Science.gov

Sample records for general safety precautions

  1. Safety Precautions for Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Folks, John; And Others

    Safety information is discussed and outlined in this guide. Areas include: (1) general laboratory safety rules; (2) general rules and guidelines for animals in the elementary classroom; (3) general guidelines for the physical sciences; (4) general rules for using animals in investigations, with specifics on the care and handling of mammals,…

  2. Safety Precautions for Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Folks, John; And Others

    Safety information is discussed and outlined in this guide. Areas include: (1) general laboratory safety rules; (2) general rules and guidelines for animals in the elementary classroom; (3) general guidelines for the physical sciences; (4) general rules for using animals in investigations, with specifics on the care and handling of mammals,

  3. 10 CFR 35.415 - Safety precautions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Safety precautions. 35.415 Section 35.415 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION MEDICAL USE OF BYPRODUCT MATERIAL Manual Brachytherapy 35.415 Safety precautions. (a... following removal of the source applicators. (c) A licensee shall notify the Radiation Safety Officer,...

  4. 10 CFR 35.415 - Safety precautions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Safety precautions. 35.415 Section 35.415 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION MEDICAL USE OF BYPRODUCT MATERIAL Manual Brachytherapy 35.415 Safety precautions. (a... following removal of the source applicators. (c) A licensee shall notify the Radiation Safety Officer,...

  5. 10 CFR 35.415 - Safety precautions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Safety precautions. 35.415 Section 35.415 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION MEDICAL USE OF BYPRODUCT MATERIAL Manual Brachytherapy 35.415 Safety precautions. (a... following removal of the source applicators. (c) A licensee shall notify the Radiation Safety Officer,...

  6. 10 CFR 35.415 - Safety precautions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Safety precautions. 35.415 Section 35.415 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION MEDICAL USE OF BYPRODUCT MATERIAL Manual Brachytherapy § 35.415 Safety precautions. (a... following removal of the source applicators. (c) A licensee shall notify the Radiation Safety Officer,...

  7. 10 CFR 35.415 - Safety precautions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Safety precautions. 35.415 Section 35.415 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION MEDICAL USE OF BYPRODUCT MATERIAL Manual Brachytherapy § 35.415 Safety precautions. (a... following removal of the source applicators. (c) A licensee shall notify the Radiation Safety Officer,...

  8. 10 CFR 35.315 - Safety precautions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Safety precautions. 35.315 Section 35.315 Energy NUCLEAR... Required 35.315 Safety precautions. (a) For each patient or human research subject who cannot be released... handle the material and items as radioactive waste. (b) A licensee shall notify the Radiation...

  9. 10 CFR 35.315 - Safety precautions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Safety precautions. 35.315 Section 35.315 Energy NUCLEAR... Required 35.315 Safety precautions. (a) For each patient or human research subject who cannot be released... handle the material and items as radioactive waste. (b) A licensee shall notify the Radiation...

  10. 10 CFR 35.315 - Safety precautions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Safety precautions. 35.315 Section 35.315 Energy NUCLEAR... Required 35.315 Safety precautions. (a) For each patient or human research subject who cannot be released... handle the material and items as radioactive waste. (b) A licensee shall notify the Radiation...

  11. 10 CFR 35.315 - Safety precautions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Safety precautions. 35.315 Section 35.315 Energy NUCLEAR... Required § 35.315 Safety precautions. (a) For each patient or human research subject who cannot be released... handle the material and items as radioactive waste. (b) A licensee shall notify the Radiation...

  12. 10 CFR 35.315 - Safety precautions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Safety precautions. 35.315 Section 35.315 Energy NUCLEAR... Required § 35.315 Safety precautions. (a) For each patient or human research subject who cannot be released... handle the material and items as radioactive waste. (b) A licensee shall notify the Radiation...

  13. Understanding Students' Intentions to Use Safety Precautions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lenski, Tammy J.; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Provides a theoretical foundation for understanding how college students use crime information. Describes and reports results of a test of the Safety Belief Model on undergraduate students (n=645) that predicts the likelihood of students following certain relatively simple and common safety precautions. Includes recommendations for safety

  14. 43 CFR 3162.5-3 - Safety precautions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Safety precautions. 3162.5-3 Section 3162... for Operating Rights Owners and Operators 3162.5-3 Safety precautions. The operator shall perform... necessary to provide adequate protection for the health and safety of life and the protection of...

  15. 43 CFR 3162.5-3 - Safety precautions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Safety precautions. 3162.5-3 Section 3162... for Operating Rights Owners and Operators 3162.5-3 Safety precautions. The operator shall perform... necessary to provide adequate protection for the health and safety of life and the protection of...

  16. 43 CFR 3162.5-3 - Safety precautions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Safety precautions. 3162.5-3 Section 3162... for Operating Rights Owners and Operators 3162.5-3 Safety precautions. The operator shall perform... necessary to provide adequate protection for the health and safety of life and the protection of...

  17. 43 CFR 3162.5-3 - Safety precautions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Safety precautions. 3162.5-3 Section 3162... for Operating Rights Owners and Operators § 3162.5-3 Safety precautions. The operator shall perform... necessary to provide adequate protection for the health and safety of life and the protection of...

  18. Safety Precautions. Child Health and Safety Series (Module I).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Iscoe, Louise; And Others

    This manual for parents and child care personnel in day care homes and centers provides guidelines and information on indoor and outdoor safety precautions, emergency preparation and first aid. Contents focus on monitoring arrivals and departures, prevention of suffocation and strangulation, control of pets and other animals, preventing and…

  19. 48 CFR 252.236-7005 - Airfield safety precautions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... aircraft free from hazards, holes, piles of material, and projecting shoulders that might damage an... placed in safety precaution areas with a red light or red lantern at night, if the objects project...

  20. 48 CFR 252.236-7005 - Airfield safety precautions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... aircraft free from hazards, holes, piles of material, and projecting shoulders that might damage an... placed in safety precaution areas with a red light or red lantern at night, if the objects project...

  1. 48 CFR 252.236-7005 - Airfield safety precautions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... aircraft free from hazards, holes, piles of material, and projecting shoulders that might damage an... placed in safety precaution areas with a red light or red lantern at night, if the objects project...

  2. 48 CFR 252.236-7005 - Airfield safety precautions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... aircraft free from hazards, holes, piles of material, and projecting shoulders that might damage an... placed in safety precaution areas with a red light or red lantern at night, if the objects project...

  3. 48 CFR 252.236-7005 - Airfield safety precautions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... aircraft free from hazards, holes, piles of material, and projecting shoulders that might damage an... placed in safety precaution areas with a red light or red lantern at night, if the objects project...

  4. Key Rules of the Safety Precautions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In research on phytochemical investigations, we use some equipment and materials which can be hazardous to employees or our environment if suitable precautions are not taken. Certain hazards exist and risks must be carefully considered and examined. The objective of this chapter is to minimize or ...

  5. Analysis of safety precautions for coal and gas outburst-hazardous strata

    SciTech Connect

    Hudecek, V.

    2008-09-15

    The author analyses coal and gas outbursts and generalizes the available data on the approaches to solving the problematics of these gas-dynamic events in the framework of Czech Republic Grant 'Estimate of the Safety Precautions for Coal and Gas Outburst Hazardous Strata'.

  6. Ethical considerations, safety precautions and parenthood in legalising mitochondrial donation.

    PubMed

    Briscoe, Rebecca

    2013-01-01

    This article outlines some of the main ethical considerations specifically relating to legalisation of mitochondrial donation. Safety requirements, were the technique to be legalised, are then discussed, followed by an exploration of parenthood in the context of mitochondrial donation. It is concluded that there are no ethical objections specifically relating to the legalisation of mitochondrial donation, but that various safety precautions must be established prior to its use, including the availability of relevant medical information about the mitochondrial donors to any resultant children. It is also found that introduction of this technique would not necessitate modifications to current British legal definitions of parenthood. However, it is clear that societal attitudes in this area are changing, and it is recommended that this opportunity be taken to review concepts of parenthood, particularly the number of parents a child may have at one time. PMID:24707593

  7. 48 CFR 223.370 - Safety precautions for ammunition and explosives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Safety precautions for ammunition and explosives. 223.370 Section 223.370 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEFENSE ACQUISITION REGULATIONS SYSTEM, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE SOCIOECONOMIC PROGRAMS ENVIRONMENT, ENERGY AND WATER EFFICIENCY, RENEWABLE ENERGY...

  8. 30 CFR 75.1903 - Underground diesel fuel storage facilities and areas; construction and safety precautions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Underground diesel fuel storage facilities and...-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Diesel-Powered Equipment § 75.1903 Underground diesel fuel storage facilities and areas; construction and safety precautions. (a) Permanent underground diesel fuel storage facilities must be—...

  9. 30 CFR 75.1903 - Underground diesel fuel storage facilities and areas; construction and safety precautions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Underground diesel fuel storage facilities and...-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Diesel-Powered Equipment § 75.1903 Underground diesel fuel storage facilities and areas; construction and safety precautions. (a) Permanent underground diesel fuel storage facilities must be—...

  10. 30 CFR 75.1903 - Underground diesel fuel storage facilities and areas; construction and safety precautions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Underground diesel fuel storage facilities and...-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Diesel-Powered Equipment § 75.1903 Underground diesel fuel storage facilities and areas; construction and safety precautions. (a) Permanent underground diesel fuel storage facilities must be—...

  11. 10 CFR 35.615 - Safety precautions for remote afterloader units, teletherapy units, and gamma stereotactic...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... are placed within the patient's or human research subject's body, a licensee shall only conduct... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Safety precautions for remote afterloader units, teletherapy units, and gamma stereotactic radiosurgery units. 35.615 Section 35.615 Energy NUCLEAR...

  12. 10 CFR 35.615 - Safety precautions for remote afterloader units, teletherapy units, and gamma stereotactic...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... are placed within the patient's or human research subject's body, a licensee shall only conduct... 10 Energy 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Safety precautions for remote afterloader units, teletherapy units, and gamma stereotactic radiosurgery units. 35.615 Section 35.615 Energy NUCLEAR...

  13. 10 CFR 35.615 - Safety precautions for remote afterloader units, teletherapy units, and gamma stereotactic...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... are placed within the patient's or human research subject's body, a licensee shall only conduct... 10 Energy 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Safety precautions for remote afterloader units, teletherapy units, and gamma stereotactic radiosurgery units. 35.615 Section 35.615 Energy NUCLEAR...

  14. 10 CFR 35.615 - Safety precautions for remote afterloader units, teletherapy units, and gamma stereotactic...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... are placed within the patient's or human research subject's body, a licensee shall only conduct... 10 Energy 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Safety precautions for remote afterloader units, teletherapy units, and gamma stereotactic radiosurgery units. 35.615 Section 35.615 Energy NUCLEAR...

  15. 10 CFR 35.615 - Safety precautions for remote afterloader units, teletherapy units, and gamma stereotactic...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Safety precautions for remote afterloader units, teletherapy units, and gamma stereotactic radiosurgery units. 35.615 Section 35.615 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION MEDICAL USE OF BYPRODUCT MATERIAL Photon Emitting Remote Afterloader Units, Teletherapy Units, and Gamma Stereotactic Radiosurgery Units...

  16. 48 CFR 252.223-7002 - Safety precautions for ammunition and explosives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Safety precautions for ammunition and explosives. 252.223-7002 Section 252.223-7002 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEFENSE ACQUISITION REGULATIONS SYSTEM, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE CLAUSES AND FORMS SOLICITATION PROVISIONS AND CONTRACT CLAUSES Text of Provisions...

  17. 30 CFR 75.1903 - Underground diesel fuel storage facilities and areas; construction and safety precautions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Underground diesel fuel storage facilities and...-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Diesel-Powered Equipment 75.1903 Underground diesel fuel storage facilities and areas; construction and safety precautions. (a) Permanent underground diesel fuel storage facilities must be...

  18. 30 CFR 75.1903 - Underground diesel fuel storage facilities and areas; construction and safety precautions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Underground diesel fuel storage facilities and...-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Diesel-Powered Equipment 75.1903 Underground diesel fuel storage facilities and areas; construction and safety precautions. (a) Permanent underground diesel fuel storage facilities must be...

  19. Occupational Safety Precautions among Nurses at Four Hospitals, Nablus District, Palestine.

    PubMed

    Al-Khatib, I A; El Ansari, W; Areqat, T A; Darkhawaja, R A; Mansour, S H; Tucktuck, M A; Khatib, J I

    2015-10-01

    Occupational hazards, exposure to blood and body fluids (BBF) accidents and safety precautions constitute an important public health issue. We assessed the prevalence and determinants of exposure to occupational hazards among nurses, and their knowledge of occupational safety precautions. In a cross-sectional study, we surveyed 332 nurses working in 4 hospitals, Nablus, West Bank, Palestine, by a questionnaire. Bivariate analysis tested the associations between ever exposure and the high likelihood of BBF exposure and the independent socio-demographic and occupational variables. Binary logistic regression analysis was used to assess the associations between the same two exposures and selected independent variables (those significant in the bivariate analysis). Prevalence of ever exposure to BBF was 51.7%, and was associated with working in private and charitable hospitals (OR 2.62, 2.68, respectively), having 4-6 family members (OR 0.52) and "nursing" being as one's top career choice at university (OR 0.48). The prevalence of high likelihood of BBF exposure was 62.2%, and was associated with working in charitable and private hospitals (OR 7.81, 2.43, respectively) and "nursing" being as one's top career choice (OR 0.57). Regarding knowledge, most respondents believed it is necessary to enact laws and regulations regarding occupational safety precautions, reported the use of sharps containers, immediate disinfection after an accident, reporting an accident, and using personal protective equipment. Nurses had adequate knowledge of the risks of their hospital work. Nevertheless, they exhibited high prevalence of exposure to BBF accidents. Future studies are needed to re-evaluate existing occupational safety guidelines in hospitals, establish monitoring and evaluation protocols for health care workers' adherence to the guidelines, and institute well-defined policies for reporting occupational injury incidents so these can be handled appropriately. PMID:26498052

  20. Isolation precautions

    MedlinePLUS

    ... precautions are in place. They may need to wear masks when they leave their rooms. Airborne precautions ... the patient or objects in the room -- should wear a gown and gloves. Droplet precautions are used ...

  1. Fingolimod for multiple sclerosis and emerging indications: appropriate patient selection, safety precautions, and special considerations

    PubMed Central

    Ayzenberg, Ilya; Hoepner, Robert; Kleiter, Ingo

    2016-01-01

    Fingolimod (FTY720), an immunotherapeutic drug targeting the sphingosine-1-phosphate receptor, is a widely used medication for relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (MS). Apart from the pivotal Phase III trials demonstrating efficacy against placebo and interferon-β-1a once weekly, sufficient clinical data are now available to assess its real-world efficacy and safety profile. Approved indications of fingolimod differ between countries. This discrepancy, to some extent, reflects the intermediate position of fingolimod in the expanding lineup of MS medications. With individualization of therapy, appropriate patient selection gets more important. We discuss various scenarios for fingolimod use in relapsing-remitting MS and their pitfalls: as first-line therapy, as escalation therapy after failure of previous immunotherapies, and as de-escalation therapy following highly potent immunotherapies. Potential side effects such as bradycardia, infections, macular edema, teratogenicity, and progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy as well as appropriate safety precautions are outlined. Disease reactivation has been described upon fingolimod cessation; therefore, patients should be closely monitored for MS activity for several months after stopping fingolimod. Finally, we discuss preclinical and clinical data indicating neuroprotective effects of fingolimod, which might open the way to future indications such as stroke, Alzheimer’s disease, and other neurodegenerative disorders. PMID:26929636

  2. Health and safety precautions in the relining of aluminum electrolysis cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pawlek, Rudolf P.

