concentrations, and how they have changed over recent decades, is challenging. This review focuses on the exposure of children, since they are a particularly sensitive group. Much of children's time is spent indoors, and childhood exposure is closely related to concentrations in the home, at school, and in transport. For this reason, children's personal exposures to air pollutants differ significantly from both those of adults and from outdoor concentrations. They depend on a range of factors, including urbanisation, energy use, building design, travel patterns, and activity profiles; analysis of these factors can identify a wider range of policy measures to reduce children's exposure than direct emission control. There is a very large variation in personal exposure between individual children, caused by differences in building design, indoor and outdoor sources, and activity patterns. Identifying groups of children with high personal exposure, and their underlying causes, is particularly important in regions of the world where emissions are increasing, but there are limited resources for environmental and health protection. Although the science of personal exposure assessment, with the associated measurement and modelling techniques, has developed to maturity in North America and western Europe over the last 50 years, there is an urgent need to apply this science in other parts of the world where the effects of air pollution are now much more serious.

Ashmore, M. R.; Dimitroulopoulou, C.

309

Air pollution potential of solar technologies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Air pollution associated with fabrication or operation of solar energy devices is considered. Impacts include: the release from cooling towers of liquid spray (called drift) containing dissolved substances; the emission of PH3, POCl3, and HF during silicon cell fabrication; possible release of As2O3 if a centralized GaAs array catches fire; and escape of gas from gasification units. The possibility that

J. G. Holmes; P. E. Mihlmester; S. G. Miller; T. L. Super; J. B. Thomasian

1977-01-01

310

Atmospheric chemistry and physics of air pollution  

Microsoft Academic Search

This book is divided into six major subject areas. The first section consists of two chapters that describe the qualitative nature of tropospheric air pollution and its many effects. The second major section consists of three chapters describing gas-phase, solution-phase, and mass-transfer aspects of atmospheric chemistry. The third major section is an introduction to aerosol chemistry and physics. The fourth

J. H. Seinfeld

1986-01-01

311

Indoor and outdoor air pollution in the Himalayas  

SciTech Connect

Air pollutant concentrations have been measured in residences in the Himalayas of Nepal where biomass fuels are used for cooking and heating. Levels of total suspended particles are in the range 3-42 mg/m/sup 3/, with respirable suspended particles in the range 1-14 mg/m/sup 3/ in the houses sampled. Limited data for gaseous species show appreciable levels of carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, methane, and several non-methane hydrocarbons. A questionnaire concerning energy use administered in each household suggests that high per capita use of biomass fuels is responsible for excessive pollutant concentrations. Application of a one-compartment mass balance model to these houses shows only rough agreement between calculated and measured values, due to uncertainties in model input parameters as well as difficulties in estimating average pollutant concentrations throughout each house. High outdoor concentrations of potassium and methyl chloride, previously shown to be tracers of biomass combustion, indicate that the indoor biomass combustion also degrades the outdoor environment. Values of crustal enrichment factors for trace elements in the air and snow of the region suggest that the polluted air is generally confined to the populated villages, with more pristine air at higher elevations. 58 references, 1 figure, 5 tables.

Davidson, C.I.; Lin, S.F.; Osborn, J.F.; Pandey, M.R.; Rasmussen, R.A.; Khalil, M.A.K.

1986-06-01

312

Air  

MedlinePLUS

... do to protect yourself from dirty air . Indoor air pollution and outdoor air pollution Air can be polluted indoors and it can ... this chart to see what things cause indoor air pollution and what things cause outdoor air pollution! Indoor ...

313

Environmental and occupational respiratory disorders Rostrum Health effects of air pollution  

Microsoft Academic Search

The general public, especially patients with upper or lower respiratory symptoms, is aware from media reports that adverse respiratory effects can occur from air pollution. It is important for the allergist to have a current knowledge of the potential health effects of air pollution and how they might affect their patients to advise them accordingly. Specifically, the allergist-clinical immunologist should

Jonathan A. Bernstein; Neil Alexis; Charles Barnes; I. Leonard Bernstein; Andre Nel; David Peden; David Diaz-Sanchez; Susan M. Tarlo; P. Brock Williams

314

Effects of air pollution and acid rain on fish, wildlife, and their habitats - grasslands. Final report  

Microsoft Academic Search

Report 7 of the series synthesizing the results of scientific research related to the effects of air pollution and acid deposition on fish and wildlife resources deals with grasslands. General aspects of grassland ecosystems relevant to a discussion of air pollution effects are presented along with a brief introduction to various other types of ecosystem stresses.

1982-01-01

315

ISSUES IN SEMIPARAMETRIC REGRESSION WITH APPLICATIONS IN TIME SERIES MODELS FOR AIR POLLUTION AND MORTALITY  

Microsoft Academic Search

In 2002, methodological issues around time series analyses of air pollution and health attracted the attention of statisticians, epidemiologists, the press, industry, and policy makers. As the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) was finalizing its review of the evidence on particulate air pollution, statisticians and epidemiologists found that the S-Plus implementation of Generalized Additive Models (GAM), the most common statistical approach

Francesca Dominici; Aidan McDermott; Trevor Hastie

2003-01-01

316

Acute symptoms related to air pollution in urban areas: a study protocol  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: The harmful effects of urban air pollution on general population in terms of annoying symptoms are not adequately evaluated. This is in contrast to the hospital admissions and short term mortality. The present study protocol is designed to assess the association between the level of exposure to certain ambient air pollutants and a wide range of relevant symptoms. Awareness

Masud Yunesian; Fariba Asghari; Javad Homayoun Vash; Mohammad Hossein Forouzanfar; Dariush Farhud

2006-01-01

317

Effects of air pollution on neonatal prematurity in guangzhou of china: a time-series study  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Over the last decade, a few studies have investigated the possible adverse effects of ambient air pollution on preterm birth. However, the correlation between them still remains unclear, due to insufficient evidences. METHODS: The correlation between air pollution and preterm birth in Guangzhou city was examined by using the Generalized Additive Model (GAM) extended Poisson regression model in which

Qingguo Zhao; Zhijiang Liang; Shijuan Tao; Juan Zhu; Yukai Du

2011-01-01

318

Dirty air, dirty power. Mortality and health damage due to air pollution from power plants  

SciTech Connect

The Clean Air Task Force commissioned Abt Associates, the consulting firm relied upon by US EPA to assess the health benefits of many of the agency's air regulatory programs. The report documents the asthma attacks, hospitalisations, lost work and school days, and premature deaths linked to pollution from power plants. A first report was released in 2000. The 2004 report documents for the first time the number of heart attacks and lung cancer deaths that would be caused by power plants in 2010 and 2020. It compares the premature deaths that would result under the Bush administration's air pollution plan, the existing US Clean Air Act, and a proposal sponsored by Senator Jim Jeffords to strengthen the Clean Air Act. In general it was found that the administration's plan would produce the fewest benefits. The full study is available from the EPA, abstracted separately on the Coal Abstracts database. 65 refs., 2 apps.

Schneider, Conrad G.; Padian, M. (ed.)

2004-06-15

319

Space-Time Urban Air Pollution Forecasts  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Air pollution, like other natural phenomena, may be considered a space-time process. However, the simultaneous integration of time and space is not an easy task to perform, due to the existence of different uncertainties levels and data characteristics. In this work we propose a hybrid method that combines geostatistical and neural models to analyze PM10 time series recorded in the urban area of Lisbon (Portugal) for the 2002-2006 period and to produce forecasts. Geostatistical models have been widely used to characterize air pollution in urban areas, where the pollutant sources are considered diffuse, and also to industrial areas with localized emission sources. It should be stressed however that most geostatistical models correspond basically to an interpolation methodology (estimation, simulation) of a set of variables in a spatial or space-time domain. The temporal prediction of a pollutant usually requires knowledge of the main trends and complex patterns of physical dispersion phenomenon. To deal with low resolution problems and to enhance reliability of predictions, an approach based on neural network short term predictions in the monitoring stations which behave as a local conditioner to a fine grid stochastic simulation model is presented here. After the pollutant concentration is predicted for a given time period at the monitoring stations, we can use the local conditional distributions of observed values, given the predicted value for that period, to perform the spatial simulations for the entire area and consequently evaluate the spatial uncertainty of pollutant concentration. To attain this objective, we propose the use of direct sequential simulations with local distributions. With this approach one succeed to predict the space-time distribution of pollutant concentration that accounts for the time prediction uncertainty (reflecting the neural networks efficiency at each local monitoring station) and the spatial uncertainty as revealed by the spatial variograms. The dataset used consists of PM10 concentrations recorded hourly by 12 monitoring stations within the Lisbon's area, for the period 2002-2006. In addition, meteorological data recorded at 3 monitoring stations and boundary layer height (BLH) daily values from the ECMWF (European Centre for Medium Weather Forecast), ERA Interim, were also used. Based on the large-scale standard pressure fields from the ERA40/ECMWF, prevailing circulation patterns at regional scale where determined and used on the construction of the models. After the daily forecasts were produced, the difference between the average maps based on real observations and predicted values were determined and the model's performance was assessed. Based on the analysis of the results, we conclude that the proposed approach shows to be a very promising alternative for urban air quality characterization because of its good results and simplicity of application.

Russo, A.; Trigo, R. M.; Soares, A.

2012-04-01

320

Pollution Control in a Manufacturing System Stochastic Models for Analysis and Control of Air Pollution  

E-print Network

Pollution Control in a Manufacturing System Stochastic Models for Analysis and Control of Air. Introduction Pollution of air resulting from toxic wastes emitted by large manufacturing plants and power into the ground from industries. An equally important topic is the pollution of air inside a manufacturing plant

Gosavi, Abhijit

321

Population Dynamics and Air Pollution: The Impact of Demographics on Health Impact Assessment of Air Pollution  

PubMed Central

Objective. To explore how three different assumptions on demographics affect the health impact of Danish emitted air pollution in Denmark from 2005 to 2030, with health impact modeled from 2005 to 2050. Methods. Modeled air pollution from Danish sources was used as exposure in a newly developed health impact assessment model, which models four major diseases and mortality causes in addition to all-cause mortality. The modeling was at the municipal level, which divides the approximately 5.5?M residents in Denmark into 99 municipalities. Three sets of demographic assumptions were used: (1) a static year 2005 population, (2) morbidity and mortality fixed at the year 2005 level, or (3) an expected development. Results. The health impact of air pollution was estimated at 672,000, 290,000, and 280,000 lost life years depending on demographic assumptions and the corresponding social costs at 430.4?M€, 317.5?M€, and 261.6?M€ through the modeled years 2005–2050. Conclusion. The modeled health impact of air pollution differed widely with the demographic assumptions, and thus demographics and assumptions on demographics played a key role in making health impact assessments on air pollution. PMID:23762084

B?nl?kke, Jakob; Br?nnum-Hansen, Henrik

2013-01-01

322

Comments on the Criteria Document for Particulate Matter Air Pollution  

E-print Network

on particulate matter air pollution. The document, called Air Quality Criteria for Particulate Matter, is the first step in the process of setting air quality standards in the United States. Once the criteriaComments on the Criteria Document for Particulate Matter Air Pollution Richard Smith Peter Guttorp

Washington at Seattle, University of

323

Acute Exposure to Air Pollution Triggers Atrial Fibrillation  

PubMed Central

Objective The aim of the present study is to evaluate the association of air pollution with the onset of atrial fibrillation (AF). Background Air pollution in general and more specifically particulate matter has been associated with cardiovascular events. Although ventricular arrhythmias are traditionally thought to convey the increased cardiovascular risk, AF may also contribute. Methods Patients with dual chamber implantable cardioverter defibrillators (ICDs) were enrolled and followed prospectively. The association of AF onset with air quality including ambient PM2.5, black carbon, sulfate, particle number, NO2, SO2, and O3 in the 24 hours prior to the arrhythmia was examined utilizing a case-crossover analysis. In sensitivity analyses, associations with air pollution between 2 and 48 hours prior to the AF were examined. Results Of 176 patients followed for an average of 1.9 years, 49 patients had 328 episodes of AF lasting ? 30 seconds. Positive but nonsignificant associations were found for PM2.5 in the prior 24 hours, but stronger associations were found with shorter exposure windows. The odds of AF increased by 26% (95% CI 8% to 47%) for each 6.0 µg/m3 increase in PM2.5 in the 2 hours prior to the event (p=0.004). The odds of AF was highest at the upper quartile of mean PM2.5. Conclusion Particulate matter was associated with increased odds of AF onset within hours following exposure in patients with known cardiac disease. Air pollution is an acute trigger of AF, likely contributing to the pollution-associated adverse cardiac outcomes observed in epidemiological studies. PMID:23770178

Link, Mark S.; Luttmann-Gibson, Heike; Schwartz, Joel; Mittleman, Murray A.; Wessler, Benjamin; Gold, Diane R.; Dockery, Douglas W.; Laden, Francine

2013-01-01

324

Air pollution from future giant jetports  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Because aircraft arrive and depart in a generally upwind direction, the pollutants are deposited in a narrow corridor extending downwind of the airport. Vertical mixing in the turbulent atmosphere will not dilute such a trail, since the pollutants are distributed vertically during the landing and take-off operations. As a consequence, airport pollution may persist twenty to forty miles downwind without much attenuation. Based on this simple meteorological model, calculations of the ambient levels of nitric oxide and particulates to be expected downwind of a giant jetport show them to be about equal to those in present urban environments. These calculations are based on measured emission rates from jet engines and estimates of aircraft performance and traffic for future jetports.

