Sample records for general air pollution

  1. Air pollution.

    PubMed

    Le, Nhu D; Sun, Li; Zidek, James V

    2010-01-01

    Toxic air pollutants are continuously released into the air supply. Various pollutants come from chemical facilities and small businesses, such as automobile service stations and dry cleaning establishments. Others, such as nitrogen oxides, carbon monoxide and other volatile organic chemicals, arise primarily from the incomplete combustion of fossil fuels (coal and petroleum) and are emitted from sources that include car exhausts, home heating and industrial power plants. Pollutants in the atmosphere also result from photochemical transformations; for example, ozone is formed when molecular oxygen or nitrogen interacts with ultraviolet radiation. An association between air pollution exposure and lung cancer has been observed in several studies. The evidence for other cancers is far less conclusive. Estimates of the population attributable risk of cancer has varied substantially over the last 40 years, reflecting the limitations of studies; these include insufficient information on confounders, difficulties in characterizing associations due to a likely lengthy latency interval, and exposure misclassification. Although earlier estimates were less than one percent, recent cohort studies that have taken into account some confounding factors, such as smoking and education amongst others, suggest that approximately 3.6% of lung cancer in the European Union could be due to air pollution exposure, particularly to sulphate and fine particulates. A separate cohort study estimated 5-7% of lung cancers in European never smokers and ex-smokers could be due to air pollution exposure. Therefore, while cigarette smoking remains the predominant risk factor, the proportion of lung cancers attributable to air pollution may be higher than previously thought. Overall, major weaknesses in all air-pollution-and-cancer studies to date have been inadequate characterization of long-term air pollution exposure and imprecise or no measurements of covariates. It has only been in the last decade that measurements to PM2.5 become more widely available. A key weakness of many studies is using fixed-site monitoring data and assuming everyone in a region had the same exposure. This ignores spatial variability, and does not take into account how individuals' exposures differ with pollution sources inside, outside, both at work, home and elsewhere. More recent efforts to model indicators of vehicular traffic, and residential distances to major roads and highway can allow for some of this spatial variability to be better controlled for. However, this still does not take into account differences in activity patterns. If the effect is small, these biases will compromise the ability to detect an association. In most situations, the resulting estimates tend to be biased toward the null (i.e., no effect). For misclassification of exposure the inability to adequately control for confounding variables may cause bias in either direction. Recent improvements in statistical methodology use measurements at fixed sites combined with residential histories to estimate individuals' cumulative exposures. They also recognize measurement errors associated with covariates in the analysis to improve estimates of effects. Other challenges include the fact that measurements of exposure and confounders can change over time and long term data are needed due to the anticipated latency interval between harmful exposures and development of cancer. PMID:21199603

  2. Principal components and generalized linear modeling in the correlation between hospital admissions and air pollution

    PubMed Central

    de Souza, Juliana Bottoni; Reisen, Valdério Anselmo; Santos, Jane Méri; Franco, Glaura Conceição

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To analyze the association between concentrations of air pollutants and admissions for respiratory causes in children. METHODS Ecological time series study. Daily figures for hospital admissions of children aged < 6, and daily concentrations of air pollutants (PM10, SO2, NO2, O3 and CO) were analyzed in the Região da Grande Vitória, ES, Southeastern Brazil, from January 2005 to December 2010. For statistical analysis, two techniques were combined: Poisson regression with generalized additive models and principal model component analysis. Those analysis techniques complemented each other and provided more significant estimates in the estimation of relative risk. The models were adjusted for temporal trend, seasonality, day of the week, meteorological factors and autocorrelation. In the final adjustment of the model, it was necessary to include models of the Autoregressive Moving Average Models (p, q) type in the residuals in order to eliminate the autocorrelation structures present in the components. RESULTS For every 10:49 ?g/m3 increase (interquartile range) in levels of the pollutant PM10 there was a 3.0% increase in the relative risk estimated using the generalized additive model analysis of main components-seasonal autoregressive – while in the usual generalized additive model, the estimate was 2.0%. CONCLUSIONS Compared to the usual generalized additive model, in general, the proposed aspect of generalized additive model ? principal component analysis, showed better results in estimating relative risk and quality of fit. PMID:25119940

  3. Air pollution

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-06-01

    Gasoline vapors from motor vehicles contributed to smog and can aggravate respiratory problems of millions of Americans. In 1987 the Environmental Protection Agency proposed a regulation requiring that motor vehicles be equipped with onboard systems to control about 90 percent of refueling vapors. The Department of Transportation's National Highway Traffic Safety Administration, however, raised concerns about the safety of these systems, thereby locking approval of the regulation. EPA and the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration have not yet resolved their four-year impasses over whether onboard vapor recovery systems will increase the likelihood of vehicle crash fires and fuel spillage. As a result, no agreement has been reached on the data and analysis needed to address the safety risk of onboard systems. GAO recommends that EPA go forward with the onboard regulation by November 1991 as required by the Clean Air act Amendments of 1990 unless EPA determines that onboard systems pose an unreasonable risk to public safety. This paper reports that to identify and correct any safety defects or flaws well in advance of the 1996 model year so that an orderly phase-in occurs, GAO also recommends that EPA and the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration develop a joint approach to safety evaluations of manufacturer's onboard systems.

  4. IMMUNOTOXICITY OF AIR POLLUTANTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The most common ubiquitous air pollutants, as well as some point source (e.g. metals) air pollutants, decrease the function of pulmonary host defense mechanisms against infection. Most of this knowledge is based on animal studies and involves cellular antibacterial defenses such ...

  5. AIR POLLUTION CONTROL TECHNOLOGIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    This is a chapter for John Wiley & Son's Mechanical Engineers' Handbook, and covers issues involving air pollution control. Various technologies for controlling sulfur oxides is considered including fuel desulfurization. It also considers control of nitrogen oxides including post...

  6. Children's response to air pollutants.

    PubMed

    Bateson, Thomas F; Schwartz, Joel

    2008-01-01

    It is important to focus on children with respect to air pollution because (1) their lungs are not completely developed, (2) they can have greater exposures than adults, and (3) those exposures can deliver higher doses of different composition that may remain in the lung for greater duration. The undeveloped lung is more vulnerable to assault and less able to fully repair itself when injury disrupts morphogenesis. Children spend more time outside, where concentrations of combustion-generated air pollution are generally higher. Children have higher baseline ventilation rates and are more physically active than adults, thus exposing their lungs to more air pollution. Nasal breathing in adults reduces some pollution concentrations, but children are more typically mouth-breathers--suggesting that the composition of the exposure mixture at the alveolar level may be different. Finally, higher ventilation rates and mouth-breathing may pull air pollutants deeper into children's lungs, thereby making clearance slower and more difficult. Children also have immature immune systems, which plays a significant role in asthma. The observed consequences of early life exposure to adverse levels of air pollutants include diminished lung function and increased susceptibility to acute respiratory illness and asthma. Exposure to diesel exhaust, in particular, is an area of concern for multiple endpoints, and deserves further research. PMID:18097949

  7. Air pollution and asthma.

    PubMed Central

    Barnes, P. J.

    1994-01-01

    The role of air pollution in the increased prevalence and morbidity of asthma has been widely debated, but results to date indicate that the normally encountered levels of air pollution are unlikely to contribute to a worsening of asthma. When the levels of sulphur dioxide (SO2) are exceptionally high it is possible that asthmatic patients may have increased symptoms after exertion, since this irritant gas acts as a trigger to bronchoconstriction. There is also evidence that suspended particles may also act as an inciter of asthma symptoms when concentrations are high. Experimentally, ozone in high concentrations may increase airway responsiveness in both normal and asthmatic subjects by inducing airway inflammation, but asthmatic individuals show the same responses as normal subjects and there is little or no evidence to link increases in ambient ozone with an increase in asthma. There is little evidence that nitrogen dioxide (NO2), even at the peak levels recorded, has any significant effect on airway function in normal or asthmatic individuals. Other air pollutants which are present in lower concentrations have not been studied as extensively, but there is no convincing evidence that they cause significant respiratory symptoms in asthmatic patients. It is still possible that combinations of air pollutants may have greater effects on airway function than exposure to a single pollutant, although there is little evidence to support this. Epidemiological evidence provides little support for the idea that atmospheric pollution levels are related to the frequency of asthma symptoms or the frequency of attacks. More importantly, there is no evidence that asthma prevalence or aetiology is related to the level of air pollution. A review of currently available information therefore provides little evidence for the widely expressed view that atmospheric pollution is related to increased prevalence or morbidity of asthma or is related to the causation of asthma. PMID:8016001

  8. Immunotoxicity of air pollutants

    SciTech Connect

    Graham, J.A.; Gardner, D.E.

    1984-01-01

    The most common ubiquitous air pollutants, as well as some point source (e.g. metals) air pollutants, decrease the function of pulmonary host defense mechanisms against infection. Most of this knowledge is based on animal studies and involves cellular antibacterial defenses such as alveolar macrophages and mucociliary clearance. Information on viral infectivity is more sparse. Since there is no routine treatment for viral infections which have a relatively high rate of occurrence, this gap in knowledge is of concern. Given the major gaps in knowledge, resaonably accurate assessment of the immunotoxicity of air pollutants is not possible. When the limited data base is reviewed relative to ambient levels of the common pollutants, it appears that acute exposures to O3 and H2SO4 and chronic exposures to NO2 are the major exposures of concern for immunotoxic effects. It is critical to point out, however, that until information is available for chronic exposures to low levels of metals and for exposures to common organic vapors, the immunotoxicity of air pollutants cannot be assessed adequately.

  9. AIR POLLUTION AND HUMMINGBIRDS

    EPA Science Inventory

    A multidisciplinary team of EPA-RTP ORD pulmonary toxicologists, engineers, ecologists, and statisticians have designed a study of how ground-level ozone and other air pollutants may influence feeding activity of the ruby-throated hummingbird ( Archilochus colubris ). Be...

  10. Federal air pollution efforts

    SciTech Connect

    Stahman, R.C.; Mills, K.D.; Korth, M.W.

    1989-01-01

    Early scattered Federal Air Pollution studies were coordinated by Congress in 1955 through the Public Health Service of the Department of Health, Education, and Welfare. Motor vehicle pollution research was initiated shortly thereafter at the Robert A. Taft Sanitary Engineering Center in Cincinnati, and included investigations of photochemical smog, emission measurement techniques, and means of vehicle emission control. Automobile Emissions were first regulated nation-wide in 1968 models and the Federal activities were shifted to Willow Run and later Ann Arbor, Michigan. The paper deals with the Federal efforts leading to the period of early emissions regulations.

  11. Air pollution-induced health impacts on the national economy of China: demonstration of a computable general equilibrium approach.

    PubMed

    Wan, Yue; Yang, Hongwei; Masui, Toshihiko

    2005-01-01

    At the present time, ambient air pollution is a serious public health problem in China. Based on the concentration-response relationship provided by international and domestic epidemiologic studies, the authors estimated the mortality and morbidity induced by the ambient air pollution of 2000. To address the mechanism of the health impact on the national economy, the authors applied a computable general equilibrium (CGE) model, named AIM/Material China, containing 39 production sectors and 32 commodities. AIM/Material analyzes changes of the gross domestic product (GDP), final demand, and production activity originating from health damages. If ambient air quality met Grade II of China's air quality standard in 2000, then the avoidable GDP loss would be 0.38%o of the national total, of which 95% was led by labor loss. Comparatively, medical expenditure had less impact on national economy, which is explained from the aspect of the final demand by commodities and the production activities by sectors. The authors conclude that the CGE model is a suitable tool for assessing health impacts from a point of view of national economy through the discussion about its applicability. PMID:16121834

  12. Remote sensing of air pollutants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eckert, J. A.; Evans, R. B.

    1977-01-01

    Monitoring of pollutants within the troposphere is discussed. Selected specific techniques were investigated and it was shown how the use of these techniques fits into the overall national strategy for air pollution abatement.

  13. Outdoor air pollution and asthma

    PubMed Central

    Guarnieri, Michael; Balmes, John R.

    2015-01-01

    Traffic and power generation are the main sources of urban air pollution. The idea that outdoor air pollution can cause exacerbations of pre-existing asthma is supported by an evidence base that has been accumulating for several decades, with several studies suggesting a contribution to new-onset asthma as well. In this Series paper, we discuss the effects of particulate matter (PM), gaseous pollutants (ozone, nitrogen dioxide, and sulphur dioxide), and mixed traffic-related air pollution. We focus on clinical studies, both epidemiological and experimental, published in the previous 5 years. From a mechanistic perspective, air pollutants probably cause oxidative injury to the airways, leading to inflammation, remodelling, and increased risk of sensitisation. Although several pollutants have been linked to new-onset asthma, the strength of the evidence is variable. We also discuss clinical implications, policy issues, and research gaps relevant to air pollution and asthma. PMID:24792855

  14. System interactions of air pollutants

    SciTech Connect

    Pierson, W.E. (Northwest Asthma and Allergy Center, University of Washington School of Medicine, Seattle (United States))

    1992-06-01

    The impact of system interactions and simultaneous or sequential exposure to various air pollutants, both man-made and natural ones, requires greater concern in the interpretation of the total adverse impact of various air pollutants. It is clear that there are highly significant system interactions with exposure to various air pollutants, and these must be considered very carefully in the evaluation of their adverse health effects.

  15. PLANT RESPONSE TO AIR POLLUTION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Air pollutants have a negative impact on plant growth, primarily through interfering with resource accumulation. ince leaves are in close contact with the atmosphere, many air pollutants, such as O3 and NOx, affect the metabolic function of the leaves and interfere with net carbo...

  16. Allergic diseases and air pollution

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Suh-Young; Chang, Yoon-Seok

    2013-01-01

    The prevalence of allergic diseases has been increasing rapidly, especially in developing countries. Various adverse health outcomes such as allergic disease can be attributed to rapidly increasing air pollution levels. Rapid urbanization and increased energy consumption worldwide have exposed the human body to not only increased quantities of ambient air pollution, but also a greater variety of pollutants. Many studies clearly demonstrate that air pollutants potently trigger asthma exacerbation. Evidence that transportation-related pollutants contribute to the development of allergies is also emerging. Moreover, exposure to particulate matter, ozone, and nitrogen dioxide contributes to the increased susceptibility to respiratory infections. This article focuses on the current understanding of the detrimental effects of air pollutants on allergic disease including exacerbation to the development of asthma, allergic rhinitis, and eczema as well as epigenetic regulation. PMID:23956961

  17. Allergic diseases and air pollution.

    PubMed

    Lee, Suh-Young; Chang, Yoon-Seok; Cho, Sang-Heon

    2013-07-01

    The prevalence of allergic diseases has been increasing rapidly, especially in developing countries. Various adverse health outcomes such as allergic disease can be attributed to rapidly increasing air pollution levels. Rapid urbanization and increased energy consumption worldwide have exposed the human body to not only increased quantities of ambient air pollution, but also a greater variety of pollutants. Many studies clearly demonstrate that air pollutants potently trigger asthma exacerbation. Evidence that transportation-related pollutants contribute to the development of allergies is also emerging. Moreover, exposure to particulate matter, ozone, and nitrogen dioxide contributes to the increased susceptibility to respiratory infections. This article focuses on the current understanding of the detrimental effects of air pollutants on allergic disease including exacerbation to the development of asthma, allergic rhinitis, and eczema as well as epigenetic regulation. PMID:23956961

  18. Photochemical air pollutants and their effects on men and animals. I. General characteristics and community concentrations

    Microsoft Academic Search

    1967-01-01

    The physical and chemical characteristics of photochemical smog and the photochemical oxidants have been described. Aerometric data on the total oxidant concentrations found in the large urban communities affiliated with the Public Health Service, Continuous Air Monitoring Program (CAMP) network have been documented for 1964 and 1965. Similarly, the number of days on which the total oxidant concentrations equalled or

  19. Atmospheric Chemistry and Air Pollution

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Gaffney, Jeffrey S.; Marley, Nancy A.

    2003-01-01

    Atmospheric chemistry is an important discipline for understanding air pollution and its impacts. This mini-review gives a brief history of air pollution and presents an overview of some of the basic photochemistry involved in the production of ozone and other oxidants in the atmosphere. Urban air quality issues are reviewed with a specific focus on ozone and other oxidants, primary and secondary aerosols, alternative fuels, and the potential for chlorine releases to amplify oxidant chemistry in industrial areas. Regional air pollution issues such as acid rain, long-range transport of aerosols and visibility loss, and the connections of aerosols to ozonemore »and peroxyacetyl nitrate chemistry are examined. Finally, the potential impacts of air pollutants on the global-scale radiative balances of gases and aerosols are discussed briefly.« less

  20. Study of air pollutant detectors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gutshall, P. L.; Bowles, C. Q.

    1974-01-01

    The application of field ionization mass spectrometry (FIMS) to the detection of air pollutants was investigated. Current methods are reviewed for measuring contaminants of fixed gases, sulfur compounds, nitrogen oxides, hydrocarbons, and particulates. Two enriching devices: the dimethyl silicone rubber membrane separator, and the selective adsorber of polyethylene foam were studied along with FIMS. It is concluded that the membrane enricher system is not a suitable method for removing air pollutants. However, the FIMS shows promise as a useable system for air pollution detection.

  1. Air pollution and allergic disease

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Haejin Kim; Jonathan A. Bernstein

    2009-01-01

    Over the past several decades, there has been increased awareness of the health effects of air pollution and much debate regarding\\u000a the role of global warming. The prevalence of asthma and allergic disease has risen in industrialized countries, and most\\u000a epidemiologic studies focus on possible causalities between air pollution and these conditions. This review examines salient\\u000a articles and summarizes findings

  2. The status of indoor air pollution.

    PubMed Central

    Esmen, N A

    1985-01-01

    Indoor air pollution, specifically restricted in its meaning to chemicals in home indoor air environment, presents a new and probably an important challenge to the researchers of the air pollution field. The general overview of this topic suggests that the voluminous data generated in the past ten or so years have only defined the rudiments of the problem, and significant areas of research still exist. Among the important areas where information is lacking, the exposures to contaminants generated by the use of consumer products and through hobbies and crafts represent perhaps the most urgent need for substantial research. PMID:4085429

  3. AIR POLLUTION AND RESPIRATORY DISEASE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Concern about polluted air in our urban and industrial areas began gathering momentum shortly after World War II. At that time it seemed obvious that clean air, like clean water, clean food, and a clean body, was a worth while goal in itself, requiring no further justification. B...

  4. Title III hazardous air pollutants

    SciTech Connect

    Todd, R.

    1995-12-31

    The author presents an overview of the key provisions of Title III of the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990. The key provisions include the following: 112(b) -- 189 Hazardous Air Pollutants (HAP); 112(a) -- Major Source: 10 TPY/25 TPY; 112(d) -- Application of MACT; 112(g) -- Modifications; 112(I) -- State Program; 112(j) -- The Hammer; and 112(r) -- Accidental Release Provisions.

  5. Hybrid regional air pollution models

    SciTech Connect

    Drake, R.L.

    1980-03-01

    This discussion deals with a family of air quality models for predicting and analyzing the fine particulate loading in the atmosphere, for assessing the extent and degree of visibility impairment, and for determining the potential of pollutants for increasing the acidity of soils and water. The major horizontal scales of interest are from 400km to 2000km; and the time scales may vary from several hours, to days, weeks, and a few months or years, depending on the EPA regulations being addressed. First the role air quality models play in the general family of atmospheric simulation models is described. Then, the characteristics of a well-designed, comprehensive air quality model are discussed. Following this, the specific objectives of this workshop are outlined, and their modeling implications are summarized. There are significant modeling differences produced by the choice of the coordinate system, whether it be the fixed Eulerian system, the moving Lagrangian system, or some hybrid of the two. These three systems are briefly discussed, and a list of hybrid models that are currently in use are given. Finally, the PNL regional transport model is outlined and a number of research needs are listed.

  6. Air Pollution Emission Factors for Medical Waste Incinerators

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Barry L. Walker; C. David Cooper

    1992-01-01

    This paper presents the results of an extensive literature survey and data analysis conducted to determine uncontrolled and controlled pollutant emission factors (mass pollutant emitted per mass waste incinerated) for medical waste incinerators (MWI). Pollutant emission factors were calculated separately by type of medical waste (red bag, general hospital, and pathological waste), and add-on air pollution control (APC) equipment (wet

  7. Measurement of toxic and related air pollutants

    SciTech Connect

    Jayanty, R.K.M.; Gay, B.W. Jr.

    1990-12-01

    A joint conference for the fifth straight year cosponsored by the Air and Waste Management Association's EM-3, EM-4, and ITF-2 technical committees, and the Atmospheric Research and Exposure Assessment Laboratory (AREAL) of the US Environmental Protection Agency, was held in Raleigh, North Carolina, May 1-4, 1990. The technical program consisted of 187 presentations, held in 20 technical sessions, on recent advances in the measurement and monitoring of toxic and related pollutants found in ambient and source atmospheres. Covering a wide range of measurement topics and supported by 66 exhibitors of instrumentation and consulting services, the symposium was attended by more than 850 professionals from the US and other countries. This overview highlights a selection of the technical presentations. A synopsis of the keynote address to the symposium is also included. Presentations include: (1) radon, (2) atmospheric chemistry and fate of toxic pollutants, (3) supercritical fluid extraction, (4) acidic deposition, (5) determination of polar and volatile organic pollutants in ambient air, (6) Delaware Superfund innovative technology evaluation (SITE) study, (7) mobile sources emissions characterization, (8) Superfund site air monitoring, (9) exposure assessment, (10) chemometrics and environmental data analysis, (11) nicotine in environmental tobacco smoke, (12) source monitoring, (13) effects of air toxics on plants, (14) measurement of volatile organic pollutants, (15) general, (16) air pollution dispersion modeling, (17) measurement of hazardous waste emissions, (18) measurement of indoor toxic air contaminants, and (19) environmental quality assurance.

  8. Changing the Paradigm of Air Pollution Monitoring

    EPA Science Inventory

    Historically, approaches for monitoring air pollution generally use expensive, complex, stationary equipment,1,2 which limits who collects data, why data are collected, and how data are accessed. This paradigm is changing with the materialization of lower-cost, easy-to...

  9. Leaves and Air Pollution

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Matt Laposata

    In this activity, students investigate the effects of automobile pollution on plant growth by making measurements on two populations of leaves, one from within 10 meters of a busy road and a population of the same species situated more than 20 meters away. They will choose a method for measuring the leaves, create a table for their data, and test their hypotheses by performing a t-test.

  10. Healthy Neighborhoods: Walkability and Air Pollution

    PubMed Central

    Marshall, Julian D.; Brauer, Michael; Frank, Lawrence D.

    2009-01-01

    Background The built environment may influence health in part through the promotion of physical activity and exposure to pollution. To date, no studies have explored interactions between neighborhood walkability and air pollution exposure. Methods We estimated concentrations of nitric oxide (NO), a marker for direct vehicle emissions), and ozone (O3) and a neighborhood walkability score, for 49,702 (89% of total) postal codes in Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada. NO concentrations were estimated from a land-use regression model, O3 was estimated from ambient monitoring data; walkability was calculated based on geographic attributes such as land-use mix, street connectivity, and residential density. Results All three attributes exhibit an urban–rural gradient, with high walkability and NO concentrations, and low O3 concentrations, near the city center. Lower-income areas tend to have higher NO concentrations and walkability and lower O3 concentrations. Higher-income areas tend to have lower pollution (NO and O3). “Sweet-spot” neighborhoods (low pollution, high walkability) are generally located near but not at the city center and are almost exclusively higher income. Policy implications Increased concentration of activities in urban settings yields both health costs and benefits. Our research identifies neighborhoods that do especially well (and especially poorly) for walkability and air pollution exposure. Work is needed to ensure that the poor do not bear an undue burden of urban air pollution and that neighborhoods designed for walking, bicycling, or mass transit do not adversely affect resident’s exposure to air pollution. Analyses presented here could be replicated in other cities and tracked over time to better understand interactions among neighborhood walkability, air pollution exposure, and income level. PMID:20049128

  11. Evaluating sources of indoor air pollution

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. A. Tichenor; L. E. Sparks; J. B. White; M. D. Jackson

    1988-01-01

    Scientists and engineers in the Indoor Air Brand of EPS'a Air and Energy Engineering Research Laboratory are conducting research to increase the state of knowledge concerning indoor air pollution factors. A three phase program is being implemented. The purpose of this paper is to show how their approach can be used to evaluate specific sources of indoor air pollution. Pollutants

  12. Air pollution holiday effect in metropolitan Kaohsiung

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tan, P.; Chen, P. Y.

    2014-12-01

    Different from Taipei, the metropolitan Kaohsiung which is a coastal and industrial city has the major pollution sources from stationary sources such as coal-fired power plants, petrochemical facilities and steel plants, rather than mobile sources. This study was an attempt to conduct a comprehensive and systematical examination of the holiday effect, defined as the difference in air pollutant concentrations between holiday and non-holiday periods, over the Kaohsiung metropolitan area. We documented evidence of a "holiday effect", where concentrations of NOx, CO, NMHC, SO2 and PM10 were significantly different between holidays and non-holidays, in the Kaohsiung metropolitan area from daily surface measurements of seven air quality monitoring stations of the Taiwan Environmental Protection Administration during the Chinese New Year (CNY) and non-Chinese New Year (NCNY) periods of 1994-2010. Concentrations of the five pollutants were lower in the CNY than in the NCNY period, however, that of O3 was higher in the CNY than in the NCNY period and had no holiday effect. The exclusion of the bad air quality day (PSI > 100) and the Lantern Festival Day showed no significant effects on the holiday effects of air pollutants. Ship transportation data of Kaohsiung Harbor Bureau showed a statistically significant difference in the CNY and NCNY period. This difference was consistent with those found in air pollutant concentrations of some industrial and general stations in coastal areas, implying the possible impact of traffic activity on the air quality of coastal areas. Holiday effects of air pollutants over the Taipei metropolitan area by Tan et al. (2009) are also compared.

  13. Air Pollution Control, Part II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strauss, Werner, Ed.

    This book contains five major articles in areas of current importance in air pollution control. They are written by authors who are actively participating in the areas on which they report. It is the aim of each article to completely cover theory, experimentation, and practice in the field discussed. The contents are as follows: Emissions,…

  14. AIR POLLUTION EFFECTS ON BIODIVERSITY

    EPA Science Inventory

    To address the issues of air pollution impacts on biodiversity, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Environmental Research Laboratory in Corvallis, OR, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service National Fisheries Research Center in Leetown, and the Electric Power Research Institut...

  15. Children's Response to Air Pollutants

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Thomas F. Bateson; Joel Schwartz

    2007-01-01

    It is important to focus on children with respect to air pollution because (1) their lungs are not completely developed, (2) they can have greater exposures than adults, and (3) those exposures can deliver higher doses of different composition that may remain in the lung for greater duration. The undeveloped lung is more vulnerable to assault and less able to

  16. Air pollutants and forest decline

    SciTech Connect

    Tomlinson, G.H. II

    1983-06-01

    Evidence is presented which shows that widespread dieback and decline of forests in both Europe and North America is caused by short and long-range transport of air pollutants, primarily SO/sub 2/ and NO/sub x/. A summary of a comprehensive report from West Germany indicating damage to 7.7% of the total forest area is included. (JMT)

  17. Air pollution and lung cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Boehm, G.M.

    1982-01-01

    Epidemiological evidence proves conclusively that lung cancer correlates with air pollution. However, data on lung cancer death rates and smoking show that mankind accepts the risk of long-term and low-level exposure to carcinogens. As a rule, immediate benefits are sought and remote hazards ignored. Fear of atmospheric contamination by radioactive fallout seems to be the main factor for awareness of air pollution. Experimental works help us to understand physics of particle deposition in the lungs (inertial impactation, sedimentation, Brownian movement), shed light on carcinogenesis (eg, bay region theory in case of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and surface charge changes regarding asbestos), show that atmospheric particulates accepted as harmless may act as co-carcinogens (eg, iron and benzo(a)pyrene) and stress the importance of in vitro research (bacterial mutation tests, organ cultures, sister chromatid exchange system) to screen pollutants for their malignant potential and study their pathogenesis.

  18. AIR POLLUTION CONTROL TECHNOLOGIES (CHAPTER 65)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The chapter discusses the use of technologies for reducing air pollution emissions from stationary sources, with emphasis on the control of combustion gen-erated air pollution. Major stationary sources include utility power boilers, industrial boilers and heaters, metal smelting ...

  19. Adverse health effects of outdoor air pollutants

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Luke Curtis; William Rea; Patricia Smith-Willis; Ervin Fenyves; Yaqin Pan

    2006-01-01

    Much research on the health effects of outdoor air pollution has been published in the last decade. The goal of this review is to concisely summarize a wide range of the recent research on health effects of many types of outdoor air pollution. A review of the health effects of major outdoor air pollutants including particulates, carbon monoxide, sulfur and

  20. Associations between criteria air pollutants and asthma

    SciTech Connect

    Koren, H.S. [Environmental Protection Agency, Chapel Hill, NC (United States)

    1995-09-01

    The evidence that asthma is increasing in prevalence is becoming increasingly compelling. This trend has been demonstrated in the United States, the United Kingdom, New Zealand, Australia, and several other Western countries. In the US, the increase is largest in the group under 18 years of age. There is mounting evidence that certain environmental air pollutants are involved in exacerbating asthma. This is based primarily on epidemiologic studies and more recent clinical studies. The U.S. Clean Air Act of 1970 provides special consideration to the class of outdoor air pollutants referred to as criteria pollutants, including O{sub 3}, sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}), particulate matter (PM), NO{sub x}, CO, and Pb. Standards for these pollutants are set by the US EPA with particular concern for populations at risk. Current evidence suggests that asthmatics are more sensitive to the effects of O{sub 3}, SO{sub 2} PM, and NO{sub 2}, and are therefore at risk. High SO{sub 2} and particulate concentrations have been associated with short-term increases in morbidity and mortality in the general population during dramatic air pollution episodes in the past. Controlled exposure studies have clearly shown that asthmatics are sensitive to low levels of SO{sub 2}. Exercising asthmatics exposed to SO{sub 2} develop bronchoconstriction within minutes, even at levels of 0.25 ppm. Responses are modified by air temperature, humidity, and exercise level. Recent epidemiologic studies have suggested that exposure to Pm is strongly associated with morbidity and mortality in the general population and that hospital admissions for bronchitis and asthma were associated with PM{sub 10} levels. In controlled clinical studies, asthmatics appear to be no more reactive to aerosols than healthy subjects. Consequently, it is difficult to attribute the increased mortality observed in epidemiologic studies to specific effects demonstrated in controlled human studies. 106 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.

  1. Response mechanisms of conifers to air pollutants

    SciTech Connect

    Matyssek, R.; Reich, P.; Oren, R.; Winner, W.E.

    1995-07-01

    Conifers are known to respond to SO{sub 2}, O{sub 3}, NO{sub x} and acid deposition. Of these pollutants, O{sub 3} is likely the most widespread and phytotoxic compound, and therefore of great interest to individuals concerned with forest resources Direct biological responses have a toxicological effects on metabolism which can then scale to effects on tree growth and forest ecology, including processes of competition and succession. Air pollution can cause reductions in photosynthesis and stomatal conductance, which are the physiological parameters most rigorously studied for conifers. Some effects air pollutants can have on plants are influenced by the presence of co-occurring environmental stresses. For example, drought usually reduces vulnerability of plants to air pollution. In addition, air pollution sensitivity may differ among species and with plant/leaf age. Plants may make short-term physiological adjustments to compensate for air pollution or may evolve resistance to air pollution through the processes of selection. Models are necessary to understand how physiological processes, growth processes, and ecological processes are affected by air pollutants. The process of defining the ecological risk that air pollutants pose for coniferous forests requires approaches that exploit existing databases, environmental monitoring of air pollutants and forest resources, experiments with well-defined air pollution treatments and environmental control/monitoring, modeling, predicting air pollution-caused changes in productivity and ecological processes over time and space, and integration of social values.

  2. Air Pollution and Cardiovascular Injury Epidemiology, Toxicology, and Mechanisms

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Boris Z. Simkhovich; Michael T. Kleinman; Robert A. Kloner

    Recent epidemiologic studies show that increased levels of air pollutants are positively associated with cardio- vascular morbidity and mortality. Inhalation of air pollutants affects heart rate, heart rate variability, blood pres- sure, vascular tone, blood coagulability, and the progression of atherosclerosis. Several categories within the general population (i.e., people with pre-existing cardiovascular disease and diabetic and elderly individuals) are considered

  3. Exercise and outdoor ambient air pollution

    PubMed Central

    Carlisle, A; Sharp, N

    2001-01-01

    Objectives—To establish by literature survey: (a) levels at which air pollutants are considered damaging to human health and to exercisers in particular; (b) the current ambient levels experienced in the United Kingdom; (c) whether athletes are especially at risk. Methods—Six major urban air pollutants were examined: carbon monoxide (CO); nitrogen oxides (NOX); ozone (O3); particulate matter (PM10); sulphur dioxide (SO2); volatile organic compounds (VOCs). Results—CO is detrimental to athletic performance. NO2 is of concern to human health, but outdoor levels are low. O3 poses a potentially serious risk to exercising athletes. Decrements in lung function result from exposure, and there is evidence that athletic performance may be affected. Detrimental effects may occur at low ambient levels, but there is no scientific consensus on this matter. PM10 is causing concern in the scientific community. Blood lead accumulation during exercise indicates that personal exposure to toxic compounds associated with PM10 may be magnified. Generally, outdoor ambient levels of SO2 are too low to cause a problem to the athlete, except the asthmatic athlete. The few studies on exposure of exercisers to VOCs are reviewed. Conclusions—Athletes and exercisers should avoid exercising by the road side even though levels of the more noxious air pollutants have been controlled in the United Kingdom. O3 is particularly damaging to athletes; it reaches its highest concentrations on hot bright days in rural areas. Key Words: exercise; air pollution PMID:11477012

  4. Evaluating Sources of Indoor Air Pollution

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bruce A. Tichenor; Leslie A. Sparks; James B. White; Merrill D. Jackson

    1990-01-01

    Evaluation of Indoor air pollution problems requires an understanding of the relationship between sources, air movement, and outdoor air exchange. Research is underway to investigate these relationships. A three-phase program is being implemented: 1) Environmental chambers are used to provide source emission factors for specific indoor pollutants; 2) An IAQ (Indoor Air Quality) model has been developed to calculate indoor

  5. ORGANICS PROGRAM (AIR POLLUTION TECHNOLOGY BRANCH, AIR POLLUTION PREVENTION AND CONTROL DIVISION, NRMRL)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The organics research program of NRMRL's Air Pollution Prevention and Control Division's Air Pollution Technology Branch focuses on combustion derived products of incomplete combustion (PICs) with current emphasis on halogenated air toxics such as chlorinated dioxins/furans (PCDD...

  6. NOX CONTROL BY COMBUSTION MODIFICATION (AIR POLLUTION TECHNOLOGY BRANCH, AIR POLLUTION PREVENTION AND CONTROL DIVISION, NRMRL)

    EPA Science Inventory

    NRMRL's Air Pollution Prevention and Control Division's Air Pollution Technology Branch has performed research and developed technologies for NOx reduction via combustion modification. Techniques such as low-excess air firing, staged combustion, flue gas recirculation, low NOx bu...

  7. Epidemiology of air pollution and diabetes.

    PubMed

    Thiering, Elisabeth; Heinrich, Joachim

    2015-07-01

    Air pollution affects a large proportion of the global population. Air pollutants are hypothesized to exert their effects via impaired endothelial function, elevated systemic inflammation, mitochondrial dysfunction, and oxidative stress, all of which are hallmarks of type 2 diabetes (T2D). Here we review epidemiological studies aimed at answering whether diabetes patients are more vulnerable to ambient (outdoor) air pollution exposure and whether air pollution is associated with diabetes development or other predisposing conditions for T2D. Current evidence suggests an association between air pollution exposure and T2D, but more critical analysis is warranted. Understanding the associations between air pollution exposure and the development of T2D is critical in our efforts to control sources of air pollution and their impact on the disease. PMID:26068457

  8. EPA's indoor air\\/pollution prevention workshop

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. W. Leovic; J. B. White; C. Sarsony

    1993-01-01

    The paper discusses a workshop held as a step toward EPA's prioritizing potential areas of research for applying pollution prevention to indoor air quality (IAQ). The workshop involved technical experts in the fields of IAQ, pollution prevention, and selected industries. Workshop goals were to identify major IAQ issues and their pollution prevention opportunities, and to suggest research strategies for IAQ\\/pollution

  9. Indoor Air Pollution (Environmental Health Student Portal)

    MedlinePLUS

    ... the Johnson Family (TOXRAP.org) - Interactive website with lessons and activities about air pollution. For Teachers Helping ... 02 MB)(Baylor College of Medicine) - PDF unit lesson to model the flow of pollutants through outdoor ...

  10. The Particulate Air Pollution Controversy

    PubMed Central

    Phalen, Robert F.

    2004-01-01

    Scientists, regulators, legislators, and segments of industry and the lay public are attempting to understand and respond to epidemiology findings of associations between measures of modern particulate air pollutants (PM) and adverse health outcomes in urban dwellers. The associations have been interpreted to imply that tens of thousands of Americans are killed annually by small daily increments in PM. These epidemiology studies and their interpretations have been challenged, although it is accepted that high concentrations of air pollutants have claimed many lives in the past. Although reproducible and statistically significant, the relative risks associated with modern PM are very small and confounded by many factors. Neither toxicology studies nor human clinical investigations have identified the components and/or characteristics of PM that might be causing the health-effect associations. Currently, a massive worldwide research effort is under way in an attempt to identify whom might be harmed and by what substances and mechanisms. Finding the answers is important, because control measures have the potential not only to be costly but also to limit the availability of goods and services that are important to public health. PMID:19330148

  11. SPECIAL PROJECTS (AIR POLLUTION TECHNOLOGY BRANCH, AIR POLLUTION PREVENTION AND CONTROL DIVISION, NRMRL)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Special projects undertaken by the Air Pollution Technology Branch of NRMRL's Air Pollution Prevention and Control Division in Research Triangle Park, NC, include the Orimulsion Research Study, Real-Time Monitoring of Dioxins and Other Trace Organics, and Environmental Technology...

  12. HAZARDOUS WASTE INCINERATION (AIR POLLUTION TECHNOLOGY BRANCH,AIR POLLUTION PREVENTION AND CONTROL DIVISION, NRMRL)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Researchers in the Air Pollution Technology Branch (APTB) of NRMRL's Air Pollution Prevention and Control Division in Research Triangle Park, NC, have extensive experience in examining fundamental phenomena associated with hazardous waste incineration. This research program was c...

  13. Hazardous air pollutants and asthma.

    PubMed Central

    Leikauf, George D

    2002-01-01

    Asthma has a high prevalence in the United States, and persons with asthma may be at added risk from the adverse effects of hazardous air pollutants (HAPs). Complex mixtures (fine particulate matter and tobacco smoke) have been associated with respiratory symptoms and hospital admissions for asthma. The toxic ingredients of these mixtures are HAPs, but whether ambient HAP exposures can induce asthma remains unclear. Certain HAPs are occupational asthmagens, whereas others may act as adjuncts during sensitization. HAPs may exacerbate asthma because, once sensitized, individuals can respond to remarkably low concentrations, and irritants lower the bronchoconstrictive threshold to respiratory antigens. Adverse responses after ambient exposures to complex mixtures often occur at concentrations below those producing effects in controlled human exposures to a single compound. In addition, certain HAPs that have been associated with asthma in occupational settings may interact with criteria pollutants in ambient air to exacerbate asthma. Based on these observations and past experience with 188 HAPs, a list of 19 compounds that could have the highest impact on the induction or exacerbation of asthma was developed. Nine additional compounds were identified that might exacerbate asthma based on their irritancy, respirability, or ability to react with biological macromolecules. Although the ambient levels of these 28 compounds are largely unknown, estimated exposures from emissions inventories and limited air monitoring suggest that aldehydes (especially acrolein and formaldehyde) and metals (especially nickel and chromium compounds) may have possible health risk indices sufficient for additional attention. Recommendations for research are presented regarding exposure monitoring and evaluation of biologic mechanisms controlling how these substances induce and exacerbate asthma. PMID:12194881

  14. Exercise Beneficial Even in Polluted Air

    MedlinePLUS

    ... nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/news/fullstory_151795.html Exercise Beneficial Even in Polluted Air: Study Negative effects ... 1, 2015 (HealthDay News) -- The health benefits of exercise appear to outweigh the potential harm of air ...

  15. INTEGRATED AIR POLLUTION CONTROL SYSTEM (IAPCS) COST MODEL (AIR POLLUTION TECHNOLOGY BRANCH, AIR POLLUTION PREVENTION AND CONTROL DIVISION, NRMRL)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Air Pollution Technology Branch's (APPCD, NRMRL) Integrated Air Pollution Control System Cost Model is a compiled model written in FORTRAN and C language that is designed to be used on an IBM or compatible PC with 640K or lower RAM and at least 1.5 Mb of hard drive space. It ...

  16. Ionizing wet scrubber for air pollution control

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sheppard

    1986-01-01

    Air pollution control equipment manufacturers are continually developing sophisticated systems designed to dramatically reduce plant emissions. One such system, the ionizing wet scrubber (IWS), has demonstrated outstanding air pollution control characteristics while meeting the challenge of energy efficiency. The IWS system removes fine solid and liquid particulate down to 0.05 micron at high collection efficiencies and low energy comsumption. It

  17. 6, 57975838, 2006 African air pollution

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    ACPD 6, 5797­5838, 2006 African air pollution influence on tropospheric chemistry A. M. Aghedo et.aghedo@zmaw.de) 5797 #12;ACPD 6, 5797­5838, 2006 African air pollution influence on tropospheric chemistry A. M. Aghedo, the United States, Russia, Mongolia, China and Europe experience the least impact of African emissions.25

  18. Air pollution and respiratory viral infection

    EPA Science Inventory

    Despite current regulations, which limit the levels of certain air pollutants, there are still a number of adverse health effects that result from exposure to these agents. Numerous epidemiological studies have noted an association between the levels of air pollution and hospital...

  19. Measurement of Air Pollutants in the Troposphere

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clemitshaw, Kevin C.

    2011-01-01

    This article describes the principles, applications and performances of methods to measure gas-phase air pollutants that either utilise passive or active sampling with subsequent laboratory analysis or involve automated "in situ" sampling and analysis. It focuses on air pollutants that have adverse impacts on human health (nitrogen dioxide, carbon…

  20. Studies of air pollution effects on vegetation

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1978-01-01

    The report consists of three parts which summarize pollutant-vegetation effects research studies. These include: oxidant effects of primary productivity in ponderosa pine in the San Bernardino National Forest; air pollution effects on vegetation related to geothermal power development; and regional assessment of air pollution impact on vegetation by mathematical modeling. A list of publications that report results of the studies is included in an appendix.

  1. Outdoor air pollution and children's health.

    PubMed

    Suwanwaiphatthana, Wiparat; Ruangdej, Kannika; Turner-Henson, Anne

    2010-01-01

    Children spend almost 90% of their time indoors, though outside air can be a significant source of potential and actual exposure to outdoor air pollutants. Children are vulnerable to pollutants and toxins because of their size and developing organ systems. Young children have increased respiratory rates and inhale more toxins, and young children often ignore respiratory symptoms and continue play. Outdoor play and recreational activities expose children to outdoor air pollution from sources such as automobiles, power plants, industry, and other combustion sources, which can impact children. Outdoor air pollution has been linked to respiratory illness exacerbations, infant mortality, the development of asthma, and atopy and reduction in lung development in children. This article will examine outdoor air pollution and its impact on children's health, as well as implications for pediatric nursing clinical practice. PMID:20361442

  2. China's international trade and air pollution in the United States

    E-print Network

    2014-01-01

    trade and air pollution in the United States Jintai Linair pollution due to Chinese export of goods to the United Statesair pollution to daily mean surface air pollutant concentrations over the United States

  3. Air Pollution and Environmental Justice Awareness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bouvier-Brown, N. C.

    2014-12-01

    Air pollution is not equally dispersed in all neighborhoods and this raises many social concerns, such as environmental justice. "Real world" data, whether extracted from online databases or collected in the field, can be used to demonstrate air quality patterns. When students explore these trends, they not only learn about atmospheric chemistry, but they also become socially aware of any inequities. This presentation outlines specific ways to link air pollution and environmental justice suitable for an undergraduate upper division Air Pollution or Atmospheric Chemistry course.

  4. A new air quality perception scale for global assessment of air pollution health effects.

    PubMed

    Deguen, Séverine; Ségala, Claire; Pédrono, Gaëlle; Mesbah, Mounir

    2012-12-01

    Despite improvements in air quality in developed countries, air pollution remains a major public health issue. To fully assess the health impact, we must consider that air pollution exposure has both physical and psychological effects; this latter dimension, less documented, is more difficult to measure and subjective indicators constitute an appropriate alternative. In this context, this work presents the methodological development of a new scale to measure the perception of air quality, useful as an exposure or risk appraisal metric in public health contexts. On the basis of the responses from 2,522 subjects in eight French cities, psychometric methods are used to construct the scale from 22 items that assess risk perception (anxiety about health and quality of life) and the extent to which air pollution is a nuisance (sensorial perception and symptoms). The scale is robust, reproducible, and discriminates between subpopulations more susceptible to poor air pollution perception. The individual risk factors of poor air pollution perception are coherent with those findings in the risk perception literature. Perception of air pollution by the general public is a key issue in the development of comprehensive risk assessment studies as well as in air pollution risk management and policy. This study offers a useful new tool to measure such efforts and to help set priorities for air quality improvements in combination with air quality measurements. PMID:22852801

  5. Evaluation and Application of Alternative Air Pollution Exposure Metrics in Air Pollution Epidemiology Studies

    EPA Science Inventory

    ABSTRACT: Periodic review, revision and subsequent implementation of the National Ambient Air Quality Standards for criteria air pollutants rely upon various types of scientific air quality, exposure, toxicological dose-response and epidemiological information. Exposure assessmen...

  6. Clean Air For Less: Exploiting Tradeoffs Between Different Air Pollutants

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dallas Burtraw; Randall Lutter

    2003-01-01

    The Administration's Clear Skies initiative and all competing legislative proposals take a pollutant-by-pollutant approach to address air pollution problems caused by emissions of both nitrogen oxides (NOx) and sulfur dioxide (SO2). Randall Lutter and Dallas Burtraw argue that as a result they miss an important opportunity to cut compliance costs without reducing expected environmental protection. For a scenario where firms

  7. Impact of Air Pollution on Allergic Diseases

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    The incidence of allergic diseases in most industrialized countries has increased. Although the exact mechanisms behind this rapid increase in prevalence remain uncertain, a variety of air pollutants have been attracting attention as one causative factor. Epidemiological and toxicological research suggests a causative relationship between air pollution and the increased incidence of asthma, allergic rhinitis, and other allergic disorders. These include ozone, nitrogen dioxide and, especially particulate matter, produced by traffic-related and industrial activities. Strong epidemiological evidence supports a relationship between air pollution and the exacerbation of asthma and other respiratory diseases. Recent studies have suggested that air pollutants play a role in the development of asthma and allergies. Researchers have elucidated the mechanisms whereby these pollutants induce adverse effects; they appear to affect the balance between antioxidant pathways and airway inflammation. Gene polymorphisms involved in antioxidant pathways can modify responses to air pollution exposure. While the characterization and monitoring of pollutant components currently dictates pollution control policies, it will be necessary to identify susceptible subpopulations to target therapy/prevention of pollution-induced respiratory diseases. PMID:22016586

  8. Air pollution and respiratory viral infection.

    PubMed

    Ciencewicki, Jonathan; Jaspers, Ilona

    2007-11-01

    Despite current regulations, which limit the levels of certain air pollutants, there are still a number of adverse health effects that result from exposure to these agents. Numerous epidemiological studies have noted an association between the levels of air pollution and hospital admissions for a variety of different health reasons, including a number of respiratory diseases, as well as increased morbidity and mortality associated with various respiratory conditions and diseases. Because of the large impact respiratory virus infections have on morbidity and even mortality, it is important to understand whether and how exposure to common air pollutants could exacerbate the susceptibility to and severity of respiratory virus infections. This review focuses on current epidemiological and experimental studies, which have examined the association between and effect of air pollutants and respiratory viral infections, as well as potential mechanisms associated with these effects. Examined in this review are U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) "criteria" pollutants nitrogen dioxide (NO(2)), ozone (O(3)), and particulate matter (PM), as well as indoor pollutants such as environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) and combustion products of biomass fuels. Although a number of studies indicate associations between exposure to air pollutants and increased risk for respiratory virus infections, potential mechanisms mediating these effects are largely unexplored. Therefore, additional studies, both epidemiologic and mechanistic, are necessary to increase our understanding of how exposure to air pollutants could affect respiratory virus infections, especially in populations already at risk of developing significant morbidity/mortality after infections with respiratory viruses. PMID:17987465

  9. Mode of action of air pollutants in injuring horticultural plants

    SciTech Connect

    Tibbitts, T.W.; Kobriger, J.M.

    1983-10-01

    An attempt has been made to condense the great volume of literature for many different air pollutants and from many different plant systems. Only those responses that have been reported for several species are emphasized and the discussion is limited to responses obtained with intact plants. The general outline provides a focus; uptake becomes the crucial aspect of whether or not plants are injured by air pollutants. Pollutants must get into the plant to cause injury and the primary portal of entry is through the open stomata. Once into the plant, pollutants alter biochemical reactions, resulting in cell injury and causing economic losses for horticulturists. The authors have developed this outline for the pollutants sulfur dioxide (SO/sub 2/), hydrogen fluoride (HF), ozone (O/sub 3/), nitrogen dioxide (NO/sub 2/), and peroxyacetyl nitrate (PAN), which are the most common and and most damaging gaseous pollutants in the ambient environment.

  10. In Search of Air Pollution

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Kirk Beckendorf

    2006-02-01

    Using EPA and NOAA websites, students are able to view pollution inventories (the amounts and kinds of pollution released in a given location) and follow pollution along its estimated path of travel. This inquiry based lesson guides students in the use of the websites and what data to collect while cultivating critical thinking skills.

