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Sample records for general population samples

  1. Season of birth and population schizotypy: Results from a large sample of the adult general population.

    PubMed

    Konrath, Lisa; Beckius, Danièle; Tran, Ulrich S

    2016-08-30

    Although the last years have seen an increasing interest in schizotypy and its pathogenesis, there exist only a handful of studies examining the possible interaction between season of birth (SOB) and schizotypic personality structure. Available research used differing screening instruments, rendering comparisons between studies difficult, and sample sizes in adult populations may have been too small to detect a mild effect. The current study examined the association between SOB and psychometric schizotypy in the so far single-largest sample from the adult general population (N=8114), balanced for men and women, and utilizing a valid and reliable instrument for the assessment of schizotypy. Using the 12 most informative items of the Schizotypal Personality Questionnaire Brief, we obtained evidence of a small, but significant, effect of late winter and early spring births (February/March) on psychometric schizotypy. The effect was not constrained to women, but affected men and women alike. The observed association between SOB and schizotypy appears compatible with seasonal variations of temperature and influenza prevalence, and with recent evidence on seasonal variability in the activity of the human immune system. Our findings lend support to the continuum hypothesis of schizotypy and schizophrenia, for which SOB effects have been previously established. PMID:27310922

  2. The Value of a College Degree for Foster Care Alumni: Comparisons with General Population Samples

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salazar, Amy M.

    2013-01-01

    Higher education is associated with substantial adult life benefits, including higher income and improved quality of life, among others. The current study compared adult outcomes of 250 foster care alumni college graduates with two samples of general population graduates to explore the role higher education plays in these young adults' lives.…

  3. Validation of the standardised assessment of personality – abbreviated scale in a general population sample

    PubMed Central

    Seegobin, Seth; Frissa, Souci; Hatch, Stephani L.; Hotopf, Matthew; Hayes, Richard D.; Moran, Paul

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Background Personality disorder (PD) is associated with important health outcomes in the general population. However, the length of diagnostic interviews poses a significant barrier to obtaining large scale, population‐based data on PD. A brief screen for the identification of people at high risk of PD in the general population could be extremely valuable for both clinicians and researchers. Aim We set out to validate the Standardised Assessment of Personality – Abbreviated Scale (SAPAS), in a general population sample, using the Structured Clinical Interviews for DSM‐IV Personality Disorders (SCID‐II) as a gold standard. Method One hundred and ten randomly selected, community‐dwelling adults were administered the SAPAS screening interview. The SCID‐II was subsequently administered by a clinical interviewer blind to the initial SAPAS score. Receiver operating characteristic analysis was used to assess the discriminatory performance of the SAPAS, relative to the SCID‐II. Results Area under the curve for the SAPAS was 0.70 (95% CI = 0.60 to 0.80; p < 0.001), indicating moderate overall discriminatory accuracy. A cut point score of 4 on the SAPAS correctly classified 58% of participants. At this cut point, the sensitivity and specificity were 0.69 and 0.53 respectively. Conclusion The SAPAS operates less efficiently as a screen in general population samples and is probably most usefully applied in clinical populations. © 2015 The Authors Personality and Mental Health published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd PMID:26314385

  4. The value of a college degree for foster care alumni: comparisons with general population samples.

    PubMed

    Salazar, Amy M

    2013-04-01

    Higher education is associated with substantial adult life benefits, including higher income and improved quality of life, among others. The current study compared adult outcomes of 250 foster care alumni college graduates with two samples of general population graduates to explore the role higher education plays in these young adults' lives. Outcomes compared include employment, income, housing, public assistance, physical and mental health, happiness, and other outcomes that are often found to be related to educational attainment. Foster care alumni college graduates were very similar to general population college graduates for individual income and rate of employment. However, foster care alumni graduates were behind general population graduates on factors such as self-reported job security, household earnings, health, mental health, financial satisfaction, home ownership, happiness, and public assistance usage. Results have implications for policy and practice regarding the most effective means of supporting postcollege stability of youths with foster care experience. PMID:23724577

  5. Descriptive epidemiology of stigma against depression in a general population sample in Alberta

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Mental health illnesses, such as depression, are responsible for a growing disease burden worldwide. Unfortunately, effective treatment is often impeded by stigmatizing attitudes of other individuals, which have been found to lead to a number of negative consequences including reduced help-seeking behavior and increased social distance. Despite the high prevalence of depression in Canada, little research has been conducted to examine stigma against depression in the Canadian general population. Such information is crucial to understanding the current state of stigmatizing attitudes in the Canadian communities, and framing future stigma reduction initiatives. The objectives of this study were to estimate the percentages of various stigmatizing attitudes toward depression in a general population sample and to compare the percentages by demographics and socioeconomic characteristics. Methods We conducted a cross-sectional telephone survey in Alberta, Canada, between February and June 2006. Random digit dialing was used to recruit participants who were aged 18-74 years old (n = 3047). Participants were presented a case vignette describing a depressed individual, and responded to a 9-item Personal Stigma questionnaire. The percentages of stigmatizing attitudes were estimated and compared by demographic and socioeconomic variables. Results Among the participants, 45.9% endorsed that depressed individuals were unpredictable and 21.9% held the view that people with depression were dangerous. Significant differences in stigmatizing attitudes were found by gender, age, education, and immigration status. A greater proportion of men than women held stigmatizing views on each stigma item. No consistent trend emerged by age in stigma against depression. Participants with higher levels of education reported less stigmatizing attitudes than those with less education. Participants who were not born in Canada were more likely to hold stigmatizing attitudes than those who

  6. Help-Seeking in People with Exceptional Experiences: Results from a General Population Sample

    PubMed Central

    Landolt, Karin; Wittwer, Amrei; Wyss, Thomas; Unterassner, Lui; Fach, Wolfgang; Krummenacher, Peter; Brugger, Peter; Haker, Helene; Kawohl, Wolfram; Schubiger, Pius August; Folkers, Gerd; Rössler, Wulf

    2014-01-01

    Background: Exceptional experiences (EE) are experiences that deviate from ordinary experiences, for example precognition, supernatural appearances, or déjà vues. In spite of the high frequency of EE in the general population, little is known about their effect on mental health and about the way people cope with EE. This study aimed to assess the quality and quantity of EE in persons from the Swiss general population, to identify the predictors of their help-seeking, and to determine how many of them approach the mental health system. Methods: An on-line survey was used to evaluate a quota sample of 1580 persons representing the Swiss general population with respect to gender, age, and level of education. Multinomial logistic regression was applied to integrate help-seeking, self-reported mental disorder, and other variables in a statistical model designed to identify predictors of help-seeking in persons with EE. Results: Almost all participants (91%) experienced at least one EE. Generally, help-seeking was more frequent when the EE were of negative valence. Help-seeking because of EE was less frequent in persons without a self-reported mental disorder (8.6%) than in persons with a disorder (35.1%) (OR = 5.7). Even when frequency and attributes of EE were controlled for, people without a disorder sought four times less often help because of EE than expected. Persons with a self-reported diagnosis of mental disorder preferred seeing a mental health professional. Multinomial regression revealed a preference for healers in women with less education, who described themselves as believing and also having had more impressive EE. Conclusion: Persons with EE who do not indicate a mental disorder less often sought help because of EE than persons who indicated a mental disorder. We attribute this imbalance to a high inhibition threshold to seek professional help. Moreover, especially less educated women did not approach the mental health care system as often as other

  7. EMPIRICAL GENERAL POPULATION ASSESSMENT OF THE HORVITZ-THOMPSON ESTIMATOR UNDER VARIABLE PROBABILITY SAMPLING

    EPA Science Inventory

    The variance and two estimators of variance of the Horvitz-Thompson estimator were studied under randomized, variable probability systematic sampling. hree bivariate distributions, representing the populations, were investigated empirically, with each distribution studied for thr...

  8. Validation of the SCOFF Questionnaire for Eating Disorders in a Multiethnic General Population Sample

    PubMed Central

    Solmi, Francesca; Hatch, Stephani L; Hotopf, Matthew; Treasure, Janet; Micali, Nadia

    2015-01-01

    Introduction This study aimed to validate the SCOFF, an eating disorders (ED) screening questionnaire, in a multiethnic general population sample of adults. Method A two-stage design was employed using the South East London Community Health Study phases I and II data. A total of 1,669 participants were screened using the SCOFF in SELCoHI, and 145 were administrated an ED clinical interview in SELCoHII. We explored the diagnostic validity of the questionnaire restricting to the 145 individuals with the clinical questionnaire. Results Sensitivity and specificity of the SCOFF were 53.7 and 93.5%, respectively. Conclusion The SCOFF showed good levels of specificity but low sensitivity, resulting in a high percentage of false negatives. Given the low sensitivity found in our sample the SCOFF is likely to be a suboptimal measure for the identification of ED in the community. © 2014 The Authors International Journal of Eating Disorders Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. (Int J Eat Disord 2015; 48:312–316) PMID:25504212

  9. The Youth Psychopathic Traits Inventory-Short Version in a general population sample of emerging adults.

    PubMed

    Colins, Olivier F; Andershed, Henrik

    2016-05-01

    Prior studies with children and adolescents have shown that Youth Psychopathic Traits Inventory-Short Version (YPI-S) scores are internally consistent and manifest expected relations with external variables of interest. In the present study, the factor structure and the internal consistency of YPI-S scores, and the convergent validity of the interpretation of YPI-S scores were tested in a sample of 2,500 emerging adults from the general population in Sweden (aged 20-24 years; 52.6% women). Results of exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses support a 3-factor structure among both men and women that is similar to prior YPI-S studies conducted with children and adolescents. The YPI-S total score and the 3 factor scores were internally consistent. Correlations with external variables, including aggression and delinquency, support the convergent validity of the interpretation of YPI-S scores. Finally, the strength of these zero-order and partial correlations, overall, was not significantly different across gender. In conclusion, this study provides initial evidence that the YPI-S may hold promise as a brief and time-effective self-report tool for assessing psychopathic traits in emerging adults. The present findings also suggest that the YPI-S performs in a consistent manner across gender. Recommendations for future research with the YPI-S are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:26302107

  10. Asbestos Lung Burden in Necroscopic Samples from the General Population of Milan, Italy.

    PubMed

    Casali, Michelangelo; Carugno, Michele; Cattaneo, Andrea; Consonni, Dario; Mensi, Carolina; Genovese, Umberto; Cavallo, Domenico Maria; Somigliana, Anna; Pesatori, Angela Cecilia

    2015-08-01

    The present study analysed the asbestos lung burden in necroscopic samples from 55 subjects free from asbestos-related diseases, collected between 2009 and 2011 in Milan, Italy. Multiple lung samples were analysed by light microscopy (asbestos bodies, AB) and EDXA-scanning electron microscopy (asbestos fibres and other inorganic fibres). Asbestos fibres were detected in 35 (63.6%) subjects, with a higher frequency for amphiboles than for chrysotile. Commercial (CA) and non-commercial amphiboles (NCA) were found in roughly similar frequencies. The estimated median value was 0.11 million fibres per gram of dry lung tissue (mf g(-1)) for all asbestos, 0.09 mf g(-1) for amphiboles. In 44 (80.0%) subjects no chrysotile fibres were detected. A negative relationship between asbestos mass-weighted fibre count and year of birth (and a corresponding positive increase with age) was observed for amphiboles [-4.15%, 95% confidence interval (CI) = -5.89 to -2.37], talc (-2.12%, 95% CI = -3.94 to -0.28), and Ti-rich fibres (-3.10%, 95% CI = -5.54 to -0.60), but not for chrysotile (-2.84%, 95% CI = -7.69 to 2.27). Residential district, birthplace, and smoking habit did not affect the lung burden of asbestos or inorganic fibres. Females showed higher burden only for amphiboles (0.12 versus 0.03 mf g(-1) in males, P = 0.07) and talc fibres (0.14 versus 0 mf g(-1) in males, P = 0.03). Chrysotile fibres were shorter and thinner than amphibole fibres and NCA fibres were thicker than CA ones. The AB prevalence was 16.4% (nine subjects) with concentrations ranging from 10 to 110 AB g(-1) dry, well below the 1000 AB g(-1) threshold for establishing occupational exposure. No AB were found in subjects younger than 30 years. Our study demonstrated detectable levels of asbestos fibres in a sample taken from the general population. The significant increase with age confirmed that amphibole fibres are the most representative of cumulative exposure. PMID:25878166

  11. Quality of life impairment associated with body dissatisfaction in a general population sample of women

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background In order to elucidate the individual and community health burden of body dissatisfaction (BD), we examined impairment in quality of life associated with BD in a large, general population sample of women. Methods Self-report measures of BD, health-related quality of life (SF-12 Physical and Mental Component Summary scales) and subjective quality of life (WHOQOL-BREF Psychological Functioning and Social Relationships subscales) were completed by 5,255 Australian women aged 18 to 42 years. Results Most participants (86.9%) reported some level of dissatisfaction with their weight or shape and more than one third (39.4%) reported moderate to marked dissatisfaction. Higher levels of BD were associated with poorer quality of life for all items of both quality of life measures, the degree of impairment being proportional to the degree of BD. Associations were strongest for items tapping mental health and psychosocial functioning, although greater BD was associated with substantially increased risk of impairment in certain aspects of physical health even when controlling for body weight. Post-hoc analysis indicated that the observed associations between BD and quality of life impairment were not accounted for by an association between BD and eating disorder symptoms. Conclusions In women, BD is associated with marked impairment in aspects of quality of life relating to mental health and psycho-social functioning and at least some aspects of physical health, independent of its association with body weight and eating disorder symptoms. Greater attention may need to be given to BD as a public health problem. The fact that BD is “normative” should not be taken to infer that it is benign. PMID:24088248

  12. Personality Factors and Suicide Risk in a Representative Sample of the German General Population

    PubMed Central

    Blüml, Victor; Kapusta, Nestor D.; Doering, Stephan; Brähler, Elmar; Wagner, Birgit; Kersting, Anette

    2013-01-01

    Objective Previous research has shown an association between certain personality characteristics and suicidality. Methodological differences including small sample sizes and missing adjustment for possible confounding factors could explain the varying results. The aim of this study was to assess the impact of the Big Five personality dimensions on suicidality in a representative population based sample of adults. Method Interviews were conducted in a representative German population-based sample (n=2555) in 2011. Personality characteristics were assessed using the Big Five Inventory-10 (BFI-10) and suicide risk was assessed with the Suicidal Behaviors Questionnaire-Revised (SBQ-R). Multivariate logistic regression models were calculated adjusting for depression, anxiety, and various sociodemographic variables. Results Neuroticism and openness were significantly associated with suicide risk, while extraversion and conscientiousness were found to be protective. Significant sex differences were observed. For males, extraversion and conscientiousness were protective factors. Neuroticism and openness were found to be associated with suicide risk only in females. These associations remained significant after adjusting for covariates. Conclusion The results highlight the role of personality dimensions as risk factors for suicide-related behaviors. Different personality dimensions are significantly associated with suicide-related behaviors even when adjusting for other known risk factors of suicidality. PMID:24124582

  13. Neighbourhood social capital and common mental disorder: testing the link in a general population sample.

    PubMed

    Stafford, Mai; De Silva, Mary; Stansfeld, Stephen; Marmot, Michael

    2008-09-01

    General population multilevel studies of social capital and mental health are few in number. This multilevel study examined external measures of neighbourhood social capital and common mental disorders (CMD). Main effects and stress buffering models were tested. Based on data from over 9000 residents in 239 neighbourhoods in England and Scotland, there was no evidence of a main effect of social capital. For people living in deprived circumstances only, associations between neighbourhood social capital and CMD were seen. Elements of bridging social capital (contact amongst local friends) were associated with lower reporting of CMD. Elements of bonding social capital (attachment to neighbourhood) were associated with higher reporting of CMD. Findings provide some support for the hypothesis that social capital may protect against CMD, but indicate that initiatives should be targeted to deprived groups, focus on specific elements of social capital and not neglect the important relationship between personal socioeconomic disadvantage and CMD. PMID:17919964

  14. Interest in different forms of self-help in a general population sample of drinkers.

    PubMed

    Koski-Jänne, A; Cunningham, J

    2001-01-01

    The study investigates: (1) the level of interest in self-help services for drinkers, and (2) the predictors of interest in these services. A representative sample of 1,557 Ontario respondents participated in a telephone survey. Current drinkers (n=1,247) were asked about their interest in getting: (a) a telephone call from a therapist to help them evaluate their drinking, (b) a self-help book, and (c) a computerized summary comparing their drinking to that of other Canadians. Bivariate comparisons of demographic and drinking-related variables were made between those interested and not interested in each of the offered services. Logistic regression analysis was used to find the best predictors of interest. The results revealed that 16% were interested in a telephone call, 26% in a self-help book, and 39% in computerized normative feedback. Negative consequences of drinking and indicators of lower societal resources increased interest in self-help services. Computerized feedback and self-help books serve as cheap and nonintrusive ways to provide incentive for change to early-stage problem drinkers due to the interest they raise in the intended target population. PMID:11196295

  15. Sexual Activity and Impairment in Women with Systemic Sclerosis Compared to Women from a General Population Sample

    PubMed Central

    Levis, Brooke; Burri, Andrea; Hudson, Marie; Baron, Murray; Thombs, Brett D.

    2012-01-01

    Objective Reports of low sexual activity rates and high impairment rates among women with chronic diseases have not included comparisons to general population data. The objective of this study was to compare sexual activity and impairment rates of women with systemic sclerosis (SSc) to general population data and to identify domains of sexual function driving impairment in SSc. Methods Canadian women with SSc were compared to women from a UK population sample. Sexual activity and, among sexually active women, sexual impairment were evaluated with a 9-item version of the Female Sexual Function Index (FSFI). Results Among women with SSc (mean age = 57.0 years), 296 of 730 (41%) were sexually active, 181 (61%) of whom were sexually impaired, resulting in 115 of 730 (16%) who were sexually active without impairment. In the UK population sample (mean age = 55.4 years), 956 of 1,498 women (64%) were sexually active, 420 (44%) of whom were impaired, with 536 of 1,498 (36%) sexually active without impairment. Adjusting for age and marital status, women with SSc were significantly less likely to be sexually active (OR = 0.34, 95%CI = 0.28–0.42) and, among sexually active women, significantly more likely to be sexually impaired (OR = 1.88, 95%CI = 1.42–2.49) than general population women. Controlling for total FSFI scores, women with SSc had significantly worse lubrication and pain scores than general population women. Conclusions Sexual functioning is a problem for many women with scleroderma and is associated with pain and poor lubrication. Evidence-based interventions to support sexual activity and function in women with SSc are needed. PMID:23251692

  16. HIV in Children in a General Population Sample in East Zimbabwe: Prevalence, Causes and Effects

    PubMed Central

    Pufall, Erica L.; Nyamukapa, Constance; Eaton, Jeffrey W.; Mutsindiri, Reggie; Chawira, Godwin; Munyati, Shungu; Robertson, Laura; Gregson, Simon

    2014-01-01

    Background There are an estimated half-million children living with HIV in sub-Saharan Africa. The predominant source of infection is presumed to be perinatal mother-to-child transmission, but general population data about paediatric HIV are sparse. We characterise the epidemiology of HIV in children in sub-Saharan Africa by describing the prevalence, possible source of infection, and effects of paediatric HIV in a southern African population. Methods From 2009 to 2011, we conducted a household-based survey of 3389 children (aged 2–14 years) in Manicaland, eastern Zimbabwe (response rate: 73.5%). Data about socio-demographic correlates of HIV, risk factors for infection, and effects on child health were analysed using multi-variable logistic regression. To assess the plausibility of mother-to-child transmission, child HIV infection was linked to maternal survival and HIV status using data from a 12-year adult HIV cohort. Results HIV prevalence was (2.2%, 95% CI: 1.6–2.8%) and did not differ significantly by sex, socio-economic status, location, religion, or child age. Infected children were more likely to be underweight (19.6% versus 10.0%, p = 0.03) or stunted (39.1% versus 30.6%, p = 0.04) but did not report poorer physical or psychological ill-health. Where maternal data were available, reported mothers of 61/62 HIV-positive children were deceased or HIV-positive. Risk factors for other sources of infection were not associated with child HIV infection, including blood transfusion, vaccinations, caring for a sick relative, and sexual abuse. The observed flat age-pattern of HIV prevalence was consistent with UNAIDS estimates which assumes perinatal mother-to-child transmission, although modelled prevalence was higher than observed prevalence. Only 19/73 HIV-positive children (26.0%) were diagnosed, but, of these, 17 were on antiretroviral therapy. Conclusions Childhood HIV infection likely arises predominantly from mother-to-child transmission and is

  17. Risk Factors for Running Away among a General Population Sample of Males and Females

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tyler, Kimberly A.; Hagewen, Kellie J.; Melander, Lisa A.

    2011-01-01

    The present study examines risk factors for running away and homelessness among a sample of more than 7,000 currently housed youth using the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add Health). Structural equation modeling results revealed that those with greater levels of family instability and those who ran away at Wave 2 were…

  18. Gambling onset and progression in a sample of at-risk gamblers from the general population.

    PubMed

    Carneiro, Elizabeth; Tavares, Hermano; Sanches, Marcos; Pinsky, Ilana; Caetano, Raul; Zaleski, Marcos; Laranjeira, Ronaldo

    2014-05-30

    The goal of this study was to investigate gambling-related behavior, onset and progression in a sample of at-risk gamblers from the community. A national household survey was conducted in Brazil, covering individuals 14 years old or older. Subjects were screened for at-risk gambling, those testing positive answered a questionnaire about gambling progression, preferred games and DSM-IV pathological gambling criteria. Out of 3007 respondents, 118 were considered at-risk gamblers according to the Lie/Bet Questionnaire. According to the DSM-IV, 32.7% and 24.9% of those were considered problem and pathological gamblers, respectively. Early at-risk gamblers (onset prior to 20 years of age), were more likely to be male, to prefer non-commercially structured games, and to chase losses while gambling. Young pathological gamblers (under 35 years of age) progressed faster from regular to problem gambling (roughly 2 years) than mature pathological gamblers (12 years). Such findings had not been described before because previous reports focused mostly on clinical samples that lack young, male, early-onset gamblers. Gambling programs have not satisfactorily covered this segment of gamblers. Outreach strategies and early interventions should be provided to prevent these individuals from rapidly evolving into pathological gambling. PMID:24656520

  19. Predictors of Beliefs in Intergroup Forgiveness in a Chilean General Population Sample.

    PubMed

    Cárdenas, Manuel; Arnoso, Maitane; Páez, Darío

    2015-01-01

    Original survey data from a Chilean sample (N = 1267) are used to study the socio-demographic and psychosocial determinants of belief in forgiveness attitudes in the context of measuring the impact of truth and reconciliation reports (NTRC, 1991) and Political Imprisonment and Torture (NPIC, 2004) commissions. A linear multiple regression analysis (R 2 = .15; F(8, 1269) = 14.65; p < .001; effect size f 2 = .18) revealed the positive effect of perceived apology sincerity (β = 0.22; p < .001), emotions of anger (β = -0.08; p < .05), and positive social climate (β = 0.08; p < .05). People who believe in the victims' forgiveness feel less anger, have more positive perceptions of the sincerity and efficacy of the apologies, agree to a greater extent that the commission helped to find out the truth about what happened to the victims, and have a greater perception of the social climate as positive. The results show the importance of psychosocial and institutional variables in beliefs about forgiveness, and they suggest differences between interpersonal and intergroup forgiveness processes. PMID:26073461

  20. The Association between Childhood and Adolescent Sexual Abuse and Proxies for Sexual Risk Behavior: A Random Sample of the General Population of Sweden

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steel, Jennifer L.; Herlitz, Claes A.

    2005-01-01

    Objective: Several studies with small and ''high risk'' samples have demonstrated that a history of childhood or adolescent sexual abuse (CASA) is associated with sexual risk behaviors (SRBs). However, few studies with large random samples from the general population have specifically examined the relationship between CASA and SRBs with a…

  1. A comparison of the prevalence and risk factors of suicidal ideation and suicide attempts in two American Indian and a general population sample

    PubMed Central

    Bolton, Shay-Lee; Elias, Brenda; Enns, Murray W.; Sareen, Jitender; Beals, Janette; Novins, Douglas K.

    2015-01-01

    The current study aimed to examine whether the prevalence and risk factors for suicidal ideation and attempts differ when comparing two American Indian reservation samples to the U.S. general population. Data were from the baseline nationally representative National Comorbidity Survey (N = 5,877) and the representative American Indian Service Utilization, Psychiatric Epidemiology, Risk and Protective Factors Project (AI-SUPERPFP; N = 3,084). Face-to-face interviews were conducted using the fully structured World Health Organization Composite International Diagnostic Interview. American Indians from these Northern Plains and Southwest tribes appeared significantly less likely to have suicidal thoughts in their lifetime when compared with the general population, odds ratio (OR) of 0.49 (99% CI [0.36, 0.66]) and 0.36 (99% CI [0.25, 0.51]), respectively. However, members of the Northern Plains tribe were more likely to have attempted suicide in their lifetime compared with the general population (OR=1.96, 99% CI [1.45, 2.65]). Suicide attempts without suicidal ideation were more common in the two American Indian samples than in the general population. In contrast, correlates of suicidal behavior appear quite similar when comparing the groups. Increased attention is needed to determine why rates of ideation and attempts may differ in American Indians when compared with the general population. PMID:24065607

  2. Dietary Salt Intake and Discretionary Salt Use in Two General Population Samples in Australia: 2011 and 2014.

    PubMed

    Nowson, Caryl; Lim, Karen; Grimes, Carley; O'Halloran, Siobhan; Land, Mary Anne; Webster, Jacqui; Shaw, Jonathan; Chalmers, John; Smith, Wayne; Flood, Victoria; Woodward, Mark; Neal, Bruce

    2015-12-01

    The limited Australian measures to reduce population sodium intake through national initiatives targeting sodium in the food supply have not been evaluated. The aim was, thus, to assess if there has been a change in salt intake and discretionary salt use between 2011 and 2014 in the state of Victoria, Australia. Adults drawn from a population sample provided 24 h urine collections and reported discretionary salt use in 2011 and 2014. The final sample included 307 subjects who participated in both surveys, 291 who participated in 2011 only, and 135 subjects who participated in 2014 only. Analysis included adjustment for age, gender, metropolitan area, weekend collection and participation in both surveys, where appropriate. In 2011, 598 participants: 53% female, age 57.1(12.0)(SD) years and in 2014, 442 participants: 53% female, age 61.2(10.7) years provided valid urine collections, with no difference in the mean urinary salt excretion between 2011: 7.9 (7.6, 8.2) (95% CI) g/salt/day and 2014: 7.8 (7.5, 8.1) g/salt/day (p = 0.589), and no difference in discretionary salt use: 35% (2011) and 36% (2014) reported adding salt sometimes or often/always at the table (p = 0.76). Those that sometimes or often/always added salt at the table and when cooking had 0.7 (0.7, 0.8) g/salt/day (p = 0.0016) higher salt excretion. There is no indication over this 3-year period that national salt reduction initiatives targeting the food supply have resulted in a population reduction in salt intake. More concerted efforts are required to reduce the salt content of manufactured foods, together with a consumer education campaign targeting the use of discretionary salt. PMID:26694459

  3. Dietary Salt Intake and Discretionary Salt Use in Two General Population Samples in Australia: 2011 and 2014

    PubMed Central

    Nowson, Caryl; Lim, Karen; Grimes, Carley; O’Halloran, Siobhan; Land, Mary Anne; Webster, Jacqui; Shaw, Jonathan; Chalmers, John; Smith, Wayne; Flood, Victoria; Woodward, Mark; Neal, Bruce

    2015-01-01

    The limited Australian measures to reduce population sodium intake through national initiatives targeting sodium in the food supply have not been evaluated. The aim was, thus, to assess if there has been a change in salt intake and discretionary salt use between 2011 and 2014 in the state of Victoria, Australia. Adults drawn from a population sample provided 24 h urine collections and reported discretionary salt use in 2011 and 2014. The final sample included 307 subjects who participated in both surveys, 291 who participated in 2011 only, and 135 subjects who participated in 2014 only. Analysis included adjustment for age, gender, metropolitan area, weekend collection and participation in both surveys, where appropriate. In 2011, 598 participants: 53% female, age 57.1(12.0)(SD) years and in 2014, 442 participants: 53% female, age 61.2(10.7) years provided valid urine collections, with no difference in the mean urinary salt excretion between 2011: 7.9 (7.6, 8.2) (95% CI) g/salt/day and 2014: 7.8 (7.5, 8.1) g/salt/day (p = 0.589), and no difference in discretionary salt use: 35% (2011) and 36% (2014) reported adding salt sometimes or often/always at the table (p = 0.76). Those that sometimes or often/always added salt at the table and when cooking had 0.7 (0.7, 0.8) g/salt/day (p = 0.0016) higher salt excretion. There is no indication over this 3-year period that national salt reduction initiatives targeting the food supply have resulted in a population reduction in salt intake. More concerted efforts are required to reduce the salt content of manufactured foods, together with a consumer education campaign targeting the use of discretionary salt. PMID:26694459

  4. Health status of Greek thyroid cancer patients after radioiodine administration compared to a demographically matched general population sample.

    PubMed

    Karapanou, Olga; Papadopoulos, Angelos; Vlassopoulou, Barbara; Vassilopoulos, Charalambos; Pappa, Evelina; Tsagarakis, Stylianos; Niakas, Dimitris

    2012-01-01

    The impact of radioiodine-131 ((131)I) treatment on thyroid cancer patients' quality of life is controversial. We conducted a cross-sectional study of 60 patients aged 18-73 years old who had recently underwent near total thyroidectomy due to papillary thyroid cancer and were scheduled for (131)I treatment. On admission to our department, prior to (131)I administration patients underwent clinical and laboratory investigation including routine clinical biochemistry, thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) and thyroglobulin (Tg) measurements. Health-related quality of life (HRQoL) was estimated by the SF-36 Health Survey a generic instrument which consisted from eight scales (four for physical and four for mental health). After (131)I administration patients were discharged and approximately 6 months later they were re-evaluated. Our results showed that HRQoL in thyroid cancer patients receiving (131)I treatment is independent of age/gender and thyroid cancer-related variables. All SF-36 scales significantly improved six months after administration (P<0.05). Compared to Greek general population, before (131)I administration all scales were significantly lower (P<0.05). Six months post (131)I administration, scales were significantly lower for physical functioning (P=0.02), physical role (P=0.01), social functioning (P=0.03) and emotional role limitations (P=0.04), whereas the remaining SF-36 scales were comparable to the general population. In conclusion, hypothyroidism and anxiety for the outcome of their disease before (131)I treatment exert a negative impact on thyroid cancer patients. Quality of life improvement post (131)I is mainly attributed to the resumption of euthyroidism and familiarization with treatment and followup procedures rather than (131)I treatment itself. There was no significant difference between patients receiving lower (2220-3700MBq) and higher (3700-7400MBq) dosage. PMID:22741146

  5. Efficient generalized least squares method for mixed population and family-based samples in genome-wide association studies.

    PubMed

    Li, Jia; Yang, James; Levin, Albert M; Montgomery, Courtney G; Datta, Indrani; Trudeau, Sheri; Adrianto, Indra; McKeigue, Paul; Iannuzzi, Michael C; Rybicki, Benjamin A

    2014-07-01

    Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) that draw samples from multiple studies with a mixture of relationship structures are becoming more common. Analytical methods exist for using mixed-sample data, but few methods have been proposed for the analysis of genotype-by-environment (G×E) interactions. Using GWAS data from a study of sarcoidosis susceptibility genes in related and unrelated African Americans, we explored the current analytic options for genotype association testing in studies using both unrelated and family-based designs. We propose a novel method-generalized least squares (GLX)-to estimate both SNP and G×E interaction effects for categorical environmental covariates and compared this method to generalized estimating equations (GEE), logistic regression, the Cochran-Armitage trend test, and the WQLS and MQLS methods. We used simulation to demonstrate that the GLX method reduces type I error under a variety of pedigree structures. We also demonstrate its superior power to detect SNP effects while offering computational advantages and comparable power to detect G×E interactions versus GEE. Using this method, we found two novel SNPs that demonstrate a significant genome-wide interaction with insecticide exposure-rs10499003 and rs7745248, located in the intronic and 3' UTR regions of the FUT9 gene on chromosome 6q16.1. PMID:24845555

  6. Association of the DAT1 Genotype with Inattentive Behavior Is Mediated by Reading Ability in a General Population Sample

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cornish, Kim M.; Savage, Robert; Hocking, Darren R.; Hollis, Chris P.

    2011-01-01

    Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and reading disability (RD) frequently co-occur in the child population and therefore raise the possibility of shared genetic etiology. We used a quantitative trait loci (QTL) approach to assess the involvement of the dopamine transporter (DAT1) gene polymorphism in mediating reading disability and…

  7. The Nature of Covariation between Autistic Traits and Clumsiness: A Twin Study in a General Population Sample

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moruzzi, Sara; Ogliari, Anna; Ronald, Angelica; Happe, Francesca; Battaglia, Marco

    2011-01-01

    While social impairment, difficulties with communication, and restricted repetitive behaviors are central features of Autism Spectrum Disorders, physical clumsiness is a commonly co-occurring feature. In a sample of 398 twin pairs (aged 8-17 years) from the Italian Twin Registry we investigated the nature of the co-variation between a psychometric…

  8. The place of confusional arousals in sleep and mental disorders: findings in a general population sample of 13,057 subjects.

    PubMed

    Ohayon, M M; Priest, R G; Zulley, J; Smirne, S

    2000-06-01

    Confusional arousals, or sleep drunkenness, occur upon awakening and remain unstudied in the general population. We selected a representative sample from the United Kingdom, Germany, and Italy (N = 13,057) and conducted telephone interviews. Confusional arousals were reported by 2.9% of the sample: 1% (95% confidence interval: .8 to 1.2%) of the sample also presented with memory deficits (53.9%), disorientation in time and/or space (71%), or slow mentation and speech (54.4%), and 1.9% (1.7% to 2.1%) reported confusional arousals without associated features. Younger subjects (< 35 years) and shift or night workers were at higher risk of reporting confusional arousals. These arousals were strongly associated with the presence of a mental disorder with odds ratios ranging from 2.4 to 13.5. Bipolar and anxiety disorders were the most frequently associated mental disorders. Furthermore, subjects with Obstructive Sleep Apnea Syndrome (OSAS), hypnagogic or hypnopompic hallucinations, violent or injurious behaviors, insomnia, and hypersomnia are more likely to suffer from confusional arousals. Confusional arousals appears to occur quite frequently in the general population, affecting mostly younger subjects regardless of their gender. Physicians should be aware of the frequent associations between confusional arousals, mental disorders, and OSAS. Furthermore, the high occurrence of confusional arousals in shift or night workers may increase the likelihood of inappropriate response by employees sleeping at work. PMID:10890342

  9. N-Acetyl-4-aminophenol (paracetamol), N-acetyl-2-aminophenol and acetanilide in urine samples from the general population, individuals exposed to aniline and paracetamol users.

    PubMed

    Dierkes, Georg; Weiss, Tobias; Modick, Hendrik; Käfferlein, Heiko Udo; Brüning, Thomas; Koch, Holger M

    2014-01-01

    Epidemiological studies suggest associations between the use of N-acetyl-4-aminophenol (paracetamol) during pregnancy and increased risks of reproductive disorders in the male offspring. Previously we have reported a ubiquitous urinary excretion of N-acetyl-4-aminophenol in the general population. Possible sources are (1) direct intake of paracetamol through medication, (2) paracetamol residues in the food chain and (3) environmental exposure to aniline or related substances that are metabolized into N-acetyl-4-aminophenol. In order to elucidate the origins of the excretion of N-acetyl-4-aminophenol in urine and to contribute to the understanding of paracetamol and aniline metabolism in humans we developed a rapid, turbulent-flow HPLC-MS/MS method with isotope dilution for the simultaneous quantification of N-acetyl-4-aminophenol and two other aniline related metabolites, N-acetyl-2-aminophenol and acetanilide. We applied this method to three sets of urine samples: (1) individuals with no known exposure to aniline and also no recent paracetamol medication; (2) individuals after occupational exposure to aniline but no paracetamol medication and (3) paracetamol users. We confirmed the omnipresent excretion of N-acetyl-4-aminophenol. Additionally we revealed an omnipresent excretion of N-acetyl-2-aminophenol. In contrast, acetanilide was only found after occupational exposure to aniline, not in the general population or after paracetamol use. The results lead to four preliminary conclusions: (1) other sources than aniline seem to be responsible for the major part of urinary N-acetyl-4-aminophenol in the general population; (2) acetanilide is a metabolite of aniline in man and a valuable biomarker for aniline in occupational settings; (3) aniline baseline levels in the general population measured after chemical hydrolysis do not seem to originate from acetanilide and hence not from a direct exposure to aniline itself and (4) N-acetyl-2-aminophenol does not seem to be

  10. Social network in long-term diseases: a comparative study in relatives of persons with schizophrenia and physical illnesses versus a sample from the general population.

    PubMed

    Magliano, Lorenza; Fiorillo, Andrea; Malangone, Claudio; De Rosa, Corrado; Maj, Mario

    2006-03-01

    This study compares the social network of a sample of 709 relatives of patients with schizophrenia, 646 relatives of patients with physical diseases, and 714 lay respondents, recruited in 30 randomly selected Italian areas, stratified for geographic location and population density. Each respondent was asked to fill in the Social Network Questionnaire. The social network was less extended and supportive in relatives of patients with schizophrenia than in those of patients with physical diseases and in the general population. Multivariate analyses revealed that social contacts were similarly reduced in relatives of patients with schizophrenia and physical diseases, while social support was significantly lower in relatives of patients with schizophrenia than in the other two groups. Social resources were higher in young respondents and in those living in rural areas. These results highlight the need to provide the families of those with long-term diseases with interventions aimed at increasing their social resources. PMID:16162379

  11. How does emotional wellbeing relate to underachievement in a general population sample of young adolescents: a neurocognitive perspective

    PubMed Central

    van Batenburg-Eddes, Tamara; Jolles, Jelle

    2013-01-01

    Underachievement in school during early adolescence predicts future economic and personal difficulties. Particular neurocognitive skills on the domain of executive functions start to mature during adolescence. This fact and the physical and psychological changes typical for the transition from childhood to adulthood make adolescents vulnerable to emotional problems. The current study investigated the relationship between mild emotional problems which are highly prevalent among adolescents and underachievement in school, and the role of neurocognitive functioning in this relation. This study was conducted in a substantial sample of typical developing young adolescents who just made the transition to secondary education. Pupils were on average 12.5 years old (standard deviation 0.5), and 45% of the included sample were girls. Emotional wellbeing was associated with underachievement [Odds ratio (OR) 5.15, 95% confidence interval (CI) 3.06–8.68] after adjusting for background variables. Self-reported neurocognitive functioning partly explained the relation between emotional wellbeing and underachievement (OR 2.22, 95% CI 1.23–3.99), yet, emotional wellbeing remained statistically associated with underachievement after correcting for additional confounders (OR 1.99, 95% CI 1.08–3.66). The observed findings suggest that emotional wellbeing plays an essential role in underachievement during the first year of secondary education. PMID:24098291

  12. Sampling Assumptions in Inductive Generalization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Navarro, Daniel J.; Dry, Matthew J.; Lee, Michael D.

    2012-01-01

    Inductive generalization, where people go beyond the data provided, is a basic cognitive capability, and it underpins theoretical accounts of learning, categorization, and decision making. To complete the inductive leap needed for generalization, people must make a key "sampling" assumption about how the available data were generated. Previous…

  13. Structural validity and reliability of the Spanish version of the White Bear Suppression Inventory (WBSI) in a sample of the general Spanish population.

    PubMed

    González Rodríguez, Manuel; Avero Delgado, Pedro; Rovella, Anna Teresa; Cubas León, Rosario

    2008-11-01

    This paper introduces the validation of the Spanish adaptation of the White Bear Suppression Inventory (WBSI) by Wegner and Zanakos (1994). A sample of 833 people from the general population completed the WBSI along with other questionnaires. The exploratory factor analysis and the confirmatory factor analysis supported a two-factor solution accounting for 51.8% of the cumulative variance. This structure is comprised of the two following factors: unwanted intrusive thoughts (alpha = .87, r = .70) and actions of distraction and suppression of thoughts (alpha = .80, r = .60). Both internal consistency reliability (alpha = .89) and test-retest reliability (r = .71) showed adequate homogeneity, sound consistency, and stability over time. The results are discussed bearing in mind both isolated factors and the possible relationships of the suppression factor with automatic negative thoughts and insomnia. PMID:18988450

  14. Mid- and long-term effects of family constellation seminars in a general population sample: 8- and 12-month follow-up.

    PubMed

    Hunger, Christina; Weinhold, Jan; Bornhäuser, Annette; Link, Leoni; Schweitzer, Jochen

    2015-06-01

    In a previous randomized controlled trial (RCT), short-term efficacy of family constellation seminars (FCSs) in a general population sample was demonstrated. In this article, we examined mid- and long-term stability of these effects. Participants were 104 adults (M = 47 years; SD = 9; 84% female) who were part of the intervention group in the original RCT (3-day FCS; 64 active participants and 40 observing participants). FCSs were carried out according to manuals. It was predicted that FCSs would improve psychological functioning (Outcome Questionnaire OQ-45.2) at 8- and 12-month follow-up. Additionally, we assessed the effects of FCSs on psychological distress, motivational incongruence, individuals' experience in their personal social systems, and overall goal attainment. Participants yielded significant improvement in psychological functioning (d = 0.41 at 8-month follow-up, p = .000; d = 0.40 at 12-month follow-up, p = .000). Results were confirmed for psychological distress, motivational incongruence, the participants' experience in their personal social systems, and overall goal attainment. No adverse events were reported. This study provides first evidence for the mid- and long-term efficacy of FCSs in a nonclinical population. The implications of the findings are discussed. PMID:25264190

  15. Rationale and Development of a General Population Well-Being Measure: Psychometric Status of the GP-CORE in a Student Sample

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sinclair, Alice; Barkham, Michael; Evans, Chris; Connell, Janice; Audin, Kerry

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents the rationale, development, and psychometric status of a non-clinical self-report measure for the general population (GP) ? including students ? derived from the Clinical Outcomes in Routine Evaluation-Outcome Measure (CORE-OM) and hence termed the GP-CORE. In contrast to the CORE-OM, the GP-CORE does not comprise items…

  16. Population-Sample Regression in the Estimation of Population Proportions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weitzman, R. A.

    2006-01-01

    Focusing on a single sample obtained randomly with replacement from a single population, this article examines the regression of population on sample proportions and develops an unbiased estimator of the square of the correlation between them. This estimator turns out to be the regression coefficient. Use of the squared-correlation estimator as a…

  17. Sampling Lesbian, Gay, and Bisexual Populations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meyer, Ilan H.; Wilson, Patrick A.

    2009-01-01

    Sampling has been the single most influential component of conducting research with lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) populations. Poor sampling designs can result in biased results that will mislead other researchers, policymakers, and practitioners. Investigators wishing to study LGB populations must therefore devote significant energy and…

  18. Population Education in Geography: Some Sample Lessons.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization, Bangkok (Thailand). Regional Office for Education in Asia and Oceania.

    This booklet contains sample lessons and learning materials from the countries of Asia and Oceania for teaching population education in geography courses. The booklet is one of a series of six, each of which brings out population education concepts as part of a particular subject area. The subject areas treated in the other booklets are home…

  19. A population-based nested case control study on recurrent pneumonias in children with severe generalized cerebral palsy: ethical considerations of the design and representativeness of the study sample

    PubMed Central

    Veugelers, Rebekka; Calis, Elsbeth AC; Penning, Corine; Verhagen, Arianne; Bernsen, Roos; Bouquet, Jan; Benninga, Marc A; Merkus, Peter JFM; Arets, Hubertus GM; Tibboel, Dick; Evenhuis, Heleen M

    2005-01-01

    Background In children with severe generalized cerebral palsy, pneumonias are a major health issue. Malnutrition, dysphagia, gastro-oesophageal reflux, impaired respiratory function and constipation are hypothesized risk factors. Still, no data are available on the relative contribution of these possible risk factors in the described population. This paper describes the initiation of a study in 194 children with severe generalized cerebral palsy, on the prevalence and on the impact of these hypothesized risk factors of recurrent pneumonias. Methods/Design A nested case-control design with 18 months follow-up was chosen. Dysphagia, respiratory function and constipation will be assessed at baseline, malnutrition and gastro-oesophageal reflux at the end of the follow-up. The study population consists of a representative population sample of children with severe generalized cerebral palsy. Inclusion was done through care-centres in a predefined geographical area and not through hospitals. All measurements will be done on-site which sets high demands on all measurements. If these demands were not met in "gold standard" methods, other methods were chosen. Although the inclusion period was prolonged, the desired sample size of 300 children was not met. With a consent rate of 33%, nearly 10% of all eligible children in the Netherlands are included (n = 194). The study population is subtly different from the non-participants with regard to severity of dysphagia and prevalence rates of pneumonias and gastro-oesophageal reflux. Discussion Ethical issues complicated the study design. Assessment of malnutrition and gastro-oesophageal reflux at baseline was considered unethical, since these conditions can be easily treated. Therefore, we postponed these diagnostics until the end of the follow-up. In order to include a representative sample, all eligible children in a predefined geographical area had to be contacted. To increase the consent rate, on-site measurements are of first

  20. California Psychological Inventory Dominance Scale Measurement Equivalence: General Population Normative and Indian, U.K., and U.S. Managerial Samples

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kulas, John T.; Thompson, Richard C.; Anderson, Michael G.

    2011-01-01

    The California Psychological Inventory's Dominance scale was investigated for inconsistencies in item-trait associations across four samples (one American normative and three culturally dissociated manager groupings). The Kim, Cohen, and Park procedure was used, enabling simultaneous multigroup comparison in addition to the traditional…

  1. A general methodology for population analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lazov, Petar; Lazov, Igor

    2014-12-01

    For a given population with N - current and M - maximum number of entities, modeled by a Birth-Death Process (BDP) with size M+1, we introduce utilization parameter ρ, ratio of the primary birth and death rates in that BDP, which, physically, determines (equilibrium) macrostates of the population, and information parameter ν, which has an interpretation as population information stiffness. The BDP, modeling the population, is in the state n, n=0,1,…,M, if N=n. In presence of these two key metrics, applying continuity law, equilibrium balance equations concerning the probability distribution pn, n=0,1,…,M, of the quantity N, pn=Prob{N=n}, in equilibrium, and conservation law, and relying on the fundamental concepts population information and population entropy, we develop a general methodology for population analysis; thereto, by definition, population entropy is uncertainty, related to the population. In this approach, what is its essential contribution, the population information consists of three basic parts: elastic (Hooke's) or absorption/emission part, synchronization or inelastic part and null part; the first two parts, which determine uniquely the null part (the null part connects them), are the two basic components of the Information Spectrum of the population. Population entropy, as mean value of population information, follows this division of the information. A given population can function in information elastic, antielastic and inelastic regime. In an information linear population, the synchronization part of the information and entropy is absent. The population size, M+1, is the third key metric in this methodology. Namely, right supposing a population with infinite size, the most of the key quantities and results for populations with finite size, emerged in this methodology, vanish.

  2. Generalized group chain acceptance sampling plan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zain, Zakiyah; Mughal, Abdur Razzaque; Aziz, Nazrina

    2015-12-01

    In this article, we proposed an acceptance sampling plan based on generalized group chain truncated life test. The decision on acceptance of a submitted lot can be made by using the cumulative information of the immediately preceding samples. The design parameters of the proposed plan such as the minimum number of groups are found to satisfy the desired quality standard. The benefits of this plan include smaller sample size and reduced overall costs.

  3. [Does population ecology have general laws?].

    PubMed

    Turchin, P V

    2002-01-01

    There is a widespread opinion among ecologists that ecology lacks general laws. In this paper the author argues that this opinion is mistaken. Taking the case of population dynamics, the author points out that there are several very general law-like propositions that provide the theoretical basis for most population dynamics models that were developed to address specific issues. Some of these foundational principles, like the law of exponential growth, are logically very similar to certain law of physics (Newton's law of intertia, for example, is almost a direct analogue of exponential growth). The author discusses two other principles (population self-limitation and resource-consumer oscillations), as well as the more elementary postulates that underlie them. None of the "laws" that the author proposes for population ecology are new. Collectively ecologists have been using these general principles in guiding development of their models and experiments since the days of Lotka, Volterra, and Gause. PMID:11881213

  4. The Alcohol Use Disorder and Associated Disabilities Interview Schedule-IV (AUDADIS-IV): Reliability of New Psychiatric Diagnostic Modules and Risk Factors in a General Population Sample

    PubMed Central

    Ruan, W. June; Goldstein, Risë B.; Chou, S. Patricia; Smith, Sharon M.; Saha, Tulshi D.; Pickering, Roger P.; Dawson, Deborah A.; Huang, Boji; Stinson, Frederick S.; Grant, Bridget F.

    2008-01-01

    This study presents test-retest reliability statistics and information on internal consistency for new diagnostic modules and risk factor of alcohol, drug, and psychiatric disorders the Alcohol Use Disorder and Associated Disabilities Interview Schedule-IV (AUDADIS-IV). Test-retest statistics were derived from a random sample of 1,899 adults selected from 34,653 respondents who participated in the 2004–2005 Wave 2 National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions (NESARC). Internal consistency of continuous scales was assessed using the entire Wave 2 NESARC. Both test and retest interviews were conducted face-to-face. Test-retest and internal consistency results for diagnoses and symptom scales associated with posttraumatic stress disorder, attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, and borderline, narcissistic, and schizotypal personality disorders were predominantly good (kappa > 0.63; ICC > 0.69; alpha > 0.75) and reliability for risk factor measures fell within the good to excellent range (intraclass correlations = 0.50–0.94; alpha = 0.64–0.90). The high degree of reliability found in this study suggests that new AUDADIS-IV diagnostic measures can be useful tools in research settings. The availability of highly reliable measures of risk factors of alcohol, drug, and psychiatric disorders will contribute to the validity of conclusions drawn from future research in the domains of substance use disorder and psychiatric epidemiology. PMID:17706375

  5. Pain interference and incident mood, anxiety, and substance-use disorders: findings from a representative sample of men and women in the general population.

    PubMed

    Barry, Declan T; Pilver, Corey E; Hoff, Rani A; Potenza, Marc N

    2013-11-01

    To examine gender differences in the longitudinal relationship between past-month pain interference and incident mood, anxiety, and substance-use disorders, chi-square tests and binomial logistic regression analyses were performed on data obtained from the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions from 34,465 adult respondents (47.9% men; 52.1% women) who completed waves 1 (2000-2001) and 2 (2004-2005) data collection. Models were adjusted for potentially confounding factors (i.e., age, race, marital status, educational level, employment, household income, number of stressful life events, number of general medical conditions, and wave-1 psychopathology). Respondents were categorized at wave 1 according to their past-month level of pain interference (i.e., no or low pain interference, moderate pain interference, severe pain interference). Moderate and severe pain interference (as compared to no or low pain interference) in male and female respondents was associated with the incidence of several psychiatric disorders. A stronger relationship was observed in male respondents as compared to female ones between past-month moderate pain interference and a new onset of any mood disorder (OR=1.57, p=0.03) and major depressive disorder (OR=1.60, p=0.03), and between past-month severe pain interference and a new onset of alcohol abuse or dependence (OR=1.69, p=0.045) and nicotine dependence (OR=1.48, p=0.04). These findings suggest that providers should consider screening patients with past-month moderate or severe pain interference for mood, anxiety, and substance-use problems and monitor the possible development of subsequent comorbid psychiatric disorders. PMID:23992771

  6. Estimating Aquatic Insect Populations. Introduction to Sampling.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chihuahuan Desert Research Inst., Alpine, TX.

    This booklet introduces high school and junior high school students to the major groups of aquatic insects and to population sampling techniques. Chapter 1 consists of a short field guide which can be used to identify five separate orders of aquatic insects: odonata (dragonflies and damselflies); ephemeroptera (mayflies); diptera (true flies);…

  7. Population Education in Health: Some Sample Lessons.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization, Bangkok (Thailand). Regional Office for Education in Asia and Oceania.

    This manual for home economics teachers contains eight sample lessons on health issues related to population growth. Among the topics treated are nutrition, family health, communicable diseases, causes of high mortality, and community health services. Lessons are designed for lower primary through high school students. A scope and sequence chart…

  8. Population Education in Science: Some Sample Lessons.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization, Bangkok (Thailand). Regional Office for Education in Asia and Oceania.

    This science teacher's manual contains nine sample population education lessons adapted from materials produced in several countries in Asia and Oceania. Activities are designed for lower primary through high school students. Included are class discussions, small group activities, and a role-playing situation. Food chains, human dependence upon…

  9. Chronic Disease in a General Adult Population

    PubMed Central

    Lohr, Kathleen N.; Kamberg, Caren J.; Goldberg, George A.; Brook, Robert H.; Keeler, Emmett B.; Calabro, Thomas A.

    1986-01-01

    Using questionnaire and physical screening examination data for a general population of 4,962 adults aged 18 to 61 years enrolled in the Rand Health Insurance Experiment, we calculated the prevalence of 13 chronic illnesses and assessed disease impact. Low-income men had a significantly higher prevalence of anemia, chronic airway disease and hearing impairment than their high-income counterparts, low-income women a higher prevalence of congestive heart failure, diabetes mellitus, hypertension, hearing impairment and vision impairment. Of our sample, 30% had one chronic condition and 16% had two or more. Several significant pairs or “clusters” of chronic illnesses were found. With few exceptions (diabetes, hypertension), the use of physician care in the previous year for a specific condition tended to be low. Disease impact (worry, activity restriction) was widespread but mild. Persons with angina, congestive heart failure, mild chronic joint disorders and peptic ulcer disease reported a greater impact than persons with other illnesses. PMID:3788141

  10. Characteristics of hyperacusis in the general population.

    PubMed

    Paulin, Johan; Andersson, Linus; Nordin, Steven

    2016-01-01

    There is a need for better understanding of various characteristics in hyperacusis in the general population. The objectives of the present study were to investigate individuals in the general population with hyperacusis regarding demographics, lifestyle, perceived general health and hearing ability, hyperacusis-specific characteristics and behavior, and comorbidity. Using data from a large-scale population-based questionnaire study, we investigated individuals with physician-diagnosed (n = 66) and self-reported (n = 313) hyperacusis in comparison to individuals without hyperacusis (n = 2995). High age, female sex, and high education were associated with hyperacusis, and that trying to avoid sound sources, being able to affect the sound environment, and having sough medical attention were common reactions and behaviors. Posttraumatic stress disorder, chronic fatigue syndrome, generalized anxiety disorder, depression, exhaustion, fibromyalgia, irritable bowel syndrome, migraine, hearing impairment, tinnitus, and back/joint/muscle disorders were comorbid with hyperacusis. The results provide ground for future study of these characteristic features being risk factors for development of hyperacusis and/or consequences of hyperacusis. PMID:27569405

  11. Exposure of the general population to gasoline.

    PubMed Central

    Akland, G G

    1993-01-01

    This paper summarizes the currently available information on gasoline exposure to the general population. In general, the largest contribution to the time weighted exposures results from exposures while indoors, which are influenced by the outside air, indoor sources, and attached garages. Personal activities, including refueling and commuting, contribute significantly higher exposures but last for only a small portion of the 24-hr time weighted average. The highest exposed group includes those individuals living near large service stations and those with contaminated water supplies. PMID:8020446

  12. Disentangling seasonal bacterioplankton population dynamics by high-frequency sampling.

    PubMed

    Lindh, Markus V; Sjöstedt, Johanna; Andersson, Anders F; Baltar, Federico; Hugerth, Luisa W; Lundin, Daniel; Muthusamy, Saraladevi; Legrand, Catherine; Pinhassi, Jarone

    2015-07-01

    Multiyear comparisons of bacterioplankton succession reveal that environmental conditions drive community shifts with repeatable patterns between years. However, corresponding insight into bacterioplankton dynamics at a temporal resolution relevant for detailed examination of variation and characteristics of specific populations within years is essentially lacking. During 1 year, we collected 46 samples in the Baltic Sea for assessing bacterial community composition by 16S rRNA gene pyrosequencing (nearly twice weekly during productive season). Beta-diversity analysis showed distinct clustering of samples, attributable to seemingly synchronous temporal transitions among populations (populations defined by 97% 16S rRNA gene sequence identity). A wide spectrum of bacterioplankton dynamics was evident, where divergent temporal patterns resulted both from pronounced differences in relative abundance and presence/absence of populations. Rates of change in relative abundance calculated for individual populations ranged from 0.23 to 1.79 day(-1) . Populations that were persistently dominant, transiently abundant or generally rare were found in several major bacterial groups, implying evolution has favoured a similar variety of life strategies within these groups. These findings suggest that high temporal resolution sampling allows constraining the timescales and frequencies at which distinct populations transition between being abundant or rare, thus potentially providing clues about physical, chemical or biological forcing on bacterioplankton community structure. PMID:25403576

  13. Limits of Generalizing in Education Research: Why Criteria for Research Generalization Should Include Population Heterogeneity and Uses of Knowledge Claims

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ercikan, Kadriye; Roth, Wolff-Michael

    2014-01-01

    Context: Generalization is a critical concept in all research designed to generate knowledge that applies to all elements of a unit (population) while studying only a subset of these elements (sample). Commonly applied criteria for generalizing focus on experimental design or representativeness of samples of the population of units. The criteria…

  14. Monitoring larval populations of the douglas-fir tussock moth and the western spruce budworm on permanent plots: Sampling methods and statistical properties of data. Forest Service general technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Mason, R.R.; Paul, H.G.

    1994-05-01

    Procedures for monitoring Larval populations of the Douglas-fir tussock moth and the western spruce budworm are recommended based on many years experience of sample these species in eastern Oregon and Washington. It is shown that statistically reliable estimates of larval density can be made for a population by sampling host trees in a series of permanent plots in a geographical monitoring unit. The most practical method is to estimate densities of both insect species simultaneously on a plot by the nondestructive sampling of foliage on lower crown branches of host trees. For best results, sampling methods need to be consistent with monitoring done annually to accumulate continuous databases that reflect the behavior of defoliator populations over a long period of time.

  15. Anisotropic interpolation of sparse generalized image samples.

    PubMed

    Bourquard, Aurélien; Unser, Michael

    2013-02-01

    Practical image-acquisition systems are often modeled as a continuous-domain prefilter followed by an ideal sampler, where generalized samples are obtained after convolution with the impulse response of the device. In this paper, our goal is to interpolate images from a given subset of such samples. We express our solution in the continuous domain, considering consistent resampling as a data-fidelity constraint. To make the problem well posed and ensure edge-preserving solutions, we develop an efficient anisotropic regularization approach that is based on an improved version of the edge-enhancing anisotropic diffusion equation. Following variational principles, our reconstruction algorithm minimizes successive quadratic cost functionals. To ensure fast convergence, we solve the corresponding sequence of linear problems by using multigrid iterations that are specifically tailored to their sparse structure. We conduct illustrative experiments and discuss the potential of our approach both in terms of algorithmic design and reconstruction quality. In particular, we present results that use as little as 2% of the image samples. PMID:22968212

  16. [Some general considerations concerning Cuba's population policies].

    PubMed

    Aldana Martinez, L

    1978-01-01

    The policies developed in Cuba after the revolution that influenced population were primarily intended to alter basic structures hindering social and economic development rather than to affect population growth. Fertility has declined rapidly from 35.1/1000 in 1963 to a preliminary figure of 19.8/1000 in 1977, and interprovincial differences have significantly lessened. Factors influencing the decline include the increased participation of women in economic activities, improved access to contraception, the higher cultural level of couples and especially women made possible through adult education, and increased urbanization following the agrarian reform. Infant mortality declined from about 80/1000 live births in the late 1950s to 24.6/1000 live births in 1977, while mortality for 1-4 year olds is now 1.1/1000. Maternal mortality declined from 10.7/10,000 live births in 1965 to 4.6 in 1976. Expectation of life at birth was 70 years for both sexes in 1976. The most significant factors in the mortality decline appear to have been general improvements in material standards and the disappearance of nutritional deficiencies in children and mothers, creation of the National Health System which offers free health care nationwide, and improved educational levels. By the beginning of the century 40% of the urban population resided in places with over 2000 inhabitants. In 1953 the proportion was 51.4% and Havana contained 23% of the national population. The policy of the Revolution has been to exploit the natural resources of the entire country and to reform agriculture and livestock raising. The growth rate of the urban population between 1953 and 1970 of 3.1% was only slightly higher than the growth rate of 2.19% of the entire country. Havana grew by only 2.2% during the same time, and by only 1.3% between 1971-74. Intermediate cities increased their share of the total population from 10.6% in 1958 to 17.3% in 1970. Government programs to orient migration toward

  17. Generalized population models and the nature of genetic drift.

    PubMed

    Der, Ricky; Epstein, Charles L; Plotkin, Joshua B

    2011-09-01

    The Wright-Fisher model of allele dynamics forms the basis for most theoretical and applied research in population genetics. Our understanding of genetic drift, and its role in suppressing the deterministic forces of Darwinian selection has relied on the specific form of sampling inherent to the Wright-Fisher model and its diffusion limit. Here we introduce and analyze a broad class of forward-time population models that share the same mean and variance as the Wright-Fisher model, but may otherwise differ. The proposed class unifies and further generalizes a number of population-genetic processes of recent interest, including the Λ and Cannings processes. Even though these models all have the same variance effective population size, they encode a rich diversity of alternative forms of genetic drift, with significant consequences for allele dynamics. We characterize in detail the behavior of standard population-genetic quantities across this family of generalized models. Some quantities, such as heterozygosity, remain unchanged; but others, such as neutral absorption times and fixation probabilities under selection, deviate by orders of magnitude from the Wright-Fisher model. We show that generalized population models can produce startling phenomena that differ qualitatively from classical behavior - such as assured fixation of a new mutant despite the presence of genetic drift. We derive the forward-time continuum limits of the generalized processes, analogous to Kimura's diffusion limit of the Wright-Fisher process, and we discuss their relationships to the Kingman and non-Kingman coalescents. Finally, we demonstrate that some non-diffusive, generalized models are more likely, in certain respects, than the Wright-Fisher model itself, given empirical data from Drosophila populations. PMID:21718713

  18. PROBABILITY SAMPLING AND POPULATION INFERENCE IN MONITORING PROGRAMS

    EPA Science Inventory

    A fundamental difference between probability sampling and conventional statistics is that "sampling" deals with real, tangible populations, whereas "conventional statistics" usually deals with hypothetical populations that have no real-world realization. he focus here is on real ...

  19. Drug test feasibility in a general population household survey.

    PubMed

    Fendrich, Michael; Johnson, Timothy P; Wislar, Joseph S; Hubbell, Amy

    2004-03-01

    Drug testing was used as an adjunct to a general population household drug use survey administered via audio computer assisted self-interview. Participants, ages 18-40 years residing in Chicago, were recruited to participate in three different biological tests (hair, oral fluid, and urine) presented in random order subsequent to completing an interview. Subjects had the option of participating in zero to three different tests. We examined participation/refusal in tests, reaction to testing requests, as well as variables associated with participation and reaction. Subjects were randomly assigned to a low (US$ 10 per test) or high (US$ 20 per test) incentive condition. Over 90% of the sample participated in at least one test, usually the oral fluid test. Associations between refusal status and two variables, socioeconomic status (SES) and presence of children in the household, provided partial support for the notion that drug test participation parallels the survey response process in general. Incentive level did not directly increase drug test participation. Reporting of recent illicit drug use was associated with participation in only one procedure, hair testing. Type of test offered and individual differences in willingness to be drug tested were important predictors of drug test refusal and subject reaction to testing requests. Compared with urine and hair testing, oral fluid testing had lower refusal rates and was generally more acceptable to respondents in a general population survey. The findings support the feasibility of incorporating multiple drug tests with modest incentives into general population household surveys on drug abuse. PMID:15036546

  20. Singing proficiency in the general population.

    PubMed

    Dalla Bella, Simone; Giguère, Jean-François; Peretz, Isabelle

    2007-02-01

    Most believe that the ability to carry a tune is unevenly distributed in the general population. To test this claim, we asked occasional singers (n=62) to sing a well-known song in both the laboratory and in a natural setting (experiment 1). Sung performances were judged by peers for proficiency, analyzed for pitch and time accuracy with an acoustic-based method, and compared to professional singing. The peer ratings for the proficiency of occasional singers were normally distributed. Only a minority of the occasional singers made numerous pitch errors. The variance in singing proficiency was largely due to tempo differences. Occasional singers tended to sing at a faster tempo and with more pitch and time errors relative to professional singers. In experiment 2 15 nonmusicians from experiment 1 sang the same song at a slow tempo. In this condition, most of the occasional singers sang as accurately as the professional singers. Thus, singing appears to be a universal human trait. However, two of the occasional singers maintained a high rate of pitch errors at the slower tempo. This poor performance was not due to impaired pitch perception, thus suggesting the existence of a purely vocal form of tone deafness. PMID:17348539

  1. g in Middle Childhood: Moderate Genetic and Shared Environmental Influence Using Diverse Measures of General Cognitive Ability at 7, 9 and 10 Years in a Large Population Sample of Twins

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Oliver S. P.; Arden, Rosalind; Plomin, Robert

    2008-01-01

    A 2003 paper in this journal reported results from a large sample of twins assessed at 2, 3 and 4 years of age on parent-administered tests and reports of their verbal and nonverbal ability. We found clear evidence for phenotypic general cognitive ability (g) that accounted for about 50% of the variance, for modest genetic influence on g (about…

  2. Quantifying tone deafness in the general population.

    PubMed

    Sloboda, John A; Wise, Karen J; Peretz, Isabelle

    2005-12-01

    the general population, whose purpose is to discriminate "true" from "false" amusics. Such discrimination is essential to achieve a better understanding of the variety of causes of low musical achievement. PMID:16597772

  3. Nightmares: Risk Factors Among the Finnish General Adult Population

    PubMed Central

    Sandman, Nils; Valli, Katja; Kronholm, Erkki; Revonsuo, Antti; Laatikainen, Tiina; Paunio, Tiina

    2015-01-01

    Study Objectives: To identify risk factors for experiencing nightmares among the Finnish general adult population. The study aimed to both test whether previously reported correlates of frequent nightmares could be reproduced in a large population sample and to explore previously unreported associations. Design: Two independent cross-sectional population surveys of the National FINRISK Study. Setting: Age- and sex-stratified random samples of the Finnish population in 2007 and 2012. Participants: A total of 13,922 participants (6,515 men and 7,407 women) aged 25–74 y. Interventions: N/A. Measurements and results: Nightmare frequency as well as several items related to socioeconomic status, sleep, mental well-being, life satisfaction, alcohol use, medication, and physical well-being were recorded with a questionnaire. In multinomial logistic regression analysis, a depression-related negative attitude toward the self (odds ratio [OR] 1.32 per 1-point increase), insomnia (OR 6.90), and exhaustion and fatigue (OR 6.86) were the strongest risk factors for experiencing frequent nightmares (P < 0.001 for all). Sex, age, a self-reported impaired ability to work, low life satisfaction, the use of antidepressants or hypnotics, and frequent heavy use of alcohol were also strongly associated with frequent nightmares (P < 0.001 for all). Conclusions: Symptoms of depression and insomnia were the strongest predictors of frequent nightmares in this dataset. Additionally, a wide variety of factors related to psychological and physical well-being were associated with nightmare frequency with modest effect sizes. Hence, nightmare frequency appears to have a strong connection with sleep and mood problems, but is also associated with a variety of measures of psychological and physical well-being. Citation: Sandman N, Valli K, Kronholm E, Revonsuo A, Laatikainen T, Paunio T. Nightmares: risk factors among the finnish general adult population. SLEEP 2015;38(4):507–514. PMID:25325474

  4. Inverse sampled Bernoulli (ISB) procedure for estimating a population proportion, with nuclear material applications

    SciTech Connect

    Wright, T.

    1982-01-01

    A new sampling procedure is introduced for estimating a population proportion. The procedure combines the ideas of inverse binomial sampling and Bernoulli sampling. An unbiased estimator is given with its variance. The procedure can be viewed as a generalization of inverse binomial sampling.

  5. On the importance of sampling variance to investigations of temporal variation in animal population size

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Link, W.A.; Nichols, J.D.

    1994-01-01

    Our purpose here is to emphasize the need to properly deal with sampling variance when studying population variability and to present a means of doing so. We present an estimator for temporal variance of population size for the general case in which there are both sampling variances and covariances associated with estimates of population size. We illustrate the estimation approach with a series of population size estimates for black-capped chickadees (Parus atricapillus) wintering in a Connecticut study area and with a series of population size estimates for breeding populations of ducks in southwestern Manitoba.

  6. Population Processes Sampled at Random Times

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beghin, Luisa; Orsingher, Enzo

    2016-04-01

    In this paper we study the iterated birth process of which we examine the first-passage time distributions and the hitting probabilities. Furthermore, linear birth processes, linear and sublinear death processes at Poisson times are investigated. In particular, we study the hitting times in all cases and examine their long-range behavior. The time-changed population models considered here display upward (birth process) and downward jumps (death processes) of arbitrary size and, for this reason, can be adopted as adequate models in ecology, epidemics and finance situations, under stress conditions.

  7. Reliability, Validity and Factor Structure of the 12-Item General Health Questionnaire among General Population

    PubMed Central

    Petkovska, Miodraga Stefanovska; Bojadziev, Marjan I.; Stefanovska, Vesna Velikj

    2015-01-01

    AIM: The aim of the study is to analyze the internal consistency; validity and factor structure of the twelve item General Health Questionnaire for the Macedonian general population. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Data came from nationally representative sample of 1603 randomly selected Macedonians all aged 18 years or older. RESULTS: The mean GHQ score in the general sample was found to be 7.9 (SD = 4.3). The results revealed a higher GHQ score among women (M = 8.91, SD = 4.5) compared to men (M = 6.89; SD = 4.2). The participants from the rural areas obtained a lower GHQ score (M = 7.55, SD = 3.8) compared to participants coming from the urban areas (M = 9.37, SD = 4.1). The principal component analysis with oblique rotation (direct oblimin) with maximum likelihood procedure solution was performed and the results yielded a three factor solution which jointly accounted for 57.17% of the total variance: Factor I named social management (items 1, 3, 4, 6, 7 and 8); Factor II stress (items 2, 5 and 9) and Factor III named self-confidence (items 10, 11 and 12). Its factor structure is in line with representative research from other population groups. CONCLUSION: The GHQ-12 can be used effectively for assessment of the overall psychological well-being and detection of non-psychotic psychiatric problems among the Macedonian population.