Fay, J. A.

1970-01-01

325

Infrared Laser System for Extended Area Monitoring of Air Pollution  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An atmospheric pollution monitoring system using a spectrally scanning laser has been developed by the General Electric Company. This paper will report on an evaluation of a breadboard model, and will discuss applications of the concept to various ambient air monitoring situations. The system is adaptable to other tunable lasers. Operating in the middle infrared region, the system uses retroreflectors to measure average concentrations over long paths at low, safe power levels. The concept shows promise of meeting operational needs in ambient air monitoring and providing new data for atmospheric research.

Snowman, L. R.; Gillmeister, R. J.

1971-01-01

326

Air pollution prevention at the Hanford Site: Status and recommendations  

SciTech Connect

With the introduction of the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 and other air and pollution prevention regulations, there has been increased focus on both pollution prevention and air emissions at US DOE sites. The Pollution Prevention (P2) Group of WHC reviewed the status of air pollution prevention with the goal of making recommendations on how to address air emissions at Hanford through pollution prevention. Using the air emissions inventory from Hanford`s Title V permit, the P2 Group was able to identify major and significant air sources. By reviewing the literature and benchmarking two other DOE Sites, two major activities were recommended to reduce air pollution and reduce costs at the Hanford Site. First, a pollution prevention opportunity assessment (P2OA) should be conducted on the significant painting sources in the Maintenance group and credit should be taken for reducing the burning of tumbleweeds, another significant source of air pollution. Since they are significant sources, reducing these emissions will reduce air emission fees, as well as have the potential to reduce material and labor costs, and increase worker safety. Second, a P2OA should be conducted on alternatives to the three coal-fired powerhouses (steam plants) on-site, including a significant costs analysis of alternatives. This analysis could be of significant value to other DOE sites. Overall, these two activities would reduce pollution, ease regulatory requirements and fees, save money, and help Hanford take a leadership role in air pollution prevention.

Engel, J.A.

1995-08-01

327

EFFECTIVENESS OF AIR CLEANERS FOR REDUCING RISK FROM INDOOR POLLUTANTS  

EPA Science Inventory

Air cleaners may provide a cost effective way of reducing individual exposure and risk to indoor air pollutants. The effectiveness of indoor air cleaners depends on factors such as the single pass efficiency, the rate that air is circulated through the air cleaner, the air cleane...

328

Impaired visibility: the air pollution people see  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Almost every home and office contains a portrayal of a scenic landscape whether on a calendar, postcard, photograph, or painting. The most sought after locations boast a scenic landscape right outside their window. No matter what the scene - mountains, skyscrapers, clouds, or pastureland - clarity and vividness are essential to the image. Air pollution can degrade scenic vistas, and in extreme cases, completely obscure them. Particulate matter suspended in the air is the main cause of visibility degradation. Particulate matter affects visibility in multiple ways: obscures distant objects, drains the contrast from a scene, and discolors the sky. Visibility is an environmental quality that is valued for aesthetic reasons that are difficult to express or quantify. Human psychology and physiology are sensitive to visual input. Visibility has been monitored throughout the world but there are few places where it is a protected resource. Existing health-based regulations are weak in terms of visibility protection. Various techniques, including human observation, light transmission measurements, digital photography, and satellite imaging, are used to monitor visibility. As with air pollution, trends in visibility vary spatially and temporally. Emissions from the developing world and large scale events such as dust storms and wildfires affect visibility around much of the globe.

Hyslop, Nicole Pauly

329

The Global Burden of Disease Due to Outdoor Air Pollution  

Microsoft Academic Search

As part of the World Health Organization (WHO) Global Burden of Disease Comparative Risk Assessment, the burden of disease attributable to urban ambient air pollution was estimated in terms of deaths and disability-adjusted life years (DALYs). Air pollution is associated with a broad spectrum of acute and chronic health effects, the nature of which may vary with the pollutant constituents.

Aaron J. Cohen; H. Ross Anderson; Bart Ostro; Kiran Dev Pandey; Michal Krzyzanowski; Nino Künzli; Kersten Gutschmidt; Arden Pope; Isabelle Romieu; Jonathan M. Samet; Kirk Smith

2005-01-01

330

Impact of air pollution on forest tree plantings  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many air pollutants harm forest vegetation. Although their nature varies from area to area, ozone, sulfur dioxide, and fluorides are the primary offenders in the US. For each of these pollutants, the principal sources and symptoms of damage are described. Future trends in air pollution damage to forests are discussed. 9 references.

Dochinger

1972-01-01

331

Air pollution: Remote sensing. (Latest citations from the Aerospace database). Published Search  

SciTech Connect

The bibliography contains citations concerning the application of remote sensing to air pollution detection. Remote sensing techniques discussed include radar scattering, aerial and spaceborne photography, microwave radiometry, and thermal imaging. Applications include the monitoring of stack gas emissions, vegetation emissions, forest fires, episodic air pollution, exhaust emissions, chlorohydrocarbons, urban smog, and general aspects of air pollution monitoring and identification. Remote sensing techniques applied to ocean pollution are discussed in a separate bibliography. (Contains 250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

Not Available

1993-09-01

332

Numerical Simulation Air Pollution in Urban Areas.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A three-dimensional, grid-based numerical air pollution model for the estimation and prediction of air pollutant concentrations in an urban area is developed. Based on the species continuity equation, the modeling system incorporates the combined influences of advective transport, turbulent diffusion, chemical transformation, source emissions and surface removal processes. Recent developments in plume rise and plume penetration processes, non-divergent wind field analysis procedures and numerical solution techniques are described and incorporated in the model. The model is applied to study the behavior of SO(,2) and sulfate concentration distributions in an urban area using the St. Louis Regional Air Pollution Study (RAPS) data. Statistical techniques for the evaluation of the numerical model performance include paired analysis and resampling analysis. The comparisons of the numerical model with the new version of Pollution Episodic Model (PEM-2) and the RAM, a Gaussian model, are also performed using RAPS data base. A comparison between predicted and observed concentrations indicates that the numerical model can satisfactorily simulate the dynamics of the pollutant concentrations in the urban area. The numerical model performs much better in the summer days than in the winter days. A tendency to underpredict the SO(,2) concentrations at the receptors located in the rural areas is observed. Much improvement over the PEM -2 model is the numerical model's consistent performance and accurate prediction for various meteorological conditions which include light winds and sudden changes of wind directions. The numerical model, as revealed by the resampling analysis, performed quite well considering the confidence intervals associated with the uncertainty or variability in the observed concentrations. Finally, the findings of the study regarding the behavior of point and area sources in an urban area provide insight into the complex interrelationships between the point and area source emissions and the various meteorological conditions in determining the surface concentration distribution. The results indicate that besides the uncertainty in the emission rate, the proper characterization of the emissions--as a point source or as an area source--is also critical to the accurate simulation of the concentration field in the urban areas.

Ku, Jia-Yeong

333

Inhalation Transfer Factors for Air Pollution Health Risk Assessment  

Microsoft Academic Search

To facilitate routine health risk assessments, we develop the concept of an inhalation transfer factor (ITF). The ITF is defined as the pollutant mass inhaled by an exposed individual per unit pollutant mass emitted from an air pollution source. A cumulative population inhalation transfer factor (PITF) is also defined to describe the total fraction of an emitted pollutant inhaled by

Alvin C. K. Lai; Tracy L. Thatcher; William W. Nazaroff

2000-01-01

334

Air pollution and infant mortality from pneumonia  

SciTech Connect

This study examines the relationship between air pollution, measured as concentration of suspended particulates in the atmosphere, and infant mortality due to pneumonia in the metropolitan area of Rio de Janeiro. Multiple linear regression (progressive or stepwise method) was used to analyze infant mortality due to pneumonia, diarrhea, and all causes in 1980, by geographic area, income level, and degree of contamination. While the variable proportion of families with income equivalent to more than two minimum wages was included in the regressions corresponding to the three types of infant mortality, the average contamination index had a statistically significant coefficient (b = 0.2208; t = 2.670; P = 0.0137) only in the case of mortality due to pneumonia. This would suggest a biological association, but, as in any ecological study, such conclusions should be viewed with caution. The authors believe that air quality indicators are essential to consider in studies of acute respiratory infections in developing countries.

Penna, M.L.; Duchiade, M.P. (Instituto de Medicina Social, Universidad del Estado del Rio de Janeiro (Brasil))

1991-03-01

335

IDENTIFICATION OF FACTORS RESULTING IN SUSCEPTIBILITY TO THE EFFECTS OF AIR POLLUTANTS  

EPA Science Inventory

Understanding the underlying physiological processes which may account for pollution-associated health effects is an important research priority for the EPA. Numerous epidemiologic time-series studies have shown generally consistent associations of outdoor (ambient) air pollutio...

336

Environmental Regulations, Air and Water Pollution, & Infant Mortality in India  

E-print Network

Using the most comprehensive data file ever compiled on air pollution, water pollution, environmental regulations, and infant mortality from a developing country, the paper examines the effectiveness of India’s environmental ...

Greenstone, Michael

2011-07-01

337

Factor of safety method, application to air and noise pollution  

Microsoft Academic Search

Technical report:Air quality indexes were used to calculate air and noise pollution factors of safety for 82 U.S. cities. Pollutants considered in the safety study are: total suspended particulates, sulfur dioxide, carbon monoxide, nitrogen dioxide, and ozone. Mathematical models that were used to calculate the factors of safety are presented. The utilization of air quality indexes for regional planning and

A. E. S. Green; T. J. Buckley; D. E. Rio; R. Makarewicz; A. MacEachern

1980-01-01

338

Communicating air pollution science to the public and politicians  

Microsoft Academic Search

Air pollution of the 21^st century is a problem that involves a large number of chemical species and complex reactions between them. Both the public and politicians finds the science difficult to understand, and so, often mistrust the presentation of data and the scientific principles behind air quality. Yet, there are a range of important issues associated with air pollution

P. Brimblecombe; E. Schuepbach

2006-01-01

339

Health Effects Associated With Exposure to Ambient Air Pollution  

Microsoft Academic Search

The World Health Organization has identified ambient air pollution as a high public health priority, based on estimates of air pollution related death and disability-adjusted life years derived in its Global Burden of Disease initiative. The NERAM Colloquium Series on Health and Air Quality was initiated to strengthen the linkage between scientists, policymakers, and other stakeholders by reviewing the current

Jonathan Samet; Daniel Krewski

2007-01-01

340

THE CHALLENGES OF AIR POLLUTION AND RESIDUAL RISK ASSESSMENT (EDITORIAL)  

EPA Science Inventory

The Clean Air Act (CAA), a comprehensive federal law that regulates air pollution from stationary and mobile sources, was first passed in 1963. The act has provided the primary framework for protecting human health and the environment. The CAA divides air pollutants into "criteri...

341

Spatial Analysis of Air Pollution and Mortality in Los Angeles  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: The assessment of air pollution exposure using only community average concentrations may lead to measurement error that lowers estimates of the health burden attributable to poor air quality. To test this hypothesis, we modeled the association between air pollution and mortality using small-area exposure measures in Los Angeles, California. Methods: Data on 22,905 subjects were extracted from the Amer-

Michael Jerrett; Richard T. Burnett; Renjun Ma; C Arden Pope; Daniel Krewski; K Bruce Newbold; George Thurston; Yuanli Shi; Norm Finkelstein; Eugenia E. Calle; Michael J. Thun

2005-01-01

342

Literature Review of Air Pollution Control Biofilters and Biotrickling  

E-print Network

Literature Review of Air Pollution Control Biofilters and Biotrickling Filters for Odor Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants and Title V permitting) as well as local and state for the treatment of complex odorous waste air containing hydrogen sulfide (H2S), organic reduced sulfur com- pounds

343

RESEARCH AREA -- FLUE GAS CLEANING (AIR POLLUTION TECHNOLOGY BRANCH, AIR POLLUTION PREVENTION AND CONTROL DIVISION, NRMRL)  

EPA Science Inventory

The Air Pollution Technology Branch's (APPCD, NRMRL)flue gas cleaning program supports New Source Performance Standards regulations development and has fostered the development of technologies that today are considered industry standards. These include both dry and wet flue gas d...

