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1

Air pollution  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper is a general overview of the problems associated with air pollution. Among the topics discussed were, the historical aspects of air pollution, the injurious effects of air pollution on man and animals, and the most common types of air pollution. This paper was given at the Seventh Southern Municipal and Industrial Waste Conference, Duke University, North Carolina, May

1958-01-01

2

Air Pollution  

Microsoft Academic Search

Air pollution is not just smoke billowing from factory chimneys, or the Los Angeles smog. These are obvious cases, but air pollution is a much more general phenomenon. It seldom occurs to us that an autumn fog or summer haze also is a form of air pollution. Nature, as well as man, pollutes the air in a myriad of ways

Frits W. Went

1955-01-01

3

Air Pollution  

MedlinePLUS

Air pollution is a mixture of solid particles and gases in the air. Car emissions, chemicals from factories, ... Ozone, a gas, is a major part of air pollution in cities. When ozone forms air pollution, it's ...

4

Air Pollution  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Phoenix metropolitan area, like many large cities, has problems with air pollution at certain times of the year. You can do a simple experiment to determine some of the factors that affect air pollution.

Biology

2009-06-11

5

Air Pollution.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A summary of one of our most pressing environmental problems, air pollution, is offered in this book by the Director of Air Pollution Control for the Queensland (Australia) State Government. Discussion of the subject is not restricted to Queensland or Australian problems and policies, however, but includes analysis of air pollution the world over.…

Gilpin, Alan

6

Air Pollution.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Materials related to air pollution are reviewed for the period January 1987, to October 1988. The topics are pollution monitoring, air pollution, and environmental chemistry. The organization consists of two major analytical divisions: (1) gaseous methods; and (2) aerosol and particulate methods. (MVL)

Fox, Donald L.

1989-01-01

7

Air Pollution  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students are introduced to the concept of air quality by investigating the composition, properties, atmospheric layers and everyday importance of air. They explore the sources and effects of visible and invisible air pollution. By learning some fundamental meteorology concepts (air pressure, barometers, prediction, convection currents, temperature inversions), students learn the impact of weather on air pollution control and prevention. Looking at models and maps, they explore the consequences of pollutant transport via weather and water cycles. Students are introduced to acids, bases and pH, and the environmental problem of acid rain, including how engineers address this type of pollution. Using simple models, they study the greenhouse effect, the impact of increased greenhouse gases on the planet's protective ozone layer and the global warming theory. Students explore the causes and effects of the Earth's ozone holes through an interactive simulation. Students identify the types and sources of indoor air pollutants in their school and home, evaluating actions that can be taken to reduce and prevent poor indoor air quality. By building and observing a few simple models of pollutant recovery methods, students explore the modern industrial technologies designed by engineers to clean up and prevent air pollution.

Integrated Teaching And Learning Program

8

Air Pollution.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Pollution of the general environment, which exposes an entire population group for an indeterminate period of time, certainly constitutes a problem in public health. Serious aid pollution episodes have resulted in increased mortality and a possible relationship between chronic exposure to a polluted atmosphere and certain diseases has been…

Barker, K.; And Others

9

Air Pollution.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this book is to describe the basic mechanisms whereby pollution is transported and diffused in the atmosphere. It is designed to give practitioners an understanding of basic mechanics and physics so they may have a correct basis on which to formulate their decisions related to practical air pollution control problems. Since many…

Scorer, Richard S.

10

Air Pollution/Climate Change Effects on Plants: GeneralTopics  

E-print Network

SESSION I Air Pollution/Climate Change Effects on Plants: GeneralTopics William J. Manning has toxic effects on both plants and animals, the mechanisms by which the toxic effects are elicited An abbreviated version of this paper was presented at the International Symposium on Air Pollution and Cli- mate

Standiford, Richard B.

11

Air pollution.  

PubMed

Toxic air pollutants are continuously released into the air supply. Various pollutants come from chemical facilities and small businesses, such as automobile service stations and dry cleaning establishments. Others, such as nitrogen oxides, carbon monoxide and other volatile organic chemicals, arise primarily from the incomplete combustion of fossil fuels (coal and petroleum) and are emitted from sources that include car exhausts, home heating and industrial power plants. Pollutants in the atmosphere also result from photochemical transformations; for example, ozone is formed when molecular oxygen or nitrogen interacts with ultraviolet radiation. An association between air pollution exposure and lung cancer has been observed in several studies. The evidence for other cancers is far less conclusive. Estimates of the population attributable risk of cancer has varied substantially over the last 40 years, reflecting the limitations of studies; these include insufficient information on confounders, difficulties in characterizing associations due to a likely lengthy latency interval, and exposure misclassification. Although earlier estimates were less than one percent, recent cohort studies that have taken into account some confounding factors, such as smoking and education amongst others, suggest that approximately 3.6% of lung cancer in the European Union could be due to air pollution exposure, particularly to sulphate and fine particulates. A separate cohort study estimated 5-7% of lung cancers in European never smokers and ex-smokers could be due to air pollution exposure. Therefore, while cigarette smoking remains the predominant risk factor, the proportion of lung cancers attributable to air pollution may be higher than previously thought. Overall, major weaknesses in all air-pollution-and-cancer studies to date have been inadequate characterization of long-term air pollution exposure and imprecise or no measurements of covariates. It has only been in the last decade that measurements to PM2.5 become more widely available. A key weakness of many studies is using fixed-site monitoring data and assuming everyone in a region had the same exposure. This ignores spatial variability, and does not take into account how individuals' exposures differ with pollution sources inside, outside, both at work, home and elsewhere. More recent efforts to model indicators of vehicular traffic, and residential distances to major roads and highway can allow for some of this spatial variability to be better controlled for. However, this still does not take into account differences in activity patterns. If the effect is small, these biases will compromise the ability to detect an association. In most situations, the resulting estimates tend to be biased toward the null (i.e., no effect). For misclassification of exposure the inability to adequately control for confounding variables may cause bias in either direction. Recent improvements in statistical methodology use measurements at fixed sites combined with residential histories to estimate individuals' cumulative exposures. They also recognize measurement errors associated with covariates in the analysis to improve estimates of effects. Other challenges include the fact that measurements of exposure and confounders can change over time and long term data are needed due to the anticipated latency interval between harmful exposures and development of cancer. PMID:21199603

Le, Nhu D; Sun, Li; Zidek, James V

2010-01-01

12

Polluted Air = Polluted Lungs  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

To gain a better understanding of the roles and functions of components of the human respiratory system and our need for clean air, students construct model lungs that include a diaphragm and chest cavity. They see how air moving in and out of the lungs coincides with diaphragm movement. Then student teams design and build a prototype face mask pollution filter. They use their model lungs to evaluate their prototypes to design requirements.

Integrated Teaching And Learning Program

13

ORIGINAL ARTICLE Ambient Air Pollution  

E-print Network

ORIGINAL ARTICLE Ambient Air Pollution and Respiratory Emergency Department Visits Jennifer L. Peel pollution and respiratory outcomes. More refined assessment has been limited by study size and available air in relation to air pollutants using Poisson generalized estimating equations. Results: In single-pollutant

Mulholland, James A.

14

Environmental Pollution Air Pollution Dispersion Practical Air Pollution Dispersion  

E-print Network

Environmental Pollution Air Pollution Dispersion 1 of 5 Practical ­ Air Pollution Dispersion in the lectures how such models can be used to explain observed concentrations of air pollutants in an area to a large extent, downwind air pollution levels on a local or regional scale. The Gaussian Plume Model

Moncrieff, John B.

15

Principal components and generalized linear modeling in the correlation between hospital admissions and air pollution  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE To analyze the association between concentrations of air pollutants and admissions for respiratory causes in children. METHODS Ecological time series study. Daily figures for hospital admissions of children aged < 6, and daily concentrations of air pollutants (PM10, SO2, NO2, O3 and CO) were analyzed in the Região da Grande Vitória, ES, Southeastern Brazil, from January 2005 to December 2010. For statistical analysis, two techniques were combined: Poisson regression with generalized additive models and principal model component analysis. Those analysis techniques complemented each other and provided more significant estimates in the estimation of relative risk. The models were adjusted for temporal trend, seasonality, day of the week, meteorological factors and autocorrelation. In the final adjustment of the model, it was necessary to include models of the Autoregressive Moving Average Models (p, q) type in the residuals in order to eliminate the autocorrelation structures present in the components. RESULTS For every 10:49 ?g/m3 increase (interquartile range) in levels of the pollutant PM10 there was a 3.0% increase in the relative risk estimated using the generalized additive model analysis of main components-seasonal autoregressive – while in the usual generalized additive model, the estimate was 2.0%. CONCLUSIONS Compared to the usual generalized additive model, in general, the proposed aspect of generalized additive model ? principal component analysis, showed better results in estimating relative risk and quality of fit. PMID:25119940

de Souza, Juliana Bottoni; Reisen, Valdério Anselmo; Santos, Jane Méri; Franco, Glaura Conceição

2014-01-01

16

Indoor Air Pollution  

MedlinePLUS

We usually think of air pollution as being outdoors, but the air in your house or office could also be polluted. Sources of indoor pollution include Mold and pollen Tobacco smoke Household products ...

17

Air Pollution Training Programs.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This catalog lists the universities, both supported and not supported by the Division of Air Pollution, which offer graduate programs in the field of air pollution. The catalog briefly describes the programs and their entrance requirements, the requirements, qualifications and terms of special fellowships offered by the Division of Air Pollution.…

Public Health Service (DHEW), Rockville, MD.

18

Criteria air pollutants and toxic air pollutants.  

PubMed Central

This review presents a brief overview of the health effects and exposures of two criteria pollutants--ozone and particulate matter--and two toxic air pollutants--benzene and formaldehyde. These pollutants were selected from the six criteria pollutants and from the 189 toxic air pollutants on the basis of their prevalence in the United States, their physicochemical behavior, and the magnitude of their potential health threat. The health effects data included in this review primarily include results from epidemiologic studies; however, some findings from animal studies are also discussed when no other information is available. Health effects findings for each pollutant are related in this review to corresponding information about outdoor, indoor, and personal exposures and pollutant sources. Images Figure 3 Figure 8 Figure 9 PMID:10940240

Suh, H H; Bahadori, T; Vallarino, J; Spengler, J D

2000-01-01

19

Association between Air Pollution and General Outpatient Clinic Consultations for Upper Respiratory Tract Infections in Hong Kong  

PubMed Central

Background and Objectives Many studies have shown the adverse effects of air pollution on respiratory health, but few have examined the effects of air pollution on service utilisation in the primary care setting. The aim of this study was to examine the association between air pollution and the daily number of consultations due to upper respiratory tract infections (URTIs) in general outpatient clinics (GOPCs) in Hong Kong. Methods Daily data on the numbers of consultations due to URTIs in GOPCs, the concentrations of major air pollutants, and the mean values of metrological variables were retrospectively collected over a 3-year period (2008–2010, inclusive). Generalised additive models were constructed to examine the association between air pollution and the daily number of consultations, and to derive the relative risks and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) of GOPC consultations for a unit increase in the concentrations of air pollutants. Results The mean daily consultations due to URTIs in GOPCs ranged from 68.4 to 253.0 over the study period. The summary relative risks (and 95% CI) of daily consultations in all GOPCs for the air pollutants PM10, NO2, O3, and SO2 were 1.005 (1.002, 1.009), 1.010 (1.006, 1.013), 1.009 (1.006, 1.012), and 1.004 (1.000, 1.008) respectively, per 10 µg/m3 increase in the concentration of each pollutant. Conclusion Significant associations were found between the daily number of consultations due to URTIs in GOPCs and the concentrations of air pollutants, implying that air pollution incurs a substantial morbidity and increases the burden of primary health care services. PMID:24466288

Tam, Wilson W. S.; Wong, Tze Wai; Ng, Lorna; Wong, Samuel Y. S.; Kung, Kenny K. L.; Wong, Andromeda H. S.

2014-01-01

20

Discriminatory Air Pollution  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Described are the patterns of air pollution in certain large urban areas. Persons in poverty, in occupations below the management or professional level, in low-rent districts, and in black population are most heavily exposed to air pollution. Pollution paradoxically is largely produced by high energy consuming middle-and upper-class households.…

McCaull, Julian

1976-01-01

21

Air Pollution, Teachers' Edition.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

One of three in a series about pollution, this teacher's guide for a unit on air pollution is designed for use in junior high school grades. It offers suggestions for extending the information and activities contained in the textual material for students. Chapter 1 discusses the problem of air pollution and involves students in processes of…

Lavaroni, Charles W.; O'Donnell, Patrick A.

22

Air pollution and allergens  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary It is well known that the prevalence of allergic diseases has increased in recent decades in the industrialized world. Exposure to environmental pollutants may partially account for this increased prevalence. In effect, air pollution is a growing public health problem. In Europe, the main source of air pollution due to particles in suspension is represented by motor vehicles -

J Bartra; J Mullol; A del Cuvillo; I Dávila; M Ferrer; I Jáuregui; J Montoro; J Sastre; A Valero

2007-01-01

23

An integrated assessment of air pollutant abatement opportunities in a computable general equilibrium framework  

E-print Network

Air pollution and anthropogenic greenhouse gas emission reduction policies are desirable to reduce smog, tropospheric concentrations of ozone precursors, acid rain, and other adverse effects on human health, the environment, ...

Waugh, C. (Caleb Joseph)

2012-01-01

24

Air pollutants and cough  

Microsoft Academic Search

Epidemiological studies have shown that exposure to air pollution is associated with respiratory symptoms and decreases in lung function. This paper reviews recent literature showing that exposure to particulate matter, irritant gases, environmental tobacco smoke (ETS), mixed pollutants, and molds is associated with an increase in cough and wheeze. Some pollutants, like particulate matter and mixed pollutants, appear to increase

Jesse P. Joad; Shin-ichi Sekizawa; Chao-Yin Chen; Ann C. Bonham

2007-01-01

25

ORIGINAL ARTICLE Ambient Air Pollution  

E-print Network

ORIGINAL ARTICLE Ambient Air Pollution and Cardiovascular Emergency Department Visits Kristi Busico ambient air pollutants and cardiovascular disease (CVD), the roles of the physicochemical components the relation between ambient air pollution and cardiovascular conditions using ambient air quality data

Mulholland, James A.

26

Health Effects of Air Pollution  

MedlinePLUS

... Health effects of air pollution Health effects of air pollution Breathing air that is not clean can hurt ... important to know about the health effects that air pollution can have on you and others. Once you ...

27

Controlling Indoor Air Pollution.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses the health risks posed by indoor air pollutants, such as airborne combustion products, toxic chemicals, and radioactivity. Questions as to how indoor air might be regulated. Calls for new approaches to environmental protection. (TW)

Nero, Anthony V, Jr.

1988-01-01

28

Reducing indoor air pollution by air conditioning is associated with improvements in cardiovascular health among the general population.  

PubMed

Indoor air pollution is associated with cardiovascular effects, however, little is known about the effects of improving indoor air quality on cardiovascular health. The aim of this study was to explore whether improving indoor air quality through air conditioning can improve cardiovascular health in human subjects. We recruited a panel of 300 healthy subjects from Taipei, aged 20 and over, to participate in six home visits each, to measure a variety of cardiovascular endpoints, including high sensitivity-C-reactive protein (hs-CRP), 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG), fibrinogen in plasma and heart rate variability (HRV). Indoor particles and total volatile organic compounds (VOCs) were measured simultaneously at the participant's home during each visit. Three exposure conditions were investigated in this study: participants were requested to keep their windows open during the first two visits, close their windows during the next two visits, and close the windows and turn on their air conditioners during the last two visits. We used linear mixed-effects models to associate the cardiovascular endpoints with individual indoor air pollutants. The results showed that increases in hs-CRP, 8-OHdG and fibrinogen, and decreases in HRV indices were associated with increased levels of indoor particles and total VOCs in single-pollutant and two-pollutant models. The effects of indoor particles and total VOCs on cardiovascular endpoints were greatest during visits with the windows open. During visits with the air conditioners turned on, no significant changes in cardiovascular endpoints were observed. In conclusion, indoor air pollution is associated with inflammation, oxidative stress, blood coagulation and autonomic dysfunction. Reductions in indoor air pollution and subsequent improvements in cardiovascular health can be achieved by closing windows and turning on air conditioners at home. PMID:23803502

Lin, Lian-Yu; Chuang, Hsiao-Chi; Liu, I-Jung; Chen, Hua-Wei; Chuang, Kai-Jen

2013-10-01

29

Air Pollution and Industry.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book is an authoritative reference and practical guide designed to help the plant engineer identify and solve industrial air pollution problems in order to be able to meet current air pollution regulations. Prepared under the editorial supervision of an experienced chemical engineer, with each chapter contributed by an expert in his field,…

Ross, R. D., Ed.

30

IMMUNOTOXICITY OF AIR POLLUTANTS  

EPA Science Inventory

The most common ubiquitous air pollutants, as well as some point source (e.g. metals) air pollutants, decrease the function of pulmonary host defense mechanisms against infection. Most of this knowledge is based on animal studies and involves cellular antibacterial defenses such ...

31

Sensing Air Pollution  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students learn about electricity and air pollution while building devices to measure volatile organic compounds (VOC) by attaching VOC sensors to prototyping boards. In the second part of the activity, students evaluate the impact of various indoor air pollutants using the devices they made.

Integrated Teaching And Learning Program

32

A simulation study of confounding in generalized linear models for air pollution epidemiology.  

PubMed Central

Confounding between the model covariates and causal variables (which may or may not be included as model covariates) is a well-known problem in regression models used in air pollution epidemiology. This problem is usually acknowledged but hardly ever investigated, especially in the context of generalized linear models. Using synthetic data sets, the present study shows how model overfit, underfit, and misfit in the presence of correlated causal variables in a Poisson regression model affect the estimated coefficients of the covariates and their confidence levels. The study also shows how this effect changes with the ranges of the covariates and the sample size. There is qualitative agreement between these study results and the corresponding expressions in the large-sample limit for the ordinary linear models. Confounding of covariates in an overfitted model (with covariates encompassing more than just the causal variables) does not bias the estimated coefficients but reduces their significance. The effect of model underfit (with some causal variables excluded as covariates) or misfit (with covariates encompassing only noncausal variables), on the other hand, leads to not only erroneous estimated coefficients, but a misguided confidence, represented by large t-values, that the estimated coefficients are significant. The results of this study indicate that models which use only one or two air quality variables, such as particulate matter [less than and equal to] 10 microm and sulfur dioxide, are probably unreliable, and that models containing several correlated and toxic or potentially toxic air quality variables should also be investigated in order to minimize the situation of model underfit or misfit. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 PMID:10064552

Chen, C; Chock, D P; Winkler, S L

1999-01-01

33

Air pollution and human health  

Microsoft Academic Search

The quantitative effects of air pollution on human health is considered, along with the dollar benefit of pollution abatement. Data is presented showing the correlations between air pollution and several diseases. The economic cost of air pollution-caused disease is estimated, and is used as the basis of benefit cost analysis for air pollution abatement.

L. B. Lave; E. P. Seskin

1970-01-01

34

Environmental Chemistry: Air and Water Pollution.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This is a book about air and water pollution whose chapters cover the topics of air pollution--general considerations, carbon monoxide, oxides of nitrogen, hydrocarbons and photochemical oxidants, sulfur oxides, particulates, temperature inversions and the greenhouse effect; and water pollution--general considerations, mercury, lead, detergents,…

Stoker, H. Stephen; Seager, Spencer L.

35

UK Air Pollution Bulletin  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Hourly updates of levels of benzyne, 1-3 butadiene, ozone, nitric oxide, sulfur dioxide, carbon monoxide, and particles in Britain's air are accessible at the UK Air Pollution Bulletin Website. Provided by the United Kingdom Department of Transport, Environment and the Regions, this site gives air quality information along with yearly average concentrations of the above-mentioned chemicals, graphical summaries, historical summaries, and maps and information about monitoring sites. The data pages are arranged in a versatile way so that users can view information by geographic site, pollutant, or year. Daily, weekly, and annual summaries of pollutant concentrations are available.

36

Air Pollution Surveillance Systems  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes atmospheric data monitoring as part of total airpollution control effort. Summarizes types of gaseous, liquid and solid pollutants and their sources; contrast between urban and rural environmental air quality; instrumentation to identify pollutants; and anticipated new non-wet chemical physical and physiochemical techniques tor cetection…

Morgan, George B.; And Others

1970-01-01

37

Air pollution from aircraft  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A series of fundamental problems related to jet engine air pollution and combustion were examined. These include soot formation and oxidation, nitric oxide and carbon monoxide emissions mechanisms, pollutant dispension, flow and combustion characteristics of the NASA swirl can combustor, fuel atomization and fuel-air mixing processes, fuel spray drop velocity and size measurement, ignition and blowout. A summary of this work, and a bibliography of 41 theses and publications which describe this work, with abstracts, is included.

Heywood, J. B.; Fay, J. A.; Chigier, N. A.

1979-01-01

38

Indoor Air Pollution Control  

Microsoft Academic Search

Indoor air pollution has occurred since prehistoric times when people moved to live indoors and fire was brought into closed\\u000a shelters for cooking and space heating 1. Today, indoor air pollution caused by burning of traditional solid fuels such as woodfuel, agricultural residues, and dried\\u000a animal dung in unvented cookstoves in rural areas of developing countries is not much different

Nguyen Thi Kim Oanh; Yung-Tse Hung

39

HEALTH EFFECTS OF AIR POLLUTION  

E-print Network

An air pollutant is known as a substance in the air that can cause harm to humans and the environment. Pollutants can be in the form of solid particles, liquid droplets, or gases. In addition, they may be natural or man-made. Pollutants can be classified as either primary or secondary. Air pollution, both indoors and outdoors, is a major environmental health problem affecting everyone in developed and developing countries alike. Air pollution has both acute and chronic effects on human health. Even relatively low concentrations of air pollutants have been related to a range of adverse health effects. Health impact of air pollution depends on the pollutant type, its concentration in the air, length of exposure, other pollutants in the air, and individual susceptibility. Air pollution can affect our health in many ways with both short-term and long-term effects. Different people are affected by air pollution in different ways. Some individuals are much more sensitive to pollutants than are others. Young children and elderly people often suffer more from the effects of air pollution. People with health problems such as asthma, heart and lung disease may also suffer more when the air is polluted. There are various air pollution control technologies and land use planning strategies available to reduce air pollution. The World Health Organization (WHO) Air quality guidelines (AQGs) are designed to offer global guidance on reducing the health impacts of air pollution.

Lejla Muhamedagi?; Bosna I Hercegovina; Belma Muhamedagi?; Bosna I Hercegovina

40

Pupils' Understanding of Air Pollution  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper reports on a study of pupils' knowledge and understanding of atmospheric pollution. Specifically, the study is aimed at identifying: 1) the extent to which pupils conceptualise the term "air pollution" in a scientifically appropriate way; 2) pupils' knowledge of air pollution sources and air pollutants; and 3) pupils' knowledge of air

Dimitriou, Anastasia; Christidou, Vasilia

2007-01-01

41

Respiratory Health and Air Pollution  

MedlinePLUS

... CDC.gov . Healthy Places Share Compartir Respiratory Health & Air Pollution Transportation-related pollutants are one of the largest ... Motor vehicles contribute to more than 50% of air pollution in urban areas. The design of communities and ...

42

Air Pollution Spring 2010  

E-print Network

and particle control Ch 32 # 4 April 1 Aerosol physics and particle control Ch 32 April 6 Photochemical smog Ch 7 # 5 April 8 Review April 13 Mid-term exam 2 April 15 Photochemical smog Ch 7 April 20 Photochemical smog Ch 7 # 6 April 22 Air Pollution Measurement Ch 16, 17, 18 April 27 CO Air Quality Issues

43

Air Pollution: What's the Solution?  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Through this project, students will focus on outdoor air pollution; what it is, what factors contribute to its formation and the health effects from breathing polluted air. Students will use data and animated maps from the Internet and monitor for the presence of air pollution. Students are challenged to think critically and creatively about the problems surrounding air pollution. Students will learn to describe what air pollutants are, when and how outdoor air pollution is formed, and what the health effects are from breathing polluted air, and much more.

2010-01-01

44

Cardiovascular Mortality and Long-Term Exposure to Particulate Air Pollution: Epidemiological Evidence of General Pathophysiological Pathways of Disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background—Epidemiologic studies have linked long-term exposure to fine particulate matter air pollution (PM) to broad cause-of-death mortality. Associations with specific cardiopulmonary diseases might be useful in exploring potential mechanistic pathways linking exposure and mortality. Methods and Results—General pathophysiological pathways linking long-term PM exposure with mortality and expected patterns of PM mortality with specific causes of death were proposed a priori.

C. Arden Pope III; Richard T. Burnett; George D. Thurston; Michael J. Thun; Eugenia E. Calle; Daniel Krewski; John J. Godleski

2003-01-01

45

Particulate Air Pollution: The Particulars  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes some of the causes and consequences of particulate air pollution. Outlines the experimental procedures for measuring the amount of particulate materials that settles from the air and for observing the nature of particulate air pollution. (JR)

Murphy, James E.

1973-01-01

46

AIR POLLUTION AND HUMMINGBIRDS  

EPA Science Inventory

A multidisciplinary team of EPA-RTP ORD pulmonary toxicologists, engineers, ecologists, and statisticians have designed a study of how ground-level ozone and other air pollutants may influence feeding activity of the ruby-throated hummingbird ( Archilochus colubris ). Be...

47

Air pollutants and cough.  

PubMed

Epidemiological studies have shown that exposure to air pollution is associated with respiratory symptoms and decreases in lung function. This paper reviews recent literature showing that exposure to particulate matter, irritant gases, environmental tobacco smoke (ETS), mixed pollutants, and molds is associated with an increase in cough and wheeze. Some pollutants, like particulate matter and mixed pollutants, appear to increase cough at least as much as wheeze. Others, like irritant gases, appear to increase wheeze more than cough. For ETS, exposure during childhood is associated with cough and wheeze in adulthood, suggesting that the pollutant permanently alters some important aspect of the lungs, immune system or nervous system. We have shown in animal studies that pollutants change the neural control of airways and cough. Second hand smoke (SHS) exposure lengthened stimulated apnoea, increased the number of stimulated coughs, and augmented the degree of stimulated bronchoconstriction. The mechanisms included enhanced reactivity of the peripheral sensory neurones and second-order neurones in the nucleus tractus solitarius (NTS). NTS effects were due to a substance P mechanism at least in part. Ozone and allergen increased the intrinsic excitability of second-order neurones in the NTS. The animal studies suggest that the cough and wheeze experienced by humans exposed to pollutants may involve plasticity in the nervous system. PMID:17174132

Joad, Jesse P; Sekizawa, Shin-ichi; Chen, Chao-Yin; Bonham, Ann C

2007-01-01

48

Application to Air Pollution 5.1 Introduction  

E-print Network

Chapter 5 Application to Air Pollution Data 5.1 Introduction Ambient ozone pollution in urban areas to us, O 3 , is a secondary pollutant. There are two main kinds of air pollutants: primary and secondary while the air is being carried by winds, secondary pollutants are generally more widespread than primary

Heckman, Nancy E.

49

Air Pollution Socio-Economic  

E-print Network

Traffic Air Pollution and Socio-Economic Status Gregory C Pratt PhD Kristie Ellickson PhD #12 · Relationships #12;Living near traffic increases exposure to air pollution and is associated with adverse health exposed to traffic and air pollution. They are also more vulnerable and have an increased risk of adverse

Minnesota, University of

50

Fundamentals of air pollution. Third edition  

SciTech Connect

This book presents an overview of air pollution. In Part I, the history of air pollution and the basic concepts involved with air pollution such as sources, scales, definitions are covered. Part II describes how airborne pollutants damage materials, vegetation, animals, and humans. Six fundamental aspects of air pollution are included in the text: The Elements of Air Pollution; The Effects of Air Pollution; Measurement and Monitoring of Air Pollution; Meterology of Air Pollution; regulatory Control of Air Pollution; and Engineering Control of Air Pollution.

Boubel, R.W.; Fox, D.L.; Turner, D.B.; Stern, A.C.

1994-12-31

51

Air Pollution Control, Part I.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Authoritative reviews in seven areas of current importance in air pollution control are supplied in this volume, the first of a two-part set. Titles contained in this book are: "Dispersion of Pollutants Emitted into the Atmosphere,""The Formation and Control of Oxides of Nitrogen in Air Pollution,""The Control of Sulfur Emissions from Combustion…

Strauss, Werner, Ed.

52

The Federal Air Pollution Program.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Described is the Federal air pollution program as it was in 1967. The booklet is divided into these major topics: History of the Federal Program; Research; Assistance to State and Local Governments; Abatement and Prevention of Air Pollution; Control of Motor Vehicle Pollution; Information and Education; and Conclusion. Federal legislation has…

National Air Pollution Control Administration (DHEW), Washington, DC.

53

In Search of Air Pollution  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Air pollution is no longer just a local issue; it is a global problem. The atmosphere is a very dynamic system. Pollution not only changes in chemical composition after it is emitted, but also is transported on local and global air systems hundreds and even thousands of miles away. Some of the pollutants that are major health concerns are not even…

Beckendorf, Kirk

2006-01-01

54

Air pollution source identification  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Techniques for air pollution source identification are reviewed, and some results obtained with them are evaluated. Described techniques include remote sensing from satellites and aircraft, on-site monitoring, and the use of injected tracers and pollutants themselves as tracers. The use of a large number of trace elements in ambient airborne particulate matter as a practical means of identifying sources is discussed in detail. Sampling and analysis techniques are described, and it is shown that elemental constituents can be related to specific source types such as those found in the earth's crust and those associated with specific industries. Source identification sytems are noted which utilize charged particle X-ray fluorescence analysis of original field data.

Fordyce, J. S.

1975-01-01

55

Air pollution effects on agriculture  

Microsoft Academic Search

Industrial expansion and increasing urbanization have caused the spread of phytotoxic air pollutants to agricultural production areas especially in Eastern United States and Southern California. Needed are (a) better data to quantify the effects of pollutants on the yield and quality of crops as well as their effects on animals; (b) better dose-response information for single pollutants and pollutant mixtures

Heggestad

1977-01-01

56

Remote air pollution measurement  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper presents a discussion and comparison of the Raman method, the resonance and fluorescence backscatter method, long path absorption methods and the differential absorption method for remote air pollution measurement. A comparison of the above remote detection methods shows that the absorption methods offer the most sensitivity at the least required transmitted energy. Topographical absorption provides the advantage of a single ended measurement, and differential absorption offers the additional advantage of a fully depth resolved absorption measurement. Recent experimental results confirming the range and sensitivity of the methods are presented.

Byer, R. L.

1975-01-01

57

Air pollution from aircraft  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Forty-one annotated abstracts of reports generated at MIT and the University of Sheffield are presented along with summaries of the technical projects undertaken. Work completed includes: (1) an analysis of the soot formation and oxidation rates in gas turbine combustors, (2) modelling the nitric oxide formation process in gas turbine combustors, (3) a study of the mechanisms causing high carbon monoxide emissions from gas turbines at low power, (4) an analysis of the dispersion of pollutants from aircraft both around large airports and from the wakes of subsonic and supersonic aircraft, (5) a study of the combustion and flow characteristics of the swirl can modular combustor and the development and verification of NO sub x and CO emissions models, (6) an analysis of the influence of fuel atomizer characteristics on the fuel-air mixing process in liquid fuel spray flames, and (7) the development of models which predict the stability limits of fully and partially premixed fuel-air mixtures.

Heywood, J. B.; Fay, J. A.; Chigier, N. A.

1979-01-01

58

Air Pollution, Causes and Cures.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This commentary on sources of air pollution and air purification treatments is accompanied by graphic illustrations. Sources of carbon monoxide, sulfur oxides, nitrogen oxides, and hydrocarbons found in the air are discussed. Methods of removing these pollutants at their source are presented with cut-away diagrams of the facilities and technical…

Manufacturing Chemists Association, Washington, DC.

59

Air Pollution Primer. Revised Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This revised and updated book is written to inform the citizens on the nature, causes, and effects of air pollution. It is written in terms familiar to the layman with the purpose of providing knowledge and motivation to spur community action on clean air policies. Numerous charts and drawings are provided to support discussion of air pollution

Corman, Rena

60

INDOOR AIR POLLUTION SOURCE DATABASE  

EPA Science Inventory

The paper, directed to individuals interested in indoor air pollution, is an introduction to, and directions for the use of, the indoor air pollution source data-base (also known as the indoor air source emissions database). The database is a computerized system containing source...

61

Fundamentals of air pollution. Third edition  

Microsoft Academic Search

This book presents an overview of air pollution. In Part I, the history of air pollution and the basic concepts involved with air pollution such as sources, scales, definitions are covered. Part II describes how airborne pollutants damage materials, vegetation, animals, and humans. Six fundamental aspects of air pollution are included in the text: The Elements of Air Pollution; The

R. W. Boubel; D. L. Fox; D. B. Turner; A. C. Stern

1994-01-01

62

System interactions of air pollutants  

SciTech Connect

The impact of system interactions and simultaneous or sequential exposure to various air pollutants, both man-made and natural ones, requires greater concern in the interpretation of the total adverse impact of various air pollutants. It is clear that there are highly significant system interactions with exposure to various air pollutants, and these must be considered very carefully in the evaluation of their adverse health effects.

Pierson, W.E. (Northwest Asthma and Allergy Center, University of Washington School of Medicine, Seattle (United States))

1992-06-01

63

Understanding Air: Air Pollution and Modeling Pollutants with LEGO® Bricks  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this lesson, students learn about the chemical reactions that release various pollutants into the atmosphere and what happens when pollutants in the air are exposed to sunlight. They model incomplete combustion using LEGO bricks, and explore the connection between air quality and environmental health.

WGBH Educational Foundation

2012-06-15

64

Intercontinental Transport of Air Pollution  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The development of the global economy goes beyond raising our standards of living. We are in an ear of increasing environmental as well as economic interdependence. Long-range transport of anthropogenic atmospheric pollutants such as ozone, ozone precursors, airborne particles, heavy metals (such as mercury) and persistent organic pollutants are the four major types of pollution that are transported over intercontinental distances and have global environmental effects. The talk includes: 1) an overview of the international agreements related to intercontinental transport of air pollutants, 2) information needed for decision making, 3) overview of the past research on intercontinental transport of air pollutants - a North American's perspective, and 4) future research needs.