  8. Suicidal Behaviors among Clients at an Outpatient Psychology Clinic versus the General Population.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Linehan, Marsha M.; Laffaw, Julie A.

    1982-01-01

    Compared suicidal behaviors among two populations in the same geographical area: clients at a psychology clinic versus individuals from the general population. In both samples, 10 percent of the individuals reported prior parasuicidal behavior; the two populations were also quite similar on reports of prior suicidal ideation. (JAC)

  9. Jumping to conclusions and paranoid ideation in the general population.

    PubMed

    Freeman, Daniel; Pugh, Katherine; Garety, Philippa

    2008-07-01

    An association of a 'jumping to conclusions' (JTC) reasoning style and delusions has been repeatedly found. The data-gathering bias has been particularly implicated with higher levels of delusional conviction in schizophrenia. For the first time the symptom, psychological and social correlates of jumping to conclusions are examined in a large general population sample. This is based upon the recognition that delusional ideation in non-clinical populations is on a continuum of severity with delusions in psychosis. Two hundred individuals completed a probabilistic reasoning task and assessments of paranoid ideation, intellectual functioning, affective symptoms, anomalies of experience, cognitive flexibility, illicit drug use, social support, and trauma. The jumping to conclusions reasoning bias was found in 20% of the non-clinical sample. JTC was strongly associated with higher levels of conviction in paranoid thoughts and the occurrence of perceptual anomalies, but not with the presence of affective symptoms. The results indicate that jumping to conclusions is a reasoning bias specifically associated with levels of delusional conviction, and is not a product of generally high levels of distress and affect. The association of jumping to conclusions with the types of anomalies of experience seen in psychotic disorders is intriguing, and consistent with recent dopamine dysregulation theories and the importance of reasoning to perception. The study is a further illustration of the need to consider the dimensions of delusional experience separately. PMID:18442898

  10. 7 CFR 868.33 - Sample requirements; general.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Sample requirements; general. 868.33 Section 868.33... FOR CERTAIN AGRICULTURAL COMMODITIES Regulations Inspection Methods and Procedures § 868.33 Sample requirements; general. (a) Samples for lot inspection service—(1) Original lot inspection service. The...

  11. 30 CFR 90.201 - Sampling; general requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Sampling; general requirements. 90.201 Section 90.201 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE SAFETY... PNEUMOCONIOSIS Sampling Procedures § 90.201 Sampling; general requirements. (a) Each operator shall...

  12. Sampling considerations for disease surveillance in wildlife populations

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nusser, S.M.; Clark, W.R.; Otis, D.L.; Huang, L.

    2008-01-01

    Disease surveillance in wildlife populations involves detecting the presence of a disease, characterizing its prevalence and spread, and subsequent monitoring. A probability sample of animals selected from the population and corresponding estimators of disease prevalence and detection provide estimates with quantifiable statistical properties, but this approach is rarely used. Although wildlife scientists often assume probability sampling and random disease distributions to calculate sample sizes, convenience samples (i.e., samples of readily available animals) are typically used, and disease distributions are rarely random. We demonstrate how landscape-based simulation can be used to explore properties of estimators from convenience samples in relation to probability samples. We used simulation methods to model what is known about the habitat preferences of the wildlife population, the disease distribution, and the potential biases of the convenience-sample approach. Using chronic wasting disease in free-ranging deer (Odocoileus virginianus) as a simple illustration, we show that using probability sample designs with appropriate estimators provides unbiased surveillance parameter estimates but that the selection bias and coverage errors associated with convenience samples can lead to biased and misleading results. We also suggest practical alternatives to convenience samples that mix probability and convenience sampling. For example, a sample of land areas can be selected using a probability design that oversamples areas with larger animal populations, followed by harvesting of individual animals within sampled areas using a convenience sampling method.

  13. Impulsivity in the general population: A national study

    PubMed Central

    Chamorro, Jaime; Bernardi, Silvia; Potenza, Marc N.; Grant, Jon E.; Marsh, Rachel; Wang, Shuai; Blanco, Carlos

    2013-01-01

    Objective The construct of impulsivity is an important determinant of personality differences, psychiatric disorders, and associated risk-taking behaviors. Most existing knowledge about impulsivity comes from clinical samples. To date, no study has estimated the prevalence of impulsivity and examined its correlates in the general population. Method We analyzed data from a large national sample of the United States population. Face-to-face surveys of 34 653 adults aged 18 years and older residing in households were conducted during the 2004–2005 period. Diagnoses of mood, anxiety, and drug disorders as well as personality disorders were based on the Alcohol Use Disorder and Associated Disabilities Interview Schedule—DSM-IV Version. Results Impulsivity was common (17% of the sample), particularly among males and younger individuals, and associated with a broad range of axis I and II disorders, particularly drug dependence, cluster B, dependent and schizotypal personality disorders, bipolar disorder and ADHD. It was associated with behavioral disinhibition, attention deficits, and lack of planning. Individuals with impulsivity were more likely to engage in behaviors that could be dangerous to themselves or others, including driving recklessly, starting fights, shoplifting, perpetrating domestic violence and trying to hurt or kill themselves. They were exposed to higher risk of lifetime trauma and to substantial physical and psychosocial impairment. Conclusion Given the association of impulsivity with psychiatric disorders and multiple adverse events, there is a need to target impulsivity in prevention and treatment efforts. PMID:22626529

  14. A general consumer-resource population model

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lafferty, Kevin D.; DeLeo, Giulio; Briggs, Cheryl J.; Dobson, Andrew P.; Gross, Thilo; Kuris, Armand M.

    2015-01-01

    Food-web dynamics arise from predator-prey, parasite-host, and herbivore-plant interactions. Models for such interactions include up to three consumer activity states (questing, attacking, consuming) and up to four resource response states (susceptible, exposed, ingested, resistant). Articulating these states into a general model allows for dissecting, comparing, and deriving consumer-resource models. We specify this general model for 11 generic consumer strategies that group mathematically into predators, parasites, and micropredators and then derive conditions for consumer success, including a universal saturating functional response. We further show how to use this framework to create simple models with a common mathematical lineage and transparent assumptions. Underlying assumptions, missing elements, and composite parameters are revealed when classic consumer-resource models are derived from the general model.

  15. 52 additional reference population samples for the 55 AISNP panel.

    PubMed

    Pakstis, Andrew J; Haigh, Eva; Cherni, Lotfi; ElGaaied, Amel Ben Ammar; Barton, Alison; Evsanaa, Baigalmaa; Togtokh, Ariunaa; Brissenden, Jane; Roscoe, Janet; Bulbul, Ozlem; Filoglu, Gonul; Gurkan, Cemal; Meiklejohn, Kelly A; Robertson, James M; Li, Cai-Xia; Wei, Yi-Liang; Li, Hui; Soundararajan, Usha; Rajeevan, Haseena; Kidd, Judith R; Kidd, Kenneth K

    2015-11-01

    Ancestry inference for a person using a panel of SNPs depends on the variation of frequencies of those SNPs around the world and the amount of reference data available for calculation/comparison. The Kidd Lab panel of 55 AISNPs has been incorporated in commercial kits by both Life Technologies and Illumina for massively parallel sequencing. Therefore, a larger set of reference populations will be useful for researchers using those kits. We have added reference population allele frequencies for 52 population samples to the 73 previously entered so that there are now allele frequencies publicly available in ALFRED and FROG-kb for a total of 125 population samples. PMID:26355664

  16. Characteristics of the General Physics student population.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hunt, Gary L.

    2006-12-01

    Are pre-medical students different than the other students in a General physics class? They often appear to be different, based on how often they seek help from the instructor or how nervous they are about 2 points on a lab report. But are these students different in a measurable characteristic? The purpose of this study is to better understand the characteristics of the students in the introductory physics classes. This is the first step toward improving the instruction. By better understanding the students the classroom, the organization and pedagogy can be adjusted to optimize student learning. The characteristics to be investigated during this study are: · student epistemological structure, · student attitudes, · science course preparation prior to this course, · study techniques used, · physics concepts gained during the class · performance in the class. The data will be analyzed to investigate differences between groups. The groups investigated will be major, gender, and traditional/nontraditional students.

  17. Mutational pattern of a sample from a critical branching population.

    PubMed

    Delaporte, Cécile; Achaz, Guillaume; Lambert, Amaury

    2016-09-01

    We study a universal object for the genealogy of a sample in populations with mutations: the critical birth-death process with Poissonian mutations, conditioned on its population size at a fixed time horizon. We show how this process arises as the law of the genealogy of a sample in a large class of nearly critical branching populations with rare mutations at birth, namely populations converging, in a large population asymptotic, towards the continuum random tree. We extend this model to populations with random foundation times, with (potentially improper) prior distributions [Formula: see text], [Formula: see text], including the so-called uniform ([Formula: see text]) and log-uniform ([Formula: see text]) priors. We first investigate the mutational patterns arising from these models, by studying the site frequency spectrum of a sample with fixed size, i.e. the number of mutations carried by k individuals in the sample. Explicit formulae for the expected frequency spectrum of a sample are provided, in the cases of a fixed foundation time, and of a uniform and log-uniform prior on the foundation time. Second, we establish the convergence in distribution, for large sample sizes, of the (suitably renormalized) tree spanned by the sample with prior [Formula: see text] on the time of origin. We finally prove that the limiting genealogies with different priors can all be embedded in the same realization of a given Poisson point measure. PMID:26748918

  18. The Reliability of Difference Scores in Populations and Samples

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zimmerman, Donald W.

    2009-01-01

    This study was an investigation of the relation between the reliability of difference scores, considered as a parameter characterizing a population of examinees, and the reliability estimates obtained from random samples from the population. The parameters in familiar equations for the reliability of difference scores were redefined in such a way…

  19. Population Education in Social Studies: Some Sample Lessons.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization, Bangkok (Thailand). Regional Office for Education in Asia and Oceania.

    This booklet contains sample lessons and learning materials from the countries of Asia and Oceania for teaching population education in social studies. The booklet is one of a series of six, each of which brings out population education concepts as part of a particular subject area. The subject areas treated in the other booklets are home…

  20. COMPARISON OF SAMPLING TECHNIQUES USED IN STUDYING LEPIDOPTERA POPULATION DYNAMICS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Four methods (light traps, foliage samples, canvas bands, and gypsy moth egg mass surveys) that are used to study the population dynamics of foliage-feeding Lepidoptera were compared for 10 species, including gypsy moth, Lymantria dispar L. Samples were collected weekly at 12 sit...

  1. Sign Language Users' Education and Employment Levels: Keeping Pace with Changes in the General Australian Population?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Willoughby, Louisa

    2011-01-01

    This article draws on data from the 2006 Australian census to explore the education and employment outcomes of sign languages users living in Victoria, Australia, and to compare them with outcomes reported in the general population. Census data have the advantage of sampling the entire population on the one night, avoiding problems of population…

  2. Probability Sampling Method for a Hidden Population Using Respondent-Driven Sampling: Simulation for Cancer Survivors.

    PubMed

    Jung, Minsoo

    2015-01-01

    When there is no sampling frame within a certain group or the group is concerned that making its population public would bring social stigma, we say the population is hidden. It is difficult to approach this kind of population survey-methodologically because the response rate is low and its members are not quite honest with their responses when probability sampling is used. The only alternative known to address the problems caused by previous methods such as snowball sampling is respondent-driven sampling (RDS), which was developed by Heckathorn and his colleagues. RDS is based on a Markov chain, and uses the social network information of the respondent. This characteristic allows for probability sampling when we survey a hidden population. We verified through computer simulation whether RDS can be used on a hidden population of cancer survivors. According to the simulation results of this thesis, the chain-referral sampling of RDS tends to minimize as the sample gets bigger, and it becomes stabilized as the wave progresses. Therefore, it shows that the final sample information can be completely independent from the initial seeds if a certain level of sample size is secured even if the initial seeds were selected through convenient sampling. Thus, RDS can be considered as an alternative which can improve upon both key informant sampling and ethnographic surveys, and it needs to be utilized for various cases domestically as well. PMID:26107223

  3. A parametric generalization of the Hayne estimator for line transect sampling

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Burnham, Kenneth P.

    1979-01-01

    The Hayne model for line transect sampling is generalized by using an elliptical (rather than circular) flushing model for animal detection. By assuming the ration of major and minor axes lengths is constant for all animals, a model results which allows estimation of population density based directly upon sighting distances and sighting angles. The derived estimator of animal density is a generalization of the Hayne estimator for line transect sampling.

  4. An open-population hierarchical distance sampling model

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sollmann, Rachel; Beth Gardner; Richard B Chandler; Royle, J. Andrew; T Scott Sillett

    2015-01-01

    Modeling population dynamics while accounting for imperfect detection is essential to monitoring programs. Distance sampling allows estimating population size while accounting for imperfect detection, but existing methods do not allow for direct estimation of demographic parameters. We develop a model that uses temporal correlation in abundance arising from underlying population dynamics to estimate demographic parameters from repeated distance sampling surveys. Using a simulation study motivated by designing a monitoring program for island scrub-jays (Aphelocoma insularis), we investigated the power of this model to detect population trends. We generated temporally autocorrelated abundance and distance sampling data over six surveys, using population rates of change of 0.95 and 0.90. We fit the data generating Markovian model and a mis-specified model with a log-linear time effect on abundance, and derived post hoc trend estimates from a model estimating abundance for each survey separately. We performed these analyses for varying number of survey points. Power to detect population changes was consistently greater under the Markov model than under the alternatives, particularly for reduced numbers of survey points. The model can readily be extended to more complex demographic processes than considered in our simulations. This novel framework can be widely adopted for wildlife population monitoring.

  5. Incidence of facial pain in the general population.

    PubMed

    Koopman, Joseph S H A; Dieleman, Jeanne P; Huygen, Frank J; de Mos, Marissa; Martin, Carola G M; Sturkenboom, Miriam C J M

    2009-12-15

    Facial pain has a considerable impact on quality of life. Accurate incidence estimates in the general population are scant. The aim was therefore to estimate the incidence rate (IR) of trigeminal neuralgia (TGN), postherpetic neuralgia (PHN), cluster headache (CH), occipital neuralgia (ON), local neuralgia (LoN), atypical facial pain (AFP), glossopharyngeal neuralgia (GPN) and paroxysmal hemicrania (PH) in the Netherlands. In the population-based Integrated Primary Care Information (IPCI) medical record database potential facial pain cases were identified from codes and narratives. Two medical doctors reviewed medical records, questionnaires from general practitioners and specialist letters using criteria of the International Association for the Study of Pain. A pain specialist arbitrated if necessary and a random sample of all cases was evaluated by a neurologist. The date of onset was defined as date of first specific symptoms. The IR was calculated per 100,000PY. Three hundred and sixty-two incident cases were ascertained. The overall IR [95% confidence interval] was 38.7 [34.9-42.9]. It was more common among women compared to men. Trigeminal neuralgia and cluster headache were the most common forms among the studied diseases. Paroxysmal hemicrania and glossopharyngeal neuralgia were among the rarer syndromes. The IR increased with age for all diseases except CH and ON, peaking in the 4th and 7th decade, respectively. Postherpetic neuralgia, CH and LoN were more common in men than women. From this we can conclude that facial pain is relatively rare, although more common than estimated previously based on hospital data. PMID:19783099

  6. General constraints on sampling wildlife on FIA plots

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bailey, L.L.; Sauer, J.R.; Nichols, J.D.; Geissler, P.H.

    2005-01-01

    This paper reviews the constraints to sampling wildlife populations at FIA points. Wildlife sampling programs must have well-defined goals and provide information adequate to meet those goals. Investigators should choose a State variable based on information needs and the spatial sampling scale. We discuss estimation-based methods for three State variables: species richness, abundance, and patch occupancy. All methods incorporate two essential sources of variation: detectability estimation and spatial variation. FIA sampling imposes specific space and time criteria that may need to be adjusted to meet local wildlife objectives.

  7. Alcohol Drinking Pattern: A Comparison between HIV-Infected Patients and Individuals from the General Population

    PubMed Central

    Ikeda, Maria Leticia R.; Barcellos, Nemora T.; Alencastro, Paulo R.; Wolff, Fernando H.; Moreira, Leila B.; Gus, Miguel; Brandão, Ajacio B. M.; Fuchs, Flavio D.; Fuchs, Sandra C.

    2016-01-01

    Background Alcohol consumption is highly prevalent in the general population and among HIV-infected population. This study aimed to compare the pattern of alcohol consumption and to describe characteristics associated with heavy alcohol consumption in individuals from the general population with patients infected with HIV. Methods Participants for this analysis came from a population-based cross-sectional study and from a consecutive sampling of patients infected with HIV. Participants aged 18 years or older were interviewed using similar questionnaires with questions pertaining to socio-demographic characteristics, alcohol consumption, smoking, physical activity, and HIV-related characteristics, among others. Blood pressure and anthropometric measures were measured using standardized procedures. Results Weekly alcohol consumption was more prevalent among individuals from the general population than HIV-infected patients: 57.0 vs. 31.1%, P<0.001. The prevalence of heavy episodic drinking was higher in the population sample as well: 46.1 vs. 17.0%, P<0.001. In the general population, heavy alcohol consumption was more prevalent in men. Cigarette smoking was independently associated with heavy alcohol consumption among HIV infected (Prevalence Ratio; PR = 5.9; 95%CI 2.6–13.9; P<0,001) and general population (PR = 2.6; 95%CI 1.9–3.0; P<0.001). Years at school were inversely associated with heavy alcohol consumption among HIV-infected patients and directly associated among participants from the general population, even after controlling for sex, age, skin color, and smoking. Conclusions Heavy alcohol consumption is more prevalent in the general population than among HIV-infected patients. Individuals aware about their disease may reduce the amount of alcoholic beverages consumption comparatively to healthy individuals from the general population. PMID:27362541

  8. 30 CFR 70.201 - Sampling; general requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Sampling; general requirements. 70.201 Section 70.201 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Sampling Procedures § 70.201...

  9. 30 CFR 70.201 - Sampling; general requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Sampling; general requirements. 70.201 Section 70.201 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Sampling Procedures § 70.201...

  10. 30 CFR 71.701 - Sampling; general requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... MINES Airborne Contaminants § 71.701 Sampling; general requirements. (a) Air samples will be taken by... installation and at each surface worksite. (c) Where concentrations of airborne contaminants in excess of the...) Where the operator has reasonable grounds to believe that concentrations of airborne contaminants...

  11. 30 CFR 90.201 - Sampling; general requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Sampling; general requirements. 90.201 Section 90.201 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY HEALTH STANDARDS-COAL MINERS WHO HAVE EVIDENCE OF THE DEVELOPMENT OF PNEUMOCONIOSIS Sampling Procedures § 90.201...

  12. Generalized Ensemble Sampling of Enzyme Reaction Free Energy Pathways

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Dongsheng; Fajer, Mikolai I.; Cao, Liaoran; Cheng, Xiaolin; Yang, Wei

    2016-01-01

    Free energy path sampling plays an essential role in computational understanding of chemical reactions, particularly those occurring in enzymatic environments. Among a variety of molecular dynamics simulation approaches, the generalized ensemble sampling strategy is uniquely attractive for the fact that it not only can enhance the sampling of rare chemical events but also can naturally ensure consistent exploration of environmental degrees of freedom. In this review, we plan to provide a tutorial-like tour on an emerging topic: generalized ensemble sampling of enzyme reaction free energy path. The discussion is largely focused on our own studies, particularly ones based on the metadynamics free energy sampling method and the on-the-path random walk path sampling method. We hope that this mini presentation will provide interested practitioners some meaningful guidance for future algorithm formulation and application study. PMID:27498634

  13. Population-Sequencing as a Biomarker for Sample Characterization

    PubMed Central

    Jakupciak, John P.

    2013-01-01

    Sequencing is accepted as the “gold” standard for genetic analysis and continues to be used as a validation and reference tool. The idea of using sequence analysis directly for sample characterization has been met with skepticism. However, herein, utility of direct use of sequencing to identify multiple genomes present in samples is presented and reviewed. All samples and “pure” isolates are populations of genomes. Population-Sequencing is the use of probabilistic matching tools in combination with large volumes of sequence information to identify genomes present, based on DNA analysis across entire genomes to determine genome assignments, to calculate confidence scores of major and minor genome content. Accurate genome identification from mixtures without culture purification steps can achieve phylogenetic classification by direct analysis of millions of DNA fragments. Genome sequencing data of mixtures can function as biomarkers for use to interrogate genetic content of samples and to establish a sample profile, inclusive of major and minor genome components, drill down to identify rare SNP and mutation events, compare relatedness of genetic content between samples, profile-to-profile, and provide a probabilistic or statistical scoring confidence for sample characterization and attribution. The application of Population-Sequencing will facilitate sample characterization and genome identification strategies. PMID:26317024

  14. The Factor Structure of ADHD in a General Population of Primary School Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ullebo, Anne Karin; Breivik, Kyrre; Gillberg, Christopher; Lundervold, Astri J.; Posserud, Maj-Britt

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To examine whether a bifactor model with a general ADHD factor and domain specific factors of inattention, hyperactivity and impulsivity was supported in a large general population sample of children. We also explored the utility of forming subscales based on the domain-specific factors. Methods: Child mental health questionnaires were…

  15. Capture-recapture and removal methods for sampling closed populations

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    White, Gary C.; Anderson, David R.; Burnham, Kenneth P.; Otis, David L.

    1982-01-01

    The problem of estimating animal abundance is common in wildlife management and environmental impact asessment. Capture-recapture and removal methods are often used to estimate population size. Statistical Inference From Capture Data On Closed Animal Populations, a monograph by Otis et al. (1978), provides a comprehensive synthesis of much of the wildlife and statistical literature on the methods, as well as some extensions of the general theory. In our primer, we focus on capture-recapture and removal methods for trapping studies in which a population is assumed to be closed and do not treat open-population models, such as the Jolly-Seber model, or catch-effort methods in any detail. The primer, written for students interested in population estimation, is intended for use with the more theoretical monograph.

  16. Probability sampling of stony coral populations in the Florida Keys.

    PubMed

    Smith, Steven G; Swanson, Dione W; Chiappone, Mark; Miller, Steven L; Ault, Jerald S

    2011-12-01

    Principles of probability survey design were applied to guide large-scale sampling of populations of stony corals and associated benthic taxa in the Florida Keys coral reef ecosystem. The survey employed a two-stage stratified random sampling design that partitioned the 251-km(2) domain by reef habitat types, geographic regions, and management zones. Estimates of the coefficient of variation (ratio of standard error to the mean) for stony coral population density and abundance ranged from 7% to 12% for four of six principal species. These levels of survey precision are among the highest reported for comparable surveys of marine species. Relatively precise estimates were also obtained for octocoral density, sponge frequency of occurrence, and benthic cover of algae and invertebrates. Probabilistic survey design techniques provided a robust framework for estimating population-level metrics and optimizing sampling efficiency. PMID:21547375

  17. Comparing Psychiatric Service Use among Low-Income Women and Women in a General Household Population

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosen, Daniel; Warner, Lynn A.; Tolman, Richard M.

    2006-01-01

    This article examines the use of outpatient mental health services in a sample of low-income women (Mothers' Well-Being Study [MWS]) and compares the findings with a sample of similar-aged women in the general population (National Comorbidity Survey [NCS]). Overall, the prevalence of any 12-month mental health disorder was significantly greater…

  18. A Sample/Population Size Activity: Is It the Sample Size of the Sample as a Fraction of the Population that Matters?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Margaret H.

    2004-01-01

    Unless the sample encompasses a substantial portion of the population, the standard error of an estimator depends on the size of the sample, but not the size of the population. This is a crucial statistical insight that students find very counterintuitive. After trying several ways of convincing students of the validity of this principle, I have…

  19. Enterobius vermicularis infection among population of General Mansilla, Argentina

    PubMed Central

    Pezzani, Betina C; Minvielle, Marta C; de Luca, María M; Córdoba, María A; Apezteguía, María C; Basualdo, Juan A

    2004-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate the relationships between the personal, sociocultural, and environmental characteristics, and the presence or absence of symptoms with the detection of Enterobius vermicularis (E. vermicularis) in a population sample in our region (General Mansilla, Province of Buenos Aires, Argentina), by individual and familiar analyses. METHODS: E. vermicularis was diagnosed in 309 people from 70 family units residing in the urban area and the rural area of the city of General Mansilla. Each of them was surveyed so as to register personal, environmental and sociocultural data. Questions about the presence or absence of anal itch, abdominal pain and sleeping disorder were also asked. Significant associations were determined by square chi tests. Logistic regression models were adjusted by using a backward conditional stepwise method to determine the presence of this parasite in the individuals and in the families. RESULTS: The parasites were found in 29.12% (90/309) of the individuals, with a frequency of 14.28% (20/140) among the heads of the families and of 41.42% (70/169) among the children. The only variables showing a significant association were affiliation, where the risk category was "being the son/daughter of", and the symptoms were abdominal pain, sleeping disorder, and anal itch. Families with a member infected with parasite were considered Positive Families (PF) and they were 40/70 (57.14%), only 5% (2/40) of the PF had 100% of their members infected with the parasite. The logistic regression models applied showed that the risk categories were mainly affiliation (son/daughter) and housing (satisfactory) among others. CONCLUSION: The presence of E. vermicularis was proved in one third of the studied population. The frequency of families with all their members infected with the parasite was very low. Most of the studied personal, sociocultural, and environmental variables did not turn out to be significantly associated with the presence of the parasite

  20. Modeling the brain morphology distribution in the general aging population

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huizinga, W.; Poot, D. H. J.; Roshchupkin, G.; Bron, E. E.; Ikram, M. A.; Vernooij, M. W.; Rueckert, D.; Niessen, W. J.; Klein, S.

    2016-03-01

    Both normal aging and neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's disease cause morphological changes of the brain. To better distinguish between normal and abnormal cases, it is necessary to model changes in brain morphology owing to normal aging. To this end, we developed a method for analyzing and visualizing these changes for the entire brain morphology distribution in the general aging population. The method is applied to 1000 subjects from a large population imaging study in the elderly, from which 900 were used to train the model and 100 were used for testing. The results of the 100 test subjects show that the model generalizes to subjects outside the model population. Smooth percentile curves showing the brain morphology changes as a function of age and spatiotemporal atlases derived from the model population are publicly available via an interactive web application at agingbrain.bigr.nl.

  1. Y-chromosomal STR haplotypes in an Albanian population sample.

    PubMed

    Robino, C; Gino, S; Ricci, U; Grignani, P; Previdere, C; Torre, C

    2002-09-26

    Eight Y-chromosomal short tandem repeats (STRs), DYS19, DYS389-I, DYS389-II, DYS390, DYS391, DYS392, DYS393 and DYS385, were typed in a population sample (n=101) of first-generation Albanian immigrants living in Italy. PMID:12243882

  2. Between and within-family association test of the dopamine receptor D2 TaqIA polymorphism and alcohol abuse and dependence in a general population sample of adults

    PubMed Central

    Haberstick, B.C.; Timberlake, D.; Smolen, A.; Sakai, J.T.; Hopfer, C.J.; Corley, R.P.; Young, S.E.; Stallings, M.C.; Huizinga, D.; Menard, S.; Hartman, C.; Grotpeter, J.; Hewitt, J.K.

    2008-01-01

    Objective Dopaminergic dysfunction has been hypothesized to play an important role in the etiology of alcohol use disorders. A restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) in the 3' untranslated region (3'UTR) of the DRD2 gene affects gene expression and has been implicated as a risk factor for alcohol dependence. This polymorphism (TaqIA) has been reported as positively associated with alcohol use disorders in case-control samples, but these results have not been replicated in family-based association studies. These mixed results of association between the DRD2 TaqIA polymorphism and alcohol use disorders may be due to differences in sample size, phenotype definition, heterogeneity of the samples and genetic admixture. Method We conducted tests of association in a sample of 838 adults participating in the National Youth Survey Family Study (NYSFS). We examined whether the DRD2 TaqIA polymorphism was associated with a symptom counts measure of alcohol abuse and dependence derived from the DSM-IV and Craving Withdrawal models. Results Tests of association were non-significant across each classification system examined. Power calculations suggested these results were despite the ability to detect an effect size of 1%. Conclusions This study supports other family-based association tests that have reported no association between the DRD2 TaqIA polymorphism and alcohol abuse and dependence. PMID:17446975

  3. A general method for modeling population dynamics and its applications.

    PubMed

    Shestopaloff, Yuri K

    2013-12-01

    Studying populations, be it a microbe colony or mankind, is important for understanding how complex systems evolve and exist. Such knowledge also often provides insights into evolution, history and different aspects of human life. By and large, populations' prosperity and decline is about transformation of certain resources into quantity and other characteristics of populations through growth, replication, expansion and acquisition of resources. We introduce a general model of population change, applicable to different types of populations, which interconnects numerous factors influencing population dynamics, such as nutrient influx and nutrient consumption, reproduction period, reproduction rate, etc. It is also possible to take into account specific growth features of individual organisms. We considered two recently discovered distinct growth scenarios: first, when organisms do not change their grown mass regardless of nutrients availability, and the second when organisms can reduce their grown mass by several times in a nutritionally poor environment. We found that nutrient supply and reproduction period are two major factors influencing the shape of population growth curves. There is also a difference in population dynamics between these two groups. Organisms belonging to the second group are significantly more adaptive to reduction of nutrients and far more resistant to extinction. Also, such organisms have substantially more frequent and lesser in amplitude fluctuations of population quantity for the same periodic nutrient supply (compared to the first group). Proposed model allows adequately describing virtually any possible growth scenario, including complex ones with periodic and irregular nutrient supply and other changing parameters, which present approaches cannot do. PMID:24057917

  4. Evolutionary dynamics of general group interactions in structured populations.

    PubMed

    Li, Aming; Broom, Mark; Du, Jinming; Wang, Long

    2016-02-01

    The evolution of populations is influenced by many factors, and the simple classical models have been developed in a number of important ways. Both population structure and multiplayer interactions have been shown to significantly affect the evolution of important properties, such as the level of cooperation or of aggressive behavior. Here we combine these two key factors and develop the evolutionary dynamics of general group interactions in structured populations represented by regular graphs. The traditional linear and threshold public goods games are adopted as models to address the dynamics. We show that for linear group interactions, population structure can favor the evolution of cooperation compared to the well-mixed case, and we see that the more neighbors there are, the harder it is for cooperators to persist in structured populations. We further show that threshold group interactions could lead to the emergence of cooperation even in well-mixed populations. Here population structure sometimes inhibits cooperation for the threshold public goods game, where depending on the benefit to cost ratio, the outcomes are bistability or a monomorphic population of defectors or cooperators. Our results suggest, counterintuitively, that structured populations are not always beneficial for the evolution of cooperation for nonlinear group interactions. PMID:26986362

  5. Evolutionary dynamics of general group interactions in structured populations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Aming; Broom, Mark; Du, Jinming; Wang, Long

    2016-02-01

    The evolution of populations is influenced by many factors, and the simple classical models have been developed in a number of important ways. Both population structure and multiplayer interactions have been shown to significantly affect the evolution of important properties, such as the level of cooperation or of aggressive behavior. Here we combine these two key factors and develop the evolutionary dynamics of general group interactions in structured populations represented by regular graphs. The traditional linear and threshold public goods games are adopted as models to address the dynamics. We show that for linear group interactions, population structure can favor the evolution of cooperation compared to the well-mixed case, and we see that the more neighbors there are, the harder it is for cooperators to persist in structured populations. We further show that threshold group interactions could lead to the emergence of cooperation even in well-mixed populations. Here population structure sometimes inhibits cooperation for the threshold public goods game, where depending on the benefit to cost ratio, the outcomes are bistability or a monomorphic population of defectors or cooperators. Our results suggest, counterintuitively, that structured populations are not always beneficial for the evolution of cooperation for nonlinear group interactions.

  6. Procedures for formation of composite samples from segmented populations

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fabrizio, Mary C.; Frank, Anthony M.; Savino, Jacqueline F.

    1995-01-01

    We used a simulation approach to investigate the implication of two methods of forming composite samples to characterize segmented populations. We illustrate the case where the weight of individual segments varies randomly, a situation common with fish samples. Composite samples from segments such as whole fish or muscle tissue should be formed by homogenizing each segment separately and combining equal-sized portions randomly drawn from each homogenate. This approach permits unbiased estimation of the mean concentration per fish. Estimates of mean contaminant concentration varied little with variation in the number of composite samples analyzed or with composite size (number of segments in a composite sample). However, for a fixed number of composite samples, the precision of the variance estimate increases as composite size increased. In addition, for a fixed number of composites, the estimate of the variance stabilized as more segments were included in the composite samples. Estimates of the variance among fish or other population segments can be recovered using appropriate compositing procedures and specially-designed studies.

  7. Assessing tiger population dynamics using photographic capture-recapture sampling

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Karanth, K.U.; Nichols, J.D.; Kumar, N.S.; Hines, J.E.

    2006-01-01

    Although wide-ranging, elusive, large carnivore species, such as the tiger, are of scientific and conservation interest, rigorous inferences about their population dynamics are scarce because of methodological problems of sampling populations at the required spatial and temporal scales. We report the application of a rigorous, noninvasive method for assessing tiger population dynamics to test model-based predictions about population viability. We obtained photographic capture histories for 74 individual tigers during a nine-year study involving 5725 trap-nights of effort. These data were modeled under a likelihood-based, ?robust design? capture?recapture analytic framework. We explicitly modeled and estimated ecological parameters such as time-specific abundance, density, survival, recruitment, temporary emigration, and transience, using models that incorporated effects of factors such as individual heterogeneity, trap-response, and time on probabilities of photo-capturing tigers. The model estimated a random temporary emigration parameter of =K' =Y' 0.10 ? 0.069 (values are estimated mean ? SE). When scaled to an annual basis, tiger survival rates were estimated at S = 0.77 ? 0.051, and the estimated probability that a newly caught animal was a transient was = 0.18 ? 0.11. During the period when the sampled area was of constant size, the estimated population size Nt varied from 17 ? 1.7 to 31 ? 2.1 tigers, with a geometric mean rate of annual population change estimated as = 1.03 ? 0.020, representing a 3% annual increase. The estimated recruitment of new animals, Bt, varied from 0 ? 3.0 to 14 ? 2.9 tigers. Population density estimates, D, ranged from 7.33 ? 0.8 tigers/100 km2 to 21.73 ? 1.7 tigers/100 km2 during the study. Thus, despite substantial annual losses and temporal variation in recruitment, the tiger density remained at relatively high levels in Nagarahole. Our results are consistent with the hypothesis that protected wild tiger populations can remain

  8. The reliability and validity of the Social Responsiveness Scale in a UK general child population.

    PubMed

    Wigham, Sarah; McConachie, Helen; Tandos, Jonathan; Le Couteur, Ann S

    2012-01-01

    This is the first UK study to report the reliability, validity, and factor structure of the Social Responsiveness Scale (SRS) in a general population sample. Parents of 500 children (aged 5-8 years) in North East England completed the SRS. Profiles of scores were similar to USA norms, and a single factor structure was identified. Good construct validity and internal consistency were found. Children with identified special needs were found to have significantly higher SRS scores than those without. The findings suggest the SRS performs in similar ways in UK and USA general population samples of children and can be used without modification in the UK. PMID:22277583

  9. Whole mitochondrial genome genetic diversity in an Estonian population sample.

    PubMed

    Stoljarova, Monika; King, Jonathan L; Takahashi, Maiko; Aaspõllu, Anu; Budowle, Bruce

    2016-01-01

    Mitochondrial DNA is a useful marker for population studies, human identification, and forensic analysis. Commonly used hypervariable regions I and II (HVI/HVII) were reported to contain as little as 25% of mitochondrial DNA variants and therefore the majority of power of discrimination of mitochondrial DNA resides in the coding region. Massively parallel sequencing technology enables entire mitochondrial genome sequencing. In this study, buccal swabs were collected from 114 unrelated Estonians and whole mitochondrial genome sequences were generated using the Illumina MiSeq system. The results are concordant with previous mtDNA control region reports of high haplogroup HV and U frequencies (47.4 and 23.7% in this study, respectively) in the Estonian population. One sample with the Northern Asian haplogroup D was detected. The genetic diversity of the Estonian population sample was estimated to be 99.67 and 95.85%, for mtGenome and HVI/HVII data, respectively. The random match probability for mtGenome data was 1.20 versus 4.99% for HVI/HVII. The nucleotide mean pairwise difference was 27 ± 11 for mtGenome and 7 ± 3 for HVI/HVII data. These data describe the genetic diversity of the Estonian population sample and emphasize the power of discrimination of the entire mitochondrial genome over the hypervariable regions. PMID:26289416

  10. Noise sensitivity and road traffic annoyance in a population sample

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsumura, Y.; Rylander, R.

    1991-12-01

    Noise sensitivity was studied in a random sample of the population of Gothenburg, Sweden. The selected population of 805 persons received a mailed questionnaire comprising questions on self-reported noise sensitivity, attitudes to noise, annoyance due to environmental noises and the effect of noise on daily activities. The response rate was 56%. Noise sensitivity was most common in older age groups. Noise-sensitive individuals were more annoyed by road traffic noise, and also reported interference with daily activities to a higher extent than non-sensitive persons. Listening to music while working or reading was also less common in the noise-sensitive group.

  11. Recombinative Generalization of Subword Units Using Matching to Sample

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mahon, Catherine; Lyddy, Fiona; Barnes-Holmes, Dermot

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of the current study was to develop and test a computerized matching-to-sample (MTS) protocol to facilitate recombinative generalization of subword units (onsets and rimes) and recognition of novel onset-rime and onset-rime-rime words. In addition, we sought to isolate the key training components necessary for recombinative…

  12. Population Pharmacokinetics of Piperacillin Using Scavenged Samples from Preterm Infants

    PubMed Central

    Cohen-Wolkowiez, Michael; Benjamin, Daniel K.; Ross, Ashley; James, Laura P.; Sullivan, Janice E.; Walsh, Michele C.; Zadell, Arlene; Newman, Nancy; White, Nicole R.; Kashuba, Angela D. M.; Ouellet, Daniele

    2012-01-01

    Objectives Piperacillin is often used in preterm infants for intra-abdominal infections; however, dosing has been derived from small single-center studies excluding extremely preterm infants at highest risk for these infections. We evaluated the population pharmacokinetics (PK) of piperacillin using targeted sparse sampling and scavenged samples obtained from preterm infants ≤32 weeks gestational age at birth and <120 postnatal days. Materials and Methods A 5-center study was performed. A population PK model using nonlinear mixed effect modeling was developed. Covariate effects were evaluated based on estimated precision and clinical significance. Results Fifty-six preterm infants were evaluated and had a median (range) gestational age at birth of 25 (22–32) weeks, a postnatal age of 17 (1–77) days, a postmenstrual age of 29 (23–40) weeks, and a weight of 867 (400–2580) grams. The final PK data set contained 211 samples; 202/211 (96%) were scavenged from discarded clinical specimens. Piperacillin population PK was best described by a 1-compartment model. The population mean clearance (CL) was derived by the equation CL (liter/h)=0.479 x (weight)0.75 x 0.5/serum creatinine and using a volume of distribution (V) (liter) of 2.91 x (weight). The relative standard errors around parameter estimates ranged from 13.7–32.2%. A trend towards increased CL was observed with increasing gestational age at birth; infants with serum creatinine ≥1.2 mg/dL had a 60% reduction in piperacillin CL. The majority (>70%) of infants did not meet pre-defined pharmacodynamic efficacy targets. Conclusions Scavenged PK sampling is a minimal-risk approach that can provide meaningful information related to development of PK models but not dosing recommendations for piperacillin. The utility of scavenged sampling in providing definitive dosing recommendations may be drug-dependent and needs to be further explored. PMID:22569355

  13. Generalized analog thresholding for spike acquisition at ultralow sampling rates.

    PubMed

    He, Bryan D; Wein, Alex; Varshney, Lav R; Kusuma, Julius; Richardson, Andrew G; Srinivasan, Lakshminarayan

    2015-07-01

    Efficient spike acquisition techniques are needed to bridge the divide from creating large multielectrode arrays (MEA) to achieving whole-cortex electrophysiology. In this paper, we introduce generalized analog thresholding (gAT), which achieves millisecond temporal resolution with sampling rates as low as 10 Hz. Consider the torrent of data from a single 1,000-channel MEA, which would generate more than 3 GB/min using standard 30-kHz Nyquist sampling. Recent neural signal processing methods based on compressive sensing still require Nyquist sampling as a first step and use iterative methods to reconstruct spikes. Analog thresholding (AT) remains the best existing alternative, where spike waveforms are passed through an analog comparator and sampled at 1 kHz, with instant spike reconstruction. By generalizing AT, the new method reduces sampling rates another order of magnitude, detects more than one spike per interval, and reconstructs spike width. Unlike compressive sensing, the new method reveals a simple closed-form solution to achieve instant (noniterative) spike reconstruction. The base method is already robust to hardware nonidealities, including realistic quantization error and integration noise. Because it achieves these considerable specifications using hardware-friendly components like integrators and comparators, generalized AT could translate large-scale MEAs into implantable devices for scientific investigation and medical technology. PMID:25904712

  14. Generalized analog thresholding for spike acquisition at ultralow sampling rates

    PubMed Central

    He, Bryan D.; Wein, Alex; Varshney, Lav R.; Kusuma, Julius; Richardson, Andrew G.

    2015-01-01

    Efficient spike acquisition techniques are needed to bridge the divide from creating large multielectrode arrays (MEA) to achieving whole-cortex electrophysiology. In this paper, we introduce generalized analog thresholding (gAT), which achieves millisecond temporal resolution with sampling rates as low as 10 Hz. Consider the torrent of data from a single 1,000-channel MEA, which would generate more than 3 GB/min using standard 30-kHz Nyquist sampling. Recent neural signal processing methods based on compressive sensing still require Nyquist sampling as a first step and use iterative methods to reconstruct spikes. Analog thresholding (AT) remains the best existing alternative, where spike waveforms are passed through an analog comparator and sampled at 1 kHz, with instant spike reconstruction. By generalizing AT, the new method reduces sampling rates another order of magnitude, detects more than one spike per interval, and reconstructs spike width. Unlike compressive sensing, the new method reveals a simple closed-form solution to achieve instant (noniterative) spike reconstruction. The base method is already robust to hardware nonidealities, including realistic quantization error and integration noise. Because it achieves these considerable specifications using hardware-friendly components like integrators and comparators, generalized AT could translate large-scale MEAs into implantable devices for scientific investigation and medical technology. PMID:25904712

  15. ADHD Medication Use in a Population-Based Sample of Twins

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reich, Wendy; Huang, Hongyan; Todd, Richard D.

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To determine treatment patterns for youth attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms in a general population sample of 1,610 twins. Method: Twin pairs ages 7 to 17 years and parents ascertained from birth records in the state of Missouri were interviewed using the Missouri Assessment of Genetics Interview for Children…

  16. Generalizing in Interaction: Middle School Mathematics Students Making Mathematical Generalizations in a Population-Modeling Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jurow, A. Susan

    2004-01-01

    Generalizing or making claims that extend beyond particular situations is a central mathematical practice and a focus of classroom mathematics instruction. This study examines how aspects of generality are produced through the situated activities of a group of middle school mathematics students working on an 8-week population-modeling project. The…

  17. Asymptomatic carriage of Neisseria meningitidis in a randomly sampled population.

    PubMed Central

    Caugant, D A; Høiby, E A; Magnus, P; Scheel, O; Hoel, T; Bjune, G; Wedege, E; Eng, J; Frøholm, L O

    1994-01-01

    To estimate the extent of meningococcal carriage in the Norwegian population and to investigate the relationship of several characteristics of the population to the carrier state, 1,500 individuals living in rural and small-town areas near Oslo were selected at random from the Norwegian National Population Registry. These persons were asked to complete a questionnaire and to volunteer for a bacteriological tonsillopharyngeal swab sampling. Sixty-three percent of the selected persons participated in the survey. Ninety-one (9.6%) of the volunteers harbored Neisseria meningitidis. The isolates were serogrouped, serotyped, tested for antibiotic resistance, and analyzed by multilocus enzyme electrophoresis. Eight (8.8%) of the 91 isolates represented clones of the two clone complexes that have been responsible for most of the systemic meningococal disease in Norway in the 1980s. Age between 15 and 24, male sex, and active and passive smoking were found to be independently associated with meningococcal carriage in logistic regression analyses. Working outside the home and having an occupation in transportation or industry also increased the risk for meningococcal carriage in individuals older than 17, when corrections for gender and smoking were made. Assuming that our sample is representative of the Norwegian population, we estimated that about 40,000 individuals in Norway are asymptomatic carriers of isolates with epidemic potential. Thus, carriage eradication among close contacts of persons with systemic disease is unlikely to have a significant impact on the overall epidemiological situation. PMID:8150942

  18. Accelerated failure time model under general biased sampling scheme.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jane Paik; Sit, Tony; Ying, Zhiliang

    2016-07-01

    Right-censored time-to-event data are sometimes observed from a (sub)cohort of patients whose survival times can be subject to outcome-dependent sampling schemes. In this paper, we propose a unified estimation method for semiparametric accelerated failure time models under general biased estimating schemes. The proposed estimator of the regression covariates is developed upon a bias-offsetting weighting scheme and is proved to be consistent and asymptotically normally distributed. Large sample properties for the estimator are also derived. Using rank-based monotone estimating functions for the regression parameters, we find that the estimating equations can be easily solved via convex optimization. The methods are confirmed through simulations and illustrated by application to real datasets on various sampling schemes including length-bias sampling, the case-cohort design and its variants. PMID:26941240

  19. It's in the Sample: The Effects of Sample Size and Sample Diversity on the Breadth of Inductive Generalization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lawson, Chris A.; Fisher, Anna V.

    2011-01-01

    Developmental studies have provided mixed evidence with regard to the question of whether children consider sample size and sample diversity in their inductive generalizations. Results from four experiments with 105 undergraduates, 105 school-age children (M = 7.2 years), and 105 preschoolers (M = 4.9 years) showed that preschoolers made a higher…

  20. Challenges to recruiting population representative samples of female sex workers in China using Respondent Driven Sampling.

    PubMed

    Merli, M Giovanna; Moody, James; Smith, Jeffrey; Li, Jing; Weir, Sharon; Chen, Xiangsheng

    2015-01-01

    We explore the network coverage of a sample of female sex workers (FSWs) in China recruited through Respondent Drive Sampling (RDS) as part of an effort to evaluate the claim of RDS of population representation with empirical data. We take advantage of unique information on the social networks of FSWs obtained from two overlapping studies--RDS and a venue-based sampling approach (PLACE)--and use an exponential random graph modeling (ERGM) framework from local networks to construct a likely network from which our observed RDS sample is drawn. We then run recruitment chains over this simulated network to assess the assumption that the RDS chain referral process samples participants in proportion to their degree and the extent to which RDS satisfactorily covers certain parts of the network. We find evidence that, contrary to assumptions, RDS oversamples low degree nodes and geographically central areas of the network. Unlike previous evaluations of RDS which have explored the performance of RDS sampling chains on a non-hidden population, or the performance of simulated chains over previously mapped realistic social networks, our study provides a robust, empirically grounded evaluation of the performance of RDS chains on a real-world hidden population. PMID:24834869

  1. The generalized radon transform: Sampling, accuracy and memoryconsiderations

    SciTech Connect

    Luengo Hendriks, Cris L.; van Ginkel, Michael; Verbeek, Piet W.; van Vliet, Lucas J.

    2004-09-23

    The generalized Radon (or Hough) transform is a well-known tool for detecting parameterized shapes in an image. The Radon transform is a mapping between the image space and a parameter space. The coordinates of a point in the latter correspond to the parameters of a shape in the image. The amplitude at that point corresponds to the amount of evidence for that shape. In this paper we discuss three important aspects of the Radon transform. The first aspect is discretization. Using concepts from sampling theory we derive a set of sampling criteria for the generalized Radon transform. The second aspect is accuracy. For the specific case of the Radon transform for spheres, we examine how well the location of the maxima matches the true parameters. We derive a correction term to reduce the bias in the estimated radii. The third aspect concerns a projection-based algorithm to reduce memory requirements.

  2. Universality of Generalized Bunching and Efficient Assessment of Boson Sampling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shchesnovich, V. S.

    2016-03-01

    It is found that identical bosons (fermions) show a generalized bunching (antibunching) property in linear networks: the absolute maximum (minimum) of the probability that all N input particles are detected in a subset of K output modes of any nontrivial linear M -mode network is attained only by completely indistinguishable bosons (fermions). For fermions K is arbitrary; for bosons it is either (i) arbitrary for only classically correlated bosons or (ii) satisfies K ≥N (or K =1 ) for arbitrary input states of N particles. The generalized bunching allows us to certify in a polynomial in N number of runs that a physical device realizing boson sampling with an arbitrary network operates in the regime of full quantum coherence compatible only with completely indistinguishable bosons. The protocol needs only polynomial classical computations for the standard boson sampling, whereas an analytic formula is available for the scattershot version.

  3. Universality of Generalized Bunching and Efficient Assessment of Boson Sampling.

    PubMed

    Shchesnovich, V S

    2016-03-25

    It is found that identical bosons (fermions) show a generalized bunching (antibunching) property in linear networks: the absolute maximum (minimum) of the probability that all N input particles are detected in a subset of K output modes of any nontrivial linear M-mode network is attained only by completely indistinguishable bosons (fermions). For fermions K is arbitrary; for bosons it is either (i) arbitrary for only classically correlated bosons or (ii) satisfies K≥N (or K=1) for arbitrary input states of N particles. The generalized bunching allows us to certify in a polynomial in N number of runs that a physical device realizing boson sampling with an arbitrary network operates in the regime of full quantum coherence compatible only with completely indistinguishable bosons. The protocol needs only polynomial classical computations for the standard boson sampling, whereas an analytic formula is available for the scattershot version. PMID:27058078

  4. A maximum volume density estimator generalized over a proper motion-limited sample

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lam, Marco C.; Rowell, Nicholas; Hambly, Nigel C.

    2015-07-01

    The traditional Schmidt density estimator has been proven to be unbiased and effective in a magnitude-limited sample. Previously, efforts have been made to generalize it for populations with non-uniform density and proper motion-limited cases. This work shows that the then-good assumptions for a proper motion-limited sample are no longer sufficient to cope with modern data. Populations with larger differences in the kinematics as compared to the local standard of rest are most severely affected. We show that this systematic bias can be removed by treating the discovery fraction inseparable from the generalized maximum volume integrand. The treatment can be applied to any proper motion-limited sample with good knowledge of the kinematics. This work demonstrates the method through application to a mock catalogue of a white dwarf-only solar neighbourhood for various scenarios and compared against the traditional treatment using a survey with Pan-STARRS-like characteristics.

  5. IDENTIFICATION OF POLYBROMINATED BIPHENYLS IN THE ADIPOSE TISSUES OF THE GENERAL POPULATION OF THE UNITED STATES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Hexabromobiphenyl has been identified by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) in pooled extracts of adipose tissue samples collected from the general population of the conterminous United States. Mass spectra derived from tissue extracts subjected to gel permeation chroma...

  6. The Reliability and Validity of the Social Responsiveness Scale in a UK General Child Population

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wigham, Sarah; McConachie, Helen; Tandos, Jonathan; Le Couteur, Ann S.

    2012-01-01

    This is the first UK study to report the reliability, validity, and factor structure of the Social Responsiveness Scale (SRS) in a general population sample. Parents of 500 children (aged 5-8 years) in North East England completed the SRS. Profiles of scores were similar to USA norms, and a single factor structure was identified. Good construct…

  7. Population data for 12 Y-chromosome STR loci in a sample from El Salvador.

    PubMed

    Monterrosa, Juan Carlos; Morales, Josefina A; Yurrebaso, Iñaki; Gusmão, Leonor; García, Oscar

    2010-01-01

    Haplotype, allele frequencies and population data of 12 Y-chromosome STR loci DYS19, DYS385, DYS389I, DYS389II, DYS390, DYS391, DYS392, DYS393, DYS437, DYS438 and DYS439 were determined from a sample of 150 unrelated male individuals from El Salvador, Central America. A total of 131 haplotypes were identified by the 12 Y-STR loci of which 118 were unique. The haplotype diversity (99.08%) and the proportion of different haplotypes (87.33%) were estimated. R(ST) genetic distances were calculated between El Salvador and other populations from Southern and Central America, Europe and Africa. The highest R(ST) genetic distances were found when comparing El Salvador with African populations (0.334 population groups. The Multi Dimensional Scaling (MDS) plot analysis, based on pairwise R(ST) values, showed that the general population of El Salvador is closer to the European cluster (composed by European and South American general population samples from Brazil, Argentina, Colombia and Venezuela) than to the Southern/Central American cluster of Native and Mestizo populations. PMID:19962926

  8. Using known populations of pronghorn to evaluate sampling plans and estimators

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kraft, K.M.; Johnson, D.H.; Samuelson, J.M.; Allen, S.H.

    1995-01-01

    Although sampling plans and estimators of abundance have good theoretical properties, their performance in real situations is rarely assessed because true population sizes are unknown. We evaluated widely used sampling plans and estimators of population size on 3 known clustered distributions of pronghorn (Antilocapra americana). Our criteria were accuracy of the estimate, coverage of 95% confidence intervals, and cost. Sampling plans were combinations of sampling intensities (16, 33, and 50%), sample selection (simple random sampling without replacement, systematic sampling, and probability proportional to size sampling with replacement), and stratification. We paired sampling plans with suitable estimators (simple, ratio, and probability proportional to size). We used area of the sampling unit as the auxiliary variable for the ratio and probability proportional to size estimators. All estimators were nearly unbiased, but precision was generally low (overall mean coefficient of variation [CV] = 29). Coverage of 95% confidence intervals was only 89% because of the highly skewed distribution of the pronghorn counts and small sample sizes, especially with stratification. Stratification combined with accurate estimates of optimal stratum sample sizes increased precision, reducing the mean CV from 33 without stratification to 25 with stratification; costs increased 23%. Precise results (mean CV = 13) but poor confidence interval coverage (83%) were obtained with simple and ratio estimators when the allocation scheme included all sampling units in the stratum containing most pronghorn. Although areas of the sampling units varied, ratio estimators and probability proportional to size sampling did not increase precision, possibly because of the clumped distribution of pronghorn. Managers should be cautious in using sampling plans and estimators to estimate abundance of aggregated populations.

  9. Genetic Determinants of Pubertal Timing in the General Population

    PubMed Central

    Gajdos, Zofia K.Z.; Henderson, Katherine D.; Hirschhorn, Joel N.

    2010-01-01

    Puberty is an important developmental stage during which reproductive capacity is attained. The timing of puberty varies greatly among healthy individuals in the general population and is influenced by both genetic and environmental factors. Although genetic variation is known to influence the normal spectrum of pubertal timing, the specific genes involved remain largely unknown. Genetic analyses have identified a number of genes responsible for rare disorders of pubertal timing such as hypogonadotropic hypogonadism and Kallmann syndrome. Recently, the first loci with common variation reproducibly associated with population variation in the timing of puberty were identified at 6q21 in or near LIN28B and at 9q31.2. However, these two loci explain only a small fraction of the genetic contribution to population variation in pubertal timing, suggesting the need to continue to consider other loci and other types of variants. Here we provide an update of the genes implicated in disorders of puberty, discuss genes and pathways that may be involved in the timing of normal puberty, and suggest additional avenues of investigation to identify genetic regulators of puberty in the general population. PMID:20144687

  10. Social integration of juvenile amputees: comparison with a general population.

    PubMed

    Fernández, A; Revilla, C; Su, I-Ting; García, M

    2003-04-01

    The objective was to assess the social integration of juvenile amputees according to marital status, schooling and occupation, and to compare it with the population of Asturias, Spain. A retrospective study was carried out of the juvenile amputees registered from 1976 to 1999 at the Prosthetics Unit of the Asturias Central Hospital (n=281 amputees). The proportion of single women amongst the amputees was greater than in the population of Asturias (p<0.05). Amongst the male amputees, relative to the general population, there was a larger proportion of the group with primary studies (p<0.001) and a smaller proportion with secondary studies (p<0.001). At the higher level (university) there were no differences, either in men or in women. As regards occupation, amongst the amputees a larger number was found who were retired or unemployed (p<0.05 and p<0.001). In conclusion, juvenile amputees do not show differences compared to the general population with regard to their attendance at a higher or university level of education. However, if their social integration is considered through occupation, male amputees show a greater proportion of unemployment, which is a clear reflection of their handicap. PMID:12812323

  11. Predictors for mortality from respiratory failure in a general population

    PubMed Central

    Kobayashi, Maki; Shibata, Yoko; Inoue, Sumito; Igarashi, Akira; Sato, Kento; Sato, Masamichi; Nemoto, Takako; Abe, Yuki; Nunomiya, Keiko; Nishiwaki, Michiko; Tokairin, Yoshikane; Kimura, Tomomi; Daimon, Makoto; Makino, Naohiko; Watanabe, Tetsu; Konta, Tsuneo; Ueno, Yoshiyuki; Kato, Takeo; Kayama, Takamasa; Kubota, Isao

    2016-01-01

    Risk factors for death from respiratory failure in the general population are not established. The aim of this study was to determine the characteristics of individuals who die of respiratory failure in a Japanese general population. In total, 3253 adults aged 40 years or older participated in annual health check in Takahata, Yamagata, Japan from 2004 to 2006. Subject deaths through the end of 2010 were reviewed; 27 subjects died of respiratory failure (pneumonia, n = 22; COPD, n = 1; pulmonary fibrosis, n = 3; and bronchial asthma, n = 1). Cox proportional hazard analysis revealed that male sex; higher age, high levels of D-dimer and fibrinogen; lower body mass index (BMI) and total cholesterol; and history of stroke and gastric ulcer were independent risk factors for respiratory death. On analysis with C-statistics, net reclassification improvement, and integrated discrimination improvement, addition of the disease history and laboratory data significantly improved the model prediction for respiratory death using age and BMI. In conclusion, we identified risk factors for mortality from respiratory failure in a prospective cohort of a Japanese general population. Men who were older, underweight, hypocholesterolemic, hypercoagulo-fibrinolytic, and had a history of stroke or gastric ulcer had a higher risk of mortality due to respiratory failure. PMID:27180927

  12. Predictors for mortality from respiratory failure in a general population.

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, Maki; Shibata, Yoko; Inoue, Sumito; Igarashi, Akira; Sato, Kento; Sato, Masamichi; Nemoto, Takako; Abe, Yuki; Nunomiya, Keiko; Nishiwaki, Michiko; Tokairin, Yoshikane; Kimura, Tomomi; Daimon, Makoto; Makino, Naohiko; Watanabe, Tetsu; Konta, Tsuneo; Ueno, Yoshiyuki; Kato, Takeo; Kayama, Takamasa; Kubota, Isao

    2016-01-01

    Risk factors for death from respiratory failure in the general population are not established. The aim of this study was to determine the characteristics of individuals who die of respiratory failure in a Japanese general population. In total, 3253 adults aged 40 years or older participated in annual health check in Takahata, Yamagata, Japan from 2004 to 2006. Subject deaths through the end of 2010 were reviewed; 27 subjects died of respiratory failure (pneumonia, n = 22; COPD, n = 1; pulmonary fibrosis, n = 3; and bronchial asthma, n = 1). Cox proportional hazard analysis revealed that male sex; higher age, high levels of D-dimer and fibrinogen; lower body mass index (BMI) and total cholesterol; and history of stroke and gastric ulcer were independent risk factors for respiratory death. On analysis with C-statistics, net reclassification improvement, and integrated discrimination improvement, addition of the disease history and laboratory data significantly improved the model prediction for respiratory death using age and BMI. In conclusion, we identified risk factors for mortality from respiratory failure in a prospective cohort of a Japanese general population. Men who were older, underweight, hypocholesterolemic, hypercoagulo-fibrinolytic, and had a history of stroke or gastric ulcer had a higher risk of mortality due to respiratory failure. PMID:27180927

  13. Dynamical models of a sample of Population II stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levison, H. F.; Richstone, D. O.

    1986-09-01

    Dynamical models are constructed in order to investigate the implications of recent kinematic data of distant Population II stars on the emissivity distribution of those stars. Models are constructed using a modified Schwarzschild method in two extreme scale-free potentials, spherical and E6 elliptical. Both potentials produce flat rotation curves and velocity dispersion profiles. In all models, the distribution of stars in this sample is flat. Moreover, it is not possible to construct a model with a strictly spheroidal emissivity distribution. Most models have dimples at the poles. The dynamics of the models indicate that the system is supported by both the third integral and z angular momentum.

  14. [Representations and attitudes toward cancer in the French general population].

    PubMed

    Beck, François; Gautier, Arnaud; Guilbert, Philippe; Peretti-Watel, Patrick

    2009-05-01

    Cancer has become a major public health issue. It is thus crucial to measure the general population's behaviours, opinions and perceptions about cancer and its associated risk factors. This article describes some of the main findings of a 2005 French survey (n = 4,046). Cancer is considered by a large majority to be the most serious disease, far before HIV/AIDS and cardiovascular diseases. The carcinogenic risk that is associated to main risk factors, such as sun exposure, tobacco-smoking and alcohol use appears to be well-known. However, many people justify dangerous behaviours with strongly-anchored beliefs, which maintain dangerous behaviours for health on the long-term. What's more, the perception of risk proliferation can also generate risk denial. Because self-exempting beliefs are still widespread within the general opinion, it is essential to continue public health information campaigns dedicated to cancer prevention, so as to induce better prevention practices within the general population and to reduce stigmatisation and isolation experienced by cancer patients. If risk denial is not systematically a consequence of a lack of information, it is generally associated to a cognitive construction that gives coherence to behaviours. PMID:19480836

  15. CKD Prevalence Varies across the European General Population.

    PubMed

    Brück, Katharina; Stel, Vianda S; Gambaro, Giovanni; Hallan, Stein; Völzke, Henry; Ärnlöv, Johan; Kastarinen, Mika; Guessous, Idris; Vinhas, José; Stengel, Bénédicte; Brenner, Hermann; Chudek, Jerzy; Romundstad, Solfrid; Tomson, Charles; Gonzalez, Alfonso Otero; Bello, Aminu K; Ferrieres, Jean; Palmieri, Luigi; Browne, Gemma; Capuano, Vincenzo; Van Biesen, Wim; Zoccali, Carmine; Gansevoort, Ron; Navis, Gerjan; Rothenbacher, Dietrich; Ferraro, Pietro Manuel; Nitsch, Dorothea; Wanner, Christoph; Jager, Kitty J

    2016-07-01

    CKD prevalence estimation is central to CKD management and prevention planning at the population level. This study estimated CKD prevalence in the European adult general population and investigated international variation in CKD prevalence by age, sex, and presence of diabetes, hypertension, and obesity. We collected data from 19 general-population studies from 13 European countries. CKD stages 1-5 was defined as eGFR<60 ml/min per 1.73 m(2), as calculated by the CKD-Epidemiology Collaboration equation, or albuminuria >30 mg/g, and CKD stages 3-5 was defined as eGFR<60 ml/min per 1.73 m(2) CKD prevalence was age- and sex-standardized to the population of the 27 Member States of the European Union (EU27). We found considerable differences in both CKD stages 1-5 and CKD stages 3-5 prevalence across European study populations. The adjusted CKD stages 1-5 prevalence varied between 3.31% (95% confidence interval [95% CI], 3.30% to 3.33%) in Norway and 17.3% (95% CI, 16.5% to 18.1%) in northeast Germany. The adjusted CKD stages 3-5 prevalence varied between 1.0% (95% CI, 0.7% to 1.3%) in central Italy and 5.9% (95% CI, 5.2% to 6.6%) in northeast Germany. The variation in CKD prevalence stratified by diabetes, hypertension, and obesity status followed the same pattern as the overall prevalence. In conclusion, this large-scale attempt to carefully characterize CKD prevalence in Europe identified substantial variation in CKD prevalence that appears to be due to factors other than the prevalence of diabetes, hypertension, and obesity. PMID:26701975

  16. Sampling-variance effects on detecting density dependence from temporal trends in natural populations

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Shenk, T.M.; White, Gary C.; Burnham, K.P.

    1998-01-01

    Monte Carlo simulations were conducted to evaluate robustness of four tests to detect density dependence, from series of population abundances, to the addition of sampling variance. Population abundances were generated from random walk, stochastic exponential growth, and density-dependent population models. Population abundance estimates were generated with sampling variances distributed as lognormal and constant coefficients of variation (cv) from 0.00 to 1.00. In general, when data were generated under a random walk, Type I error rates increased rapidly for Bulmer's R, Pollard et al.'s, and Dennis and Taper's tests with increasing magnitude of sampling variance for n > 5 yr and all values of process variation. Bulmer's R* test maintained a constant 5% Type I error rate for n > 5 yr and all magnitudes of sampling variance in the population abundance estimates. When abundances were generated from two stochastic exponential growth models (R = 0.05 and R = 0.10), Type I errors again increased with increasing sampling variance; magnitude of Type I error rates were higher for the slower growing population. Therefore, sampling error inflated Type I error rates, invalidating the tests, for all except Bulmer's R* test. Comparable simulations for abundance estimates generated from a density-dependent growth rate model were conducted to estimate power of the tests. Type II error rates were influenced by the relationship of initial population size to carrying capacity (K), length of time series, as well as sampling error. Given the inflated Type I error rates for all but Bulmer, s R*, power was overestimated for the remaining tests, resulting in density: dependence being detected more often than it existed. Population abundances of natural populations are almost exclusively estimated rather than censused, assuring sampling error. Therefore, because these tests have been shown to be either invalid when only sampling variance occurs in the population abundances (Bulmer's R

  17. [Daytime consequences of insomnia complaints in the French general population].

    PubMed

    Ohayon, M M; Lemoine, P

    2004-01-01

    Insomnia is a frequent symptom in the general population; numerous studies have proven this. In the past years, classifications have gradually given more emphasis to daytime repercussions of insomnia and to their consequences on social and cognitive functioning. They are now integrated in the definition of insomnia and are used to quantify its severity. If the daytime consequences of insomnia are well known at the clinical level, there are few epidemiological data on this matter. The aim of this study was to assess the daytime repercussions of insomnia complaints in the general population of France. A representative sample (n=5,622) aged 15 or older was surveyed by telephone with the help of the sleep-EVAL expert system, a computer program specially designed to evaluate sleep disorders and to manage epidemiological investigations. Interviews have been completed for 80.8% of the solicited subjects (n=5,622). The variables considered comprised insomnia and its daytime repercussions on cognitive functioning, affective tone, daytime sleepiness and diurnal fatigue. Insomnia was found in 18.6% of the sample. The prevalence was higher in women (22.4%) than in men (14.5%, p<0.001) with a relative risk of 1.7 (95% confidence interval 1.5 to 2) and was twice more frequent for subjects 65 years of age or older compared to subjects younger than 45 years. Approximately 30% of subjects reporting insomnia had difficulties initiating sleep. Nearly 75% of insomnia complainers reported having a disrupted sleep or waking up too early in the morning and about 40% said they had a non-restorative sleep. Repercussions on daytime functioning were reported by most insomnia subjects (67%). Repercussions on cognitive functioning changed according age, number of insomnia symptoms and the use of a psychotropic medication. A decreased efficiency was more likely to be reported by subjects between 15 and 44 years of age (OR: 2.9), those using a psychotropic (OR: 1.5), those reporting at least

  18. Toward high-resolution population genomics using archaeological samples.

    PubMed

    Morozova, Irina; Flegontov, Pavel; Mikheyev, Alexander S; Bruskin, Sergey; Asgharian, Hosseinali; Ponomarenko, Petr; Klyuchnikov, Vladimir; ArunKumar, GaneshPrasad; Prokhortchouk, Egor; Gankin, Yuriy; Rogaev, Evgeny; Nikolsky, Yuri; Baranova, Ancha; Elhaik, Eran; Tatarinova, Tatiana V

    2016-08-01

    The term 'ancient DNA' (aDNA) is coming of age, with over 1,200 hits in the PubMed database, beginning in the early 1980s with the studies of 'molecular paleontology'. Rooted in cloning and limited sequencing of DNA from ancient remains during the pre-PCR era, the field has made incredible progress since the introduction of PCR and next-generation sequencing. Over the last decade, aDNA analysis ushered in a new era in genomics and became the method of choice for reconstructing the history of organisms, their biogeography, and migration routes, with applications in evolutionary biology, population genetics, archaeogenetics, paleo-epidemiology, and many other areas. This change was brought by development of new strategies for coping with the challenges in studying aDNA due to damage and fragmentation, scarce samples, significant historical gaps, and limited applicability of population genetics methods. In this review, we describe the state-of-the-art achievements in aDNA studies, with particular focus on human evolution and demographic history. We present the current experimental and theoretical procedures for handling and analysing highly degraded aDNA. We also review the challenges in the rapidly growing field of ancient epigenomics. Advancement of aDNA tools and methods signifies a new era in population genetics and evolutionary medicine research. PMID:27436340

  19. Toward high-resolution population genomics using archaeological samples

    PubMed Central

    Morozova, Irina; Flegontov, Pavel; Mikheyev, Alexander S.; Bruskin, Sergey; Asgharian, Hosseinali; Ponomarenko, Petr; Klyuchnikov, Vladimir; ArunKumar, GaneshPrasad; Prokhortchouk, Egor; Gankin, Yuriy; Rogaev, Evgeny; Nikolsky, Yuri; Baranova, Ancha; Elhaik, Eran; Tatarinova, Tatiana V.