344

A model of air traffic assignment as part of airport air pollution management system  

Microsoft Academic Search

The critical concern of modern airports is the air pollution generated by air traffic and its impact on the airport environment. Air pollution is an unavoidable consequence of air traffic, but it can be reduced in numerous ways, including technical innovations in aircraft design and legislation. This paper presents a model of air traffic assignment as a measure to mitigate

Petar Mirosavljevi?; Slobodan Gvozdenovi?; Olja ?okorilo

2011-01-01

345

Elderly exposure to indoor air pollutants  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The aim of this work was to characterize the indoor air quality in Elderly Care Centers (ECCs) in order to assess the elders' daily exposure to air pollutants. Ten ECCs hosting 384 elderly were selected in Lisbon and Loures. Firstly, a time-budget survey was created based on questionnaires applied in the studied sites. Results showed that in average elders spend 95% of their time indoors splitted between bedrooms and living-rooms. Therefore, a set of physical and chemical parameters were measured continuously during the occupancy period in these two indoor micro-environments and in the outdoor. Results showed that indoor was the main environment contributing for the elders' daily exposure living in ECCs. In the indoor, the principal micro-environment contributing for the elders' daily exposure varied between bedrooms and living-rooms depending not only on the characteristics of the ECCs but also on the pollutants. The concentrations of CO2, VOCt, O3 and PM10 exceeded the limit values predominantly due to the insufficient ventilation preconized in the studied sites.

Almeida-Silva, M.; Wolterbeek, H. T.; Almeida, S. M.

2014-03-01

346

Particulate matter air pollution and atherosclerosis.  

PubMed

Particulate matter (PM) air pollution less than 2.5 microm in diameter (PM(2.5)), which is now an all-pervading element of modern-day society, is associated with heightened cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Not only can short-term PM(2.5) exposure trigger acute cardiovascular events, but longer-term exposure over years augments cardiovascular risk to an even greater extent. One biological mechanism capable of explaining this observation is that chronic exposure may promote the progression and vulnerability of atherosclerotic plaques. Indeed, recent epidemiologic studies have demonstrated an association between ambient PM(2.5) exposure and the presence or extent of atherosclerosis in humans. Several animal experiments have provided corroborating evidence that chronic exposures in fact do enhance the progression and perhaps vulnerability of atherosclerotic lesions. Due to the billions of people continually exposed to PM(2.5), the long-term pro-atherosclerotic effects of this ubiquitous air pollutant are likely to be of enormous and growing global public health importance. PMID:20617466

Brook, Robert D; Rajagopalan, Sanjay

2010-09-01

347

Air Pollution in Siberia. A Volume and Risk-Weighted Analysis of a Siberian Pollution Database  

Microsoft Academic Search

Air pollution from industrial centers in Siberia pose observable environmental threats. Siberian ecosystems have begun to show stress from the accumulation of pollution depositions that come from cities and industrial plants. While some uncertainty exists as to the long-term effects of air pollution upon forests, in measurable terms such as human mortality and incidence of disease, forest species decline or

N. K. Warner-Merl

1998-01-01

348

On marketable air-pollution permits: The case for a system of pollution offsets  

Microsoft Academic Search

After examining the properties of several alternative forms of marketable permit systems for the control of air pollution, this paper proposes a system of pollution offsets as the most promising approach. Under the pollution-offset scheme, sources of emissions are free to trade emissions permits subject to the constraint of no violations of the predetermined air-quality standard at any receptor point.

Alan J. Krupnick; Wallace E. Oates; Eric Van De Verg

1983-01-01

349

The role of air pollutants in initiating liver disease.  

PubMed

Recent episodes of severe air pollution in eastern Asia have been reported in the scientific literature and news media. Therefore, there is growing concern about the systemic effects of air pollution on human health. Along with the other well-known harmful effects of air pollution, recently, several animal models have provided strong evidence that air pollutants can induce liver toxicity and act to accelerate liver inflammation and steatosis. This review briefly describes examples where exposure to air pollutants was involved in liver toxicity, focusing on how particulate matter (PM) or carbon black (CB) may be translocated from lung to liver and what liver diseases are closely associated with these air pollutants. PMID:25071914

Kim, Jong Won; Park, Surim; Lim, Chae Woong; Lee, Kyuhong; Kim, Bumseok

2014-06-01

350

The Role of Air Pollutants in Initiating Liver Disease  

PubMed Central

Recent episodes of severe air pollution in eastern Asia have been reported in the scientific literature and news media. Therefore, there is growing concern about the systemic effects of air pollution on human health. Along with the other well-known harmful effects of air pollution, recently, several animal models have provided strong evidence that air pollutants can induce liver toxicity and act to accelerate liver inflammation and steatosis. This review briefly describes examples where exposure to air pollutants was involved in liver toxicity, focusing on how particulate matter (PM) or carbon black (CB) may be translocated from lung to liver and what liver diseases are closely associated with these air pollutants. PMID:25071914

Kim, Jong Won; Park, Surim; Lim, Chae Woong; Lee, Kyuhong

2014-01-01

351

15 CFR 923.45 - Air and water pollution control requirements.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 2010-01-01 false Air and water pollution control requirements. 923...Organization § 923.45 Air and water pollution control requirements. ...water pollution control and air pollution control requirements...

2010-01-01

352

15 CFR 923.45 - Air and water pollution control requirements.  

... 2014-01-01 false Air and water pollution control requirements. 923...Organization § 923.45 Air and water pollution control requirements. ...water pollution control and air pollution control requirements...

2014-01-01

353

15 CFR 923.45 - Air and water pollution control requirements.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... 2011-01-01 false Air and water pollution control requirements. 923...Organization § 923.45 Air and water pollution control requirements. ...water pollution control and air pollution control requirements...

2011-01-01

354

Synoptic weather patterns and modification of the association between air pollution and human mortality  

E-print Network

Synoptic weather patterns and modification of the association between air pollution and human pollution and mortality, an examination of air pollution and human mortality associations (ecologic) using hybrid spatial synoptic classification procedures was conducted. Concentrations of air pollutants

Sheridan, Scott

355

15 CFR 923.45 - Air and water pollution control requirements.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... 2013-01-01 false Air and water pollution control requirements. 923...Organization § 923.45 Air and water pollution control requirements. ...water pollution control and air pollution control requirements...

2013-01-01

356

15 CFR 923.45 - Air and water pollution control requirements.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... 2012-01-01 false Air and water pollution control requirements. 923...Organization § 923.45 Air and water pollution control requirements. ...water pollution control and air pollution control requirements...

2012-01-01

357

Temporal patterns in air pollution and hospital admissions.  

PubMed

A 6-year data set of daily counts of admissions to 79 acute care hospitals in Southern Ontario was analyzed in relation to concurrent measurements of air pollution and weather pooled over the same regions, using progressively more sophisticated statistical techniques. The diagnoses studied included a group of respiratory causes and two control diagnoses: accidents and gastrointestinal causes. The 6-year period (1979-1985) was subdivided into six 2-month "seasons" and the area of study was divided into three subregions. Bivariate correlations were found to be significant more often than expected due to chance for all three admissions variables, but accounting for the temporal variation within the 60-day seasons greatly reduced the significance of the control diagnoses. Twenty-four-hour averages for air quality were found to yield more significant associations than peak hourly concentrations. July-August was the only period not having important within-season temporal trends and also had the lowest daily counts for respiratory admissions. Based on a model which accounted for serial correlation, SO2, ozone, and sulfate aerosol were found to be significant predictors of respiratory admissions during July-August. Using cumulative lags increased the magnitude of the estimated response to about 20% of summer respiratory admissions, but no consistent relationships were found which could identify the "responsible" pollutant(s) with certainty. Average pollutant concentrations were generally within U.S. ambient standards. PMID:1464290

Lipfert, F W; Hammerstrom, T

1992-12-01

358

Temporal patterns in air pollution and hospital admissions  

SciTech Connect

A 6-year data set of daily counts of admissions to 79 acute care hospitals in Southern Ontario was analyzed in relation to concurrent measurements of air pollution and weather pooled over the same regions, using progressively more sophisticated statistical techniques. The diagnoses studied included a group of respiratory causes and two control diagnoses: accidents and gastrointestinal causes. The 6-year period (1979-1985) was subdivided into six 2-month seasons and the area of study was divided into three subregions. Bivariate correlations were found to be significant more often than expected due to chance for all three admissions variables, but accounting for the temporal variation within the 60-day seasons greatly reduced the significance of the control diagnoses. Twenty-four-hour averages for air quality were found to yield more significant associations than peak hourly concentrations. July-August was the only period not having important within-season temporal trends and also had the lowest daily counts for respiratory admissions. Based on a model which accounted for serial correlation, SO2, ozone, and sulfate aerosol were found to be significant predictors of respiratory admissions during July-August. Using cumulative lags increased the magnitude of the estimated response to about 20% of summer respiratory admissions, but no consistent relationships were found which could identify the responsible pollutant(s) with certainty. Average pollutant concentrations were generally within U.S. ambient standards.

Lipfert, F.W.; Hammerstrom, T. (Roth Associates, Inc., Rockville, MD (United States))

1992-12-01

359

Confounding and exposure measurement error in air pollution epidemiology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Studies in air pollution epidemiology may suffer from some specific forms of confounding and exposure measurement error. This\\u000a contribution discusses these, mostly in the framework of cohort studies. Evaluation of potential confounding is critical in\\u000a studies of the health effects of air pollution. The association between long-term exposure to ambient air pollution and mortality\\u000a has been investigated using cohort studies

Lianne Sheppard; Richard T. Burnett; Adam A. Szpiro; Sun-Young Kim; Michael Jerrett; C Arden Pope; Bert Brunekreef

360

Air pollution and population health: a global challenge  

Microsoft Academic Search

Air pollution and population health” is one of the most important environmental and public health issues. Economic development,\\u000a urbanization, energy consumption, transportation\\/motorization, and rapid population growth are major driving forces of air\\u000a pollution in large cities, especially in megacities. Air pollution levels in developed countries have been decreasing dramatically\\u000a in recent decades. However, in developing countries and in countries in

Bingheng Chen; Haidong Kan

2008-01-01

361

Human health risks in megacities due to air pollution  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study evaluates the health risks in megacities in terms of mortality and morbidity due to air pollution. A new spreadsheet model, Risk of Mortality\\/Morbidity due to Air Pollution (Ri-MAP), is used to estimate the excess numbers of deaths and illnesses. By adopting the World Health Organization (WHO) guideline concentrations for the air pollutants SO2, NO2 and total suspended particles

B. R. Gurjar; A. Jain; A. Sharma; A. Agarwal; P. Gupta; A. S. Nagpure; J. Lelieveld

2010-01-01

362

Early life exposure to air pollution: how bad is it?  

PubMed

Increasing concentrations of air pollution have been shown to contribute to an enormity of adverse health outcomes worldwide, which have been observed in clinical, epidemiological, and animal studies as well as in vitro investigations. Recently, studies have shown that air pollution can affect the developing fetus via maternal exposure, resulting in preterm birth, low birth weight, growth restriction, and potentially adverse cardiovascular and respiratory outcomes. This review will provide a summary of the harmful effects of air pollution exposure on the developing fetus and infant, and suggest potential mechanisms to limit the exposure of pregnant mothers and infants to air pollution. PMID:23164674

Backes, Carl H; Nelin, Timothy; Gorr, Matthew W; Wold, Loren E

2013-01-10

363

Early Life Exposure to Air Pollution: How Bad Is It?  

PubMed Central

Increasing concentrations of air pollution have been shown to contribute to an enormity of adverse health outcomes worldwide, which have been observed in clinical, epidemiological, and animal studies as well as in vitro investigations. Recently, studies have shown that air pollution can affect the developing fetus via maternal exposure, resulting in preterm birth, low birth weight, growth restriction, and potentially adverse cardiovascular and respiratory outcomes. This review will provide a summary of the harmful effects of air pollution exposure on the developing fetus and infant, and suggest potential mechanisms to limit the exposure of pregnant mothers and infants to air pollution. PMID:23164674

Backes, Carl H.; Nelin, Timothy; Gorr, Matthew W.; Wold, Loren E.

2012-01-01

364

The Effect of Ambient Air Pollution on Sperm Quality  

PubMed Central

Background Research has suggested an association with ambient air pollution and sperm quality. Objectives We investigated the effect of exposure to ozone (O3) and particulate matter < 2.5 ?m in aerodynamic diameter (PM2.5) on sperm quality. Methods We reexamined a previous cohort study of water disinfection by-products to evaluate sperm quality in 228 presumed fertile men with different air pollution profiles. Outcomes included sperm concentration, total sperm per ejaculate (count), and morphology, as well as DNA integrity and chromatin maturity. Exposures to O3 and PM2.5 were evaluated for the 90–day period before sampling. We used multivariable linear regression, which included different levels of adjustment (i.e., without and with season and temperature) to assess the relationship between exposure to air pollutants during key periods of sperm development and adverse sperm outcomes. Results Sperm concentration and count were not associated with exposure to PM2.5, but there was evidence of an association (but not statistically significant) with O3 concentration and decreased sperm concentration and count. Additionally, a significant increase in the percentage of sperm cells with cytoplasmic drop [? = 2.64; 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.21–5.06] and abnormal head (? = 0.47; 95% CI, 0.03–0.92) was associated with PM2.5 concentration in the base model. However, these associations, along with all other sperm outcomes, were not significantly associated with either pollutant after controlling for season and temperature. Overall, although we found both protective and adverse effects, there was generally no consistent pattern of increased abnormal sperm quality with elevated exposure to O3 or PM2.5. Conclusions Exposures to O3 or PM2.5 at levels below the current National Ambient Air Quality Standards were not associated with statistically significant decrements in sperm outcomes in this cohort of fertile men. However, some results suggested effects on sperm concentration, count, and morphology. PMID:20123611

Hansen, Craig; Luben, Thomas J.; Sacks, Jason D.; Olshan, Andrew; Jeffay, Susan; Strader, Lillian; Perreault, Sally D.