    1994-05-01

    The risk of accidents when handling liquid metal and bath, the potential for explosions through reactions of gases, and electrical hazards all highlight the vital importance of safety in the cathode repair and cell restart processes. With respect to hygiene, refractory materials and reaction products must be handled carefully when repairing cathodes and when welding. Personnel therefore require appropriate clothing and protective equipment. This article reviews various proceduresshort circuiting a cell, digging out the spent potlining, preparing the empty steel shell, fixing the steel bars to the cathode blocks, and general relining and start-upin the context of both safety and health.

  3. 78 FR 28495 - Safety Zone; Safety Precautions to Protect the Public from the Effects of a Potential...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-15

    .... SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Table of Acronyms DHS Department of Homeland Security FR Federal Register NPRM Notice... from the Effects of a Potential Catastrophic Failure of the Marseilles Dam; Illinois River AGENCY... Illinois River, and the potential structural concerns regarding the Marseilles Dam. This safety zone...

  4. Fall Risk Awareness and Safety Precautions Taken by Older Community-Dwelling Women and Men—A Qualitative Study Using Focus Group Discussions

    PubMed Central

    Pohl, Petra; Sandlund, Marlene; Ahlgren, Christina; Bergvall-Kåreborn, Birgitta; Lundin-Olsson, Lillemor; Wikman, Anita Melander

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Daily life requires frequent estimations of the risk of falling and the ability to avoid a fall. The objective of this study was to explore older women’s and men’s understanding of fall risk and their experiences with safety precautions taken to prevent falls. Methods A qualitative study with focus group discussions was conducted. Eighteen community-dwelling people [10 women and 8 men] with and without a history of falls were purposively recruited. Participants were divided into two groups, and each group met four times. A participatory and appreciative action and reflection approach was used to guide the discussions. All discussions were audio recorded and transcribed verbatim. Data were analysed by qualitative content analysis, and categories were determined inductively. Findings Three categories describing the process of becoming aware of fall risks in everyday life were identified: 1] Facing various feelings, 2] Recognizing one’s fall risk, and 3] Taking precautions. Each category comprised several subcategories. The comprehensive theme derived from the categories was “Safety precautions through fall risk awareness”. Three strategies of ignoring [continuing a risky activity], gaining insight [realizing the danger in a certain situation], and anticipating [thinking ahead and acting in advance] were related to all choices of actions and could fluctuate in the same person in different contexts. Conclusions The fall risk awareness process might be initiated for various reasons and can involve different feelings and precautions as well as different strategies. This finding highlights that there are many possible channels to reach older people with information about fall risk and fall prevention, including the media and their peers. The findings offer a deeper understanding of older peoples’ conceptualizations about fall risk awareness and make an important contribution to the development and implementation of fall prevention programmes. PMID:25781181

  5. 30 CFR 57.10010 - Starting precautions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Aerial Tramways 57.10010 Starting precautions. Where possible, aerial tramways shall not be started until the operator...

  6. 30 CFR 56.10010 - Starting precautions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-SURFACE METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Aerial Tramways 56.10010 Starting precautions. Where possible, aerial tramways shall not be started until the operator...

  7. 21 CFR 610.11 - General safety.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2011-04-01 2010-04-01 true General safety. 610.11 Section 610.11 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) BIOLOGICS GENERAL BIOLOGICAL PRODUCTS STANDARDS General Provisions § 610.11 General safety. A general safety test for the detection of extraneous toxic...

  8. 21 CFR 610.11 - General safety.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false General safety. 610.11 Section 610.11 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) BIOLOGICS GENERAL BIOLOGICAL PRODUCTS STANDARDS General Provisions § 610.11 General safety. A general safety test for the detection of extraneous toxic...

  9. 21 CFR 610.11 - General safety.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false General safety. 610.11 Section 610.11 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) BIOLOGICS GENERAL BIOLOGICAL PRODUCTS STANDARDS General Provisions § 610.11 General safety. A general safety test for the detection of extraneous toxic...

  10. 21 CFR 610.11 - General safety.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false General safety. 610.11 Section 610.11 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) BIOLOGICS GENERAL BIOLOGICAL PRODUCTS STANDARDS General Provisions § 610.11 General safety. A general safety test for the detection of extraneous toxic...

  11. 21 CFR 610.11 - General safety.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false General safety. 610.11 Section 610.11 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) BIOLOGICS GENERAL BIOLOGICAL PRODUCTS STANDARDS General Provisions § 610.11 General safety. A general safety test for the detection of extraneous toxic...

  12. Home Safety for People with Alzheimer's Disease: General Safety Concerns

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Referral Center Alzheimer's Disease Education and Referral Center Alzheimer's Disease Education and Referral Center Home About Alzheimer’s ... NAPA) About ADEAR Home Safety for People with Alzheimer's Disease General Safety Concerns People with Alzheimer's disease ...

  13. 10 CFR 39.31 - Labels, security, and transportation precautions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Labels, security, and transportation precautions. 39.31 Section 39.31 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION LICENSES AND RADIATION SAFETY REQUIREMENTS FOR WELL LOGGING Equipment § 39.31 Labels, security, and transportation precautions. (a) Labels. (1) The licensee may not use a source, source holder,...

  14. Prudent precaution in clinical trials of nanomedicines.

    PubMed

    Marchant, Gary E; Lindor, Rachel A

    2012-01-01

    Clinical trials of nanotechnology medical products present complex risk management challenges that involve many uncertainties and important risk-risk trade-offs. This paper inquires whether the precautionary principle can help to inform risk management approaches to nanomedicine clinical trials. It concludes that prudent precaution may be appropriate for ensuring the safety of such trials, but that the precautionary principle itself, especially in its more extreme forms, does not provide useful guidance for specific safety measures. PMID:23289685

  15. 45 CFR 17.3 - Precautions to be taken.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Precautions to be taken. 17.3 Section 17.3 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ADMINISTRATION RELEASE OF ADVERSE INFORMATION TO NEWS MEDIA 17.3 Precautions to be taken. The issuing organization shall take reasonable...

  16. 45 CFR 17.3 - Precautions to be taken.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Precautions to be taken. 17.3 Section 17.3 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ADMINISTRATION RELEASE OF ADVERSE INFORMATION TO NEWS MEDIA 17.3 Precautions to be taken. The issuing organization shall take reasonable...

  17. 45 CFR 17.3 - Precautions to be taken.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Precautions to be taken. 17.3 Section 17.3 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ADMINISTRATION RELEASE OF ADVERSE INFORMATION TO NEWS MEDIA 17.3 Precautions to be taken. The issuing organization shall take reasonable...

  18. 45 CFR 17.3 - Precautions to be taken.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Precautions to be taken. 17.3 Section 17.3 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ADMINISTRATION RELEASE OF ADVERSE INFORMATION TO NEWS MEDIA 17.3 Precautions to be taken. The issuing organization shall take reasonable...

  19. 45 CFR 17.3 - Precautions to be taken.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Precautions to be taken. 17.3 Section 17.3 Public Welfare Department of Health and Human Services GENERAL ADMINISTRATION RELEASE OF ADVERSE INFORMATION TO NEWS MEDIA 17.3 Precautions to be taken. The issuing organization shall take reasonable...

  20. Deriving and applying generally applicable safety principles

    SciTech Connect

    Spray, S.D.

    1998-08-01

    The nuclear detonation safety of modern nuclear weapons depends on a coordinated safety theme incorporating three general safety principles: isolation, inoperability, and incompatibility. The success of this approach has encouraged them to study whether these and/or other principles might be useful in other applications. Not surprisingly, no additional first-principles (based on physical laws) have been identified. However, a more widely applicable definition and application of the principle-based approach has been developed, resulting in a selection of strategies that are basically subsets and varied combinations of the more general principles above. However, identification of principles to be relied on is only one step in providing a safe design. As one other important example, coordinating overall architecture and strategy is essential: the authors term this a safety theme.

  1. Antibiotic Precautions in Athletes

    PubMed Central

    Fayock, Kristopher; Voltz, Matthew; Sandella, Bradley; Close, Jeremy; Lunser, Matthew; Okon, Joshua

    2014-01-01

    Context: Antibiotics are the mainstay of treatment for bacterial infections in patients of all ages. Athletes who maximally train are at risk for illness and various infections. Routinely used antibiotics have been linked to tendon injuries, cardiac arrhythmias, diarrhea, photosensitivity, cartilage issues, and decreased performance. Evidence Acquisition: Relevant articles published from 1989 to 2012 obtained through searching MEDLINE and OVID. Also, the Food and Drug Administration website was utilized. Study Design: Clinical review. Level of Evidence: Level 3. Results: The team physician should consider alternative medications in place of the drug of choice when adverse drug effects are a concern for an athletes health or performance. If alternative medications cannot be selected, secondary preventative measures, including sunscreen or probiotics, may be needed. Conclusion: Physicians choose medications based on a variety of factors to help ensure infection resolution while limiting potential side effects. Extra precautions are indicated when treating athletes with certain antibiotics. PMID:24982704

  2. Generalized implementation of software safety policies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Knight, John C.; Wika, Kevin G.

    1994-01-01

    As part of a research program in the engineering of software for safety-critical systems, we are performing two case studies. The first case study, which is well underway, is a safety-critical medical application. The second, which is just starting, is a digital control system for a nuclear research reactor. Our goal is to use these case studies to permit us to obtain a better understanding of the issues facing developers of safety-critical systems, and to provide a vehicle for the assessment of research ideas. The case studies are not based on the analysis of existing software development by others. Instead, we are attempting to create software for new and novel systems in a process that ultimately will involve all phases of the software lifecycle. In this abstract, we summarize our results to date in a small part of this project, namely the determination and classification of policies related to software safety that must be enforced to ensure safe operation. We hypothesize that this classification will permit a general approach to the implementation of a policy enforcement mechanism.

  3. 29 CFR 1926.20 - General safety and health provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 8 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false General safety and health provisions. 1926.20 Section 1926.20 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND HEALTH REGULATIONS FOR CONSTRUCTION General Safety and...

  4. 29 CFR 1926.20 - General safety and health provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 8 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false General safety and health provisions. 1926.20 Section 1926.20 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND HEALTH REGULATIONS FOR CONSTRUCTION General Safety and...

  5. 29 CFR 1926.20 - General safety and health provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 8 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false General safety and health provisions. 1926.20 Section 1926.20 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND HEALTH REGULATIONS FOR CONSTRUCTION General Safety and...

  6. 29 CFR 1926.20 - General safety and health provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 8 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false General safety and health provisions. 1926.20 Section 1926.20 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND HEALTH REGULATIONS FOR CONSTRUCTION General Safety and...

  7. Emergency cesarean delivery: special precautions.

    PubMed

    Tyner, Joey E; Rayburn, William F

    2013-03-01

    An emergent cesarean delivery is performed to immediately intervene to improve maternal or fetal outcome for such indications as fetal distress, prolapsed cord, maternal hemorrhage from previa or trauma, uterine rupture, and complete placental abruption. It is paramount to reduce morbidity and mortality by preparing health care providers for special precautions. PMID:23466135

  8. Safety in the Weightroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fernandez-Balboa, Juan-Miguel

    1993-01-01

    Secondary level physical educators must be sure to instruct their weight lifters in proper spotting and lifting procedures, because weight training carries a high risk of injury. The article explains how to check the equipment, spot properly for specific exercises, and take general safety precautions in the weight room. (SM)

  9. Influencing factors on use of standard precautions against occupational exposures to blood and body fluids among nurses in China

    PubMed Central

    Quan, Mingtao; Wang, Xuyao; Wu, Hualian; Yuan, Xiaoli; Lei, Dan; Jiang, Zhixia; Li, Lezhi

    2015-01-01

    Aims: To investigate how specific factors, including knowledge, attitude, use of protective devices, safety climate, workload, and nurses’ behaviors can influence standard precautions in China through structural equation modeling techniques. Background: Although a number of empirical studies have been conducted, an investigation of how multiple variables influence behaviors of standard precautions among the nurses is still needed. Methods: The study was conducted by selecting registered nurses from 25 public hospitals that operate approximately 500 beds located in different areas of Guizhou Province in China. An anonymous, self-administered questionnaire was distributed to 1000 nurses, and 964 (96.4%) completed questionnaires were returned. exploratory factor analysis was employed to examine associations of attitudes, protective devices, safety climate, workload, and nurses’ behaviors with standard precautions. The identified factors were integrated in the proposed structural equation model. Findings: Protective devices had a positive and major influence on nurses’ use of standard precautions. Knowledge had a positive impact on the use of standard precautions through attitude mediation, and the safety climate had a positive impact on the use of standard precautions. In contrast, increasing workload had a negative effect on the use of standard precautions. The factors affecting the use of standard precautions among nurses in order of decreasing effect size were: protective devices, knowledge, attitude, safety climate, and workload. Conclusions: This study offer valuable information for healthcare management regarding the use of standard precautions to reduce occupational exposure among nurses. PMID:26885227

  10. 29 CFR 1915.131 - General precautions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ..., the dies and tools shall be removed. (c) All portable, power-driven circular saws shall be equipped with guards above and below the base plate or shoe. The upper guard shall cover the saw to the depth of... lower guard shall cover the saw to the depth of the teeth, except for the minimum arc required to...

  11. 29 CFR 1915.131 - General precautions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ..., the dies and tools shall be removed. (c) All portable, power-driven circular saws shall be equipped with guards above and below the base plate or shoe. The upper guard shall cover the saw to the depth of... lower guard shall cover the saw to the depth of the teeth, except for the minimum arc required to...

  12. 29 CFR 1915.131 - General precautions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... the teeth, except for the minimum arc required to permit the base to be tilted for bevel cuts. The lower guard shall cover the saw to the depth of the teeth, except for the minimum arc required to...

  13. 29 CFR 1915.131 - General precautions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... the teeth, except for the minimum arc required to permit the base to be tilted for bevel cuts. The lower guard shall cover the saw to the depth of the teeth, except for the minimum arc required to...

  14. 29 CFR 1915.131 - General precautions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... the teeth, except for the minimum arc required to permit the base to be tilted for bevel cuts. The lower guard shall cover the saw to the depth of the teeth, except for the minimum arc required to...

  15. General aviation air traffic pattern safety analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parker, L. C.

    1973-01-01

    A concept is described for evaluating the general aviation mid-air collision hazard in uncontrolled terminal airspace. Three-dimensional traffic pattern measurements were conducted at uncontrolled and controlled airports. Computer programs for data reduction, storage retrieval and statistical analysis have been developed. Initial general aviation air traffic pattern characteristics are presented. These preliminary results indicate that patterns are highly divergent from the expected standard pattern, and that pattern procedures observed can affect the ability of pilots to see and avoid each other.