Rogers, David; Whung, Pai-Yei; Einaudi, Franco (Technical Monitor)

2001-01-01

65

PLANT RESPONSE TO AIR POLLUTION  

EPA Science Inventory

Air pollutants have a negative impact on plant growth, primarily through interfering with resource accumulation. ince leaves are in close contact with the atmosphere, many air pollutants, such as O3 and NOx, affect the metabolic function of the leaves and interfere with net carbo...

66

Air Pollution and Human Health  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reviews studies statistically relating air pollution to mortality and morbidity rates for respiratory, and cardiovascular diseases, cancer and infant mortality. Some data recalculated. Estimates 50 percent air pollution reduction will save 4.5 percent (2080 million dollars per year) of all economic loss (hospitalization, income loss) associated…

Lave, Lester B.; Seskin, Eugene P.

1970-01-01

67

ACRYLONITRILE PLANT AIR POLLUTION CONTROL  

EPA Science Inventory

Based on available literature, the report identifies and ranks (in terms of efficiency, cost, and energy requirements) air pollution control technologies for each of four major air pollutant emission sources in acrylonitrile plants. The sources are: (1) absorber vent gas streams,...

68

Allergic diseases and air pollution  

PubMed Central

The prevalence of allergic diseases has been increasing rapidly, especially in developing countries. Various adverse health outcomes such as allergic disease can be attributed to rapidly increasing air pollution levels. Rapid urbanization and increased energy consumption worldwide have exposed the human body to not only increased quantities of ambient air pollution, but also a greater variety of pollutants. Many studies clearly demonstrate that air pollutants potently trigger asthma exacerbation. Evidence that transportation-related pollutants contribute to the development of allergies is also emerging. Moreover, exposure to particulate matter, ozone, and nitrogen dioxide contributes to the increased susceptibility to respiratory infections. This article focuses on the current understanding of the detrimental effects of air pollutants on allergic disease including exacerbation to the development of asthma, allergic rhinitis, and eczema as well as epigenetic regulation. PMID:23956961

Lee, Suh-Young; Chang, Yoon-Seok

2013-01-01

69

Air Quality: Air Pollutants, SLAC Emissions Sources, and Regulatory Reference  

E-print Network

Air Quality: Air Pollutants, SLAC Emissions Sources, and Regulatory Reference Department: Chemical permit regulations are designed to track, record, and control air pollutants belonging to several on chemical classifications. This reference outlines major categories of air pollutants found at SLAC

Wechsler, Risa H.

70

Air pollution measurements from satellites  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A study is presented on the remote sensing of gaseous and particulate air pollutants which is an extension of a previous report. Pollutants can be observed by either active or passive remote sensing systems. Calculations discussed herein indicate that tropospheric CO, CO2, SO2, NO2, NH3, HCHO, and CH4 can be measured by means of nadir looking passive systems. Additional species such as NO, HNO3, O3, and H2O may be measured in the stratosphere through a horizon experiment. A brief theoretical overview of resonance Raman scattering and resonance fluorescence is given. It is found that radiance measurements are most promising for general global applications, and that stratospheric aerosols may be measured using a sun occultation technique. The instrumentation requirements for both active and passive systems are examined and various instruments now under development are described.

Ludwig, C. B.; Griggs, M.; Malkmus, W.; Bartle, E. R.

1973-01-01

71

Air pollution: Impact and prevention  

PubMed Central

ABSTRACT Air pollution is becoming a major health problem that affects millions of people worldwide. In support of this observation, the World Health Organization estimates that every year, 2.4 million people die because of the effects of air pollution on health. Mitigation strategies such as changes in diesel engine technology could result in fewer premature mortalities, as suggested by the US Environmental Protection Agency. This review: (i) discusses the impact of air pollution on respiratory disease; (ii) provides evidence that reducing air pollution may have a positive impact on the prevention of disease; and (iii) demonstrates the impact concerted polices may have on population health when governments take actions to reduce air pollution. PMID:22726103

SIERRA-VARGAS, MARTHA PATRICIA; TERAN, LUIS M

2012-01-01

72

Health Effects of Air Pollutants  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Although air quality in large cities and industrial areas of Western Europe was deteriorating since the beginning of the industrial\\u000a revolution in nineteenth century, it was not until the first half of the twentieth century that the adverse health effects\\u000a of air pollution started attracting scientific attention. Two widely quoted air pollution episodes, the Great London Smog\\u000a of 1952 and

Sotiris Vardoulakis; Xiyu Phoon; Caroline Ochieng

73

Initial events in injury to plants by air pollutants  

Microsoft Academic Search

The pool of information on air pollution injury to plants increases in size and complexity each year. In addition, air pollution literature has been unable to generate a cohesive theory which relates the various major air pollutants and their effects on plants. This review attempts to fill this gap; I have chosen not to attempt a general review of literature

R L Heath

1980-01-01

74

Air Pollution and Mortality: Estimating Regional and National DoseResponse Relationships  

E-print Network

Air Pollution and Mortality: Estimating Regional and National Dose­Response Relationships Francesca was linear. KEY WORDS: Air pollution; Data augmentation; Generalized additive model; Hierarchical model, possibly nonrepresentative, locations. The National Morbidity, Mortality, and Air Pollution Study (NMMAPS

Dominici, Francesca

75

Coping with Indoor Air Pollution  

MedlinePLUS

Indoor air pollution is irritating to everyone: But people who have respiratory problems are even more sensitive to indoor irritants and ... someone to inspect it regularly. Check the pilot lights on your gas stove, and make sure that ...

76

Air pollution and the lung  

Microsoft Academic Search

Separate abstracts were prepared for two papers presented at this conference. Seventeen additional papers discuss various aspects of the lung clearance of inhaled aerosols and methods for the evaluation of air pollution effects in man and laboratory animals. (CH)

E. F. Aharonson; A. Ben-David; M. A. Klingberg

1976-01-01

77

HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANT RESEARCH (AIR POLLUTION TECHNOLOGY BRANCH, AIR POLLUTION PREVENTION AND CONTROL DIVISION, NRMRL)  

EPA Science Inventory

Title III of the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments lists 189 compounds and compound classes as hazardous air pollutants (HAPs) (also referred to as "air toxics"). The compounds include benzene, toluene, formaldehyde, mercury, arsenic, and polyaromatic hydrocarbons and are emitted fro...

78

Prevalence rates of respiratory symptoms in Italian general population samples exposed to different levels of air pollution  

SciTech Connect

The authors surveyed two general population samples aged 8 to 64 living in the unpolluted, rural area of the Po Delta (northern Italy) and in the urban area of Pisa (central Italy). Each subject filled out a standardized interviewer-administered questionnaire. The Pisa sample was divided into three groups according to their residence in the urban-suburban areas and to outdoor air pollution exposure (automobile exhaust only or industrial fumes as well). Significantly higher prevalence rates of all the respiratory symptoms and diseases were found in Pisa compared with the Po Delta. Current smoking was more frequent in the rural area, but the urban smokers had a higher lifetime cigarette consumption. Childhood respiratory trouble and recurrent respiratory illnesses were evenly distributed. Exposure to parental smoking in childhood and lower educational level were more frequent in Po Delta, whereas familial history of respiratory/allergic disorders and work and indoor exposures were more often reported in the city. Multiple logistic regression models estimating independently the role of the various risk factors showed significant odds ratios associated with residence in Pisa for all the symptoms but chronic phlegm. The conclusion, these preliminary analyses indicate an urban factor related to the rates of respiratory symptoms and diseases in Italy in the 1980s.

Viegi, G. (Univ. of Pisa (Italy) Univ. of Arizona, Tucson (United States)); Paoletti, P.; Carrozzi, L.; Vellutini, M.; Diviggiano, E.; Pistelli, G.; Giutini, G. (Univ. of Pisa (Italy)); Di Pede, C. (Univ. of Arizona, Tucson (United States) Occupational Medicine Service, Toscana (Italy)); Lebowitz, M.D. (Univ. of Arizona, Tucson (United States))

1991-08-01

79

WESTERN FORESTS AND AIR POLLUTION  

EPA Science Inventory

This book addresses the relationships between air pollution in western United States and trends in the growth and condition of Western coniferous forests. he major atmospheric pollutants to which forest in this region are exposed are sulfur and nitrogen compounds and ozone. The p...

80

Air pollution and allergic disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Over the past several decades, there has been increased awareness of the health effects of air pollution and much debate regarding\\u000a the role of global warming. The prevalence of asthma and allergic disease has risen in industrialized countries, and most\\u000a epidemiologic studies focus on possible causalities between air pollution and these conditions. This review examines salient\\u000a articles and summarizes findings

Haejin Kim; Jonathan A. Bernstein

2009-01-01

81

Air Pollution Training Institute Virtual Classroom: Basic Air Pollution Meteorology  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This Air Pollution Training Institute (APTI) course uses video presentations, text materials, and reading assignments to present basic meteorology, meteorological effects on air pollution, meteorological instrumentation, air quality modeling, and regulatory programs requiring a knowledge of meteorology. It consists of seven lessons that cover solar and terrestrial radiation, cyclones and anticyclones, wind speed and direction, atmospheric circulation, and many other topics. To finish the course, an online quiz is offered. Students may take the quiz for APTI Continuing Education Unit (CEU) credits; registration is required to receive CEU credits.

82

The status of indoor air pollution.  

PubMed Central

Indoor air pollution, specifically restricted in its meaning to chemicals in home indoor air environment, presents a new and probably an important challenge to the researchers of the air pollution field. The general overview of this topic suggests that the voluminous data generated in the past ten or so years have only defined the rudiments of the problem, and significant areas of research still exist. Among the important areas where information is lacking, the exposures to contaminants generated by the use of consumer products and through hobbies and crafts represent perhaps the most urgent need for substantial research. PMID:4085429

Esmen, N A

1985-01-01

83

Hybrid regional air pollution models  

SciTech Connect

This discussion deals with a family of air quality models for predicting and analyzing the fine particulate loading in the atmosphere, for assessing the extent and degree of visibility impairment, and for determining the potential of pollutants for increasing the acidity of soils and water. The major horizontal scales of interest are from 400km to 2000km; and the time scales may vary from several hours, to days, weeks, and a few months or years, depending on the EPA regulations being addressed. First the role air quality models play in the general family of atmospheric simulation models is described. Then, the characteristics of a well-designed, comprehensive air quality model are discussed. Following this, the specific objectives of this workshop are outlined, and their modeling implications are summarized. There are significant modeling differences produced by the choice of the coordinate system, whether it be the fixed Eulerian system, the moving Lagrangian system, or some hybrid of the two. These three systems are briefly discussed, and a list of hybrid models that are currently in use are given. Finally, the PNL regional transport model is outlined and a number of research needs are listed.

Drake, R.L.

1980-03-01

84

AIR POLLUTION AND RESPIRATORY DISEASE  

EPA Science Inventory

Concern about polluted air in our urban and industrial areas began gathering momentum shortly after World War II. At that time it seemed obvious that clean air, like clean water, clean food, and a clean body, was a worth while goal in itself, requiring no further justification. B...

85

Air pollution assessment on city of Tirana  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Air pollution is one of the hot topics on nowadays studies. This problem is often encountered on urban centers, especially on metropolitan areas. These areas are usually characterized by densely population, heavy traffic rates and the presence of many industrial plants on their suburbs. Problems regarding to air pollution on these areas are more evident over metropolitan areas in developing countries. Air pollution is mostly related to health effects, especially in outdoor environments. These effects regards primarily on respiratory and cardiovascular diseases. Air pollution assessment on a specific area requires not only the estimation of pollutant concentrations in that area, but also determination of their principal sources as well as prediction of eventual scenarios on the area under investigation. This study is focused on air pollution assessment on the city of Tirana, which is the major urban centre and the capital city of Albania. This city has about one million inhabitants. During the last 20 years, its population has grown about four fold, and it is still growing. Because of Albania is a developing country, its capital city is involved on serious environmental problems. Considering these facts, we have conducted continuous monitoring campaigns on several sites of Tirana. These monitoring campaigns consist on measurement of several pollutant gases (SO2, CO, CO2, NOx, etc.) and particulate matter over a period of 20 months. In this paper there are obtained diurnal and annual variations of pollutant concentrations, there is modeled their spatial distributions over the area of the city, and there are estimated the potential contributions of principal sources like traffic and industrial plants. During the entire monitoring campaign there are recorded also meteorological parameters, like temperature, relative humidity, atmospheric pressure, wind speed, wind direction, precipitations, etc. In this way we have tried to obtain the correlations between pollutant concentrations and meteorological parameters, and so to estimate their contribution on air pollution situation in this city. Overall measurement results indicate a critical situation of air pollution in this city, where pollutant concentrations exceed international recommendations. Because of in Albania these types of studies are very rare; the air pollution assessment in the capital city Tirana has an enormous importance not only for this city but also in general for entire the country.

Mandija, F.; Zoga, P.

2012-04-01

86

Air Pollution in the World's Megacities.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reports findings of the Global Environment Monitoring System study concerning air pollution in the world's megacities. Discusses sources of air pollution, air pollution impacts, air quality monitoring, air quality trends, and control strategies. Provides profiles of the problem in Beijing, Los Angeles, Mexico City, India, Cairo, Sao Paulo, and…

Richman, Barbara T., Ed.

1994-01-01

87

Volcanic Air Pollution  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The phenomenon is a series of photographs of 'vog' or volcanic smog caused by the long-lasting eruption of Kilauea Volcano, Hawaii. Text included with the images describes how vog is created. An additional digitally enhanced map shows effects of trade winds on pollution concentration.

88

Air pollution source identification  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The techniques available for source identification are reviewed: remote sensing, injected tracers, and pollutants themselves as tracers. The use of the large number of trace elements in the ambient airborne particulate matter as a practical means of identifying sources is discussed. Trace constituents are determined by sensitive, inexpensive, nondestructive, multielement analytical methods such as instrumental neutron activation and charged particle X-ray fluorescence. The application to a large data set of pairwise correlation, the more advanced pattern recognition-cluster analysis approach with and without training sets, enrichment factors, and pollutant concentration rose displays for each element is described. It is shown that elemental constituents are related to specific source types: earth crustal, automotive, metallurgical, and more specific industries. A field-ready source identification system based on time and wind direction resolved sampling is described.

Fordyce, J. S.

1975-01-01

89

Leaves and Air Pollution  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, students investigate the effects of automobile pollution on plant growth by making measurements on two populations of leaves, one from within 10 meters of a busy road and a population of the same species situated more than 20 meters away. They will choose a method for measuring the leaves, create a table for their data, and test their hypotheses by performing a t-test.

Laposata, Matt

90

Air Pollutant Data for Linking Studies  

E-print Network

Air Pollutant Data for Linking Studies New Jersey Department of Health and Senior Services #12;New Jersey Close-up View View from Space #12;Air Pollutant/Health Linking Studies in New Jersey · CDC 03074 pollutants and asthma hospitalization #12;Asthma and Hazardous Air Pollutants · Study A ­ All 566

91

Solid Waste, Air Pollution and Health  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article examines the relationships among solid waste disposal, air pollution, and human disease. It is estimated that solid waste disposal contributes 9.7 percent of the total air pollution and 9.9 percent of the total air pollution health effect. Certain disposal-resource recovery systems can be implemented to meet air quality standards. (MR)

Kupchik, George J.; Franz, Gerald J.

1976-01-01

92

Product Guide/1972 [Air Pollution Control Association].  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reprinted in this pamphlet is the fifth annual directory of air pollution control products as compiled in the "Journal of the Air Pollution Control Association" for December, 1971. The 16-page guide lists manufacturers of emission control equipment and air pollution instrumentation under product classifications as derived from McGraw-Hill's "Air

Journal of the Air Pollution Control Association, 1971

1971-01-01

93

Simultaneous Exposure to Multiple Air Pollutants Influences Alveolar Epithelial Cell Ion Transport  

EPA Science Inventory

Purpose. Air pollution sources generally release multiple pollutants simultaneously and yet, research has historically focused on the source-to-health linkages of individual air pollutants. We recently showed that exposure of alveolar epithelial cells to a combination of particul...

94

Indoor air pollutants.  

PubMed

A major contribution of the pediatrician is to help families rank the multitude of pollutants according to their known risk for child health. Elimination of household smoking and completely effective venting of indoor heating devices are beneficial to all and mandatory in homes of allergic children. Acute releases of NO2 by gas ranges and ovens may be a significant factor in an increased incidence of respiratory infection, especially in children under two years. Despite intensive investigation, immunosuppressive and other health effects have not been defined for indoor levels of PBBs, PCBs, and related halogenated hydrocarbons. The analytic ability to determine nanomolar concentrations of numerous toxic chemicals opens a Pandora's box of inquiry. New methods, particularly immunologic, are urgently needed to quantitate the dose response to multiple combinations of chemicals and determine their significance for the health of the "tight-box" generation of children. PMID:3055860

Angle, C R

1988-01-01

95

Phytotoxicity of Air Pollutants  

PubMed Central

Pisum sativum L. cv Alsweet (garden pea) and Lycopersicon esculentum flacca Mill. (tomato) were used to evaluate the phytotoxicity of SO2 and O3 in the light and dark. Plants were grown in controlled environment chambers and exposed to SO2 or O3 in the light or dark at the same environmental conditions at which they were grown. The pea plants were treated with fusicoccin to ensure open stomata in the dark; the stomata of the tomato mutant remained open in the dark. Both species exhibited 64% to 80% less foliar necrosis following exposure to SO2 (0.5 to 1.0 microliter per liter for 2 hours) in the light than in the dark. The decrease in SO2 injury for light versus dark exposed plants was greater in fully expanded than expanding leaves. Both species exhibited 30% greater foliar necrosis following exposure to O3 (0.2 microliter per liter for 2 hours) in the light than dark. The increase in O3 injury in the light versus dark was similar for leaves at all stages of expansion. Leaf conductance to water vapor was 7% to 11% and 23% higher in the light than dark for fusicoccin-treated peas and tomato plants, respectively, indicating greater foliar uptake of both pollutants in the light than dark. Thus, the decreased SO2 toxicity in the light was not associated with pollutant uptake, but rather the metabolism of SO2. In contrast, the increased toxicity of O3 in the light was at least in part associated with increased uptake or could not be separated from it. PMID:16663549

Olszyk, David M.; Tingey, David T.

1984-01-01

96

Air Pollution Control, Part II.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book contains five major articles in areas of current importance in air pollution control. They are written by authors who are actively participating in the areas on which they report. It is the aim of each article to completely cover theory, experimentation, and practice in the field discussed. The contents are as follows: Emissions,…

Strauss, Werner, Ed.

97

Air Pollution. Part A: Analysis.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Two facets of the engineering control of air pollution (the analysis of possible problems and the application of effective controls) are covered in this two-volume text. Part A covers Analysis, and Part B, Prevention and Control. (This review is concerned with Part A only.) This volume deals with the terminology, methodology, and symptomatology…

Ledbetter, Joe O.

98

AIR POLLUTION EFFECTS ON BIODIVERSITY  

EPA Science Inventory

To address the issues of air pollution impacts on biodiversity, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Environmental Research Laboratory in Corvallis, OR, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service National Fisheries Research Center in Leetown, and the Electric Power Research Institut...

99

Children's Response to Air Pollutants  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is important to focus on children with respect to air pollution because (1) their lungs are not completely developed, (2) they can have greater exposures than adults, and (3) those exposures can deliver higher doses of different composition that may remain in the lung for greater duration. The undeveloped lung is more vulnerable to assault and less able to

Thomas F. Bateson; Joel Schwartz

2007-01-01

100

Air pollution and lung cancer  

SciTech Connect

Epidemiological evidence proves conclusively that lung cancer correlates with air pollution. However, data on lung cancer death rates and smoking show that mankind accepts the risk of long-term and low-level exposure to carcinogens. As a rule, immediate benefits are sought and remote hazards ignored. Fear of atmospheric contamination by radioactive fallout seems to be the main factor for awareness of air pollution. Experimental works help us to understand physics of particle deposition in the lungs (inertial impactation, sedimentation, Brownian movement), shed light on carcinogenesis (eg, bay region theory in case of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and surface charge changes regarding asbestos), show that atmospheric particulates accepted as harmless may act as co-carcinogens (eg, iron and benzo(a)pyrene) and stress the importance of in vitro research (bacterial mutation tests, organ cultures, sister chromatid exchange system) to screen pollutants for their malignant potential and study their pathogenesis.

Boehm, G.M.

1982-01-01

101

Mercury Air Pollution Reflected in Ocean Fish  

MedlinePLUS

... features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Mercury Air Pollution Reflected in Ocean Fish, Study Says Concentrations in ... mercury in the open ocean is fallout from air pollution, especially from coal-fired power plants and artisanal ...

102

Clean Air Slots Amid Atmospheric Pollution  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This article investigates the mechanism for those layers in the atmosphere that are free of air borne pollution even though the air above and below them carry pollutants. Atmospheric subsidence is posed as a mechanism for this phenomenon.

Hobbs, Peter V.

2002-01-01

103

Air Pollution and Heart Disease, Stroke  

MedlinePLUS

Air Pollution and Heart Disease, Stroke Updated:Jan 9,2014 Whether you live in a city where smog ... or Longer-Term Acute short-term effects of air pollution tend to strike people who are elderly or ...

104

Disparities in the Impact of Air Pollution  

MedlinePLUS

... Your Zip Code: Disparities in the Impact of Air Pollution Living near a major roadway may expose you ... Especially Dangerous for Breathing below. The burden of air pollution is not evenly shared. Poorer people and some ...

105

Methodology In Danish Air Pollution Exposure Assessment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In a series of studies the possible link between air pollution exposure and health out- come is investigated. The methodology for assessment of air pollution exposure within these studies is presented and strength and weakness of the approach is discussed. The assessment is carried out from a GIS based model system called AirGIS, which is based on digital maps and various registers. The air pollution calculation is mainly based on the street pollution model - OSPM, developed at NERI.

Hertel, O.; Jensen, S. S.; Kousgaard, U.

106

EFFECTS OF AIR POLLUTANTS ON PLANT PRODUCTIVITY  

EPA Science Inventory

Air pollutants modify the productivity of agrisystems. Any effect of air pollution on growth or quality of a plant is an effect of productivity. Early efforts to estimate the effects of air pollutants on crop productivity were often based only on observation. Of the different met...

107

Air Pollution, ATS555 Colorado State University  

E-print Network

Air Pollution, ATS555 Colorado State University Fall 2014 Mondays and Wednesdays @ 4:00 ­ 5:30 Room://ramct.colostate.edu/) Textbooks: Air Pollution: Its Origin and Control, 3rd Edition, by Wark, Warner and Davis, Addison Wesley. Specific objectives include: 1. Develop an understanding of types and sources of air pollution. 2. Examine

Collett Jr., Jeffrey L.

108

The Crisis in Air Pollution Manpower Development  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Three studies conducted by the National Air Pollution Manpower Development Advisory Committee concluded there is a crisis in air pollution manpower development within the United States today. The studies investigated the existing federal manpower program, air pollution educational requirements and the quality of graduate level university programs.…

Moeller, Dade W.

1974-01-01

109

Scottish Air Pollution and Health Workshop  

E-print Network

Scottish Air Pollution and Health Workshop Session 4 Joint Research Policy Needs and Interactions needs and how can we work together effectively on these to reduce the adverse effects of air pollution together effectively on these to reduce the adverse effects of air pollution in Scotland. Modelling

110

3, 35433588, 2003 3-D air pollution  

E-print Network

ACPD 3, 3543­3588, 2003 3-D air pollution modelling L. M. Frohn et al. Title Page Abstract hemispheric nested air pollution model L. M. Frohn, J. H. Christensen, J. Brandt, C. Geels, and K. M. Hansen 2003 Correspondence to: L. M. Frohn (lmf@dmu.dk) 3543 #12;ACPD 3, 3543­3588, 2003 3-D air pollution

Boyer, Edmond

111

Quantifying precipitation suppression due to air Pollution  

E-print Network

Quantifying precipitation suppression due to air Pollution First author: Amir Givati The Hebrew January 2004 #12;ABSTRACT: Urban and industrial air pollution has been shown qualitatively to suppress. The evidence suggests that air pollution aerosols that are incorporated in orographic clouds slow down cloud

Li, Zhanqing

112

Air Pollution. Environmental Ecological Education Project.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This unit, designed for senior high school students, focuses on air pollution by examining its effect on man, plants and animals, the causes of air pollution, and possible solutions to the air pollution problems. It approaches each of these topics through both natural science and social science perspectives. The unit is divided into seven separate…

Parkway School District, Chesterfield, MO.

113

Physiological responses to air pollutants G. Halbwachs  

E-print Network

of fumigation experiments on young plants could be utilized for inter- preting some effects when air pollutionPhysiological responses to air pollutants G. Halbwachs Zentrum fur Umwelt- und Naturschutz of the interaction between air pollution and the forest ecosystem, where not only emission stress is at hand

Boyer, Edmond

114

Air Pollution: History Air Pollution: Any atmospheric constituent present as a result of  

E-print Network

Air Pollution: History Air Pollution: Any atmospheric constituent present as a result, or materials. Before 1200 AD · Air pollution results from wood burning, tanning, decaying trash, smelting = industrial revolution ­ x100 increase in G.B. coal combustion between 1800-1900 estimated air pollution in G

Weber, Rodney

115

Associations between criteria air pollutants and asthma  

SciTech Connect

The evidence that asthma is increasing in prevalence is becoming increasingly compelling. This trend has been demonstrated in the United States, the United Kingdom, New Zealand, Australia, and several other Western countries. In the US, the increase is largest in the group under 18 years of age. There is mounting evidence that certain environmental air pollutants are involved in exacerbating asthma. This is based primarily on epidemiologic studies and more recent clinical studies. The U.S. Clean Air Act of 1970 provides special consideration to the class of outdoor air pollutants referred to as criteria pollutants, including O{sub 3}, sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}), particulate matter (PM), NO{sub x}, CO, and Pb. Standards for these pollutants are set by the US EPA with particular concern for populations at risk. Current evidence suggests that asthmatics are more sensitive to the effects of O{sub 3}, SO{sub 2} PM, and NO{sub 2}, and are therefore at risk. High SO{sub 2} and particulate concentrations have been associated with short-term increases in morbidity and mortality in the general population during dramatic air pollution episodes in the past. Controlled exposure studies have clearly shown that asthmatics are sensitive to low levels of SO{sub 2}. Exercising asthmatics exposed to SO{sub 2} develop bronchoconstriction within minutes, even at levels of 0.25 ppm. Responses are modified by air temperature, humidity, and exercise level. Recent epidemiologic studies have suggested that exposure to Pm is strongly associated with morbidity and mortality in the general population and that hospital admissions for bronchitis and asthma were associated with PM{sub 10} levels. In controlled clinical studies, asthmatics appear to be no more reactive to aerosols than healthy subjects. Consequently, it is difficult to attribute the increased mortality observed in epidemiologic studies to specific effects demonstrated in controlled human studies. 106 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.

Koren, H.S. [Environmental Protection Agency, Chapel Hill, NC (United States)

1995-09-01

116

Air Pollution and Cardiovascular Injury Epidemiology, Toxicology, and Mechanisms  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent epidemiologic studies show that increased levels of air pollutants are positively associated with cardio- vascular morbidity and mortality. Inhalation of air pollutants affects heart rate, heart rate variability, blood pres- sure, vascular tone, blood coagulability, and the progression of atherosclerosis. Several categories within the general population (i.e., people with pre-existing cardiovascular disease and diabetic and elderly individuals) are considered

Boris Z. Simkhovich; Michael T. Kleinman; Robert A. Kloner

117

ENHANCED ALLERGIC SENSITIZATION IN ANIMALS EXPOSED TO PARTICULATE AIR POLLUTION  

Microsoft Academic Search

Epidemiological studies have found an association between elevated levels of particulate matter (PM) air pollution and increased medication use and hospital visits by asthmatics. While it is known that asthmatics are generally more sensitive to airborne contaminants such as sulfur dioxide and tobacco smoke, it is difé cult to test which components of air pollution may also contribute to the

2000-01-01

118

Statistical modeling of air pollution.  

PubMed

The present communication deals with the application of several chemometric methods (principal components analysis, source apportioning on absolute principal components scores, chemical mass balance, self-organizing maps) to various aerosol data collections from different regions in Europe. It is shown that different latent factors explaining over 75 % of the total variance are responsible for the data structure and could be reliable identified and interpreted. Further, the contribution of each identified source to the formation of the particle total mass and chemical compounds total concentration is calculated. Thus, a reliable assessment of the air quality in the respective region is done. Classification by self-organizing maps makes it possible to better understand the role of different discriminating tracers in the air pollution. The use of chemical mass balance approach ensures a sound modeling of the pollution sources. The requirements of the sustainability concept for ecological indicators in this case is easily transformed to a multivariate statistical problem taking into account not separate indicators but the specific multivariate nature of the aerosol pollution. PMID:22217080

Tsakovski, Stefan L; Simeonova, Pavlina A; Simeonov, Vasil D

2012-01-01

119

Evaluating sources of indoor air pollution  

SciTech Connect

Scientists and engineers in the Indoor Air Brand of EPS'a Air and Energy Engineering Research Laboratory are conducting research to increase the state of knowledge concerning indoor air pollution factors. A three phase program is being implemented. The purpose of this paper is to show how their approach can be used to evaluate specific sources of indoor air pollution. Pollutants from two sources are examined: para-dichlorobenzene emissions from moth crystal cakes; and particulate emissions from unvented kerosene heaters.

Tichenor, B.A.; Sparks, L.E.; White, J.B.; Jackson, M.D. (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC (US))

1988-01-01

120

Ambient air pollution and brain cancer mortality  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective  Growing evidence that ultrafine particles in ambient air can cause brain lesions in animals led us to investigate whether\\u000a particulate components of air pollution may be associated with brain cancer risk in humans. Air pollution has been associated\\u000a with respiratory disorders and cardiovascular morbidity and mortality, but associations between air pollutants and brain cancer\\u000a have not been investigated in adults.

Roberta McKean-Cowdin; Eugenia E. Calle; John M. Peters; Jane Henley; Lindsay Hannan; George D. Thurston; Michael J. Thun; Susan Preston-Martin

2009-01-01

121

Explorative forecasting of air pollution  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the paper a model to predict immission concentrations of PM10, SO2, O3 for a selected number of forward time steps is proposed. The proposed model (e-APFM) is an extension of the Air Pollution Forecasting Model (APFM). APFM requires historical data for a large number of points in time, particularly weather forecast, meteorological and pollution data. e-APFM additionally requires information about the wind direction in sectors and meteorological station. This information also permits pollution at meteorological stations for which we do not have the necessary data (in particular the data about pollution) to be forecast. The experimental verification of the proposed model was conducted on the data from the Institute of Meteorology and Water Management in Poland over a period of two years (between January 2011 and December 2012). Experiments show that the e-APFM method has lower deviations between the measured and predicted concentrations compared to the APFM method for the first day and similar deviations for the next two days (for hourly values) and for the first day and mostly worse for the second and third day (for daily values).

Doma?ska, D.; Wojtylak, M.

2014-08-01

122

Global Air Pollution Crossroads over the Mediterranean  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Mediterranean Intensive Oxidant Study, performed in the summer of 2001, uncovered air pollution layers from the surface to an altitude of 15 kilometers. In the boundary layer, air pollution standards are exceeded throughout the region, caused by West and East European pollution from the north. Aerosol particles also reduce solar radiation penetration to the surface, which can suppress precipitation.

J. Lelieveld; H. Berresheim; S. Borrmann; P. J. Crutzen; F. J. Dentener; H. Fischer; J. Feichter; P. J. Flatau; J. Heland; R. Holzinger; R. Korrmann; M. G. Lawrence; Z. Levin; K. M. Markowicz; N. Mihalopoulos; A. Minikin; V. Ramanathan; M. de Reus; G. J. Roelofs; H. A. Scheeren; J. Sciare; H. Schlager; M. Schultz; P. Siegmund; B. Steil; E. G. Stephanou; P. Stier; M. Traub; C. Warneke; J. Williams; H. Ziereis

2002-01-01

123

A PROPOSED UNIFORM AIR POLLUTION INDEX  

EPA Science Inventory

A uniform air pollution index for the U.S. is proposed. The index was developed from ten criteria identified in a survey of all the air pollution indices currently in use in the U.S. and Canada. The proposed index, named the Pollutant Standards Index (PSI), was designed to overco...

124

Social Aspects of Air Pollution: Sociodemographic Differences in Exposure, Perceived Annoyance and Concern about Air Pollution  

E-print Network

The main interest of this study is to observe the sociodemographic (gender, age, education and occupational status) differences in personal exposure, perceived annoyance and concern about air pollution, for the purpose of reducing such differences. Another important aim is to compare the measured exposure data with perceived annoyances and concern about air pollution. The target population of this study was adult (25-55 y) inhabitants of Helsinki region. Personal exposures to (n=201) and microenvironment concentrations of fine particles (PM2.5) and nitrogen dioxide (NO2) were measured during the EXPOLIS study in 1997-1998. An Environmental Attitude Questionnaire (EAQ) survey (n=428) was compiled on the concerns about air pollution and environmental problems in general in December

Tuulia Rotko; Professor Matti; J. Jantunen, Ph.D.; Docent Veijo Notkola, Ph.D.

125

AT 560 (2 Credits) Air Pollution Measurement  

E-print Network

AT 560 (2 Credits) Air Pollution Measurement Spring 2013 Instructor: Jeff Collett, 491 Resolution and Student Conduct Services." #12;ATS 560 - Air Pollution Measurement Spring 2013 Schedule Useful in experimental air quality monitoring and re- search. 2. Become familiar with the process of designing, proposing

126

CRITICAL HEALTH ISSUES OF CRITERIA AIR POLLUTANTS  

EPA Science Inventory

This chapter summarizes the key health information on ubiquitous outdoor air pollutants that can cause adverse health effects at current or historical ambient levels in the United States. Of the thousands of air pollutants, very few meet this definition. The Clean Air Act (CA...

127

Perspective on Air Pollution: The Canadian Scene  

PubMed Central

Despite the large ratio of land mass to population, Canada has significant air pollution problems, some being due to our cold climate, the long arctic nights, and a mineral-based economy. Routes of intoxication include the respiration of polluted air and the secondary contamination of food and water. Although pollution is often measured in terms of industrial emissions, the physician must be concerned rather with the dose of pollutants to which the individual is exposed. The principal air pollutants, in terms of emitted tonnage, are carbon monoxide, sulfur dioxide, hydrocarbons, particulates, and oxides of nitrogen. Sources of these various materials are discussed. PMID:20469224

Shephard, R. J.