  11. Thanksgiving 1966 air pollution episode in the eastern United States. [Meteorology correlated with pollutant concentrations

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. C. Fensterstock; R. K. Fankhauser

    1968-01-01

    This publication documents the Thanksgiving 1966 Air Pollution Episode in the Eastern U.S. in terms of daily meteorology and ambient air quality for the weeks just before, during, and after the episode. The episode's meteorology is discussed in a technical description of the development, progress, and breakup of the stagnating high that caused the episode. A more general discussion of

  12. Kerbside DOAS measurements of air pollutants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schäfer, Klaus; Ling, Hong; Legelli, Stefan; Münkel, Christoph; Emeis, Stefan

    2014-10-01

    Emission sources as well as wind speed and direction and MLH are important factors which influence high air pollutant concentrations. This is generally known (Schäfer et al., 2006) but the detailed understanding of processes directing certain air pollutant concentrations like HCHO is not complete. To study these processes a long-term campaign in Augsburg, Germany, was performed since March 2012. The concentrations of NO, NO2, O3 and HCHO, which were measured with a DOAS from OPSIS across a main traffic road and a nearby park area, are analysed. A ceilometer CL31 from Vaisala which is an eye-safe commercial mini-lidar system is applied to detect layering of the lower atmosphere continuously. Special software for this ceilometer with MATLAB provides routine retrievals of lower atmosphere layering from vertical profiles of laser backscatter data. Meteorological data were measured by a ground-based weather station at the measurement site as well as taken from monitoring data archives of the German National Meteorological Service (DWD), which are measured by radiosondes (Oberschleißheim). Correlation analyses are applied to show the coupling of temporal variations of NO, NO2, O3 and HCHO concentrations with temperature, mixing layer height and wind speed. HCHO which is emitted from both anthropogenic and biogenic sources is studied especially.

  13. GENERATION OF FUMES SIMULATING PARTICULATE AIR POLLUTANTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report describes techniques developed for generating large quantities of reproducible, stable, inorganic, fine-particle aerosol fumes. These fumes simulated particulate air pollutants emitted from power generation, basic oxygen furnaces, electric arc furnaces, and zinc smelti...

  14. ALTITUDE AS A FACTOR IN AIR POLLUTION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Air pollution is affected by change in altitude. Cities with surface elevations above 1500 meters have atmospheric pressures which are approximately fifteen percent (15%) below pressures at sea level. Consequently, mobile sources designed to operate at pressures of one atmosphere...

  15. Human health effects of air pollution.

    PubMed Central

    Folinsbee, L J

    1993-01-01

    Over the past three or four decades, there have been important advances in the understanding of the actions, exposure-response characteristics, and mechanisms of action of many common air pollutants. A multidisciplinary approach using epidemiology, animal toxicology, and controlled human exposure studies has contributed to the database. This review will emphasize studies of humans but will also draw on findings from the other disciplines. Air pollutants have been shown to cause responses ranging from reversible changes in respiratory symptoms and lung function, changes in airway reactivity and inflammation, structural remodeling of pulmonary airways, and impairment of pulmonary host defenses, to increased respiratory morbidity and mortality. Quantitative and qualitative understanding of the effects of a small group of air pollutants has advanced considerably, but the understanding is by no means complete, and the breadth of effects of all air pollutants is only partially understood. PMID:8354181

  16. Minimizing the Effects of Outdoor Air Pollution

    MedlinePLUS

    ... toxic air pollutants, including components found in gasoline, chemicals emitted by dry cleaning facilities, solvents and paint strippers used by numerous industries, and substances like asbestos, dioxin, lead compounds, and ...

  17. Air-pollution effects on biodiversity

    SciTech Connect

    Barker, J.R.; Tingey, D.T.

    1992-04-01

    To address the issues of air pollution impacts on biodiversity, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Environmental Research Laboratory in Corvallis, OR, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service National Fisheries Research Center in Leetown, and the Electric Power Research Institute convened a workshop to evaluate current knowledge, identify information gaps, provide direction to research and assess policy issues. In order to obtain the most current and authoritative information possible, air pollution and biodiversity experts were invited to participate in a workshop and author the papers that make up this report. Each paper was presented and discussed, then collected in this document. The material has been organized into four parts: an introduction, an overview of air pollution exposure and effects, the consequences of air pollution on biodiversity, and policy issues and research needs.

  18. Air pollution and health: emerging information on susceptible populations

    PubMed Central

    Breton, Carrie V.; Devlin, Robert B.; Utell, Mark J.

    2015-01-01

    Outdoor air pollution poses risks to human health in communities around the world, and research on populations who are most susceptible continues to reveal new insights. Human susceptibility to adverse health effects from exposure to air pollution can be related to underlying disease; demographic or anthropometric characteristics; genetic profile; race and ethnicity; lifestyle, behaviors, and socioeconomic position; and location of residence or daily activities. In health research, an individual or group may have an enhanced responsiveness to a given, identical level of pollution exposure compared to those who are less susceptible. Or, people in these different groups may experience varying levels of exposure (for example, a theoretically homogeneous population whose members differ only by proximity to a road). Often the information available for health research may relate to both exposure and enhanced response to a given dose of pollution. This paper discusses the general direction of research on susceptibility to air pollution, with a general though not an exclusive focus on particulate matter, with specific examples of research on susceptibility related to cardiovascular disease, diabetes, asthma, and genetic and epigenetic features. We conclude by commenting how emerging knowledge of susceptibility can inform policy for controlling pollution sources and exposures to yield maximal health benefit and discuss two areas of emerging interest: studying air pollution and its connection to perinatal health, as well as land use and urban infrastructure design. PMID:25741389

  19. Chinese air pollution embodied in trade

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davis, S. J.

    2014-12-01

    Rapid economic development in China has been accompanied by high levels of air pollution in many areas of China. Although researchers have applied a range of methods to monitor and track pollutant emissions in the atmosphere, studies of the underlying economic and technological drivers of this pollution have received considerably less attention. I will present results of a series of studies that have quantified the air pollutants embodied in goods being traded both within China and internationally. The results show that trade is facilitating the concentration of pollution in less economically developed areas, which in turn export pollution-intensive goods to more affluent areas. However, the export-related pollution itself is sometimes transported long distances; for instance, we have quantified the impacts of the Chinese pollution embodied in internationally-exported goods on air quality in the US. These findings important implications for Chinese efforts to curb CO2 emissions and improve air quality. The research to be presented reflects the efforts of a multiple year, ongoing collaboration among interdisciplinary researchers in China, the US and the UK.

  20. Air pollution review 1954-1955

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Moyer D. Thomas

    1956-01-01

    Interest in air pollution is increasing. This is the second of I and EC's biennial review of significant developments in this field. New analytical methods and instruments for both gases and aerosis have appeared. Among the unique developments for removing pollutants at the source are high temperature filtration of open-hearth gases through slag wool filters, and the use of the

  1. ASTM Validates Air Pollution Test Methods

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chemical and Engineering News, 1973

    1973-01-01

    The American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) has validated six basic methods for measuring pollutants in ambient air as the first part of its Project Threshold. Aim of the project is to establish nationwide consistency in measuring pollutants; determining precision, accuracy and reproducibility of 35 standard measuring methods. (BL)

  2. Pollution prevention at ports: clearing the air

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Diane Bailey; Gina Solomon

    2004-01-01

    Seaports are major hubs of economic activity and of environmental pollution in coastal urban areas. Due to increasing global trade, transport of goods through ports has been steadily increasing and will likely continue to increase in the future. Evaluating air pollution impacts of ports requires consideration of numerous sources, including marine vessels, trucks, locomotives, and off-road equipment used for moving

  3. Air pollution from ships: Recent developments

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Alexander P. Burgel

    2007-01-01

    All developments on air pollution by ships are fairly recent. Annex VI of the international Marpol-convention, regulating\\u000a the emissions of CFCs, Halons, Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs) from cargoes, emissions from incinerators and exhaust gas\\u000a emissions from engines (NOx and SOx) entered into force in May 2005. The International Maritime Organization is currently discussing an upgrade of the air pollution\\u000a issues

  4. [Air pollution and asthma in childhood].

    PubMed

    Latzin, Philipp

    2013-12-01

    Exposure to outdoor air pollutants and passive tobacco smoke are common but avoidable worldwide risk factors for morbidity and mortality of individuals. In addition to well-known effects of pollutants on the cardiovascular system and the development of cancer, in recent years the association between air pollution and respiratory morbidity has become increasingly apparent. Not only in adults, but also in children with asthma and in healthy children a clear harmful effect of exposure towards air pollutants has been demonstrated in many studies. Among others increased pollution has been shown to result in more frequent and more severe respiratory symptoms, more frequent exacerbations, higher need for asthma medication, poorer lung function and increased visits to the emergency department and more frequent hospitalisations. While these associations are well established, the available data on the role of air pollution in the development of asthma seems less clear. Some studies have shown that increased exposure towards tobacco smoke and air pollution leads to an increase in asthma incidence and prevalence; others were not able to confirm those findings. Possible reasons for this discrepancy are different definitions of the outcome asthma, different methods for exposure estimation and differences in the populations studied with differing underlying genetic backgrounds. Regardless of this inconsistency, several mechanisms have already been identified linking air pollution with asthma development. Among these are impaired lung growth and development, immunological changes, genetic or epigenetic effects or increased predisposition for allergic sensitisation. What the exact interactions are and which asthmatic phenotypes will be influenced most by pollutants will be shown by future studies. This knowledge will then be helpful in exploring possible preventive measures for the individual and to help policy makers in deciding upon most appropriate regulations on a population level. PMID:24297855

  5. Mobile Sensors and Applications for Air Pollutants

    EPA Science Inventory

    Executive Summary The public has long been interested in understanding what pollutants are in the air they breathe so they can best protect their environmental health and welfare. The current air quality monitoring network consists of discrete stations with expensive equipment ...

  6. Air Pollution Potential from Electroplating Operations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Diamond, Philip

    Measurements were made of emission rates from electroplating operations considered to have maximum air pollution potential. Sampling was performed at McClellan and additional data from a previous survey at Hill Air Force Base was used. Values obtained were extremely low. Based on existing Federal standards, no collectors are specifically required…

  7. HOW GOOD ARE AMBIENT AIR POLLUTION MEASUREMENTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    In accordance with Federal regulations, state and local air pollution control agencies have, since January 1, 1981, been performing special checks of their ambient air measurement systems to assess the precision and accuracy of the monitoring data. The measurement methods involve...

  8. London air pollution climatology: Indirect evidence for urban boundary layer height and wind speed enhancement

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Matthew Rigby; Ralf Toumi

    2008-01-01

    Wind speed and boundary layer height are key variables for studies of air pollution climatology and are routinely calculated by general circulation models in reanalysis and climate prediction projects. However, these models cannot yet resolve urban areas and the associated meteorological phenomena that are important for urban pollutant dispersion. Two simple air pollution models are examined; the box model and

  9. BIOINDICATORS IN AIR POLLUTION RESEARCH: APPLICATIONS AND CONSTRAINTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Physical and chemical measurements of air pollutants provide a precise measure of pollutant exposure which is frequently used to estimate probable biological impacts. Bioindicators may be classified as either accumulators of the pollutant or reactors to the pollutant. The ultimat...

  10. Air pollution in mega cities in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chan, Chak K.; Yao, Xiaohong

    Due to its rapidly expanding economic and industrial developments, China is currently considered to be the engine of the world's economic growth. China's economic growth has been accompanied by an expansion of the urban area population and the emergence of a number of mega cities since the 1990. This expansion has resulted in tremendous increases in energy consumption, emissions of air pollutants and the number of poor air quality days in mega cities and their immediate vicinities. Air pollution has become one of the top environmental concerns in China. Currently, Beijing, Shanghai, and the Pearl River Delta region including Guangzhou, Shenzhen and Hong Kong, and their immediate vicinities are the most economically vibrant regions in China. They accounted for about 20% of the total GDP in China in 2005. These are also areas where many air pollution studies have been conducted, especially over the last 6 years. Based on these previous studies, this review presents the current state of understanding of the air pollution problems in China's mega cities and identifies the immediate challenges to understanding and controlling air pollution in these densely populated areas.

  11. Air pollution and mortality: A history

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, H. R.

    Mortality is the most important health effect of ambient air pollution and has been studied the longest. The earliest evidence relates to fog episodes but with the development of more precise methods of investigation it is still possible to discern short-term temporal associations with daily mortality at the historically low levels of air pollution that now exist in most developed countries. Another early observation was that mortality was higher in more polluted areas. This has been confirmed by modern cohort studies that account for other potential explanations for such associations. There does not appear to be a threshold of effect within the ambient range of concentrations. Advances in the understanding of air pollution and mortality have been driven by the combined development of methods and biomedical concepts. The most influential methodological developments have been in time-series techniques and the establishment of large cohort studies, both of which are underpinned by advances in data processing and statistical analysis. On the biomedical side two important developments can be identified. One has been the application of the concept of multifactorial disease causation to explaining how air pollution may affect mortality at low levels and why thresholds are not obvious at the population level. The other has been an increasing understanding of how air pollution may plausibly have pathophysiological effects that are remote from the lung interface with ambient air. Together, these advances have had a profound influence on policies to protect public health. Throughout the history of air pollution epidemiology, mortality studies have been central and this will continue because of the widespread availability of mortality data on a large population scale and the weight that mortality carries in estimating impacts for policy development.

  12. Ambient air pollution, climate change, and population health in China.

    PubMed

    Kan, Haidong; Chen, Renjie; Tong, Shilu

    2012-07-01

    As the largest developing country, China has been changing rapidly over the last three decades and its economic expansion is largely driven by the use of fossil fuels, which leads to a dramatic increase in emissions of both ambient air pollutants and greenhouse gases (GHGs). China is now facing the worst air pollution problem in the world, and is also the largest emitter of carbon dioxide. A number of epidemiological studies on air pollution and population health have been conducted in China, using time-series, case-crossover, cross-sectional, cohort, panel or intervention designs. The increased health risks observed among Chinese population are somewhat lower in magnitude, per amount of pollution, than the risks found in developed countries. However, the importance of these increased health risks is greater than that in North America or Europe, because the levels of air pollution in China are very high in general and Chinese population accounts for more than one fourth of the world's totals. Meanwhile, evidence is mounting that climate change has already affected human health directly and indirectly in China, including mortality from extreme weather events; changes in air and water quality; and changes in the ecology of infectious diseases. If China acts to reduce the combustion of fossil fuels and the resultant air pollution, it will reap not only the health benefits associated with improvement of air quality but also the reduced GHG emissions. Consideration of the health impact of air pollution and climate change can help the Chinese government move forward towards sustainable development with appropriate urgency. PMID:21440303

  13. Adverse Health Effects of Air Pollution 

    E-print Network

    Haley, R. W.

    2011-01-01

    on clean air: ? 2007: Encouraging energy efficiencies, no more coal plants ? 2009: Retrofitting old coal plants and old diesel engines ? 2011: Disclosure of ?fracking? fluids injected below ground ? Alliance with Texas Business for Clean Air ? Financed... Rice University study of how to maintain energy efficiency while reducing air pollution. ? Supported legislation based on the findings. The Medical Professor Increasingly Concerned ? Asthma ? Emphysema ? Heart Attacks ? Stunted lung...

  14. Pollutant roses for daily averaged ambient air pollutant concentrations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cosemans, Guido; Kretzschmar, Jan; Mensink, Clemens

    Pollutant roses are indispensable tools to identify unknown (fugitive) sources of heavy metals at industrial sites whose current impact exceeds the target values imposed for the year 2012 by the European Air Quality Daughter Directive 2004/207/EC. As most of the measured concentrations of heavy metals in ambient air are daily averaged values, a method to obtain high quality pollutant roses from such data is of practical interest for cost-effective air quality management. A computational scheme is presented to obtain, from daily averaged concentrations, 10° angular resolution pollutant roses, called PRP roses, that are in many aspects comparable to pollutant roses made with half-hourly concentrations. The computational scheme is a ridge regression, based on three building blocks: ordinary least squares regression; outlier handling by weighting based on expected values of the higher percentiles in a lognormal distribution; weighted averages whereby observed values, raised to a power m, and daily wind rose frequencies are used as weights. Distance measures are used to find the optimal value for m. The performance of the computational scheme is illustrated by comparing the pollutant roses, constructed with measured half-hourly SO 2 data for 10 monitoring sites in the Antwerp harbour, with the PRP roses made with the corresponding daily averaged SO 2 concentrations. A miniature dataset, made up of 7 daily concentrations and of half-hourly wind directions assigned to 4 wind sectors, is used to illustrate the formulas and their results.

  15. ORIMULSION(R) RESEARCH STUDY (AIR POLLUTION TECHNOLOGY BRANCH, AIR POLLUTION PREVENTION AND CONTROL DIVISION, NRMRL)

    EPA Science Inventory

    In response to a 1998 Congressional request, the Air Pollution Technology Branch (APTB) of NRMRL's Air Pollution Prevention and Control Division began research as part of a study to evaluate the environmental impacts of Orimulsion(R). Orimulsion(R)is a fossil fuel composed of 70%...

  16. RESEARCH AREA -- CHLOROFLUOROCARBON (CFC) DESTRUCTION (AIR POLLUTION TECHNOLOGY BRANCH, AIR POLLUTION PREVENTION AND CONTROL DIVISION, NRMRL)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Six thermal oxidation (incineration) processes were approved by the Montreal Protocol for the disposal of CFCs and other ozone depleting substances. The Air Pollution Technology Branch of NRMRL's Air Pollution Prevention and Control Division in Research Triangle Park, NC, has eva...

  17. BIOASSAY OF COMPLEX MIXTURES OF INDOOR AIR POLLUTANTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Indoor air pollution is a complex mixture of chemicals originating from outdoor air and indoor sources. oxicology studies of these mixtures are limited by difficulties in obtaining indoor air samples or appropriately simulated exposures. he concentration of pollutants from indoor...

  18. Air Quality in Lanzhou, a Major Industrial City in China: Characteristics of Air Pollution and Review of Existing Evidence from Air Pollution and Health Studies

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yaqun; Li, Min; Bravo, Mercedes A.; Jin, Lan; Nori-Sarma, Amruta; Xu, Yanwen; Guan, Donghong; Wang, Chengyuan; Chen, Mingxia; Wang, Xiao; Tao, Wei; Qiu, Weitao; Zhang, Yawei

    2015-01-01

    Air pollution contributes substantially to global health burdens; however, less is known about pollution patterns in China and whether they differ from those elsewhere. We evaluated temporal and spatial heterogeneity of air pollution in Lanzhou, an urban Chinese city (April 2009–December 2012), and conducted a systematic review of literature on air pollution and health in Lanzhou. Average levels were 141.5, 42.3, and 47.2 µg/m3 for particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter ?10 µm (PM10), NO2, and SO2, respectively. Findings suggest some seasonality, particularly for SO2, with higher concentrations during colder months relative to warmer months, although a longer time frame of data is needed to evaluate seasonality fully. Correlation coefficients generally declined with distance between monitors, while coefficients of divergence increased with distance. However, these trends were not statistically significant. PM10 levels exceeded Chinese and other health-based standards and guidelines. The review identified 13 studies on outdoor air pollution and health. Although limited, the studies indicate that air pollution is associated with increased risk of health outcomes in Lanzhou. These studies and the high air pollution levels suggest potentially serious health consequences. Findings can provide guidance to future epidemiological studies, monitor placement programs, and air quality policies. PMID:25838615

  19. Dependence of urban air pollutants on meteorology

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hamdy K. Elminir

    2005-01-01

    Dependence of air pollutants on meteorology is presented with the aim of understanding the governing processes pollutants phase interaction. Intensive measurements of particulate matter (PM10) and gaseous materials (e.g., CO, NO2, SO2, and O3) are carried out regularly in 2002 at 14 measurement sites distributed over the whole territory of Great Cairo by the Egyptian Environmental Affairs Agency to assess

  20. Exposure to air pollution Exposition is quantified as population weighted

    E-print Network

    Menut, Laurent

    Exposure to air pollution Exposition is quantified as population weighted concentration of relevant by a collateral reduction of air pollutant emissions, hence a lower cost of AQ legislation. Modelling Framework or long range transport of pollution in addition to regional air pollutant emission changes. · This suite

  1. 75 FR 10690 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, San Joaquin Valley Air Pollution Control...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-09

    ...General of the United States prior to publication of...b)(1) of the Clean Air Act, petitions for judicial...action must be filed in the United States Court of Appeals for the...Environmental protection, Air pollution control,...

  2. 76 FR 68106 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-03

    ...General of the United States prior to publication of...b)(1) of the Clean Air Act, petitions for judicial...action must be filed in the United States Court of Appeals for the...Environmental protection, Air pollution control,...

  3. 76 FR 69135 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-08

    ...General of the United States prior to publication of...b)(1) of the Clean Air Act, petitions for judicial...action must be filed in the United States Court of Appeals for the...Environmental protection, Air pollution control,...

  4. 75 FR 1715 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-13

    ...General of the United States prior to publication of...b)(1) of the Clean Air Act, petitions for judicial...action must be filed in the United States Court of Appeals for the...Environmental protection, Air pollution control,...

  5. Air pollution study of Laredo Customs Station 

    E-print Network

    Welling, Vidyadhar Yeshwant

    1972-01-01

    -6 Titanium Tetrachloride Smoke Generator. . 20 3-7 Video Tape Equipment. 3-8 Schematic of Forced Air System. 3-9 Forced Air System Model 3-10 Canopy Exhaust Fan Model 3-11 Push-Pull System Model. 3-12 Lateral Forced Air System Model. 3-13 Tubing...AIR POLLUTION STUDY OF LAREDO CUSTOMS STATION A Thesis by VIDYADHAR YESHWANT WELLING Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas A8M University in Partial fulfillment of the requirement for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE December 1972...

  6. Air pollution toxicology--a brief review of the role of the science in shaping the current understanding of air pollution health risks.

    PubMed

    Stanek, Lindsay Wichers; Brown, James S; Stanek, John; Gift, Jeff; Costa, Daniel L

    2011-03-01

    Human and animal toxicology has had a profound impact on our historical and current understanding of air pollution health effects. Early animal toxicological studies of air pollution had distinctively military or workplace themes. With the discovery that ambient air pollution episodes led to excess illness and death, there became an emergence of toxicological studies that focused on industrial air pollution encountered by the general public. Not only did the pollutants investigated evolve from ambient mixtures to individual pollutants but also the endpoints and outcomes evaluated became more sophisticated, resulting in our present state of the science. Currently, a large toxicological database exists for the effects of particulate matter and ozone, and we provide a focused review of some of the major contributions to the biological understanding for these two "criteria" air pollutants. A limited discussion of the toxicological advancements in the scientific knowledge of two hazardous air pollutants, formaldehyde and phosgene, is also included. Moving forward, the future challenge of air pollution toxicology lies in the health assessment of complex mixtures and their interactions, given the projected impacts of climate change and altered emissions on ambient conditions. In the coming years, the toxicologist will need to be flexible and forward thinking in order to dissect the complexity of the biological system itself, as well as that of air pollution in all its varied forms. PMID:21147959

  7. History of Air Pollution Legislation in the United States

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Arthur C. Stern

    1982-01-01

    A history of air pollution in the United States is presented. The history ends with the 1977 Clean Air Act. The major individuals who have played a role in American smoke abatement and air pollution control are detailed, along with the development of air pollution control legislation. (JMT)

  8. Controlling Air Pollution; A Primer on Stationary Source Control Techniques.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Corman, Rena

    This companion document to "Air Pollution Primer" is written for the nonexpert in air pollution; however, it does assume a familiarity with air pollution problems. This work is oriented toward providing the reader with knowledge about current and proposed air quality legislation and knowledge about available technology to meet these standards for…

  9. Experience with urban air pollution in Paterson, New Jersey and implications for air pollution communication.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Branden B

    2012-01-01

    Communication about air pollution can help reduce health risks, but a scattered, largely qualitative literature on air pollution beliefs, attitudes, and behaviors raises questions about its effectiveness. A telephone survey of Paterson, New Jersey (USA) residents tested four hypotheses aimed toward integrating these findings. Self-reported sheltering indoors during high pollution, the recommended strategy, was predicted by perceived air quality and self-reported "sensitivity" to air pollution. Nearly a quarter of the sample reported mandatory outdoor activity (e.g., work) that might increase their exposures, but this factor did not significantly affect self-reported sheltering. Perceptions of air quality did not correlate strongly with official monitoring data (U.S. Air Quality Index (AQI)); even people who regularly sought AQI data relied upon sensory cues to high pollution, and secondarily upon health cues. Use of sensory and health cues, definitions of what makes someone sensitive to air pollution, and (less strongly) definitions of vulnerability to air pollution varied widely. The minority aware of the AQI were more likely to seek it if they had illnesses or saw themselves in the targeted AQI audience, yet less likely if they believed themselves sensitive to pollution. However, their sense of the AQI's match to their own experience was driven by whether they used sensory (yes) or health (no) cues, not by illness status. Some urban residents might not have access to AQI data, but this barrier seems outweighed by need to bridge interpretive gaps over definitions of air pollution, sensory perception, vulnerability, and health consequences. PMID:21883333

  10. PRECOMBUSTION REMOVAL OF HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANT PRECURSORS

    SciTech Connect

    Unknown

    2000-10-09

    In response to growing environmental concerns reflected in the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendment (CAAA), the United States Department of Energy (DOE) sponsored several research and development projects in late 1995 as part of an initiative entitled Advanced Environmental Control Technologies for Coal-Based Power Systems. The program provided cost-shared support for research and development projects that could accelerate the commercialization of affordable, high-efficiency, low-emission, coal-fueled electric generating technologies. Clean coal technologies developed under this program would serve as prototypes for later generations of technologies to be implemented in the industrial sector. In order to identify technologies with the greatest potential for commercial implementation, projects funded under Phase I of this program were subject to competitive review by DOE before being considered for continuation funding under Phase II. One of the primary topical areas identified under the DOE initiative relates to the development of improved technologies for reducing the emissions of air toxics. Previous studies have suggested that many of the potentially hazardous air pollutant precursors (HAPPs) occur as trace elements in the mineral matter of run-of-mine coals. As a result, these elements have the potential to be removed prior to combustion at the mine site by physical coal cleaning processes (i.e., coal preparation). Unfortunately, existing coal preparation plants are generally limited in their ability to remove HAPPs due to incomplete liberation of the mineral matter and high organic associations of some trace elements. In addition, existing physical coal cleaning plants are not specifically designed or optimized to ensure that high trace element rejections may be achieved.

  11. Urban Air Pollution in Russia: Observations and Assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skorokhod, Andrey; Elansky, Nikolai; Lavrova, Olga; Pankratova, Natalia; Belikov, Igor; Falaleeva, Victoria; Mel'nikova, Irina; Remizov, Andrey; Sitnikova, Irina

    2013-04-01

    Urban air pollution is actual topic because of its influence on air quality and climate processes on both regional and global scale. There is a lack of up-to-date information about real state of air quality in Russian cities because of very few contemporary observations. Obukhov Institute of Atmospheric Physics possesses significant database of automated measurements of air composition including data of train-based TROICA experiments in 1995-2010 as well as permanent observations in Moscow since 2002. In general numerous crosses of about 100 urban settlements of different size and location have been performed that allowed us to compose detailed pattern of urban air pollution in Russia nowadays. All cities were separated at three groups: megacities (more then 500 000 citizens), middle cities (50 000-500 000 citizens) and little cities (less then 50 000 citizens). Each urban settlement has been divided into railway station area, urban zone and city (or town) surroundings. Concentrations of main polluting gases (NO, NO2, CO, SO2, NMHC, O3) and aerosols have been averaged for each settlement as well as for each group of urban settlements for day and night, and for winter and summer. Main features of air urban pollution in Russia are presented. Variations of main pollutants including anthropogenic VOCs because of daytime and seasons, as well as temperature vertical structure are studied. Concentrations of O3, CO, SO2 and NMHC are usually below MPC level. NO2 is often enhanced especially near auto-roads. In general, polluting gases have greater concentrations in winter time due to heating and stronger temperature inversions. Particulate matter is likely to be the most persistent pollutant that determines more than 90% of pollution cases. Strong pollution cases are often caused by extraordinary situations like fires, industrial pollution under unfavorable meteorological conditions. High ozone photochemical generation is quite rare. Spatial pollution structure is usually in good agreement with so called "heat islands" revealed over cities due to mobile observations. From 50 to 75% of all cases temperature growth over cities makes up from 0 to 1 ° C, while in large cities there is substantial proportion of higher values of temperature growth - from 4 to 12% is in the range 2-3 ° C of the temperature rise, and almost as many (from 4 to 9%) cases reveal temperature increase of more than 3 ° C. Air quality level was assessed on base of new approach elaborated at OIAP to assess air quality in Russian cities. It accounts for both world famous methods and official Russian legislation. General level of air pollution in Russian cities is low or moderate mostly due to favorable location and climate conditions. Extreme concentrations can happen in warm period because of wild and anthropogenic fires and other severe pollution cases. Most of high concentrations within cities during TROICA campaigns were observed near railway stations where influence of local pollution sources (diesel trains, train stoves, boiler rooms and so on) is very large.

  12. Air Pollutants Measured in Navigational Locks

    Microsoft Academic Search

    James J. Beaumont; Peter A. Breysse; Robert L. Schumacher

    1977-01-01

    The body of information presented in this paper is directed to those individuals concerned with the effects of marine transportation air pollution on the health of the public. The configuration and operation of the navigational locks in Seattle is such that large numbers of recreational and commercial boats are congregated in a small confined area, implying a potential health risk

  13. HARVARD'S INDOOR AIR POLLUTION/HEALTH STUDY

    EPA Science Inventory

    An indoor air pollution/acute respiratory health study is being conducted by researchers at the Harvard University School of Public Health. Upper and lower respiratory symptoms of 300 children living in Watertown, Massachusetts, have been recorded on a daily diary by a parent. Ev...

  14. Fine particulates-the misunderstood air pollutant

    Microsoft Academic Search

    1974-01-01

    While the data base for quantitative assessment of health and welfare effects is inadequate, sufficient evidence exists to show that fine particulate is a serious air pollution problem. Scrubbers have a unique potential for dealing with the problem; however, conventional scrubbers have limitations for efficient capture of fine particulates. scrubbers designed to make maximal use of filtration or electrostatic mechanisms

  15. AIR POLLUTION EFFECTS ON SEMEN QUALITY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The potential impact of exposure to periods of high air pollution on male reproductive health was examined within the framework of an international project conducted in the Czech Republic. Semen quality was evaluated in young men (age 18) living in the Teplice District who are ex...

  16. PUBLICATIONS - AIR POLLUTION PREVENTION AND CONTROL TECHNOLOGY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Air Pollution Prevention and Control Division (APPCD)publishes highly scientific and technical information developed through its four research branches. A list of key publications produced by the individual branches can be viewed by visiting the website for the respective bra...

  17. Control Techniques for Particulate Air Pollutants.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Air Pollution Control Administration (DHEW), Washington, DC.

    Included is a comprehensive review of the approaches commonly recommended for controlling the sources of particulate air pollution. Not all possible combinations of control techniques that might bring about more stringent control of each individual source are reviewed. The many agricultural, commercial, domestic, industrial, and municipal…

  18. Particulate Air Pollution In the United States

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. E. Vandegrift; L. J. Shannon; E. E. Sallee; P. G. Gorman; W. R. Park

    1971-01-01

    A study was conducted to identify, characterize, and quantify the national particulate air pollution problem from stationary sources. Particulate emissions from stationary sources were determined from data on emission factors, grain loadings, and material balances. The principal method used for establishing the tonnage emitted by an industry utilized uncontrolled emission factors. Total tonnage emitted by a given industry was calculated

  19. Indoor Air Pollution: An Energy Management Problem?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cousins, David M.; Kulba, John W.

    1987-01-01

    Energy conservation measures have led to airtight buildings and reduced levels of ventilation resulting in indoor air pollution. Five kinds of contaminants--tobacco smoke, combustion products, microorganisms, organic compounds, and radon--are described, their hazards considered, and countermeasures outlined. (MLF)

  20. MESOSCALE AIR POLLUTION TRANSPORT IN SOUTHEAST WISCONSIN

    EPA Science Inventory

    This research program comprised a comprehensive study of mesoscale meteorological regimes on the western shore of Lake Michigan and their effect upon air pollution dispersion and transport. It is felt that the results are applicable in a generic way to other mid-latitude coastal ...

  1. COLD REGIONS AIR POLLUTION: BIBLIOGRAPHY AND SUMMARY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Through a series of workshops on cold climate environmental research priorities, conducted in 1982 by Battelle for the Environmental Protection Agency and the Department of Energy, air pollution was identified as the topic of highest priority. The current state of knowledge on ai...

  2. HANDBOOK: CONTROL TECHNIQUES FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    This manual is a revision of the first (1986) edition of the Handbook: Control Technologies for Hazardous Air Pollutants, which incorporated information from numerous sources into a single, self-contained reference source focusing on the design and cost of VOC and partic...

  3. Particulate air pollution and the blood

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Anthony Seaton; Anne Soutar; Vivienne Crawford; Robert Elton; Susan McNerlan; John Cherrie; Monika Watt; Raymond Agius; Robert Stout

    1999-01-01

    BACKGROUNDParticulate air pollution has been associated with excess deaths from, and increases in hospital admissions for, cardiovascular disease among older people. A study was undertaken to determine whether this may be a consequence of alterations in the blood, secondary to pulmonary inflammation caused by the action of fine particles on alveolar cells, by repeatedly measuring haematological factors in older people

  4. REGIONAL AIR POLLUTION STUDY: HEAT EMISSION INVENTORY

    EPA Science Inventory

    As part of the St. Louis Regional Air Pollution Study (RAPS), a heat emission inventory has been assembled. Heat emissions to the atmosphere originate, directly or indirectly, from the combustion of fossil fuels (there are no nuclear plants in the St. Louis AQCR). With the except...

  5. Acculturation, ethnicity, and air pollution perceptions.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Branden B

    2011-06-01

    A globalizing world increases immigration between nations, raising the question of how acculturation (or its lack) of immigrants and their descendants to host societies affects risk perceptions. A survey of Paterson, New Jersey, residents tested acculturation's associations with attitudes to air pollution and its management, and knowledge of and self-reported behaviors concerning air pollution. Linguistic and temporal proxy measures for acculturation were independent variables along with ethnicity, plus controls for gender, age, education, and income in multivariate analyses. About one-fifth of contrasts between non-Hispanic whites, non-Hispanic blacks, English-interviewed Hispanics, and Spanish-interviewed Hispanics were statistically significant (Bonferroni-corrected) and of medium or higher affect size, with most featuring the Spanish-interviewed Hispanics. Knowledge variables featured the most significant differences. Specifically, Spanish-interviewed Hispanics reported less concern, familiarity with pollution, recognition of high pollution, and vigorous outdoor activity, and greater belief that government overregulates pollution than English-interviewed Hispanics (and than the other two groups on most of these variables too). English-interviewed Hispanics did not differ from non-Hispanic whites, but did on several variables from non-Hispanic blacks. Temporal proxies of acculturation among the foreign-born were far less significant, but concern and familiarity with air pollution increased with time spent in the United States, while belief in overregulation and a positive trend in New Jersey pollution increased with time in the nation of origin. Implications of these acculturation and ethnicity findings for risk perception/communication research and practice are discussed. PMID:21231941

  6. Air pollution modifies floral scent trails

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McFrederick, Quinn S.; Kathilankal, James C.; Fuentes, Jose D.

    Floral hydrocarbons provide essential signals to attract pollinators. As soon as they are emitted to the atmosphere, however, hydrocarbons are destroyed by chemical reactions involving pollutants such as ozone. It is therefore likely that increased air pollution interferes with pollinator attracting hydrocarbon signals. To test this hypothesis, a Lagrangian diffusion model was used to determine the position of air parcels away from hydrocarbon sources and to estimate the rate of chemical destruction of hydrocarbons as air parcels moved across the landscape. The hydrocarbon compounds linalool, ?-myrcene, and ?-ocimene were chosen because they are known to be common scents released from flowers. The suppressed ambient abundances of volatile organic compounds were determined in response to increased regional levels of ozone, hydroxyl, and nitrate radicals. The results indicate that the documented increases in air pollution concentrations, from pre-industrial to present times, can lead to reductions in volatile compound concentrations insects detect as they pollinate flowers. For highly reactive volatiles the maximum downwind distance from the source at which pollinators can detect the scents may have changed from kilometers during pre-industrial times to <200 m during the more polluted conditions of present times. The increased destruction of floral signals in polluted air masses may have important implications for both pollinators and signaling plants. When patches of flowers are further apart than the visual range of pollinators, such as in fragmented landscapes, the loss of scent signals may mean that pollinators spend more time searching for patches and less time foraging. This decrease in pollinator foraging efficiency will simultaneously decrease the pollinator's reproductive output and the amount of pollen flow in flowering plants.

  7. Assessments of biofuel sustainability: air pollution and health impacts

    E-print Network

    Tsao, Chi-Chung

    2012-01-01

    Journal of Environment and Pollution 2009, 36, (1-3), 19.Journal of Environment and Pollution 2009, 36, (1-3), 18.environment and human economics becomes essential. With regard to bio- ethanol, air-pollution

  8. Air pollution and horticulture: an overview

    SciTech Connect

    MacLean, D.C.

    1983-10-01

    An overview is presented of some of the general effects of pollutants on plants, as well as an approach for assessing these effects. The nature of effects can range from no effects at low doses to a reduced growth or yield at higher atmospheric concentrations. In addition to the dose of the pollutant, the degree of response is governed by a number of internal and external factors. Relative number and size of stomata have marked effect on pollutant uptake by the plant; therefore, environmental conditions exert a strong influence on pollutant-induced responses. Future research should focus on determining if the pollutant doses that now occur in areas of horticultural production cause effects and, if so, whether the effects constitute injury.

  9. RESEARCH AREA -- MUNICIPAL WASTE COMBUSTION (AIR POLLUTION TECHNOLOGY BRANCH, AIR POLLUTION PREVENTION AND CONTROL DIVISION, NRMRL)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The municipal waste combustion (MWC) program supports the development of revised rules for air pollutant emissions from the MWC source category. Basic research is performed on MWC pollutant formation and control mechanisms for acid gas, trace organic, and trace metal emissions. T...

  10. THE STATUS OF INDOOR AIR POLLUTION RESEARCH 1976

    EPA Science Inventory

    Numerous research projects have examined the occurrences of air pollution in outdoor and workplace environments. A smaller, newer body of research has examined air pollution in nonworkplace, indoor environments. A new emphasis on measures to conserve energy in buildings, curbing ...

  11. [Air pollution and asthma in children].

    PubMed

    Just, J; Nisakinovic, L; Laoudi, Y; Grimfeld, A

    2006-07-01

    The prevalence of asthma and allergic diseases has increased world-wide during the last quarter of the 20th century, particularly among children and adolescents. No change common to all sites where asthma has increased throughout the world has been identified, suggesting that this 'epidemic' phenomenon is likely due to multiple factors. The following have been most discussed: exposure to indoor and outdoor allergens, modification of the patterns of respiratory infections, decreasing trends of physical activity, evolution in the make-up of environmental irritants, including tobacco smoke and urban air toxicants. In this review, we point out the role of exposure to air pollutants, in addition to and in combination with other asthma enhancers or precipitators. Whereas concentrations of the 'classical' air quality indicators (SO2, CO) have more or less steadily decreased, asthma prevalence augmented in developed countries during the same period. However, the nature of the air pollution mix has deeply evolved, and should also be considered. Ambient air concentrations of industrial and house heating combustion sources of pollutants in the city have substantially decreased, but by contrast the concentrations of various ultrafine particles have increased. Now, there is in vitro and in vivo evidence that exposure to urban air particles, and particularly to diesel exhausts, elicits chronic oxidative stress and repeated inflammatory responses, so that they may enhance allergic inflammation and airway hyper-responsiveness. Several epidemiological studies suggested an association between traffic density close to places of children's residence and prevalence of respiratory symptoms, and more specifically of asthma or allergic rhinitis symptoms in them. Chronic exposure during infancy to traffic-related pollutants may accelerate or even provoke, among genetically sensitive subjects, disruption of the normal regulatory and repair processes eventually contributing to the increase of asthma incidence. PMID:16697622

  12. Indoor air pollution: Acute adverse health effects and host susceptibility

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. M. Zummo; M. H. Karol

    1996-01-01

    Increased awareness of the poor quality of indoor air compared with outdoor air has resulted in a significant amount of research on the adverse health effects and mechanisms of action of indoor air pollutants. Common indoor air agents are identified, along with resultant adverse health effects, mechanisms of action, and likely susceptible populations. Indoor air pollutants range from biological agents

  13. Environmental Health: A Look at the Cost of Air Pollution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brennan, A. J. J.

    1973-01-01

    Previous estimates of the cost of air pollution seem to fall short of the true societal cost. Without trying to place a dollar value on the aesthetic loss and psychological pressures air pollution incurs, the author feels that $47 billion constitutes the annual bill for pollution. Pollution abatement and prevention costs are estimated to be $8.45…

  14. RESPONSE OF STEM GROWTH AND FUNCTION TO AIR POLLUTION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Exposure to air pollutants can result in reduced stem growth, changes in wood density, and/or deposition of pollutants in the stem. everal recent reviews summarize the known effects of air pollutants on plant growth and function including trees. ir pollutants may also change the ...

  15. Effective Stack Design in Air Pollution Control.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clarke, John H.

    1968-01-01

    Stack design problems fall into two general caterories--(1) those of building re-entry, and (2) those of general area pollution. Extensive research has developed adequate information, available in the literature, to permit effective stack design. A major roadblock to effective design has been the strong belief by architects and engineers that high…

  16. 78 FR 53249 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, Placer County Air Pollution Control District

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-29

    ...the Comptroller General of the United States. EPA will submit a report containing...the Comptroller General of the United States prior to publication of the rule...52 Environmental protection, Air pollution control, Incorporation by...

  17. Stakeholder needs for air pollution and health information.

    PubMed

    Sanderson, Eric Gordon; Fudge, Nina; Totlandsdal, Annike Irene; Brunekreef, Bert; van Bree, Leendert

    2006-10-01

    Within the European Commission-supported thematic network project AIRNET, a stakeholder survey was performed to identify key questions and issues of concern for end users regarding air pollution and health information. On the whole, survey respondents typically asked general questions concerning air pollution and health (i.e., regarding the type of pollutant, emission sources, monitoring, and health impact). Furthermore, an overwhelming response across all stakeholder categories was not the unavailability of information sources to inform policy, but the lack of time available to read and absorb all the information. Overall, the respondents expressed their preference for information that is (1) presented as short and clear overviews, (2) ready for policy use by including a practical linkage between the research findings and implementation of public protection, and (3) in a format easily passed on to others. PMID:16905511

  18. Chemiluminescent detection of organic air pollutants

    SciTech Connect

    Marley, N.A.; Gaffney, J.S.; Chen, Yu-Harn

    1996-04-01

    Chemiluminescent reactions can be used for specific and highly sensitive detection of a number of air pollutants. Among these are chemiluminescent reactions of ozone with NO or organics and reactions of luminol with a variety of oxidants. Reported here are studies exploring (1) the use of the temperature dependence of the chemiluminescent reactions of ozone with organic pollutants as a means of differentiating types of hydrocarbon classes and (2) the use of luminol techniques to monitor atmospheric concentrations of nitrogen dioxide (NO{sub 2}) and organic oxidants, specifically peroxyacyl nitrates (PANs). Coupling gas chromatography to the chemiluminescent detectors allows the measurement of individual species at very low concentrations.

  19. Exposure to air pollution and pulmonary function in university students

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yun-Chul Hong; Jong-Han Leem; Kwan-Hee Lee; Dong-Hyun Park; Jae-Yeon Jang; Sun-Tae Kim; Eun-Hee Ha

    2005-01-01

    Objectives: Exposure to air pollution has been reported to be associated with increase in pulmonary disease. The aims of the present study were to examine the use of personal nitrogen dioxide (NO2) samplers as a means of measuring exposure to air pollution and to investigate the relationship between personal exposure to air pollution and pulmonary function. Methods: We measured individual

  20. Genetic susceptibility to the respiratory effects of air pollution

    Microsoft Academic Search

    I A Yang; K M Fong; P V Zimmerman; S T Holgate; J W Holloway

    2009-01-01

    There is large variation between individuals in their response to air pollutants. This review summarises the existing evidence that genetic factors influence the mechanisms of lung injury caused by air pollutants. Genetic association studies have compared the adverse effects of air pollutants between subjects with specific genotypes in biologically relevant genes. In human studies of ozone exposure, polymorphisms in oxidative

  1. Air Pollution Index Systems in the United States and Canada

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Wayne R. Ott; Gary C. Thorn

    1976-01-01

    An extensive survey was conducted of all the air pollution indices that are presently utilized or are available. The data were obtained from a literature review; from telephone discussions with personnel in State, local, and Provincial air pollution control agencies; and from material received from these agencies. Of the 55 metropolitan air pollution control agencies surveyed in the United States,

  2. Air Pollution and Blood Markers of Cardiovascular Risk

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Joel Schwartz

    2001-01-01

    Recent studies have linked air pollution to tens of thousands of premature cardiovascular deaths per year. The mechanisms of such associations remain unclear. In this study we examine the association between blood markers of cardiovascular risk and air pollution in a national sample of the U.S. population. Air pollution concentrations were merged to subjects in the Third National Health and

  3. Visualization of Urban Air Pollution with Cloud Computing

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jong Won Park; Chang Ho Yun; Hae Sun Jung; Yong Woo Lee

    2011-01-01

    Visualization of urban air pollution requires massive data processing since it should make air pollution maps either in two dimensions or three dimensions and we have to deal with geographical data, that is, GIS data. We used our own cloud computing technology to visualize urban air pollution and found that our approach vastly reduced the processing time of the visualization.

  4. Operational air pollution forecasts from European to local scale

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jørgen Brandt; Jesper H. Christensen; Lise M. Frohn; Finn Palmgren; Ruwim Berkowicz; Zahari Zlatev

    2001-01-01

    A new operational air pollution forecast system, THOR, has been developed at the National Environmental Research Institute, Denmark. The integrated system consists of a series of air pollution models, covering a wide range of scales (from European scale to street scale in cities) and applications. The system is designed to automatically produce 3 days air pollution forecasts of the most

  5. Air pollutants and health outcomes: Assessment of confounding by influenza

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thach, Thuan-Quoc; Wong, Chit-Ming; Chan, King-Pan; Chau, Yuen-Kwan; Neil Thomas, G.; Ou, Chun-Quan; Yang, Lin; Peiris, Joseph S. M.; Lam, Tai-Hing; Hedley, Anthony J.

    2010-04-01

    We assessed confounding of associations between short-term effects of air pollution and health outcomes by influenza using Hong Kong mortality and hospitalization data for 1996-2002. Three measures of influenza were defined: (i) intensity: weekly proportion of positive influenza viruses, (ii) epidemic: weekly number of positive influenza viruses ?4% of the annual number for ?2 consecutive weeks, and (iii) predominance: an epidemic period with co-circulation of respiratory syncytial virus <2% of the annual positive isolates for ?2 consecutive weeks. We examined effects of influenza on associations between nitrogen dioxide (NO 2), sulfur dioxide (SO 2), particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter ?10 ?m (PM 10) and ozone (O 3) and health outcomes including all natural causes mortality, cardiorespiratory mortality and hospitalization. Generalized additive Poisson regression model with natural cubic splines was fitted to control for time-varying covariates to estimate air pollution health effects. Confounding with influenza was assessed using an absolute difference of >0.1% between unadjusted and adjusted excess risks (ER%). Without adjustment, pollutants were associated with positive ER% for all health outcomes except asthma and stroke hospitalization with SO 2 and stroke hospitalization with O 3. Following adjustment, changes in ER% for all pollutants were <0.1% for all natural causes mortality, but >0.1% for mortality from stroke with NO 2 and SO 2, cardiac or heart disease with NO 2, PM 10 and O 3, lower respiratory infections with NO 2 and O 3 and mortality from chronic obstructive pulmonary disease with all pollutants. Changes >0.1% were seen for acute respiratory disease hospitalization with NO 2, SO 2 and O 3 and acute lower respiratory infections hospitalization with PM 10. Generally, influenza does not confound the observed associations of air pollutants with all natural causes mortality and cardiovascular hospitalization, but for some pollutants and subgroups of cardiorespiratory mortality and respiratory hospitalization there was evidence to suggest confounding by influenza.

  6. Air pollution effects on the guard cells of the injury resistant leaf of Laurus nobilis L

    SciTech Connect

    Christodoulakis, N.S. (Univ. of Athens (Greece))

    1993-09-01

    The need for cleaner air has led to detailed investigations not only on the sources and types of air pollutants but also on the effect that these compounds have on various life forms. The plants are the first [open quotes]victims[close quotes] of the air pollutants. Extensive literature exists on the structural damages and functional problems that plants suffer after being exposed to air pollutants. Many investigators prefer to deal with damages, caused to various organs, in plants growing in non polluted environments, after being fumigated with certain air pollutants. Others investigate the problems in plants growing in polluted areas thus being subject to long-term exposure to air pollutants. Generally it seems that primary producers suffer injuries, most of the time serious, that finally lead to the suppression of photosynthesis with all the undesirable consequences that this situation has for the ecosystem. Unfortunately Athens is not only the most polluted city in Greece but also an example to be avoided among the most polluted cities in the world. Serious problems occur in plants living in this environment. One exception is Laurus nobilis, introduced as an injury resistant species. These researchers studied the plant cells and the structure of their organelles, focusing on the guard cells of the leaves. They occur on the underside of leaves and they are directly affected by polluted air. Studies show that the air pollution injury resistance of Laurus is genetic. 25 refs., 21 figs

  7. The Emerging Role of Outdoor and Indoor Air Pollution in Cardiovascular Disease

    PubMed Central

    Uzoigwe, Jacinta C.; Prum, Thavaleak; Bresnahan, Eric; Garelnabi, Mahdi

    2013-01-01

    Outdoor and indoor air pollution poses a significant cardiovascular risk, and has been associated with atherosclerosis, the main underlying pathology in many cardiovascular diseases. Although, it is well known that exposure to air pollution causes pulmonary disease, recent studies have shown that cardiovascular health consequences of air pollution generally equal or exceed those due to pulmonary diseases. The objective of this article is to evaluate the current evidence on the emerging role of environmental air pollutions in cardiovascular disease, with specific focus on the types of air pollutants and mechanisms of air pollution-induced cardiotoxicity. Published literature on pollution was systematically reviewed and cited in this article. It is hoped that this review will provide a better understanding of the harmful cardiovascular effects induced by air pollution exposure. This will help to bring a better understanding on the possible preventive health measures and will also serve regulatory agencies and researchers. In addition, elucidating the biological mechanisms underlying the link between air pollution and cardiovascular disease is an essential target in developing novel pharmacological strategies aimed at decreasing adverse effects of air pollution on cardiovascular system. PMID:24083218

  8. Acute symptoms related to air pollution in urban areas: a study protocol

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Masud Yunesian; Fariba Asghari; Javad Homayoun Vash; Mohammad Hossein Forouzanfar; Dariush Farhud

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The harmful effects of urban air pollution on general population in terms of annoying symptoms are not adequately evaluated. This is in contrast to the hospital admissions and short term mortality. The present study protocol is designed to assess the association between the level of exposure to certain ambient air pollutants and a wide range of relevant symptoms. Awareness

  9. Air pollution control in an age of prevention

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, J.C. [Institute of Clean Air Companies, Washington, DC (United States)

    1996-01-01

    In the case of air pollution control technology, the case for pollution prevention is frequently cast as a case against pollution control technology. The errors in this argument are that pollution control technology is always the more expensive compliance option and that pollution prevention techniques exist to solve all or most of US air quality problems. A true market-based clean air policy would not contain these assumptions, would set a goal and appoint the market as the arbiter of final compliance decisions. This article discusses the market-based option and the balance needed between pollution prevention and pollution control technologies.