  16. 49 CFR 238.229 - Safety appliances-general.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... section in accordance with 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51. You may obtain a copy of the incorporated... 49 Transportation 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Safety appliances-general. 238.229 Section 238.229..., DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION PASSENGER EQUIPMENT SAFETY STANDARDS Specific Requirements for Tier I...

  17. 49 CFR 238.229 - Safety appliances-general.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... section in accordance with 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51. You may obtain a copy of the incorporated... 49 Transportation 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Safety appliances-general. 238.229 Section 238.229..., DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION PASSENGER EQUIPMENT SAFETY STANDARDS Specific Requirements for Tier I...

  18. 49 CFR 238.229 - Safety appliances-general.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Safety appliances-general. 238.229 Section 238.229 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION PASSENGER EQUIPMENT SAFETY STANDARDS Specific Requirements for Tier I Passenger Equipment § 238.229...

  19. 49 CFR 238.229 - Safety appliances-general.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... section in accordance with 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51. You may obtain a copy of the incorporated... 49 Transportation 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Safety appliances-general. 238.229 Section 238.229..., DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION PASSENGER EQUIPMENT SAFETY STANDARDS Specific Requirements for Tier I...

  20. 14 CFR 121.221 - Fire precautions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Fire precautions. 121.221 Section 121.221..., FLAG, AND SUPPLEMENTAL OPERATIONS Special Airworthiness Requirements 121.221 Fire precautions. (a... the compartment and so that damage to or failure of the item would not create a fire hazard in...

  1. 14 CFR 125.119 - Fire precautions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Fire precautions. 125.119 Section 125.119....119 Fire precautions. (a) Each compartment must be designed so that, when used for storing cargo or... movement of cargo in the compartment and so that damage to or failure of the item would not create a...

  2. 14 CFR 121.221 - Fire precautions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Fire precautions. 121.221 Section 121.221..., FLAG, AND SUPPLEMENTAL OPERATIONS Special Airworthiness Requirements 121.221 Fire precautions. (a... the compartment and so that damage to or failure of the item would not create a fire hazard in...

  3. 14 CFR 125.119 - Fire precautions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Fire precautions. 125.119 Section 125.119....119 Fire precautions. (a) Each compartment must be designed so that, when used for storing cargo or... movement of cargo in the compartment and so that damage to or failure of the item would not create a...

  4. 14 CFR 121.221 - Fire precautions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Fire precautions. 121.221 Section 121.221..., FLAG, AND SUPPLEMENTAL OPERATIONS Special Airworthiness Requirements 121.221 Fire precautions. (a... the compartment and so that damage to or failure of the item would not create a fire hazard in...

  5. 14 CFR 121.221 - Fire precautions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Fire precautions. 121.221 Section 121.221..., FLAG, AND SUPPLEMENTAL OPERATIONS Special Airworthiness Requirements 121.221 Fire precautions. (a... the compartment and so that damage to or failure of the item would not create a fire hazard in...

  6. 14 CFR 125.119 - Fire precautions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Fire precautions. 125.119 Section 125.119....119 Fire precautions. (a) Each compartment must be designed so that, when used for storing cargo or... movement of cargo in the compartment and so that damage to or failure of the item would not create a...

  7. 14 CFR 125.119 - Fire precautions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Fire precautions. 125.119 Section 125.119....119 Fire precautions. (a) Each compartment must be designed so that, when used for storing cargo or... movement of cargo in the compartment and so that damage to or failure of the item would not create a...

  8. 14 CFR 125.119 - Fire precautions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Fire precautions. 125.119 Section 125.119....119 Fire precautions. (a) Each compartment must be designed so that, when used for storing cargo or... movement of cargo in the compartment and so that damage to or failure of the item would not create a...

  9. 14 CFR 121.221 - Fire precautions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Fire precautions. 121.221 Section 121.221..., FLAG, AND SUPPLEMENTAL OPERATIONS Special Airworthiness Requirements 121.221 Fire precautions. (a... the compartment and so that damage to or failure of the item would not create a fire hazard in...

  10. 46 CFR 120.220 - General safety provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false General safety provisions. 120.220 Section 120.220 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) SMALL PASSENGER VESSELS CARRYING MORE...) Receptacle outlets of the type providing a grounded pole or a specific direct current polarity must be of...

  11. 46 CFR 120.220 - General safety provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false General safety provisions. 120.220 Section 120.220 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) SMALL PASSENGER VESSELS CARRYING MORE...) Receptacle outlets of the type providing a grounded pole or a specific direct current polarity must be of...

  12. 46 CFR 120.220 - General safety provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false General safety provisions. 120.220 Section 120.220 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) SMALL PASSENGER VESSELS CARRYING MORE...) Receptacle outlets of the type providing a grounded pole or a specific direct current polarity must be of...

  13. 46 CFR 120.220 - General safety provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false General safety provisions. 120.220 Section 120.220 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) SMALL PASSENGER VESSELS CARRYING MORE...) Receptacle outlets of the type providing a grounded pole or a specific direct current polarity must be of...

  14. Inferred threat and safety: symbolic generalization of human avoidance learning.

    PubMed

    Dymond, Simon; Schlund, Michael W; Roche, Bryan; Whelan, Robert; Richards, Jennifer; Davies, Cara

    2011-10-01

    Symbolic generalization of avoidance may underlie the aetiology and maintenance of anxiety disorders. The aim of the present study was to demonstrate inferred threat-avoidance and safety (non-avoidance) behaviours that occur in the presence of stimuli indirectly related to learned threat and safety cues. A laboratory experiment was conducted involving two symbolic stimulus equivalence relations consisting of three physically dissimilar stimuli (avoidance cues: AV1-AV2-AV3 and neutral cues: N1-N2-N3). During avoidance learning involving aversive images and sounds, a key-press avoidance response was trained for one member of one of the relations (AV2) and non-avoidance for another (N2). Inferred threat and safety behaviour and ratings of the likelihood of aversive events were tested with presentations of all remaining stimuli. Findings showed a significantly high percentage of avoidance to both the learned and inferred threat cues and less avoidance to both the learned and inferred safety cues. Ratings in the absence of avoidance were high during training and testing to threat cues and low to safety cues and were generally lower in the presence of avoidance. Implications for associative and behavioural accounts of avoidance, and modern therapies for anxiety disorders are discussed. PMID:21767825

  15. Association between Contact Precautions and Delirium at a Tertiary Care Center

    PubMed Central

    Day, Hannah R.; Perencevich, Eli N.; Harris, Anthony D.; Gruber-Baldini, Ann L.; Himelhoch, Seth S.; Brown, Clayton H.; Dotter, Emily; Morgan, Daniel J.

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To investigate the relationship between contact precautions and delirium among inpatients, adjusting for other factors. DESIGN Retrospective cohort study. SETTING A 662-bed tertiary care center. PATIENTS All nonpyschiatric adult patients admitted to a tertiary care center from 2007 through 2009. METHODS Generalized estimating equations were used to estimate the association between contact precautions and delirium in a retrospective cohort of 2 years of admissions to a tertiary care center. RESULTS During the 2-year period, 60,151 admissions occurred in 45,266 unique nonpsychiatric patients. After adjusting for comorbid conditions, age, sex, intensive care unit status, and length of hospitalization, contact precautions were significantly associated with delirium (as defined by International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision), medication, or restraint exposure (adjusted odds ratio [OR], 1.40 [95% confidence interval {CI}, 1.241.51]). The association between contact precautions and delirium was seen only in patients who were newly placed under contact precautions during the course of their stay (adjusted OR, 1.75 [95% CI, 1.601.92]; P < .01) and was not seen in patients who were already under contact precautions at admission (adjusted OR, 0.97 [95% CI, 0.861.09]; P=.60). CONCLUSIONS Although delirium was more common in patients who were newly placed under contact precautions during the course of their hospital admission, delirium was not associated with contact precautions started at hospital admission. Patients newly placed under contact precautions after admission but during hospitalization appear to be at a higher risk and may benefit from proven delirium-prevention strategies. PMID:22173520

  16. Analyzing precautionary regulation: do precaution, science, and innovation go together?

    PubMed

    Todt, Oliver; Lujn, Jos Luis

    2014-12-01

    In this article we argue that the precautionary principle, as applied to the regulation of science and technology, cannot be considered in any general manner inconsistent with the norms and methods of scientific knowledge generation and justification. Moreover, it does not necessarily curtail scientific-technological innovation. Our argument flows from a differentiated view of what precaution in regulation means. We first characterize several of the most relevant interpretations given to the precautionary principle in academic debate and regulatory practice. We then use examples of actual precaution-based regulation to show that, even though science can have varying functions in different circumstances and frames, all of those interpretations recur to scientific method and knowledge, and tend to imply innovation in methods, products, and processes. In fact, the interplay of regulation and innovation in precautionary policy, at least in the case of the interpretations of precaution that our analysis takes into account, could be understood as a way of reconciling the two fundamental science and technology policy functions of promotion and control. PMID:24975619

  17. Communicating vaccine safety to the media and general public.

    PubMed

    Oubari, Hiba; Tuttle, Ryan; Rath, Barbara; Bravo, Lulu

    2015-01-01

    Vaccines are among the most effective measures to control and prevent infectious diseases. Yet, the topic of vaccination is difficult to communicate, as it bears upon individual versus common good. The efficacy and safety of vaccines can only be shown by the absence of undesired events, such as vaccine-preventable diseases or adverse events following immunization. The authors of this paper view accurate, transparent and timely vaccine-safety communication to the media and general public as a core responsibility of healthcare providers. The authors wish to explore potential difficulties faced by immunization specialists when talking to the media, and suggest how to successfully convey vaccination messages to the general public. PMID:25859680

  18. Conservation, precaution, and Caribbean reefs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aronson, Richard B.; Precht, William F.

    2006-08-01

    Some authors argue that overfishing is an important reason that reef corals have declined in recent decades. Their reasoning is that overfishing removes herbivores, releasing macroalgae to overgrow and kill the corals. The evidence suggests, however, that global climate change and emergent marine diseases make a far greater contribution to coral mortality, and that macroalgae generally grow on the exposed skeletal surfaces of corals that are already dead. Macroalgal dominance, therefore, is an effect rather than a cause of coral mortality. Marine protected areas (MPAs), which are usually established to protect stocks of reef fish, foster populations of herbivorous fish under at least some circumstances. Increased herbivory can reduce algal cover, potentially accelerating the recovery of coral populations inside MPAs; however, establishing MPAs will have only a limited impact on coral recovery unless policymakers confront the accelerating negative effects of the global-scale sources of coral mortality.

  19. 32 CFR 700.923 - Precautions for health.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 5 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Precautions for health. 700.923 Section 700.923... Contents § 700.923 Precautions for health. The senior officer present shall take precautions to preserve the health of the persons under his or her authority. He or she shall obtain information regarding...

  20. 32 CFR 700.923 - Precautions for health.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 5 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Precautions for health. 700.923 Section 700.923... Contents § 700.923 Precautions for health. The senior officer present shall take precautions to preserve the health of the persons under his or her authority. He or she shall obtain information regarding...

  1. 32 CFR 700.923 - Precautions for health.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 5 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Precautions for health. 700.923 Section 700.923... Contents § 700.923 Precautions for health. The senior officer present shall take precautions to preserve the health of the persons under his or her authority. He or she shall obtain information regarding...

  2. 32 CFR 700.923 - Precautions for health.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 5 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Precautions for health. 700.923 Section 700.923... Contents § 700.923 Precautions for health. The senior officer present shall take precautions to preserve the health of the persons under his or her authority. He or she shall obtain information regarding...

  3. 32 CFR 700.923 - Precautions for health.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 5 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Precautions for health. 700.923 Section 700.923... Contents § 700.923 Precautions for health. The senior officer present shall take precautions to preserve the health of the persons under his or her authority. He or she shall obtain information regarding...

  4. Validity and reliability of the Questionnaire for Compliance with Standard Precaution

    PubMed Central

    Valim, Marília Duarte; Marziale, Maria Helena Palucci; Hayashida, Miyeko; Rocha, Fernanda Ludmilla Rossi; Santos, Jair Lício Ferreira

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE : To evaluate the validity and reliability of the Questionnaire for Compliance with Standard Precaution for nurses. METHODS : This methodological study was conducted with 121 nurses from health care facilities in Sao Paulo’s countryside, who were represented by two high-complexity and by three average-complexity health care facilities. Internal consistency was calculated using Cronbach’s alpha and stability was calculated by the intraclass correlation coefficient, through test-retest. Convergent, discriminant, and known-groups construct validity techniques were conducted. RESULTS : The questionnaire was found to be reliable (Cronbach’s alpha: 0.80; intraclass correlation coefficient: (0.97) In regards to the convergent and discriminant construct validity, strong correlation was found between compliance to standard precautions, the perception of a safe environment, and the smaller perception of obstacles to follow such precautions (r = 0.614 and r = 0.537, respectively). The nurses who were trained on the standard precautions and worked on the health care facilities of higher complexity were shown to comply more (p = 0.028 and p = 0.006, respectively). CONCLUSIONS : The Brazilian version of the Questionnaire for Compliance with Standard Precaution was shown to be valid and reliable. Further investigation must be conducted with nurse samples that are more representative of the Brazilian reality. The use of the questionnaire may support the creation of educational measures considering the possible gaps that can be identified, focusing on the workers’ health and on the patients’ safety. PMID:26759967

  5. 21 CFR 610.11a - Inactivated influenza vaccine, general safety test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Inactivated influenza vaccine, general safety test... Inactivated influenza vaccine, general safety test. For inactivated influenza vaccine, the general safety test... subcutaneous or intraperitoneal injection of 5.0 milliliters of inactivated influenza vaccine into each...

  6. 21 CFR 610.11a - Inactivated influenza vaccine, general safety test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Inactivated influenza vaccine, general safety test... Inactivated influenza vaccine, general safety test. For inactivated influenza vaccine, the general safety test... subcutaneous or intraperitoneal injection of 5.0 milliliters of inactivated influenza vaccine into each...

  7. 21 CFR 610.11a - Inactivated influenza vaccine, general safety test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Inactivated influenza vaccine, general safety test... Inactivated influenza vaccine, general safety test. For inactivated influenza vaccine, the general safety test... subcutaneous or intraperitoneal injection of 5.0 milliliters of inactivated influenza vaccine into each...

  8. 21 CFR 610.11a - Inactivated influenza vaccine, general safety test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Inactivated influenza vaccine, general safety test... Inactivated influenza vaccine, general safety test. For inactivated influenza vaccine, the general safety test... subcutaneous or intraperitoneal injection of 5.0 milliliters of inactivated influenza vaccine into each...

  9. 21 CFR 610.11a - Inactivated influenza vaccine, general safety test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2011-04-01 2010-04-01 true Inactivated influenza vaccine, general safety test... Inactivated influenza vaccine, general safety test. For inactivated influenza vaccine, the general safety test... subcutaneous or intraperitoneal injection of 5.0 milliliters of inactivated influenza vaccine into each...

  10. 49 CFR 214.303 - Railroad on-track safety programs, generally.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Railroad on-track safety programs, generally. 214... RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RAILROAD WORKPLACE SAFETY Roadway Worker Protection § 214.303 Railroad on-track safety programs, generally. (a) Each railroad to which this part...