1975-01-01

128

Air pollution and asthma severity in adults  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background\\/objectives:There is evidence that exposure to air pollution affects asthma, but the effect of air pollution on asthma severity has not been addressed. The aim was to assess the relation between asthma severity during the past 12 months and home outdoor concentrations of air pollution.Methods:Asthma severity over the past 12 months was assessed in two complementary ways among 328 adult

E Rage; V Siroux; N Künzli; I Pin; F Kauffmann

2009-01-01

129

EPA's indoor air/pollution prevention workshop  

SciTech Connect

The paper discusses a workshop held as a step toward EPA's prioritizing potential areas of research for applying pollution prevention to indoor air quality (IAQ). The workshop involved technical experts in the fields of IAQ, pollution prevention, and selected industries. Workshop goals were to identify major IAQ issues and their pollution prevention opportunities, and to suggest research strategies for IAQ/pollution prevention. The paper summarizes the suggestions made by workshop participants and highlights opportunities for IAQ/pollution prevention research.

Leovic, K.W.; White, J.B.; Sarsony, C.

1993-01-01

130

Air pollution and COPD in China  

PubMed Central

Recently, many researchers paid more attentions to the association between air pollution and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Haze, a severe form of outdoor air pollution, affected most parts of northern and eastern China in the past winter. In China, studies have been performed to evaluate the impact of outdoor air pollution and biomass smoke exposure on COPD; and most studies have focused on the role of air pollution in acutely triggering symptoms and exacerbations. Few studies have examined the role of air pollution in inducing pathophysiological changes that characterise COPD. Evidence showed that outdoor air pollution affects lung function in both children and adults and triggers exacerbations of COPD symptoms. Hence outdoor air pollution may be considered a risk factor for COPD mortality. However, evidence to date has been suggestive (not conclusive) that chronic exposure to outdoor air pollution increases the prevalence and incidence of COPD. Cross-sectional studies showed biomass smoke exposure is a risk factor for COPD. A long-term retrospective study and a long-term prospective cohort study showed that biomass smoke exposure reductions were associated with a reduced decline in forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1) and with a decreased risk of COPD. To fully understand the effect of air pollution on COPD, we recommend future studies with longer follow-up periods, more standardized definitions of COPD and more refined and source-specific exposure assessments.

Hu, Guoping; Zhong, Nanshan

2015-01-01

131

Urban air pollution and respiratory infections.  

PubMed

Public awareness of the impact of air quality on health is increasing worldwide. Indoor and outdoor air pollutants impair children's growing lungs, and increase the risk of respiratory infections. In many cities, children face indoor air pollution from fuels used for cooking and heating, as well as outdoor pollution from vehicle exhausts. Research identifies at-risk groups and seeks to establish biological plausibility for the associations already observed; and looks towards identifying the harmful pollutants that are responsible for respiratory morbidity and mortality. These findings may then serve to influence public debate and future policy at national and international level to improve air quality in cities, and improve children's health. PMID:24704510

Brugha, Rossa; Grigg, Jonathan

2014-06-01

132

Effects of air pollution on vascular thrombosis   

E-print Network

Increases in air pollution, especially the particulate component, are associated with increased cardiovascular mortality, possibly through increases in thrombogenic mechanisms. The research presented in this thesis ...

Tabor, Caroline Mary

2011-07-05

133

Hazardous air pollutants and asthma.  

PubMed Central

Asthma has a high prevalence in the United States, and persons with asthma may be at added risk from the adverse effects of hazardous air pollutants (HAPs). Complex mixtures (fine particulate matter and tobacco smoke) have been associated with respiratory symptoms and hospital admissions for asthma. The toxic ingredients of these mixtures are HAPs, but whether ambient HAP exposures can induce asthma remains unclear. Certain HAPs are occupational asthmagens, whereas others may act as adjuncts during sensitization. HAPs may exacerbate asthma because, once sensitized, individuals can respond to remarkably low concentrations, and irritants lower the bronchoconstrictive threshold to respiratory antigens. Adverse responses after ambient exposures to complex mixtures often occur at concentrations below those producing effects in controlled human exposures to a single compound. In addition, certain HAPs that have been associated with asthma in occupational settings may interact with criteria pollutants in ambient air to exacerbate asthma. Based on these observations and past experience with 188 HAPs, a list of 19 compounds that could have the highest impact on the induction or exacerbation of asthma was developed. Nine additional compounds were identified that might exacerbate asthma based on their irritancy, respirability, or ability to react with biological macromolecules. Although the ambient levels of these 28 compounds are largely unknown, estimated exposures from emissions inventories and limited air monitoring suggest that aldehydes (especially acrolein and formaldehyde) and metals (especially nickel and chromium compounds) may have possible health risk indices sufficient for additional attention. Recommendations for research are presented regarding exposure monitoring and evaluation of biologic mechanisms controlling how these substances induce and exacerbate asthma. PMID:12194881

Leikauf, George D

2002-01-01

134

COOPERATIVE RESEARCH (AIR POLLUTION TECHNOLOGY BRANCH, AIR POLLUTION PREVENTION AND CONTROL DIVISION, NRMRL)  

EPA Science Inventory

NRMRL's Air Pollution Prevention and Control Division's Air Pollution Technology Branch (APTB) is always interested in the potential for cooperative research if overlap occurs between the research goals of external organizations and APTB's research goals. APTB has participated i...

135

AIR POLLUTION TECHNOLOGY BRANCH (AIR POLLUTION PREVENTION AND CONTROL DIVISION, NRMRL)  

EPA Science Inventory

Fundamental and applied combustion research has been conducted by the Air Pollution Prevention and Control Division's Air Pollution Technology Branch (APTB)and its predecessors since EPA's inception. APTB has been instrumental in the development and successful application of flue...

136

PUBLICATIONS (AIR POLLUTION TECHNOLOGY BRANCH, AIR POLLUTION PREVENTION AND CONTROL DIVISION, NRMRL)  

EPA Science Inventory

The Air Pollution Technology Branch (APTB) of NRMRL's Air Pollution Prevention and Control Division produces and publishes highly specialized technical and scientific documents related to APTB's research. Areas of research covered include artificial intelligence, CFC destruction,...

137

SPECIAL PROJECTS (AIR POLLUTION TECHNOLOGY BRANCH, AIR POLLUTION PREVENTION AND CONTROL DIVISION, NRMRL)  

EPA Science Inventory

Special projects undertaken by the Air Pollution Technology Branch of NRMRL's Air Pollution Prevention and Control Division in Research Triangle Park, NC, include the Orimulsion Research Study, Real-Time Monitoring of Dioxins and Other Trace Organics, and Environmental Technology...

138

Assessing health effects of air pollution  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Exposure to elevated concentrations of ambient air pollutants causes adverse human health effects. Two modes or methods of study are generally relied on to quantify the relationships between pollutants and specific effects. These are: human clinical experiments and epidemiological (or community exposure) studies. (Animal toxicological studies can be used to indicate the existence of an effect, but not the rate of the effect in humans.) Each method has limitations as a basis for quantifying the level of adverse effects anticipated in a given human population as a result of exposure. Consequently, care must be taken in deciding which studies are appropriate for assessment of health impacts in a population. Some limitations are inherent in the method. Epidemiological studies, for example, depend on adequate community monitoring and the ability to associate a cohort with ambient data. Clinical studies often do not represent the complex mix of pollutants in the atmosphere. Consequently, construction of dose/exposure-response functions is challenging. Another common complication in quantifying expected health impacts of a pollutant mix is lack of adequate ambient monitoring data coupled with little or no knowledge of a population's time and activity profiles. This paper summarizes the difficulties inherent in constructing estimates of health effects in populationsliving in densely populated and polluted areas and suggests approaches to making initial limited estimates. An example of the level of effort required to conduct a sophisticated study, using relatively rich databases, is given based on work done in the Southern California region.

Hall, Jane V.

139

Indoor air pollution: Acute adverse health effects and host susceptibility  

SciTech Connect

Increased awareness of the poor quality of indoor air compared with outdoor air has resulted in a significant amount of research on the adverse health effects and mechanisms of action of indoor air pollutants. Common indoor air agents are identified, along with resultant adverse health effects, mechanisms of action, and likely susceptible populations. Indoor air pollutants range from biological agents (such as dust mites) to chemical irritants (such as nitrogen dioxide, carbon monoxide, sulfur dioxide, formaldehyde, and isocyanates). These agents may exert their effects through allergic as well as nonallergic mechanisms. While the public does not generally perceive poor indoor air quality as a significant health risk, increasing reports of illness related to indoor air and an expanding base of knowledge on the health effects of indoor air pollution are likely to continue pushing the issue to the forefront.

Zummo, S.M. [IT Corp., Monroeville, PA (United States); Karol, M.H.

1996-01-01

140

Air Pollution, Public Health, and Inflation  

E-print Network

Since the passage of the environmental legislation in the early 1970's, critics have attacked these laws as being unnecessary and for contributing significantly to the problem of inflation in the United States. This paper is an attempt to put the inflationary costs of air pollution into perspective by considering them in light of the cost, especially to public health, of not proceeding with pollution control. There is now a great deal of evidence that the concentration of certain pollutants in the air can contribute significantly to the incidence of respiratory and cardiovascular diseases and to certain forms of cancer. On the basis of the results of a recent study of the impacts of pollution control on inflation, the annual reduction in purchasing power of the average family is calculated to be $31 per family. To determine the average costs of air pollution on human health, research by Lave and Seskin is utilized. First, the implications of air pollution for mortality and morbidity rates are determined. Then, the reduction in direct health costs and indirect costs (lost productivity of workers) as a result of pollution abatement is estimated. These annual health costs from pollution total approximately $250 per family. The results suggest that the inflationary costs of air pollution control are more than offset by the damages to public health from unabated air pollution. With the passage of the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1970, the Federal government committed

Bart David Ostro

141

Combined air and water pollution control system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A bioaquatic air pollution control system for controlling both water and atmospheric pollution is disclosed. The pollution control system includes an exhaust for directing polluted gases out of a furnace and a fluid circulating system which circulates fluid, such as waste water, from a source, past the furnace where the fluid flow entrains the pollutants from the furnace. The combined fluid and pollutants are then directed through a rock/plant/microbial filtering system. A suction pump pumps the treated waste water from the filter system past the exhaust to again entrain more pollutants from the furnace where they are combined with the fluid (waste water) and directed to the filter system.

Wolverton, Billy C. (inventor); Jarrell, Lamont (inventor)

1990-01-01

142

APEX (Air Pollution Exercise) Volume 3: Air Pollution Control Officer's Manual.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Air Pollution Control Officer's (APCO) Manual is part of a set of 21 manuals (AA 001 009-001 029) used in APEX (Air Pollution Exercise) a computerized college and professional level "real world" game simulation of a community with urban and rural problems, industrial activities, and air pollution difficulties, The first two sections, which are…

Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC. Office of Manpower Development.

143

APEX (Air Pollution Exercise) Volume 21: Legal References: Air Pollution Control Regulations.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Legal References: Air Pollution Control Regulations Manual is the last in a set of 21 manuals (AA 001 009-001 029) used in APEX (Air Pollution Exercise), a computerized college and professional level "real world" game simulation of a community with urban and rural problems, industrial activities, and air pollution difficulties. The manual…

Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC. Office of Manpower Development.

144

Respiratory effects of outdoor air pollution  

SciTech Connect

Outdoor air pollution adversely affects human health and the quality of the environment. However, epidemiologic studies of these effects are difficult to control because of confounding variables such as age and cigarette smoking and the difficulty in estimating doses of pollutants. Drs Griffith and Levin discuss the relationship between major types of pollutants and increased morbidity and mortality from respiratory disease.35 references.

Griffith, D.E.; Levin, J.L. (Univ. of Texas Health Center, Tyler (USA))

1989-10-01

145

Air Pollution and Its Control, Second Edition.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A concise appraisal of our contemporary status and future prospects with regard to air pollution and its control are offered in this text for concerned laymen. What air pollution is, how it endangers health, the cost of controlling it, what is being done about it now, and what should be done are some of the basic questions considered. Topics cover…

Sproull, Wayne T.

146

Urban air pollution: State of the science  

Microsoft Academic Search

Urban air pollution is comprised in a highly complex mixture of gaseous and particulate components. Much progress has been made in our understanding of the detailed chemistry and physics of air pollution, but important areas of uncertainty still remain. 67 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

J. H. Seinfeld

1989-01-01

147

Career Guide for Air Pollution Control  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This guide to career opportunities in air pollution control includes resource information in this area and provides a listing of colleges and universities offering environmental science programs. The guide was prepared by the S-11 Education and Training Committee of the Air Pollution Control Association. (Author/BT)

Baldwin, Lionel V.

1975-01-01

148

Adverse Health Effects of Air Pollution  

E-print Network

Adverse Health Effects of Air Pollution Robert W. Haley, M.D. Professor of Medicine Director, Division of Epidemiology University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center Dallas, Texas ? Texas Medical Association has adopted resolutions... Rice University study of how to maintain energy efficiency while reducing air pollution. ? Supported legislation based on the findings. The Medical Professor Increasingly Concerned ? Asthma ? Emphysema ? Heart Attacks ? Stunted lung...

Haley, R. W.

2011-01-01

149

Air pollution and respiratory viral infection  

EPA Science Inventory

Despite current regulations, which limit the levels of certain air pollutants, there are still a number of adverse health effects that result from exposure to these agents. Numerous epidemiological studies have noted an association between the levels of air pollution and hospital...

150

Mold as an Indoor Air Pollutant Objectives  

E-print Network

Mold as an Indoor Air Pollutant Objectives: At the end of the lesson, the participant will have a better understanding of what mold is, what causes mold to grow, how mold is a risk to health sheet "Mold or Toxic Mold? An Indoor Air Pollutant" 2. Transparency copies of PowerPoint presentation

151

Urban air pollution and respiratory allergy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Urban air pollution and respiratory allergy. G. D'Amato. Evidence suggests that urbanization with its high levels of vehicle emissions, and westernized lifestyle are linked to the rising incidence of pollen-induced respiratory allergy seen in most industrialized countries. Moreover, the in- crease in respiratory allergy parallels an increase in out- door and indoor air pollution. Although the role played by outdoor

G. D'Amato

152

Measurement of Air Pollutants in the Troposphere  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article describes the principles, applications and performances of methods to measure gas-phase air pollutants that either utilise passive or active sampling with subsequent laboratory analysis or involve automated "in situ" sampling and analysis. It focuses on air pollutants that have adverse impacts on human health (nitrogen dioxide, carbon…

Clemitshaw, Kevin C.

2011-01-01

153

HANDBOOK: CONTROL TECHNOLOGIES FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS  

EPA Science Inventory

This handbook was prepared to provide a methodology for determining the performance and cost of air pollution control techniques used to reduce the emissions of hazardous air pollutants from commercial/industrial sources. arious control techniques that may be applicable to differ...

154

Air Pollution: Mechanisms of Neuroinflammation & CNS Disease  

PubMed Central

Emerging evidence implicates air pollution as a chronic source of neuroinflammation, reactive oxygen species (ROS), and neuropathology instigating central nervous system (CNS) disease. Stroke incidence, and Alzheimer’s and Parkinson’s disease pathology are linked to air pollution. Recent reports reveal that air pollution components reach the brain. Further, systemic effects known to impact lung and cardiovascular disease also impinge upon CNS health. While mechanisms driving air pollution-induced CNS pathology are poorly understood, new evidence suggests that activation of microglia and changes in the blood brain barrier may be key to this process. Here, we summarize recent findings detailing the mechanisms through which air pollution reaches the brain and activates the resident innate immune response to become a chronic source of pro-inflammatory factors and ROS culpable in CNS disease. PMID:19716187

Block, Michelle L.; Calderón-Garcidueñas, Lilian

2009-01-01

155

Polluted air--outdoors and indoors.  

PubMed

Many air pollutants which are considered important in ambient (outdoor) air are also found, sometimes at higher levels, in indoor air. With demanding standards having been set for many of these pollutants, both in the workplace and ambient air, consideration of the problems posed by indoor pollution is gaining pace. Studies on exposure to pollutants found in the indoor domestic environment are increasing and are contributing to an already significant compilation of datasets. Improvement in monitoring techniques has helped this process. Documented reports of fatalities from carbon monoxide poisonings are still worrying. However, studies on health effects of non-fatal, long term, low dose, indoor exposure to carbon monoxide and other pollutants, are still inconclusive and too infrequently documented. Of particular concern are the levels of air pollutants found in the domestic indoor environment in developing countries, despite simple interventions such as vented stoves having shown their value. Exposure to biomass smoke is still a level that would be considered unacceptable on health grounds in developed countries. As in the occupational environment, steps need to be taken to control the risks from exposure to the harmful constituents of indoor air in the home. However, the difficulty regarding regulation of the domestic indoor environment is its inherent privacy. Monitoring levels of pollutants in the home and ensuring regulations are adhered to, would likely prove difficult, especially when individual behaviour patterns and activities have the greatest influence on pollutant levels in indoor air. To this end, the Department of Health is developing guidance on indoor air pollution to encourage the reduction of pollutant levels in indoor domestic air. The importance of the effects of domestic indoor air on health and its contribution to the health of the worker are increasingly appreciated. Occupational physicians, by training and interest, are well placed to extend their interests into the environmental field and to focus on this important area. PMID:16140836

Myers, I; Maynard, R L

2005-09-01

156

Outdoor air pollution: a global perspective.  

PubMed

Although the air quality in Western countries has continued to improve over the past decades, rapid economic growth in developing countries has left air quality in many cities notoriously poor. The World Health Organization estimates that urban outdoor air pollution is estimated to cause 1.3 million deaths worldwide per year. The primary health concerns of outdoor air pollution come from particulate matter less than 2.5 ?m (PM2.5) and ozone (O3). Short-term exposure to PM2.5 increases cardiopulmonary morbidity and mortality. Long-term exposure to PM2.5 has been linked to adverse perinatal outcomes and lung cancer. Excessive O3 exposure is known to increase respiratory morbidity. Patients with chronic cardiopulmonary diseases are more susceptible to the adverse effects of air pollution. Counseling these patients about air pollution and the associated risks should be part of the regular management plans in clinical practice. PMID:25285972

Huang, Yuh-Chin T

2014-10-01

157

Air pollutant production by algal cell cultures  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The production of phytotoxic air pollutants by cultures of Chlorella vulgaris and Euglena gracilis is considered. Algal and plant culture systems, a fumigation system, and ethylene, ethane, cyanide, and nitrogen oxides assays are discussed. Bean, tobacco, mustard green, cantaloupe and wheat plants all showed injury when fumigated with algal gases for 4 hours. Only coleus plants showed any resistance to the gases. It is found that a closed or recycled air effluent system does not produce plant injury from algal air pollutants.

Fong, F.; Funkhouser, E. A.

1982-01-01

158

Proceedings of the International Symposium on Air Pollution and Climate Change Effects  

E-print Network

Proceedings of the International Symposium on Air Pollution and Climate Change Effects on Forest . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . iv SESSION 1: Air Pollution/Climate Change Effects on Plants: General Topics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35 Paul Miller, Raleigh Guthrey, Susan Schilling, and John Carroll SESSION II: Air Pollution Status

Standiford, Richard B.

159

Physical activity, air pollution and the brain.  

PubMed

This review introduces an emerging research field that is focused on studying the effect of exposure to air pollution during exercise on cognition, with specific attention to the impact on concentrations of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and inflammatory markers. It has been repeatedly demonstrated that regular physical activity enhances cognition, and evidence suggests that BDNF, a neurotrophin, plays a key role in the mechanism. Today, however, air pollution is an environmental problem worldwide and the high traffic density, especially in urban environments and cities, is a major cause of this problem. During exercise, the intake of air pollution increases considerably due to an increased ventilation rate and particle deposition fraction. Recently, air pollution exposure has been linked to adverse effects on the brain such as cognitive decline and neuropathology. Inflammation and oxidative stress seem to play an important role in inducing these health effects. We believe that there is a need to investigate whether the well-known benefits of regular physical activity on the brain also apply when physical activity is performed in polluted air. We also report our findings about exercising in an environment with ambient levels of air pollutants. Based on the latter results, we hypothesize that traffic-related air pollution exposure during exercise may inhibit the positive effect of exercise on cognition. PMID:25119155

Bos, Inge; De Boever, Patrick; Int Panis, Luc; Meeusen, Romain

2014-11-01

160

RESEARCH AREA -- ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE CONTROL (AIR POLLUTION TECHNOLOGY BRANCH, AIR POLLUTION PREVENTION AND CONTROL DIVISION, NRMRL)  

EPA Science Inventory

The Air Pollution Technology Branch (APTB) of NRMRL's Air Pollution Prevention and Control Division in Research Triangle Park, NC, has conducted several research projects for evaluating the use of artificial intelligence (AI) to improve the control of pollution control systems an...

161

Mode of action of air pollutants in injuring horticultural plants  

SciTech Connect

An attempt has been made to condense the great volume of literature for many different air pollutants and from many different plant systems. Only those responses that have been reported for several species are emphasized and the discussion is limited to responses obtained with intact plants. The general outline provides a focus; uptake becomes the crucial aspect of whether or not plants are injured by air pollutants. Pollutants must get into the plant to cause injury and the primary portal of entry is through the open stomata. Once into the plant, pollutants alter biochemical reactions, resulting in cell injury and causing economic losses for horticulturists. The authors have developed this outline for the pollutants sulfur dioxide (SO/sub 2/), hydrogen fluoride (HF), ozone (O/sub 3/), nitrogen dioxide (NO/sub 2/), and peroxyacetyl nitrate (PAN), which are the most common and and most damaging gaseous pollutants in the ambient environment.

Tibbitts, T.W.; Kobriger, J.M.

1983-10-01

162

Impact of air pollution on fertility: a systematic review.  

PubMed

Abstract Air pollution has gained considerable interest because of the multiple adverse effects reported on human health, although its impact on fertility remains unclear. A systematic search was performed to evaluate the impact of air pollutants on fertility. Controlled trials and observational studies assessing animal model and epidemiological model were included. Occupational exposure and semen quality studies were not considered. Outcomes of interest included live birth, miscarriage, clinical pregnancy, implantation, and embryo quality. Ten studies were included and divided into two groups: animal studies and human epidemiological studies including the general population as well as women undergoing in vitro fertilization and embryo transfer (IVF/ET). Results from this systematic review suggest a significant impact of air pollution on miscarriage and clinical pregnancy rates in the general population, whereas among subfertile patients certain air pollutants seem to exert a greater impact on fertility outcomes, including miscarriage and live birth rates. Besides, studies in mammals observed a clear detrimental effect on fertility outcomes associated to air pollutants at high concentration. The lack of prospective studies evaluating the effect of air pollution exposure in terms of live birth constitutes an important limitation in this review. Thus, further studies are needed to confirm these findings. PMID:25212280

Frutos, Víctor; González-Comadrán, Mireia; Solà, Ivan; Jacquemin, Benedicte; Carreras, Ramón; Checa Vizcaíno, Miguel A

2015-01-01

163

Kerbside DOAS measurements of air pollutants  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Emission sources as well as wind speed and direction and MLH are important factors which influence high air pollutant concentrations. This is generally known (Schäfer et al., 2006) but the detailed understanding of processes directing certain air pollutant concentrations like HCHO is not complete. To study these processes a long-term campaign in Augsburg, Germany, was performed since March 2012. The concentrations of NO, NO2, O3 and HCHO, which were measured with a DOAS from OPSIS across a main traffic road and a nearby park area, are analysed. A ceilometer CL31 from Vaisala which is an eye-safe commercial mini-lidar system is applied to detect layering of the lower atmosphere continuously. Special software for this ceilometer with MATLAB provides routine retrievals of lower atmosphere layering from vertical profiles of laser backscatter data. Meteorological data were measured by a ground-based weather station at the measurement site as well as taken from monitoring data archives of the German National Meteorological Service (DWD), which are measured by radiosondes (Oberschleißheim). Correlation analyses are applied to show the coupling of temporal variations of NO, NO2, O3 and HCHO concentrations with temperature, mixing layer height and wind speed. HCHO which is emitted from both anthropogenic and biogenic sources is studied especially.

Schäfer, Klaus; Ling, Hong; Legelli, Stefan; Münkel, Christoph; Emeis, Stefan

2014-10-01

164

GENERATION OF FUMES SIMULATING PARTICULATE AIR POLLUTANTS  

EPA Science Inventory

The report describes techniques developed for generating large quantities of reproducible, stable, inorganic, fine-particle aerosol fumes. These fumes simulated particulate air pollutants emitted from power generation, basic oxygen furnaces, electric arc furnaces, and zinc smelti...

165

AIR POLLUTION EFFECTS ON TERRESTRIAL ECOSYSTEMS  

EPA Science Inventory

This report presents information on the effects of ozone, nitrogen oxides, sulfur oxides, particulate matter, and acidic disposition on terrestrial ecosystems. A brief explanation of ecosystem dynamics is presented to provide a framework for discussion of air pollutant effects. D...

166

Health Damages from Air Pollution in China  

E-print Network

In China, elevated levels of urban air pollution result in substantial adverse health impacts for its large and rapidly growing urban population. An expanded version of the Emissions Prediction and Policy Analysis (EPPA), ...

Matus, Kira

167

Effects of Air Pollution Control on Climate  

E-print Network

Urban air pollution and climate are closely connected due to shared generating processes (e.g., combustion) for emissions of the driving gases and aerosols. They are also connected because the atmospheric lifecycles of ...

Prinn, Ronald G.

168

Air-pollution effects on biodiversity  

SciTech Connect

To address the issues of air pollution impacts on biodiversity, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Environmental Research Laboratory in Corvallis, OR, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service National Fisheries Research Center in Leetown, and the Electric Power Research Institute convened a workshop to evaluate current knowledge, identify information gaps, provide direction to research and assess policy issues. In order to obtain the most current and authoritative information possible, air pollution and biodiversity experts were invited to participate in a workshop and author the papers that make up this report. Each paper was presented and discussed, then collected in this document. The material has been organized into four parts: an introduction, an overview of air pollution exposure and effects, the consequences of air pollution on biodiversity, and policy issues and research needs.

Barker, J.R.; Tingey, D.T.

1992-04-01

169

Indoor air pollution: a public health perspective.  

PubMed

Although official efforts to control air pollution have traditionally focused on outdoor air, it is now apparent that elevated contaminant concentrations are common inside some private and public buildings. Concerns about potential public health problems due to indoor air pollution are based on evidence that urban residents typically spend more than 90 percent of their time indoors, concentrations of some contaminants are higher indoors than outdoors, and for some pollutants personal exposures are not characterized adequately by outdoor measurements. Among the more important indoor contaminants associated with health or irritation effects are passive tobacco smoke, radon decay products, carbon monoxide, nitrogen dioxide, formaldehyde, asbestos fibers, microorganisms, and aeroallergens. Efforts to assess health risks associated with indoor air pollution are limited by insufficient information about the number of people exposed, the pattern and severity of exposures, and the health consequences of exposures. An overall strategy should be developed to investigate indoor exposures, health effects, control options, and public policy alternatives. PMID:6857273

Spengler, J D; Sexton, K

1983-07-01

170

ALTITUDE AS A FACTOR IN AIR POLLUTION  

EPA Science Inventory

Air pollution is affected by change in altitude. Cities with surface elevations above 1500 meters have atmospheric pressures which are approximately fifteen percent (15%) below pressures at sea level. Consequently, mobile sources designed to operate at pressures of one atmosphere...

171

AIR POLLUTION, OXIDATIVE STRESS AND NEUROTOXICITY.  

EPA Science Inventory

Increased incidents of classic and variant forms of neurodegenerative diseases suggest that environmental chemicals and susceptibility factors (e.g., genetics, diseased states, obesity, etc.) may be contributory. Particulate matter (PM) is a type of air pollution that is associat...

172

HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS: DRY-DEPOSITION PHENOMENA  

EPA Science Inventory

Dry-deposition rates were evaluated for two hazardous organic air pollutants, nitrobenzene and perchloroethylene, to determine their potential for removal from the atmosphere to three building material surfaces, cement, tar paper, and vinyl asbestos tile. Dry-deposition experimen...

173

Evaluating sources of indoor air pollution  

SciTech Connect

Evaluation of indoor air pollution problems requires an understanding of the relationship between sources, air movement, and outdoor air exchange. Research is underway to investigate these relationships. A three-phase program is being implemented: (1) Environmental chambers are used to provide source emission factors for specific indoor pollutants; (2) An IAQ (Indoor Air Quality) model has been developed to calculate indoor pollutant concentrations based on chamber emissions data and the air exchange and air movement within the indoor environment; and (3) An IAQ test house is used to conduct experiments to evaluate the model results. Examples are provided to show how this coordinated approach can be used to evaluate specific sources of indoor air pollution. Two sources are examined: (1) para-dichlorobenzene emissions from solid moth repellant; and (2) emissions from unvented kerosene heaters. The evaluation process for both sources followed the three-phase approach discussed above. Para-dichlorobenzene emission factors were determined by small chamber testing at EPA's Air and Energy Engineering Research Laboratory. Particle emission factors for the kerosene heaters were developed in large chambers at the J.B. Pierce Foundation Laboratory. Both sources were subsequently evaluated in EPA's IAQ test house. The IAQ model predictions showed good agreement with the test house measurements when appropriate values were provided for source emissions, outside air exchange, in-house air movement, and deposition on sink surfaces.

Tichenor, B.A.; Sparks, L.A.; White, J.B.; Jackson, M.D. (Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC (USA))

1990-04-01

174

Air pollution control by electrical discharges  

Microsoft Academic Search

Air pollution caused by gas emission of pollutants produced from a wide range of sources including coal, oil and gas burning power plants, diesel engines, paper mills, steel and chemical production plants must be reduced drastically and urgently, as mandated by recent worldwide national legislation which recently are being reinforced increasingly by international agreements. Non-thermal plasmas in which the mean

R. Hackam; H. Aklyama

2000-01-01

175

Traffic, Outdoor Air Pollution, and Asthma  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is well known that outdoor air pollution can affect the health of patients with asthma. Epidemiologic studies have shown that increased levels of outdoor pollutants are associated with acute and chronic changes in lung function, increased risk for asthma exacerbations, increased risk for work or school absenteeism, and need for rescue bronchodilators. For- tunately, we have also learned that

Fernando Holguin

2008-01-01

176

Changing perspectives on air-pollution stress  

Microsoft Academic Search

As more has been learned about the nature of air pollution and more sophisticated techniques have been developed for measurement, it has become apparent that acid rain is only one of an interrelated array of airshed-watershed problems. Despite important reductions in some pollutant emissions, the authors believe the situation today is worse than it appeared to be 15 years ago.

F. H. Bormann; G. E. Likens

1987-01-01

177

Air pollution and allergy: experimental studies on modulation of allergen release from pollen by air pollutants.  

PubMed

The fact that allergic diseases increase in prevalence is a generally accepted and worldwide phenomenon. The causes for this increase are not known: only hypothetical concepts exist. Epidemiological studies comparing Eastern and Western European populations have shown a striking difference in the prevalence of respiratory atopic diseases, which is lower in the East. At the same time, different patterns of air pollution have been described, namely 'classical' type I, characterized by SO2 and dust prevailing in the East, and 'modern' type II, characterized by organic compounds, fine particles and ozone, which is more prominent in the West. Type II was associated in multivariate regression analysis with increased prevalence of IgE-mediated allergy. Pollen grains collected from industrial regions with high polyaromatic hydrocarbon load in West Germany, but not in East Germany, were shown to be agglomerated with airborne particles. In vitro exposure of pollen to particles indicated morphological changes and increased allergen release from the pollen. In vitro exposure of pollen to gaseous pollutants (SO2 and NO2) under different conditions of humidity resulted in SO2-induced, but not NO2-induced reduction of allergen release from pollen. It is concluded that the bioavailability of grass pollen allergens may be modulated by air pollutants, supporting the concept of an interaction between pollen and pollutants in the atmosphere outside the organism which in turn may affect allergy-relevant phenomena. PMID:9130487

Behrendt, H; Becker, W M; Fritzsche, C; Sliwa-Tomczok, W; Tomczok, J; Friedrichs, K H; Ring, J

1997-01-01

178

Clean Air Slots Amid Atmospheric Pollution  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Layering in the Earth's atmosphere is most commonly seen where parts of the atmosphere resist the incursion of air parcels from above and below - for example, when there is an increase in temperature with height over a particular altitude range. Pollutants tend to accumulate underneath the resulting stable layers. which is why visibility often increases markedly above certain altitudes. Here we describe the occurrence of an opposite effect, in which stable layers generate a layer of remarkably clean air (we refer to these layers as clean-air 'slots') sandwiched between layers of polluted air. We have observed clean-air slots in various locations around the world, but they are particularly well defined and prevalent in southern Africa during the dry season August-September). This is because at this time in this region, stable layers are common and pollution from biomass burning is widespread.

Hobbs, Peter V.

2002-01-01

179

Energy use, emissions and air pollution reduction strategies in Asia  

SciTech Connect

The pace of economic progress and development experienced in many Asian countries has not occurred without costs to the natural environment. In particular, energy policies and technologies are a primary driving force behind air pollution problems arising from air pollution emissions in Asia. Economic growth, energy use, and reliance on fossil fuels are experiencing extremely high growth throughout most of the continent. Electric power expansion plans in many countries of Asia, particularly China and India, call for substantial increases in coal combustion. In the 1990`s, two-thirds of all power related investments in developing countries will be in Asia. In contrast to the situation in Europe and North America, emissions of air pollution species in Asia are increasing rapidly, resulting in both local air pollution problems and higher acidic deposition in many regions. In general, most Asian countries do not have a strong scientific nor public constituency for addressing potentially serious air pollution problems impacting important economic and cultural activities such as forestry, agriculture, and tourism. The complex political ramifications of trans-boundary air pollution in Asia have not yet begun to be addressed.

Foell, W.; Green, C.; Sarkar, A.; Legler, J.

1995-12-31

180

Vegetation fires and air pollution in Vietnam.  