    2016-01-01

    The term ‘ancient DNA’ (aDNA) is coming of age, with over 1,200 hits in the PubMed database, beginning in the early 1980s with the studies of ‘molecular paleontology’. Rooted in cloning and limited sequencing of DNA from ancient remains during the pre-PCR era, the field has made incredible progress since the introduction of PCR and next-generation sequencing. Over the last decade, aDNA analysis ushered in a new era in genomics and became the method of choice for reconstructing the history of organisms, their biogeography, and migration routes, with applications in evolutionary biology, population genetics, archaeogenetics, paleo-epidemiology, and many other areas. This change was brought by development of new strategies for coping with the challenges in studying aDNA due to damage and fragmentation, scarce samples, significant historical gaps, and limited applicability of population genetics methods. In this review, we describe the state-of-the-art achievements in aDNA studies, with particular focus on human evolution and demographic history. We present the current experimental and theoretical procedures for handling and analysing highly degraded aDNA. We also review the challenges in the rapidly growing field of ancient epigenomics. Advancement of aDNA tools and methods signifies a new era in population genetics and evolutionary medicine research. PMID:27436340

  20. Personality comparison of airline pilot incumbents, applicants, and the general population norms on the 16PF.

    PubMed

    Wakcher, Sandra; Cross, Kara; Blackman, Melinda C

    2003-06-01

    Personality comparisons using Cattell's 16PF were made between 137 pilot incumbents, 81 pilot applicants, and the general population norms. No significant differences were found between the scores on the personality factors for the Pilot Incumbents and the Pilot Applicants. Further, the incumbents and applicants who had previous military training versus those who did not had highly similar personalities. However, on nearly every personality factor a significant difference was found between the general population norms and the sample of Pilot Incumbents and Applicants. The Pilot Incumbent/Applicant group scored significantly more intelligent, emotionally stable, and mature in comparison to the general population norms. We believe that it is the high-risk nature of this occupation that leads applicants, wishing to pursue this field, to assess very carefully their own person-job fit and self-select themselves, thus ultimately producing this very distinct "pilot personality profile" described in 1995 by Bartram. PMID:12841441

  1. Characterization of Microbial Population Shifts during Sample Storage

    PubMed Central

    Mills, Heath J.; Reese, Brandi Kiel; Peter, Cruz St.

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine shifts in the microbial community structure and potential function based on standard Integrated Ocean Drilling Program (IODP) storage procedures for sediment cores. Standard long-term storage protocols maintain sediment temperature at 4°C for mineralogy, geochemical, and/or geotechnical analysis whereas standard microbiological sampling immediately preserves sediments at −80°C. Storage at 4°C does not take into account populations may remain active over geologic time scales at temperatures similar to storage conditions. Identification of active populations within the stored core would suggest geochemical and geophysical conditions within the core change over time. To test this potential, the metabolically active fraction of the total microbial community was characterized from IODP Expedition 325 Great Barrier Reef sediment cores prior to and following a 3-month storage period. Total RNA was extracted from complementary 2, 20, and 40 m below sea floor sediment samples, reverse transcribed to complementary DNA and then sequenced using 454 FLX sequencing technology, yielding over 14,800 sequences from the six samples. Interestingly, 97.3% of the sequences detected were associated with lineages that changed in detection frequency during the storage period including key biogeochemically relevant lineages associated with nitrogen, iron, and sulfur cycling. These lineages have the potential to permanently alter the physical and chemical characteristics of the sediment promoting misleading conclusions about the in situ biogeochemical environment. In addition, the detection of new lineages after storage increases the potential for a wider range of viable lineages within the subsurface that may be underestimated during standard community characterizations. PMID:22363327

  2. Automated system for sampling, counting, and biological analysis of rotifer populations

    PubMed Central

    Stelzer, Claus-Peter

    2010-01-01

    Zooplankton organisms with short generation times, such as rotifers, are ideal models to study general ecological and evolutionary questions on the population level, because meaningful experiments can often be completed within a couple of weeks. Yet biological analysis of such populations is often extremely time consuming, owing to abundance estimation by counting, measuring body size, or determining the investment into sexual versus asexual reproduction. An automated system for sampling and analyzing experimental rotifer populations is described. It relies on image analysis of digital photographs taken from subsamples of the culture. The system works completely autonomously for up to several weeks and can sample up to 12 cultures at time intervals down to a few hours. It allows quantitative analysis of female population density at a precision equivalent to that of conventional methods (i.e., manual counts of samples fixed in Lugol solution), and it can also recognize males, which allows detecting temporal variation of sexual reproduction in such cultures. Another parameter that can be automatically measured with the image analysis system is female body size. This feature may be useful for studies of population productivity and/or in competition experiments with clones of different body size. In this article, I describe the basic setup of the system and tests on the efficiency of data collection, and show some example data sets on the population dynamics of different strains of the rotifer Brachionus calyciflorus. PMID:21151824

  3. Tardive and spontaneous dyskinesia incidence in the general population

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background To identify the incidence rate of spontaneous dyskinesia (SD) and tardive dyskinesia (TD) in a general population and to examine the association between dykinesia and potential risk factors (exposure to metoclopramide [MCP], antipsychotic drugs, and history of diabetes and psychoses). Methods A retrospective cohort study was conducted for the years 2001 through 2010, based on medical claims data from the Deseret Mutual Benefit Administrators (DMBA). Results Thirty-four cases of TD and 229 cases of SD were identified. The incidence rate of TD among persons previously prescribed an antipsychotic or metoclopramide (MCP) (per 1,000) was 4.6 (1.6-7.7) for those with antipsychotic drug use only, 8.5 (4.8-12.2) for those with MCP use only, and 15.0 (2.0-28.1) for those with both antipsychotic and MCP use. In the general population, the incidence rate (per 100,000 person-years) of TD was 4.3 and of probable SD was 28.7. The incidence rates of TD and SD increased with age and were greater for females. Those with diabetes or psychoses had almost a 3-fold greater risk of TD than those without either of these diseases. Persons with schizophrenia had 31.2 times increased risk of TD than those without the disease. Positive associations also existed between the selected diseases and the incidence rate of probable SD, with persons with schizophrenia having 4.4 times greater risk of SD than those without the disease. Conclusions SD and TD are rare in this general population. Diabetes, psychoses, and especially schizophrenia are positively associated with SD and TD. A higher proportion of those with SD present with spasm of the eyelid muscles (blepharospasm) compared more with the TD cases who present more with orofacial muscular problems. PMID:23714238

  4. Double sampling to estimate density and population trends in birds

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bart, Jonathan; Earnst, Susan L.

    2002-01-01

    We present a method for estimating density of nesting birds based on double sampling. The approach involves surveying a large sample of plots using a rapid method such as uncorrected point counts, variable circular plot counts, or the recently suggested double-observer method. A subsample of those plots is also surveyed using intensive methods to determine actual density. The ratio of the mean count on those plots (using the rapid method) to the mean actual density (as determined by the intensive searches) is used to adjust results from the rapid method. The approach works well when results from the rapid method are highly correlated with actual density. We illustrate the method with three years of shorebird surveys from the tundra in northern Alaska. In the rapid method, surveyors covered ~10 ha h-1 and surveyed each plot a single time. The intensive surveys involved three thorough searches, required ~3 h ha-1, and took 20% of the study effort. Surveyors using the rapid method detected an average of 79% of birds present. That detection ratio was used to convert the index obtained in the rapid method into an essentially unbiased estimate of density. Trends estimated from several years of data would also be essentially unbiased. Other advantages of double sampling are that (1) the rapid method can be changed as new methods become available, (2) domains can be compared even if detection rates differ, (3) total population size can be estimated, and (4) valuable ancillary information (e.g. nest success) can be obtained on intensive plots with little additional effort. We suggest that double sampling be used to test the assumption that rapid methods, such as variable circular plot and double-observer methods, yield density estimates that are essentially unbiased. The feasibility of implementing double sampling in a range of habitats needs to be evaluated.

  5. Nationwide HIV prevalence survey in general population in Niger.

    PubMed

    Boisier, P; Ouwe Missi Oukem-Boyer, O N; Amadou Hamidou, A; Sidikou, F; Ibrahim, M L; Elhaj Mahamane, A; Mamadou, S; Sanda Aksenenkova, T; Hama Modibo, B; Chanteau, S; Sani, A; Louboutin-Croc, J-P

    2004-11-01

    A national population-based survey was carried out in Niger in 2002 to assess HIV prevalence in the population aged 15-49 years. A two-stage cluster sampling was used and the blood specimens were collected on filter paper and tested according to an algorithm involving up to three diagnostic tests whenever appropriate. Testing was unlinked and anonymous. The refusal rate was 1.1% and 6056 blood samples were available for analysis. The adjusted prevalence of HIV was 0.87% (95% CI, 0.5-1.3%) and the 95% CI of the estimated number of infected individuals was 22 864-59 640. HIV-1 and HIV-2 represented, respectively, 95.6% and 2.9% of infections while dual infections represented 1.5%. HIV positivity rate was 1.0% in women and 0.7% in men. It was significantly higher among urban populations than among rural ones (respectively, 2.1% and 0.6%, P < 10(-6)). Using logistic regression, the variables significantly related to the risk of being tested positive for HIV were urban housing, increasing age and being either widowed or divorced. The estimate from the national survey was lower than the prevalence assessed from antenatal clinic data (2.8% in 2001). In the future, the representativeness of sentinel sites should be improved by increasing the representation of rural areas accounting for more than 80% of the population. Compared with other sub-Saharan countries, the HIV prevalence in Niger is still moderate. This situation represents a strong argument for enhancing prevention programmes and makes realistic the projects promoting an access to potent antiretroviral therapies for the majority. PMID:15548311

  6. Consistent estimation of complete neuronal connectivity in large neuronal populations using sparse "shotgun" neuronal activity sampling.

    PubMed

    Mishchenko, Yuriy

    2016-10-01

    We investigate the properties of recently proposed "shotgun" sampling approach for the common inputs problem in the functional estimation of neuronal connectivity. We study the asymptotic correctness, the speed of convergence, and the data size requirements of such an approach. We show that the shotgun approach can be expected to allow the inference of complete connectivity matrix in large neuronal populations under some rather general conditions. However, we find that the posterior error of the shotgun connectivity estimator grows quickly with the size of unobserved neuronal populations, the square of average connectivity strength, and the square of observation sparseness. This implies that the shotgun connectivity estimation will require significantly larger amounts of neuronal activity data whenever the number of neurons in observed neuronal populations remains small. We present a numerical approach for solving the shotgun estimation problem in general settings and use it to demonstrate the shotgun connectivity inference in the examples of simulated synfire and weakly coupled cortical neuronal networks. PMID:27515518

  7. Diagnosis, evaluation, and treatment of lead poisoning in general population.

    PubMed

    D'souza, Herman Sunil; Dsouza, Sebestina Anita; Menezes, Geraldine; Venkatesh, Thuppil

    2011-04-01

    Among the heavy metals, lead still remains the major toxic pollutant of the environment. Human exposure to lead can occur through numerous pathways including air, food, dust, soil, and water. In the present study 14 lead poisoned patients with non-occupational lead exposure were evaluated. They were followed up and compared against the controls with no history of lead exposure. The patients had high blood lead levels and symptoms of weakness, dizziness, abdominal pain, generalized body ache, loss of appetite, and anxiety. Repeated course of chelation therapy helped to bring down their body burden of lead. Alternative sources for lead exposure can cause severe lead poisoning in general population. Screening and medical management of such individuals is very important to identify and eliminate sources of lead. The treatment and management requires a thorough medical evaluation and environmental intervention. PMID:22468050

  8. Population genetics of nine short tandem repeat loci: allele frequency distribution in a Brazilian population sample.

    PubMed

    Soares-Vieira, José Arnaldo; Billerbeck, Ana Elisa C; Pinto, Emília Modolo; Iwamura, Edna S M; Bilharinho de Mendonça, Berenice; Otto, Paulo A

    2002-06-01

    Gene and genotype frequencies in relation to the D3S1358, vWA, FGA, TH01, TPOX, CSF1PO, D5S818, D13S317, and D7S820 loci were determined in a sample of 290 unrelated individuals (204 Caucasians and 86 mulattoes) living in the city of São Paulo, Brazil. The sex test Amelogenin was also performed in all subjects from our sample, revealing the expected sex in all instances. Allele frequency data obtained from the analysis of these samples were in the usual range of other population groups with similar racial background. In the sample of Caucasian individuals, panmictic proportions were ruled out in relation to TPOX and CSF1PO loci, but only in the latter was the overall frequency of heterozygotes significantly less than expected. In the sample of mulattoes, Hardy-Weinberg proportions were rejected in relation to FGA and CSF1PO loci, but in no instance were the overall numbers of heterozygotes different from the corresponding expected ones under panmixia. Taking into account all this and also the number of tests performed, the degree of genetic heterogeneity of Brazilian populations, and the critical level reached by the significant results (1% < alpha<5%), the departures from panmixia here observed can be considered to be negligible in altering significantly biologic relationship odds calculated under the assumption of random matings. PMID:12040266

  9. 75 FR 52587 - 2009 Fatality Analysis Reporting System (FARS)/National Automotive Sampling System General...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-26

    ... Automotive Sampling System General Estimates System (NASS GES) Updates AGENCY: National Highway Traffic... Automotive Sampling System General Estimates System (NASS GES) Updates--Grand Rounds Electronic...

  10. Generalizing the Nomological Network of Psychopathy across Populations Differing on Race and Conviction Status

    PubMed Central

    Vachon, David D.; Lynam, Donald R.; Loeber, Rolf; Stouthamer-Loeber, Magda

    2012-01-01

    Psychopathy has shown good construct validity in samples of Caucasian inmates. However, little is known about how well the nomological network surrounding psychopathy generalizes to non-Caucasian and non-incarcerated populations. Using longitudinal and concurrent data from the middle sample of the Pittsburgh Youth Study, this study demonstrates that the validity of total-and facet-level psychopathy is preserved in African American and non-incarcerated samples. Specifically, similar patterns of association were obtained for child variables (child psychopathy, SES, risk status, parenting, delinquency, peer delinquency, and impulsivity) and adult variables (children, education, incarceration, unemployment, personality, substance use, and APD) across ethnicity and arrest status. PMID:21842962

  11. High prevalence of celiac disease in Italian general population.

    PubMed

    Volta, U; Bellentani, S; Bianchi, F B; Brandi, G; De Franceschi, L; Miglioli, L; Granito, A; Balli, F; Tiribelli, C

    2001-07-01

    The worldwide increase of celiac disease prompted us to assess its prevalence in the Italian general population. The 3483 inhabitants of Campogalliano were tested for immunoglobulin A anti-endomysial antibodies. Twenty subjects showed antibody positivity and duodenal biopsy detected typical mucosal lesions of celiac disease in 17 of them; the remaining three cases had a normal villous architecture, but the finding of increased gamma/delta intraepithelial lymphocytes in all and the heterodimer DQA1*0501, DQB1*0201 in two of them was consistent with potential celiac disease. Only one patient had an overt malabsorption syndrome, characterized by diarrhea, weight loss, and severe weakness. In eight subjects atypical symptoms of celiac disease, such as dyspepsia and depression, were present, whereas the remaining subjects were silent. Celiac disease was more frequent in younger age groups. Our cross-sectional design study demonstrates that celiac disease prevalence in the Italian general population is 4.9 per 1000 (95% CI 2.8-7.8), increasing up to 5.7 per 1000 (95% CI 3.5-8.8) with the inclusion of potential cases. PMID:11478502

  12. Colorectal cancer screening of the general population in East Asia.

    PubMed

    Sano, Yasushi; Byeon, Jeong-Sik; Li, Xiao-Bo; Wong, Martin C S; Chiu, Han-Mo; Rerknimitr, Rungsun; Utsumi, Takahiro; Hattori, Santa; Sano, Wataru; Iwatate, Mineo; Chiu, Philip; Sung, Joseph

    2016-04-01

    In recent years, the incidence of colorectal cancer (CRC) has been increasing, and CRC has been becoming the major cause of cancer deaths in Asian countries. Therefore, an organized screening program to reduce CRC incidence and mortality is currently implemented in each country. In the present review, we summarize the current status and future perspectives of CRC screening of the general population in East Asian and South-East Asian countries. The fecal occult blood test is widely used for CRC screening in these countries, and its effectiveness in reducing CRC incidence and mortality has been demonstrated; however, the low participation rate in CRC screening programs is a problem to be solved in every country. Improvement in the public awareness of CRC and promotion of CRC screening by physicians will help to raise the participation rate and reduce the number of deaths caused by CRC. Regarding screening colonoscopy, several studies have recently demonstrated its effectiveness in reducing CRC incidence and mortality. However, at present, CRC screening colonoscopy is not adopted as a primary population-based screening tool because of staffing constraints in relation to large population sizes, increased medical costs, and potential adverse events (e.g. perforation and drug-induced anaphylaxis). Further study is required to consider colonoscopy as CRC screening that is established in Western countries. PMID:26595883

  13. 45 CFR Appendix C to Part 1356 - Calculating Sample Size for NYTD Follow-Up Populations

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Populations C Appendix C to Part 1356 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) OFFICE... Follow-Up Populations 1. Using Finite Population Correction The Finite Population Correction (FPC) is applied when the sample is drawn from a population of one to 5,000 youth, because the sample is more...

  14. 45 CFR Appendix C to Part 1356 - Calculating Sample Size for NYTD Follow-Up Populations

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Populations C Appendix C to Part 1356 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) OFFICE... Follow-Up Populations 1. Using Finite Population Correction The Finite Population Correction (FPC) is applied when the sample is drawn from a population of one to 5,000 youth, because the sample is more...

  15. 45 CFR Appendix C to Part 1356 - Calculating Sample Size for NYTD Follow-Up Populations

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Populations C Appendix C to Part 1356 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) OFFICE... Follow-Up Populations 1. Using Finite Population Correction The Finite Population Correction (FPC) is applied when the sample is drawn from a population of one to 5,000 youth, because the sample is more...

  16. 45 CFR Appendix C to Part 1356 - Calculating Sample Size for NYTD Follow-Up Populations

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Populations C Appendix C to Part 1356 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) OFFICE... Follow-Up Populations 1. Using Finite Population Correction The Finite Population Correction (FPC) is applied when the sample is drawn from a population of one to 5,000 youth, because the sample is more...

  17. 45 CFR Appendix C to Part 1356 - Calculating Sample Size for NYTD Follow-Up Populations

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Populations C Appendix C to Part 1356 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) OFFICE... Follow-Up Populations 1. Using Finite Population Correction The Finite Population Correction (FPC) is applied when the sample is drawn from a population of one to 5,000 youth, because the sample is more...

  18. Life Expectancy in Police Officers: A Comparison with the U.S. General Population

    PubMed Central

    Violanti, John M.; Hartley, Tara A.; Gu, Ja K.; Fekedulegn, Desta; Andrew, Michael E.; Burchfiel, Cecil M.

    2016-01-01

    Previous epidemiological research indicates that police officers have an elevated risk of death relative to the general population overall and for several specific causes. Despite the increased risk for mortality found in previous research, controversy still exists over the life expectancy of police officers. The goal of the present study was to compare life expectancy of male police officers from Buffalo New York with the U.S. general male population utilizing an abridged life table method. On average, the life expectancy of Buffalo police officers in our sample was significantly lower than the U.S. population (mean difference in life expectancy =21.9 years; 95% CI: 14.5-29.3; p<0.0001). Life expectancy of police officers was shorter and differences were more pronounced in younger age categories. Additionally, police officers had a significantly higher average probability of death than did males in the general population (mean difference= 0.40; 95% CI: 0.26,-0.54; p<0.0001). The years of potential life lost (YPLL) for police officers was 21 times larger than that of the general population (Buffalo male officers vs. U.S. males = 21.7, 95% CI: 5.8-37.7). Possible reasons for shorter life expectancy among police are discussed, including stress, shift work, obesity, and hazardous environmental work exposures. PMID:24707585

  19. Anti-HCV prevalence in the general population of Lithuania

    PubMed Central

    Liakina, Valentina; Valantinas, Jonas

    2012-01-01

    Summary Background The aim of this study was to assess risk factors for HCV acquisition and prevalence of anti-HCV in the general population of Lithuania. Material/Methods The study enrolled 1528 randomly selected adults from the 5 biggest cities of Lithuania and its rural regions. Screening for anti-HCV was performed by analysis of peripheral capillary blood with lateral flow immunochromatography and confirmation of positive cases by peripheral venous blood testing with 2-step chemiluminescent microparticle immunoassay. Results Anti-HCV prevalence in Lithuania is 2.78% and according to the standard European population the adjusted anti-HCV rate is 2.85%. It is more prevalent among men (crude rates: 4.02% males vs. 1.49% females, p=.0030) and this does not depend on age. Vilnius and Kaunas regions have higher infection rates than smaller rural regions (2.92% and 3.01% vs. 2.24%, 0.74% and 1.35%). Nowadays among our population HCV infection spreads mainly via intravenous drug use (OR=42.5, p<.0001). HCV transmission occurs through blood transfusions (OR=6.4, p=.0002), tooth removal (OR=4.1, p=.0048), childbirth (OR=5.0, p=.0224), multiple and a long-term hospitalization (OR=3.0, p=.0064), tattooing (OR=4.4, p=.0013), open traumas (OR=3.7, p=.0009) and intrafamilially (OR=11.3, p=.0002). Conclusions 2.78% of the population is anti-HCV-positive. The anti-HCV rate is higher in Vilnius and Kaunas in comparison with other regions. HCV spreads mainly through intravenous drug use, but intrafamilial and some nosocomial routes are also important. The anti-HCV prevalence did not depend on age. Despite active prevention of nosocomial HCV transmission, the incidence of HCV infection does not decrease due to virus spread mostly in “trusted networks” of intravenous drug users. PMID:22367136

  20. Sexual offender recidivism among a population-based prison sample.

    PubMed

    Rettenberger, Martin; Briken, Peer; Turner, Daniel; Eher, Reinhard

    2015-04-01

    The present study examines recidivism rates in sexual offenders using officially registered reconvictions in a representative data set of N = 1,115 male sexual offenders from Austria. In general, results indicate that most sexual offenders do not reoffend sexually after release from prison. More detailed, within the first 5 years after release, the sexual recidivism rate was 6% for the total sample, 4% for the rapist subgroup, and 8% for the child molester subgroup. The findings confirmed previous studies about sex offender recidivism which have shown that first-time sexual offenders are significantly less likely to sexually reoffend than those with previous sexual convictions. With regard to the relationship between age and sexual recidivism, the results challenged the traditional assumption of a clear linear function between age and recidivism. Taken together, compared with previous studies, the recidivism rates found in the present investigation are substantially lower than previous research has indicated. PMID:24398599

  1. Prevalence of Titin Truncating Variants in General Population

    PubMed Central

    Akinrinade, Oyediran; Koskenvuo, Juha W.; Alastalo, Tero-Pekka

    2015-01-01

    Background Truncating titin (TTN) mutations, especially in A-band region, represent the most common cause of dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM). Clinical interpretation of these variants can be challenging, as these variants are also present in reference populations. We carried out systematic analyses of TTN truncating variants (TTNtv) in publicly available reference populations, including, for the first time, data from Exome Aggregation Consortium (ExAC). The goal was to establish more accurate estimate of prevalence of different TTNtv to allow better clinical interpretation of these findings. Methods and Results Using data from 1000 Genomes Project, Exome Sequencing Project (ESP) and ExAC, we estimated the prevalence of TTNtv in the population. In the three population datasets, 52–54% of TTNtv were not affecting all TTN transcripts. The frequency of truncations affecting all transcripts in ExAC was 0.36% (0.32% - 0.41%, 95% CI) and 0.19% (0.16% - 0.23%, 95% CI) for those affecting the A-band. In the A-band region, the prevalences of frameshift, nonsense and essential splice site variants were 0.057%, 0.090%, and 0.047% respectively. Cga/Tga (arginine/nonsense–R/*) transitional change at CpG mutation hotspots was the most frequent type of TTN nonsense mutation accounting for 91.3% (21/23) of arginine residue nonsense mutation (R/*) at TTN A-band region. Non-essential splice-site variants had significantly lower proportion of private variants and higher proportion of low-frequency variants compared to essential splice-site variants (P = 0.01; P = 5.1 X 10−4, respectively). Conclusion A-band TTNtv are more rare in the general population than previously reported. Based on this analysis, one in 500 carries a truncation in TTN A-band suggesting the penetrance of these potentially harmful variants is still poorly understood, and some of these variants do not manifest as autosomal dominant DCM. This calls for caution when interpreting TTNtv in individuals and families

  2. The dystrophin gene and cognitive function in the general population

    PubMed Central

    Vojinovic, Dina; Adams, Hieab HH; van der Lee, Sven J; Ibrahim-Verbaas, Carla A; Brouwer, Rutger; van den Hout, Mirjam CGN; Oole, Edwin; van Rooij, Jeroen; Uitterlinden, Andre; Hofman, Albert; van IJcken, Wilfred FJ; Aartsma-Rus, Annemieke; van Ommen, GertJan B; Ikram, M Arfan; van Duijn, Cornelia M; Amin, Najaf

    2015-01-01

    The aim of our study is to investigate whether single-nucleotide dystrophin gene (DMD) variants associate with variability in cognitive functions in healthy populations. The study included 1240 participants from the Erasmus Rucphen family (ERF) study and 1464 individuals from the Rotterdam Study (RS). The participants whose exomes were sequenced and who were assessed for various cognitive traits were included in the analysis. To determine the association between DMD variants and cognitive ability, linear (mixed) modeling with adjustment for age, sex and education was used. Moreover, Sequence Kernel Association Test (SKAT) was used to test the overall association of the rare genetic variants present in the DMD with cognitive traits. Although no DMD variant surpassed the prespecified significance threshold (P<1 × 10−4), rs147546024:A>G showed strong association (β=1.786, P-value=2.56 × 10−4) with block-design test in the ERF study, while another variant rs1800273:G>A showed suggestive association (β=−0.465, P-value=0.002) with Mini-Mental State Examination test in the RS. Both variants are highly conserved, although rs147546024:A>G is an intronic variant, whereas rs1800273:G>A is a missense variant in the DMD which has a predicted damaging effect on the protein. Further gene-based analysis of DMD revealed suggestive association (P-values=0.087 and 0.074) with general cognitive ability in both cohorts. In conclusion, both single variant and gene-based analyses suggest the existence of variants in the DMD which may affect cognitive functioning in the general populations. PMID:25227141

  3. Latex allergy: a relevant issue in the general pediatric population.

    PubMed

    Lee, M H; Kim, K T

    1998-01-01

    Although latex allergy is a widely recognized problem of the pediatric myelomeningocele population and of frequent users of latex products, it is often overlooked in the general pediatric population. The prevalence of latex in common household items and in medical environments increases one's exposure and thus one's possibility of sensitization to latex. Latex allergy may range from mild local reactions such as erythema to more severe systemic reactions such as asthma or anaphylaxis. The immunoglobulin E-mediated mechanism of these reactions has been confirmed serologically by the presence of latex-specific immunoglobulin E with radioallergosorbent testing. Because avoidance of latex is currently the only way to prevent reactions, the identification of household items that contain latex is extremely important. However, because inadvertent exposure to latex is not uncommon, Medic-Alert bracelets and an Epi-Pen should be provided for children allergic to latex. Pediatric nurses should consider latex allergy as a possible diagnosis in situations of unexplained allergic or anaphylactic reactions and should be aware of optimal therapeutic interventions. PMID:9987254

  4. Sleep Difficulties and Insomnia Symptoms in Norwegian Musicians Compared to the General Population and Workforce.

    PubMed

    Vaag, Jonas; Saksvik-Lehouillier, Ingvild; Bjørngaard, Johan Håkon; Bjerkeset, Ottar

    2016-01-01

    Sleep problems are reported as common among performing artists and musicians. However, epidemiological research comparing musicians to different groups of the general population is lacking. For this study, 4,168 members of the Norwegian Musician's Union were invited to an online survey regarding work and health. Of the 2,121 (51%) respondents, 1,607 were active performing musicians. We measured prevalence of insomnia symptoms using the Bergen Insomnia Scale (BIS), and compared this sample to a representative sample of the general Norwegian population (n = 2,645). Overall, musicians had higher prevalence of insomnia symptoms compared to the general population (Prevalence Difference 6.9, 95% Confidence Interval 3.9-10.0). Item response analysis showed that this difference was mainly explained by nonrestorative sleep and dissatisfaction with sleep among musicians. An additional analysis, comparing musicians to the general Norwegian workforce (n = 8,518) on sleep difficulties, confirmed this tendency (Prevalence Difference 6.2, 95% Confidence Interval 4.3-8.1). Musicians performing classical, contemporary, rock, and country music reported the highest prevalence of insomnia, and these genres might be of special interest when developing preventative measures, treatment strategies, and further research on sleep difficulties among musicians. PMID:26337077

  5. A Principled Approach to Deriving Approximate Conditional Sampling Distributions in Population Genetics Models with Recombination

    PubMed Central

    Paul, Joshua S.; Song, Yun S.

    2010-01-01

    The multilocus conditional sampling distribution (CSD) describes the probability that an additionally sampled DNA sequence is of a certain type, given that a collection of sequences has already been observed. The CSD has a wide range of applications in both computational biology and population genomics analysis, including phasing genotype data into haplotype data, imputing missing data, estimating recombination rates, inferring local ancestry in admixed populations, and importance sampling of coalescent genealogies. Unfortunately, the true CSD under the coalescent with recombination is not known, so approximations, formulated as hidden Markov models, have been proposed in the past. These approximations have led to a number of useful statistical tools, but it is important to recognize that they were not derived from, though were certainly motivated by, principles underlying the coalescent process. The goal of this article is to develop a principled approach to derive improved CSDs directly from the underlying population genetics model. Our approach is based on the diffusion process approximation and the resulting mathematical expressions admit intuitive genealogical interpretations, which we utilize to introduce further approximations and make our method scalable in the number of loci. The general algorithm presented here applies to an arbitrary number of loci and an arbitrary finite-alleles recurrent mutation model. Empirical results are provided to demonstrate that our new CSDs are in general substantially more accurate than previously proposed approximations. PMID:20592264

  6. Estimating effective population size and migration rates from genetic samples over space and time.

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jinliang; Whitlock, Michael C

    2003-01-01

    In the past, moment and likelihood methods have been developed to estimate the effective population size (N(e)) on the basis of the observed changes of marker allele frequencies over time, and these have been applied to a large variety of species and populations. Such methods invariably make the critical assumption of a single isolated population receiving no immigrants over the study interval. For most populations in the real world, however, migration is not negligible and can substantially bias estimates of N(e) if it is not accounted for. Here we extend previous moment and maximum-likelihood methods to allow the joint estimation of N(e) and migration rate (m) using genetic samples over space and time. It is shown that, compared to genetic drift acting alone, migration results in changes in allele frequency that are greater in the short term and smaller in the long term, leading to under- and overestimation of N(e), respectively, if it is ignored. Extensive simulations are run to evaluate the newly developed moment and likelihood methods, which yield generally satisfactory estimates of both N(e) and m for populations with widely different effective sizes and migration rates and patterns, given a reasonably large sample size and number of markers. PMID:12586728

  7. A Generalized Approach for Estimating Effective Population Size from Temporal Changes in Allele Frequency

    PubMed Central

    Waples, R. S.

    1989-01-01

    The temporal method for estimating effective population size (N(e)) from the standardized variance in allele frequency change (F) is presented in a generalized form. Whereas previous treatments of this method have adopted rather limiting assumptions, the present analysis shows that the temporal method is generally applicable to a wide variety of organisms. Use of a revised model of gene sampling permits a more generalized interpretation of N(e) than that used by some other authors studying this method. It is shown that two sampling plans (individuals for genetic analysis taken before or after reproduction) whose differences have been stressed by previous authors can be treated in a uniform way. Computer simulations using a wide variety of initial conditions show that different formulas for computing F have much less effect on N(e) than do sample size (S), number of generations between samples (t), or the number of loci studied (L). Simulation results also indicate that (1) bias of F is small unless alleles with very low frequency are used; (2) precision is typically increased by about the same amount with a doubling of S, t, or L; (3) confidence intervals for N(e) computed using a χ(2) approximation are accurate and unbiased under most conditions; (4) the temporal method is best suited for use with organisms having high juvenile mortality and, perhaps, a limited effective population size. PMID:2731727

  8. Contamination from endocrine disrupters of the general population at low and high concentrations.

    PubMed

    Porta, Miquel; Pumarega, José; Gasull, Magda; Lopez, Tomàs

    2014-01-01

    Analyses of the concentrations of a given environmental compound usually show that most citizens have much lower concentrations than a certain minority, whose members have high body concentrations. Surveys of human exposure to chemicals do not usually integrate the number of chemical compounds detected per person and the concentration of each compound. This leaves untested relevant exposure situations, for example, whether individuals with low concentrations of some compounds have high concentrations of the other compounds. On scientific grounds, it is puzzling that this possibility, arithmetically and conceptually rather simple, has seldom if ever been tested in studies based on a representative sample of the general population. A study based on a representative sample of the general population of Catalonia (Spain) (Porta, Pumarega, & Gasull, 2012), which integrated the number of compounds detected per person and the concentration of each compound, found that more than half of the population had concentrations in the top quartile of 1 or more of the 19 persistent toxic substances (PTS) (pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyls) analyzed. Significant subgroups of the population accumulated PTS mixtures at high concentrations. For instance, 48% of women 60-74 years had concentrations of 6 or more PTS in the top quartile; half of the entire population had levels of 1-5 PTS above 500 ng/g, and less than 4% of citizens had all PTS in the lowest quartile. Thus, PTS concentrations appear low in most of the population only when each individual compound is looked at separately. It is not accurate to state that most of the population has low concentrations of PTS. The assessment of mixture effects must address the fact that most individuals are contaminated by PTS mixtures made of compounds at both low and high concentrations. PMID:24388190

  9. Population data for 12 Y-chromosome STR loci in a sample from Honduras.

    PubMed

    Matamoros, Mireya; Yurrebaso, Iñaki; Gusmão, Leonor; García, Oscar

    2009-09-01

    Haplotype, allele frequencies and population data of 12 Y-chromosome STR loci DYS19, DYS385, DYS389I, DYS389II, DYS390, DYS391, DYS392, DYS393, DYS437, DYS438 and DYS439 were determined from a sample of 128 unrelated male individuals from Honduras, Central America. A total of 112 haplotypes were identified by the 12 Y-STR loci of which 98 were unique. The haplotype diversity (98.99%) and the proportion of different haplotypes (87.50%) were estimated. Genetic distances were calculated between Honduras and other populations from Southern and Central America, Europe and Africa. The analysis of a Multi Dimensional Scaling (MDS) plot, based on pairwise R(ST) genetic distances, allowed to conclude that Honduras is highly differentiated from the African samples (0.343< or =R(ST)< or =0.620; P=0.000) and from a Native American sample from Argentina, Tobas (R(ST)=0.210, P=0.000). Honduras showed a lower genetic distance to the European cluster (composed by European and South American general population samples from Brazil, Argentina, Colombia and Venezuela) than to the Central American cluster (Mexico and El Salvador). PMID:19628418

  10. Questioning the "melting pot": analysis of Alu inserts in three population samples from Uruguay.

    PubMed

    Hidalgo, Pedro C; Mut, Patricia; Ackermann, Elizabeth; Figueiro, Gonzalo; Sans, Monica

    2014-01-01

    The way that immigrants integrate into recipient societies has been discussed for decades, mainly from the perspective of the social sciences. Uruguay, as other American countries, received diffferent waves of European immigrants, although the details of the process of assimilation, when it did occur, are unclear. In this study we used genetic markers to understand the process experienced by the Basques, one of the major migration waves that populated Uruguay, and their relation to other immigrants, as well as to Native American and African descendants. For this purpose, we analyzed the allele frequencies of 10 ALU loci (A25, ACE, APOA1, B65, D1, F13B, PV92, TPA25, HS2.43, and HS4.65) in three samples from Uruguay (two of Basque descendants, one of non-Basque descendants) from two locations: Montevideo and Trinidad. No departure from Hardy-Weinberg expectations was observed, with the exceptions of the APOA1 and D1 loci in the non-Basque descendants' samples. Our data show that the major genetic contribution in the three samples comes from Europe (78-88%), with minor African (10-15%) and Native American (0-10%) contributions. Genetic distances reveal that Basque descendants from Trinidad cluster with Europeans, whereas both Montevideo samples cluster together and are separate from other populations, showing two diffferent types of integration, related to the general characteristics of each regional population. PMID:25397699

  11. 7 CFR 800.81 - Sample requirements; general.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... may deprive the samples of their representativeness or which may change the physical or chemical properties of the grain, as appropriate, from the time of sampling or receipt until the inspection...

  12. 7 CFR 800.81 - Sample requirements; general.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... may deprive the samples of their representativeness or which may change the physical or chemical properties of the grain, as appropriate, from the time of sampling or receipt until the inspection...

  13. 7 CFR 800.81 - Sample requirements; general.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... may deprive the samples of their representativeness or which may change the physical or chemical properties of the grain, as appropriate, from the time of sampling or receipt until the inspection...

  14. 7 CFR 800.81 - Sample requirements; general.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... may deprive the samples of their representativeness or which may change the physical or chemical properties of the grain, as appropriate, from the time of sampling or receipt until the inspection...

  15. 7 CFR 800.81 - Sample requirements; general.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... may deprive the samples of their representativeness or which may change the physical or chemical properties of the grain, as appropriate, from the time of sampling or receipt until the inspection...

  16. 7 CFR 868.33 - Sample requirements; general.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... identity, quantity, and location of the commodity sampled; the name and mailing address of the applicant... the samples of their representativeness or which would change the physical and chemical properties...

  17. Knowledge of sexually transmissible infections: a comparison of prisoners and the general population.

    PubMed

    Malacova, E; Butler, T; Richters, J; Yap, L; Grant, L; Richards, A; Smith, A M A; Donovan, B

    2011-07-01

    The World Health Organization (WHO) has identified a failure to provide education for vulnerable populations such as prisoners as a contributing factor to the epidemic of sexually transmissible infections (STIs). Despite this recognition, little is known about prisoners' level of knowledge of STIs compared with the general population. Using computer-assisted telephone interviews, we compared a representative sample of 2289 Australian prisoners, aged 18-59 years from New South Wales and Queensland prisons with a representative community sample of 3536 participants from these two states. Prisoners had significantly better knowledge than the general community of chlamydia-related questions, while knowledge of herpes (genital and oral) was slightly better in the community sample. Prisoners who were aged over 25 years, not married, female, self-identified as either homosexual or bisexual and reported a history of STIs tended to have better STI knowledge levels. Despite their more disadvantaged backgrounds, prisoners demonstrated relatively good health literacy in relation to STIs. Ongoing education about the transmission risks of STIs for prisoners and the general community is needed. PMID:21729956

  18. The Population Reference Sample, POPRES: A Resource for Population, Disease, and Pharmacological Genetics Research

    PubMed Central

    Nelson, Matthew R.; Bryc, Katarzyna; King, Karen S.; Indap, Amit; Boyko, Adam R.; Novembre, John; Briley, Linda P.; Maruyama, Yuka; Waterworth, Dawn M.; Waeber, Gérard; Vollenweider, Peter; Oksenberg, Jorge R.; Hauser, Stephen L.; Stirnadel, Heide A.; Kooner, Jaspal S.; Chambers, John C.; Jones, Brendan; Mooser, Vincent; Bustamante, Carlos D.; Roses, Allen D.; Burns, Daniel K.; Ehm, Margaret G.; Lai, Eric H.

    2008-01-01

    Technological and scientific advances, stemming in large part from the Human Genome and HapMap projects, have made large-scale, genome-wide investigations feasible and cost effective. These advances have the potential to dramatically impact drug discovery and development by identifying genetic factors that contribute to variation in disease risk as well as drug pharmacokinetics, treatment efficacy, and adverse drug reactions. In spite of the technological advancements, successful application in biomedical research would be limited without access to suitable sample collections. To facilitate exploratory genetics research, we have assembled a DNA resource from a large number of subjects participating in multiple studies throughout the world. This growing resource was initially genotyped with a commercially available genome-wide 500,000 single-nucleotide polymorphism panel. This project includes nearly 6,000 subjects of African-American, East Asian, South Asian, Mexican, and European origin. Seven informative axes of variation identified via principal-component analysis (PCA) of these data confirm the overall integrity of the data and highlight important features of the genetic structure of diverse populations. The potential value of such extensively genotyped collections is illustrated by selection of genetically matched population controls in a genome-wide analysis of abacavir-associated hypersensitivity reaction. We find that matching based on country of origin, identity-by-state distance, and multidimensional PCA do similarly well to control the type I error rate. The genotype and demographic data from this reference sample are freely available through the NCBI database of Genotypes and Phenotypes (dbGaP). PMID:18760391

  19. Comparison of Population Pyramid and Demographic Characteristics between People with an Intellectual Disability and the General Population

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yen, Chia-Feng; Lin, Jin-Ding; Chiu, Tzu-Ying

    2013-01-01

    The purposes of this study were to measure disparities of age structure between people with an intellectual disability and general population, and to explore the difference of demographic characteristics between these two populations by using data from a population based register in Taiwan. Data were analyzed by SPSS 20.0 statistical software.…

  20. Population Dynamics of Aspergillus Section Nigri Species on Vineyard Samples of Grapes and Raisins.

    PubMed

    Palumbo, Jeffrey D; O'Keeffe, Teresa L; Ho, Yvonne S; Fidelibus, Matthew W

    2016-03-01

    Several species of Aspergillus section Nigri, including potential mycotoxin producers, are common residents of grape vineyards, but the relative population size of individual species throughout the growing season is difficult to determine using traditional isolation and identification methods. Using a quantitative droplet digital PCR (ddPCR) method in combination with dilution plating, total Aspergillus section Nigri populations and relative proportions of A. niger, A. welwitschiae, A. carbonarius, and A. tubingensis were measured from vineyard samples without the need for identifying individual fungal isolates. Grapes were sampled from two raisin vineyards (vineyards A and B) at berry set, veraison, harvest, and raisin stages in two consecutive years. Plate counts showed that the total population of Aspergillus section Nigri present on the fruit increased from berry set to raisin and became a larger component of the total recovered fungal population in both vineyards in both years. Results from ddPCR analysis showed that the relative proportion of A. carbonarius among the four species assayed increased later in the season (harvest and raisin) in comparison to earlier in the season (berry set and veraison). Total fungal and Aspergillus section Nigri plate counts were not significantly different between vineyards in either year. However, vineyard A generally showed higher proportions of A. carbonarius in harvest and raisin samples than vineyard B. This coincided with higher incidence and levels of ochratoxin A in vineyard A harvest and raisin fruit than in vineyard B fruit. This work demonstrates that this ddPCR method is a useful tool for culture-independent monitoring of populations of mycotoxigenic Aspergillus species during grape and raisin production. PMID:26939655

  1. Physical activity in adolescents with psychiatric disorders and in the general population

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Adults who suffer from psychiatric disorders report low levels of physical activity and the activity levels differ between disorders. Less is known regarding physical activity across psychiatric disorders in adolescence. We investigate the frequency and type of physical activity in adolescent psychiatric patients, compared with adolescents in the general population. Methods A total of 566 adolescent psychiatric patients aged 13–18 years who participated in the CAP survey, Norway, were compared to 8173 adolescents aged 13–19 years who participated in the Nord-Trøndelag Health Study, Young-HUNT 3, Norway. All adolescents completed a questionnaire, including questions about physical activity and participation in team and individual sports. Results Approximately 50% of adolescents with psychiatric disorders and 25% of the population sample reported low levels of physical activity. Within the clinical sample, those with mood disorders (62%) and autism spectrum disorders (56%) were the most inactive and those with eating disorders (36%) the most active. This pattern was the same in individual and team sports. After multivariable adjustment, adolescents with a psychiatric disorder had a three-fold increased risk of lower levels of physical activity, and a corresponding risk of not participating in team and individual sports compared with adolescents in the general population. Conclusions Levels of physical activity were low in adolescent psychiatric patients compared with the general population, yet activity levels differed considerably between various disorders. The findings underscore the importance of assessing physical activity in adolescents with psychiatric disorders and providing early intervention to promote mental as well as physical health in this early stage of life. PMID:24450542

  2. Genetic Risk for Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder Contributes to Neurodevelopmental Traits in the General Population

    PubMed Central

    Martin, Joanna; Hamshere, Marian L.; Stergiakouli, Evangelia; O’Donovan, Michael C.; Thapar, Anita

    2014-01-01

    Background Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) can be viewed as the extreme end of traits in the general population. Epidemiological and twin studies suggest that ADHD frequently co-occurs with and shares genetic susceptibility with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and ASD-related traits. The aims of this study were to determine whether a composite of common molecular genetic variants, previously found to be associated with clinically diagnosed ADHD, predicts ADHD and ASD-related traits in the general population. Methods Polygenic risk scores were calculated in the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC) population sample (N = 8229) based on a discovery case-control genome-wide association study of childhood ADHD. Regression analyses were used to assess whether polygenic scores predicted ADHD traits and ASD-related measures (pragmatic language abilities and social cognition) in the ALSPAC sample. Polygenic scores were also compared in boys and girls endorsing any (rating ≥1) ADHD item (n = 3623). Results Polygenic risk for ADHD showed a positive association with ADHD traits (hyperactive-impulsive, p = .0039; inattentive, p = .037). Polygenic risk for ADHD was also negatively associated with pragmatic language abilities (p = .037) but not with social cognition (p = .43). In children with a rating ≥1 for ADHD traits, girls had a higher polygenic score than boys (p = .003). Conclusions These findings provide molecular genetic evidence that risk alleles for the categorical disorder of ADHD influence hyperactive-impulsive and attentional traits in the general population. The results further suggest that common genetic variation that contributes to ADHD diagnosis may also influence ASD-related traits, which at their extreme are a characteristic feature of ASD. PMID:24673882

  3. Awareness to sun exposure and use of sunscreen by the general population.

    PubMed

    Al Robaee, Ahmad A

    2010-11-01

    Sun exposure has a pathogenic effect on the development of skin cancer, whose prevalence increases worldwide. Educational programs are carried out to change high risk sun exposure behaviours. The aim of this study was to evaluate the knowledge of Saudi population regarding sun exposure and the risk of skin cancers, as well as to study their sun-protective attitudes and practices. A cross-sectional population-based survey using specially devised questionnaire on a stratified random sample of general population in Qassim Province between January and March 2010. One thousand three hundred and seventy six persons participated in the study. A high sun exposure of more than 10 hours per week was reported by 661 persons (48%). Fifty six percent of respondents were aware of the association between sun exposure and skin cancer but the rate of sun screen use was only 8.3%. Socio-demographic factors more likely to be associated with sunscreen use were: females, higher social class, higher levels of education, type 4 skin and married individuals. This study has indicated a low rate of sunscreen use by our population despite reasonably good knowledge about the hazards of sun exposure. This necessitates the need for health education program. We hope that the results of our study will be used for setting up a sun policy for Saudi general public. PMID:21108614

  4. Sampling of general correlators in worm-algorithm based simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rindlisbacher, Tobias; Åkerlund, Oscar; de Forcrand, Philippe

    2016-08-01

    Using the complex ϕ4-model as a prototype for a system which is simulated by a worm algorithm, we show that not only the charged correlator <ϕ* (x) ϕ (y) >, but also more general correlators such as < | ϕ (x) | | ϕ (y) | > or < arg ⁡ (ϕ (x)) arg ⁡ (ϕ (y)) >, as well as condensates like < | ϕ | >, can be measured at every step of the Monte Carlo evolution of the worm instead of on closed-worm configurations only. The method generalizes straightforwardly to other systems simulated by worms, such as spin or sigma models.

  5. JOB CORPS TRAINEES AS A SAMPLE OF THE POPULATION.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    EDGERTON, HAROLD A.; SYLVESTER, ROBERT W.

    THE SIMILARITY OF JOB CORPS TRAINEES TO THE POPULATION OF THE SAME AGE FROM WHICH THEY WERE DRAWN AND PROPORTION OF TRAINEES COMING FROM EACH STATE WERE DETERMINED. DATA WERE OBTAINED FROM PREENROLLMENT APPLICATIONS, CENSUS REPORTS, AND PUBLICATIONS. FINDINGS INCLUDED -- (1) THE NUMBER OF 16- TO 17-YEAR-OLD MALE TRAINEES WAS DISPROPORTIONATELY…

  6. A General Investigation of Optimized Atmospheric Sample Duration

    SciTech Connect

    Eslinger, Paul W.; Miley, Harry S.

    2012-11-28

    ABSTRACT The International Monitoring System (IMS) consists of up to 80 aerosol and xenon monitoring systems spaced around the world that have collection systems sensitive enough to detect nuclear releases from underground nuclear tests at great distances (CTBT 1996; CTBTO 2011). Although a few of the IMS radionuclide stations are closer together than 1,000 km (such as the stations in Kuwait and Iran), many of them are 2,000 km or more apart. In the absence of a scientific basis for optimizing the duration of atmospheric sampling, historically scientists used a integration times from 24 hours to 14 days for radionuclides (Thomas et al. 1977). This was entirely adequate in the past because the sources of signals were far away and large, meaning that they were smeared over many days by the time they had travelled 10,000 km. The Fukushima event pointed out the unacceptable delay time (72 hours) between the start of sample acquisition and final data being shipped. A scientific basis for selecting a sample duration time is needed. This report considers plume migration of a nondecaying tracer using archived atmospheric data for 2011 in the HYSPLIT (Draxler and Hess 1998; HYSPLIT 2011) transport model. We present two related results: the temporal duration of the majority of the plume as a function of distance and the behavior of the maximum plume concentration as a function of sample collection duration and distance. The modeled plume behavior can then be combined with external information about sampler design to optimize sample durations in a sampling network.

  7. Effects of Sample Selection Bias on the Accuracy of Population Structure and Ancestry Inference

    PubMed Central

    Shringarpure, Suyash; Xing, Eric P.

    2014-01-01

    Population stratification is an important task in genetic analyses. It provides information about the ancestry of individuals and can be an important confounder in genome-wide association studies. Public genotyping projects have made a large number of datasets available for study. However, practical constraints dictate that of a geographical/ethnic population, only a small number of individuals are genotyped. The resulting data are a sample from the entire population. If the distribution of sample sizes is not representative of the populations being sampled, the accuracy of population stratification analyses of the data could be affected. We attempt to understand the effect of biased sampling on the accuracy of population structure analysis and individual ancestry recovery. We examined two commonly used methods for analyses of such datasets, ADMIXTURE and EIGENSOFT, and found that the accuracy of recovery of population structure is affected to a large extent by the sample used for analysis and how representative it is of the underlying populations. Using simulated data and real genotype data from cattle, we show that sample selection bias can affect the results of population structure analyses. We develop a mathematical framework for sample selection bias in models for population structure and also proposed a correction for sample selection bias using auxiliary information about the sample. We demonstrate that such a correction is effective in practice using simulated and real data. PMID:24637351

  8. Bedtime procrastination: A self-regulation perspective on sleep insufficiency in the general population.

    PubMed

    Kroese, Floor M; Evers, Catharine; Adriaanse, Marieke A; de Ridder, Denise Td

    2016-05-01

    Getting insufficient sleep has serious consequences in terms of mental and physical health. The current study is the first to approach insufficient sleep from a self-regulation perspective by investigating the phenomenon of bedtime procrastination: going to bed later than intended, without having external reasons for doing so. Data from a representative sample of Dutch adults (N = 2431) revealed that a large proportion of the general population experiences getting insufficient sleep and regularly goes to bed later than they would like to. Most importantly, a relationship between self-regulation and experienced insufficient sleep was found, which was mediated by bedtime procrastination. PMID:24997168

  9. Comparison of Abnormal Cervical Cytology from HIV Positive Women, Female Sex Workers and General Population

    PubMed Central

    Vafaei, Homeira; Asadi, Nasrin; Foroughinia, Leila; Salehi, Alireza; Kuhnavard, Safieh; Akbarzadeh, Mojgan; Ravanbod, Hamid Reza; Mohamadalian, Ferdos; Kasraeian, Maryam

    2015-01-01

    Background Sex workers and HIV seropositive women are at high risk of abnormal cervical cytology. The objective of this study was to compare the cervical cytology among three groups of women: active sex workers, HIV-infected women, and general population in Iran. Methods This was a cross-sectional study performed in Hazrat Zeinab, Lavan clinics and drop in center (DIC) in Shiraz, Iran. This study was performed from October 2009 to October 2011. A total of 266 patients were assigned into three groups: sex-workers (85), HIV positive patients (100), and general population (81). Pap smear was performed for all participants from the exocervix and endocervix, using a plastic Ayres’s spatula and cytobrush. The samples were sent to a pathology center, using a liquid-based media.  Results The risk of cervical infection in sex workers and HIV positive women was greater than the general population (OR=5.47, 95% confidence interval [CI]:2.24, 13.40), (OR=3.71, 95% CI:1.52, 9.09), respectively. The frequency of abnormal cervical cytology in the HIV positive and sex worker groups was higher than the general population (OR=6. 76, 95% CI:2.25, 20.32), (OR=3. 80, 95% CI:1.19, 12.07), respectively. Low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (LSIL) and high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (HSIL) were associated with CD4 cell count<200Í106/L, P=0.021 and P<0.001, respectively. Conclusion Vaginal infections were seen more often in the sex worker group, and abnormal cervical cytology was greater in the HIV positive group. PMID:26005687

  10. A General Linear Method for Equating with Small Samples

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Albano, Anthony D.

    2015-01-01

    Research on equating with small samples has shown that methods with stronger assumptions and fewer statistical estimates can lead to decreased error in the estimated equating function. This article introduces a new approach to linear observed-score equating, one which provides flexible control over how form difficulty is assumed versus estimated…

  11. Reliability Generalization of the Psychopathy Checklist Applied in Youthful Samples

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campbell, Justin S.; Pulos, Steven; Hogan, Mike; Murry, Francie

    2005-01-01

    This study examines the average reliability of Hare Psychopathy Checklists (PCLs) adapted for use in samples of youthful offenders (aged 12 to 21 years). Two forms of reliability are examined: 18 alpha estimates of internal consistency and 18 intraclass correlation (two or more raters) estimates of interrater reliability. The results, an average…

  12. Information Processing Profiles of Internalizing and Externalizing Behavior Problems: Evidence from a Population-Based Sample of Preadolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brunnekreef, J. Agnes; De Sonneville, Leo M. J.; Althaus, Monika; Minderaa, Ruud B.; Oldehinkel, Albertine J.; Verhulst, Frank C.; Ormel, Johan

    2007-01-01

    Background: The present study explores the relationships between several information processing capacities and internalizing and externalizing behavior problems in a general population sample of 10- to 12-year olds (N = 2,037 51% girls). Methods: Parent-reported behavior problems as assessed by the Child Behavior Checklist were used to form four…

  13. IDENTIFYING A POPULATION-BASED SAMPLE OF WOMEN OF REPRODUCTIVE AGE FOR ENVIRONMENTAL STUDIES USING A COMMERCIAL TELEPHONE DIRECTORY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Environmental studies examining reproductive endpoints such as spontaneous abortion or fertility often rely on very select study groups (i.e., convenience samples, highly exposed, etc.) that cannot be easily generalized to the overall population. For exposures limited to a parti...

  14. Do Veterans Health Administration Enrollees Generalize to Other Populations?

    PubMed

    Wong, Edwin S; Wang, Virginia; Liu, Chuan-Fen; Hebert, Paul L; Maciejewski, Matthew L

    2016-08-01

    The Veterans Health Administration (VHA) has historically served a disproportionately male patient population with lower income and greater rates of mental illness than non-VHA populations. The generalizability of research based on VHA enrollees is unknown because the overlap between VHA and non-VHA populations has never been empirically examined. This study used 2013 National Health Interview Survey data to examine the extent to which VHA enrollees had similar demographic and health characteristics as individuals with Medicaid, Medicare, or private insurance coverage, based on propensity score models. A majority of male VHA enrollees were similar to Medicare beneficiaries suggesting greater generalizability of VHA studies than commonly hypothesized. Overlap declined when comparing with Medicaid enrollees or privately insured individuals, suggesting more limited generalizability of VHA studies to these populations. PMID:26589675

  15. [The HLA system in the Moroccan population: General review].

    PubMed

    Brick, C; Atouf, O; Essakalli, M

    2015-01-01

    The Moroccan population is an interesting study model of Human Leukocyte Antigen (HLA) polymorphism given its ethnic and genetic diversity. Through an analysis of the literature, this work proposes to establish a balance of knowledge for this population in the field of histocompatibility: HLA diversity, anthropology, transplantation and HLA associations and diseases. This analysis shows that the HLA system has not been fully explored within the Moroccan population. However, the results obtained allowed us to initiate a database reflecting the specific healthy Moroccan population HLA polymorphism to identify immigration flows and relationships with different people of the world and to reveal the association of certain HLA alleles with frequent pathologies. We also propose to analyze the reasons hindering the development of this activity in Morocco and we will try to identify some perspectives. PMID:26597780

  16. Cardiometabolic Risk Indicators That Distinguish Adults with Psychosis from the General Population, by Age and Gender

    PubMed Central

    Foley, Debra L.; Mackinnon, Andrew; Watts, Gerald F.; Shaw, Jonathan E.; Magliano, Dianna J.; Castle, David J.; McGrath, John J.; Waterreus, Anna; Morgan, Vera A.; Galletly, Cherrie A.

    2013-01-01

    Individuals with psychosis are more likely than the general community to develop obesity and to die prematurely from heart disease. Interventions to improve cardiovascular outcomes are best targeted at the earliest indicators of risk, at the age they first emerge. We investigated which cardiometabolic risk indicators distinguished those with psychosis from the general population, by age by gender, and whether obesity explained the pattern of observed differences. Data was analyzed from an epidemiologically representative sample of 1,642 Australians with psychosis aged 18–64 years and a national comparator sample of 8,866 controls aged 25–64 years from the general population. Cubic b-splines were used to compare cross sectional age trends by gender for mean waist circumference, body mass index [BMI], blood pressure, fasting blood glucose, triglycerides, LDL, HDL, and total cholesterol in our psychosis and control samples. At age 25 individuals with psychosis had a significantly higher mean BMI, waist circumference, triglycerides, glucose [women only], and diastolic blood pressure and significantly lower HDL-cholesterol than controls. With the exception of triglycerides at age 60+ in men, and glucose in women at various ages, these differences were present at every age. Differences in BMI and waist circumference between samples, although dramatic, could not explain all differences in diastolic blood pressure, HDL-cholesterol or triglycerides but did explain differences in glucose. Psychosis has the hallmarks of insulin resistance by at least age 25. The entire syndrome, not just weight, should be a focus of intervention to reduce mortality from cardiovascular disease. PMID:24367528

  17. Estimating the abundance of clustered animal population by using adaptive cluster sampling and negative binomial distribution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bo, Yizhou; Shifa, Naima

    2013-09-01

    An estimator for finding the abundance of a rare, clustered and mobile population has been introduced. This model is based on adaptive cluster sampling (ACS) to identify the location of the population and negative binomial distribution to estimate the total in each site. To identify the location of the population we consider both sampling with replacement (WR) and sampling without replacement (WOR). Some mathematical properties of the model are also developed.

  18. Extending the alias Monte Carlo sampling method to general distributions

    SciTech Connect

    Edwards, A.L.; Rathkopf, J.A. ); Smidt, R.K. )

    1991-01-07

    The alias method is a Monte Carlo sampling technique that offers significant advantages over more traditional methods. It equals the accuracy of table lookup and the speed of equal probable bins. The original formulation of this method sampled from discrete distributions and was easily extended to histogram distributions. We have extended the method further to applications more germane to Monte Carlo particle transport codes: continuous distributions. This paper presents the alias method as originally derived and our extensions to simple continuous distributions represented by piecewise linear functions. We also present a method to interpolate accurately between distributions tabulated at points other than the point of interest. We present timing studies that demonstrate the method's increased efficiency over table lookup and show further speedup achieved through vectorization. 6 refs., 12 figs., 2 tabs.

  19. Sample-size requirements for evaluating population size structure

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Vokoun, J.C.; Rabeni, C.F.; Stanovick, J.S.

    2001-01-01

    A method with an accompanying computer program is described to estimate the number of individuals needed to construct a sample length-frequency with a given accuracy and precision. First, a reference length-frequency assumed to be accurate for a particular sampling gear and collection strategy was constructed. Bootstrap procedures created length-frequencies with increasing sample size that were randomly chosen from the reference data and then were compared with the reference length-frequency by calculating the mean squared difference. Outputs from two species collected with different gears and an artificial even length-frequency are used to describe the characteristics of the method. The relations between the number of individuals used to construct a length-frequency and the similarity to the reference length-frequency followed a negative exponential distribution and showed the importance of using 300-400 individuals whenever possible.

  20. [Anxiety and depression in the general population: normal values in the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale].

    PubMed

    Hinz, A; Schwarz, R

    2001-05-01

    For the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) psychometric properties were tested and standardised values were calculated on the basis of a representative sample of the German adult population with 2037 persons. The main result was the evidence of age and gender differences for anxiety and depression. Females were more anxious than males. For both dimensions of the HADS a nearly linear age dependency was found which was more pronounced for depression (r = 0.36) than for anxiety (r = 0.14). Standardised values are given for different age and gender groups, and the results of regression analyses are presented. The psychometric properties were satisfying or good, the two-dimensional factorial structure could be replicated. By means of the standardised values and regression coefficients it is now possible to compare patient groups of different age and gender distributions with the general population. PMID:11417357

  1. Generalizing Swendsen-Wang to sampling arbitrary posterior probabilities.

    PubMed

    Barbu, Adrian; Zhu, Song-Chun

    2005-08-01

    Many vision tasks can be formulated as graph partition problems that minimize energy functions. For such problems, the Gibbs sampler provides a general solution but is very slow, while other methods, such as Ncut and graph cuts are computationally effective but only work for specific energy forms and are not generally applicable. In this paper, we present a new inference algorithm that generalizes the Swendsen-Wang method to arbitrary probabilities defined on graph partitions. We begin by computing graph edge weights, based on local image features. Then, the algorithm iterates two steps. 1) Graph clustering: It forms connected components by cutting the edges probabilistically based on their weights. 2) Graph relabeling: It selects one connected component and flips probabilistically, the coloring of all vertices in the component simultaneously. Thus, it realizes the split, merge, and regrouping of a "chunk" of the graph, in contrast to Gibbs sampler that flips a single vertex. We prove that this algorithm simulates ergodic and reversible Markov chain jumps in the space of graph partitions and is applicable to arbitrary posterior probabilities or energy functions defined on graphs. We demonstrate the algorithm on two typical problems in computer vision--image segmentation and stereo vision. Experimentally, we show that it is 100-400 times faster in CPU time than the classical Gibbs sampler and 20-40 times faster then the DDMCMC segmentation algorithm. For stereo, we compare performance with graph cuts and belief propagation. We also show that our algorithm can automatically infer generative models and obtain satisfactory results (better than the graphic cuts or belief propagation) in the same amount of time. PMID:16119263

  2. Two Test Items to Explore High School Students' Beliefs of Sample Size When Sampling from Large Populations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bill, Anthony; Henderson, Sally; Penman, John

    2010-01-01

    Two test items that examined high school students' beliefs of sample size for large populations using the context of opinion polls conducted prior to national and state elections were developed. A trial of the two items with 21 male and 33 female Year 9 students examined their naive understanding of sample size: over half of students chose a…

  3. Stochastic resonance in a generalized Von Foerster population growth model

    SciTech Connect

    Lumi, N.; Mankin, R.

    2014-11-12

    The stochastic dynamics of a population growth model, similar to the Von Foerster model for human population, is studied. The influence of fluctuating environment on the carrying capacity is modeled as a multiplicative dichotomous noise. It is established that an interplay between nonlinearity and environmental fluctuations can cause single unidirectional discontinuous transitions of the mean population size versus the noise amplitude, i.e., an increase of noise amplitude can induce a jump from a state with a moderate number of individuals to that with a very large number, while by decreasing the noise amplitude an opposite transition cannot be effected. An analytical expression of the mean escape time for such transitions is found. Particularly, it is shown that the mean transition time exhibits a strong minimum at intermediate values of noise correlation time, i.e., the phenomenon of stochastic resonance occurs. Applications of the results in ecology are also discussed.

  4. Stochastic resonance in a generalized Von Foerster population growth model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lumi, N.; Mankin, R.

    2014-11-01

    The stochastic dynamics of a population growth model, similar to the Von Foerster model for human population, is studied. The influence of fluctuating environment on the carrying capacity is modeled as a multiplicative dichotomous noise. It is established that an interplay between nonlinearity and environmental fluctuations can cause single unidirectional discontinuous transitions of the mean population size versus the noise amplitude, i.e., an increase of noise amplitude can induce a jump from a state with a moderate number of individuals to that with a very large number, while by decreasing the noise amplitude an opposite transition cannot be effected. An analytical expression of the mean escape time for such transitions is found. Particularly, it is shown that the mean transition time exhibits a strong minimum at intermediate values of noise correlation time, i.e., the phenomenon of stochastic resonance occurs. Applications of the results in ecology are also discussed.

  5. Generalized species sampling priors with latent Beta reinforcements

    PubMed Central

    Airoldi, Edoardo M.; Costa, Thiago; Bassetti, Federico; Leisen, Fabrizio; Guindani, Michele

    2014-01-01

    Many popular Bayesian nonparametric priors can be characterized in terms of exchangeable species sampling sequences. However, in some applications, exchangeability may not be appropriate. We introduce a novel and probabilistically coherent family of non-exchangeable species sampling sequences characterized by a tractable predictive probability function with weights driven by a sequence of independent Beta random variables. We compare their theoretical clustering properties with those of the Dirichlet Process and the two parameters Poisson-Dirichlet process. The proposed construction provides a complete characterization of the joint process, differently from existing work. We then propose the use of such process as prior distribution in a hierarchical Bayes modeling framework, and we describe a Markov Chain Monte Carlo sampler for posterior inference. We evaluate the performance of the prior and the robustness of the resulting inference in a simulation study, providing a comparison with popular Dirichlet Processes mixtures and Hidden Markov Models. Finally, we develop an application to the detection of chromosomal aberrations in breast cancer by leveraging array CGH data. PMID:25870462

  6. What Do the General Population Know, Believe and Feel about Individuals with Autism and Schizophrenia: Results from a Comparative Survey in Denmark

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jensen, Christina Mohr; Martens, Caroline Skat; Nikolajsen, Nanna Dagmar; Skytt Gregersen, Trine; Heckmann Marx, Nanna; Goldberg Frederiksen, Mette; Hansen, Martine Stene

    2016-01-01

    Few studies investigate what members of the general population know about individuals with autism. Only one study has previously investigated how beliefs about autism differ from those about other psychiatric disorders. This study surveyed a convenience sample of the general adult population, within the Northern Region of Denmark, about their…

  7. Samples from subdivided populations yield biased estimates of effective size that overestimate the rate of loss of genetic variation

    PubMed Central

    Ryman, Nils; Allendorf, Fred W; Jorde, Per Erik; Laikre, Linda; Hössjer, Ola

    2014-01-01

    Many empirical studies estimating effective population size apply the temporal method that provides an estimate of the variance effective size through the amount of temporal allele frequency change under the assumption that the study population is completely isolated. This assumption is frequently violated, and the magnitude of the resulting bias is generally unknown. We studied how gene flow affects estimates of effective size obtained by the temporal method when sampling from a population system and provide analytical expressions for the expected estimate under an island model of migration. We show that the temporal method tends to systematically underestimate both local and global effective size when populations are connected by gene flow, and the bias is sometimes dramatic. The problem is particularly likely to occur when sampling from a subdivided population where high levels of gene flow obscure identification of subpopulation boundaries. In such situations, sampling in a manner that prevents biased estimates can be difficult. This phenomenon might partially explain the frequently reported unexpectedly low effective population sizes of marine populations that have raised concern regarding the genetic vulnerability of even exceptionally large populations. PMID:24034449

  8. Modelo de Alfabetizacion: A Poblacion Urbana y Rural. Documento General (Literacy Model: Urban and Rural Populations. General Document).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Instituto Nacional para la Educacion de los Adultos, Mexico City (Mexico).

    This document describes literacy models for urban and rural populations in Mexico. It contains four sections. The first two sections (generalizations about the population and considerations about the teaching of adults) discuss the environment that creates illiterate adults and also describe some of the conditions under which learning takes place…

  9. Environmental Pollution Control: Two Views from the General Population

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Althoff, Phillip; Greig, William H.

    1977-01-01

    Citizens exhibitied concern about pollution, a low level of trust in governmental and industrial efforts, and a low level of dedication to environmental protection. Demands to clean up the environment came from one segment of the population while demands to solve the energy crisis came from other segments. (AJ)

  10. Assessing Methods for Generalizing Experimental Impact Estimates to Target Populations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kern, Holger L.; Stuart, Elizabeth A.; Hill, Jennifer; Green, Donald P.

    2016-01-01

    Randomized experiments are considered the gold standard for causal inference because they can provide unbiased estimates of treatment effects for the experimental participants. However, researchers and policymakers are often interested in using a specific experiment to inform decisions about other target populations. In education research,…

  11. Relation between psychological strain and carotid atherosclerosis in a general population

    PubMed Central

    Wolff, B; Grabe, H J; Völzke, H; Lüdemann, J; Kessler, C; Dahm, J B; Freyberger, H J; John, U; Felix, S B

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the hypothesis that psychological strain is related to carotid atherosclerosis in a large general population sample. Methods: Intima–media thickness and the prevalence of atherosclerotic plaques in the carotid arteries were quantitatively assessed by high resolution ultrasound among 2164 participants (1112 women and 1052 men, aged 45 to 75 years) of the SHIP (study of health in Pomerania), an epidemiological survey of a random sample of the population of north eastern Germany. Psychological strain was measured by 13 items reflecting typical psychological complaints. Each item was graded by the study participants on a four point scale (from 0, absent, to 3, severe) and a psychological strain score was generated by summing these 13 items. Results: Mean psychological strain score was 10.8 (7.0) (median score 10) among women and 8.5 (6.2) (median score 8) among men. Psychological strain did not predict carotid intima–media thickness among either men or women. However, after adjustment for covariates, high psychological strain and carotid plaques were independently and linearly related, with plaque prevalence odds of 1.03 (95% confidence interval (CI) 1.01 to 1.05, p  =  0.009) per increment of the psychological strain score among women and 1.04 (95% CI 1.01 to 1.07, p  =  0.003) among men. Conclusions: This study identified a relation between general psychological strain and carotid atherosclerosis. PMID:15772199

  12. Revictimization of Violence Suffered by Those Diagnosed with Alcohol Dependence in the General Population

    PubMed Central

    Quintana, M. I.; Bressan, R. A.; Mello, M. F.; Andreoli, S. B.