  11. Practice of universal precautions among healthcare workers.

    PubMed Central

    Sadoh, Wilson E.; Fawole, Adeniran O.; Sadoh, Ayebo E.; Oladimeji, Ayo O.; Sotiloye, Oladapo S.

    2006-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Healthcare workers (HCWs) are exposed to bloodborne infections by pathogens, such as HIV, and hepatitis B and C viruses, as they perform their clinical activities in the hospital. Compliance with universal precautions has been shown to reduce the risk of exposure to blood and body fluids. This study was aimed at assessing the observance of universal precautions by HCWs in Abeokuta, Ogun State, Nigeria. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: The study was conducted in September 2003 in Abeokuta metropolis, Ogun State, Nigeria. The respondents were doctors, trained and auxiliary nurses, laboratory scientists and domestic staff. They were selected through a multistage sampling technique from public and private healthcare facilities within the metropolis. The instrument was an interviewer-administered, semistructured questionnaire that assessed the practice of recapping and disposal of used needles, use of barrier equipment, handwashing and screening of transfused blood. RESULTS: There were 433 respondents, 211 (48.7%) of which were trained nurses. About a third of all respondents always recapped used needles. Compliance with nonrecapping of used needles was highest among trained nurses and worst with doctors. Less than two-thirds of respondents (63.8%) always used personal protective equipment, and more than half of all respondents (56.5%) had never worn goggles during deliveries and at surgeries. The provision of sharps containers and screening of transfused blood by the institutions studied was uniformly high. A high percentage (94.6%) of HCWs observed handwashing after handling patients. The use of barrier equipment was variable in the institutions studied. CONCLUSION: Recapping of used needles is prevalent in the health facilities studied. Noncompliance with universal precautions place Nigerian HCWs at significant health risks. Training programs and other relevant measures should be put in place to promote the appropriate use of protective barrier equipment by HCWs at all times. PMID:16749647

  12. [Aseptic precautions in epidural catheterization for surgery].

    PubMed

    Haraga, Isao; Shono, Shinjiro; Abe, Shintarou; Higa, Kazuo

    2010-05-01

    We describe aseptic precautions in epidural catheterization for surgery. Every patient has to be checked for immunodeficiency, atopic dermatitis, preoperative use of antibiotics, and local infection of the epidural puncture site. Physicians who perform epidural catheterization should wear a mask and a cap and take off a wrist watch and rings on the fingers before an epidural kit is opened. Fingers and hands should be disinfected before wearing surgical gloves. The skin for epidural puncture site should be disinfected with 0.5% chlorhexidine in 80% ethanol. A micropore filter should be used when epidural catheterization is expected to remain over 24 hours. PMID:20486569

  13. Can there be science-based precaution?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weiss, Charles

    2006-10-01

    'Science-based precaution' is possible in logic if not in politics, and should be a normal part of risk management. It should balance the risks and benefits of innovation, or equivalently, specify the price one is willing to pay to avoid risk. The Precaution Principle states that the absence of scientific proof does not preclude precautionary actionor, in its stronger version, that it requires such action. This principle is a useful counterweight to the insistence on rigorous scientific proof, but focuses on costs and risks to the exclusion of benefits. It expresses 'look before you leap', but not 'nothing ventured, nothing gained'. To facilitate adaptive management, we propose a complementary principle: 'precautionary action should not unreasonably interfere with innovation that promises major benefits, until its dangers and benefits are well understood'. In international trade law, we propose that scientific evidence presented in support of discriminatory measures that would otherwise violate the world trade regimesuch as the de facto European Union moratorium on importing genetically modified cropsbe required to suffice to support a 'reasonable belief' of danger to human health or the environment.

  14. Driving with diabetes: precaution, not prohibition, is the proper approach.

    PubMed

    Kohrman, Daniel B

    2013-01-01

    Safety issues posed by driving with diabetes are primarily related to severe hypoglycemia, yet some public authorities rely on categorical restrictions on drivers with diabetes. This approach is misguided. Regulation of all drivers with diabetes, or all drivers using insulin, ignores the diversity of people with diabetes and fails to focus on the subpopulation posing the greatest risk. Advances in diabetes care technology and understanding of safety consequences of diabetes have expanded techniques available to limit risks of driving with diabetes. New means of insulin administration and blood glucose monitoring offer greater ease of anticipating and preventing hypoglycemia, and thus, limit driving risk for persons with diabetes. So too do less sophisticated steps taken by people with diabetes and the health care professionals they consult. These include adoption and endorsement of safety-sensitive behaviors, such as testing before a drive and periodic testing on longer trips. Overall, and in most individual cases, driving risks for persons with diabetes are less than those routinely tolerated by our society. Examples include freedom to drive in dangerous conditions and lax regulation of drivers in age and medical cohorts with elevated overall rates of driving mishaps. Data linking specific diabetes symptoms or features with driving risk are quite uncertain. Hence, there is much to recommend: a focus on technological advances, human precautions, and identifying individuals with diabetes with a specific history of driving difficulty. By contrast, available evidence does not support unfocused regulation of all or most drivers with diabetes. PMID:23566992

  15. Poor knowledge predictor of nonadherence to universal precautions for blood borne pathogens at first level care facilities in Pakistan

    PubMed Central

    Janjua, Naveed Z; Razaq, Mahreen; Chandir, Subhash; Rozi, Shafquat; Mahmood, Bushra

    2007-01-01

    Background We conducted an assessment of knowledge about blood borne pathogens (BBP) and use of universal precautions at first level care facilities (FLCF) in two districts of Pakistan. Methods We conducted a cross-sectional survey and selected three different types of FLCFs ; public, general practitioners and unqualified practitioners through stratified random sampling technique. At each facility, we interviewed a prescriber, a dispenser, and a housekeeper for knowledge of BBPs transmission and preventive practices, risk perception, and use of universal precautions. We performed multiple linear regression to assess the effect of knowledge score (11 items) on the practice of universal precautions score (4 items- use of gloves, gown, needle recapping, and HBV vaccination). Results We interviewed 239 subjects. Most of the participants 128 (53%) were recruited from general practitioners clinics and 166 (69.5%) of them were dispensers. Mean (SD) knowledge score was 3.8 (2.3) with median of 4. MBBS prescribers had the highest knowledge score while the housekeepers had the lowest. Mean universal precautions use score was 2.7 2.1. Knowledge about mode of transmission and the work experience alone, significantly predicted universal precaution use in multiple linear regression model (adR2 = 0.093). Conclusion Knowledge about mode of transmission of blood borne pathogens is very low. Use of universal precautions can improve with increase in knowledge. PMID:17650331

  16. An Introduction to Eye Safety. General Metals I, Lesson Plan No. 1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Higa, Floyd

    Designed for a 110-hour general metals course, this lesson plan presents an introduction to eye safety, including a brief guided imagery prelude, an overview of the lesson, an overview of Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) and Department of Occupational Safety and Health (DOSH) rules and regulations regarding eye and face

  17. 30 CFR 56.6604 - Precautions during storms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Precautions during storms. 56.6604 Section 56... Extraneous Electricity 56.6604 Precautions during storms. During the approach and progress of an electrical storm, blasting operations shall be suspended and persons withdrawn from the blast area or to a...

  18. 30 CFR 56.6604 - Precautions during storms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Precautions during storms. 56.6604 Section 56... Extraneous Electricity 56.6604 Precautions during storms. During the approach and progress of an electrical storm, blasting operations shall be suspended and persons withdrawn from the blast area or to a...

  19. 30 CFR 56.6604 - Precautions during storms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Precautions during storms. 56.6604 Section 56... Extraneous Electricity 56.6604 Precautions during storms. During the approach and progress of an electrical storm, blasting operations shall be suspended and persons withdrawn from the blast area or to a...

  20. 30 CFR 56.6604 - Precautions during storms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Precautions during storms. 56.6604 Section 56... Extraneous Electricity 56.6604 Precautions during storms. During the approach and progress of an electrical storm, blasting operations shall be suspended and persons withdrawn from the blast area or to a...

  1. 30 CFR 56.6604 - Precautions during storms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Precautions during storms. 56.6604 Section 56... Extraneous Electricity 56.6604 Precautions during storms. During the approach and progress of an electrical storm, blasting operations shall be suspended and persons withdrawn from the blast area or to a...

  2. 10 CFR 39.31 - Labels, security, and transportation precautions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... accompanied with appropriate shipping papers in accordance with regulations set out in 10 CFR part 71. (b... 10 Energy 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Labels, security, and transportation precautions. 39.31... LOGGING Equipment § 39.31 Labels, security, and transportation precautions. (a) Labels. (1) The...

  3. 10 CFR 39.31 - Labels, security, and transportation precautions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... accompanied with appropriate shipping papers in accordance with regulations set out in 10 CFR part 71. (b... 10 Energy 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Labels, security, and transportation precautions. 39.31... LOGGING Equipment § 39.31 Labels, security, and transportation precautions. (a) Labels. (1) The...

  4. 10 CFR 39.31 - Labels, security, and transportation precautions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... accompanied with appropriate shipping papers in accordance with regulations set out in 10 CFR part 71. (b... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Labels, security, and transportation precautions. 39.31... LOGGING Equipment § 39.31 Labels, security, and transportation precautions. (a) Labels. (1) The...

  5. 12 CFR 155.210 - What precautions must I take?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false What precautions must I take? 155.210 Section 155.210 Banks and Banking COMPTROLLER OF THE CURRENCY, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ELECTRONIC OPERATIONS 155.210 What precautions must I take? If you use electronic means and facilities under this subpart, your management must: (a) Identify,...

  6. Scientists versus regulators: precaution, novelty & regulatory oversight as predictors of perceived risks of engineered nanomaterials.

    PubMed

    Beaudrie, Christian E H; Satterfield, Terre; Kandlikar, Milind; Harthorn, Barbara H

    2014-01-01

    Engineered nanoscale materials (ENMs) present a difficult challenge for risk assessors and regulators. Continuing uncertainty about the potential risks of ENMs means that expert opinion will play an important role in the design of policies to minimize harmful implications while supporting innovation. This research aims to shed light on the views of 'nano experts' to understand which nanomaterials or applications are regarded as more risky than others, to characterize the differences in risk perceptions between expert groups, and to evaluate the factors that drive these perceptions. Our analysis draws from a web-survey (N = 404) of three groups of US and Canadian experts: nano-scientists and engineers, nano-environmental health and safety scientists, and regulatory scientists and decision-makers. Significant differences in risk perceptions were found across expert groups; differences found to be driven by underlying attitudes and perceptions characteristic of each group. Nano-scientists and engineers at the upstream end of the nanomaterial life cycle perceived the lowest levels of risk, while those who are responsible for assessing and regulating risks at the downstream end perceived the greatest risk. Perceived novelty of nanomaterial risks, differing preferences for regulation (i.e. the use of precaution versus voluntary or market-based approaches), and perceptions of the risk of technologies in general predicted variation in experts' judgments of nanotechnology risks. Our findings underscore the importance of involving a diverse selection of experts, particularly those with expertise at different stages along the nanomaterial lifecycle, during policy development. PMID:25222742

  7. 21 CFR 170.20 - General principles for evaluating the safety of food additives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false General principles for evaluating the safety of food additives. 170.20 Section 170.20 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD ADDITIVES Food Additive Safety § 170.20 General principles...

  8. General Consideration in the History, Physical Examination, and Safety Determination.

    PubMed

    Buchanan, Jonathan; Dexter, William; Powell, Amy; Wright, Justin

    2015-09-01

    A thorough medical history is perhaps the most important aspect when evaluating an athlete before wilderness adventure. A physical examination should follow focusing on conditions that may be affected by changes in atmospheric pressure, extremes of temperature, or altitude. This information can then be used to make safety recommendations ensuring that adventurers are able to safely enjoy participation in the wilderness pursuit of their choice. PMID:26340730

  9. General Consideration in the History, Physical Examination, and Safety Determination.

    PubMed

    Buchanan, Jonathan; Dexter, William; Powell, Amy; Wright, Justin

    2015-12-01

    A thorough medical history is perhaps the most important aspect when evaluating an athlete before wilderness adventure. A physical examination should follow focusing on conditions that may be affected by changes in atmospheric pressure, extremes of temperature, or altitude. This information can then be used to make safety recommendations ensuring that adventurers are able to safely enjoy participation in the wilderness pursuit of their choice. PMID:26617374

  10. Science and precaution in the appraisal of electricity supply options.

    PubMed

    Stirling, A

    2001-09-14

    The technological risks associated with electricity generating options are a crucial consideration in the governance of energy strategies. Conversely, many central issues in the broader social debate over the governance of environmental risk (such as acid gas emissions, radioactive waste management, nuclear safety and global climate change) relate very strongly to technology choice in the electricity supply sector. The particularities of this field, therefore, offer a topical and pertinent case with which to explore the relationship between science and precaution in the governance of technological risk. By reference to the electricity sector, the present paper examines the contrasts between 'risk-based' and 'precautionary' approaches to the governance of risk, paying particular attention to the problems of intractable uncertainties and divergent values. A number of theoretical and methodological issues in conventional risk-assessment and cost-benefit analysis are examined and their practical implications for appraisal explored. Attention then turns to the form that might be taken by approaches to the governance of energy risks that are at the same time scientifically well-founded and precautionary. Conclusions are drawn for decision and policy making in this area. PMID:11532359

  11. Universal Precautions in the Era of HIV/AIDS

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Sheng; Li, Li; Wu, Zunyou; Cao, Haijun; Lin, Chunqing; Yan, Zhihua; Jia, Manhong; Cui, Haixia

    2009-01-01

    With a rising HIV/AIDS epidemic, it has become especially important for health service providers in China to understand and correctly adhere to universal precautions. Using qualitative interview data, perspectives from both health administrators and service providers working at all levels of Chinas health care system were examined. Service providers admitted selective adherence and non-adherence to universal precautions in their daily medical practice, and gave their explanations for such behaviors. Lack of time to put on protective gear, gears interference with medical procedures, lack of administrative support, heavy workload in hospitals, inaccurate risk assessment, and beliefs that compliance with universal precautions is unnecessary, time consuming and costly were mentioned as reasons behind noncompliance. Effective universal precaution interventions need to target both administrators and providers, and address both structural barriers and individual attitudinal and behavioral factors. PMID:17641967

  12. Health Tip: Take Precautions with Your Holiday Tree

    MedlinePLUS

    ... html Health Tip: Take Precautions With Your Holiday Tree And help protect children To use the sharing ... Thursday, December 10, 2015 (HealthDay News) -- A holiday tree is a festive decoration, but it's also a ...

  13. 49 CFR 214.303 - Railroad on-track safety programs, generally.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Railroad on-track safety programs, generally. 214.303 Section 214.303 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RAILROAD WORKPLACE SAFETY Roadway Worker...

  14. 49 CFR 214.303 - Railroad on-track safety programs, generally.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Railroad on-track safety programs, generally. 214.303 Section 214.303 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RAILROAD WORKPLACE SAFETY Roadway Worker...

  15. 49 CFR 214.317 - On-track safety procedures, generally.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false On-track safety procedures, generally. 214.317 Section 214.317 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RAILROAD WORKPLACE SAFETY Roadway Worker Protection 214.317...