PubMed

Forest fires are a significant source of air pollution in Asia. In this study, we integrate satellite remote sensing data and ground-based measurements to infer fire-air pollution relationships in selected regions of Vietnam. We first characterized the active fires and burnt areas at a regional scale from MODIS satellite data. We then used satellite-derived active fire data to correlate the resulting atmospheric pollution. Further, we analyzed the relationship between satellite atmospheric variables and ground-based air pollutant parameters. Our results show peak fire activity during March in Vietnam, with hotspots in the Northwest and Central Highlands. Active fires were significantly correlated with UV Aerosol Index (UVAI), aerosol extinction absorption optical depth (AAOD), and Carbon Monoxide. The use of satellite aerosol optical thickness improved the prediction of Particulate Matter (PM) concentration significantly. PMID:25108840

Le, Thanh Ha; Thanh Nguyen, Thi Nhat; Lasko, Kristofer; Ilavajhala, Shriram; Vadrevu, Krishna Prasad; Justice, Chris

2014-12-01

181

Air pollution and asthma severity in adults Rage Estelle 1 *  

E-print Network

Air pollution and asthma severity in adults Rage Estelle 1 * , Siroux Val rieé 2 , K nzliü Nino 3 4 that exposure to air pollution affects asthma, but the effect of air pollution on asthma severity has not been outdoor concentrations of air pollution. Methods Asthma severity over the last 12 months was assessed

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

182

Measuring air pollution using a mobile, bicycle-based platform  

E-print Network

Measuring air pollution using a mobile, bicycle-based platform Steve Hankey University-walkability Physical activity Air pollution 2 #12;Approach: Mobile, bicycle-based sampling Air pollution measurements;Results: Exposure by mode 11 #12;Next steps: Land-use regression model Air pollution measurements LUR

Minnesota, University of

183

AIR CLEANERS FOR INDOOR AIR POLLUTION CONTROL (CHAPTER 10)  

EPA Science Inventory

The chapter describes an experimental study to evaluate performance characteristics of currently available controls for indoor air pollutants, including both particles and gases. he study evaluated the particle-size-dependent collection efficiency of seven commercially available ...

184

Indoor air pollutants. A literature review.  

PubMed

The literature on the important indoor air pollutants, their sources, their effect on human welfare, and methods for controlling their presence is reviewed. The review is chiefly concerned with the air in homes, offices, schools, and public buildings, rather than in industrial facilities. PMID:1792387

Cooke, T F

1991-01-01

185

Urban Air Pollution: State of the Science.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes the highly complex mixture of gaseous and particulate matter found in urban air. Explains progress made in the understanding of the physics and chemistry of air pollution, the effects of precursors on ozone, the role of biogenic hydrocarbons, and the principal benefit of methanol-fueled vehicles. (RT)

Seinfeld, John H.

1989-01-01

186

Air Conditioning Does Reduce Air Pollution Indoors  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Report of the winter meeting of the American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air-Conditioning Engineers. Subjects covered are--(1) title subject, (2) predictions for the human habitat in 1994, (3) fans, and (4) fire safety in buildings. (JW)

Healy, Bud

1970-01-01

187

Pollutant roses for daily averaged ambient air pollutant concentrations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Pollutant roses are indispensable tools to identify unknown (fugitive) sources of heavy metals at industrial sites whose current impact exceeds the target values imposed for the year 2012 by the European Air Quality Daughter Directive 2004/207/EC. As most of the measured concentrations of heavy metals in ambient air are daily averaged values, a method to obtain high quality pollutant roses from such data is of practical interest for cost-effective air quality management. A computational scheme is presented to obtain, from daily averaged concentrations, 10° angular resolution pollutant roses, called PRP roses, that are in many aspects comparable to pollutant roses made with half-hourly concentrations. The computational scheme is a ridge regression, based on three building blocks: ordinary least squares regression; outlier handling by weighting based on expected values of the higher percentiles in a lognormal distribution; weighted averages whereby observed values, raised to a power m, and daily wind rose frequencies are used as weights. Distance measures are used to find the optimal value for m. The performance of the computational scheme is illustrated by comparing the pollutant roses, constructed with measured half-hourly SO 2 data for 10 monitoring sites in the Antwerp harbour, with the PRP roses made with the corresponding daily averaged SO 2 concentrations. A miniature dataset, made up of 7 daily concentrations and of half-hourly wind directions assigned to 4 wind sectors, is used to illustrate the formulas and their results.

Cosemans, Guido; Kretzschmar, Jan; Mensink, Clemens

188

Ambient air pollution, climate change, and population health in China.  

PubMed

As the largest developing country, China has been changing rapidly over the last three decades and its economic expansion is largely driven by the use of fossil fuels, which leads to a dramatic increase in emissions of both ambient air pollutants and greenhouse gases (GHGs). China is now facing the worst air pollution problem in the world, and is also the largest emitter of carbon dioxide. A number of epidemiological studies on air pollution and population health have been conducted in China, using time-series, case-crossover, cross-sectional, cohort, panel or intervention designs. The increased health risks observed among Chinese population are somewhat lower in magnitude, per amount of pollution, than the risks found in developed countries. However, the importance of these increased health risks is greater than that in North America or Europe, because the levels of air pollution in China are very high in general and Chinese population accounts for more than one fourth of the world's totals. Meanwhile, evidence is mounting that climate change has already affected human health directly and indirectly in China, including mortality from extreme weather events; changes in air and water quality; and changes in the ecology of infectious diseases. If China acts to reduce the combustion of fossil fuels and the resultant air pollution, it will reap not only the health benefits associated with improvement of air quality but also the reduced GHG emissions. Consideration of the health impact of air pollution and climate change can help the Chinese government move forward towards sustainable development with appropriate urgency. PMID:21440303

Kan, Haidong; Chen, Renjie; Tong, Shilu

2012-07-01

189

ORIMULSION(R) RESEARCH STUDY (AIR POLLUTION TECHNOLOGY BRANCH, AIR POLLUTION PREVENTION AND CONTROL DIVISION, NRMRL)  

EPA Science Inventory

In response to a 1998 Congressional request, the Air Pollution Technology Branch (APTB) of NRMRL's Air Pollution Prevention and Control Division began research as part of a study to evaluate the environmental impacts of Orimulsion(R). Orimulsion(R)is a fossil fuel composed of 70%...

190

RESEARCH AREA -- CHLOROFLUOROCARBON (CFC) DESTRUCTION (AIR POLLUTION TECHNOLOGY BRANCH, AIR POLLUTION PREVENTION AND CONTROL DIVISION, NRMRL)  

EPA Science Inventory

Six thermal oxidation (incineration) processes were approved by the Montreal Protocol for the disposal of CFCs and other ozone depleting substances. The Air Pollution Technology Branch of NRMRL's Air Pollution Prevention and Control Division in Research Triangle Park, NC, has eva...

191

78 FR 58460 - Revision of Air Quality Implementation Plan; California; Placer County Air Pollution Control...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Plan; California; Placer County Air Pollution Control District and Feather River...revision to the Placer County Air Pollution Control District (PCAPCD) and...modification of stationary sources of air pollution within each District. We...

2013-09-24

192

78 FR 12267 - Revision of Air Quality Implementation Plan; California; Placer County Air Pollution Control...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Plan; California; Placer County Air Pollution Control District and Feather River...revision to the Placer County Air Pollution Control District (PCAPCD) and...modification of stationary sources of air pollution within each District. EPA...

2013-02-22

193

Air pollution: a smoking gun for cancer  

PubMed Central

Once considered a taboo topic or stigma, cancer is the number one public health enemy in the world. Once a product of an almost untouchable industry, tobacco is indisputably recognized as a major cause of cancer and a target for anticancer efforts. With the emergence of new economic powers in the world, especially in highly populated countries such as China, air pollution has rapidly emerged as a smoking gun for cancer and has become a hot topic for public health debate because of the complex political, economic, scientific, and technologic issues surrounding the air pollution problem. This editorial and the referred articles published in this special issue of the Chinese Journal of Cancer discuss these fundamental questions. Does air pollution cause a wide spectrum of cancers? Should air pollution be considered a necessary evil accompanying economic transformation in developing countries? Is an explosion of cancer incidence coming to China and how soon will it arrive? What must be done to prevent this possible human catastrophe? Finally, the approaches for air pollution control are also discussed. PMID:24636233

Zhang, Wei; Qian, Chao-Nan; Zeng, Yi-Xin

2014-01-01

194

BIOASSAY OF COMPLEX MIXTURES OF INDOOR AIR POLLUTANTS  

EPA Science Inventory

Indoor air pollution is a complex mixture of chemicals originating from outdoor air and indoor sources. oxicology studies of these mixtures are limited by difficulties in obtaining indoor air samples or appropriately simulated exposures. he concentration of pollutants from indoor...

195

AIR POLLUTION CONTROL ALTERNATIVES FOR SHALE OIL PRODUCTION OPERATIONS  

EPA Science Inventory

The report consolidates, evaluates, and presents available air pollution emission data and air pollution control technology relevant to oil shale production, for use by project developers in preparing environmental impact statements and permit applications under Clean Air Act and...

196

Dependence of urban air pollutants on meteorology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dependence of air pollutants on meteorology is presented with the aim of understanding the governing processes pollutants phase interaction. Intensive measurements of particulate matter (PM10) and gaseous materials (e.g., CO, NO2, SO2, and O3) are carried out regularly in 2002 at 14 measurement sites distributed over the whole territory of Great Cairo by the Egyptian Environmental Affairs Agency to assess

Hamdy K. Elminir

2005-01-01

197

Air Pollution in the Pacific Northwest  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students are introduced to measuring and identifying sources of air pollution, as well as how environmental engineers try to control and limit the amount of air pollution. In Part 1, students are introduced to nitrogen dioxide as an air pollutant and how it is quantified. Major sources are identified, using EPA bar graphs. Students identify major cities and determine their latitudes and longitudes. They estimate NO2 values from color maps showing monthly NO2 averages from two sources: a NASA satellite and the WSU forecast model AIRPACT. In Part 2, students continue to estimate NO2 values from color maps and use Excel to calculate differences and ratios to determine the model's performance. They gain experience working with very large numbers written in scientific notation, as well as spreadsheet application capabilities.

CREAM GK-12 Program, Engineering Education Research Center, College of Engineering and Architecture,

198

Urban air pollution and solar energy  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The design and performance of solar energy systems for many potential applications (industrial/residential heat, electricity generation by solar concentration and photovoltaics) will be critically affected by local insolation conditions. The effects of urban air pollution are considered and reviewed. A study of insolation data for Alhambra, California (9 km south of Pasadena) shows that, during a recent second-stage photochemical smog alert (greater than or equal to 0.35 ppm ozone), the direct-beam insolation at solar noon was reduced by 40%, and the total global by 15%, from clean air values. Similar effects have been observed in Pasadena, and are attributable primarily to air pollution. Effects due to advecting smog have been detected 200 km away, in the Mojave Desert. Preliminary performance and economic simulations of solar thermal and photovoltaic power systems indicate increasing nonlinear sensitivity of life cycle plant cost to reductions in insolation levels due to pollution.

Gammon, R. B.; Huning, J. R.; Reid, M. S.; Smith, J. H.

1981-01-01

199

Ambient air pollution as a risk factor for lung cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

Epidemiologic studies over the last 40 years have observed that general ambient air pollution, chiefly due to the by- products of the incomplete combustion of fossil fuels, is associated with small relative increases in lung cancer. The evidence derives from studies of lung cancer trends, stud- ies of occupational groups, comparisons of urban and rural populations, and case-control and cohort

Aaron J. Cohen; C. ARDEN POPE III; Frank E. Speizer

1997-01-01

200

Measuring Bicyclists' Uptake of Traffic-Related Air Pollution  

E-print Network

Measuring Bicyclists' Uptake of Traffic-Related Air Pollution Alex Bigazzi PSU Transportation doses 4.Health effects 4Urban Bicyclists' Pollution Uptake #12;Bicyclists' Exposure to Air Pollution 5 reduce exposure risks for bikers? Urban transportation system Bicyclists' uptake of air pollution #12

Bertini, Robert L.

201

Air Pollution and Acid Rain, Report No. 7. Effects of air pollution and acid rain on fish, wildlife, and their habitats: grasslands  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report on grassland ecosystems is part of a series synthesizing the results of scientific research related to the effects of air pollution and acid deposition on fish and wildlife resources. General aspects of grassland ecosystems relevant to a discussion of air pollution effects are presented along with a brief introduction to various other types of ecosystem stresses. The bulk

1982-01-01

202

Air pollution and Acid Rain, Report 10. The effects of air pollution and acid rain on fish, wildlife, and their habitats: urban ecosystems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Report 10 of the series synthesizing the results of scientific research related to the effects of air pollution and acid depositon on fish and wildlife resources deals with the urban ecosystem. General aspects of urban ecosystem relevant to a discussion of air pollution effects are presented with an outline of various other types of ecosystem stresses. This report describes plant,

1982-01-01

203

Air Pollution in the Mexico Megacity  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Mexico City is a megacity whose metropolitan area includes the country federal district, 18 municipalities of the State of Mexico. In year 1992, only 16 municipalities of the State of Mexico were part of MCMA. In year 1940 the Mexico City population was 1.78 millions in an area of 118 km2, in year 2000 the population was 17.9 millions in an area of 1,500 km2. Population has grown a ten fold whereas population density has dropped 20%. Total number of private cars has grown from 2,341,731 in year 1998 to 2,967,893 in year 2004. Nowadays, people and goods travel longer at lower speed to reach school, work and selling points. In addition highly efficient public transport lost a significant share of transport demand from 19.1 in 1986 to 14.3 in 1998. Air pollution is a public concern since early eighties last century; systematic public efforts have been carried out since late eighties. Energy consumption has steadily increased in the MCMA whereas emissions have also decreased. From year 2000 to 2004, the private cars fleet increased 17% whereas CO, NOx and COV emissions decreased between 20-30%. Average concentrations of criteria pollutants have decreased The number of days that the one-hour national standard for bad air quality was exceeded in year 1990 was 160. In year 2005 was 70. Research efforts and public policies on air pollution have been focused on public health. We are now better able to estimate the cost in human lives due to air pollution, or the cost in labor lost due to illness. Little if none at all work has been carried out to look at the effect of air pollution on private and public property or onto the cultural heritage. Few reports have can be found on the impact of air pollution in rural areas, including forest and crops, around the mega city. Mexico City is in the south end of a Valley with mountain ranges higher than 1000 m above the average city altitude. In spite the heavy loss of forested areas to the city, the mountains still retain large forest under strong demographic pressure and under heavy impact of air pollution. Flow patterns induced by complex terrain in the center of Mexico induce strong interaction between the mega city and the rural areas in the Mexico Basin. In and out mesoscale transport to and from the neighboring valleys with cities already larger than one million inhabitants increase the complexity of air pollution processes. Fast urbanization in these valleys suggests even more complicated and full of concerns scenarios. Some recent results on these issues will be shown.

Ruiz-Suarez, L. G.

2007-05-01

204

Impact of air pollutants on athletic performance  

SciTech Connect

Human controlled and observational studies both lead to the conclusion of air pollution adversely affecting athletic performance during training and competition. The dosage of various air pollutants during exercise is much higher due to the marked increase in ventilatory rate and concomitant nasal and oral breathing. This is particularly true for sulfur dioxide which is a highly water-soluble gas and is normally absorbed in the upper airway during nasal breathing. With heavy exercise, oral pharyngeal breathing is the predominant mode of breathing and much larger amounts of sulfur dioxide are delivered to the lower airway resulting in significant impact upon the lower respiratory tract. More recently, several controlled human studies have shown that a combination of exercise and air pollutants such as ozone (O3) or sulfur dioxides (SO2) cause a significant increase in bronchoconstriction and air flow obstruction when compared to the same exposure at rest. In strenuous athletic competition such as the Olympic Games where small increments of time often determine the ultimate success of athletes, the impact of air pollutants and subsequent adverse ventilatory changes can affect athletic performance. 62 references.

Pierson, W.E. (Univ. of Washington, Seattle (USA))

1989-05-01

205

Measuring Welfare Loss Caused by Air Pollution in Europe: A CGE Analysis  

E-print Network

To evaluate the socio-economic impacts of air pollution, we develop an integrated approach based on computable general equilibrium (CGE). Applying our approach to Europe shows that even there, where air quality is relatively ...

Paltsev, Sergey

206

In Brief: Air pollution app  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new smartphone application takes advantage of various technological capabilities and sensors to help users monitor air quality. Tapping into smartphone cameras, Global Positioning System (GPS) sensors, compasses, and accelerometers, computer scientists with the University of Southern California's (USC) Viterbi School of Engineering have developed a new application, provisionally entitled ``Visibility.'' Currently available for the Android telephone operating system, the

Randy Showstack

2010-01-01

207

Effects of future anthropogenic pollution emissions on global air quality  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The atmospheric chemistry general circulation model EMAC is used to estimate the impact of anthropogenic emission changes on global and regional air quality in recent and future years (2005, 2010, 2025 and 2050). The emission scenario assumes that population and economic growth largely determine energy consumption and consequent pollution sources ("business as usual"). By comparing with recent observations, it is shown that the model reproduces the main features of regional air pollution distributions though with some imprecision inherent to the coarse horizontal resolution (around 100 km). To identify possible future hot spots of poor air quality, a multi pollutant index (MPI) has been applied. It appears that East and South Asia and the Arabian Gulf regions represent such hotspots due to very high pollutant concentrations. In East Asia a range of pollutant gases and particulate matter (PM2.5) are projected to reach very high levels from 2005 onward, while in South Asia air pollution, including ozone, will grow rapidly towards the middle of the century. Around the Arabian Gulf, where natural PM2.5 concentrations are already high (desert dust), ozone levels will increase strongly. By extending the MPI definition, we calculated a Per Capita MPI (PCMPI) in which we combined population projections with those of pollution emissions. It thus appears that a rapidly increasing number of people worldwide will experience reduced air quality during the first half of the 21st century. It is projected that air quality for the global average citizen in 2050 will be comparable to the average in East Asia in the year 2005.

Pozzer, A.; Zimmermann, P.; Doering, U.; van Aardenne, J.; Dentener, F.; Lelieveld, J.

2012-04-01

208

PRECOMBUSTION REMOVAL OF HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANT PRECURSORS  

SciTech Connect

In response to growing environmental concerns reflected in the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendment (CAAA), the United States Department of Energy (DOE) sponsored several research and development projects in late 1995 as part of an initiative entitled Advanced Environmental Control Technologies for Coal-Based Power Systems. The program provided cost-shared support for research and development projects that could accelerate the commercialization of affordable, high-efficiency, low-emission, coal-fueled electric generating technologies. Clean coal technologies developed under this program would serve as prototypes for later generations of technologies to be implemented in the industrial sector. In order to identify technologies with the greatest potential for commercial implementation, projects funded under Phase I of this program were subject to competitive review by DOE before being considered for continuation funding under Phase II. One of the primary topical areas identified under the DOE initiative relates to the development of improved technologies for reducing the emissions of air toxics. Previous studies have suggested that many of the potentially hazardous air pollutant precursors (HAPPs) occur as trace elements in the mineral matter of run-of-mine coals. As a result, these elements have the potential to be removed prior to combustion at the mine site by physical coal cleaning processes (i.e., coal preparation). Unfortunately, existing coal preparation plants are generally limited in their ability to remove HAPPs due to incomplete liberation of the mineral matter and high organic associations of some trace elements. In addition, existing physical coal cleaning plants are not specifically designed or optimized to ensure that high trace element rejections may be achieved.

Unknown

2000-10-09

209

Effectiveness of Houseplants in Reducing the Indoor Air Pollutant Ozone  

E-print Network

Effectiveness of Houseplants in Reducing the Indoor Air Pollutant Ozone Heather L. Papinchak1 , E ndoor air pollution is ranked as one of the world's greatest public health risks (Wolverton, 1997 14 times as many deaths occur from poor indoor air quality compared with ambient air pollution

Decoteau, Dennis R.

210

Breathing Easy About New Air Pollution Standards  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

A town meeting is the backdrop for a role-playing case about ground-level ozone air pollution. The case consists of a flier and scripts drawn from public comment records on the government mandate to reduce ground-level ozone by limiting nitrogen oxide emissions. Students play the parts of stakeholders and develop recommendations for reducing emissions.

Kathryn L. Rowberg

2000-01-01

211

Human health effects of air pollution  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hazardous chemicals escape to the environment by a number of natural and\\/or anthropogenic activities and may cause adverse effects on human health and the environment. Increased combustion of fossil fuels in the last century is responsible for the progressive change in the atmospheric composition. Air pollutants, such as carbon monoxide (CO), sulfur dioxide (SO2), nitrogen oxides (NOx), volatile organic compounds

Marilena Kampa; Elias Castanas

2008-01-01

212

MESOSCALE AIR POLLUTION TRANSPORT IN SOUTHEAST WISCONSIN  

EPA Science Inventory

This research program comprised a comprehensive study of mesoscale meteorological regimes on the western shore of Lake Michigan and their effect upon air pollution dispersion and transport. It is felt that the results are applicable in a generic way to other mid-latitude coastal ...

213

Particulate air pollution and acute health effects  

Microsoft Academic Search

Epidemiological studies have consistently shown an association between particulate air pollution and not only exacerbations of illness in people with respiratory disease but also rises in the numbers of deaths from cardiovascular and respiratory disease among older people. Meta-analyses of these studies indicate that the associations are unlikely to be explained by any confounder, and suggest that they represent cause

A. Seaton; D. Godden; W. MacNee; K. Donaldson

1995-01-01

214

REGIONAL AIR POLLUTION STUDY: HEAT EMISSION INVENTORY  

EPA Science Inventory

As part of the St. Louis Regional Air Pollution Study (RAPS), a heat emission inventory has been assembled. Heat emissions to the atmosphere originate, directly or indirectly, from the combustion of fossil fuels (there are no nuclear plants in the St. Louis AQCR). With the except...

215

Indoor Air Pollution: An Energy Management Problem?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Energy conservation measures have led to airtight buildings and reduced levels of ventilation resulting in indoor air pollution. Five kinds of contaminants--tobacco smoke, combustion products, microorganisms, organic compounds, and radon--are described, their hazards considered, and countermeasures outlined. (MLF)

Cousins, David M.; Kulba, John W.

1987-01-01

216

Adverse cardiovascular effects of air pollution  

Microsoft Academic Search

Air pollution is increasingly recognized as an important and modifiable determinant of cardiovascular disease in urban communities. Acute exposure has been linked to a range of adverse cardiovascular events including hospital admissions with angina, myocardial infarction, and heart failure. Long-term exposure increases an individual's lifetime risk of death from coronary heart disease. The main arbiter of these adverse health effects

Ken Donaldson; Paddy W Hadoke; Nicholas A Boon; William MacNee; Flemming R Cassee; Thomas Sandström; Anders Blomberg; David E Newby; Nicholas L Mills

2008-01-01

217

COLD REGIONS AIR POLLUTION: BIBLIOGRAPHY AND SUMMARY  

EPA Science Inventory

Through a series of workshops on cold climate environmental research priorities, conducted in 1982 by Battelle for the Environmental Protection Agency and the Department of Energy, air pollution was identified as the topic of highest priority. The current state of knowledge on ai...

218

Air Pollutants Measured in Navigational Locks  

Microsoft Academic Search

The body of information presented in this paper is directed to those individuals concerned with the effects of marine transportation air pollution on the health of the public. The configuration and operation of the navigational locks in Seattle is such that large numbers of recreational and commercial boats are congregated in a small confined area, implying a potential health risk

James J. Beaumont; Peter A. Breysse; Robert L. Schumacher

1977-01-01

219

URBAN AIR POLLUTION MODELING WITHOUT COMPUTERS  

EPA Science Inventory

This report was the basis for a series of three lectures by the author on urban air pollution modeling, and represents a condensed version of selected topics from a recent monograph by him. The emphasis is on simple but efficient models that often can be used without resorting to...

220

AIR POLLUTION EFFECTS ON SEMEN QUALITY  

EPA Science Inventory

The potential impact of exposure to periods of high air pollution on male reproductive health was examined within the framework of an international project conducted in the Czech Republic. Semen quality was evaluated in young men (age 18) living in the Teplice District who are ex...

221

HARVARD'S INDOOR AIR POLLUTION/HEALTH STUDY  

EPA Science Inventory

An indoor air pollution/acute respiratory health study is being conducted by researchers at the Harvard University School of Public Health. Upper and lower respiratory symptoms of 300 children living in Watertown, Massachusetts, have been recorded on a daily diary by a parent. Ev...

222

Particulate air pollution and the blood  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUNDParticulate air pollution has been associated with excess deaths from, and increases in hospital admissions for, cardiovascular disease among older people. A study was undertaken to determine whether this may be a consequence of alterations in the blood, secondary to pulmonary inflammation caused by the action of fine particles on alveolar cells, by repeatedly measuring haematological factors in older people

Anthony Seaton; Anne Soutar; Vivienne Crawford; Robert Elton; Susan McNerlan; John Cherrie; Monika Watt; Raymond Agius; Robert Stout

1999-01-01

223

Urban Air Pollution in Russia: Observations and Assessment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Urban air pollution is actual topic because of its influence on air quality and climate processes on both regional and global scale. There is a lack of up-to-date information about real state of air quality in Russian cities because of very few contemporary observations. Obukhov Institute of Atmospheric Physics possesses significant database of automated measurements of air composition including data of train-based TROICA experiments in 1995-2010 as well as permanent observations in Moscow since 2002. In general numerous crosses of about 100 urban settlements of different size and location have been performed that allowed us to compose detailed pattern of urban air pollution in Russia nowadays. All cities were separated at three groups: megacities (more then 500 000 citizens), middle cities (50 000-500 000 citizens) and little cities (less then 50 000 citizens). Each urban settlement has been divided into railway station area, urban zone and city (or town) surroundings. Concentrations of main polluting gases (NO, NO2, CO, SO2, NMHC, O3) and aerosols have been averaged for each settlement as well as for each group of urban settlements for day and night, and for winter and summer. Main features of air urban pollution in Russia are presented. Variations of main pollutants including anthropogenic VOCs because of daytime and seasons, as well as temperature vertical structure are studied. Concentrations of O3, CO, SO2 and NMHC are usually below MPC level. NO2 is often enhanced especially near auto-roads. In general, polluting gases have greater concentrations in winter time due to heating and stronger temperature inversions. Particulate matter is likely to be the most persistent pollutant that determines more than 90% of pollution cases. Strong pollution cases are often caused by extraordinary situations like fires, industrial pollution under unfavorable meteorological conditions. High ozone photochemical generation is quite rare. Spatial pollution structure is usually in good agreement with so called "heat islands" revealed over cities due to mobile observations. From 50 to 75% of all cases temperature growth over cities makes up from 0 to 1 ° C, while in large cities there is substantial proportion of higher values of temperature growth - from 4 to 12% is in the range 2-3 ° C of the temperature rise, and almost as many (from 4 to 9%) cases reveal temperature increase of more than 3 ° C. Air quality level was assessed on base of new approach elaborated at OIAP to assess air quality in Russian cities. It accounts for both world famous methods and official Russian legislation. General level of air pollution in Russian cities is low or moderate mostly due to favorable location and climate conditions. Extreme concentrations can happen in warm period because of wild and anthropogenic fires and other severe pollution cases. Most of high concentrations within cities during TROICA campaigns were observed near railway stations where influence of local pollution sources (diesel trains, train stoves, boiler rooms and so on) is very large.

Skorokhod, Andrey; Elansky, Nikolai; Lavrova, Olga; Pankratova, Natalia; Belikov, Igor; Falaleeva, Victoria; Mel'nikova, Irina; Remizov, Andrey; Sitnikova, Irina

2013-04-01

224

Air pollution kills. So what? Air quality engineering to improve public health  

E-print Network

9/14/12 1 Air pollution kills. So what? Air quality engineering to improve public health;9/14/12 2 Air Quality Engineering H Air Quality Engineering H #12;9/14/12 3 Really? Air pollution running out of coffins and florists were running out of flowers. -- BBC #12;9/14/12 4 Air pollution

Levinson, David M.

225

Evaluating sources of indoor air pollution  

SciTech Connect

This paper discusses a three-phase approach, employing environmental chambers, indoor air quality (IAQ) models, and test-house experiments, that is effective in linking sources of indoor pollutants to measured concentrations. Emission factors developed in test chambers can be used to evaluate full-scale indoor environments. A PC-based IAQ model has been developed that can accurately predict indoor concentrations of specific pollutants under controlled conditions in a test house. The model is also useful in examining the effect of pollutant sinks and variations in ventilation parameters. Pollutants were examined from: (1) para-dichloro-benzene emissions from moth crystal cakes; and, (2) particulate emissions from unvented kerosene heaters. However, the approach has not been validated for other source types, including solvent based materials and aerosol products.

Tichenor, B.A.; Sparks, L.E.; White, J.B.; Jackson, M.D.

1988-05-01

226

Transboundary air Pollution in Peruvian Amazonia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Biomass burning in the tropics is an important source of pollution to the atmosphere with different and not well understood consequences to the climate and the atmospheric chemistry. Burning over Amazonia is related mainly to land use cover change. During the dry season (May to November) high amount of fires are produced in Amazonia. The resulting pollutants under some conditions could produce tropospheric ozone, which reaches long distances far from the sources, the same occurs with aerosols, both could be detected by ground and satellite measurements. The work focused on the transboundary air pollution between Brazil and Peru during the last years. In this sense, this research determines the seasonal variations and the spatial coverage of this pollution in Peruvian Amazonia. We used satellite data and ground measurements to make a detailed evaluation of the transport and production of pollutants (tropospheric ozone and aerosols) related to biomass burning in order to quantify the levels of pollution based on tropospheric ozone and aerosol index and optical depth. Also, we evaluate the climatology of fires detected by satellites. It is expected that the results will provide basic information to policy makers about possible effects of this pollution in the natural resources of Peru. Also, we will provide the scientific basis for the National Program for Prevention of Forest Fires.

Luis, S.; Luis, C.

2007-05-01

227

Air pollution and horticulture: an overview  

SciTech Connect

An overview is presented of some of the general effects of pollutants on plants, as well as an approach for assessing these effects. The nature of effects can range from no effects at low doses to a reduced growth or yield at higher atmospheric concentrations. In addition to the dose of the pollutant, the degree of response is governed by a number of internal and external factors. Relative number and size of stomata have marked effect on pollutant uptake by the plant; therefore, environmental conditions exert a strong influence on pollutant-induced responses. Future research should focus on determining if the pollutant doses that now occur in areas of horticultural production cause effects and, if so, whether the effects constitute injury.

MacLean, D.C.

1983-10-01

228

76 FR 60376 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, Santa Barbara Air Pollution Control...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Implementation Plan, Santa Barbara Air Pollution Control District, Sacramento...revisions to the Santa Barbara Air Pollution Control District (SBAPCD...52 Environmental protection, Air pollution control, Incorporation by...

2011-09-29

229

76 FR 67369 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Plan, Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution Control District and Imperial County Air Pollution Control District AGENCY: Environmental...the San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution Control District...

2011-11-01

230

76 FR 30025 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, Placer County Air Pollution Control...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Implementation Plan, Placer County Air Pollution Control District and Ventura County Air Pollution Control District AGENCY: Environmental...revisions to the Placer County Air Pollution Control District (PCAPCD)...

2011-05-24

231

76 FR 30080 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, Placer County Air Pollution Control...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Implementation Plan, Placer County Air Pollution Control District and Ventura County Air Pollution Control District AGENCY: Environmental...revisions to the Placer County Air Pollution Control District (PCAPCD)...

2011-05-24

232

Effective Stack Design in Air Pollution Control.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Stack design problems fall into two general caterories--(1) those of building re-entry, and (2) those of general area pollution. Extensive research has developed adequate information, available in the literature, to permit effective stack design. A major roadblock to effective design has been the strong belief by architects and engineers that high…

Clarke, John H.

1968-01-01

233

AIR POLLUTION PREVENTION AND CONTROL DIVISION - HOME PAGE  

EPA Science Inventory

The Air Pollution Prevention and Control Division (APPCD), located in Research Triangle Park, NC, is part of the National Risk Management Research Laboratory (NRMRL), which is headquartered in Cincinnati, OH. APPCD researches, develops, and demonstrates air pollution prevention a...

234

Changing perspectives on air-pollution stress  

SciTech Connect

As more has been learned about the nature of air pollution and more sophisticated techniques have been developed for measurement, it has become apparent that acid rain is only one of an interrelated array of airshed-watershed problems. Despite important reductions in some pollutant emissions, the authors believe the situation today is worse than it appeared to be 15 years ago. Recently scientists have reported data showing that in some locations dry deposition of hydrogen ion, sulfur, and nitrogen in coarse and fine particles and vapors may exceed the same substances measured in bulk precipitation. As scientists learned about acid rain, they also became more aware of photochemical oxidant pollution. Symptoms of ozone damage on crops and natural vegetation have been found in a majority of states. As understanding and measurement ability have increased, estimates of the magnitude of the air pollution problem have grown. The recent measurements of dry deposition, cloud-water deposition, and photochemical oxidant concentrations have greatly increased estimates of airborne pollutants reaching ecosystems. They have shown that the photochemical oxidant problem cannot be separated from the acid-rain problem and that the combined effects may be both episodic and long-term. These findings indicate that regional air pollution is more severe than it was perceived to be 15 years ago. Solving the problem will be extremely difficult and expensive both in terms of monitoring and assessing effects on ecosystems under realistic conditions. The longer the delays in setting an official policy of comprehensive correctional measures, the more environmental damage may occur. Extensive damage, in turn, would increase the cost of measures for protection and recovery.

Bormann, F.H.; Likens, G.E.

1987-06-01

235

Meteorological impact on air pollutant transport in highly urbanized region.  

E-print Network

??Meteorological impacts on air pollutant transport in highly urbanized region were investigated using the mesoscale meteorological models and air quality model. Two meteorological impacts were… (more)

Ruan, Tao

2010-01-01

236

AIR LECTURES HANDOUT 3 P Rhines 21 Feb 03 AIR: THE SMALL (AIR POLLUTION)  

E-print Network

AIR LECTURES HANDOUT 3 P Rhines 21 Feb 03 AIR: THE SMALL (AIR POLLUTION) SMOG ­ cold London fog ­ coal smoke in winter (home heating) with clear air, radiational cooling stratifies air SMOG- warm sources in areas of low dispersion. The production of smog ceases at night...often on windless hot sunny

237

Sources of Indoor Air Pollution- Improving Indoor Air Quality  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

There are three basic strategies to improve indoor air quality: source control, improved ventilation, and air cleaners. This site offers the reader some insights to improving air quality through increased ventilation, air cleaners for particle removal, and other common sense methods that may be employed. Many times the quality of the air in our homes and public or office buildings is marginal at best. The sources of indoor pollution may be outside of our ability to rectify or it may be as simple as adjusting the flame on our furnace or kitchen stove or maybe something as simple as opening a door or window. However, in many instances we have no control over the air quality because of the materials used in the construction of the building.