    2015-01-01

    Objective. To verify the association between violence and alcohol dependence syndrome in sample populations. Method. Population-wide survey with multistage probabilistic sample. 3,744 individuals of both genders, aged from 15 to 75 years, were interviewed from the cities of São Paulo and Rio de Janeiro using the Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI 2.1). Results. In both cities, alcohol dependence was associated with the male gender, having suffered violence related to criminality, and having suffered familial violence. In both cities, urban violence, in more than 50% of cases, and familial violence, in more than 90% of cases, preceded alcohol dependence. The reoccurrence of traumatic events occurred in more than half of individuals dependent on alcohol. In São Paulo, having been diagnosed with PTSD is associated with violence revictimization (P = 0.014; Odds = 3.33). Conclusion. Alcohol dependence syndrome is complexly related to urban and familial violence in the general population. Violence frequently precedes alcoholism, but this relationship is dependent on residence and traumatic events. This vicious cycle contributes to perpetuating the high rates of alcoholism and violence in the cities. Politicians ordering the reduction of violence in the large metropolises can, potentially, reduce alcoholism and contribute to the break of this cycle. PMID:26000304

  13. [The female role as assessment of mental health of women within the general population of Cantabria].

    PubMed

    de Santiago Díaz, A; Vázquez Barquero, J L; Díez Manrique, J F

    1994-01-01

    This paper tries to analyse the relationship between traditional feminine role (marriage, motherhood and housing) and mental health in spanish women. The General Health Questionnaire 60-items (GHQ-60) was used to define "cases" in a random sample of the general population of Cantabria consisting of 630 women aged 17 and over. The rate of probable prevalence of psychiatric disorders was 26.4%. In contrast to previous studies, motherhood and traditional feminine role correlated with the lowest GHQ-60 mean scores. Occupational status was not related to mental health. Women living with husband, children, parents and/or parents-in-law scored lower on GHQ-60 than those living with husband and children. These results are discussed in the light of previous findings in the literature. At least, they reconfirm the importance of socio-cultural factors in community psychiatric disorder. PMID:7817849

  14. Excavating past population structures by surname-based sampling: the genetic legacy of the Vikings in northwest England.

    PubMed

    Bowden, Georgina R; Balaresque, Patricia; King, Turi E; Hansen, Ziff; Lee, Andrew C; Pergl-Wilson, Giles; Hurley, Emma; Roberts, Stephen J; Waite, Patrick; Jesch, Judith; Jones, Abigail L; Thomas, Mark G; Harding, Stephen E; Jobling, Mark A

    2008-02-01

    The genetic structures of past human populations are obscured by recent migrations and expansions and have been observed only indirectly by inference from modern samples. However, the unique link between a heritable cultural marker, the patrilineal surname, and a genetic marker, the Y chromosome, provides a means to target sets of modern individuals that might resemble populations at the time of surname establishment. As a test case, we studied samples from the Wirral Peninsula and West Lancashire, in northwest England. Place-names and archaeology show clear evidence of a past Viking presence, but heavy immigration and population growth since the industrial revolution are likely to have weakened the genetic signal of a 1,000-year-old Scandinavian contribution. Samples ascertained on the basis of 2 generations of residence were compared with independent samples based on known ancestry in the region plus the possession of a surname known from historical records to have been present there in medieval times. The Y-chromosomal haplotypes of these 2 sets of samples are significantly different, and in admixture analyses, the surname-ascertained samples show markedly greater Scandinavian ancestry proportions, supporting the idea that northwest England was once heavily populated by Scandinavian settlers. The method of historical surname-based ascertainment promises to allow investigation of the influence of migration and drift over the last few centuries in changing the population structure of Britain and will have general utility in other regions where surnames are patrilineal and suitable historical records survive. PMID:18032405

  15. IMPROVEMENT OF PERFORMANCE OF VARIABLE PROBABILITY SAMPLING STRATEGIES THROUGH APPLICATION OF THE POPULATION SPACE AND THE FACSIMILE POPULATION BOOTSTRAP

    EPA Science Inventory

    Performance of variable probability sampling designs depends on the relation of the response variable, y, to the auxiliary or design variable, x, which was used to select the sample. n particular, the Horvitz-Thompson estimator, a commonly used estimator of the population total i...

  16. Effects of Sample Size on Estimates of Population Growth Rates Calculated with Matrix Models

    PubMed Central

    Fiske, Ian J.; Bruna, Emilio M.; Bolker, Benjamin M.

    2008-01-01

    Background Matrix models are widely used to study the dynamics and demography of populations. An important but overlooked issue is how the number of individuals sampled influences estimates of the population growth rate (λ) calculated with matrix models. Even unbiased estimates of vital rates do not ensure unbiased estimates of λ–Jensen's Inequality implies that even when the estimates of the vital rates are accurate, small sample sizes lead to biased estimates of λ due to increased sampling variance. We investigated if sampling variability and the distribution of sampling effort among size classes lead to biases in estimates of λ. Methodology/Principal Findings Using data from a long-term field study of plant demography, we simulated the effects of sampling variance by drawing vital rates and calculating λ for increasingly larger populations drawn from a total population of 3842 plants. We then compared these estimates of λ with those based on the entire population and calculated the resulting bias. Finally, we conducted a review of the literature to determine the sample sizes typically used when parameterizing matrix models used to study plant demography. Conclusions/Significance We found significant bias at small sample sizes when survival was low (survival = 0.5), and that sampling with a more-realistic inverse J-shaped population structure exacerbated this bias. However our simulations also demonstrate that these biases rapidly become negligible with increasing sample sizes or as survival increases. For many of the sample sizes used in demographic studies, matrix models are probably robust to the biases resulting from sampling variance of vital rates. However, this conclusion may depend on the structure of populations or the distribution of sampling effort in ways that are unexplored. We suggest more intensive sampling of populations when individual survival is low and greater sampling of stages with high elasticities. PMID:18769483

  17. Impact of diabetes mellitus on arterial stiffness in a representative sample of an urban Brazilian population

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Independent of other cardiovascular (CV) risk factors, increased arterial stiffness has been established as a predictor of morbidity and mortality. The main aim of this study was to investigate the impact of diabetes on arterial stiffness in a representative sample of an urban Brazilian population plus Amerindians. Methods A total of 1,415 individuals from the general population were randomly selected plus 588 Amerindians from a native community in Brazil. In addition, a sub-sample of 380 individuals from the general population had 5-year follow-up data. Pulse wave velocity (PWV) was measured with a non-invasive automatic device (Complior, Colson; Garges les Gonesses, France) and increased arterial stiffness was defined as PWV ≥ 12 m/s. Results In the overall group, diabetic individuals had higher frequencies of increased arterial stiffness and hypertension. They also had higher values of PWV, body mass index, total cholesterol, triglycerides, systolic and diastolic blood pressures compared to non-diabetic individuals (p < 0.01). In an analysis stratified by hypertension, PWV values and increased arterial stiffness frequency were higher in diabetic individuals in both groups (hypertensive and non-hypertensive) (p < 0.05). Furthermore, higher risk for increased arterial stiffness was observed in the diabetic individuals from the overall group (OR = 2.27; CI = 1.47-3.52, p < 0.001) and from the hypertensive group (OR = 2.70; CI = 1.58-4.75, p < 0.001), adjusted for covariates. Regarding the ethnic stratification, diabetic individuals from Amerindian, White, and Mulatto (mixed-race) groups had higher PWV values and a greater frequency of increased arterial stiffness compared to non-diabetic individuals. Both diabetic and non-diabetic individuals had higher PWV values after 5 years. There was no significant difference in the 5-year PWV progression in diabetic compared to non-diabetic individuals. Conclusions These

  18. Bootstrapping to Test for Nonzero Population Correlation Coefficients Using Univariate Sampling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beasley, William Howard; DeShea, Lise; Toothaker, Larry E.; Mendoza, Jorge L.; Bard, David E.; Rodgers, Joseph Lee

    2007-01-01

    This article proposes 2 new approaches to test a nonzero population correlation ([rho]): the hypothesis-imposed univariate sampling bootstrap (HI) and the observed-imposed univariate sampling bootstrap (OI). The authors simulated correlated populations with various combinations of normal and skewed variates. With [alpha[subscript "set"

  19. ECOLOGICAL THEORY. A general consumer-resource population model.

    PubMed

    Lafferty, Kevin D; DeLeo, Giulio; Briggs, Cheryl J; Dobson, Andrew P; Gross, Thilo; Kuris, Armand M

    2015-08-21

    Food-web dynamics arise from predator-prey, parasite-host, and herbivore-plant interactions. Models for such interactions include up to three consumer activity states (questing, attacking, consuming) and up to four resource response states (susceptible, exposed, ingested, resistant). Articulating these states into a general model allows for dissecting, comparing, and deriving consumer-resource models. We specify this general model for 11 generic consumer strategies that group mathematically into predators, parasites, and micropredators and then derive conditions for consumer success, including a universal saturating functional response. We further show how to use this framework to create simple models with a common mathematical lineage and transparent assumptions. Underlying assumptions, missing elements, and composite parameters are revealed when classic consumer-resource models are derived from the general model. PMID:26293960

  20. Assessing the Representativeness of Population-Sampled Health Surveys Through Linkage to Administrative Data on Alcohol-Related Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Gorman, Emma; Leyland, Alastair H.; McCartney, Gerry; White, Ian R.; Katikireddi, Srinivasa Vittal; Rutherford, Lisa; Graham, Lesley; Gray, Linsay

    2014-01-01

    Health surveys are an important resource for monitoring population health, but selective nonresponse may impede valid inference. This study aimed to assess nonresponse bias in a population-sampled health survey in Scotland, with a focus on alcohol-related outcomes. Nonresponse bias was assessed by examining whether rates of alcohol-related harm (i.e., hospitalization or death) and all-cause mortality among respondents to the Scottish Health Surveys (from 1995 to 2010) were equivalent to those in the general population, and whether the extent of any bias varied according to sociodemographic attributes or over time. Data from consenting respondents (aged 20–64 years) to 6 Scottish Health Surveys were confidentially linked to death and hospitalization records and compared with general population counterparts. Directly age-standardized incidence rates of alcohol-related harm and all-cause mortality were lower among Scottish Health Survey respondents compared with the general population. For all years combined, the survey-to-population rate ratios were 0.69 (95% confidence interval: 0.61, 0.76) for the incidence of alcohol-related harm and 0.89 (95% confidence interval: 0.83, 0.96) for all-cause mortality. Bias was more pronounced among persons residing in more deprived areas; limited evidence was found for regional or temporal variation. This suggests that corresponding underestimation of population rates of alcohol consumption is likely to be socially patterned. PMID:25227767

  1. Adverse childhood experiences, gender, and HIV risk behaviors: Results from a population-based sample.

    PubMed

    Fang, Lin; Chuang, Deng-Min; Lee, Yookyong

    2016-12-01

    Recent HIV research suggested assessing adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) as contributing factors of HIV risk behaviors. However, studies often focused on a single type of adverse experience and very few utilized population-based data. This population study examined the associations between ACE (individual and cumulative ACE score) and HIV risk behaviors. We analyzed the 2012 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance Survey (BRFSS) from 5 states. The sample consisted of 39,434 adults. Eight types of ACEs that included different types of child abuse and household dysfunctions before the age of 18 were measured. A cumulative score of ACEs was also computed. Logistic regression estimated of the association between ACEs and HIV risk behaviors using odds ratio (OR) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for males and females separately. We found that ACEs were positively associated with HIV risk behaviors overall, but the associations differed between males and females in a few instances. While the cumulative ACE score was associated with HIV risk behaviors in a stepwise manner, the pattern varied by gender. For males, the odds of HIV risk increased at a significant level as long as they experienced one ACE, whereas for females, the odds did not increase until they experienced three or more ACEs. Future research should further investigate the gender-specific associations between ACEs and HIV risk behaviors. As childhood adversities are prevalent among general population, and such experiences are associated with increased risk behaviors for HIV transmission, service providers can benefit from the principles of trauma-informed practice. PMID:27413671

  2. Evaluating Preference Assessments for Use in the General Education Population

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Resetar, Jennifer L.; Noell, George H.

    2008-01-01

    This study compared the effectiveness of a multiple-stimulus-without-replacement (MSWO) preference assessment and teacher preference ranking in identifying reinforcers for use in a general education setting with typically developing elementary-school children. The mean number of digits correctly answered was greater in the MSWO-selected reward and…

  3. Objective Sleep Structure and Cardiovascular Risk Factors in the General Population: The HypnoLaus Study

    PubMed Central

    Haba-Rubio, José; Marques-Vidal, Pedro; Andries, Daniela; Tobback, Nadia; Preisig, Martin; Vollenweider, Peter; Waeber, Gérard; Luca, Gianina; Tafti, Mehdi; Heinzer, Raphaël

    2015-01-01

    Study Objectives: To evaluate the association between objective sleep measures and metabolic syndrome (MS), hypertension, diabetes, and obesity. Design: Cross-sectional study. Setting: General population sample. Participants: There were 2,162 patients (51.2% women, mean age 58.4 ± 11.1). Interventions: Patients were evaluated for hypertension, diabetes, overweight/obesity, and MS, and underwent a full polysomnography (PSG). Measurements and Results: PSG measured variables included: total sleep time (TST), percentage and time spent in slow wave sleep (SWS) and in rapid eye movement (REM) sleep, sleep efficiency and arousal index (ArI). In univariate analyses, MS was associated with decreased TST, SWS, REM sleep, and sleep efficiency, and increased ArI. After adjustment for age, sex, smoking, alcohol, physical activity, drugs that affect sleep and depression, the ArI remained significantly higher, but the difference disappeared in patients without significant sleep disordered breathing (SDB). Differences in sleep structure were also found according to the presence or absence of hypertension, diabetes, and overweight/obesity in univariate analysis. However, these differences were attenuated after multivariate adjustment and after excluding subjects with significant SDB. Conclusions: In this population-based sample we found significant associations between sleep structure and metabolic syndrome (MS), hypertension, diabetes, and obesity. However, these associations were cancelled after multivariate adjustment. We conclude that normal variations in sleep contribute little if any to MS and associated disorders. Citation: Haba-Rubio J, Marques-Vidal P, Andries D, Tobback N, Preisig M, Vollenweider P, Waeber G, Luca G, Tafti M, Heinzer R. Objective sleep structure and cardiovascular risk factors in the general population: the HypnoLaus study. SLEEP 2015;38(3):391–400. PMID:25325467

  4. EQ-5D-5L in the General German Population: Comparison and Evaluation of Three Yearly Cross-Section Surveys

    PubMed Central

    Huber, Manuel B.; Reitmeir, Peter; Vogelmann, Martin; Leidl, Reiner

    2016-01-01

    Health-related quality of life (HRQoL) is a key measure for evaluating health status in populations. Using the recent EQ-5D-5L for measurement, this study analyzed quality of life results and their stability over consecutive population surveys. Three cross-section surveys for representative samples of the general German population from 2012, 2013, and 2014 were evaluated using the EQ-5D-5L descriptive system and valuation by the Visual Analog Scale (VAS). Aggregated sample size reached 6074. The dimension with the highest prevalence of problems was pain/discomfort (31.7%). Compared with 2012 (59.3%), the percentage of participants in the best health state increased slightly in 2013 (63.4%) and 2014 (62%). Over the 3-year period, diabetes and heart disease had the strongest negative influence on mean VAS result. The number of reported chronic diseases cumulatively reduced mean VAS. Extreme problems in one or more dimensions were stated by only 0.1%–0.2% of patients. Of the potential 247 health states with a problem score ≥20, only six were observed in the aggregated sample. HRQoL results were fairly stable over the 3 years, but the share of the population with no problems was not. Results from the aggregated sample may serve as updated reference values for the general German population. PMID:27007387

  5. Correlates of Peripheral Blood Mitochondrial DNA Content in a General Population

    PubMed Central

    Knez, Judita; Winckelmans, Ellen; Plusquin, Michelle; Thijs, Lutgarde; Cauwenberghs, Nicholas; Gu, Yumei; Staessen, Jan A.; Nawrot, Tim S.; Kuznetsova, Tatiana

    2016-01-01

    Accumulation of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) mutations leads to alterations of mitochondrial biogenesis and function that might produce a decrease in mtDNA content within cells. This implies that mtDNA content might be a potential biomarker associated with oxidative stress and inflammation. However, data on correlates of mtDNA content in a general population are sparse. Our goal in the present study was to describe in a randomly recruited population sample the distribution and determinants of peripheral blood mtDNA content. From 2009 to 2013, we examined 689 persons (50.4% women; mean age = 54.4 years) randomly selected from a Flemish population (Flemish Study on Environment, Genes, and Health Outcomes). Relative mtDNA copy number as compared with nuclear DNA was measured by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction in peripheral blood. There was a curvilinear relationship between relative mtDNA copy number and age. mtDNA content slightly increased until the fifth decade of life and declined in older subjects (Page2 = 0.0002). mtDNA content was significantly higher in women (P = 0.007) and increased with platelet count (P < 0.0001), whereas it was inversely associated with white blood cell count (P < 0.0001). We also observed lower mtDNA content in women using estroprogestogens (P = 0.044). This study demonstrated in a general population that peripheral blood mtDNA content is significantly associated with sex and age. Blood mtDNA content is also influenced by platelet and white blood cell counts and estroprogestogen intake. Further studies are required to clarify the impact of chronic inflammation and hormone therapy on mitochondrial function. PMID:26702630

  6. Nightmares: Prevalence among the Finnish General Adult Population and War Veterans during 1972-2007

    PubMed Central

    Sandman, Nils; Valli, Katja; Kronholm, Erkki; Ollila, Hanna M.; Revonsuo, Antti; Laatikainen, Tiina; Paunio, Tiina

    2013-01-01

    Study Objectives: To investigate the prevalence of nightmares among the Finnish general adult population during 1972-2007 and the association between nightmare prevalence and symptoms of insomnia, depression, and anxiety in World War II veterans. Design: Eight independent cross-sectional population surveys of the National FINRISK Study conducted in Finland in 1972, 1977, 1982, 1987, 1992, 1997, 2002, and 2007. Setting: Epidemiologic. Participants: A total of 69,813 people (33,811 men and 36,002 women) age 25-74 years. Interventions: N/A. Measurements and Results: The investigation of nightmare prevalence and insomnia, depression, and anxiety symptoms was based on questionnaires completed by the participants. Among the whole sample, 3.5% of the men and 4.8% of the women reported frequent nightmares (P < 0.0001 for sex difference), but the prevalence was affected by the age of participants and the year of the survey. Nightmare prevalence increased with age, particularly among the men. The number of people reporting occasional nightmares increased roughly by 20% for both sexes from 1972 to 2007 (P < 0.0001). Participants with war experiences reported more frequent nightmares and symptoms of insomnia, depression, and anxiety than participants without such experiences (P < 0.0001). Conclusions: Prevalence of nightmares was affected by the sex and age of the participants, and occasional nightmares have become more common in Finland. Exposure to war elevates nightmare prevalence as well as insomnia, depression, and anxiety symptoms even decades after the war; large numbers of war veterans can affect nightmare prevalence on population level. Citation: Sandman N; Valli K; Kronholm E; Ollila HM; Revonsuo A; Laatikainen T; Paunio T. Nightmares: prevalence among the Finnish general adult population and war veterans during 1972-2007. SLEEP 2013;36(7):1041-1050. PMID:23814341

  7. The Relationship between General Population Suicide Rates and the Internet: A Cross-National Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shah, Ajit

    2010-01-01

    Internet Web sites and chat rooms have been reported both to promote suicides and have a positive beneficial effect on suicidal individuals. There is a paucity of studies examining the role of the Internet in general population suicide rates. The relationship between general population suicide rates and the prevalence of Internet users was…

  8. Are Autistic Traits in the General Population Related to Global and Regional Brain Differences?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koolschijn, P. Cédric M. P.; Geurts, Hilde M.; van der Leij, Andries R.; Scholte, H. Steven

    2015-01-01

    There is accumulating evidence that autistic-related traits in the general population lie on a continuum, with autism spectrum disorders representing the extreme end of this distribution. Here, we tested the hypothesis of a possible relationship between autistic traits and brain morphometry in the general population. Participants completed the…

  9. Intimate Partner Violence among General and Urban Poor Populations in Kathmandu, Nepal

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oshiro, Azusa; Poudyal, Amod K.; Poudel, Krishna C.; Jimba, Masamine; Hokama, Tomiko

    2011-01-01

    Comparative studies are lacking on intimate partner violence (IPV) between urban poor and general populations. The objective of this study is to identify the prevalence and risk factors of physical IPV among the general and poor populations in urban Nepal. A cross-sectional study was conducted by structured questionnaire interview. Participants…

  10. The Prospective and Retrospective Memory Questionnaire: a population-based random sampling study.

    PubMed

    Piauilino, D C; Bueno, O F A; Tufik, S; Bittencourt, L R; Santos-Silva, R; Hachul, H; Gorenstein, C; Pompéia, S

    2010-05-01

    The Prospective and Retrospective Memory Questionnaire (PRMQ) has been shown to have acceptable reliability and factorial, predictive, and concurrent validity. However, the PRMQ has never been administered to a probability sample survey representative of all ages in adulthood, nor have previous studies controlled for factors that are known to influence metamemory, such as affective status. Here, the PRMQ was applied in a survey adopting a probabilistic three-stage cluster sample representative of the population of Sao Paulo, Brazil, according to gender, age (20-80 years), and economic status (n=1042). After excluding participants who had conditions that impair memory (depression, anxiety, used psychotropics, and/or had neurological/psychiatric disorders), in the remaining 664 individuals we (a) used confirmatory factor analyses to test competing models of the latent structure of the PRMQ, and (b) studied effects of gender, age, schooling, and economic status on prospective and retrospective memory complaints. The model with the best fit confirmed the same tripartite structure (general memory factor and two orthogonal prospective and retrospective memory factors) previously reported. Women complained more of general memory slips, especially those in the first 5 years after menopause, and there were more complaints of prospective than retrospective memory, except in participants with lower family income. PMID:20408038

  11. Correlates of Weight Instability across the Lifespan in a Population-Based Sample

    PubMed Central

    Serdar, Kasey L.; Mazzeo, Suzanne E.; Mitchell, Karen S.; Aggen, Steven H.; Kendler, Kenneth S.; Bulik, Cynthia M.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Research from overweight/obese clinical samples links weight instability to poor health. This study investigated whether negative health outcomes were associated with weight instability in a population-based sample. Method One thousand five hundred ten women and 1,111 men from the Mid-Atlantic Twin Registry completed questionnaires assessing demographics, body size in childhood, adolescence, and adulthood, health satisfaction, and disordered eating. Noneating disorder psychiatric diagnoses were assessed via clinical interviews. Results Weight instability was related to lower health satisfaction and self-esteem, and higher body dissatisfaction, dieting, and binge eating for both sexes. Weight unstable women were more likely to meet criteria for lifetime major depressive disorder, generalized anxiety disorder, and eating disorders. Weight stable women were more likely to abuse alcohol; however, two of these associations [e.g. weight instability and generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) and weight stability and alcohol abuse] became non-significant once lifetime binge eating was accounted for, indicating that these forms of psychopathology are more strongly related to binge eating than weight instability itself. No associations between weight stability and psychiatric diagnoses were found in men. Discussion Weight instability is related to mental and physical health concerns for both sexes. It was also specifically associated with depression and eating pathology in women. PMID:20957706

  12. Asthma, airflow limitation, and mortality risk in the general population

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Shuang; Vasquez, Monica M; Halonen, Marilyn; Martinez, Fernando D; Guerra, Stefano

    2015-01-01

    Asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease co-exist in a significant proportion of patients. Whether asthma increases mortality risk among subjects with airflow limitation remains controversial. We used data from 2121 adult participants in the population-based TESAOD cohort. At enrollment (1972–73), participants completed questionnaires and lung function tests. Participants were categorized into four groups based on the combination of airflow limitation (AL: FEV1/FVC<70%) and physician-confirmed asthma at baseline. Vital status as of January 2011 was assessed through the National Death Index. Cox proportional hazards models were used to test differences in mortality risk across the four AL/Asthma groups. In multivariate Cox models, the AL+/Asthma+ group had a 114% increased mortality risk over the follow-up as compared with the AL-/Asthma- group (adjHR: 2.14, 1.64–2.79). The corresponding Hazard Ratios were 1.09 (0.89–1.34) and 1.34 (1.14–1.57) for the AL-/Asthma+ and AL+/Asthma- groups, respectively. Among subjects with AL, asthma was associated with increased mortality risk (1.58, 1.17–2.12). However, this increased risk was substantially reduced and no longer significant after further adjustment for baseline FEV1 levels. Similar results were obtained when AL was defined as FEV1/FVCpopulation-based cohort subjects with concomitant AL and asthma had an increased risk of dying, which was mainly related to their baseline lung function deficits. PMID:25323227

  13. Celebrity Suicides and Their Differential Influence on Suicides in the General Population: A National Population-Based Study in Korea

    PubMed Central

    Myung, Woojae; Won, Hong-Hee; Fava, Maurizio; Mischoulon, David; Yeung, Albert; Lee, Dongsoo; Kim, Doh Kwan

    2015-01-01

    Objective Although evidence suggests that there is an increase in suicide rates in the general population following celebrity suicide, the rates are heterogeneous across celebrities and countries. It is unclear which is the more vulnerable population according to the effect sizes of celebrity suicides to general population. Methods All suicide victims in the general population verified by the Korea National Statistical Office and suicides of celebrity in South Korea were included for 7 years from 2005 to 2011. Effect sizes were estimated by comparing rates of suicide in the population one month before and after each celebrity suicide. The associations between suicide victims and celebrities were examined. Results Among 94,845 suicide victims, 17,209 completed suicide within one month after 13 celebrity suicides. Multivariate logistic regression analyses revealed that suicide victims who died after celebrity suicide were significantly likely to be of age 20-39, female, and to die by hanging. These qualities were more strongly associated among those who followed celebrity suicide with intermediate and high effect sizes than lower. Younger suicide victims were significantly associated with higher effect size, female gender, white collar employment, unmarried status, higher education, death by hanging, and night-time death. Characteristics of celebrities were significantly associated with those of general population in hanging method and gender. Conclusion Individuals who commit suicide after a celebrity suicide are likely to be younger, female, and prefer hanging as method of suicide, which are more strongly associated in higher effect sizes of celebrity suicide. PMID:25866521

  14. Chemical abundances in LMC stellar populations. II. The bar sample

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Van der Swaelmen, M.; Hill, V.; Primas, F.; Cole, A. A.

    2013-12-01

    favour of an episode of enhanced star formation a few Gyr ago, occurring in the central parts of the LMC and leading to the formation of the bar. This is in agreement with recently derived star formation histories. Proposals 072.B-0293(B) and 078.B-0323(A), P.I. Vanessa Hill.Full Tables 3, 5, 7, 9, 11 and abundances tables for the LMC bar and disc samples are only available in electronic form at the CDS via anonymous ftp to http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (ftp://130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/560/A44Table 11 is also available in electronic form at http://www.aanda.org

  15. Evaluating preference assessments for use in the general education population.

    PubMed

    Resetar, Jennifer L; Noell, George H

    2008-01-01

    This study compared the effectiveness of a multiple-stimulus-without-replacement (MSWO) preference assessment and teacher preference ranking in identifying reinforcers for use in a general education setting with typically developing elementary-school children. The mean number of digits correctly answered was greater in the MSWO-selected reward and the teacher-selected reward conditions relative to the no-reward condition for 2 of the 4 participants, but there were no differences between the MSWO-selected and teacher-selected reward conditions for any participant. PMID:18816985

  16. Evaluating Preference Assessments for Use in the General Education Population

    PubMed Central

    Resetar, Jennifer L; Noell, George H

    2008-01-01

    This study compared the effectiveness of a multiple-stimulus-without-replacement (MSWO) preference assessment and teacher preference ranking in identifying reinforcers for use in a general education setting with typically developing elementary-school children. The mean number of digits correctly answered was greater in the MSWO-selected reward and the teacher-selected reward conditions relative to the no-reward condition for 2 of the 4 participants, but there were no differences between the MSWO-selected and teacher-selected reward conditions for any participant. PMID:18816985

  17. Predicting acute maxillary sinusitis in a general practice population.

    PubMed Central

    Hansen, J. G.; Schmidt, H.; Rosborg, J.; Lund, E.

    1995-01-01

    OBJECTIVE--To evaluate the diagnostic value of symptoms, signs, erythrocyte sedimentation rate, and C reactive protein for acute maxillary sinusitis. DESIGN--Prospective cohort study. SETTING--Danish general practice in cooperation with the otorhinolaryngology and neuroradiology department at Aalborg County Hospital. SUBJECTS--174 patients aged 18-65 years who were suspected by the general practitioner of having acute maxillary sinusitis. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE--The independent association of symptoms, signs, erythrocyte sedimentation rate, and concentration of C reactive protein in patients with acute maxillary sinusitis defined as purulent or mucopurulent antral aspirate. RESULTS--Only raised erythrocyte sedimentation rate (P = 0.01) and raised C reactive protein (P = 0.007) were found to be independently associated with a diagnosis of acute maxillary sinusitis. The combination of the two variables had a sensitivity of 0.82 and a specificity of 0.57. CONCLUSION--Erythrocyte sedimentation rate and C reactive protein are useful diagnostic criteria for acute maxillary sinusitis. PMID:7627042

  18. The Role of Self-Compassion in Buffering Symptoms of Depression in the General Population

    PubMed Central

    Körner, Annett; Coroiu, Adina; Copeland, Laura; Gomez-Garibello, Carlos; Albani, Cornelia; Zenger, Markus; Brähler, Elmar

    2015-01-01

    Self-compassion, typically operationalized as the total score of the Self-Compassion Scale (SCS; Neff, 2003b), has been shown to be related to increased psychological well-being and lower depression in students of the social sciences, users of psychology websites and psychotherapy patients. The current study builds on the existing literature by examining the link between self-compassion and depressive symptomatology in a sample representative of the German general population (n = 2,404). The SCS subscales of self-judgment, isolation, and over-identification, and the “self-coldness”, composite score, which encompass these three negative subscales, consistently differed between subsamples of individuals without any depressive symptoms, with any depressive syndromes, and with major depressive disorder. The contribution of the positive SCS subscales of self-kindness, common humanity, and mindfulness to the variance in depressive symptomatology was almost negligible. However, when combined to a “self-compassion composite”, the positive SCS subscales significantly moderated the relationship between “self-coldness” and depressive symptoms in the general population. This speaks for self-compassion having the potential to buffer self-coldness related to depression—providing an argument for interventions that foster self-caring, kind, and forgiving attitudes towards oneself. PMID:26430893

  19. Increased condom use without other major changes in sexual behavior among the general population in Switzerland.

    PubMed Central

    Dubois-Arber, F; Jeannin, A; Konings, E; Paccaud, F

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: This study is part of a continuous evaluation of the Swiss AIDS prevention strategy from 1987 through 1994. METHODS: Annual telephone surveys of samples representative of the general population aged 17 through 45 years have been conducted since 1987 to monitor behavioral change. RESULTS: No major changes in level of sexual activity (lifetime number of partners, frequency of sexual encounters in the past week) or potential exposure to risk of HIV transmission (acquisition of a new steady partner during the year or of casual partners in the last 6 months) were observed. Systematic condom use with a new steady partner increased between 1988 and 1994, from 40% to 64% among 17- to 30-year-olds and from 57% to 72% among those aged 31 to 45. Systematic condom use with casual partners increased from 8% to 56% between 1987 and 1994 among 17- to 30-year-olds and from 22% to 42% between 1989 and 1994 among those aged 31 to 45. Condom use was higher among those with multiple partners. CONCLUSIONS: A general-population approach to AIDS prevention was able to achieve large-scale improvements in condom-based protection against HIV infection without inducing other major changes in sexual behavior. PMID:9146432

  20. The Role of Self-Compassion in Buffering Symptoms of Depression in the General Population.

    PubMed

    Körner, Annett; Coroiu, Adina; Copeland, Laura; Gomez-Garibello, Carlos; Albani, Cornelia; Zenger, Markus; Brähler, Elmar

    2015-01-01

    Self-compassion, typically operationalized as the total score of the Self-Compassion Scale (SCS; Neff, 2003b), has been shown to be related to increased psychological well-being and lower depression in students of the social sciences, users of psychology websites and psychotherapy patients. The current study builds on the existing literature by examining the link between self-compassion and depressive symptomatology in a sample representative of the German general population (n = 2,404). The SCS subscales of self-judgment, isolation, and over-identification, and the "self-coldness", composite score, which encompass these three negative subscales, consistently differed between subsamples of individuals without any depressive symptoms, with any depressive syndromes, and with major depressive disorder. The contribution of the positive SCS subscales of self-kindness, common humanity, and mindfulness to the variance in depressive symptomatology was almost negligible. However, when combined to a "self-compassion composite", the positive SCS subscales significantly moderated the relationship between "self-coldness" and depressive symptoms in the general population. This speaks for self-compassion having the potential to buffer self-coldness related to depression--providing an argument for interventions that foster self-caring, kind, and forgiving attitudes towards oneself. PMID:26430893

  1. Multiple Biomarkers and Atrial Fibrillation in the General Population

    PubMed Central

    Schnabel, Renate B.; Wild, Philipp S.; Wilde, Sandra; Ojeda, Francisco M.; Schulz, Andreas; Zeller, Tanja; Sinning, Christoph R.; Kunde, Jan; Lackner, Karl J.

    2014-01-01

    Background Different biological pathways have been related to atrial fibrillation (AF). Novel biomarkers capturing inflammation, oxidative stress, and neurohumoral activation have not been investigated comprehensively in AF. Methods and Results In the population-based Gutenberg Health Study (n = 5000), mean age 56±11 years, 51% males, we measured ten biomarkers representing inflammation (C-reactive protein, fibrinogen), cardiac and vascular function (midregional pro adrenomedullin [MR-proADM], midregional pro atrial natriuretic peptide [MR-proANP], N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide [Nt-proBNP], sensitive troponin I ultra [TnI ultra], copeptin, and C-terminal pro endothelin-1), and oxidative stress (glutathioneperoxidase-1, myeloperoxidase) in relation to manifest AF (n = 161 cases). Individuals with AF were older, mean age 64.9±8.3, and more often males, 71.4%. In Bonferroni-adjusted multivariable regression analyses strongest associations per standard deviation increase in biomarker concentrations were observed for the natriuretic peptides Nt-proBNP (odds ratio [OR] 2.89, 99.5% confidence interval [CI] 2.14–3.90; P<0.0001), MR-proANP (OR 2.45, 99.5% CI 1.91–3.14; P<0.0001), the vascular function marker MR-proADM (OR 1.54, 99.5% CI 1.20–1.99; P<0.0001), TnI ultra (OR 1.50, 99.5% CI 1.19–1.90; P<0.0001) and. fibrinogen (OR 1.44, 99.5% CI 1.19–1.75; P<0.0001). Based on a model comprising known clinical risk factors for AF, all biomarkers combined resulted in a net reclassification improvement of 0.665 (99.3% CI 0.441–0.888) and an integrated discrimination improvement of >13%. Conclusions In conclusion, in our large, population-based study, we identified novel biomarkers reflecting vascular function, MR-proADM, inflammation, and myocardial damage, TnI ultra, as related to AF; the strong association of natriuretic peptides was confirmed. Prospective studies need to examine whether risk prediction of AF can be enhanced beyond clinical risk

  2. Vitamin D status and hypercholesterolemia in Spanish general population.

    PubMed

    Cutillas-Marco, Eugenia; Prosper, Amparo Fuertes; Grant, William B; Morales-Suárez-Varela, María M

    2013-06-01

    Low serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] levels have been associated with increased prevalence of cardiovascular diseases. A possible relation between lipids and 25(OH)D might explain this association. This investigation aimed to determine the association between vitamin D and cholesterol, as well as the influence of statins on this association. This was a cross-sectional population-based study with 177 subjects aged 18-84 years. We collected demographics and data on sun exposure, sun protection habits, current medication including lipid-lowering drugs, and estimated vitamin D intake. Serum measurements included levels of 25(OH)D, parathyroid hormone (PTH), calcium, phosphorus, total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol, triglycerides, and fasting glucose. The mean 25(OH)D level was 24 ± 9 ng/ml. Young age (P = 0.04) and spending more than 1 h outdoors (P = 0.04) were independently associated with higher 25(OH)D levels. The 25(OH)D concentrations correlated negatively with total cholesterol (P = 0.01) and LDL cholesterol (P = 0.04) levels. The adjusted OR for total cholesterol > 200 mg/ml was 2.8 (range, 1.1-7.5). Receiving statins was associated with higher 25(OH)D levels (P = 0.04). In conclusion, this study supports an association between 25(OH)D levels and cholesterol. Further studies are required to explain this association. PMID:24516690

  3. Using Temporal Sampling to Improve Attribution of Source Populations for Invasive Species

    PubMed Central

    Goldstien, Sharyn J.; Inglis, Graeme J.; Schiel, David R.; Gemmell, Neil J.

    2013-01-01

    Numerous studies have applied genetic tools to the identification of source populations and transport pathways for invasive species. However, there are many gaps in the knowledge obtained from such studies because comprehensive and meaningful spatial sampling to meet these goals is difficult to achieve. Sampling populations as they arrive at the border should fill the gaps in source population identification, but such an advance has not yet been achieved with genetic data. Here we use previously acquired genetic data to assign new incursions as they invade populations within New Zealand ports and marinas. We also investigated allelelic frequency change in these recently established populations over a two-year period, and assessed the effect of temporal genetic sampling on our ability to assign new incursions to their population of source. We observed shifts in the allele frequencies among populations, as well as the complete loss of some alleles and the addition of alleles novel to New Zealand, within these recently established populations. There was no significant level of genetic differentiation observed in our samples between years, and the use of these temporal data did alter the assignment probability of new incursions. Our study further suggests that new incursions can add genetic variation to the population in a single introduction event as the founders themselves are often more genetically diverse than theory initially predicted. PMID:23755264

  4. Psychometric properties of a Spanish version of the Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI) in general population.

    PubMed

    Magán, Inés; Sanz, Jesús; García-Vera, María Paz

    2008-11-01

    This is the first study that provides normative, reliability, factor validity and discriminant validity data of the Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI; Beck, Epstein, Brown, & Steer, 1988) in the Spanish general population, Sanz and Navarro's (2003) Spanish version of the BAI was administered to 249 adults. Factor analyses suggested that the BAI taps a general anxiety dimension comprising two related factors (somatic and affective-cognitive symptoms), but these factors hardly explained any additional variance and, therefore, little information is lost in considering only full-scale scores. Internal consistency estimate for the BAI was high (alpha = .93). The BAI was correlated .63 with the BDI-II and .32 with the Trait-Anger scale of the STAXI 2, but a factor analysis of their items revealed three factors, suggesting that the correlations between the instruments may be better accounted for by relationships between anxiety, depression, and anger, than by problems of discriminant validity. The mean BAI total score and the distribution of BAI scores were similar to those found in other countries. BAI norm scores for the community sample were provided from the total sample and from the male and female subsamples, as females scored higher than males. The utility of these scores for assessing clinical significance of treatment outcomes for anxiety is discussed. PMID:18988448

  5. Comparison of General Population, Patient, and Carer Utility Values for Dementia Health States

    PubMed Central

    Mulhern, Brendan; Banerjee, Sube; Tait, Rhian; Watchurst, Caroline; Smith, Sarah C.; Young, Tracey A.; Knapp, Martin; Brazier, John E.

    2015-01-01

    Utility values to estimate quality-adjusted life years (QALYs) for use in cost-utility analyses are usually elicited from members of the general population. Public attitudes and understanding of dementia in particular may mean that values elicited from the general population may differ from patients and carers for dementia health states. This study examines how the population impacts utility values elicited for dementia health states using interviewer-administered time tradeoff valuation of health states defined by the dementia-specific preference-based measures DEMQOL-U (patient-report) and DEMQOL-Proxy-U (carer-report). Eight DEMQOL-U states were valued by 78 members of the UK general population and 71 patients with dementia of mild severity. Eight DEMQOL-Proxy-U states were valued by 77 members of the UK general population and 71 carers of patients with dementia of mild severity. Random-effects generalized least squares regression estimated the impact of population, dementia health state, and respondent sociodemographic characteristics on elicited values, finding that values for dementia health states differed by population and that the difference varied across dementia health states. Patients with dementia and carers of patients with dementia gave systematically lower values than members of the general population that were not due to differences in the sociodemographic characteristics of the populations. Our results suggest that the population used to produce dementia health state values could impact the results of cost-utility analyses and potentially affect resource allocation decisions; yet, currently, only general population values are available for usage. PMID:25385749

  6. Epidemiology and genetics of common mental disorders in the general population: the PEGASUS-Murcia project

    PubMed Central

    Navarro-Mateu, Fernando; Tormo, MJ; Vilagut, G; Alonso, J; Ruíz-Merino, G; Escámez, T; Salmerón, D; Júdez, J; Martínez, S; Navarro, C

    2013-01-01

    Background Multidisciplinary collaboration between clinicians, epidemiologists, neurogeneticists and statisticians on research projects has been encouraged to improve our knowledge of the complex mechanisms underlying the aetiology and burden of mental disorders. The PEGASUS-Murcia (Psychiatric Enquiry to General Population in Southeast Spain-Murcia) project was designed to assess the prevalence of common mental disorders and to identify the risk and protective factors, and it also included the collection of biological samples to study the gene–environmental interactions in the context of the World Mental Health Survey Initiative. Methods and analysis The PEGASUS-Murcia project is a new cross-sectional face-to-face interview survey based on a representative sample of non-institutionalised adults in the Region of Murcia (Mediterranean Southeast, Spain). Trained lay interviewers used the latest version of the computer-assisted personal interview of the Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI 3.0) for use in Spain, specifically adapted for the project. Two biological samples of buccal mucosal epithelium will be collected from each interviewed participant, one for DNA extraction for genomic and epigenomic analyses and the other to obtain mRNA for gene expression quantification. Several quality control procedures will be implemented to assure the highest reliability and validity of the data. This article describes the rationale, sampling methods and questionnaire content as well as the laboratory methodology. Ethics and dissemination Informed consent will be obtained from all participants and a Regional Ethics Research Committee has approved the protocol. Results will be disseminated in peer-reviewed publications and presented at the national and the international conferences. Discussion Cross-sectional studies, which combine detailed personal information with biological data, offer new and exciting opportunities to study the gene

  7. TECHNICAL REPORT ON STANDARDIZATION OF THE GENERAL APTITUDE TEST BATTERY, GENERAL WORKING POPULATION NORMS STUDY FOR PUERTO RICO.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bureau of Employment Security (DOL), Washington, DC.

    THE POSSIBILITY OF PREDICTIVE ERROR WHEN APPLYING U.S. MAINLAND NORMS FOR THE GENERAL APTITUDE TEST BATTERY TO THE EMPLOYMENT COUNSELING AND SELECTION PROCESS IN PUERTO RICO, PROMPTED A STUDY TO ESTABLISH LOCAL NORMS FOR THE SPANISH LANGUAGE VERSION, BATERIA GENERAL DE PRUEBAS DE APTITUD. A STRATIFIED QUOTA SAMPLE OF 1,500 PERSONS WAS SELECTED…

  8. Assessment of occupational exposures in a general population: comparison of different methods

    PubMed Central

    Tielemans, E.; Heederik, D.; Burdorf, A.; Vermeulen, R.; Veulemans, H.; Kromhout, H.; Hartog, K.

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the relative merits of job specific questionnaires and various alternative assessment methods of occupational exposures often used in general population studies. METHODS: Subjects were participants in a hospital based case-control study of risk factors for male infertility. Estimates of exposure to organic solvents and chromium, based on job specific questionnaires, generic questionnaires, self reports of exposure, an external job exposure matrix (JEM), and a population specific JEM were compared with passive diffuse dosimeter results and measurements in urine. Urine samples from the end of the shift were analysed for metabolites of toluene, xylene, several glycol ethers, trichloroethylene, and chromium. Passive dosimeter date, metabolites of specific solvents, and urinary chromium concentrations were available for 89, 267, and 156 subjects, respectively. The alternative methods and measurements in urine were compared by means of the Cohen's kappa statistic and by computing the positive predictive value, sensitivity, and specificity of the alternative methods against measurements in urine. RESULTS: Passive dosimeter results indicated that exposure classifications with job specific questionnaire information could discriminate between high and low exposures. The kappa coefficients were < 0.4, so agreement between the various methods and measurements in urine was poor. Sensitivity of the methods ranged from 0.21 to 0.85, whereas specificity ranged from 0.34 to 0.94. Positive predictive values ranged from 0.19 to 0.58, with the highest values for job specific questionnaires. CONCLUSIONS: The results indicate that the implementation of job specific questionnaires in a general population study might be worth the extra expense it entails, bearing in mind the paramount importance of avoiding false positive exposure estimates when exposure prevalence is low.   PMID:10448321

  9. Altered self-perception in adult survivors treated for a CNS tumor in childhood or adolescence: population-based outcomes compared with the general population

    PubMed Central

    Hörnquist, Lina; Rickardsson, Jenny; Lannering, Birgitta; Gustafsson, Göran; Boman, Krister K.

    2015-01-01

    Background Survivors of pediatric CNS tumors are at risk for persistent tumor/treatment-related morbidity, physical disability and social consequences that may alter self-perception, vital for self-identity, mental health and quality of survival. We studied the long-term impact of childhood CNS tumors and their treatment on the self-perception of adult survivors and compared outcomes with those of the general population. Methods The cohort included 697 Swedish survivors diagnosed with a primary CNS tumor during 1982–2001. Comparison data were randomly collected from a stratified general population sample. Survivors and general population individuals were compared as regards self-perception in 5 domains: body image, sports/physical activities, peers, work, and family, and with a global self-esteem index. Within the survivor group, determinants of impact on self-perception were identified. Results The final analyzed sample included 528 survivors, 75.8% of the entire national cohort. The control sample consisted of 995, 41% of 2500 addressed. Survivors had significantly poorer self-perception outcomes in domains of peers, work, body image, and sports/physical activities, and in the global self-perception measure, compared with those of the general population (all P < .001). Within the survivor group, female gender and persistent visible physical sequelae predicted poorer outcomes in several of the studied domains. Tumor type and a history of cranial radiation therapy were associated with outcomes. Conclusion An altered self-perception is a potential late effect in adult survivors of pediatric CNS tumors. Self-perception and self-esteem are significant elements of identity, mental health and quality of survival. Therefore, care and psychosocial follow-up of survivors should include measures for identifying disturbances and for assessing the need for psychosocial intervention. PMID:25332406

  10. Soluble receptor for advanced glycation end products and increased aortic stiffness in the general population.

    PubMed

    Mayer, Otto; Seidlerová, Jitka; Filipovský, Jan; Vágovičová, Petra; Wohlfahrt, Peter; Cífková, Renata; Windrichová, Jindra; Topolčan, Ondřej

    2016-04-01

    It has been suggested that accumulation of advanced glycation end products (AGEs) is involved in several pathophysiological processes in the vessel wall. We hypothesized that low levels of the soluble receptor for AGEs (sRAGE) might be associated with increased arterial stiffness, a manifestation of vascular ageing in the general population. Using a cross-sectional design, we analyzed 1077 subjects from the Czech post-MONICA study. The aortic pulse wave velocity (aPWV) was measured using a Sphygmocor device. sRAGE concentrations were assessed in frozen samples using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay methods (R&D Systems). aPWV significantly (P<0.0001) increased across the sRAGE quartiles. An aPWV of 1 m s(-1) was associated with a 37% increase in the risk of low sRAGE (<918 pg ml(-1), bottom quartile; P-value=0.018). In a categorized manner, subjects in the bottom sRAGE quartile had an odds ratio of an increased aPWV (⩾9.3 m s(-1)), adjusted for all potential confounders of 2.05 (95% confidence interval: 1.26-3.32; P=0.004), but this was only the case for non-diabetic hypertensive patients. In contrast, a low sRAGE was rejected as an independent predictor of an increased aPWV in normotensive or diabetic subjects using similar regression models. In conclusion, low circulating sRAGE was independently associated with increased arterial stiffness in a general population-based sample, but this was only observed in hypertensive non-diabetic patients. PMID:26631850

  11. Prevalence and comorbidity of nocturnal wandering in the US adult general population

    PubMed Central

    Mahowald, M.W.; Dauvilliers, Y.; Krystal, A.D.; Léger, D.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To assess the prevalence and comorbid conditions of nocturnal wandering with abnormal state of consciousness (NW) in the American general population. Methods: Cross-sectional study conducted with a representative sample of 19,136 noninstitutionalized individuals of the US general population ≥18 years old. The Sleep-EVAL expert system administered questions on life and sleeping habits; health; and sleep, mental, and organic disorders (DSM-IV-TR; International Classification of Sleep Disorders, version 2; International Classification of Diseases–10). Results: Lifetime prevalence of NW was 29.2% (95% confidence interval [CI] 28.5%–29.9%). In the previous year, NW was reported by 3.6% (3.3%–3.9%) of the sample: 1% had 2 or more episodes per month and 2.6% had between 1 and 12 episodes in the previous year. Family history of NW was reported by 30.5% of NW participants. Individuals with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (odds ratio [OR] 3.9), circadian rhythm sleep disorder (OR 3.4), insomnia disorder (OR 2.1), alcohol abuse/dependence (OR 3.5), major depressive disorder (MDD) (OR 3.5), obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) (OR 3.9), or using over-the-counter sleeping pills (OR 2.5) or selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) antidepressants (OR 3.0) were at higher risk of frequent NW episodes (≥2 times/month). Conclusions: With a rate of 29.2%, lifetime prevalence of NW is high. SSRIs were associated with an increased risk of NW. However, these medications appear to precipitate events in individuals with a prior history of NW. Furthermore, MDD and OCD were associated with significantly greater risk of NW, and this was not due to the use of psychotropic medication. These psychiatric associations imply an increased risk due to sleep disturbance. PMID:22585435

  12. Psychometric assessment of beck scale for suicidal ideation (BSSI) in general population in Tehran

    PubMed Central

    Esfahani, Maryam; Hashemi, Yasaman; Alavi, Kaveh

    2015-01-01

    Background: Beck Scale for Suicidal Ideation (BSSI) is a widely used instrument to assess suicidality. However, there is only limited information about the psychometric characteristics of BSSI in the Persian language. In this study, we investigated the validity, reliability and factor structure of the BSSI in the general population of Tehran. Methods: Initially, 900 questionnaire packages were distributed to the general population of Tehran (response rate: 59 percent), using cluster random sampling method. The questionnaire package consisted of a demographic questionnaire, the Persian translation of the BSSI, Symptom checklist-90- Revised (SCL-90-R), Beck Hopelessness Inventory (BHI) and Philips Social Support Appraisal Scale. Internal consistency and correlations of the BSSI scores with other constructs were investigated. Factor analysis was done using principal component method. Results: The Cronbach's alpha coefficients of the screening part and the whole scale were satisfactory (>0.8). The scores of both the screening part and the total scale in individuals who experienced suicidal attempt were higher than others. Both the screening part and the total scale had a positive correlation with depression and Global Severity Index in SCL-90-R, and a negative correlation with social support. The scores of the screening part had a positive correlation with anxiety, psychoticism, hostility and hopelessness as well. The screening part consisted of a single factor which explains 60% of the total variance. Conclusion: The Persian translation of the BSSI has desirable psychometric properties in research setting. However, the clinical usage of the scale remains to be explored, and the factor structure of the whole questionnaire should be assessed in a clinical sample. PMID:26793659

  13. Psychotic Experiences and Risk of Violence Perpetration and Arrest in the General Population: A Prospective Study

    PubMed Central

    Drukker, Marjan; ten Have, Margreet; de Graaf, Ron; van Dorsselaer, Saskia; van Os, Jim

    2016-01-01

    Background In cross-sectional, general population studies, psychotic experiences have been associated with an increased risk of physical violence perpetration and arrest. However, longitudinal research on this topic is lacking. Moreover, it remains unclear whether subjects with psychotic experiences are also at risk of displaying psychological violence. The present study aims to investigate these associations. Method The longitudinal association between baseline psychotic experiences and six-year incidence of violence perpetration and three-year incidence of arrest was studied in a prospective cohort of 6646 general population adults. Logistic regression analyses with varying levels of adjustment were performed in the complete sample and in subsamples stratified by presence or absence of baseline mental disorders. Results The presence of psychotic experiences at baseline increased the risk of physical violence, psychological violence and arrest at follow-up. However, adjustment for dimensional measures of psychopathology and contextual confounders reduced all associations considerably. After adjustment, both clinically validated (OR = 3.59, 95% CI 1.09–11.81) and self-reported hallucinations (OR = 2.83, 95% CI 1.05 7.65) remained significantly associated with physical violence perpetration. Self-reported (OR = 3.06, 95% CI 1.55–6.03) and clinically validated delusions (OR = 3.24, 95% CI 1.47–7.13) were associated with an increased risk of arrest. There was no significant association between psychotic experiences and incident psychological violence in the fully adjusted model. Conclusion Specific psychotic experiences may differentially predict physical violence perpetration and arrest, even after adjustment for demographics, dimensional measures of psychopathology and contextual confounders. However, more longitudinal research with larger sample sizes is required to confirm these findings. PMID:27447190

  14. An adaptive two-stage sequential design for sampling rare and clustered populations

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brown, J.A.; Salehi, M.M.; Moradi, M.; Bell, G.; Smith, D.R.

    2008-01-01

    How to design an efficient large-area survey continues to be an interesting question for ecologists. In sampling large areas, as is common in environmental studies, adaptive sampling can be efficient because it ensures survey effort is targeted to subareas of high interest. In two-stage sampling, higher density primary sample units are usually of more interest than lower density primary units when populations are rare and clustered. Two-stage sequential sampling has been suggested as a method for allocating second stage sample effort among primary units. Here, we suggest a modification: adaptive two-stage sequential sampling. In this method, the adaptive part of the allocation process means the design is more flexible in how much extra effort can be directed to higher-abundance primary units. We discuss how best to design an adaptive two-stage sequential sample. ?? 2008 The Society of Population Ecology and Springer.

  15. Sampling and specimens: potential application of a general model in geoscience sample registration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cox, S. J.; Habermann, T.; Duclaux, G.

    2011-12-01

    Sampling is a key element of observational science. Specimens are a particular class of sample, in which material is retrieved from its original location and used for ex-situ observations and analysis. Specimens retrieved from difficult locations (e.g. deep ocean sampling, extra-terrestrial sampling) or of rare phenomena, have special scientific value. Material from these may be distributed to multiple laboratories for observation. For maximum utility, reports from the different studies must be recognized and compared. This has been a challenge as the original specimens are often not clearly identified or existing ids are not reported. To mitigate this, the International Geologic Specimen Number (IGSN) provides universal, project-neutral identifiers for geoscience specimens, and SESAR a system for registering those identifiers. Standard descriptive information required for specimen registration was proposed during a SESAR meeting held in February 2011. The standard ISO 19156 'Observations and Measurements' (O&M) includes an information model for basic description of specimens. The specimen model was designed to accommodate a variety of scenarios in chemistry, geochemistry, field geology, and life-sciences, and is believed to be applicable to a wide variety of application domains. O&M is implemented in XML (as a GML Schema) for OGC services and we have recently developed a complementary semantic-web compatible RDF/OWL representation. The GML form is used in several services deployed through AuScope, and for water quality information in WIRADA. The model has underpinned the redevelopment of a large geochemistry database in CSIRO. Capturing the preparation chain is the particular challenge in (geo-) chemistry, so the flexible and scalable model provided by the specimen model in O&M has been critical to its success in this context. This standard model for specimen metadata appears to satisfy all SESAR requirements, so might serve as the basic schema in the SESAR

  16. Construction of an electrical device for sampling earthworm populations in the field

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Well-known methods for estimating earthworm population densities range from laborious handsorting through chemical applications to electrical extraction. Of these methods, only the electrical extraction allows for sampling of earthworms without detrimental soil disturbance or contamination. However,...

  17. Stratified Sampling of Neighborhood Sections for Population Estimation: A Case Study of Bo City, Sierra Leone

    PubMed Central

    Hillson, Roger; Alejandre, Joel D.; Jacobsen, Kathryn H.; Ansumana, Rashid; Bockarie, Alfred S.; Bangura, Umaru; Lamin, Joseph M.; Stenger, David A.

    2015-01-01

    There is a need for better estimators of population size in places that have undergone rapid growth and where collection of census data is difficult. We explored simulated estimates of urban population based on survey data from Bo, Sierra Leone, using two approaches: (1) stratified sampling from across 20 neighborhoods and (2) stratified single-stage cluster sampling of only four randomly-sampled neighborhoods. The stratification variables evaluated were (a) occupants per individual residence, (b) occupants per neighborhood, and (c) residential structures per neighborhood. For method (1), stratification variable (a) yielded the most accurate re-estimate of the current total population. Stratification variable (c), which can be estimated from aerial photography and zoning type verification, and variable (b), which could be ascertained by surveying a limited number of households, increased the accuracy of method (2). Small household-level surveys with appropriate sampling methods can yield reasonably accurate estimations of urban populations. PMID:26177479

  18. Stratified Sampling of Neighborhood Sections for Population Estimation: A Case Study of Bo City, Sierra Leone.

    PubMed

    Hillson, Roger; Alejandre, Joel D; Jacobsen, Kathryn H; Ansumana, Rashid; Bockarie, Alfred S; Bangura, Umaru; Lamin, Joseph M; Stenger, David A

    2015-01-01

    There is a need for better estimators of population size in places that have undergone rapid growth and where collection of census data is difficult. We explored simulated estimates of urban population based on survey data from Bo, Sierra Leone, using two approaches: (1) stratified sampling from across 20 neighborhoods and (2) stratified single-stage cluster sampling of only four randomly-sampled neighborhoods. The stratification variables evaluated were (a) occupants per individual residence, (b) occupants per neighborhood, and (c) residential structures per neighborhood. For method (1), stratification variable (a) yielded the most accurate re-estimate of the current total population. Stratification variable (c), which can be estimated from aerial photography and zoning type verification, and variable (b), which could be ascertained by surveying a limited number of households, increased the accuracy of method (2). Small household-level surveys with appropriate sampling methods can yield reasonably accurate estimations of urban populations. PMID:26177479

  19. Comment: More on Goodness of Fit between Two Large Sample Populations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heilman, John G.

    1978-01-01

    The first article questions how substantial the difference is between the Current Population Sample and the NCOA-Harris, given the large size. The second article is a rebuttal of the first. (Author/HMU)

  20. General population norms of the Swedish short forms of oral health impact profile.

    PubMed

    Larsson, P; John, M T; Hakeberg, M; Nilner, K; List, T

    2014-04-01

    We reported the development and psychometric evaluation of a Swedish 14-item and a five-item short form of the Oral Health Impact Profile. The 14-item version was derived from the English-language short form developed by Slade in1997. The five-item version was derived from the German-language short form developed by John et al. in 2006. Validity, reliability and normative values for the two short form summary scores were determined in a random sample of the adult Swedish population (response rate: 46%, N = 1366 subjects). Subjects with sufficient OHRQoL information to calculate a summary score (N = 1309) were on average 50·1 ± 17.4 years old, and 54% were women. Short form summary scores correlated highly with the 49-item OHIP-S (r ≥ 0.97 for OHIP-S14, r ≥ 0.92 for OHIP-S5) and with self-report of oral health (r ≥ 0.41). Reliability, measured with Cronbach's alpha (0.91 for OHIP-S14, 0.77 for OHIP-S5), was sufficient. In the general population, 50% of the subjects had ≥2 OHIP-S14 score points and 10% had ≥11 points, respectively. Among subjects with their own teeth only and/or fixed dental prostheses and with partial removable dental prostheses, 50% of the population had ≥2 OHIP-S14 score points, and 10% had ≥11 points. For subjects with complete dentures, the corresponding figures were 3 and 24 points. OHIP-S5 medians for subjects in the three population groups were 1, 1 and 2 points. Swedish 14-item and 5-item short forms of the OHIP have sufficient psychometric properties and provide a detailed overview about impaired OHRQoL in Sweden. The norms will serve as reference values for future studies. PMID:24447237

  1. Estimating the Size of Populations at High Risk for HIV Using Respondent-Driven Sampling Data

    PubMed Central

    Handcock, Mark S.; Gile, Krista J.; Mar, Corinne M.

    2015-01-01

    Summary The study of hard-to-reach populations presents significant challenges. Typically, a sampling frame is not available, and population members are difficult to identify or recruit from broader sampling frames. This is especially true of populations at high risk for HIV/AIDS. Respondent-driven sampling (RDS) is often used in such settings with the primary goal of estimating the prevalence of infection. In such populations, the number of people at risk for infection and the number of people infected are of fundamental importance. This article presents a case-study of the estimation of the size of the hard-to-reach population based on data collected through RDS. We study two populations of female sex workers and men-who-have-sex-with-men in El Salvador. The approach is Bayesian and we consider different forms of prior information, including using the UNAIDS population size guidelines for this region. We show that the method is able to quantify the amount of information on population size available in RDS samples. As separate validation, we compare our results to those estimated by extrapolating from a capture–recapture study of El Salvadorian cities. The results of our case-study are largely comparable to those of the capture–recapture study when they differ from the UNAIDS guidelines. Our method is widely applicable to data from RDS studies and we provide a software package to facilitate this. PMID:25585794

  2. Rates and characteristics of sleep paralysis in the general population of Denmark and Egypt.

    PubMed

    Jalal, Baland; Hinton, Devon E

    2013-09-01

    In the current research we report data from two studies that examined rates and characteristics of sleep paralysis (SP) in the general population of Denmark and Egypt. In Study I, individuals from Denmark and Egypt did not differ in age whereas there were more males in the Egyptian sample (47 vs. 64 %); in Study II, individuals from Denmark and Egypt were comparable in terms of age and gender distribution. In Study I we found that significantly fewer individuals had experienced SP in Denmark [25 % (56/223)] than in Egypt [44 % (207/470)] p < .001. In Study II we found that individuals who had experienced at least one lifetime episode of SP from Denmark (n = 58) as compared to those from Egypt (n = 143) reported significantly fewer SP episodes in a lifetime relative to SP experiencers from Egypt (M = 6.0 vs. M = 19.4, p < .001). SP in the Egyptian sample was characterized by high rates of SP (as compared to in Denmark), frequent occurrences (three times that in the Denmark sample), prolonged immobility during SP, and great fear of dying from the experience. In addition, in Egypt, believing SP to be precipitated by the supernatural was associated with fear of the experience and longer SP immobility. Findings are discussed in the context of cultural elaboration and salience theories of SP. PMID:23884906

  3. Sample size calculations for surveys to substantiate freedom of populations from infectious agents.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Wesley O; Su, Chun-Lung; Gardner, Ian A; Christensen, Ronald

    2004-03-01

    We develop a Bayesian approach to sample size computations for surveys designed to provide evidence of freedom from a disease or from an infectious agent. A population is considered "disease-free" when the prevalence or probability of disease is less than some threshold value. Prior distributions are specified for diagnostic test sensitivity and specificity and we test the null hypothesis that the prevalence is below the threshold. Sample size computations are developed using hypergeometric sampling for finite populations and binomial sampling for infinite populations. A normal approximation is also developed. Our procedures are compared with the frequentist methods of Cameron and Baldock (1998a, Preventive Veterinary Medicine34, 1-17.) using an example of foot-and-mouth disease. User-friendly programs for sample size calculation and analysis of survey data are available at http://www.epi.ucdavis.edu/diagnostictests/. PMID:15032786

  4. Health-Related Quality of Life among Artisanal Fisherwomen/Shellfish Gatherers: Lower than the General Population

    PubMed Central

    Müller, Juliana dos Santos; Falcão, Ila Rocha; Couto, Maria Carolina Barreto Moreira; Viana, Wendel da Silva; Alves, Ivone Batista; Viola, Denise Nunes; Woods, Courtney Georgette; Rêgo, Rita Franco

    2016-01-01

    Quality of life is an indicator of how well one perceives that he/she is functioning physically and mentally. The aim of this paper is to determine the health-related quality of life (HRQOL) of artisanal fisherwomen/shellfish gatherers from the Saubara municipality in Bahia, Brazil in comparison to the general population. A structured questionnaire was administered to a sample of 209 artisanal fisherwomen selected at random. The HRQOL questionnaire, known as the 36-Item Short-Form Health Survey version 1 (SF-36v01), was also used, having been translated and verified cross-culturally for the Brazilian population. Sociodemographic, lifestyle and comorbidity information was also collected. Chronic diseases and indicators of musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs) were self-reported. The study population consisted primarily of individuals between 30 and 45 years of age (78%), of self-classified races black or brown (96.2%), with no more than an elementary school education (77%) and married (64.6%). In all the SF-36v01 dimensions, the values in the sample were lower than in the general population of Brazil, which was used as the reference population. In the “Physical Health” domain (Physical Functioning; Physical Role Limitations; Bodily Pain; General Health Perception) a tendency toward a lower health-related quality of life was observed among those who were older, had a lower education level, and had a prevalence of MSDs, hypertension or arthritis. The interference of health conditions linked to the fisherwomen’s work activities may contribute to lower HRQOL in all analyzed aspects, in comparison to the general population. In light of these findings, public health policies must consider these informal workers who contribute greatly to Brazil’s economy and food system. PMID:27164118

  5. Health-Related Quality of Life among Artisanal Fisherwomen/Shellfish Gatherers: Lower than the General Population.

    PubMed

    Müller, Juliana Dos Santos; Falcão, Ila Rocha; Couto, Maria Carolina Barreto Moreira; Viana, Wendel da Silva; Alves, Ivone Batista; Viola, Denise Nunes; Woods, Courtney Georgette; Rêgo, Rita Franco

    2016-01-01

    Quality of life is an indicator of how well one perceives that he/she is functioning physically and mentally. The aim of this paper is to determine the health-related quality of life (HRQOL) of artisanal fisherwomen/shellfish gatherers from the Saubara municipality in Bahia, Brazil in comparison to the general population. A structured questionnaire was administered to a sample of 209 artisanal fisherwomen selected at random. The HRQOL questionnaire, known as the 36-Item Short-Form Health Survey version 1 (SF-36v01), was also used, having been translated and verified cross-culturally for the Brazilian population. Sociodemographic, lifestyle and comorbidity information was also collected. Chronic diseases and indicators of musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs) were self-reported. The study population consisted primarily of individuals between 30 and 45 years of age (78%), of self-classified races black or brown (96.2%), with no more than an elementary school education (77%) and married (64.6%). In all the SF-36v01 dimensions, the values in the sample were lower than in the general population of Brazil, which was used as the reference population. In the "Physical Health" domain (Physical Functioning; Physical Role Limitations; Bodily Pain; General Health Perception) a tendency toward a lower health-related quality of life was observed among those who were older, had a lower education level, and had a prevalence of MSDs, hypertension or arthritis. The interference of health conditions linked to the fisherwomen's work activities may contribute to lower HRQOL in all analyzed aspects, in comparison to the general population. In light of these findings, public health policies must consider these informal workers who contribute greatly to Brazil's economy and food system. PMID:27164118

  6. Evidence for a General ADHD Factor from a Longitudinal General School Population Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Normand, Sebastien; Flora, David B.; Toplak, Maggie E.; Tannock, Rosemary

    2012-01-01

    Recent factor analytic studies in Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) have shown that hierarchical models provide a better fit of ADHD symptoms than correlated models. A hierarchical model includes a general ADHD factor and specific factors for inattention, and hyperactivity/impulsivity. The aim of this 12-month longitudinal study was…

  7. A walk-in screening of dementia in the general population in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Chen, Chun-Hung; Wang, Ling-Chun; Ma, Tzu-Chiao; Yang, Yuan-Han

    2014-01-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) has increased in its prevalence due to the increasing aged population. Currently there is no updated data on the prevalence of dementia including its very mild stage in Taiwan. Under the extensive coverage of Mentality Protection Center (MPC), Fo Guang Shan, Taiwan, the volunteers of MPC have conducted the medicine-related services and the screening of dementia by AD8 (ascertainment of dementia 8) that can screen the dementia even at its very mild stage in general population in all Taiwan. From 2011 to 2013, in total, 2,171 participants, 368 in the northern, 549 in the central, 877 in the southern, and 377 in the eastern part, were recruited with the mean age being 66.9 ± 10.2 years old. The ratio of suspected dementia patients, AD8 score greater than or equal to 2, was 13.6% of all recruited participants with their mean AD8 score being 2.9 ± 1.3, mean age being 69.4 ± 10.8 years old, and female predominance being 73.0%. Although this is a screening study, it has extensive coverage of all Taiwan and the use of AD8 is capable of screening very mild dementia. A further study with a randomized sampling to examine the prevalence and incidence of dementia including its very mild stage is encouraged. PMID:24883363

  8. How Generalizable Is Your Experiment? An Index for Comparing Experimental Samples and Populations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tipton, Elizabeth

    2014-01-01

    Although a large-scale experiment can provide an estimate of the average causal impact for a program, the sample of sites included in the experiment is often not drawn randomly from the inference population of interest. In this article, we provide a generalizability index that can be used to assess the degree of similarity between the sample of…

  9. Sampling Methods and the Accredited Population in Athletic Training Education Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carr, W. David; Volberding, Jennifer

    2009-01-01

    Context: We describe methods of sampling the widely-studied, yet poorly defined, population of accredited athletic training education programs (ATEPs). Objective: There are two purposes to this study; first to describe the incidence and types of sampling methods used in athletic training education research, and second to clearly define the…

  10. Temperament, Parenting, and Depressive Symptoms in a Population Sample of Preadolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oldehinkel, Albertine J.; Veenstra, Rene; Ormel, Johan; De Winter, Andrea F.; Verhulst, Frank C.