  10. Air pollution in China: Scientific and Public Policy Challenges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, T.

    2014-12-01

    Sever air pollution in China has in recent years caused intensive public, media and governmental attention. Many questions need to be answered about the air pollution in China, such as how harmful is the air pollution, especially PM2.5? Why suddenly so many reports about sever air pollution, is the air in China getting more polluted? How to design a policy that can control the air pollution most efficiently? After updated the national Ambient Air Quality Standards in 2012 and included PM2.5 as one of the critical air pollutants, in 2013, Chinese central government released for the first time the "Air Pollution Prevention and Control Action Plan". The plan has set goals to reduce annual mean concentration of PM2.5 up to 25% in 2017 in different regions in China. If the ambitious goals were achieved, this could be the most significant air pollution reduction in such a short time that affects so many people in human history. To achieve these goals, however, there are enormous scientific and public policy challenges to deal with. For example: Identify the key components, size fraction of PM that have the largest health effects; and identify the sources of PM that has the most harmful effects on human health and ecosystem. Reduce the uncertainty in health risk assessment. Understand complicate chemical transformation processes in air pollution formation with intensive emissions from industry, power plant, vehicles, agriculture. Interactions between air pollution, PBL, and atmospheric circulation at different scales. The accountability, feasibility, effectiveness, and efficiency of air pollution control policies. Integrate multi-pollutant control and achieve co-benefit with climate and energy policy. Regional coordinated air pollution control. The largest challenge in China for air pollution control remains how to strength the link between science and policy.

  11. Air pollution exposure prediction approaches used in air pollution epidemiology studies.

    PubMed

    Özkaynak, Halûk; Baxter, Lisa K; Dionisio, Kathie L; Burke, Janet

    2013-01-01

    Epidemiological studies of the health effects of outdoor air pollution have traditionally relied upon surrogates of personal exposures, most commonly ambient concentration measurements from central-site monitors. However, this approach may introduce exposure prediction errors and misclassification of exposures for pollutants that are spatially heterogeneous, such as those associated with traffic emissions (e.g., carbon monoxide, elemental carbon, nitrogen oxides, and particulate matter). We review alternative air quality and human exposure metrics applied in recent air pollution health effect studies discussed during the International Society of Exposure Science 2011 conference in Baltimore, MD. Symposium presenters considered various alternative exposure metrics, including: central site or interpolated monitoring data, regional pollution levels predicted using the national scale Community Multiscale Air Quality model or from measurements combined with local-scale (AERMOD) air quality models, hybrid models that include satellite data, statistically blended modeling and measurement data, concentrations adjusted by home infiltration rates, and population-based human exposure model (Stochastic Human Exposure and Dose Simulation, and Air Pollutants Exposure models) predictions. These alternative exposure metrics were applied in epidemiological applications to health outcomes, including daily mortality and respiratory hospital admissions, daily hospital emergency department visits, daily myocardial infarctions, and daily adverse birth outcomes. This paper summarizes the research projects presented during the symposium, with full details of the work presented in individual papers in this journal issue. PMID:23632992

  12. Indoor and outdoor air pollution in the Himalayas

    SciTech Connect

    Davidson, C.I.; Lin, S.F.; Osborn, J.F.; Pandey, M.R.; Rasmussen, R.A.; Khalil, M.A.K.

    1986-06-01

    Air pollutant concentrations have been measured in residences in the Himalayas of Nepal where biomass fuels are used for cooking and heating. Levels of total suspended particles are in the range 3-42 mg/m/sup 3/, with respirable suspended particles in the range 1-14 mg/m/sup 3/ in the houses sampled. Limited data for gaseous species show appreciable levels of carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, methane, and several non-methane hydrocarbons. A questionnaire concerning energy use administered in each household suggests that high per capita use of biomass fuels is responsible for excessive pollutant concentrations. Application of a one-compartment mass balance model to these houses shows only rough agreement between calculated and measured values, due to uncertainties in model input parameters as well as difficulties in estimating average pollutant concentrations throughout each house. High outdoor concentrations of potassium and methyl chloride, previously shown to be tracers of biomass combustion, indicate that the indoor biomass combustion also degrades the outdoor environment. Values of crustal enrichment factors for trace elements in the air and snow of the region suggest that the polluted air is generally confined to the populated villages, with more pristine air at higher elevations. 58 references, 1 figure, 5 tables.

  13. Air pollution and lung cancer: diesel exhaust, coal combustion

    SciTech Connect

    Higgins, I.T.

    1984-03-01

    It is known, that cigarette smoking is by far the most important cause of lung cancer and that about a dozen occupational exposures are also established as causes of this disease. There has been continuing uncertainty about the role of general air pollution. During the past few years, this uncertainty has been compounded with anxiety that the increasing use of diesel-powered vehicles might lead to a deterioration in air quality and, with it, an increase in the incidence of lung cancer. The purpose of this paper is to assess the current role of air pollution as a factor in lung cancer and specifically the contribution of diesel exhaust emissions to the incidence of that disease.

  14. Oxidative Stress and Air Pollution Exposure

    PubMed Central

    Lodovici, Maura; Bigagli, Elisabetta

    2011-01-01

    Air pollution is associated with increased cardiovascular and pulmonary morbidity and mortality. The mechanisms of air pollution-induced health effects involve oxidative stress and inflammation. As a matter of fact, particulate matter (PM), especially fine (PM2.5, PM?

  15. Introduction to the DAPPLE Air Pollution Project.

    PubMed

    Arnold, S J; ApSimon, H; Barlow, J; Belcher, S; Bell, M; Boddy, J W; Britter, R; Cheng, H; Clark, R; Colvile, R N; Dimitroulopoulou, S; Dobre, A; Greally, B; Kaur, S; Knights, A; Lawton, T; Makepeace, A; Martin, D; Neophytou, M; Neville, S; Nieuwenhuijsen, M; Nickless, G; Price, C; Robins, A; Shallcross, D; Simmonds, P; Smalley, R J; Tate, J; Tomlin, A S; Wang, H; Walsh, P

    2004-10-01

    The Dispersion of Air Pollution and its Penetration into the Local Environment (DAPPLE) project brings together a multidisciplinary research group that is undertaking field measurements, wind tunnel modelling and computer simulations in order to provide better understanding of the physical processes affecting street and neighbourhood-scale flow of air, traffic and people, and their corresponding interactions with the dispersion of pollutants at street canyon intersections. The street canyon intersection is of interest as it provides the basic case study to demonstrate most of the factors that will apply in a wide range of urban situations. The aims of this paper are to introduce the background of the DAPPLE project, the study design and methodology for data collection, some preliminary results from the first field campaign in central London (28 April-24 May 2003) and the future for this work. Updated information and contact details are available on the web site at http://www.dapple.org.uk. PMID:15336898

  16. Critical issues in air pollution epidemiology.

    PubMed Central

    Lippmann, M; Lioy, P J

    1985-01-01

    The epidemiological studies which have had significant impact on the setting of National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQSs) were performed more than twenty years ago. Most of the more recent studies have been seriously flawed in their design and/or execution because they neglected to account for important variables such as: pollutant exposures other than those from ambient air; the influence of personal activity on pollutant uptake; host responsiveness; and the separate contributions of recent transient peak exposures and long-term chronic exposures on the effects endpoints. For particulate pollutants, the influence of composition and size distribution has also received too little consideration. In order to address these deficiencies, research and methods development are needed on: indices for particulate exposures; identification of exposures relevant to the effects; improved indices of effects; acquisition of response data; identification of exposed populations; and identification of susceptible subgroups. Approaches to these needs are discussed, along with brief reviews of several recent studies that have focused on critical issues of concern, made the necessary efforts to characterize the relevant exposures of the populations being studied, and demonstrated human responses to ambient pollutants at current exposure levels. PMID:4085428

  17. External air pollution costs of telework

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Erasmia Kitou; Arpad Horvath

    2008-01-01

    Background, Aims and Scope  Telework is associated with a number of costs and benefits, including reduced company overhead costs, need for office and\\u000a parking space, office energy consumption, increased productivity, reduced absenteeism, retention of specialized employees,\\u000a reduction in transportation-related fuel consumption and air pollution, and many others. This paper applies a systems model\\u000a to telework and nontelework scenarios to quantify direct

  18. Traffic Air Pollution and Oxidized LDL

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lotte Jacobs; Jan Emmerechts; Marc F. Hoylaerts; Chantal Mathieu; Peter H. Hoet; Benoit Nemery; Tim S. Nawrot; Sayuri Miyamoto

    2011-01-01

    BackgroundEpidemiologic studies indirectly suggest that air pollution accelerates atherosclerosis. We hypothesized that individual exposure to particulate matter (PM) derived from fossil fuel would correlate with plasma concentrations of oxidized low-density lipoprotein (LDL), taken as a marker of atherosclerosis. We tested this hypothesis in patients with diabetes, who are at high risk for atherosclerosis.Methodology\\/Principal FindingsIn a cross-sectional study of non-smoking adult

  19. Monitoring of pyrocatechol indoor air pollution

    Microsoft Academic Search

    I. Eškinja; Z. Grabari?; B. S. Grabari?

    1995-01-01

    Spectrophotometric and electrochemical methods for monitoring of pyrocatechol (PC) indoor air pollution have been investigated. Spectrophotometric determination was performed using Fe(III) and iodine methods. The adherence to Beer's law was found in the concentration range between 0 and 12 ?g ml? for iodine method at pH = 5.7 measuring absorbance at 725 nm, and in the range 0–30 ?g ml?

  20. Personal exposure of children to air pollution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ashmore, M. R.; Dimitroulopoulou, C.

    Changes over recent decades in outdoor concentrations of air pollutants are well documented. However, the impacts of air pollution on an individual's health actually relate not to these outdoor concentrations but to their personal exposure in the different locations in which they spend time. Assessing how personal exposures differ from outdoor concentrations, and how they have changed over recent decades, is challenging. This review focuses on the exposure of children, since they are a particularly sensitive group. Much of children's time is spent indoors, and childhood exposure is closely related to concentrations in the home, at school, and in transport. For this reason, children's personal exposures to air pollutants differ significantly from both those of adults and from outdoor concentrations. They depend on a range of factors, including urbanisation, energy use, building design, travel patterns, and activity profiles; analysis of these factors can identify a wider range of policy measures to reduce children's exposure than direct emission control. There is a very large variation in personal exposure between individual children, caused by differences in building design, indoor and outdoor sources, and activity patterns. Identifying groups of children with high personal exposure, and their underlying causes, is particularly important in regions of the world where emissions are increasing, but there are limited resources for environmental and health protection. Although the science of personal exposure assessment, with the associated measurement and modelling techniques, has developed to maturity in North America and western Europe over the last 50 years, there is an urgent need to apply this science in other parts of the world where the effects of air pollution are now much more serious.

  1. Dirty air, dirty power. Mortality and health damage due to air pollution from power plants

    SciTech Connect

    Schneider, Conrad G.; Padian, M. (ed.)

    2004-06-15

    The Clean Air Task Force commissioned Abt Associates, the consulting firm relied upon by US EPA to assess the health benefits of many of the agency's air regulatory programs. The report documents the asthma attacks, hospitalisations, lost work and school days, and premature deaths linked to pollution from power plants. A first report was released in 2000. The 2004 report documents for the first time the number of heart attacks and lung cancer deaths that would be caused by power plants in 2010 and 2020. It compares the premature deaths that would result under the Bush administration's air pollution plan, the existing US Clean Air Act, and a proposal sponsored by Senator Jim Jeffords to strengthen the Clean Air Act. In general it was found that the administration's plan would produce the fewest benefits. The full study is available from the EPA, abstracted separately on the Coal Abstracts database. 65 refs., 2 apps.

  2. Protection of plants against air pollutants: Role of chemical protectants

    SciTech Connect

    Pandey, J.; Agrawal, M. (Banaras Hindu Univ., Varanasi (India))

    1993-03-01

    The protection of plants against air pollution damage can best be achieved either by developing pollution-tolerant cultivars or by using chemical protectants. Use of chemical protectants such as pesticides, growth regulators, anti-oxidants, fertilizers, etc. is a short-term solution to reduce the risk of air pollution damage. In addition, these protectants help in understanding the mechanism of air pollution toxicity and provide a scientific basis for assessing crop losses in field conditions. 95 refs.

  3. Population Dynamics and Air Pollution: The Impact of Demographics on Health Impact Assessment of Air Pollution

    PubMed Central

    Bønløkke, Jakob; Brønnum-Hansen, Henrik

    2013-01-01

    Objective. To explore how three different assumptions on demographics affect the health impact of Danish emitted air pollution in Denmark from 2005 to 2030, with health impact modeled from 2005 to 2050. Methods. Modeled air pollution from Danish sources was used as exposure in a newly developed health impact assessment model, which models four major diseases and mortality causes in addition to all-cause mortality. The modeling was at the municipal level, which divides the approximately 5.5?M residents in Denmark into 99 municipalities. Three sets of demographic assumptions were used: (1) a static year 2005 population, (2) morbidity and mortality fixed at the year 2005 level, or (3) an expected development. Results. The health impact of air pollution was estimated at 672,000, 290,000, and 280,000 lost life years depending on demographic assumptions and the corresponding social costs at 430.4?M€, 317.5?M€, and 261.6?M€ through the modeled years 2005–2050. Conclusion. The modeled health impact of air pollution differed widely with the demographic assumptions, and thus demographics and assumptions on demographics played a key role in making health impact assessments on air pollution. PMID:23762084

  4. Monitoring of pyrocatechol indoor air pollution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eškinja, I.; Grabari?, Z.; Grabari?, B. S.

    Spectrophotometric and electrochemical methods for monitoring of pyrocatechol (PC) indoor air pollution have been investigated. Spectrophotometric determination was performed using Fe(III) and iodine methods. The adherence to Beer's law was found in the concentration range between 0 and 12 ?g ml - for iodine method at pH = 5.7 measuring absorbance at 725 nm, and in the range 0-30 ?g ml - for Fe(III) method at pH = 9.5 measuring absorbance at 510 nm. The former method showed greater sensitivity than the latter one. Differential pulse voltammetry (DPV) and chronoamperometric (CA) detection in flow injection analysis (FIA) using carbon paste electrode in phosphate buffer solution of pH = 6.5 was also used for pyrocatechol determination. The electrochemical methods allowed pyrocatechol quantitation in submicromolar concentration level with an overall reproducibility of ± 1%. The efficiency of pyrocatechol sampling collection was investigated at two temperatures (27 and 40°C) in water, 0.1 M NaOH and 0.1 M HCl solutions. Solution of 0.1 M HCl gave the best collection efficiency (95.5-98.5%). A chamber testing simulating the indoor pollution has been performed. In order to check the reliability of the proposed methods for monitoring of the indoor pyrocatechol pollution, the air in working premises with pyrocatechol released from meteorological charts during mapping and paper drying was analyzed using proposed methods. The concentration of pyrocatechol in the air during mapping was found to be 1.8 mg m -3 which is below the hygienic standard of permissible exposure of 20 mg m -3 (? 5 ppm). The release of pyrocatechol from the paper impregnated with pyrocatechol standing at room temperature during one year was also measured. The proposed methods can be used for indoor pyrocatechol pollution monitoring in working premises of photographic, rubber, oil and dye industries, fur and furniture dyeing and cosmetic or pharmaceutical premises where pyrocatechol and related compounds are in use.

  5. [Air pollution in the vicinity of streets].

    PubMed

    Wanner, H U; Deuber, A; Satish, J; Meier, M; Sommer, H

    1976-01-01

    Air samples were collected in plastic bags simultaneously at various measuring points in the close range of streets. When examining the various bag materials, Teflon bags showed the smallest deviations in direct analyses and in analyses of up to two hours after the drawing of samples. The following methods were used for the analysis of the air samples collected in the bags: coulometry for CO and SO2, chemiluminescence for NO/NO2, chromotrophic acid for CH2O and flame ionization for hydrocarbons. The various components were measured close to a highway and near streets in residential and business areas. The simultaneously drawn samples showed a marked dependence on traffic frequency, type of built-up area along the streets as well as meteorological conditions. An opinion survey among adjacent residents on annoyance caused by air pollution and noise resulted in distinct differences between the sections with different traffic intensity. PMID:997954

  6. EFFECTIVENESS OF AIR CLEANERS FOR REDUCING RISK FROM INDOOR POLLUTANTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Air cleaners may provide a cost effective way of reducing individual exposure and risk to indoor air pollutants. The effectiveness of indoor air cleaners depends on factors such as the single pass efficiency, the rate that air is circulated through the air cleaner, the air cleane...

  7. Study of air pollution in Bucharest area for three years

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stefan, Sabina; Raicu, Cristina; Barladeanu, Raluca

    2010-05-01

    An important component of the air quality management and health risk assessment is improved by understanding of spatial and temporal variability of pollutant concentrations. Therefore, the aim of this paper is to assess the concentration levels of Particulate Matter (PM), NOx, SO2, CO and O3 in five urban sites in Bucharest, Romania. The key influences on the causes of high concentrations of pollutants include traffic characteristics and meteorology which affects the dispersion of pollutants. Our analysis of the measured pollutant concentrations, for the three years, 2005, 2006 and 2007 was related to traffic and meteorological conditions. The direct contribution of the traffic relative to the contribution from urban background was studied. The study has been performed for the all four seasons. The measurements shown that the highest NOx, SO2 and particulate matter (PM10) concentrations occur in the winter and summer periods, due to unfavorable meteorological dispersion conditions. Generally, the results show that the road traffic is the main contributor when the NOx and CO values exceed the limit value. For the PM10, both the traffic and resuspension of road dust are important, too. This type of study of spatial and temporal variability of pollutant concentrations allows evaluating the requirements of air quality models to represent the key effects.

  8. Assessment of health effects in epidemiologic studies of air pollution.

    PubMed Central

    Samet, J M; Speizer, F E

    1993-01-01

    As we increasingly recognize the complexity of the pollutants in indoor and outdoor microenvironments, a broad array of inhaled mixtures has assumed scientific, public health, and regulatory importance. Few adverse effects of environmental pollutants are specific, that is, uniquely associated with a single agent; the adverse effects that might be considered in an investigation of the consequences of exposure to an inhaled complex mixture are generally nonspecific. In the context of this paper, we will refer to binary mixtures as complex, though we realize that a more precise definition of complexity would restrict the term to mixtures of three or more constituents. Their causes potentially include not only pollutant exposures through the medium of inhaled air but other environmental agents, such as infectious organisms and radiation, and inherent characteristics of the exposed persons, such as atopy. We review the outcome measures that have been used in epidemiologic studies of the health effects of single pollutants and complex mixtures. Some of these outcome measures have been carefully standardized, whereas others need similar standardization and modification to improve sensitivity and specificity for investigating the health effects of air pollution. PMID:8206024

  9. Air pollution and sports performance in Beijing.

    PubMed

    Lippi, G; Guidi, G C; Maffulli, N

    2008-08-01

    The Beijing Olympics will begin in August 2008 and athletes will face an unpredictable challenge. Based on present data, Beijing is one of the most polluted megacities in the world; the air concentrations of carbon monoxide (CO), ozone, nitrogen oxides (NO and NO2), sulphur dioxide (SO2) and particulate matter approach or exceed the current limits established by U. S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). Although the athletes who will be competing in Beijing are physiologically very different to the participants in most published studies, and it is therefore difficult to predict individual responses, there is little doubt that the presence of these air pollutants might be detrimental to athletic performance due to the marked increase (up to 20-fold) in ventilatory rate and concomitant nasal and oral breathing. Moreover, mouth breathing often bypasses the noise during strenuous exercise, increasing the deleterious effects of pollutants on health and athletic performance. Although limited, each decrement in athletic performance would have a potentially deleterious impact on top-class athletes competing in the next Olympics in China. Several Olympic records are regularly broken during the Olympics. Will this be the case for Beijing? PMID:18512178

  10. Health effects and sources of indoor air pollution. Part I

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. M. Samet; M. C. Marbury; J. D. Spengler

    1987-01-01

    Since the early 1970s, the health effects of indoor air pollution have been investigated with increasing intensity. Consequently, a large body of literature is now available on diverse aspects of indoor air pollution: sources, concentrations, health effects, engineering, and policy. This review begins with a review of the principal pollutants found in indoor environments and their sources. Subsequently, exposure to

  11. Hematological and hemorheological effects of air pollution

    SciTech Connect

    Baskurt, O.K.; Levi, E.; Caglayan, S.; Dikmenoglu, N.; Kutman, M.N. (Univ. of Hacettepe, Ankara (Turkey))

    1990-07-01

    Selected hematological parameters and erythrocyte deformability indexes for 16 young male military students were compared before and after a period of exposure to heavy pollution. These students lived in Ankara, which has a serious air pollution problem. The mean sulfur dioxide levels measured at a station proximal to the campus where the students lived were 188 micrograms/m3 and 201 micrograms/m3 during first and second measurements, respectively. During the period between the two measurements, the mean sulfur dioxide level was 292 micrograms/m3. Significant erythropoiesis was indicated by increased erythrocyte counts and hemoglobin and hematocrit levels. Methemoglobin percentage was increased to 2.37 +/- 0.49% (mean +/- standard error) from 0.51 +/- 0.23%. Sulfhemoglobinemia was present in six subjects after the period of pollution, but it was not present in any student prior to this period. Significant increases in erythrocyte deformability indexes were observed after the period of pollution, i.e., from 1.13 +/- 0.01 to 1.21 +/0 0.02, implying that erythrocytes were less flexible, which might impair tissue perfusion.

  12. Air pollution from future giant jetports

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fay, J. A.

    1970-01-01

    Because aircraft arrive and depart in a generally upwind direction, the pollutants are deposited in a narrow corridor extending downwind of the airport. Vertical mixing in the turbulent atmosphere will not dilute such a trail, since the pollutants are distributed vertically during the landing and take-off operations. As a consequence, airport pollution may persist twenty to forty miles downwind without much attenuation. Based on this simple meteorological model, calculations of the ambient levels of nitric oxide and particulates to be expected downwind of a giant jetport show them to be about equal to those in present urban environments. These calculations are based on measured emission rates from jet engines and estimates of aircraft performance and traffic for future jetports.

  13. Impaired visibility: the air pollution people see

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hyslop, Nicole Pauly

    Almost every home and office contains a portrayal of a scenic landscape whether on a calendar, postcard, photograph, or painting. The most sought after locations boast a scenic landscape right outside their window. No matter what the scene - mountains, skyscrapers, clouds, or pastureland - clarity and vividness are essential to the image. Air pollution can degrade scenic vistas, and in extreme cases, completely obscure them. Particulate matter suspended in the air is the main cause of visibility degradation. Particulate matter affects visibility in multiple ways: obscures distant objects, drains the contrast from a scene, and discolors the sky. Visibility is an environmental quality that is valued for aesthetic reasons that are difficult to express or quantify. Human psychology and physiology are sensitive to visual input. Visibility has been monitored throughout the world but there are few places where it is a protected resource. Existing health-based regulations are weak in terms of visibility protection. Various techniques, including human observation, light transmission measurements, digital photography, and satellite imaging, are used to monitor visibility. As with air pollution, trends in visibility vary spatially and temporally. Emissions from the developing world and large scale events such as dust storms and wildfires affect visibility around much of the globe.

  14. Passive Biomonitoring with Lichens as a Part of an Integrated Biological Measuring System for Monitoring Air Pollution in Switzerland

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. Herzig; L. Liebendörfer; M. Urech; K. Ammann; M. Cuecheva; W. Landolt

    1989-01-01

    Passive Biomonitoring with the folious lichen Hypogymnia physodes (L.) Nyl. has been tested in Switzerland. Multielement analyses enable qualitative and quantitative conclusions about the composition and amount of important active pollutants. Many elements correlate well with the general air pollution indicator IAP18. Hypogymnia physodes possess good accumulation capacity for important air pollutants. The method has been calibrated for Pb and

  15. Proceedings of the 1986 EPA/APCA symposium on measurement of toxic air pollutants

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1986-01-01

    This book contains papers presented at the EPA/APCA symposium on the measurement of toxic air pollutants. Presentations include: Measurement of Indoor Toxic Air Contaminants; Measurement of Semi-Volatile and Volatile Organic Pollutants in Ambient Air; Chemometrics and Environmental Data Analysis; Acidic Deposition-Nitrogen Species Methods Comparison Study; Measurement of Hazardous Waste Emissions; Measurement of Wood Stove Emissions; Source Monitoring; and General Papers Related to Quality Assurance and Particulate Measurements.

  16. Diminished Defenses In Children May Lead To Increased Susceptibility To Inflammatory Effects of Air Pollutants

    E-print Network

    Lin, Erina May

    2012-01-01

    air pollution and its potential adverse health effects are aS. , Health effects of ambient air pollution in children.Pollution and Children Epidemiological studies have highlighted the association between air pollutant levels and adverse health effects.

  17. POPULATION-BASED EXPOSURE AND DOSE MODELING FOR AIR POLLUTANTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    This task will address EPA's need to better understand the variability in personal exposure to air pollutants for the purpose of assessing what populations are at risk for adverse health outcomes due to air pollutant exposures. To improve our understanding of exposures to air po...

  18. THE CHALLENGES OF AIR POLLUTION AND RESIDUAL RISK ASSESSMENT (EDITORIAL)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Clean Air Act (CAA), a comprehensive federal law that regulates air pollution from stationary and mobile sources, was first passed in 1963. The act has provided the primary framework for protecting human health and the environment. The CAA divides air pollutants into "criteri...

  19. Issue Backgrounder : Energy Efficient New Homes and Indoor Air Pollutants.

    SciTech Connect

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    1985-07-01

    This booklet discusses what indoor air pollution is and how it can affect your health. It describes how energy-efficient new homes can affect indoor air quality. It also describes features that can help ensure clean indoor air, and tells how to detect and control indoor pollutants commonly found in homes.

  20. Factor of safety method, application to air and noise pollution

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. E. S. Green; T. J. Buckley; D. E. Rio; R. Makarewicz; A. MacEachern

    1980-01-01

    Technical report:Air quality indexes were used to calculate air and noise pollution factors of safety for 82 U.S. cities. Pollutants considered in the safety study are: total suspended particulates, sulfur dioxide, carbon monoxide, nitrogen dioxide, and ozone. Mathematical models that were used to calculate the factors of safety are presented. The utilization of air quality indexes for regional planning and

  1. IDENTIFICATION OF FACTORS RESULTING IN SUSCEPTIBILITY TO THE EFFECTS OF AIR POLLUTANTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Understanding the underlying physiological processes which may account for pollution-associated health effects is an important research priority for the EPA. Numerous epidemiologic time-series studies have shown generally consistent associations of outdoor (ambient) air pollutio...

  2. Remedial measures to reduce air pollution losses in horticulture

    SciTech Connect

    Kender, W.J.; Forsline, P.L.

    1983-10-01

    Since air pollution injury to horticulture plants has not been controlled by reduction at the source, other methods of protection must, therefore, be considered. Factors influencing air pollution injury to plants are discussed. Several environmental, soil, and physiological factors influence plant response to air pollutants. Regulation of these factors may lead to the ability to reduce the plant's sensitivity to injurious gases. The effects of nutrients on the response of plants of air pollutants are described, especially the effects of nitrogen. Cultural practices, chemical protectants, cultivar sensitivity and plant breeding, all of which affect the damage caused by gaseous air pollutants, are described. Detailed and complete economic studies are needed to document losses caused by air pollutants to assess their impacts on horticulture.

  3. The Role of Air Pollutants in Initiating Liver Disease

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jong Won; Park, Surim; Lim, Chae Woong; Lee, Kyuhong

    2014-01-01

    Recent episodes of severe air pollution in eastern Asia have been reported in the scientific literature and news media. Therefore, there is growing concern about the systemic effects of air pollution on human health. Along with the other well-known harmful effects of air pollution, recently, several animal models have provided strong evidence that air pollutants can induce liver toxicity and act to accelerate liver inflammation and steatosis. This review briefly describes examples where exposure to air pollutants was involved in liver toxicity, focusing on how particulate matter (PM) or carbon black (CB) may be translocated from lung to liver and what liver diseases are closely associated with these air pollutants. PMID:25071914

  4. Lichens as integrating air pollution monitors.

    PubMed

    Jeran, Z; Ja?imovi?, R; Batic, F; Mavsar, R

    2002-01-01

    In this work an attempt to combine the results of lichen mapping with the quantitative levels of certain trace elements in Hypogymnia physodes (L.) Nyl. collected on a national scale is presented. An Index of Atmospheric Purity (IAP) was calculated using a simple method of mapping lichens based on the assessment of the cover and frequency of crustose, foliose and fruticose lichens on different tree species. For determination of trace elements in lichens k0-instrumental neutron activation analysis was used. From the IAP results it can be concluded that the epiphytic lichen flora look quite poor with more than 70% of the territory in the fourth and third classes, which represent highly polluted and moderately polluted air. By comparing IAP results with elemental levels in H. physodes using multivariate statistical methods it was found that the elemental levels do not have a direct negative effect on the diversity of lichens but can help in identification of the type of possible pollution sources and their origin. PMID:12199456

  5. Air pollution in Delhi: Its Magnitude and Effects on Health”

    PubMed Central

    Rizwan, SA; Nongkynrih, Baridalyne; Gupta, Sanjeev Kumar

    2013-01-01

    Air pollution is responsible for many health problems in the urban areas. Of late, the air pollution status in Delhi has undergone many changes in terms of the levels of pollutants and the control measures taken to reduce them. This paper provides an evidence-based insight into the status of air pollution in Delhi and its effects on health and control measures instituted. The urban air database released by the World Health Organization in September 2011 reported that Delhi has exceeded the maximum PM10 limit by almost 10-times at 198 ?g/m3. Vehicular emissions and industrial activities were found to be associated with indoor as well as outdoor air pollution in Delhi. Studies on air pollution and mortality from Delhi found that all-natural-cause mortality and morbidity increased with increased air pollution. Delhi has taken several steps to reduce the level of air pollution in the city during the last 10 years. However, more still needs to be done to further reduce the levels of air pollution. PMID:23559696

  6. Possible molecular mechanisms linking air pollution and asthma in children

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Air pollution has many effects on the health of both adults and children, but children’s vulnerability is unique. The aim of this review is to discuss the possible molecular mechanisms linking air pollution and asthma in children, also taking into account their genetic and epigenetic characteristics. Results Air pollutants appear able to induce airway inflammation and increase asthma morbidity in children. A better definition of mechanisms related to pollution-induced airway inflammation in asthmatic children is needed in order to find new clinical and therapeutic strategies for preventing the exacerbation of asthma. Moreover, reducing pollution-induced oxidative stress and consequent lung injury could decrease children’s susceptibility to air pollution. This would be extremely useful not only for the asthmatic children who seem to have a genetic susceptibility to oxidative stress, but also for the healthy population. In addition, epigenetics seems to have a role in the lung damage induced by air pollution. Finally, a number of epidemiological studies have demonstrated that exposure to common air pollutants plays a role in the susceptibility to, and severity of respiratory infections. Conclusions Air pollution has many negative effects on pediatric health and it is recognised as a serious health hazard. There seems to be an association of air pollution with an increased risk of asthma exacerbations and acute respiratory infections. However, further studies are needed in order to clarify the specific mechanism of action of different air pollutants, identify genetic polymorphisms that modify airway responses to pollution, and investigate the effectiveness of new preventive and/or therapeutic approaches for subjects with low antioxidant enzyme levels. Moreover, as that epigenetic changes are inheritable during cell division and may be transmitted to subsequent generations, it is very important to clarify the role of epigenetics in the relationship between air pollution and lung disease in asthmatic and healthy children. PMID:24581224

  7. Environment and air pollution: health services bequeath to grotesque menace.

    PubMed

    Qureshi, Muhammad Imran; Rasli, Amran Md; Awan, Usama; Ma, Jian; Ali, Ghulam; Faridullah; Alam, Arif; Sajjad, Faiza; Zaman, Khalid

    2015-03-01

    The objective of the study is to establish the link between air pollution, fossil fuel energy consumption, industrialization, alternative and nuclear energy, combustible renewable and wastes, urbanization, and resulting impact on health services in Malaysia. The study employed two-stage least square regression technique on the time series data from 1975 to 2012 to possibly minimize the problem of endogeniety in the health services model. The results in general show that air pollution and environmental indicators act as a strong contributor to influence Malaysian health services. Urbanization and nuclear energy consumption both significantly increases the life expectancy in Malaysia, while fertility rate decreases along with the increasing urbanization in a country. Fossil fuel energy consumption and industrialization both have an indirect relationship with the infant mortality rate, whereas, carbon dioxide emissions have a direct relationship with the sanitation facility in a country. The results conclude that balancing the air pollution, environment, and health services needs strong policy vistas on the end of the government officials. PMID:25242593

  8. AIR QUALITY POLLUTION DISCHARGE POINTS, NEUSE RIVER WATERSHED, NC

    EPA Science Inventory

    The North Carolina Department of Environment, Health, and Natural Resources, Division of Environmental Management, Air Quality Section in cooperation with the North Carolina Center for Geographical Information and Analysis developed the digital Air Quality Pollution Discharge Poi...

  9. Domestic air pollution from biomass burning in Kenya

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boleij, Jan S. M.; Ruigewaard, Pieter; Hoek, Fred; Thairu, H.; Wafula, E.; Onyango, F.; de Koning, Henk

    Biomass fuels, mainly wood, are burned under often primitive and inefficient conditions by about half the world's population as the major source of domestic energy. In a rural area in Kenya, air pollution measurements were carried out inside dwellings during the rainy season in connection with a WHO epidemiologic survey to the incidence of acute respiratory infections among children aged below 5 years. Respirable particles and NO 2 were found in the order of, respectively, 10 times higher (mean 1400 ?g m -3) and as high (mean 180 ?g m -3) as recommended air quality guidelines for the general population. Also the levels of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons were very high. No relation could be detected between the number of acute respiratory infection episodes of the children and indoor air quality. This could be explained by the fact that the concentrations were very homogeneously distributed among the population.

  10. Air pollution by aluminum compounds resulting from corrosion of air conditioners

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dmytro Buchnea; Alexander Buchnea

    1974-01-01

    Air pollution caused by hydrated aluminum oxide, chlorinated aluminum oxide, and carbonated aluminum oxide resulting from the corrosion of air conditioners was investigated. In cold rooms at temperatures of 3 to 6°C, the pollutant precipitates from the air, coating all surfaces in the rooms with a film of gray dust. In air conditioned rooms at normal temperatures of 20 to

  11. Effects of future climate change on regional air pollution episodes in the United States

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L. J. Mickley; D. J. Jacob; B. D. Field; D. Rind

    2004-01-01

    We examine the impact of future climate change on regional air pollution meteorology in the United States by conducting a transient climate change (1950–2052) simulation in a general circulation model (GCM) of the Goddard Institute of Space Studies (GISS). We include in the GCM two tracers of anthropogenic pollution, combustion carbon monoxide (COt) and black carbon (BCt). Sources of both

  12. Effects of future climate change on regional air pollution episodes in the United States

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L. J. Mickley; D. J. Jacob; B. D. Field; D. Rind

    2004-01-01

    We examine the impact of future climate change on regional air pollution meteorology in the United States by conducting a transient climate change (1950-2052) simulation in a general circulation model (GCM) of the Goddard Institute of Space Studies (GISS). We include in the GCM two tracers of anthropogenic pollution, combustion carbon monoxide (COt) and black carbon (BCt). Sources of both

  13. The use of alternative pollutant metrics in time-series studies of ambient air pollution and respiratory emergency department visits

    PubMed Central

    Darrow, Lyndsey A.; Klein, Mitchel; Sarnat, Jeremy A.; Mulholland, James A.; Strickland, Matthew J.; Sarnat, Stefanie E.; Russell, Armistead G.; Tolbert, Paige E.

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Various temporal metrics of daily pollution levels have been used to examine relationships between air pollutants and acute health outcomes. However, daily metrics of the same pollutant have rarely been systematically compared within a study. In this analysis, we describe the variability of effect estimates attributable to the use of different temporal metrics of daily pollution levels. Methods We obtained hourly measurements of ambient particulate matter (PM2.5), carbon monoxide (CO), nitrogen dioxide (NO2), and ozone (O3) from air monitoring networks in 20-county Atlanta for the time period 1993–2004. For each pollutant we created: 1) a daily 1-hour maximum; 2) a 24-hour average; 3) a commute average; 4) a day-time average; 5) a night-time average; and a daily 8-hour maximum (only for O3). Using Poisson generalized linear models, we examined associations between daily counts of respiratory emergency department visits and the previous day’s pollutant metrics. Results Variability was greatest across O3 metrics, with the 8-hour maximum, 1-hour maximum, and day-time metrics yielding strong positive associations and the night-time O3 metric yielding a negative association (likely reflecting confounding by air pollutants oxidized by O3). With the exception of the day-time metric, all of the CO and NO2 metrics were positively associated with respiratory emergency department visits. Discussion Differences in observed associations with respiratory emergency room visits among temporal metrics of the same pollutant were influenced by the diurnal patterns of the pollutant, spatial representativeness of the metrics, and correlation between each metric and copollutant concentrations. Overall, the use of metrics based on the US National Ambient Air Quality Standards (e.g., the use of a daily 8-hour maximum O3 as opposed to a 24-hour average metric) was supported by this analysis. Comparative analysis of temporal metrics also provided insight into underlying relationships between specific air pollutants and respiratory health. PMID:19756042

  14. Analysis of air pollution and greenhouse gases

    SciTech Connect

    Benkovitz, C.M.

    1992-03-01

    The current objective of the project Analysis of Air Pollution and Greenhouse Gases'' is to develop a study of emissions and emission sources that could easily be linked to models of economic activity. Initial studies were conducted to evaluate data currently available linking activity rates and emissions estimates. The emissions inventory developed for the National Acid Precipitation Assessment Program (NAPAP) presents one of the most comprehensive data sets, and was chosen for our initial studies, which are described in this report. Over 99% of the SO{sub 2} emissions, 98% of the NO{sub x} emission and 57% of the VOC emissions from area sources are related to fuel combustion. The majority of emission from these sources are generated by the transportation sector. Activity rates for area sources are not archived with the NAPAP inventory; alternative derivations of these data will be part of the future activities of this project. The availability and completeness of the fuel heat content data in the NAPAP inventory were also studied. Approximately 10% of the SO{sub 2} emissions, 13% of the NO{sub x} emissions and 46% of the VOC emissions are generated by sources with unavailable data for fuel heat content. Initial estimates of pollutant emission rate per unit fuel heat content. Initial estimates of pollutant emission rate per unit fuel heat content were generated. Future studies for this project include the derivation of activity rates for area sources, improved explanations for the default fuel parameters defined in the NAPAP inventory and the development of links to data bases of economic activity.

  15. Effect of air-pollution control on death rates in Dublin, Ireland: an intervention study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Luke Clancy; Pat Goodman; Hamish Sinclair; Douglas W Dockery

    Summary Background Particulate air pollution episodes have been associated with increased daily death. However, there is little direct evidence that diminished particulate air pollution concentrations would lead to reductions in death rates. We assessed the effect of air pollution controls—ie, the ban on coal sales—on particulate air pollution and death rates in Dublin. Methods Concentrations of air pollution and directly-

  16. Heat Waves, Urban Vegetation, and Air Pollution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Churkina, G.; Grote, R.; Butler, T. M.

    2014-12-01

    Fast-track programs to plant millions of trees in cities around the world aim at the reduction of summer temperatures, increase carbon storage, storm water control, provision of space for recreation, as well as poverty alleviation. Although these multiple benefits speak positively for urban greening programs, the programs do not take into account how close human and natural systems are coupled in urban areas. Elevated temperatures together with anthropogenic emissions of air and water pollutants distinguish the urban system. Urban and sub-urban vegetation responds to ambient changes and reacts with pollutants. Neglecting the existence of this coupling may lead to unforeseen drawbacks of urban greening programs. The potential for emissions from urban vegetation combined with anthropogenic emissions to produce ozone has long been recognized. This potential increases under rising temperatures. Here we investigate how global change induced heat waves affect emissions of volatile organic compounds (VOC) from urban vegetation and corresponding ground-level ozone levels. We also quantify other ecosystem services provided by urban vegetation (e.g., cooling and carbon storage) and their sensitivity to climate change. In this study we use Weather Research and Forecasting Model with coupled atmospheric chemistry (WRF-CHEM) to quantify these feedbacks in Berlin, Germany during the heat waves in 2003 and 2006. We highlight the importance of the vegetation for urban areas under changing climate and discuss associated tradeoffs.

  17. King Coal causes air pollution problems.

    PubMed

    Wang, A; Zhao, D; Liu, J

    1989-01-01

    Every year, China is blanketed with some 23 million tons of particulates from smoke and dust along with 17 million tons of sulphur dioxide from the use of coal in power plants, factories, and home furnaces. Elevated concentrations of sulphur dioxide are found in cities like Chongqing and Guiyang, which are plagued by stagnant air masses during the winter months. Beijing, Shenyang, Shanghai, Xi'an, Guangzhou, Chongqing, and Guiyang all suffer from soot, ash, and dust fallout for much of the year. Northern cities like Beijing and Tianjin are also afflicted with high levels of heavy metals like lead, cadmium and even arsenic, which are bound to soot and dust particles. Hundreds of people in Xuanwei in Yunnan Province suffer from respiratory diseases and lung cancer brought on by pollution. Government studies have shown that between 1949 and 1979, cancer mortality in the Beijing area increased by 145%, with lung cancer being the most prevalent. Another atmospheric scourge that is spreading throughout China is acid rain. More than half of all rainfall events in large areas south of the Yangtze River have a pH of less than 5.6. The south-western part of China is also experiencing a forest dieback as severe as anything in Europe. For example, about half of all the pines on top of Mt. Nanshen (near Chongqing) have died, and nearly 40% of the fir forests on Mt. Emi have withered and died. On June 1, 1988, the National Prevention and Control of Air Pollution Law came into force. Acid rain research has been listed as one of the major priorities for the most recent National Five-Year Research Program, which runs from 1986 to 1990. For the future environmental protection measures must be taken into account when extracting coal; coal processing techniques must be improved: and new clean coal technologies should be introduced on a large scale. PMID:12291352

  18. Examining the Impact of Demographic Factors on Air Pollution

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Matthew A. Cole; Eric Neumayer

    2004-01-01

    This study adds to the emerging literature examining empirically the link between population size, other demographic factors and pollution. We contribute by using more reliable estimation techniques and examine two air pollutants. By considering sulfur dioxide, we become the first study to explicitly examine the impact of demographic factors on a pollutant other than carbon dioxide at the cross-national level.

  19. Air Pollution Data for Model Evaluation and Application

    EPA Science Inventory

    One objective of designing an air pollution monitoring network is to obtain data for evaluating air quality models that are used in the air quality management process and scientific discovery.1.2 A common use is to relate emissions to air quality, including assessing ...

  20. QUANTIFYING SUBGRID POLLUTANT VARIABILITY IN EULERIAN AIR QUALITY MODELS

    EPA Science Inventory

    In order to properly assess human risk due to exposure to hazardous air pollutants or air toxics, detailed information is needed on the location and magnitude of ambient air toxic concentrations. Regional scale Eulerian air quality models are typically limited to relatively coar...

  1. Air pollution episodes in larger area of Bucharest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raicu, C.; Iorga, G.

    2009-04-01

    In view of the fact that aerosol burdens in Eastern Europe may be heavily impacted by regional anthropogenic sources, this research is focused on analyses of air pollution episodes with the goal to quantify this impact in larger area of Bucharest. City of Bucharest is large size city (population 2.8 million) located in the Romanian Plain, characterised by environmental problems and meteorology typical for several cities in South-eastern Europe. It experiences intense photochemical processes. City environment includes intense emissions from traffic, thermo-electrical power-generation stations (CETs) that use mainly fossil fuels for power generation and domestic heating, and from industry. The data (PM10, SO2, CO, NOx) were collected at eight sampling sites in and around the urban area of Bucharest (three industrial and two traffic sites, one EPA urban background site, one suburban site and one regional site situated outside of Bucharest). Mass concentrations spanning over one year (2005 year) of continuous sampling were taken from data provided by the Air Quality Monitoring Network of the city. Analyses of temporal and spatial variability of PM10 were correlated with data of SO2, CO, NOx. The criterion for selecting the pollution episodes was the daily average concentration of PM10 to exceed by 35 times per year the limit value of 50 gm-3 (in accordance with Romanian Ministry Order 592/2002 criterion). Exceedances were considered as strong pollution events and were studied related to local pollution and long-range transport of pollutants provided by back-trajectories of air masses. As a general characteristics, the main contribution to the aerosol mass is due to anthropogenic local sources, but natural sources play a role, as well. The comparison between the concentration values at different sites indicates that industrial sources are responsible for a large part of the high concentrations in urban area followed by the traffic sources. The urban impact on nearby Bucharest sites has been estimated. With respect to the seasonal variation, mass concentrations in urban area were found to be significantly higher during winter and late autumn; this can be partly explained through the pollution determined by space heating. Correlation between PM10 mass concentrations and the air mass trajectories emphasized the role of the meteorological conditions in temporal evolution of the aerosol concentrations. Excepting the summer period, air pollution episodes were found not to be isolated ones but appearing with a high frequency. An interesting situation was found for pollution level at EPA background urban site because of meteorological conditions and local conditions, namely the presence of the nearby lake (Lacul Morii) and influences from the Thermal Power Station CET West. The data presented here give an overview of the range of air pollution concentrations to expect under typical meteorological and seasonal conditions in South-eastern Europe.

  2. Author's personal copy Heavy air pollution suppresses summer thunderstorms

    E-print Network

    Li, Zhanqing

    Author's personal copy Heavy air pollution suppresses summer thunderstorms in central China Xin China, for assessing the impact of the increasing air pollution on convective precipitation. Adding frequency. This decrease was contributed by light and moderate (o25 mm dayÀ1 ) rainy days. These patterns

  3. Perception of Air Pollution in a Developing Country

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bladen, W. A.; Karan, P. P.

    1976-01-01

    This study analyzed the perception of air pollution of people living in an industrial area of India. Although air pollution was perceived as a problem it was ranked less important than socio-economic problems. Differences in perception existed among the various cultural groups and among the residential zones. (MR)

  4. Spatial heterogeneity and air pollution removal by an urban forest

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Francisco J. Escobedo; David J. Nowak

    2009-01-01

    Estimates of air pollution removal by the urban forest have mostly been based on mean values of forest structure variables for an entire city. However, the urban forest is not uniformly distributed across a city because of biophysical and social factors. Consequently, air pollution removal function by urban vegetation should vary because of this spatial heterogeneity. This paper presents a

  5. Air pollutant effects on fetal and early postnatal development

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lei Wang; Kent E. Pinkerton

    2007-01-01

    Numerical research on the health effects of air pollution has been pub- lished in the last decade. Epidemiological studies have shown that child- ren's exposure to air pollutants during fetal development and early post- natal life is associated with many types of health problems including abnormal development (low birth weight (LBW), very low birth weight (VLBW), preterm birth (PTB), intrauterine

  6. Health, wealth, and air pollution: advancing theory and methods.

    PubMed Central

    O'Neill, Marie S; Jerrett, Michael; Kawachi, Ichiro; Levy, Jonathan I; Cohen, Aaron J; Gouveia, Nelson; Wilkinson, Paul; Fletcher, Tony; Cifuentes, Luis; Schwartz, Joel

    2003-01-01

    The effects of both ambient air pollution and socioeconomic position (SEP) on health are well documented. A limited number of recent studies suggest that SEP may itself play a role in the epidemiology of disease and death associated with exposure to air pollution. Together with evidence that poor and working-class communities are often more exposed to air pollution, these studies have stimulated discussion among scientists, policy makers, and the public about the differential distribution of the health impacts from air pollution. Science and public policy would benefit from additional research that integrates the theory and practice from both air pollution and social epidemiologies to gain a better understanding of this issue. In this article we aim to promote such research by introducing readers to methodologic and conceptual approaches in the fields of air pollution and social epidemiology; by proposing theories and hypotheses about how air pollution and socioeconomic factors may interact to influence health, drawing on studies conducted worldwide; by discussing methodologic issues in the design and analysis of studies to determine whether health effects of exposure to ambient air pollution are modified by SEP; and by proposing specific steps that will advance knowledge in this field, fill information gaps, and apply research results to improve public health in collaboration with affected communities. PMID:14644658

  7. Air Pollution and Health: Emerging Information on Susceptible Populations

    EPA Science Inventory

    Outdoor air pollution poses risks to human health in communities around the world, and research on populations who are most susceptible continues to reveal new insights. Human susceptibility to adverse health effects from exposure to air pollution can be related to underlying dis...

  8. Air Pollution and Infant Mortality in Mexico City

    EPA Science Inventory

    Historic air pollution episodes of the 1950s led to acute increases in infant mortality, and some recent epidemiologic studies suggest that infant or child mortality may still result from air pollution at current levels. To investigate the evidence for such an association, we con...