2010-01-01

365

[Indoor air pollution and health: study of various problems].  

PubMed

Human beings are living between 70 and 90% inside of premises, where numerous air pollutants are existing: some of them have outdoor sources (industry, domestic burning, car traffic), some are produced indoors by human activities and equipment, by animals, or by various materials, products and furniture. According to their nature, they are listed as biological, physical or chemical pollutants. About health, serious poisonings and acute effects attributed to indoor air pollutants, and even short term effects (like sick building syndrome, infectious illness, pneumopathies,...), can be relatively easy to distinguish. Inversely the involvement of these pollutants in long term effects (like chronic bronchitis, asthma, cancers,...) is more difficult to establish. During the last 15 years we carried out several studies, which allowed us to separate the chemical air contaminants into two categories: those produced outdoors (sulphur dioxide, lead, chromium, nickel, nitrates), of whom we calculated the penetration coefficients, and those from both origin, outside and inside (nitrogen oxides, carbon monoxide, ammonia, aldehydes, particles, cadmium, vanadium, sulphates, ammonium salts). Aldehydes, which present important health risks, were especially investigated: in an office where several cigarettes were burning the measured concentrations were high in comparison with the threshold values existing in some foreign countries; in a cafeteria they were relatively low. To estimate the impregnation of non smokers by environmental tobacco smoke, we also determined, during same spaces of time, on the one hand nicotine in air, on the other hand nicotine and its metabolites excreted in the urine of exposed people. We thus observed that, in "real" situations, this impregnation is as a general rule extremely low. PMID:8038995

Viala, A

1994-01-01

366

PARTICULATE AIR POLLUTION AND MORBIDITY IN THE CALIFORNIA CENTRAL VALLEY: A HIGH PARTICULATE POLLUTION REGION  

EPA Science Inventory

The study collected data from monitoring of PM and criteria pollutants (PM10, PM2.5, CO, NO2, ozone, etc.) and mobidity data from Kaiser Permanente. The study then examined the relationship between air pollutants and hospital admissions. ...

367

Asthma and ambient air pollution in Helsinki.  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE: To study whether ambient air levels of sulphur dioxide (SO2), nitrogen dioxide (NO2), total suspended particulates (TSP), and ozone (O3) affect the number of hospital admissions for asthma. DESIGN: The associations between the daily number of admissions and air pollutants were analysed with Poisson regression, taking into account potential confounding factors by using the standardised protocol of the APHEA project. SETTING: Helsinki, Finland, 1987-89. PATIENTS AND MEASUREMENTS: Patients admitted to hospitals through emergency rooms because of asthma (n = 2421). The daily mean concentration was 13-25 micrograms/m3 for SO2, 33-41 micrograms/m3 for NO2, 19-41 micrograms/m3 for O3, and 58-109 micrograms/m3 for TSP during the different seasons. Values are means for various stations. The daily mean temperature during the three year period was +5.4 degrees C (range -37-27 degrees C). MAIN RESULTS: Positive associations with admissions were observed for O3 levels in all children under 14 years, and for SO2 levels in 15-64 year olds and among those older than 64. Significant associations were also seen between admissions for digestive tract diseases (the control) and O3 levels. This suggests that the modelling, which proved to be problematic, was unsatisfactory, or it may be a statistical coincidence. A rise in temperature was associated with a low number of admissions for asthma among 0-14 year olds and among 15-64 year olds, whereas humidity did not have a significant effect on the number of admissions. CONCLUSIONS: It is possible than even low level pollution may increase hospital admissions for asthma. However, definitive conclusions will be justified only after meta-analysis comprising several studies. The methodology was seen to have a strong effect on the results and standardised methods, possibly differing from those for the study concerning mortality, are needed to investigate the association between morbidity and ambient air pollutants. PMID:8758226

Ponka, A; Virtanen, M

1996-01-01

368

76 FR 41745 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Revisions to the California State Implementation...Valley Unified Air Pollution Control District...Valley Unified Air Pollution Control District...portion of the California State Implementation...Valley Unified Air Pollution Control District...submitted by the California Air...

2011-07-15

369

76 FR 5319 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, Santa Barbara Air Pollution Control...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...State Implementation Plan, Santa Barbara Air Pollution Control District, Placer County Air Pollution Control District, Antelope Valley Air Quality Management District, and Ventura County Air Pollution Control District AGENCY:...

2011-01-31

370

76 FR 5277 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, Santa Barbara Air Pollution Control...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...State Implementation Plan, Santa Barbara Air Pollution Control District, Antelope Valley Air Quality Management District, Ventura County Air Pollution Control District and Placer County Air Pollution Control District AGENCY:...

2011-01-31

371

77 FR 214 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Plan, San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution Control District (SJVUAPCD...revisions to the San Joaquin Valley Air Pollution Control District (SJVUAPCD...and air districts for evaluating air pollution control economics. 3....

2012-01-04

372

77 FR 21911 - Approval and Promulgation of Implementation Plans; State of Arizona; Prevention of Air Pollution...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...State of Arizona; Prevention of Air Pollution Emergency Episodes AGENCY: Environmental...address the requirements regarding air pollution emergency episodes in Clean Air...regarding authority to address air pollution emergency episodes and...

2012-04-12

373

77 FR 62452 - Approval and Promulgation of Implementation Plans; State of Arizona; Prevention of Air Pollution...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...State of Arizona; Prevention of Air Pollution Emergency Episodes AGENCY: Environmental...address the requirements regarding air pollution emergency episodes in Clean Air...address the requirements regarding air pollution emergency episodes in CAA...

2012-10-15

374

Effects of Air Pollution on Respiratory Disease Asthma, closely associated with air pollution, affects nearly 15 million people in the United States, one-third of them  

E-print Network

Effects of Air Pollution on Respiratory Disease Asthma, closely associated with air pollution as a greater understanding of the types of air pollutants that cause the most harm. Seminal findings, supporting a proposed update to existing air quality standards. Air pollutant ozone causes childhood asthma

Schladow, S. Geoffrey

375

Minimum cost air pollution control for cotton gins  

E-print Network

With the implementation of the 1990 Federal Clean Air Act Amendments (CAAA), State Air Pollution Regulatory Agencies (SAPRA's) are regulating agricultural operations across the U.S. more vigorously. Some of these agricultural operations experiencing...

Flannigan, Steven Shawnacy

2012-06-07

376

Air pollution, oxidative stress, and Alzheimer's disease.  

PubMed

Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most common form of dementia affecting millions of people worldwide and will continue to affect millions more with population aging on the rise. AD causality is multifactorial. Known causal factors include genetic predisposition, age, and sex. Environmental toxins such as air pollution (AP) have also been implicated in AD causation. Exposure to AP can lead to chronic oxidative stress (OS), which is involved in the pathogenesis of AD. Whereas AP plays a role in AD pathology, the epidemiological evidence for this association is limited. Given the significant prevalence of AP exposure combined with increased population aging, epidemiological evidence for this link is important to consider. In this paper, we examine the existing evidence supporting the relationship between AP, OS, and AD and provide recommendations for future research on the population level, which will provide evidence in support of public health interventions. PMID:22523504

Moulton, Paula Valencia; Yang, Wei

2012-01-01

377

Modelling traffic air pollution in road tunnels  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper presents two models for the description of air pollutant concentrations in road tunnels due to traffic. Turbulence is assumed to depend on both atmospheric turbulence and vehicle's motion. Emissions are calculated with the COPERT90 methodology (Eggleston et al., 1991). Up to 34 different vehicle categories can be considered at the same time, with an arbitrary number of vehicles travelling inside the tunnel. Emissions are calculated as a function of the position inside the tunnel and of the time. Three pollutants can be simulated with the current version of the models, CO, NO x and VOC. It is also possible to consider vehicles with null emissions. The models are able to consider the effects of an arbitrary number of sinks. Flow rates and outdoor concentrations are a function of the time for each sink. The equation of conservation of mass has been solved with the control volumes method. Particular attention has been given to the formulation of stability conditions. Sensitivity analysis was conducted to verify the model answer to different input parameters such as initial concentration, boundary concentrations and vehicle-induced turbulence. Examples of application are given for a tunnel with urban traffic regime, including passenger cars with different fuels, light duty trucks, heavy duty trucks and motorbikes, and for an underground railway. Simulations have been carried out for the five working days of the week.

Bellasio, Roberto

378

Air pollution induces heritable DNA mutations  

PubMed Central

Hundreds of thousands of people worldwide live or work in close proximity to steel mills. Integrated steel production generates chemical pollution containing compounds that can induce genetic damage (1, 2). Previous investigations of herring gulls in the Great Lakes demonstrated elevated DNA mutation rates near steel mills (3, 4) but could not determine the importance of airborne or aquatic routes of contaminant exposure, or eliminate possible confounding factors such as nutritional status and disease burden. To address these issues experimentally, we exposed laboratory mice in situ to ambient air in a polluted industrial area near steel mills. Heritable mutation frequency at tandem-repeat DNA loci in mice exposed 1 km downwind from two integrated steel mills was 1.5- to 2.0-fold elevated compared with those at a reference site 30 km away. This statistically significant elevation was due primarily to an increase in mutations inherited through the paternal germline. Our results indicate that human and wildlife populations in proximity to integrated steel mills may be at risk of developing germline mutations more frequently because of the inhalation of airborne chemical mutagens. PMID:12473746

Somers, Christopher M.; Yauk, Carole L.; White, Paul A.; Parfett, Craig L. J.; Quinn, James S.

2002-01-01

379

Characteristics of air exclusion systems vs. chambers for field air pollution studies  

Microsoft Academic Search

An air exclusion system was designed, constructed, and tested to determine its effectiveness in studies of air pollutant effects on vegetation. The air exclusion system was shown to be an effective alternative to open-top field chambers for controlled exposures of air pollutants to low growing plants. The system design included particulate and activated charcoal filters, pressure-type blowers, a mixing manifold,

D. M. Olszyk; G. Kats; P. J. Dawson; Wolf Bytnerowicz; C. R. Thompson

2009-01-01

380

Rapid assessment of air, water, and land pollution sources  

Microsoft Academic Search

A procedure is outlined to make a rapid across-the-board estimate of the quantities of air, water and land pollution in a given region or country. Such inventories, though not as detailed as one would eventually need, provide a first integrated view of the magnitude and quantity of pollution and can contribute to effective and comprehensive pollution control planning.

H. W. Koning

1981-01-01

381

Anxiety, locus of control and appraisal of air pollution  

SciTech Connect

100 residents of Santiago de Chile took part in a study of the relationship among locus of control, trait-anxiety, and perception of air pollution. Concern over the problem of atmospheric pollution and number of antipollution measures taken was related to trait-anxiety. Locus of control was associated with variation in awareness of pollution hazard.

Navarro, P.L.; Simpson-Housley, P.; de Man, A.F.

1987-06-01

382

Concentrations of mobile source air pollutants in urban microenvironments.  

PubMed

Human exposures to criteria and hazardous air pollutants (HAPs) in urban areas vary greatly due to temporal-spatial variations in emissions, changing meteorology, varying proximity to sources, as well as due to building, vehicle, and other environmental characteristics that influence the amounts of ambient pollutants that penetrate or infiltrate into these microenvironments. Consequently, the exposure estimates derived from central-site ambient measurements are uncertain and tend to underestimate actual exposures. The Exposure Classification Project (ECP) was conducted to measure pollutant concentrations for common urban microenvironments (MEs) for use in evaluating the results of regulatory human exposure models. Nearly 500 sets of measurements were made in three Los Angeles County communities during fall 2008, winter 2009, and summer 2009. MEs included in-vehicle, near-road, outdoor and indoor locations accessible to the general public. Contemporaneous 1- to 15-min average personal breathing zone concentrations of carbon monoxide (CO), carbon dioxide (CO2), volatile organic compounds (VOCs), nitric oxide (NO), nitrogen oxides (NO(x)), particulate matter (< 2.5 microm diameter; PM2.5) mass, ultrafine particle (UFP; < 100 nm diameter) number black carbon (BC), speciated HAPs (e.g, benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, xylenes [BTEX], 1,3-butadiene), and ozone (O3) were measured continuously. In-vehicle and inside/outside measurements were made in various passenger vehicle types and in public buildings to estimate penetration or infiltration factors. A large fraction of the observed pollutant concentrations for on-road MEs, especially near diesel trucks, was unrelated to ambient measurements at nearby monitors. Comparisons of ME concentrations estimated using the median ME/ambient ratio versus regression slopes and intercepts indicate that the regression approach may be more accurate for on-road MEs. Ranges in the ME/ambient ratios among ME categories were generally greater than differences among the three communities for the same ME category, suggesting that the ME proximity factors may be more broadly applicable to urban MEs. Implications: Estimates of population exposure to air pollutants extrapolated from ambient measurements at ambient fixed site monitors or exposure surrogates are prone to uncertainty. This study measured concentrations of mobile source air toxics (MSAT) and related criteria pollutants within in-vehicle, outdoor near-road, and indoor urban MEs to provide multipollutant ME measurements that can be used to calibrate regulatory exposure models. PMID:25122949

Fujita, Eric M; Campbell, David E; Arnott, W Patrick; Johnson, Ted; Ollison, Will

2014-07-01

383

Air Pollution Data for Model Evaluation and Application  

EPA Science Inventory

One objective of designing an air pollution monitoring network is to obtain data for evaluating air quality models that are used in the air quality management process and scientific discovery.1.2 A common use is to relate emissions to air quality, including assessing ...