  16. 49 CFR 214.317 - On-track safety procedures, generally.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false On-track safety procedures, generally. 214.317 Section 214.317 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RAILROAD WORKPLACE SAFETY Roadway Worker Protection 214.317...

  17. 49 CFR 214.317 - On-track safety procedures, generally.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false On-track safety procedures, generally. 214.317 Section 214.317 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RAILROAD WORKPLACE SAFETY Roadway Worker Protection 214.317...

  18. 49 CFR 214.317 - On-track safety procedures, generally.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false On-track safety procedures, generally. 214.317 Section 214.317 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RAILROAD WORKPLACE SAFETY Roadway Worker Protection 214.317...

  19. 49 CFR 214.335 - On-track safety procedures for roadway work groups, general.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false On-track safety procedures for roadway work groups, general. 214.335 Section 214.335 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RAILROAD WORKPLACE SAFETY Roadway...

  20. 49 CFR 214.317 - On-track safety procedures, generally.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false On-track safety procedures, generally. 214.317 Section 214.317 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RAILROAD WORKPLACE SAFETY Roadway Worker Protection 214.317...

  1. 49 CFR 214.303 - Railroad on-track safety programs, generally.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Railroad on-track safety programs, generally. 214.303 Section 214.303 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RAILROAD WORKPLACE SAFETY Roadway Worker...

  2. 49 CFR 214.303 - Railroad on-track safety programs, generally.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Railroad on-track safety programs, generally. 214.303 Section 214.303 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RAILROAD WORKPLACE SAFETY Roadway Worker...

  3. Art Safety.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    BCATA Journal for Art Teachers, 1991

    1991-01-01

    Advocating that Canadian art programs should use and model environmentally safe practices, the articles in this journal focus on issues of safe practices in art education. Articles are: (1) "What is WHMIS?"; (2) "Safety Precautions for Specific Art Processes"; (3) "Toxic Substances"; (4) "Using Clay, Glazes, and Kilns Safely in the Classroom"

  4. Introducing Proper Chemical Hygiene and Safety in the General Chemistry Curriculum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, Gordon J.; Heideman, Stephen A.; Greenbowe, Thomas J.

    2000-09-01

    Chemical safety is an important component of science education for everyone, not just for chemistry majors. Developing a responsible and knowledgeable attitude towards chemical safety best starts at the early stages of a student's career. In many colleges and universities, safety education in undergraduate chemistry has been relegated primarily to a few regulatory documents at the beginning of a laboratory course, or an occasional warning in the description of a specific experiment in a prelaboratory lecture. Safety issues are seldom raised in general chemistry or organic chemistry lecture-based chemistry courses. At Iowa State University we have begun to implement a program, Chemical Hygiene and Safety in the Laboratory, into the undergraduate chemistry curriculum. This program is designed to increase the awareness and knowledge of proper chemical hygiene and laboratory safety issues among all students taking general chemistry and organic chemistry courses. Laboratory protocol, use of safety equipment, familiarity with MSD sheets, basics of first aid, some specific terminology surrounding chemical hygiene, EPA and OSHA requirements, and the use of the World Wide Web to search and locate chemical safety information are topics that are applied throughout the chemistry curriculum. The novelty of this approach is to incorporate MSD sheets and safety information that can be located on the World Wide Web in a series of safety problems and assignments, all related to the chemistry experiments students are about to perform. The fundamental idea of our approach is not only to teach students what is required for appropriate safety measures, but also to involve them in the enforcement of basic prudent practices.

  5. Scientists versus Regulators: Precaution, Novelty & Regulatory Oversight as Predictors of Perceived Risks of Engineered Nanomaterials

    PubMed Central

    Beaudrie, Christian E. H.; Satterfield, Terre; Kandlikar, Milind; Harthorn, Barbara H.

    2014-01-01

    Engineered nanoscale materials (ENMs) present a difficult challenge for risk assessors and regulators. Continuing uncertainty about the potential risks of ENMs means that expert opinion will play an important role in the design of policies to minimize harmful implications while supporting innovation. This research aims to shed light on the views of ‘nano experts’ to understand which nanomaterials or applications are regarded as more risky than others, to characterize the differences in risk perceptions between expert groups, and to evaluate the factors that drive these perceptions. Our analysis draws from a web-survey (N = 404) of three groups of US and Canadian experts: nano-scientists and engineers, nano-environmental health and safety scientists, and regulatory scientists and decision-makers. Significant differences in risk perceptions were found across expert groups; differences found to be driven by underlying attitudes and perceptions characteristic of each group. Nano-scientists and engineers at the upstream end of the nanomaterial life cycle perceived the lowest levels of risk, while those who are responsible for assessing and regulating risks at the downstream end perceived the greatest risk. Perceived novelty of nanomaterial risks, differing preferences for regulation (i.e. the use of precaution versus voluntary or market-based approaches), and perceptions of the risk of technologies in general predicted variation in experts' judgments of nanotechnology risks. Our findings underscore the importance of involving a diverse selection of experts, particularly those with expertise at different stages along the nanomaterial lifecycle, during policy development. PMID:25222742

  6. A general stochastic approach to unavailability analysis of standby safety systems

    SciTech Connect

    Van Der Weide, H.; Pandey, M. D.

    2013-07-01

    The paper presents a general analytical framework to analyze unavailability caused by latent failures in standby safety systems used in nuclear plants. The proposed approach is general in a sense that it encompasses a variety of inspection and maintenance policies and relaxes restrictive assumptions regarding the distributions of time to failure (or aging) and duration of repair. A key result of the paper is a general integral equation for point unavailability, which can be tailored to any specific maintenance policy. (authors)

  7. Risk factors and precautions of inpatient suicide from the perspective of nurses: A qualitative study.

    PubMed

    Hu, De-ying; Huang, Di; Xiong, Yu; Lu, Cai-hong; Han, Yan-hong; Ding, Xiao-ping; Wang, Shu-jie; Liu, Yi-lan

    2015-04-01

    The risk factors and precautions of inpatient suicide were explored. Thirty suicide victims were drawn from the adverse event reports of suicidal act during hospitalization in a general hospital from 2008 to 2014. Data were gathered from the focus group interviews of twelve nurses who had experienced inpatient suicide. The data were analyzed by using analytical technique based on grounded theory, and software QSR NVIVO8 was used to aid the collation of data. Three main themes of risk factors about inpatient suicide emerged from the analysis: individual value, social factors and environmental factors. The individual value was categorized into different groups such as sense of guilt, hopelessness and low self-esteem. Social factors included two aspects of negative life events and social support. Three themes of precautions about inpatient suicide appeared in this study: evaluation, nursing and information exchange. Evaluation was elaborated from both physical and psychological assessments. This finding extends existing work of risk factors and precautions about inpatient suicide and brings new knowledge about the reasons why inpatients commit suicide. PMID:25877368

  8. Patient Safety in Tehran University of Medical Sciences General Hospitals, Iran

    PubMed Central

    ARAB, Mohammad; AKBARI SARI, Ali; MOVAHED KOR, Elham; HOSSEINI, Mostafa; TOLOUI RAKHSHAN, Shiva; EZATI, Mohammad

    2013-01-01

    Background It is important to focus on creating opportunities for patients participation at all levels of health systems in order to promote their ability to improve patient safety and quality of services. The general aim of this study was to determine patient safety level in Tehran University of Medical Sciences (TUMS) general hospitals, Tehran, Iran from patients perspective and to determine the contributory factors on their perspective. Methods: This was a cross-sectional study. In the spring 2011, the list of clinical departments of the six general hospitals affiliated to TUMS was obtained through the Website of TUMS. By using stratified random sampling, the sample size was calculated 300 patients. Data were collected by using a structured questionnaire and its validity and reliability were acceptable. Descriptive statistics, linear regression and logistic regression were used for analyzing the data. Results: Totally, 60% of patients were female. Patient safety was evaluated high by 60% of respondents. The unmarried or educated or employed individuals tend to score lower than others. Conclusion: TUMSs general hospitals are enough safe from patients perspective, patient safety should be improved. In clinical governance, contributing patients perspective to the improvement of patient safety reforms is critical in generating new models of good practice. PMID:23641408

  9. Safety as a Priority

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huntress, Patricia

    2007-01-01

    Safety should be a priority in every classroom for every age group. Most art teachers know the chemicals to avoid in the student environment. It is their responsibility as art teachers to include safety information in every lesson plan and inform each student of the safety precautions they must take with each activity, without depriving them of

  10. HIV/AIDS Universal Precaution Practices in Sun Dance Ceremonies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Giroux, Jennifer; Takehara, Joan; Asetoyer, Charon; Welty, Thomas

    1997-01-01

    The Aberdeen (South Dakota) Area Indian Health Service has sponsored educational projects to reduce risk of HIV transmission via skin piercing and flesh offerings during traditional Sun Dance ceremonies. Projects emphasized universal precautions, provided medical supplies, and respected the sacredness of the ceremony. Evaluation indicates that…

  11. HIV/AIDS Universal Precaution Practices in Sun Dance Ceremonies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Giroux, Jennifer; Takehara, Joan; Asetoyer, Charon; Welty, Thomas

    1997-01-01

    The Aberdeen (South Dakota) Area Indian Health Service has sponsored educational projects to reduce risk of HIV transmission via skin piercing and flesh offerings during traditional Sun Dance ceremonies. Projects emphasized universal precautions, provided medical supplies, and respected the sacredness of the ceremony. Evaluation indicates that

  12. Preventing Infection in the Classroom: The Use of Universal Precautions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edens, Retha M.; Murdick, Nikki L.; Gartin, Barbara C.

    2003-01-01

    This article reviews the universal precautions for appropriate infection control, including the proper method for putting on gloves and removing gloves, hand washing, and blood/bodily fluid clean up. A sample school board policy and kindergarten health core curriculum is provided, along with a kindergarten classroom illustration. (Contains…

  13. 10 CFR 39.31 - Labels, security, and transportation precautions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... accompanied with appropriate shipping papers in accordance with regulations set out in 10 CFR part 71. (b... LOGGING Equipment 39.31 Labels, security, and transportation precautions. (a) Labels. (1) The licensee may not use a source, source holder, or logging tool that contains licensed material unless...

  14. Preventing Infection in the Classroom: The Use of Universal Precautions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edens, Retha M.; Murdick, Nikki L.; Gartin, Barbara C.

    2003-01-01

    This article reviews the universal precautions for appropriate infection control, including the proper method for putting on gloves and removing gloves, hand washing, and blood/bodily fluid clean up. A sample school board policy and kindergarten health core curriculum is provided, along with a kindergarten classroom illustration. (Contains

  15. Preliminary reentry safety assessment of the General Purpose Heat Source module for the Cassini mission: Aerospace Nuclear Safety Program

    SciTech Connect

    Conn, D.W.; Brenza, P.T.

    1993-04-01

    As asked by the U. S. Department of Energy/Office of Special Applications, and in support of the Environmental Impact Statement for the Cassini mission, The Johns Hopkins University/Applied Physics Laboratory (JHU/APL) has conducted preliminary one-dimensional ablation and thermal analyses of the General Purpose Heat Source (GPHS). The predicted earth entry conditions provided by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) for a Cassini Venus-Venus-Earth-Jupiter Gravity Assist (VVEJGA) trajectory were used as initial conditions. The results of this study which constitute the initial reentry analysis assessment leading to the Cassini Updated Safety, Analysis Report (USAR) are discussed in this document.

  16. Preliminary reentry safety assessment of the General Purpose Heat Source module for the Cassini mission: Aerospace Nuclear Safety Program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Conn, D. W.; Brenza, P. T.

    1993-04-01

    As asked by the U.S. Department of Energy/Office of Special Applications, and in support of the Environmental Impact Statement for the Cassini mission, The Johns Hopkins University/Applied Physics Laboratory (JHU/APL) has conducted preliminary one dimensional ablation and thermal analyses of the General Purpose Heat Source (GPHS). The predicted earth entry conditions provided by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) for a Cassini Venus - Venus - Earth - Jupiter gravity assist (VVEJGA) trajectory were used as initial conditions. The results of this study, which constitute the initial reentry analysis assessment leading to the Cassini Updated Safety Analysis Report (USAR), are discussed in this document.

  17. Safety with industrial manufacturing lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holmes, W. I.

    A review of British safety standards relative to lasers in the industrial workplace is presented. Classification of laser outputs according to wavelength and power and the necessary precautions to be taken when employing them in industrial production situations are examined.

  18. 21 CFR 570.20 - General principles for evaluating the safety of food additives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false General principles for evaluating the safety of food additives. 570.20 Section 570.20 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS FOOD ADDITIVES Food...

  19. 21 CFR 570.20 - General principles for evaluating the safety of food additives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false General principles for evaluating the safety of food additives. 570.20 Section 570.20 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS FOOD ADDITIVES Food...

  20. 21 CFR 170.20 - General principles for evaluating the safety of food additives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false General principles for evaluating the safety of food additives. 170.20 Section 170.20 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) FOOD ADDITIVES Food...

  1. 21 CFR 170.20 - General principles for evaluating the safety of food additives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true General principles for evaluating the safety of food additives. 170.20 Section 170.20 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) FOOD ADDITIVES Food...

  2. 21 CFR 570.20 - General principles for evaluating the safety of food additives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false General principles for evaluating the safety of food additives. 570.20 Section 570.20 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS FOOD ADDITIVES Food...

  3. 21 CFR 170.20 - General principles for evaluating the safety of food additives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false General principles for evaluating the safety of food additives. 170.20 Section 170.20 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) FOOD ADDITIVES Food...

  4. 21 CFR 570.20 - General principles for evaluating the safety of food additives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false General principles for evaluating the safety of food additives. 570.20 Section 570.20 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS FOOD ADDITIVES Food...

  5. 21 CFR 170.20 - General principles for evaluating the safety of food additives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false General principles for evaluating the safety of food additives. 170.20 Section 170.20 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) FOOD ADDITIVES Food...

  6. 21 CFR 570.20 - General principles for evaluating the safety of food additives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false General principles for evaluating the safety of food additives. 570.20 Section 570.20 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS FOOD ADDITIVES Food...

  7. 49 CFR 240.109 - General criteria for eligibility based on prior safety conduct.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false General criteria for eligibility based on prior safety conduct. 240.109 Section 240.109 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION QUALIFICATION AND CERTIFICATION OF LOCOMOTIVE ENGINEERS Component Elements...