2007-01-21

238

Elementary school absenteeism and air pollution.  

PubMed

This study assessed the association between ambient air pollution and daily elementary school absenteeism in Washoe County, NV, between 1996 and 1998. All 57 elementary schools in Washoe County in northern Nevada were included in the data set. There was a total of 27,793 student enrollments during this study period. The daily average absence rate was 5.09% (+/-1.54%). Air pollutant values including PM(10), O(3), and CO were obtained from seven air monitoring stations. Weather variables were collected from five of seven stations and from the Western Regional Climate Center. The daily average concentrations of PM(10), CO, and O(3) were 32.44 microg/m(3), 2.73 ppm, and 37.45 ppb, respectively. Student absenteeism was regressed on the three air pollutants, weather variables, and other confounding factors, using autoregression analysis. After adjusting for the effects of weather variables, day of the week, month, and holiday indicators, and time trend, we found that CO and O(3) were statistically significant predictors of daily absenteeism in elementary schools. For every 1.0 ppm and 50 ppb increase in CO and O(3), the absence rate would increase 3.79% (95% CI 1.04-6.55%) and 13.01% (95% CI 3.41-22.61%), respectively. However, PM(10) values were negatively correlated with school absenteeism. PMID:11015140

Chen, L; Jennison, B L; Yang, W; Omaye, S T

2000-11-01

239

Stakeholder needs for air pollution and health information.  

PubMed

Within the European Commission-supported thematic network project AIRNET, a stakeholder survey was performed to identify key questions and issues of concern for end users regarding air pollution and health information. On the whole, survey respondents typically asked general questions concerning air pollution and health (i.e., regarding the type of pollutant, emission sources, monitoring, and health impact). Furthermore, an overwhelming response across all stakeholder categories was not the unavailability of information sources to inform policy, but the lack of time available to read and absorb all the information. Overall, the respondents expressed their preference for information that is (1) presented as short and clear overviews, (2) ready for policy use by including a practical linkage between the research findings and implementation of public protection, and (3) in a format easily passed on to others. PMID:16905511

Sanderson, Eric Gordon; Fudge, Nina; Totlandsdal, Annike Irene; Brunekreef, Bert; van Bree, Leendert

2006-10-01

240

The Role of Sea Spray in Cleansing Air Pollution over  

E-print Network

The Role of Sea Spray in Cleansing Air Pollution over Ocean via Cloud Processes Daniel Rosenfeld by collecting small cloud droplets that form on the pollution particles, thereby cleansing the air. Therefore, sea salt helps cleanse the atmosphere of the air pollution via cloud processes. This implies that over

Daniel, Rosenfeld

241

A REVIEW OF AIR POLLUTANT DAMAGE TO MATERIALS  

EPA Science Inventory

Report prepared as U.S. contribution to Panel 3 of NATO Committee on Challenges of Modern Society Pilot Study on Air Pollution Control Strategies and Impact Modeling. Panel 3 focuses on air pollutant impact and will publish 4 reports on air pollutants effects; this is the first i...

242

30 CFR 784.26 - Air pollution control plan.  

...2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Air pollution control plan. 784.26 Section...OPERATION PLAN § 784.26 Air pollution control plan. For all surface...the application shall contain an air pollution control plan which includes...

2014-07-01

243

30 CFR 784.26 - Air pollution control plan.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Air pollution control plan. 784.26 Section...OPERATION PLAN § 784.26 Air pollution control plan. For all surface...the application shall contain an air pollution control plan which includes...

2013-07-01

244

30 CFR 784.26 - Air pollution control plan.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Air pollution control plan. 784.26 Section...OPERATION PLAN § 784.26 Air pollution control plan. For all surface...the application shall contain an air pollution control plan which includes...

2010-07-01

245

Proceedings of 10th International Symposium "Transport and Air Pollution"  

E-print Network

Proceedings of 10th International Symposium "Transport and Air Pollution" September 17-19, 2001 ­ Boulder, Colorado USA Air pollution mapping over a city ­ virtual stations and morphological indicators Surveillance et l'tude de la Pollution atmosphrique en Alsace), Schiltigheim, FRANCE Abstract Air quality

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

246

SOLVING VERTICAL TRANSPORT AND CHEMISTRY IN AIR POLLUTION MODELS  

E-print Network

SOLVING VERTICAL TRANSPORT AND CHEMISTRY IN AIR POLLUTION MODELS P.J.F. BERKVENS #3; , M.A. BOTCHEV; transport-chemistry problems from air pollution modelling, standard ODE solvers are not feasible due causing large errors for such species. In the framework of an operational global air pollution model, we

Botchev, Mike

247

IMMEDIATE COMMUNICATION Air pollution impairs cognition, provokes depressive-like  

E-print Network

IMMEDIATE COMMUNICATION Air pollution impairs cognition, provokes depressive-like behaviors Institute, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH, USA Particulate matter air pollution is a pervasive the effects of prolonged exposure to air pollution are well characterized with respect to pulmonary

Nelson, Randy J.

248

A review of methods for predicting air pollution dispersion  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Air pollution modeling, and problem areas in air pollution dispersion modeling were surveyed. Emission source inventory, meteorological data, and turbulent diffusion are discussed in terms of developing a dispersion model. Existing mathematical models of urban air pollution, and highway and airport models are discussed along with their limitations. Recommendations for improving modeling capabilities are included.

Mathis, J. J., Jr.; Grose, W. L.

1973-01-01

249

30 CFR 780.15 - Air pollution control plan.  

...2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Air pollution control plan. 780.15 Section...OPERATION PLAN § 780.15 Air pollution control plan. (a) For...the application shall contain an air pollution control plan which includes...

2014-07-01

250

40 CFR 49.137 - Rule for air pollution episodes.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-07-01 false Rule for air pollution episodes. 49.137 Section...Region 10 § 49.137 Rule for air pollution episodes. (a) What is the...to prevent the occurrence of an air pollution emergency within the Indian...

2012-07-01

251

30 CFR 780.15 - Air pollution control plan.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Air pollution control plan. 780.15 Section...OPERATION PLAN § 780.15 Air pollution control plan. (a) For...the application shall contain an air pollution control plan which includes...

2013-07-01

252

Urban Form and Air Pollution in US Urban Areas!  

E-print Network

Urban Form and Air Pollution in US Urban Areas! Center for Transportation Studies Research of Minnesota Grant No. 0853467 #12;Air Pollution Impacts on Health 2 EPA, 2010 Ozone PM2.5 PM10 Lead Nitrogen #12;Purpose and Research Questions 4 Purpose: Explore relationship between air pollution and urban

Minnesota, University of

253

Hierarchical Bayesian models for space-time air pollution data  

E-print Network

Hierarchical Bayesian models for space-time air pollution data Sujit K. Sahu June 14, 2011 sets have led to a step change in the analysis of space-time air pollution data. Accurate predictions-time air pollution data and illustrate the benefits of modeling with a real data example on monitoring

Sahu, Sujit K

254

40 CFR 49.137 - Rule for air pollution episodes.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-07-01 false Rule for air pollution episodes. 49.137 Section...Region 10 § 49.137 Rule for air pollution episodes. (a) What is the...to prevent the occurrence of an air pollution emergency within the Indian...

2011-07-01

255

Development of Foamed Emulsion Bioreactor for Air Pollution Control  

E-print Network

Development of Foamed Emulsion Bioreactor for Air Pollution Control Eunsung Kan, Marc A. Deshusses: 10.1002/bit.10767 Abstract: A new type of bioreactor for air pollution con- trol has been developed used bioreactors for air pollution control. © 2003 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Biotechnol Bioeng 84: 240

256

30 CFR 780.15 - Air pollution control plan.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Air pollution control plan. 780.15 Section...OPERATION PLAN § 780.15 Air pollution control plan. (a) For...the application shall contain an air pollution control plan which includes...

2010-07-01

257

30 CFR 780.15 - Air pollution control plan.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Air pollution control plan. 780.15 Section...OPERATION PLAN § 780.15 Air pollution control plan. (a) For...the application shall contain an air pollution control plan which includes...

2012-07-01

258

40 CFR 49.137 - Rule for air pollution episodes.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 false Rule for air pollution episodes. 49.137 Section...Region 10 § 49.137 Rule for air pollution episodes. (a) What is the...to prevent the occurrence of an air pollution emergency within the Indian...

2013-07-01

259

Session 2: Modelling air pollution across a range of scales  

E-print Network

Session 2: Modelling air pollution across a range of scales Ruth Doherty, Massimo Vieno, Ian Mac) EMEP2009 (less complex) Observations Modelling regional air pollution #12;Nested regions: 50 to 5 to 1 km2 O3 concentration (ppb) NO2 concentration (µg m-3) #12;Modelling Urban air pollution Regional

260

Air Pollution Impacts on Ecosystems and Biological Diversity  

E-print Network

Air Pollution Impacts on Ecosystems and Biological Diversity in the Eastern United States Threats CITATION Lovett, G.M., and T.H. Tear. 2008. Threats from Above: Air Pollution Impacts on Ecosystems by its parent as it takes its first swim. © Daniel Poleschook Jr. and Ginger Gumm #12;Air Pollution

261

ENV 6105 Page 1 of 6 Fall 2011 Air Pollution  

E-print Network

ENV 6105 Page 1 of 6 Fall 2011 Syllabus Air Pollution ENV 6105.901 (ref# 90504) Fall 2011 Course Description: A study of air pollution. Emphasis is given to principles underlying our understanding of ambient air pollution, its sources, its effects, and mechanisms for its management. Credit Hours and Work

Stuart, Amy L.

262

Modeling impact of urban air pollution on health  

E-print Network

Modeling impact of urban air pollution on health: Preliminary results and testing a methodology with hospitals for the study of air pollution impact on specific deceases (old people admitted in emergency morbidity data and pollutants concentrations at the regional/urban scale Health and air quality in France

Menut, Laurent

263

REVIEW Open Access Climate change, air pollution and extreme events  

E-print Network

REVIEW Open Access Climate change, air pollution and extreme events leading to increasing dramatically during the past few decades not only in industrialized countries. Urban air pollution from motor be explained only in changes occurred in the environment. Despite some differences in the air pollution profile

264

30 CFR 780.15 - Air pollution control plan.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Air pollution control plan. 780.15 Section...OPERATION PLAN § 780.15 Air pollution control plan. (a) For...the application shall contain an air pollution control plan which includes...

2011-07-01

265

30 CFR 784.26 - Air pollution control plan.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Air pollution control plan. 784.26 Section...OPERATION PLAN § 784.26 Air pollution control plan. For all surface...the application shall contain an air pollution control plan which includes...

2012-07-01

266

40 CFR 49.137 - Rule for air pollution episodes.  

...2014-07-01 false Rule for air pollution episodes. 49.137 Section...Region 10 § 49.137 Rule for air pollution episodes. (a) What is the...to prevent the occurrence of an air pollution emergency within the Indian...

2014-07-01

267

30 CFR 784.26 - Air pollution control plan.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Air pollution control plan. 784.26 Section...OPERATION PLAN § 784.26 Air pollution control plan. For all surface...the application shall contain an air pollution control plan which includes...

2011-07-01

268

San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution Control District  

E-print Network

#12;San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution Control District Best Available Control Technology.4.2 #12;San Joaquin Valley Air Pollution Control Distri RECEIVED ~ 2 ED ECEIVED www.valleyalr.org SJVAPCD-2370·(661)326-6900"FAX(661)326-6985 #12;San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution Control District TITLE V MODIFICATION

269

40 CFR 49.137 - Rule for air pollution episodes.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 false Rule for air pollution episodes. 49.137 Section...Region 10 § 49.137 Rule for air pollution episodes. (a) What is the...to prevent the occurrence of an air pollution emergency within the Indian...

2010-07-01

270

Cost of air pollution damage: a status report  

Microsoft Academic Search

Published and unpublished estimates of the cost of air pollution damage are reviewed and national total estimates are given. In addition, cost estimates are developed for air pollution effects on human health, vegetation, materials, and residential property values. Estimates of the cost of air pollution damage to animals and to aesthetic aspects of the environment are not derived. Although discussed

L. B. Barrett; T. E. Waddell

1973-01-01

271

Genetic susceptibility to the respiratory effects of air pollution  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is large variation between individuals in their response to air pollutants. This review summarises the existing evidence that genetic factors influence the mechanisms of lung injury caused by air pollutants. Genetic association studies have compared the adverse effects of air pollutants between subjects with specific genotypes in biologically relevant genes. In human studies of ozone exposure, polymorphisms in oxidative

I A Yang; K M Fong; P V Zimmerman; S T Holgate; J W Holloway

2009-01-01

272

Visualization of Urban Air Pollution with Cloud Computing  

Microsoft Academic Search

Visualization of urban air pollution requires massive data processing since it should make air pollution maps either in two dimensions or three dimensions and we have to deal with geographical data, that is, GIS data. We used our own cloud computing technology to visualize urban air pollution and found that our approach vastly reduced the processing time of the visualization.

Jong Won Park; Chang Ho Yun; Hae Sun Jung; Yong Woo Lee

2011-01-01

273

Air pollutants and health outcomes: Assessment of confounding by influenza  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We assessed confounding of associations between short-term effects of air pollution and health outcomes by influenza using Hong Kong mortality and hospitalization data for 1996-2002. Three measures of influenza were defined: (i) intensity: weekly proportion of positive influenza viruses, (ii) epidemic: weekly number of positive influenza viruses ?4% of the annual number for ?2 consecutive weeks, and (iii) predominance: an epidemic period with co-circulation of respiratory syncytial virus <2% of the annual positive isolates for ?2 consecutive weeks. We examined effects of influenza on associations between nitrogen dioxide (NO 2), sulfur dioxide (SO 2), particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter ?10 ?m (PM 10) and ozone (O 3) and health outcomes including all natural causes mortality, cardiorespiratory mortality and hospitalization. Generalized additive Poisson regression model with natural cubic splines was fitted to control for time-varying covariates to estimate air pollution health effects. Confounding with influenza was assessed using an absolute difference of >0.1% between unadjusted and adjusted excess risks (ER%). Without adjustment, pollutants were associated with positive ER% for all health outcomes except asthma and stroke hospitalization with SO 2 and stroke hospitalization with O 3. Following adjustment, changes in ER% for all pollutants were <0.1% for all natural causes mortality, but >0.1% for mortality from stroke with NO 2 and SO 2, cardiac or heart disease with NO 2, PM 10 and O 3, lower respiratory infections with NO 2 and O 3 and mortality from chronic obstructive pulmonary disease with all pollutants. Changes >0.1% were seen for acute respiratory disease hospitalization with NO 2, SO 2 and O 3 and acute lower respiratory infections hospitalization with PM 10. Generally, influenza does not confound the observed associations of air pollutants with all natural causes mortality and cardiovascular hospitalization, but for some pollutants and subgroups of cardiorespiratory mortality and respiratory hospitalization there was evidence to suggest confounding by influenza.

Thach, Thuan-Quoc; Wong, Chit-Ming; Chan, King-Pan; Chau, Yuen-Kwan; Neil Thomas, G.; Ou, Chun-Quan; Yang, Lin; Peiris, Joseph S. M.; Lam, Tai-Hing; Hedley, Anthony J.

2010-04-01

274

VALMET-A valley air pollution model  

SciTech Connect

Following a thorough analysis of meteorological data obtained from deep valleys of western Colorado, a modular air-pollution model has been developed to simulate the transport and diffusion of pollutants released from an elevated point source in a well-defined mountain valley during the nighttime and morning transition periods. This initial version of the model, named VALMET, operates on a valley cross section at an arbitrary distance down-valley from a continuous point source. The model has been constructed to include parameterizations of the major physical processes that act to disperse pollution during these time periods. The model has not been fully evaluated. Further testing, evaluations, and development of the model are needed. Priorities for further development and testing are provided.

Whiteman, C.D.; Allwine, K.J.

1983-09-01

275

Oxidative Stress and Air Pollution Exposure  

PubMed Central

Air pollution is associated with increased cardiovascular and pulmonary morbidity and mortality. The mechanisms of air pollution-induced health effects involve oxidative stress and inflammation. As a matter of fact, particulate matter (PM), especially fine (PM2.5, PM?

Lodovici, Maura; Bigagli, Elisabetta

2011-01-01

276

Effects of air pollution and acid rain on agriculture: an annotated bibliography. Staff report  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ozone and sulfur dioxide-gaseous air pollutants--can reduce the yields of key agricultural crops such as soybeans, corn, wheat, citrus fruit, cotton, and peanuts by interfering with plant photosynthesis. In general, the greater the pollutant concentration, the greater the yield reduction. Based on this biological evidence, economists are now estimating dollar impacts of ozone pollution on agriculture. By contrast, evidence on

J. R. Barse; W. Ferguson; V. Whetzel

1985-01-01

277

Critical issues in air pollution epidemiology.  

PubMed Central

The epidemiological studies which have had significant impact on the setting of National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQSs) were performed more than twenty years ago. Most of the more recent studies have been seriously flawed in their design and/or execution because they neglected to account for important variables such as: pollutant exposures other than those from ambient air; the influence of personal activity on pollutant uptake; host responsiveness; and the separate contributions of recent transient peak exposures and long-term chronic exposures on the effects endpoints. For particulate pollutants, the influence of composition and size distribution has also received too little consideration. In order to address these deficiencies, research and methods development are needed on: indices for particulate exposures; identification of exposures relevant to the effects; improved indices of effects; acquisition of response data; identification of exposed populations; and identification of susceptible subgroups. Approaches to these needs are discussed, along with brief reviews of several recent studies that have focused on critical issues of concern, made the necessary efforts to characterize the relevant exposures of the populations being studied, and demonstrated human responses to ambient pollutants at current exposure levels. PMID:4085428

Lippmann, M; Lioy, P J

1985-01-01

278

Personal exposure of children to air pollution  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Changes over recent decades in outdoor concentrations of air pollutants are well documented. However, the impacts of air pollution on an individual's health actually relate not to these outdoor concentrations but to their personal exposure in the different locations in which they spend time. Assessing how personal exposures differ from outdoor concentrations, and how they have changed over recent decades, is challenging. This review focuses on the exposure of children, since they are a particularly sensitive group. Much of children's time is spent indoors, and childhood exposure is closely related to concentrations in the home, at school, and in transport. For this reason, children's personal exposures to air pollutants differ significantly from both those of adults and from outdoor concentrations. They depend on a range of factors, including urbanisation, energy use, building design, travel patterns, and activity profiles; analysis of these factors can identify a wider range of policy measures to reduce children's exposure than direct emission control. There is a very large variation in personal exposure between individual children, caused by differences in building design, indoor and outdoor sources, and activity patterns. Identifying groups of children with high personal exposure, and their underlying causes, is particularly important in regions of the world where emissions are increasing, but there are limited resources for environmental and health protection. Although the science of personal exposure assessment, with the associated measurement and modelling techniques, has developed to maturity in North America and western Europe over the last 50 years, there is an urgent need to apply this science in other parts of the world where the effects of air pollution are now much more serious.

Ashmore, M. R.; Dimitroulopoulou, C.

279

Atmospheric chemistry and physics of air pollution  

Microsoft Academic Search

This book is divided into six major subject areas. The first section consists of two chapters that describe the qualitative nature of tropospheric air pollution and its many effects. The second major section consists of three chapters describing gas-phase, solution-phase, and mass-transfer aspects of atmospheric chemistry. The third major section is an introduction to aerosol chemistry and physics. The fourth

J. H. Seinfeld

1986-01-01

280

Air Pollution and the Pulmonary Vasculature  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Particulate air pollution is associated with ­mortality of many cardiorespiratory disease. This implausible association, is\\u000a now well supported by epidemiology studies, as is discussed in this chapter. There is now additional evidence for morbidity\\u000a from asthma, COPD, ischemic heart disease, and congestive heart failure. We now know that ultrafine particles escape detection\\u000a by the macrophage defense system and translocate to

Melissa L. Bates; Rebecca Bascom

281

Air Pollution in the San Francisco Bay Area. Final Report of the Stanford Workshop on Air Pollution.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presented in this compendium is the final report of the Stanford Workshop on Air Pollution, one segment of the SWOPSI Program (Stanford Workshops on Political and Social Issues). The workshop's goals were to apply the techniques of a scientific research team to Bay Area air pollution problems; to study all aspects of air pollution in detail; to…

Groth, Ned; And Others

282

Air  

MedlinePLUS

... do to protect yourself from dirty air . Indoor air pollution and outdoor air pollution Air can be polluted indoors and it can ... this chart to see what things cause indoor air pollution and what things cause outdoor air pollution! Indoor ...

283

Effects of air pollution and acid rain on fish, wildlife, and their habitats - grasslands. Final report  

SciTech Connect

Report 7 of the series synthesizing the results of scientific research related to the effects of air pollution and acid deposition on fish and wildlife resources deals with grasslands. General aspects of grassland ecosystems relevant to a discussion of air pollution effects are presented along with a brief introduction to various other types of ecosystem stresses.

Peterson, M.A.

1982-06-01

284

Environmental and occupational respiratory disorders Rostrum Health effects of air pollution  

Microsoft Academic Search

The general public, especially patients with upper or lower respiratory symptoms, is aware from media reports that adverse respiratory effects can occur from air pollution. It is important for the allergist to have a current knowledge of the potential health effects of air pollution and how they might affect their patients to advise them accordingly. Specifically, the allergist-clinical immunologist should

Jonathan A. Bernstein; Neil Alexis; Charles Barnes; I. Leonard Bernstein; Andre Nel; David Peden; David Diaz-Sanchez; Susan M. Tarlo; P. Brock Williams

285

Space-Time Urban Air Pollution Forecasts  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Air pollution, like other natural phenomena, may be considered a space-time process. However, the simultaneous integration of time and space is not an easy task to perform, due to the existence of different uncertainties levels and data characteristics. In this work we propose a hybrid method that combines geostatistical and neural models to analyze PM10 time series recorded in the urban area of Lisbon (Portugal) for the 2002-2006 period and to produce forecasts. Geostatistical models have been widely used to characterize air pollution in urban areas, where the pollutant sources are considered diffuse, and also to industrial areas with localized emission sources. It should be stressed however that most geostatistical models correspond basically to an interpolation methodology (estimation, simulation) of a set of variables in a spatial or space-time domain. The temporal prediction of a pollutant usually requires knowledge of the main trends and complex patterns of physical dispersion phenomenon. To deal with low resolution problems and to enhance reliability of predictions, an approach based on neural network short term predictions in the monitoring stations which behave as a local conditioner to a fine grid stochastic simulation model is presented here. After the pollutant concentration is predicted for a given time period at the monitoring stations, we can use the local conditional distributions of observed values, given the predicted value for that period, to perform the spatial simulations for the entire area and consequently evaluate the spatial uncertainty of pollutant concentration. To attain this objective, we propose the use of direct sequential simulations with local distributions. With this approach one succeed to predict the space-time distribution of pollutant concentration that accounts for the time prediction uncertainty (reflecting the neural networks efficiency at each local monitoring station) and the spatial uncertainty as revealed by the spatial variograms. The dataset used consists of PM10 concentrations recorded hourly by 12 monitoring stations within the Lisbon's area, for the period 2002-2006. In addition, meteorological data recorded at 3 monitoring stations and boundary layer height (BLH) daily values from the ECMWF (European Centre for Medium Weather Forecast), ERA Interim, were also used. Based on the large-scale standard pressure fields from the ERA40/ECMWF, prevailing circulation patterns at regional scale where determined and used on the construction of the models. After the daily forecasts were produced, the difference between the average maps based on real observations and predicted values were determined and the model's performance was assessed. Based on the analysis of the results, we conclude that the proposed approach shows to be a very promising alternative for urban air quality characterization because of its good results and simplicity of application.

Russo, A.; Trigo, R. M.; Soares, A.

2012-04-01

286

Dirty air, dirty power. Mortality and health damage due to air pollution from power plants  

SciTech Connect

The Clean Air Task Force commissioned Abt Associates, the consulting firm relied upon by US EPA to assess the health benefits of many of the agency's air regulatory programs. The report documents the asthma attacks, hospitalisations, lost work and school days, and premature deaths linked to pollution from power plants. A first report was released in 2000. The 2004 report documents for the first time the number of heart attacks and lung cancer deaths that would be caused by power plants in 2010 and 2020. It compares the premature deaths that would result under the Bush administration's air pollution plan, the existing US Clean Air Act, and a proposal sponsored by Senator Jim Jeffords to strengthen the Clean Air Act. In general it was found that the administration's plan would produce the fewest benefits. The full study is available from the EPA, abstracted separately on the Coal Abstracts database. 65 refs., 2 apps.

Schneider, Conrad G.; Padian, M. (ed.)

2004-06-15

287

Protection of plants against air pollutants: Role of chemical protectants  

SciTech Connect

The protection of plants against air pollution damage can best be achieved either by developing pollution-tolerant cultivars or by using chemical protectants. Use of chemical protectants such as pesticides, growth regulators, anti-oxidants, fertilizers, etc. is a short-term solution to reduce the risk of air pollution damage. In addition, these protectants help in understanding the mechanism of air pollution toxicity and provide a scientific basis for assessing crop losses in field conditions. 95 refs.

Pandey, J.; Agrawal, M. (Banaras Hindu Univ., Varanasi (India))

1993-03-01

288

Air pollution prevention at the Hanford Site: Status and recommendations  

SciTech Connect

With the introduction of the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 and other air and pollution prevention regulations, there has been increased focus on both pollution prevention and air emissions at US DOE sites. The Pollution Prevention (P2) Group of WHC reviewed the status of air pollution prevention with the goal of making recommendations on how to address air emissions at Hanford through pollution prevention. Using the air emissions inventory from Hanford`s Title V permit, the P2 Group was able to identify major and significant air sources. By reviewing the literature and benchmarking two other DOE Sites, two major activities were recommended to reduce air pollution and reduce costs at the Hanford Site. First, a pollution prevention opportunity assessment (P2OA) should be conducted on the significant painting sources in the Maintenance group and credit should be taken for reducing the burning of tumbleweeds, another significant source of air pollution. Since they are significant sources, reducing these emissions will reduce air emission fees, as well as have the potential to reduce material and labor costs, and increase worker safety. Second, a P2OA should be conducted on alternatives to the three coal-fired powerhouses (steam plants) on-site, including a significant costs analysis of alternatives. This analysis could be of significant value to other DOE sites. Overall, these two activities would reduce pollution, ease regulatory requirements and fees, save money, and help Hanford take a leadership role in air pollution prevention.

Engel, J.A.

1995-08-01

289

Air Pollution Monitoring System Using Zigbee and GPS Module  

E-print Network

Abstract—Air pollution has harmful effects that cause acid rain global warming. To reduce these effects air pollution monitoring system is important. A low power wireless sensor network and control of inter-node data reception for use in the real time acquisition and communication of air pollutants such as SO2, CO, NO2 and NO etc. The main objective is achieved by interfacing various sensors to measure the common air pollutants. The measured data is displayed on the monitor using the graphical user interface (GUI). The data based server is attached to the pollution server for storing the pollutants level. Pollution server is interfaced to Google maps to display real time pollutants, pollutants level and locations in large areas. I.

Bmit Solapur

290

Assessment of health effects in epidemiologic studies of air pollution.  

PubMed Central

As we increasingly recognize the complexity of the pollutants in indoor and outdoor microenvironments, a broad array of inhaled mixtures has assumed scientific, public health, and regulatory importance. Few adverse effects of environmental pollutants are specific, that is, uniquely associated with a single agent; the adverse effects that might be considered in an investigation of the consequences of exposure to an inhaled complex mixture are generally nonspecific. In the context of this paper, we will refer to binary mixtures as complex, though we realize that a more precise definition of complexity would restrict the term to mixtures of three or more constituents. Their causes potentially include not only pollutant exposures through the medium of inhaled air but other environmental agents, such as infectious organisms and radiation, and inherent characteristics of the exposed persons, such as atopy. We review the outcome measures that have been used in epidemiologic studies of the health effects of single pollutants and complex mixtures. Some of these outcome measures have been carefully standardized, whereas others need similar standardization and modification to improve sensitivity and specificity for investigating the health effects of air pollution. PMID:8206024

Samet, J M; Speizer, F E

1993-01-01

291

Impaired visibility: the air pollution people see  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Almost every home and office contains a portrayal of a scenic landscape whether on a calendar, postcard, photograph, or painting. The most sought after locations boast a scenic landscape right outside their window. No matter what the scene - mountains, skyscrapers, clouds, or pastureland - clarity and vividness are essential to the image. Air pollution can degrade scenic vistas, and in extreme cases, completely obscure them. Particulate matter suspended in the air is the main cause of visibility degradation. Particulate matter affects visibility in multiple ways: obscures distant objects, drains the contrast from a scene, and discolors the sky. Visibility is an environmental quality that is valued for aesthetic reasons that are difficult to express or quantify. Human psychology and physiology are sensitive to visual input. Visibility has been monitored throughout the world but there are few places where it is a protected resource. Existing health-based regulations are weak in terms of visibility protection. Various techniques, including human observation, light transmission measurements, digital photography, and satellite imaging, are used to monitor visibility. As with air pollution, trends in visibility vary spatially and temporally. Emissions from the developing world and large scale events such as dust storms and wildfires affect visibility around much of the globe.

Hyslop, Nicole Pauly

292

Air pollution: Remote sensing. (Latest citations from the Aerospace database). Published Search  

SciTech Connect

The bibliography contains citations concerning the application of remote sensing to air pollution detection. Remote sensing techniques discussed include radar scattering, aerial and spaceborne photography, microwave radiometry, and thermal imaging. Applications include the monitoring of stack gas emissions, vegetation emissions, forest fires, episodic air pollution, exhaust emissions, chlorohydrocarbons, urban smog, and general aspects of air pollution monitoring and identification. Remote sensing techniques applied to ocean pollution are discussed in a separate bibliography. (Contains 250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

Not Available

1993-09-01

293

Air pollution and infant mortality from pneumonia  

SciTech Connect

This study examines the relationship between air pollution, measured as concentration of suspended particulates in the atmosphere, and infant mortality due to pneumonia in the metropolitan area of Rio de Janeiro. Multiple linear regression (progressive or stepwise method) was used to analyze infant mortality due to pneumonia, diarrhea, and all causes in 1980, by geographic area, income level, and degree of contamination. While the variable proportion of families with income equivalent to more than two minimum wages was included in the regressions corresponding to the three types of infant mortality, the average contamination index had a statistically significant coefficient (b = 0.2208; t = 2.670; P = 0.0137) only in the case of mortality due to pneumonia. This would suggest a biological association, but, as in any ecological study, such conclusions should be viewed with caution. The authors believe that air quality indicators are essential to consider in studies of acute respiratory infections in developing countries.

Penna, M.L.; Duchiade, M.P. (Instituto de Medicina Social, Universidad del Estado del Rio de Janeiro (Brasil))

1991-03-01

294

Environmental Regulations, Air and Water Pollution, & Infant Mortality in India  

E-print Network

Using the most comprehensive data file ever compiled on air pollution, water pollution, environmental regulations, and infant mortality from a developing country, the paper examines the effectiveness of India’s environmental ...

Greenstone, Michael

2011-07-01

295

Air pollution measurements in traffic tunnels.  

PubMed

Air pollution measurements during April 1991 are reported from the Craeybeckx highway tunnel in Antwerp, Belgium. The tunnel was used daily by an average of 45,000 vehicles, of which 60% were gasoline fueled passenger cars, 20% diesel cars, and 20% trucks. Of the gasoline cars, only 3% had three-way catalysts. Tunnel air concentrations of nitrogen oxides, sulphur dioxide, carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, nonmethane hydrocarbons, volatile organic compounds, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, and lead are presented. The traffic emissions in the tunnel are calculated by the carbon balance method, which uses the increase of the total carbon concentration in the tunnel air as the reference quantity. Division of the concentration of any pollutant by the total carbon concentration gives emission factors per kilogram of carbon. These emission factors can be converted directly to emissions relative to fuel consumption or per kilometer. The fraction of diesel used in the tunnel was derived from sulphur to carbon ratios in tunnel air. A calculation procedure with breakdown of emission factors according to vehicle categories was used to estimate countrywide emissions. The estimated emissions were compared to results from the Flanders Emissions Inventory [Emissie Inventaris Vlaamse Regio (EIVR)] and calculated emissions according to the emission factors proposed by the European Commissions CORINAIR Working Group. For NOx there is excellent agreement. For carbon monoxide and hydrocarbons, the tunnel data produced higher emissions than the CORINAIR model would predict but lower than the official EIVR statistics. The estimated lead emissions from traffic are found to be 22 to 29% of the lead in gasoline. PMID:7529706

De Fré, R; Bruynseraede, P; Kretzschmar, J G

1994-10-01

296

Air pollution measurements in traffic tunnels.  

PubMed Central

Air pollution measurements during April 1991 are reported from the Craeybeckx highway tunnel in Antwerp, Belgium. The tunnel was used daily by an average of 45,000 vehicles, of which 60% were gasoline fueled passenger cars, 20% diesel cars, and 20% trucks. Of the gasoline cars, only 3% had three-way catalysts. Tunnel air concentrations of nitrogen oxides, sulphur dioxide, carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, nonmethane hydrocarbons, volatile organic compounds, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, and lead are presented. The traffic emissions in the tunnel are calculated by the carbon balance method, which uses the increase of the total carbon concentration in the tunnel air as the reference quantity. Division of the concentration of any pollutant by the total carbon concentration gives emission factors per kilogram of carbon. These emission factors can be converted directly to emissions relative to fuel consumption or per kilometer. The fraction of diesel used in the tunnel was derived from sulphur to carbon ratios in tunnel air. A calculation procedure with breakdown of emission factors according to vehicle categories was used to estimate countrywide emissions. The estimated emissions were compared to results from the Flanders Emissions Inventory [Emissie Inventaris Vlaamse Regio (EIVR)] and calculated emissions according to the emission factors proposed by the European Commissions CORINAIR Working Group. For NOx there is excellent agreement. For carbon monoxide and hydrocarbons, the tunnel data produced higher emissions than the CORINAIR model would predict but lower than the official EIVR statistics. The estimated lead emissions from traffic are found to be 22 to 29% of the lead in gasoline. PMID:7529706

De Fré, R; Bruynseraede, P; Kretzschmar, J G

1994-01-01

297

Analytical Techniques Used in Monitoring of Atmospheric Air Pollutants  

Microsoft Academic Search

The air pollution monitoring is one of the most pressing environmental problems today. The paper describes common air pollutants, their interaction and impact on the environment, and classifies the techniques and methods applied in air studies. Furthermore, the review characterizes the selected collection and sampling techniques used for gas sample analysis. Finally, the schematic diagrams of typical designs of systems

Magdalena Michulec; Waldemar Wardencki; Monika Partyka; Jacek Namie?nik

2005-01-01

298

THE CHALLENGES OF AIR POLLUTION AND RESIDUAL RISK ASSESSMENT (EDITORIAL)  

EPA Science Inventory

The Clean Air Act (CAA), a comprehensive federal law that regulates air pollution from stationary and mobile sources, was first passed in 1963. The act has provided the primary framework for protecting human health and the environment. The CAA divides air pollutants into "criteri...