384

QUANTIFYING SUBGRID POLLUTANT VARIABILITY IN EULERIAN AIR QUALITY MODELS  

EPA Science Inventory

In order to properly assess human risk due to exposure to hazardous air pollutants or air toxics, detailed information is needed on the location and magnitude of ambient air toxic concentrations. Regional scale Eulerian air quality models are typically limited to relatively coar...

385

Parking, energy consumption and air pollution.  

PubMed

This paper examines the impacts of different ways of parking on environmental effects, mainly vehicle emissions and air pollution. Vehicle energy consumption and the urban air quality at street level, related to location and design of parking establishments, need to be assessed and quantified. In addition, the indoor parking environment needs attention. This paper gives a description of a methodological approach when comparing different parking establishments. The paper also briefly describes a Swedish attempt to create methods and models for assessing and quantifying such problem. The models are the macrolevel model BRAHE, for regional traffic exhaust emission, and the micromodel SimPark, a parking search model attempt combined with emission models. Until now, very limited knowledge exists regarding the various aspects of vehicle parking and environmental effects in the technical field as well as in the social and human behaviour aspects. This requires an interdisciplinary approach to this challenging area for research, development and more directly practically implemented surveys and field studies. In order to illustrate the new evaluation methodology, the paper also contains some results from a pilot study in Stockholm. Given certain assumptions, a study of vehicle emissions from parking in an underground garage compared with kerbside parking has given an emission reduction of about 40% in favour of the parking garage. This study has been done using the models mentioned above. PMID:15504491

Höglund, Paul G

2004-12-01

386

Air Pollution Exposure and Cardiovascular Disease  

PubMed Central

Ambient air pollution (AAP) and particulate matters (PM) have been closely associated with adverse health effects such as respiratory disease and cardiovascular diseases. Previous studies have examined the adverse health effects associated with short- and long-term exposure to AAP and outdoor PM on respiratory disease. However, the effect of PM size (PM2.5 and PM10) on cardiovascular disease has not been well studied. Thus, it remains unclear how the size of the inhalable particles (coarse, fine, or ultrafine) affects mortality and morbidity. Airborne PM concentrations are commonly used for ambient air quality management worldwide, owing to the known effects on cardiorespiratory health. In this article, we assess the relationship between cardiovascular diseases and PM, with a particular focus on PM size. We discuss the association of PM2.5 and PM10, nitrogen dioxide (NO2), and elemental carbon with mortality and morbidity due to cardiovascular diseases, stroke, and altered blood pressure, based on epidemiological studies. In addition, we provide evidence that the adverse health effects of AAP and PM are more pronounced among the elderly, children, and people with preexisting cardiovascular and respiratory conditions. Finally, we critically summarize the literature pertaining to cardiovascular diseases, including atherosclerosis and stroke, and introduce potential studies to better understand the health significance of AAP and PM on cardiovascular disease. PMID:25071915

Lee, Byeong-Jae; Kim, Bumseok

2014-01-01

387

Mapping human exposure to traffic air pollution using GIS  

Microsoft Academic Search

An ongoing PhD project has the objective to develop a model for population exposure to traffic air pollution in order to improve assessment of health impacts and in support of risk management. A selected urban area is used as a case study. Applying a Geographic Information System (GIS), the model combines calculated air pollution data using the Danish Operational Street

Steen Solvang Jensen

1998-01-01

388

EFFECTS OF PARTICULATE AIR POLLUTION ON ASTHMATIC SUBJECTS  

EPA Science Inventory

While much remains to be understood, individuals with respiratory disease appear to be affected by high levels of air pollution as indicated by subjective reports, clinic and hospital visits, and morbidity. Suspended particulates make up a substantial part of urban air pollution,...

389

Air Pollution Monitoring Site Selection by Multiple Criteria Decision Analysis  

EPA Science Inventory

Criteria air pollutants (particulate matter, sulfur dioxide, oxides of nitrogen, volatile organic compounds, and carbon monoxide) as well as toxic air pollutants are a global concern. A particular scenario that is receiving increased attention in the research is the exposure to t...

390

Urban air pollution and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: a review  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is consistency in the findings that relate the acute increases in urban air pollution (mainly the particulate matter) and the short-term health effects (i.e. mortality and hospital admissions) on patients suffering from chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Beyond the acute effects, a relevant public health and scientific question is to what extent chronic exposure to air pollution is related

J. Sunyer

2001-01-01

391

Indoor air pollution from household use of solid fuels  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary This chapter summarizes the methodology used to assess the burden of disease caused by indoor air pollution from household use of solid fuels. Most research into and control of indoor air pollution worldwide has focused on sources of particular concern in developed countries, such as environmental tobacco smoke (ETS), volatile organic compounds from furnishings and radon from soil. Although

Kirk R. Smith; Sumi Mehta; Mirjam Maeusezahl-Feuz

392

Plug-in Sensors for Air Pollution Monitoring.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Faristors, a type of plug-in sensors used in analyzing equipment, are described in this technical report presented at the 12th Conference on Methods in Air Pollution and Industrial Hygiene Studies, University of Southern California, April, 1971. Their principles of operation, interchangeability, and versatility for measuring air pollution at…

Shaw, Manny

393

Urban air pollution in megacities of the world  

Microsoft Academic Search

Urban air pollution is a major environmental problem in the developing countries of the world. WHO and UNEP created an air pollution monitoring network as part of the Global Environment Monitoring System. This network now covers over 50 cities in 35 developing and developed countries throughout the world. The analyses of the data reported by the network over the past

David Mage; Guntis Ozolins; Peter Peterson; Anthony Webster; Rudi Orthofer; Veerle Vandeweerd; Michael Gwynne

1996-01-01

394

APEX (Air Pollution Exercise) Volume 1: Game Director's Manual.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Game Director's Manual is the first in a set of 21 manuals (AA 001 009-001 029) used in APEX (Air Pollution Exercise), a computerized college and professional level "real world" simulation of a community with urban and rural problems, industrial activities, and air pollution difficulties. The participants, which may range in number from 18 to…

Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC. Office of Manpower Development.

395

AIR-DEPOSITED POLLUTION IN THE ANACOSTIA RIVER WATERSHED  

E-print Network

of the Chesapeake Bay airshed. #12;The region encompasses a vast area covering hundreds of thousands of square milesAIR-DEPOSITED POLLUTION IN THE ANACOSTIA RIVER WATERSHED Annual Progress Report for FY 2005 through the US Department of Interior #12;PROGRESS REPORT: AIR-DEPOSITED POLLUTION IN THE ANACOSTIA RIVER

District of Columbia, University of the

396

UNDERSTANDING THE EFFECTS OF AIR POLLUTION ON HUMAN HEALTH  

EPA Science Inventory

Modern air pollution regulation is first and foremost motivated by concerns about the effects of air pollutants on human health and secondarily by concerns about its effects on ecosystems, cultural artifacts, and quality of life values such as visibility. This order of priority ...

397

On the interpretation of epidemiological studies of ambient air pollution  

Microsoft Academic Search

Studies of the effects of ambient air pollution on human health are complicated by the fact that individuals are exposed to a complex mixture of toxic and non-toxic substances that vary in their make-up in space and in time. It is impossible using standard epidemiological designs to uniquely identify any individual component of air pollution as a causal agent of

Mark S Goldberg

2007-01-01

398

Food hazards and consumer awareness: air pollution effects in India  

Microsoft Academic Search

The levels of air pollutants are increasing in many 'megacities' of the developing world. Air pollution can both the yield and nutritional quality of crop plants, and is also a major source of particulate contaminants that can accumulate at toxic levels in the edible portion of crop plants grown in urban and peri-urban (UPU) areas. This paper presents new knowledge

Nigel Poole; Fiona Marshall; DS Bhupal

399

40 CFR 52.1477 - Nevada air pollution emergency plan.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... 4 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Nevada air pollution emergency plan. 52.1477 Section 52.1477 Protection...IMPLEMENTATION PLANS (CONTINUED) Nevada § 52.1477 Nevada air pollution emergency plan. Section 6.1.5 of the...

2011-07-01

400

40 CFR 52.1477 - Nevada air pollution emergency plan.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Nevada air pollution emergency plan. 52.1477 Section 52.1477 Protection...IMPLEMENTATION PLANS (CONTINUED) Nevada § 52.1477 Nevada air pollution emergency plan. Section 6.1.5 of the...

2010-07-01

401

40 CFR 52.1477 - Nevada air pollution emergency plan.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... 4 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Nevada air pollution emergency plan. 52.1477 Section 52.1477 Protection...IMPLEMENTATION PLANS (CONTINUED) Nevada § 52.1477 Nevada air pollution emergency plan. Section 6.1.5 of the...

2012-07-01

402

40 CFR 52.1477 - Nevada air pollution emergency plan.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... 4 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Nevada air pollution emergency plan. 52.1477 Section 52.1477 Protection...IMPLEMENTATION PLANS (CONTINUED) Nevada § 52.1477 Nevada air pollution emergency plan. Section 6.1.5 of the...

2013-07-01

403

Measurements of Morbidity and Mortality Related to Air Pollution  

Microsoft Academic Search

Examination of total deaths in New York City by day of occurrence shows periodic peaks in mortality which are associated with periods of high air pollution. These peaks are usually associated with periods of low wind speed and temperature inversion conditions which permit air pollution to build up to high levels. Unlike the experience of London, fog is not a

James McCarroll

1967-01-01

404

Daily concentrations of air pollution and plasma fibrinogen in London  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVESThe reason for the association between air pollution and risk of cardiovascular diseases is unknown. The hypothesis was examined that daily concentrations of air pollution are associated with daily concentrations of fibrinogen, a risk factor for cardiovascular disease.METHODSData on concentrations of plasma fibrinogen for 4982 male and 2223 female office workers, collected in a cross sectional survey in London between

J Pekkanen; E J Brunner; H R Anderson; P Tiittanen; R W Atkinson

2000-01-01

405

Air Pollution and Infant Mortality in Mexico City  

EPA Science Inventory

Historic air pollution episodes of the 1950s led to acute increases in infant mortality, and some recent epidemiologic studies suggest that infant or child mortality may still result from air pollution at current levels. To investigate the evidence for such an association, we con...

406

POPEX - RANKING AIR POLLUTION SOURCES BY POPULATION EXPOSURE  

EPA Science Inventory

The report gives results of research to develop quantitative models for relating emissions of air pollutants to their effects on people, and to use the methodology for determining the relative importance of air pollution sources. The quantitative methodology for ranking the sourc...

407

Country Report Impact of growing urbanization and air pollution on  

E-print Network

5 Country Report Impact of growing urbanization and air pollution on the regional climate over Indian cities with increases in the consumption of fossil fuel (coal and petroleum) especially of air pollution show disturbing trends that can explain visible changes in the en- vironment. A brief

Singh, Ramesh P.

408

Air pollution in relation to green-houses  

Microsoft Academic Search

Problems of air pollution-inflicted indirect damages in greenhouse production are described. The steady increase of air pollution, and especially of the dust concentrations in the Netherlands during recent years has led to increased soiling of the glass panes in greenhouses, which results in reduced production due to light attenuation. As conventional cleaning of the glass panes with water is no

Abrahamse

1970-01-01

409

Air Pollution Monitoring System based on Geosensor Network  

Microsoft Academic Search

Environment Observation and Forecasting System(EOFS) is a application for monitoring and providing a forecasting about environmental phenomena. We design an air pollution monitoring system which involves a context model and a flexible data acquisition policy. The context model is used for understanding the status of air pollution on the remote place. It can provide an alarm and safety guideline depending

Young Jin Jung; Yang Koo Lee; Dong Gyu Lee; Keun Ho Ryu; Silvia Nittel

2008-01-01

410

Discover-AQ flies in Calif. to study air pollution  

... fly over the San Joaquin valley -- one as close as 1,000 feet to the ground -- to measure air pollution. They are part of a five-year ... fly over the San Joaquin valley -- one as close as 1,000 feet to the ground -- to measure air pollution. They are part of a five-year ...