    2006-01-01

    Background: Depressive symptoms can be triggered by negative social experiences and individuals' processing of these experiences. This study focuses on the interaction between temperament, perceived parenting, and gender in relation to depressive problems in a Dutch population sample of preadolescents. Methods: The sample consisted of 2230…

  11. Development of a novel cell sorting method that samples population diversity in flow cytometry.

    PubMed

    Osborne, Geoffrey W; Andersen, Stacey B; Battye, Francis L

    2015-11-01

    Flow cytometry based electrostatic cell sorting is an important tool in the separation of cell populations. Existing instruments can sort single cells into multi-well collection plates, and keep track of cell of origin and sorted well location. However currently single sorted cell results reflect the population distribution and fail to capture the population diversity. Software was designed that implements a novel sorting approach, "Slice and Dice Sorting," that links a graphical representation of a multi-well plate to logic that ensures that single cells are sampled and sorted from all areas defined by the sort region/s. Therefore the diversity of the total population is captured, and the more frequently occurring or rarer cell types are all sampled. The sorting approach was tested computationally, and using functional cell based assays. Computationally we demonstrate that conventional single cell sorting can sample as little as 50% of the population diversity dependant on the population distribution, and that Slice and Dice sorting samples much more of the variety present within a cell population. We then show by sorting single cells into wells using the Slice and Dice sorting method that there are cells sorted using this method that would be either rarely sorted, or not sorted at all using conventional single cell sorting approaches. The present study demonstrates a novel single cell sorting method that samples much more of the population diversity than current methods. It has implications in clonal selection, stem cell sorting, single cell sequencing and any areas where population heterogeneity is of importance. PMID:25944021

  12. Is the Prevalence of Celiac Disease Higher than the General Population in Inflammatory Bowel Diseaese?

    PubMed Central

    Jandaghi, Elahe; Hojatnia, Mona; Vahedi, Homayoon; Shahbaz-Khani, Bijan; Kolahdoozan, Shadi; Ansari, Reza

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND In some studies inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) and celiac disease were considered to be associated and some belive that this association may influence the prognosis of IBD. However, there is a cosiderable controversy regarding this association. Therefore ,we aimed to assess the association of these two common digestive diseases and evaluate the complications of this association. METHODS In this comparative study, 200 patients with ulceritive colitis (UC) and 206 patients with Crohn’s disease (CD) were evaluated for celiac disease using relevant diagnostic tests and pathologic studies. Total IgA, IgA tissue transgulaminase antibody and specific IgA anti endomysial antibody were asseyed. In cases of IgA deficiency, total IgG and IgG tissue TG and IgG anti endomyseal Ab were measured. Patients with increased specific IgA and IgG antibodies for celiac disease, underwent endoscopy and 4 standard samples were obtained. Our results were compared with the results of the prevalence study of celiac disease in the general population. Data were analyzed using analytic and descriptive statistics at a significance level of 5%. RESULTS Among the studied patients, 1 patient with UC had elevated IgA anti tTG antibody and IgA anti-endomysial antibody who underwent endoscopy and celiac was confirmed on pathology. Hence, of the 200 patientswith UC, the diagnosis of celiac disease was confirmed in 1 patient (1:200) with no significant difference with the prevalence of celiac disease in the general population (1:166). However, none of our patients with Crohn’s disease had celiac disease (0:206). CONCLUSION We found no significant difference in the prevalence of celiac disease between patients with UC and the general population. Since most of our participants had a mild level of Crohn’s activation, none of those with Crohn’s disease had celiac disease. Complications of IBD including sclerosing cholangitis, may be more common in patients with concurrent celiac disease

  13. 17 Y-STR haplotype data for a population sample of Residents in the Basque Country.

    PubMed

    Valverde, Laura; Köhnemann, Stephan; Rosique, Melania; Cardoso, Sergio; Zarrabeitia, Maite; Pfeiffer, Heidi; de Pancorbo, Marian M

    2012-07-01

    Non autochthonous population is the most numerous group in the Basque Country. This group is named "Residents" to distinguish them from the "Autochthonous Basque" population. In this work, the 17 Y-STR loci distribution of Resident population was studied in a sample of 197 individuals, who were concretely genotyped for DYS19, DYS389I, DYS389II, DYS390, DYS391, DYS392, DYS393, DYS385, DYS439, DYS438, DYS437, DYS448, DYS456, DYS458, DYS635 and Y GATA H4. Resident population showed a high haplotype diversity and discrimination capacity. The distribution of Y-STRs haplotypes of the Resident population was statistically significant different to the one of the Autochthonous Basque population. The genetic substructure found between Resident and Autochthonous Basque 17 Y-STR haplotype distributions advises for the use of two different databases in the Basque Country, to ensure the most trustworthy frequency estimate in casework. PMID:22342392

  14. Impaired Fasting Glucose Is Associated With Renal Hyperfiltration in the General Population

    PubMed Central

    Melsom, Toralf; Mathisen, Ulla Dorte; Ingebretsen, Ole C.; Jenssen, Trond G.; Njølstad, Inger; Solbu, Marit D.; Toft, Ingrid; Eriksen, Bjørn O.

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Increased glomerular filtration rate (GFR), also called hyperfiltration, is a proposed mechanism for renal injury in diabetes. The causes of hyperfiltration in individuals without diabetes are largely unknown, including the possible role of borderline hyperglycemia. We assessed whether impaired fasting glucose (IFG; 5.6–6.9 mmol/L), elevated HbA1c, or hyperinsulinemia are associated with hyperfiltration in the general middle-aged population. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS A total of 1,560 individuals, aged 50–62 years without diabetes, were included in the Renal Iohexol Clearance Survey in Tromsø 6 (RENIS-T6). GFR was measured as single-sample plasma iohexol clearance. Hyperfiltration was defined as GFR >90th percentile, adjusted for sex, age, weight, height, and use of renin-angiotensin system inhibitors. RESULTS Participants with IFG had a multivariable-adjusted odds ratio of 1.56 (95% CI 1.07–2.25) for hyperfiltration compared with individuals with normal fasting glucose. Odds ratios (95% CI) of hyperfiltration calculated for a 1-unit increase in fasting plasma glucose (FPG) and HbA1c, after multivariable-adjustment, were 1.97 (1.36–2.85) and 2.23 (1.30–3.86). There was no association between fasting insulin levels and hyperfiltration. A nonlinear association between FPG and GFR was observed (df = 3, P < 0.0001). GFR increased with higher glucose levels, with a steeper slope beginning at FPG ≥5.4 mmol/L. CONCLUSIONS Borderline hyperglycemia was associated with hyperfiltration, whereas hyperinsulinemia was not. Longitudinal studies are needed to investigate whether the hyperfiltration associated with IFG is a risk factor for renal injury in the general population. PMID:21593291

  15. Perception of electronic cigarettes in the general population: does their usefulness outweigh their risks?

    PubMed Central

    Martínez-Sánchez, Jose M; Fu, Marcela; Martín-Sánchez, Juan Carlos; Ballbè, Montse; Saltó, Esteve; Fernández, Esteve

    2015-01-01

    Objective To describe and compare the perceptions of the general population about the harmful effects of electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) on users and on those passively exposed to e-cigarettes and the perceptions about e-cigarette usefulness for reducing or eliminating tobacco smoking. Design, setting, and participants We analysed cross-sectional data from a longitudinal study of a representative sample of the general adult (≥16 years) population of Barcelona, Spain (336 men and 400 women). The fieldwork was conducted between May 2013 and February 2014. We computed the percentages, adjusted OR and their corresponding 95% CI among participants with some awareness of e-cigarettes (79.2% of the sample). Primary and secondary outcome measures We assessed the perception about harmfulness for e-cigarette users and for passively exposed non-e-cigarette users, as well as the perception of usefulness for smokers of cigarette cessation and reduction. Results In this sample, 40.1% thought that e-cigarettes had a harmful effect on users, and 27.1% thought that e-cigarettes had a harmful effect on passively exposed bystanders (p<0.001). Particularly, more never-smokers perceived that e-cigarettes had harmful effects on passively exposed bystanders than current smokers (34.4% vs 20.6%; OR=1.93, 95% CI 1.02 to 3.63). More people perceived e-cigarettes as being useful for reducing smoking than for quitting (50.6% vs 29.9%, p<0.001), as well as for reducing smoking than as being harmful to users (50.6% vs 40.1%, p=0.044). Discussion The perception that e-cigarettes are useful for reducing tobacco consumption was more prevalent than the perception that e-cigarettes are harmful to users and to those passively exposed to e-cigarettes. Advertisements and messages about the use of e-cigarettes and their harmful effects should be regulated and based on scientific evidence to avoid creating erroneous ideas about their use. PMID:26534735

  16. Migration, sexual behaviour, and HIV risk: a general population cohort in rural South Africa

    PubMed Central

    McGrath, Nuala; Eaton, Jeffrey W; Newell, Marie-Louise; Hosegood, Victoria

    2015-01-01

    Summary Background Increased sexual risk behaviour and HIV prevalence have been reported in migrants compared with non-migrants in sub-Saharan Africa. We investigated the association of residential and migration patterns with sexual HIV risk behaviours and HIV prevalence in an open, general population cohort in rural KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. Methods In a mainly rural demographic surveillance area in northern KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa, we collected longitudinal demographic, migration, sexual behaviour, and HIV status data through household surveillance twice per year and individual surveillance once per year. All resident household members and a sample of non-resident household members (stratified by sex and migration patterns) were eligible for participation. Participants reported sexual risk behaviours, including data for multiple, concurrent, and casual sexual partners and condom use, and gave a dried blood spot sample via fingerprick for HIV testing. We investigated population-level differences in sexual HIV risk behaviours and HIV prevalence with respect to migration indicators using logistic regression models. Findings Between Jan 1, 2005, and Dec 31, 2011, the total eligible population at each surveillance round ranged between 21 129 and 22 726 women (aged 17–49 years) and between 20 399 and 22 100 men (aged 17–54 years). The number of eligible residents in any round ranged from 24 395 to 26 664 and the number of eligible non-residents ranged from 17 002 to 18 891 between rounds. The stratified sample of non-residents included between 2350 and 3366 individuals each year. Sexual risk behaviours were significantly more common in non-residents than in residents for both men and women. Estimated differences in sexual risk behaviours, but not HIV prevalence, varied between the migration indicators: recent migration, mobility, and migration type. HIV prevalence was significantly increased in current residents with a recent history of

  17. Metabolic Syndrome In Bipolar Disorder and Schizophrenia: Dietary and Lifestyle Factors Compared to the General Population

    PubMed Central

    Bly, Michael J.; Taylor, Stephan F.; Dalack, Gregory; Pop-Busui, Rodica; Burghardt, Kyle J.; Evans, Simon J.; McInnis, Melvin I.; Grove, Tyler B.; Brook, Robert D.; Zöllner, Sebastian K.; Ellingrod, Vicki L.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Since a poor diet is often cited as a contributor to metabolic syndrome for subjects diagnosed with bipolar disorder and schizophrenia, we sought to examine dietary intake, cigarette smoking, and physical activity in these populations and compare them with the general population. Methods Individuals diagnosed with bipolar disorder (n = 116) and schizophrenia (n = 143) were assessed for dietary intake, lifestyle habits and metabolic syndrome and compared to age, gender, and race matched subjects from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 1999-2000. Additionally, matched subgroups within the patient populations were compared to elicit any differences. Results As expected, the metabolic syndrome rate was higher in the bipolar (33%) and schizophrenia (47%) samples compared to matched NHANES controls (17% and 11%, respectively), and not different between the patient groups. Surprisingly, both bipolar disorder and schizophrenia subjects consumed fewer total calories, carbohydrates and fats, as well as more fiber (p< 0.03), compared to NHANES controls. No dietary or activity differences between patient participants with and without metabolic syndrome were found. Schizophrenia subjects had significantly lower total and low density cholesterol levels (p< 0.0001) compared to NHANES controls. Bipolar disorder subjects smoked less (p = 0.001), exercised more (p = 0.004), and had lower BMIs (p = 0.009) compared to schizophrenia subjects. Conclusions Counter to predictions, few dietary differences could be discerned between schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, and NHANES control groups. The bipolar subjects exhibited healthier behaviors than the schizophrenia patients. Additional research regarding metabolic syndrome mechanisms, focusing on non-dietary contributions, is needed. PMID:24330321

  18. Arousal Predisposition as a Vulnerability Indicator for Psychosis: A General Population Online Stress Induction Study

    PubMed Central

    Clamor, Annika; Warmuth, A. Malika; Lincoln, Tania M.

    2015-01-01

    Explanatory models ascribe to arousability a central role for the development of psychotic symptoms. Thus, a disposition to hyperarousal (i.e., increased arousal predisposition (AP)) may serve as an underlying vulnerability indicator for psychosis by interacting with stressors to cause symptoms. In this case, AP, stress-response, and psychotic symptoms should be linked before the development of a diagnosable psychotic disorder. We conducted a cross-sectional online study in a population sample (N = 104; Mage = 27.7 years, SD = 11.2, range 18–70). Participants rated their AP and subclinical psychotic symptoms. Participants reported their stress-levels before and after two stress inductions including an arithmetic and a social stressor. The participants with an increased AP generally felt more stressed. However, AP was not associated with the specific stress-response. As expected, positive psychotic symptoms were significantly associated with AP, but this was not mediated by general stress-levels. Its association to subtle, nonclinical psychotic symptoms supports our assumption that AP could be a vulnerability indicator for psychosis. The trait is easily accessible via a short self-report and could facilitate the identification of people at risk and be a promising target for early stress-management. Further research is needed to clarify its predictive value for stress-responses. PMID:26199758

  19. Planning for Serious Illness by the General Public: A Population-Based Survey

    PubMed Central

    Quinlan, Elizabeth; Venne, Rosemary; Hunter, Paulette; Surtees, Doug

    2013-01-01

    Background. While rates of advance care documentation amongst the general public remain low, there is increasing recognition of the value of informal planning to address patient preferences in serious illness. Objectives. To determine the associations between personal attributes and formal and informal planning for serious illness across age groups. Methods. This population-based, online survey was conducted in Saskatchewan, Canada, in April, 2012, using a nonclinical sample of 827 adults ranging from 18 to 88 years of age and representative of age, sex, and regional distribution of the province. Associations between key predictor variables and planning for serious illness were assessed using binary logistic regression. Results. While 16.6% of respondents had completed a written living will or advance care plan, half reported having conversations about their treatment wishes or states of health in which they would find it unacceptable to live. Lawyers were the most frequently cited source of assistance for those who had prepared advance care plans. Personal experiences with funeral planning significantly increased the likelihood of activities designed to plan for serious illness. Conclusions. Strategies designed to increase the rate of planning for future serious illness amongst the general public must account for personal readiness. PMID:25025030

  20. Differences in prevalence of parasites in stool samples between three distinct ethnic pediatric populations in southern Israel, 2007-2011.

    PubMed

    Ben-Shimol, Shalom; Sagi, Orli; Greenberg, David

    2014-04-01

    Intestinal parasites cause significant morbidity worldwide, particularly in developing populations. At least three pediatric populations reside in southern Israel: the Bedouin population, the general Jewish population and Jewish children of Ethiopian origin. Our aim was to compare intestinal parasite prevalence between the three pediatric populations in southern Israel. This is a retrospective, laboratory, population-based surveillance. Most ova and parasite (O&P) tests in southern Israel (hospital and community obtained) are performed by the hospital parasitology laboratory. All pediatric stool O&P tests examined by the hospital laboratory between 2007 and 2011 were included. Overall, 45,978 samples were examined; 27,354, 16,969 and 1655 from Bedouin, non-Ethiopian Jewish and Ethiopian children, respectively. 16,317 parasites were identified in 12,325 (26.8%) positive samples. Total prevalences were 36%, 11% and 46% for Bedouin, non-Ethiopian Jewish and Ethiopian children, respectively. Blastocystis hominis, Giardia lamblia and Entamoeba species were the most common parasites identified, constituting ≥80% of positive samples in all groups. Hymenolepis nana was rarely identified in non-Ethiopian Jewish children (0.04% of isolates compared with 2.6% and 0.5% in Bedouin and Ethiopian children, respectively). Other helminths, excluding H. nana and Enterobius vermicularis, were identified almost exclusively in Ethiopian children ≥5years of age. In conclusion, the Bedouin and Ethiopian children were characterized by higher parasite prevalence in stool, compared with the non-Ethiopian Jewish children, probably reflecting higher intestinal parasitic disease rates. Certain helminthic infections were identified almost exclusively in the Ethiopian children. These differences may be associated with lifestyle differences between the three populations. PMID:24201297

  1. General Triallelic Frequency Spectrum Under Demographic Models with Variable Population Size

    PubMed Central

    Jenkins, Paul A.; Mueller, Jonas W.; Song, Yun S.

    2014-01-01

    It is becoming routine to obtain data sets on DNA sequence variation across several thousands of chromosomes, providing unprecedented opportunity to infer the underlying biological and demographic forces. Such data make it vital to study summary statistics that offer enough compression to be tractable, while preserving a great deal of information. One well-studied summary is the site frequency spectrum—the empirical distribution, across segregating sites, of the sample frequency of the derived allele. However, most previous theoretical work has assumed that each site has experienced at most one mutation event in its genealogical history, which becomes less tenable for very large sample sizes. In this work we obtain, in closed form, the predicted frequency spectrum of a site that has experienced at most two mutation events, under very general assumptions about the distribution of branch lengths in the underlying coalescent tree. Among other applications, we obtain the frequency spectrum of a triallelic site in a model of historically varying population size. We demonstrate the utility of our formulas in two settings: First, we show that triallelic sites are more sensitive to the parameters of a population that has experienced historical growth, suggesting that they will have use if they can be incorporated into demographic inference. Second, we investigate a recently proposed alternative mechanism of mutation in which the two derived alleles of a triallelic site are created simultaneously within a single individual, and we develop a test to determine whether it is responsible for the excess of triallelic sites in the human genome. PMID:24214345

  2. The Continuum of Psychotic Symptoms in the General Population: A Cross-national Study

    PubMed Central

    Nuevo, Roberto; Chatterji, Somnath; Verdes, Emese; Naidoo, Nirmala; Arango, Celso; Ayuso-Mateos, José Luis

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To identify the cross-national prevalence of psychotic symptoms in the general population and to analyze their impact on health status. Method: The sample was composed of 256 445 subjects (55.9% women), from nationally representative samples of 52 countries worldwide participating in the World Health Organization's World Health Survey. Standardized and weighted prevalence of psychotic symptoms were calculated in addition to the impact on health status as assessed by functioning in multiple domains. Results: Overall prevalences for specific symptoms ranged from 4.80% (SE = 0.14) for delusions of control to 8.37% (SE = 0.20) for delusions of reference and persecution. Prevalence figures varied greatly across countries. All symptoms of psychosis produced a significant decline in health status after controlling for potential confounders. There was a clear change in health impact between subjects not reporting any symptom and those reporting at least one symptom (effect size of 0.55). Conclusions: The prevalence of the presence of at least one psychotic symptom has a wide range worldwide varying as much as from 0.8% to 31.4%. Psychotic symptoms signal a problem of potential public health concern, independent of the presence of a full diagnosis of psychosis, as they are common and are related to a significant decrement in health status. The presence of at least one psychotic symptom is related to a significant poorer health status, with a regular linear decrement in health depending on the number of symptoms. PMID:20841326

  3. New Statistical Tests of Neutrality for DNA Samples from a Population

    PubMed Central

    Fu, Y. X.

    1996-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to develop statistical tests of the neutral model of evolution against a class of alternative models with the common characteristic of having an excess of mutations that occurred a long time ago or a reduction of recent mutations compared to the neutral model. This class of population genetics models include models for structured populations, models with decreasing effective population size and models of selection and mutation balance. Four statistical tests were proposed in this paper for DNA samples from a population. Two of these tests, one new and another a modification of an existing test, are based on EWENS' sampling formula, and the other two new tests make use of the frequencies of mutations of various classes. Using simulated samples and regression analyses, the critical values of these tests can be computed from regression equations. This approach for computing the critical values of a test was found to be appropriate and quite effective. We examined the powers of these four tests using simulated samples from structured populations, populations with linearly decreasing sizes and models of selection and mutation balance and found that they are more powerful than existing statistical tests of the neutral model of evolution. PMID:8722804

  4. 10 CFR 61.41 - Protection of the general population from releases of radioactivity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Protection of the general population from releases of radioactivity. 61.41 Section 61.41 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) LICENSING REQUIREMENTS FOR LAND DISPOSAL OF RADIOACTIVE WASTE Performance Objectives § 61.41 Protection of the general...

  5. 10 CFR 61.41 - Protection of the general population from releases of radioactivity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Protection of the general population from releases of radioactivity. 61.41 Section 61.41 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) LICENSING REQUIREMENTS FOR LAND DISPOSAL OF RADIOACTIVE WASTE Performance Objectives § 61.41 Protection of the general...

  6. 10 CFR 61.41 - Protection of the general population from releases of radioactivity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Protection of the general population from releases of radioactivity. 61.41 Section 61.41 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) LICENSING REQUIREMENTS FOR LAND DISPOSAL OF RADIOACTIVE WASTE Performance Objectives § 61.41 Protection of the general...

  7. 10 CFR 61.41 - Protection of the general population from releases of radioactivity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Protection of the general population from releases of radioactivity. 61.41 Section 61.41 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) LICENSING REQUIREMENTS FOR LAND DISPOSAL OF RADIOACTIVE WASTE Performance Objectives § 61.41 Protection of the general...

  8. 10 CFR 61.41 - Protection of the general population from releases of radioactivity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Protection of the general population from releases of radioactivity. 61.41 Section 61.41 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) LICENSING REQUIREMENTS FOR LAND DISPOSAL OF RADIOACTIVE WASTE Performance Objectives § 61.41 Protection of the general...

  9. Health Benefits for Vocational Rehabilitation Consumers: Comparison of Access Rates with Workers in the General Population

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lustig, Daniel C.; Strauser, David R.

    2010-01-01

    Access to health insurance is one of the critical aspects of securing employment for people with disabilities. This study investigated whether vocational rehabilitation consumers secured employment with an employer who offered health insurance at similar rates to workers in the general population. In general, the results show that vocational…

  10. The utility of population-based surveys to describe the continuum of HIV services for key and general populations.

    PubMed

    Hladik, Wolfgang; Benech, Irene; Bateganya, Moses; Hakim, Avi J

    2016-01-01

    Monitoring the cascade or continuum of HIV services - ranging from outreach services to anti-retroviral treatment - has become increasingly important as the focus in prevention moves toward biomedical interventions, in particular, 'Treatment as Prevention.' The HIV continuum typically utilises clinic-based care and treatment monitoring data and helps identify gaps and inform programme improvements. This paper discusses the merits of a population-based survey-informed continuum of services. Surveys provide individual-level, population-based data by sampling persons both in and outside the continuum, which facilitate the estimation of population fractions, such as the proportion of people living with HIV in care, as well as the examination of determinants for being in or outside the continuum. Survey-informed cascades of services may especially benefit key populations at increased risk for HIV infection for who social marginalisation, criminalisation, and stigma result in barriers to access and retention in services, a low social visibility, mobility, and outreach-based services can compromise clinic-based monitoring. Adding CD4+ T-cell count and viral load measurements to such surveys may provide population-level information on viral load suppression, stage of disease, treatment needs, and population-level transmission potential. While routine clinic-based reporting will remain the mainstay of monitoring, a survey-informed service cascade can address some of its limitations and offer additional insights. PMID:25907348

  11. A Comparative Analysis of a Community and General Sample of Lesbian, Gay, and Bisexual Individuals.

    PubMed

    Kuyper, Lisette; Fernee, Henk; Keuzenkamp, Saskia

    2016-04-01

    Samples recruited at lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) venues have certain benefits, but a major drawback is that these samples are prone to bias as they only contain LGB participants who visit such venues. Empirical data with regard to the potential differences between LGB community samples and LGB general samples may shed some light on the generalizability of research findings from convenience samples recruited through LGB venues. The current study attempted to contribute to existing knowledge by examining differences in social demographics, sexual orientation, minority stress, and mental health between a convenience sample recruited at LGB venues ("community sample," N = 3,403) and an LGB sample recruited from a general research panel in the Netherlands ("panel sample," N = 1,000). Various differences were found. In general, community participants were younger, reported a more exclusive same-sex sexual orientation, were more open about their sexual orientation, had lower levels of internalized homonegativity, and encountered more negative social reactions on their LGB status. They also reported higher levels of psychological distress and suicidality. The Nagelkerke R (2) of the analyses (which were adjusted for sociodemographic differences) ranged from .08 (suicide plans among men) to .27 (sexual attraction among women). However, while the estimates of sociodemographics, sexual orientation, minority stress, and mental well-being differed, the relationships between these constructs were comparable in both samples. Implications and suggestions for future studies are discussed. PMID:25564037

  12. Viability and stability of Escherichia coli and enterococci populations in fecal samples upon freezing.

    PubMed

    Masters, N; Christie, M; Stratton, H; Katouli, M

    2015-07-01

    We studied the survival of Escherichia coli and enterococci populations in fecal samples of 7 host species after storage at -20 and -80 °C for 30 days. Composite fecal samples were collected from cows, chickens, horses, pigs, dogs, birds, and humans, and bacteria were enumerated before and after storage. Twenty-eight colonies of each bacterial species were typed before and after storage and the strains were assigned to different biochemical phenotypes (BPTs). A significant reduction in the number of E. coli was observed in all samples stored at -20 °C but in only 3 of those samples stored at -80 °C. However, the numbers of enterococci were similar in most stored samples (except cow and birds). The number and the distribution of E. coli and enterococci BPTs in fresh samples did not vary significantly from those stored at either temperature. Furthermore, the population structure of E. coli and enterococci did not change significantly after storage at -80 °C, this was always the case for those samples stored at -20 °C. We conclude that for those studies investigating E. coli or enterococci population structure, short-term storage (≤ 30 days) of fecal samples in a glycerol broth at -80 °C is a preferable option. PMID:26053765

  13. Application of adaptive cluster sampling to low-density populations of freshwater mussels

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Smith, D.R.; Villella, R.F.; Lemarie, D.P.

    2003-01-01

    Freshwater mussels appear to be promising candidates for adaptive cluster sampling because they are benthic macroinvertebrates that cluster spatially and are frequently found at low densities. We applied adaptive cluster sampling to estimate density of freshwater mussels at 24 sites along the Cacapon River, WV, where a preliminary timed search indicated that mussels were present at low density. Adaptive cluster sampling increased yield of individual mussels and detection of uncommon species; however, it did not improve precision of density estimates. Because finding uncommon species, collecting individuals of those species, and estimating their densities are important conservation activities, additional research is warranted on application of adaptive cluster sampling to freshwater mussels. However, at this time we do not recommend routine application of adaptive cluster sampling to freshwater mussel populations. The ultimate, and currently unanswered, question is how to tell when adaptive cluster sampling should be used, i.e., when is a population sufficiently rare and clustered for adaptive cluster sampling to be efficient and practical? A cost-effective procedure needs to be developed to identify biological populations for which adaptive cluster sampling is appropriate.

  14. Polypharmacy in older adults with human immunodeficiency virus infection compared with the general population

    PubMed Central

    Gimeno-Gracia, Mercedes; Crusells-Canales, María José; Armesto-Gómez, Francisco Javier; Compaired-Turlán, Vicente; Rabanaque-Hernández, María José

    2016-01-01

    Background The percentage of older HIV-positive patients is growing, with an increase in age-related comorbidities and concomitant medication. Objectives To quantify polypharmacy and profile types of non-antiretroviral drugs collected at community pharmacies in 2014 by HIV-positive individuals on antiretroviral therapy and to compare these findings with those of the general population. Methods HIV-positive patients (n=199) were compared with a group of patients from the general population (n=8,172), aged between 50 and 64 years. The factors compared were prevalence of polypharmacy (≥5 comedications with cumulative defined daily dose [DDD] per drug over 180), percentage of patients who collected each therapeutic class of drug, and median duration for each drug class (based on DDD). Results were stratified by sex. Results Polypharmacy was more common in HIV-positive males than in the male general population (8.9% vs 4.4%, P=0.010). Polypharmacy was also higher in HIV-positive females than in the female general population (11.3% vs 3.4%, P=0.002). Percentage of HIV-positive patients receiving analgesics, anti-infectives, gastrointestinal drugs, central nervous system (CNS) agents, and respiratory drugs was higher than in the general population, with significant differences between male populations. No differences were observed in proportion of patients receiving cardiovascular drugs. The estimated number of treatment days (median DDDs) were higher in HIV-positive males than in males from the general population for anti-infectives (32.2 vs 20.0, P<0.001) and CNS agents (238.7 vs 120.0, P=0.002). A higher percentage of HIV-positive males than males from the general population received sulfonamides (17.1% vs 1.5%, P<0.001), macrolides (37.1% vs 24.9%, P=0.020), and quinolones (34.3% vs 21.2%, P=0.009). Conclusion Polypharmacy is more common in HIV-positive older males and females than in similarly aged members of the general population. HIV-positive patients received

  15. Dietary magnesium, lung function, wheezing, and airway hyperreactivity in a random adult population sample.

    PubMed

    Britton, J; Pavord, I; Richards, K; Wisniewski, A; Knox, A; Lewis, S; Tattersfield, A; Weiss, S

    1994-08-01

    Magnesium is involved in a wide range of biological activities, including some that may protect against the development of asthma and chronic airflow obstruction. We tested the hypothesis that high dietary magnesium intake is associated with better lung function, and a reduced risk of airway hyper-reactivity and wheezing in a random sample of adults. In 2633 adults aged 18-70 sampled from the electoral register of an administrative area of Nottingham, UK, we measured dietary magnesium intake by semiquantitative food-frequency questionnaire, lung function as the 1-sec forced expiratory volume (FEV1), and atopy as the mean skin-prick test response to three common environmental allergens. We measured airway reactivity to methacholine in 2415 individuals, defining hyper-reactivity as a 20% fall in FEV1 after a cumulative dose of 12.25 mumol or less. Mean (SD) daily intake of magnesium was 380 (114) mg/day. After adjusting for age, sex, and height, and for the effects of atopy and smoking, a 100 mg/day higher magnesium intake was associated with a 27.7 (95% CI, 11.9-43.5) mL higher FEV1, and a reduction in the relative odds of hyper-reactivity by a ratio of 0.82 (0.72-0.93). The same incremental difference in magnesium intake was also associated with a reduction in the odds of self-reported wheeze within the past 12 months, adjusted for age, sex, smoking, atopy, and kilojoule intake, by a ratio of 0.85 (0.76-0.95). Dietary magnesium intake is independently related to lung function and the occurrence of airway hyper-reactivity and self-reported wheezing in the general population. Low magnesium intake may therefore be involved in the aetiology of asthma and chronic obstructive airways disease. PMID:7914305

  16. Sub-sampling genetic data to estimate black bear population size: A case study

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tredick, C.A.; Vaughan, M.R.; Stauffer, D.F.; Simek, S.L.; Eason, T.

    2007-01-01

    Costs for genetic analysis of hair samples collected for individual identification of bears average approximately US$50 [2004] per sample. This can easily exceed budgetary allowances for large-scale studies or studies of high-density bear populations. We used 2 genetic datasets from 2 areas in the southeastern United States to explore how reducing costs of analysis by sub-sampling affected precision and accuracy of resulting population estimates. We used several sub-sampling scenarios to create subsets of the full datasets and compared summary statistics, population estimates, and precision of estimates generated from these subsets to estimates generated from the complete datasets. Our results suggested that bias and precision of estimates improved as the proportion of total samples used increased, and heterogeneity models (e.g., Mh[CHAO]) were more robust to reduced sample sizes than other models (e.g., behavior models). We recommend that only high-quality samples (>5 hair follicles) be used when budgets are constrained, and efforts should be made to maximize capture and recapture rates in the field.

  17. Length Distribution of Ancestral Tracks under a General Admixture Model and Its Applications in Population History Inference

    PubMed Central

    Ni, Xumin; Yang, Xiong; Guo, Wei; Yuan, Kai; Zhou, Ying; Ma, Zhiming; Xu, Shuhua

    2016-01-01

    The length of ancestral tracks decays with the passing of generations which can be used to infer population admixture histories. Previous studies have shown the power in recovering the histories of admixed populations via the length distributions of ancestral tracks even under simple models. We believe that the deduction of length distributions under a general model will greatly elevate the power. Here we first deduced the length distributions under a general model and proposed general principles in parameter estimation and model selection with the deduced length distributions. Next, we focused on studying the length distributions and its applications under three typical special cases. Extensive simulations showed that the length distributions of ancestral tracks were well predicted by our theoretical framework. We further developed a new method, AdmixInfer, based on the length distributions and good performance was observed when it was applied to infer population histories under the three typical models. Notably, our method was insensitive to demographic history, sample size and threshold to discard short tracks. Finally, good performance was also observed when applied to some real datasets of African Americans, Mexicans and South Asian populations from the HapMap project and the Human Genome Diversity Project. PMID:26818889

  18. Body image and weight consciousness among South Asian, Italian and general population women in Britain.

    PubMed

    Bush, H M; Williams, R G; Lean, M E; Anderson, A S

    2001-12-01

    Italians in Britain have low rates of coronary heart disease while South Asians have high rates, which correspond to a tendency to central abdominal fat deposition and overweight. World variations in attitudes to body size are thought to be related to economic security. This cross-sectional study employed a range of measures including photographic silhouettes of known BMI to investigate the attitudes of 259 South Asian, Italian and general population women (aged 20-42 years) towards body size. Migrants are compared with British-born minority members. Our results indicate that although migrant South Asians were less happy with their weight than migrant Italians, fewer had tried to lose weight in the past or had experienced external pressures to change their bodies. More migrant South Asians than Italians or general population women equated one of the four largest shapes (BMI 28-38) with health and successful reproduction. All groups wanted to resemble one of the two thinnest shapes, equating them with longevity, likelihood of marriage and job success. British-born South Asians generally showed a considerable degree of convergence towards general population women's negative attitudes to large body size, but British-born Italians' attitudes were significantly more negative even than general population women. The study's conclusions were that South Asian health beliefs are an important focus of resistance to slimness. The tendency of migrant South Asians to equate large size with health contrasts with the opposing views of Italian and general population women. British-born South Asians' views are modifying from those of migrants, but significant differences remain when compared with general population women and British-born Italians. Present differences in economic security offer only a partial explanation; South Asian attitudes may be explained by economic insecurity in the past. PMID:11895321

  19. Inspecting close maternal relatedness: Towards better mtDNA population samples in forensic databases

    PubMed Central

    Bodner, Martin; Irwin, Jodi A.; Coble, Michael D.; Parson, Walther

    2011-01-01

    Reliable data are crucial for all research fields applying mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) as a genetic marker. Quality control measures have been introduced to ensure the highest standards in sequence data generation, validation and a posteriori inspection. A phylogenetic alignment strategy has been widely accepted as a prerequisite for data comparability and database searches, for forensic applications, for reconstructions of human migrations and for correct interpretation of mtDNA mutations in medical genetics. There is continuing effort to enhance the number of worldwide population samples in order to contribute to a better understanding of human mtDNA variation. This has often lead to the analysis of convenience samples collected for other purposes, which might not meet the quality requirement of random sampling for mtDNA data sets. Here, we introduce an additional quality control means that deals with one aspect of this limitation: by combining autosomal short tandem repeat (STR) marker with mtDNA information, it helps to avoid the bias introduced by related individuals included in the same (small) sample. By STR analysis of individuals sharing their mitochondrial haplotype, pedigree construction and subsequent software-assisted calculation of likelihood ratios based on the allele frequencies found in the population, closely maternally related individuals can be identified and excluded. We also discuss scenarios that allow related individuals in the same set. An ideal population sample would be representative for its population: this new approach represents another contribution towards this goal. PMID:21067986

  20. Inspecting close maternal relatedness: Towards better mtDNA population samples in forensic databases.

    PubMed

    Bodner, Martin; Irwin, Jodi A; Coble, Michael D; Parson, Walther

    2011-03-01

    Reliable data are crucial for all research fields applying mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) as a genetic marker. Quality control measures have been introduced to ensure the highest standards in sequence data generation, validation and a posteriori inspection. A phylogenetic alignment strategy has been widely accepted as a prerequisite for data comparability and database searches, for forensic applications, for reconstructions of human migrations and for correct interpretation of mtDNA mutations in medical genetics. There is continuing effort to enhance the number of worldwide population samples in order to contribute to a better understanding of human mtDNA variation. This has often lead to the analysis of convenience samples collected for other purposes, which might not meet the quality requirement of random sampling for mtDNA data sets. Here, we introduce an additional quality control means that deals with one aspect of this limitation: by combining autosomal short tandem repeat (STR) marker with mtDNA information, it helps to avoid the bias introduced by related individuals included in the same (small) sample. By STR analysis of individuals sharing their mitochondrial haplotype, pedigree construction and subsequent software-assisted calculation of likelihood ratios based on the allele frequencies found in the population, closely maternally related individuals can be identified and excluded. We also discuss scenarios that allow related individuals in the same set. An ideal population sample would be representative for its population: this new approach represents another contribution towards this goal. PMID:21067986

  1. The Association between Sleep Problems and Psychotic Symptoms in the General Population: A Global Perspective

    PubMed Central

    Koyanagi, Ai; Stickley, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    Study Objectives: To assess the prevalence of sleep problems and their association with psychotic symptoms using a global database. Design: Community-based cross-sectional study. Setting: Data were analyzed from the World Health Organization's World Health Survey (WHS), a population-based survey conducted in 70 countries between 2002 and 2004. Patients or Participants: 261,547 individuals aged ≥ 18 years from 56 countries. Interventions: N/A. Measurements and Results: The presence of psychotic symptoms in the past 12 months was established using 4 questions pertaining to positive symptoms from the psychosis screening module of the Composite International Diagnostic Interview. Sleep problems referred to severe or extreme sleep problems in the past 30 days. Multivariable logistic regression was used to estimate the associations. The overall prevalence of sleep problems was 7.6% and ranged from 1.6% (China) to 18.6% (Morocco). Sleep problems were associated with significantly higher odds for at least one psychotic symptom in the vast majority of countries. In the pooled sample, after adjusting for demographic factors, alcohol consumption, smoking, and chronic medical conditions, having sleep problems resulted in an odds ratio (OR) for at least one psychotic symptom of 2.41 (95% confidence interval [CI] 2.18–2.65). This OR was 1.59 (1.40–1.81) when further adjusted for anxiety and depression. Conclusions: A strong association between sleep problems and psychotic symptoms was observed globally. These results have clinical implications and serve as a basis for future studies to elucidate the causal association between psychotic symptoms and sleep problems. Citation: Koyanagi A, Stickley A. The association between sleep problems and psychotic symptoms in the general population: a global perspective. SLEEP 2015;38(12):1875–1885. PMID:26085291

  2. Prevalence of Contact Allergy to p-Phenylenediamine in the European General Population.

    PubMed

    Diepgen, Thomas L; Naldi, Luigi; Bruze, Magnus; Cazzaniga, Simone; Schuttelaar, Marie-Louise; Elsner, Peter; Goncalo, Margarida; Ofenloch, Robert; Svensson, Åke

    2016-02-01

    Population-based studies on contact allergy to p-phenylenediamine (PPD) are scarce. A cross-sectional study was performed to assess the prevalence of contact allergy to PPD and its risk factors in the general population of 5 European countries. A total of 10,425 subjects were interviewed, and a random sample (n = 2,739) was patch tested to PPD. Overall, 5,286 individuals (50.9%) reported having used hair colorants at least once in their lifetime (78% female, 20% male), and 35% had used hair colorants during the last 12 months. Hair colorant avoidance because of any skin problem during the lifetime was reported by 6%. Black henna tattoos had been used by 5.5% during their lifetime. The prevalence of PPD contact allergy was 0.8% (95% confidence interval 0.6-1.0%), with no statistically significant association with gender or hair dye use. The prevalence of PPD in black henna tattoo users was 3.2% versus 0.6% in nonusers (P < 0.001). A clinically relevant positive patch test reaction to PPD related to hair coloring products was found in 0.1% (95% confidence interval 0.0-0.2%). A significant association with PPD contact allergy was observed for subjects who had black henna tattoos in their lifetime, with an age- and gender-adjusted odds ratio of 9.33 (95% confidence interval 3.45-25.26, P < 0.001). Black henna tattoos are an important risk factor for PPD contact allergy. PMID:26802237

  3. Autism and Intellectual Disability: A Study of Prevalence on a Sample of the Italian Population

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    La Malfa, G.; Lassi, S.; Bertelli, M.; Salvini, R.; Placidi, G. F.

    2004-01-01

    In 1994, the American Association on Mental Retardation with the DSM-IV has come to a final definition of pervasive developmental disorders (PDD), in agreement with the ICD-10. Prevalence of PDD in the general population is 0.10.15% according to the DSM-IV. PDD are more frequent in people with severe intellectual disability (ID). There is a strict…

  4. Nonparametric estimation of population density for line transect sampling using FOURIER series

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Crain, B.R.; Burnham, K.P.; Anderson, D.R.; Lake, J.L.

    1979-01-01

    A nonparametric, robust density estimation method is explored for the analysis of right-angle distances from a transect line to the objects sighted. The method is based on the FOURIER series expansion of a probability density function over an interval. With only mild assumptions, a general population density estimator of wide applicability is obtained.

  5. Optimal sampling strategy for estimation of spatial genetic structure in tree populations.

    PubMed

    Cavers, S; Degen, B; Caron, H; Lemes, M R; Margis, R; Salgueiro, F; Lowe, A J

    2005-10-01

    Fine-scale spatial genetic structure (SGS) in natural tree populations is largely a result of restricted pollen and seed dispersal. Understanding the link between limitations to dispersal in gene vectors and SGS is of key interest to biologists and the availability of highly variable molecular markers has facilitated fine-scale analysis of populations. However, estimation of SGS may depend strongly on the type of genetic marker and sampling strategy (of both loci and individuals). To explore sampling limits, we created a model population with simulated distributions of dominant and codominant alleles, resulting from natural regeneration with restricted gene flow. SGS estimates from subsamples (simulating collection and analysis with amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) and microsatellite markers) were correlated with the 'real' estimate (from the full model population). For both marker types, sampling ranges were evident, with lower limits below which estimation was poorly correlated and upper limits above which sampling became inefficient. Lower limits (correlation of 0.9) were 100 individuals, 10 loci for microsatellites and 150 individuals, 100 loci for AFLPs. Upper limits were 200 individuals, five loci for microsatellites and 200 individuals, 100 loci for AFLPs. The limits indicated by simulation were compared with data sets from real species. Instances where sampling effort had been either insufficient or inefficient were identified. The model results should form practical boundaries for studies aiming to detect SGS. However, greater sample sizes will be required in cases where SGS is weaker than for our simulated population, for example, in species with effective pollen/seed dispersal mechanisms. PMID:16030529

  6. Population genetics of 29 autosomal STRs and 17 Y-chromosomal STRs in a population sample from Afghanistan.

    PubMed

    Älgenäs, Cajsa; Tillmar, Andreas O

    2014-03-01

    In this study, allele frequencies for 29 autosomal short tandem repeats (STRs) and haplotype frequencies for 17 Y-chromosomal STRs of an Afghan population have been generated. Samples from 348 men and women originating from Afghanistan were analysed for the autosomal STRs, and the combined match probability was estimated to be 7.5 × 10(-37). One hundred and sixty-nine men were analysed for the Y-chromosomal STRs, which resulted in 132 different haplotypes and a haplotype diversity of 0.995. PMID:23979058

  7. Exploiting Population Samples to Enhance Genome-Wide Association Studies of Disease

    PubMed Central

    Kaufman, Shachar; Rosset, Saharon

    2014-01-01

    It is widely acknowledged that genome-wide association studies (GWAS) of complex human disease fail to explain a large portion of heritability, primarily due to lack of statistical power—a problem that is exacerbated when seeking detection of interactions of multiple genomic loci. An untapped source of information that is already widely available, and that is expected to grow in coming years, is population samples. Such samples contain genetic marker data for additional individuals, but not their relevant phenotypes. In this article we develop a highly efficient testing framework based on a constrained maximum-likelihood estimate in a case–control–population setting. We leverage the available population data and optional modeling assumptions, such as Hardy–Weinberg equilibrium (HWE) in the population and linkage equilibrium (LE) between distal loci, to substantially improve power of association and interaction tests. We demonstrate, via simulation and application to actual GWAS data sets, that our approach is substantially more powerful and robust than standard testing approaches that ignore or make naive use of the population sample. We report several novel and credible pairwise interactions, in bipolar disorder, coronary artery disease, Crohn’s disease, and rheumatoid arthritis. PMID:24614931

  8. Standardization of a screening instrument (PHQ-15) for somatization syndromes in the general population

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The PHQ-15 is widely used as an open access screening instrument for somatization syndromes in different health care settings, thus far, normative data from the general population are not available. The objectives of the study were to generate normative data and to further investigate the construct validity of the PHQ-15 in the general population. Methods Nationally representative face-to face household surveys were conducted in Germany between 2003 and 2008 (n=5,031). The survey questionnaires included, the 15-item somatization module from the Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-15), the 9-item depression module (PHQ-9), the Satisfaction With Life Scale (SWLS), the SF-12 for the measurement of health related quality of life, and demographic characteristics. Results Normative data for the PHQ-15 were generated for both genders and different age levels including 5031 subjects (53.6% female) with a mean age (SD) of 48.9 (18.1) years. Somatization syndromes occured in 9.3% of the general population. Women had significantly higher mean (SD) scores compared with men [4.3 (4.1) vs. 3.4 (4.0)]. Intercorrelations with somatization were highest with depression, followed by the physical component summary scale of health related quality of life. Conclusions The normative data provide a framework for the interpretation and comparisons of somatization syndromes with other populations. Evidence supports reliability and validity of the PHQ-15 as a measure of somatization syndromes in the general population. PMID:23514436

  9. Symbiodinium population genetics: testing for species boundaries and analysing samples with mixed genotypes.

    PubMed

    Wham, Drew C; LaJeunesse, Todd C

    2016-06-01

    Population genetic markers are increasingly being used to study the diversity, ecology and evolution of Symbiodinium, a group of eukaryotic microbes that are often mutualistic with reef-building corals. Population genetic markers can resolve individual clones, or strains, from samples of host tissue; however, samples may comprise different species that may confound interpretations of gene flow and genetic structure. Here, we propose a method for resolving species from population genetic data using tests for genetic recombination. Assigning individuals to genetically recombining populations prior to further analyses avoids critical errors in the interpretation of gene flow and dispersal. To demonstrate the effectiveness of the approach, we first apply this method to a simulated data set. We then use the method to resolve two species of host generalist Symbiodinium that commonly co-occur in reef-building corals collected from Indo-West Pacific reefs. We demonstrate that the method is robust even when some hosts contain genotypes from two distinct species. Finally, we examine population genetic data sets from two recently published papers in Molecular Ecology. We show that each strongly supports a two species interpretation, which significantly changes the original conclusions presented in these studies. When combined with available phylogenetic and ecological evidence, the use of population genetic data offers a robust method for unambiguously delimiting morphologically cryptic species. PMID:27118512

  10. Transition Densities and Sample Frequency Spectra of Diffusion Processes with Selection and Variable Population Size

    PubMed Central

    Živković, Daniel; Steinrücken, Matthias; Song, Yun S.; Stephan, Wolfgang

    2015-01-01

    Advances in empirical population genetics have made apparent the need for models that simultaneously account for selection and demography. To address this need, we here study the Wright–Fisher diffusion under selection and variable effective population size. In the case of genic selection and piecewise-constant effective population sizes, we obtain the transition density by extending a recently developed method for computing an accurate spectral representation for a constant population size. Utilizing this extension, we show how to compute the sample frequency spectrum in the presence of genic selection and an arbitrary number of instantaneous changes in the effective population size. We also develop an alternate, efficient algorithm for computing the sample frequency spectrum using a moment-based approach. We apply these methods to answer the following questions: If neutrality is incorrectly assumed when there is selection, what effects does it have on demographic parameter estimation? Can the impact of negative selection be observed in populations that undergo strong exponential growth? PMID:25873633

  11. Axis II disorders and cigarette smoking among adults from the general population.

    PubMed

    Becoña, Elisardo; Fernández del Río, Elena; López-Durán, Ana; Piñeiro, Bárbara; Martínez, Úrsula

    2013-06-01

    The present study examined whether personality disorders (PDs) are associated with cigarette smoking, and the possible influence of nicotine dependence, sociodemographic variables, and the presence of any lifetime Axis I mental disorder in these relationships. The sample was made up of 1,081 adult participants from the Spanish general population and was stratified by smoking status (519 smokers and 562 nonsmokers). PDs were assessed by means of the International Personality Disorder Examination Questionnaire, Module DSM-IV. Results indicated that participants with a paranoid, a narcissistic, a borderline, an antisocial, or an obsessive-compulsive PD had a higher probability for being smokers and for being nicotine-dependent. The only exception was the schizoid PD, because participants with this Axis II disorder had a lower probability for being nicotine-dependent smokers. The association between PDs and smoking was maintained even after adjusting for all covariates. Findings are discussed in relation to the influence of Axis II disorders on smoking cessation interventions. PMID:22928853

  12. Cardiovascular Diseases and Women: Knowledge, Attitudes, and Behavior in the General Population in Italy

    PubMed Central

    Tedesco, Luisa Maria Roberta; Di Giuseppe, Gabriella; Angelillo, Italo Francesco

    2015-01-01

    Background. The objectives of the study were to document knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors of women regarding cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) and the determinants associated. Materials and Methods. The cross-sectional survey was conducted among a random sample of 830 women older than 18 years from the general population in Italy. Results. Almost all participants reported having heard about CVDs, and among them 89.4% and 74.7% identified smoking and high cholesterol level as risk factors. Only 26.5% identified the main CVDs risk factors. Women more knowledgeable were married and better educated and self-perceived a worse health status. Only 23% knew the main CVDs preventive measures and this knowledge was significantly higher in women who are unemployed, who are more educated, who have received information about CVDs from physicians, and who know the main risk factors. Respondents with lower education, those with at least three children, those who self-perceived a worse health status, and those who need information were most likely to have a positive attitude toward the perceived risk of developing CVDs. Women with two or three children or more were at high risk profiles 49% and 56% lower than women with one child. Conclusions. Educational programs are needed among women as support to improve knowledge and appropriate behavior about CVDs. PMID:25699272

  13. Footedness Is Associated with Self-reported Sporting Performance and Motor Abilities in the General Population.

    PubMed

    Tran, Ulrich S; Voracek, Martin

    2016-01-01

    Left-handers may have strategic advantages over right-handers in interactive sports and innate superior abilities that are beneficial for sports. Previous studies relied on differing criteria for handedness classification and mostly did not investigate mixed preferences and footedness. Footedness appears to be less influenced by external and societal factors than handedness. Utilizing latent class analysis and structural equation modeling, we investigated in a series of studies (total N > 15300) associations of handedness and footedness with self-reported sporting performance and motor abilities in the general population. Using a discovery and a replication sample (ns = 7658 and 5062), Study 1 revealed replicable beneficial effects of mixed-footedness and left-footedness in team sports, martial arts and fencing, dancing, skiing, and swimming. Study 2 (n = 2592) showed that footedness for unskilled bipedal movement tasks, but not for skilled unipedal tasks, was beneficial for sporting performance. Mixed- and left-footedness had effects on motor abilities that were consistent with published results on better brain interhemispheric communication, but also akin to testosterone-induced effects regarding flexibility, strength, and endurance. Laterality effects were only small. Possible neural and hormonal bases of observed effects need to be examined in future studies. PMID:27559326

  14. The Musicality of Non-Musicians: An Index for Assessing Musical Sophistication in the General Population

    PubMed Central

    Müllensiefen, Daniel; Gingras, Bruno; Musil, Jason; Stewart, Lauren

    2014-01-01

    Musical skills and expertise vary greatly in Western societies. Individuals can differ in their repertoire of musical behaviours as well as in the level of skill they display for any single musical behaviour. The types of musical behaviours we refer to here are broad, ranging from performance on an instrument and listening expertise, to the ability to employ music in functional settings or to communicate about music. In this paper, we first describe the concept of ‘musical sophistication’ which can be used to describe the multi-faceted nature of musical expertise. Next, we develop a novel measurement instrument, the Goldsmiths Musical Sophistication Index (Gold-MSI) to assess self-reported musical skills and behaviours on multiple dimensions in the general population using a large Internet sample (n = 147,636). Thirdly, we report results from several lab studies, demonstrating that the Gold-MSI possesses good psychometric properties, and that self-reported musical sophistication is associated with performance on two listening tasks. Finally, we identify occupation, occupational status, age, gender, and wealth as the main socio-demographic factors associated with musical sophistication. Results are discussed in terms of theoretical accounts of implicit and statistical music learning and with regard to social conditions of sophisticated musical engagement. PMID:24586929

  15. Footedness Is Associated with Self-reported Sporting Performance and Motor Abilities in the General Population

    PubMed Central

    Tran, Ulrich S.; Voracek, Martin

    2016-01-01

    Left-handers may have strategic advantages over right-handers in interactive sports and innate superior abilities that are beneficial for sports. Previous studies relied on differing criteria for handedness classification and mostly did not investigate mixed preferences and footedness. Footedness appears to be less influenced by external and societal factors than handedness. Utilizing latent class analysis and structural equation modeling, we investigated in a series of studies (total N > 15300) associations of handedness and footedness with self-reported sporting performance and motor abilities in the general population. Using a discovery and a replication sample (ns = 7658 and 5062), Study 1 revealed replicable beneficial effects of mixed-footedness and left-footedness in team sports, martial arts and fencing, dancing, skiing, and swimming. Study 2 (n = 2592) showed that footedness for unskilled bipedal movement tasks, but not for skilled unipedal tasks, was beneficial for sporting performance. Mixed- and left-footedness had effects on motor abilities that were consistent with published results on better brain interhemispheric communication, but also akin to testosterone-induced effects regarding flexibility, strength, and endurance. Laterality effects were only small. Possible neural and hormonal bases of observed effects need to be examined in future studies. PMID:27559326

  16. The musicality of non-musicians: an index for assessing musical sophistication in the general population.

    PubMed

    Müllensiefen, Daniel; Gingras, Bruno; Musil, Jason; Stewart, Lauren

    2014-01-01

    Musical skills and expertise vary greatly in Western societies. Individuals can differ in their repertoire of musical behaviours as well as in the level of skill they display for any single musical behaviour. The types of musical behaviours we refer to here are broad, ranging from performance on an instrument and listening expertise, to the ability to employ music in functional settings or to communicate about music. In this paper, we first describe the concept of 'musical sophistication' which can be used to describe the multi-faceted nature of musical expertise. Next, we develop a novel measurement instrument, the Goldsmiths Musical Sophistication Index (Gold-MSI) to assess self-reported musical skills and behaviours on multiple dimensions in the general population using a large Internet sample (n = 147,636). Thirdly, we report results from several lab studies, demonstrating that the Gold-MSI possesses good psychometric properties, and that self-reported musical sophistication is associated with performance on two listening tasks. Finally, we identify occupation, occupational status, age, gender, and wealth as the main socio-demographic factors associated with musical sophistication. Results are discussed in terms of theoretical accounts of implicit and statistical music learning and with regard to social conditions of sophisticated musical engagement. PMID:24586929

  17. Precision of systematic and random sampling in clustered populations: habitat patches and aggregating organisms.

    PubMed

    McGarvey, Richard; Burch, Paul; Matthews, Janet M

    2016-01-01

    Natural populations of plants and animals spatially cluster because (1) suitable habitat is patchy, and (2) within suitable habitat, individuals aggregate further into clusters of higher density. We compare the precision of random and systematic field sampling survey designs under these two processes of species clustering. Second, we evaluate the performance of 13 estimators for the variance of the sample mean from a systematic survey. Replicated simulated surveys, as counts from 100 transects, allocated either randomly or systematically within the study region, were used to estimate population density in six spatial point populations including habitat patches and Matérn circular clustered aggregations of organisms, together and in combination. The standard one-start aligned systematic survey design, a uniform 10 x 10 grid of transects, was much more precise. Variances of the 10 000 replicated systematic survey mean densities were one-third to one-fifth of those from randomly allocated transects, implying transect sample sizes giving equivalent precision by random survey would need to be three to five times larger. Organisms being restricted to patches of habitat was alone sufficient to yield this precision advantage for the systematic design. But this improved precision for systematic sampling in clustered populations is underestimated by standard variance estimators used to compute confidence intervals. True variance for the survey sample mean was computed from the variance of 10 000 simulated survey mean estimates. Testing 10 published and three newly proposed variance estimators, the two variance estimators (v) that corrected for inter-transect correlation (ν₈ and ν(W)) were the most accurate and also the most precise in clustered populations. These greatly outperformed the two "post-stratification" variance estimators (ν₂ and ν₃) that are now more commonly applied in systematic surveys. Similar variance estimator performance rankings were found with

  18. Population Education in Science: Some Sample Lessons for the Secondary Level.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization, Bangkok (Thailand). Regional Office for Education in Asia and the Pacific.

    This booklet consists of six sample lessons integrating population education into science instruction. It is one of four in a series. Materials differ from those in an earlier series (1980) in that lessons are presented at the secondary level only; there is no duplication of lessons from the earlier series in terms of content and teaching…

  19. Population Education in Mathematics: Some Sample Lessons for the Secondary Level.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization, Bangkok (Thailand). Regional Office for Education in Asia and the Pacific.

    This booklet consists of five sample lessons integrating population education into mathematics instruction. It is one of four in a series. Materials differ from those in an earlier series (1980) in that lessons are presented at the secondary level only; there is no duplication of lessons from the earlier series in content and teaching strategies.…

  20. Population and Family Education. Draft Sample Instructional Materials. Science/Mathematics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization, Bangkok (Thailand). Regional Office for Education in Asia and Oceania.

    The sample first-draft materials, produced by participants at a UNESCO regional workshop on population and family life, are designed as a reference tool to be used by curriculum developers. Divided into two major parts -- in biological science and in mathematics -- the teaching guide is for secondary level students. The first part, consisting of…

  1. SunSmart? Skin Cancer Knowledge and Preventive Behaviour in a British Population Representative Sample

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miles, A.; Waller, J.; Hiom, S.; Swanston, D.

    2005-01-01

    The incidence of skin cancer has risen rapidly in the UK over the last 20 years, prompting public health organizations to try and raise awareness of the dangers of sun exposure and the need to practice sun-safe behaviour. This study aimed to assess baseline levels of sun-safe knowledge and behaviour in a British population-representative sample,…

  2. Population Education in Health and Home Economics: Some Sample Lessons for the Secondary Level.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization, Bangkok (Thailand). Regional Office for Education in Asia and the Pacific.

    This booklet contains five sample lessons integrating population education into health and home economics instruction. It is one of four in a series. Materials differ from those in an earlier series (1980) in that lessons are presented at the secondary level only; there is no duplication of lessons from the earlier series in content and teaching…

  3. Population Education in Social Studies: Some Sample Lessons for the Secondary Level.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization, Bangkok (Thailand). Regional Office for Education in Asia and the Pacific.

    This booklet consists of 10 sample lessons integrating population education into the social studies. It is one of four in a series. Materials differ from those in an earlier series (1980) in that lessons are presented at the secondary level only; there is no duplication of lessons from the earlier series in terms of content and teaching…

  4. A Systematic Evaluation of ADHD and Comorbid Psychopathology in a Population-Based Twin Sample

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Volk, Heather E.; Neuman, Rosalind J.; Todd, Richard D.

    2005-01-01

    Objective: Clinical and population samples demonstrate that attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) occurs with other disorders. Comorbid disorder clustering within ADHD subtypes is not well studied. Method: Latent class analysis (LCA) examined the co-occurrence of DSM-IV ADHD, oppositional defiant disorder (ODD), conduct disorder (CD),…

  5. Psychological Abuse between Parents: Associations with Child Maltreatment from a Population-Based Sample

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chang, Jen Jen; Theodore, Adrea D.; Martin, Sandra L.; Runyan, Desmond K.

    2008-01-01

    Objective: This study examined the association between partner psychological abuse and child maltreatment perpetration. Methods: This cross-sectional study examined a population-based sample of mothers with children aged 0-17 years in North and South Carolina (n = 1,149). Mothers were asked about the occurrence of potentially neglectful or abusive…

  6. Gaining Access to Economically Marginalized Rural Populations: Lessons Learned from Nonprobability Sampling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mammen, Sheila; Sano, Yoshie

    2012-01-01

    Poverty is a significant problem in rural America. Gaining access to economically marginalized rural populations in order to recruit individuals to participate in a research study, however, is often a challenge. This article compares three different nonprobability sampling techniques that have been used to recruit rural, low-income…

  7. Temperament, Environment, and Antisocial Behavior in a Population Sample of Preadolescent Boys and Girls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Veenstra, Rene; Lindenberg, Siegwart; Oldehinkel, Albertine J.; De Winter, Andrea F.; Ormel, Johan

    2006-01-01

    Antisocial behavior can be triggered by negative social experiences and individuals' processing of these experiences. This study focuses on risk-buffering interactions between temperament, perceived parenting, socio-economic status (SES), and sex in relation to antisocial behavior in a Dutch population sample of preadolescents (N = 2230).…

  8. Three-state selective population of dressed states via generalized spectral phase-step modulation

    SciTech Connect

    Wollenhaupt, Matthias; Bayer, Tim; Baumert, Thomas; Vitanov, Nikolay V.

    2010-05-15

    We present a joint experimental and theoretical study of selective population of dressed states (SPODS) in a three-level system. Control is exerted by shaped intense femtosecond laser pulses generated by a generalized spectral phase-step modulation function. We show that both control parameters (i.e., the phase-step amplitude and position) can be used to switch population among each three dressed states with high selectivity. The dynamics of the system, and hence the resulting photoelectron signal is studied theoretically by analyzing the time evolution of the adiabatic dressed-state energies and populations.

  9. The importance of effective sampling for exploring the population dynamics of haploid-diploid seaweeds.

    PubMed

    Krueger-Hadfield, Stacy A; Hoban, Sean M

    2016-02-01

    The mating system partitions genetic diversity within and among populations and the links between life history traits and mating systems have been extensively studied in diploid organisms. As such most evolutionary theory is focused on species for which sexual reproduction occurs between diploid male and diploid female individuals. However, there are many multicellular organisms with biphasic life cycles in which the haploid stage is prolonged and undergoes substantial somatic development. In particular, biphasic life cycles are found across green, brown and red macroalgae. Yet, few studies have addressed the population structure and genetic diversity in both the haploid and diploid stages in these life cycles. We have developed some broad guidelines with which to develop population genetic studies of haploid-diploid macroalgae and to quantify the relationship between power and sampling strategy. We address three common goals for studying macroalgal population dynamics, including haploid-diploid ratios, genetic structure and paternity analyses. PMID:26987084

  10. Desphospho-uncarboxylated matrix Gla protein is associated with increased aortic stiffness in a general population.

    PubMed

    Mayer, O; Seidlerová, J; Wohlfahrt, P; Filipovský, J; Vaněk, J; Cífková, R; Windrichová, J; Topolčan, O; Knapen, M H J; Drummen, N E A; Vermeer, C

    2016-07-01

    Matrix Gla protein (MGP), a natural inhibitor of calcification, strongly correlates with the extent of coronary calcification. Vitamin K is the essential cofactor for the activation of MGP. The nonphosphorylated-uncarboxylated isoform of MGP (dp-ucMGP) reflects the status of this vitamin. We investigated whether there is an association between dp-ucMGP and stiffness of elastic and muscular-type large arteries in a random sample from the general population. In a cross-sectional design, we analyzed 1087 subjects from the Czech post-MONICA study. Aortic and femoro-popliteal pulse wave velocities (PWVs) were measured using a Sphygmocor device. Dp-ucMGP concentrations were assessed in freshly frozen samples by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay methods using the InaKtif MGP iSYS pre-commercial kit developed by IDS and VitaK. Aortic PWV significantly (P<0.0001) increased across the dp-ucMGP quartiles. After adjustment for all potential confounders, aortic PWV independently correlated with dp-ucMGP (with beta coefficient (s.d.) 11.61 (5.38) and P-value=0.031). In a categorized manner, subjects in the top quartile of dp-ucMGP (⩾ 671 pmol l(-1)) had a higher risk of elevated aortic PWV, with corresponding adjusted odds ratio (95% confidence interval) 1.73 (1.17-2.5). In contrast, no relation between dp-ucMGP and femoro-popliteal PWV was found. In conclusion, increased dp-ucMGP, which is a circulating biomarker of vitamin K status and vascular calcification, is independently associated with aortic stiffness, but not with stiffness of distal muscular-type arteries. PMID:26016598

  11. Prevalence and Risk Factors of Tinea Unguium and Tinea Pedis in the General Population in Spain

    PubMed Central

    Perea, Sofia; Ramos, Maria Jose; Garau, Margarita; Gonzalez, Alba; Noriega, Antonio R.; del Palacio, Amalia

    2000-01-01

    This study prospectively evaluated the prevalence and risk factors of tinea unguium and tinea pedis in the general adult population in Madrid, Spain. One thousand subjects were clinically examined, and samples of nails and scales from the interdigital spaces of the feet were taken from those patients presenting with signs or symptoms of onychomycosis and/or tinea pedis, respectively. In addition, a sample from the fourth interdigital space of both feet was collected from all individuals with a piece of sterilized wool carpet. Tinea unguium was defined as a positive direct examination with potassium hydroxide and culture of the etiological agent from subjects with clinically abnormal nails. Patients with positive dermatophyte cultures of foot specimens were considered to have tinea pedis. The prevalence of tinea unguium was 2.8% (4.0% for men and 1.7% for women), and the prevalence of tinea pedis was 2.9% (4.2% for men and 1.7% for women). The etiological agents of tinea unguium were identified as Trichopyton rubrum (82.1%), followed by Trichopyton mentagrophytes var. interdigitale (14.3%) and Trichopyton tonsurans (3.5%). Trichophyton rubrum (44.8%) and Trichophyton mentagrophytes (44.8%), followed by Epidermophyton floccosum (7%) and T. tonsurans (3.4%), were the organisms isolated from patients with tinea pedis. The percentage of subjects who suffered simultaneously from both diseases was 1.1% (1.7% for men and 0.6% for women). In a multivariate logistic regression analysis, age (relative risk [RR], 1.03) and gender (RR, 2.50) were independent risk factors for tinea unguium, while only gender (RR, 2.65) was predictive for the occurrence of tinea pedis. In both analyses, the presence of one of the two conditions was associated with a higher risk for the appearance of the other disease (RR, >25). PMID:10970362

  12. Rapid assessment of population size by area sampling in disaster situations.

    PubMed

    Brown, V; Jacquier, G; Coulombier, D; Balandine, S; Belanger, F; Legros, D

    2001-06-01

    In the initial phase of a complex emergency, an immediate population size assessment method, based on area sampling, is vital to provide relief workers with a rapid population estimate in refugee camps. In the past decade, the method has been progressively improved; six examples are presented in this paper and questions raised about its statistical validity as well as important issues for further research. There are two stages. The first is to map the camp by registering all of its co-ordinates. In the second stage, the total camp population is estimated by counting the population living in a limited number of square blocks of known surface area, and by extrapolating average population calculated per block to the total camp surface. In six camps selected in Asia and Africa, between 1992 and 1994, population figures were estimated within one to two days. After measuring all external limits, surfaces were calculated and ranged between 121,300 and 2,770,000 square metres. In five camps, the mean average population per square was obtained using blocks 25 by 25 meters (625 m2), and for another camp with blocks 100 by 100 m2. In three camps, different population density zones were defined. Total camp populations obtained were 16,800 to 113,600. Although this method is a valuable public health tool in emergency situations, it has several limitations. Issues related to population density and number and size of blocks to be selected require further research for the method to be better validated. PMID:11434235

  13. Atopic dermatitis, asthma and allergic rhinitis in general practice and the open population: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Pols, D. H. J.; Wartna, J. B.; Moed, H.; van Alphen, E. I.; Bohnen, A. M.; Bindels, P. J. E.