299

Spatial Analysis of Air Pollution and Mortality in Los Angeles  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: The assessment of air pollution exposure using only community average concentrations may lead to measurement error that lowers estimates of the health burden attributable to poor air quality. To test this hypothesis, we modeled the association between air pollution and mortality using small-area exposure measures in Los Angeles, California. Methods: Data on 22,905 subjects were extracted from the Amer-

Michael Jerrett; Richard T. Burnett; Renjun Ma; C Arden Pope; Daniel Krewski; K Bruce Newbold; George Thurston; Yuanli Shi; Norm Finkelstein; Eugenia E. Calle; Michael J. Thun

2005-01-01

300

Literature Review of Air Pollution Control Biofilters and Biotrickling  

E-print Network

Literature Review of Air Pollution Control Biofilters and Biotrickling Filters for Odor Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants and Title V permitting) as well as local and state for the treatment of complex odorous waste air containing hydrogen sulfide (H2S), organic reduced sulfur com- pounds

301

Controlling Urban Air Pollution: A Benefit-Cost Assessment.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The pros and cons of air pollution control efforts are discussed. Both national and regional air pollution control plans are described. Topics of discussion include benefit-cost analysis, air quality regulation, reducing ozone in the urban areas, the Los Angeles plan, uncertainties, and policy implications. (KR)

Krupnick, Alan J.; Portney, Paul R.

1991-01-01

302

Factal analysis of the dispersion of air pollutants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Factal analysis is a technique that can be utilized to assess the actual contribution of air pollutants to air quality and also to evaluate their effects following dispersion to surrounding locations. A large opencast coal project was chosen as the study area. This paper examines the sources of air pollution in the study area and focuses on the superimposition of

Mrinal K. Ghose

2006-01-01

303

RESEARCH AREA -- FLUE GAS CLEANING (AIR POLLUTION TECHNOLOGY BRANCH, AIR POLLUTION PREVENTION AND CONTROL DIVISION, NRMRL)  

EPA Science Inventory

The Air Pollution Technology Branch's (APPCD, NRMRL)flue gas cleaning program supports New Source Performance Standards regulations development and has fostered the development of technologies that today are considered industry standards. These include both dry and wet flue gas d...

304

Using air pollution based community clusters to explore air pollution health effects in children  

Microsoft Academic Search

To study respiratory health effects of long-term exposure to ambient air pollutant mixture, we observed 7058 school children 5–16 years of age living in the four Chinese cities of Lanzhou, Chongqing, Wuhan, and Guangzhou. These children were enrolled from elementary schools located in eight districts, one urban district and one suburban district in each of the above cities. Ambient levels

Zhengmin Qian; Robert S. Chapman; Wei Hu; Fusheng Wei; Leo R. Korn

2004-01-01

305

POINTS-OF-CONTACT (AIR POLLUTION TECHNOLOGY BRANCH, AIR POLLUTION PREVENTION AND CONTROL DIVISION, NRMRL)  

EPA Science Inventory

The Air Pollution Technology Branch's (APTB) Point-of-Contact page lists APTB research areas along with the name, telephone number, and e-mail address for each responsible person. APTB's research areas include NOx Control, Hazardous Waste Incineration, Municipal Waste Combustion,...

306

Feasibility of using the MIRADS data management system for a state air pollution agency  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The MIRADS is a generalized data management system. The feasibility of using MIRADS by the State of Alabama Air Pollution Control Commission is explored. The State's enforcement management system and the emission inventory system were implemented into MIRADS.

Schroer, B. J.

1975-01-01

307

IDENTIFICATION OF FACTORS RESULTING IN SUSCEPTIBILITY TO THE EFFECTS OF AIR POLLUTANTS  

EPA Science Inventory

Understanding the underlying physiological processes which may account for pollution-associated health effects is an important research priority for the EPA. Numerous epidemiologic time-series studies have shown generally consistent associations of outdoor (ambient) air pollutio...

308

75 FR 37727 - Disapproval of California State Implementation Plan Revisions, Monterey Bay Unified Air Pollution...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Unified Air Pollution Control District AGENCY: Environmental...Unified Air Pollution Control District (MBUAPCD...standards related to multiple pollutants, including...business hours with the contact listed in the FOR FURTHER...protection, Air pollution control, Incorporation by...

2010-06-30

309

Synoptic weather patterns and modification of the association between air pollution and human mortality  

E-print Network

Synoptic weather patterns and modification of the association between air pollution and human pollution and mortality, an examination of air pollution and human mortality associations (ecologic) using hybrid spatial synoptic classification procedures was conducted. Concentrations of air pollutants

Sheridan, Scott

310

A model of air traffic assignment as part of airport air pollution management system  

Microsoft Academic Search

The critical concern of modern airports is the air pollution generated by air traffic and its impact on the airport environment. Air pollution is an unavoidable consequence of air traffic, but it can be reduced in numerous ways, including technical innovations in aircraft design and legislation. This paper presents a model of air traffic assignment as a measure to mitigate

Petar Mirosavljevi?; Slobodan Gvozdenovi?; Olja ?okorilo

2011-01-01

311

Remedial measures to reduce air pollution losses in horticulture  

SciTech Connect

Since air pollution injury to horticulture plants has not been controlled by reduction at the source, other methods of protection must, therefore, be considered. Factors influencing air pollution injury to plants are discussed. Several environmental, soil, and physiological factors influence plant response to air pollutants. Regulation of these factors may lead to the ability to reduce the plant's sensitivity to injurious gases. The effects of nutrients on the response of plants of air pollutants are described, especially the effects of nitrogen. Cultural practices, chemical protectants, cultivar sensitivity and plant breeding, all of which affect the damage caused by gaseous air pollutants, are described. Detailed and complete economic studies are needed to document losses caused by air pollutants to assess their impacts on horticulture.

Kender, W.J.; Forsline, P.L.

1983-10-01

312

The Role of Air Pollutants in Initiating Liver Disease  

PubMed Central

Recent episodes of severe air pollution in eastern Asia have been reported in the scientific literature and news media. Therefore, there is growing concern about the systemic effects of air pollution on human health. Along with the other well-known harmful effects of air pollution, recently, several animal models have provided strong evidence that air pollutants can induce liver toxicity and act to accelerate liver inflammation and steatosis. This review briefly describes examples where exposure to air pollutants was involved in liver toxicity, focusing on how particulate matter (PM) or carbon black (CB) may be translocated from lung to liver and what liver diseases are closely associated with these air pollutants. PMID:25071914

Kim, Jong Won; Park, Surim; Lim, Chae Woong; Lee, Kyuhong

2014-01-01

313

Interaction of air pollutants and pulmonary allergic responses in experimental animals  

Microsoft Academic Search

Asthma, which is primarily an allergic type of respiratory disease, has increased in the U.S and Europe by 30% over the last decade. Air pollution may play a role in this rise, since during episodes of smog, hospital admissions due to asthma increase. Ambient air quality has generally improved since the Clean Air Act was implemented in 1971 however, and

Matthew Ian Gilmour

1995-01-01

314

Motor Vehicles, Air Pollution, and Climate Change  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Despite years of technical progress, motor vehicles continue to be a leading cause of environmental damage in the United States. For example, today's cars and trucks are the largest source of air pollution in many urban areas. US motor vehicles also account for 25 percent of the nation's carbon emissions, more than most countries emit from all sources combined. Fortunately, a host of technical improvements are emerging that could go a long ways towards taking vehicles out of the pollution picture. In the near-term, improving on the century-old internal combustion engine can deliver much-needed incremental gains. But electric drive vehicles--whether powered by batteries, small engines in hybrid configuration, or fuel cells--ultimately offer the greatest promise. Such technologies could dramatically reduce energy use, greenhouse gas emissions, and key air pollutants. The bulk of technical attention in recent years has been focused on improving the passenger vehicle, which will be the dominant energy consumer in the transportation sector for years to come. But freight trucks are also of growing concern, both because their contribution to global warming is on the rise and because serious questions are being raised about the public health impact of diesel technology. As a result, heavy trucks are emerging as a priority issue. Capitalizing on the opportunity presented by new technologies will not only require continued technical innovation but also policy action. As research into improved engines, fuels, and drive systems bears fruit over the coming years, aggressive and prudent policies will ensure that these new options make it onto the road and deliver on their environmental promise.

Mark, Jason

2000-04-01

315

Air pollution and childhood asthma: recent advances and future directions  

PubMed Central

Purpose of review Current levels of air pollution are consistently associated with asthma development and morbidity among children, suggesting that current regulatory policies may be insufficient. This review will describe recent studies that have examined specific emission sources or components of pollutants that may be associated with pediatric asthma and identify subpopulations that may be particularly susceptible to the effects of air pollution exposure. Recent findings Important advances include new characterizations of the effects of traffic-related air pollution in urban areas. They also include the application of novel exposure and outcome measures such as pollution estimates derived from land use regression modeling and biological markers of airway inflammation. Additionally, studies have identified host susceptibility characteristics that may modify responses to air pollution exposure, including polymorphisms in oxidative stress genes and epigenetic alterations. Summary Identifying specific sources and toxic constituents of air pollution and accurately assessing air pollutant-related asthma outcomes are needed to better direct control strategies. Further research is needed to identify additional host factors that confer increased susceptibility to air pollution exposure. Future therapy to reduce the adverse effects of air pollution on respiratory disease will likely depend on targeting susceptible populations for intervention. PMID:19663041

Patel, Molini M.; Miller, Rachel L.

2009-01-01

316

Air pollution in Delhi: Its Magnitude and Effects on Health”  

PubMed Central

Air pollution is responsible for many health problems in the urban areas. Of late, the air pollution status in Delhi has undergone many changes in terms of the levels of pollutants and the control measures taken to reduce them. This paper provides an evidence-based insight into the status of air pollution in Delhi and its effects on health and control measures instituted. The urban air database released by the World Health Organization in September 2011 reported that Delhi has exceeded the maximum PM10 limit by almost 10-times at 198 ?g/m3. Vehicular emissions and industrial activities were found to be associated with indoor as well as outdoor air pollution in Delhi. Studies on air pollution and mortality from Delhi found that all-natural-cause mortality and morbidity increased with increased air pollution. Delhi has taken several steps to reduce the level of air pollution in the city during the last 10 years. However, more still needs to be done to further reduce the levels of air pollution. PMID:23559696

Rizwan, SA; Nongkynrih, Baridalyne; Gupta, Sanjeev Kumar

2013-01-01

317

Early Life Exposure to Air Pollution: How Bad Is It?  

PubMed Central

Increasing concentrations of air pollution have been shown to contribute to an enormity of adverse health outcomes worldwide, which have been observed in clinical, epidemiological, and animal studies as well as in vitro investigations. Recently, studies have shown that air pollution can affect the developing fetus via maternal exposure, resulting in preterm birth, low birth weight, growth restriction, and potentially adverse cardiovascular and respiratory outcomes. This review will provide a summary of the harmful effects of air pollution exposure on the developing fetus and infant, and suggest potential mechanisms to limit the exposure of pregnant mothers and infants to air pollution. PMID:23164674

Backes, Carl H.; Nelin, Timothy; Gorr, Matthew W.; Wold, Loren E.

2012-01-01

318

Possible molecular mechanisms linking air pollution and asthma in children  

PubMed Central

Background Air pollution has many effects on the health of both adults and children, but children’s vulnerability is unique. The aim of this review is to discuss the possible molecular mechanisms linking air pollution and asthma in children, also taking into account their genetic and epigenetic characteristics. Results Air pollutants appear able to induce airway inflammation and increase asthma morbidity in children. A better definition of mechanisms related to pollution-induced airway inflammation in asthmatic children is needed in order to find new clinical and therapeutic strategies for preventing the exacerbation of asthma. Moreover, reducing pollution-induced oxidative stress and consequent lung injury could decrease children’s susceptibility to air pollution. This would be extremely useful not only for the asthmatic children who seem to have a genetic susceptibility to oxidative stress, but also for the healthy population. In addition, epigenetics seems to have a role in the lung damage induced by air pollution. Finally, a number of epidemiological studies have demonstrated that exposure to common air pollutants plays a role in the susceptibility to, and severity of respiratory infections. Conclusions Air pollution has many negative effects on pediatric health and it is recognised as a serious health hazard. There seems to be an association of air pollution with an increased risk of asthma exacerbations and acute respiratory infections. However, further studies are needed in order to clarify the specific mechanism of action of different air pollutants, identify genetic polymorphisms that modify airway responses to pollution, and investigate the effectiveness of new preventive and/or therapeutic approaches for subjects with low antioxidant enzyme levels. Moreover, as that epigenetic changes are inheritable during cell division and may be transmitted to subsequent generations, it is very important to clarify the role of epigenetics in the relationship between air pollution and lung disease in asthmatic and healthy children. PMID:24581224

2014-01-01

319

Environment and air pollution: health services bequeath to grotesque menace.  

PubMed

The objective of the study is to establish the link between air pollution, fossil fuel energy consumption, industrialization, alternative and nuclear energy, combustible renewable and wastes, urbanization, and resulting impact on health services in Malaysia. The study employed two-stage least square regression technique on the time series data from 1975 to 2012 to possibly minimize the problem of endogeniety in the health services model. The results in general show that air pollution and environmental indicators act as a strong contributor to influence Malaysian health services. Urbanization and nuclear energy consumption both significantly increases the life expectancy in Malaysia, while fertility rate decreases along with the increasing urbanization in a country. Fossil fuel energy consumption and industrialization both have an indirect relationship with the infant mortality rate, whereas, carbon dioxide emissions have a direct relationship with the sanitation facility in a country. The results conclude that balancing the air pollution, environment, and health services needs strong policy vistas on the end of the government officials. PMID:25242593

Qureshi, Muhammad Imran; Rasli, Amran Md; Awan, Usama; Ma, Jian; Ali, Ghulam; Faridullah; Alam, Arif; Sajjad, Faiza; Zaman, Khalid

2014-09-23

320

76 FR 5277 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, Santa Barbara Air Pollution Control...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...State Implementation Plan, Santa Barbara Air Pollution Control District, Antelope Valley Air Quality Management District, Ventura County Air Pollution Control District and Placer County Air Pollution Control District AGENCY:...

2011-01-31

321

77 FR 214 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Plan, San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution Control District (SJVUAPCD...revisions to the San Joaquin Valley Air Pollution Control District (SJVUAPCD...and air districts for evaluating air pollution control economics. 3....

2012-01-04

322

77 FR 62452 - Approval and Promulgation of Implementation Plans; State of Arizona; Prevention of Air Pollution...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...State of Arizona; Prevention of Air Pollution Emergency Episodes AGENCY: Environmental...address the requirements regarding air pollution emergency episodes in Clean Air...address the requirements regarding air pollution emergency episodes in CAA...

2012-10-15

323

77 FR 21911 - Approval and Promulgation of Implementation Plans; State of Arizona; Prevention of Air Pollution...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...State of Arizona; Prevention of Air Pollution Emergency Episodes AGENCY: Environmental...address the requirements regarding air pollution emergency episodes in Clean Air...regarding authority to address air pollution emergency episodes and...

2012-04-12

324

76 FR 5319 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, Santa Barbara Air Pollution Control...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...State Implementation Plan, Santa Barbara Air Pollution Control District, Placer County Air Pollution Control District, Antelope Valley Air Quality Management District, and Ventura County Air Pollution Control District AGENCY:...

2011-01-31

325

Effects of Air Pollution on Respiratory Disease Asthma, closely associated with air pollution, affects nearly 15 million people in the United States, one-third of them  

E-print Network

Effects of Air Pollution on Respiratory Disease Asthma, closely associated with air pollution as a greater understanding of the types of air pollutants that cause the most harm. Seminal findings, supporting a proposed update to existing air quality standards. Air pollutant ozone causes childhood asthma

Schladow, S. Geoffrey

326

Air Pollution, Greenhouse Gases and Climate Change  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The global build up of greenhouse gases (GHGs), is the most significant environmental issue facing the planet. GHGs warm the surface and the atmosphere with significant implications for, rainfall, retreat of glaciers and sea ice, sea level, among other factors. What is less recognized, however, is a comparably major global problem dealing with air pollution. Until about ten years ago, air pollution was thought to be just an urban or a local problem. But new data have revealed that, due to fast long range transport, air pollution is transported across continents and ocean basins, resulting in trans-oceanic and trans-continental plumes of atmospheric brown clouds (ABCs) containing sub micron size particles, i.e, aerosols. ABCs intercept sunlight by absorbing as well as reflecting it, both of which lead to a large surface dimming. The dimming effect is enhanced further because aerosols nucleate more cloud drops which makes the clouds reflect more solar radiation. While the solar heating at the surface is reduced by aerosols in ABCs, the atmospheric solar heating increases due to soot solar absorption. The net difference between the dimming and the atmospheric solar heating is estimated be negative which contributes to a global cooling effect. The global cooling from this negative ABC forcing may have masked as much as 50% of the warming due to GHGs. We will identify regional and mega-city hot spots of ABCs. Long range transport from these hot spots gives rise to wide spread plumes over the adjacent oceans. Such a pattern of regionally concentrated surface dimming and atmospheric solar heating, accompanied by wide spread dimming over the oceans, gives rise to large regional effects. Only during the last decade, we have begun to comprehend the surprisingly large regional impacts. The large north-south gradient in the ABC dimming has altered the north-south gradients in sea surface temperatures, which in turn has been shown by models to decrease rainfall over the continents. The uncertainties in our understanding of the ABC effects are large, but we are discovering new ways in which human activities are changing the climate and the environment.

Ramanathan, V.

2007-12-01

327

Domestic air pollution from biomass burning in Kenya  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Biomass fuels, mainly wood, are burned under often primitive and inefficient conditions by about half the world's population as the major source of domestic energy. In a rural area in Kenya, air pollution measurements were carried out inside dwellings during the rainy season in connection with a WHO epidemiologic survey to the incidence of acute respiratory infections among children aged below 5 years. Respirable particles and NO 2 were found in the order of, respectively, 10 times higher (mean 1400 ?g m -3) and as high (mean 180 ?g m -3) as recommended air quality guidelines for the general population. Also the levels of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons were very high. No relation could be detected between the number of acute respiratory infection episodes of the children and indoor air quality. This could be explained by the fact that the concentrations were very homogeneously distributed among the population.

Boleij, Jan S. M.; Ruigewaard, Pieter; Hoek, Fred; Thairu, H.; Wafula, E.; Onyango, F.; de Koning, Henk

328

Minimum cost air pollution control for cotton gins  

E-print Network

With the implementation of the 1990 Federal Clean Air Act Amendments (CAAA), State Air Pollution Regulatory Agencies (SAPRA's) are regulating agricultural operations across the U.S. more vigorously. Some of these agricultural operations experiencing...

Flannigan, Steven Shawnacy

2012-06-07

329

Plasma treatment of air pollution control residues.  

PubMed

Air pollution control (APC) residues from waste incineration have been blended with silica and alumina and the mix melted using DC plasma arc technology. The chemical composition of the fully amorphous homogeneous glass formed has been determined. Waste acceptance criteria compliance leach testing demonstrates that the APC residue derived glass releases only trace levels of heavy metals (Pb (<0.007mg/kg) and Zn (0.02mg/kg)) and Cl(-) (0.2mg/kg). These are significantly below the limit values for disposal to inert landfill. It is concluded that plasma treatment of APC residues can produce an inert glass that may have potential to be used either in bulk civil engineering applications or in the production of higher value glass-ceramic products. PMID:17702563

Amutha Rani, D; Gomez, E; Boccaccini, A R; Hao, L; Deegan, D; Cheeseman, C R

2008-01-01

330

King Coal causes air pollution problems.  

PubMed

Every year, China is blanketed with some 23 million tons of particulates from smoke and dust along with 17 million tons of sulphur dioxide from the use of coal in power plants, factories, and home furnaces. Elevated concentrations of sulphur dioxide are found in cities like Chongqing and Guiyang, which are plagued by stagnant air masses during the winter months. Beijing, Shenyang, Shanghai, Xi'an, Guangzhou, Chongqing, and Guiyang all suffer from soot, ash, and dust fallout for much of the year. Northern cities like Beijing and Tianjin are also afflicted with high levels of heavy metals like lead, cadmium and even arsenic, which are bound to soot and dust particles. Hundreds of people in Xuanwei in Yunnan Province suffer from respiratory diseases and lung cancer brought on by pollution. Government studies have shown that between 1949 and 1979, cancer mortality in the Beijing area increased by 145%, with lung cancer being the most prevalent. Another atmospheric scourge that is spreading throughout China is acid rain. More than half of all rainfall events in large areas south of the Yangtze River have a pH of less than 5.6. The south-western part of China is also experiencing a forest dieback as severe as anything in Europe. For example, about half of all the pines on top of Mt. Nanshen (near Chongqing) have died, and nearly 40% of the fir forests on Mt. Emi have withered and died. On June 1, 1988, the National Prevention and Control of Air Pollution Law came into force. Acid rain research has been listed as one of the major priorities for the most recent National Five-Year Research Program, which runs from 1986 to 1990. For the future environmental protection measures must be taken into account when extracting coal; coal processing techniques must be improved: and new clean coal technologies should be introduced on a large scale. PMID:12291352

Wang, A; Zhao, D; Liu, J

1989-01-01

331

The Sources of Air Pollution and Their Control.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The problems of air pollution and its control are discussed. Major consideration is given the sources of pollution - motor vehicles, industry, power plants, space heating, and refuse disposal. Annual emission levels of five principle pollutants - carbon monoxide, sulfur dioxide, nitrogen oxides, hydrocarbons, and particulate matter - are listed…

National Air Pollution Control Administration (DHEW), Arlington, VA.

332

Air Pollution Data for Model Evaluation and Application  

EPA Science Inventory

One objective of designing an air pollution monitoring network is to obtain data for evaluating air quality models that are used in the air quality management process and scientific discovery.1.2 A common use is to relate emissions to air quality, including assessing ...

333

Spatial heterogeneity and air pollution removal by an urban forest  

Microsoft Academic Search

Estimates of air pollution removal by the urban forest have mostly been based on mean values of forest structure variables for an entire city. However, the urban forest is not uniformly distributed across a city because of biophysical and social factors. Consequently, air pollution removal function by urban vegetation should vary because of this spatial heterogeneity. This paper presents a

Francisco J. Escobedo; David J. Nowak

2009-01-01

334

APEX (Air Pollution Exercise) Volume 14; Developer's Manual No. 4.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Developer's Manual No. 4 is part of a set of 21 manuals (AA 001 009-001 029) used in APEX (Air Pollution Exercise), a computerized college and professional level "real world" game simulation of a community with urban and rural problems, industrial activities, and air pollution difficulties. The first two sections, which are the same in each of…

Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC. Office of Manpower Development.

335

APEX (Air Pollution Exercise) Volume 15: Developer's Manual No. 5.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Developer's Manual No. 5 is part of a set of 21 manuals (AA 001 009-001 029) used in APEX (Air Pollution Exercise), a computerized college and professional level "real world" game simulation of a community with urban and rural problems, industrial activities, and air pollution difficulties. The first two section, which are the same in each of…

Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC. Office of Manpower Development.

336

APEX (Air Pollution Exercise) Volume 17: Developer's Manual No. 7.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Developer's Manual No. 7 is part of a set of 21 manuals (AA 001 009-001 029) used in APEX (Air Pollution Exercise), a computerized college and professional level "real world" game simulation of a community with urban and rural problems, industrial activities, and air pollution difficulties. The first two sections, which are the same in each of…

Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC. Office of Manpower Development.

337

APEX (Air Pollution Exercise) Volume 16: Developer's Manual No. 6.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Developer's Manual No. 6 is part of a set of 21 manuals (AA 001 009-001 029) used in APEX (Air Pollution Exercise), a computerized college and professional level "real world" game simulation of a community with urban and rural problems, industrial activities, and air pollution difficulties. The first two sections, which are the same in each of…

Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC. Office of Manpower Development.

338

APEX (Air Pollution Exercise) Volume 11: Developer's Manual No. 1.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Developer's Manual No. 1 is part of a set of 21 manuals (AA 001 009-001 029) used in APEX (Air Pollution Exercise), a computerized college and professional level "real world" game simulation of a community with urban and rural problems, industrial activities, and air pollution difficulties. The first two sections, which are the same in each of…

Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC. Office of Manpower Development.

339

APEX (Air Pollution Exercise) Volume 5: County Politicians' Manual.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The County Politicians' Manual is part of a set of 21 manuals (AA 001 009-001 029) used in APEX (Air Pollution Exercise), a computerized college and professional level "real world" game simulation of a community with urban and rural problems, industrial activities, and air pollution difficulties. The first two sections, which are the same in each…

Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC. Office of Manpower Development.

340

APEX (Air Pollution Exercise) Volume 13: Developer's Manual No. 3.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Developer's Manual No. 3 is part of a set of 21 manuals (AA 001 009-001 029) used in APEX (Air Pollution Exercise), a computerized college and professional level "real world" game simulation of a community with urban and rural problems, industrial activities, and air pollution difficulties. The first two sections, which are the same in each of…

Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC. Office of Manpower Development.

341

APEX (Air Pollution Exercise) Volume 12: Developer's Manual No. 2.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Developer's Manual No. 2 is part of a set of 21 manuals (AA 001 009-001 029) used in APEX (Air Pollution Exercise), a computerized college and professional level "real world" game simulation of a community with urban and rural problems, industrial activities, and air pollution difficulties. The first two sections, which are the same in each of…

Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC. Office of Manpower Development.

342

APEX (Air Pollution Exercise) Volume 19: County Planner's Manual.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The County Planner's Manual is part of a set of 21 manuals (AA 001 009-001 029) used in APEX (Air Pollution Exercise), a computerized college and professional level "real world" game simulation of a community with urban and rural problems, industrial activities, and air pollution difficulties. The first two sections, which are the same in each of…

Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC. Office of Manpower Development.

343

APEX (Air Pollution Exercise) Volume 18: City Planner's Manual.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The City Planner's Manual is part of a set of 21 manuals (AA 001 009-001 029) used in APEX (Air Pollution Exercise), a computerized college and professional level "real world" game simulation of a community with urban and rural problems, industrial activities, and air pollution difficulties. The first two sections, which are the same in each of…

Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC. Office of Manpower Development.

344

APEX (Air Pollution Exercise) Volume 4: City Politicians' Manual.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The City Politicians' Manual is part of a set of 21 manuals (AA 001 009-001 029) used in APEX (Air Pollution Exercise), a computerized college and professional level "real world" game simulation of a community with urban and rural problems, industrial activities, and air pollution difficulties. The first two sections, which are the same in each of…

Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC. Office of Manpower Development.

345

Air Pollution and Health: Emerging Information on Susceptible Populations  

EPA Science Inventory

Outdoor air pollution poses risks to human health in communities around the world, and research on populations who are most susceptible continues to reveal new insights. Human susceptibility to adverse health effects from exposure to air pollution can be related to underlying dis...

346

Mortality, Temperature and Air Pollution in Palermo, Italy  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this paper is to show how short-term efiects of air pollution can depend on temperature in studying daily deaths in Palermo, Italy. The in?uence of both temperature and air pollution on mortality has been proved in several studies, but their synergic efiect, although suggested by someone, has never been explicitly modelled. The results, concerning mortality for all

Vito M. R. Muggeo; Gianfranco Lovison

347

40 CFR 52.1477 - Nevada air pollution emergency plan.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... 4 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Nevada air pollution emergency plan. 52.1477 Section 52.1477 Protection...IMPLEMENTATION PLANS (CONTINUED) Nevada § 52.1477 Nevada air pollution emergency plan. Section 6.1.5 of the...

2012-07-01

348

40 CFR 52.1477 - Nevada air pollution emergency plan.  

... 4 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Nevada air pollution emergency plan. 52.1477 Section 52.1477 Protection...IMPLEMENTATION PLANS (CONTINUED) Nevada § 52.1477 Nevada air pollution emergency plan. Section 6.1.5 of the...

2014-07-01

349

40 CFR 52.1477 - Nevada air pollution emergency plan.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... 4 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Nevada air pollution emergency plan. 52.1477 Section 52.1477 Protection...IMPLEMENTATION PLANS (CONTINUED) Nevada § 52.1477 Nevada air pollution emergency plan. Section 6.1.5 of the...

2013-07-01

350

40 CFR 52.1477 - Nevada air pollution emergency plan.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... 4 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Nevada air pollution emergency plan. 52.1477 Section 52.1477 Protection...IMPLEMENTATION PLANS (CONTINUED) Nevada § 52.1477 Nevada air pollution emergency plan. Section 6.1.5 of the...

2011-07-01

351

Novel Approaches for Estimating Human Exposure to Air Pollutants  

EPA Science Inventory

Numerous health studies have used measurements from a few central-site ambient monitors to characterize air pollution exposures. Relying on solely on central-site ambient monitors does not account for the spatial-heterogeneity of ambient air pollution patterns, the temporal varia...

352

Heart rate variability associated with particulate air pollution  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Epidemiologic studies have linked fine particulate air pollution with cardiopulmonary mortality, yet underlying biologic mechanisms remain unknown. Changes in heart rate variability (HRV) may reflect changes in cardiac autonomic function and risk of sudden cardiac death. This study evaluated changes in mean heart rate and HRV in human beings associated with changes in exposure to particulate air pollution. Methods:

C. Arden Pope; Richard L. Verrier; Eric G. Lovett; Andrew C. Larson; Mark E. Raizenne; Richard E. Kanner; Joel Schwartz; G. Martin Villegas; Diane R. Gold; Douglas W. Dockery

1999-01-01

353

Air Pollution Manual, Part 1--Evaluation. Second Edition.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Due to the great increase in technical knowledge and improvement in procedures, this second edition has been prepared to update existing information. Air pollution legislation is reviewed. Sources of air pollution are examined extensively. They are treated in terms of natural sources, man-made sources, metropolitan regional emissions, emission…

Giever, Paul M., Ed.

354

Discover-AQ flies in Calif. to study air pollution  

... title:  Discover-AQ flies in Calif. to study air pollution     See the Full Video ... one as close as 1,000 feet to the ground -- to measure air pollution. They are part of a five-year NASA science campaign called ...

2013-04-25

355

Air pollution from traffic in city districts near major motorways  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to assess exposure to air pollution from traffic of subjects living near motorways, traffic related air pollutants were measured indoors and outdoors in six city districts near motorways in the West of the Netherlands. Outdoor measurements of PM10, PM2.5, black smoke and benzene were conducted at four different distances from the roadside in two of the six city

Mirjam C Roorda-Knape; Nicole A. H Janssen; Jeroen J De Hartog; Patricia H. N Van Vliet; Hendrik Harssema; Bert Brunekreef

1998-01-01

356

Author's personal copy Heavy air pollution suppresses summer thunderstorms  

E-print Network

Author's personal copy Heavy air pollution suppresses summer thunderstorms in central China Xin China, for assessing the impact of the increasing air pollution on convective precipitation. Adding frequency. This decrease was contributed by light and moderate (o25 mm dayÃ?1 ) rainy days. These patterns

Li, Zhanqing

357

Methodological issues in studies of air pollution and reproductive health  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the past decade there have been an increasing number of scientific studies describing possible effects of air pollution on perinatal health. These papers have mostly focused on commonly monitored air pollutants, primarily ozone (O3), particulate matter (PM), sulfur dioxide (SO2), carbon monoxide (CO), and nitrogen dioxide (NO2), and various indices of perinatal health, including fetal growth, pregnancy duration, and

Tracey J. Woodruff; Jennifer D. Parker; Lyndsey A. Darrow; Rémy Slama; Michelle L. Bell; Hyunok Choi; Svetlana Glinianaia; Katherine J. Hoggatt; Catherine J. Karr; Danelle T. Lobdell; Michelle Wilhelm

2009-01-01

358

Forest fires, air pollution, and mortality in Southeast Asia  

Microsoft Academic Search

I assess the population health effects in Malaysia of air pollution from a widespread series of fires that occurred in Indonesia between April and November of 1997. I describe how the fires occurred and why the associated air pollution was so widespread and long lasting. The main objective is to uncover any mortality effects and to assess how large and

Narayan Sastry

2002-01-01

359

Road tunnel air pollution induces bronchoalveolar inflammation in healthy subjects  

Microsoft Academic Search

Traffic-related air pollution is associated with adverse respiratory effects. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether exposure to air pollution in a road tunnel causes airway inflammatory and blood coagulation responses. A total of 16 healthy subjects underwent bronchoscopy with bronchial mucosal biopsies and bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) on two occasions, in random order: once at 14 h

B. M. Larsson; M. Sehlstedt; J. Grunewald; C. M. Skold; A. Lundin; A. Blomberg; T. Sandstrom; A. Eklund; M. Svartengren

2007-01-01

360

Biological effects of air pollution in São Paulo and Cubatão  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rats were used as biological indicators of air quality in two heavily polluted Brazilian towns: Sao Paulo and Cubatao. They were exposed for 6 months to ambient air in areas where the pollution was known to be severe. The following parameters were studied and compared to those of control animals: respiratory mechanics, mucociliary transport, morphometry of respiratory epithelium and distal

G. M. S. Boehm; P. H. Saldiva; C. A. Pasqualucci; E. Massad; M. Martins; W. A. Zin; W. V. Cardoso; P. M. Criado; M. Komatsuzaki; R. S. Sakae

1989-01-01

361

Energy and Air Pollution: USA 1970-2020  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The United States power industry has entered a transitory period of major changes. Uncertainties abound about future levels of air pollution and air pollution control. Computer simulations based on the best currently available consensus can reveal patterns of possible future alternatives. Three scenarios representing probable developments are…

Smil, Vaclav

1975-01-01

362

microRNAs: Implications for Air Pollution Research  

EPA Science Inventory

The purpose of this review is to provide an update of the current understanding on the role of microRNAs in mediating genetic responses to air pollutants and to contemplate on how these responses ultimately control susceptibility to ambient air pollution. Morbidity and mortality ...