  9. European Commission Air pollution research report No 81

    E-print Network

    European Commission Air pollution research report No 81 Ozone­climate interactions Directorate might be made of the following information. This is report No 81 in the air pollution research reports in Belgium PRINTED ON WHITE CHLORINE-FREE PAPER Europe Direct is a service to help you find answers to your

  10. Catalog of materials as potential sources of indoor air pollution

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. B. Stockton; J. S. McLean; J. B. White; M. D. Jackson

    1991-01-01

    The paper discusses a series of documents being developed by the U.S. EPA, summarizing available information on building materials and products brought into homes and office buildings as potential sources of indoor air pollution. The documents will provide a complete list of materials as potential indoor air pollution sources and, where data are available, each source's relative importance for further

  11. UNAMAP - USER'S NETWORK FOR THE APPLIED MODELING OF AIR POLLUTION

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Users' Network for the Applied Modeling of Air Pollution (UNAMAP) was initiated by EPA in 1973. It was conceived as a means of distributing air pollution models to a variety of organizations around the country. Since 1973, UNAMAP has grown from 6 models to 23 models. The repo...

  12. Methodological issues in studies of air pollution and reproductive health

    EPA Science Inventory

    In the past decade there have been an increasing number of scientific studies describing possible effects of air pollution on perinatal health. These papers have mostly focused on commonly monitored air pollutants, primarily ozone (O3), particulate matter (PM), sulfur dioxide (S...

  13. Forest fires, air pollution, and mortality in Southeast Asia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Narayan Sastry

    2002-01-01

    I assess the population health effects in Malaysia of air pollution from a widespread series of fires that occurred in Indonesia between April and November of 1997. I describe how the fires occurred and why the associated air pollution was so widespread and long lasting. The main objective is to uncover any mortality effects and to assess how large and

  14. Mapping human exposure to traffic air pollution using GIS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Steen Solvang Jensen

    1998-01-01

    An ongoing PhD project has the objective to develop a model for population exposure to traffic air pollution in order to improve assessment of health impacts and in support of risk management. A selected urban area is used as a case study. Applying a Geographic Information System (GIS), the model combines calculated air pollution data using the Danish Operational Street

  15. Novel Approaches for Estimating Human Exposure to Air Pollutants

    EPA Science Inventory

    Numerous health studies have used measurements from a few central-site ambient monitors to characterize air pollution exposures. Relying on solely on central-site ambient monitors does not account for the spatial-heterogeneity of ambient air pollution patterns, the temporal varia...

  16. RESEARCH AREA -- POLLUTION PREVENTION (INDOOR ENVIRONMENT MANAGEMENT BRANCH, AIR POLLUTION PREVENTION AND CONTROL DIVISION, NRMRL)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The strategy of NRMRL's Air Pollution Prevention and Control Division's Indoor Environment Management Branch (IEMB) is to apply IEMB's expertise in indoor air quality (i.e., source characterization, ventilation, filtration, modeling, biocontaminants, and sustainable buildings) to...

  17. Ambient air quality and the effects of air pollutants on otolaryngology in Beijing.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Fengying; Xu, Jin; Zhang, Ziying; Meng, Haiying; Wang, Li; Lu, Jinmei; Wang, Wuyi; Krafft, Thomas

    2015-08-01

    To investigate temporal patterns, pollution concentrations and the health effects of air pollutants in Beijing we carried out time-series analyses on daily concentrations of ambient air pollutants and daily numbers of outpatient visits for otolaryngology over 2 years (2011-2012) to identify possible health effects of air pollutants. The results showed that PM10 was the major air pollutant in Beijing and that air quality was slightly better in 2012 than in 2011. Seasonal differences were apparent for SO2 and NO2. Both the background and urban areas of Beijing experienced particulate matter pollution in 2011. In addition to local air pollution, Beijing was also affected by pollutants transported from other regions, especially during heavy air pollution episodes. PM10, NO2, and SO2 concentrations showed positive associations with numbers of outpatient visits for otolaryngology during winter. NO2 and SO2 also had adverse ear, nose, and throat health effects outside of winter. The ear, nose, and throat health risks caused by air pollutants were higher during the winter than during the summer. NO2 had stronger influence on increased the likelihood of outpatient visits than SO2. The findings provide additional information about air quality and health effects of air pollution in Beijing. PMID:26156317

  18. Emphysema and fibrosis: risk factors in responsiveness to air pollution

    SciTech Connect

    Costa, D.L.; Lehmann, J.R.

    1984-01-01

    Episodic and epidemiologic data appear to support the belief that chronic non-specific lung disease imposes an additional risk to affected individuals when challenged by air pollution. While this concept has been implicitly enacted into law, little knowledge or understanding of the tenets of disease-based hyper-susceptibility exists. The clinical and animal experimental data show trends, but in general, have provided little substance to defend or challenge the legitimacy of the margins of safety incorporated into the standards of the EPA regulated pollutants. As more data on so-called normal individuals are being collected, many of these safety margins appear to be eroding, thus offering little encouragement that susceptible subgroups of the population are actually being protected. 39 references, 8 tables.

  19. Environmental economics: capital expenditures for air and water pollution control

    Microsoft Academic Search

    de la Rue

    1977-01-01

    A survey showed that in the period 1970-76, capital expenditures by industries and utilities for air pollution abatement of stationary sources was $19.8 billion compared with $12.9 billion for water pollution control. During the 1977-85 period, capital expenditures by industries and utilities for air pollution abatement are expected to total over $36 billion, of which $6.75 billion will be for

  20. Mortality and air pollution: is there a meaningful connection

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Frederick W. Lipfert

    1985-01-01

    Problems in determining the chronic effects of air pollution on health and mortality are discussed. Short-term effects studies, cross-sectional mortality studies, and time-series analyses are reviewed. It was concluded that although some portion of the SOâ-particulate air pollution affects daily mortality at high concentrations, there may be other important pollutants such as CO that have not been fully investigated; for

  1. Effects of air pollution on biogenic volatiles and ecological interactions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Quinn S. McFrederick; Jose D. Fuentes; T’ai Roulston; James C. Kathilankal; Manuel Lerdau

    2009-01-01

    Chemical signals play important roles in ecological interactions but are vulnerable to perturbation by air pollution. In polluted\\u000a air masses, signals may travel shorter distances before being destroyed by chemical reactions with pollutants, thus losing\\u000a their specificity. To determine which scent-mediated interactions are likely to be affected, we review existing literature\\u000a to build a picture of what chemicals are commonly

  2. Air pollution legislation and regulation in the european community: A review essay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Riordan, Timothy

    Pollution control generally is moving from the specific to the general, from the local to the international, from reactive measures to foresight management, from emission based to technology forced, and from single media managed to integrated. These are trends only, but there is a persistence behind these trends. This suggests that air pollution legislation and regulation will be driven more by international protocols and commitments than by national interests. Since enforcement will remain primarily a national responsibility because individual countries vary in their enthusiasm to meet externally imposed air pollution legislation, the weak link in the regulatory chain may well prove to be practical implementation of legislative intent.

  3. Air pollution compliance focuses on paperwork

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-12-01

    Although the 1990 US Clean Air Act Amendments became law more than four years ago, many of the new provisions are just now being implemented. Title 5, the section that establishes a national operating permit program, is creating a flurry of activity in more than 34,000 chemical process facilities, and promises to produce significant business for environmental consulting firms, in terms of regulatory compliance, enhanced monitoring and design and installation of pollution-abatement systems. For the first time, companies now have to verify their own compliance [with emission limits] to regulatory agencies. In addition to the administrative requirements of Title 5, facilities that are not currently in compliance with federal, state and local air regulations will have to incur additional capital and operating costs to meet the terms of their new operating permits. In some cases, this may mean the addition of special valves, pumps, flanges and seals to minimize fugitive leakage. The paper also includes brief paragraphs about equipment components and services which are designed to help operators meet regulatory thresholds.

  4. Air Pollution Exposure and Cardiovascular Disease

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Byeong-Jae; Kim, Bumseok

    2014-01-01

    Ambient air pollution (AAP) and particulate matters (PM) have been closely associated with adverse health effects such as respiratory disease and cardiovascular diseases. Previous studies have examined the adverse health effects associated with short- and long-term exposure to AAP and outdoor PM on respiratory disease. However, the effect of PM size (PM2.5 and PM10) on cardiovascular disease has not been well studied. Thus, it remains unclear how the size of the inhalable particles (coarse, fine, or ultrafine) affects mortality and morbidity. Airborne PM concentrations are commonly used for ambient air quality management worldwide, owing to the known effects on cardiorespiratory health. In this article, we assess the relationship between cardiovascular diseases and PM, with a particular focus on PM size. We discuss the association of PM2.5 and PM10, nitrogen dioxide (NO2), and elemental carbon with mortality and morbidity due to cardiovascular diseases, stroke, and altered blood pressure, based on epidemiological studies. In addition, we provide evidence that the adverse health effects of AAP and PM are more pronounced among the elderly, children, and people with preexisting cardiovascular and respiratory conditions. Finally, we critically summarize the literature pertaining to cardiovascular diseases, including atherosclerosis and stroke, and introduce potential studies to better understand the health significance of AAP and PM on cardiovascular disease. PMID:25071915

  5. The remote sensing of air pollution from coal utilization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harney, B. M.; Mccrea, D. H.; Forney, A. J.

    1972-01-01

    An investigation was made to determine the feasibility of applying earth resources data to the detection of air pollution, particularly pollution from coal burning. Efforts were also made to detect any damage caused by such pollution to vegetation growth and tree life. Results show that vegetative vigor even at low ambient concentrations was damaged and that Eastern white pine trees were severely damaged by the pollutants.

  6. Ambient air pollution and annoyance responses from pregnant women

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Llop, Sabrina; Ballester, Ferran; Estarlich, Marisa; Esplugues, Ana; Fernández-Patier, Rosalia; Ramón, Rosa; Marco, Alfredo; Aguirre, Amelia; Sunyer, Jordi; Iñiguez, Carmen; INMA-Valencia cohort

    ObjectivesTo describe the degree of annoyance caused by air pollution and noise in pregnant women in a birth cohort; to determine the modifying factors and their relation with exposure to ambient nitrogen dioxide (NO 2). MethodsThe study population was 855 pregnant women in Valencia, Spain. Annoyance caused by air pollution and noise, and explanatory factors were obtained from 786 pregnant women through a questionnaire. NO 2 levels were determined combining measurements at 93 points within the area of study and using geostatistical techniques (kriging). ResultsIn all 7.9% of the women reported high annoyance caused by air pollution and 13.1% high annoyance caused by noise. There was a significant difference in the degree of annoyance due to both air pollution and noise depending on the area where the women lived and their working status. The degree of annoyance correlated better with measured NO 2 at the municipality level (air pollution: r=0.53; noise: r=0.44) than at the individual level (air pollution and noise: r=0.21). On multivariate analysis, being a housewife, higher NO 2 levels and high traffic density were associated with higher degrees of annoyance. ConclusionsThere was a high percentage of women who perceived medium-high annoyance due to noise and air pollution. Annoyance caused by environmental pollutants could lead to some psychological effects, which impair the quality of life, or even physiological ones, which affect prenatal development.

  7. Ambient air pollution and allergic diseases in children

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Byoung-Ju

    2012-01-01

    The prevalence of allergic diseases has increased worldwide, a phenomenon that can be largely attributed to environmental effects. Among environmental factors, air pollution due to traffic is thought to be a major threat to childhood health. Residing near busy roadways is associated with increased asthma hospitalization, decreased lung function, and increased prevalence and severity of wheezing and allergic rhinitis. Recently, prospective cohort studies using more accurate measurements of individual exposure to air pollution have been conducted and have provided definitive evidence of the impact of air pollution on allergic diseases. Particulate matter and ground-level ozone are the most frequent air pollutants that cause harmful effects, and the mechanisms underlying these effects may be related to oxidative stress. The reactive oxidative species produced in response to air pollutants can overwhelm the redox system and damage the cell wall, lipids, proteins, and DNA, leading to airway inflammation and hyper-reactivity. Pollutants may also cause harmful effects via epigenetic mechanisms, which control the expression of genes without changing the DNA sequence itself. These mechanisms are likely to be a target for the prevention of allergies. Further studies are necessary to identify children at risk and understand how these mechanisms regulate gene-environment interactions. This review provides an update of the current understanding on the impact of air pollution on allergic diseases in children and facilitates the integration of issues regarding air pollution and allergies into pediatric practices, with the goal of improving pediatric health. PMID:22745642

  8. Air pollution and population health: a global challenge.

    PubMed

    Chen, Bingheng; Kan, Haidong

    2008-03-01

    "Air pollution and population health" is one of the most important environmental and public health issues. Economic development, urbanization, energy consumption, transportation/motorization, and rapid population growth are major driving forces of air pollution in large cities, especially in megacities. Air pollution levels in developed countries have been decreasing dramatically in recent decades. However, in developing countries and in countries in transition, air pollution levels are still at relatively high levels, though the levels have been gradually decreasing or have remained stable during rapid economic development. In recent years, several hundred epidemiological studies have emerged showing adverse health effects associated with short-term and long-term exposure to air pollutants. Time-series studies conducted in Asian cities also showed similar health effects on mortality associated with exposure to particulate matter (PM), sulfur dioxide (SO(2)), nitrogen dioxide (NO(2)) and ozone (O(3)) to those explored in Europe and North America. The World Health Organization (WHO) published the "WHO Air Quality Guidelines (AQGs), Global Update" in 2006. These updated AQGs provide much stricter guidelines for PM, NO(2), SO(2) and O(3). Considering that current air pollution levels are much higher than the WHO-recommended AQGs, interim targets for these four air pollutants are also recommended for member states, especially for developing countries in setting their country-specific air quality standards. In conclusion, ambient air pollution is a health hazard. It is more important in Asian developing countries within the context of pollution level and population density. Improving air quality has substantial, measurable and important public health benefits. PMID:19568887

  9. Integration of a computational grid and virtual geographic environment to facilitate air pollution simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Bingli; Lin, Hui; Gong, Jianhua; Tang, Sammy; Hu, Ya; Nasser, Ibrahim Abdoul; Jing, Tao

    2013-04-01

    Air pollution, which is a global environmental problem, has been the hot research area among the scientists in the geoscience community. Air pollution simulation is of low-efficiency caused by the computation-intensive models, such as MM5 or WRF, and the complicated and unfriendly user interface. These issues are addressed in this paper by integrating computational grid and virtual geographic environment (VGE). The computational grid is employed to improve the computation efficiency of air pollution models. The VGE is used as a straightforward and easy to use interface to navigate the air pollution modeling workflow and improve the operational efficiencies of the models with respect to initiation, computation, and output visualization. On the aspect of technique implementation, this paper designs a framework and addresses the methodologies of the integration of computational grid and VGE. The prototype system, which integrates the computation grid of the Chinese University of Hong Kong (CUGrid) and a VGE to facilitate air pollution simulation based on the Mesoscale Model Version 5 (MM5), was developed. Based on the prototype system, a case was tested and the results indicate that the efficiencies of air pollution simulation on the model computation and workflow operation based on MM5 are increased significantly. This success also proves the reasonability of our general contribution of integrating computational grid and VGE to facilitate air pollution simulation.

  10. 40 CFR 63.60 - Deletion of caprolactam from the list of hazardous air pollutants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...caprolactam from the list of hazardous air pollutants. 63.60 Section 63.60...EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS FOR SOURCE CATEGORIES List of Hazardous Air Pollutants, Petitions Process,...

  11. 76 FR 42052 - National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants From Petroleum Refineries

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-18

    ...Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants From Petroleum Refineries AGENCY: Environmental Protection...Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants From Petroleum Refineries. EPA is now providing final...Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants From Petroleum Refineries, and the signed rule...

  12. 76 FR 26224 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, Northern Sonoma County Air Pollution...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-06

    ...Northern Sonoma County Air Pollution Control District (NSCAPCD...Northern Sonoma County Air Pollution Control District (NSCAPCD...and implement SIP- approved Prevention of Significant Deterioration...Northern Sonoma County Air Pollution Control District...

  13. Human exposure to urban air pollution.

    PubMed Central

    Boström, C E; Almén, J; Steen, B; Westerholm, R

    1994-01-01

    This study deals with some methods of making human exposure estimates, aimed at describing the human exposure for selected air pollutants in Sweden that are suspected carcinogens. Nitrogen oxides (NOx) have been chosen as an indicator substance for estimating the concentration of the urban plume. Earlier investigations have shown that the traffic in Swedish cities contributes around 85% to the measured NOx concentrations, and that most of the mutagenicity in urban air originates from traffic. The first section of this paper describes measurements in Stockholm of some unregulated light hydrocarbons, such as ethene, ethyne, propane, propene, butane, and isobutane. In addition, measurements of some volatile aromatic hydrocarbons are presented. Simultaneous measurements of carbon monoxide (CO) were made. The ratios between CO and the individual specific compounds were determined by linear regression analysis. By analysis of relationships between CO and NOx, NOx concentrations can be used as a tracer to describe the exposure for these specific compounds. NOx are considered to be a better tracer than CO, because NOx or NO2 values exist for many places over a long time, while CO is measured mostly in streets with high concentrations. At low concentrations, instruments that measure normal CO levels give no detectable signals. Through use of atmospheric dispersion models and models that describe how people live and work in urban areas it has been possible to describe the average exposure to NOx in cities of different sizes. The exposure to NOx for people living in the countryside has also been estimated. In this way, it has been possible to calculate the average exposure dose for NOx for the Swedish population. This figure is 23 micrograms/m3. By use of the relationships between NOx and specific compounds the average dose has been calculated for the following compounds: polyaromatic compounds (PAH); ethene, propene, and butadiene; benzene, toluene, and xylene; formaldehyde and actaldehyde; nickel, chromium (VI), arsenic, and cadmium; asbestos; and silicon. PMID:7821294

  14. Human health risks in megacities due to air pollution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gurjar, B. R.; Jain, A.; Sharma, A.; Agarwal, A.; Gupta, P.; Nagpure, A. S.; Lelieveld, J.

    2010-11-01

    This study evaluates the health risks in megacities in terms of mortality and morbidity due to air pollution. A new spreadsheet model, Risk of Mortality/Morbidity due to Air Pollution (Ri-MAP), is used to estimate the excess numbers of deaths and illnesses. By adopting the World Health Organization (WHO) guideline concentrations for the air pollutants SO 2, NO 2 and total suspended particles (TSP), concentration-response relationships and a population attributable-risk proportion concept are employed. Results suggest that some megacities like Los Angeles, New York, Osaka Kobe, Sao Paulo and Tokyo have very low excess cases in total mortality from these pollutants. In contrast, the approximate numbers of cases is highest in Karachi (15,000/yr) characterized by a very high concentration of total TSP (˜670 ?g m -3). Dhaka (7000/yr), Beijing (5500/yr), Karachi (5200/yr), Cairo (5000/yr) and Delhi (3500/yr) rank highest with cardiovascular mortality. The morbidity (hospital admissions) due to Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) follows the tendency of cardiovascular mortality. Dhaka and Karachi lead the rankings, having about 2100/yr excess cases, while Osaka-Kobe (˜20/yr) and Sao Paulo (˜50/yr) are at the low end of all megacities considered. Since air pollution is increasing in many megacities, and our database of measured pollutants is limited to the period up to 2000 and does not include all relevant components (e.g. O 3), these numbers should be interpreted as lower limits. South Asian megacities most urgently need improvement of air quality to prevent excess mortality and morbidity due to exceptionally high levels of air pollution. The risk estimates obtained from Ri-MAP present a realistic baseline evaluation for the consequences of ambient air pollution in comparison to simple air quality indices, and can be expanded and improved in parallel with the development of air pollution monitoring networks.

  15. Understanding Air Pollution and Cardiovascular Diseases: Is It Preventable?

    PubMed Central

    Morishita, Masako; Thompson, Kathryn C.

    2015-01-01

    Fine particulate matter (<2.5 µm, PM2.5) air pollution is a leading risk factor for morbidity and mortality worldwide. The largest portion of adverse health effects is from cardiovascular diseases. In North America, PM2.5 concentrations have shown a steady decline over the past several decades; however, the opposite trend has occurred throughout much of the developing world whereby daily concentrations commonly reach extraordinarily high levels. While air quality regulations can reduce air pollution at a societal level, what individuals can do to reduce their personal exposures remains an active field of investigation. Here, we review the emerging evidence that several interventions (e.g., air filters) and/or behavioral changes can lower PM pollution exposure and as such, may be capable of mitigating the ensuing adverse cardiovascular health consequences. Air pollution remains a worldwide epidemic and a multi-tiered prevention strategy is required in order to optimally protect global public health. PMID:26097526

  16. Air pollution and non-respiratory health hazards for children

    PubMed Central

    Poursafa, Parinaz

    2010-01-01

    Air pollution is a global health issue with serious public health implications, particularly for children. Usually respiratory effects of air pollutants are considered, but this review highlights the importance of non-respiratory health hazards. In addition to short-term effects, exposure to criteria air pollutants from early life might be associated with low birth weight, increase in oxidative stress and endothelial dysfunction, which in turn might have long-term effects on chronic non-communicable diseases. In view of the emerging epidemic of chronic disease in low- and middle- income countries, the vicious cycle of rapid urbanization and increasing levels of air pollution, public health and regulatory policies for air quality protection should be integrated into the main priorities of the primary health care system and into the educational curriculum of health professionals. PMID:22371790

  17. EPA's national performance audit program for ambient air pollution measurements

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. C. Rhodes; B. I. Bennett; J. C. Puzak

    1982-01-01

    With the implementation of the nation's Clean Air Act, the EPA assumed some responsibilities for the quality of air pollution measurements made throughout the nation. EPA's quality assurance responsibilities were delegated internally to the Office of Research and Development, and in turn, specifically for air measurements to the Environmental Monitoring Systems Laboratory (EMSL) at Research Triangle Park (RTP), North Carolina.

  18. Air quality interventions and spatial dynamics of air pollution in Delhi and its surroundings

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Naresh; Foster, Andrew D.

    2012-01-01

    The paper examines the spatial distribution of air pollution in response to recent air quality regulations in Delhi, India. Air pollution was monitored at 113 sites spread across Delhi and its surrounding areas from July–December 2003. From the analysis of these data three important findings emerge. First, air pollution levels in Delhi and its surroundings were significantly higher than that recommended by the World Health Organization (WHO). Second, air quality regulations in the city adversely affected the air quality of the areas surrounding Delhi. Third, industries and trucks were identified as the major contributors of both fine and coarse particles. PMID:23105916

  19. Air pollution and respiratory allergic diseases in schoolchildren

    PubMed Central

    Nicolussi, Francine Heloisa; dos Santos, Ana Paula Milla; André, Sílvia Carla da Silva; Veiga, Tatiane Bonametti; Takayanagui, Angela Maria Magosso

    2014-01-01

    Study on the prevalence of allergic respiratory diseases in schoolchildren between six and seven years old, associated with indicators of air pollution. A questionnaire based on the International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood was administered to parents of students from public schools, located in urban areas with differing vehicle flows. There was a positive correlation between monthly frequency of rhinitis and concentration of pollutants, and negative with relative air humidity. Even with levels of air pollutants below that allowed by law, the prevalence of asthma, rhinitis and associated symptoms tended to be higher in the central region school, where there is heavy vehicular traffic. PMID:24897055

  20. Air pollution exposure: Who is at high risk?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peled, Ronit

    2011-04-01

    This article reviews the sub-population groups who are at high risk and first to be harmed by air pollution coming from anthropogenic combustions. Epidemiological studies from the last few decades contributed to the understanding of the different levels of susceptibility to air pollution. Older people and young infants, people who suffer from allergies, pulmonary and heart diseases, pregnant women and newborn babies, and deprived populations that suffer from low socio-economic status have all been described as populations at risk. A better understanding of the role of air pollution on large as well as specific populations' health, will promote a better protection policy.

  1. Biochemical parameters of plants as indicators of air pollution.

    PubMed

    Tripathi, A K; Gautam, Mukesh

    2007-01-01

    In the present study species like Mangifera indica, Linn., Cassia fistula, Linn., and Eucalyptus hybrid were exposed to different air pollution load for short duration (active biomonitoring). Variation in biochemical parameters like chlorophyll, protein, soluble sugar free amino acid, ascorbic acid, nitrate reductase, superoxide dismutase and peroxidase in the leaves were found to be pollution load dependent. These variations can be used as indicators of air pollution for early diagnosis of stress or as a marker for physiological damage to trees prior to the onset of visible injury symptoms. Just by analyzing these biochemical indicators air quality can also be assessed. PMID:17717999

  2. Mortality and air pollution: is there a meaningful connection

    SciTech Connect

    Lipfert, F.W.

    1985-01-01

    Problems in determining the chronic effects of air pollution on health and mortality are discussed. Short-term effects studies, cross-sectional mortality studies, and time-series analyses are reviewed. It was concluded that although some portion of the SO/sub 2/-particulate air pollution affects daily mortality at high concentrations, there may be other important pollutants such as CO that have not been fully investigated; for chronic effects, experts do not agree. Better data and statistical methods are available to help determine whether the increased longevity in the western United States is due to life-style, ethnic stock, self-selection, or clean air. 32 references.

  3. Ongoing observational studies of the human health effects of particulate air pollution being conducted by New York University

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. D. Thurston; M. Lippmann

    1988-01-01

    Investigations of the association between ambient air pollution and adverse respiratory health effects in the general population are of continuing public health and policy interest. The question of air pollution health effects can be investigated by numerous avenues. Laboratory studies of animals offer the advantages of careful control over exposures and direct study of effects, but difficulties exist in extrapolating

  4. Air pollution as a risk factor in lung cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Vena, J.E.

    1982-07-01

    Retrospective data on residential and employment history and on smoking were obtained from 417 white male lung cancer patients and 752 controls with nonrespiratory, nonneoplastic diseases, from Erie County, New York, admitted to Roswell Park Memorial Institute from 1957-1965. Total suspended particulate data and a historical review of problem point sources of pollution were used to delineate air pollution zones. The findings did not support the hypothesis that air pollution alone significantly increased risk for lung cancer. However, there was increased risk from smoking and occupational exposures if there was also long-term exposure to air pollution. The risk for heavy smokers with heavy exposure to air pollution was over four times that of men with none of the high exposure traits. The findings suggest an apparent synergistic mechanism involving smoking and air pollution and smoking and occupational exposures. The findings are consistent with previous epidemiologic studies and with biologic and experimental evidence. The limitations of the methods used here necessitate further study and replication. However, the study indicates that air pollution should not be dismissed as a risk factor in lung cancer.

  5. 78 FR 12243 - Interim Final Determination To Stay and Defer Sanctions, Placer County Air Pollution Control...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-22

    ...Sanctions, Placer County Air Pollution Control District and Feather River Air Quality Management District AGENCY: Environmental...Placer County Air Pollution Control District (PCAPCD) and Feather River Air Quality Management District (FRAQMD) portion...

  6. Los Angeles air pollution and asthma in children

    SciTech Connect

    Richards, W.; Azen, S.P.; Weiss, J.; Stocking, S.; Church, J.

    1981-11-01

    Indices of air pollution, meteorological conditions and airborne allergens were correlated with emergency room census and hospitalizations for asthma at the Childrens Hospital of Los Angeles (CHLA) during a six-month period encompassing high and low periods of air pollution. In addition, patients in residence at the Sunair Home for Asthmatic Children (SHAC) were studied during a 10-day peak air pollution period. Increases in asthma emergency room visits and hospitalizations correlated significantly with increases in nitric oxide, coefficient of haze, hydrocarbons, Santa Ana wind conditions and total airborne allergen counts. Significant correlations were also found with decreases in ambient levels of O3, SO2, temperature and relative humidity. Among SHAC patients morning peak flow levels were significantly lower during the 10-day peak pollution period than during two control periods of low pollution. However, neither differences in clinical symptoms experienced by these patients nor their need for additional medication were observed.

  7. Characterization of ambient air pollution for stochastic health models

    SciTech Connect

    Batterman, S.A.

    1981-08-01

    This research is an analysis of various measures of ambient air pollution useful in cross-sectional epidemiological investigations and rick assessments. The Chestnut Ridge area health effects investigation, which includes a cross-sectional study of respiratory symptoms in young children, is used as a case study. Four large coal-fired electric generating power plants are the dominant pollution sources in this area of western Pennsylvania. The air pollution data base includes four years of sulfur dioxide and five years of total suspended particulate concentrations at seventeen monitors. Some 70 different characterizations of pollution are constructed and tested. These include pollutant concentrations at various percentiles and averaging times, exceedence measures which show the amount of time a specified threshold concentration is exceeded, and several dosage measures which transform non-linear dose-response relationships onto pollutant concentrations.

  8. CHARACTERIZATION OF INDOOR AND OUTDOOR AIR POLLUTION EXPOSURES AND SOURCES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Human exposures to indoor and outdoor pollutants vary depending on the sources and concentrations of pollutants as well as human behavioral factors that determine the extent of an individual's contact with indoor or outdoor pollutants. In general, the older populations spend more...

  9. Air Pollution Instrumentation: A Trend toward Physical Methods

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maugh, Thomas H., II

    1972-01-01

    Reviews reasons for the trend from wet chemical'' analytic techniques for measuring air pollutants toward physical methods based upon chemiluminescence, electrochemical transduction, flame ionization coupled with gas chromotography, and spectroscopy. (AL)

  10. PILOT STUDY OF AMBIENT AIR POLLUTION AND SURVIVAL FROM CANCER

    EPA Science Inventory

    The study was concerned with investigating the potential influence exerted by ambient concentrations of particulate and sulfur dioxide air pollutants upon the length of survival for diagnosed cancer patients. Monitoring data from the National Aerometric Data Bank for particulates...

  11. A Report by the NEHA Air Pollution Committee

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirkpatrick, Lane

    1972-01-01

    Transportation controls to reduce air pollution are elaborated. These include: traffic control, parking restrictions, retrofit systems, testing and inspection, gaseous fuel systems, improved public transportation, and work schedule changes. (BL)

  12. OFFICE EQUIPMENT: DESIGN, INDOOR AIR EMISSIONS, AND POLLUTION PREVENTION OPPORTUNITIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report summarizes available information on office equipment design; indoor air emissions of organics, ozone, and particulates from office equipment; and pollution prevention approaches for reducing these emissions. Since much of the existing emissions data from office equipme...

  13. COMPARISON OF BIOINIDICATORS OF EXPOSURE TO GENOTOXIC INDOOR AIR POLLUTANTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Human exposure to complex mixtures of genotoxic indoor air pollutants can be assessed using several different bioanalytical methods. xternal exposure can be assessed using micromutagenesis methods to measure human exposure to mutagens. nternal exposure and dose can be assessed us...

  14. ENVIRONMENTAL TECHNOLOGY VERIFICATION FOR AIR POLLUTION CONTROL TECHNOLOGIES: FINAL REPORT

    EPA Science Inventory

    The technical objective of the Environmental Technology Verification (ETV) Program's Air Pollution Control Technology (APCT) Center is to verify environmental technology performance by obtaining objective quality-assured data, thus providing potential purchasers and permitters wi...

  15. VERIFICATION TESTING OF AIR POLLUTION CONTROL TECHNOLOGY QUALITY MANAGEMENT PLAN

    EPA Science Inventory

    This document is the basis for quality assurance for the Air Pollution Control Technology Verification Center (APCT Center) operated under the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). It describes the policies, organizational structure, responsibilities, procedures, and qualit...

  16. The Influence of Meteorological Conditions on Air Pollution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campbell, N. A.; Gipps, J.

    1975-01-01

    Explains the distribution of air pollutants as related to such meteorological conditions as temperature inversions, ground inversion, and wind velocity. Uses a power station to illustrate the effect of some of the meteorological conditions mentioned. (GS)

  17. An air pollution trajectory model for Southeast Texas

    E-print Network

    Walters, Tamera Ann

    1996-01-01

    al. 1994). A hybrid Eulerian-Lagrangian model was optimized to examine the southeast Texas coastal region for high ozone development. Verification of the optinuzed air pollution model was performed by a case study for a day with high ozone...

  18. Seasonal variation of air pollution index: Hong Kong case study.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xie-Kang; Lu, Wei-Zhen

    2006-05-01

    Air pollution is an important and popular topic in Hong Kong as concerns have been raised about the health impacts caused by vehicle exhausts in recent years. In Hong Kong, sulphur dioxide SO2, nitrogen dioxide (NO2), nitric oxide (NO), carbon monoxide (CO), and respirable suspended particulates (RSP) are major air pollutants caused by the dominant usage of diesel fuel by goods vehicles and buses. These major pollutants and the related secondary pollutant, e.g., ozone (O3), become and impose harmful impact on human health in Hong Kong area after the northern shifting of major industries to Mainland China. The air pollution index (API), a referential parameter describing air pollution levels, provides information to enhance the public awareness of air pollutions in time series since 1995. In this study, the varying trends of API and the levels of related air pollutants are analyzed based on the database monitored at a selected roadside air quality monitoring station, i.e., Causeway Bay, during 1999-2003. Firstly, the original measured pollutant data and the resultant APIs are analyzed statistically in different time series including daily, monthly, seasonal patterns. It is found that the daily mean APIs in seasonal period can be regarded as stationary time series. Secondly, the auto-regressive moving average (ARMA) method, implemented by Box-Jenkins model, is used to forecast the API time series in different seasonal specifications. The performance evaluations of the adopted models are also carried out and discussed according to Bayesian information criteria (BIC) and root mean square error (RMSE). The results indicate that the ARMA model can provide reliable, satisfactory predictions for the problem interested and is expecting to be an alternative tool for practical assessment and justification. PMID:16325232

  19. Evaluation of some air pollution indicators in Turkey.

    PubMed

    Elbir, T; Müezzino?lu, A; Bayram, A

    2000-08-01

    This article intends to shed a light on air quality in Turkey and compare air pollutant emissions on a national scale with that of the European countries. In order to estimate the quantities of Turkish emissions in the past and their future predictions, a national emission inventory was prepared with respect to five major pollutants consisting of particulate matter(PM), SOx, NOx, non-methane volatile organic compounds, and CO with 5-year intervals between 1985 and 2005. The results suggest that Turkey is a rather large emission source at the European scale, although emission indicators on unit area and per capita were shown to be somewhat smaller in magnitude. Levels of air pollution in some of the big cities in Turkey were also evaluated from available national monitoring data. These evaluations for the urban air qualities covered SO2 and PM parameters between 1986 and 1996, and results were compared with the present Turkish air quality limits, their probable revisions, WHO (Europe) guidelines and related EC directives. Results showed that the air quality limits were not met, especially during the winter periods in Turkish cities. Urban air pollutants characterizing the air in Turkish cities other than SO2 and PM, however, could not have been evaluated as these pollutants were not systematically monitored in these cities. PMID:11345738

  20. Measurement of inflammation and oxidative stress following drastic changes in air pollution during the Beijing Olympics: a panel study approach.

    PubMed

    Kipen, Howard; Rich, David; Huang, Wei; Zhu, Tong; Wang, Guangfa; Hu, Min; Lu, Shou-en; Ohman-Strickland, Pamela; Zhu, Ping; Wang, Yuedan; Zhang, Jim Junfeng

    2010-08-01

    Ambient air pollution has been linked to cardiovascular and respiratory morbidity and mortality in epidemiology studies. Frequently, oxidative and nitrosative stress are hypothesized to mediate these pollution effects, however precise mechanisms remain unclear. This paper describes the methodology for a major panel study to examine air pollution effects on these and other mechanistic pathways. The study took place during the drastic air pollution changes accompanying the 2008 Olympics in Beijing, China. After a general description of air pollution health effects, we provide a discussion of panel studies and describe the unique features of this study that make it likely to provide compelling results. This study should lead to a clearer and more precise definition of the role of oxidative and nitrosative stress, as well as other mechanisms, in determining acute morbidity and mortality from air pollution exposure. PMID:20716299

  1. Outdoor Air Pollution, Low Birth Weight, and Prematurity

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Martin Bobak

    2000-01-01

    This study tested the hypothesis, suggested by several recent reports, that air pollution may increase the risk of adverse birth outcomes. This study analyzed all singleton live births registered by the Czech national birth register in 1991 in 67 districts where at least one pollutant was moni- tored in 1990-1991 (n = 108,173). Maternal exposures to sulfur dioxide (SO2), total

  2. Air pollution and daily mortality in Rome, Italy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. Michelozzi; F. Forastiere; D. Fusco; C. A. Perucci; B. Ostro; C. Ancona; G. Pallotti

    1998-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To assess the relation between several daily indicators of air pollution (particulates and gases) and daily mortality in the metropolitan area of Rome and in the central part of the city. METHODS: Time series analysis. The associations between daily concentrations of pollutants (particles, SO2, NO2, CO, O3) recorded by five fixed monitors and daily total mortality in the period

  3. Infrared Photography as an Air Pollution Surveillance Instrument

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Casalinuovo, Anthony F.; Sawan, Alan

    1976-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the practicality of infrared photographic analysis to air pollution agencies, by the detection of plant damage from pollutants before they are visually identifiable. Results showed that photomicrographic imaging using infrared radiation should be considered a viable surveillance tool in similiar…

  4. ANALYTICAL DIFFUSION MODEL FOR LONG DISTANCE TRANSPORT OF AIR POLLUTANTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    A steady-state two-dimensional diffusion model suitable for predicting ambient air pollutant concentrations averaged over a long time period (e.g., month, season, or year) and resulting from the transport of pollutants for distances greater than about 100 km from the source is de...

  5. Air Pollution Assessing Total Exposure in the United States

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kirk R. Smith

    1988-01-01

    In recent years air pollution science has been undergoing two revolutions as the result of shifts of perception in the volumetric scale on which important adverse impacts occur. One revolution has come about because of the realization that some pollutants produce impacts at an extremely large scale. The second revolution is the result of the growing realization that the health

  6. Measuring the damages of air pollution in the United States

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nicholas Z. Muller; Robert Mendelsohn

    2007-01-01

    This paper measures the damages due to emissions of air pollution in the United States. An integrated assessment model is used to calculate the marginal damage associated with emitting an additional ton of pollution from nearly 10,000 sources in the U.S. The total damage produced by a source is the marginal damage of an emission, its shadow price, times the

  7. Australians are not equally protected from industrial air pollution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dobbie, B.; Green, D.

    2015-05-01

    Australian air pollution standards are set at national and state levels for a number of chemicals harmful to human health. However, these standards do not need to be met when ad hoc pollution licences are issued by state environment agencies. This situation results in a highly unequal distribution of air pollution between towns and cities, and across the country. This paper examines these pollution regulations through two case studies, specifically considering the ability of the regulatory regime to protect human health from lead and sulphur dioxide pollution in the communities located around smelters. It also considers how the proposed National Clean Air Agreement, once enacted, might serve to reduce this pollution equity problem. Through the case studies we show that there are at least three discrete concerns relating to the current licencing system. They are: non-onerous emission thresholds for polluting industry; temporal averaging thresholds masking emission spikes; and ineffective penalties for breaching licence agreements. In conclusion, we propose a set of new, legally-binding national minimum standards for industrial air pollutants must be developed and enforced, which can only be modified by more (not less) stringent state licence arrangements.

  8. AIR POLLUTION AND FOREST ECOSYSTEMS: A REGIONAL TO GLOBAL PERSPECTIVE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Changes in atmospheric concentrations of a number of air pollutants over the last century are hallmarks of the magnitude and extent of human impact on the environment. ome of these changes are important to ecologists because many pollutants, acting singly or in combination, affec...

  9. URBAN AIR POLLUTION IN CHINA: Current Status, Characteristics, and Progress

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kebin He; Hong Huo; Qiang Zhang

    2002-01-01

    Abstract China is rapidly developing as evidenced by enhanced urbanization and industrialization and greatly increased energy consumption. However, these have brought Chinese cities a variety of urban air pollution problems in recent decades. During the 1970s, black smoke from stacks became the characteristic of Chinese industrial cities; in the 1980s, many southern cities began to suffer serious acid rain pollution;

  10. STRATEGIES TO IDENTIFY BIOACTIVE SUBSTANCES IN COMPLEX AIR POLLUTANT MIXTURES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Both indoor and outdoor air contains a very complex mixture of gas and particulate matter (PM) pollutants. The assessment of the role of each pollutant in the complex atmosphere in the induction of an associated health effect or a response can be difficult due to many factors, i...

  11. USER'S GUIDE FOR HIWAY-2. A HIGHWAY AIR POLLUTION MODEL

    EPA Science Inventory

    A computer model, called HIWAY-2, can be used to estimate the concentrations of nonreactive pollutants from highway traffic. This steady-state Gaussian model can be applied to determine air pollution concentrations at receptor locations downwind of 'at-grade' and 'cut section' hi...

  12. Toxic Atmospheres Air Pollution, Trade and the Politics of Regulation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Reece Walters

    2010-01-01

    Air is an essential ingredient for all living things and its properties influence the quality and longevity of life. When\\u000a polluted, it is estimated that it causes the annual premature death of millions of people and the world-wide damage and destruction\\u000a of wildlife and natural habitats. This article examines human-made air pollution within a framework of ‘eco-crime’ and Green\\u000a Criminology.

  13. Ambient air pollution and respiratory health effects in mail carriers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Karakatsani; F. Kapitsimadis; M. Pipikou; M. C. Chalbot; I. G. Kavouras; D. Orphanidou; S. Papiris; K. Katsouyanni

    2010-01-01

    Mail carriers represent an occupational group suffering from respiratory symptoms and lung function impairment. Although environmental conditions may play role, information on the effects of air pollution exposure in this population is lacking.The present study was conducted in Athens, Greece, in order to investigate the adverse effects of long-term air pollution exposure on respiratory outcomes in mail carriers.A total of

  14. Air pollution in autoimmune rheumatic diseases: a review.

    PubMed

    Farhat, Sylvia C L; Silva, Clovis A; Orione, Maria Angelica M; Campos, Lucia M A; Sallum, Adriana M E; Braga, Alfésio L F

    2011-11-01

    Air pollution consists of a heterogeneous mixture of gasses and particles that include carbon monoxide, nitrates, sulfur dioxide, ozone, lead, toxic by-product of tobacco smoke and particulate matter. Oxidative stress and inflammation induced by inhaled pollutants may result in acute and chronic disorders in the respiratory system, as well as contribute to a state of systemic inflammation and autoimmunity. This paper reviews the mechanisms of air contaminants influencing the immune response and autoimmunity, and it focuses on studies of inhaled pollutants triggering and/or exacerbating rheumatic diseases in cities around the world. Remarkably, environmental factors contribute to the onset of autoimmune diseases, especially smoking and occupational exposure to silica in rheumatoid arthritis and systemic lupus erythematosus. Other diseases such as scleroderma may be triggered by the inhalation of chemical solvents, herbicides and silica. Likewise, primary vasculitis associated with anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibody (ANCA) may be triggered by silica exposure. Only few studies showed that air pollutants could trigger or exacerbate juvenile idiopathic arthritis and systemic lupus erythematosus. In contrast, no studies of tropospheric pollution triggering inflammatory myopathies and spondyloarthropathies were carried out. In conclusion, air pollution is one of the environmental factors involved in systemic inflammation and autoimmunity. Further studies are needed in order to evaluate air pollutants and their potentially serious effects on autoimmune rheumatic diseases and the mechanisms involved in the onset and the exacerbation of these diseases. PMID:21763467

  15. Influence of air pollution on extrinsic childhood asthma

    SciTech Connect

    Berciano, F.A.; Dominguez, J.; Alvarez, F.V.

    1989-02-01

    A crossed comparative study was done with 248 extrinsic asthmatic children living either in polluted or non-polluted areas (mean emission per year of sedimentary material greater than or less than 300 mg/m2/day, respectively) to establish the influence of air pollution on childhood extrinsic asthma. The mean number of wheezing crises per year was significantly higher for the children living in polluted areas (10.4 versus 7.69). In addition, incidence of severe asthma (types II, III, and IV) in children living in polluted areas was markedly increased whereas the slight form of asthma (type I) was more frequent in children living in non-polluted areas. No correlation, however, between the wheezing episodes and levels of atmospheric contaminants (fumes and SO/sub 2/) was detected when a group of 84 extrinsic asthmatic children living in polluted areas was studied longitudinally for a year. The data indicate that air pollution, as an isolated agent, plays a transient role in the appearance of wheezing episodes in subjects with extrinsic asthma. Results also suggest that the air pollution may potentiate wheezing episodes via alternative mechanisms.

  16. Respiratory Health Effects of Air Pollution: Update on Biomass Smoke and Traffic Pollution

    PubMed Central

    Laumbach, Robert J.; Kipen, Howard M.

    2012-01-01

    Mounting evidence suggests that air pollution contributes to the large global burden of respiratory and allergic diseases including asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, pneumonia and possibly tuberculosis. Although associations between air pollution and respiratory disease are complex, recent epidemiologic studies have led to an increased recognition of the emerging importance of traffic-related air pollution in both developed and less-developed countries, as well as the continued importance of emissions from domestic fires burning biomass fuels primarily in the less-developed world. Emissions from these sources lead to personal exposures to complex mixtures of air pollutants that change rapidly in space and time due to varying emission rates, distances from source, ventilation rates, and other factors. Although the high degree of variability in personal exposure to pollutants from these sources remains a challenge, newer methods for measuring and modeling these exposures are beginning to unravel complex associations with asthma and other respiratory disease. These studies indicate that air pollution from these sources is a major preventable cause of increased incidence and exacerbation of respiratory disease. Physicians can help to reduce the risk of adverse respiratory effects of exposure to biomass and traffic air pollutants by promoting awareness and supporting individual and community-level interventions. PMID:22196520

  17. Respiratory health effects of air pollution: update on biomass smoke and traffic pollution.

    PubMed

    Laumbach, Robert J; Kipen, Howard M

    2012-01-01

    Mounting evidence suggests that air pollution contributes to the large global burden of respiratory and allergic diseases, including asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, pneumonia, and possibly tuberculosis. Although associations between air pollution and respiratory disease are complex, recent epidemiologic studies have led to an increased recognition of the emerging importance of traffic-related air pollution in both developed and less-developed countries, as well as the continued importance of emissions from domestic fires burning biomass fuels, primarily in the less-developed world. Emissions from these sources lead to personal exposures to complex mixtures of air pollutants that change rapidly in space and time because of varying emission rates, distances from source, ventilation rates, and other factors. Although the high degree of variability in personal exposure to pollutants from these sources remains a challenge, newer methods for measuring and modeling these exposures are beginning to unravel complex associations with asthma and other respiratory tract diseases. These studies indicate that air pollution from these sources is a major preventable cause of increased incidence and exacerbation of respiratory disease. Physicians can help to reduce the risk of adverse respiratory effects of exposure to biomass and traffic air pollutants by promoting awareness and supporting individual and community-level interventions. PMID:22196520

  18. Ambient air pollution exposure and the incidence of related health effects among racial/ethnic minorities

    SciTech Connect

    Nieves, L.A.; Wernette, D.R.

    1997-02-01

    Differences among racial and ethnic groups in morbidity and mortality rates for diseases, including diseases with environmental causes, have been extensively documented. However, documenting the linkages between environmental contaminants, individual exposures, and disease incidence has been hindered by difficulties in measuring exposure for the population in general and for minority populations in particular. After briefly discussing research findings on associations of common air pollutants with disease incidence, the authors summarize recent studies of radial/ethnic subgroup differences in incidence of these diseases in the US. They then present evidence of both historic and current patterns of disproportionate minority group exposure to air pollution as measured by residence in areas where ambient air quality standards are violated. The current indications of disproportionate potential exposures of minority and low-income populations to air pollutants represent the continuation of a historical trend. The evidence of linkage between disproportionate exposure to air pollution of racial/ethnic minorities and low-income groups and their higher rates of some air pollution-related diseases is largely circumstantial. Differences in disease incidence and mortality rates among racial/ethnic groups are discussed for respiratory diseases, cancers, and lead poisoning. Pollutants of concern include CO, Pb, SO{sub 2}, O{sub 3}, and particulates.

  19. Time scale effects in acute association between air-pollution and mortality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valari, Myrto; Martinelli, Lucio; Chatignoux, Edouard; Crooks, James; Garcia, Valerie

    2011-05-01

    We used wavelet analysis and generalized additive models (GAM) to study timescale effects in the acute association between mortality and air-pollution. Daily averages of measured NO2 concentrations in the metropolitan Paris area are used as indicators of human exposure to urban air pollution from 2000 to 2004. The NO2 time series was decomposed with wavelet analysis to six independent variables representing different durations of population exposure. We used these variables as predictors in a mortality regression model and compared the coefficients estimated for the different timescales. We found a strong dependency of the exposure-response function on the duration of the air-pollution event. In contrast to previous studies that showed a monotone increase in the relationship between exposure to air-pollution and mortality from shorter to longer timescales, our results show a non-linear response suggesting that the overall acute effect consists of two discrete patterns: a short-term response (2 to 15 days) where mortality relative risks decrease to near null values with the duration of the air-pollution event; an intermediate timescale pattern (16 to 55 days) where mortality relative risk climbs back up to positive levels. The revealed pattern suggests that the overall acute effect of air-pollution on mortality reflects not only a short-term mortality displacement in a population already at high death risk due to chronic conditions but also the transition into this pool from the healthy population.

  20. REMOTE FOURIER TRANSFORM INFRARED AIR POLLUTION STUDIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    A commercial Fourier transform infrared interferometer system has been installed in a van and used to make longpath absorption and single-ended emission measurements of gaseous pollutant concentrations at a variety of pollutant sources. The interferometer system is described and ...