    2016-01-01

    Objective To examine whether significant differences exist between the self-reported prevalence of atopic disorders in the open population compared with physician diagnosed prevalence of atopic disorders in general practice. Methods Medline (OvidSP), PubMed Publisher, EMBASE, Google Scholar and the Cochrane Controlled Clinical Trials Register databases were systematically reviewed for articles providing data on the prevalence of asthma, allergic rhinitis and eczema in a GP setting. Studies were only included when they had a cross-sectional or cohort design and included more than 100 children (aged 0-18 years) in a general practice setting. All ISAAC studies (i.e. the open population) that geographically matched a study selected from the first search, were also included. A quality assessment was conducted. The primary outcome measures were prevalence of eczema, asthma and allergic rhinitis in children aged 0-18 years. Results The overall quality of the included studies was good. The annual and lifetime prevalences of the atopic disorders varied greatly in both general practice and the open population. On average, the prevalence of atopic disorders was higher in the open population. Conclusion There are significant differences between the self-reported prevalence of atopic disorders in the open population compared with physician diagnosed prevalence of atopic disorders in general practice. Data obtained in the open population cannot simply be extrapolated to the general practice setting. This should be taken into account when considering a research topic or requirements for policy development. GPs should be aware of the possible misclassification of allergic disorders in their practice. Key PointsEpidemiological data on atopic disorders in children can be obtained from various sources, each having its own advantages and limitations.On average, the prevalence of atopic disorders is higher in the open population.GPs should take into account the possible

  14. Human papillomavirus infection in a population-based sample of women in Algiers, Algeria.

    PubMed

    Hammouda, Doudja; Clifford, Gary M; Pallardy, Sophie; Ayyach, Ghassan; Chékiri, Asma; Boudrich, Arab; Snijders, Peter J F; van Kemenade, Folkert J; Meijer, Chris J L M; Bouhadef, Anissa; Zitouni, Zahia; Habib, Djamila; Ikezaren, Nadia; Franceschi, Silvia

    2011-05-01

    No data exist on the population prevalence of, nor risk factors for, human papillomavirus (HPV) infection in the predominantly Muslim countries of Northern Africa. Cervical specimens were obtained from 759 married women aged 15-65 years from the general population of Algiers, Algeria. Liquid-based cytology and HPV DNA detection, using a GP5+/6+-based polymerase chain reaction assay that detects 44 HPV types, were performed according to the standardized protocol of the International Agency for Research on Cancer HPV Prevalence Surveys. HPV prevalence in the general population was 6.3% (4.0% of high-risk types), with no significant variation by age. The prevalence of cervical abnormalities was 3.6%. HPV positivity was significantly higher among divorced women, women in polygamous marriages and those reporting husband's extramarital sexual relationships. HPV16/18 accounted for only 15% of HPV-positive women in the general population, compared with 77% of invasive cervical cancer diagnosed in the same city. In conclusion, we report that HPV infection among married women in Algeria is much lower than in sub-Saharan Africa and also lower than in the majority of high-resource countries. PMID:20607828

  15. Weapon carrying and psychopathic-like features in a population-based sample of Finnish adolescents.

    PubMed

    Saukkonen, Suvi; Laajasalo, Taina; Jokela, Markus; Kivivuori, Janne; Salmi, Venla; Aronen, Eeva T

    2016-02-01

    We investigated the prevalence of juvenile weapon carrying and psychosocial and personality-related risk factors for carrying different types of weapons in a nationally representative, population-based sample of Finnish adolescents. Specifically, we aimed to investigate psychopathic-like personality features as a risk factor for weapon carrying. The participants were 15-16-year-old adolescents from the Finnish self-report delinquency study (n = 4855). Four different groups were formed based on self-reported weapon carrying: no weapon carrying, carrying knife, gun or other weapon. The associations between psychosocial factors, psychopathic-like features and weapon carrying were examined with multinomial logistic regression analysis. 9% of the participants had carried a weapon in the past 12 months. Adolescents with a history of delinquency, victimization and antisocial friends were more likely to carry weapons in general; however, delinquency and victimization were most strongly related to gun carrying, while perceived peer delinquency (antisocial friends) was most strongly related to carrying a knife. Better academic performance was associated with a reduced likelihood of carrying a gun and knife, while feeling secure correlated with a reduced likelihood of gun carrying only. Psychopathic-like features were related to a higher likelihood of weapon carrying, even after adjusting for other risk factors. The findings of the study suggest that adolescents carrying a weapon have a large cluster of problems in their lives, which may vary based on the type of weapon carried. Furthermore, psychopathic-like features strongly relate to a higher risk of carrying a weapon. PMID:25986501

  16. A Sex-Specific Comparison of Major Depressive Disorder Symptomatology in the Canadian Forces and the General Population

    PubMed Central

    Erickson, Julie; Kinley, D Jolene; Bolton, James M; Zamorski, Mark A; Enns, Murray W; Sareen, Jitender

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To compare major depressive disorder (MDD) symptomatology within men and women in a large, representative sample of Canadian military personnel and civilians. Method: We used the Canadian Community Health Survey: Mental Health and Well-Being (Cycle 1.2 and Canadian Forces Supplement) (n = 36 984 and n = 8441, respectively) to compare past-year MDD symptomatology among military and civilian women, and military and civilian men. Logistic regression models were used to determine differences in the types of depressive symptoms endorsed in each group. Results: Men in the military with MDD were at lower odds than men in the general population to endorse numerous symptoms of depression, such as hopelessness (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] 0.44; 99% CI 0.23 to 0.83) and inability to cope (AOR 0.53; 99% CI 0.31 to 0.92). Military women with MDD were at lower odds of thinking about their death (AOR 0.52; 99% CI 0.32 to 0.86), relative to women with MDD in the general population. Conclusion: Different MDD symptomatology among males and females in the military, compared with those in the general population, may reflect selection effects (for example, personality characteristics and patterns of comorbidity) or occupational experiences unique to military personnel. Future research examining the mechanisms behind MDD symptomatology in military personnel and civilians is required. PMID:25007423

  17. Recruiting Gamblers from the General Population for Research Purposes: Outcomes from Two Contrasting Approaches

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Jeremy D.; Pulford, Justin; Bellringer, Maria; Abbott, Max

    2010-01-01

    Multiple means exist by which gamblers including problem gamblers may be recruited from the general population for research survey purposes. However, there appears to be limited discussion in the published literature about the relative merits of one or other approach. This paper addresses this gap, in part, by reporting the experiences of…

  18. A New Screening Programme for Autism in a General Population of Swedish Toddlers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nygren, Gudrun; Sandberg, Eva; Gillstedt, Fredrik; Ekeroth, Gunnar; Arvidsson, Thomas; Gillberg, Christopher

    2012-01-01

    The evidence from early intervention studies of autism has emphasised the need for early diagnosis. Insight into the early presentation of autism is crucial for early recognition, and routine screening can optimise the possibility for early diagnosis. General population screening was conducted for 2.5-year-old children at child health centres in…

  19. The Relationship between General Population Suicide Rates and Educational Attainment: A Cross-National Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shah, Ajit; Bhandarkar, Ritesh

    2009-01-01

    Suicides are associated with both high and low levels of intelligence and educational attainment in both individual-level and aggregate-level studies. A cross-national study examining the relationship between general population suicide rates ("y") and educational attainment ("x") was undertaken with the "a priori" hypothesis that the relationship…

  20. General Population Norms about Child Abuse and Neglect and Associations with Childhood Experiences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bensley, L.; Ruggles, D.; Simmons, K.W.; Harris, C.; Williams, K.; Putvin, T.; Allen, M.

    2004-01-01

    Background:: A variety of definitions of child abuse and neglect exist. However, little is known about norms in the general population as to what constitutes child abuse and neglect or how perceived norms may be related to personal experiences. Methods:: We conducted a random-digit-dialed telephone survey of 504 Washington State adults.…

  1. Prevalence of Chronic Medical Conditions in Adults with Mental Retardation: Comparison with the General Population.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kapell, Deborah; Nightingale, Beryle; Rodriguez, Ana; Lee, Joseph H.; Zigman, Warren B.; Schupf, Nicole

    1998-01-01

    A study interviewed caregivers and reviewed medical records of 278 adults with mental retardation with and without Down syndrome. The adults with mental retardation had age-related disorders comparable to those in the general population, but there was an increased frequency of thyroid disorders, nonischemic heart disorders, and sensory impairment.…

  2. Intimate Partner Violence in the U.S. General Population: Progress and Future Directions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Field, Craig A.; Caetano, Raul

    2005-01-01

    This article reviews survey research on intimate partner violence (IPV) in the U.S. general population. Results from survey research conducted over the past quarter century are briefly summarized. Three additional national studies related to injuries, crime victimization, and homicide among intimate partners in the United States are also…

  3. Seroepidemiology of Toxoplasma gondii infection in general population in a Northern Mexican city

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    There is a lack of information about the seroepidemiology of T. gondii infection in the general population of Durango City, Mexico. Anti-T. gondii IgG and IgM antibodies were sought in 974 inhabitants in Durango City, Mexico using enzyme-linked immunoassays. In total, 59 (6.1%) of 974 participants (...

  4. Patients Taking Imatinib for CML Have Similar Risk of Death as General Population

    Cancer.gov

    In an international study, the risk of death for chronic myelogenous leukemia patients treated with imatinib (Gleevec) who had been in remission for at least 2 years was not different from that of the general population, according to an article in the March 21, 2011 issue of the Journal of the National Cancer Institute.

  5. RESIDUES AND METABOLITES OF SELECTED PERSISTENT HALOGENATED HYDROCARBONS IN BLOOD SPECIMENS FROM A GENERAL POPULATION SURVEY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The National Center for Health Statistics collaborated with the National Human Monitoring Program of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) in a four-year study to assess the exposure of the general population to selected pesticides through analysis of blood serum and uri...

  6. Population data for 17 Y-chromosome STRs in a sample from Apulia (Southern Italy).

    PubMed

    Piglionica, M; Baldassarra, S Lonero; Giardina, E; Stella, A; D'Ovidio, F D; Frati, P; Lenato, G M; Resta, N; Dell'Erba, A

    2013-01-01

    The 17 Y-STR loci included in the AmpFLSTR Yfiler PCR Amplification Kit were analyzed in 98 unrelated healthy males from Apulia (Southern Italy). A total of 97 different haplotypes were identified, of which 96 haplotypes were unique and 1 occurred twice. Allele frequencies for each Y-STR locus in pooled sample and estimated value of gene diversity (GD) were evaluated. The lowest value of GD was observed for DYS392 (0.126) and the highest one (0.936) for DYS385. The HD (haplotype diversity) for the studied Y-STR set showed a value of 0.9994, with an HMP (haplotype match probability) value of 0.0006, while the overall DC was 98.98%. Microvariant alleles were found for the DYS458 and DYS385 markers and sequenced. Furthermore, Φ(st)-based genetic distance computation and pair-wise analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA) test were carried out. When comparing our population with the Apulia sample previously investigated, the AMOVA analysis detected no evidence for significant differentiation. The comparison with all Italian populations submitted to the YHRD website showed no relevant differences with all Southern Italian populations (San Giorgio La Molara, Belvedere, Trapani and Catania) and significant genetic deviation with all Northern Italian populations (Udine, Biella, La Spezia, Modena, Ravenna, Marche and North Sardinia). Moreover, the other populations and meta-populations belonging to the whole Mediterranean area (Croatia, Macedonia, Albania, Greece, Turkey, Israel, Libya, Tunisia, Algeria, Morocco and Spain) were different from our Apulia sample. The data were submitted to YHRD. PMID:22960096

  7. Predictive Characteristics of Diabetes-Associated Autoantibodies Among Children With HLA-Conferred Disease Susceptibility in the General Population

    PubMed Central

    Siljander, Heli T.A.; Simell, Satu; Hekkala, Anne; Lähde, Jyrki; Simell, Tuula; Vähäsalo, Paula; Veijola, Riitta; Ilonen, Jorma; Simell, Olli; Knip, Mikael

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE As data on the predictive characteristics of diabetes-associated autoantibodies for type 1 diabetes in the general population are scarce, we assessed the predictive performance of islet cell autoantibodies (ICAs) in combination with autoantibodies against insulin (IAAs), autoantibodies against GAD, and/or islet antigen 2 for type 1 diabetes in children with HLA-defined disease predisposition recruited from the general population. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS We observed 7,410 children from birth (median 9.2 years) for β-cell autoimmunity and diabetes. If a child developed ICA positivity or diabetes, the three other antibodies were measured in all samples available from that individual. Persistent autoantibody positivity was defined as continued positivity in at least two sequential samples including the last available sample. RESULTS Pre-diabetic ICA positivity was observed in 1,173 subjects (15.8%), 155 of whom developed type 1 diabetes. With ICA screening, 86% of 180 progressors (median age at diagnosis 5.0 years) were identified. Positivity for four antibodies was associated with the highest disease sensitivity (54.4%) and negative predictive values (98.3%) and the lowest negative likelihood ratio (0.5). The combination of persistent ICA and IAA positivity resulted in the highest positive predictive value (91.7%), positive likelihood ratio (441.8), cumulative disease risk (100%), and specificity (100%). Young age at seroconversion, high ICA level, multipositivity, and persistent positivity for IAA were significant risk markers for type 1 diabetes. CONCLUSIONS Within the general population, the combination of HLA and autoantibody screening resulted in disease risks that are likely to be as high as those reported among autoantibody-positive siblings of children with type 1 diabetes. PMID:19755526

  8. Effort-Reward Imbalance and Mental Health Problems in 1074 German Teachers, Compared with Those in the General Population.

    PubMed

    Hinz, Andreas; Zenger, Markus; Brähler, Elmar; Spitzer, Silvia; Scheuch, Klaus; Seibt, Reingard

    2016-08-01

    High degrees of premature retirement among teachers warrant investigating the occupational burden and the mental health status of this profession. A sample of 1074 German teachers participated in this study. Two samples of the general population (N = 824 and N = 792) were used as comparison groups. Work distress was assessed with the Effort-Reward-Imbalance questionnaire, and mental health problems were measured with the General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12). Teachers reported more effort-reward imbalance (M = 0.64) compared with the general population (M = 0.57), and they perceived more mental health problems (GHQ: M = 12.1) than the comparison group (M = 9.5). School type was not associated with work stress and mental health. Teachers with leading functions perceived high degrees of effort and reward, resulting in a moderate effort-reward ratio and no heightened mental health problems. Teachers working full time reported more effort than teachers working part time, but the reward mean values of both groups were similar. This results in a somewhat unfavourable effort-reward ratio of teachers working full time. Moreover, teachers working full time reported more mental health problems. The results support the appropriateness of the effort-reward conception, applied to the profession of teachers. The higher degree of effort-reward imbalance and the level of mental health problems warrant preventive measures. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:25053122

  9. Activity and growth of microbial populations in pressurized deep-sea sediment and animal gut samples.

    PubMed

    Tabor, P S; Deming, J W; Ohwada, K; Colwell, R R

    1982-08-01

    Benthic animals and sediment samples were collected at deep-sea stations in the northwest (3,600-m depth) and southeast (4,300- and 5200-m depths) Atlantic Ocean. Utilization rates of [14C]glutamate (0.67 to 0.74 nmol) in sediment suspensions incubated at in situ temperatures and pressures (3 to 5 degrees C and 360, 430, or 520 atmospheres) were relatively slow, ranging from 0.09 to 0.39 nmol g-1 day-1, whereas rates for pressurized samples of gut suspensions varied widely, ranging from no detectable activity to a rapid rate of 986 nmol g-1 day-1. Gut flora from a holothurian specimen and a fish demonstrated rapid, barophilic substrate utilization, based on relative rates calculated for pressurized samples and samples held at 1 atm (101.325 kPa). Substrate utilization by microbial populations in several sediment samples was not inhibited by in situ pressure. Deep-sea pressures did not restrict growth, measured as doubling time, of culturable bacteria present in a northwest Atlantic sediment sample and in a gut suspension prepared from an abyssal scavenging amphipod. From the results of this study, it was concluded that microbial populations in benthic environments can demonstrate significant metabolic activity under deep-ocean conditions of temperature and pressure. Furthermore, rates of microbial activity in the guts of benthic macrofauna are potentially more rapid than in surrounding deep-sea sediments. PMID:6127054

  10. Activity and growth of microbial populations in pressurized deep-sea sediment and animal gut samples.

    PubMed Central

    Tabor, P S; Deming, J W; Ohwada, K; Colwell, R R

    1982-01-01

    Benthic animals and sediment samples were collected at deep-sea stations in the northwest (3,600-m depth) and southeast (4,300- and 5200-m depths) Atlantic Ocean. Utilization rates of [14C]glutamate (0.67 to 0.74 nmol) in sediment suspensions incubated at in situ temperatures and pressures (3 to 5 degrees C and 360, 430, or 520 atmospheres) were relatively slow, ranging from 0.09 to 0.39 nmol g-1 day-1, whereas rates for pressurized samples of gut suspensions varied widely, ranging from no detectable activity to a rapid rate of 986 nmol g-1 day-1. Gut flora from a holothurian specimen and a fish demonstrated rapid, barophilic substrate utilization, based on relative rates calculated for pressurized samples and samples held at 1 atm (101.325 kPa). Substrate utilization by microbial populations in several sediment samples was not inhibited by in situ pressure. Deep-sea pressures did not restrict growth, measured as doubling time, of culturable bacteria present in a northwest Atlantic sediment sample and in a gut suspension prepared from an abyssal scavenging amphipod. From the results of this study, it was concluded that microbial populations in benthic environments can demonstrate significant metabolic activity under deep-ocean conditions of temperature and pressure. Furthermore, rates of microbial activity in the guts of benthic macrofauna are potentially more rapid than in surrounding deep-sea sediments. PMID:6127054

  11. The program structure does not reliably recover the correct population structure when sampling is uneven: subsampling and new estimators alleviate the problem.

    PubMed

    Puechmaille, Sebastien J

    2016-05-01

    Inferences of population structure and more precisely the identification of genetically homogeneous groups of individuals are essential to the fields of ecology, evolutionary biology and conservation biology. Such population structure inferences are routinely investigated via the program structure implementing a Bayesian algorithm to identify groups of individuals at Hardy-Weinberg and linkage equilibrium. While the method is performing relatively well under various population models with even sampling between subpopulations, the robustness of the method to uneven sample size between subpopulations and/or hierarchical levels of population structure has not yet been tested despite being commonly encountered in empirical data sets. In this study, I used simulated and empirical microsatellite data sets to investigate the impact of uneven sample size between subpopulations and/or hierarchical levels of population structure on the detected population structure. The results demonstrated that uneven sampling often leads to wrong inferences on hierarchical structure and downward-biased estimates of the true number of subpopulations. Distinct subpopulations with reduced sampling tended to be merged together, while at the same time, individuals from extensively sampled subpopulations were generally split, despite belonging to the same panmictic population. Four new supervised methods to detect the number of clusters were developed and tested as part of this study and were found to outperform the existing methods using both evenly and unevenly sampled data sets. Additionally, a subsampling strategy aiming to reduce sampling unevenness between subpopulations is presented and tested. These results altogether demonstrate that when sampling evenness is accounted for, the detection of the correct population structure is greatly improved. PMID:26856252

  12. Sampling characteristics and calibration of snorkel counts to estimate stream fish populations

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Weaver, D.; Kwak, Thomas J.; Pollock, Kenneth

    2014-01-01

    Snorkeling is a versatile technique for estimating lotic fish population characteristics; however, few investigators have evaluated its accuracy at population or assemblage levels. We evaluated the accuracy of snorkeling using prepositioned areal electrofishing (PAE) for estimating fish populations in a medium-sized Appalachian Mountain river during fall 2008 and summer 2009. Strip-transect snorkel counts were calibrated with PAE counts in identical locations among macrohabitats, fish species or taxa, and seasons. Mean snorkeling efficiency (i.e., the proportion of individuals counted from the true population) among all taxa and seasons was 14.7% (SE, 2.5%), and the highest efficiencies were for River Chub Nocomis micropogon at 21.1% (SE, 5.9%), Central Stoneroller Campostoma anomalum at 20.3% (SE, 9.6%), and darters (Percidae) at 17.1% (SE, 3.7%), whereas efficiencies were lower for shiners (Notropis spp., Cyprinella spp., Luxilus spp.) at 8.2% (SE, 2.2%) and suckers (Catostomidae) at 6.6% (SE, 3.2%). Macrohabitat type, fish taxon, or sampling season did not significantly explain variance in snorkeling efficiency. Mean snorkeling detection probability (i.e., probability of detecting at least one individual of a taxon) among fish taxa and seasons was 58.4% (SE, 6.1%). We applied the efficiencies from our calibration study to adjust snorkel counts from an intensive snorkeling survey conducted in a nearby reach. Total fish density estimates from strip-transect counts adjusted for snorkeling efficiency were 7,288 fish/ha (SE, 1,564) during summer and 15,805 fish/ha (SE, 4,947) during fall. Precision of fish density estimates is influenced by variation in snorkeling efficiency and sample size and may be increased with additional sampling effort. These results demonstrate the sampling properties and utility of snorkeling to characterize lotic fish assemblages with acceptable efficiency and detection probability, less effort, and no mortality, compared with traditional

  13. Rare-Variant Kernel Machine Test for Longitudinal Data from Population and Family Samples

    PubMed Central

    Yan, Qi; Weeks, Daniel E.; Tiwari, Hemant K.; Yi, Nengjun; Zhang, Kui; Gao, Guimin; Lin, Wan-Yu; Lou, Xiang-Yang; Chen, Wei; Liu, Nianjun

    2016-01-01

    Objective The kernel machine (KM) test reportedly performs well in the set-based association test of rare variants. Many studies have been conducted to measure phenotypes at multiple time points, but the standard KM methodology has only been available for phenotypes at a single time point. In addition, family-based designs have been widely used in genetic association studies; therefore, the data analysis method used must appropriately handle familial relatedness. A rare variant test does not currently exist for longitudinal data from family samples. Therefore, in this paper, we aim to introduce an association test for rare variants, which includes multiple longitudinal phenotype measurements for either population or family samples. Methods This approach uses KM regression based on the linear mixed model framework and is applicable to longitudinal data from either population (L-KM) or family samples (LF-KM). Results In our population-based simulation studies, L-KM has good control of Type I error rate and increased power in all the scenarios we considered, compared with other competing methods. Conversely, in the family-based simulation studies, we found an inflated Type I error rate when L-KM was applied directly to the family samples, whereas LF-KM retained the desired Type I error rate and had the best power performance overall. Finally, we illustrate the utility of our proposed LF-KM approach by analyzing data from an association study between rare variants and blood pressure from the Genetic Analysis Workshop 18 (GAW18). Conclusion We propose a method for rare-variant association testing in population and family samples, using phenotypes measured at multiple time points for each subject. The proposed method has the best power performance compared to competing approaches in our simulation study. PMID:27161037

  14. 10 CFR 429.11 - General sampling requirements for selecting units to be tested.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false General sampling requirements for selecting units to be tested. 429.11 Section 429.11 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION CERTIFICATION, COMPLIANCE... energy or water consumption. Any represented values of measures of energy efficiency, water...

  15. 10 CFR 429.11 - General sampling requirements for selecting units to be tested.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false General sampling requirements for selecting units to be tested. 429.11 Section 429.11 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION CERTIFICATION, COMPLIANCE... energy or water consumption. Any represented values of measures of energy efficiency, water...

  16. 10 CFR 429.11 - General sampling requirements for selecting units to be tested.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false General sampling requirements for selecting units to be tested. 429.11 Section 429.11 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION CERTIFICATION, COMPLIANCE... energy or water consumption. Any represented values of measures of energy efficiency, water...

  17. Generalization of Relational Matching to Sample in Children: A Direct Replication

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sidener, David W.; Michael, Jack

    2006-01-01

    The ability of preschool age children to perform generalized relational matching to sample tasks with and without an overt mediating stimulus was examined. This experiment was a direct replication of a study by Lowenkron (1984) and examined a behavioral model relevant to complex human behavior that he later came to call "joint control." Children…

  18. Fatigue in the general Korean population: application and normative data of the Brief Fatigue Inventory.

    PubMed

    Yun, Young Ho; Lee, Myung Kyung; Chun, Han Na; Lee, Young Mi; Park, Sang Min; Mendoza, Tito R; Wang, Xin Shelley; Cleeland, Charles S

    2008-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to provide normative data for the Brief Fatigue Inventory (BFI) in the general Korean population so that the results for the general population could be compared with those for patients. We constructed a questionnaire that included the BFI and items on demographic characteristics and conducted a population-based, cross-sectional survey in 1,000 individuals. We used multivariate logistic analysis to investigate factors associated with "usual" and "worst" fatigue. The internal consistency was very high (Cronbach's alpha=0.96) and construct validity was confirmed by factor analysis. All patients had a mean+/-SD BFI score of 4.33+/-2.48 for "worst" fatigue and of 4.07+/-2.27 for "usual" fatigue, and the global BFI score was 3.44+/-2.05. The prevalence of each moderate-to-severe fatigue type was similar in severity of fatigue, with 55.2% in "usual" fatigue, and 57.3% in "worst" fatigue. Among the types of fatigue, the prevalence of severe fatigue was lowest for "usual" fatigue (16.5%). In multivariate analyses, the group aged 40-59 years had greater levels of "usual" and "worst" fatigue compared with the group aged 20-29 years. Poor general health and the presence of comorbidities were also associated with increased "usual" and "worst" fatigue. Regular physical activity was associated with reduced levels of "worst" fatigue. The normal values of BFI with proper psychometric properties may help us to better understand the correlates of fatigue in the general population and patients. Our findings indicate that comorbidities should be considered when comparing fatigue data from the general population with data from patients. PMID:18411013

  19. "Subtypes" in the Presentation of Autistic Traits in the General Adult Population

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Palmer, Colin J.; Paton, Bryan; Enticott, Peter G.; Hohwy, Jakob

    2015-01-01

    The present study examined the presentation of autistic traits in a large adult population sample (n = 2,343). Cluster analysis indicated two subgroups with clearly distinguishable trait profiles. One group (n = 1,059) reported greater social difficulties and lower detail orientation, while the second group (n = 1,284) reported lesser social…

  20. Subthreshold and threshold DSM-IV generalized anxiety disorder in Singapore: Results from a nationally representative sample.

    PubMed

    Lee, Siau Pheng; Sagayadevan, Vathsala; Vaingankar, Janhavi Ajit; Chong, Siow Ann; Subramaniam, Mythily

    2015-05-01

    Previous nationally representative studies have reported prevalence of DSM-IV generalized anxiety disorder (GAD). However, subthreshold and threshold GAD expressions remain poorly understood. The current study examined the prevalence, correlates and co-morbidity of a broader diagnosis of GAD in Singapore. The Singapore Mental Health Study (SMHS) was an epidemiological survey conducted in the population (N=6616) aged 18 years and older. The Composite International Diagnostic Interview version 3.0 (CIDI 3.0) was used to establish mental disorder diagnoses. The lifetime prevalence for subthreshold GAD (2.1%) and threshold GAD (1.5%) in the current sample was found to be lower than in Western populations. Younger age group, Indian ethnicity, previously married, chronic physical conditions, and being unemployed were associated with higher odds of having more severe expression of generalized anxiety. The relatively lower prevalence rate of subthreshold GAD expression suggests possible cultural interferences in the reporting and manifestation of anxiety symptomatology. Despite the low prevalence, significant impacts on functioning and comorbidity among subthreshold generalized anxiety cases indicate the importance of early treatment to ensure a better prognosis. PMID:25863827

  1. Analysis of Sampling Methodologies for Noise Pollution Assessment and the Impact on the Population

    PubMed Central

    Rey Gozalo, Guillermo; Barrigón Morillas, Juan Miguel

    2016-01-01

    Today, noise pollution is an increasing environmental stressor. Noise maps are recognised as the main tool for assessing and managing environmental noise, but their accuracy largely depends on the sampling method used. The sampling methods most commonly used by different researchers (grid, legislative road types and categorisation methods) were analysed and compared using the city of Talca (Chile) as a test case. The results show that the stratification of sound values in road categories has a significantly lower prediction error and a higher capacity for discrimination and prediction than in the legislative road types used by the Ministry of Transport and Telecommunications in Chile. Also, the use of one or another method implies significant differences in the assessment of population exposure to noise pollution. Thus, the selection of a suitable method for performing noise maps through measurements is essential to achieve an accurate assessment of the impact of noise pollution on the population. PMID:27187429

  2. Analysis of Sampling Methodologies for Noise Pollution Assessment and the Impact on the Population.

    PubMed

    Rey Gozalo, Guillermo; Barrigón Morillas, Juan Miguel

    2016-01-01

    Today, noise pollution is an increasing environmental stressor. Noise maps are recognised as the main tool for assessing and managing environmental noise, but their accuracy largely depends on the sampling method used. The sampling methods most commonly used by different researchers (grid, legislative road types and categorisation methods) were analysed and compared using the city of Talca (Chile) as a test case. The results show that the stratification of sound values in road categories has a significantly lower prediction error and a higher capacity for discrimination and prediction than in the legislative road types used by the Ministry of Transport and Telecommunications in Chile. Also, the use of one or another method implies significant differences in the assessment of population exposure to noise pollution. Thus, the selection of a suitable method for performing noise maps through measurements is essential to achieve an accurate assessment of the impact of noise pollution on the population. PMID:27187429

  3. Interpolating a consumption variable for scaling and generalizing potential population pressure on urbanizing natural areas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Varanka, Dalia

    2010-01-01

    Measures of population pressure, referring in general to the stress upon the environment by human consumption of resources, are imperative for environmental sustainability studies and management. Development based on resource consumption is the predominant factor of population pressure. This paper presents a spatial model of population pressure by linking consumption associated with regional urbanism and ecosystem services. Maps representing relative geographic degree and extent of natural resource consumption and degree and extent of impacts on surrounding areas are new, and this research represents the theoretical research toward this goal. With development, such maps offer a visualization tool for planners of various services, amenities for people, and conservation planning for ecologist. Urbanization is commonly generalized by census numbers or impervious surface area. The potential geographical extent of urbanism encompasses the environmental resources of the surrounding region that sustain cities. This extent is interpolated using kriging of a variable based on population wealth data from the U.S. Census Bureau. When overlayed with land-use/land-cover data, the results indicate that the greatest estimates of population pressure fall within mixed forest areas. Mixed forest areas result from the spread of cedar woods in previously disturbed areas where further disturbance is then suppressed. Low density areas, such as suburbanization and abandoned farmland are characteristic of mixed forest areas.

  4. Gastroesophageal reflux disease symptoms in the Greek general population: prevalence and risk factors

    PubMed Central

    Spantideas, Nikolaos; Drosou, Eirini; Bougea, Anastasia; Assimakopoulos, Dimitrios

    2016-01-01

    Background and aims Population-based data regarding the prevalence of gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) in Greece are very poor. This study estimated the prevalence of GERD symptoms and their risk factors in the Greek adult population. Methods A self-administered questionnaire was answered by a randomly selected population of 340 subjects. The question regarding “heartburn, chest pain, indigestion, or stomach acid coming up” as included in the Reflux Symptom Index was used for prevalence assessment. Results The monthly prevalence of GERD symptoms was found to be 52.0% in the Greek general population, with no statistically significant difference between the two sexes (P>0.05). The age group of 65–79 years showed a higher prevalence rate of GERD. Symptom severity was found to be mild (59.3%) or moderate (27.1%). The number of cigarettes smoked daily (but not smoking duration) as well as the number of alcoholic drinks consumed daily (but not the duration of alcohol drinking) were found to be related to GERD symptoms. No reported concomitant disease or medication was found to be related with GERD symptoms. Conclusion The prevalence of GERD symptoms in the Greek general population was found to be 52.0%. Tobacco smoking and alcohol drinking but not concomitant disease or medications were found to be related with GERD symptoms. PMID:27382324

  5. Association between processing speed and subclinical psychotic symptoms in the general population: focusing on sex differences.

    PubMed

    Rössler, Wulf; Ajdacic-Gross, Vladeta; Müller, Mario; Rodgers, Stephanie; Kawohl, Wolfram; Haker, Helene; Hengartner, Michael P

    2015-08-01

    Evidence is growing that persons along the schizophrenia spectrum, i.e., those who also display subclinical psychotic symptoms, exhibit deficits across a broad range of neuropsychological domains. Because sex differences in the association between cognitive deficits and psychosis have thus far been mostly neglected, we believe that ours is the first study specifically focused upon those differences when examining the relationship between subclinical psychosis and processing speed. Using a sample of 213 persons from the general population from Zurich, Switzerland, psychotic symptoms were assessed with three different questionnaires including the Schizotypal Personality Questionnaire, an adaptation of the Structured Interview for Assessing Perceptual Anomalies, and the Paranoia Checklist. Processing speed was assessed with the WAIS digit-symbol coding test. Two higher-order psychosis domains were factor-analytically derived from the various psychosis subscales and then subjected to a series of linear regression analyses. The results demonstrate that in both men and women associations between subclinical psychosis domains and processing speed were weak to moderate (β ranging from -0.18 to -0.27; all p<0.05). However, we found no sex-differences in the interrelation of subclinical psychosis and processing speed (ΔR(2)<0.005; p>0.30). In conclusion, it appears that sex differences in psychosis manifest themselves only at the high end of the continuum (full-blown schizophrenia) and not across the sub-threshold range. The small magnitude of the effects reported herein conforms to the etiopathology of the disorder. Since schizophrenia and related disorders from the spectrum are assumed to be multifactorial diseases, it follows that many etiological components of small effect are involved. PMID:26070411

  6. Factors associated with early sexual debut in Slovenia: results of a general population survey

    PubMed Central

    Klavs, I; Rodrigues, L C; Weiss, H A; Hayes, R

    2006-01-01

    Objectives To investigate time trends in age at first heterosexual intercourse (FHI) and associated factors. Methods Data were collected from a national probability sample of the general population aged 18–49 years. Results Median age at FHI was 17 years for men and 18 years for women, but declined from 18 years to 17 years in men born after the early 1960s and in women born after the early 1970s. Early FHI (before age 16) was reported by 15.2% of men and 7.4% of women, but in recent cohorts (born 1975–82), proportions were similar in both sexes (16.9% and 14.4%, respectively). In women, higher educational level and acquiring most knowledge about sex from parents or in school were associated with later age at FHI. Half the women with early FHI judged the event to have occurred too soon. 4.2% of women with early FHI reported coercion at FHI, compared to 0.9% overall. The main factor associated with early FHI in men was not living with both parents up to the age of 15. Individuals with early FHI were more likely to report higher risk sexual behaviour as well as teenage motherhood and, for men, not having used a condom at FHI and bacterial sexually transmitted infections. Three in four individuals with early FHI thought they had inadequate sexual knowledge at FHI. Many would have liked to have learned more from parents and in school. Conclusions Improved sexual education among young Slovenians should aim to delay FHI until a more mature age and to be better prepared for safer sex. PMID:17151034

  7. How absorption selected galaxies trace the general high-redshift galaxy population

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Christensen, Lise

    2015-08-01

    Strong absorption lines seen in quasar spectra arise when the lines of sight to the quasars intersect intervening galaxies. The associated metal absorption lines from the strongest absorption lines, the damped Lyman alpha absorbers (DLAs), allow us to trace the metallicity of galaxies back to redshifts z>5. Typical metallicities range from 0.1-100% solar metallicities with a huge scatter at any given redshift. Understanding the nature of galaxies that host DLAs is one strategy to probe the early phase and origin of stars in the outskirts of present-day galaxy disks.The search for emission from the elusive high-redshift DLA galaxies has reached a mature state now that we have determined how to best identify the absorbing galaxies. From a growing number of emission-line detections from DLA galaxies at redshifts ranging between 0.1 and 3, we can analyse galaxies in both absorption and emission, and probe the gas-phase metallicities in the outskirts and halos of the galaxies.By combining information for galaxies seen in emission and absorption, I will show that there is a relation between DLA metallicities and the host galaxy luminosities similar to the well-known the mass-metallicity relation for luminosity selected galaxies. This implies that DLA galaxies are drawn from the general population of low- to intermediate mass galaxies. We can determine a metallicity gradient in the extended halo of the galaxies out to ~40 kpc, and this allows us to reproduce observed galaxy correlation functions derived from conventional samples of luminosity selected galaxies.

  8. Barriers for progress in salt reduction in the general population. An international study.

    PubMed

    Newson, R S; Elmadfa, I; Biro, Gy; Cheng, Y; Prakash, V; Rust, P; Barna, M; Lion, R; Meijer, G W; Neufingerl, N; Szabolcs, I; van Zweden, R; Yang, Y; Feunekes, G I J

    2013-12-01

    Salt reduction is important for reducing hypertension and the risk of cardiovascular events, nevertheless worldwide salt intakes are above recommendations. Consequently strategies to reduce intake are required, however these require an understanding of salt intake behaviours to be effective. As limited information is available on this, an international study was conducted to derive knowledge on salt intake and associated behaviours in the general population. An online cohort was recruited consisting of a representative sample from Germany, Austria, United States of America, Hungary, India, China, South Africa, and Brazil (n=6987; aged 18-65 years; age and gender stratified). Participants completed a comprehensive web-based questionnaire on salt intake and associated behaviours. While salt reduction was seen to be healthy and important, over one third of participants were not interested in salt reduction and the majority were unaware of recommendations. Salt intake was largely underestimated and people were unaware of the main dietary sources of salt. Participants saw themselves as mainly responsible for their salt intake, but also acknowledged the roles of others. Additionally, they wanted to learn more about why salt was bad for health and what the main sources in the diet were. As such, strategies to reduce salt intake must raise interest in engaging in salt reduction through improving understanding of intake levels and dietary sources of salt. Moreover, while some aspects of salt reduction can be globally implemented, local tailoring is required to match level of interest in salt reduction. These findings provide unique insights into issues surrounding salt reduction and should be used to develop effective salt reduction strategies and/or policies. PMID:23891557

  9. A generalized mixed effects model of abundance for mark-resight data when sampling is without replacement

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McClintock, B.T.; White, Gary C.; Burnham, K.P.; Pryde, M.A.

    2009-01-01

    In recent years, the mark-resight method for estimating abundance when the number of marked individuals is known has become increasingly popular. By using field-readable bands that may be resighted from a distance, these techniques can be applied to many species, and are particularly useful for relatively small, closed populations. However, due to the different assumptions and general rigidity of the available estimators, researchers must often commit to a particular model without rigorous quantitative justification for model selection based on the data. Here we introduce a nonlinear logit-normal mixed effects model addressing this need for a more generalized framework. Similar to models available for mark-recapture studies, the estimator allows a wide variety of sampling conditions to be parameterized efficiently under a robust sampling design. Resighting rates may be modeled simply or with more complexity by including fixed temporal and random individual heterogeneity effects. Using information theory, the model(s) best supported by the data may be selected from the candidate models proposed. Under this generalized framework, we hope the uncertainty associated with mark-resight model selection will be reduced substantially. We compare our model to other mark-resight abundance estimators when applied to mainland New Zealand robin (Petroica australis) data recently collected in Eglinton Valley, Fiordland National Park and summarize its performance in simulation experiments.

  10. Accounting for randomness in measurement and sampling in studying cancer cell population dynamics.

    PubMed

    Ghavami, Siavash; Wolkenhauer, Olaf; Lahouti, Farshad; Ullah, Mukhtar; Linnebacher, Michael

    2014-10-01

    Knowing the expected temporal evolution of the proportion of different cell types in sample tissues gives an indication about the progression of the disease and its possible response to drugs. Such systems have been modelled using Markov processes. We here consider an experimentally realistic scenario in which transition probabilities are estimated from noisy cell population size measurements. Using aggregated data of FACS measurements, we develop MMSE and ML estimators and formulate two problems to find the minimum number of required samples and measurements to guarantee the accuracy of predicted population sizes. Our numerical results show that the convergence mechanism of transition probabilities and steady states differ widely from the real values if one uses the standard deterministic approach for noisy measurements. This provides support for our argument that for the analysis of FACS data one should consider the observed state as a random variable. The second problem we address is about the consequences of estimating the probability of a cell being in a particular state from measurements of small population of cells. We show how the uncertainty arising from small sample sizes can be captured by a distribution for the state probability. PMID:25257023

  11. Mortality Among Adults With Intellectual Disability in England: Comparisons With the General Population

    PubMed Central

    Hosking, Fay J.; Shah, Sunil M.; Harris, Tess; DeWilde, Stephen; Beighton, Carole; Cook, Derek G.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives. To describe mortality among adults with intellectual disability in England in comparison with the general population. Methods. We conducted a cohort study from 2009 to 2013 using data from 343 general practices. Adults with intellectual disability (n = 16 666; 656 deaths) were compared with age-, gender-, and practice-matched controls (n = 113 562; 1358 deaths). Results. Adults with intellectual disability had higher mortality rates than controls (hazard ratio [HR] = 3.6; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 3.3, 3.9). This risk remained high after adjustment for comorbidity, smoking, and deprivation (HR = 3.1; 95% CI = 2.7, 3.4); it was even higher among adults with intellectual disability and Down syndrome or epilepsy. A total of 37.0% of all deaths among adults with intellectual disability were classified as being amenable to health care intervention, compared with 22.5% in the general population (HR = 5.9; 95% CI = 5.1, 6.8). Conclusions. Mortality among adults with intellectual disability is markedly elevated in comparison with the general population, with more than a third of deaths potentially amenable to health care interventions. This mortality disparity suggests the need to improve access to, and quality of, health care among people with intellectual disability. PMID:27310347

  12. GENERAL: A Possible Population-Driven Phase Transition in Cicada Chorus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gu, Si-Yuan; Jin, Yu-Liang; Zhao, Xiao-Xue; Huang, Ji-Ping

    2009-06-01

    We investigate the collective synchronization of cicada chirping. Using both experimental and phenomenological numerical techniques, here we show that the onset of a periodic two-state acoustic synchronous behavior in cicada chorus depends on a critical size of population Nc = 21, above which a typical chorus state appears periodically with a 30 second-silence state in between, and further clarify its possibility concerning a new class of phase transition, which is unusually driven by population. This work has relevance to acoustic synchronization and to general physics of phase transition.

  13. Spatial distribution and general population characteristics of mysid shrimps in the Westerschelde estuary (SW Netherlands)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rappé, Karen; Fockedey, Nancy; Van Colen, Carl; Cattrijsse, Andre; Mees, Jan; Vincx, Magda

    2011-01-01

    The distribution and general population characteristics of five mysid shrimps were investigated in the period 2003-2005 in the Westerschelde estuary, a tidal temperate estuary situated along the Dutch-Belgian border. Multivariate analyses revealed that salinity predominantly governs the spatial distribution of Neomysis integer, Gastrosaccus spinifer, Schistomysis kervillei and Schistomysis spiritus while temperature, and to a lesser extent turbidity, control the distribution of Mesopodopsis slabberi. N. integer is a resident species in the mesohaline zone of the estuary, i.e. all life stages of the species are present in the estuary throughout the year. For the first time since decades N. integer inhabits the oligohaline zone of the estuary supposedly as a consequence of improved oxygen conditions in the upstream reaches. M. slabberi, the most abundant mysid in the Westerschelde, dominates the hyperbenthos of the mesohaline zone of the estuary. The polyhaline zone of the estuary is, most abundantly inhabited by M. slabberi, G. spinifer, S. kervillei and to a lesser extent by S. spiritus. The abundance of the latter four species is low in winter, probably due to a migration towards coastal waters to avoid colder temperatures in the estuary combined with an increased mortality after breeding. The sex ratio of all the mysid populations corresponds to the expected 1:1 female:male ratio and no salinity governed segregation is found between the different life stages of each mysid population. A seasonal variation exists in brood size in the N. integer population regardless of the body size, with a larger number of broods during winter and spring compared to the summer. In the other mysid populations the brood sizes vary only with the length of the ovigerous females. Our recent observations underline some general characteristics of mysid populations in the Westerschelde and provide novel insights in their life stage and sex specific population segregation, their brood

  14. Computing Confidence Bounds for Power and Sample Size of the General Linear Univariate Model

    PubMed Central

    Taylor, Douglas J.; Muller, Keith E.

    2013-01-01

    The power of a test, the probability of rejecting the null hypothesis in favor of an alternative, may be computed using estimates of one or more distributional parameters. Statisticians frequently fix mean values and calculate power or sample size using a variance estimate from an existing study. Hence computed power becomes a random variable for a fixed sample size. Likewise, the sample size necessary to achieve a fixed power varies randomly. Standard statistical practice requires reporting uncertainty associated with such point estimates. Previous authors studied an asymptotically unbiased method of obtaining confidence intervals for noncentrality and power of the general linear univariate model in this setting. We provide exact confidence intervals for noncentrality, power, and sample size. Such confidence intervals, particularly one-sided intervals, help in planning a future study and in evaluating existing studies. PMID:24039272

  15. Serum antinuclear and extractable nuclear antigen antibody prevalence and associated morbidity and mortality in the general population over 15 years.

    PubMed

    Selmi, Carlo; Ceribelli, Angela; Generali, Elena; Scirè, Carlo A; Alborghetti, Fausto; Colloredo, Guido; Porrati, Luisa; Achenza, Maria I S; De Santis, Maria; Cavaciocchi, Francesca; Massarotti, Marco; Isailovic, Natasa; Paleari, Valentina; Invernizzi, Pietro; Matthias, Torsten; Zucchi, Alberto; Meroni, Pier Luigi

    2016-02-01

    The prevalence of ANA and anti-ENA in the general population is not well established, especially their clinical significance in healthy subjects. We herein determined the prevalence and predictive value of serum ANA and anti-ENA for connective tissue diseases (CTD), cancer, and mortality. We took advantage of a randomly selected sample of the 1998 general population (Isola I) consisting of 2828 subjects (53% women, age 43±13 years) from a well-defined Northern Italian area. Serum ANA and anti-ENA were tested on the 2690 samples available in 2012 (Isola II, 50% women, age 58±13 years). Administrative databases were searched for CTD, cancer diagnosis, and death cases occurring between enrollment and December 31, 2013. The hazard ratio (HR) was calculated for incident cases. Serum ANA is positive in 18.1% for any titer and 6.1% for titers ≥1:160, 23% in subjects over 50 years and 13.1% and 6.1% for any titer and titers ≥1:160, respectively, in women. The HR for CTD development was significantly high for all ANA titers, with the highest for ANA ≥1:160 (HR 14.19, 95% CI 3.07-65.68). ANA positivity was not associated with cancer (HR 1.03; 95% CI 0.75-1.43), or with mortality (HR adjusted for age and sex 1.40; 95% CI 0.94-2.09). Serum anti-ENA is positive in a minority of subjects with highest figures for anti-nucleosome (1.9%), -histone (1.6%) and -PM/Scl (1.5%). In conclusion, serum ANA prevalence in the general population is highest in senior subjects and in women, while the female predominance is significantly lower compared to overt CTD. Serum ANA is associated with an increased probability of CTD development over time, but does not influence survival or cancer risk. PMID:26524640

  16. Predictors (0-10 Months) of Psychopathology at Age 1 1/2 Years--A General Population Study in the Copenhagen Child Cohort CCC 2000

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Skovgaard, A. M.; Olsen, E. M.; Christiansen, E.; Houmann, T.; Landorph, S. L.; Jorgensen, T.

    2008-01-01

    Background: Epidemiological studies of mental health problems in the first years of life are few. This study aims to investigate infancy predictors of psychopathology in the second year of life. Methods: A random general population sample of 210 children from the Copenhagen Child Birth Cohort CCC 2000 was investigated by data from National Danish…

  17. Building Models for the Relationship between Attitudes toward Suicide and Suicidal Behavior: Based on Data from General Population Surveys in Sweden, Norway, and Russia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Renberg, Ellinor Salander; Hjelmeland, Heidi; Koposov, Roman

    2008-01-01

    Our aim was to build a model delineating the relationship between attitudes toward suicide and suicidal behavior and to assess equivalence by applying the model on data from different countries. Representative samples from the general population were approached in Sweden, Norway, and Russia with the Attitudes Toward Suicide (ATTS) questionnaire.…

  18. Dielectrophoresis-Based Sample Handling in General-Purpose Programmable Diagnostic Instruments

    PubMed Central

    Gascoyne, Peter R. C.; Vykoukal, Jody V.

    2009-01-01

    As the molecular origins of disease are better understood, the need for affordable, rapid, and automated technologies that enable microscale molecular diagnostics has become apparent. Widespread use of microsystems that perform sample preparation and molecular analysis could ensure that the benefits of new biomedical discoveries are realized by a maximum number of people, even those in environments lacking any infrastructure. While progress has been made in developing miniaturized diagnostic systems, samples are generally processed off-device using labor-intensive and time-consuming traditional sample preparation methods. We present the concept of an integrated programmable general-purpose sample analysis processor (GSAP) architecture where raw samples are routed to separation and analysis functional blocks contained within a single device. Several dielectrophoresis-based methods that could serve as the foundation for building GSAP functional blocks are reviewed including methods for cell and particle sorting, cell focusing, cell ac impedance analysis, cell lysis, and the manipulation of molecules and reagent droplets. PMID:19684877

  19. Age and Gender Differences in Urinary Levels of Eleven Phthalate Metabolites in General Taiwanese Population after a DEHP Episode

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Po-Chin; Tsai, Chih-Hsin; Liang, Wei-Yen; Li, Sih-Syuan; Pan, Wen-Harn; Chiang, Hung-Che

    2015-01-01

    Introduction In 2011, the Taiwan FDA disclosed illegal di(2-ethylhexyl phthalate) (DEHP) and dibutyl phthalate (DBP) use in beverage and nutrition supplements. We aim to determine phthalate exposure and other relevant factors in a sample of the general Taiwanese population in order to evaluate actual phthalate exposure levels after this disclosure of DEHP use. Method We selected subjects aged 7 years old and older in 2013 from the general Taiwanese population. First morning urine samples from each participant were collected to analyze 11 phthalate metabolites representing 7 parent phthalates using on-line liquid chromatography/ tandem mass spectrometry. An interview questionnaire was applied to obtain participant demographic characteristics, lifestyle, and other relevant factors. Results The median levels of metabolites of DEHP, including mono-ethylhexyl phthalate (MEHP), mono-(2-ethyl-5-oxohexyl) phthalate (MEOHP), mono-(2-ethyl-5-hydroxyhexyl) phthalate (MEHHP), mono-(2-ethyl-5-carboxypentyl) phthalate (MECPP), DBP (DnBP and DiBP), including mono-n-butyl phthalate (MnBP) and mono-iso-butyl phthalate (MiBP), and mono-ethyl phthalate (MEP) in urine samples of 290 adults/ 97 minors (<18 years) were 7.9/ 6.1, 12.6/ 17.8, 22.0/ 25.8, 25.4/ 30.8, 18.1/ 23.6, 9.4/ 13.6 and 14.5/ 12.4 μg/g creatinine, respectively. Women (≧18 years) were exposed to significantly higher levels of MEHHP (P=0.011), MECPP (P=0.01), MnBP (P=0.001) and MEP (P<0.001) than men (≧18 years), whereas no gender difference was observed in minors. We found significant higher level of MEP (creatinine-unadjusted) in subject aged between 18 to 40 years old (P<0.001), especially for women. Exposure levels of MEOHP (P<0.001), MECPP (P=0.002) and MnBP (P=0.044) in minors were significantly higher than those of adults. High frequency usage of food preservation film and bags, and personal care products are potential sources of phthalates exposure in general Taiwanese. Conclusion Our findings indicated

  20. Colonic spirochetosis is associated with colonic eosinophilia and irritable bowel syndrome in a general population in Sweden.

    PubMed

    Walker, Marjorie M; Talley, Nicholas J; Inganäs, Linn; Engstrand, Lars; Jones, Michael P; Nyhlin, Henry; Agréus, Lars; Kjellstrom, Lars; Öst, Åke; Andreasson, Anna

    2015-02-01

    Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a functional disorder defined by symptoms in the absence of overt pathology. Colonic spirochetosis (CS), defined by histologic observation of spirochetal strains of Brachyspira in colonic biopsies, is uncommon and considered of doubtful significance. We aimed to determine the prevalence of CS in the general population, identify subtle colon pathologies, and evaluate a link with symptoms of IBS. Colonoscopy was performed in 745 subjects (aged 19-70 years, mean age 51 years, 43% male) with biopsies (ileum and 4 colonic sites) from a random population sample, Stockholm, Sweden, who completed a validated questionnaire of gastrointestinal symptoms; IBS was identified by Rome III criteria. CS was identified by histology and immunohistochemistry. In a general population, 17 individuals (2.28%; 95% confidence interval, 1.2%-3.5%) were diagnosed as having CS by histology; 6 (35%) had IBS. CS was always present in the sigmoid colon, but only 14 rectal biopsies. Eosinophils were increased in colon biopsies in CS cases versus controls, in the transverse (P = .02), sigmoid colon (P = .001), and rectum (P = .0005) with subepithelial eosinophil clusters (P = .053). Lymphoid follicles (at any site) were present in 13 CS (P = .0003). There was a 3-fold increased risk of IBS in CS (odds ratio, 3.59; 95% confidence interval, 1.27-10.11; P = .015). Polyps and diverticular disease were similar in CS cases and controls. The prevalence of CS in a general population is 2% and associated with nonconstipating IBS. Colonic eosinophilia with lymphoid follicles may signify the presence of CS. PMID:25540866

  1. Study design and sampling intensity for demographic analyses of bear populations

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Harris, R.B.; Schwartz, C.C.; Mace, R.D.; Haroldson, M.A.

    2011-01-01

    The rate of population change through time (??) is a fundamental element of a wildlife population's conservation status, yet estimating it with acceptable precision for bears is difficult. For studies that follow known (usually marked) bears, ?? can be estimated during some defined time by applying either life-table or matrix projection methods to estimates of individual vital rates. Usually however, confidence intervals surrounding the estimate are broader than one would like. Using an estimator suggested by Doak et al. (2005), we explored the precision to be expected in ?? from demographic analyses of typical grizzly (Ursus arctos) and American black (U. americanus) bear data sets. We also evaluated some trade-offs among vital rates in sampling strategies. Confidence intervals around ?? were more sensitive to adding to the duration of a short (e.g., 3 yrs) than a long (e.g., 10 yrs) study, and more sensitive to adding additional bears to studies with small (e.g., 10 adult females/yr) than large (e.g., 30 adult females/yr) sample sizes. Confidence intervals of ?? projected using process-only variance of vital rates were only slightly smaller than those projected using total variances of vital rates. Under sampling constraints typical of most bear studies, it may be more efficient to invest additional resources into monitoring recruitment and juvenile survival rates of females already a part of the study, than to simply increase the sample size of study females. ?? 2011 International Association for Bear Research and Management.

  2. Bolton tooth size ratio among Sudanese Population sample: A preliminary study

    PubMed Central

    Abdalla Hashim, Ala’a Hayder; Eldin, AL-Hadi Mohi; Hashim, Hayder Abdalla

    2015-01-01

    Background: The study of the mesiodistal size, the morphology of teeth and dental arch may play an important role in clinical dentistry, as well as other sciences such as Forensic Dentistry and Anthropology. Aims: The aims of the present study were to establish tooth-size ratio in Sudanese sample with Class I normal occlusion, to compare the tooth-size ratio between the present study and Bolton's study and between genders. Materials and Methods: The sample consisted of dental casts of 60 subjects (30 males and 30 females). Bolton formula was used to compute the overall and anterior ratio. The correlation coefficient between the anterior ratio and overall ratio was tested, and Student's t-test was used to compare tooth-size ratios between males and females, and between the present study and Bolton's result. Results: The results of the overall and anterior ratio was relatively similar to the mean values reported by Bolton, and there were no statistically significant differences between the mean values of the anterior ratio and the overall ratio between males and females. The correlation coefficient was (r = 0.79). Conclusions: The result obtained was similar to the Caucasian race. However, the reality indicates that the Sudanese population consisted of different racial groups; therefore, the firm conclusion is difficult to draw. Since this sample is not representative for the Sudanese population, hence, a further study with a large sample collected from the different parts of the Sudan is required. PMID:26229948

  3. Metabolome in schizophrenia and other psychotic disorders: a general population-based study

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Persons with schizophrenia and other psychotic disorders have a high prevalence of obesity, impaired glucose tolerance, and lipid abnormalities, particularly hypertriglyceridemia and low high-density lipoprotein. More detailed molecular information on the metabolic abnormalities may reveal clues about the pathophysiology of these changes, as well as about disease specificity. Methods We applied comprehensive metabolomics in serum samples from a general population-based study in Finland. The study included all persons with DSM-IV primary psychotic disorder (schizophrenia, n = 45; other non-affective psychosis (ONAP), n = 57; affective psychosis, n = 37) and controls matched by age, sex, and region of residence. Two analytical platforms for metabolomics were applied to all serum samples: a global lipidomics platform based on ultra-performance liquid chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry, which covers molecular lipids such as phospholipids and neutral lipids; and a platform for small polar metabolites based on two-dimensional gas chromatography coupled to time-of-flight mass spectrometry (GC × GC-TOFMS). Results Compared with their matched controls, persons with schizophrenia had significantly higher metabolite levels in six lipid clusters containing mainly saturated triglycerides, and in two small-molecule clusters containing, among other metabolites, (1) branched chain amino acids, phenylalanine and tyrosine, and (2) proline, glutamic, lactic and pyruvic acids. Among these, serum glutamic acid was elevated in all psychoses (P = 0.0020) compared to controls, while proline upregulation (P = 0.000023) was specific to schizophrenia. After adjusting for medication and metabolic comorbidity in linear mixed models, schizophrenia remained independently associated with higher levels in seven of these eight clusters (P < 0.05 in each cluster). The metabolic abnormalities were less pronounced in persons with ONAP or affective psychosis. Conclusions Our

  4. The Relation of Moderate Alcohol Consumption to Hyperuricemia in a Rural General Population

    PubMed Central

    Li, Zhao; Guo, Xiaofan; Liu, Yamin; Chang, Ye; Sun, Yingxian; Zhu, Guangshuo; Abraham, Maria Roselle

    2016-01-01

    Background: although alcohol abuse is known to increase serum uric acid, the relation between moderate drinking and uric acid have remained poorly understood. We performed this study to evaluate whether different alcohol consumption level has different effects on the risk of hyperuricemia based on a rural general population. Method: multi-stage cluster sampling method was used to select a representative sample of individuals aged 35 years or older. Participants were asked to provide information about their alcohol consumption. Data regarding the demographic and lifestyle characteristics and the blood biochemical indexes of these participants were collected by well-trained personnel. Results: in total, 11,039 participants aged 35 years or older were included (4997 men and 6042 women). The prevalence of hyperuricemia in the different male alcohol consumption groups was 11.9% in non-drinkers, 12.6% in moderate drinkers, and 16.3% in heavy drinkers (p < 0.001). In females, the rates were 6.3% in non-drinkers, 8.1% in moderate drinkers, and 6.6% for heavy drinkers (p = 0.818). In males, multivariate logistic regression analyses shows heavy drinkers had an approximately 1.7-fold higher risk of hyperuricemia (OR: 1.657, 95% CI: 1.368 to 2.007, p < 0.001) than non-drinkers; moderate drinkers did not experience a significant increase in risk (OR: 1.232, 95% CI: 0.951 to 1.596, p = 0.114)). Multivariate logistic regression analyses of females showed that, compared with non-drinkers, neither moderate nor heavy drinkers had a significantly increased risk of hyperuricemia (OR: 1.565, 95% CI: 0.521 to 4.695, p = 0.425 for heavy drinkers; OR: 0.897, 95% CI: 0.117 to 6.855, p = 0.916 for moderate drinkers). Conclusions: heavy alcohol consumption increased the risk of hyperuricemia for males but not for females. Among both males and females, moderate alcohol consumption did not increase the risk of hyperuricemia. PMID:27447659

  5. An optimization based sampling approach for multiple metrics uncertainty analysis using generalized likelihood uncertainty estimation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Rurui; Li, Yu; Lu, Di; Liu, Haixing; Zhou, Huicheng

    2016-09-01

    This paper investigates the use of an epsilon-dominance non-dominated sorted genetic algorithm II (ɛ-NSGAII) as a sampling approach with an aim to improving sampling efficiency for multiple metrics uncertainty analysis using Generalized Likelihood Uncertainty Estimation (GLUE). The effectiveness of ɛ-NSGAII based sampling is demonstrated compared with Latin hypercube sampling (LHS) through analyzing sampling efficiency, multiple metrics performance, parameter uncertainty and flood forecasting uncertainty with a case study of flood forecasting uncertainty evaluation based on Xinanjiang model (XAJ) for Qing River reservoir, China. Results obtained demonstrate the following advantages of the ɛ-NSGAII based sampling approach in comparison to LHS: (1) The former performs more effective and efficient than LHS, for example the simulation time required to generate 1000 behavioral parameter sets is shorter by 9 times; (2) The Pareto tradeoffs between metrics are demonstrated clearly with the solutions from ɛ-NSGAII based sampling, also their Pareto optimal values are better than those of LHS, which means better forecasting accuracy of ɛ-NSGAII parameter sets; (3) The parameter posterior distributions from ɛ-NSGAII based sampling are concentrated in the appropriate ranges rather than uniform, which accords with their physical significance, also parameter uncertainties are reduced significantly; (4) The forecasted floods are close to the observations as evaluated by three measures: the normalized total flow outside the uncertainty intervals (FOUI), average relative band-width (RB) and average deviation amplitude (D). The flood forecasting uncertainty is also reduced a lot with ɛ-NSGAII based sampling. This study provides a new sampling approach to improve multiple metrics uncertainty analysis under the framework of GLUE, and could be used to reveal the underlying mechanisms of parameter sets under multiple conflicting metrics in the uncertainty analysis process.

  6. [The feminine role as a determinant of mental health among the women of the general population of Cantabria].

    PubMed

    de Santiago, A; Vázquez, J L; Díez, J F

    1993-01-01

    This paper tries to analyse the relationship between traditional feminine role (marriage, motherhood and housing) and mental health in spanish women. The General Health Questionnaire 60-items (GHQ-60) was used to define "cases" in a random sample of the general population of Cantabria consisting of 630 women aged 17 and over. The rate of probable prevalence of psychiatric disorders was 26.4%. In contrast to previous studies, motherhood and traditional feminine role correlated with the lowest GHQ-60 mean scores. Occupational status was not related to mental health. Women living with husband, children, parents and/or parents-in-law scored lower on GHQ-60 than those living with husband and children. These results are discussed in the light of previous findings in the literature. At least, they reconfirm the importance of socio-cultural factors in community psychiatric disorder. PMID:8135150

  7. The new cell culture smallpox vaccine should not be offered to the general population.

    PubMed

    Mortimer, Philip P

    2003-01-01

    Cell based smallpox vaccines are to be welcomed, but any decision to vaccinate whole populations must await firstly better intelligence about the gravity of the threat from bioterrorists, including their ability to release smallpox in such a way that wide dissemination could take place; secondly evidence that vaccines grown in cell culture are protective and safe; and thirdly that the vaccines would be generally acceptable and their introduction would not compromise the rest of national immunisation programmes. Smallpox vaccination should not be offered to the general population until these uncertainties have been resolved, by which time bioterrorism might possibly have been overcome or the development of antiviral treatment might have made renewed smallpox vaccination unnecessary. Meanwhile, preparations for rapid deployment of the historically well-tried containment measures at the epicentres of any smallpox release should proceed, their effectiveness should be tested, and their adequacy kept under review. PMID:12516059

  8. Enrichment of diluted cell populations from large sample volumes using 3D carbon-electrode dielectrophoresis.

    PubMed

    Islam, Monsur; Natu, Rucha; Larraga-Martinez, Maria Fernanda; Martinez-Duarte, Rodrigo

    2016-05-01

    Here, we report on an enrichment protocol using carbon electrode dielectrophoresis to isolate and purify a targeted cell population from sample volumes up to 4 ml. We aim at trapping, washing, and recovering an enriched cell fraction that will facilitate downstream analysis. We used an increasingly diluted sample of yeast, 10(6)-10(2) cells/ml, to demonstrate the isolation and enrichment of few cells at increasing flow rates. A maximum average enrichment of 154.2 ± 23.7 times was achieved when the sample flow rate was 10 μl/min and yeast cells were suspended in low electrically conductive media that maximizes dielectrophoresis trapping. A COMSOL Multiphysics model allowed for the comparison between experimental and simulation results. Discussion is conducted on the discrepancies between such results and how the model can be further improved. PMID:27375816

  9. Long-term survival following intensive care: subgroup analysis and comparison with the general population.

    PubMed

    Wright, J C; Plenderleith, L; Ridley, S A

    2003-07-01

    This study aimed to compare the very long-term survival of critically ill patients with that of the general population, and examine the association among age, sex, admission diagnosis, APACHE II score and mortality. In a retrospective observational cohort study of prospectively gathered data, 2104 adult patients admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU) of a teaching hospital in Glasgow from 1985 to 1992, were followed until 1997. Vital status at five years was compared with that of an age- and sex-matched Scottish population. Five-year mortality for the ICU patients was 47.1%, 3.4 times higher than that of the general population. For those surviving intensive care the five-year mortality was 33.4%. Mortality was greater than that of the general population for four years following intensive care unit admission (95% confidence interval included 1.0 at four years). Multivariate analysis showed that risk factors for mortality in those admitted to ICU were age, APACHE II score on admission and diagnostic category. Mortality was higher for those admitted with haematological (87.5%) and neurological diseases (61.7%) and septic shock (62.9%). A risk score was produced: Risk Score = 10 (age hazard ratio + APACHE II hazard ratio + diagnosis hazard ratio). None of the patients with a risk score > 100 survived more than five years and for those who survived to five years the mean risk score was 57. Long-term survival following intensive care is not only related to age and severity of illness but also diagnostic category. The risk of mortality in survivors of critical illness matches that of the normal population after four years. Age, severity of illness and diagnosis can be combined to provide an estimate of five-year survival. PMID:12790812

  10. Age-dependence of lipid parameters in the general population and vegetarians.

    PubMed

    Richter, V; Rassoul, F; Hentschel, B; Kothe, K; Krobara, M; Unger, R; Purschwitz, K; Rotzsch, W; Thiery, J; Muradian, K

    2004-06-01

    Age-dependent changes of lipid metabolism may arise both as a result of mechanisms of biological ageing and factors influencing age-dependent changes. To study possible influences of nutrition and life-style of vegetarians on age-dependence of lipid parameters, subjects of general population were compared with vegetarians. In the frame of population-based lipid screening projects in the city of Leipzig/Germany (Lipid Study Leipzig, LSL) 10 550 subjects (3,816 men and 6,734 women, age 18-99 years) of general population were compared with 417 vegetarians (vegans, lacto-vegetarians, lacto-ovo-vegetarians, 148 men and 269 women, age 18-93 years). Most of the vegetarians included in the study were members of the German Society of Vegetarians. The study program included capillary blood cholesterol measurements and the determination of high-density lipoprotein (HDL)-cholesterol, the measurement of other cardiovascular risk factors and the evaluation of dietary and life-style factors. Evaluation of cardiovascular risk profile within LSL was connected with individual consultation. The mean total cholesterol and non-HDL-cholesterol level and the total: HDL-cholesterol ratio showed the expected age-dependence, with maximum values within the decade 60-70 years. Vegetarians showed lower total and non-HDL-cholesterol levels in comparison with the general population. Furthermore, the age-dependent increase of these parameters is less pronounced under the conditions of vegetarian nutrition and life-style. Especially in young adulthood a significant difference is observed. Thus, the results of the present study reveal the role of nutritional and life-style factors that determine the lipid profile on a population basis and suggest that the known age-dependent rise of the level of atherogenic plasma lipoproteins is partly preventable. PMID:15224241

  11. Negative relationships between population density and metabolic rates are not general.

    PubMed

    Yashchenko, Varvara; Fossen, Erlend Ignacio; Kielland, Øystein Nordeide; Einum, Sigurd

    2016-07-01

    Population density has recently been suggested to be an important factor influencing metabolic rates and to represent an important 'third axis' explaining variation beyond that explained by body mass and temperature. In situations where population density influences food consumption, the immediate effect on metabolism acting through specific dynamic action (SDA), and downregulation due to fasting over longer periods, is well understood. However, according to a recent review, previous studies suggest a more general effect of population density per se, even in the absence of such effects. It has been hypothesized that this results from animals performing anticipatory responses (i.e. reduced activity) to expected declines in food availability. Here, we test the generality of this finding by measuring density effects on metabolic rates in 10 clones from two different species of the zooplankton Daphnia (Daphnia pulex Leydig and D. magna Straus). Using fluorescence-based respirometry, we obtain high-precision measures of metabolism. We also identify additional studies on this topic that were not included in the previous review, compare the results and evaluate the potential for measurement bias in all previous studies. We demonstrate significant variation in mass-specific metabolism among clones within both species. However, we find no evidence for a negative relationship between population density and mass-specific metabolism. The previously reported pattern also disappeared when we extended the set of studies analysed. We discuss potential reasons for the discrepancy among studies, including two main sources of potential bias (microbial respiration and declining oxygen consumption due to reduced oxygen availability). Only one of the previous studies gives sufficient information to conclude the absence of such biases, and consistent with our results, no effect of density on metabolism was found. We conclude that population density per se does not have a general effect

  12. Density estimation of small-mammal populations using a trapping web and distance sampling methods

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Anderson, David R.; Burnham, Kenneth P.; White, Gary C.; Otis, David L.

    1983-01-01

    Distance sampling methodology is adapted to enable animal density (number per unit of area) to be estimated from capture-recapture and removal data. A trapping web design provides the link between capture data and distance sampling theory. The estimator of density is D = Mt+1f(0), where Mt+1 is the number of individuals captured and f(0) is computed from the Mt+1 distances from the web center to the traps in which those individuals were first captured. It is possible to check qualitatively the critical assumption on which the web design and the estimator are based. This is a conceptual paper outlining a new methodology, not a definitive investigation of the best specific way to implement this method. Several alternative sampling and analysis methods are possible within the general framework of distance sampling theory; a few alternatives are discussed and an example is given.

  13. Cause-specific excess mortality among dialysis patients: comparison with the general population in Japan.

    PubMed

    Wakasugi, Minako; Kazama, Junichiro James; Yamamoto, Suguru; Kawamura, Kazuko; Narita, Ichiei

    2013-06-01

    Despite significant therapeutic advances, mortality of dialysis patients remains unacceptably high. The aim of this study is to compare mortality and its causes in dialysis patients with those in the general Japanese population. We used data for 2008 and 2009 from the Japanese Society for Dialysis Therapy registry and a national Vital Statistics survey. Cardiovascular mortality was defined as death attributed to heart failure, cerebrovascular disorders, myocardial infarction, hyperkalemia/sudden death, and pulmonary thromboembolism. Non-cardiovascular mortality was defined as death attributed to infection, malignancies, cachexia/uremia, chronic hepatitis/cirrhosis, ileus, bleeding, suicide/refusal of treatment, and miscellaneous. We calculated standardized mortality ratios and age-adjusted mortality differences between dialysis patients and the general population for all-cause, cardiovascular versus non-cardiovascular, and cause-specific mortality. During the 2-year study period, there were 2,284,272 and 51,432 deaths out of 126 million people and 273,237 dialysis patients, respectively. The standardized mortality ratio for all-cause mortality was 4.6 (95% confidence interval, 4.6-4.7) for the dialysis patients compared to the general population. Age-adjusted mortality differences for cardiovascular and non-cardiovascular disease were 33.1 and 30.0 per 1000 person-years, respectively. The standardized mortality rate ratios were significant for all cause-specific mortality rates except accidental death. Our study revealed that excess mortality in dialysis patients compared to the general population in Japan is large, and differs according to age and cause of death. Cause-specific mortality studies should be planned to improve life expectancies of dialysis patients. PMID:23735145

  14. Trends in the treatment of alcohol problems in the US general population, 1979 through 1990.

    PubMed Central

    Weisner, C; Greenfield, T; Room, R

    1995-01-01

    OBJECTIVES. The purpose of this study was to conduct a comprehensive analysis of alcohol-treatment service utilization trends in the general population during the 1980s. METHODS. Three national surveys of the US household population (1979, 1984, and 1990) were used for trend analysis of treatment utilization. Trends in demographic characteristics of persons with lifetime treatment rates and particular types of treatment were examined by means of logistic regression analysis, controlling for alcohol problem severity and other variables. RESULTS. Substantial increases in the numbers reporting treatment were found. In all surveys, Alcoholics Anonymous was the treatment used most frequently and its use increased most, especially for women. Men were more likely than women (odds ratio [OR] = 2.01, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.20, 5.39) and unmarried persons were twice as likely as married persons to have been treated [corrected]. Social consequences carried more predictive power than dependence symptoms. CONCLUSIONS. From a general population perspective, while overall treatment capacity has increased, the structural changes in the public/private balance of services have not positively affected the representation of women or other characteristics of the treatment population. PMID:7832262

  15. Usage patterns of aromatherapy among the French general population: A descriptive study focusing on dermal exposure.

    PubMed

    Dornic, N; Ficheux, A S; Roudot, A C; Saboureau, D; Ezzedine, K

    2016-04-01

    Although likely benefits of aromatherapy are well documented, little is known about essential oils consumption and exposure to molecules present in the oils. The aim of our study was to determine usage patterns of 12 types of essential oils among a quite large panel, sorted per sex and quintile of age from birth to 70. A survey was conducted in September 2014 among 1507 French individuals, selected to build a representative panel of the general population. The key point of our study, apart from the fact that it has never been done among general population, was the focus on dermal exposure. Information about types of essential oils used, skin areas exposed, frequencies and quantities were collected. Our work revealed that some sub-populations could be significantly exposed to molecules of toxicological concern, especially in terms of skin sensitization. This work is the first step to assess human exposure to these molecules, and will help safety authorities and risk managers to protect the population. PMID:26826550

  16. Overweight and General and Abdominal Obesity in a Representative Sample of Spanish Adults: Findings from the ANIBES Study.