363

An Emerging Triad: Air Pollution, Beetles, and Wildfire  

E-print Network

An Emerging Triad: Air Pollution, Beetles, and Wildfire Tree Signals and Beetle Outbreaks Pacific stressed by drought and air pollution may attract bark beetles, which overwhelm the trees' defense mechanisms. Winter 2010 www.fs.fed.us/psw/ I n the past decade, bark beetles have killed millions of acres

Standiford, Richard B.

364

Air Pollution Monitoring Site Selection by Multiple Criteria Decision Analysis  

EPA Science Inventory

Criteria air pollutants (particulate matter, sulfur dioxide, oxides of nitrogen, volatile organic compounds, and carbon monoxide) as well as toxic air pollutants are a global concern. A particular scenario that is receiving increased attention in the research is the exposure to t...

365

Plug-in Sensors for Air Pollution Monitoring.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Faristors, a type of plug-in sensors used in analyzing equipment, are described in this technical report presented at the 12th Conference on Methods in Air Pollution and Industrial Hygiene Studies, University of Southern California, April, 1971. Their principles of operation, interchangeability, and versatility for measuring air pollution at…

Shaw, Manny

366

Air pollutant effects on fetal and early postnatal development  

Microsoft Academic Search

Numerical research on the health effects of air pollution has been pub- lished in the last decade. Epidemiological studies have shown that child- ren's exposure to air pollutants during fetal development and early post- natal life is associated with many types of health problems including abnormal development (low birth weight (LBW), very low birth weight (VLBW), preterm birth (PTB), intrauterine

Lei Wang; Kent E. Pinkerton

2007-01-01

367

Air Pollution and Infant Mortality in Mexico City  

EPA Science Inventory

Historic air pollution episodes of the 1950s led to acute increases in infant mortality, and some recent epidemiologic studies suggest that infant or child mortality may still result from air pollution at current levels. To investigate the evidence for such an association, we con...

368

Environmental economics: capital expenditures for air and water pollution control  

Microsoft Academic Search

A survey showed that in the period 1970-76, capital expenditures by industries and utilities for air pollution abatement of stationary sources was $19.8 billion compared with $12.9 billion for water pollution control. During the 1977-85 period, capital expenditures by industries and utilities for air pollution abatement are expected to total over $36 billion, of which $6.75 billion will be for

de la Rue

1977-01-01

369

The effect of air pollution on asthma and allergy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Air pollution exposure is associated with increased asthma and allergy morbidity and is a suspected contributor to the increasing\\u000a prevalence of allergic conditions. Observational studies continue to strengthen the association between air pollution and\\u000a allergic respiratory disease, whereas recent mechanistic studies have defined the prominent role of oxidative stress in the\\u000a proallergic immunologic effects of particulate and gaseous pollutants. The

Marc A. Riedl

2008-01-01

370

The health effects of exercising in air pollution.  

PubMed

The health benefits of exercise are well known. Many of the most accessible forms of exercise, such as walking, cycling, and running often occur outdoors. This means that exercising outdoors may increase exposure to urban air pollution. Regular exercise plays a key role in improving some of the physiologic mechanisms and health outcomes that air pollution exposure may exacerbate. This problem presents an interesting challenge of balancing the beneficial effects of exercise along with the detrimental effects of air pollution upon health. This article summarizes the pulmonary, cardiovascular, cognitive, and systemic health effects of exposure to particulate matter, ozone, and carbon monoxide during exercise. It also summarizes how air pollution exposure affects maximal oxygen consumption and exercise performance. This article highlights ways in which exercisers could mitigate the adverse health effects of air pollution exposure during exercise and draws attention to the potential importance of land use planning in selecting exercise facilities. PMID:24174304

Giles, Luisa V; Koehle, Michael S

2014-02-01

371

Air pollution legislation and regulation in the european community: A review essay  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Pollution control generally is moving from the specific to the general, from the local to the international, from reactive measures to foresight management, from emission based to technology forced, and from single media managed to integrated. These are trends only, but there is a persistence behind these trends. This suggests that air pollution legislation and regulation will be driven more by international protocols and commitments than by national interests. Since enforcement will remain primarily a national responsibility because individual countries vary in their enthusiasm to meet externally imposed air pollution legislation, the weak link in the regulatory chain may well prove to be practical implementation of legislative intent.

O'Riordan, Timothy

372

A critical review of studies of the association between demands for hospital services and air pollution.  

PubMed Central

Studies of the associations between air pollution and hospital admissions and emergency room use are reviewed, including studies of air pollution episodes, time-series analyses, and cross-sectional analyses. These studies encompass a variety of methods of analysis and levels of air quality. Findings from all three types of studies were generally consistent in that almost all of the studies reviewed found statistically significant associations between hospital use and air pollution; this unanimity may have resulted in part from publication bias. These associations were characterized by elasticities of the order of 0.20; i.e., a 100% change in air pollution was associated with a change in hospital use of about 20%, for specific diagnoses. Respiratory diagnoses were emphasized by most studies; cardiac diagnoses were included in five of them. The air pollutants most often associated with changes in hospital use were particulate matter, sulfur oxides, and oxidants. Apart from the major air pollution episodes, there was no obvious link between air pollution level and the significance or magnitudes of the associations. Long-term indicators of hospitalization appeared to also be influenced by medical care supply factors, including the numbers of beds and physicians per capita. These nonpathological causal factors could also have influenced the findings of the time-series studies by introducing extraneous factors in the patterns of admissions. Although consistent associations have been shown between hospital use and air pollution, further research is required to distinguish among potentially responsible pollutants and to deduce specific dose-response relationships of general utility. PMID:8243395

Lipfert, F W

1993-01-01

373

The remote sensing of air pollution from coal utilization  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An investigation was made to determine the feasibility of applying earth resources data to the detection of air pollution, particularly pollution from coal burning. Efforts were also made to detect any damage caused by such pollution to vegetation growth and tree life. Results show that vegetative vigor even at low ambient concentrations was damaged and that Eastern white pine trees were severely damaged by the pollutants.

Harney, B. M.; Mccrea, D. H.; Forney, A. J.

1972-01-01

374

Air Pollution and Mortality in 20 U.S. Cities Particulate Air Pollution and Mortality in 20 U.S. Cities: 1987-1994  

E-print Network

Air Pollution and Mortality in 20 U.S. Cities 1 Particulate Air Pollution and Mortality in 20 U Word Count: 3032 #12;Air Pollution and Mortality in 20 U.S. Cities 2 Abstract Background: Time-series analyses have linked contemporary levels of air pollution, particularly particles, to daily mortality

Dominici, Francesca

375

About the Air Pollution and Respiratory Health Program The Air Pollution and Respiratory Health Program of the National Center for Environmental Health, Centers for  

E-print Network

About the Air Pollution and Respiratory Health Program The Air Pollution and Respiratory Health indoor and outdoor air pollution. CDC's asthma program focuses on three main activities: (1) tracking public health agencies. For example, CDC staff are currently studying the effect of outdoor air pollution

376

Ambient air pollution and allergic diseases in children  

PubMed Central

The prevalence of allergic diseases has increased worldwide, a phenomenon that can be largely attributed to environmental effects. Among environmental factors, air pollution due to traffic is thought to be a major threat to childhood health. Residing near busy roadways is associated with increased asthma hospitalization, decreased lung function, and increased prevalence and severity of wheezing and allergic rhinitis. Recently, prospective cohort studies using more accurate measurements of individual exposure to air pollution have been conducted and have provided definitive evidence of the impact of air pollution on allergic diseases. Particulate matter and ground-level ozone are the most frequent air pollutants that cause harmful effects, and the mechanisms underlying these effects may be related to oxidative stress. The reactive oxidative species produced in response to air pollutants can overwhelm the redox system and damage the cell wall, lipids, proteins, and DNA, leading to airway inflammation and hyper-reactivity. Pollutants may also cause harmful effects via epigenetic mechanisms, which control the expression of genes without changing the DNA sequence itself. These mechanisms are likely to be a target for the prevention of allergies. Further studies are necessary to identify children at risk and understand how these mechanisms regulate gene-environment interactions. This review provides an update of the current understanding on the impact of air pollution on allergic diseases in children and facilitates the integration of issues regarding air pollution and allergies into pediatric practices, with the goal of improving pediatric health. PMID:22745642

Kim, Byoung-Ju

2012-01-01

377

Ambient air pollution and annoyance responses from pregnant women  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

ObjectivesTo describe the degree of annoyance caused by air pollution and noise in pregnant women in a birth cohort; to determine the modifying factors and their relation with exposure to ambient nitrogen dioxide (NO 2). MethodsThe study population was 855 pregnant women in Valencia, Spain. Annoyance caused by air pollution and noise, and explanatory factors were obtained from 786 pregnant women through a questionnaire. NO 2 levels were determined combining measurements at 93 points within the area of study and using geostatistical techniques (kriging). ResultsIn all 7.9% of the women reported high annoyance caused by air pollution and 13.1% high annoyance caused by noise. There was a significant difference in the degree of annoyance due to both air pollution and noise depending on the area where the women lived and their working status. The degree of annoyance correlated better with measured NO 2 at the municipality level (air pollution: r=0.53; noise: r=0.44) than at the individual level (air pollution and noise: r=0.21). On multivariate analysis, being a housewife, higher NO 2 levels and high traffic density were associated with higher degrees of annoyance. ConclusionsThere was a high percentage of women who perceived medium-high annoyance due to noise and air pollution. Annoyance caused by environmental pollutants could lead to some psychological effects, which impair the quality of life, or even physiological ones, which affect prenatal development.

Llop, Sabrina; Ballester, Ferran; Estarlich, Marisa; Esplugues, Ana; Fernández-Patier, Rosalia; Ramón, Rosa; Marco, Alfredo; Aguirre, Amelia; Sunyer, Jordi; Iñiguez, Carmen; INMA-Valencia cohort

378

Mold or Toxic Mold? An Indoor Air Pollutant Page 1 Mold or Toxic Mold? An Indoor Air Pollutant  

E-print Network

Mold or Toxic Mold? An Indoor Air Pollutant Page 1 Mold or Toxic Mold? An Indoor Air Pollutant Even media coverage over the last couple of years has been mold. While some molds can be a serious health threat, others, like the ones responsible for creating cheese and penicillin are beneficial. Molds

379

Pollution Control in a Manufacturing System Stochastic Models for Analysis and Control of Air Pollution  

E-print Network

-generation plants is a much-studied topic. The issue of health hazards arising from water pollution (see WagnerPollution Control in a Manufacturing System Stochastic Models for Analysis and Control of Air Pollution in a Manufacturing System Jan, 1, 2005 Technical Report SOPTL-05-01 Missouri University of Science

Gosavi, Abhijit

380

Epidemiologic evidence for asthma and exposure to air toxics: linkages between occupational, indoor, and community air pollution research.  

PubMed Central

Outdoor ambient air pollutant exposures in communities are relevant to the acute exacerbation and possibly the onset of asthma. However, the complexity of pollutant mixtures and etiologic heterogeneity of asthma has made it difficult to identify causal components in those mixtures. Occupational exposures associated with asthma may yield clues to causal components in ambient air pollution because such exposures are often identifiable as single-chemical agents (e.g., metal compounds). However, translating occupational to community exposure-response relationships is limited. Of the air toxics found to cause occupational asthma, only formaldehyde has been frequently investigated in epidemiologic studies of allergic respiratory responses to indoor air, where general consistency can be shown despite lower ambient exposures. The specific volatile organic compounds (VOCs) identified in association with occupational asthma are generally not the same as those in studies showing respiratory effects of VOC mixtures on nonoccupational adult and pediatric asthma. In addition, experimental evidence indicates that airborne polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) exposures linked to diesel exhaust particles (DEPs) have proinflammatory effects on airways, but there is insufficient supporting evidence from the occupational literature of effects of DEPs on asthma or lung function. In contrast, nonoccupational epidemiologic studies have frequently shown associations between allergic responses or asthma with exposures to ambient air pollutant mixtures with PAH components, including black smoke, high home or school traffic density (particularly truck traffic), and environmental tobacco smoke. Other particle-phase and gaseous co-pollutants are likely causal in these associations as well. Epidemiologic research on the relationship of both asthma onset and exacerbation to air pollution is needed to disentangle effects of air toxics from monitored criteria air pollutants such as particle mass. Community studies should focus on air toxics expected to have adverse respiratory effects based on biological mechanisms, particularly irritant and immunological pathways to asthma onset and exacerbation. PMID:12194890

Delfino, Ralph J

2002-01-01

381

Climate Change, Air Pollution, and the Economics of Health Impacts  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Climate change and air pollution are intricately linked. The distinction between greenhouse substances and other air pollutants is resolved at least for the time being in the context of international negotiations on climate policy through the identification of CO2, CH4, N2O, SF6 and the per- and hydro- fluorocarbons as substances targeted for control. Many of the traditional air pollutant emissions including for example CO, NMVOCs, NOx, SO2, aerosols, and NH3 also directly or indirectly affect the radiative balance of the atmosphere. Among both sets of gases are precursors of and contributors to pollutants such as tropopospheric ozone, itself a strong greenhouse gas, particulate matter, and other pollutants that affect human health. Fossil fuel combustion, production, or transportation is a significant source for many of these substances. Climate policy can thus affect traditional air pollution or air pollution policy can affect climate. Health effects of acute or chronic exposure to air pollution include increased asthma, lung cancer, heart disease and bronchitis among others. These, in turn, redirect resources in the economy toward medical expenditures or result in lost labor or non-labor time with consequent effects on economic activity, itself producing a potential feedback on emissions levels. Study of these effects ultimately requires a fully coupled earth system model. Toward that end we develop an approach for introducing air pollution health impacts into the Emissions Prediction and Policy Analysis (EPPA) model, a component of the MIT Integrated Global Systems Model (IGSM) a coupled economics-chemistry-atmosphere-ocean-terrestrial biosphere model of earth systems including an air pollution model resolving the urban scale. This preliminary examination allows us to consider how climate policy affects air pollution and consequent health effects, and to study the potential impacts of air pollution policy on climate. The novel contribution is the effort to endogenize air pollution impacts within the EPPA model, allowing us to study potential economic effects and feedbacks. We find strong interaction between air pollution and economies, although precise estimates of the effects require further investigation and refined resolution of the urban scale chemistry model.

Reilly, J.; Yang, T.; Paltsev, S.; Wang, C.; Prinn, R.; Sarofim, M.

2003-12-01

382

E-Alerts: Environmental pollution and control (air pollution and control). E-mail newsletter  

SciTech Connect

Topics of discussion include the following: Air pollution from flue gases, exhaust gases, odors, dust, smog, microorganisms, etc.; Control techniques and equipment; Sampling and analytical techniques, and equipment; Waste gas recovery; Biological and ecological effects; Air pollution chemistry; Acid precipitation; Atmospheric motion; Laws, legislation, and regulations; Public administration; Economics; Land use.

NONE

1999-04-01

383

76 FR 26224 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, Northern Sonoma County Air Pollution...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...California State Implementation Plan, Northern Sonoma County Air Pollution Control District...proposing to approve revisions to the Northern Sonoma County Air Pollution Control District...addresses the following local rules: Northern Sonoma County Air Pollution Control...

2011-05-06

384

76 FR 42052 - National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants From Petroleum Refineries  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants From Petroleum Refineries AGENCY: Environmental Protection...Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants From Petroleum Refineries. EPA is now providing final...Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants From Petroleum Refineries, and the signed rule...

2011-07-18

385

40 CFR 52.11 - Prevention of air pollution emergency episodes.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 false Prevention of air pollution emergency episodes. 52.11...Provisions § 52.11 Prevention of air pollution emergency episodes. (a) Each subpart identifies portions of the air pollution emergency episode...

2010-07-01

386

40 CFR 63.2850 - How do I comply with the hazardous air pollutant emission standards?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants: Solvent Extraction for...How do I comply with the hazardous air pollutant emission standards? ...reasonably preventable failure of air pollution control equipment or...

2013-07-01

387

40 CFR Appendix L to Part 51 - Example Regulations for Prevention of Air Pollution Emergency Episodes  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Example Regulations for Prevention of Air Pollution Emergency Episodes L Appendix...Example Regulations for Prevention of Air Pollution Emergency Episodes The example...recognized ways of preventing air pollution from reaching levels...

2012-07-01

388

40 CFR 52.1639 - Prevention of air pollution emergency episodes.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 false Prevention of air pollution emergency episodes. 52.1639... § 52.1639 Prevention of air pollution emergency episodes. (a...Environmental Improvement Board, entitled Air Pollution Episode Contingency Plan...

2013-07-01

389

40 CFR 63.13 - Addresses of State air pollution control agencies and EPA Regional Offices.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 false Addresses of State air pollution control agencies and EPA Regional...EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS FOR SOURCE CATEGORIES... § 63.13 Addresses of State air pollution control agencies and EPA...

2013-07-01

390

40 CFR 63.2850 - How do I comply with the hazardous air pollutant emission standards?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants: Solvent Extraction for...How do I comply with the hazardous air pollutant emission standards? ...reasonably preventable failure of air pollution control equipment or...

2012-07-01

391

40 CFR 63.13 - Addresses of State air pollution control agencies and EPA Regional Offices.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-07-01 false Addresses of State air pollution control agencies and EPA Regional...EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS FOR SOURCE CATEGORIES... § 63.13 Addresses of State air pollution control agencies and EPA...

2012-07-01

392

40 CFR 52.1639 - Prevention of air pollution emergency episodes.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 false Prevention of air pollution emergency episodes. 52.1639... § 52.1639 Prevention of air pollution emergency episodes. (a...Environmental Improvement Board, entitled Air Pollution Episode Contingency Plan...

2010-07-01

393

40 CFR 63.2850 - How do I comply with the hazardous air pollutant emission standards?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants: Solvent Extraction for...How do I comply with the hazardous air pollutant emission standards? ...reasonably preventable failure of air pollution control equipment or...

2011-07-01

394

40 CFR 52.1639 - Prevention of air pollution emergency episodes.  

...2014-07-01 false Prevention of air pollution emergency episodes. 52.1639... § 52.1639 Prevention of air pollution emergency episodes. (a...Environmental Improvement Board, entitled Air Pollution Episode Contingency Plan...

2014-07-01

395

40 CFR 63.13 - Addresses of State air pollution control agencies and EPA Regional Offices.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 false Addresses of State air pollution control agencies and EPA Regional...EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS FOR SOURCE CATEGORIES... § 63.13 Addresses of State air pollution control agencies and EPA...

2010-07-01

396

40 CFR 52.1639 - Prevention of air pollution emergency episodes.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-07-01 false Prevention of air pollution emergency episodes. 52.1639... § 52.1639 Prevention of air pollution emergency episodes. (a...Environmental Improvement Board, entitled Air Pollution Episode Contingency Plan...

2012-07-01

397

40 CFR 52.2227 - Prevention of air pollution emergency episodes.  

...2014-07-01 false Prevention of air pollution emergency episodes. 52.2227... § 52.2227 Prevention of air pollution emergency episodes. (a...actions for mobile sources during air pollution emergency episodes. [37...

2014-07-01

398

40 CFR 52.2227 - Prevention of air pollution emergency episodes.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-07-01 false Prevention of air pollution emergency episodes. 52.2227... § 52.2227 Prevention of air pollution emergency episodes. (a...actions for mobile sources during air pollution emergency episodes. [37...

2011-07-01

399

40 CFR Appendix L to Part 51 - Example Regulations for Prevention of Air Pollution Emergency Episodes  

...Example Regulations for Prevention of Air Pollution Emergency Episodes L Appendix...Example Regulations for Prevention of Air Pollution Emergency Episodes The example...recognized ways of preventing air pollution from reaching levels...

2014-07-01

400

40 CFR Appendix L to Part 51 - Example Regulations for Prevention of Air Pollution Emergency Episodes  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Example Regulations for Prevention of Air Pollution Emergency Episodes L Appendix...Example Regulations for Prevention of Air Pollution Emergency Episodes The example...recognized ways of preventing air pollution from reaching levels...

2013-07-01

401

40 CFR 63.13 - Addresses of State air pollution control agencies and EPA Regional Offices.  

...2014-07-01 false Addresses of State air pollution control agencies and EPA Regional...EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS FOR SOURCE CATEGORIES... § 63.13 Addresses of State air pollution control agencies and EPA...

2014-07-01

402

40 CFR Appendix L to Part 51 - Example Regulations for Prevention of Air Pollution Emergency Episodes  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Example Regulations for Prevention of Air Pollution Emergency Episodes L Appendix...Example Regulations for Prevention of Air Pollution Emergency Episodes The example...recognized ways of preventing air pollution from reaching levels...

2011-07-01

403

40 CFR 52.2227 - Prevention of air pollution emergency episodes.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 false Prevention of air pollution emergency episodes. 52.2227... § 52.2227 Prevention of air pollution emergency episodes. (a...actions for mobile sources during air pollution emergency episodes. [37...

2013-07-01

404

40 CFR 52.11 - Prevention of air pollution emergency episodes.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-07-01 false Prevention of air pollution emergency episodes. 52.11...Provisions § 52.11 Prevention of air pollution emergency episodes. (a) Each subpart identifies portions of the air pollution emergency episode...

2012-07-01

405

40 CFR 63.13 - Addresses of State air pollution control agencies and EPA Regional Offices.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-07-01 false Addresses of State air pollution control agencies and EPA Regional...EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS FOR SOURCE CATEGORIES... § 63.13 Addresses of State air pollution control agencies and EPA...

2011-07-01

406

40 CFR 52.11 - Prevention of air pollution emergency episodes.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-07-01 false Prevention of air pollution emergency episodes. 52.11...Provisions § 52.11 Prevention of air pollution emergency episodes. (a) Each subpart identifies portions of the air pollution emergency episode...

2011-07-01

407

40 CFR 52.2227 - Prevention of air pollution emergency episodes.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 false Prevention of air pollution emergency episodes. 52.2227... § 52.2227 Prevention of air pollution emergency episodes. (a...actions for mobile sources during air pollution emergency episodes. [37...

2010-07-01

408

40 CFR 52.11 - Prevention of air pollution emergency episodes.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 false Prevention of air pollution emergency episodes. 52.11...Provisions § 52.11 Prevention of air pollution emergency episodes. (a) Each subpart identifies portions of the air pollution emergency episode...

2013-07-01

409

40 CFR 63.2850 - How do I comply with the hazardous air pollutant emission standards?  

...National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants: Solvent Extraction for...How do I comply with the hazardous air pollutant emission standards? ...reasonably preventable failure of air pollution control equipment or...

2014-07-01

410

40 CFR Appendix L to Part 51 - Example Regulations for Prevention of Air Pollution Emergency Episodes  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Example Regulations for Prevention of Air Pollution Emergency Episodes L Appendix...Example Regulations for Prevention of Air Pollution Emergency Episodes The example...recognized ways of preventing air pollution from reaching levels...

2010-07-01

411

40 CFR 63.2850 - How do I comply with the hazardous air pollutant emission standards?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants: Solvent Extraction for...How do I comply with the hazardous air pollutant emission standards? ...reasonably preventable failure of air pollution control equipment or...

2010-07-01

412

40 CFR 52.11 - Prevention of air pollution emergency episodes.  

...2014-07-01 false Prevention of air pollution emergency episodes. 52.11...Provisions § 52.11 Prevention of air pollution emergency episodes. (a) Each subpart identifies portions of the air pollution emergency episode...

2014-07-01

413

Climate Policy Design: Interactions among Carbon Dioxide, Methane, and Urban Air Pollution Constraints  

E-print Network

Climate Policy Design: Interactions among Carbon Dioxide, Methane, and Urban Air Pollution Policy Design: Interactions among Carbon Dioxide, Methane, and Urban Air Pollution Constraints by Marcus. The third case examines the benefits of increased policy coordination between air pollution constraints

de Weck, Olivier L.

414

40 CFR 52.1639 - Prevention of air pollution emergency episodes.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-07-01 false Prevention of air pollution emergency episodes. 52.1639... § 52.1639 Prevention of air pollution emergency episodes. (a...Environmental Improvement Board, entitled Air Pollution Episode Contingency Plan...

2011-07-01

415

40 CFR 52.2227 - Prevention of air pollution emergency episodes.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-07-01 false Prevention of air pollution emergency episodes. 52.2227... § 52.2227 Prevention of air pollution emergency episodes. (a...actions for mobile sources during air pollution emergency episodes. [37...

2012-07-01

416

76 FR 298 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, San Joaquin Valley Air Pollution Control...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Implementation Plan, San Joaquin Valley Air Pollution Control District (SJVUAPCD...the San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution Control District (SJVUAPCD...for San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution Control District Rules 4402...

2011-01-04

417

76 FR 67366 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, Placer County Air Pollution Control...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Implementation Plan, Placer County Air Pollution Control District and Sacramento...revisions to the Placer County Air Pollution Control District (PCAPCD) and...52 Environmental protection, Air pollution control, Incorporation by...

2011-11-01

418

75 FR 24544 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, Placer County Air Pollution Control...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Implementation Plan, Placer County Air Pollution Control District, Sacramento...District, San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution Control District, and South Coast...revisions to the Placer County Air Pollution Control District...

2010-05-05

419

75 FR 2796 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, San Joaquin Valley Air Pollution Control...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Implementation Plan, San Joaquin Valley Air Pollution Control District AGENCY: Environmental...revisions to the San Joaquin Valley Air Pollution Control District portion of the...topcoats; and that Ventura County Air Pollution Control District's...

2010-01-19

420

76 FR 44809 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, Placer County Air Pollution Control...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Implementation Plan, Placer County Air Pollution Control District and Feather River...submitted for the Placer County Air Pollution Control District (PCAPCD) and...modified major stationary sources of air pollution. We are approving local...

2011-07-27

421

75 FR 56889 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, San Diego County Air Pollution Control...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Implementation Plan, San Diego County Air Pollution Control District AGENCY: Environmental...revisions to the San Diego County Air Pollution Control District (SDCAPCD) portion...52 Environmental protection, Air pollution control, Incorporation by...

2010-09-17

422

75 FR 45082 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, Santa Barbara County Air Pollution Control...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Implementation Plan, Santa Barbara County Air Pollution Control District AGENCY: Environmental...revisions to the Santa Barbara County Air Pollution Control District (SBCAPCD) portion...52 Environmental protection, Air pollution control, Intergovernmental...

2010-08-02

423

77 FR 73322 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, Monterey Bay Unified Air Pollution Control...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Implementation Plan, Monterey Bay Unified Air Pollution Control District AGENCY: Environmental...revisions to the Monterey Bay Unified Air Pollution Control District (MBUAPCD) portion...52 Environmental protection, Air pollution control, Incorporation by...

2012-12-10

424

76 FR 52623 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Plan, San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution Control District AGENCY: Environmental...the San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution Control District (SJVUAPCD...52 Environmental protection, Air pollution control, Intergovernmental...

2011-08-23

425

76 FR 26192 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, Northern Sonoma County Air Pollution...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Plan, Northern Sonoma County Air Pollution Control District (NSCAPCD) and...to the Northern Sonoma County Air Pollution Control District (NSCAPCD) and...52 Environmental protection, Air pollution control, Incorporation by...

2011-05-06

426

77 FR 24883 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Plan, San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution Control District AGENCY: Environmental...the San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution Control District (SJVUAPCD...52 Environmental protection, Air pollution control, Intergovernmental...

2012-04-26

427

75 FR 13468 - Disapproval of California State Implementation Plan Revisions, Monterey Bay Unified Air Pollution...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Revisions, Monterey Bay Unified Air Pollution Control District AGENCY: Environmental...revision to the Monterey Bay Unified Air Pollution Control District (MBAPCD) portion...52 Environmental protection, Air pollution control, Intergovernmental...

2010-03-22

428

75 FR 57862 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Plan, San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution Control District AGENCY: Environmental...the San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution Control District (SJVUAPCD...52 Environmental protection, Air pollution control, Incorporation by...

2010-09-23

429

77 FR 66548 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Plan, San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution Control District AGENCY: Environmental...the San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution Control District (SJVUAPCD...Plan, San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution Control District's Rule...

2012-11-06

430

75 FR 69002 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, Imperial County Air Pollution Control...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Implementation Plan, Imperial County Air Pollution Control District AGENCY: Environmental...revisions to the Imperial County Air Pollution Control District (ICAPCD) portion...and San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution Control District...

2010-11-10

431

77 FR 2228 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Plan, San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution Control District AGENCY: Environmental...the San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution Control District (SJVUAPCD...52 Environmental protection, Air pollution control, Incorporation by...

2012-01-17

432

75 FR 1284 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, Ventura County Air Pollution Control District  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Implementation Plan, Ventura County Air Pollution Control District AGENCY: Environmental...revisions to the Ventura County Air Pollution Control District (VCAPCD) portion...52 Environmental protection, Air pollution control, Incorporation by...

2010-01-11

433

76 FR 7142 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, Imperial County Air Pollution Control...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Implementation Plan, Imperial County Air Pollution Control District AGENCY: Environmental...revisions to the Imperial County Air Pollution Control District (ICAPCD) portion...permitting requirements, for various air pollution sources. We are taking...

2011-02-09

434

75 FR 8008 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, Imperial County Air Pollution Control...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Implementation Plan, Imperial County Air Pollution Control District AGENCY: Environmental...revisions to the Imperial County Air Pollution Control District (ICAPCD) portion...SCAQMD), San Joaquin Valley Air Pollution Control District...

2010-02-23

435

76 FR 14807 - Delegation of National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Source Categories...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...California, Santa Barbara County Air Pollution Control District AGENCY: Environmental...Department and the Santa Barbara County Air Pollution Control District within the past...to delegate to State or local air pollution control agencies the...

2011-03-18

436

75 FR 2079 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, San Joaquin Valley Air Pollution Control...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Implementation Plan, San Joaquin Valley Air Pollution Control District AGENCY: Environmental...revisions to the San Joaquin Valley Air Pollution Control District (SJVAPCD) portion... 3. B. San Joaquin Valley Air Pollution Control District Comments...

2010-01-14

437

76 FR 14839 - Delegation of National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Source Categories...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...California, Santa Barbara County Air Pollution Control District AGENCY: Environmental...and to the Santa Barbara County Air Pollution Control District on July 30...and the Santa Barbara County Air Pollution Control District. In the...

2011-03-18

438

76 FR 71886 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, Placer County Air Pollution Control...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Implementation Plan, Placer County Air Pollution Control District and Sacramento...revisions to the Placer County Air Pollution Control District (PCAPCD) and...52 Environmental protection, Air pollution control, Incorporation by...

2011-11-21

439

78 FR 6736 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, Placer County Air Pollution Control District  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Implementation Plan, Placer County Air Pollution Control District AGENCY: Environmental...revisions to the Placer County Air Pollution Control District (PCAPCD) portion...rules, however, provide for Air Pollution Control Officer (APCO)...

2013-01-31

440

77 FR 50021 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Plan, San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution Control District AGENCY: Environmental...of San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution Control District (SJVUAPCD...tailored to the nature of the air pollution sources in each state. The...

2012-08-20

441

75 FR 1716 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Plan, San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution Control District AGENCY: Environmental...the San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution Control District (SJVUAPCD...authority to regulate sources of air pollution. The fee provision of CAA...

2010-01-13

442

75 FR 60623 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Plan, San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution Control District AGENCY: Environmental...the San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution Control District (SJVUAPCD...2008) \\2\\; and Ventura County Air Pollution Control District (VCAPCD)...

2010-10-01

443

76 FR 26609 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Plan, San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution Control District AGENCY: Environmental...the San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution Control District (SJVUAPCD...v. San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution Control District (No....

2011-05-09

444

78 FR 23677 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, Imperial County Air Pollution Control...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Implementation Plan, Imperial County Air Pollution Control District AGENCY: Environmental...revisions to the Imperial County Air Pollution Control District (ICAPCD) portion...California including San Joaquin Valley Air Pollution Control District...

2013-04-22

445

76 FR 28944 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, Placer County Air Pollution Control...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Implementation Plan, Placer County Air Pollution Control District and Feather River...submitted for the Placer County Air Pollution Control District (PCAPCD) and...for new and modified sources of air pollution. If EPA finalizes the...

2011-05-19

446

76 FR 26615 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, Imperial County Air Pollution Control...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Implementation Plan, Imperial County Air Pollution Control District (ICAPCD) AGENCY...revisions to the Imperial County Air Pollution Control District portion of the...requirements and exemptions for various air pollution sources. We are approving...

2011-05-09

447

14 CFR 1274.926 - Clean Air-Water Pollution Control Acts.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 2010-01-01 false Clean Air-Water Pollution Control Acts. 1274.926 Section 1274...Conditions § 1274.926 Clean Air-Water Pollution Control Acts. Clean Air-Water Pollution Control Acts July 2002 If...

2010-01-01

448

14 CFR 1274.926 - Clean Air-Water Pollution Control Acts.  

... 2014-01-01 false Clean Air-Water Pollution Control Acts. 1274.926 Section 1274...Conditions § 1274.926 Clean Air-Water Pollution Control Acts. Clean Air-Water Pollution Control Acts July 2002 If...

2014-01-01

449

14 CFR 1274.926 - Clean Air-Water Pollution Control Acts.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... 2012-01-01 false Clean Air-Water Pollution Control Acts. 1274.926 Section 1274...Conditions § 1274.926 Clean Air-Water Pollution Control Acts. Clean Air-Water Pollution Control Acts July 2002 If...

2012-01-01

450

14 CFR 1274.926 - Clean Air-Water Pollution Control Acts.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... 2013-01-01 false Clean Air-Water Pollution Control Acts. 1274.926 Section 1274...Conditions § 1274.926 Clean Air-Water Pollution Control Acts. Clean Air-Water Pollution Control Acts July 2002 If...

2013-01-01

451

Boundary Layer Structure in the Inn Valley during High Air Pollution (INNAP) Institute of Meteorology and Geophysics (IMGI), University of Innsbruck, Austria  

E-print Network

Boundary Layer Structure in the Inn Valley during High Air Pollution (INNAP) 1 Institute sources, may be affected by air pollution since slope winds are able to transport pollutants even above project INNAP. DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSIONS In general, the three-dimensional distribution of air

Gohm, Alexander

452

Human exposure to urban air pollution.  