2013-04-25

411

Methodological issues in studies of air pollution and reproductive health  

EPA Science Inventory

In the past decade there have been an increasing number of scientific studies describing possible effects of air pollution on perinatal health. These papers have mostly focused on commonly monitored air pollutants, primarily ozone (O3), particulate matter (PM), sulfur dioxide (S...

412

Spatial heterogeneity and air pollution removal by an urban forest  

Microsoft Academic Search

Estimates of air pollution removal by the urban forest have mostly been based on mean values of forest structure variables for an entire city. However, the urban forest is not uniformly distributed across a city because of biophysical and social factors. Consequently, air pollution removal function by urban vegetation should vary because of this spatial heterogeneity. This paper presents a

Francisco J. Escobedo; David J. Nowak

2009-01-01

413

Determination of features for air pollution forecasting models  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Sostanj coal fired Thermal Power Plant (STPP) is a major regional source of SO2. To monitor air pollution around the STPP, a modern environmental information system was built, which measures ambient concentrations of SO2 and meteorological parameters. All data are collected at half hour intervals. Harmful air pollution and environmental legislation are the major reasons why the STPP needs

Primoi Mlakar

1997-01-01

414

Forest fires, air pollution, and mortality in Southeast Asia  

Microsoft Academic Search

I assess the population health effects in Malaysia of air pollution from a widespread series of fires that occurred in Indonesia between April and November of 1997. I describe how the fires occurred and why the associated air pollution was so widespread and long lasting. The main objective is to uncover any mortality effects and to assess how large and

Narayan Sastry

2002-01-01

415

Air Pollution Manual, Part 1--Evaluation. Second Edition.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Due to the great increase in technical knowledge and improvement in procedures, this second edition has been prepared to update existing information. Air pollution legislation is reviewed. Sources of air pollution are examined extensively. They are treated in terms of natural sources, man-made sources, metropolitan regional emissions, emission…

Giever, Paul M., Ed.

416

Minority Neighborhoods Face Greater Exposure to Air Pollution  

MedlinePLUS

... enable JavaScript. Minority Neighborhoods Face Greater Exposure to Air Pollution Researchers tracked areas in 6 states to find ... Dallas Thursday, September 11, 2014 Related MedlinePlus Pages Air Pollution Health Disparities THURSDAY, Sept. 11, 2014 (HealthDay News) -- ...

417

Heart rate variability associated with particulate air pollution  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Epidemiologic studies have linked fine particulate air pollution with cardiopulmonary mortality, yet underlying biologic mechanisms remain unknown. Changes in heart rate variability (HRV) may reflect changes in cardiac autonomic function and risk of sudden cardiac death. This study evaluated changes in mean heart rate and HRV in human beings associated with changes in exposure to particulate air pollution. Methods:

C. Arden Pope; Richard L. Verrier; Eric G. Lovett; Andrew C. Larson; Mark E. Raizenne; Richard E. Kanner; Joel Schwartz; G. Martin Villegas; Diane R. Gold; Douglas W. Dockery

1999-01-01

418

Air pollution from traffic in city districts near major motorways  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to assess exposure to air pollution from traffic of subjects living near motorways, traffic related air pollutants were measured indoors and outdoors in six city districts near motorways in the West of the Netherlands. Outdoor measurements of PM10, PM2.5, black smoke and benzene were conducted at four different distances from the roadside in two of the six city

Mirjam C Roorda-Knape; Nicole A. H Janssen; Jeroen J De Hartog; Patricia H. N Van Vliet; Hendrik Harssema; Bert Brunekreef

1998-01-01

419

Indoor and outdoor air pollution: Tobacco smoke, moulds and diseases in infants and children  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although outdoor air pollution first brought the issue of air pollution health effects to public attention, it is now indoor air pollution that likely has the greatest impact on children's health. The World Health Organization estimates that the global burden of disease from indoor air pollution is far greater than the burden from outdoor air pollution. This review focuses on

Ruth A. Etzel

2007-01-01

420

A mathematical formulation for optimal control of air pollution  

Microsoft Academic Search

The problem of optimal control of air pollution using weather forecast results and numerical air pollution models is discussed.\\u000a A mathematical formulation of the problem is presented. The control is an act on pollution sources with feasible constraints.\\u000a Based on forecasted weather conditions, the objective of the optimal control is to minimize total cost caused by control under\\u000a the constraint

Jiang Zhu; Qingcun Zeng

2003-01-01

421

Ambient Air Pollution and Birth Defects in Brisbane, Australia  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundBirth defects are a major public health concern as they are the leading cause of neonatal and infant mortality. Observational studies have linked environmental pollution to adverse birth outcomes, including congenital anomalies. This study examined potential associations between ambient air pollution and congenital heart defects and cleft lip or palate among births in Brisbane, Australia (1998–2004).MethodsAmbient air pollution levels were

Craig A. Hansen; Adrian G. Barnett; Bin B. Jalaludin; Geoffrey G. Morgan; Xiaoping Pan

2009-01-01

422

Air Pollution and Mortality: Results from Santiago, Chile  

Microsoft Academic Search

May 1995The relationship between particulate air pollution and premature death in Santiago, Chile is found to be very similar to results from industrial countries.Heavy outdoor pollution is found in developing country cities such as Jakarta, Katowice, Mexico City, and Santiago. But most epidemiological studies of dose-response relationships between particulate air pollution (PM10) and premature deaths are from Western industrial nations.

Gunnar Eskeland; Jose Miguel Sanchez; Carlos Aranda

1999-01-01

423

The remote sensing of air pollution from coal utilization  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An investigation was made to determine the feasibility of applying earth resources data to the detection of air pollution, particularly pollution from coal burning. Efforts were also made to detect any damage caused by such pollution to vegetation growth and tree life. Results show that vegetative vigor even at low ambient concentrations was damaged and that Eastern white pine trees were severely damaged by the pollutants.

Harney, B. M.; Mccrea, D. H.; Forney, A. J.

1972-01-01

424

Ambient air pollution and allergic diseases in children.  

PubMed

The prevalence of allergic diseases has increased worldwide, a phenomenon that can be largely attributed to environmental effects. Among environmental factors, air pollution due to traffic is thought to be a major threat to childhood health. Residing near busy roadways is associated with increased asthma hospitalization, decreased lung function, and increased prevalence and severity of wheezing and allergic rhinitis. Recently, prospective cohort studies using more accurate measurements of individual exposure to air pollution have been conducted and have provided definitive evidence of the impact of air pollution on allergic diseases. Particulate matter and ground-level ozone are the most frequent air pollutants that cause harmful effects, and the mechanisms underlying these effects may be related to oxidative stress. The reactive oxidative species produced in response to air pollutants can overwhelm the redox system and damage the cell wall, lipids, proteins, and DNA, leading to airway inflammation and hyper-reactivity. Pollutants may also cause harmful effects via epigenetic mechanisms, which control the expression of genes without changing the DNA sequence itself. These mechanisms are likely to be a target for the prevention of allergies. Further studies are necessary to identify children at risk and understand how these mechanisms regulate gene-environment interactions. This review provides an update of the current understanding on the impact of air pollution on allergic diseases in children and facilitates the integration of issues regarding air pollution and allergies into pediatric practices, with the goal of improving pediatric health. PMID:22745642

Kim, Byoung-Ju; Hong, Soo-Jong

2012-06-01

425

Ambient air pollution and annoyance responses from pregnant women  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

ObjectivesTo describe the degree of annoyance caused by air pollution and noise in pregnant women in a birth cohort; to determine the modifying factors and their relation with exposure to ambient nitrogen dioxide (NO 2). MethodsThe study population was 855 pregnant women in Valencia, Spain. Annoyance caused by air pollution and noise, and explanatory factors were obtained from 786 pregnant women through a questionnaire. NO 2 levels were determined combining measurements at 93 points within the area of study and using geostatistical techniques (kriging). ResultsIn all 7.9% of the women reported high annoyance caused by air pollution and 13.1% high annoyance caused by noise. There was a significant difference in the degree of annoyance due to both air pollution and noise depending on the area where the women lived and their working status. The degree of annoyance correlated better with measured NO 2 at the municipality level (air pollution: r=0.53; noise: r=0.44) than at the individual level (air pollution and noise: r=0.21). On multivariate analysis, being a housewife, higher NO 2 levels and high traffic density were associated with higher degrees of annoyance. ConclusionsThere was a high percentage of women who perceived medium-high annoyance due to noise and air pollution. Annoyance caused by environmental pollutants could lead to some psychological effects, which impair the quality of life, or even physiological ones, which affect prenatal development.

Llop, Sabrina; Ballester, Ferran; Estarlich, Marisa; Esplugues, Ana; Fernández-Patier, Rosalia; Ramón, Rosa; Marco, Alfredo; Aguirre, Amelia; Sunyer, Jordi; Iñiguez, Carmen; INMA-Valencia cohort

426

Epidemiologic evidence for asthma and exposure to air toxics: linkages between occupational, indoor, and community air pollution research.  

PubMed Central

Outdoor ambient air pollutant exposures in communities are relevant to the acute exacerbation and possibly the onset of asthma. However, the complexity of pollutant mixtures and etiologic heterogeneity of asthma has made it difficult to identify causal components in those mixtures. Occupational exposures associated with asthma may yield clues to causal components in ambient air pollution because such exposures are often identifiable as single-chemical agents (e.g., metal compounds). However, translating occupational to community exposure-response relationships is limited. Of the air toxics found to cause occupational asthma, only formaldehyde has been frequently investigated in epidemiologic studies of allergic respiratory responses to indoor air, where general consistency can be shown despite lower ambient exposures. The specific volatile organic compounds (VOCs) identified in association with occupational asthma are generally not the same as those in studies showing respiratory effects of VOC mixtures on nonoccupational adult and pediatric asthma. In addition, experimental evidence indicates that airborne polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) exposures linked to diesel exhaust particles (DEPs) have proinflammatory effects on airways, but there is insufficient supporting evidence from the occupational literature of effects of DEPs on asthma or lung function. In contrast, nonoccupational epidemiologic studies have frequently shown associations between allergic responses or asthma with exposures to ambient air pollutant mixtures with PAH components, including black smoke, high home or school traffic density (particularly truck traffic), and environmental tobacco smoke. Other particle-phase and gaseous co-pollutants are likely causal in these associations as well. Epidemiologic research on the relationship of both asthma onset and exacerbation to air pollution is needed to disentangle effects of air toxics from monitored criteria air pollutants such as particle mass. Community studies should focus on air toxics expected to have adverse respiratory effects based on biological mechanisms, particularly irritant and immunological pathways to asthma onset and exacerbation. PMID:12194890

Delfino, Ralph J

2002-01-01

427

Determinants of perceived air pollution annoyance and association between annoyance scores and air pollution (PM 2.5, NO 2) concentrations in the European EXPOLIS study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Apart from its traditionally considered objective impacts on health, air pollution can also have perceived effects, such as annoyance. The psychological effects of air pollution may often be more important to well-being than the biophysical effects. Health effects of perceived annoyance from air pollution are so far unknown. More knowledge of air pollution annoyance levels, determinants and also associations with

Tuulia Rotko; Lucy Oglesby; Nino Künzli; Paolo Carrer; Mark J Nieuwenhuijsen; Matti Jantunen

2002-01-01

428

About the Air Pollution and Respiratory Health Program The Air Pollution and Respiratory Health Program of the National Center for Environmental Health, Centers for  

E-print Network

About the Air Pollution and Respiratory Health Program The Air Pollution and Respiratory Health indoor and outdoor air pollution. CDC's asthma program focuses on three main activities: (1) tracking public health agencies. For example, CDC staff are currently studying the effect of outdoor air pollution

429

Air Pollution and Mortality in 20 U.S. Cities Particulate Air Pollution and Mortality in 20 U.S. Cities: 1987-1994  

E-print Network

Air Pollution and Mortality in 20 U.S. Cities 1 Particulate Air Pollution and Mortality in 20 U Word Count: 3032 #12;Air Pollution and Mortality in 20 U.S. Cities 2 Abstract Background: Time-series analyses have linked contemporary levels of air pollution, particularly particles, to daily mortality

Dominici, Francesca

430

Climate Change, Air Pollution, and the Economics of Health Impacts  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Climate change and air pollution are intricately linked. The distinction between greenhouse substances and other air pollutants is resolved at least for the time being in the context of international negotiations on climate policy through the identification of CO2, CH4, N2O, SF6 and the per- and hydro- fluorocarbons as substances targeted for control. Many of the traditional air pollutant emissions including for example CO, NMVOCs, NOx, SO2, aerosols, and NH3 also directly or indirectly affect the radiative balance of the atmosphere. Among both sets of gases are precursors of and contributors to pollutants such as tropopospheric ozone, itself a strong greenhouse gas, particulate matter, and other pollutants that affect human health. Fossil fuel combustion, production, or transportation is a significant source for many of these substances. Climate policy can thus affect traditional air pollution or air pollution policy can affect climate. Health effects of acute or chronic exposure to air pollution include increased asthma, lung cancer, heart disease and bronchitis among others. These, in turn, redirect resources in the economy toward medical expenditures or result in lost labor or non-labor time with consequent effects on economic activity, itself producing a potential feedback on emissions levels. Study of these effects ultimately requires a fully coupled earth system model. Toward that end we develop an approach for introducing air pollution health impacts into the Emissions Prediction and Policy Analysis (EPPA) model, a component of the MIT Integrated Global Systems Model (IGSM) a coupled economics-chemistry-atmosphere-ocean-terrestrial biosphere model of earth systems including an air pollution model resolving the urban scale. This preliminary examination allows us to consider how climate policy affects air pollution and consequent health effects, and to study the potential impacts of air pollution policy on climate. The novel contribution is the effort to endogenize air pollution impacts within the EPPA model, allowing us to study potential economic effects and feedbacks. We find strong interaction between air pollution and economies, although precise estimates of the effects require further investigation and refined resolution of the urban scale chemistry model.