  8. Experience of Lyme disease and preferences for precautions: a cross-sectional survey of UK patients

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Lyme disease (LD) is a tick-borne zoonosis currently affecting approximately 1000 people annually in the UK (confirmed through serological diagnosis) although it is estimated that the real figures may be as high as 3000 cases. It is important to know what factors may predict correct appraisal of LD symptoms and how the experience of LD might predict preferences for future precautionary actions. Methods A cross-sectional survey was conducted with early LD patients via the Lyme Borreliosis Unit at the Health Protection Agency. One hundred and thirty participants completed measures of awareness of having been bitten by ticks, knowledge of ticks and LD, interpretation of LD symptoms, suspicions of having LD prior to seeing the General Practitioner (GP), and preferences for precautionary actions during future countryside visits. Chi-square tests and logistic regression were used to identify key predictors of awareness of having been bitten by ticks and of having LD. t-tests assessed differences between groups of participants on suspicions of having LD and preferences for future precautions. Pearson correlations examined relationships between measures of preferences for precautions and frequency of countryside use, knowledge of ticks and LD, and intentions to avoid the countryside in the future. Results 73.8% of participants (n = 96) reported a skin rash as the reason for seeking medical help, and 44.1% (n = 64) suspected they had LD before seeing the GP. Participants reporting a direct event in realizing they had been bitten by ticks (seeing a tick on skin or seeing a skin rash and linking it to tick bites) were more likely to suspect they had LD before seeing the doctor. Participants distinguished between taking precautions against tick bites during vs. after countryside visits, largely preferring the latter. Also, the more frequently participants visited the countryside, the less likely they were to endorse during-visit precautions. Conclusions The results suggest that the risk of LD is set in the context of the restorative benefits of countryside practices, and that it may be counterproductive to overemphasize pre- or during-visit precautions. Simultaneously, having experienced LD is not associated with any withdrawal from countryside. PMID:23679931

  9. Oral Radiology Safety Standards Adopted by the General Dentists Practicing in National Capital Region (NCR)

    PubMed Central

    Jayaprakash, K.; Shivalingesh, K.K.; Agarwal, Vartika; Gupta, Bhuvandeep; Anand, Richa; Sharma, Abhinav; Kushwaha, Sumedha

    2016-01-01

    Introduction With advancement in diagnostic techniques, the utilization of radiologic examination has risen to many folds in the last two decades. Ionizing radiations from the radiographic examination carry the potential for harm by inducing carcino-genesis in addition to the diagnostic information extracted. Radiation doses utilized in the course of dental treatment might be low for individual examinations but patients are exposed to repeated examinations very often and many people are exposed during the course of dental care. Therefore, principles of radiation protection and safety are necessary for the dentists to follow to ensure minimum and inevitable exposure. Aim The aim of this study was to investigate the knowledge and behaviour of general dentists practicing in the National Capital Region (NCR) regarding radiation safety during oral radiographic procedures. Materials and Methods The study was a questionnaire based cross-sectional study. A total of 500 general dentists were contacted to participate in the study. The target population entailed of general dentists practicing in the National Capital Region. Data was computed and tabulated in Microsoft excel sheet and statistical analysis was performed with the help of SPSS version 21.0. Results The total response rate recovered was 70.6% and the respondents comprised of 59% and 41% males & females respectively. Only 64.8% of the general dentists contemplated thyroid to be the most important organ for radiation protection. Only 28.8% of the general dentists followed the position & distance rule appropriately. Conclusion The results showed that the knowledge and behaviour of the general dentists and the practices adopted by them regarding radiation safety is not satisfactory. To ensure the following of basic and necessary guidelines for radiation safety and protection, strict rules with penalties should be implemented by the state councils and new and interesting methods of education for this spectrum of the field should be introduced. PMID:26894174

  10. GPHS (General Purpose Heat Source) uranium oxide encapsulations supporting satellite safety tests

    SciTech Connect

    Kanne, W.R.

    1989-04-24

    General Purpose Heat Source (GPHS) simulant-fueled capsules were assembled, welded, nondestructively examined, and shipped to Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) for satellite safety tests. Simulant-fueled iridium capsules contain depleted uranium oxide pellets that serve as a stand-in for plutonium-238 oxide pellets. Information on forty seven capsules prepared during 1987 and 1988 is recorded in this memorandum along with a description of the processes used for encapsulation and evaluation. LANL expects to use all capsules for destructive safety tests, which are under way. Test results so far have demonstrated excellent integrity of the Savannah River capsule welds. 10 refs., 5 figs., 3 tabs.

  11. Safety: Biological defense safety program

    SciTech Connect

    1993-12-31

    This pamphlet establishes the Army safety program for all aspects of the Biological Defense Program. It provides new Department of the Army policy on the management of the Biological Defense Safety Program. This pamphlet implements the Centers for Disease Control - National Institutes of Health Guidelines on Laboratory Biosafety, Department of Defense and Department of the Army policy statements, and other Federal regulations. It prescribes procedures for safety studies and reviews of biological defense research, development, test and evaluation projects, and prescribes safety precautions and procedures applicable to contractor operations.

  12. Malaria and children: the risks, precautions, and the nurse's role.

    PubMed

    Tracey, Carole

    2003-09-01

    Malaria is a life-threatening illness which can be particularly risk in children. This paper guides nurses who offer travel advice on the best approaches to take with parents. It is best to avoid travelling to areas affected by the disease at all. However, if people do travel, they should take prophylactic medication as well as other precautions to avoid being bitten by mosquitoes. PMID:14515820

  13. Radiological Safety Handbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Army Ordnance Center and School, Aberdeen Proving Ground, MD.

    Written to be used concurrently with the U.S. Army's Radiological Safety Course, this publication discusses the causes, sources, and detection of nuclear radiation. In addition, the transportation and disposal of radioactive materials are covered. The report also deals with the safety precautions to be observed when working with lasers, microwave…

  14. Teaching Safety Skills to Children: Prevention of Firearm Injury as an Exemplar of Best Practice in Assessment, Training, and Generalization of Safety Skills

    PubMed Central

    Miltenberger, Raymond G

    2008-01-01

    The focus of this paper is on teaching safety skills to children with an emphasis on recent research on behavioral skills training for the prevention of firearm injury. Following a discussion of safety skills and methods for assessing these skills, the paper reviews recent research on behavioral skills training and in situ training for teaching safety skills to prevent firearm injury. Strategies for promoting generalization and increasing the efficiency of training are then discussed, along with a summary of conclusions that can be drawn from the research and guidelines for best practices in teaching safety skills to children. PMID:22477677

  15. Coronary arteriography in a district general hospital: feasibility, safety, and diagnostic accuracy.

    PubMed Central

    Ranjadayalan, K; Mills, P G; Sprigings, D C; Mourad, K; Magee, P; Timmis, A D

    1990-01-01

    OBJECTIVE--To determine the feasibility, safety, and diagnostic accuracy of coronary arteriography in the radiology department of a district general hospital using conventional fluoroscopy and videotape recording. DESIGN--Observational study of the feasibility and safety of coronary arteriography in a district general hospital and analysis of its diagnostic accuracy by prospective within patient comparison of the video recordings with cinearteriograms obtained in a catheter laboratory. SETTING--Radiology department of a district general hospital and the catheter laboratory of a cardiological referral centre. SUBJECTS--50 Patients with acute myocardial infarction treated with streptokinase who underwent coronary arteriography in a district general hospital three (two to five) days after admission. 45 Of these patients had repeat coronary arteriography after four (three to seven) days in the catheter laboratory of a cardiological referral centre. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES--Incidence of complications associated with catheterisation and the sensitivity and specificity of video recordings in the district general hospital (judged by two experienced observers) for identifying the location and severity of coronary stenoses. RESULTS--Coronary arteriograms recorded on videotape in the district general hospital were obtained in 47 cases and apart from one episode of ventricular fibrilation (treated successfully by cardioversion) there were no complications of the procedure. 45 Patients were transferred for investigation in the catheter laboratory, providing 45 paired coronary arteriograms recorded on videotape and cine film. The specificity of the video recordings for identifying the location and severity of coronary stenoses was over 90%. Sensitivity, however, was lower and for one observer fell below 40% for lesions in the circumflex artery. A cardiothoracic surgeon judged that only nine of the 47 video recordings were adequate for assessing revascularisation requirements. CONCLUSIONS--Coronary arteriography in the radiology department of a district general hospital is safe and feasible. Nevertheless, the quality of image with conventional fluoroscopy and video film is inadequate and will need to be improved before coronary arteriography in this setting can be recommended. PMID:2182164

  16. Beyond patchwork precaution in the dual-use governance of synthetic biology.

    PubMed

    Kelle, Alexander

    2013-09-01

    The emergence of synthetic biology holds the potential of a major breakthrough in the life sciences by transforming biology into a predictive science. The dual-use characteristics of similar breakthroughs during the twentieth century have led to the application of benignly intended research in e.g. virology, bacteriology and aerobiology in offensive biological weapons programmes. Against this background the article raises the question whether the precautionary governance of synthetic biology can aid in preventing this techno-science witnessing the same fate? In order to address this question, this paper proceeds in four steps: it firstly introduces the emerging techno-science of synthetic biology and presents some of its potential beneficial applications. It secondly analyses contributions to the bioethical discourse on synthetic biology as well as precautionary reasoning and its application to life science research in general and synthetic biology more specifically. The paper then identifies manifestations of a moderate precautionary principle in the emerging synthetic biology dual-use governance discourse. Using a dual-use governance matrix as heuristic device to analyse some of the proposed measures, it concludes that the identified measures can best be described as "patchwork precaution" and that a more systematic approach to construct a web of dual-use precaution for synthetic biology is needed in order to guard more effectively against the field's future misuse for harmful applications. PMID:22535577

  17. Receptionist input to quality and safety in repeat prescribing in UK general practice: ethnographic case study

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Objective To describe, explore, and compare organisational routines for repeat prescribing in general practice to identify contributors and barriers to safety and quality. Design Ethnographic case study. Setting Four urban UK general practices with diverse organisational characteristics using electronic patient records that supported semi-automation of repeat prescribing. Participants 395 hours of ethnographic observation of staff (25 doctors, 16 nurses, 4 healthcare assistants, 6 managers, and 56 reception or administrative staff), and 28 documents and other artefacts relating to repeat prescribing locally and nationally. Main outcome measures Potential threats to patient safety and characteristics of good practice. Methods Observation of how doctors, receptionists, and other administrative staff contributed to, and collaborated on, the repeat prescribing routine. Analysis included mapping prescribing routines, building a rich description of organisational practices, and drawing these together through narrative synthesis. This was informed by a sociological model of how organisational routines shape and are shaped by information and communications technologies. Results Repeat prescribing was a complex, technology-supported social practice requiring collaboration between clinical and administrative staff, with important implications for patient safety. More than half of requests for repeat prescriptions were classed as exceptions by receptionists (most commonly because the drug, dose, or timing differed from what was on the electronic repeat list). They managed these exceptions by making situated judgments that enabled them (sometimes but not always) to bridge the gap between the idealised assumptions about tasks, roles, and interactions that were built into the electronic patient record and formal protocols, and the actual repeat prescribing routine as it played out in practice. This work was creative and demanded both explicit and tacit knowledge. Clinicians were often unaware of this input and it did not feature in policy documents or previous research. Yet it was sometimes critical to getting the job done and contributed in subtle ways to safeguarding patients. Conclusion Receptionists and administrative staff make important hidden contributions to quality and safety in repeat prescribing in general practice, regarding themselves accountable to patients for these contributions. Studying technology-supported work routines that seem mundane, standardised, and automated, but which in reality require a high degree of local tailoring and judgment from frontline staff, opens up a new agenda for the study of patient safety. PMID:22053317

  18. HIV, trauma, and infection control: universal precautions are universally ignored.

    PubMed

    Hammond, J S; Eckes, J M; Gomez, G A; Cunningham, D N

    1990-05-01

    The medical, legal, and ethical problems associated with routine HIV screening have led to the recommendation that all patients should be presumed to be seropositive and thus protective measures should be taken by all health care workers. This philosophy, termed "universal precautions," has been difficult to adhere to or enforce, however. Nevertheless, in some trauma population subsets, the prevalence of HIV seropositivity runs as high as 19%, and thus presents an occupational hazard to the trauma health care worker. The mainstays of universal precautions (UP) are barrier techniques against body fluid contact and protection from inadvertent needlestick. To judge compliance with a strict UP protocol, surgical residents engaged in trauma room resuscitations were observed on a random basis by trauma nurse coordinators. Previously, UP had been discussed in conferences and by memo. Over 2 months, 81 trauma rooms were observed, involving 18 house officers. Overall, there was only 16% compliance with strict UP. The most common protocol variations involved sharps technique. While glove use was nearly universal, protective eye wear, ankle and foot protection, and body protection such as gowns or aprons were commonly ignored. Even in the presence of invasive procedures such as endotracheal intubation or insertion of chest tubes, compliance was less than 40%. The reasons most commonly given by house officers for the lapse in UP were not knowing the protocol, forgetting the protocol, or not having time to implement the protocol. Even for the nine patients residents identified as suspected of being in a high-risk category, UP was strictly adhered to only once. Compliance with universal precautions is difficult to achieve under the best of circumstances. It cannot be assumed that passive informational measures can achieve this goal. Active infection control surveillance and ongoing housestaff inservice are required to minimize the risk of inadvertent injury or contamination. PMID:2342138

  19. An alternative approach to prescribing sternal precautions after median sternotomy, “Keep Your Move in the Tube”

    PubMed Central

    Lotshaw, Ana; Exum, Emelia; Campbell, Mark; Spranger, Cathy B.; Beveridge, Jim; Baker, Shawn; McCray, Stephanie; Bilbrey, Tim; Shock, Tiffany; Lawrence, Anne; Hamman, Baron L.; Schussler, Jeffrey M.

    2016-01-01

    Traditional sternal precautions, given to sternotomy patients as part of their discharge education, are intended to help prevent sternal wound complications. They vary widely but generally include arbitrary load and time restrictions (lifting no more than a specified weight for up to 12 weeks) and may prohibit common shoulder joint and shoulder girdle movements. Having observed the negative effects of restrictive sternal precautions for many years, our research team performed a series of studies that measured the forces exerted during various common activities and their relationship to the sternum. The results, though informative, led us to realize that the goal of identifying “the” appropriate load restriction to prescribe for sternotomy patients was futile. The alternative approach that we introduce applies standard kinesiological principles and teaches patients how to perform load-bearing movements in a way that avoids excessive stress to the sternum. PMID:26722187

  20. General-purpose heat source project and space nuclear safety fuels program. Progress report, February 1980

    SciTech Connect

    Maraman, W.J.

    1980-05-01

    This formal monthly report covers the studies related to the use of /sup 238/PuO/sub 2/ in radioisotopic power systems carried out for the Advanced Nuclear Systems and Projects Division of the Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory. The two programs involved are: General-Purpose Heat Source Development and Space Nuclear Safety and Fuels. Most of the studies discussed here are of a continuing nature. Results and conclusions described may change as the work continues. Published reference to the results cited in this report should not be made without the explicit permission of the person in charge of the work.

  1. General-Purpose Heat Source safety verification test series: SVT-1 through SVT-6

    SciTech Connect

    Pavone, D.; George, T.G.; Frantz, C.E.

    1985-06-01

    The General-Purpose Heat Source (GPHS) is a modular heat source that will supply energy for Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generators (RTGs) in space missions. The Safety Verification Tests (SVTs) are performed to assess the plutonia containment capability of heat source modules subjected to certain accident environments. This interim report described the GPHS module configuration, the test environment, and the response of the module components following simulated reentry and solid Earth impact. The specific test environment of these initial six tests results from failure of the booster rocket to place the spacecraft in a proper trajectory and subsequent reentry of the GPHS modules from Earth orbit. 36 figs.