  1. Patterns of household concentrations of multiple indoor air pollutants in China.

    PubMed

    He, Gongli; Ying, Bo; Liu, Jiang; Gao, Shirong; Shen, Shaolin; Balakrishnan, Kalpana; Jin, Yinlong; Liu, Fan; Tang, Ning; Shi, Kai; Baris, Enis; Ezzati, Majid

    2005-02-15

    Most previous studies on indoor air pollution from household use of solid fuels have used either indirect proxies for human exposure or measurements of individual pollutants at a single point, as indicators of (exposure to) the mixture of pollutants in solid fuel smoke. A heterogeneous relationship among pollutant-location pairs should be expected because specific fuel-stove technology and combustion and dispersion conditions such as temperature, moisture, and air flow are likely to affect the emissions and dispersion of the various pollutants differently. We report on a study for monitoring multiple pollutants--including respirable particles (RPM), carbon monoxide, sulfur dioxide, fluoride, and arsenic--at four points inside homes that used coal and/or biomass fuels in Guizhou and Shaanxi provinces of China. All pollutants exhibited large variability in emissions and spatial dispersion within and between provinces and were generally poorly correlated. RPM, followed by SO2, was generally higher than common health-based guidelines/standards and provided sufficient resolution for assessing variations within and between households in both provinces. Indoor heating played an important role in the level and spatial patterns of pollution inside homes, possibly to an extent more important than cooking. The findings indicate the need for monitoring of RPM and selected other pollutants in longer-term health studies, with focus on both cooking and living/sleeping areas. PMID:15773470

  2. Modelling air pollution abatement in deep street canyons by means of air scrubbers

    E-print Network

    De Giovanni, Marina; Avveduto, Alessandro; Pace, Lorenzo; Salisburgo, Cesare Dari; Giammaria, Franco; Monaco, Alessio; Spanto, Giuseppe; Tripodi, Paolo

    2015-01-01

    Deep street canyons are characterized by weak ventilation and recirculation of air. In such environment, the exposure to particulate matter and other air pollutants is enhanced, with a consequent worsening of both safety and health. The main solution adopted by the international community is aimed at the reduction of the emissions. In this theoretical study, we test a new solution: the removal of air pollutants close to their sources by a network of Air Pollution Abatement (APA) devices. The APA technology depletes gaseous and particulate air pollutants by a portable and low-consuming scrubbing system, that mimics the processes of wet and dry deposition. We estimate the potential pollutant abatement efficacy of a single absorber by Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) method. The presence of the scrubber effectively creates an additional sink at the bottom of the canyon, accelerating its cleaning process by up to 70%, when an almost perfect scrubber (90% efficiency) is simulated. The efficacy of absorber is not...

  3. Near-source air pollution and mitigation strategies

    EPA Science Inventory

    Abstract. Local-scale air pollution impact is of concern for populations located in close proximity to transit sources, including highway, port, rail, and other areas of concentrated diesel emissions. Previous near-road air monitoring research has prompted the U.S. EPA to implem...

  4. Community Scale Estimation of Toxic Air Pollutants from Stationary Sources

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Linda Tombras Smith; Todd Sax; Richard Bode; Dale Shimp

    The California Air Resources Board (ARB) has initiated a number of research and outreach activities to address environmental justice issues in California communities. As part of this effort, the ARB is developing technical guidelines to assess the cumulative impact of air pollution at the community level. To develop the tools required for the guidelines, a case study was initiated in

  5. METEOROLOGY APPLIED TO URBAN AIR POLLUTION PROBLEMS COST 715

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bernard Fisher; Jaakko Kukkonen; Michael Schatzmann

    The requirements of the framework Directive on air quality assessment and management introduce real practical problems for the meteorological community. Some of the meteorological variables needed in urban air pollution assessments are not routinely measured and in normal circumstances the number of meteorological stations in urban areas is limited to a few sites often just at airports. The European wide

  6. Diagnosis of ambient air pollution injury to red maple leaves

    Microsoft Academic Search

    1981-01-01

    Ramets of red maple, Acer rubrum L. (cv 'Scarlet Sentinel') were grown under ambient field conditions for 5 months (May-Sept) in either clean air (i.e. minimum background of ozone (Oâ) and sulfur dioxide (SOâ)) or were grown in polluted air containing phytotoxic combinations of Oâ and SOâ. At the end of the growing season leaf samples from each site were

  7. Linking Air, Land, and Water Pollution for Effective Environmental Management

    EPA Science Inventory

    Since the passage of the National Environmental Policy Act in 1970, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, other federal agencies, and the states have made substantial progress in improving the Nation?s air and water quality. Traditionally, the air, land, and water pollution ...

  8. APPLICABILITY OF CANISTER SAMPLING FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report evaluates the applicability of sampling with evacuated canisters for volatile organic compounds listed among the 189 Hazardous Air Pollutants (HAPS) in the 1990 US Clean Air Act Amendments. early 100 HAPs have sufficient vapor pressure to be considered volatile compoun...

  9. MODERN METHODS TO MEASURE AIR POLLUTANTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper discusses the requirements for the collection and analysis of ambient particles to satisfy data requirements for source and receptor models as applied to pollution control applications. The paper describes the following analytical procedures as applied to receptor model...

  10. Ambient air pollution exposure and blood pressure changes during pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Pei-Chen; Talbott, Evelyn O.; Roberts, James M.; Catov, Janet M.; Bilonick, Richard A.; Stone, Roslyn A.; Sharma, Ravi K.; Ritz, Beate

    2013-01-01

    Background Maternal exposure to ambient air pollution has been associated with adverse birth outcomes such as preterm delivery. However, only one study to date has linked air pollution to blood pressure changes during pregnancy, a period of dramatic cardiovascular function changes. Objectives We examined whether maternal exposures to criteria air pollutants, including particles of less than 10 µm (PM10) or 2.5 µm diameter (PM2.5), carbon monoxide (CO), nitrogen dioxide (NO2), sulfur dioxide (SO2), and ozone (O3), in each trimester of pregnancy are associated with magnitude of rise of blood pressure between the first 20 weeks of gestation and late pregnancy in a prospectively followed cohort of 1684 pregnant women in Allegheny County, PA. Methods Air pollution measures for maternal ZIP code areas were derived using Kriging interpolation. Using logistic regression analysis, we evaluated the associations between air pollution exposures and blood pressure changes between the first 20 weeks of gestation and late pregnancy. Results First trimester PM10 and ozone exposures were associated with blood pressure changes between the first 20 weeks of gestation and late pregnancy, most strongly in non-smokers. Per interquartile increases in first trimester PM10 and O3 concentrations were associated with mean increases in systolic blood pressure of 1.88 mmHg (95% CI = 0.84 to 2.93) and 1.84 (95% CI = 1.05 to 4.63), respectively, and in diastolic blood pressure of 0.63 mmHg (95% CI= ?0.50 to 1.76) and 1.13 (95% CI= ?0.46 to 2.71) in non-smokers. Conclusions Our novel finding suggests that first trimester PM10 and O3 air pollution exposures increase blood pressure in the later stages of pregnancy. These changes may play a role in mediating the relationships between air pollution and adverse birth outcomes. PMID:22835955

  11. Controlled Exposures to Air Pollutants and Risk of Cardiac Arrhythmia

    PubMed Central

    Watts, Simon J.; Hunter, Amanda J.; Shah, Anoop S.V.; Bosson, Jenny A.; Unosson, Jon; Barath, Stefan; Lundbäck, Magnus; Cassee, Flemming R.; Donaldson, Ken; Sandström, Thomas; Blomberg, Anders; Newby, David E.; Mills, Nicholas L.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Epidemiological studies have reported associations between air pollution exposure and increases in cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Exposure to air pollutants can influence cardiac autonomic tone and reduce heart rate variability, and may increase the risk of cardiac arrhythmias, particularly in susceptible patient groups. Objectives: We investigated the incidence of cardiac arrhythmias during and after controlled exposure to air pollutants in healthy volunteers and patients with coronary heart disease. Methods: We analyzed data from 13 double-blind randomized crossover studies including 282 participants (140 healthy volunteers and 142 patients with stable coronary heart disease) from whom continuous electrocardiograms were available. The incidence of cardiac arrhythmias was recorded for each exposure and study population. Results: There were no increases in any cardiac arrhythmia during or after exposure to dilute diesel exhaust, wood smoke, ozone, concentrated ambient particles, engineered carbon nanoparticles, or high ambient levels of air pollution in either healthy volunteers or patients with coronary heart disease. Conclusions: Acute controlled exposure to air pollutants did not increase the short-term risk of arrhythmia in participants. Research employing these techniques remains crucial in identifying the important pathophysiological pathways involved in the adverse effects of air pollution, and is vital to inform environmental and public health policy decisions. Citation: Langrish JP, Watts SJ, Hunter AJ, Shah AS, Bosson JA, Unosson J, Barath S, Lundbäck M, Cassee FR, Donaldson K, Sandström T, Blomberg A, Newby DE, Mills NL. 2014. Controlled exposures to air pollutants and risk of cardiac arrhythmia. Environ Health Perspect 122:747–753;?http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/ehp.1307337 PMID:24667535

  12. Algal layer ratios as indicators of air pollutant effects in Permelia sulcata

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bennett, J.P.

    2002-01-01

    Parmelia sulcata Taylor is generally believed to be fairly pollution tolerant, and consequently it is sometimes collected in urban and/or polluted localities. The condition of these specimens, however, is not always luxuriant and healthy. This study tested the hypothesis that total thallus and algal layer thickness, and the algal layer ratio would be thinner in polluted areas, thus allowing these characters to be used a indicators of air pollutant effects. Herbarium specimens were studied from 16 different localities varying in pollution level. The thallus and algal layers and ratio were not affected by year or locality of sampling, but decreased 11, 31 and 21% respectively between low and high pollution level localities. These results agreed with earlier studies using other species, but further work is needed to clarify the effects of geography and substrate on these phenomena.

  13. Development of wireless sensor network for monitoring indoor air pollutant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saad, Shaharil Mad; Shakaff, Ali Yeon Md; Saad, Abdul Rahman Mohd; Yusof @ Kamarudin, Azman Muhamad

    2015-05-01

    The air that we breathe with everyday contains variety of contaminants and particles. Some of these contaminants and particles are hazardous to human health. Most of the people don't realize that the content of air they being exposed to whether it was a good or bad air quality. The air quality whether in indoor or outdoor environment can be influenced by physical factors like dust particles, gaseous pollutants (including carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide and volatile organic compounds) and biological like molds and bacteria growth which largely depend on temperature and humidity condition of a room. These kinds of pollutants can affect human health, physical reaction, comfort or work performance. In this study, a wireless sensor network (WSN) monitoring system for monitor air pollutant in indoor environment was developed. The system was divided into three parts: web-based interface program, sensing module and a base station. The measured data was displayed on the web which is can be accessed by the user. The result shows that the overall measured parameters were meet the acceptable limit, requirement and criteria of indoor air pollution inside the building. The research can be used to improve the indoor air quality level in order to create a comfortable working and healthy environment for the occupants inside the building.

  14. Short-term Associations between Ambient Air Pollutants and Pediatric Asthma Emergency Department Visits

    PubMed Central

    Strickland, Matthew J.; Darrow, Lyndsey A.; Klein, Mitchel; Flanders, W. Dana; Sarnat, Jeremy A.; Waller, Lance A.; Sarnat, Stefanie E.; Mulholland, James A.; Tolbert, Paige E.

    2010-01-01

    Rationale: Certain outdoor air pollutants cause asthma exacerbations in children. To advance understanding of these relationships, further characterization of the dose–response and pollutant lag effects are needed, as are investigations of pollutant species beyond the commonly measured criteria pollutants. Objectives: Investigate short-term associations between ambient air pollutant concentrations and emergency department visits for pediatric asthma. Methods: Daily counts of emergency department visits for asthma or wheeze among children aged 5 to 17 years were collected from 41 Metropolitan Atlanta hospitals during 1993–2004 (n = 91,386 visits). Ambient concentrations of gaseous pollutants and speciated particulate matter were available from stationary monitors during this time period. Rate ratios for the warm season (May to October) and cold season (November to April) were estimated using Poisson generalized linear models in the framework of a case-crossover analysis. Measurements and Main Results: Both ozone and primary pollutants from traffic sources were associated with emergency department visits for asthma or wheeze; evidence for independent effects of ozone and primary pollutants from traffic sources were observed in multipollutant models. These associations tended to be of the highest magnitude for concentrations on the day of the emergency department visit and were present at relatively low ambient concentrations. Conclusions: Even at relatively low ambient concentrations, ozone and primary pollutants from traffic sources independently contributed to the burden of emergency department visits for pediatric asthma. PMID:20378732

  15. Recent trends of energy consumption and air pollution in China

    SciTech Connect

    Tian, H.Z.; Hao, J.M.; Hu, M.Y.; Nie, Y.F. [Tsing Hua University, Beijing (China). Inst. of Environmental Science & Engineering

    2007-03-15

    The relationship between air pollution and energy consumption is a hot topic that is receiving increased attention by industry, regulatory agencies, as well as the public. China is currently undergoing a profound economic and social transition. Since the late 1990s, China's energy production and consumption have undergone an unexpectedly precipitous up-and-down fluctuation, and the related air pollution has changed dramatically. In this study, energy use and the related air pollution during the past years are analyzed and discussed in detail. Further, suggestions on sustainable energy use, air pollution control, as well as CO{sub 2}, abatement are proposed. By 2003, the total primary energy consumption of China had reached 1678.00 million tons (MT) of standard coal equivalent. As a result, emissions of SO{sub 2}, and NOx increased to 21.58 and 16.13 MT in 2003, respectively. Acid rain pollution worsened nationwide after 2000, with the areas of acid rain remaining stable while some seriously acid rain polluted areas worsened. This implies that more rigorous regulations, standards, and effective economic policies are needed.

  16. 40 CFR 63.62 - Redefinition of glycol ethers listed as hazardous air pollutants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...2013-07-01 false Redefinition of glycol ethers listed as hazardous air pollutants...List § 63.62 Redefinition of glycol ethers listed as hazardous air pollutants. The following definition of the glycol ethers category of hazardous air...

  17. 40 CFR 63.62 - Redefinition of glycol ethers listed as hazardous air pollutants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...2012-07-01 false Redefinition of glycol ethers listed as hazardous air pollutants...List § 63.62 Redefinition of glycol ethers listed as hazardous air pollutants. The following definition of the glycol ethers category of hazardous air...

  18. 40 CFR 63.62 - Redefinition of glycol ethers listed as hazardous air pollutants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...2014-07-01 false Redefinition of glycol ethers listed as hazardous air pollutants...List § 63.62 Redefinition of glycol ethers listed as hazardous air pollutants. The following definition of the glycol ethers category of hazardous air...

  19. 75 FR 67676 - Delegation of National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Source Categories...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-03

    ...Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Source Categories; State of Nevada; Clark County Department of Air Quality and Environmental Management...emission standards for hazardous air pollutants (NESHAP) to Clark County,...

  20. Corruption and air pollution in Europe.

    PubMed

    Ivanova, Kate

    2011-01-01

    This paper examines how the effectiveness of regulatory framework influences levels of sulphur emissions in a scenario where, to reduce its (emission-) tax payments, a polluting firm may under-report emissions level at the risk of being audited and fined. First, a model to explain how changes in regulatory framework (e.g., audit effectiveness) and transboundary spillovers affect both actual and reported emissions is developed. Then the theoretical predictions using data for 39 European countries from 1999 to 2003 are tested and inferences about true emission levels are made. The empirical analysis supports the theoretical predictions with significant implications for the interpretation of pollution data reported to international monitoring agencies. Countries with effective regulation are likely to have relatively high reported emissions of sulphur. But this should not automatically be interpreted as weak environmental performance, because their actual pollution levels are likely to be lower than in nations with less effective regulation. PMID:21141644

  1. China's international trade and air pollution in the United States.

    PubMed

    Lin, Jintai; Pan, Da; Davis, Steven J; Zhang, Qiang; He, Kebin; Wang, Can; Streets, David G; Wuebbles, Donald J; Guan, Dabo

    2014-02-01

    China is the world's largest emitter of anthropogenic air pollutants, and measurable amounts of Chinese pollution are transported via the atmosphere to other countries, including the United States. However, a large fraction of Chinese emissions is due to manufacture of goods for foreign consumption. Here, we analyze the impacts of trade-related Chinese air pollutant emissions on the global atmospheric environment, linking an economic-emission analysis and atmospheric chemical transport modeling. We find that in 2006, 36% of anthropogenic sulfur dioxide, 27% of nitrogen oxides, 22% of carbon monoxide, and 17% of black carbon emitted in China were associated with production of goods for export. For each of these pollutants, about 21% of export-related Chinese emissions were attributed to China-to-US export. Atmospheric modeling shows that transport of the export-related Chinese pollution contributed 3-10% of annual mean surface sulfate concentrations and 0.5-1.5% of ozone over the western United States in 2006. This Chinese pollution also resulted in one extra day or more of noncompliance with the US ozone standard in 2006 over the Los Angeles area and many regions in the eastern United States. On a daily basis, the export-related Chinese pollution contributed, at a maximum, 12-24% of sulfate concentrations over the western United States. As the United States outsourced manufacturing to China, sulfate pollution in 2006 increased in the western United States but decreased in the eastern United States, reflecting the competing effect between enhanced transport of Chinese pollution and reduced US emissions. Our findings are relevant to international efforts to reduce transboundary air pollution. PMID:24449863

  2. Air pollutant intrusion into the Wieliczka Salt Mine

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Salmon, L.G.; Cass, G.R.; Kozlowski, R.; Hejda, A.; Spiker, E. C.; Bates, A.L.

    1996-01-01

    The Wieliczka Salt Mine World Cultural Heritage Site contains many rock salt sculptures that are threatened by water vapor condensation from the mine ventilation air. Gaseous and particulate air pollutant concentrations have been measured both outdoors and within the Wieliczka Salt Mine, along with pollutant deposition fluxes to surfaces within the mine. One purpose of these measurements was to determine whether or not low deliquescence point ionic materials (e.g., NH4NO3) are accumulating on surfaces to an extent that would exacerbate the water vapor condensation problems in the mine. It was found that pollutant gases including SO2 and HNO3 present in outdoor air are removed rapidly and almost completely from the air within the mine by deposition to surfaces. Sulfur isotope analyses confirm the accumulation of air pollutant-derived sulfur in liquid dripping from surfaces within the mine. Particle deposition onto interior surfaces in the mine is apparent, with resulting soiling of some of those sculptures that have been carved from translucent rock salt. Water accumulation by salt sculpture surfaces was studied both experimentally and by approximate thermodynamic calculations. Both approaches suggest that the pollutant deposits on the sculpture surfaces lower the relative humidity (RH) at which a substantial amount of liquid water will accumulate by 1% to several percent. The extraordinarily low SO2 concentrations within the mine may explain the apparent success of a respiratory sanatorium located deep within the mine.

  3. AIR POLLUTION, INFLAMMATION AND PRETERM BIRTH: A POTENTIAL MECHANISTIC LINK

    PubMed Central

    Vadillo-Ortega, Felipe; Osornio-Vargas, Alvaro; Buxton, Miatta A.; Sánchez, Brisa N.; Rojas-Bracho, Leonora; Viveros-Alcaráz, Martin; Castillo-Castrejón, Marisol; Beltrán-Montoya, Jorge; Brown, Daniel G.; O´Neill, Marie S.

    2014-01-01

    Preterm birth is a public health issue of global significance, which may result in mortality during the perinatal period or may lead to major health and financial consequences due to lifelong impacts. Even though several risk factors for preterm birth have been identified, prevention efforts have failed to halt the increasing rates of preterm birth. Epidemiological studies have identified air pollution as an emerging potential risk factor for preterm birth. However, many studies were limited by study design and inadequate exposure assessment. Due to the ubiquitous nature of ambient air pollution and the potential public health significance of any role in causing preterm birth, a novel focus investigating possible causal mechanisms influenced by air pollution is therefore a global health priority. We hypothesize that air pollution may act together with other biological factors to induce systemic inflammation and influence the duration of pregnancy. Evaluation and testing of this hypothesis is currently being conducted in a prospective cohort study in Mexico City and will provide an understanding of the pathways that mediate the effects of air pollution on preterm birth. The important public health implication is that crucial steps in this mechanistic pathway can potentially be acted on early in pregnancy to reduce the risk of preterm birth. PMID:24382337

  4. Effects of air pollution on neonatal prematurity in guangzhou of china: a time-series study

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Over the last decade, a few studies have investigated the possible adverse effects of ambient air pollution on preterm birth. However, the correlation between them still remains unclear, due to insufficient evidences. Methods The correlation between air pollution and preterm birth in Guangzhou city was examined by using the Generalized Additive Model (GAM) extended Poisson regression model in which we controlled the confounding factors such as meteorological factors, time trends, weather and day of the week (DOW). We also adjusted the co linearity of air pollutants by using Principal Component Analysis. The meteorological data and air pollution data were obtained from the Meteorological Bureau and the Environmental Monitoring Centre, while the medical records of newborns were collected from the perinatal health database of all obstetric institutions in Guangzhou, China in 2007. Results In 2007, the average daily concentrations of NO2, PM10 and SO2 in Guangzhou, were 61.04, 82.51 and 51.67 ?g/m3 respectively, where each day an average of 21.47 preterm babies were delivered. Pearson correlation analysis suggested a negative correlation between the concentrations of NO2, PM10, SO2, and temperature as well as relative humidity. As for the time-series GAM analysis, the results of single air pollutant model suggested that the cumulative effects of NO2, PM10 and SO2 reached its peak on day 3, day 4 and day 3 respectively. An increase of 100 ?g/m3 of air pollutants corresponded to relative risks (RRs) of 1.0542 (95%CI: 1.0080 ~1.1003), 1.0688 (95%CI: 1.0074 ~1.1301) and 1.1298 (95%CI: 1.0480 ~1.2116) respectively. After adjusting co linearity by using the Principal Component Analysis, the GAM model of the three air pollutants suggested that an increase of 100 ?g/m3 of air pollutants corresponded to RRs of 1.0185 (95%CI: 1.0056~1.0313), 1.0215 (95%CI: 1.0066 ~1.0365) and 1.0326 (95%CI: 1.0101 ~1.0552) on day 0; and RRs of the three air pollutants, at their strongest cumulative effects, were 1.0219 (95%CI: 1.0053~1.0386), 1.0274 (95%CI: 1.0066~1.0482) and 1.0388 (95%CI: 1.0096 ~1.0681) respectively. Conclusions This study indicates that the daily concentrations of air pollutants such as NO2, PM10 and SO2 have a positive correlation with the preterm births in Guangzhou, China. PMID:21214958

  5. RESEARCH OVERVIEW: SOURCES OF INDOOR AIR POLLUTANTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper briefly traces the history of air quality problems in residential, office, and public access buildings to show the evolution of indoor air quality (IAQ) concerns. It then briefly discusses sources of IAQ problems--both known and suspected--then reviews the current state...

  6. Air Pollution Issues of the 1990's 

    E-print Network

    Myers, J. C.

    1989-01-01

    by the private sector in any long range plans. Although several options and directions are possible for inclusion in a new clean air bill, three issues are virtually certain to occupy prominent positions in any new legislation. These issues are acid rain, air...

  7. Something in the Air: Air Pollution in Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Villaire, Ted

    2002-01-01

    Discusses the danger of unhealthy air in the school environment, describing common problems and how parents and schools can respond. The article focuses on the dangers of mold, pesticides, diesel exhaust, and radon. The three sidebars describe how to promote indoor air quality at school, note how to determine whether the school's air is making…

  8. POLLUTION PREVENTION RESEARCH FOR ORGANIC AIR EMISSIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper gives an overview of the U.S. EPA's pollution prevention (P2) research in three areas: (1) Surface Coating, such as wood furniture finishing, printing, and the use of adhesives and radiation-cured coatings; (2) Solvent Cleaning, such as vapor degreasing, process equipme...

  9. Air Pollution Aspects of Odorous Compounds.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sullivan, Ralph J.

    This report deals with the less ubiquitous, but potentially harmful, contaminants that are in our atmosphere. Thirty such pollutants have been identified and available information has been summarized in a series of reports describing their sources, distribution, effects, and control technology for their abatement. A total of 27 reports have been…

  10. Laser spectroscopic detection of air pollutants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hinkley, E. D.

    1978-01-01

    A brief review is presented of the operating principles and applications of laser systems for monitoring pollution based on absorption spectroscopy. Particular consideration is given to an active bistatic system involving a cooperative reflector; an active monostatic system involving natural reflectors; an active monostatic system involving aerosol backscattering; and passive monostatic heterodyne detection.

  11. RELATIVE TOXICITY OF AIR POLLUTION MIXTURES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The proposed study will differentiate the health effects of components of multi-pollutant exposure mixtures. We expect to add to our understanding of the exposure- response relationship, the interaction between particulate matter and photochemical gases, and the extent to whic...

  12. Air pollution directional risk assessment for siting a landfill.

    PubMed

    Chen, Wei-Yea; Kao, Jehng-Jung

    2008-12-01

    Air pollution directional risk (APDR) is an essential factor to be assessed when selecting an appropriate landfill site. Because air pollutants generated from a landfill are diffused and transported by wind in different directions and speeds, areas surrounding the landfill will be subject to different associated risks, depending on their relative position from the landfill. This study assesses potential APDRs imposed from a candidate landfill site on its adjacent areas on the basis of the pollutant distribution simulated by a dispersion model, wind directions and speeds from meteorological monitoring data, and population density. A pollutant distribution map layer was created using a geographic information system and layered onto a population density map to obtain an APDR map layer. The risk map layer was then used in this study to evaluate the suitability of a candidate site for placing a landfill. The efficacy of the proposed procedure was demonstrated for a siting problem in central Taiwan, Republic of China. PMID:19189752

  13. Diagnosis of ambient air pollution injury to red maple leaves

    SciTech Connect

    Krause, C.R.

    1981-01-01

    Ramets of red maple, Acer rubrum L. (cv 'Scarlet Sentinel') were grown under ambient field conditions for 5 months (May-Sept) in either clean air (i.e. minimum background of ozone (O/sub 3/) and sulfur dioxide (SO/sub 2/)) or were grown in polluted air containing phytotoxic combinations of O/sub 3/ and SO/sub 2/. At the end of the growing season leaf samples from each site were fixed in glutaraldehyde, washed in buffer (3X) post-fixed in O/sub s/O/sub 4/, dehydrated in ethanol and critically-point-dried. Samples were fractured with a razor blade, mounted either abaxially or adaxially or in cross-section, and sputter-coated with Au. While plants from either site failed to exhibit macroscopic air pollutant-induced symptoms, SEM examination revealed significant microscopic differences between prepared samples from different sites. Epidermal cells of leaves grown in clean air were uniformly turgid with fluffy epicuticular wax. Leaf samples from ramets that were grown in polluted air exhibited collapsed epidermal cells and lacked fluffy epicuticular wax. Cross-sections revealed increased vesicular activity in leaf mesophyll cells of plants exposed to high ambient pollution while cells of plants grown in clean air appeared normal. 10 references, 6 figures.

  14. THE PITTSBURGH AIR POLLUTION EPISODE OF NOVEMBER 17-21 1975: AIR QUALITY

    EPA Science Inventory

    In November 1975 a serious air stagnation problem developed over Western Pennsylvania, with extremely heavy air pollution in the Pittsburgh area. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's Health Effects Research Laboratory (HERL) mobilized a team of air monitoring and epidemiolo...

  15. CONCENTRATIONS OF TOXIC AIR POLLUTANTS IN THE U.S. SIMULATED BY AN AIR QUALITY MODEL

    EPA Science Inventory

    As part of the US National Air Toxics Assessment, we have applied the Community Multiscale Air Quality Model, CMAQ, to study the concentrations of twenty gas-phase, toxic, hazardous air pollutants (HAPs) in the atmosphere over the continental United States. We modified the Carbo...

  16. Mobile Air Monitoring Data Processing Strategies and Effects on Spatial Air Pollution Trends

    EPA Science Inventory

    The collection of real-time air quality measurements while in motion (i.e., mobile monitoring) is currently conducted worldwide to evaluate in situ emissions, local air quality trends, and air pollutant exposure. This measurement strategy pushes the limits of traditional data an...

  17. Ecological effects of nitrogen and sulfur air pollution in the US: what do we know?

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Greaver, Tara L.; Sullivan, Timothy J.; Herrick, Jeffrey D.; Barber, Mary C.; Baron, Jill S.; Cosby, Bernard J.; Deerhake, Marion E.; Dennis, Robin L.; Dubois, Jean-Jacque B.; Goodale, Christine L.; Herlihy, Alan T.; Lawrence, Gregory B.; Liu, Lingli; Lynch, Jason A.; Novak, Kristopher J.

    2012-01-01

    Four decades after the passage of the US Clean Air Act, air-quality standards are set to protect ecosystems from damage caused by gas-phase nitrogen (N) and sulfur (S) compounds, but not from the deposition of these air pollutants to land and water. Here, we synthesize recent scientific literature on the ecological effects of N and S air pollution in the US. Deposition of N and S is the main driver of ecosystem acidification and contributes to nutrient enrichment in many natural systems. Although surface-water acidification has decreased in the US since 1990, it remains a problem in many regions. Perturbations to ecosystems caused by the nutrient effects of N deposition continue to emerge, although gas-phase concentrations are generally not high enough to cause phytotoxicity. In all, there is overwhelming evidence of a broad range of damaging effects to ecosystems in the US under current air quality conditions.

  18. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease secondary to household air pollution.

    PubMed

    Assad, Nour A; Balmes, John; Mehta, Sumi; Cheema, Umar; Sood, Akshay

    2015-06-01

    Approximately 3 billion people around the world cook and heat their homes using solid fuels in open fires and rudimentary stoves, resulting in household air pollution. Household air pollution secondary to indoor combustion of solid fuel is associated with multiple chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) outcomes. The exposure is associated with both chronic bronchitis and emphysema phenotypes of COPD as well as a distinct form of obstructive airway disease called bronchial anthracofibrosis. COPD from household air pollution differs from COPD from tobacco smoke with respect to its disproportionately greater bronchial involvement, lesser emphysematous change, greater impact on quality of life, and possibly greater oxygen desaturation and pulmonary hypertensive changes. Interventions that decrease exposure to biomass smoke may decrease the risk for incident COPD and attenuate the longitudinal decline in lung function, but more data on exposure-response relationships from well-designed longitudinal studies are needed. PMID:26024348

  19. Air Pollution Control Using Fuzzy Process Capability Indices in the Six-Sigma Approach

    Microsoft Academic Search

    ?hsan Kaya; Cengiz Kahraman

    2009-01-01

    The World Health Organization estimates that 4.6 million people die each year from causes directly attributable to air pollution. Air pollution damages people, environment, animals, and other components of natural life. It has a high risk priority for the world. Recent studies focus on pollution and other risks for humanity. They propose different solutions to prevent air pollution. In this

  20. Does Particulate Air Pollution Contribute to Infant Death? A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Glinianaia, Svetlana V.; Rankin, Judith; Bell, Ruth; Pless-Mulloli, Tanja; Howel, Denise

    2004-01-01

    There is now substantial evidence that both short- and long-term increases in ambient air pollution are associated with increased mortality and morbidity in adults and children. Children’s health is particularly vulnerable to environmental pollution, and infant mortality is still a major contributor to childhood mortality. In this systematic review we summarize and evaluate the current level of epidemiologic evidence of an association between particulate air pollution and infant mortality. We identified relevant publications using database searches with a comprehensive list of search terms and other established search methods. We included articles in the review according to specified inclusion criteria. Fifteen studies met our inclusion criteria. Evidence of an association between particulate air pollution and infant mortality in general was inconsistent, being reported from locations with largely comparable pollution levels. There was some evidence that the strength of association with particulate matter differed by subgroups of infant mortality. It was more consistent for post-neonatal mortality due to respiratory causes and sudden infant death syndrome. Differential findings for various mortality subgroups within studies suggest a stronger association of particulate air pollution with some causes of infant death. Research is needed to confirm and clarify these links, using the most appropriate methodologies for exposure assessment and control of confounders. PMID:15471726

  1. Meteorological potential for urban air pollution in the contiguous United States

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Holzworth

    1970-01-01

    This study delineates some general but important features of the meteorological potential for air pollution in small and large cities throughout the contiguous United States. The potential is evaluated by means of a simple model of dispersion over urban areas in which theoretical concentrations are a function of mixing height, wind speed, and city size (along-wind distance across city). Mixing

  2. Associations between respiratory illness and PM{sub 10} air pollution

    SciTech Connect

    Choudhury, A.H. [Univ. of Alaska, Anchorage, AK (United States); Gordian, M.E.; Morris, S.S. [Municipality of Anchorage, AK (United States)

    1997-03-01

    In this study, the association between daily morbidity and respirable particulate pollution (i.e., particles with a mass median aerodynamic diameter of {le} 10 microns [PM{sub 10}]) was evaluated in the general population of Anchorage, Alaska. Using insurance claims data for state employees and their dependents who lived in Anchorage, Alaska, the authors determined the number of medical visits for asthma, bronchitis, and upper respiratory infections. The number of visits were related to the level of particulate pollution in ambient air measured at air-monitoring sites. 17 refs., 2 figs., 4 tabs.

  3. Temporal variability of air-pollutants over Abu Dhabi, UAE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghedira, H.; Ben Romdhane, H.; Beegum S, N.

    2013-12-01

    Air quality, the measure of the concentrations of gaseous pollutants and size or number of particulate matter, is one of the most important problems worldwide and has strong implications on human health, ecosystems, as well as regional and global climate. The levels of air pollutants such as sulphur dioxide (SO2), particulate matters (PM10, PM2.5), Ozone (O3), Nitrogen dioxide (NO2), Carbon monoxide (CO), etc. show an alarming increase in urban cities across the world and in many cases, the concentrations have grown well above the World Health Organization's guidelines for ambient air-quality standards. Here, we present the periodic fluctuations observed in the concentrations of air pollutants such as SO2, NO2, O3, CO, H2S, NMHC (Non methane Hydro Carbon) and VOC (volatile organic compounds) based on the measurements collected during the period 2008-2010 at Masdar City, Abu Dhabi (24.42oN, 54.61oE, 7m MSL). The measurements were carried out using an Air Quality Monitoring System (AQM60). All these pollutant species showed statistical periodic: diurnal, monthly, seasonal and annual variations. Diurnally, all the species, except ozone, depicted an afternoon low and nighttime/early morning high, attributed to the dynamics of the local atmospheric boundary layer. Whereas, an opposite pattern with daytime high and nighttime low was observed for O3, as the species is formed in the troposphere by catalytic photochemical reactions of NOx with CO, CH4 and other VOCs. Seasonally, the pollutants depicted higher values during summer and relatively lower values during winter, associated with changes in synoptic airmass types and/or removal processes. Concentrations of all the gaseous pollutants are within the National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) throughout the year, whereas the PM10 often exceeded the limits, especially during dust storm episodes.

  4. Daily concentrations of air pollution and plasma fibrinogen in London

    PubMed Central

    Pekkanen, J; Brunner, E; Anderson, H; Tiittanen, P; Atkinson, R

    2000-01-01

    OBJECTIVES—The reason for the association between air pollution and risk of cardiovascular diseases is unknown. The hypothesis was examined that daily concentrations of air pollution are associated with daily concentrations of fibrinogen, a risk factor for cardiovascular disease.?METHODS—Data on concentrations of plasma fibrinogen for 4982 male and 2223 female office workers, collected in a cross sectional survey in London between September 1991 and May 1993, were combined with data on concentrations of air pollution during the day of blood sampling and during the 3 preceding days.?RESULTS—After adjustment for weather and other confounding factors, an increase in the 24 hour mean NO2 during the previous day from the 10th to the 90th percentile (61.7 µg/m3) was associated with a 1.5% (95% confidence interval (95% CI) 0.4% to 2.5%) higher fibrinogen concentration. The respective increase for CO (1.6 mg/m3) was 1.5% (95% CI 0.5%, 2.5%). These associations tended to be stronger in the warm season (April to September). Significant associations were found for black smoke and particulate matter of diameter 10 µm (PM10) only in the warm season. No association with fibrinogen was found for SO2 or ozone.?CONCLUSIONS—The short term association between air pollution, possibly from traffic, and risk of cardiovascular events may be at least partly mediated through increased concentrations of plasma fibrinogen, possibly due to an inflammatory reaction caused by air pollution.???Keywords: air pollution; fibrinogen; haemostatic factors PMID:11077010

  5. OUTDOOR AIR POLLUTION AND DNA DAMAGE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Although working outdoors has frequently been considered more healthful than working indoors, a growing literature suggests that outdoor air exposures increase the risk for a variety of diseases, such as asthma, heart disease, and lung cancer). Consistent with these epidemiologic...

  6. Framing air pollution epidemiology in terms of population interventions, with applications to multi-pollutant modeling

    PubMed Central

    Snowden, Jonathan M.; Reid, Colleen E.; Tager, Ira B.

    2015-01-01

    Air pollution epidemiology continues moving toward the study of mixtures and multi-pollutant modeling. Simultaneously, there is a movement in epidemiology to estimate policy-relevant health effects that can be understood in reference to specific interventions. Scaling regression coefficients from a regression model by an interquartile range (IQR) is one common approach to presenting multi-pollutant health effect estimates. We are unaware of guidance on how to interpret these effect estimates as an intervention. To illustrate the issues of interpretability of IQR-scaled air pollution health effects, we analyzed how daily concentration changes in two air pollutants (NO2 and PM2.5; nitrogen dioxide and particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter ? 2.5?m) related to one another within two seasons (summer and winter), within three cities with distinct air pollution profiles (Burbank, California; Houston, Texas; and Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania). In each city-season, we examined how realistically IQR-scaling in multipollutant lag-1 time-series studies reflects a hypothetical intervention that is possible given the observed data. We proposed 2 causal conditions to explicitly link IQR-scaled effects to a clearly defined hypothetical intervention. Condition 1 specified that the index pollutant had to experience a daily concentration change of greater than one IQR, reflecting the notion that the IQR is an appropriate measure of variability between consecutive days. Condition 2 specified that the co-pollutant had to remain relatively constant. We found that in some city-seasons, there were very few instances in which these conditions were satisfied (e.g., 1 day in Pittsburgh during summer). We discuss the practical implications of IQR scaling and suggest alternative approaches to presenting multi-pollutant effects that are supported by empirical data. PMID:25643106

  7. Air pollution effects on the gut microbiota

    PubMed Central

    Salim, Saad Y; Kaplan, Gilaad G; Madsen, Karen L

    2014-01-01

    Global incidence rates for inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) have gradually risen over the past 20 years. Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified over 160 genetic loci associated with IBD; however, inherited factors only account for a partial contribution to the disease risk. We have recently shown that urban airborne particulate matter (PM) ingested via contaminated food can alter gut microbiome and immune function under normal and inflammatory conditions. In this addendum, we will discuss how PM can modify the gut microbial form and function, provide evidence on changes seen in intestinal barrier, and suggest a working hypothesis of how pollutants affect the gastrointestinal tract. The significance of the work presented could lead to identifying airborne pollutants as potential risk factors and thus provide better patient care management. PMID:24637593

  8. Prediction of asthma exacerbations among children through integrating air pollution, upper atmosphere, and school health surveillances.

    PubMed

    Jayawardene, Wasantha Parakrama; Youssefagha, Ahmed Hassan; Lohrmann, David Kurt; El Afandi, Gamal Salah

    2013-01-01

    Climatic factors and air pollution are important in predicting asthma exacerbations among children. This study was designed to determine if a relationship exists between asthma exacerbations among elementary school children and the combined effect of daily upper atmosphere observations (temperature, relative humidity, dew point, and mixing ratio) and daily air pollution (particulate matter, sulfur dioxide, nitrogen dioxide, carbon monoxide, and ozone) and, if so, to predict asthma exacerbations among children using a mathematical model. Using an ecological study design, school health records of 168,825 students in elementary schools enrolled in "Health eTools for Schools" within 49 Pennsylvania counties were analyzed. Data representing asthma exacerbations were originally recorded by school nurses as the type of treatment given to a student during a clinic visit on a particular day. Daily upper atmosphere measurements from ground level to the 850-mb pressure level and air pollution measurements were obtained. A generalized estimating equation model was used to predict the occurrence of >48 asthma exacerbations, the daily mean for 2008-2010. The greatest occurrence of asthma among school children was in the fall, followed by summer, spring, and winter. Upper atmosphere temperature, dew point, mixing ratio, and six air pollutants as well as their interactions predicted the probability of asthma exacerbations occurring among children. Monitoring of upper atmosphere observation data and air pollutants over time can be a reliable means for predicting increases of asthma exacerbations among elementary school children. Such predictions could help parents and school officials implement effective precautionary measures. PMID:23406925

  9. Respiratory effects of air pollution on allergic disease

    SciTech Connect

    Pierson, W.E.; Koenig, J.Q. (Department of Pediatrics, University of Washington, Seattle (United States))

    1992-10-01

    Allergic patients have an increased susceptibility to the adverse effects of both natural and man-made air pollutants. This goes for both indoor and outdoor air pollutants and manifests itself with biochemical, cellular, and pathophysiologic expressions of adverse health effects in allergic individuals. Also occupationally induced allergic diseases will remain very important. This area has been reviewed recently by Cullen et al. Since allergic patients comprise somewhere between 15% and 20% of the population, this increased susceptibility is of crucial importance not only for medical care and research but for legislative and regulatory consideration to protect these vulnerable individuals.108 references.

  10. The Outdoor Air Pollution and Brain Health Workshop

    PubMed Central

    Block, Michelle L.; Elder, Alison; Auten, Rick L.; Bilbo, Staci D.; Chen, Honglei; Chen, Jiu-Chiuan; Cory-Slechta, Deborah A.; Costa, Daniel; Diaz-Sanchez, David; Dorman, David C.; Gold, Diane; Gray, Kimberly; Jeng, Hueiwang Anna; Kaufman, Joel D.; Kleinman, Michael T.; Kirshner, Annette; Lawler, Cindy; Miller, David S.; Nadadur, Sri; Ritz, Beate; Semmens, Erin O.; Tonelli, Leonardo H.; Veronesi, Bellina; Wright, Robert O.; Wright, Rosalind

    2013-01-01

    Accumulating evidence suggests that outdoor air pollution may have a significant impact on central nervous system (CNS) health and disease. To address this issue, the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences/National Institute of Health convened a panel of research scientists that was assigned the task of identifying research gaps and priority goals essential for advancing this growing field and addressing an emerging human health concern. Here, we review recent findings that have established the effects of inhaled air pollutants in the brain, explore the potential mechanisms driving these phenomena, and discuss the recommended research priorities/approaches that were identified by the panel. PMID:22981845

  11. Air compliance through pollution prevention at Air Force Materiel Command facilities.

    SciTech Connect

    Kolpa, R.; Ryckman, S.J. Jr.; Smith, A.E.

    1999-03-19

    Options for air compliance through pollution prevention (P2) have been identified at 14 facilities of the US Air Force Materiel Command, ranging from depots with significant light industrial activity to laboratories. Previous P2 efforts concentrated on reducing hazardous and solid wastes, with any reduction in air impacts generally being a collateral benefit. This work focused on reducing air emissions and air compliance vulnerabilities. P2 options were identified in three stages. First, potentially applicable P2 options were identified from Internet and published information. Attention was given to identifying the types of sources to which an option could be applied, the option's state of development, and constraints that could limit its application. Traditional P2 options involving technology or equipment changes and material substitution were considered. In addition, newer approaches based on administrative ''controls'' were considered. These included inserting P2 into operating permits in exchange for administrative relief, privatization, derating boilers, and reducing an installation's potential to emit and compliance vulnerability by separating sources not under the Air Force's ''common control.'' Next, criteria and toxic emissions inventories by source category were prepared from inventory data supplied by facilities. The major problems at this stage were differences in the levels of detail provided by facilities and in the categories used by different installations. Emitting categories were matched to P2 option categories to identify candidate options. Candidates were screened to account for local regulations and technical information about sources in the inventories. When possible, emission reductions were estimated to help facility personnel prioritize options. Some options identified are being actively pursued by facilities to determine their site-specific feasibility. Although much work has been done to implement material substitution programs, this work indicates that different priorities and additional opportunities might result from using air emissions and compliance vulnerability as driving metrics.

  12. Particulate air pollution and hospitalization for asthma

    SciTech Connect

    Tseng, R.Y.; Li, C.K.; Spinks, J.A. (Department of Pediatrics, Chinese University, Prince of Wales Hospital, Shatin, N.T., (Hong Kong))

    1992-05-01

    Age-specific quarterly asthmatic hospital discharge rates in Hong Kong during 1983 to 1989 were examined in relation to mean levels of six pollutants: sulfur dioxide (SO2), ozone (O3), total suspended particles (TSP), respiratory suspended particles (RSP), nitrogen dioxide (NO2), and nitrogen oxides (NOX). Discharges from the hospital of children under 14 years of age represented 56% of 33,952 discharges recorded in all age groups. Trends of adult hospitalization rates over time remained stable during the study period. In children, however, there was an increase in these rates, particularly marked in the age group of 1 to 4 years. Univariate analysis revealed a strong correlation between quarterly mean TSP and hospital discharge rate for the 1 to 4-year-old children (r = .62, P less than .001). In the 5 to 14-year-old age group, there was an inverse relationship between hospital discharge rate and sulfur dioxide level (r = -.38, P less than .05). Stepwise multiple regression analysis, controlling for confounding variables (seasonal and annual trends of asthma hospitalizations) confirmed these relationships. A highly significant linear regression equation was derived between hospitalization rate for ages 1 to 4 years and total suspended particles (P less than .001). The highly significant correlation between pollution and asthmatic hospitalization rate for the 1 to 4-year-old group suggests that young children are vulnerable to the adverse environmental effects of pollution. Auditing these relationships offers a logical basis for approaching control.

  13. Carcinogenicity of ambient air pollution: use of biomarkers, lessons learnt and future directions

    PubMed Central

    Vineis, Paolo

    2015-01-01

    The association between ambient air pollution (AAP) exposure and lung cancer risk has been investigated in prospective studies and the results are generally consistent, indicating that long-term exposure to air pollution can cause lung cancer. Biomarkers can enhance research on the health effects of air pollution by improving exposure assessment, increasing the understanding of mechanisms, and enabling the investigation of individual susceptibility. In this review, we assess DNA adducts as biomarkers of exposure to AAP and early biological effect, and DNA methylation as biomarker of early biological change and discuss critical issues arising from their incorporation in AAP health impact evaluations, such as confounding, individual susceptibilities, timing, intensity and duration of exposure, and investigated tissue. DNA adducts and DNA methylation are treated as paradigms. However, the lessons, learned from their use in the examination of AAP carcinogenicity, can be applied to investigations of other biomarkers involved in AAP carcinogenicity. PMID:25694819

  14. Outdoor air pollution and emergency room visits at a hospital in Delhi.

    PubMed

    Pande, J N; Bhatta, Narendra; Biswas, Dilip; Pandey, Ravindra M; Ahluwalia, Gautam; Siddaramaiah, Naveen H; Khilnani, G C

    2002-01-01

    Several reports from large metropolitan cities have indicated significant association between acute morbidity and mortality from cardio-respiratory disorders and daily levels of major pollutants in the ambient air. Despite the wide-spread public concern about the adverse health effects of air pollution, there is substantial uncertainty regarding the effects of these pollutants at a concentration typical of Delhi, which is one of the ten most polluted cities in the world and the most polluted city in India. This study was undertaken to correlate the daily levels of various pollutants with the number of patients visiting the All India Institute of Medical Sciences (AIIMS, New Delhi) casualty for aggravation of certain defined cardiorespiratory disorders. Daily counts of patients visiting the emergency room of the AIIMS for acute asthma, acute exacerbation of chronic obstructive airway disease (COAD) and acute coronary event was obtained in prospective manner from January 1997 to December 1998. Daily mean levels of ambient CO, NOx and SO2 were monitored along with temperature and humidity. Data was analysed using one day time lag for events of interest. Time series analysis was undertaken using Poisson regression and population averaged general estimation equation, correcting for auto-correlation, days of the weak and season. The ambient levels of pollutants exceeded the national air quality standards on most of the days, over the two year period. Further, emergency room visits for asthma, COAD and acute coronary events increased by 21.30%, 24.90% and 24.30% respectively on account of higher than acceptable levels of pollutants. It is concluded that there is considerable burden of cardiorespiratory diseases in Delhi due to high levels of ambient air pollution. PMID:11845928

  15. Malondialdehyde in exhaled breath condensate and urine as a biomarker of air pollution induced oxidative stress

    PubMed Central

    Gong, Jicheng; Zhu, Tong; Kipen, Howard; Wang, Guangfa; Hu, Min; Ohman-Strickland, Pamela; Lu, Shou-En; Zhang, Lin; Wang, Yuedan; Zhu, Ping; Rich, David Q.; Diehl, Scott R.; Huang, Wei; Zhang, Junfeng (Jim)

    2014-01-01

    Underlying mechanisms by which air pollutants adversely affect human health remain poorly understood. Oxidative stress has been considered as a potential mechanism that may promote lipid peroxidation by reactive oxygen species, leading to the formation of malondialdehyde (MDA) that is excreted in biofluids (e.g., urine and exhaled breath condensate (EBC)). A panel study was conducted to examine whether concentrations of MDA in EBC and urine were associated, respectively, with changes in air pollution levels brought by the Beijing Olympic air pollution control measures. EBC and urine samples from 125 healthy adults were collected twice in each of the pre-, during-, and post-Olympic periods. Period-specific means of MDA and changes in MDA levels associated with increases in 24-h average pollutant concentrations were estimated using linear mixed-effects models. From the pre- to the during-Olympic period, when concentrations of most pollutants decreased, EBC MDA and urinary MDA significantly decreased by 24% (P < 0.0001) and 28% (P = 0.0002), respectively. From the during-Olympic to the post-Olympic period, when concentrations of most pollutants increased, EBC MDA and urinary MDA increased by 28% (P = 0.094) and 55% (P = 0.046), respectively. Furthermore, the largest increases in EBC MDA associated with one interquartile range (IQR) increases in all pollutants but ozone ranged from 10% (95% CI: 2%, 18%) to 19% (95% CI: 14%, 25%). The largest increases in urinary MDA associated with IQR increases in pollutant concentration ranged from 9% (95%: 0.3%, 19%) to 15% (95% CI: 3%, 28%). These findings support the utility of EBC MDA as a biomarker of oxidative stress in the respiratory tract and urinary MDA as a biomarker of systemic oxidative stress in relation to air pollution exposure in healthy young adults. Both EBC and urine samples can be collected noninvasively in the general population. PMID:23321859

  16. 75 FR 10184 - National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants: Area Source Standards for Paints and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-05

    ...Pollutants: Area Source Standards for Paints and Allied Products Manufacturing...Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants: Paints and Allied Products Manufacturing Area...Paint & Coating Manufacturing.. 325510...