PubMed Central

This study deals with some methods of making human exposure estimates, aimed at describing the human exposure for selected air pollutants in Sweden that are suspected carcinogens. Nitrogen oxides (NOx) have been chosen as an indicator substance for estimating the concentration of the urban plume. Earlier investigations have shown that the traffic in Swedish cities contributes around 85% to the measured NOx concentrations, and that most of the mutagenicity in urban air originates from traffic. The first section of this paper describes measurements in Stockholm of some unregulated light hydrocarbons, such as ethene, ethyne, propane, propene, butane, and isobutane. In addition, measurements of some volatile aromatic hydrocarbons are presented. Simultaneous measurements of carbon monoxide (CO) were made. The ratios between CO and the individual specific compounds were determined by linear regression analysis. By analysis of relationships between CO and NOx, NOx concentrations can be used as a tracer to describe the exposure for these specific compounds. NOx are considered to be a better tracer than CO, because NOx or NO2 values exist for many places over a long time, while CO is measured mostly in streets with high concentrations. At low concentrations, instruments that measure normal CO levels give no detectable signals. Through use of atmospheric dispersion models and models that describe how people live and work in urban areas it has been possible to describe the average exposure to NOx in cities of different sizes. The exposure to NOx for people living in the countryside has also been estimated. In this way, it has been possible to calculate the average exposure dose for NOx for the Swedish population. This figure is 23 micrograms/m3. By use of the relationships between NOx and specific compounds the average dose has been calculated for the following compounds: polyaromatic compounds (PAH); ethene, propene, and butadiene; benzene, toluene, and xylene; formaldehyde and actaldehyde; nickel, chromium (VI), arsenic, and cadmium; asbestos; and silicon. PMID:7821294

Boström, C E; Almén, J; Steen, B; Westerholm, R

1994-01-01

453

The Adverse Effects of Air Pollution on the Nervous System  

PubMed Central

Exposure to ambient air pollution is a serious and common public health concern associated with growing morbidity and mortality worldwide. In the last decades, the adverse effects of air pollution on the pulmonary and cardiovascular systems have been well established in a series of major epidemiological and observational studies. In the recent past, air pollution has also been associated with diseases of the central nervous system (CNS), including stroke, Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, and neurodevelopmental disorders. It has been demonstrated that various components of air pollution, such as nanosized particles, can easily translocate to the CNS where they can activate innate immune responses. Furthermore, systemic inflammation arising from the pulmonary or cardiovascular system can affect CNS health. Despite intense studies on the health effects of ambient air pollution, the underlying molecular mechanisms of susceptibility and disease remain largely elusive. However, emerging evidence suggests that air pollution-induced neuroinflammation, oxidative stress, microglial activation, cerebrovascular dysfunction, and alterations in the blood-brain barrier contribute to CNS pathology. A better understanding of the mediators and mechanisms will enable the development of new strategies to protect individuals at risk and to reduce detrimental effects of air pollution on the nervous system and mental health. PMID:22523490

Genc, Sermin; Zadeoglulari, Zeynep; Fuss, Stefan H.; Genc, Kursad

2012-01-01

454

Spatial and temporal variability of air pollution in Birmingham, Alabama  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Quantification of the spatial and temporal variations of outdoor air pollutant concentrations provides important information for epidemiological and other air-pollution studies, many of which have relied in the past on data from a single, centrally-located air pollution monitoring site. A method is developed for combining air pollution measurements from multiple monitors and monitoring networks to generate daily air pollution concentration fields representing spatial variations over distances of approximately 1-10 km. Meteorological and co-pollutant data are used to estimate missing site measurements, yielding more realistic concentration fields as the number of monitoring locations with available data increases. Monitoring data are interpolated with weights computed from intersite pollutant correlations, which decay with distance, so distances between interpolation points and monitoring sites are factored into the interpolation weights. The approach minimizes the influence of source-oriented sites that represent limited areas, because data from such sites exhibit low intersite correlations and yield interpolation weights that decay rapidly to zero. Interpolated values represent pollutant concentrations averaged over spatial scales that depend on intersite distances and the interpolation grid, and do not delineate sharp spatial gradients associated with roadside or near-source conditions. The approach yields quantified interpolation errors the values of which depend on measurement uncertainties, intersite distances, and the representativeness of monitoring site locations. The method is illustrated using an 11-year period of measurements of ozone, PM2.5, and PM10 concentrations from Jefferson County, Alabama. The principal city is Birmingham, which is influenced by regional-scale air pollution and by local emissions from mobile sources, industrial facilities, and residential communities. Emission sources are not distributed uniformly throughout Birmingham, the ridge-and-valley topography complicates dispersion of local emissions, and monitoring data indicate that air pollutant concentrations vary spatially as well as temporally. No single monitor represents air quality across the entire study area.

Blanchard, C. L.; Tanenbaum, S.; Hidy, G. M.

2014-06-01

455

Session 3: Past, current and future exposure to air pollutants and its  

E-print Network

Session 3: Past, current and future exposure to air pollutants and its effects Chris Dibben, Tom measurements and model to evaluate spatial and temporal trends in air pollution exposure and resulting health Pollution legislation Price shocks #12;Air pollution trends-current Why are we interested in air pollution

456

Human health risks in megacities due to air pollution  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study evaluates the health risks in megacities in terms of mortality and morbidity due to air pollution. A new spreadsheet model, Risk of Mortality/Morbidity due to Air Pollution (Ri-MAP), is used to estimate the excess numbers of deaths and illnesses. By adopting the World Health Organization (WHO) guideline concentrations for the air pollutants SO 2, NO 2 and total suspended particles (TSP), concentration-response relationships and a population attributable-risk proportion concept are employed. Results suggest that some megacities like Los Angeles, New York, Osaka Kobe, Sao Paulo and Tokyo have very low excess cases in total mortality from these pollutants. In contrast, the approximate numbers of cases is highest in Karachi (15,000/yr) characterized by a very high concentration of total TSP (˜670 ?g m -3). Dhaka (7000/yr), Beijing (5500/yr), Karachi (5200/yr), Cairo (5000/yr) and Delhi (3500/yr) rank highest with cardiovascular mortality. The morbidity (hospital admissions) due to Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) follows the tendency of cardiovascular mortality. Dhaka and Karachi lead the rankings, having about 2100/yr excess cases, while Osaka-Kobe (˜20/yr) and Sao Paulo (˜50/yr) are at the low end of all megacities considered. Since air pollution is increasing in many megacities, and our database of measured pollutants is limited to the period up to 2000 and does not include all relevant components (e.g. O 3), these numbers should be interpreted as lower limits. South Asian megacities most urgently need improvement of air quality to prevent excess mortality and morbidity due to exceptionally high levels of air pollution. The risk estimates obtained from Ri-MAP present a realistic baseline evaluation for the consequences of ambient air pollution in comparison to simple air quality indices, and can be expanded and improved in parallel with the development of air pollution monitoring networks.

Gurjar, B. R.; Jain, A.; Sharma, A.; Agarwal, A.; Gupta, P.; Nagpure, A. S.; Lelieveld, J.

2010-11-01

457

A Wireless Sensor Network Air Pollution Monitoring System  

E-print Network

Sensor networks are currently an active research area mainly due to the potential of their applications. In this paper we investigate the use of Wireless Sensor Networks (WSN) for air pollution monitoring in Mauritius. With the fast growing industrial activities on the island, the problem of air pollution is becoming a major concern for the health of the population. We proposed an innovative system named Wireless Sensor Network Air Pollution Monitoring System (WAPMS) to monitor air pollution in Mauritius through the use of wireless sensors deployed in huge numbers around the island. The proposed system makes use of an Air Quality Index (AQI) which is presently not available in Mauritius. In order to improve the efficiency of WAPMS, we have designed and implemented a new data aggregation algorithm named Recursive Converging Quartiles (RCQ). The algorithm is used to merge data to eliminate duplicates, filter out invalid readings and summarise them into a simpler form which significantly reduce the amount of dat...

Khedo, Kavi K; Mungur, Avinash; Mauritius, University of; Mauritius,; 10.5121/ijwmn.2010.2203

2010-01-01

458

Air pollution and non-respiratory health hazards for children  

PubMed Central

Air pollution is a global health issue with serious public health implications, particularly for children. Usually respiratory effects of air pollutants are considered, but this review highlights the importance of non-respiratory health hazards. In addition to short-term effects, exposure to criteria air pollutants from early life might be associated with low birth weight, increase in oxidative stress and endothelial dysfunction, which in turn might have long-term effects on chronic non-communicable diseases. In view of the emerging epidemic of chronic disease in low- and middle- income countries, the vicious cycle of rapid urbanization and increasing levels of air pollution, public health and regulatory policies for air quality protection should be integrated into the main priorities of the primary health care system and into the educational curriculum of health professionals. PMID:22371790

Poursafa, Parinaz

2010-01-01

459

Biofiltration: An Innovative Air Pollution Control Technology For VOC Emissions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Biofiltration is a relatively recent air pollution control (APC) technology in which off-gases containing biodegradable volatile organic compounds (VOC) or inorganic air toxics are vented through a biologically active material. This technology has been successfully applied in Germany and The Netherlands in many full-scale applications to control odors, VOC and air toxic emissions from a wide range of industrial and

Gero Leson; Arthur M. Winer

1991-01-01

460

Air quality interventions and spatial dynamics of air pollution in Delhi and its surroundings  

PubMed Central

The paper examines the spatial distribution of air pollution in response to recent air quality regulations in Delhi, India. Air pollution was monitored at 113 sites spread across Delhi and its surrounding areas from July–December 2003. From the analysis of these data three important findings emerge. First, air pollution levels in Delhi and its surroundings were significantly higher than that recommended by the World Health Organization (WHO). Second, air quality regulations in the city adversely affected the air quality of the areas surrounding Delhi. Third, industries and trucks were identified as the major contributors of both fine and coarse particles. PMID:23105916

Kumar, Naresh; Foster, Andrew D.

2012-01-01

461

Air pollution and respiratory allergic diseases in schoolchildren  

PubMed Central

Study on the prevalence of allergic respiratory diseases in schoolchildren between six and seven years old, associated with indicators of air pollution. A questionnaire based on the International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood was administered to parents of students from public schools, located in urban areas with differing vehicle flows. There was a positive correlation between monthly frequency of rhinitis and concentration of pollutants, and negative with relative air humidity. Even with levels of air pollutants below that allowed by law, the prevalence of asthma, rhinitis and associated symptoms tended to be higher in the central region school, where there is heavy vehicular traffic. PMID:24897055

Nicolussi, Francine Heloisa; dos Santos, Ana Paula Milla; André, Sílvia Carla da Silva; Veiga, Tatiane Bonametti; Takayanagui, Angela Maria Magosso

2014-01-01

462

Air pollution and respiratory allergic diseases in schoolchildren.  

PubMed

Study on the prevalence of allergic respiratory diseases in schoolchildren between six and seven years old, associated with indicators of air pollution. A questionnaire based on the International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood was administered to parents of students from public schools, located in urban areas with differing vehicle flows. There was a positive correlation between monthly frequency of rhinitis and concentration of pollutants, and negative with relative air humidity. Even with levels of air pollutants below that allowed by law, the prevalence of asthma, rhinitis and associated symptoms tended to be higher in the central region school, where there is heavy vehicular traffic. PMID:24897055

Nicolussi, Francine Heloisa; dos Santos, Ana Paula Milla; André, Sílvia Carla da Silva; Veiga, Tatiane Bonametti; Takayanagui, Angela Maria Magosso

2014-04-01

463

Air pollution exposure: Who is at high risk?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This article reviews the sub-population groups who are at high risk and first to be harmed by air pollution coming from anthropogenic combustions. Epidemiological studies from the last few decades contributed to the understanding of the different levels of susceptibility to air pollution. Older people and young infants, people who suffer from allergies, pulmonary and heart diseases, pregnant women and newborn babies, and deprived populations that suffer from low socio-economic status have all been described as populations at risk. A better understanding of the role of air pollution on large as well as specific populations' health, will promote a better protection policy.

Peled, Ronit

2011-04-01

464

Air pollution episodes associated with East Asian winter monsoons.  

PubMed

A dozen multi-day pollution episodes occur from October to February in Hanoi, Vietnam due to prolonged anticyclonic conditions established after the northeast monsoon surges (cold surges). These winter pollution episodes (WPEs) account for most of the 24-h PM(10) exceedances and the highest concentrations of gaseous pollutants in Hanoi. In this study, WPEs were investigated using continuous air quality monitoring data and information on upper-air soundings and air mass trajectories. The 24-h pollutant concentrations are lowest during cold surges; concurrently rise thereafter reaching the highest levels toward the middle of a monsoon cycle, then decline ahead of the next cold surge. Each monsoon cycle usually proceeds through a dry phase and a humid phase as Asiatic continental cold air arrives in Hanoi through inland China then via the East China Sea. WPEs are associated with nighttime radiation temperature inversions (NRTIs) in the dry phase and subsidence temperature inversions (STIs) in the humid phase. In NRTI periods, the rush hour pollution peak is more pronounced in the evening than in the morning and the pollution level is about two times higher at night than in daytime. In STI periods, broad morning and evening traffic peaks are observed and pollution is as high at night as in daytime. The close association between pollution and winter monsoon meteorology found in this study for the winter 2003-04 may serve as a basis for advance warning of WPEs and for forecasting the 24-h pollutant concentrations. PMID:21925714

Hien, P D; Loc, P D; Dao, N V

2011-11-01

465

[Air pollution and health - counselling options for physicians].  

PubMed

While air quality is usually an environmental condition patients can little do about, there are a few options and decisions that modify the personal exposure and risk. Location - in particular the residence - time and activity are the key determinants of personal exposure. Traffic-related primary pollutants such as ultrafine particles or diesel soot are highly concentrated along busy roads but reach urban background concentrations already some 100 - 200 meters off. Morbidity and mortality follow this spatial pattern, which is usually attributed to these pollutants. Depending on ventilation systems, indoor exposure can be substantially lower. Studies done in China confirm that the use of face masks in extremely polluted cities can reduce exposure, resulting in lower inflammatory and cardiovascular responses. A diet rich in antioxidants appears to also reduce some of the oxidative and inflammatory effects of air pollution and treatments such as leucotrien receptor antagonists or statins pay interfere with some of the adverse effects of pollution. However, the benefits, if any, are unlikely to be large. A quantitative comparison of the various pollution related health effects - namely from smoking, passive smoking and air pollution - reveal a typical paradox to be well understood: the individual risks related to air pollution and that one may reduce through personal decisions are rather small. However, given the large number of people exposed (i. e. in essence the entire population), the overall air pollution related health burden is rather substantial. This underscores that sustained clean air policies are indeed the most important and efficient solution to reduce the air pollution related health effects. PMID:24297858

Künzli, Nino; Kutlar, Meltem

2013-12-01

466

Air pollution as a risk factor in lung cancer  

SciTech Connect

Retrospective data on residential and employment history and on smoking were obtained from 417 white male lung cancer patients and 752 controls with nonrespiratory, nonneoplastic diseases, from Erie County, New York, admitted to Roswell Park Memorial Institute from 1957-1965. Total suspended particulate data and a historical review of problem point sources of pollution were used to delineate air pollution zones. The findings did not support the hypothesis that air pollution alone significantly increased risk for lung cancer. However, there was increased risk from smoking and occupational exposures if there was also long-term exposure to air pollution. The risk for heavy smokers with heavy exposure to air pollution was over four times that of men with none of the high exposure traits. The findings suggest an apparent synergistic mechanism involving smoking and air pollution and smoking and occupational exposures. The findings are consistent with previous epidemiologic studies and with biologic and experimental evidence. The limitations of the methods used here necessitate further study and replication. However, the study indicates that air pollution should not be dismissed as a risk factor in lung cancer.

Vena, J.E.

1982-07-01

467

Air Pollution in Megacity Beijing and North China Plain  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Megacities Beijing is located in North China Plain, which is the region with the highest level of air pollution on the earth. Many studies have been conducted in this region to characterize the air pollutants at local and regional scales, to understand the transport and transformation processes of atmospheric pollution, and to evaluate the impacts of aerosol on climate and cloud formation. Due to its vast area and intensive air pollution, when the fresh emitted air pollutants interact with the aged air pollution plume, it is interest to further explore many scientific questions, such as: 1. Mechanisms for the producing, cycling, and sinks of HOx radicals; 2. Mechanisms of ozone, new particle, and secondary aerosol particles formation; 3. Oxidative capacity and the multiphase reaction on the surface of fine particles; 4. Optical and hygroscopic properties of aerosol and their implication in climate impacts. To address these scientific questions, a field campaign, CAREBEIJING-NCP (Campaigns of Air Pollution Research in Megacity Beijing and North China Plain) is planned in the summer of 2013, as a follow up of CAREBEIJING 2006, 2007, and 2008, but the study region is larger and will cover the North China Plain. Preliminary results of CAREBEIJING-NCP 2013 will be presented.

Zhu, T.

2013-12-01

468

Decision support system for the evaluation of urban air pollution control options: Application for particulate pollution in Thessaloniki, Greece  

Microsoft Academic Search

Development of strategies to control urban air pollution is a complex and multi-disciplinary process involving a wide range of scientists with different expertise and interests. This paper presents an integrated assessment methodological scheme for the evaluation of air pollution control measures that are put forward in order to reduce sufficiently air pollution levels in urban areas. Forming long-term, efficient air

Ch. Vlachokostas; Ch. Achillas; ?. Moussiopoulos; E. Hourdakis; G. Tsilingiridis; L. Ntziachristos; G. Banias; N. Stavrakakis; C. Sidiropoulos

2009-01-01

469

Ongoing observational studies of the human health effects of particulate air pollution being conducted by New York University  

Microsoft Academic Search

Investigations of the association between ambient air pollution and adverse respiratory health effects in the general population are of continuing public health and policy interest. The question of air pollution health effects can be investigated by numerous avenues. Laboratory studies of animals offer the advantages of careful control over exposures and direct study of effects, but difficulties exist in extrapolating

G. D. Thurston; M. Lippmann

1988-01-01

470

Air pollution from aircraft operations at San Jose Municipal Airport, California  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The amount of air pollution discharged by arriving and departing aircraft at the San Jose Municipal Airport was estimated. These estimates were made for each one hour interval of a summer weekday in 1977. The contributions of both general aviation (personal and business aircraft) and certified air carriers (scheduled airliners) were considered. The locations at which the pollutants were discharged were estimated by approximating the flight paths of arriving and departing aircraft. Three types of pollutants were considered: carbon monoxide, hydrocarbons, and oxides of nitrogen.

Schairer, E. T.

1978-01-01

471

Los Angeles air pollution and asthma in children  

SciTech Connect

Indices of air pollution, meteorological conditions and airborne allergens were correlated with emergency room census and hospitalizations for asthma at the Childrens Hospital of Los Angeles (CHLA) during a six-month period encompassing high and low periods of air pollution. In addition, patients in residence at the Sunair Home for Asthmatic Children (SHAC) were studied during a 10-day peak air pollution period. Increases in asthma emergency room visits and hospitalizations correlated significantly with increases in nitric oxide, coefficient of haze, hydrocarbons, Santa Ana wind conditions and total airborne allergen counts. Significant correlations were also found with decreases in ambient levels of O3, SO2, temperature and relative humidity. Among SHAC patients morning peak flow levels were significantly lower during the 10-day peak pollution period than during two control periods of low pollution. However, neither differences in clinical symptoms experienced by these patients nor their need for additional medication were observed.

Richards, W.; Azen, S.P.; Weiss, J.; Stocking, S.; Church, J.

1981-11-01

472

CHARACTERIZATION OF INDOOR AND OUTDOOR AIR POLLUTION EXPOSURES AND SOURCES  

EPA Science Inventory

Human exposures to indoor and outdoor pollutants vary depending on the sources and concentrations of pollutants as well as human behavioral factors that determine the extent of an individual's contact with indoor or outdoor pollutants. In general, the older populations spend more...

473

Characterization of ambient air pollution for stochastic health models  

SciTech Connect

This research is an analysis of various measures of ambient air pollution useful in cross-sectional epidemiological investigations and rick assessments. The Chestnut Ridge area health effects investigation, which includes a cross-sectional study of respiratory symptoms in young children, is used as a case study. Four large coal-fired electric generating power plants are the dominant pollution sources in this area of western Pennsylvania. The air pollution data base includes four years of sulfur dioxide and five years of total suspended particulate concentrations at seventeen monitors. Some 70 different characterizations of pollution are constructed and tested. These include pollutant concentrations at various percentiles and averaging times, exceedence measures which show the amount of time a specified threshold concentration is exceeded, and several dosage measures which transform non-linear dose-response relationships onto pollutant concentrations.

Batterman, S.A.

1981-08-01

474

Overview of Megacity Air Pollutant Emissions and Impacts  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The urban metabolism that characterizes major cities consumes very large qualities of humanly produced and/or processed food, fuel, water, electricity, construction materials and manufactured goods, as well as, naturally provided sunlight, precipitation and atmospheric oxygen. The resulting urban respiration exhalations add large quantities of trace gas and particulate matter pollutants to urban atmospheres. Key classes of urban primary air pollutants and their sources will be reviewed and important secondary pollutants identified. The impacts of these pollutants on urban and downwind regional inhabitants, ecosystems, and climate will be discussed. Challenges in quantifying the temporally and spatially resolved urban air pollutant emissions and secondary pollutant production rates will be identified and possible measurement strategies evaluated.

Kolb, C. E.

2013-05-01

475

Air pollution in Accra neighborhoods: spatial, socioeconomic, and temporal patterns.  

PubMed

This study examined the spatial, socioeconomic status (SES), and temporal patterns of ambient air pollution in Accra, Ghana. Over 22 months, integrated and continuous rooftop particulate matter (PM) monitors were placed at a total of 11 residential or roadside monitoring sites in four neighborhoods of varying SES and biomass fuel use. PM concentrations were highest in late December and January, due to dust blown from the Sahara. Excluding this period, annual PM(2.5) ranged from 39 to 53 microg/m(3) at roadside sites and 30 to 70 microg/m(3) at residential sites; mean annual PM(10) ranged from 80 to 108 microg/m(3) at roadside sites and 57 to 106 microg/m(3) at residential sites. The low-income and densely populated neighborhood of Jamestown/Ushertown had the single highest residential PM concentration. There was less difference across traffic sites. Daily PM increased at all sites at daybreak, followed by a mid-day peak at some sites, and a more spread-out evening peak at all sites. Average carbon monoxide concentrations at different sites and seasons ranged from 7 to 55 ppm, and were generally lower at residential sites than at traffic sites. The results show that PM in these four neighborhoods is substantially higher than the WHO Air Quality Guidelines and in some cases even higher than the WHO Interim Target 1, with the highest pollution in the poorest neighborhood. PMID:20205383

Dionisio, Kathie L; Arku, Raphael E; Hughes, Allison F; Vallarino, Jose; Carmichael, Heather; Spengler, John D; Agyei-Mensah, Samuel; Ezzati, Majid

2010-04-01

476

Traffic-related air pollution and respiratory tract efficiency.  

PubMed

High concentrations of air pollutants are characteristic of the vicinity of urban busy roads. Numerous studies have shown that these concentrations are significantly higher in comparison with areas located in a certain distance from roads and especially those in rural areas. Inhabitants living in the proximity of roads are, therefore, likely to be more exposed to adverse effects of air pollutants. On the basis of a study realized in 2008-2012 among nearly 5,000 residents of Warsaw and non-urbanized areas, we used generalized linear regression models (GRM) to identify factors that most significantly influence the variability of respiratory function variables. GRMs combine multiple classes of models and estimation methods such as simple, multiple, or factorial regression, ANOVA, ANCOVA, etc. Therefore, they allow receiving results based also on interactions between the independent variables. This paper presents the results of GRM for the forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1) distribution. They indicate that the variation of FEV1 is associated with personal factors such as age, height, weight, BMI, or gender, as well as with factors related to the place of residence: traffic density, duration, and the floor of residence. The results clearly show that living in the proximity of busy roads in the city is linked with a significant decrease in FEV1 values. PMID:25310940

Badyda, A J; D?browiecki, P; Czechowski, P O; Majewski, G; Doboszy?ska, A

2015-01-01

477

Sex ratios of births, mortality, and air pollution: can measuring the sex ratios of births help to identify health hazards from air pollution in industrial environments?  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVES--To compare the sex ratios of births and mortality in 12 Scottish localities with residential exposure to pollution from a variety of industrial sources with those in 12 nearby and comparable localities without such exposure. METHODS--24 localities were defined by postcode sectors. SMRs for lung cancer and for all causes of death and sex ratios of births were calculated for each locality for the years 1979-83. Log linear regression was used to assess the relation between exposure, sex ratios, and mortality. RESULTS--Mortalities from all causes were consistently and significantly higher in the residential areas exposed to air pollution than in the non-exposed areas. A similar, but less consistently significant, excess of mortality from lung cancer in the exposed areas was also found. The associations between exposure to the general air pollution and abnormal sex ratios, and between abnormal sex ratios and mortality, were negligible. CONCLUSIONS--Sex ratios were not consistently affected when the concentrations or components of the air pollution were insufficiently toxic to cause substantially increased death rates. Monitoring of the sex ratio does not provide a reliable screening measure for detecting cryptic health hazards from industrial air pollution in the general residential environment. PMID:7735388

Williams, F L; Ogston, S A; Lloyd, O L

1995-01-01

478

Air Pollution Instrumentation: A Trend toward Physical Methods  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reviews reasons for the trend from wet chemical'' analytic techniques for measuring air pollutants toward physical methods based upon chemiluminescence, electrochemical transduction, flame ionization coupled with gas chromotography, and spectroscopy. (AL)

Maugh, Thomas H., II

1972-01-01

479

BRONXWHITESTONE OVER THE EAST RIVER, NOTE CONSIDERABLE AIR POLLUTION OVER ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

BRONX-WHITESTONE OVER THE EAST RIVER, NOTE CONSIDERABLE AIR POLLUTION OVER CITY IN BACKGROUND - Bronx-Whitestone Bridge, Spanning East River between Whitestone, Queens & the Bronx, Bronx, Bronx County, NY

480

Investigating the Effects of Traffic on Air Pollution.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses the benefits of bringing scientists into the classroom to collaborate with children on environmental research projects. Describes one collaborative project that focused on the effects of traffic on air pollution. (DDR)

Taylor, Sharon

2001-01-01

481

Air Pollution Health Effects: Toward an Integrated Assessment  

E-print Network

Scientists and policy makers have become increasingly aware of the need to jointly study climate change and air pollution because of the interactions among policy measures and in the atmospheric chemistry that creates the ...

Yang, Trent.

482

A Report by the NEHA Air Pollution Committee  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Transportation controls to reduce air pollution are elaborated. These include: traffic control, parking restrictions, retrofit systems, testing and inspection, gaseous fuel systems, improved public transportation, and work schedule changes. (BL)

Kirkpatrick, Lane

1972-01-01

483

Xebra Electric Vehicle ZAP stands for Zero Air Pollution.  

E-print Network

Page 1/7 CASE STUDY ZAP - USA Xebra Electric Vehicle #12;Page 2/7 ZAP stands for Zero Air Pollution, and cell-balanced battery pack. Normal driving lights were on and the indicator light was used when

484

EYE IRRITATION AS AN EFFECT OF PHOTOCHEMICAL AIR POLLUTION  

EPA Science Inventory

The relationships between eye irritation and oxidant concentrations in the atmosphere have been reviewed. Eye irritation is considered relative to symptoms associated with health effects of photochemical air pollution. Some of the chemical, physiological and psychological aspects...

485

COMPARISON OF BIOINIDICATORS OF EXPOSURE TO GENOTOXIC INDOOR AIR POLLUTANTS  

EPA Science Inventory

Human exposure to complex mixtures of genotoxic indoor air pollutants can be assessed using several different bioanalytical methods. xternal exposure can be assessed using micromutagenesis methods to measure human exposure to mutagens. nternal exposure and dose can be assessed us...

486

PILOT STUDY OF AMBIENT AIR POLLUTION AND SURVIVAL FROM CANCER  

EPA Science Inventory

The study was concerned with investigating the potential influence exerted by ambient concentrations of particulate and sulfur dioxide air pollutants upon the length of survival for diagnosed cancer patients. Monitoring data from the National Aerometric Data Bank for particulates...

487

OFFICE EQUIPMENT: DESIGN, INDOOR AIR EMISSIONS, AND POLLUTION PREVENTION OPPORTUNITIES  

EPA Science Inventory

The report summarizes available information on office equipment design; indoor air emissions of organics, ozone, and particulates from office equipment; and pollution prevention approaches for reducing these emissions. Since much of the existing emissions data from office equipme...

488

Air pollution as a risk factor for type 2 diabetes.  

PubMed

Recent studies in both humans and animals suggest that air pollution is an important risk factor for type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). However, the mechanism by which air pollution mediates propensity to diabetes is not fully understood. While a number of epidemiologic studies have shown a positive association between ambient air pollution exposure and risk for T2DM, some studies have not found such a relationship. Experimental studies in susceptible disease models do support this association and suggest the involvement of tissues involved in the pathogenesis of T2DM such as the immune system, adipose, liver, and central nervous system. This review summarizes the epidemiologic and experimental evidence between ambient outdoor air pollution and T2DM. PMID:25628401

Rao, Xiaoquan; Patel, Priti; Puett, Robin; Rajagopalan, Sanjay

2015-02-01

489

ANALYTICAL DIFFUSION MODEL FOR LONG DISTANCE TRANSPORT OF AIR POLLUTANTS  

EPA Science Inventory

A steady-state two-dimensional diffusion model suitable for predicting ambient air pollutant concentrations averaged over a long time period (e.g., month, season, or year) and resulting from the transport of pollutants for distances greater than about 100 km from the source is de...

490

Outdoor Air Pollution, Low Birth Weight, and Prematurity  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study tested the hypothesis, suggested by several recent reports, that air pollution may increase the risk of adverse birth outcomes. This study analyzed all singleton live births registered by the Czech national birth register in 1991 in 67 districts where at least one pollutant was moni- tored in 1990-1991 (n = 108,173). Maternal exposures to sulfur dioxide (SO2), total

Martin Bobak

2000-01-01

491

Chemical element balances and identification of air pollution sources  

Microsoft Academic Search

Air pollution sources of given types, whether natural or man-made, emit a characteristic set of chemical elements in approximately fixed proportions. If the sources in a polluted region are known, the contributions from each source can be estimated by measuring elemental concentrations at a given point and solving a set of simultaneous linear algebraic equations. The method has been applied

Sheldon K. Friedlander

1973-01-01

492

Particulate air pollution and daily mortality in detroit  

Microsoft Academic Search

Particulate air pollution has been associated with increased mortality during episodes of high pollution concentrations. The relationship at lower concentrations has been more controversial, as has the relative role of particles and sulfur dioxide. Replication has been difficult because suspended particle concentrations are usually measured only every sixth day in the U.S. This study used concurrent measurements of total suspended

J. Schwartz

1991-01-01

493

AIR POLLUTION AND FOREST ECOSYSTEMS: A REGIONAL TO GLOBAL PERSPECTIVE  

EPA Science Inventory

Changes in atmospheric concentrations of a number of air pollutants over the last century are hallmarks of the magnitude and extent of human impact on the environment. ome of these changes are important to ecologists because many pollutants, acting singly or in combination, affec...

494

AIR POLLUTION COMPONENT OF INNER-CITY ASTHMA STUDY  

EPA Science Inventory

The EPA-funded air pollution component of the NIH Inner-City Asthma Study (ICAS) involves the measurement of indoor and outdoor exposures to airborne particulate matter and co-pollutants among a well-characterized cohort of moderate to severely asthmatic children residing in seve...

495

Effects of air pollution on hematological parameters in passerine birds  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of atmospheric air pollution on some hematological, and bioquimic parameters, of passerine birds were analyzed. The studies were undertaken in the area of Cercs (polluted area in Spain), where there is a coal-fired power plant that emanates SO2, NOx, and particles, and the area of St. Jaume de Frontanya (nonpolluted area) located 40 km from the area of

S. Llacuna; A. Gorriz; M. Riera; J. Nadal

1996-01-01

496

URBAN AIR POLLUTION IN CHINA: Current Status, Characteristics, and Progress  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract China is rapidly developing as evidenced by enhanced urbanization and industrialization and greatly increased energy consumption. However, these have brought Chinese cities a variety of urban air pollution problems in recent decades. During the 1970s, black smoke from stacks became the characteristic of Chinese industrial cities; in the 1980s, many southern cities began to suffer serious acid rain pollution;

Kebin He; Hong Huo; Qiang Zhang

2002-01-01

497

Linking Urban Air Pollution to Global Tropospheric Chemistry and Climate  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The two major tasks of this project are to study: (a) the impact of urban nonlinear chemistry on chemical budgets of key pollutants in non-urban areas; and (b) the influence of air pollution control strategies in selected metropolitan areas, particularly of emerging economies in East and South Asia, on tropospheric chemistry and hence on regional and global climate.

Wang, Chien

2005-01-01

498

APPLICATIONS OF DECISION THEORY TECHNIQUES IN AIR POLLUTION MODELING  

EPA Science Inventory

The study applies methods of operations research to two basic areas of air pollution modeling: (1) the generation of wind fields for use in models of regional scale transport, diffusion and chemistry; and (2) the application of models in studies of optimal pollution control strat...

499

Air pollution in autoimmune rheumatic diseases: A review  

Microsoft Academic Search

Air pollution consists of a heterogeneous mixture of gasses and particles that include carbon monoxide, nitrates, sulfur dioxide, ozone, lead, toxic by-product of tobacco smoke and particulate matter. Oxidative stress and inflammation induced by inhaled pollutants may result in acute and chronic disorders in the respiratory system, as well as contribute to a state of systemic inflammation and autoimmunity. This

Sylvia C. L. Farhat; Clovis A. Silva; Maria Angelica M. Orione; Lucia M. A. Campos; Adriana M. E. Sallum; Alfésio L. F. Braga

2011-01-01

500

VALMET: a valley air pollution model. Final report. Revision 1  

SciTech Connect

An air quality model is described for predicting air pollution concentrations in deep mountain valleys arising from nocturnal down-valley transport and diffusion of an elevated pollutant plume, and the fumigation of the plume on the valley floor and sidewalls after sunrise. Included is a technical description of the model, a discussion of the model's applications, the required model inputs, sample calculations and model outputs, and a full listing of the FORTRAN computer program. 55 refs., 27 figs., 6 tabs.

Whiteman, C.D.; Allwine, K.J.

1985-04-01