  2. Barriers to the Operation of Patient Safety Incident Reporting Systems in Korean General Hospitals

    PubMed Central

    Hwang, Jee-In; Lee, Sang-IL

    2012-01-01

    Objectives This study aimed to explore the barriers to and factors facilitating the operation of patient safety incident reporting systems. Methods A qualitative study that used a methodological triangulation method was conducted. Participants were those who were involved in or responsible for managing incident reporting at hospitals, and they were recruited via a snowballing sampling method. Data were collected via interviews or emails from 42 nurses at 42 general hospitals. A qualitative content analysis was performed to derive the major themes related to barriers to and factors facilitating incident reporting. Results Participants suggested 96 barriers to incident reporting in their hospitals at the organizational and individual levels. Low reporting rates, especially for near misses, were the most commonly reported issue, followed by poorly designed incident reporting systems and a lack of adequate patient safety leadership by mid-level managers. To resolve and overcome these barriers, 104 recommendations were suggested. The high-priority recommendations included introducing reward systems; improving incident reporting systems, by for instance implementing a variety of reporting channels and ensuring reporter anonymity; and creating a strong safety culture. Conclusions The barriers to and factors facilitating incident reporting include various organizational and individual factors. As an important way to address these challenging issues and to improve the incident reporting systems in hospitals, we suggest several feasible methods of doing so. PMID:23346479

  3. Nuclear safety

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buden, D.

    1991-01-01

    Topics dealing with nuclear safety are addressed which include the following: general safety requirements; safety design requirements; terrestrial safety; SP-100 Flight System key safety requirements; potential mission accidents and hazards; key safety features; ground operations; launch operations; flight operations; disposal; safety concerns; licensing; the nuclear engine for rocket vehicle application (NERVA) design philosophy; the NERVA flight safety program; and the NERVA safety plan.

  4. Environmental assessment of general-purpose heat source safety verification testing

    SciTech Connect

    1995-02-01

    This Environmental Assessment (EA) was prepared to identify and evaluate potential environmental, safety, and health impacts associated with the Proposed Action to test General-Purpose Heat Source (GPHS) Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generator (RTG) assemblies at the Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) 10,000-Foot Sled Track Facility, Albuquerque, New Mexico. RTGs are used to provide a reliable source of electrical power on board some spacecraft when solar power is inadequate during long duration space missions. These units are designed to convert heat from the natural decay of radioisotope fuel into electrical power. Impact test data are required to support DOE`s mission to provide radioisotope power systems to NASA and other user agencies. The proposed tests will expand the available safety database regarding RTG performance under postulated accident conditions. Direct observations and measurements of GPHS/RTG performance upon impact with hard, unyielding surfaces are required to verify model predictions and to ensure the continual evolution of the RTG designs that perform safely under varied accident environments. The Proposed Action is to conduct impact testing of RTG sections containing GPHS modules with simulated fuel. End-On and Side-On impact test series are planned.

  5. General-Purpose Heat Source Safety Verification Test series: SVT-7 through SVT-10

    SciTech Connect

    George, T.G.; Pavone, D.

    1985-09-01

    The General-Purpose Heat Source (GPHS) is a modular component of the radioisotope thermoelectric generator that will supply power for the Galileo and Ulysses (formerly ISPM) space missions. The GPHS provides power by transmitting the heat of /sup 238/PuO/sub 2/ ..cap alpha..-decay to an array of thermoelectric elements. Because the possibility of an orbital abort always exists, the heat source was designed and constructed to minimize plutonia release in any accident environment. The Safety Verification Test (SVT) series was formulated to evaluate the effectiveness of GPHS plutonia containment after atmospheric reentry and Earth impact. The first report (covering SVT-1 through SVT-6) described the results of flat and side-on module impacts. This report describes module impacts at angles of 15/sup 0/ and 30/sup 0/.

  6. General-purpose heat source safety verification test series: SVT-11 through SVT-13

    SciTech Connect

    George, T.G.; Pavone, D.

    1986-05-01

    The General-Purpose Heat Source (GPHS) is a modular component of the radioisotope thermoelectric generator that will provide power for the Galileo and Ulysses (formerly ISPM) space missions. The GPHS provides power by transmitting the heat of /sup 238/Pu ..cap alpha..-decay to an array of thermoelectric elements. Because the possibility of an orbital abort always exists, the heat source was designed and constructed to minimize plutonia release in any accident environment. The Safety Verification Test (SVT) series was formulated to evaluate the effectiveness of GPHS plutonia containment after atmospheric reentry and Earth impact. The first two reports (covering SVT-1 through SVT-10) described the results of flat, side-on, and angular module impacts against steel targets at 54 m/s. This report describes flat-on module impacts against concrete and granite targets, at velocities equivalent to or higher than previous SVTs.

  7. General Framework for Animal Food Safety Traceability Using GS1 and RFID

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Weizhu; Zheng, Limin; Zhu, Hong; Wu, Ping

    GS1 is global traceability standard, which is composed by the encoding system (EAN/UCC, EPC), the data carriers identified automatically (bar codes, RFID), electronic data interchange standards (EDI, XML). RFID is a non-contact, multi-objective automatic identification technique. Tracing of source food, standardization of RFID tags, sharing of dynamic data are problems to solve urgently for recent traceability systems. The paper designed general framework for animal food safety traceability using GS1 and RFID. This framework uses RFID tags encoding with EPCglobal tag data standards. Each information server has access tier, business tier and resource tier. These servers are heterogeneous and distributed, providing user access interfaces by SOAP or HTTP protocols. For sharing dynamic data, discovery service and object name service are used to locate dynamic distributed information servers.

  8. Safety review of the design, operation, and radiation sections of the General Electric Morris Operation Consolidated Safety Analysis Report

    SciTech Connect

    McBride, J.P.

    1981-01-30

    A safety review was made of Sections 4 through 9 of the Consolidated Safety Analysis Report (CSAR) for the GE Morris Operation spent-fuel storage facility. The sections reviewed include Design Criteria and Compliance, Facility Design and Description, Radiation Protection, Accident Analysis, and Conduct of Operations. The safety review was performed in accordance with the Code of Federal Regulations, Title 10, Part 72, ''Licensing Requirements for the Storage of Spent Fuel in an Independent Spent Fuel Storage Installation'' and contains independent estimations of source terms and dose-commitments from postulated accidents in the storage facility and a structural analysis of the Morris Operation cranes as an appendix. The review confirms that the features of the facility as described in Sections 4 through 9 of the CSAR fulfilled the safety requirements of 10 CFR 72, and it is concluded that spent-fuel handling and storage at the Morris Operation do not present significant risks to public health and safety. 15 refs., 3 tabs.

  9. Social safety, self-rated general health and physical activity: changes in area crime, area safety feelings and the role of social cohesion.

    PubMed

    Ruijsbroek, Annemarie; Droomers, Mariël; Groenewegen, Peter P; Hardyns, Wim; Stronks, Karien

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine whether changes over time in reported area crime and perceived area safety were related to self-rated general health and physical activity (PA), in order to provide support for a causal relationship between social safety and health. Additionally, we investigated whether social cohesion protects the residents against the negative impact of unsafe areas on health and PA. Multilevel logistic regression analyses were performed on Dutch survey data, including 47,926 respondents living in 2974 areas. An increase in area level unsafety feelings between 2009 and 2011 was associated with more people reporting poor general health in 2012 in that area, but was not related to PA. Changes in reported area crime were not related to either poor general health or PA. The social cohesion in the area did not modify the effect of changes in social safety on health and PA. The results suggest that tackling feelings of unsafety in an area might contribute to the better general health of the residents. Because changes in area social safety were not associated with PA, we found no leads that such health benefits were achieved through an increase in physical activity. PMID:25463916

  10. 48 CFR 1236.570 - Special precautions for work at operating airports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Contract Clauses 1236.570 Special precautions for work at operating airports. Where any acquisition will require work at an operating airport, insert the clause at (TAR) 48 CFR 1252.236-70, Special Precautions... work at operating airports. 1236.570 Section 1236.570 Federal Acquisition Regulations System...

  11. 48 CFR 1252.236-70 - Special precautions for work at operating airports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Provisions and Clauses 1252.236-70 Special precautions for work at operating airports. As prescribed in (TAR) 48 CFR 1236.570, insert the following clause: Special Precautions for Work at Operating Airports (OCT... work at operating airports. 1252.236-70 Section 1252.236-70 Federal Acquisition Regulations...

  12. 7 CFR 1980.318 - Flood or mudslide hazard area precautions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 14 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Flood or mudslide hazard area precautions. 1980.318... Flood or mudslide hazard area precautions. RHS policy is to discourage lending in designated flood and mudslide hazard areas. Loan guarantees shall not be issued in designated flood/mudslide hazard areas...

  13. 7 CFR 1980.433 - Flood or mudslide hazard area precautions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 14 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Flood or mudslide hazard area precautions. 1980.433... Program § 1980.433 Flood or mudslide hazard area precautions. (See subpart A, § 1980.42.) Administrative The State Director is responsible for determining if a project is located in a special flood...

  14. 7 CFR 1980.433 - Flood or mudslide hazard area precautions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 14 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Flood or mudslide hazard area precautions. 1980.433... Program § 1980.433 Flood or mudslide hazard area precautions. (See subpart A, § 1980.42.) Administrative The State Director is responsible for determining if a project is located in a special flood...

  15. 7 CFR 1980.433 - Flood or mudslide hazard area precautions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 14 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Flood or mudslide hazard area precautions. 1980.433... Program § 1980.433 Flood or mudslide hazard area precautions. (See subpart A, § 1980.42.) Administrative The State Director is responsible for determining if a project is located in a special flood...

  16. 7 CFR 1980.318 - Flood or mudslide hazard area precautions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 14 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Flood or mudslide hazard area precautions. 1980.318... Flood or mudslide hazard area precautions. RHS policy is to discourage lending in designated flood and mudslide hazard areas. Loan guarantees shall not be issued in designated flood/mudslide hazard areas...

  17. 7 CFR 1980.318 - Flood or mudslide hazard area precautions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 14 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Flood or mudslide hazard area precautions. 1980.318... Flood or mudslide hazard area precautions. RHS policy is to discourage lending in designated flood and mudslide hazard areas. Loan guarantees shall not be issued in designated flood/mudslide hazard areas...

  18. 7 CFR 1980.433 - Flood or mudslide hazard area precautions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 14 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Flood or mudslide hazard area precautions. 1980.433... Program § 1980.433 Flood or mudslide hazard area precautions. (See subpart A, § 1980.42.) Administrative The State Director is responsible for determining if a project is located in a special flood...

  19. 7 CFR 1980.318 - Flood or mudslide hazard area precautions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 14 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Flood or mudslide hazard area precautions. 1980.318... Flood or mudslide hazard area precautions. RHS policy is to discourage lending in designated flood and mudslide hazard areas. Loan guarantees shall not be issued in designated flood/mudslide hazard areas...

  20. 7 CFR 1980.318 - Flood or mudslide hazard area precautions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 14 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Flood or mudslide hazard area precautions. 1980.318... Flood or mudslide hazard area precautions. RHS policy is to discourage lending in designated flood and mudslide hazard areas. Loan guarantees shall not be issued in designated flood/mudslide hazard areas...

  1. 7 CFR 1980.433 - Flood or mudslide hazard area precautions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 14 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Flood or mudslide hazard area precautions. 1980.433... Program § 1980.433 Flood or mudslide hazard area precautions. (See subpart A, § 1980.42.) Administrative The State Director is responsible for determining if a project is located in a special flood...

  2. 21 CFR 111.365 - What precautions must you take to prevent contamination?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... contamination? 111.365 Section 111.365 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND... contamination? You must take all the necessary precautions during the manufacture of a dietary supplement to prevent contamination of components or dietary supplements. These precautions include: (a)...

  3. 21 CFR 111.365 - What precautions must you take to prevent contamination?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... contamination? 111.365 Section 111.365 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND... contamination? You must take all the necessary precautions during the manufacture of a dietary supplement to prevent contamination of components or dietary supplements. These precautions include: (a)...

  4. 21 CFR 111.365 - What precautions must you take to prevent contamination?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... contamination? 111.365 Section 111.365 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND... contamination? You must take all the necessary precautions during the manufacture of a dietary supplement to prevent contamination of components or dietary supplements. These precautions include: (a)...

  5. 21 CFR 111.365 - What precautions must you take to prevent contamination?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... contamination? 111.365 Section 111.365 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND... contamination? You must take all the necessary precautions during the manufacture of a dietary supplement to prevent contamination of components or dietary supplements. These precautions include: (a)...

  6. 49 CFR 240.109 - General criteria for eligibility based on prior safety conduct.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... safety conduct. 240.109 Section 240.109 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation... eligibility based on prior safety conduct. (a) Each railroad's program shall include criteria and procedures to implement this section. (b) A railroad shall evaluate the prior safety conduct of any person it...

  7. 10 CFR Appendix A to Subpart B of... - General Statement of Safety Basis Policy

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...) Using the provisions in 29 CFR 1910.120 (or 29 CFR 1926.65 for construction activities) for developing a... Subpart B of Part 830 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY NUCLEAR SAFETY MANAGEMENT Safety Basis Requirements Pt.... Department of Energy Nonreactor Nuclear Facility Safety Analysis Reports, July 1994, or successor...

  8. General-Purpose Heat Source Development: Safety Verification Test Program. Flyer plate test series

    SciTech Connect

    Cull, T.A.; Pavone, D.

    1986-09-01

    The General-Purpose Heat Source (GPHS) is a modular component of a radioisotope thermoelectric generator (RTG) that will provide electric power for space missions. The initial RTG applications will be for the NASA Galileo and the ESA Ulysses missions. Each of the 18 GPHS modules in an RTG contains four /sup 238/PuO/sub 2/-fueled clads and generates 250 W/sub (t)/. A series of Safety Verification Tests (SVTs) has been conducted to assess the ability of the GPHS fueled clads to contain the plutonia in accident environments. Because a launch pad or postlaunch explosion of the Space Transportation System Vehicle (space shuttle) is one conceivable accident, the SVT plan included a series of tests to simulate the fragment environment that the RTG and GPHS modules would experience in such an event. These tests deal specifically with the flat-on collision of flyer-plate-type fragments with bare, simulant-fueled (depleted UO/sub 2/) clads. Results of these tests suggest that the fueled clad is only minimally breached by collision with 3.53-mm-thick flyer-plate-type fragments of space shuttle alloy at velocities up to 1170 m/s. However, collision of a 38.1-mm-thick plate with a bare GPHS clad, at a velocity of 270 m/s, results in a total release of fuel.

  9. General-purpose heat source project and space nuclear safety and fuels program. Progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Maraman, W.J.

    1980-02-01

    Studies related to the use of /sup 238/PuO/sub 2/ in radioisotopic power systems carried out for the Advanced Nuclear Systems and Projects Division of LASL are presented. The three programs involved are: general-purpose heat source development; space nuclear safety; and fuels program. Three impact tests were conducted to evaluate the effects of a high temperature reentry pulse and the use of CBCF on impact performance. Additionally, two /sup 238/PuO/sub 2/ pellets were encapsulated in Ir-0.3% W for impact testing. Results of the clad development test and vent testing are noted. Results of the environmental tests are summarized. Progress on the Stirling isotope power systems test and the status of the improved MHW tests are indicated. The examination of the impact failure of the iridium shell of MHFT-65 at a fuel pass-through continued. A test plan was written for vibration testing of the assembled light-weight radioisotopic heater unit. Progress on fuel processing is reported.