    PubMed

    López-Sobaler, Ana M; Aparicio, Aránzazu; Aranceta-Bartrina, Javier; Gil, Ángel; González-Gross, Marcela; Serra-Majem, Lluis; Varela-Moreiras, Gregorio; Ortega, Rosa M

    2016-01-01

    Objective. To analyze the anthropometric parameters from a representative sample of Spanish adults participating in ANIBES study and the prevalence of general and abdominal obesity. Methods. This cross-sectional study focused on 1655 adults aged 18-64 years. Weight, height, and waist circumference (WC) were evaluated, and body mass index (BMI) and waist to height ratio (WHtR) were calculated. A composite index combining BMI and WHtR was designed to establish five groups with different anthropometric status. Results. The prevalence of overweight (OW) was 35.8% and that of obesity was 19.9%. Obesity (OB) was higher among men (OR 1.725, 1.415-2.104; p = 0.000) and each year of age increased the risk of obesity (OR 1.054, 1.045-1.064; p = 0.000). The prevalence of abdominal obesity (WHtR ≥ 0.5) was 58.4%. Only 36.1% of the population had an optimal anthropometric situation (BMI < 25 kg/m(2), WHtR < 0.5), whereas 50.1% had weight excess and high WHtR (BMI ≥ 25 kg/m(2), WHtR ≥ 0.5). Conclusions. More than half of Spanish population has weight excess and cardiometabolic risk. The results of this study provide an understanding of the current anthropometric situation in the Spanish population, as a first step toward planning interventions and assessing their effectiveness in the future. PMID:27382572

  17. Body mass index and blood glucose in psychiatric and general practice populations.

    PubMed

    McAvoy, Sarah; Cordiner, Matthew; Kelly, Jackie; Chiwanda, Laura; Jefferies, Christine; Miller, Kirsteen; Shajahan, Polash

    2016-06-01

    Aims and method Using a retrospective observational approach, we aimed to discern whether there was a difference in metabolic parameters between psychiatric and general practice populations in the same locality. Second, we aimed to establish differences in metabolic parameters of patients taking olanzapine, clozapine or aripiprazole. Results Patients with psychiatric illness had a body mass index (BMI) comparable to that of the general practice population (28.7 v. 29.7 kg/m(2)), but blood glucose was significantly lower in the general practice population (4.8 v. 6.1 mmol/L). Olanzapine was associated with the lowest BMI (26.1 kg/m(2)) and aripiprazole the highest (32.2 kg/m(2)), with no difference in blood glucose between antipsychotics. Clinical implications Awareness of environmental factors and how they affect individuals is important and medications are not the only cause of metabolic effects. There may be a channelling bias present, meaning practitioners are cognisant of potential metabolic effects prior to prescribing. Overall monitoring of physical health is important regardless of potential cause. PMID:27280032

  18. A dangerous cocktail: Alcohol consumption increases suicidal ideations among problem gamblers in the general population.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hyoun S; Salmon, Melissa; Wohl, Michael J A; Young, Matthew

    2016-04-01

    The current research examined whether alcohol consumption exacerbates suicidal ideations among gamblers in the general population. While prior research suggests problem gambling severity and excessive alcohol consumption are unique predictors of suicidal behaviors, the extant literature as almost exclusively focused on gamblers in treatment. This represents a significant gap in the literature as less than 10% of gamblers seek treatment. Furthermore, gamblers in treatment are not representative of gamblers in the general population, precluding a simple generalization of research findings. We address this gap using data obtained from the Canadian Community Health Survey (Cycle 4.1)--a cross-sectional national survey that assesses health-related information among the Canadian population. To this end, we conducted a moderation analysis with problem gambling severity as the independent variable, weekly alcohol consumption as the moderator variable and suicidal ideations (in the past 12 months) as the dependent variable. The results found that alcohol consumption alone did not reliably predict suicidal ideation among gamblers who did not gamble problematically. However, as predicted, the odds of suicidal ideation were greatest among problem gamblers who frequently consumed alcohol. Thus, it may behoove policy makers to re-visit the availability of alcohol in gambling venues. Moreover, responsible gambling-oriented education initiatives may be advanced by informing gamblers about the increased risk of suicidal ideations when problematic gambling is combined with frequent alcohol consumption. PMID:26790140

  19. Body mass index and blood glucose in psychiatric and general practice populations

    PubMed Central

    McAvoy, Sarah; Cordiner, Matthew; Kelly, Jackie; Chiwanda, Laura; Jefferies, Christine; Miller, Kirsteen; Shajahan, Polash

    2016-01-01

    Aims and method Using a retrospective observational approach, we aimed to discern whether there was a difference in metabolic parameters between psychiatric and general practice populations in the same locality. Second, we aimed to establish differences in metabolic parameters of patients taking olanzapine, clozapine or aripiprazole. Results Patients with psychiatric illness had a body mass index (BMI) comparable to that of the general practice population (28.7 v. 29.7 kg/m2), but blood glucose was significantly lower in the general practice population (4.8 v. 6.1 mmol/L). Olanzapine was associated with the lowest BMI (26.1 kg/m2) and aripiprazole the highest (32.2 kg/m2), with no difference in blood glucose between antipsychotics. Clinical implications Awareness of environmental factors and how they affect individuals is important and medications are not the only cause of metabolic effects. There may be a channelling bias present, meaning practitioners are cognisant of potential metabolic effects prior to prescribing. Overall monitoring of physical health is important regardless of potential cause. PMID:27280032

  20. A novel biomarker panel for irritable bowel syndrome and the application in the general population.

    PubMed

    Mujagic, Zlatan; Tigchelaar, Ettje F; Zhernakova, Alexandra; Ludwig, Thomas; Ramiro-Garcia, Javier; Baranska, Agnieszka; Swertz, Morris A; Masclee, Ad A M; Wijmenga, Cisca; van Schooten, Frederik J; Smolinska, Agnieszka; Jonkers, Daisy M A E

    2016-01-01

    Biological markers that measure gut health and diagnose functional gastro-intestinal (GI) disorders, such as irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), are lacking. The objective was to identify and validate a biomarker panel associated with the pathophysiology of IBS that discriminates IBS from healthy controls (HC), and correlates with GI symptom severity. In a case-control design, various plasma and fecal markers were measured in a cohort of 196 clinical IBS patients and 160 HC without GI symptoms. A combination of biomarkers, which best discriminates between IBS and HC was identified and validated in an independent internal validation set and by permutation testing. The correlation between the biomarker panel and GI symptom severity was tested in IBS patients and in a general population cohort of 958 subjects. A set of 8 biomarker panel was identified to discriminate IBS from HC with high sensitivity (88.1%) and specificity (86.5%). The results for the IBS subtypes were comparable. Moreover, a moderate correlation was found between the biomarker panel and GI symptom scores in the IBS (r = 0.59, p < 0.001) and the general population cohorts (r = 0.51, p = 0.003). A novel multi-domain biomarker panel has been identified and validated, which correlated moderately to GI symptom severity in IBS and general population subjects. PMID:27263852

  1. A novel biomarker panel for irritable bowel syndrome and the application in the general population

    PubMed Central

    Mujagic, Zlatan; Tigchelaar, Ettje F.; Zhernakova, Alexandra; Ludwig, Thomas; Ramiro-Garcia, Javier; Baranska, Agnieszka; Swertz, Morris A.; Masclee, Ad A. M.; Wijmenga, Cisca; van Schooten, Frederik J.; Smolinska, Agnieszka; Jonkers, Daisy M. A. E.

    2016-01-01

    Biological markers that measure gut health and diagnose functional gastro-intestinal (GI) disorders, such as irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), are lacking. The objective was to identify and validate a biomarker panel associated with the pathophysiology of IBS that discriminates IBS from healthy controls (HC), and correlates with GI symptom severity. In a case-control design, various plasma and fecal markers were measured in a cohort of 196 clinical IBS patients and 160 HC without GI symptoms. A combination of biomarkers, which best discriminates between IBS and HC was identified and validated in an independent internal validation set and by permutation testing. The correlation between the biomarker panel and GI symptom severity was tested in IBS patients and in a general population cohort of 958 subjects. A set of 8 biomarker panel was identified to discriminate IBS from HC with high sensitivity (88.1%) and specificity (86.5%). The results for the IBS subtypes were comparable. Moreover, a moderate correlation was found between the biomarker panel and GI symptom scores in the IBS (r = 0.59, p < 0.001) and the general population cohorts (r = 0.51, p = 0.003). A novel multi-domain biomarker panel has been identified and validated, which correlated moderately to GI symptom severity in IBS and general population subjects. PMID:27263852

  2. Explanations of sleep paralysis among Egyptian college students and the general population in Egypt and Denmark.

    PubMed

    Jalal, Baland; Simons-Rudolph, Joseph; Jalal, Bamo; Hinton, Devon E

    2014-04-01

    This cross-cultural study compared explanations of sleep paralysis (SP) in two countries and two groups with different levels of education in one country. Comparisons were made between individuals having experienced SP at least once in a lifetime from Cairo, Egypt (n = 89), Copenhagen, Denmark (n = 59), and the American University in Cairo, Egypt (n = 44). As hypothesized, participants from the general Egyptian population were more likely to endorse supernatural causal explanation of their SP compared to participants from Denmark; participants from the American University in Cairo were less likely to endorse supernatural causes of their SP compared to participants from the general Egyptian population. Moreover, participants from the American University in Cairo were marginally significantly more likely to endorse supernatural causes of their SP compared to participants from Denmark. Additionally, we explored which culturally bound explanations and beliefs about SP existed in Egypt and Denmark. We found that nearly half (48%) of the participants from the general Egyptian population believed their SP to be caused by the Jinn, a spirit-like creature with roots in Islamic tradition, which constitutes a culturally bound interpretation of the phenomenology of SP in this region of the world. Case studies are presented to illustrate these findings. PMID:24084761

  3. Predictive Sampling of Rare Conformational Events in Aqueous Solution: Designing a Generalized Orthogonal Space Tempering Method.

    PubMed

    Lu, Chao; Li, Xubin; Wu, Dongsheng; Zheng, Lianqing; Yang, Wei

    2016-01-12

    In aqueous solution, solute conformational transitions are governed by intimate interplays of the fluctuations of solute-solute, solute-water, and water-water interactions. To promote molecular fluctuations to enhance sampling of essential conformational changes, a common strategy is to construct an expanded Hamiltonian through a series of Hamiltonian perturbations and thereby broaden the distribution of certain interactions of focus. Due to a lack of active sampling of configuration response to Hamiltonian transitions, it is challenging for common expanded Hamiltonian methods to robustly explore solvent mediated rare conformational events. The orthogonal space sampling (OSS) scheme, as exemplified by the orthogonal space random walk and orthogonal space tempering methods, provides a general framework for synchronous acceleration of slow configuration responses. To more effectively sample conformational transitions in aqueous solution, in this work, we devised a generalized orthogonal space tempering (gOST) algorithm. Specifically, in the Hamiltonian perturbation part, a solvent-accessible-surface-area-dependent term is introduced to implicitly perturb near-solute water-water fluctuations; more importantly in the orthogonal space response part, the generalized force order parameter is generalized as a two-dimension order parameter set, in which essential solute-solvent and solute-solute components are separately treated. The gOST algorithm is evaluated through a molecular dynamics simulation study on the explicitly solvated deca-alanine (Ala10) peptide. On the basis of a fully automated sampling protocol, the gOST simulation enabled repetitive folding and unfolding of the solvated peptide within a single continuous trajectory and allowed for detailed constructions of Ala10 folding/unfolding free energy surfaces. The gOST result reveals that solvent cooperative fluctuations play a pivotal role in Ala10 folding/unfolding transitions. In addition, our assessment

  4. Predictive Sampling of Rare Conformational Events in Aqueous Solution: Designing a Generalized Orthogonal Space Tempering Method

    PubMed Central

    Lv, Chao; Li, Xubin; Wu, Dongsheng; Zheng, Lianqing; Yang, Wei

    2016-01-01

    In aqueous solution, solute conformational transitions are governed by intimate interplays of the fluctuations of solute-solute, solute-water, and water-water interactions. To promote essential fluctuations to enhance sampling, a common strategy is to construct an expanded Hamiltonian through a series of Hamiltonian perturbations, for instance on certain interactions of focus. Due to lack of active sampling of configuration response to perturbation transitions, it is challenging for common expanded Hamiltonian methods to robustly explore solvent mediated rare conformational events. The orthogonal space sampling (OSS) scheme, as exemplified by the orthogonal space random walk and orthogonal space tempering methods, provides a general framework for synchronous acceleration of slow configuration responses. To more effectively sample conformational transitions in aqueous solution, in this work, we devised a generalized orthogonal space tempering (gOST) algorithm. Specifically, in the Hamiltonian perturbation part, a solvent-accessible-surface-area-dependent term is introduced to implicitly perturb near-solute water-water fluctuations; and in the orthogonal space response part, the generalized force order parameter is generalized as a two-dimension order parameter set, in which the solute-solvent and solute-solute components are separately treated. The gOST algorithm is evaluated through a molecular dynamics simulation study on the explicitly-solvated deca-alanine (Ala10) peptide. Based on a fully automated sampling protocol, the gOST simulation enabled repetitive folding and unfolding of the solvated peptide within a single continuous trajectory and allowed for detailed constructions of Ala10 folding/unfolding free energy surfaces. The gOST result reveals that solvent cooperative fluctuations play a pivotal role in Ala10 folding/unfolding transitions. In addition, our assessment analysis suggests that because essential rare events are mainly driven by the compensating

  5. CHARACTERIZING THE GALACTIC WHITE DWARF BINARY POPULATION WITH SPARSELY SAMPLED RADIAL VELOCITY DATA

    SciTech Connect

    Maoz, Dan; Badenes, Carles; Bickerton, Steven J. E-mail: badenes@pitt.edu

    2012-06-01

    We present a method to characterize statistically the parameters of a detached binary sample-binary fraction, separation distribution, and mass-ratio distribution-using noisy radial velocity data with as few as two, randomly spaced, epochs per object. To do this, we analyze the distribution of {Delta}RV{sub max}, the maximum radial velocity difference between any two epochs for the same object. At low values, the core of this distribution is dominated by measurement errors, but for large enough samples there is a high-velocity tail that can effectively constrain the parameters of the binary population. We discuss our approach for the case of a population of detached white dwarf (WD) binaries with separations that are decaying via gravitational wave emission. We derive analytic expressions for the present-day distribution of separations, integrated over the star formation history of the Galaxy, for parameterized initial WD separation distributions at the end of the common-envelope phase. We use Monte Carlo techniques to produce grids of simulated {Delta}RV{sub max} distributions with specific binary population parameters, and the same sampling cadences and radial velocity errors as the observations, and we compare them to the real {Delta}RV{sub max} distribution to constrain the properties of the binary population. We illustrate the sensitivity of the method to both the model and observational parameters. In the particular case of binary WDs, every model population predicts a merger rate per star which can easily be compared to specific Type Ia supernova rates. In a companion paper, we apply the method to a sample of {approx}4000 WDs from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey. The binary fractions and separation distribution parameters allowed by the data indicate a rate of WD-WD mergers per unit stellar mass in the Galactic disk, {approx}1 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -13} mergers yr{sup -1} M{sup -1}{sub Sun }, remarkably similar to the rate per unit mass of Type Ia

  6. Type-II generalized family-wise error rate formulas with application to sample size determination.

    PubMed

    Delorme, Phillipe; de Micheaux, Pierre Lafaye; Liquet, Benoit; Riou, Jérémie

    2016-07-20

    Multiple endpoints are increasingly used in clinical trials. The significance of some of these clinical trials is established if at least r null hypotheses are rejected among m that are simultaneously tested. The usual approach in multiple hypothesis testing is to control the family-wise error rate, which is defined as the probability that at least one type-I error is made. More recently, the q-generalized family-wise error rate has been introduced to control the probability of making at least q false rejections. For procedures controlling this global type-I error rate, we define a type-II r-generalized family-wise error rate, which is directly related to the r-power defined as the probability of rejecting at least r false null hypotheses. We obtain very general power formulas that can be used to compute the sample size for single-step and step-wise procedures. These are implemented in our R package rPowerSampleSize available on the CRAN, making them directly available to end users. Complexities of the formulas are presented to gain insight into computation time issues. Comparison with Monte Carlo strategy is also presented. We compute sample sizes for two clinical trials involving multiple endpoints: one designed to investigate the effectiveness of a drug against acute heart failure and the other for the immunogenicity of a vaccine strategy against pneumococcus. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:26914402

  7. Covariance estimators for generalized estimating equations (GEE) in longitudinal analysis with small samples.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ming; Kong, Lan; Li, Zheng; Zhang, Lijun

    2016-05-10

    Generalized estimating equations (GEE) is a general statistical method to fit marginal models for longitudinal data in biomedical studies. The variance-covariance matrix of the regression parameter coefficients is usually estimated by a robust "sandwich" variance estimator, which does not perform satisfactorily when the sample size is small. To reduce the downward bias and improve the efficiency, several modified variance estimators have been proposed for bias-correction or efficiency improvement. In this paper, we provide a comprehensive review on recent developments of modified variance estimators and compare their small-sample performance theoretically and numerically through simulation and real data examples. In particular, Wald tests and t-tests based on different variance estimators are used for hypothesis testing, and the guideline on appropriate sample sizes for each estimator is provided for preserving type I error in general cases based on numerical results. Moreover, we develop a user-friendly R package "geesmv" incorporating all of these variance estimators for public usage in practice. PMID:26585756

  8. How Is Emotional Awareness Related to Emotion Regulation Strategies and Self-Reported Negative Affect in the General Population?

    PubMed Central

    Subic-Wrana, Claudia; Beutel, Manfred E.; Brähler, Elmar; Stöbel-Richter, Yve; Knebel, Achim; Lane, Richard D.; Wiltink, Jörg

    2014-01-01

    Objective The Levels of Emotional Awareness Scale (LEAS) as a performance task discriminates between implicit or subconscious and explicit or conscious levels of emotional awareness. An impaired awareness of one's feeling states may influence emotion regulation strategies and self-reports of negative emotions. To determine this influence, we applied the LEAS and self-report measures for emotion regulation strategies and negative affect in a representative sample of the German general population. Sample and Methods A short version of the LEAS, the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) and the Emotion Regulation Questionnaire (ERQ), assessing reappraisal and suppression as emotion regulation strategies, were presented to N = 2524 participants of a representative German community study. The questionnaire data were analyzed with regard to the level of emotional awareness. Results LEAS scores were independent from depression, but related to self-reported anxiety. Although of small or medium effect size, different correlational patters between emotion regulation strategies and negative affectivity were related to implict and explict levels of emotional awareness. In participants with implicit emotional awareness, suppression was related to higher anxiety and depression, whereas in participants with explicit emotional awareness, in addition to a positive relationship of suppression and depression, we found a negative relationship of reappraisal to depression. These findings were independent of age. In women high use of suppression and little use of reappraisal were more strongly related to negative affect than in men. Discussion Our first findings suggest that conscious awareness of emotions may be a precondition for the use of reappraisal as an adaptive emotion regulation strategy. They encourage further research in the relation between subconsious and conscious emotional awareness and the prefarance of adaptive or maladaptive emotion regulation strategies The

  9. Conducting Internet Research With the Transgender Population: Reaching Broad Samples and Collecting Valid Data.

    PubMed

    Miner, Michael H; Bockting, Walter O; Romine, Rebecca Swinburne; Raman, Sivakumaran

    2012-05-01

    Health research on transgender people has been hampered by the challenges inherent in studying a hard-to-reach, relatively small, and geographically dispersed population. The Internet has the potential to facilitate access to transgender samples large enough to permit examination of the diversity and syndemic health disparities found among this population. In this article, we describe the experiences of a team of investigators using the Internet to study HIV risk behaviors of transgender people in the United States. We developed an online instrument, recruited participants exclusively via websites frequented by members of the target population, and collected data using online quantitative survey and qualitative synchronous and asynchronous interview methods. Our experiences indicate that the Internet environment presents the investigator with some unique challenges and that commonly expressed criticisms about Internet research (e.g., lack of generalizable samples, invalid study participants, and multiple participation by the same subject) can be overcome with careful method design, usability testing, and pilot testing. The importance of both usability and pilot testing are described with respect to participant engagement and retention and the quality of data obtained online. PMID:24031157

  10. Relationship between blood manganese and blood pressure in the Korean general population according to KNHANES 2008

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Byung-Kook; Kim, Yangho

    2011-08-15

    Introduction: We present data on the association of manganese (Mn) level with hypertension in a representative sample of the adult Korean population who participated in the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES) 2008. Methods: This study was based on the data obtained by KNHANES 2008, which was conducted for three years (2007-2009) using a rolling sampling design involving a complex, stratified, multistage, probability-cluster survey of a representative sample of the noninstitutionalized civilian population of South Korea. Results: Multiple regression analysis after controlling for covariates, including gender, age, regional area, education level, smoking, drinking status, hemoglobin, and serum creatinine, showed that the beta coefficients of log blood Mn were 3.514, 1.878, and 2.517 for diastolic blood pressure, and 3.593, 2.449, and 2.440 for systolic blood pressure in female, male, and all participants, respectively. Multiple regression analysis including three other blood metals, lead, mercury, and cadmium, revealed no significant effects of the three metals on blood pressure and showed no effect on the association between blood Mn and blood pressure. In addition, doubling the blood Mn increased the risk of hypertension 1.828, 1.573, and 1.567 fold in women, men, and all participants, respectively, after adjustment for covariates. The addition of blood lead, mercury, and cadmium as covariates did not affect the association between blood Mn and the prevalence of hypertension. Conclusion: Blood Mn level was associated with an increased risk of hypertension in a representative sample of the Korean adult population. - Highlights: {yields} We showed the association of manganese with hypertension in Korean population. {yields} This study was based on the data obtained by KNHANES 2008. {yields} Blood manganese level was associated with an increased risk of hypertension.

  11. Small population size of Pribilof Rock Sandpipers confirmed through distance-sampling surveys in Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ruthrauff, Daniel R.; Tibbitts, T. Lee; Gill, Robert E., Jr.; Dementyev, Maksim N.; Handel, Colleen M.

    2012-01-01

    The Rock Sandpiper (Calidris ptilocnemis) is endemic to the Bering Sea region and unique among shorebirds in the North Pacific for wintering at high latitudes. The nominate subspecies, the Pribilof Rock Sandpiper (C. p. ptilocnemis), breeds on four isolated islands in the Bering Sea and appears to spend the winter primarily in Cook Inlet, Alaska. We used a stratified systematic sampling design and line-transect method to survey the entire breeding range of this population during springs 2001-2003. Densities were up to four times higher on the uninhabited and more northerly St. Matthew and Hall islands than on St. Paul and St. George islands, which both have small human settlements and introduced reindeer herds. Differences in density, however, appeared to be more related to differences in vegetation than to anthropogenic factors, raising some concern for prospective effects of climate change. We estimated the total population at 19 832 birds (95% CI 17 853–21 930), ranking it among the smallest of North American shorebird populations. To determine the vulnerability of C. p. ptilocnemis to anthropogenic and stochastic environmental threats, future studies should focus on determining the amount of gene flow among island subpopulations, the full extent of the subspecies' winter range, and the current trajectory of this small population.

  12. Use of complementary and alternative medicine by those with a chronic disease and the general population - results of a national population based survey

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background The use of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) is becoming more common, but population-based descriptions of its patterns of use are lacking. This study aimed to determine the prevalence of CAM use in the general population and for those with asthma, diabetes, epilepsy and migraine. Methods Data from cycles 1.1, 2.1 and 3.1 of the Canadian Community Health Survey (CCHS) were used for the study. The CCHS is a national cross-sectional survey administered to 400,055 Canadians aged ≥12 between 2001-2005. Self-reported information about professionally diagnosed health conditions was elicited. CCHS surveys use a multistage stratified cluster design to randomly select a representative sample of Canadian household residents. Descriptive data on the utilization of CAM services was calculated and logistic regression was used to determine what sociodemographic factors predict CAM use. Results Weighted estimates show that 12.4% (95% Confidence Interval (CI): 12.2-12.5) of Canadians visited a CAM practitioner in the year they were surveyed; this rate was significantly higher for those with asthma 15.1% (95% CI: 14.5-15.7) and migraine 19.0% (95% CI: 18.4-19.6), and significantly lower for those with diabetes 8.0% (95% CI: 7.4-8.6) while the rate in those with epilepsy (10.3%, 95% CI: 8.4-12.2) was not significantly different from the general population. Conclusion A large proportion of Canadians use CAM services. Physicians should be aware that their patients may be accessing other services and should be prepared to ask and answer questions about the risks and benefits of CAM services in conjunction with standard medical care. PMID:20955609

  13. Family Process and Content: Comparing Families of Suicide Attempters, Human Immunodeficiency Virus Positive Patients and General Population in Southern Iran, 2012

    PubMed Central

    Rezaei, F

    2015-01-01

    Background: Family is considered as the smallest social unit, which is the basis of forming a society and one of the effective factors for individual behaviors. When family pattern is useful, the family will be productive and otherwise it becomes nonproductive. Aim: This study aimed to investigate family process and content among families of suicide attempters, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) positive patients, and general population in Shiraz, Southern Iran. Subjects and Methods: This was a causal-comparative study. Our study population included three groups of single men, including suicide attempters, HIV positive patients and general population in Southern Iran. Our sample size was 180 male individuals including 60 suicide attempters referring to one of hospitals in Shiraz, 60 HIV positive patients referring to Behavioral Health Consultation Center, and 60 individuals from the general population who were selected using simple sampling method and were being investigated by Samani's family process and family content questionnaires. Data were being analyzed by ANCOVA and MANCOVA. Results: The two clinical groups had a poorer situation than the general population (P < 0.001) in some dimensions of family process including decision-making and coping (P < 0.001), mutual respect, and communication (P = 0.02) when compared with the general population. HIV positive patients had significantly lower scores than suicide attempters in some dimensions of family content including financial resources, social position (P < 0.001), and place of residence (P = 0.04). The two clinical groups had a poor situation in most of the dimensions when compared with the general population (P < 0.001). Conclusions: The results of this study indicate the importance of education in the field of communication, decision-making and coping skills. PMID:25745582

  14. An integrative examination of general personality dysfunction in a large community sample.

    PubMed

    Hengartner, Michael Pascal; De Fruyt, Filip; Rodgers, Stephanie; Müller, Mario; Rössler, Wulf; Ajdacic-Gross, Vladeta

    2014-10-01

    Recently, the severity of general personality dysfunction has gained broad interest in personality disorder (PD) research. We analysed data of 511 participants aged 20-41 years from a comprehensive psychiatric survey in the general population of Zurich, Switzerland. We added the trait-scores from all DSM-IV PDs, as assessed by a self-report questionnaire, to provide a measure of general personality dysfunction. Adjusting for the Big Five personality domains as a proxy for stylistic PD elements, this composite PD score exhibited strong associations with neuroticism and schizotypy. General personality dysfunction additionally revealed a moderate detrimental association with psychosocial functioning and a strong effect on coping resources, on heavy drinking and drug use and on most psychopathological syndromes. Of particular interest is the strong association with total psychopathological distress and co-occurrence of multiple disorders, suggesting that increasing PD severity relates to the degree of global impairment independent of specific PD traits. Discussed herein are implications for public mental health policies, classification, conceptualization and treatment of PDs. PMID:25044701

  15. Distance software: design and analysis of distance sampling surveys for estimating population size

    PubMed Central

    Thomas, Len; Buckland, Stephen T; Rexstad, Eric A; Laake, Jeff L; Strindberg, Samantha; Hedley, Sharon L; Bishop, Jon RB; Marques, Tiago A; Burnham, Kenneth P

    2010-01-01

    1.Distance sampling is a widely used technique for estimating the size or density of biological populations. Many distance sampling designs and most analyses use the software Distance. 2.We briefly review distance sampling and its assumptions, outline the history, structure and capabilities of Distance, and provide hints on its use. 3.Good survey design is a crucial prerequisite for obtaining reliable results. Distance has a survey design engine, with a built-in geographic information system, that allows properties of different proposed designs to be examined via simulation, and survey plans to be generated. 4.A first step in analysis of distance sampling data is modelling the probability of detection. Distance contains three increasingly sophisticated analysis engines for this: conventional distance sampling, which models detection probability as a function of distance from the transect and assumes all objects at zero distance are detected; multiple-covariate distance sampling, which allows covariates in addition to distance; and mark–recapture distance sampling, which relaxes the assumption of certain detection at zero distance. 5.All three engines allow estimation of density or abundance, stratified if required, with associated measures of precision calculated either analytically or via the bootstrap. 6.Advanced analysis topics covered include the use of multipliers to allow analysis of indirect surveys (such as dung or nest surveys), the density surface modelling analysis engine for spatial and habitat modelling, and information about accessing the analysis engines directly from other software. 7.Synthesis and applications. Distance sampling is a key method for producing abundance and density estimates in challenging field conditions. The theory underlying the methods continues to expand to cope with realistic estimation situations. In step with theoretical developments, state-of-the-art software that implements these methods is described that makes the

  16. A General Framework for Thermodynamically Consistent Parameterization and Efficient Sampling of Enzymatic Reactions

    PubMed Central

    Saa, Pedro; Nielsen, Lars K.

    2015-01-01

    Kinetic models provide the means to understand and predict the dynamic behaviour of enzymes upon different perturbations. Despite their obvious advantages, classical parameterizations require large amounts of data to fit their parameters. Particularly, enzymes displaying complex reaction and regulatory (allosteric) mechanisms require a great number of parameters and are therefore often represented by approximate formulae, thereby facilitating the fitting but ignoring many real kinetic behaviours. Here, we show that full exploration of the plausible kinetic space for any enzyme can be achieved using sampling strategies provided a thermodynamically feasible parameterization is used. To this end, we developed a General Reaction Assembly and Sampling Platform (GRASP) capable of consistently parameterizing and sampling accurate kinetic models using minimal reference data. The former integrates the generalized MWC model and the elementary reaction formalism. By formulating the appropriate thermodynamic constraints, our framework enables parameterization of any oligomeric enzyme kinetics without sacrificing complexity or using simplifying assumptions. This thermodynamically safe parameterization relies on the definition of a reference state upon which feasible parameter sets can be efficiently sampled. Uniform sampling of the kinetics space enabled dissecting enzyme catalysis and revealing the impact of thermodynamics on reaction kinetics. Our analysis distinguished three reaction elasticity regions for common biochemical reactions: a steep linear region (0> ΔGr >-2 kJ/mol), a transition region (-2> ΔGr >-20 kJ/mol) and a constant elasticity region (ΔGr <-20 kJ/mol). We also applied this framework to model more complex kinetic behaviours such as the monomeric cooperativity of the mammalian glucokinase and the ultrasensitive response of the phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase of Escherichia coli. In both cases, our approach described appropriately not only the kinetic

  17. Old stellar populations. 5: Absorption feature indices for the complete LICK/IDS sample of stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Worthey, Guy; Faber, S. M.; Gonzalez, J. Jesus; Burstein, D.

    1994-01-01

    Twenty-one optical absorption features, 11 of which have been previously defined, are automatically measured in a sample of 460 stars. Following Gorgas et al., the indices are summarized in fitting functions that give index strengths as functions of stellar temperature, gravity, and (Fe/H). This project was carried out with the purpose of predicting index strengths in the integrated light of stellar populations of different ages and metallicities, but the data should be valuable for stellar studies in the Galaxy as well. Several of the new indices appear to be promising indicators of metallicity for old stellar populations. A complete list of index data and atmospheric parameters is available in computer-readable form.

  18. SNP sets and reading ability: testing confirmation of a 10-SNP set in a population sample.

    PubMed

    Luciano, Michelle; Montgomery, Grant W; Martin, Nicholas G; Wright, Margaret J; Bates, Timothy C

    2011-06-01

    A set of 10 SNPs associated with reading ability in 7-year-olds was reported based on initial pooled analyses of 100K SNP chip data, with follow-up testing stages using pooling and individual testing. Here we examine this association in an adolescent population sample of Australian twins and siblings (N = 1177) aged 12 to 25 years. One (rs1842129) of the 10 SNPs approached significance (P = .05) but no support was found for the remaining 9 SNPs or the SNP set itself. Results indicate that these SNPs are not associated with reading ability in an Australian population. The results are interpreted as supporting use of much larger SNP sets in common disorders where effects are small. PMID:21623652

  19. Differences in the sources of information and acquaintance with instructions between Dimona and the general population after a suicide bomber event.

    PubMed

    Richman, Aaron; Shohat, Galit; Soffer, Yechiel; Bar-Dayan, Yaron

    2010-01-01

    A telephone survey among two randomly selected, representative samples of adults was conducted two days after a suicide bomber event in Dimona, Israel. Television, radio, Internet, and newspapers were more common sources of information in the general population, whereas friends, family, and the local authorities were the more common sources of information in Dimona. Higher acquaintance with police instructions and higher knowledge of the exact location of the event were found in the population of Dimona. Authorities must pay attention to this phenomenon and use the correct sources of information in each area in order to achieve better exposure of the target population to the police instructions after a terrorist event. PMID:20405464

  20. Recruiting hard-to-reach United States population sub-groups via adaptations of snowball sampling strategy

    PubMed Central

    Sadler, Georgia Robins; Lee, Hau-Chen; Seung-Hwan Lim, Rod; Fullerton, Judith

    2011-01-01

    Nurse researchers and educators often engage in outreach to narrowly defined populations. This article offers examples of how variations on the snowball sampling recruitment strategy can be applied in the creation of culturally appropriate, community-based information dissemination efforts related to recruitment to health education programs and research studies. Examples from the primary author’s program of research are provided to demonstrate how adaptations of snowball sampling can be effectively used in the recruitment of members of traditionally underserved or vulnerable populations. The adaptation of snowball sampling techniques, as described in this article, helped the authors to gain access to each of the more vulnerable population groups of interest. The use of culturally sensitive recruitment strategies is both appropriate and effective in enlisting the involvement of members of vulnerable populations. Adaptations of snowball sampling strategies should be considered when recruiting participants for education programs or subjects for research studies when recruitment of a population based sample is not essential. PMID:20727089

  1. Provocation of nonepileptic seizures by suggestion in a general seizure population.

    PubMed

    Bazil, C W; Kothari, M; Luciano, D; Moroney, J; Song, S; Vasquez, B; Weinreb, H J; Devinsky, O

    1994-01-01

    Nonepileptic seizures (NES) are common and are often diagnosed at epilepsy centers by video-EEG recording of both spontaneous and suggestion-induced episodes, but no study has evaluated provocative testing in a general seizure population. We studied consecutive patients with a tentative diagnosis of epilepsy using saline provocation during video-EEG recording, suggesting that this could produce a typical seizure. Of 52 patients, 40% had no response, 23% had responses unlike their seizures, and 37% had typical episodes (positive test). Patients whose usual episodes resembled complex partial seizures (CPS) were more likely to have NES than were patients with a history of generalized tonic-clonic seizures (GTC). Of patients with positive provocations, the primary physician predicted NES in 68% of cases. This preliminary study suggests that NES are frequent in a general neurology setting, and that saline provocation is a sensitive method of identifying NES. PMID:8082620

  2. Health-related quality of life in Korean lymphoma survivors compared with the general population.

    PubMed

    Kim, Soo Hyun; Kim, Im-Ryung; Kim, So Hee; Lee, Suyeon; Ok, Onam; Kim, Won Seog; Suh, Cheolwon; Lee, Moon Hee

    2014-09-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the health-related quality of life (HRQOL) of lymphoma survivors, to compare it with that of the general population, and to identify its predictors in lymphoma survivors. We enrolled 837 participants (mean age, 54.6 years; mean time since diagnosis, 6.3 years) with a history of Hodgkin's lymphoma (HL) (n = 58) or non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL) (n = 779) who had been treated at any of three Korean hospitals from 1989 through 2010. For controls, we selected 1,000 subjects randomly from a representative Korean population. We administered the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer Quality of Life Questionnaire Core 30 and the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale. Overall, the HRQOL in both groups of survivors and the general population were comparable, but we observed clinically meaningful worse social functioning in NHL survivors (p < 0.001) and more severe fatigue in HL survivors (p < 0.001) than in the general population. Analysis of covariance revealed no clinically meaningful difference in HRQOL associated with age or sex. Survivors who received peripheral blood stem cell transplants showed clinically meaningful worse role (p = 0.001) and social (p < 0.001) functioning than those who were treated with first-line chemotherapy alone. In multivariate analyses, fatigue, depression, and financial difficulties emerged as the strongest predictors for almost all subscales of functioning and global quality of life. Interventions for alleviating fatigue, depression, and financial difficulties are needed to enhance the HRQOL of Korean lymphoma survivors. PMID:24947794

  3. Counting Cats: Spatially Explicit Population Estimates of Cheetah (Acinonyx jubatus) Using Unstructured Sampling Data

    PubMed Central

    Broekhuis, Femke; Gopalaswamy, Arjun M.

    2016-01-01

    Many ecological theories and species conservation programmes rely on accurate estimates of population density. Accurate density estimation, especially for species facing rapid declines, requires the application of rigorous field and analytical methods. However, obtaining accurate density estimates of carnivores can be challenging as carnivores naturally exist at relatively low densities and are often elusive and wide-ranging. In this study, we employ an unstructured spatial sampling field design along with a Bayesian sex-specific spatially explicit capture-recapture (SECR) analysis, to provide the first rigorous population density estimates of cheetahs (Acinonyx jubatus) in the Maasai Mara, Kenya. We estimate adult cheetah density to be between 1.28 ± 0.315 and 1.34 ± 0.337 individuals/100km2 across four candidate models specified in our analysis. Our spatially explicit approach revealed ‘hotspots’ of cheetah density, highlighting that cheetah are distributed heterogeneously across the landscape. The SECR models incorporated a movement range parameter which indicated that male cheetah moved four times as much as females, possibly because female movement was restricted by their reproductive status and/or the spatial distribution of prey. We show that SECR can be used for spatially unstructured data to successfully characterise the spatial distribution of a low density species and also estimate population density when sample size is small. Our sampling and modelling framework will help determine spatial and temporal variation in cheetah densities, providing a foundation for their conservation and management. Based on our results we encourage other researchers to adopt a similar approach in estimating densities of individually recognisable species. PMID:27135614

  4. Counting Cats: Spatially Explicit Population Estimates of Cheetah (Acinonyx jubatus) Using Unstructured Sampling Data.

    PubMed

    Broekhuis, Femke; Gopalaswamy, Arjun M

    2016-01-01

    Many ecological theories and species conservation programmes rely on accurate estimates of population density. Accurate density estimation, especially for species facing rapid declines, requires the application of rigorous field and analytical methods. However, obtaining accurate density estimates of carnivores can be challenging as carnivores naturally exist at relatively low densities and are often elusive and wide-ranging. In this study, we employ an unstructured spatial sampling field design along with a Bayesian sex-specific spatially explicit capture-recapture (SECR) analysis, to provide the first rigorous population density estimates of cheetahs (Acinonyx jubatus) in the Maasai Mara, Kenya. We estimate adult cheetah density to be between 1.28 ± 0.315 and 1.34 ± 0.337 individuals/100km2 across four candidate models specified in our analysis. Our spatially explicit approach revealed 'hotspots' of cheetah density, highlighting that cheetah are distributed heterogeneously across the landscape. The SECR models incorporated a movement range parameter which indicated that male cheetah moved four times as much as females, possibly because female movement was restricted by their reproductive status and/or the spatial distribution of prey. We show that SECR can be used for spatially unstructured data to successfully characterise the spatial distribution of a low density species and also estimate population density when sample size is small. Our sampling and modelling framework will help determine spatial and temporal variation in cheetah densities, providing a foundation for their conservation and management. Based on our results we encourage other researchers to adopt a similar approach in estimating densities of individually recognisable species. PMID:27135614

  5. Rugae pattern in a sample of population of Meerut - An institutional study

    PubMed Central

    Bhagwath, S.; Chandra, L.

    2014-01-01

    Context: Many studies on rugae pattern have been done on various samples of population, but no study has so far been done to assess the rugae pattern of population of western Uttar radesh, especially Meerut. Aims: This study was aimed to assess the rugae pattern in males and females of a sample of population of Meerut, which may be an additional method of determining gender when dealing with any crime or with mutilated bodies that have undergone damage beyond recognition. Settings and Design: A total of 100 Class I dentulous subjects, 50 male and 50 female patients reporting to the outpatient department of Kalka Dental College, Meerut, Uttar Pradesh were randomly selected with an age range between 20-30 years. Exclusion criteria were subjects >14 years of age, congenital malformations, previous orthognathic surgery, allergy to impression material, bony and soft tissue protuberances, active lesions, deformity or scars and trauma of the palate. Prior approval from the Institutional Ethical Committee was taken. Subjects and Methods: Alginate impressions of palate of selected patients were poured in dental stone and rugae pattern was identified and analyzed by a single rater employing Thomas and Kotze's (1983) method. Statistical analysis used: Two-sample t-test and Chi-Square tests were used for comparison of means and relationship between the attributes. A significance level of 5% was considered as critical value. Results: No significant difference was noted in total number or length of rugae between the genders. However, statistically significant difference in the circular type in males and converge type in females was observed. Conclusion: Rugae pattern can be used as a method of differentiation between males and females to corroborate the findings of other methods such as anthropometric evaluation of the cranium and dental characteristics. PMID:25125920

  6. The DRPLA CAG repeats in an Italian population sample: evaluation of the polymorphism for forensic applications.

    PubMed

    Pelotti, S; Mantovani, V; Esposti, P D; D'Apote, L; Bragliani, M; Maiolini, E; Abbondanza, A; Pappalardo, G

    1998-03-01

    The DRPLA CAG repeats polymorphism has been studied in an Italian population sample. PCR amplification, manual PAGE and silver staining were employed. A total of 16 different alleles, spanning the range from 5 to 21 CAG triplettes, was observed. The heterozygosity was 0.81 and no significant deviation from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium was found 81 meioses from parentage testing were also analyzed and a Mendelian pattern of inheritance was observed in all cases. In addition, we could successfully type DRPLA locus in some forensic specimens, 1 ng of DNA allowing clear definition of alleles. The authors conclude that the DRPLA CAG repeats analysis may be useful for forensic applications. PMID:9544554

  7. Homosexual, gay, and lesbian: defining the words and sampling the populations.

    PubMed

    Donovan, J M

    1992-01-01

    The lack of both specificity and consensus about definitions for homosexual, homosexuality, gay, and lesbian are first shown to confound comparative research and cumulative understanding because criteria for inclusion within the subject populations are often not consistent. The Description section examines sociolinguistic variables which determine patterns of preferred choice of terminology, and considers how these might impact gay and lesbian studies. Attitudes and style are found to influence word choice. These results are used in the second section to devise recommended definitional limits which would satisfy both communication needs and methodological purposes, especially those of sampling. PMID:1299702

  8. Course and Prognostic Factors for Neck Pain in the General Population

    PubMed Central

    Hogg-Johnson, Sheilah; van der Velde, Gabrielle; Haldeman, Scott; Holm, Lena W.; Carragee, Eugene J.; Hurwitz, Eric L.; Côté, Pierre; Nordin, Margareta; Peloso, Paul M.; Guzman, Jaime; Cassidy, J. David

    2008-01-01

    Study Design Best evidence synthesis. Objective To undertake a best evidence synthesis on course and prognosis of neck pain and its associated disorders in the general population. Summary of Background Data Knowing the course of neck pain guides expectations for recovery. Identifying prognostic factors assists in planning public policies, formulating interventions, and promoting lifestyle changes to decrease the burden of neck pain. Methods The Bone and Joint Decade 2000 –2010 Task Force on Neck Pain and its Associated Disorders (Neck Pain Task Force) conducted a critical review of literature published between 1980 and 2006 to assemble the best evidence on neck pain. Findings fromstudiesmeeting criteria for scientific validity were abstracted into evidence tables and included in a best evidence synthesis. Results We found 226 articles on the course and prognostic factors in neck pain and its associated disorders. After critical review, 70 (31) of these were accepted on scientific merit. Six studies related to course and 7 to prognostic factors in the general population. Between half and three quarters of persons in these populations with current neck pain will report neck pain again 1 to 5 years later. Younger age predicted better outcome. General exercise was unassociated with outcome, although regular bicycling predicted poor outcome in 1 study. Psychosocial factors, including psychologic health, coping patterns, and need to socialize, were the strongest prognostic factors. Several potential prognostic factors have not been well studied, including degenerative changes, genetic factors, and compensation policies. Conclusion The Neck Pain Task Force undertook a best evidence synthesis to establish a baseline of the current best evidence on the course and prognosis for this symptom. General exercise was not prognostic of better outcome; however, several psychosocial factors were prognostic of outcome.

  9. Image classification with densely sampled image windows and generalized adaptive multiple kernel learning.

    PubMed

    Yan, Shengye; Xu, Xinxing; Xu, Dong; Lin, Stephen; Li, Xuelong

    2015-03-01

    We present a framework for image classification that extends beyond the window sampling of fixed spatial pyramids and is supported by a new learning algorithm. Based on the observation that fixed spatial pyramids sample a rather limited subset of the possible image windows, we propose a method that accounts for a comprehensive set of windows densely sampled over location, size, and aspect ratio. A concise high-level image feature is derived to effectively deal with this large set of windows, and this higher level of abstraction offers both efficient handling of the dense samples and reduced sensitivity to misalignment. In addition to dense window sampling, we introduce generalized adaptive l(p)-norm multiple kernel learning (GA-MKL) to learn a robust classifier based on multiple base kernels constructed from the new image features and multiple sets of prelearned classifiers from other classes. With GA-MKL, multiple levels of image features are effectively fused, and information is shared among different classifiers. Extensive evaluation on benchmark datasets for object recognition (Caltech256 and Caltech101) and scene recognition (15Scenes) demonstrate that the proposed method outperforms the state-of-the-art under a broad range of settings. PMID:24968365

  10. Epidemiological Characterization and Risk Factors of Allergic Rhinitis in the General Population in Guangzhou City in China

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Zhi Bin; Peng, Hua; Lu, Han Gui; Yang, Yan; Yin, Jia; Li, Tian Ying

    2014-01-01

    The prevalence of allergic rhinitis (AR) in China has increased with an apparent geographic variation. The current study aims to investigate the AR prevalence/classification, diagnosis/treatment conditions, trigger factors, and risk factors in the general population of Guangzhou, the third biggest city in China. A cross-sectional survey was performed in the citizens in Guangzhou from December 2009 to March 2010 by using a stratified multistage cluster sampling method. All subjects were asked to complete a comprehensive questionnaire via a face to face interview. A total of 9,899 questionnaires were valid. The prevalence rate of AR in the general population of Guangzhou was 6.24%, with a significant higher prevalence in urban area (8.32%) versus rural area (3.43%). Among the AR subjects, most (87%) were diagnosed with intermittent AR and 87% suffered from moderate-severe symptoms. High percentages of the AR patients did not have previously physician-based diagnosis (34%) or specific medical treatment (55%). Morning time, winter season, and cold air were the most common trigger factors of AR. Family history of AR, current living place, living place during babyhood, smoking, home renovation, and pet ownership were the significant risk factors associated with AR prevalence in the population. The study demonstrated comprehensive epidemiological and clinical information about the AR in Guangzhou population. Change of living environment and lifestyles had strong impacts on the prevalence of AR. Public health policies should help the patients benefit from a proper diagnosis/treatment and specifically target the local risk factors, in order to control the AR incidence. PMID:25514026

  11. Unveiling the species-rank abundance distribution by generalizing the Good-Turing sample coverage theory.

    PubMed

    Chao, Anne; Hsieh, T C; Chazdon, Robin L; Colwell, Robert K; Gotelli, Nicholas J

    2015-05-01

    Based on a sample of individuals, we focus on inferring the vector of species relative abundance of an entire assemblage and propose a novel estimator of the complete species-rank abundance distribution (RAD). Nearly all previous estimators of the RAD use the conventional "plug-in" estimator Pi (sample relative abundance) of the true relative abundance pi of species i. Because most biodiversity samples are incomplete, the plug-in estimators are applied only to the subset of species that are detected in the sample. Using the concept of sample coverage and its generalization, we propose a new statistical framework to estimate the complete RAD by separately adjusting the sample relative abundances for the set of species detected in the sample and estimating the relative abundances for the set of species undetected in the sample but inferred to be present in the assemblage. We first show that P, is a positively biased estimator of pi for species detected in the sample, and that the degree of bias increases with increasing relative rarity of each species. We next derive a method to adjust the sample relative abundance to reduce the positive bias inherent in j. The adjustment method provides a nonparametric resolution to the longstanding challenge of characterizing the relationship between the true relative abundance in the entire assemblage and the observed relative abundance in a sample. Finally, we propose a method to estimate the true relative abundances of the undetected species based on a lower bound of the number of undetected species. We then combine the adjusted RAD for the detected species and the estimated RAD for the undetected species to obtain the complete RAD estimator. Simulation results show that the proposed RAD curve can unveil the true RAD and is more accurate than the empirical RAD. We also extend our method to incidence data. Our formulas and estimators are illustrated using empirical data sets from surveys of forest spiders (for abundance data) and

  12. Density dependence and climate effects in Rocky Mountain elk: an application of regression with instrumental variables for population time series with sampling error.

    PubMed

    Creel, Scott; Creel, Michael

    2009-11-01

    1. Sampling error in annual estimates of population size creates two widely recognized problems for the analysis of population growth. First, if sampling error is mistakenly treated as process error, one obtains inflated estimates of the variation in true population trajectories (Staples, Taper & Dennis 2004). Second, treating sampling error as process error is thought to overestimate the importance of density dependence in population growth (Viljugrein et al. 2005; Dennis et al. 2006). 2. In ecology, state-space models are used to account for sampling error when estimating the effects of density and other variables on population growth (Staples et al. 2004; Dennis et al. 2006). In econometrics, regression with instrumental variables is a well-established method that addresses the problem of correlation between regressors and the error term, but requires fewer assumptions than state-space models (Davidson & MacKinnon 1993; Cameron & Trivedi 2005). 3. We used instrumental variables to account for sampling error and fit a generalized linear model to 472 annual observations of population size for 35 Elk Management Units in Montana, from 1928 to 2004. We compared this model with state-space models fit with the likelihood function of Dennis et al. (2006). We discuss the general advantages and disadvantages of each method. Briefly, regression with instrumental variables is valid with fewer distributional assumptions, but state-space models are more efficient when their distributional assumptions are met. 4. Both methods found that population growth was negatively related to population density and winter snow accumulation. Summer rainfall and wolf (Canis lupus) presence had much weaker effects on elk (Cervus elaphus) dynamics [though limitation by wolves is strong in some elk populations with well-established wolf populations (Creel et al. 2007; Creel & Christianson 2008)]. 5. Coupled with predictions for Montana from global and regional climate models, our results

  13. Raman spectroscopy-based creatinine measurement in urine samples from a multipatient population.

    PubMed

    McMurdy, John W; Berger, Andrew J

    2003-05-01

    Spectroscopic methods of urinalysis offer several advantages over chemical methods, including less sample contact and higher information content. In particular, urine creatinine has been the subject of several spectroscopic studies. We report the first use of Raman spectroscopy to measure creatinine concentrations in unaltered urine samples from a multipatient population. Using near-infrared excitation and a hybrid linear analysis calibration method, a root mean squared error of cross-validation (RMSECV) of 4.9 mg/dL was obtained. The error in the reference chemical method was 1.1 mg/dL. This result shows that the Raman spectroscopy can measure creatinine at clinical levels even in the presence of patient-to-patient variations. Because most assays in urine require creatinine concentration in order to correct for fluctuations in water content, measurement of creatinine is the first step towards more extensive Raman-based urinalysis. PMID:14658677

  14. The self-reported health of U.S. flight attendants compared to the general population

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Few studies have examined the broad health effects of occupational exposures in flight attendants apart from disease-specific morbidity and mortality studies. We describe the health status of flight attendants and compare it to the U.S. population. In addition, we explore whether the prevalence of major health conditions in flight attendants is associated with length of exposure to the aircraft environment using job tenure as a proxy. Methods We surveyed flight attendants from two domestic U.S. airlines in 2007 and compared the prevalence of their health conditions to contemporaneous cohorts in the National Health and Nutrition Survey (NHANES), 2005-2006 and 2007-2008. We weighted the prevalence of flight attendant conditions to match the age distribution in the NHANES and compared the two populations stratified by gender using the Standardized Prevalence Ratio (SPR). For leading health conditions in flight attendants, we analyzed the association between job tenure and health outcomes in logistic regression models. Results Compared to the NHANES population (n =5,713), flight attendants (n = 4,011) had about a 3-fold increase in the age-adjusted prevalence of chronic bronchitis despite considerably lower levels of smoking. In addition, the prevalence of cardiac disease in female flight attendants was 3.5 times greater than the general population while their prevalence of hypertension and being overweight was significantly lower. Flight attendants reported 2 to 5.7 times more sleep disorders, depression, and fatigue, than the general population. Female flight attendants reported 34% more reproductive cancers. Health conditions that increased with longer job tenure as a flight attendant were chronic bronchitis, heart disease in females, skin cancer, hearing loss, depression and anxiety, even after adjusting for age, gender, body mass index (BMI), education, and smoking. Conclusions This study found higher rates of specific diseases in flight attendants

  15. Determinants of Health-Related Quality of Life in School-Aged Children: A General Population Study in the Netherlands

    PubMed Central

    Houben-van Herten, Marieke; Bai, Guannan; Hafkamp, Esther; Landgraf, Jeanne M.; Raat, Hein

    2015-01-01

    Background Health related quality of life is the functional effect of a medical condition and/or its therapy upon a patient, and as such is particularly suitable for describing the general health of children. The objective of this study was to identify and confirm potential determinants of health-related quality of life in children aged 4-11 years in the general population in the Netherlands. Understanding such determinants may provide insights into more targeted public health policy. Methods As part of a population based cross sectional study, the Child Health Questionnaire (CHQ) Parental Form 28 was used to measure health-related quality of life in school-aged children in a general population sample. Parents of 10,651 children aged 4-11 years were interviewed from January 2001 to December 2009. Results Multivariate and regression analyses demonstrated a declined CHQ Physical Summary score for children who had >1 conditions, disorders or acute health complaints and who were greater consumers of healthcare; children with a non-western immigrant background; and children whose parents did not work. Lower CHQ Psychosocial Summary score was reported for children who had >1 conditions, disorders or acute health complaints, boys, children of single parents and obese children. Conclusion The best predictors of health-related quality of life are variables that describe use of health care and the number of disorders and health complaints. Nonetheless, a number of demographic, socio-economic and family/environmental determinants contribute to a child’s health-related quality of life as well. PMID:25933361

  16. Plasma vitamins A, C and E in the general population of Singapore, 1993 to 1995.

    PubMed

    Hughes, K; New, A L; Lee, B L; Ong, C N

    1998-03-01

    The National University of Singapore Heart Study measured cardiovascular risk factors, including selected plasma vitamins, on a random sample of the general population aged 30 to 69 years. Plasma vitamins A and E were normal and similar by ethnic group. Mean plasma vitamin A levels were: Chinese (males 0.68 and females 0.52 mg/L), Malays (males 0.67 and females 0.54 mg/L), and Indians (males 0.66 and females 0.51 mg/L). Mean plasma vitamin E levels were: Chinese (males 12.6 and females 12.6 mg/L), Malays (males 13.6 and females 13.3 mg/L), and Indians (males 12.9 and females 12.8 mg/L). No person had plasma vitamin A deficiency (< 0.01 mg/L) and only 0.1% had vitamin E deficiency (< 5.0 mg/L). In contrast, plasma vitamin C was on the low side and higher in Chinese than Malays and Indians. Mean plasma vitamin C levels were: Chinese (males 6.3 and females 8.4 mg/L), Malays (males 5.1 and females 6.4 mg/L), and Indians (males 5.7 and females 6.9 mg/L). Likewise, the proportions with plasma vitamin C deficiency (< 2.0 mg/L) were lower in Chinese (males 14.4 and females 0.7%), than Malays (males 19.7 and females 7.2%), and Indians (males 17.8 and females 11.0%). Relatively low levels of plasma vitamin C may contribute to the high rates of coronary heart disease and cancer in Singapore. In particular, lower plasma vitamin C in Malays and Indians than Chinese may contribute to their higher rates of coronary heart disease. However, plasma vitamin C does not seem to be involved in the higher rates of cancer in Chinese than Malays and Indians. The findings suggest a relatively low intake of fresh fruits and a higher intake is recommended. Also, food sources of vitamin C may be destroyed by the high cooking temperatures of local cuisines, especially the Malay and Indian ones. PMID:9663300

  17. Perceptions of generic medication in the general population, doctors and pharmacists: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Colgan, Sarah; Faasse, Kate; Martin, Leslie R; Stephens, Melika H; Grey, Andrew; Petrie, Keith J

    2015-01-01

    Objective To investigate negative perceptions about generic medicines and evaluate the proportions of lay people, doctors and pharmacists who hold these perceptions. Design A systematic review of observational studies. Data sources MEDLINE, EMBASE, PsycInfo and Scopus. Eligibility criteria Quantitative data from cross-sectional and prospective studies published in English after 1980, using self-report measures to evaluate perceptions about generic medicines, presented as percentages of the total sample assessed. Results After screening 2737 articles, 52 articles were included in the final analysis. A high proportion of doctors, pharmacists and lay people had negative perceptions of generics. Lay people were significantly more likely to view generics as less effective than branded medication (35.6%, 95% CI 34.8% to 36.4%) compared to doctors (28.7%, 27.5% to 29.9%) and pharmacists (23.6%, 21.2% to 26.2%), p<0.0001. Pharmacists (33.4%, 31.0% to 35.9%) were significantly more likely to believe generics were of inferior quality compared to branded medication than were doctors (28.0%, 26.3% to 29.9%), p=0.0006, and lay people (25.1%, 24.2% to 26.0%), p<0.0001. Doctors believed generics caused more side effects than branded medication (24.4%, 22.2% to 26.9%), compared to pharmacists (17.6%, 15.3% to 20.1%) and lay people (18.8%, 17.8% to 19.8%), p<0.0001. Doctors (28.5%, 26.9% to 30.2%) and pharmacists (25.4%, 21.4% to 29.9%) had significantly more safety concerns about generics than did lay people (18.0%, 17.0% to 19.0%), p≤0.0002. A greater proportion of lay people felt negatively about generic substitution (34.0%, 33.2% to 34.9%), compared to doctors (24.1%, 22.0% to 26.4%) and pharmacists (11.0%, 9.6% to 12.7%), p<0.0001. Rates of negative perceptions of generics do not appear to have changed substantially over time in the general population or among physician groups, p≥0.431, but such negative beliefs show a decreasing trend in pharmacists over the study period

  18. Predictors of PCP, OH-PCBs, PCBs and chlorinated pesticides in a general female Norwegian population.

    PubMed

    Rylander, Charlotta; Lund, Eiliv; Frøyland, Livar; Sandanger, Torkjel M

    2012-08-01

    the OH-PCBs, regardless of their PCB precursors. As PCP is one of the dominating organic contaminants within the general female Norwegian population, future research on human concentrations, exposure routes and potential health effects of PCP is encouraged. Continued monitoring of human OH-PCB levels should also be performed as they could be present at levels almost as high as the PCBs and they are expected to be more toxic than their mother substances. PMID:22459059

  19. Schizotypy and specificity of negative emotions on an emotional Stroop paradigm in the general population.

    PubMed

    Yaffe, Beril; Walder, Deborah J

    2016-05-30

    Attentional-interference using emotional Stroop tasks (ESTs) is greater among individuals in the general population with positive (versus negative) schizotypal traits; specifically in response to negatively (versus positively) valenced words, potentially capturing threat-sensitivity. Variability in attentional-interference as a function of subcategories of negatively valenced words (and in relation to schizotypal traits) remains underexplored in EST studies. We examined attentional-interference across negative word subcategories (fear/anger/sadness/disgust), and in relation to positive schizotypy, among non-clinical individuals in the general population reporting varying degrees of schizotypal traits. As hypothesized, performance differed across word subcategories, though the pattern varied from expectation. Attentional-interference was greater for fear and sadness compared to anger; and analogous for fear, disgust, and sadness. In the high schizotypy group, positive schizotypal traits were directly associated with attentional-interference to disgust. Attentional-interference was comparable between high- and low-positive schizotypy. Results suggest negative emotion subcategories may differentially reflect threat-sensitivity. Disgust-sensitivity may be particularly salient in (non-clinical) positive schizotypy. Findings have implications for understanding negative emotion specificity and variability in stimulus presentation modality when studying threat-related attentional-interference. Finally, disgust-related attentional-interference may serve as a cognitive correlate of (non-clinical) positive schizotypy. Expanding this research to prodromal populations will help explore disgust-related attentional-interference as a potential cognitive marker of positive symptoms. PMID:27046393

  20. The 12-Item General Health Questionnaire as an Effective Mental Health Screening Tool for General Korean Adult Population

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Young Ju; Cho, Maeng Je; Park, Subin; Hong, Jin Pyo; Sohn, Jee Hoon; Bae, Jae Nam; Jeon, Hong Jin; Chang, Sung Man; Lee, Hae Woo

    2013-01-01

    Objective The 12-item General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12) has been used extensively in various settings across different cultures. This study was conducted to determine the thresholds associated with optimum sensitivity and specificity for the GHQ-12 in Korean adults. Methods Data was acquired from a sample of 6,510 Korean adults, ages 18 to 64 years old, who were selected from the 2005 Census (2,581 men and 3,929 women). Participants completed the GHQ-12 and the Korean Composite International Diagnostic Interview (K-CIDI). Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) curve analysis was conducted. Results The mean GHQ-12 score for the total sample was 1.63 (SD 1.98). The internal consistency of the GHQ-12 was good (Cronbach's α=0.72). Results from the ROC curve indicated that the GHQ-12 yielded greater accuracy when identifying mood and anxiety disorders than when identifying all mental disorders as a whole. The optimal threshold of the GHQ-12 was either 1/2 or 2/3 point depending on the disorder, but was mainly 2/3. Conclusion The Korean version of the GHQ-12 could be used to screen for individuals at high risk of mental disorders, namely mood and anxiety disorders. PMID:24474983

  1. The formation of a generalized categorization repertoire: effect of training with multiple domains, samples, and comparisons.

    PubMed Central

    Fields, Lanny; Reeve, Kenneth F; Matneja, Priya; Varelas, Antonios; Belanich, James; Fitzer, Adrienne; Shamoun, Kim

    2002-01-01

    The present experiment explored the effects of three variables on the spontaneous categorization of stimuli in perceptually distinct and novel domains. Each of six stimulus domains was created by morphing two images that were the domain endpoints. The endpoints of the domains were male and female faces, two abstract drawings, a car and a truck, two banded-elevation satellite land images, a tree and a cat, and two false-color satellite images. The stimulus variants at each end of a domain defined two potential perceptual classes. Training was conducted in a matching-to-sample format and used stimuli from one or two domains, one or three variants per class as samples, and one or three variants per class as comparisons. The spontaneous categorization of stimuli in the untrained stimulus domains showed the emergence of a generalized categorization repertoire. The proportion of spontaneously categorized stimuli in the new domains was positively related to the number of domains and samples used in training, and was inversely related to the number of comparisons used in training. Differential reaction times demonstrated the discriminability of the stimuli in the emergent classes. This study is among the first to provide an empirical basis for a behavior-analytic model of the development of generalized categorization repertoires in natural settings. PMID:12507005

  2. A General Population Genetic Framework for Antagonistic Selection That Accounts for Demography and Recurrent Mutation

    PubMed Central

    Connallon, Tim; Clark, Andrew G.

    2012-01-01

    Antagonistic selection—where alleles at a locus have opposing effects on male and female fitness (“sexual antagonism”) or between components of fitness (“antagonistic pleiotropy”)—might play an important role in maintaining population genetic variation and in driving phylogenetic and genomic patterns of sexual dimorphism and life-history evolution. While prior theory has thoroughly characterized the conditions necessary for antagonistic balancing selection to operate, we currently know little about the evolutionary interactions between antagonistic selection, recurrent mutation, and genetic drift, which should collectively shape empirical patterns of genetic variation. To fill this void, we developed and analyzed a series of population genetic models that simultaneously incorporate these processes. Our models identify two general properties of antagonistically selected loci. First, antagonistic selection inflates heterozygosity and fitness variance across a broad parameter range—a result that applies to alleles maintained by balancing selection and by recurrent mutation. Second, effective population size and genetic drift profoundly affect the statistical frequency distributions of antagonistically selected alleles. The “efficacy” of antagonistic selection (i.e., its tendency to dominate over genetic drift) is extremely weak relative to classical models, such as directional selection and overdominance. Alleles meeting traditional criteria for strong selection (Nes >> 1, where Ne is the effective population size, and s is a selection coefficient for a given sex or fitness component) may nevertheless evolve as if neutral. The effects of mutation and demography may generate population differences in overall levels of antagonistic fitness variation, as well as molecular population genetic signatures of balancing selection. PMID:22298707

  3. A general population genetic framework for antagonistic selection that accounts for demography and recurrent mutation.

    PubMed

    Connallon, Tim; Clark, Andrew G

    2012-04-01

    Antagonistic selection--where alleles at a locus have opposing effects on male and female fitness ("sexual antagonism") or between components of fitness ("antagonistic pleiotropy")--might play an important role in maintaining population genetic variation and in driving phylogenetic and genomic patterns of sexual dimorphism and life-history evolution. While prior theory has thoroughly characterized the conditions necessary for antagonistic balancing selection to operate, we currently know little about the evolutionary interactions between antagonistic selection, recurrent mutation, and genetic drift, which should collectively shape empirical patterns of genetic variation. To fill this void, we developed and analyzed a series of population genetic models that simultaneously incorporate these processes. Our models identify two general properties of antagonistically selected loci. First, antagonistic selection inflates heterozygosity and fitness variance across a broad parameter range--a result that applies to alleles maintained by balancing selection and by recurrent mutation. Second, effective population size and genetic drift profoundly affect the statistical frequency distributions of antagonistically selected alleles. The "efficacy" of antagonistic selection (i.e., its tendency to dominate over genetic drift) is extremely weak relative to classical models, such as directional selection and overdominance. Alleles meeting traditional criteria for strong selection (N(e)s > 1, where N(e) is the effective population size, and s is a selection coefficient for a given sex or fitness component) may nevertheless evolve as if neutral. The effects of mutation and demography may generate population differences in overall levels of antagonistic fitness variation, as well as molecular population genetic signatures of balancing selection. PMID:22298707

  4. Efficient estimation of abundance for patchily distributed populations via two-phase, adaptive sampling.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Conroy, M.J.; Runge, J.P.; Barker, R.J.; Schofield, M.R.; Fonnesbeck, C.J.

    2008-01-01

    Many organisms are patchily distributed, with some patches occupied at high density, others at lower densities, and others not occupied. Estimation of overall abundance can be difficult and is inefficient via intensive approaches such as capture-mark-recapture (CMR) or distance sampling. We propose a two-phase sampling scheme and model in a Bayesian framework to estimate abundance for patchily distributed populations. In the first phase, occupancy is estimated by binomial detection samples taken on all selected sites, where selection may be of all sites available, or a random sample of sites. Detection can be by visual surveys, detection of sign, physical captures, or other approach. At the second phase, if a detection threshold is achieved, CMR or other intensive sampling is conducted via standard procedures (grids or webs) to estimate abundance. Detection and CMR data are then used in a joint likelihood to model probability of detection in the occupancy sample via an abundance-detection model. CMR modeling is used to estimate abundance for the abundance-detection relationship, which in turn is used to predict abundance at the remaining sites, where only detection data are collected. We present a full Bayesian modeling treatment of this problem, in which posterior inference on abundance and other parameters (detection, capture probability) is obtained under a variety of assumptions about spatial and individual sources of heterogeneity. We apply the approach to abundance estimation for two species of voles (Microtus spp.) in Montana, USA. We also use a simulation study to evaluate the frequentist properties of our procedure given known patterns in abundance and detection among sites as well as design criteria. For most population characteristics and designs considered, bias and mean-square error (MSE) were low, and coverage of true parameter values by Bayesian credibility intervals was near nominal. Our two-phase, adaptive approach allows efficient estimation of

  5. Patterns of skin disease in a sample of the federal prison population: a retrospective chart review

    PubMed Central

    Gavigan, Geneviève; McEvoy, Alana; Walker, James

    2016-01-01

    Background: Dermatology in vulnerable populations is under-researched. Our objective was to analyze the most commonly referred skin diseases affecting the Correctional Service Canada inmates in Ontario. Methods: An observational, cross-sectional, retrospective chart review of inmate patients seen from 2008 until 2013 was performed. Two groups of patients were included in the analysis: those assessed in-person, and those evaluated by e-consult. Results: In the in-person patient group, the 3 most common diagnoses were acne, psoriasis and other superficial mycoses. For the e-consult group, the 3 most frequent diagnoses were acne, psoriasis and rosacea. There was a clear bias toward more inmates being seen in-person where the service was provided (Collins Bay Institution) than from other correctional institutions in Eastern Ontario. Interpretation: Most of the skin diseases that affected the incarcerated population studied were common afflictions, similar to those affecting the general population, which is in agreement with other studies. Future studies investigating skin diseases in male and female inmates across Canada would bestow more generalizable data. PMID:27398381

  6. Incidence of symptomatic femoroacetabular impingement in the general population: a prospective registration study

    PubMed Central

    Röling, Maarten A.; Mathijssen, Nina M.C.; Bloem, Rolf M.