Reilly, J.; Yang, T.; Paltsev, S.; Wang, C.; Prinn, R.; Sarofim, M.

2003-12-01

431

E-Alerts: Environmental pollution and control (air pollution and control). E-mail newsletter  

SciTech Connect

Topics of discussion include the following: Air pollution from flue gases, exhaust gases, odors, dust, smog, microorganisms, etc.; Control techniques and equipment; Sampling and analytical techniques, and equipment; Waste gas recovery; Biological and ecological effects; Air pollution chemistry; Acid precipitation; Atmospheric motion; Laws, legislation, and regulations; Public administration; Economics; Land use.

NONE

1999-04-01

432

Human exposure to urban air pollution.  

PubMed Central

This study deals with some methods of making human exposure estimates, aimed at describing the human exposure for selected air pollutants in Sweden that are suspected carcinogens. Nitrogen oxides (NOx) have been chosen as an indicator substance for estimating the concentration of the urban plume. Earlier investigations have shown that the traffic in Swedish cities contributes around 85% to the measured NOx concentrations, and that most of the mutagenicity in urban air originates from traffic. The first section of this paper describes measurements in Stockholm of some unregulated light hydrocarbons, such as ethene, ethyne, propane, propene, butane, and isobutane. In addition, measurements of some volatile aromatic hydrocarbons are presented. Simultaneous measurements of carbon monoxide (CO) were made. The ratios between CO and the individual specific compounds were determined by linear regression analysis. By analysis of relationships between CO and NOx, NOx concentrations can be used as a tracer to describe the exposure for these specific compounds. NOx are considered to be a better tracer than CO, because NOx or NO2 values exist for many places over a long time, while CO is measured mostly in streets with high concentrations. At low concentrations, instruments that measure normal CO levels give no detectable signals. Through use of atmospheric dispersion models and models that describe how people live and work in urban areas it has been possible to describe the average exposure to NOx in cities of different sizes. The exposure to NOx for people living in the countryside has also been estimated. In this way, it has been possible to calculate the average exposure dose for NOx for the Swedish population. This figure is 23 micrograms/m3. By use of the relationships between NOx and specific compounds the average dose has been calculated for the following compounds: polyaromatic compounds (PAH); ethene, propene, and butadiene; benzene, toluene, and xylene; formaldehyde and actaldehyde; nickel, chromium (VI), arsenic, and cadmium; asbestos; and silicon. PMID:7821294

Boström, C E; Almén, J; Steen, B; Westerholm, R

1994-01-01

433

Boundary Layer Structure in the Inn Valley during High Air Pollution (INNAP) Institute of Meteorology and Geophysics (IMGI), University of Innsbruck, Austria  

E-print Network

Boundary Layer Structure in the Inn Valley during High Air Pollution (INNAP) 1 Institute sources, may be affected by air pollution since slope winds are able to transport pollutants even above project INNAP. DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSIONS In general, the three-dimensional distribution of air

Gohm, Alexander

434

76 FR 42052 - National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants From Petroleum Refineries  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Hazardous Air Pollutants From Petroleum Refineries AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency...Hazardous Air Pollutants From Petroleum Refineries. EPA is now providing final notice...Hazardous Air Pollutants From Petroleum Refineries, and the signed rule was made...

2011-07-18

435

76 FR 39303 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, Imperial County Air Pollution Control...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Revisions to the California State Implementation...Imperial County Air Pollution Control District...Kern County Air Pollution Control District...Ventura County Air Pollution Control District...portions of the California State...

2011-07-06

436

Short-Term Effects of Air Pollution on Wheeze in Asthmatic Children in Fresno, California  

E-print Network

Air pollution and bronchitic symptoms in Southern CaliforniaAir Pollution on Wheeze in Asthmatic Children in Fresno, CaliforniaCalifornia, USA B ackground : Although studies have demonstrated that air pollution

2010-01-01

437

76 FR 39357 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, Imperial County Air Pollution Control...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Revisions to the California State Implementation...Imperial County Air Pollution Control District...Kern County Air Pollution Control District...Ventura County Air Pollution Control District...portions of the California State...

2011-07-06

438

77 FR 16508 - National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutant Emissions: Group IV Polymers and Resins...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Hazardous Air Pollutant Emissions: Group IV Polymers and Resins; Pesticide Active Ingredient...Hazardous Air Pollutant Emissions: Group IV Polymers and Resins; National Emission Standards...Hazardous Air Pollutant Emissions: Group IV Polymers and Resins; Pesticide Active...

2012-03-21

439

75 FR 39365 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, Imperial County Air Pollution Control...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Implementation Plan, Imperial County Air Pollution Control District; Final Rule Federal...Implementation Plan, Imperial County Air Pollution Control District AGENCY: Environmental...revisions to the Imperial County Air Pollution Control District (ICAPCD or the...

2010-07-08

440

77 FR 66548 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution Control District AGENCY: Environmental...San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution Control District (SJVUAPCD) portion...San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution Control District's Rule 4352,...

2012-11-06

441

40 CFR 52.2227 - Prevention of air pollution emergency episodes.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 false Prevention of air pollution emergency episodes. 52.2227... § 52.2227 Prevention of air pollution emergency episodes. (a...actions for mobile sources during air pollution emergency episodes. [37...

2010-07-01

442

78 FR 6736 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, Placer County Air Pollution Control District  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Implementation Plan, Placer County Air Pollution Control District AGENCY: Environmental...revisions to the Placer County Air Pollution Control District (PCAPCD) portion...rules, however, provide for Air Pollution Control Officer (APCO)...

2013-01-31

443

Climate Policy Design: Interactions among Carbon Dioxide, Methane, and Urban Air Pollution Constraints  

E-print Network

Climate Policy Design: Interactions among Carbon Dioxide, Methane, and Urban Air Pollution Policy Design: Interactions among Carbon Dioxide, Methane, and Urban Air Pollution Constraints by Marcus. The third case examines the benefits of increased policy coordination between air pollution constraints

de Weck, Olivier L.

444

40 CFR 52.11 - Prevention of air pollution emergency episodes.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 false Prevention of air pollution emergency episodes. 52.11...Provisions § 52.11 Prevention of air pollution emergency episodes. (a) Each subpart identifies portions of the air pollution emergency episode...

2013-07-01

445

77 FR 24883 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Plan, San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution Control District AGENCY: Environmental...the San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution Control District (SJVUAPCD...52 Environmental protection, Air pollution control, Intergovernmental...

2012-04-26

446

40 CFR 52.1639 - Prevention of air pollution emergency episodes.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-07-01 false Prevention of air pollution emergency episodes. 52.1639... § 52.1639 Prevention of air pollution emergency episodes. (a...Environmental Improvement Board, entitled Air Pollution Episode Contingency Plan...

2012-07-01

447

75 FR 1284 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, Ventura County Air Pollution Control District  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Implementation Plan, Ventura County Air Pollution Control District AGENCY: Environmental...revisions to the Ventura County Air Pollution Control District (VCAPCD) portion...52 Environmental protection, Air pollution control, Incorporation by...

2010-01-11

448

40 CFR 52.1639 - Prevention of air pollution emergency episodes.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 false Prevention of air pollution emergency episodes. 52.1639... § 52.1639 Prevention of air pollution emergency episodes. (a...Environmental Improvement Board, entitled Air Pollution Episode Contingency Plan...

2013-07-01

449

40 CFR 52.11 - Prevention of air pollution emergency episodes.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 false Prevention of air pollution emergency episodes. 52.11...Provisions § 52.11 Prevention of air pollution emergency episodes. (a) Each subpart identifies portions of the air pollution emergency episode...

2010-07-01

450

40 CFR 52.2227 - Prevention of air pollution emergency episodes.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-07-01 false Prevention of air pollution emergency episodes. 52.2227... § 52.2227 Prevention of air pollution emergency episodes. (a...actions for mobile sources during air pollution emergency episodes. [37...

2011-07-01

451

40 CFR 63.2850 - How do I comply with the hazardous air pollutant emission standards?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants: Solvent Extraction for...How do I comply with the hazardous air pollutant emission standards? ...reasonably preventable failure of air pollution control equipment or...

2011-07-01

452

76 FR 52623 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Plan, San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution Control District AGENCY: Environmental...the San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution Control District (SJVUAPCD...52 Environmental protection, Air pollution control, Intergovernmental...

2011-08-23

453

76 FR 14839 - Delegation of National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Source Categories...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...California, Santa Barbara County Air Pollution Control District AGENCY: Environmental...and to the Santa Barbara County Air Pollution Control District on July 30...and the Santa Barbara County Air Pollution Control District. In the...

2011-03-18

454

40 CFR 52.11 - Prevention of air pollution emergency episodes.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-07-01 false Prevention of air pollution emergency episodes. 52.11...Provisions § 52.11 Prevention of air pollution emergency episodes. (a) Each subpart identifies portions of the air pollution emergency episode...

2011-07-01

455

40 CFR 63.13 - Addresses of State air pollution control agencies and EPA Regional Offices.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 false Addresses of State air pollution control agencies and EPA Regional...EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS FOR SOURCE CATEGORIES... § 63.13 Addresses of State air pollution control agencies and EPA...

2010-07-01

456

76 FR 298 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, San Joaquin Valley Air Pollution Control...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Implementation Plan, San Joaquin Valley Air Pollution Control District (SJVUAPCD...the San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution Control District (SJVUAPCD...for San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution Control District Rules 4402...

2011-01-04

457

40 CFR Appendix L to Part 51 - Example Regulations for Prevention of Air Pollution Emergency Episodes  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Example Regulations for Prevention of Air Pollution Emergency Episodes L Appendix...Example Regulations for Prevention of Air Pollution Emergency Episodes The example...recognized ways of preventing air pollution from reaching levels...

2011-07-01

458

76 FR 44809 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, Placer County Air Pollution Control...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Implementation Plan, Placer County Air Pollution Control District and Feather River...submitted for the Placer County Air Pollution Control District (PCAPCD) and...modified major stationary sources of air pollution. We are approving local...

2011-07-27

459

40 CFR 63.2850 - How do I comply with the hazardous air pollutant emission standards?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants: Solvent Extraction for...How do I comply with the hazardous air pollutant emission standards? ...reasonably preventable failure of air pollution control equipment or...

2013-07-01

460

40 CFR 52.11 - Prevention of air pollution emergency episodes.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-07-01 false Prevention of air pollution emergency episodes. 52.11...Provisions § 52.11 Prevention of air pollution emergency episodes. (a) Each subpart identifies portions of the air pollution emergency episode...

2012-07-01

461

75 FR 24544 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, Placer County Air Pollution Control...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Implementation Plan, Placer County Air Pollution Control District, Sacramento...District, San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution Control District, and South Coast...revisions to the Placer County Air Pollution Control District...

2010-05-05

462

76 FR 26615 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, Imperial County Air Pollution Control...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Implementation Plan, Imperial County Air Pollution Control District (ICAPCD) AGENCY...revisions to the Imperial County Air Pollution Control District portion of the...requirements and exemptions for various air pollution sources. We are approving...

2011-05-09

463

78 FR 23677 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, Imperial County Air Pollution Control...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Implementation Plan, Imperial County Air Pollution Control District AGENCY: Environmental...revisions to the Imperial County Air Pollution Control District (ICAPCD) portion...California including San Joaquin Valley Air Pollution Control District...

2013-04-22

464

40 CFR 63.2850 - How do I comply with the hazardous air pollutant emission standards?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants: Solvent Extraction for...How do I comply with the hazardous air pollutant emission standards? ...reasonably preventable failure of air pollution control equipment or...

2012-07-01

465

75 FR 3996 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, San Joaquin Valley Air Pollution Control...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Implementation Plan, San Joaquin Valley Air Pollution Control District AGENCY: Environmental...revisions to the San Joaquin Valley Air Pollution Control District (SJVAPCD or...Planning, San Joaquin Valley Air Pollution Control District; letter...

2010-01-26

466

76 FR 28944 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, Placer County Air Pollution Control...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Implementation Plan, Placer County Air Pollution Control District and Feather River...submitted for the Placer County Air Pollution Control District (PCAPCD) and...for new and modified sources of air pollution. If EPA finalizes the...