  17. Exposure to second-hand smoke air pollution assessed from bar patrons' urinary cotinine.

    PubMed

    Repace, James; Hughes, Elizabeth; Benowitz, Neal

    2006-10-01

    We used physical and pharmacokinetic modeling to estimate personal exposures to respirable particle (RSP) and carcinogenic particulate polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PPAH) air pollution from second-hand smoke (SHS) from the increase in urinary cotinine of eight patrons of three bars in Bismarck, North Dakota. We compared SHS-RSP levels to the U.S. Air Quality Index (AQI), used to forecast outdoor air pollution conditions. We measured smoker density and air exchange rates to generalize our results. Urinary cotinine increased by an average of 4.28 ng/ml to 6.88 ng/ml to 9.55 ng/ml above preexposure background from 6-hr exposures in the three bars. Corresponding estimated SHS-RSP levels were, respectively, 246 microg/m3, 396 microg/m3, and 549 microg/m3, comparable to those measured in 6 Wilmington, Delaware, bars and in 14 western New York bars. Estimated personal SHS-RSP air pollution exposures for the eight subjects, when converted to the 24-hr averaging time of the AQI, were "code red" (unhealthy). Measured outdoor air quality RSP levels for the same period were 1%-3% of the indoor RSP levels in the three bars, and were AQI "code green" (healthy). Estimated SHS-PPAH levels were comparable to peak 3-hr PPAH levels reported at a highway tollbooth. Bismarck cotinine-estimated SHS-RSP varied with smoker density, as did measured SHS-RSP levels in smoking bars in Delaware and New York. Our results show that smoking in bars produces levels of personal air pollution for bar patrons that merit air pollution alerts when sustained in the outdoor air. PMID:17008197

  18. ForPeerReview Traffic Congestion and Air Pollution Exposure for Motorists

    E-print Network

    Bertini, Robert L.

    ForPeerReview Only 1 Traffic Congestion and Air Pollution Exposure for Motorists: Comparing- related air pollution using real-world traffic data and a framework of established emissions can increase the emissions rates of air pollutants from motor vehicles, degrading urban air quality

  19. Synoptic and mesoscale weather conditions during air pollution episodes in Athens, Greece

    Microsoft Academic Search

    George Kallos; Pavlos Kassomensos; Roger A. Pielke

    1993-01-01

    Based on regular climatological and air quality data from the Greater Athens Area (GAA), the air pollution episodes observed in Athens during the period 1983–1990 were analysed and classified. The main characteristics of atmospheric conditions during days with high air pollution concentrations are summarized too. Model simulations show that the worst air pollution episodes in Athens occur during days with

  20. Car indoor air pollution - analysis of potential sources.

    PubMed

    Müller, Daniel; Klingelhöfer, Doris; Uibel, Stefanie; Groneberg, David A

    2011-01-01

    The population of industrialized countries such as the United States or of countries from the European Union spends approximately more than one hour each day in vehicles. In this respect, numerous studies have so far addressed outdoor air pollution that arises from traffic. By contrast, only little is known about indoor air quality in vehicles and influences by non-vehicle sources.Therefore the present article aims to summarize recent studies that address i.e. particulate matter exposure. It can be stated that although there is a large amount of data present for outdoor air pollution, research in the area of indoor air quality in vehicles is still limited. Especially, knowledge on non-vehicular sources is missing. In this respect, an understanding of the effects and interactions of i.e. tobacco smoke under realistic automobile conditions should be achieved in future. PMID:22177291

  1. Car indoor air pollution - analysis of potential sources

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    The population of industrialized countries such as the United States or of countries from the European Union spends approximately more than one hour each day in vehicles. In this respect, numerous studies have so far addressed outdoor air pollution that arises from traffic. By contrast, only little is known about indoor air quality in vehicles and influences by non-vehicle sources. Therefore the present article aims to summarize recent studies that address i.e. particulate matter exposure. It can be stated that although there is a large amount of data present for outdoor air pollution, research in the area of indoor air quality in vehicles is still limited. Especially, knowledge on non-vehicular sources is missing. In this respect, an understanding of the effects and interactions of i.e. tobacco smoke under realistic automobile conditions should be achieved in future. PMID:22177291

  2. Transfrontier air pollution along the United States-Mexico border

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Howard G. Applegate

    1984-01-01

    Summary  Transfrontier air pollution along the United States-Mexico border is reviewed. Both governments have addressed the issue and\\u000a concluded, after over 12 years of efforts, very little has been accomplished. Reasons for the federal failures and successes\\u000a at other levels are explored. It is proposed the United States adopt the Mexican concept of ownership of air and Mexico adopt\\u000a the United

  3. GREEN RIVER AIR QUALITY MODEL DEVELOPMENT. VALMET - A VALLEY AIR POLLUTION MODEL

    EPA Science Inventory

    Following a thorough analysis of meteorological data obtained from deep valleys of western Colorado, a modular air pollution model has been developed to simulate the transport and diffusion of pollutants released from an elevated point source in a well-defined mountain valley dur...

  4. Guidance for estimating ambient air monitoring costs for criteria pollutants and selected air toxic pollutants. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Hanks, E.

    1993-10-01

    The document provides cost estimates for monitoring, collecting and analyzing criteria pollutants in ambient air, toxic air pollutants, for enhanced ozone, saturation sampling for PM-10, and carbon monoxide (CO) using portable samplers. The document also describes the design and implementation of a model to be used in developing and presenting costs associated with different measurement methodologies. The capital and operating costs were developed based on 1992/1993 manufacturers' equipment costs and upon labor categories and rates as provided by a cross section of private and Governmental agencies.

  5. Air Pollution in Pristina, Influence on Cardiovascular Hospital Morbidity

    PubMed Central

    Ukëhaxhaj, Antigona; Gjorgjev, Dragan; Ramadani, Maser; Krasniqi, Selvete; Gjergji, Tahire; Zogaj, Drita

    2013-01-01

    ABSTRACT Introduction: Numerous studies observed health effects of particulate air pollution. Ambient air quality is particularly bad in Pristina. The principal sources of contaminants are sulfur dioxide (SO2), nitrogen oxides NO and NO2 (NOx), ozone (O3), lead (Pb), carbon dioxide (CO2), particulate matter (PM or dust). Objective: to investigate effects of concentrations of pollutants in ambient air on hospital admissions for cardiovascular disease in UCCK- Pristina. Methods: Retrospective ecological study. During the three year analytical research predict the potential benefit of decreasing for concentration of PM 2.5, PM 10 were measured in two station in Pristina. The study population consisted of all hospitalization patient in intern clinic for 2010,2011 and 2012 year. Air pollution measurements will be used by KHMI data for the year of 2010, 2011 and 2012 for the municipality of Pristina in the measurements point in: KHMI-MESP which is equipped with automatic analyzer- Air Compact Monitoring System (Version 2.2) recordum MESSTECHNIK GmbH. Statistical data processing will be done with SPSS 17.0 statistical package. Results: Based on the results obtained during the study period concentrated PM are higher level than standards value. The results showed that the number of hospital admissions for cardiovascular disease are positively correlated with concentration pollutants. Results show clear seasonal variation in the effects of PM on hospital admissions in Kosovo. The study period was short but the mean daily admissions for cardiovascular illnesses were quite large. Conclusion: The main source for air pollution was coal-burned power plant and traffic (old vehicles) in Kosovo. PMID:25568517

  6. INDUSTRIAL GUIDE FOR AIR POLLUTION CONTROL

    EPA Science Inventory

    This manual is intended as a set of guidelines for companies that are not yet fully involved in a corporate program of environmental control. The information is presented for plant managers, engineers, and other industrial personnel responsible for plant compliance with air pollu...

  7. Indoor Air Pollution. LC Science Tracer Bullet.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Collins, Jane, Comp.

    Numerous scientific investigations show that air inside office buildings and residences can be contaminated by a large variety of toxic contaminants, some in concentrations sufficient to adversely affect the health of those exposed. The internal building environment of new or recently remodeled buildings may be responsible for illnesses sometimes…

  8. Personal Air-Pollution Monitoring Devices

    Microsoft Academic Search

    William T. Ingram

    1964-01-01

    The development of monitoring devices that can be operated while attached to an ambulatory individual is discussed. Two have been selected for more detailed study and development. A preliminary report of tests performed with one instrument equipped with impregnated silica-gel tubes and controlled air flow for collecting and measuring nitrogen dioxide, sulfur dioxide, total hydrocarbons, and carbon monoxide, together with

  9. The Oxides of Nitrogen in Air Pollution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    California State Air Resources Board, Sacramento.

    Research on the health effects of oxides of nitrogen and on the role of oxides of nitrogen in producing photochemical smog effects is presented in this report. Prepared by the California State Department of Public Health at the request of the State Legislature, it gives a comprehensive review of available information, as well as the need for air

  10. Air Pollution Impacts on Global Crop Productivity and Nitrogen Depositio

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heald, C. L.; Tai, A. P. K.; Val Martin, M.

    2014-12-01

    The biosphere is undeniably transformed by air pollution. Emissions, climate change, and land use change are all expected to substantially alter future air quality. In this presentation, we discuss near-term projections (2050) of air quality impacts on both crop productivity and nitrogen deposition. First, we contrast the relative impacts of ozone air pollution and a warming climate on global crop yields. To do so, we define statistical crop yield functions to a warming climate based on the historical record. We combine these relationships with ozone-damage estimates and apply these to future air quality and climate projections from a global coupled chemistry-climate model (CESM). We find substantial variability in the response, with certain regions or crops more sensitive to ozone pollution and others more sensitive to warming. This work demonstrates that air quality management is a key element to ensuring global food security. Second, we examine the relative impacts of anthropogenic emissions, climate change, and land use change on global nitrogen deposition. Nitrogen deposition has rapidly increased over the Anthropocene. Excess deposition of nitrogen to ecosystems can lead to eutrophication of waters, and a decrease in biodiversity. We use the CESM to investigate two scenarios (RCP 4.5 and RCP8.5) and focus our analysis on the impacts on diverse ecoregions in North America, Europe, and Asia.

  11. Impacts of Air Pollution on Health in Eastern China: Implications for future air pollution and energy policies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, X.; Mauzerall, D.

    2004-12-01

    Our objective is to establish the link between energy consumption and technologies, air pollution and resulting impacts on public health in eastern China. We quantify the impacts that air pollution in the Shandong region of eastern China has on public health in 2000 and quantify the benefits in improved air quality and health that could be obtained by 2020, relative to business-as-usual, through the implementation of new energy technology. We first develop a highly-resolved emission inventory for the year 2000 for the Shandong region of China including emissions from large point, area, mobile and biogenic sources. We use the Sparse Matrix Operator Kernel Emissions Modeling System (SMOKE) to process emissions from this inventory for use in the Community Multi-scale Air Quality modeling system (CMAQ) which we drive with the NCAR/PSU MM5 meso-scale meteorology model. We evaluate the inventory by comparing CMAQ results with available measurements of PM10 and SO2 from air pollution indices (APIs) reported in various Chinese municipalities during 2002-2004. We use epidemiological dose-response functions to quantify health impacts and values of a statistical life (VSL) and years-of-life-lost (YLL) to establish a range for the monetary value of these impacts. To examine health impacts and their monetary value, we focus explicitly on Zaozhuang, a coal-intensive city in the Shandong region of eastern China, and quantify the mortalities and morbidities resulting from air pollutants emitted from this city in 2000, and in 2020 using business-as-usual, best-available control technology, and advanced coal gasification technology scenarios. In all scenarios most health damages arise from exposure to particulate matter. We find that total health damages due to year 2000 anthropogenic emissions from Zaozhuang accounted for 4-10% of its GDP. If all health damages resulting from coal use were internalized in the market price of coal, the year 2000 price would have doubled. With no new air pollution controls implemented between 2000 and 2020, we predict health damages from air pollution exposure will quadruple and account for 8-16% of Zaozhuang's 2020 GDP. End-of-pipe controls could reduce the potential health damages from air pollution by 20% and a coal gasification polygeneration energy system could reduce it by 50% with only 24% penetration. Benefits to public health, of substantial monetary value, could be achieved in eastern China through the use of currently available end-of-pipe controls; with further development, benefits from the use of advanced coal technology could be even larger.

  12. European Atmospheric Pollution Imported by Cooler Air Masses to

    E-print Network

    Einat, Aharonov

    to the shallow atmospheric layers (up to about 1000 m ASL), advects cool and moist flow onshore leadingEuropean Atmospheric Pollution Imported by Cooler Air Masses to the Eastern Mediterranean during Pb isotopes, Pb, Ni, Cu, Zn, and several major metal concentrations, identification of the aerosol

  13. Air Pollution by Concrete Dust from the Great Hanshin Earthquake

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Takao Gotoh; Takashi Nishimura; Minoru Nakata; Yuzuru Nakaguchi; Keizo Hiraki

    2002-01-01

    plained about respiratory problems. The positive rela- tionship between NO2 concentration and the number Air pollution in the areas affected by the Great Hanshin Earth- found in soil dust were important from the viewpoint of heavy metal contamination. In the third investigation, the alkalinity of concrete til now. dust was observed by dissolution. This solution was equivalent to pH This

  14. APPCD - INTEGRATED AIR POLLUTION CONTROL SYSTEM (IAPCS)COST MODEL

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Integrated Air Pollution Control System (IAPCS)Cost Model is a compiled model written in FORTRAN and C language which is designed to be used on an IBM or compatible PC with 640K or lower RAM and at least 1.5 Mb of hard drive space. It was developed over the past several years...

  15. Place-based stressors associated with industry and air pollution.

    PubMed

    Kondo, Michelle C; Gross-Davis, Carol Ann; May, Katlyn; Davis, Lauren O; Johnson, Tyiesha; Mallard, Mable; Gabbadon, Alice; Sherrod, Claudia; Branas, Charles C

    2014-07-01

    Exposure to air pollution and its sources is increasingly viewed as a psychosocial stress, however its nature is not understood. This article explores the role of the concept of place on risk perception and community stress within data collected from eight focus groups in Philadelphia, USA. Discussions focused on air pollution, a nearby oil refinery, health, and a proposal for air monitoring. We present a framework of place-based elements of risk perception that includes place identity, stigma and social control. Our findings indicate that air pollution contributes to physical and psychosocial conditions that act as community-level social stressors. Findings also suggest that programs which seek to change behaviors and gather or spread information on issues such as pollution and other environmental concerns will be challenged unless they directly address: (1) the public?s identification with a place or industry, (2) immediate environmental stressors such as abandonment, waste and odors, and (3) public perceptions of lack of social control and fear of displacement. PMID:24721738

  16. METHODOLOGY FOR COLLECTING AND ANALYZING ORGANIC AIR POLLUTANTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    A number of support-bonded liquid phase sorption media were developed and evaluated in model systems for collecting and analyzing organic air pollutants. Polymers with various functional groups were synthesized and chemically bonded onto inert supports in thick layers. A media co...

  17. Effects of air pollutants on Los Angeles Basin citrus

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. R. Thompson; O. C. Taylor; B. L. Richards

    1970-01-01

    Commercially producing lemon and navel orange trees were enclosed in plastic covered greenhouses and were given various fractions of the air pollutants occurring in the Los Angeles Basin. In some treatments nitric oxide was supplied to the trees to react with ozone but this formed nitrogen dioxide, another phytotoxicant. The study showed that the photochemical smog complex reduced the rate

  18. Biomarkers: New breakthroughs in the world of air pollution studies

    EPA Science Inventory

    This session aims are to show the use of biomarkers in better understanding health effects derived from air pollution and to provide updates on the utility of new biomarker techniques including ?omics?-type of analyses. Presentations that focus on improved use of biomarkers of...

  19. International Symposium Transport and Air Pollution Session 6: Biofuels 2

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    1Sth International Symposium Transport and Air Pollution Session 6: Biofuels 2 Determination of VOC components in the exhaust of light vehicles fuelled with different biofuels F. Gazier 1,4*, A. De/bende 1 of the emissions shows changes with the composition of the biofuel in the levels of hydrocarbons, aromatic

  20. Place-Based Stressors Associated with Industry and Air Pollution

    PubMed Central

    Gross-Davis, Carol Ann; May, Katlyn; Davis, Lauren O.; Johnson, Tyiesha; Mallard, Mable; Gabbadon, Alice; Sherrod, Claudia; Branas, Charles C.

    2014-01-01

    Exposure to air pollution and its sources is increasingly viewed as a psychosocial stress, however its nature is not understood. This article explores the role of the concept of place on risk perception and community stress within data collected from eight focus groups in Philadelphia, USA. Discussions focused on air pollution, a nearby oil refinery, health, and a proposal for air monitoring. We present a framework of place-based elements of risk perception that includes place identity, stigma and social control. Our findings indicate that air pollution contributes to physical and psychosocial conditions that act as community-level social stressors. Findings also suggest that programs which seek to change behaviors and gather or spread information on issues such as pollution and other environmental concerns will be challenged unless they directly address: 1) the public’s identification with a place or industry, 2) immediate environmental stressors such as abandonment, waste and odors, and 3) public perceptions of lack of social control and fear of displacement. PMID:24721738

  1. CATALOG OF MATERIALS AS POTENTIAL SOURCES OF INDOOR AIR POLLUTION

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper discusses a series of documents being developed by the U.S. EPA, summarizing available information on building materials and products brought into homes and office buildings as potential sources of indoor air pollution. he documents will provide a complete list of mater...

  2. Floristic summary of plant species in the air pollution literature

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bennett, J.P.

    1996-01-01

    A floristic summary and analysis was performed on a list of the plant species that have been studied for the effects of gaseous and chemical air pollutants on vegetation in order to compare the species with the flora of North America north of Mexico. The scientific names of 2081 vascular plant species were extracted from almost 4000 journal articles stored in two large literature databases on the effects of air pollutants on plants. Three quarters of the plant species studied occur in North America, but this was only 7% of the total North American flora. Sixteen percent and 56% of all North American genera and families have been studied. The most studied genus is Pinus with 70% of the North American species studied, and the most studied family is the grass family, with 12% of the species studied. Although Pinus is ranked 86th in the North American flora, the grass family is ranked third, indicating that representation at the family level is better than at the genus level. All of the top ten families in North America are represented in the top 20 families in the air pollution effects literature, but only one genus (Lupinus) in the top ten genera in North America is represented in the top thirteen genera in the air pollution literature.

  3. Present and future emissions of air pollutants in China

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. G Streets; S. T Waldhoff

    2000-01-01

    As part of the CHINA-MAP program, sponsored by the US National Aeronautics and Space Administration, regional inventories of air pollutants emitted in China are being characterized, in order that the atmospheric chemistry over China can be more fully understood and the resulting ambient concentrations in Chinese cities and the deposition levels to Chinese ecosystems be determined with better confidence. This

  4. AIR POLLUTION MODELS AS DESCRIPTORS OF CAUSE-EFFECT RELATIONSHIPS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The problem of air pollution modeling is treated beginning from a philosophical standpoint, in which a model is viewed as a universal statement and a complementary set of singular statements from which specific cause-effect relationships are deduced; proceeding to the formulation...

  5. AEROSOL ANALYSIS FOR THE REGIONAL AIR POLLUTION STUDY

    EPA Science Inventory

    An aerosol sampling and analysis program was conducted as part of the Regional Air Pollution Study in St. Louis. Ten automatic dichotomous samplers were operated in the field for two years and collected 35,000 samples. The procedures used for analyzing these samples for total mas...

  6. The fate of mercury collected from air pollution control devices

    EPA Science Inventory

    The mercury that enters a coal-fired power plant, originates from the coal that is burned, and leaves through the output streams that include stack emissions and air pollution control (APC) residues (either in solid or liquid form). This article describes recent fmdings on the fa...

  7. REGIONAL AIR POLLUTION STUDY: LAMBERT FIELD GRAPHICAL WEATHER SUMMARY

    EPA Science Inventory

    A graphical summary of National Weather Service (NWS) 3-hour weather observations from Lambert Field Airport, St. Louis, Missouri has been prepared for use by individuals involved in the analysis and application of Regional Air Pollution Study (RAPS) data. It is intended as a ref...

  8. Glossary of Terms Frequently Used in Air Pollution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huschke, Ralph E., Ed.

    Compiled in this glossary are 275 terms related to air pollution and meteorology. Definitions are designed to be understandable by the non-scientist yet sufficiently technical to satisfy professional requirements. Many terms are extracted from the "Glossary of Meteorology" published by the American Meteorological Society. (BL)

  9. MODELING THE IMPACT OF AIR POLLUTION ON GLOBAL CLIMATE CHANGE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Tropospheric ozone (O3) and aerosols have major effects on climate and are the two air pollutants of most concern in the developed world. O3 is a major greenhouse gas (GHG) and light-absorbing aerosols such as black carbon (BC) also contribute to global warm...

  10. AIR POLLUTION MIXTURES: HEALTH EFFECTS ACROSS LIFE STAGES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Our Center will address four of the six research priorities of the EPA solicitation to establish Clean Air Centers. It will: I) investigate the effects of pollutants and mixtures through animal and human studies; 2) identify sub-populations that are at increased risk through t...

  11. Assessment of procedures for air pollution time-series reconstruction

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. P. Moreno; M. A. Reyna

    2011-01-01

    To know the effects of air pollution on health of people exposed is very important because it allows to the deci sion makers to improve policies on environmental health. Obviously the best decisions are taken, as these are based on data and reliable information. Much of this information is obtained from ecological studies, which use as input time-series that are

  12. DEVELOPMENT OF AN INDOOR AIR POLLUTION SOURCE EMISSIONS DATABASE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper discusses the design, structure, and theory of a microcomputer-based relational database which has been created to archive and retrieve published information concerning sources of indoor air pollutants. The database is designed to be used by researchers, architects, pol...

  13. Texas refinery air pollution emissions are being severely underestimated

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schultz, Colin

    2014-06-01

    The Houston-Galveston-Brazoria region of southeastern Texas is home to heavy industrial investment in oil refining and petrochemical production. Pollutants emanating from the factories and refineries have repeatedly caused the region to fail national and state-level tests for air quality and ground-level ozone.

  14. Female Lung Cancer and Petrochemical Air Pollution in Taiwan

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Chun-Yuh Yang; Ming-Fen Cheng; Jeng-Fen Chiu; Shang-Shyue Tsai

    1999-01-01

    To investigate the relationship between petrochemical air pollution and female lung cancer, we conducted a matched case-control study among women who had died in Taiwan from 1990 through 1994. Data about all eligible female lung cancer deaths were obtained from the Bureau of Vital Statistics of the Taiwan Provincial Department of Health. The control group included women who died from

  15. CARDIAC MOLECULAR EFFECTS INDUCED BY AIR POLLUTION PARTICLES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Abstract Submitted to the American Thoracic Society 98th International Conference, May 17 - 22, 2002, Atlanta, GA CARDIAC MOLECULAR EFFECTS INDUCED BY AIR POLLUTION PARTICLES K. Dreher1, R. Jaskot1, J. Richards1, and T. Knuckles2. 1U. S. Environmental Protection Agency,...

  16. Assessment of Indoor Air Pollution in Homes with Infants

    PubMed Central

    Pickett, Anna Ruth; Bell, Michelle L.

    2011-01-01

    Infants spend most of their indoor time at home; however, residential air quality is poorly understood. We investigated the air quality of infants’ homes in the New England area of the U.S. Participants (N = 53) were parents of infants (0–6 months) who completed telephone surveys to identify potential pollutant sources in their residence. Carbon monoxide (CO), carbon dioxide (CO2), particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter ?0.5 µm (PM0.5), and total volatile organic compounds (TVOCs) were measured in 10 homes over 4–7 days, and levels were compared with health-based guidelines. Pollutant levels varied substantially across homes and within homes with overall levels for some homes up to 20 times higher than for other homes. Average levels were 0.85 ppm, 663.2 ppm, 18.7 µg/m3, and 1626 µg/m3 for CO, CO2, PM0.5, and TVOCs, respectively. CO2, TVOCs, and PM0.5 levels exceeded health-based indoor air quality guidelines. Survey results suggest that nursery renovations and related potential pollutant sources may be associated with differences in urbanicity, income, and presence of older children with respiratory ailments, which could potentially confound health studies. While there are no standards for indoor residential air quality, our findings suggest that additional research is needed to assess indoor pollution exposure for infants, which may be a vulnerable population. PMID:22408586

  17. Health effects of air pollution and the Japanese compensation law

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. Namekata; C. Duv Florey

    1987-01-01

    The contents of this book are: Part 1. Individual Presentations: I. Gas Cooking and Respiratory Disease in Children, II. Health Effects of Fossil Fuel Combustion Compared With Effects of Energy Shortages, III. Daily Symptoms of Lung Function in Relation to Air Pollution: A Study in West Berlin 1982\\/83, IV. Studies of the Acute Effects of London Smog, and Their Relevance

  18. OXIDANT AIR POLLUTANT EFFECTS ON A WESTERN CONIFEROUS FOREST ECOSYSTEM

    EPA Science Inventory

    This is an annual report for the year June 1973 through June 1974. Section I gives the location and brief description of the field layout for the ecosystem study on oxidant air pollution effects on a Western coniferous forest. Section II contains diagrams and descriptions of inte...

  19. Outdoor air pollution and respiratory health in Asia.

    PubMed

    Chung, Kian Fan; Zhang, Junfeng; Zhong, Nanshan

    2011-10-01

    With the rapid economic development occurring in the last decade in many countries of Asia, the level of air pollution has increased from both industrial and motor vehicle emissions. Compared with Europe and North America, the potential health effects of this increasing air pollution in Asia remain largely unmeasured. Recent data published by the Health Effects Institute from some major cities in India and China reveal that a 10?µg/m(3) increase in PM(10) was associated with an increase in mortality of 0.6% in daily all-natural cause mortality, with higher risks being found at extremes of high temperatures and in the lowest economically advantaged population. Other Asian studies have confirmed the link between hospital admissions for the worsening of COPD and the increase in asthma prevalence to levels of outdoor air pollutants. Although potential health effects appear to be similar to already-published Western data, it is important that further studies be carried out in Asia that will inform the public and the authorities of the necessity to curb levels of outdoor air pollutants to acceptable levels. PMID:21843208

  20. COMMUNITY STRESSORS AND SUSCEPTIBILITY TO AIR POLLUTION IN URBAN ASTHMA

    EPA Science Inventory

    Given our large sample size within and across communities, our unique data on year-round fine-scale variability in multiple air pollutants, and our strong experience in community –based environmental health education and outreach, we believe that our study will provid...

  1. OXIDANT AIR POLLUTION EFFECTS ON A WESTERN CONIFEROUS FOREST ECOSYSTEM

    EPA Science Inventory

    From 1973 to 1978, an interdisciplinary study of the pine and mixed conifer forests of the San Bernardino Mountains of southern California measured the effects of 30 years' exposure to photochemical oxidant air pollution on selected ecological systems. Average 24-hour ozone conce...

  2. PHOTOCHEMICAL AIR POLLUTANT EFFECTS ON MIXED CONIFER ECOSYSTEMS

    EPA Science Inventory

    In 1972, a multi-disciplinary team of ecologists assembled to monitor and analyze some of the ecological consequences of photochemical oxidant air pollutants in California Mixed Conifer Forest ecosystems of the San Bernardino Mountains east of Los Angeles. The purposes included g...

  3. Daily mortality and air pollutants: findings from Köln, Germany

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C Spix; H E Wichmann

    1996-01-01

    STUDY OBJECTIVE AND DESIGN: For the APHEA study, the short term effects of air pollutants on human health were investigated in a comparable way in various European cities. Daily mortality was used as one of the health effects indicators. This report aims to demonstrate the steps in epidemiological model building in this type of time series analysis aimed at detecting

  4. Indoor Air Pollution and Airway Disease

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sara Maio; Marzia Simoni; Sandra Baldacci; Duane Sherrill; Giovanni Viegi

    A good quality of indoor environment (dwellings, workplaces, schools, day care centers, bars, and discotheques) is a very\\u000a important environment and health target, in so far as subjects in industrialized countries spend over 90% of their time indoors\\u000a [1].\\u000a \\u000a The quality of indoor environments depends on the quality of the atmospheric air that penetrates from outdoors and on the\\u000a presence

  5. Season and humidity dependence of the effects of air pollution on COPD hospitalizations in Hong Kong

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qiu, Hong; Yu, Ignatius Tak Sun; Wang, Xiaorong; Tian, Linwei; Tse, Lap Ah; Wong, Tze Wai

    2013-09-01

    Associations between ambient pollution and respiratory morbidity including chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) have been confirmed. Weather factors, such as temperature, season and relative humidity (RH), may modify the effects of air pollution. This time series study was conducted to examine whether the effects of air pollution on emergency COPD hospital admissions in Hong Kong varied across seasons and RH levels, and explore the possible joint modification of season and RH on the effects of pollution. Data of daily air pollution concentrations mean temperature and RH, and COPD hospital admissions from 1998 to 2007 were collected. Generalized additive Poisson models with interaction terms were used to estimate the effects of pollution across seasons and RH levels. We observed an increase in the detrimental effects of air pollution in the cool season and on low humidity days. On the cool and dry days, a 10 ?g m-3 increment of lag03 exposure was associated with an increase in emergency COPD admissions by 1.76% (95%CI: 1.19-2.34%), 3.43% (95%CI: 2.80-4.07%), and 1.99% (95%CI: 0.90-3.09%) for nitrogen dioxide (NO2), ozone (O3), and sulfur dioxide (SO2), respectively, all of which were statistically significantly higher than those on the other days. No consistent modification of weather factors was found for the effects of particles with an aerodynamic diameter less than 10 ?m (PM10). The results suggested that season and RH jointly modified the effects of gaseous pollutants, resulting in increased emergency COPD hospitalizations on the cool and dry days.

  6. Valuing the adult health effects of air pollution in Chinese cities.

    PubMed

    Mead, Robert W; Brajer, Victor

    2006-09-01

    China's ongoing economic growth is accompanied by a large amount of air pollution that exacts significant health and economic costs on its people. Following up on some earlier work focusing upon general mortality and child-specific health effects, this article uses a larger data set, covering more than 90 Chinese cities, along with a set of China-based epidemiological functions, to estimate some of the adult health benefits of reducing urban air pollution. Projecting future air pollution based upon current conditions, it calculates the averted mortality and morbidity effects that would result from the cleanup of particulates, sulfur dioxide, and nitrogen dioxide. The inclusion of nitrogen dioxide in our analysis is particularly important because it is a growing problem and has not been included in most of the more widely known studies that examine Chinese air pollution. Finally, the economic valuation of these pollution-related health effects is developed, using a number of recent, China-based valuation studies. PMID:17119264

  7. [Assessment of air pollution health effects on respiratory organs].

    PubMed

    Yokoyama, E

    1992-12-01

    During the past three decades, industrial expansion in Japan has been remarkable, resulting in a numerous number of chemical substances got synthesized. Unfortunately, our living environment has concomitantly been polluted with such substances released through industrial activities and our daily lives, and health injuries have occasionally occurred in the human population. Although the critical conditions in the 1960s were overcome by the countermeasures we took, the potential for environmental pollution still remains. In the present social and economical situation, the management of environmental pollutants should be decided depending upon more quantitative and predictive evaluation of their health effects. In this paper the author tries to evaluate the relation of air pollution to chronic bronchitis, bronchial asthma and pulmonary cancer from a quantitative point of view. PMID:1283757

  8. Evaluating impacts of air pollution in China on public health: Implications for future air pollution and energy policies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xiaoping; Mauzerall, Denise L.

    Our objective is to establish the link between energy consumption and technologies, air pollution concentrations, and resulting impacts on public health in eastern China. We use Zaozhuang, a city in eastern China heavily dependent on coal, as a case study to quantify the impacts that air pollution in eastern China had on public health in 2000 and the benefits in improved air quality and health that could be obtained by 2020, relative to business-as-usual (BAU), through the implementation of best available emission control technology (BACT) and advanced coal gasification technologies (ACGT). We use an integrated assessment approach, utilizing state-of-the-science air quality and meteorological models, engineering, epidemiology, and economics, to achieve this objective. We find that total health damages due to year 2000 anthropogenic emissions from Zaozhuang, using the "willingness-to-pay" metric, was equivalent to 10% of Zaozhuang's GDP. If all health damages resulting from coal use were internalized in the market price of coal, the year 2000 price would have more than tripled. With no new air pollution controls implemented between 2000 and 2020 but with projected increases in energy use, we estimate health damages from air pollution exposure to be equivalent to 16% of Zaozhuang's projected 2020 GDP. BACT and ACGT (with only 24% penetration in Zaozhuang and providing 2% of energy needs in three surrounding municipalities) could reduce the potential health damage of air pollution in 2020 to 13% and 8% of projected GDP, respectively. Benefits to public health, of substantial monetary value, can be achieved through the use of BACT; health benefits from the use of ACGT could be even larger. Despite significant uncertainty associated with each element of the integrated assessment approach, we demonstrate that substantial benefits to public health could be achieved in this region of eastern China through the use of additional pollution controls and particularly from the use of advanced coal gasification technology. Without such controls, the impacts of air pollution on public health, presently considerable, will increase substantially by 2020.

  9. Air Pollution and Quality of Sperm: A Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Fathi Najafi, Tahereh; Latifnejad Roudsari, Robab; Namvar, Farideh; Ghavami Ghanbarabadi, Vahid; Hadizadeh Talasaz, Zahra; Esmaeli, Mahin

    2015-01-01

    Context: Air pollution is common in all countries and affects reproductive functions in men and women. It particularly impacts sperm parameters in men. This meta-analysis aimed to examine the impact of air pollution on the quality of sperm. Evidence Acquisition: The scientific databases of Medline, PubMed, Scopus, Google scholar, Cochrane Library, and Elsevier were searched to identify relevant articles published between 1978 to 2013. In the first step, 76 articles were selected. These studies were ecological correlation, cohort, retrospective, cross-sectional, and case control ones that were found through electronic and hand search of references about air pollution and male infertility. The outcome measurement was the change in sperm parameters. A total of 11 articles were ultimately included in a meta-analysis to examine the impact of air pollution on sperm parameters. The authors applied meta-analysis sheets from Cochrane library, then data extraction, including mean and standard deviation of sperm parameters were calculated and finally their confidence interval (CI) were compared to CI of standard parameters. Results: The CI for pooled means were as follows: 2.68 ± 0.32 for ejaculation volume (mL), 62.1 ± 15.88 for sperm concentration (million per milliliter), 39.4 ± 5.52 for sperm motility (%), 23.91 ± 13.43 for sperm morphology (%) and 49.53 ± 11.08 for sperm count. Conclusions: The results of this meta-analysis showed that air pollution reduces sperm motility, but has no impact on the other sperm parameters of spermogram. PMID:26023349

  10. Use of Multi-Objective Air Pollution Monitoring Sites and Online Air Pollution Monitoring System for Total Health Risk Assessment in Hyderabad, India

    PubMed Central

    Anjaneyulu, Y.; Jayakumar, I.; Bindu, V. Hima; Sagareswar, G.; Rao, P.V. Mukunda; Rambabu, N.; Ramani, K. V.

    2005-01-01

    A consensus has been emerging among public health experts in developing countries that air pollution, even at current ambient levels, aggravates respiratory and cardiovascular diseases and leads to premature mortality. Recent studies have also presented well-founded theories concerning the biological mechanisms involved and the groups of people that are probably more susceptible to health effects caused or exacerbated by inhalation of ambient particulate matter (PM.). On the basis of prognostic studies carried out in Center for Environment, JNT University, Hyderabad “it has been estimated that in Hyderabad some 1,700 to 3,000 people per year die prematurely as a result of inhaling PM”. These figures reflect only the effects of acute exposure to air pollution. If the long-term effects of chronic exposure are taken into account, 10,000–15,000 people a year could die prematurely in Hyderabad. This estimate of the chronic effects is based on other studies, which are not completely comparable with the Hyderabad situation. While the study designs and analyses in these other studies may indeed be different or irrelevant to Hyderabad, the fact they were carried out in other countries is irrelevant. Taking into account these considerations, a model for total health risk assessment for the city of Hyderabad, and its state of Andhra Pradesh in India has been developed using a multi-objective air pollution monitoring network and online and real time air pollution monitoring stations. For the model studies a number of potential monitoring sites were screened for general and site-specific criteria in a geographic information system (GIS) environment that may, on a local basis, affect the representativeness of the data collected. Local features that may affect either the chemical or meteorological parameters are evaluated to assure a minimum of interference. Finally, for monitoring air pollution, an online and real-time monitoring system was designed using advanced electrochemical sensor systems (sulphur dioxide, oxides of nitrogen, carbon monoxide, hydrocarbons, ozone, mercaptans and hydrogen sulphide) and a particulate matter analyzer (total suspended particulate matter TSPM), PM2.5 and PM10). The sensor and data acquisition systems are programmed to monitor pollution levels at ½ hour durations during peak hours and at 1-hour intervals at other times. Presently, extensive statistical and numerical simulations are being carried out at our center to correlate the individuals living in the monitored areas with respiratory infections with air pollution. PMID:16705838

  11. EVALUATION OF THE REAL-TIME AIR-QUALITY MODEL USING THE RAPS (REGIONAL AIR POLLUTION STUDY) DATA BASE. VOLUME 3. PROGRAM USER'S GUIDE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The theory and programming of statistical tests for evaluating the Real-Time Air-Quality Model (RAM) using the Regional Air Pollution Study (RAPS) data base are fully documented in four volumes. Moreover, the tests are generally applicable to other model evaluation problems. Volu...

  12. Effect of Air Pollutant Markers on Multiple Sclerosis Relapses

    PubMed Central

    Mehrpour, Masoud; Shams-Hosseini, Narges Sadat; Rezaali, Saeed; Sahraiian, Mohammad Ali; Taki, Sara

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Background Multiple Sclerosis (MS) is one of the autoimmune diseases with an unknown cause. The aim of this study was to explore the link between air quality and MS relapses in patients who suffer from MS. Methods This time-series study was conducted on patients registered at the Iranian Multiple Sclerosis Society in 2011-2012. They were randomly selected from patients lived in Tehran in the last five years, and had at least one relapse in the last three years. The link between monthly mean air pollutant levels and the relapses of MS in the participants was studied. Results Among the registered 160 participants, at least 150 had one attack during 2009 and 2012. Most air pollutants such as NO2, NO and CO are in high levels in the rainy season. Others like Pm10 and Nox are in high levels in the dry season. The correlation between NO2 levels of all markers of air quality and MS relapses (P=0.03, r=0.27) is weak. Best ARIMA model (p,d,q; 1,0,1) was determined between number of monthly relapses and living place, although this model was not significant (P=0.3) (AR; P=0.000, MA;P=0.4). Conclusions Air pollutants might be regarded as a risk factor for MS relapse.

  13. A machine learning model of Manhattan air pollution at high spatial resolution

    E-print Network

    Keeler, Rachel H. (Rachel Heiden)

    2014-01-01

    A machine-learning model was created to predict air pollution at high spatial resolution in Manhattan, New York using taxi trip data. Urban air pollution increases morbidity and mortality through respiratory and cardiovascular ...

  14. 40 CFR Table 1 to Subpart Xx of... - Hazardous Air Pollutants

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...Subpart XX of Part 63—Hazardous Air Pollutants Hazardous air pollutant CAS No. Benzene 71432 1,3-Butadiene 106990 Cumene 98828 Ethyl benzene 100414 Hexane 110543 Naphthalene 91203 Styrene 100425 Toluene...

  15. 40 CFR Table 1 to Subpart Xx of... - Hazardous Air Pollutants

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...Subpart XX of Part 63—Hazardous Air Pollutants Hazardous air pollutant CAS No. Benzene 71432 1,3-Butadiene 106990 Cumene 98828 Ethyl benzene 100414 Hexane 110543 Naphthalene 91203 Styrene 100425 Toluene...

  16. 77 FR 2677 - National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants: Primary Aluminum Reduction Plants...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-19

    ...National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants: Primary Aluminum Reduction Plants; Extension of Comment Period AGENCY: Environmental...National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants: Primary Aluminum Reduction Plants'' is being extended for 12 days....

  17. 40 CFR 63.62 - Redefinition of glycol ethers listed as hazardous air pollutants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS FOR SOURCE CATEGORIES List of Hazardous Air Pollutants...Process, Lesser Quantity Designations, Source Category List § 63.62 Redefinition...footnote 2: Glycol ethers include mono- and di-ethers of ethylene...

  18. 75 FR 80761 - National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Reciprocating Internal Combustion...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-23

    ...Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Reciprocating Internal Combustion Engines AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA...standards for hazardous air pollutants for reciprocating internal combustion engines and requesting public comment on one issue...

  19. HEALTH COSTS OF AIR POLLUTION DAMAGES: A STUDY OF HOSPITALIZATION COSTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    An investigation of the hospitalization costs of exposure to air pollution in Allegheny County, Pennsylvania was conducted to determine whether persons exposed to air pollution incurred higher incidences of hospitalization or additional costs for treatment. A hospitalization data...

  20. 76 FR 81903 - National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants: Ferroalloys Production; Extension of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-29

    ...National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants: Ferroalloys Production; Extension of Comment Period AGENCY: Environmental...National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants: Ferroalloys Production'' is being extended for 22 days. DATES:...

  1. 77 FR 16987 - National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants: Secondary Aluminum Production

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-23

    ...Hazardous Air Pollutants: Secondary Aluminum Production AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency...air pollutants for secondary aluminum production (77 FR 8576). The EPA is extending...revisions, as well as review the test data for Group I furnaces. DATES:...

  2. Development and Evaluation of Alternative Metrics of Ambient Air Pollution Exposure for Use in Epidemiologic Studies

    EPA Science Inventory

    Population-based epidemiologic studies of air pollution have traditionally relied upon imperfect surrogates of personal exposures, such as area-wide ambient air pollution levels based on readily available outdoor concentrations from central monitoring sites. This practice may in...

  3. THE INFLUENCE OF PARTICULATE AIR POLLUTANTS ON ALLERGIC SENSITIZATION IN ANIMAL MODELS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Air pollution has long been associated with detrimental health risks in susceptible populations including asthmatics. Experimental evidence in rodents indicates that inhaled or instilled air pollutants such as diesel exhaust particles (DEPs), residual oil fly ash or its constitu...

  4. METHODS DEVELOPMENT FOR ASSESSING AIR POLLUTION CONTROL BENEFITS. VOLUME I. EXPERIMENTS IN THE ECONOMICS OF AIR POLLUTION EPIDEMIOLOGY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The volume employs the analytical and empirical methods of economics to develop hypotheses on disease etiologies and to value labor productivity and consumer losses due to air pollution-induced mortality and morbidity. In the mortality work, 1970 city-wide mortality rates for maj...

  5. DEVELOPMENT AND ANALYSIS OF AIR QUALITY MODELING SIMULATIONS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The concentrations of five hazardous air pollutants were simulated using the Community Multi Scale Air Quality (CMAQ) modeling system. Annual simulations were performed over the continental United States for the entire year of 2001 to support human exposure estimates. Results a...

  6. Evaluating the Impact of Air Pollution on Human Health in China: the Price of Clean Air

    Microsoft Academic Search

    X. Wang; D. L. Mauzerall; Y. Hu; A. G. Russell; J. Woo; D. G. Streets

    2003-01-01

    Population growth, rapid urbanization and economic development are contributing to increased energy consumption in China. One of the unintended consequences is poor air quality due to a lack of environmental controls. The coal dependent energy structure in China only worsens the situation. Quantification of the environmental costs resulting from air pollution is needed in order to provide a mechanism for

  7. 40 CFR 63.61 - Deletion of methyl ethyl ketone from the list of hazardous air pollutants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...ketone from the list of hazardous air pollutants. 63.61 Section 63.61...EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS FOR SOURCE CATEGORIES List of Hazardous Air Pollutants, Petitions Process,...

  8. The non-criteria air pollutant problem: Scope, science, regulation and future

    Microsoft Academic Search

    1985-01-01

    EPA's non-criteria air pollutant control program began in 1971 after the addition of section 112 to the Clean Air Act. It established the category ''hazardous air pollutant''. A new air toxics strategy has emerged that responds to the air toxics problem in three ways: (1) direct federal regulation of situations that may be responsible for high aggregate risk; These often

  9. Performance test codes reduce air pollutants

    SciTech Connect

    Deming, N.R.

    1995-01-01

    This article reports power plant operators are finding that by following Performance Monitoring Guidelines they can improve the efficiency of their plans and lower the level of airborne emissions. To improve the efficiency of power plants, and thereby reduce the amount of pollutants they emit, plant operators apply the American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) Performance Test Codes (PTC), published by its Council on Codes and Standards. ASME Performance Test Codes were first established more than 100 years ago. While one of the main applications of test codes is to verify performance guarantees, code tests may also be used to establish references for maintaining performance levels over months and years. In addition, some code documents give guidance for less complicated--and therefore less expensive--tests that can be routinely used by the operators to check on the health of their units. The most recent addition to the list of PTC documents, issues last July, is titled Performance Monitoring Guidelines for Steam Power Plants.'' As the title implies, this document focuses on maintaining performances levels. Maintaining optimum performance levels requires determining changes in performance by running tests in the power plant and then correcting any problems.

  10. Brain Inflammation and Alzheimer's-Like Pathology in Individuals Exposed to Severe Air Pollution

    Microsoft Academic Search

    WILLIAM REED; ROBERT MARONPOT; RICARDO DELGADO-CHAVEZ; IRMA DRAGUSTINOVIS; MARICELA FRANCO-LIRA; Anna C. Solt; MICHAEL ALTENBURG; JAMES SWENBERG

    2004-01-01

    ABSTRACT Air pollution is a complex mixture of gases (e.g., ozone), particulate matter, and organic compounds present in outdoor and indoor air. Dogs exposed to severe air pollution exhibit chronic inflammation and acceleration of Alzheimer’s-like pathology, suggesting that the brain is adversely affected by pollutants. We investigated whether residency in cities with high levels of air pollution is associated with

  11. Early Childhood Lower Respiratory Illness and Air Pollution

    PubMed Central

    Hertz-Picciotto, Irva; Baker, Rebecca James; Yap, Poh-Sin; Dostál, Miroslav; Joad, Jesse P.; Lipsett, Michael; Greenfield, Teri; Herr, Caroline E.W.; Beneš, Ivan; Shumway, Robert H.; Pinkerton, Kent E.; Šrám, Radim

    2007-01-01

    Background Few studies of air pollutants address morbidity in preschool children. In this study we evaluated bronchitis in children from two Czech districts: Teplice, with high ambient air pollution, and Prachatice, characterized by lower exposures. Objectives Our goal was to examine rates of lower respiratory illnesses in preschool children in relation to ambient particles and hydrocarbons. Methods Air monitoring for particulate matter < 2.5 ?m in diameter (PM2.5) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) was conducted daily, every third day, or every sixth day. Children born May 1994 through December 1998 were followed to 3 or 4.5 years of age to ascertain illness diagnoses. Mothers completed questionnaires at birth and at follow-up regarding demographic, lifestyle, reproductive, and home environmental factors. Longitudinal multivariate repeated-measures analysis was used to quantify rate ratios for bronchitis and for total lower respiratory illnesses in 1,133 children. Results After adjustment for season, temperature, and other covariates, bronchitis rates increased with rising pollutant concentrations. Below 2 years of age, increments in 30-day averages of 100 ng/m3 PAHs and of 25 ?g/m3 PM2.5 resulted in rate ratios (RRs) for bronchitis of 1.29 [95 % confidence interval (CI), 1.07–1.54] and 1.30 (95% CI, 1.08–1.58), respectively; from 2 to 4.5 years of age, these RRs were 1.56 (95% CI, 1.22–2.00) and 1.23 (95% CI, 0.94–1.62), respectively. Conclusion Ambient PAHs and fine particles were associated with early-life susceptibility to bronchitis. Associations were stronger for longer pollutant-averaging periods and, among children > 2 years of age, for PAHs compared with fine particles. Preschool-age children may be particularly vulnerable to air pollution–induced illnesses. PMID:17938744

  12. Olfactory dysfunction, olfactory bulb pathology and urban air pollution

    PubMed Central

    Calderón-Garcidueñas, Lilian; Franco-Lira, Maricela; Henríquez-Roldán, Carlos; Osnaya, Norma; González-Maciel, Angelica; Reynoso-Robles, Rafael; Villarreal-Calderon, Rafael; Herritt, Lou; Brooks, Diane; Keefe, Sheyla; Palacios-Moreno, Juan; Villarreal-Calderon, Rodolfo; Torres-Jardón, Ricardo; Medina-Cortina, Humberto; Delgado-Chávez, Ricardo; Aiello-Mora, Mario; Maronpot, Robert R.; Doty, Richard L

    2010-01-01

    Mexico City (MC) residents are exposed to severe air pollution and exhibit olfactory bulb inflammation. We compared the olfactory function of individuals living under conditions of extreme air pollution to that of controls from a relatively clean environment and explore associations between olfaction scores, apolipoprotein E (APOE) status, and pollution exposure. The olfactory bulbs (OBs) of 35 MC and 9 controls 20.8 ± 8.5 y were assessed by light and electron microscopy. The University of Pennsylvania Smell Identification Test (UPSIT) was administered to 62 MC / 25 controls 21.2 ±2.7 y. MC subjects had significantly lower UPSIT scores: 34.24 ± 0.42 versus controls 35.76 ± 0.40, p=0.03. Olfaction deficits were present in 35.5% MC and 12% of controls. MC APOE ? 4 carriers failed 2.4 ± 0.54 items in the 10-item smell identification scale from the UPSIT related to Alzheimer's disease, while APOE 2/3 and 3/3 subjects failed 1.36 ± 0.16 items, p = 0.01. MC residents exhibited OB endothelial hyperplasia, neuronal accumulation of particles (2/35), and immunoreactivity to beta amyloid ?A42 (29/35) and/or ?-synuclein (4/35) in neurons, glial cells and/or blood vessels. Ultrafine particles were present in OBs endothelial cytoplasm and basement membranes. Control OBs were unremarkable. Air pollution exposure is associated with olfactory dysfunction and OB pathology, APOE 4 may confer greater susceptibility to such abnormalities, and ultrafine particles could play a key role in the OB pathology. This study contributes to our understanding of the influences of air pollution on olfaction and its potential contribution to neurodegeneration. PMID:19297138

  13. Spatial and temporal patterns of air pollutants in rural and urban areas of India.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Disha; Kulshrestha, U C

    2014-12-01

    In this study, we analysed spatial and temporal patterns of Suspended Particulate Matter (SPM) concentrations across India. We have also assessed MODIS-derived aerosol optical depth (AOD) variations to characterize the air quality and relate it to SPM, NO2 and SO2 in different areas. In addition, the pollutant concentrations have been mapped using geospatial techniques. The results indicated significant differences in air pollutant levels across rural and urban areas. In general, districts of central and northern India had relatively higher SPM concentrations compared to southern India. Out of the top ten SPM polluted districts in India, nine were located in the state of Uttar Pradesh (UP). We observed significant correlations between the SPM and AOD at different sites. Although spatial and temporal patterns of NO2 and SO2 matched AOD patterns, the correlation strength (r2) varied based on location. The causes and implications of these findings are presented. PMID:25244965

  14. Volcanic Air Pollution - A Hazard in Hawai'i

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sutton, Jeff; Elias, Tamar; Hendley, James W., II; Stauffer, Peter H.