    2016-01-01

    Groin pain is a frequent cause of discomfort in patients and highly prevalent in active patients. One of the diagnoses causing groin pain is femoroacetabular impingement (FAI). However, the incidence of FAI in the general population is unknown. This study aimed to identify the incidence of groin pain suggestive of FAI in a cohort of 31 451 patients in the Netherlands during 1 year. A cooperation of 16 general practitioners (GPs) participated in this prospective registry. All GPs were educated in the clinical manifestation of FAI and the physical examination for FAI. Patients of all ages were registered when presenting with ‘groin pain’. Between July 2013 and July 2014, 84 patients aged between 15 and 60 years of age presented with groin pain, reflecting an incidence of 0.44%. Of these patients, 17% (14 patients) were radiologically diagnosed with FAI. Another 30% of these patients had a high clinical suspicion for FAI. This is the first report on the incidence of groin pain suggestive of FAI in a general population diagnosed by GPs. Of all 84 patients presenting with groin pain, 17% were diagnosed with FAI. Creating awareness of FAI in GPs helps identifying patients that might benefit from FAI treatment. PMID:27583159

  7. Clustering of health behaviours in adult survivors of childhood cancer and the general population

    PubMed Central

    Rebholz, C E; Rueegg, C S; Michel, G; Ammann, R A; von der Weid, N X; Kuehni, C E; Spycher, B D

    2012-01-01

    Background: Little is known about engagement in multiple health behaviours in childhood cancer survivors. Methods: Using latent class analysis, we identified health behaviour patterns in 835 adult survivors of childhood cancer (age 20–35 years) and 1670 age- and sex-matched controls from the general population. Behaviour groups were determined from replies to questions on smoking, drinking, cannabis use, sporting activities, diet, sun protection and skin examination. Results: The model identified four health behaviour patterns: ‘risk-avoidance', with a generally healthy behaviour; ‘moderate drinking', with higher levels of sporting activities, but moderate alcohol-consumption; ‘risk-taking', engaging in several risk behaviours; and ‘smoking', smoking but not drinking. Similar proportions of survivors and controls fell into the ‘risk-avoiding' (42% vs 44%) and the ‘risk-taking' cluster (14% vs 12%), but more survivors were in the ‘moderate drinking' (39% vs 28%) and fewer in the ‘smoking' cluster (5% vs 16%). Determinants of health behaviour clusters were gender, migration background, income and therapy. Conclusion: A comparable proportion of childhood cancer survivors as in the general population engage in multiple health-compromising behaviours. Because of increased vulnerability of survivors, multiple risk behaviours should be addressed in targeted health interventions. PMID:22722311

  8. Incidence of symptomatic femoroacetabular impingement in the general population: a prospective registration study.

    PubMed

    Röling, Maarten A; Mathijssen, Nina M C; Bloem, Rolf M

    2016-08-01

    Groin pain is a frequent cause of discomfort in patients and highly prevalent in active patients. One of the diagnoses causing groin pain is femoroacetabular impingement (FAI). However, the incidence of FAI in the general population is unknown. This study aimed to identify the incidence of groin pain suggestive of FAI in a cohort of 31 451 patients in the Netherlands during 1 year. A cooperation of 16 general practitioners (GPs) participated in this prospective registry. All GPs were educated in the clinical manifestation of FAI and the physical examination for FAI. Patients of all ages were registered when presenting with 'groin pain'. Between July 2013 and July 2014, 84 patients aged between 15 and 60 years of age presented with groin pain, reflecting an incidence of 0.44%. Of these patients, 17% (14 patients) were radiologically diagnosed with FAI. Another 30% of these patients had a high clinical suspicion for FAI. This is the first report on the incidence of groin pain suggestive of FAI in a general population diagnosed by GPs. Of all 84 patients presenting with groin pain, 17% were diagnosed with FAI. Creating awareness of FAI in GPs helps identifying patients that might benefit from FAI treatment. PMID:27583159

  9. The Epidemiology of Major Depressive Episode in the Iraqi General Population

    PubMed Central

    Al-Hamzawi, Ali Obaid; Bruffaerts, Ronny; Bromet, Evelyn J.; AlKhafaji, Abdulzahra Mohammed; Kessler, Ronald C.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To assess the prevalence, symptom severity, functional impairment, and treatment of major depressive episode (MDE) in the Iraqi general population. Methods The Iraq Mental Health Survey is a nationally representative face-to-face survey of 4,332 non-institutionalized adults aged 18+ interviewed in 2006–2007 as part of the WHO World Mental Health Surveys. Prevalence and correlates of DSM-IV MDE were determined with the WHO Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI). Findings Lifetime and 12-month prevalence of MDE were 7.4% and 4.0%, respectively. Close to half (46%) of the 12-month MDE cases were severe/very severe. MDE was more common among women and those previously married. Median age of onset was 25.2. Only one-seventh of 12-month MDE cases received treatment despite being associated with very substantial role impairment (on average 70 days out of role in the past year). Conclusions MDE is a commonly occurring disorder in the Iraqi general population and is associated with considerable disability and low treatment. Efforts are needed to decrease the barriers to treatment and to educate general medical providers in Iraq about the recognition and treatment of depression. PMID:26230265

  10. Fruit, vegetable and fat intake in a population-based sample of African Americans.

    PubMed Central

    Gary, Tiffany L.; Baptiste-Roberts, Kesha; Gregg, Edward W.; Williams, Desmond E.; Beckles, Gloria L. A.; Miller, Edgar J.; Engelgau, Michael M.

    2004-01-01

    BACKGROUND: African Americans experience high rates of obesity and other chronic diseases, which may be related, in part, to diet. However, little is known about dietary patterns in this population, particularly from population-based data sources. METHODS: A cross-sectional analysis was conducted of 2,172 African-American adults in Project DIRECT (Diabetes Interventions Reaching and Educating Communities Together). A baseline assessment was conducted using a multistaged population-based probability sample from Raleigh and Greensboro, NC. Daily fruit, vegetable and fat intake was evaluated using a modified version of the Block questionnaire, and then stratified results were analyzed by sociodemographic, health and behavior characteristics. STATA Survey commands were used to account for the complex survey design. RESULTS: Overall, a very small number of participants met national recommendations for > or = 2 servings of fruit (8%) and > or = 3 servings of vegetables (16%) per day. Many participants reported eating high-fat foods; the average daily fat intake was 86 g, and the average daily intake from saturated fat was 24 g. People with more education and higher incomes had a higher average daily fruit intake (all p < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: The data suggest that participants' fruit, vegetable and fat intake deviated greatly from national guidelines; older people, women, participants with higher socioeconomic status and those who were physically active consumed healthier foods. These data may be useful in developing dietary and weight loss interventions for African Americans. PMID:15622690

  11. Estimating Effective Population Size from Temporally Spaced Samples with a Novel, Efficient Maximum-Likelihood Algorithm

    PubMed Central

    Hui, Tin-Yu J.; Burt, Austin

    2015-01-01

    The effective population size Ne is a key parameter in population genetics and evolutionary biology, as it quantifies the expected distribution of changes in allele frequency due to genetic drift. Several methods of estimating Ne have been described, the most direct of which uses allele frequencies measured at two or more time points. A new likelihood-based estimator NB^ for contemporary effective population size using temporal data is developed in this article. The existing likelihood methods are computationally intensive and unable to handle the case when the underlying Ne is large. This article tries to work around this problem by using a hidden Markov algorithm and applying continuous approximations to allele frequencies and transition probabilities. Extensive simulations are run to evaluate the performance of the proposed estimator NB^, and the results show that it is more accurate and has lower variance than previous methods. The new estimator also reduces the computational time by at least 1000-fold and relaxes the upper bound of Ne to several million, hence allowing the estimation of larger Ne. Finally, we demonstrate how this algorithm can cope with nonconstant Ne scenarios and be used as a likelihood-ratio test to test for the equality of Ne throughout the sampling horizon. An R package “NB” is now available for download to implement the method described in this article. PMID:25747459

  12. Clinical evaluation of nonsyndromic dental anomalies in Dravidian population: A cluster sample analysis

    PubMed Central

    Yamunadevi, Andamuthu; Selvamani, M.; Vinitha, V.; Srivandhana, R.; Balakrithiga, M.; Prabhu, S.; Ganapathy, N.

    2015-01-01

    Aim: To record the prevalence rate of dental anomalies in Dravidian population and analyze the percentage of individual anomalies in the population. Methodology: A cluster sample analysis was done, where 244 subjects studying in a dental institution were all included and analyzed for occurrence of dental anomalies by clinical examination, excluding third molars from analysis. Results: 31.55% of the study subjects had dental anomalies and shape anomalies were more prevalent (22.1%), followed by size (8.6%), number (3.2%) and position anomalies (0.4%). Retained deciduous was seen in 1.63%. Among the individual anomalies, Talon's cusp (TC) was seen predominantly (14.34%), followed by microdontia (6.6%) and supernumerary cusps (5.73%). Conclusion: Prevalence rate of dental anomalies in the Dravidian population is 31.55% in the present study, exclusive of third molars. Shape anomalies are more common, and TC is the most commonly noted anomaly. Varying prevalence rate is reported in different geographical regions of the world. PMID:26538906

  13. Further validation of the Multidimensional Fatigue Inventory in a US adult population sample

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background The Multidimensional Fatigue Inventory (MFI-20) was developed in 1995. Since then, it has been widely used in cancer research and cancer-related illnesses but has never been validated in fatiguing illnesses or in a large US population-selected sample. In this study, we sought to examine the reliability and validity of the MFI-20 in the population of the state of Georgia, USA. Further, we assessed whether the MFI-20 could serve as a complementary diagnostic tool in chronically fatigued and unwell populations. Methods The data derive from a cross-sectional population-based study investigating the prevalence of chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) in Georgia. The study sample was comprised of three diagnostic groups: CFS-like (292), chronically unwell (269), and well (222). Participants completed the MFI-20 along with several other measures of psychosocial functioning, including the Medical Outcomes Survey Short Form-36 (SF-36), the Zung Self-Rating Depression Scale (SDS), and the Spielberger State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI). We assessed the five MFI-20 subscales using several criteria: inter-item correlations, corrected item-total correlations, internal consistency reliability (Cronbach's alpha coefficients), construct validity, discriminant (known-group) validity, floor/ceiling effects, and convergent validity through correlations with the SF-36, SDS, and STAI instruments. Results Averaged inter-item correlations ranged from 0.38 to 0.61, indicating no item redundancy. Corrected item-total correlations for all MFI-20 subscales were greater than 0.30, and Cronbach's alpha coefficients achieved an acceptable level of 0.70. No significant floor/ceiling effect was observed. Factor analysis demonstrated factorial complexity. The MFI-20 also distinguished clearly between three diagnostic groups on all subscales. Furthermore, correlations with depression (SDS), anxiety (STAI), and functional impairment (SF-36) demonstrated strong convergent validity. Conclusions

  14. Insulation workers in Belfast. 1. Comparison of a random sample with a control population1

    PubMed Central

    Wallace, William F. M.; Langlands, Jean H. M.

    1971-01-01

    Wallace, W. F. M., and Langlands, J. H. M. (1971).Brit. J. industr. Med.,28, 211-216. Insulation workers in Belfast. 1. Comparison of a random sample with a control population. A sample of 50 men was chosen at random from the population of asbestos insulators in Belfast and matched with a control series of men of similar occupational group with respect to age, height, and smoking habit. Significantly more of the insulators complained of cough and sputum and had basal rales on examination. Clubbing was assessed by means of measurements of the hyponychial angle of both index fingers. These angles were significantly greater in the group of insulators. Twenty-one insulators had ϰ-rays which showed pleural calcification with or without pulmonary fibrosis; one control ϰ-ray showed pulmonary fibrosis. The insulators had no evidence of airways obstruction but static lung volume was reduced and their arterial oxygen tension was lower than that of the controls and their alveolar-arterial oxygen gradient was greater. PMID:5557841

  15. Monte Carlo importance sampling for the MCNP{trademark} general source

    SciTech Connect

    Lichtenstein, H.

    1996-01-09

    Research was performed to develop an importance sampling procedure for a radiation source. The procedure was developed for the MCNP radiation transport code, but the approach itself is general and can be adapted to other Monte Carlo codes. The procedure, as adapted to MCNP, relies entirely on existing MCNP capabilities. It has been tested for very complex descriptions of a general source, in the context of the design of spent-reactor-fuel storage casks. Dramatic improvements in calculation efficiency have been observed in some test cases. In addition, the procedure has been found to provide an acceleration to acceptable convergence, as well as the benefit of quickly identifying user specified variance-reduction in the transport that effects unstable convergence.

  16. Genetic risk for autism spectrum disorders and neuropsychiatric variation in the general population.

    PubMed

    Robinson, Elise B; St Pourcain, Beate; Anttila, Verneri; Kosmicki, Jack A; Bulik-Sullivan, Brendan; Grove, Jakob; Maller, Julian; Samocha, Kaitlin E; Sanders, Stephan J; Ripke, Stephan; Martin, Joanna; Hollegaard, Mads V; Werge, Thomas; Hougaard, David M; Neale, Benjamin M; Evans, David M; Skuse, David; Mortensen, Preben Bo; Børglum, Anders D; Ronald, Angelica; Smith, George Davey; Daly, Mark J

    2016-05-01

    Almost all genetic risk factors for autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) can be found in the general population, but the effects of this risk are unclear in people not ascertained for neuropsychiatric symptoms. Using several large ASD consortium and population-based resources (total n > 38,000), we find genome-wide genetic links between ASDs and typical variation in social behavior and adaptive functioning. This finding is evidenced through both LD score correlation and de novo variant analysis, indicating that multiple types of genetic risk for ASDs influence a continuum of behavioral and developmental traits, the severe tail of which can result in diagnosis with an ASD or other neuropsychiatric disorder. A continuum model should inform the design and interpretation of studies of neuropsychiatric disease biology. PMID:26998691

  17. Ischemic heart disease among the general Mongolian population: a review of epidemiological studies.

    PubMed

    Enkh-Oyun, Tsogzolbaatar; Kotani, Kazuhiko; Swanson, Eric

    2016-01-01

    Ischemic heart disease (IHD) is considered to be a pivotal health problem in Mongolia. To summarize the existing epidemiology of IHD in the general Mongolian population is crucial for primary prevention. The present review summarized population-based epidemiological data of IHD in Mongolia. When epidemiological studies were extracted from databases, very limited studies were available. The frequencies of IHD and IHD-attributable death rates appeared to be high and have an increased tendency in Mongolia. This could to be due to a gradually worsening state of potential IHD-related risk factors, such as smoking, hypertension, hypercholesterolemia, obesity and diabetes mellitus. This might indicate an urgent need of strategies for IHD and related risk factors. Anti-IHD strategies, such as more epidemiological studies and campaigns to increase awareness of IHD, at nationwide public health levels would be required in Mongolia for more effective prevention. PMID:26647395

  18. Pressure to change drinking behavior: An exploratory analysis of US general population subgroups

    PubMed Central

    Polcin, Douglas L.; Greenfield, Thomas K.; Kerr, William C.; Bond, Jason

    2014-01-01

    Background General population studies have shown that pressure from others to change drinking can come from different sources. Receipt of informal pressure (IP) and formal pressure (FP) is known to vary by quantity and consequences of drinking, but less is known about how pressure varies among subgroups of the population. Method This exploratory study utilizes data from the National Alcohol Surveys from 1995–2010 (N=26,311) and examines associations between receipt of pressure and subgroups of drinkers. Results Increased relative risk of receiving IP and FP were observed for individuals reporting an arrest for driving after drinking and illicit drug use while poverty and lack of private health insurance increased risk of receipt of formal pressures. Regular marijuana use increased IP. Conclusion The subgroups that were studied received increased pressures to change drinking behavior, though disentangling the societal role of pressure and how it may assist with interventions, help seeking, and natural recovery is needed. PMID:25346550

  19. Prevention of Recurrent Thrombosis in Antiphospholipid Syndrome: Different from the General Population?

    PubMed

    Legault, Kimberly Janet; Ugarte, Amaia; Crowther, Mark Andrew; Ruiz-Irastorza, Guillermo

    2016-05-01

    Antiphospholipid syndrome (APS) is characterized by arterial and/or venous thrombosis with or without pregnancy morbidity in the presence of autoantibodies targeting proteins that associate with membrane phospholipids, termed "antiphospholipid antibodies" (aPL). Management of arterial and venous thromboses shares some similarities with management of arterial and venous thromboses in the general population; however, there are key differences. The majority of studies addressing management of thrombotic APS focus on secondary prevention. Vitamin K antagonists (VKA) are typically used for secondary prevention of venous thromboembolism in APS. Optimal management of isolated arterial thrombosis, in particular ischemic stroke, in patients with APS is controversial, and proposed therapeutic options have included antiplatelet agents and VKA. Primary prophylaxis in aPL-positive patients should be an individualized decision taking into account patient-specific risks. There may be a role for adjuvant therapies such as hydroxychloroquine, vitamin D, statins, or novel therapeutics in specific patient populations. PMID:27032789

  20. Helicobacter pylori Infection in the general population: A Middle Eastern perspective

    PubMed Central

    Khedmat, Hossein; Karbasi-Afshar, Reza; Agah, Shahram; Taheri, Saeed

    2013-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori (H.pylori) infection is probably the most important factor that has been associated with the development of gastric cancers in human populations. However, there are no reliable data on the prevalence of this infection in the Middle East. In this article, based on a comprehensive literature review, we aimed to evaluate the situation in this region. The literature has been searched for the incidence and prevalence of H.pylori infection by Pubmed and Google Scholar. Search was repeated for each of the Middle Eastern countries, and to empower the method, citations of each found article were searched for the related studies. Seventy seven reports from the countries of the Middle East region had been reviewed and they all indicated a high rate of infection either in the general population or in the dyspeptic patients, the rate seemed to be higher in patients with dyspepsia, in patients with histologically confirmed gastritis and in patients of older age groups. PMID:24294467

  1. Generalized anxiety disorder in a nonclinical sample of children: Symptom presentation and predictors of impairment

    PubMed Central

    Layne, Ann E.; Bernat, Debra H.; Victor, Andrea M.; Bernstein, Gail A.

    2012-01-01

    Presentation of generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) in a nonclinical sample of children (7–11 years old) and factors that predict overall impairment were examined. Symptom presentation was compared in children with GAD (n = 49) and anxious children without GAD (n = 42). Children with GAD endorsed significantly more worries, greater intensity of worries, and more DSM-IV associated symptoms than anxious children without GAD. Eighty-six percent of children with GAD had a comorbid diagnosis with 4% having a depressive disorder. Number of associated symptoms was most predictive of GAD impairment based on child perspective and intensity of worry was most predictive based on clinician perspective. Overall, findings from the current study are consistent with reports based on clinical samples. The DSM-IV-TR criteria for GAD were supported, with the exception that children with GAD typically present with several associated symptoms, rather than only one. PMID:18815006

  2. Improving power in small-sample longitudinal studies when using generalized estimating equations.

    PubMed

    Westgate, Philip M; Burchett, Woodrow W

    2016-09-20

    Generalized estimating equations (GEE) are often used for the marginal analysis of longitudinal data. Although much work has been performed to improve the validity of GEE for the analysis of data arising from small-sample studies, little attention has been given to power in such settings. Therefore, we propose a valid GEE approach to improve power in small-sample longitudinal study settings in which the temporal spacing of outcomes is the same for each subject. Specifically, we use a modified empirical sandwich covariance matrix estimator within correlation structure selection criteria and test statistics. Use of this estimator can improve the accuracy of selection criteria and increase the degrees of freedom to be used for inference. The resulting impacts on power are demonstrated via a simulation study and application example. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:27090375

  3. Population pharmacokinetics of mycophenolic acid and dose optimization with limited sampling strategy in liver transplant children

    PubMed Central

    Barau, Caroline; Furlan, Valérie; Debray, Dominique; Taburet, Anne-Marie; Barrail-Tran, Aurélie

    2012-01-01

    AIMS The aims were to estimate the mycophenolic acid (MPA) population pharmacokinetic parameters in paediatric liver transplant recipients, to identify the factors affecting MPA pharmacokinetics and to develop a limited sampling strategy to estimate individual MPA AUC(0,12 h). METHODS Twenty-eight children, 1.1 to 18.0 years old, received oral mycophenolate mofetil (MMF) therapy combined with either tacrolimus (n= 23) or ciclosporin (n= 5). The population parameters were estimated from a model-building set of 16 intensive pharmacokinetic datasets obtained from 16 children. The data were analyzed by nonlinear mixed effect modelling, using a one compartment model with first order absorption and first order elimination and random effects on the absorption rate (ka), the apparent volume of distribution (V/F) and apparent clearance (CL/F). RESULTS Two covariates, time since transplantation (≤ and >6 months) and age affected MPA pharmacokinetics. ka, estimated at 1.7 h−1 at age 8.7 years, exhibited large interindividual variability (308%). V/F, estimated at 64.7 l, increased about 2.3 times in children during the immediate post transplantation period. This increase was due to the increase in the unbound MPA fraction caused by the low albumin concentration. CL/F was estimated at 12.7 l h−1. To estimate individual AUC(0,12 h), the pharmacokinetic parameters obtained with the final model, including covariates, were coded in Adapt II® software, using the Bayesian approach. The AUC(0,12 h) estimated from concentrations measured 0, 1 and 4 h after administration of MMF did not differ from reference values. CONCLUSIONS This study allowed the estimation of the population pharmacokinetic MPA parameters. A simple sampling procedure is suggested to help to optimize pediatric patient care. PMID:22329639

  4. A general few-projection method for tomographic reconstruction of samples consisting of several distinct materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Myers, Glenn R.; Thomas, C. David L.; Paganin, David M.; Gureyev, Timur E.; Clement, John G.

    2010-01-01

    We present a method for tomographic reconstruction of objects containing several distinct materials, which is capable of accurately reconstructing a sample from vastly fewer angular projections than required by conventional algorithms. The algorithm is more general than many previous discrete tomography methods, as: (i) a priori knowledge of the exact number of materials is not required; (ii) the linear attenuation coefficient of each constituent material may assume a small range of a priori unknown values. We present reconstructions from an experimental x-ray computed tomography scan of cortical bone acquired at the SPring-8 synchrotron.

  5. Modified generalized sample entropy and surrogate data analysis for stock markets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Mengjia; Shang, Pengjian; Huang, Jingjing

    2016-06-01

    In this paper a modified method of generalized sample entropy and surrogate data analysis is proposed as a new measure to assess the complexity of a complex dynamical system such as stock market. The method based on Hausdorff distance presents a different way of time series patterns match showing distinct behaviors of complexity. Simulations are conducted over synthetic and real-world data for providing the comparative study. Results show that the modified method is more sensitive to the change of dynamics and has richer information. In addition, exponential functions can be used to successfully fit the curves obtained from the modified method and quantify the changes of complexity for stock market data.

  6. A general few-projection method for tomographic reconstruction of samples consisting of several distinct materials

    SciTech Connect

    Myers, Glenn R.; Thomas, C. David L.; Clement, John G.; Paganin, David M.; Gureyev, Timur E.

    2010-01-11

    We present a method for tomographic reconstruction of objects containing several distinct materials, which is capable of accurately reconstructing a sample from vastly fewer angular projections than required by conventional algorithms. The algorithm is more general than many previous discrete tomography methods, as: (i) a priori knowledge of the exact number of materials is not required; (ii) the linear attenuation coefficient of each constituent material may assume a small range of a priori unknown values. We present reconstructions from an experimental x-ray computed tomography scan of cortical bone acquired at the SPring-8 synchrotron.

  7. Impact of occupational carcinogens on lung cancer risk in a general population

    PubMed Central

    De Matteis, Sara; Consonni, Dario; Lubin, Jay H; Tucker, Margaret; Peters, Susan; Vermeulen, Roel CH; Kromhout, Hans; Bertazzi, Pier Alberto; Caporaso, Neil E; Pesatori, Angela C; Wacholder, Sholom; Landi, Maria Teresa

    2012-01-01

    Background Exposure to occupational carcinogens is an important preventable cause of lung cancer. Most of the previous studies were in highly exposed industrial cohorts. Our aim was to quantify lung cancer burden attributable to occupational carcinogens in a general population. Methods We applied a new job–exposure matrix (JEM) to translate lifetime work histories, collected by personal interview and coded into standard job titles, into never, low and high exposure levels for six known/suspected occupational lung carcinogens in the Environment and Genetics in Lung cancer Etiology (EAGLE) population-based case–control study, conducted in Lombardy region, Italy, in 2002–05. Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated in men (1537 cases and 1617 controls), by logistic regression adjusted for potential confounders, including smoking and co-exposure to JEM carcinogens. The population attributable fraction (PAF) was estimated as impact measure. Results Men showed an increased lung cancer risk even at low exposure to asbestos (OR: 1.76; 95% CI: 1.42–2.18), crystalline silica (OR: 1.31; 95% CI: 1.00–1.71) and nickel–chromium (OR: 1.18; 95% CI: 0.90–1.53); risk increased with exposure level. For polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, an increased risk (OR: 1.64; 95% CI: 0.99–2.70) was found only for high exposures. The PAFs for any exposure to asbestos, silica and nickel–chromium were 18.1, 5.7 and 7.0%, respectively, equivalent to an overall PAF of 22.5% (95% CI: 14.1–30.0). This corresponds to about 1016 (95% CI: 637–1355) male lung cancer cases/year in Lombardy. Conclusions These findings support the substantial role of selected occupational carcinogens on lung cancer burden, even at low exposures, in a general population. PMID:22467291

  8. Urinary excretion and daily intake rates of diethyl phthalate in the general Canadian population.

    PubMed

    Saravanabhavan, Gurusankar; Walker, Mike; Guay, Mireille; Aylward, Lesa

    2014-12-01

    We have analyzed the trends in the body-weight-adjusted urinary monoethyl phthalate (MEP) concentrations and the diethyl ethyl phthalate (DEP) daily intake estimates in the general Canadian population (aged 6-49 years) using the Canadian Health Measures Survey 2007-2009 dataset. The creatinine correction approach, as well as the urine volume approach in a simple one compartment model were used to calculate the daily urinary MEP excretion rates and DEP intake rates in individual survey participants. Using multiple regression models, we have estimated least square geometric means (LSGMs) of body-weight-adjusted MEP concentration, daily excretion and intake rates among different age groups and sex. We observed that body weight affects the trends in the MEP concentrations significantly among children (aged 6-11 years), adolescents (aged 12-19 years) and adults (aged 20-49 years). The body-weight-adjusted MEP concentrations in children were significantly higher than those in adults. On the other hand the DEP daily intakes in children were significantly lower than those in adults. We did not observe any differences in the DEP daily intake rates between males and females. Although the urinary MEP concentrations are correlated well with DEP daily intake estimates in the overall population, one should be cautious when directly using the urinary concentrations to compare the intake trends in the sub-populations (e.g. children vs. adults) as these trends are governed by additional physiological factors. The DEP daily intake calculated using the creatinine approach and that using the urine volume approach were similar to each other. The estimated geometric mean and 95th percentile of DEP daily intake in the general Canadian population are 2 and 20 μg/kg-bw/day, respectively. These daily intake estimates are significantly lower than the US Environmental Protection Agency's oral reference dose of 800 μg/kg-bw/day. PMID:25217994

  9. Patient, physician, and general population preferences for treatment characteristics in relapsed or refractory chronic lymphocytic leukemia: A conjoint analysis.

    PubMed

    Landfeldt, Erik; Eriksson, Jennifer; Ireland, Steve; Musingarimi, Patience; Jackson, Claire; Tweats, Emma; Gaudig, Maren

    2016-01-01

    Due to the disease heterogeneity, treatments for chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) have differed with respect to efficacy and toxicity. Limited options have also been available regarding modalities of administration. Our study objective was to estimate preferences for treatment characteristics (or "attributes") in relapsed/refractory (r/r) CLL. Patients, physicians (hematologists/oncologists), and members from the general population from Germany and Sweden completed a conjoint analysis comprising six CLL treatment attributes: (i) overall survival (OS), (ii) progression-free survival (PFS), (iii) fatigue, (iv) nausea, (v) risk of serious infections, and (vi) treatment administration (each described in three levels). We estimated the relative importance of each attribute by fitting a hierarchical Bayesian model. A total of 190 German and 121 Swedish individuals participated. In the pooled sample, OS was the most important attribute (36%), followed by risk of serious infection (21%), treatment administration (13%), fatigue (12%), PFS (11%), and nausea (7%). Treatment administration was more important to patients (all p<0.004), OS was more important to physicians (all p<0.001), and risk of serious infections was more important to the general population than to physicians (p<0.001). Our results could be helpful to align therapeutic decision-making in r/r CLL with patient preferences to improve care satisfaction and treatment compliance. PMID:26654707

  10. Determination of N-acetyl-S-(N-methylcarbamoyl)cysteine (AMCC) in the general population using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Käfferlein, H U; Angerer, J

    1999-10-01

    Carbamoylation of glutathione, peptides and DNA is thought to be one of the most important reactions occurring in an organism after exposure to nitrosoureas, methylformamides or isocyanates. The carcinogenic effects of carbamoylation are not yet fully clarified. Although carbamoylation is known to occur after occupational exposure, it has never been reported in the general population. To clarify the situation, we investigated the levels of N-acetyl-S-(N-methylcarbamoyl)cysteine (AMCC) in urine samples from persons without occupational exposure using a sensitive and specific method (gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, GC-MS). AMCC is the degradation product of N-methylcarbamoylated glutathione. The clean-up procedure of urine samples includes two liquid-liquid extraction steps and solid phase extraction using a cation-exchange resin to separate AMCC from other urinary components. N,N-Dimethylpropionic acid amide (DMPA) is used as internal standard. During the preparation of the samples, AMCC is converted to ethyl-N-methylcarbamate (EMC) in the presence of anhydrous potassium carbonate (K2CO3) and ethanol. The reliability and accuracy of this method have been proven in detail. The relative standard deviation for the within-series imprecision for three different concentrations was determined to be between 10.9% and 14.3%, while the relative standard deviation for the between-day imprecision was between 11.3% and 14.8%. The mean recovery for AMCC was determined to be between 79.2% and 85.6%. The limit of detection for the simultaneous measurement of two fragment masses was 30 micrograms L-1. Using this GC-MS method, we analysed urine samples from 42 individuals of the general population in order to determine their urinary excretion of AMCC. It was identified in 40 samples. The mean concentration was 40 micrograms L-1. AMCC can be formed in two ways. The first possibility is the dietary intake of isothiocyanates, especially methyl isothiocyanate, which is a component

  11. Prediction models for cardiovascular disease risk in the general population: systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Hooft, Lotty; Schuit, Ewoud; Debray, Thomas P A; Collins, Gary S; Tzoulaki, Ioanna; Lassale, Camille M; Siontis, George C M; Chiocchia, Virginia; Roberts, Corran; Schlüssel, Michael Maia; Gerry, Stephen; Black, James A; Heus, Pauline; van der Schouw, Yvonne T; Peelen, Linda M; Moons, Karel G M

    2016-01-01

    Objective To provide an overview of prediction models for risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) in the general population. Design Systematic review. Data sources Medline and Embase until June 2013. Eligibility criteria for study selection Studies describing the development or external validation of a multivariable model for predicting CVD risk in the general population. Results 9965 references were screened, of which 212 articles were included in the review, describing the development of 363 prediction models and 473 external validations. Most models were developed in Europe (n=167, 46%), predicted risk of fatal or non-fatal coronary heart disease (n=118, 33%) over a 10 year period (n=209, 58%). The most common predictors were smoking (n=325, 90%) and age (n=321, 88%), and most models were sex specific (n=250, 69%). Substantial heterogeneity in predictor and outcome definitions was observed between models, and important clinical and methodological information were often missing. The prediction horizon was not specified for 49 models (13%), and for 92 (25%) crucial information was missing to enable the model to be used for individual risk prediction. Only 132 developed models (36%) were externally validated and only 70 (19%) by independent investigators. Model performance was heterogeneous and measures such as discrimination and calibration were reported for only 65% and 58% of the external validations, respectively. Conclusions There is an excess of models predicting incident CVD in the general population. The usefulness of most of the models remains unclear owing to methodological shortcomings, incomplete presentation, and lack of external validation and model impact studies. Rather than developing yet another similar CVD risk prediction model, in this era of large datasets, future research should focus on externally validating and comparing head-to-head promising CVD risk models that already exist, on tailoring or even combining these models to local

  12. Age-related differences in internalizing psychopathology amongst the Australian general population.

    PubMed

    Sunderland, Matthew; Slade, Tim; Carragher, Natacha; Batterham, Philip; Buchan, Heather

    2013-11-01

    Two methodological criticisms have limited the reliability and validity of findings from previous studies that seek to examine change across the life span in levels of internalizing psychopathology using general population surveys. The first criticism involves the potential influence of cohort effects that confound true age-related changes whereas the second criticism involves the use of a single form of assessment to measure and compare levels of internalizing psychopathology. This study seeks to address these criticisms by modeling age-related change using multiple measures and multiple surveys. Data from 2 epidemiological surveys conducted 10 years apart in the Australian general population were combined and used for the current study. The latent construct of internalizing psychopathology was modeled using a combination of Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (4th ed.; DSM-IV; American Psychiatric Association, 1994) depression and anxiety diagnoses as well as items from the Kessler Psychological Distress scale (K10; Kessler et al., 2002). Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) indicated that a single internalizing dimension provided good model fit to the data. Multigroup CFA indicated that strict measurement invariance of the model can be assumed across survey administrations and age bands, justifying comparisons of mean differences in latent trait levels. Significant changes in mean levels of latent internalizing psychopathology were evident between respondents aged 30-39 years old in 1997 and respondents aged 40-49 years old in 2007, suggesting a minor but significant increase in psychopathology across middle age. By contrast, a minor but significant decrease in psychopathology was noted when transitioning from late middle age (50-59 years old) to old age (60-69 years old). The majority of individuals in the general population will experience constant levels of internalizing psychopathology as they age, suggesting that the construct is relatively

  13. Proton Pump Inhibitor Usage and the Risk of Myocardial Infarction in the General Population

    PubMed Central

    Bauer-Mehren, Anna; Ghebremariam, Yohannes T.; Iyer, Srinivasan V.; Marcus, Jake; Nead, Kevin T.; Cooke, John P.; Leeper, Nicholas J.

    2015-01-01

    Background and Aims Proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) have been associated with adverse clinical outcomes amongst clopidogrel users after an acute coronary syndrome. Recent pre-clinical results suggest that this risk might extend to subjects without any prior history of cardiovascular disease. We explore this potential risk in the general population via data-mining approaches. Methods Using a novel approach for mining clinical data for pharmacovigilance, we queried over 16 million clinical documents on 2.9 million individuals to examine whether PPI usage was associated with cardiovascular risk in the general population. Results In multiple data sources, we found gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) patients exposed to PPIs to have a 1.16 fold increased association (95% CI 1.09–1.24) with myocardial infarction (MI). Survival analysis in a prospective cohort found a two-fold (HR = 2.00; 95% CI 1.07–3.78; P = 0.031) increase in association with cardiovascular mortality. We found that this association exists regardless of clopidogrel use. We also found that H2 blockers, an alternate treatment for GERD, were not associated with increased cardiovascular risk; had they been in place, such pharmacovigilance algorithms could have flagged this risk as early as the year 2000. Conclusions Consistent with our pre-clinical findings that PPIs may adversely impact vascular function, our data-mining study supports the association of PPI exposure with risk for MI in the general population. These data provide an example of how a combination of experimental studies and data-mining approaches can be applied to prioritize drug safety signals for further investigation. PMID:26061035

  14. Nasopharyngeal carriage of Neisseria meningitidis in general population and meningococcal disease.

    PubMed

    Ichhpujani, R L; Mohan, R; Grover, S S; Joshi, P R; Kumari, S

    1990-12-01

    Nasopharyngeal carriage of Neisseria meningitidis was determined in the normal healthy population in Delhi at monthly intervals for a period of 2 years from January, 1986 to December, 1987. Of a total of 6513 individuals screened only 107 (1.64 per cent) were found to carry Neisseria meningitidis serogroup A. There was no age and sex difference in carriage. During the same period, data of laboratory confirmed cases of meningitis due to N. meningitidis serogroup A was obtained from 6 hospitals of Delhi which acted as sentinel centres. Of the total 11,870 pyogenic C.S.F. samples processed, only 557 (4.69 per cent) were due to N. meningitidis serogroup A. There was no correlation observed between the nasopharyngeal meningococcal carriage in the healthy population with the disease prevalence. There was no seasonal variation in nasopharyngeal carriage though upsurge in the number of meningococcal meningitis cases was noticed from January to April. PMID:2129123

  15. Characterization of mitochondrial haplogroups in a large population-based sample from the United States.

    PubMed

    Mitchell, Sabrina L; Goodloe, Robert; Brown-Gentry, Kristin; Pendergrass, Sarah A; Murdock, Deborah G; Crawford, Dana C

    2014-07-01

    Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) haplogroups are valuable for investigations in forensic science, molecular anthropology, and human genetics. In this study, we developed a custom panel of 61 mtDNA markers for high-throughput classification of European, African, and Native American/Asian mitochondrial haplogroup lineages. Using these mtDNA markers, we constructed a mitochondrial haplogroup classification tree and classified 18,832 participants from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys (NHANES). To our knowledge, this is the largest study to date characterizing mitochondrial haplogroups in a population-based sample from the United States, and the first study characterizing mitochondrial haplogroup distributions in self-identified Mexican Americans separately from Hispanic Americans of other descent. We observed clear differences in the distribution of maternal genetic ancestry consistent with proposed admixture models for these subpopulations, underscoring the genetic heterogeneity of the United States Hispanic population. The mitochondrial haplogroup distributions in the other self-identified racial/ethnic groups within NHANES were largely comparable to previous studies. Mitochondrial haplogroup classification was highly concordant with self-identified race/ethnicity (SIRE) in non-Hispanic whites (94.8 %), but was considerably lower in admixed populations including non-Hispanic blacks (88.3 %), Mexican Americans (81.8 %), and other Hispanics (61.6 %), suggesting SIRE does not accurately reflect maternal genetic ancestry, particularly in populations with greater proportions of admixture. Thus, it is important to consider inconsistencies between SIRE and genetic ancestry when performing genetic association studies. The mitochondrial haplogroup data that we have generated, coupled with the epidemiologic variables in NHANES, is a valuable resource for future studies investigating the contribution of mtDNA variation to human health and disease. PMID:24488180

  16. Learning to pass: sex offenders' strategies for establishing a viable identity in the prison general population.

    PubMed

    Schwaebe, Charles

    2005-12-01

    This article endeavors to illustrate the realities of prison life for sex offenders and the means by which they attempt to establish viable identities and acquire a survivable niche in the prison general population, particularly when established identities and protective niches are put at risk by entry into a sex offender treatment program. Qualitative data was collected by repeatedly interviewing a cohort of sex offenders for 6 months as they completed a basic sex offender treatment program. The findings indicate a need to include consideration of treatment context in understanding the limits of treatment gain in prison-based programs. PMID:16249394

  17. Lower respiratory tract infection hospitalizations among American Indian/Alaska Native children and the general United States child population

    PubMed Central

    Foote, Eric M.; Singleton, Rosalyn J.; Holman, Robert C.; Seeman, Sara M.; Steiner, Claudia A.; Bartholomew, Michael; Hennessy, Thomas W.

    2015-01-01

    Background The lower respiratory tract infection (LRTI)-associated hospitalization rate in American Indian and Alaska Native (AI/AN) children aged <5 years declined during 1998–2008, yet remained 1.6 times higher than the general US child population in 2006–2008. Purpose Describe the change in LRTI-associated hospitalization rates for AI/AN children and for the general US child population aged <5 years. Methods A retrospective analysis of hospitalizations with discharge ICD-9-CM codes for LRTI for AI/AN children and for the general US child population <5 years during 2009–2011 was conducted using Indian Health Service direct and contract care inpatient data and the Nationwide Inpatient Sample, respectively. We calculated hospitalization rates and made comparisons to previously published 1998–1999 rates prior to pneumococcal conjugate vaccine introduction. Results The average annual LRTI-associated hospitalization rate declined from 1998–1999 to 2009–2011 in AI/AN (35%, p<0.01) and the general US child population (19%, SE: 4.5%, p<0.01). The 2009–2011 AI/AN child average annual LRTI-associated hospitalization rate was 20.7 per 1,000, 1.5 times higher than the US child rate (13.7 95% CI: 12.6–14.8). The Alaska (38.9) and Southwest regions (27.3) had the highest rates. The disparity was greatest for infant (<1 year) pneumonia-associated and 2009–2010 H1N1 influenza-associated hospitalizations. Conclusions Although the LRTI-associated hospitalization rate declined, the 2009–2011 AI/AN child rate remained higher than the US child rate, especially in the Alaska and Southwest regions. The residual disparity is likely multi-factorial and partly related to household crowding, indoor smoke exposure, lack of piped water and poverty. Implementation of interventions proven to reduce LRTI is needed among AI/AN children. PMID:26547082

  18. Hepatitis B Virus Infection in the General Population of Iran: An Updated Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Salehi-Vaziri, Mostafa; Sadeghi, Farzin; Almasi Hashiani, Amir; Gholami Fesharaki, Mohammad; Alavian, Seyed Moayed

    2016-01-01

    Context The hepatitis B virus (HBV) is a major global public health problem, affecting more than 2 billion people worldwide. Accurate and updated data on HBV prevalence is important for further planning to control the infection. The aim of this study was to update the prevalence estimate of HBV infection in the general population of Iran. Evidence Acquisition A systematic review was done for data on the prevalence of HBV infection in the general Iranian population published between Jan. 1, 1990, and Jan. 1, 2016, in both international and national databases, including PubMed, Scopus, Web of Science, Scientific Information Database, IranMedex, and Magiran. All papers with clearly described time and location of the study, proper sampling strategies, and proper analysis methods were included in the present study. Data were extracted by two independent reviewers. Prevalence of HBV infection with a 95% confidence interval (CI) was calculated using Stata software, version 13. Results The polled estimated prevalence of HBV infection in the general population of Iran was 2.2 % (95% CI: 1.9% - 2.6%). The highest prevalence of HBV infection (8.9%, 95% CI: 7.6% - 10.2%) was reported from Golestan province, and the lowest prevalence (0.7%, 95% CI: 0.4% - 1.1%) was seen in Kermanshah province. The prevalence of HBV infection was estimated at 3% (95% CI: 2.2% - 3.8%) for Iranian males and 1.7% (95% CI: 1.2% - 2.3%) for Iranian females. The prevalence of HBV infection in the general population of Iran was 2.9% (95% CI: 2.5% - 3.4%) before 2010 and 1.3% (95% CI: 0.9% - 1.7%) after 2010. Conclusions In total, Iran was classified within the low–intermediate HBV prevalence areas (2% - 4%), while according to recent data (after 2010), Iran was classified within the low HBV prevalence areas (< 2%), indicating that preventive measures conducted in Iran have been effective. PMID:27257428

  19. General guidelines for medically screening mixed population groups potentially exposed to nerve or vesicant agents

    SciTech Connect

    Watson, A.P.; Munro, N.B.; Sidell, F.R.; Leffingwell, S.S.

    1992-01-01

    A number of state and local planners have requested guidance on screening protocols and have expressed interest in sampling body fluids from exposed or potentially exposed individuals as a means of estimating agent dose. These guidelines have been developed to provide a clear statement that could be used by state and local emergency response personnel in the event of a nerve or vesicant agent incident resulting in off-post contamination; maximum protection from harm is the goal. The assumption is that any population group so exposed would be heterogeneous for age, gender, reproductive status, and state of health.

  20. Does a healthy lifestyle behaviour influence the prognosis of low back pain among men and women in a general population? A population-based cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Bohman, Tony; Alfredsson, Lars; Jensen, Irene; Hallqvist, Johan; Vingård, Eva; Skillgate, Eva

    2014-01-01

    Objectives To study the influence of healthy lifestyle behaviour on the prognosis of occasional low back pain among men and women in a general population. Design Cohort study with a 4-year follow-up. Settings General population in Stockholm County, Sweden. Participants The study sample comprised 3938 men and 5056 women aged 18–84 from the Stockholm Public Health Cohort reporting occasional low back pain in the baseline questionnaire 2006. Measures Lifestyle factors and potential confounders were assessed at baseline. The lifestyle factors smoking habits, alcohol consumption, leisure physical activity and consumption of fruit and vegetables were dichotomised using recommendations for a health-enhancing lifestyle and combined to form the exposure variable ‘healthy lifestyle behaviour’. The exposure was categorised into five levels according to the number of healthy lifestyle factors met. The follow-up questionnaire in 2010 gave information about the outcome, long duration troublesome low back pain. Crude and adjusted binomial regression models were applied to estimate the association between the exposure and the outcome analysing men and women separately. Results The risk of developing long duration troublesome low back pain among women with occasional low back pain decreased with increasing healthy lifestyle behaviour (trend test: p=0.006). 21% (28/131) among women with no healthy lifestyle factor (reference) experienced the outcome compared to 9% (36/420) among women with all four factors. Compared to the reference group, the risk was reduced by 35% (RR 0.65, 95% CI 0.44 to 0.96) for women with one healthy lifestyle factor and 52% (RR 0.48, 95% CI 0.31 to 0.77) for women with all four healthy lifestyle factors. There were no clear associations found among men. Conclusions Healthy lifestyle behaviour seems to decrease the risk of developing long duration troublesome low back pain among women with occasional low back pain and may be recommended to improve the

  1. Temporal sampling helps unravel the genetic structure of naturally occurring populations of a phytoparasitic nematode. 1. Insights from the estimation of effective population sizes.

    PubMed

    Jan, Pierre-Loup; Gracianne, Cécile; Fournet, Sylvain; Olivier, Eric; Arnaud, Jean-François; Porte, Catherine; Bardou-Valette, Sylvie; Denis, Marie-Christine; Petit, Eric J

    2016-03-01

    The sustainability of modern agriculture relies on strategies that can control the ability of pathogens to overcome chemicals or genetic resistances through natural selection. This evolutionary potential, which depends partly on effective population size (N e ), is greatly influenced by human activities. In this context, wild pathogen populations can provide valuable information for assessing the long-term risk associated with crop pests. In this study, we estimated the effective population size of the beet cyst nematode, Heterodera schachtii, by sampling 34 populations infecting the sea beet Beta vulgaris spp. maritima twice within a one-year period. Only 20 populations produced enough generations to analyze the variation in allele frequencies, with the remaining populations showing a high mortality rate of the host plant after only 1 year. The 20 analyzed populations showed surprisingly low effective population sizes, with most having N e close to 85 individuals. We attribute these low values to the variation in population size through time, systematic inbreeding, and unbalanced sex-ratios. Our results suggest that H. schachtii has low evolutionary potential in natural environments. Pest control strategies in which populations on crops mimic wild populations may help prevent parasite adaptation to host resistance. PMID:26989440

  2. A general temporal data model and the structured population event history register

    PubMed Central

    Clark, Samuel J.

    2010-01-01

    At this time there are 37 demographic surveillance system sites active in sub-Saharan Africa, Asia and Central America, and this number is growing continuously. These sites and other longitudinal population and health research projects generate large quantities of complex temporal data in order to describe, explain and investigate the event histories of individuals and the populations they constitute. This article presents possible solutions to some of the key data management challenges associated with those data. The fundamental components of a temporal system are identified and both they and their relationships to each other are given simple, standardized definitions. Further, a metadata framework is proposed to endow this abstract generalization with specific meaning and to bind the definitions of the data to the data themselves. The result is a temporal data model that is generalized, conceptually tractable, and inherently contains a full description of the primary data it organizes. Individual databases utilizing this temporal data model can be customized to suit the needs of their operators without modifying the underlying design of the database or sacrificing the potential to transparently share compatible subsets of their data with other similar databases. A practical working relational database design based on this general temporal data model is presented and demonstrated. This work has arisen out of experience with demographic surveillance in the developing world, and although the challenges and their solutions are more general, the discussion is organized around applications in demographic surveillance. An appendix contains detailed examples and working prototype databases that implement the examples discussed in the text. PMID:20396614

  3. Monitoring exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in an Australian population using pooled urine samples.

    PubMed

    Thai, Phong K; Heffernan, Amy L; Toms, Leisa-Maree L; Li, Zheng; Calafat, Antonia M; Hobson, Peter; Broomhall, Sara; Mueller, Jochen F

    2016-03-01

    Integrated exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) can be assessed through monitoring of urinary mono-hydroxylated PAHs (OH-PAHs). The aim of this study was to provide the first assessment of exposure to PAHs in a large sample of the population in Queensland, Australia including exposure to infant (0-4years). De-identified urine specimens, obtained from a pathology laboratory, were stratified by age and sex, and pooled (n=24 pools of 100) and OH-PAHs were measured by gas chromatography-isotope dilution-tandem mass spectrometry. Geometric mean (GM) concentrations ranged from 30ng/L (4-hydroxyphenanthrene) to 9221ng/L (1-naphthol). GM of 1-hydroxypyrene, the most commonly used PAH exposure biomarker, was 142ng/L. The concentrations of OH-PAHs found in this study are consistent with those in developed countries and lower than those in developing countries. We observed no association between sex and OH-PAH concentrations. However, we observed lower urinary concentrations of all OH-PAHs in samples from infants (0-4years), children (5-14years) and the elderly (>60year old) compared with samples from other age groups (15-29, 30-44 and 45-59years) which may be attributed to age-dependent behaviour-specific exposure sources. PMID:26700419

  4. Comparison of carbon dioxide-baited trapping systems for sampling outdoor mosquito populations in Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Mboera LEG; Knols BGJ; Braks MAH; Takken, W

    2000-09-01

    For collecting mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) the outdoor catching efficiency of four types of trapping devices baited with carbon dioxide (CO2, 300 ml/ min) was evaluated and compared in two areas of Tanzania. The types of traps employed were: the CDC miniature trap with the incandescent light bulb switched on or off; electric nets (ENT) and a Counterflow Geometry (CFG) trap. In Njage, southeast Tanzania, Anopheles gambiae Giles sensu stricto was the most abundant of the seven mosquito species obtained, comprising of 74.3% of the total number caught (n=2,171). In Muheza, north-east Tanzania, Culex quinquefasciatus Say was the predominant species (90.9%) among 1,080 caught. At both localities the CFG trap was superior to the CDC trap with light-on or light-off for sampling both An. gambiae and Cx. quinquefasciatus. Efficiency of the CFG trap and ENT were similar for sampling these species of mosquitoes (P > 0.05). However, ENT was superior to the CDC trap with light-off for collecting both species. Significantly more (P < 0.05) Cx. quinquefasciatus were obtained by the CDC trap with light-off than with light-on, especially outdoors. It is concluded that both ENT and the CFG are effective tools for sampling populations of An. gambiae and Cx. quinquefasciatus outdoors. PMID:11016432

  5. 2MASS photometry of edge-on spiral galaxies - I. Sample and general results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mosenkov, A. V.; Sotnikova, N. Ya.; Reshetnikov, V. P.

    2010-01-01

    A sample of edge-on spiral galaxies aimed at a thorough study of the main structural and photometric parameters of edge-on galaxies, both of early- and late-types, is presented. The data were taken from the Two Micron All Sky Survey (2MASS) in the J, H and Ks filters. The sources were selected according to their angular size mainly on the basis of the 2MASS-selected Flat Galaxy Catalog (2MFGC). The sample consists of 175 galaxies in the Ks filter, 169 galaxies in the H filter and 165 galaxies in the J filter. We present bulge and disc decompositions of each galaxy image. All galaxies have been modelled with a Sérsic bulge and exponential disc with the BUDDA v2.1 package. Bulge and disc sizes, profile shapes, surface brightnesses are provided. Our sample is the biggest up-to-date sample of edge-on galaxies with derived structural parameters for discs and bulges. In this paper, we present the general results of the study of this sample. We determine several scaling relations for bulges and discs which indicate a tight link between their formation and evolution. We show that galaxies with bulges fitted by the Sérsic index n <~ 2 have quite different distributions of their structural parameters than galaxies with n >~ 2 bulges. At a first approximation the Sérsic index threshold n ~= 2 can be used to identify pseudobulges and classical bulges. Thus, the difference in parameter distributions and scaling relations for these subsamples suggests that two or more processes are responsible for disc galaxy formation. The main conclusions of our general statistical analysis of the sample are as follows. (i) The distribution of the apparent bulge axis ratio qb for the subsample with n <~ 2 can be attributed to triaxial, nearly prolate bulges that are seen from different projections, while n >~ 2 bulges seem to be oblate spheroids with moderate flattening. Triaxiality of late-type bulges may be due to the presence of a bar that thickened in the vertical direction during its

  6. Evidence of ancillary trigeminal innervation of levator palpebrae in the general population.

    PubMed

    Lehman, A M; Dong, C C; Harries, A M; Patel, A; Honey, C R; Patel, M S

    2014-02-01

    The cranial synkineses are a group of disorders encompassing a variety of involuntary co-contractions of the facial, masticatory, or extraocular muscles that occur during a particular volitional movement. The neuroanatomical pathways for synkineses largely remain undefined. Our studies explored a normal synkinesis long observed in the general population - that of jaw opening during efforts to open the eyelids widely. To document this phenomenon, we observed 186 consecutive participants inserting or removing contact lenses to identify jaw opening. Seeking electrophysiological evidence, in a second study we enrolled individuals undergoing vascular decompression for trigeminal neuralgia or hemifacial spasm, without a history of jaw-winking, ptosis, or strabismus, to record any motor responses in levator palpebrae superioris (LPS) upon stimulation of the trigeminal motor root. Stimulus was applied to the trigeminal motor root while an electrode in levator recorded the response. We found that 37 participants (20%) opened their mouth partially or fully during contact lens manipulation. In the second study, contraction of LPS with trigeminal motor stimulation was documented in two of six patients, both undergoing surgery for trigeminal neuralgia. We speculate these results might provide evidence of an endogenous synkinesis, indicating that trigeminal-derived innervation of levator could exist in a significant minority of the general population. Our observations demonstrate plasticity in the human cranial nerve innervation pattern and may have implications for treating Marcus Gunn jaw-winking. PMID:24120706

  7. The Promise and Peril of Genomic Screening in the General Population

    PubMed Central

    Adams, Michael C.; Evans, James P.; Henderson, Gail E.; Berg, Jonathan S.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Utilization of sequencing to screen the general population for preventable monogenic conditions is receiving substantial attention due to its potential to decrease morbidity and mortality. However, the selection of which variants to return is a serious implementation challenge. Procedures must be investigated to ensure optimal test characteristics and avoidance of harm from false positive test results. Methods We scanned exome sequences from 478 well-phenotyped individuals for potentially pathogenic variants in 17 genes representing 11 conditions that are among the most medically actionable Mendelian disorders in adults. We developed 5 variant selection algorithms with increasing sensitivity and measured their specificity in these 17 genes. Results Variant selection algorithms with increasing sensitivity exhibited decreased specificity, and performance was highly dependent on the genes analyzed. The most sensitive algorithm ranged from 88.8% to 99.6% specificity among the 17 genes. Conclusion For very low prevalence conditions, small reductions in specificity greatly increase false positives. This inescapable test characteristic governs the predictive value of genomic sequencing in the general population. To address this issue, test performance must be evaluated systematically for each condition so that the false negatives and false positives can be tailored for optimal outcomes, depending on the downstream clinical consequences. PMID:26540154

  8. High rates of sexual behavior in the general population: correlates and predictors.

    PubMed

    Långström, Niklas; Hanson, R Karl

    2006-02-01

    We studied 2450, 18-60-year-old men and women from a 1996 national survey of sexuality and health in Sweden to identify risk factors and correlates of elevated rates of sexual behavior (hypersexuality) in a representative, non-clinical population. Interviews and questionnaires measured various sexual behaviors, developmental risk factors, behavioral problems, and health indicators. The results suggested that correlates of high rates of intercourse were mostly positive, whereas the correlates of high rates of masturbation and impersonal sex were typically undesirable. For both men and women, high rates of impersonal sex were related to separation from parents during childhood, relationship instability, sexually transmitted disease, tobacco smoking, substance abuse, and dissatisfaction with life in general. The association between hypersexuality and paraphilic sexual interests (exhibitionism, voyeurism, masochism/sadism) was particularly and equally strong for both genders (odds ratios of 4.6-25.6). The results held, with a few exceptions, when controlling for age, being in a stable relationship, living in a major city, and same-sex sexual orientation. We conclude that elevated rates of impersonal sex are associated with a range of negative health indicators in the general population. PMID:16502152

  9. Gender Differences in Depressive Symptom Profile: Results from Nationwide General Population Surveys in Korea

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Ji-Hyun; Cho, Maeng Je; Hong, Jin Pyo; Bae, Jae Nam; Cho, Seong-Jin; Hahm, Bong-Jin; Lee, Dong-Woo; Park, Jong-Ik; Lee, Jun-Young; Jeon, Hong Jin

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated gender differences in symptom profiles of major depressive disorder (MDD) in the Korean general population. Data were pooled from the series of nationwide Korean Epidemiologic Catchment Area surveys conducted in 2001, 2006 and 2011, respectively. Of the 18,807 participants, 507 (397 women and 110 men) were diagnosed with MDD within the prior 12 months. In agreement with previous studies, women with MDD appeared to be more vulnerable to experiencing atypical depressive episodes defined as depression with two or more symptoms of fatigue, increased appetite and hypersomnia (P < 0.001). In terms of individual symptoms, female gender was significantly related with higher prevalence of fatigue (P = 0.008), hypersomnia (P = 0.001), noticeable psychomotor retardation (P = 0.029) and suicidal attempts (P = 0.016) with adjustment for birth cohort effect, partner status, and employment status. In the same analysis, men with MDD appeared more vulnerable to decreased libido than women (P = 0.009). This is the first report to demonstrate gender differences in symptomatology of MDD in the general Korean population, and the results are comparable to previous investigations from western societies. Assumingly, the intercultural similarity in female preponderance to atypical depression might reflect the common biological construct underlying the gender difference in mechanism of MDD. In clinical settings, gender differences of MDD should be carefully considered, because these features could be related with treatment response and drug side effects. PMID:26539012

  10. Gender Differences in Depressive Symptom Profile: Results from Nationwide General Population Surveys in Korea.

    PubMed

    Kim, Ji-Hyun; Cho, Maeng Je; Hong, Jin Pyo; Bae, Jae Nam; Cho, Seong-Jin; Hahm, Bong-Jin; Lee, Dong-Woo; Park, Jong-Ik; Lee, Jun-Young; Jeon, Hong Jin; Chang, Sung Man

    2015-11-01

    This study investigated gender differences in symptom profiles of major depressive disorder (MDD) in the Korean general population. Data were pooled from the series of nationwide Korean Epidemiologic Catchment Area surveys conducted in 2001, 2006 and 2011, respectively. Of the 18,807 participants, 507 (397 women and 110 men) were diagnosed with MDD within the prior 12 months. In agreement with previous studies, women with MDD appeared to be more vulnerable to experiencing atypical depressive episodes defined as depression with two or more symptoms of fatigue, increased appetite and hypersomnia (P < 0.001). In terms of individual symptoms, female gender was significantly related with higher prevalence of fatigue (P = 0.008), hypersomnia (P = 0.001), noticeable psychomotor retardation (P = 0.029) and suicidal attempts (P = 0.016) with adjustment for birth cohort effect, partner status, and employment status. In the same analysis, men with MDD appeared more vulnerable to decreased libido than women (P = 0.009). This is the first report to demonstrate gender differences in symptomatology of MDD in the general Korean population, and the results are comparable to previous investigations from western societies. Assumingly, the intercultural similarity in female preponderance to atypical depression might reflect the common biological construct underlying the gender difference in mechanism of MDD. In clinical settings, gender differences of MDD should be carefully considered, because these features could be related with treatment response and drug side effects. PMID:26539012

  11. Public health impact of dietary phosphorus excess on bone and cardiovascular health in the general population.

    PubMed

    Calvo, Mona S; Uribarri, Jaime

    2013-07-01

    This review explores the potential adverse impact of the increasing phosphorus content in the American diet on renal, cardiovascular, and bone health of the general population. Increasingly, studies show that phosphorus intakes in excess of the nutrient needs of a healthy population may significantly disrupt the hormonal regulation of phosphate, calcium, and vitamin D, which contributes to disordered mineral metabolism, vascular calcification, impaired kidney function, and bone loss. Moreover, large epidemiologic studies suggest that mild elevations of serum phosphate within the normal range are associated with cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk in healthy populations without evidence of kidney disease. However, few studies linked high dietary phosphorus intake to mild changes in serum phosphate because of the nature of the study design and inaccuracies in the nutrient composition databases. Although phosphorus is an essential nutrient, in excess it could be linked to tissue damage by a variety of mechanisms involved in the endocrine regulation of extracellular phosphate, specifically the secretion and action of fibroblast growth factor 23 and parathyroid hormone. Disordered regulation of these hormones by high dietary phosphorus may be key factors contributing to renal failure, CVD, and osteoporosis. Although systematically underestimated in national surveys, phosphorus intake seemingly continues to increase as a result of the growing consumption of highly processed foods, especially restaurant meals, fast foods, and convenience foods. The increased cumulative use of ingredients containing phosphorus in food processing merits further study given what is now being shown about the potential toxicity of phosphorus intake when it exceeds nutrient needs. PMID:23719553

  12. Antibody screening & identification in the general patient population at a tertiary care hospital in New Delhi, India

    PubMed Central

    Makroo, Raj Nath; Bhatia, Aakanksha; Hegde, Vikas; Chowdhry, Mohit; Thakur, Uday Kumar; Rosamma, N.L.

    2014-01-01

    Background & objectives: The development of alloantibodies can significantly complicate transfusion therapy and results in difficulties in cross-matching of blood. Most literature on alloimmunization is limited to multitransfused individuals, with very few studies on the general hospital patients. This study was aimed at assessing the frequency and type of unexpected red cell antibodies in the general patient population at a multispecialty tertiary care centre in New Delhi, India. Methods: The results of 49,077 antibody screening tests carried out on patients, from January 2009 to December 2012 were analyzed. The clinical and transfusion records were reviewed. The data were compiled and statistically analysed. Results: A total of 49,077 (29,917; 60.96% males and 19,160; 39.04% females) patient samples were screened for the presence of unexpected antibodies. Antibody screening was positive in 403 patients (0.82%). In the serum samples of 164 patients only autoantibodies were identified, 27 revealed autoantibodies with one or more underlying alloantibodies, while 212 patients had only alloantibody/ies in their serum. The overall alloimmunization rate was 0.49 per cent. Antibodies against the Rh system were the most frequent (64.1%), the most common alloantibody identified being anti E (37.2%), followed by anti D (19.2%). Interpretation & conclusions: Since clinically significant antibodies are frequently detected in our patient population, antibody screening and if required, identification is the need of the hour. Since antibodies against the common Rh and Kell blood group antigens are the most frequent, provision of Rh and Kell matched red cells may be of protective value. PMID:25366208

  13. HIV-Associated Oral Mucosal Melanin Hyperpigmentation: A Clinical Study in a South African Population Sample

    PubMed Central

    Chandran, R.; Feller, L.; Lemmer, J.; Khammissa, R. A. G.

    2016-01-01

    Objective. The aim of the study was to determine the prevalence of HIV-associated oral mucosal melanin hyperpigmentation (HIV-OMH) in a specific population of HIV-seropositive South Africans and to analyse the associations between HIV-OMH clinical features and the demographic and immunological characteristics of the study cohort. Material and Methods. This cross-sectional study included 200 HIV-seropositive Black subjects. The collected data comprised age, gender, CD4+ T cell count, viral load, systemic disease, medications, oral site affected by HIV-OMH, extent (localized or generalized), intensity of the pigmentation (dark or light), and smoking and snuff use. Results. Overall, 18.5% of the study cohort had HIV-OMH. Twenty-two and a half percent had OMH that could not with confidence be attributed to HIV infection, and 59% did not have any OMH. There was a significant but weak association between smoking and the presence of HIV-OMH. Conclusions. The prevalence of HIV-OMH in the study population was 18.5%, the gingiva being the most commonly affected site. It appears that the CD4+ T cell count does not play any role in the biopathology of HIV-OMH. PMID:27006825

  14. HIV-Associated Oral Mucosal Melanin Hyperpigmentation: A Clinical Study in a South African Population Sample.

    PubMed

    Chandran, R; Feller, L; Lemmer, J; Khammissa, R A G

    2016-01-01

    Objective. The aim of the study was to determine the prevalence of HIV-associated oral mucosal melanin hyperpigmentation (HIV-OMH) in a specific population of HIV-seropositive South Africans and to analyse the associations between HIV-OMH clinical features and the demographic and immunological characteristics of the study cohort. Material and Methods. This cross-sectional study included 200 HIV-seropositive Black subjects. The collected data comprised age, gender, CD4+ T cell count, viral load, systemic disease, medications, oral site affected by HIV-OMH, extent (localized or generalized), intensity of the pigmentation (dark or light), and smoking and snuff use. Results. Overall, 18.5% of the study cohort had HIV-OMH. Twenty-two and a half percent had OMH that could not with confidence be attributed to HIV infection, and 59% did not have any OMH. There was a significant but weak association between smoking and the presence of HIV-OMH. Conclusions. The prevalence of HIV-OMH in the study population was 18.5%, the gingiva being the most commonly affected site. It appears that the CD4+ T cell count does not play any role in the biopathology of HIV-OMH. PMID:27006825

  15. Borehole sampling of fracture populations - compensating for borehole sampling bias in crystalline bedrock aquifers, Mirror Lake, Grafton County, New Hampshire

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McDonald, G.D.; Paillet, Frederick L.; Barton, C.C.; Johnson, C.D.

    1997-01-01

    The clustering of orientations of hydraulically conductive fractures in bedrock at the Mirror Lake, New Hampshire fractured rock study site was investigated by comparing the orientations of fracture populations in two subvertical borehole arrays with those mapped on four adjacent subvertical roadcuts. In the boreholes and the roadcuts, the orientation of fracture populations appears very similar after borehole data are compensated for undersampling of steeply dipping fractures. Compensated borehole and pavement fracture data indicate a northeast-striking population of fractures with varying dips concentrated near that of the local foliation in the adjacent rock. The data show no correlation between fracture density (fractures/linear meter) and distance from lithologic contacts in both the boreholes and the roadcuts. The population of water-producing borehole fractures is too small (28 out of 610 fractures) to yield meaningful orientation comparisons. However, the orientation of large aperture fractures (which contains all the producing fractures) contains two or three subsidiary clusters in orientation frequency that are not evident in stereographic projections of the entire population containing all aperture sizes. Further, these subsidiary orientation clusters do not coincide with the dominant (subhorizontal and subvertical) regional fracture orientations.

  16. Standardization of the Colombian version of the PHQ-4 in the general population

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The PHQ-4 is a widely used open access screening instrument for depression and anxiety in different health care and community settings; however, empirical evidence of its psychometric quality in Colombia is lacking. The objectives of the current study were to generate normative data and to further investigate the construct validity and factorial structure of the PHQ-4 in the general population. Methods A nationally representative face-to-face household survey was conducted in Colombia in 2012 (n = 1,500). The item characteristics of the PHQ-4 items, including the inter-item correlations and inter-subscale correlations, were investigated. To measure the scale’s reliability, the internal consistency (Cronbach’s α) was assessed. For factorial validity, the factor structure of the PHQ-4 was examined with confirmatory factor analysis (CFA). Results The Cronbach’s alpha coefficient for the PHQ-4 was 0.84. The confirmatory factor analysis supported a two-factor model, which was structurally invariant between different age and gender groups. Normative data for the PHQ-4 were generated for both genders and different age levels. Women had significantly higher mean scores compared with men [1.4 (SD: 2.1) vs. 1.1 (SD: 1.9), respectively]. The results supported the discriminant validity of the PHQ-4. Conclusions The normative data provide a framework for the interpretation and comparisons of the PHQ-4 with other populations in Colombia. The evidence supports the reliability and validity of the two-factor PHQ-4 as a measure of anxiety and depression in the general Colombian population. PMID:25037706

  17. Retinal Microvasculature Is Associated With Long-Term Survival in the General Adult Dutch Population.

    PubMed

    Mutlu, Unal; Ikram, M Kamran; Wolters, Frank J; Hofman, Albert; Klaver, Caroline C W; Ikram, M Arfan

    2016-02-01

    Retinal vascular diameters are associated with (sub)clinical cardiovascular disease and short-term cardiovascular mortality, but their association with long-term mortality is uncertain. We studied the association of retinal vascular diameters with cause-specific mortality in the general adult Dutch population during 25 years of follow-up. From 1990 to 1993, arteriolar and venular diameters were measured semiautomatically on digitized images in 5674 persons (mean age 68.0 years, 59% women) from the population-based Rotterdam study. Follow-up for mortality was complete till March 2015. Associations between vascular diameters and mortality were examined using Cox proportional hazards models, adjusting for age, sex, cardiovascular risk factors, and the fellow vessel diameter. During 85 770 person-years (mean±SD: 15.1±6.67), 3794 (66.8%) persons died, of whom 1034 due to cardiovascular causes. We found that narrower arterioles and wider venules were associated with higher risk of mortality (adjusted hazard ratio [95% confidence interval] per SD decrease 1.04 [1.00-1.08] and increase 1.07 [1.03-1.12], respectively). For arterioles, these associations were strongest for cardiovascular mortality, whereas venules showed consistent associations for cardiovascular and n