2011-05-19

467

40 CFR Appendix L to Part 51 - Example Regulations for Prevention of Air Pollution Emergency Episodes  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Example Regulations for Prevention of Air Pollution Emergency Episodes L Appendix...Example Regulations for Prevention of Air Pollution Emergency Episodes The example...recognized ways of preventing air pollution from reaching levels...

2013-07-01

468

40 CFR 52.11 - Prevention of air pollution emergency episodes.  

...2014-07-01 false Prevention of air pollution emergency episodes. 52.11...Provisions § 52.11 Prevention of air pollution emergency episodes. (a) Each subpart identifies portions of the air pollution emergency episode...

2014-07-01

469

75 FR 56889 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, San Diego County Air Pollution Control...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Implementation Plan, San Diego County Air Pollution Control District AGENCY: Environmental...revisions to the San Diego County Air Pollution Control District (SDCAPCD) portion...52 Environmental protection, Air pollution control, Incorporation by...

2010-09-17

470

40 CFR 52.2227 - Prevention of air pollution emergency episodes.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-07-01 false Prevention of air pollution emergency episodes. 52.2227... § 52.2227 Prevention of air pollution emergency episodes. (a...actions for mobile sources during air pollution emergency episodes. [37...

2012-07-01

471

76 FR 67366 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, Placer County Air Pollution Control...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Implementation Plan, Placer County Air Pollution Control District and Sacramento...revisions to the Placer County Air Pollution Control District (PCAPCD) and...52 Environmental protection, Air pollution control, Incorporation by...

2011-11-01

472

40 CFR 63.13 - Addresses of State air pollution control agencies and EPA Regional Offices.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 false Addresses of State air pollution control agencies and EPA Regional...EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS FOR SOURCE CATEGORIES... § 63.13 Addresses of State air pollution control agencies and EPA...

2013-07-01

473

40 CFR 52.2227 - Prevention of air pollution emergency episodes.  

...2014-07-01 false Prevention of air pollution emergency episodes. 52.2227... § 52.2227 Prevention of air pollution emergency episodes. (a...actions for mobile sources during air pollution emergency episodes. [37...

2014-07-01

474

75 FR 57862 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Plan, San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution Control District AGENCY: Environmental...the San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution Control District (SJVUAPCD...52 Environmental protection, Air pollution control, Incorporation by...

2010-09-23

475

75 FR 2796 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, San Joaquin Valley Air Pollution Control...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Implementation Plan, San Joaquin Valley Air Pollution Control District AGENCY: Environmental...revisions to the San Joaquin Valley Air Pollution Control District portion of the...topcoats; and that Ventura County Air Pollution Control District's...

2010-01-19

476

75 FR 69002 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, Imperial County Air Pollution Control...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Implementation Plan, Imperial County Air Pollution Control District AGENCY: Environmental...revisions to the Imperial County Air Pollution Control District (ICAPCD) portion...and San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution Control District...

2010-11-10

477

40 CFR 63.2850 - How do I comply with the hazardous air pollutant emission standards?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants: Solvent Extraction for...How do I comply with the hazardous air pollutant emission standards? ...reasonably preventable failure of air pollution control equipment or...

2010-07-01

478

77 FR 50021 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Plan, San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution Control District AGENCY: Environmental...of San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution Control District (SJVUAPCD...tailored to the nature of the air pollution sources in each state. The...

2012-08-20

479

40 CFR 52.2227 - Prevention of air pollution emergency episodes.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 false Prevention of air pollution emergency episodes. 52.2227... § 52.2227 Prevention of air pollution emergency episodes. (a...actions for mobile sources during air pollution emergency episodes. [37...

2013-07-01

480

76 FR 71886 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, Placer County Air Pollution Control...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Implementation Plan, Placer County Air Pollution Control District and Sacramento...revisions to the Placer County Air Pollution Control District (PCAPCD) and...52 Environmental protection, Air pollution control, Incorporation by...

2011-11-21

481

76 FR 26192 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, Northern Sonoma County Air Pollution...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Plan, Northern Sonoma County Air Pollution Control District (NSCAPCD) and...to the Northern Sonoma County Air Pollution Control District (NSCAPCD) and...52 Environmental protection, Air pollution control, Incorporation by...

2011-05-06

482

40 CFR 63.2850 - How do I comply with the hazardous air pollutant emission standards?  

...National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants: Solvent Extraction for...How do I comply with the hazardous air pollutant emission standards? ...reasonably preventable failure of air pollution control equipment or...

2014-07-01

483

40 CFR 52.1639 - Prevention of air pollution emergency episodes.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 false Prevention of air pollution emergency episodes. 52.1639... § 52.1639 Prevention of air pollution emergency episodes. (a...Environmental Improvement Board, entitled Air Pollution Episode Contingency Plan...

2010-07-01

484

76 FR 14807 - Delegation of National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Source Categories...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...California, Santa Barbara County Air Pollution Control District AGENCY: Environmental...Department and the Santa Barbara County Air Pollution Control District within the past...to delegate to State or local air pollution control agencies the...

2011-03-18

485

75 FR 8008 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, Imperial County Air Pollution Control...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Implementation Plan, Imperial County Air Pollution Control District AGENCY: Environmental...revisions to the Imperial County Air Pollution Control District (ICAPCD) portion...SCAQMD), San Joaquin Valley Air Pollution Control District...

2010-02-23

486

40 CFR Appendix L to Part 51 - Example Regulations for Prevention of Air Pollution Emergency Episodes  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Example Regulations for Prevention of Air Pollution Emergency Episodes L Appendix...Example Regulations for Prevention of Air Pollution Emergency Episodes The example...recognized ways of preventing air pollution from reaching levels...

2010-07-01

487

76 FR 7142 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, Imperial County Air Pollution Control...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Implementation Plan, Imperial County Air Pollution Control District AGENCY: Environmental...revisions to the Imperial County Air Pollution Control District (ICAPCD) portion...permitting requirements, for various air pollution sources. We are taking...

2011-02-09

488

76 FR 26609 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Plan, San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution Control District AGENCY: Environmental...the San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution Control District (SJVUAPCD...v. San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution Control District (No....

2011-05-09

489

40 CFR 63.13 - Addresses of State air pollution control agencies and EPA Regional Offices.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-07-01 false Addresses of State air pollution control agencies and EPA Regional...EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS FOR SOURCE CATEGORIES... § 63.13 Addresses of State air pollution control agencies and EPA...

2011-07-01

490

40 CFR Appendix L to Part 51 - Example Regulations for Prevention of Air Pollution Emergency Episodes  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Example Regulations for Prevention of Air Pollution Emergency Episodes L Appendix...Example Regulations for Prevention of Air Pollution Emergency Episodes The example...recognized ways of preventing air pollution from reaching levels...

2012-07-01

491

40 CFR 52.1639 - Prevention of air pollution emergency episodes.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-07-01 false Prevention of air pollution emergency episodes. 52.1639... § 52.1639 Prevention of air pollution emergency episodes. (a...Environmental Improvement Board, entitled Air Pollution Episode Contingency Plan...

2011-07-01

492

40 CFR 63.13 - Addresses of State air pollution control agencies and EPA Regional Offices.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-07-01 false Addresses of State air pollution control agencies and EPA Regional...EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS FOR SOURCE CATEGORIES... § 63.13 Addresses of State air pollution control agencies and EPA...

2012-07-01

493

77 FR 73322 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, Monterey Bay Unified Air Pollution Control...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Implementation Plan, Monterey Bay Unified Air Pollution Control District AGENCY: Environmental...revisions to the Monterey Bay Unified Air Pollution Control District (MBUAPCD) portion...52 Environmental protection, Air pollution control, Incorporation by...

2012-12-10

494

76 FR 56132 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution Control District AGENCY: Environmental...Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution Control District (SJVUAPCD...Techniques Guidelines for Fiberglass Boat Manufacturing Materials...Environmental protection, Air pollution control,...

2011-09-12

495

Air Pollution Emissions From Jet Engines  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pollution emissions from three representative types of jet engines were determined. Pollutants measured included nitrogen oxides, aldehydes, carbon monoxide, hydrocarbons, and odors. A method is presented for determining the magnitude of pollution emissions due to commercial jet aircraft operation by using basic emission factors.

Eloy R. Lozano; Walter W. Melvin Jr; Seymour ochheiser

1968-01-01

496

Review of air pollution and its health impact in Indonesia.  

PubMed

Air quality monitoring is part of the initial strategy in the pollution prevention program in Indonesia. Since 1978, the government of Indonesia has had a commitment to the World Health Organization (WHO) to provide air quality data for the Global Environmental Monitoring System (GEMS Programme)--The WHO/UNEP Project, in which certain cities from all over the world have been selected. Air quality as part of the WHO/UNEP project is monitored with respect to pollutants like SPM, SO2 and NOx. The result of the monitoring indicates that SPM and NOx are the predominant pollutants. Other pollutants such as O(x), H2S, NH3, and CO are also monitored in several big cities in Indonesia. The air pollution mainly comes from land transportation, industrial emissions, and a densely populated residential area where most people perform their activities. Review of the air pollution in Indonesia was based on the reports of the air quality monitoring in several large cities in Indonesia which covered air pollutants such as SPM, SO2, NOx, CO, O(x), and NH3 from 1978 until the latest available data in 1989. This review also discusses health impact investigations conducted in the community, especially from the exposure to SPM, CO, and lead from motor vehicle exhaust. PMID:8404780

Tri-Tugaswati, A

1993-10-01

497

The Adverse Effects of Air Pollution on the Nervous System  

PubMed Central

Exposure to ambient air pollution is a serious and common public health concern associated with growing morbidity and mortality worldwide. In the last decades, the adverse effects of air pollution on the pulmonary and cardiovascular systems have been well established in a series of major epidemiological and observational studies. In the recent past, air pollution has also been associated with diseases of the central nervous system (CNS), including stroke, Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, and neurodevelopmental disorders. It has been demonstrated that various components of air pollution, such as nanosized particles, can easily translocate to the CNS where they can activate innate immune responses. Furthermore, systemic inflammation arising from the pulmonary or cardiovascular system can affect CNS health. Despite intense studies on the health effects of ambient air pollution, the underlying molecular mechanisms of susceptibility and disease remain largely elusive. However, emerging evidence suggests that air pollution-induced neuroinflammation, oxidative stress, microglial activation, cerebrovascular dysfunction, and alterations in the blood-brain barrier contribute to CNS pathology. A better understanding of the mediators and mechanisms will enable the development of new strategies to protect individuals at risk and to reduce detrimental effects of air pollution on the nervous system and mental health. PMID:22523490

Genc, Sermin; Zadeoglulari, Zeynep; Fuss, Stefan H.; Genc, Kursad

2012-01-01

498

Comparing models of the effect of air pollutants on hospital admissions and symptoms for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.  

PubMed

There is an increasing interest in the use of hospital admission for Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) in studies of short-term exposure effects attributed to air pollutants. However, little is known about the effect of air pollutants on COPD symptoms. This study was undertaken to determine whether there was an association between air pollutant levels and both hospital admissions and symptoms for COPD. For model comparison, we present Generalized Linear Model, Generalized Additive Model and a general approach for Bayesian inference via Markov chain Monte Carlo in generalized additive model. Furthermore, for comparing the predictive accuracy, Artificial Neural Networks (ANN) approach is given. PMID:23441395

Cengiz, Mehmet Ali; Terzi, Yuksel

2012-12-01

499

A Wireless Sensor Network Air Pollution Monitoring System  

E-print Network

Sensor networks are currently an active research area mainly due to the potential of their applications. In this paper we investigate the use of Wireless Sensor Networks (WSN) for air pollution monitoring in Mauritius. With the fast growing industrial activities on the island, the problem of air pollution is becoming a major concern for the health of the population. We proposed an innovative system named Wireless Sensor Network Air Pollution Monitoring System (WAPMS) to monitor air pollution in Mauritius through the use of wireless sensors deployed in huge numbers around the island. The proposed system makes use of an Air Quality Index (AQI) which is presently not available in Mauritius. In order to improve the efficiency of WAPMS, we have designed and implemented a new data aggregation algorithm named Recursive Converging Quartiles (RCQ). The algorithm is used to merge data to eliminate duplicates, filter out invalid readings and summarise them into a simpler form which significantly reduce the amount of dat...

Khedo, Kavi K; Mungur, Avinash; Mauritius, University of; Mauritius,; 10.5121/ijwmn.2010.2203

2010-01-01

500

RIO: A NOVEL APPROACH FOR AIR POLLUTION MAPPING  

Microsoft Academic Search

Real-time assessment of the ambient air quality has gained an increased interest in recent years. To give support to this evolution, the statistical air pollution interpolation model RIO is developed. Due to the very low computational cost this interpolation model is an efficient tool for an environment agency when performing real-time air quality assessments. Beside this, a reliable interpolation model

Stijn Janssen; Frans Fierens; Gerwin Dumont; Clemens Mensink