    1997-01-01

    Noxious sulfur dioxide gas and other pollutants emitted from Kilauea Volcano on the Island of Hawai'i react with oxygen and atmospheric moisture to produce volcanic smog (vog) and acid rain. Vog poses a health hazard by aggravating preexisting respiratory ailments, and acid rain damages crops and can leach lead into household water supplies. The U.S. Geological Survey's Hawaiian Volcano Observatory is closely monitoring gas emissions from Kilauea and working with health professionals and local officials to better understand volcanic air pollution and to enhance public awareness of this hazard.

  15. Kids 4 Clean Air | Pollution | Climate | Recycling What can you do

    E-print Network

    Mojzsis, Stephen J.

    Kids 4 Clean Air | Pollution | Climate | Recycling What can you do: There are many things we can do to help reduce air pollution and global warming. Use buses and trains instead of cars, as they can carry;Kids 4 Clean Air | Pollution | Climate | Recycling their journeys with other people, for example when

  16. Field Operations and Enforcement Manual for Air Pollution Control. Volume I: Organization and Basic Procedures.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weisburd, Melvin I.

    The Field Operations and Enforcement Manual for Air Pollution Control, Volume I, explains in detail the following: sources and classification of pollutants; meteorological influence on air quality; the air pollution control agency; the field enforcement officer; the enforcement process; prosecuting violation; and inspection techniques including…

  17. New Study Finds Strong Carbon Pollution Standards Improve Air Quality, Environment, and Health

    E-print Network

    Mohan, Chilukuri K.

    New Study Finds Strong Carbon Pollution Standards Improve Air Quality, Environment, and Health, Co- benefits of Carbon Standards: Air Pollution Changes under Different 111d Options for Existing-by-state changes in harmful air pollution, it is the first study to quantify and map the co-benefits of power plant

  18. Air pollution indices: a compendium and assessment of indices used in the United States and Canada

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. C. Thom; W. R. Ott

    1975-01-01

    This report presents the findings of a detailed survey of air pollution indices that are presently utilized or available. The survey included a review of the existing literature on air pollution indices, telephone discussions with personnel from the 55 largest air pollution control agencies in the United States and Canada, and a case study of a three-state region in which

  19. Air pollution indices: a compendium and assessment of indices used in the United States and Canada

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. C. Thom; W. R. Ott

    1975-01-01

    This report presents the findings of a detailed survey of air pollution indices that are presently utilized or available. The survey included a review of the existing literature on air pollution indices, telephone discussions with personnel from the 55 largest air pollution control agencies in the United States and Canada, and a case study of a three-State region in which

  20. Selected Studies in Mountain Meteorology From Downslope Windstorms to Air Pollution Transport

    E-print Network

    Gohm, Alexander

    Selected Studies in Mountain Meteorology From Downslope Windstorms to Air Pollution Transport, including downslope windstorms and air pollution transport, they are all linked to mountain meteorology and associated cold fronts, as well as local winds in valleys that cause air pollution transport. High

  1. Atmospheric Environment 37 (2003) 391404 Six `new' episodes of trans-Pacific transport of air pollutants

    E-print Network

    McKendry, Ian

    2003-01-01

    Atmospheric Environment 37 (2003) 391­404 Six `new' episodes of trans-Pacific transport of air such patterns increases our understanding of not only trans-Pacific transport of air pollutants, but also transport; Ozone; Asia; Asian air pollution; Dust 1. Introduction Gaseous and aerosol pollutants, including

  2. 76 FR 81327 - National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants From the Pulp and Paper Industry

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-27

    ...Hazardous Air Pollutants From the Pulp and Paper Industry; Proposed Rule Federal Register...Hazardous Air Pollutants From the Pulp and Paper Industry AGENCY: Environmental Protection...hazardous air pollutants for the pulp and paper industry to address the results of...

  3. Evaluating Energy Policy: Quantifying Air Pollution and Health Co-Benefits Tammy M Thompson

    E-print Network

    to emissions inventory processing and regional air quality modeling, and (3) quantifies pollution and humanEvaluating Energy Policy: Quantifying Air Pollution and Health Co-Benefits Tammy M Thompson Noelle Energy Policy Scenarios Criteria Pollution Emissions Changes Impacts on Air Quality and Human Health

  4. Synergistic Effects of Air Pollution and Personal Smoking on Adult Pulmonary Function

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Xiping Xu; Lihua Wang

    1998-01-01

    There is strong evidence that air pollution and cigarette smoking adversely affect respiratory health, but it remains uncertain whether the joint effects of air pollution and smoking are additive or synergistic. The authors investigated the hypothesized synergistic effects of air pollution and personal smoking on pulmonary function in a random sample of 3 287 adults (40–69 y of age) who

  5. EVALUATION OF CONTROL TECHNOLOGIES FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS. VOLUME 1. TECHNICAL REPORT

    EPA Science Inventory

    The manual is an aid to EPA regional, state, and local air pollution control agency technical personnel in selecting, evaluating, and developing costs of air pollution control techniques for reducing or eliminating the emission of potentially hazardous air pollutants (HAPs) from ...

  6. EVALUATION OF CONTROL TECHNOLOGIES FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS. VOLUME 2. APPENDICES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The manual is an aid to EPA regional, state, and local air pollution control agency technical personnel in selecting, evaluating, and developing costs of air pollution control techniques for reducing or eliminating the emission of potentially hazardous air pollutants (HAPs) from ...

  7. Review of current research and long-term research needs in air pollution

    Microsoft Academic Search

    1985-01-01

    Current research and long-term research needs of air pollution are reviewed and assessed in the following areas: pollution definition and characterization; atmospheric chemistry; measurement and monitoring of ambient air and sources; effects of human health and welfare, vegetation, animals, aquatic life, materials and structures; air pollution meteorology and modeling; engineering control; and regulatory control. The work spans NSF program categories

  8. ENVIRONMENTAL INFORMATION SYSTEM FOR ANALYSIS AND FORECAST OF AIR POLLUTION (APPLICATION TO SANTIAGO DE CHILE)

    E-print Network

    Bertossi, Leopoldo

    ENVIRONMENTAL INFORMATION SYSTEM FOR ANALYSIS AND FORECAST OF AIR POLLUTION (APPLICATION Chile and other cities in Chile, air pollution is a dramatic problem. An Environmental Information planning. Using a model-based EIS for air pollution it is possible (i) to study complex source

  9. Exposures to air pollutants during pregnancy and preterm delivery.

    PubMed

    Leem, Jong-Han; Kaplan, Brian M; Shim, Youn K; Pohl, Hana R; Gotway, Carol A; Bullard, Stevan M; Rogers, J Felix; Smith, Melissa M; Tylenda, Carolyn A

    2006-06-01

    The association between preterm delivery (PTD) and exposure to air pollutants has recently become a major concern. We investigated this relationship in Incheon, Republic of Korea, using spatial and temporal modeling to better infer individual exposures. The birth cohort consisted of 52,113 singleton births in 2001-2002, and data included residential address, gestational age, sex, birth date and order, and parental age and education. We used a geographic information system and kriging methods to construct spatial and temporal exposure models. Associations between exposure and PTD were evaluated using univariate and multivariate log-binomial regressions. Given the gestational age, birth date, and the mother's residential address, we estimated each mother's potential exposure to air pollutants during critical periods of the pregnancy. The adjusted risk ratios for PTD in the highest quartiles of the first trimester exposure were 1.26 [95% confidence interval (CI), 1.11-1.44] for carbon monoxide, 1.27 (95% CI, 1.04-1.56) for particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter < or = 10 microm, 1.24 (95% CI, 1.09-1.41) for nitrogen dioxide, and 1.21 (95% CI, 1.04-1.42) for sulfur dioxide. The relationships between PTD and exposures to CO, NO2, and SO2 were dose dependent (p < 0.001, p < 0.02, p < 0.02, respectively) . In addition, the results of our study indicated a significant association between air pollution and PTD during the third trimester of pregnancy. In conclusion, our study showed that relatively low concentrations of air pollution under current air quality standards during pregnancy may contribute to an increased risk of PTD. A biologic mechanism through increased prostaglandin levels that are triggered by inflammatory mediators during exposure periods is discussed. PMID:16759993

  10. Adverse Health Effects of Particulate Air Pollution

    PubMed Central

    Bell, Michelle L.; Ebisu, Keita; Peng, Roger D.; Dominici, Francesca

    2011-01-01

    Background The short-term effects of particulate matter (PM) on mortality and morbidity differ by geographic location and season. Several hypotheses have been proposed for this variation, including different exposures with air conditioning (AC) versus open windows. Methods Bayesian hierarchical modeling was used to explore whether AC prevalence modified day-to-day associations between PM10 and mortality, and between PM2.5 and cardiovascular or respiratory hospitalizations, for those 65 years and older. We considered yearly, summer-only, and winter-only effect estimates and 2 types of AC (central and window units). Results Communities with higher AC prevalence had lower PM effects. Associations were observed for cardiovascular hospitalizations and central AC. Each additional 20% of households with central AC was associated with a 43% decrease in PM2.5 effects on cardiovascular hospitalization. Central AC prevalence explained 17% of between-community variability in PM2.5 effect estimates for cardiovascular hospitalizations. Conclusions Higher AC prevalence was associated with lower health effect estimates for PM. PMID:19535984

  11. Integrated Assessment of Health-related Economic Impacts of U.S. Air Pollution Policy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saari, R. K.; Rausch, S.; Selin, N. E.

    2012-12-01

    We examine the environmental impacts, health-related economic benefits, and distributional effects of new US regulations to reduce smog from power plants, namely: the Cross-State Air Pollution Rule. Using integrated assessment methods, linking atmospheric and economic models, we assess the magnitude of economy-wide effects and distributional consequences that are not captured by traditional regulatory impact assessment methods. We study the Cross-State Air Pollution Rule, a modified allowance trading scheme that caps emissions of nitrogen oxides and sulfur dioxide from power plants in the eastern United States and thus reduces ozone and particulate matter pollution. We use results from the regulatory regional air quality model, CAMx (the Comprehensive Air Quality Model with extensions), and epidemiologic studies in BenMAP (Environmental Benefits Mapping and Analysis Program), to quantify differences in morbidities and mortalities due to this policy. To assess the economy-wide and distributional consequences of these health impacts, we apply a recently developed economic and policy model, the US Regional Energy and Environmental Policy Model (USREP), a multi-region, multi-sector, multi-household, recursive dynamic computable general equilibrium economic model of the US that provides a detailed representation of the energy sector, and the ability to represent energy and environmental policies. We add to USREP a representation of air pollution impacts, including the estimation and valuation of health outcomes and their effects on health services, welfare, and factor markets. We find that the economic welfare benefits of the Rule are underestimated by traditional methods, which omit economy-wide impacts. We also quantify the distribution of benefits, which have varying effects across US regions, income groups, and pollutants, and we identify factors influencing this distribution, including the geographic variation of pollution and population as well as underlying economic conditions.

  12. Ambient Air Pollution and Apnea and Bradycardia in High-Risk Infants on Home Monitors

    PubMed Central

    Klein, Mitchel; Flanders, W. Dana; Mulholland, James A.; Freed, Gary; Tolbert, Paige E.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Evidence suggests that increased ambient air pollution concentrations are associated with health effects, although relatively few studies have specifically examined infants. Objective: We examined associations of daily ambient air pollution concentrations with central apnea (prolonged pauses in breathing) and bradycardia (low heart rate) events among infants prescribed home cardiorespiratory monitors. Methods: The home monitors record the electrocardiogram, heart rate, and respiratory effort for detected apnea and bradycardia events in high-risk infants [primarily premature and low birth weight (LBW) infants]. From August 1998 through December 2002, 4,277 infants had 8,960 apnea event-days and 29,450 bradycardia event-days in > 179,000 days of follow-up. We assessed the occurrence of apnea and bradycardia events in relation to speciated particulate matter and gaseous air pollution levels using a 2-day average of air pollution (same day and previous day), adjusting for temporal trends, temperature, and infant age. Results: We observed associations between bradycardia and 8-hr maximum ozone [odds ratio (OR) = 1.049 per 25-ppb increase; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.021–1.078] and 1-hr maximum nitrogen dioxide (OR =1.025 per 20-ppb increase; 95% CI, 1.000–1.050). The association with ozone was robust to different methods of control for time trend and specified correlation structure. In secondary analyses, associations of apnea and bradycardia with pollution were generally stronger in infants who were full term and of normal birth weight than in infants who were both premature and LBW. Conclusions: These results suggest that higher air pollution concentrations may increase the occurrence of apnea and bradycardia in high-risk infants. PMID:21447453

  13. A statistical study of the macroepidemiology of air pollution and total mortality

    SciTech Connect

    Lipfert, F.W.; Malone, R.G.; Daum, M.L.; Mendell, N.R.; Yang, Chin-Chun

    1988-04-01

    A statistical analysis of spatial patterns of 1980 US urban total mortality (all causes) was performed, evaluating demographic, socioeconomic and air pollution factors as predictors. Specific mortality predictors included cigarette smoking, drinking water hardness, heating fuel use, and 1978-1982 annual concentrations of the following air pollutants: ozone, carbon monoxide, sulfate aerosol, particulate concentrations of lead, iron, cadmium, manganese, vanadium, as well as total and fine particle mass concentrations from the inhalable particulate network (dichotomous samplers). In addition, estimates of sulfur dioxide, oxides of nitrogen, and sulfate aerosol were made for each city using the ASTRAP long-range transport diffusion model, and entered into the analysis as independent variables. Because the number of cities with valid air quality and water hardness data varied considerably by pollutant, it was necessary to consider several different data sets, ranging from 48 to 952 cities. The relatively strong associations (ca. 5--10%) shown for 1980 pollution with 1980 total mortality are generally not confirmed by independent studies, for example, in Europe. In addition, the US studies did not find those pollutants with known adverse health effects at the concentrations in question (such as ozone or CO) to be associated with mortality. The question of causality vs. circumstantial association must therefore be regarded as still unresolved. 59 refs., 20 figs., 40 tabs.

  14. A preliminary assessment of the Montreal process indicators of air pollution for the United States.

    PubMed

    Coulston, John W; Riitters, Kurt H; Smith, Gretchen C

    2004-07-01

    Air pollutants pose a risk to forest health and vitality in the United States. Here we present the major findings from a national scale air pollution assessment that is part of the United States' 2003 Report on Sustainable Forests. We examine trends and the percent forest subjected to specific levels of ozone and wet deposition of sulfate, nitrate, and ammonium. Results are reported by Resource Planning Act (RPA) reporting region and integrated by forest type using multivariate clustering. Estimates of sulfate deposition for forested areas had decreasing trends (1994-2000) across RPA regions that were statistically significant for North and South RPA regions. Nitrate deposition rates were relatively constant for the 1994 to 2000 period, but the South RPA region had a statistically decreasing trend. The North and South RPA regions experienced the highest ammonium deposition rates and showed slightly decreasing trends. Ozone concentrations were highest in portions of the Pacific Coast RPA region and relatively high across much of the South RPA region. Both the South and Rocky Mountain RPA regions had an increasing trend in ozone exposure. Ozone-induced foliar injury to sensitive species was recorded in all regions except for the Rocky Mountain region. The multivariate analysis showed that the oak-hickory and loblolly-shortleaf pine forest types were generally exposed to more air pollution than other forest types, and the redwood, western white pine, and larch forest types were generally exposed to less. These findings offer a new approach to national air pollution assessments and are intended to help focus research and planning initiatives related to air pollution and forest health. PMID:15195820

  15. Ambient Air Pollution and Daily Outpatient Visits for Cardiac Arrhythmia in Shanghai, China

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Ang; Chen, Renjie; Kuang, Xingya; Kan, Haidong

    2014-01-01

    Background Cardiac arrhythmias are cardiac rhythm disorders that comprise an important public health problem. Few prior studies have examined the association between ambient air pollution and arrhythmias in general populations in mainland China. Methods We performed a time-series analysis to investigate the short-term association between air pollution (particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter less than 10 µm [PM10], sulfur dioxide [SO2], and nitrogen dioxide [NO2]) and outpatient visits for arrhythmia in Shanghai, China. We applied the over-dispersed Poisson generalized additive model to analyze the associations after control for seasonality, day of the week, and weather conditions. We then stratified the analyses by age, gender, and season. Results We identified a total of 56 940 outpatient visits for cardiac arrhythmia. A 10-µg/m3 increase in the present-day concentrations of PM10, SO2, and NO2 corresponded to increases of 0.56% (95% CI 0.42%, 0.70%), 2.07% (95% CI 1.49%, 2.64%), and 2.90% (95% CI 2.53%, 3.27%), respectively, in outpatient arrhythmia visits. The associations were stronger in older people (aged ?65 years) and in females. This study provides the first evidence that ambient air pollution is significantly associated with increased risk of cardiac arrhythmia in mainland China. Conclusions Our analyses provide evidence that the current air pollution levels have an adverse effect on cardiovascular health and strengthened the rationale for further limiting air pollution levels in the city. PMID:24835409

  16. The transport sector as a source of air pollution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Colvile, R. N.; Hutchinson, E. J.; Mindell, J. S.; Warren, R. F.

    Transport first became a significant source of air pollution after the problems of sooty smog from coal combustion had largely been solved in western European and North American cities. Since then, emissions from road, air, rail and water transport have been partly responsible for acid deposition, stratospheric ozone depletion and climate change. Most recently, road traffic exhaust emissions have been the cause of much concern about the effects of urban air quality on human health and tropospheric ozone production. This article considers the variety of transport impacts on the atmospheric environment by reviewing three examples: urban road traffic and human health, aircraft emissions and global atmospheric change, and the contribution of sulphur emissions from ships to acid deposition. Each example has associated with it a different level of uncertainty, such that a variety of policy responses to the problems are appropriate, from adaptation through precautionary emissions abatement to cost-benefit analysis and optimised abatement. There is some evidence that the current concern for road transport contribution to urban air pollution is justified, but aircraft emissions should also give cause for concern given that air traffic is projected to continue to increase. Emissions from road traffic are being reduced substantially by the introduction of technology especially three-way catalysts and also, most recently, by local traffic reduction measures especially in western European cities. In developing countries and Eastern Europe, however, there remains the possibility of great increase in car ownership and use, and it remains to be seen whether these countries will adopt measures now to prevent transport-related air pollution problems becoming severe later in the 21st Century.

  17. Asthma and low level air pollution in Helsinki

    SciTech Connect

    Poenkae A5 (Department of Environmental Health, Helsinki City Health Department (Finland))

    1991-09-01

    The effects of relatively low levels of air pollution and weather conditions on the number of patients who had asthma attacks and who were admitted to a hospital were studied in Helsinki during a 3-y period. The number of admissions increased during cold weather (n = 4,209), especially among persons who were of working age but not among children. Even after standardization for temperature, all admissions, including emergency ward admissions, were significantly correlated with ambient air concentrations of nitrogen dioxide (NO2), nitric oxide (NO), sulfur dioxide (SO2), carbon monoxide (CO), ozone (O3), and total suspended particulates (TSP). Regression analysis revealed that NO and O3 were most strongly associated with asthma problems. Effects of air pollutants and cold were maximal if they occurred on the same day, except for O3, which had a more pronounced effect after a 1-d lag. The associations between pollutants, low temperature, and admissions were most significant among adults of working age, followed by the elderly. Among children, only O3 and NO were significantly correlated with admissions. Levels of pollutants were fairly low, the long-term mean being 19.2 micrograms/m3 for SO2, 38.6 micrograms/m3 for NO2, 22.0 micrograms/m3 or O3, and 1.3 mg/m3 for CO. In contrast, the mean concentration of TSP was high (76.3 micrograms/m3), and the mean temperature was low (+ 4.7 degrees C). These results suggest that concentrations of pollutants lower than those given as guidelines in many countries may increase the incidence of asthma attacks.

  18. Recent climate and air pollution impacts on Asian agriculture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burney, J. A.

    2012-12-01

    The impacts of climate change on agricultural production have important ramifications for food security and policy from local to global scales. Recent research investigating these impacts has focused on the roles of temperature and precipitation on yield. However, regional climate changes are due to both global emissions of long-lived greenhouse gases (LLGHGs) as well as local emissions of aerosols and other short-lived climate pollutants (SLCPs). SLCPs can impact plant growth both directly (e.g., ozone) and indirectly, by altering regional temperature, precipitation, and surface radiation. Existing estimates of the effects of SLCPs on crop yields have been drawn from field experiments and cultivar-specific dose-response relationships; no research has as yet examined the historic role of the direct and the indirect effects of SLCPs on yields. I will present results from a statistical model of the impact of climate and air pollution on wheat and rice yields in Asia over the past 3 decades (1980-2008). This builds on work we completed for India, which was the first such analysis combining the effects of climate, aerosols, and tropospheric ozone into a statistical model. Yields across Asia in 2008 were lower for wheat and rice than they otherwise would have been, absent climate and pollutant emissions trends. Most of these losses were due to SLCPs as opposed to longer-run temperature and precipitation trends, indicating that gains from addressing regional air pollution could significantly help in offsetting expected future losses due to rising temperatures and precipitation changes. This new insight into the relative importance of these climate and air pollution factors can help inform both climate policy discussions and agricultural adaptation efforts in this critical food security region.

  19. Apparent Temperature and Air Pollution vs. Elderly Population Mortality in Metro Vancouver

    PubMed Central

    Krsti?, Goran

    2011-01-01

    Background Meteorological conditions and air pollution in urban environments have been associated with general population and elderly mortality, showing seasonal variation. Objectives This study is designed to evaluate the relationship between apparent temperature (AT) and air pollution (PM2.5) vs. mortality in elderly population of Metro Vancouver. Methods Statistical analyses are performed on moving sum daily mortality rates vs. moving average AT and PM2.5 in 1-, 2-, 3-, 5-, and 7-day models for all seasons, warm temperatures above 15°C, and cold temperatures below 10°C. Results Approximately 37% of the variation in all-season mortality from circulatory and respiratory causes can be explained by the variation in 7-day moving average apparent temperature (r2?=?0.37, p<0.001). Although the analytical results from air pollution models show increasingly better prediction ability of longer time-intervals (r2?=?0.012, p<0.001 in a 7-day model), a very weak negative association between elderly mortality and air pollution is observed. Conclusions Apparent temperature is associated with mortality from respiratory and circulatory causes in elderly population of Metro Vancouver. In a changing climate, one may anticipate to observe potential health impacts from the projected high- and particularly from the low-temperature extremes. PMID:21980381

  20. The relationship between air pollutants and heart-rate variability among community residents in Korea.

    PubMed

    Min, Kyoung-Bok; Min, Jin-Young; Cho, Sung-Il; Paek, Domyung

    2008-02-01

    Air pollution, both particulate and gaseous, is known to cause adverse health effects and is associated with increased cardiovascular mortality and morbidity. With a growing recognition in the importance of the autonomic nervous system in air pollution, we examined the effects of air pollutants, namely, particulate matter (PM10), sulfur dioxide (SO2), and nitric dioxide (NO2), on cardiac autonomic function by measuring heart-rate variability (HRV) among community residents. This study was conducted at Taein Island, located off the southern coast of South Korea; 1349 subjects (596 males and 753 females) were included in this analysis. Subjects responded to the interview about general characteristics and an HRV examination was conducted. Exposure data were collected from the Environmental Management Corporation during the same period of HRV measurement. Linear regression analyses were carried out to evaluate the association over 72 h, and the parameters of HRV indices were presented as the percentage change. The exposures to PM(10), SO(2), and NO2 were associated with reduced HRV indices, and significant decreases in the standard deviation of the normal to normal interval (SDNN) and low frequency (LF) domain effect, and the effect was largely continued until 12 h. Our results suggest that air pollutants stimulate the autonomic nervous system and provoke an imbalance in cardiac autonomic control. Thus, these subclinical effects may lead to pathological consequences, particularly in high-risk patients and susceptible subjects. PMID:18302051

  1. Magnetic biomonitoring of industrial air pollution in SW Finland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salo, Hanna; Mäkinen, Joni

    2015-04-01

    Moss bags made of Sphagnum papillosum were exposed along 8 km transects near Harjavalta Industrial Park in SW Finland. Previous studies have identified Cu-Ni smelter's pipe as the main source of air pollution. Our research hypothesis is that nowadays the local pollution load of airborne particulate matter from Industrial Park is mainly caused by other emission sources than the smelter's pipe. To identify possible magnetic fingerprints, industrial samples (fiberglass filters from the smokestacks of Cu-Ni smelter and Ni-dryer, final Cu-slag, granulated Ni-slag, Cu-concentrates, Ni-concentrates) were investigated. Mass-specific susceptibility and heavy metal levels were significantly higher near Industrial Park and showed a decreasing trend with increasing distance from the source. The magnetic mineralogy of moss bags, smelter's filter and Cu-slag was dominated by a low-coercivity magnetite while high-coercivity minerals were observed in dryer's filter, Ni-slag and majority of concentrates including all Ni-concentrates. Angular and sharp-edged particles prevailed in moss bags and industrial samples, except for smelter's filter and granulated Ni-slag in which spherical particles dominated. Seven air pollution impact zones were distinguished around Industrial Park on the basis of magnetic susceptibility and previous studies. Overall, industrial area's influence is observable up to 4 km and even further distances in SE and NW along prevailing wind directions and Kokemäenjoki River valley. The heaviest anthropogenic air pollution load is deposited at 0.5-1 km distances. Particle morphology and magnetic data of the moss bags indicate that the particulate matter in the hot spot area, which spatial emphasis is in S-SW-W-NW in the upwind from the smelter, originate mainly from the dust emissions from other sources rather than the smelter's pipe. The industrial activities in and nearby hot spot area include handling and moving of concentrates and slags as well as heavy traffic. This study shows that air pollution from various dust-providing sources outweighs the fly-ash load from the Cu-Ni smelter's pipe especially at short distances. Furthermore, active magnetic monitoring by moss bags is spatially detailed sampling method for the identification of air pollutants and emission sources.

  2. Air pollutant-enhanced respiratory disease in experimental animals.

    PubMed Central

    Gilmour, M I; Daniels, M; McCrillis, R C; Winsett, D; Selgrade, M K

    2001-01-01

    Studies in animals have shown that a wide range of airborne particulates including cigarette smoke, acid aerosols, metals, organic compounds, and combustion products can interfere with the normal defense processes of the lung to enhance susceptibility to respiratory infection or exacerbate allergic diseases. Such detrimental effects are less easy to quantify in humans because of the difficulties in obtaining comprehensive exposure history and health status in large populations and because of the inherent dangers of inducing disease in clinical studies. In this article we describe examples of how air pollutants affect lung disease in experimental animal systems. This information can be used to predict the health risk of simple and complex exposures and to lend insight into the mechanisms of air pollution toxicity. PMID:11544174

  3. Evaluating Multipollutant Exposure and Urban Air Quality: Pollutant Interrelationships, Neighborhood Variability, and Nitrogen Dioxide as a Proxy Pollutant

    PubMed Central

    Levy, Ilan; Mihele, Cristian; Lu, Gang; Narayan, Julie; Brook, Jeffrey R.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Although urban air pollution is a complex mix containing multiple constituents, studies of the health effects of long-term exposure often focus on a single pollutant as a proxy for the entire mixture. A better understanding of the component pollutant concentrations and interrelationships would be useful in epidemiological studies that exploit spatial differences in exposure by clarifying the extent to which measures of individual pollutants, particularly nitrogen dioxide (NO2), represent spatial patterns in the multipollutant mixture. Objectives: We examined air pollutant concentrations and interrelationships at the intraurban scale to obtain insight into the nature of the urban mixture of air pollutants. Methods: Mobile measurements of 23 air pollutants were taken systematically at high resolution in Montreal, Quebec, Canada, over 34 days in the winter, summer, and autumn of 2009. Results: We observed variability in pollution levels and in the statistical correlations between different pollutants according to season and neighborhood. Nitrogen oxide species (nitric oxide, NO2, nitrogen oxides, and total oxidized nitrogen species) had the highest overall spatial correlations with the suite of pollutants measured. Ultrafine particles and hydrocarbon-like organic aerosol concentration, a derived measure used as a specific indicator of traffic particles, also had very high correlations. Conclusions: Our findings indicate that the multipollutant mix varies considerably throughout the city, both in time and in space, and thus, no single pollutant would be a perfect proxy measure for the entire mix under all circumstances. However, based on overall average spatial correlations with the suite of pollutants measured, nitrogen oxide species appeared to be the best available indicators of spatial variation in exposure to the outdoor urban air pollutant mixture. Citation: Levy I, Mihele C, Lu G, Narayan J, Brook JR. 2014. Evaluating multipollutant exposure and urban air quality: pollutant interrelationships, neighborhood variability, and nitrogen dioxide as a proxy pollutant. Environ Health Perspect 122:65–72;?http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/ehp.1306518 PMID:24225648

  4. Air pollution and tobacco fleck studies in eastern United States

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. E. Heggestad; G. Silber; J. J. Grosso

    1962-01-01

    In tobacco-producing states along the eastern coast, most ozone-type air pollution injury has occurred in the Connecticut Valley on shade-grown, cigar wrapper tobacco. In 1960 and 1961, losses in this area were lower than usual because of change to fleck-resistant varieties. Ozone has been measured at Beltsville, Maryland, by an automatic ozone meter, by cracking rate in strips of stressed

  5. Personal exposure to particulate air pollution in transport microenvironments

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Gulliver; D. J. Briggs

    2004-01-01

    Personal measurements of exposure to particulate air pollution (PM10, PM2.5, PM1) were simultaneously made during walking and in-car journeys on two suburban routes in Northampton, UK, during the winter of 1999\\/2000. Comparisons were made between concentrations found in each transport mode by particle fraction, between different particle fractions by transport mode, and between transport microenvironments and a fixed-site monitor located

  6. Air pollution in Athens basin and health risk assessment.

    PubMed

    Economopoulou, Alexia A; Economopoulos, Alexander P

    2002-12-01

    An inventory of air pollution sources within the Athens basin is carried out for the years 1989, 1992 and 1998 and the results are inputted in a climatological model for predicting ambient concentrations. Despite of the significant growth in the number of road vehicles and the deteriorating traffic, the emissions and ambient concentrations of fine particulates, CO, NOx and VOC appear to remain reasonably constant over for the period 1989 to 1998, while these of SO2 and Pb are reduced, mainly due to the renewal of vehicle fleet, the use of catalytic technologies and the improved quality of the used fuel. The results further indicate that for CO, NOx and VOC the major source is road traffic, while for PM2.5 and SO2 both space heating and traffic share responsibility. The air pollutant concentrations monitored by the network of 11 stations are reviewed and statistics related to air quality guidelines are presented. As fine particulate levels are not monitored, approximate PM2.5 and PM10 concentrations are derived from black smoke ones on basis of experimentally determined conversion factors. The computed and monitored air pollution levels are compared and found in reasonable agreement. The results of the above analysis show that the levels of all 'classical' pollutants, with the exception of SO2 and Pb, exceed significantly the WHO guidelines and are thus expected to exert a significant health impact. The latter could be quantified in relation to the PM2.5 or PM10 levels on the basis of risk assessment information developed by the World Health Organization (WHO). The results show that the existing levels of fine particle concentrations in Athens increase significantly the mortality and morbidity, and reduce the average longevity of the entire population from 1.3 to 1.7 years. PMID:12503898

  7. Implementing QALYs in the Analysis of Air Pollution Regulations

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bryan J. Hubbell

    2006-01-01

    .  In recent years, there has been growing interest in cost-effectiveness analysis for environmental regulations using quality-adjusted life years as the measure of effectiveness. This paper explores the implications of the QALY approach for measuring the impacts of air pollution regulations, with an example using the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency’s Heavy Duty Engine\\/Diesel Fuel regulations. The paper also examines the issues

  8. Ambient Air Pollution and Autism in Los Angeles County, California

    PubMed Central

    Becerra, Tracy Ann; Wilhelm, Michelle; Olsen, Jørn; Cockburn, Myles

    2012-01-01

    Background: The prevalence of autistic disorder (AD), a serious developmental condition, has risen dramatically over the past two decades, but high-quality population-based research addressing etiology is limited. Objectives: We studied the influence of exposures to traffic-related air pollution during pregnancy on the development of autism using data from air monitoring stations and a land use regression (LUR) model to estimate exposures. Methods: Children of mothers who gave birth in Los Angeles, California, who were diagnosed with a primary AD diagnosis at 3–5 years of age during 1998–2009 were identified through the California Department of Developmental Services and linked to 1995–2006 California birth certificates. For 7,603 children with autism and 10 controls per case matched by sex, birth year, and minimum gestational age, birth addresses were mapped and linked to the nearest air monitoring station and a LUR model. We used conditional logistic regression, adjusting for maternal and perinatal characteristics including indicators of SES. Results: Per interquartile range (IQR) increase, we estimated a 12–15% relative increase in odds of autism for ozone [odds ratio (OR) = 1.12, 95% CI: 1.06, 1.19; per 11.54-ppb increase] and particulate matter ? 2.5 µm (OR = 1.15; 95% CI: 1.06, 1.24; per 4.68-?g/m3 increase) when mutually adjusting for both pollutants. Furthermore, we estimated 3–9% relative increases in odds per IQR increase for LUR-based nitric oxide and nitrogen dioxide exposure estimates. LUR-based associations were strongest for children of mothers with less than a high school education. Conclusion: Measured and estimated exposures from ambient pollutant monitors and LUR model suggest associations between autism and prenatal air pollution exposure, mostly related to traffic sources. PMID:23249813

  9. Energy from paper sludge: Criteria and hazardous air pollutants

    SciTech Connect

    Zander, A.K.; Theis, T.L.; Brennan, M. [Clarkson Univ., Potsdam, NY (United States). Dept. of Civil and Environmental Engineering

    1996-08-01

    The paper-manufacturing industry generates more than 90,000,000 t of sludge annually in the US, the disposal of which is a complex environmental issue. Test burns of pelletized and dried paper-mill sludge were performed in a small institutional boiler for the purpose of determining environmental feasibility of the operation. The sludge was from a facility processing 100% secondary fiber (40% postconsumer), and was co-fired with wood chips. Emission rates of various criteria and hazardous air pollutants were measured during the burns and compared to regulatory limits. Results indicated that criteria pollutant emissions from this 2.9 MW (10,000,000 Btu/h) operation were well within regulatory limits with the exception of particulate material. Emission control such as a baghouse or electrostatic precipitator would be needed for a facility performing energy recovery from sludge. Organic hazardous air-pollutant emissions were also well below mass rates that would qualify the boiler as a major source under the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990, with the largest emissions being formaldehyde, followed by acetaldehyde, acrolein, and naphthalene.

  10. Identification of air pollutant sampling period using horizontal dilution potential.

    PubMed

    George, K V; Verma, P; Devotta, S

    2009-04-01

    A new model is proposed for estimating horizontal dilution potential of an area using wind data. The mean wind speed and wind direction variation are used as a measure of linear and angular spread of pollutant in the atmosphere. The methodology is applied to monitored hourly wind data for each month of 1 year for wind data collected at Vadodara, Gujarat and monthly dilution potential is estimated. It is found that there is a gradual variation of horizontal dilution potential over a year with limited dilution during post monsoon period i.e., October and November and a high dilution in pre monsoon period i.e., May and June. This information can be used to design air quality sampling network and duration of sampling for source apportionment study. Air pollutant sampling during high dilution period can be carried out for identifying urban and rural dust and wind blown dust from mining activity. Air pollutant sampling during low dilution period can be carried out for capturing large amount of particulate matter from anthropogenic sources like elevated stack of furnace. PMID:18398689

  11. Compendium of methods for the determination of air pollutants in indoor air

    SciTech Connect

    Winberry, W.T.; Forehand, L.; Murphy, N.T.; Ceroli, A.; Phinney, B.

    1990-04-01

    Determination of pollutants in indoor air is a complex task because of the wide variety of compounds of interest and the lack of standardized sampling and analysis procedures. To assist agencies and persons responsible for sampling and analysis of indoor pollutants, the methods compendium provides current, technically-reviewed sampling and analysis procedures in a standardized format for determination of selected pollutants of primary importance in indoor air. Each chapter contains one or more active or passive sampling procedures along with one or more appropriate analytical procedures. The ten chapters of the compendium cover determination of volatile organic compounds, nicotine, carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide, air exchange rate, nitrogen dioxide, formaldehyde, benzo(a)pyrene and other polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons, acid gases and aerosols, particulate matter, and pesticides. As further advancements are made, the procedures may be modified or updated, or additional methods may be added as appropriate.

  12. Prospective study of particulate air pollution exposures, subclinical atherosclerosis, and clinical cardiovascular disease: The Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis and Air Pollution (MESA Air).

    PubMed

    Kaufman, Joel D; Adar, Sara D; Allen, Ryan W; Barr, R Graham; Budoff, Matthew J; Burke, Gregory L; Casillas, Adrian M; Cohen, Martin A; Curl, Cynthia L; Daviglus, Martha L; Diez Roux, Ana V; Jacobs, David R; Kronmal, Richard A; Larson, Timothy V; Liu, Sally Lee-Jane; Lumley, Thomas; Navas-Acien, Ana; O'Leary, Daniel H; Rotter, Jerome I; Sampson, Paul D; Sheppard, Lianne; Siscovick, David S; Stein, James H; Szpiro, Adam A; Tracy, Russell P

    2012-11-01

    The Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis and Air Pollution (MESA Air) was initiated in 2004 to investigate the relation between individual-level estimates of long-term air pollution exposure and the progression of subclinical atherosclerosis and the incidence of cardiovascular disease (CVD). MESA Air builds on a multicenter, community-based US study of CVD, supplementing that study with additional participants, outcome measurements, and state-of-the-art air pollution exposure assessments of fine particulate matter, oxides of nitrogen, and black carbon. More than 7,000 participants aged 45-84 years are being followed for over 10 years for the identification and characterization of CVD events, including acute myocardial infarction and other coronary artery disease, stroke, peripheral artery disease, and congestive heart failure; cardiac procedures; and mortality. Subcohorts undergo baseline and follow-up measurements of coronary artery calcium using computed tomography and carotid artery intima-medial wall thickness using ultrasonography. This cohort provides vast exposure heterogeneity in ranges currently experienced and permitted in most developed nations, and the air monitoring and modeling methods employed will provide individual estimates of exposure that incorporate residence-specific infiltration characteristics and participant-specific time-activity patterns. The overarching study aim is to understand and reduce uncertainty in health effect estimation regarding long-term exposure to air pollution and CVD. PMID:23043127

  13. U.S. EPA'S INDOOR AIR QUALITY IMPLEMENTATION PLAN. APPENDIX A. PRELIMINARY INDOOR AIR POLLUTION INFORMATION ASSESSMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    The 'Preliminary Indoor Air Pollution Information Assessment' summarizes and assesses information from the published scientific literature regarding sources of indoor pollutants, monitoring methodology and instrumentation, exposure, health effects and mitigation strategies. Infor...

  14. Health impact assessment of air pollution in Valladolid, Spain

    PubMed Central

    Cárdaba Arranz, Mario; Muñoz Moreno, María Fe; Armentia Medina, Alicia; Alonso Capitán, Margarita; Carreras Vaquer, Fernando; Almaraz Gómez, Ana

    2014-01-01

    Objective To estimate the attributable and targeted avoidable deaths (ADs; TADs) of outdoor air pollution by ambient particulate matter (PM10), PM2.5 and O3 according to specific WHO methodology. Design Health impact assessment. Setting City of Valladolid, Spain (around 300?000 residents). Data sources Demographics; mortality; pollutant concentrations collected 1999–2008. Main outcome measures Attributable fractions; ADs and TADs per year for 1999–2008. Results Higher TADs estimates (shown here) were obtained when assuming as ‘target’ concentrations WHO Air Quality Guidelines instead of Directive 2008/50/EC. ADs are considered relative to pollutant background levels. All-cause mortality associated to PM10 (all ages): 52 ADs (95% CI 39 to 64); 31 TADs (95% CI 24 to 39).All-cause mortality associated to PM10 (<5?years): 0 ADs (95% CI 0 to 1); 0 TADs (95% CI 0 to 1). All-cause mortality associated to PM2.5 (>30?years): 326 ADs (95% CI 217 to 422); 231 TADs (95% CI 153 to 301). Cardiopulmonary and lung cancer mortality associated to PM2.5 (>30?years): ??Cardiopulmonary: 186 ADs (95% CI 74 to 280); 94 TADs (95% CI 36 to 148). ??Lung cancer : 51 ADs (95% CI 21 to 73); 27 TADs (95% CI 10 to 41).All-cause, respiratory and cardiovascular mortality associated to O3 (all ages): ??All-cause: 52ADs (95% CI 25 to 77) ; 31 TADs (95% CI 15 to 45). ??Respiratory: 5ADs (95% CI ?2 to 13) ; 3 TADs (95% CI ?1 to 8). ??Cardiovascular: 30 ADs (95% CI 8 to 51) ; 17 TADs (95% CI 5 to 30). Negative estimates which should be read as zero were obtained when pollutant concentrations were below counterfactuals or assumed risk coefficients were below one. Conclusions Our estimates suggest a not negligible negative impact on mortality of outdoor air pollution. The implementation of WHO methodology provides critical information to distinguish an improvement range in air pollution control. PMID:25326212

  15. Satellite-aided evaluation of population exposure to air pollution

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Todd, William J.; George, Anthony J., Jr.; Bryant, Nevin A.

    1979-01-01

    The Clean Air Act Amendments of 1977 set schedules for states to implement regional, spatial assessments of air quality impacts. Accordingly, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency recently published guidelines for quantifying population exposure to adverse air quality impact by using air quality and population data by census tracts. Our research complements the EPA guidelines in that it demonstrates the ability to determine population exposure to air pollution through computer processing that utilizes Landsat satellite-derived land use information. Three variables-a 1985 estimate of total suspended particulates for 2-km2 grid cells, Landsat-derived residential land cover data for 0.45-ha cells, and population totals for census tracts-were spatially registered and cross-tabulated to produce tabular and map products illustrating relative air quality exposure for residential population by 2-km2 cells. It would cost $20,000 to replicate our analysis for an area similar in size to the 4000-km2 Portland area. Once completed, the spatially fine, computer-compatible air quality and population data are amenable to the timely and efficient generation of population-at-risk tabular and map information on a continuous or periodic basis.

  16. Characteristics of emissions of air pollutants from burning of incense in a large environmental chamber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Shun-Cheng; Wang, Bei

    The objective of this study was to characterize the emissions of air pollutants from incense burning in a large environmental test chamber. Air pollutants emitted from ten types of commonly used incense manufactured in different regions were compared. The target pollutants included particulate matters (PM 10, PM 2.5), volatile organic compounds (VOCs), carbonyls, carbon monoxide (CO), carbon dioxide (CO 2), nitrogen oxides (NO x), methane (CH 4) and non-methane hydrocarbon (NMHC). The particulate matters emitted from all the incense significantly exceeded the Recommended Indoor Air Quality Objectives for Office Buildings and Public Places in Hong Kong (HKIAQO). The CO peak levels of seven incense types greatly exceeded the HKIAQO standard. The formaldehyde concentrations of six types of incense were higher than the HKIAQO. The highest formaldehyde level exceeded the standard by 2 times. The results indicated that the concentrations of benzene, toluene, methyl chloride and methylene chloride significantly increased with the burning of all incense tested. In addition, the benzene concentrations of all tested incense were significantly higher than the HKIAQO standard. Although Incense 2 and 6 were claimed to be environmental friendly, the quantity of the pollutants emitted was not observed to be lower than the others. It was observed that when comparing the gas pollutant emission factors between two major incense categories (i.e. traditional and aromatic), the traditional incense (i.e. Incense 1-6) had relatively higher values than aromatic incense (i.e. Incense 7-9). Generally, it was found that the VOCs emitted sequence was aromatic incense>tradition incense>church incense (i.e. Incense 10). However, the carbonyl compounds emission sequence was traditional incense>aromatic incense>church incense. The results show that incense burning is one of the important indoor air pollution sources for PM, CO and VOCs.

  17. Spatial cluster detection of air pollution exposure inequities across the United States.

    PubMed

    Zou, Bin; Peng, Fen; Wan, Neng; Mamady, Keita; Wilson, Gaines J

    2014-01-01

    Air quality is known to be a key factor in affecting the wellbeing and quality of life of the general populous and there is a large body of knowledge indicating that certain underrepresented groups may be overexposed to air pollution. Therefore, a more precise understanding of air pollution exposure as a driving cause of health disparities between and among ethnic and racial groups is necessary. Utilizing 52,613 urban census tracts across the United States, this study investigates age, racial, educational attainment and income differences in exposure to benzene pollution in 1999 as a case. The study examines spatial clustering patterns of these inequities using logistic regression modeling and spatial autocorrelation methods such as the Global Moran's I index and the Anselin Local Moran's I index. Results show that the age groups of 0 to 14 and those over 60 years old, individuals with less than 12 years of education, racial minorities including Blacks, American Indians, Asians, some other races, and those with low income were exposed to higher levels of benzene pollution in some census tracts. Clustering analyses stratified by age, education, and race revealed a clear case of disparities in spatial distribution of exposure to benzene pollution across the entire United States. For example, people aged less than 4 years from the western south and the Pacific coastal areas exhibit statistically significant clusters. The findings confirmed that there are geographical-location based disproportionate pattern of exposures to benzene air pollution by various socio-demographic factors across the United States and this type of disproportionate exposure pattern can be effectively detected by a spatial autocorrelation based cluster analysis method. It is suggested that there is a clear and present need for programs and services that will reduce inequities and ultimately improve environmental conditions for all underrepresented groups in the United States. PMID:24647354

  18. Air Pollution Emissions from Increased Industrial Coal Use in the Northeastern United States

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David R. Lincoln; Edward S. Rubin

    1980-01-01

    Evaluating the air pollution impacts of energy use in the industrial sector is difficult because of the diversity and multiplicity of sources and a general lack of systematic, up-to-date data collection mechanisms. Fuel-specific energy consumption for a multi-state region is provided by the U.S. Department of Energy PIES model for a base year (1975), together with scenarios for future years.

  19. Evaluating the Impacts of Transboundary Air pollution from China on Air Quality in the U.S. Using a Regression Framework

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ngo, N. S.; Bao, X.; Zhong, N.

    2014-12-01

    China is the largest emitter of anthropogenic air pollution in the world and previous work has shown the environmental impacts of the long-range transport (LRT) of air pollution from China to the U.S. via chemical transport models, in situ observations, isentropic back trajectories, and to a lesser extent statistical models. However, these studies generally focus on a narrow time period due to data constraints. In this study, we build upon the literature using econometric techniques to isolate the impacts on U.S. air quality from the LRT of air pollution from China. We use a unique daily data set of China's air pollution index (API) and PM10 concentrations at the city level and merge these information with daily monitor data in California (CA) between 2000 and 2013. We first employ a distributed lag model to examine daily patterns, and then exploit a "natural experiment." In the latter methodology, since air pollution is rarely randomly assigned, we examine the impacts of specific events that affect air quality in China, but are plausibly uncorrelated to factors affecting air pollution in CA. For example, Chinese New Year (CNY) is a major week-long holiday and we show pollution levels in China decrease during this time period, likely from reductions in industrial production. CNY varies each calendar year since it is based off the lunar new year, so the timing of this pollution reduction could be considered "as good as random" or exogenous to factors affecting air quality in CA. Using a regression framework including weather, seasonal and geographic controls, we can potentially isolate the impact of the LRT of air pollution to CA. First, results from the distributed lag model suggest that in the Spring, when LRT peaks, a 1 ?g/m3 increase in daily PM10 from China between 10 and 14 days ago is associated with an increase in today's PM2.5 in CA of 0.022 ?g/m3 (mean daily PM2.5 in CA is 12 ?g/m3). Second, we find that if CNY occurred 5 to 9 days ago, today's PM2.5 in CA decreases by 3 ?g/m3. We also conduct other tests and sensitivity checks, like observing impacts from individual cities in China or other events, and using daily leads as a falsification test. Our results have important policy implications regarding the consequences of foreign pollution sources and suggest a causal relationship between pollution from China and air quality in CA.

  20. Gestational Diabetes and Preeclampsia in Association with Air Pollution at Levels below Current Air Quality Guidelines

    PubMed Central

    Jakobsson, Kristina; Tinnerberg, Håkan; Rignell-Hydbom, Anna; Rylander, Lars

    2013-01-01

    Background: Several studies have estimated associations between air pollution and birth outcomes, but few have evaluated potential effects on pregnancy complications. Objective: We investigated whether low-level exposure to air pollution is associated with gestational diabetes and preeclampsia. Methods: High-quality registry information on 81,110 singleton pregnancy outcomes in southern Sweden during 1999–2005 was linked to individual-level exposure estimates with high spatial resolution. Modeled exposure to nitrogen oxides (NOx), expressed as mean concentrations per trimester, and proximity to roads of different traffic densities were used as proxy indicators of exposure to combustion-related air pollution. The data were analyzed by logistic regression, with and without adjusting for potential confounders. Results: The prevalence of gestational diabetes increased with each NOx quartile, with an adjusted odds ratio (OR) of 1.69 (95% CI: 1.41, 2.03) for the highest (> 22.7 µg/m3) compared with the lowest quartile (2.5–8.9 µg/m3) of exposure during the second trimester. The adjusted OR for acquiring preeclampsia after exposure during the third trimester was 1.51 (1.32, 1.73) in the highest quartile of NOx compared with the lowest. Both outcomes were associated with high traffic density, but ORs were significant for gestational diabetes only. Conclusion: NOx exposure during pregnancy was associated with gestational diabetes and preeclampsia in an area with air pollution levels below current air quality guidelines. PMID:23563048

  1. The relationship between exposure to air pollution and sperm disomy.

    PubMed

    Jurewicz, Joanna; Radwan, Micha?; Sobala, Wojciech; Pola?ska, Kinga; Radwan, Pawe?; Jakubowski, Lucjusz; Ula?ska, Anna; Hanke, Wojciech

    2015-01-01

    The causes of the chromosome abnormalities have been studied for decades. It has been suggested that exposure to various environmental agents can induce chromosomal abnormalities in germ cells. This study was designed to address the hypothesis that exposure to specific air pollutants increases sperm disomy. The study population consisted of 212 men who were attending an infertility clinic for diagnostic purposes. They represented a subset of men in a multicenter parent study conducted in Poland to evaluate environmental factors and male fertility. Sperm aneuploidy for chromosomes 13, 18, 21, X, and Y was assessed using multicolor fluorescence in situ hybridization. Air quality data were obtained from the AirBase database. After adjusting for age, smoking, alcohol consumption, temperature (90 days), season, past diseases, abstinence interval, distance from the monitoring station, concentration, motility and morphology, positive associations were observed between exposure to PM2.5 and disomy Y (P = 0.001), sex chromosome disomy (P = 0.05) and disomy 21 (P = 0.03). Exposure to PM10 was associated with disomy 21 (P = 0.02). Conversely, exposure to ozone, CO, SO2, and NOx did not affect sperm aneuploidy. A separate analysis conducted among men who were nonsmokers (n = 117) showed that the relationship between PM2.5 and disomy Y and disomy 21 remained significant (P = 0.01, P = 0.05, respectively). The present findings indicate that exposure to air pollution induces sperm aneuploidy. PMID:24989325

  2. Health impact assessment of air pollution in Shiraz, Iran: a two-part study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    We aimed to assess health-impacts of short-term exposure to the air pollutants including PM10, SO2, and NO2 in Shiraz, Iran in a two-part study from 2008 to 2010. In part I, local relative risks (RRs) and baseline incidences (BIs) were calculate using generalized additive models. In part II, we estimated the number of excess hospitalizations (NEHs) due to cardiovascular diseases (CDs), respiratory diseases (RDs), respiratory diseases in elderly group (RDsE—people older than 65 years old), and chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases (COPDs) as a result of exposure to air pollutants using AirQ model, which is proposed approach for air pollution health impact assessment by World Health Organization. In part I, exposure to increase in daily mean concentration of PM10 was associated with hospitalizations due to RDs with a RR of 1.0049 [95% confidence interval (CI), 1.0004 to 1.0110]. In addition, exposure to increase in daily mean concentration of SO2 and NO2 were associated with hospitalizations due to RDsE and COPDs with RRs of 1.0540 [95% CI, 1.0050 to 1.1200], 1.0950 [95% CI, 1.0700 to 1.1100], 1.0280 [95% CI, 1.0110 to 1.0450] and 1.0360 [95% CI, 1.0210 to 1.0510] per 10 ?g/m3 rise of these pollutants, respectively. In part II, the maximum NEHs due to CDs because of exposure to PM10 were in 2009—1489 excess cases (ECs). The maximum NEHs due to RDs because of exposure to PM10 were in 2009—1163 ECs. Meanwhile, the maximum NEHs due to RDsE and COPDs because of exposure to SO2 were in 2008, which are 520 and 900 ECs, respectively. In conclusion, elevated morbidity risks were found from acute exposure to air pollutants. PMID:24499576

  3. Air pollution and daily mortality in London: 1987-92.

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, H. R.; Ponce de Leon, A.; Bland, J. M.; Bower, J. S.; Strachan, D. P.

    1996-01-01

    OBJECTIVE--To investigate whether outdoor air pollution levels in London influence daily mortality. DESIGN--Poisson regression analysis of daily counts of deaths, with adjustment for effects of secular trend, seasonal and other cyclical factors, day of the week, holidays, influenza epidemic, temperature, humidity, and autocorrelation, from April 1987 to March 1992. Pollution variables were particles (black smoke), sulphur dioxide, ozone, and nitrogen dioxide, lagged 0-3 days. SETTING--Greater London. OUTCOME MEASURES--Relative risk of death from all causes (excluding accidents), respiratory disease, and cardiovascular disease. RESULTS--Ozone levels (same day) were associated with a significant increase in all cause, cardiovascular, and respiratory mortality; the effects were greater in the warm seasons (April to September) and were independent of the effects of other pollutants. In the warm season an increase of the eight hour ozone concentration from the 10th to the 90th centile of the seasonal change (7-36 ppb) was associated with an increase of 3.5% (95% confidence interval 1.7 to 5.3), 3.6% (1.04 to 6.1), and 5.4% (0.4 to 10.7) in all cause, cardiovascular, and respiratory mortality respectively. Black smoke concentrations on the previous day were significantly associated with all cause mortality, and this effect was also greater in the warm season and was independent of the effects of other pollutants. For black smoke an increase from the 10th to 90th centile in the warm season (7-19 microg/m3) was associated with an increase of 2.5% (0.9 to 4.1) in all cause mortality. Significant but smaller and less consistent effects were also observed for nitrogen dioxide and sulphur dioxide. CONCLUSION--Daily variations in air pollution within the range currently occurring in London may have an adverse effect on daily mortality. PMID:8597732

  4. Integrated Assessment of Air Pollution Control Measures for Megacities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Friedrich, R.; Theloke, J.; Denier-van-der-Gon, H.; Kugler, U.; Kampffmeyer, T.; Roos, J.; Torras, S.

    2012-04-01

    Air pollution in large cities is still a matter of concern. Especially the concentration of fine particles (PM10 and PM2.5) is largest in large cities leading to severe health impacts. Furthermore the PM10 thresholds of the EU Air Quality Directive are frequently exceeded. Thus the question arises, whether the initiated policies and measures for mitigating air pollution are sufficient to meet the air quality targets and - if not - which efficient further pollution mitigation measures exist. These questions have been addressed in the EU research project MEGAPOLI for the four European megacities respectively agglomerations London, Paris, Rhine-Ruhr area and Po valley. Firstly, a reference scenario of future activities and emissions has been compiled for the megacities for the years 2020, 2030 and 2050 for all relevant air pollutants (CO, NH3, NMVOC, NOx, PM10, PM2.5 and SO2) and greenhouse gases (CO2, CH4 and N2O). The reference scenario takes into account as well population changes as technical progress and economic growth. As pollution flowing in from outside the city is about as important as pollution caused by emissions in the city, the analysis covers the whole of Europe and not only the city area. Emissions are then transformed into concentrations using atmospheric models. The higher concentrations in cities were estimated with a newly developed 'urban increment' model. Results show, that in the megacities the limits of the Air Quality Directive (2008/50/EC) will be exceeded. Thus additional efforts are necessary to reduce emissions further. Thus, a number of further measures (not implemented in current legislation) were selected and assessed. These included mitigation options for road transport, other mobile sources, large combustion plants, small and medium combustion plants and industry. For each measure and in addition for various bundles of measures a cost-benefit analysis has been carried out. Benefits (avoided health risks and climate change risks) have been calculated for each measure using the impact pathway or full chain approach. First the changes of emissions - compared with the reference scenario - are estimated, that occur, if the different options are implemented. Then, for each policy scenario the concentrations of pollutants are estimated. Using concentration-response-relationships, impacts, especially risks to human health, are calculated. These impact are then converted into DALYs (disability adjusted life years) and further into monetary values using contingent valuation methods (willingness to pay approach). The most efficient measures are the use of solar energy for heating,insulation of buildings combined with a mechanical ventilation system, wind energy for electricity production, use of more efficient combustion techniques and low and later zero emission zones for vehicles in cities. However, even if all available options are implemented, the air quality requirements for PM10 will not be met under all meteorological conditions.

  5. How air pollution influences clinical management of respiratory diseases. A case-crossover study in Milan

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Environmental pollution is a known risk factor for multiple diseases and furthermore increases rate of hospitalisations. We investigated the correlation between emergency room admissions (ERAs) of the general population for respiratory diseases and the environmental pollutant levels in Milan, a metropolis in northern Italy. Methods We collected data from 45770 ERAs for respiratory diseases. A time-stratified case-crossover design was used to investigate the association between air pollution levels and ERAs for acute respiratory conditions. The effects of air pollutants were investigated at lag 0 to lag 5, lag 0–2 and lag 3–5 in both single and multi-pollutant models, adjusted for daily weather variables. Results An increase in ozone (O3) levels at lag 3–5 was associated with a 78% increase in the number of ERAs for asthma, especially during the warm season. Exposure to carbon monoxide (CO) proved to be a risk factor for pneumonia at lag 0–2 and in the warm season increased the risk of ERA by 66%. A significant association was found between ERAs for COPD exacerbation and levels of sulphur dioxide (SO2), CO, nitrate dioxide (NO2), and particulate matter (PM10 and PM2.5). The multipollutant model that includes all pollutants showed a significant association between CO (26%) and ERA for upper respiratory tract diseases at lag 0–2. For chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) exacerbations, only CO (OR 1.19) showed a significant association. Conclusions Exposure to environmental pollution, even at typical low levels, can increase the risk of ERA for acute respiratory diseases and exacerbation of obstructive lung diseases in the general population. PMID:23078274

  6. An examination of exposure measurement error from air pollutant spatial variability in time-series studies

    PubMed Central

    Sarnat, Stefanie E.; Klein, Mitchel; Sarnat, Jeremy A.; Flanders, W. Dana; Waller, Lance A.; Mulholland, James A.; Russell, Armistead G.; Tolbert, Paige E.

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Relatively few studies have evaluated the impacts of heterogeneous spatiotemporal pollutant distributions on health risk estimates in time-series analyses that use data from a central monitor to assign exposures. We present a method for examining the impacts of exposure measurement error relating to spatiotemporal variability in ambient air pollutant concentrations on air pollution health risk estimates in a daily time-series analysis of emergency department visits in Atlanta, Georgia. Methods We used Poisson generalized linear models to estimate associations between current day pollutant concentrations and circulatory emergency department visits for the 1998–2004 period. Data from monitoring sites located in different geographical regions of the study area and at different distances from several urban geographic subpopulations served as alternative measures of exposure. Results We observed associations for spatially heterogeneous pollutants (CO and NO2) using data from several different urban monitoring sites. These associations were not observed when using data from the most rural site, located 38 miles from the city center. In contrast, associations for spatially homogeneous pollutants (O3 and PM2.5) were similar regardless of monitoring site location. Conclusions We found that monitoring site location and the distance of a monitoring site to a population of interest did not meaningfully impact estimated associations for any pollutant when using data from urban sites located within 20 miles from the population center under study. However, for CO and NO2, these factors were important when using data from rural sites, located greater than 30 miles from the population center, likely due to exposure measurement error. Overall, our findings lend support to the use of pollutant data from urban central sites to assess population exposures within geographically dispersed study populations in Atlanta and similar cities. PMID:19277071

  7. An examination of exposure measurement error from air pollutant spatial variability in time-series studies.

    PubMed

    Sarnat, Stefanie E; Klein, Mitchel; Sarnat, Jeremy A; Flanders, W Dana; Waller, Lance A; Mulholland, James A; Russell, Armistead G; Tolbert, Paige E

    2010-03-01

    Relatively few studies have evaluated the effects of heterogeneous spatiotemporal pollutant distributions on health risk estimates in time-series analyses that use data from a central monitor to assign exposures. We present a method for examining the effects of exposure measurement error relating to spatiotemporal variability in ambient air pollutant concentrations on air pollution health risk estimates in a daily time-series analysis of emergency department visits in Atlanta, Georgia. We used Poisson generalized linear models to estimate associations between current-day pollutant concentrations and circulatory emergency department visits for the 1998-2004 time period. Data from monitoring sites located in different geographical regions of the study area and at different distances from several urban geographical subpopulations served as alternative measures of exposure. We observed associations for spatially heterogeneous pollutants (CO and NO(2)) using data from several different urban monitoring sites. These associations were not observed when using data from the most rural site, located 38 miles from the city center. In contrast, associations for spatially homogeneous pollutants (O(3) and PM(2.5)) were similar, regardless of the monitoring site location. We found that monitoring site location and the distance of a monitoring site to a population of interest did not meaningfully affect estimated associations for any pollutant when using data from urban sites located within 20 miles from the population center under study. However, for CO and NO(2), these factors were important when using data from rural sites located > or = 30 miles from the population center, most likely owing to exposure measurement error. Overall, our findings lend support to the use of pollutant data from urban central sites to assess population exposures within geographically dispersed study populations in Atlanta and similar cities. PMID:19277071

  8. Air pollution and subclinical airway inflammation in the SALIA cohort study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The association between long-term exposure to air pollution and local inflammation in the lung has rarely been investigated in the general population of elderly subjects before. We investigated this association in a population-based cohort of elderly women from Germany. Methods In a follow-up examination of the SALIA cohort study in 2008/2009, 402 women aged 68 to 79 years from the Ruhr Area and Borken (Germany) were clinically examined. Inflammatory markers were determined in exhaled breath condensate (EBC) and in induced sputum (IS). We used traffic indicators and measured air pollutants at single monitoring stations in the study area to assess individual traffic exposure and long-term air pollution background exposure. Additionally long-term residential exposure to air pollution was estimated using land-use regression (LUR) models. We applied multiple logistic and linear regression analyses adjusted for age, indoor mould, smoking, passive smoking and socio-economic status and additionally conducted sensitivity analyses. Results Inflammatory markers showed a high variability between the individuals and were higher with higher exposure to air pollution. NO derivatives, leukotriene (LT) B4 and tumour necrosis factor-? (TNF-?) showed the strongest associations. An increase of 9.42 ?g/m3 (interquartile range) in LUR modelled NO2 was associated with measureable LTB4 level (level with values above the detection limit) in EBC (odds ratio: 1.38, 95% CI: 1.02 -1.86) as well as with LTB4 in IS (%-change: 19%, 95% CI: 7% - 32%). The results remained consistent after exclusion of subpopulations with risk factors for inflammation (smoking, respiratory diseases, mould infestation) and after extension of models with additional adjustment for season of examination, mass of IS and urban/rural living as sensitivity analyses. Conclusions In this analysis of the SALIA study we found that long-term exposure to air pollutants from traffic and industrial sources was associated with an increase of several inflammatory markers in EBC and in IS. We conclude that long-term exposure to air pollution might lead to changes in the inflammatory marker profile in the lower airways in an elderly female population. PMID:24645673

  9. Modeling population exposures to outdoor sources of hazardous air pollutants.

    PubMed

    Ozkaynak, Halûk; Palma, Ted; Touma, Jawad S; Thurman, James

    2008-01-01

    Accurate assessment of human exposures is an important part of environmental health effects research. However, most air pollution epidemiology studies rely upon imperfect surrogates of personal exposures, such as information based on available central-site outdoor concentration monitoring or modeling data. In this paper, we examine the limitations of using outdoor concentration predictions instead of modeled personal exposures for over 30 gaseous and particulate hazardous air pollutants (HAPs) in the US. The analysis uses the results from an air quality dispersion model (the ASPEN or Assessment System for Population Exposure Nationwide model) and an inhalation exposure model (the HAPEM or Hazardous Air Pollutant Exposure Model, Version 5), applied by the US. Environmental protection Agency during the 1999 National Air Toxic Assessment (NATA) in the US. Our results show that the total predicted chronic exposure concentrations of outdoor HAPs from all sources are lower than the modeled ambient concentrations by about 20% on average for most gaseous HAPs and by about 60% on average for most particulate HAPs (mainly, due to the exclusion of indoor sources from our modeling analysis and lower infiltration of particles indoors). On the other hand, the HAPEM/ASPEN concentration ratio averages for onroad mobile source exposures were found to be greater than 1 (around 1.20) for most mobile-source related HAPs (e.g. 1, 3-butadiene, acetaldehyde, benzene, formaldehyde) reflecting the importance of near-roadway and commuting environments on personal exposures to HAPs. The distribution of the ratios of personal to ambient concentrations was found to be skewed for a number of the VOCs and reactive HAPs associated with major source emissions, indicating the importance of personal mobility factors. We conclude that the increase in personal exposures from the corresponding predicted ambient levels tends to occur near locations where there are either major emission sources of HAPs or when individuals are exposed to either on- or nonroad sources of HAPs during their daily activities. These findings underscore the importance of applying exposure-modeling methods, which incorporate information on time-activity, commuting, and exposure factors data, for the purposes of assigning exposures in air pollution health studies. PMID:17878926

  10. A Toxicogenomic Comparison of Primary and Photochemically Altered Air Pollutant Mixtures

    PubMed Central

    Rager, Julia E.; Lichtveld, Kim; Ebersviller, Seth; Smeester, Lisa; Jaspers, Ilona; Sexton, Kenneth G.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Air pollution contributes significantly to global increases in mortality, particularly within urban environments. Limited knowledge exists on the mechanisms underlying health effects resulting from exposure to pollutant mixtures similar to those occurring in ambient air. In order to clarify the mechanisms underlying exposure effects, toxicogenomic analyses are used to evaluate genomewide transcript responses and map these responses to molecular networks. Objectives: We compared responses induced by exposure to primary pollutants and photochemically altered (PCA) pollutant mixtures representing urban atmospheres to test our hypothesis that exposures to PCA pollutants would show increased modulation of inflammation-associated genes and pathways relative to primary air pollutants. Methods: We used an outdoor environmental irradiation chamber to expose human lung epithelial cells to mixtures representing either primary or PCA pollutants for 4 hr. Transcriptional changes were assessed using microarrays and confirmed using quantitative real-time reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) on a subset of genes. Results: We found a large difference in the cellular responses to the two pollutant exposures: Primary air pollutants altered the expression levels of 19 genes, whereas PCA pollutants altered 709 genes. Functional and molecular analyses of the altered genes revealed novel pathways, such as hepatocyte nuclear factor 4?, potentially regulating the pollutant responses. Chemical component analysis characterized and confirmed the photochemical transformation of primary air pollutants into PCA air pollutants. Conclusions: Our study shows that the photochemical transformation of primary air pollutants produces altered mixtures that cause significantly greater biological effects than the primary pollutants themselves. These findings suggest that studying individual air pollutants or primary pollutant mixtures may greatly underestimate the adverse health effects caused by air pollution. PMID:21757418

  11. Effect of long-term outdoor air pollution and noise on cognitive and psychological functions in adults.

    PubMed

    Tzivian, Lilian; Winkler, Angela; Dlugaj, Martha; Schikowski, Tamara; Vossoughi, Mohammad; Fuks, Kateryna; Weinmayr, Gudrun; Hoffmann, Barbara

    2015-01-01

    It has been hypothesized that air pollution and ambient noise might impact neurocognitive function. Early studies mostly investigated the associations of air pollution and ambient noise exposure with cognitive development in children. More recently, several studies investigating associations with neurocognitive function, mood disorders, and neurodegenerative disease in adult populations were published, yielding inconsistent results. The purpose of this review is to summarize the current evidence on air pollution and noise effects on mental health in adults. We included studies in adult populations (?18 years old) published in English language in peer-reviewed journals. Fifteen articles related to long-term effects of air pollution and eight articles on long-term effects of ambient noise were extracted. Both exposures were separately shown to be associated with one or several measures of global cognitive function, verbal and nonverbal learning and memory, activities of daily living, depressive symptoms, elevated anxiety, and nuisance. No study considered both exposures simultaneously and few studies investigated progression of neurocognitive decline or psychological factors. The existing evidence generally supports associations of environmental factors with mental health, but does not suffice for an overall conclusion about the independent effect of air pollution and noise. There is a need for studies investigating simultaneously air pollution and noise exposures in association mental health, for longitudinal studies to corroborate findings from cross-sectional analyses, and for parallel toxicological and epidemiological studies to elucidate mechanisms and pathways of action. PMID:25242804

  12. Estimating the benefits of pollution reduction on agricultural yields: Taiwan's air pollution emission fees program.

    PubMed

    Chen, Tser-yieth; Li, Chun-sheng

    2003-07-01

    Taiwan's implementation of the 1997 Air Pollution Emissions Fees Program will conceivably lead to long-term reductions in pollution emissions. The purpose of this paper is to estimate the benefits to Taiwan from the expected reduction in crop losses as a direct result of such a decrease in air pollution. We employ a demand-supply framework for rice production to estimate the change in social welfare resulting from changes in the concentration of certain pollutants in the atmosphere. Our empirical results show that, in the year 1997, social welfare increments resulting from the decline in sulfur dioxide concentrations in the atmosphere ranged between US dollars 946200 and US dollars 2435800. Meanwhile, during the same period, the increase in social welfare due to the decline in the ozone concentration in the atmosphere ranged between US dollars 838100 and US dollars 1927000. The average benefit from the reduction in both sulfur dioxide and ozone concentrations is calculated to be between US dollars 2.67 and US dollars 6.86 per acre (for sulfur dioxide), and from US dollars 2.36 to US dollars 5.43 per acre (for ozone). PMID:12837257

  13. Facilitation of cancer metastases by an air pollutant

    SciTech Connect

    Richters, A.

    1981-01-01

    An experimental model was designed to test the possibility that inhalation of a noxious air pollutant may facilitate the blood-borne cancer cell metastasis to the lungs. Animals were exposed to inhalation of air containing 0.8 ppm of nitrogen dioxide for 12 weeks. After this period, animals were infused intravenously with melanoma cells, and 3 weeks later lungs were examined for metastases. The results indicate that NO2exposed animals develop significantly higher number of lung metastases (P less than 0.0025) than the controls. Such results raise the possibility that the inhalation of NO2 from ambient air may facilitate the seeding and proliferation of blood-borne cancer cells in the human lung.

  14. FMPS measurement of nanoparticle pollutant in office air

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yin, Zhaoqin; Lin, Jianzhong; Yu, Mingzhou

    2010-08-01

    Fast Mobility Particle Sizer (FMPS) is an electrical mobility instrument used to measure the nanoparticle number concentration and size distribution in an office environment. Actual measurements indicate the distributions of ultrafine particle number and size in office air are inhomogeneous in space. The nonaparticle size is bimodal and log-normally distribution in an office environment when only people activities are considered. The traffic pollutant in the outdoor including the automobile tail gas and the dust will change the particles size distribution and enhance the particle number concentration those of indoor air. It can also be seen from the results that the laser printer releases a large number of nanoparticles, especially around 80nm in diameter in the printing process. The laser printer may be the mainly ultrafine particle source in the office air.

  15. What can individuals do to reduce personal health risks from air pollution?

    PubMed Central

    Laumbach, Robert; Meng, Qingyu

    2015-01-01

    In many areas of the world, concentrations of ambient air pollutants exceed levels associated with increased risk of acute and chronic health problems. While effective policies to reduce emissions at their sources are clearly preferable, some evidence supports the effectiveness of individual actions to reduce exposure and health risks. Personal exposure to ambient air pollution can be reduced on high air pollution days by staying indoors, reducing outdoor air infiltration to indoors, cleaning indoor air with air filters, and limiting physical exertion, especially outdoors and near air pollution sources. Limited evidence suggests that the use of respirators may be effective in some circumstances. Awareness of air pollution levels is facilitated by a growing number of public air quality alert systems. Avoiding exposure to air pollutants is especially important for susceptible individuals with chronic cardiovascular or pulmonary disease, children, and the elderly. Research on mechanisms underlying the adverse health effects of air pollution have suggested potential pharmaceutical or chemopreventive interventions, such as antioxidant or antithrombotic agents, but in the absence of data on health outcomes, no sound recommendations can be made for primary prevention. Health care providers and their patients should carefully consider individual circumstances related to outdoor and indoor air pollutant exposure levels and susceptibility to those air pollutants when deciding on a course of action to reduce personal exposure and health risks from ambient air pollutants. Careful consideration is especially warranted when interventions may have unintended negative consequences, such as when efforts to avoid exposure to air pollutants lead to reduced physical activity or when there is evidence that dietary supplements, such as antioxidants, have potential adverse health effects. These potential complications of partially effective personal interventions to reduce exposure or risk highlight the primary importance of reducing emissions of air pollutants at their sources. PMID:25694820

  16. Air pollution and its influence on vegetation: Causes - Effects - Prophylaxis and therapy

    SciTech Connect

    Dassler, H.G.; Bortitz, S.

    1988-01-01

    This book presents a survey about air pollution from power stations, industry, traffic and other anthroponegic sources together with its effects on vegetation. It provides information on chronic and acute effects of air pollution in agriculture, horticulture, and forestry (including soil and animals), on symptoms of damage, immission tolerance, bioindication, methods of air and plant analysis and especially on prophylaxis and therapy in air polluted areas and on landscape planning.

  17. Multilevel Analysis of Air Pollution and Early Childhood Neurobehavioral Development

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Ching-Chun; Yang, Shih-Kuan; Lin, Kuan-Chia; Ho, Wen-Chao; Hsieh, Wu-Shiun; Shu, Bih-Ching; Chen, Pau-Chung

    2014-01-01

    To investigate the association between the ambient air pollution levels during the prenatal and postnatal stages and early childhood neurobehavioral development, our study recruited 533 mother-infant pairs from 11 towns in Taiwan. All study subjects were asked to complete childhood neurobehavioral development scales and questionnaires at 6 and 18 months. Air pollution, including particulate matter ?10 ?m (PM10), carbon monoxide (CO), sulfur dioxide (SO2), nitrogen dioxide (NO2), ozone (O3), and hydrocarbons, was measured at air quality monitoring stations in the towns where the subjects lived. Multilevel analyses were applied to assess the association between air pollution and childhood neurobehavioral development during pregnancy and when the children were 0 to 6 months, 7 to 12 months, and 13 to 18 months old. At 18 months, poor subclinical neurodevelopment in early childhood is associated with the average SO2 exposure of prenatal, during all trimesters of pregnancy and at postnatal ages up to 12 months (first trimester ? = ?0.083, se = 0.030; second and third trimester ? = ?0.114, se = 0.045; from birth to 12 months of age ? = ?0.091, se = 0.034). Furthermore, adverse gross motor below average scores at six months of age were associated with increased average non-methane hydrocarbon, (NMHC) levels during the second and third trimesters (? = ?8.742, se = 3.512). Low-level SO2 exposure prenatally and up to twelve months postnatal could cause adverse neurobehavioral effects at 18 months of age. Maternal NMHC exposure during the 2nd and 3rd trimesters of pregnancy would be also associated with poor gross motor development in their children at 6 months of age. PMID:24992486

  18. Environmental Perception and Citizen Response: a Denver, Colorado Air Pollution Case Study.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naomi, Leaura M.

    Denver, a high altitude city, suffers from air pollution. Automobile emissions, as well as wood and coal burning contribute to Denver's air pollution. In order to reduce its air pollution, Denver hosted a no-drive campaign, The Better Air Campaign. This study examined how Denver -area citizens perceived their air pollution, responded to their air pollution, and responded to their no-drive campaign. First, I conducted personal interviews of twenty Denver air pollution decision-makers to ascertain their perceptions and definitions of Denver's air pollution problem. Second, I created a theoretical model of environmental perception and behavioral response to air pollution. Third, I conducted a telephone survey of 500 Denver-area residents to examine the usefulness of the model. By segmenting a sample of 500 Denver-area residents via a modified values and lifestyles (VALS) technique included in a telephone survey, the perceptions and behaviors of residents fell into a clear pattern. This values and lifestyles pattern coincided with a conventional innovation-adoption pattern, including innovators, the bandwagon, and laggards. Thus, the research determined the population's perceptions and behavioral responses to their air pollution. The research also pointed a direction for Denver's air pollution decision-makers to follow in order to reduce use of the gasoline-powered automobile. And, for those interested in encouraging public acceptance of ecological sustainability, it suggested application of the VALS technique for reaching the public.

  19. Ambient Air Pollution and Preeclampsia: A Spatiotemporal Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Figueras, Francesc; Basagaña, Xavier; Beelen, Rob; Martinez, David; Cirach, Marta; Schembari, Anna; Hoek, Gerard; Brunekreef, Bert; Nieuwenhuijsen, Mark J

    2013-01-01

    Background: Available evidence concerning the association between air pollution and preeclampsia is limited, and specific associations with early- and late-onset preeclampsia have not been assessed. Objectives: We investigated the association, if any, between preeclampsia (all, early-, and late-onset) and exposure to nitrogen dioxide, nitrogen oxides, particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter ? 2.5 ?m (PM2.5; fine particles), ? 10 ?m, and 2.5–10 ?m, and PM2.5 light absorption (a proxy for elemental carbon) during the entire pregnancy and during the first, second, and third trimesters. Methods: This study was based on 8,398 pregnancies (including 103 cases of preeclampsia) among women residing in Barcelona, Spain (2000–2005). We applied a spatiotemporal exposure assessment framework using land use regression models to predict ambient pollutant levels during each week of pregnancy at the geocoded residence address of each woman at the time of birth. Logistic and conditional logistic regression models were used to estimate unadjusted and adjusted associations. Results: We found positive associations for most of our evaluated outcome–exposure pairs, with the strongest associations observed for preeclampsia and late-onset preeclampsia in relation to the third-trimester exposure to fine particulate pollutants, and for early-onset preeclampsia in relation to the first-trimester exposure to fine particulate pollutants. Among our investigated associations, those of first- and third-trimester exposures to PM2.5 and third-trimester exposure to PM2.5 absorbance and all preeclampsia, and third-trimester PM2.5 exposure and late-onset preeclampsia attained statistical significance. Conclusion: We observed increased risk of preeclampsia associated with exposure to fine particulate air pollution. Our findings, in combination with previous evidence suggesting distinct pathogenic mechanisms for early- and late-onset preeclampsia, support additional research on this topic. Citation: Dadvand P, Figueras F, Basagaña X, Beelen R, Martinez D, Cirach M, Schembari A, Hoek G, Brunekreef B, Nieuwenhuijsen MJ. 2013. Ambient air pollution and preeclampsia: a spatiotemporal analysis. Environ Health Perspect 121:1365–1371;?http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/ehp.1206430 PMID:24021707

  20. Air Pollution and Acid Rain, Report 6. The effects of air pollution and acid rain on fish, wildlife, and their habitats: forests

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L. Borghi; D. Adler

    1982-01-01

    Air pollution and acid rain impacts on living resources are a major source of concern to the US Fish and Wildlife Service and other government agencies charged with the protection of natural resources and the environment. This volume on forest ecosystems is part of a series synthesizing the results of scientific research related to the effects of air pollution and

  1. AIR POLLUTION AND HEALTH IN WASHINGTON, D.C.: SOME ACUTE HEALTH EFFECTS OF AIR POLLUTION IN THE WASHINGTON METROPOLITAN AREA

    EPA Science Inventory

    The study has attempted to assess some of the acute health effects of air pollution. Specifically, the investigation has tested the hypothesis that air pollution can aggravate the health status of a population and can result in increased utilization of certain types of medical ca...

  2. The health burden of pollution: the impact of prenatal exposure to air pollutants

    PubMed Central

    Vieira, Sandra E

    2015-01-01

    Exposure to atmospheric pollutants in both open and closed environments is a major cause of morbidity and mortality that may be both controlled and minimized. Despite growing evidence, several controversies and disagreements exist among the studies that have analyzed the effects of prenatal pollutant exposure. This review article aims to analyze primary scientific evidence of the effects of air pollution during pregnancy and the impact of these effects on the fetus, infant health, and in particular, the respiratory system. We performed a review of articles from the PubMed and Web of Science databases that were published in English within the past 5 years, particularly those related to birth cohorts that began in pregnancy with follow-up until the first years of life. The largest reported effects are associated with prenatal exposure to particulate matter, nitrogen dioxide, and tobacco smoke. The primary effects affect birth weight and other parameters of fetal biometry. There is strong evidence regarding the impact of pollutants on morbidity secondary to respiratory problems. Growing evidence links maternal smoking to childhood asthma and wheezing. The role of passive maternal smoking is less clear. Great heterogeneity exists among studies. There is a need for additional studies on birth cohorts to monitor the relationship between the exposure of pregnant women to pollutants and their children’s progress during the first years of life.

  3. The study of indoor air pollution by means of magnetometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jelenska, M.; Górka-Kostrubiec, B.; Król, E.

    2012-04-01

    The aim of this study is to establish what kind of outside pollution penetrate into indoor spaces. Here we report preliminary results of magnetic monitoring study of indoor air pollution by particulate matter (PM) measured inside flats and houses placed in different locations in Warsaw area. Indoor air pollution level was evaluated by measuring magnetic properties of dust taken from vacuum cleaners used in private flats. The dust samples were taken from about 180 locations in Warsaw distributed in such polluted places as city centre or communication lines with heavy traffic and in unpolluted suburb places. The locations were also distributed according to height above ground level. There were taken in flats situated from first to 16th floors. The basic magnetic parameters such us, ? mass magnetic susceptibility, hysteresis loop parameters: coercive force (Hc), coercivity of remanence (Hcr), saturation magnetization (Ms) and saturation remanent magnetization (Mrs or SIRM) and ?fd frequency dependence of susceptibility, have been used to identify indoor pollution level and to characterize domain state and granulometry of magnetic minerals. Identification of magnetic minerals have been made by measuring decay curve of SIRM during heating to temperature of 700 °C. For chosen samples concentration of 20 elements were measured. The most frequent values of susceptibility of dust are between 50 and 150 10-8 m3/kg with the maximum around 100 10-8 m3/kg. Thermomagnetic analysis for dust differs from that for soil samples taken in the vicinity. SIRM(T) curves for dust show remanence loss at 320 °C and at 520- 540 °C. This is diagnostic for pyrrhotite and magnetite as dominant magnetic minerals. Some samples demonstrate loss of remanence at 160 °C and at temperature characteristic for magnetite. Soil samples do not show pyrrhotite presence or loss of remanence at 160 °C. Display of hysteresis parameters on Day-Dunlop plot indicates predominance of SD/MD grains with various contribution of MD grains. XARM /SIRM indicates the dominant size of particles between 0.03 and 0.1 um. Concentration of 20 elements demonstrate linear correlation with X, ARM, SIRM and Ms values with the best correlation between concentration of heavy metals and Ms. As the results of the study several rules of spatial and seasonal distribution of pollution inside the city were established. The finest particles were found in dust from the highest floor and from the places lying the most away from the source of pollution. High contamination level is find not only for places exposed to heavy traffic but also in rural area with frequent use of coal for home heating.

  4. Short term respiratory health effects of ambient air pollution: results of the APHEA project in Paris

    Microsoft Academic Search

    W Dab; S Medina; P Quénel; Y Le Moullec; A Le Tertre; B Thelot; C Monteil; P Lameloise; P Pirard; I Momas; R Ferry; B Festy

    1996-01-01

    STUDY OBJECTIVE: To quantify the short term respiratory health effects of ambient air pollution in the Paris area. DESIGN: Time series analysis of daily pollution levels using Poisson regression. SETTING: Paris, 1987-92. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: Air pollution was monitored by measurement of black smoke (BS) (15 monitoring stations), sulphur dioxide (SO2), nitrogen dioxide (NO2), particulate matter less than 13

  5. The origin of Arctic air pollutants: lessons learned and future research

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jozef M. Pacyna

    1995-01-01

    Results of various studies on the origin of Arctic air pollution are reviewed, focusing on what is known about its physical characteristics and chemical composition, as well as on emission sources and major pathways of pollutant transport to the region. Emissions from anthropogenic sources in Eurasia have been found to be a major contributor to Arctic air pollution measured at

  6. A framework for analysis of transboundary institutions for air pollution policy in the United States

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Brenda J Nordenstam; William Henry Lambright; Michelle E Berger; Matthew K Little

    1998-01-01

    Air pollution is a transboundary problem, disregarding jurisdictional boundaries. To devise and implement effective pollution controls, policy makers must often cross political boundaries. Using recent case studies, we examine air pollution policy at three regional scales: within states, among states, and across national borders. Each scale has a `policy regime' that best operates within its jurisdictional boundaries. As spatial scale

  7. Transboundary air pollution between Finland and the USSR — A dynamic acid rain game

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Veijo Kaitala; Matti Pohjola; Olli Tahvonen

    We develop and analyse a two-country transboundary air pollution model in a dynamic game setting. Air pollution is mainly due to sulphur and nitrogen emissions that are partially deposited onto the ground in the emitter countries. However, due to transboundary transport of pollutants by winds, large amounts of the emissions fall on the ground in the neighboring countries as well.

  8. Indoor air pollution and its health effects in China ? a review

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. H. Chen; C. J. Hong; X. Z. He

    1992-01-01

    Indoor air pollution in cities in China is mainly from domestic coal combustion, and from coal and biomass fuel combustion in rural areas. Factors affecting indoor air pollutant concentrations include fuel, ventilation, floor plan of house, and season, etc. Pollutants emitted from coal combustion are significantly higher than those from gas or liquefied petroleum gas. Among biofuels used in China,

  9. Source location of air pollution and cardiac autonomic function: Trajectory cluster analysis for exposure assessment

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sung Kyun Park; Marie S O'Neill; Barbara J B Stunder; Pantel S Vokonas; David Sparrow; Petros Koutrakis; Joel Schwartz

    2007-01-01

    Although many studies report that exposure to air pollution harms health, few have examined associations between pollution sources and health outcomes. We hypothesized that pollution originating in different locations has different associations with heart rate variability (HRV) among 497 men from the Normative Aging Study in Boston, Massachusetts. We identified the paths that air masses traveled (‘back-trajectories’) before arriving in

  10. [Papers Presented at the American Medical Association's Air Pollution Medical Research Conference (New Orleans, Louisiana, October 5-7, 1970).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Medical Association, Chicago, IL.

    This is a collection of twenty speeches presented at the American Medical Association's Air Pollution Medical Conference, October 5-7, 1970. Speeches included: Air Pollution Control: The Physician's Role; Air Pollution Problems in Nuclear Power Development; Airway Resistance and Collateral Ventilation; Asbestos Air Pollution in Urban Areas;…

  11. BIOLEFF: three databases on air pollution effects on vegetation.

    PubMed

    Bennett, J P; Buchen, M J

    1995-01-01

    Three databases on air pollution effects on vegetation were developed by storing bibliographic and abstract data for technical literature on the subject in a free-form database program, 'askSam'. Approximately 4 000 journal articles have been computerized in three separate database files: BIOLEFF, LICHENS and METALS. BIOLEFF includes over 2 800 articles on the effects of approximately 25 gaseous and particulate pollutants on over 2 000 species of vascular plants. LICHENS includes almost 400 papers on the effects of gaseous and heavy metal pollutants on over 735 species of lichens and mosses. METALS includes over 465 papers on the effects of heavy metals on over 830 species of vascular plants. The combined databases include articles from about 375 different journals spanning 1905 to the present. Picea abies and Phaseolus vulgaris are the most studied vascular plants in BIOLEFF, while Hypogymnia physodes is the most studied lichen species in LICHENS. Ozone and sulfur dioxide are the most studied gaseous pollutants with about two thirds of the records in BIOLEFF. The combined size of the databases is now about 5.5 megabytes. PMID:15091537

  12. Characteristics of selected indoor air pollutants from moxibustion.

    PubMed

    Mo, Feifei; Chi, Chenchen; Guo, Min; Chu, Xiaoying; Li, Yunlong; Shen, Xueyou

    2014-04-15

    Concentrations and risk of monoaromatic hydrocarbons (MAHC), formaldehyde (HCHO), and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in two moxibustion rooms were determined. The mean concentrations of MAHC, HCHO and PAHs were 535.2 ?g/m(3), 157.9 ?g/m(3) and 12.86?g/m(3), respectively, with notable health risks, indicating relatively serious pollution in indoor air due to the use of burning moxa. The indoor emissions of target pollutants from burning moxa in test chamber were also investigated. Toluene, benzene and xylene appeared to be dominant MAHCs, and naphthalene (NA) the dominant PAH, which were consistent with the pollution levels of the detected moxibustion rooms. The emission characteristics of smoky moxa and mild moxa were much in common and relatively close to that of tobacco; while that of smoke-free moxa showed a distinction. Though pollutants emission patterns varied within the three types of moxa, all of them had apparently higher emission intensities than other typical indoor sources, including tobacco. The results of this study can offer some references during the selection of moxa sticks and application of moxibustion. PMID:24548885

  13. Power estimation using simulations for air pollution time-series studies

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Estimation of power to assess associations of interest can be challenging for time-series studies of the acute health effects of air pollution because there are two dimensions of sample size (time-series length and daily outcome counts), and because these studies often use generalized linear models to control for complex patterns of covariation between pollutants and time trends, meteorology and possibly other pollutants. In general, statistical software packages for power estimation rely on simplifying assumptions that may not adequately capture this complexity. Here we examine the impact of various factors affecting power using simulations, with comparison of power estimates obtained from simulations with those obtained using statistical software. Methods Power was estimated for various analyses within a time-series study of air pollution and emergency department visits using simulations for specified scenarios. Mean daily emergency department visit counts, model parameter value estimates and daily values for air pollution and meteorological variables from actual data (8/1/98 to 7/31/99 in Atlanta) were used to generate simulated daily outcome counts with specified temporal associations with air pollutants and randomly generated error based on a Poisson distribution. Power was estimated by conducting analyses of the association between simulated daily outcome counts and air pollution in 2000 data sets for each scenario. Power estimates from simulations and statistical software (G*Power and PASS) were compared. Results In the simulation results, increasing time-series length and average daily outcome counts both increased power to a similar extent. Our results also illustrate the low power that can result from using outcomes with low daily counts or short time series, and the reduction in power that can accompany use of multipollutant models. Power estimates obtained using standard statistical software were very similar to those from the simulations when properly implemented; implementation, however, was not straightforward. Conclusions These analyses demonstrate the similar impact on power of increasing time-series length versus increasing daily outcome counts, which has not previously been reported. Implementation of power software for these studies is discussed and guidance is provided. PMID:22995599

  14. Ambient Air Pollution and Depressive Symptoms in Older Adults: Results from the MOBILIZE Boston Study

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yi; Eliot, Melissa N.; Koutrakis, Petros; Gryparis, Alexandros; Schwartz, Joel D.; Coull, Brent A.; Mittleman, Murray A.; Milberg, William P.; Lipsitz, Lewis A.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Exposure to ambient air pollution, particularly from traffic, has been associated with adverse cognitive outcomes, but the association with depressive symptoms remains unclear. Objectives: We investigated the association between exposure to ambient air and traffic pollution and the presence of depressive symptoms among 732 Boston-area adults ? 65 years of age (78.1 ± 5.5 years, mean ± SD). Methods: We assessed depressive symptoms during home interviews using the Revised Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale (CESD-R). We estimated residential distance to the nearest major roadway as a marker of long-term exposure to traffic pollution and assessed short-term exposure to ambient fine particulate matter (PM2.5), sulfates, black carbon (BC), ultrafine particles, and gaseous pollutants, averaged over the 2 weeks preceding each assessment. We used generalized estimating equations to estimate the odds ratio (OR) of a CESD-R score ? 16 associated with exposure, adjusting for potential confounders. In sensitivity analyses, we considered CESD-R score as a continuous outcome and mean annual residential BC as an alternate marker of long-term exposure to traffic pollution. Results: We found no evidence of a positive association between depressive symptoms and long-term exposure to traffic pollution or short-term changes in pollutant levels. For example, we found an OR of CESD-R score ? 16 of 0.67 (95% CI: 0.46, 0.98) per interquartile range (3.4 ?g/m3) increase in PM2.5 over the 2 weeks preceding assessment. Conclusions: We found no evidence suggesting that ambient air pollution is associated with depressive symptoms among older adults living in a metropolitan area in attainment of current U.S. regulatory standards. Citation: Wang Y, Eliot MN, Koutrakis P, Gryparis A, Schwartz JD, Coull BA, Mittleman MA, Milberg WP, Lipsitz LA, Wellenius GA. 2014. Ambient air pollution and depressive symptoms in older adults: results from the MOBILIZE Boston Study. Environ Health Perspect 122:553–558;?http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/ehp.1205909 PMID:24610154

  15. Long-Term Effects of Traffic-Related Air Pollution on Mortality in a Dutch Cohort (NLCS-AIR Study)

    PubMed Central

    Beelen, Rob; Hoek, Gerard; van den Brandt, Piet A.; Goldbohm, R. Alexandra; Fischer, Paul; Schouten, Leo J.; Jerrett, Michael; Hughes, Edward; Armstrong, Ben; Brunekreef, Bert

    2008-01-01

    Background Several studies have found an effect on mortality of between-city contrasts in long-term exposure to air pollution. The effect of within-city contrasts is still poorly understood. Objectives We studied the association between long-term exposure to traffic-related air pollution and mortality in a Dutch cohort. Methods We used data from an ongoing cohort study on diet and cancer with 120,852 subjects who were followed from 1987 to 1996. Exposure to black smoke (BS), nitrogen dioxide, sulfur dioxide, and particulate matter ?mu;M2.5), as well as various exposure variables related to traffic, were estimated at the home address. We conducted Cox analyses in the full cohort adjusting for age, sex, smoking, and area-level socioeconomic status. Results Traffic intensity on the nearest road was independently associated with mortality. Relative risks (95% confidence intervals) for a 10-?g/m3 increase in BS concentrations (difference between 5th and 95th percentile) were 1.05 (1.00–1.11) for natural cause, 1.04 (0.95–1.13) for cardiovascular, 1.22 (0.99–1.50) for respiratory, 1.03 (0.88–1.20) for lung cancer, and 1.04 (0.97–1.12) for mortality other than cardiovascular, respiratory, or lung cancer. Results were similar for NO2 and PM2.5, but no associations were found for SO2. Conclusions Traffic-related air pollution and several traffic exposure variables were associated with mortality in the full cohort. Relative risks were generally small. Associations between natural-cause and respiratory mortality were statistically significant for NO2 and BS. These results add to the evidence that long-term exposure to ambient air pollution is associated with increased mortality. PMID:18288318

  16. Air Pollution Sensors: A workshop on the evolution and revolution in low cost participatory air monitoring

    EPA Science Inventory

    This article summarizes the findings from the EPA's Apps and Sensors for Air Pollution Workshop that was held March 26-27 of 2012. The workshop brought together researchers, developers, and community-based groups who have been working with sensors and apps in a variety of settin...

  17. Air pollution information activities at state and local agencies--United States, 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-01-08

    Because air pollution is a pervasive environmental health problem in the United States, one of the national health objectives for the year 2000 is to increase from 49.7% to 85.0% the proportion of persons who live in counties that have not exceeded any air quality standard during the previous 12 months (1). Public support for air pollution control efforts is critical if this national health objective is to be achieved. To characterize public health information activities related to air pollution, in 1992, the State and Territorial Air Pollution Program Administrators (STAPPA) and the Association of Local Air Pollution Control Officials (ALAPCO), with the assistance of CDC, conducted a survey of state and local air pollution control agencies. This report summarizes the findings of that survey.

  18. Responses of natural wildlife populations to air pollution

    SciTech Connect

    Richkind, K.E.; Hacker, A.D.

    1980-01-01

    Deer mice (Peromyscus californicus) trapped in areas of Los Angeles with high ambient air pollution are significantly more resistant to ozone (6.6 ppM for 12 h) than are mice trapped from areas with low ambient pollution (56 versus 0% survival, respectively). Laboratory-born progeny of these mice show similar response patterns, indicating a genetic basis to this resistance. Young mice (less than 1 y of age) are more sensitive than older mice (15 versus 55% survival, respectively). Sensitivity is also affected by degree of inbreeding; progeny of full-sib crosses are more sensitive than randomly bred deer mice. The data suggest that deer mice are more resistant to ozone toxicity than are commercially bred laboratory mice and rats.

  19. Characterization of the LTC catalyst: Performance against common air pollutants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Collins, Marcia F.

    1987-01-01

    One of the important qualities of the Low-Temperature Catalyst (LTC) is the rapid oxidation of carbon monoxide to carbon dioxide under a wide variety of conditions. The catalytic material is a palladium-copper activated complex which reacts with various contaminant molecules through a continuous oxidation/reduction cycle. The alumina substrate enhances LTC activity with its favorable surface chemistry and very high surface area. About 10 percent surface water is necessary to facilitate the oxidation of CO. This reaction shows a log-log dependence on contact time, suggesting a Langmuir-Hinshelwood mechanism. In the tube tests, LTC removed 90 to 100 percent of contaminating carbon monoxide in the temperature region of 20 to 4000 C, and at ambient over a range of 25 to 65 percent relative humidity. In contrast, NO2 is chemisorbed by the LTC/alumina material--the amount strongly dependent on temperature increases but independent of humidity. The LTC catalyst has demonstrated excellent capability to remove an important variety of hazardous pollutant gases which are common factors to poor indoor air quality. The Instapure Air Filtration System incorporates the LTC catalyst in a 50:50 mixture with activated carbon to effectively remove particulate, odors, and hazardous gases at room temperature and humidities. The ability to remove hazardous gases is unique for the category of portable air filtration equipment. The wide variety of pollutant gases that LTC removes suggests that catalytic technology is adaptable to a considerable range of commercial and industrial applications.

  20. On cancer risk estimation of urban air pollution.

    PubMed Central

    Törnqvist, M; Ehrenberg, L

    1994-01-01

    The usefulness of data from various sources for a cancer risk estimation of urban air pollution is discussed. Considering the irreversibility of initiations, a multiplicative model is preferred for solid tumors. As has been concluded for exposure to ionizing radiation, the multiplicative model, in comparison with the additive model, predicts a relatively larger number of cases at high ages, with enhanced underestimation of risks by short follow-up times in disease-epidemiological studies. For related reasons, the extrapolation of risk from animal tests on the basis of daily absorbed dose per kilogram body weight or per square meter surface area without considering differences in life span may lead to an underestimation, and agreements with epidemiologically determined values may be fortuitous. Considering these possibilities, the most likely lifetime risks of cancer death at the average exposure levels in Sweden were estimated for certain pollution fractions or indicator compounds in urban air. The risks amount to approximately 50 deaths per 100,000 for inhaled particulate organic material (POM), with a contribution from ingested POM about three times larger, and alkenes, and butadiene cause 20 deaths, respectively, per 100,000 individuals. Also, benzene and formaldehyde are expected to be associated with considerable risk increments. Comparative potency methods were applied for POM and alkenes. Due to incompleteness of the list of compounds considered and the uncertainties of the above estimates, the total risk calculation from urban air has not been attempted here. PMID:7821292