  10. General-Purpose Heat Source Safety Verification Test program: Edge-on flyer plate tests

    SciTech Connect

    George, T.G.

    1987-03-01

    The radioisotope thermoelectric generator (RTG) that will supply power for the Galileo and Ulysses space missions contains 18 General-Purpose Heat Source (GPHS) modules. The GPHS modules provide power by transmitting the heat of STYPu -decay to an array of thermoelectric elements. Each module contains four STYPuO2-fueled clads and generates 250 W(t). Because the possibility of a launch vehicle explosion always exists, and because such an explosion could generate a field of high-energy fragments, the fueled clads within each GPHS module must survive fragment impact. The edge-on flyer plate tests were included in the Safety Verification Test series to provide information on the module/clad response to the impact of high-energy plate fragments. The test results indicate that the edge-on impact of a 3.2-mm-thick, aluminum-alloy (2219-T87) plate traveling at 915 m/s causes the complete release of fuel from capsules contained within a bare GPHS module, and that the threshold velocity sufficient to cause the breach of a bare, simulant-fueled clad impacted by a 3.5-mm-thick, aluminum-alloy (5052-T0) plate is approximately 140 m/s.

  11. General-Purpose Heat Source development: Safety Verification Test Program. Bullet/fragment test series

    SciTech Connect

    George, T.G.; Tate, R.E.; Axler, K.M.

    1985-05-01

    The radioisotope thermoelectric generator (RTG) that will provide power for space missions contains 18 General-Purpose Heat Source (GPHS) modules. Each module contains four /sup 238/PuO/sub 2/-fueled clads and generates 250 W/sub (t)/. Because a launch-pad or post-launch explosion is always possible, we need to determine the ability of GPHS fueled clads within a module to survive fragment impact. The bullet/fragment test series, part of the Safety Verification Test Plan, was designed to provide information on clad response to impact by a compact, high-energy, aluminum-alloy fragment and to establish a threshold value of fragment energy required to breach the iridium cladding. Test results show that a velocity of 555 m/s (1820 ft/s) with an 18-g bullet is at or near the threshold value of fragment velocity that will cause a clad breach. Results also show that an exothermic Ir/Al reaction occurs if aluminum and hot iridium are in contact, a contact that is possible and most damaging to the clad within a narrow velocity range. The observed reactions between the iridium and the aluminum were studied in the laboratory and are reported in the Appendix.

  12. Explosion overpressure test series: General-Purpose Heat Source development: Safety Verification Test program

    SciTech Connect

    Cull, T.A.; George, T.G.; Pavone, D.

    1986-09-01

    The General-Purpose Heat Source (GPHS) is a modular, radioisotope heat source that will be used in radioisotope thermoelectric generators (RTGs) to supply electric power for space missions. The first two uses will be the NASA Galileo and the ESA Ulysses missions. The RTG for these missions will contain 18 GPHS modules, each of which contains four /sup 238/PuO/sub 2/-fueled clads and generates 250 W/sub (t)/. A series of Safety Verification Tests (SVTs) was conducted to assess the ability of the GPHS modules to contain the plutonia in accident environments. Because a launch pad or postlaunch explosion of the Space Transportation System vehicle (space shuttle) is a conceivable accident, the SVT plan included a series of tests that simulated the overpressure exposure the RTG and GPHS modules could experience in such an event. Results of these tests, in which we used depleted UO/sub 2/ as a fuel simulant, suggest that exposure to overpressures as high as 15.2 MPa (2200 psi), without subsequent impact, does not result in a release of fuel.

  13. Compliance with child accident precautions by child health nurses.

    PubMed

    Carlsson, Anna; Karlsson, Elisabeth Dejin; Hkansson, Anders; Udn, Giggi

    2006-06-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the extent to which parents follow advice from child health nurses about child accident prevention. The study was performed in one of the 10 districts in the city of Malm, Sweden. Parents to 90, 10-month old children in southern Sweden participated. These parents completed a questionnaire that prompted responses related to parents' background and socio-economic factors as well as questions about any precautions they have taken to decrease hazards to children in their home. Odds ratios, confidence intervals and multiple logistic regression analysis was performed. The results indicated that lower educated parents (i.e. those with 12 years' education or less) and foreign-born parents complied with a significantly lower level. These results support the need to increase efforts in child accident prevention work. It is important for child health nurses to concentrate their efforts on foreign parents and on less educated parents. Information should be relayed regularly to these parents in a motivational way, in order to decrease risks of child accidents at home. PMID:16707543

  14. Precautions surrounding blood transfusion in autoimmune haemolytic anaemias are overestimated

    PubMed Central

    Yrek, Salih; Mayer, Beate; Almahallawi, Mohammed; Pruss, Axel; Salama, Abdulgabar

    2015-01-01

    Background It is very evident that many precautions are taken regarding transfusion of red blood cells in patients with autoimmune haemolytic anaemia. Frequently, considerable efforts are made to examine the indication and serological compatibility prior to transfusion in such patients. However, at times, this may unnecessarily jeopardize patients who urgently require a red blood cell transfusion. Materials and methods Thirty-six patients with warm-type autoimmune haemolytic anaemia were included in this study. All patients had reactive serum autoantibodies and required blood transfusion. Standard serological assays were employed for the detection and characterization of antibodies to red blood cells. Results A positive direct antiglobulin test was observed in all 36 patients, in addition to detectable antibodies in both the eluate and serum. Significant alloantibodies were detected in the serum samples of three patients (anti-c, anti-JKa, and anti-E). In 32 patients, red blood cell transfusion was administered with no significant haemolytic transfusion reactions due to auto- and/or allo-antibodies. Due to overestimation of positive cross-matches three patients received no transfusion or delayed transfusion and died, and one patient died due to unrecognised blood loss and anaemia which was attributed to an ineffective red blood cell transfusion. Discussion Many of the reported recommendations regarding transfusion of red blood cells in autoimmune haemolytic anaemia are highly questionable, and positive serological cross-matches should not result in a delay or refusal of necessary blood transfusions. PMID:26192772

  15. Contact Precautions for Multidrug-Resistant Organisms (MDROs): Current Recommendations and Actual Practice

    PubMed Central

    Clock, Sarah A.; Cohen, Bevin; Behta, Maryam; Ross, Barbara; Larson, Elaine L.

    2009-01-01

    Background Contact precautions are recommended for interactions with patients colonized/infected with multidrug-resistant organisms; however, rates of contact precautions practice are unknown. Methods Observers recorded the availability of supplies and staff/visitor adherence to contact precautions at rooms of patients indicated for contact precautions. Data were collected at three sites in a New York City hospital network. Results Contact precautions signs were present for 85.4% of indicated patients. The largest proportions were indicated for isolation for vancomycin-resistant enterococci and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus cultures. Isolation carts were available outside 93.7-96.7% of rooms displaying signs, and personal protective equipment was available at rates of 49.4-72.1% for gloves (all sizes: small, medium, and large) and 91.7-95.2% for gowns. Overall adherence rates upon room entry and exit, respectively, were 19.4% and 48.4% for hand hygiene, 67.5% and 63.5% for gloves, and 67.9% and 77.1% for gowns. Adherence was significantly better in intensive care units (p<0.05) and by patient-care staff (p<0.05), and patient-care staff compliance with one contact precautions behavior was predictive of adherence to additional behaviors (p<0.001). Conclusions Our findings support the recommendation that methods to monitor contact precautions and identify and correct non-adherent practices should be a standard component of infection prevention and control programs. PMID:19913329

  16. Safety.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Education in Science, 1996

    1996-01-01

    Discusses safety issues in science, including: allergic reactions to peanuts used in experiments; explosions in lead/acid batteries; and inspection of pressure vessels, such as pressure cookers or model steam engines. (MKR)

  17. 10 CFR Appendix A to Subpart B of... - General Statement of Safety Basis Policy

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    .... Introduction This appendix describes DOE's expectations for the safety basis requirements of 10 CFR Part 830..., safety, and health into work planning and execution (48 CFR 970.5223-1, Integration of Environment... directives (48 CFR 970.5204-2, Laws, Regulations and DOE Directives), the contractor will have...

  18. 41 CFR 50-204.2 - General safety and health standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... LaborTitle 29 CFR Part 1501Safety and Health Regulations for Ship Repairing. Part 1502Safety and... Other Nonmetallic Minerals, Including Silica Sand. (3) U.S. Department of Transportation: 49 CFR parts 171-179 and 14 CFR part 103 Hazardous material regulationTransportation of compressed gases. (4)...

  19. 41 CFR 50-204.2 - General safety and health standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... LaborTitle 29 CFR Part 1501Safety and Health Regulations for Ship Repairing. Part 1502Safety and... Other Nonmetallic Minerals, Including Silica Sand. (3) U.S. Department of Transportation: 49 CFR parts 171-179 and 14 CFR part 103 Hazardous material regulationTransportation of compressed gases. (4)...

  20. General Safety Manual for Vocational-Technical Education and Industrial Arts Programs. Bulletin No. 1674.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dennis, Bill; Poston, David

    This manual is designed to offer suggestions for teaching safety in Louisiana industrial arts and vocational education programs. The suggestions and information presented are intended for use in an ongoing safety program, not a short unit presented at the beginning of the school year. Following an introduction in unit 1, the material has been

  1. 10 CFR Appendix A to Subpart B of... - General Statement of Safety Basis Policy

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    .... Introduction This appendix describes DOE's expectations for the safety basis requirements of 10 CFR Part 830..., safety, and health into work planning and execution (48 CFR 970.5223-1, Integration of Environment... directives (48 CFR 970.5204-2, Laws, Regulations and DOE Directives), the contractor will have...

  2. 10 CFR Appendix A to Subpart B of... - General Statement of Safety Basis Policy

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    .... Introduction This appendix describes DOE's expectations for the safety basis requirements of 10 CFR Part 830..., safety, and health into work planning and execution (48 CFR 970.5223-1, Integration of Environment... directives (48 CFR 970.5204-2, Laws, Regulations and DOE Directives), the contractor will have...

  3. Special Radiation Protection Precautions in Therapeutic Nuclear Medicine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stefanoyiannis, A. P.; Gerogiannis, J.

    2010-01-01

    Therapeutic Nuclear Medicine concerns the administration of appropriate amounts of radioactivity of certain isotopes, in order to achieve internal localized irradiation of neoplasmatic cells. Due to the increased level and the specific isotope characteristics of administered radioactivity, special Radiation Protection precautions must be taken. This study addresses such issues, based on national as well as international legislation and guidelines. Application of the principle of optimization is of outmost importance and is based on individual dose planning. The decision about the release of Nuclear Medicine patients after therapy is determined on an individual basis, taking into account patients' pattern of contact with other people, their age and that of persons in the home environment, in addition to other factors. Estimation of the absorbed dose given to the treated organ is based on uptake measurements and other biokinetic data, as well as on the mass of the treated tissue or organ. Concerning pregnant women, the rule of thumb is that they should not be treated, unless the radionuclide therapy is required to save their lives. In that case, the potential absorbed dose and risk to the foetus should be estimated and conveyed to the patient. After radionuclide therapy, a female should be advised to avoid pregnancy for the period of time depending on the specific radionuclide. This is to ensure that the dose to a conceptus/foetus would probably not exceed 1 mGy (the member of the public dose limit). The radiation risk for relatives and caregivers is small and unlikely to exceed the legal dose constraints during the period of the patient's treatment. Solid waste from the patient's stay in hospital is a different matter, and is normally incinerated or held for a period until radioactive decay brings the activity to an acceptable level.

  4. 48 CFR 1252.236-70 - Special precautions for work at operating airports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...) 48 CFR 1236.570, insert the following clause: Special Precautions for Work at Operating Airports (OCT... shall not be greater than 25 feet. The Contractor shall provide adequate watch to maintain the lights...

  5. U.S. Ob-Gyn Group Supports Zika Virus Travel Precautions

    MedlinePLUS

    ... fullstory_156853.html U.S. Ob-Gyn Group Supports Zika Virus Travel Precautions Also, CDC adds 8 more countries ... at shielding pregnant women from the mosquito-borne Zika virus. The virus -- now present in many countries and ...

  6. Restructuring within an academic health center to support quality and safety: the development of the Center for Quality and Safety at the Massachusetts General Hospital.

    PubMed

    Bohmer, Richard M J; Bloom, Jonathan D; Mort, Elizabeth A; Demehin, Akinluwa A; Meyer, Gregg S

    2009-12-01

    Recent focus on the need to improve the quality and safety of health care has created new challenges for academic health centers (AHCs). Whereas previously quality was largely assumed, today it is increasingly quantifiable and requires organized systems for improvement. Traditional structures and cultures within AHCs, although well suited to the tripartite missions of teaching, research, and clinical care, are not easily adaptable to the tasks of measuring, reporting, and improving quality. Here, the authors use a case study of Massachusetts General Hospital's efforts to restructure quality and safety to illustrate the value of beginning with a focus on organizational culture, using a systematic process of engaging clinical leadership, developing an organizational framework dependent on proven business principles, leveraging focus events, and maintaining executive dedication to execution of the initiative. The case provides a generalizable example for AHCs of how applying explicit management design can foster robust organizational change with relatively modest incremental financial resources. PMID:19940570

  7. Mine safety: Occupational health -- general studies. (Latest citations from the NTIS Bibliographic database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-04-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning occupational hazards in the metals and fossil fuel mining environment. Topics include the detection, control and effects of respirable dust, safety aspects of various mining methods, gas detection, and field surveys of specific operations. Some attention is given to legislative aspects of mine safety and benefits to the disabled. (Contains 250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  8. Mine safety: Occupational health -- general studies. (Latest citations from the NTIS bibliographic database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    1996-07-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning occupational hazards in the metals and fossil fuel mining environment. Topics include the detection, control and effects of respirable dust, safety aspects of various mining methods, gas detection, and field surveys of specific operations. Some attention is given to legislative aspects of mine safety and benefits to the disabled.(Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.) (Copyright NERAC, Inc. 1995)

  9. Assessing the general safety and tolerability of vildagliptin: value of pooled analyses from a large safety database versus evaluation of individual studies

    PubMed Central

    Schweizer, Anja; Dejager, Sylvie; Foley, James E; Kothny, Wolfgang

    2011-01-01

    Aim: Analyzing safety aspects of a drug from individual studies can lead to difficult-to-interpret results. The aim of this paper is therefore to assess the general safety and tolerability, including incidences of the most common adverse events (AEs), of vildagliptin based on a large pooled database of Phase II and III clinical trials. Methods: Safety data were pooled from 38 studies of ?12 to ?104 weeks duration. AE profiles of vildagliptin (50 mg bid; N = 6116) were evaluated relative to a pool of comparators (placebo and active comparators; N = 6210). Absolute incidence rates were calculated for all AEs, serious AEs (SAEs), discontinuations due to AEs, and deaths. Results: Overall AEs, SAEs, discontinuations due to AEs, and deaths were all reported with a similar frequency in patients receiving vildagliptin (69.1%, 8.9%, 5.7%, and 0.4%, respectively) and patients receiving comparators (69.0%, 9.0%, 6.4%, and 0.4%, respectively), whereas drug-related AEs were seen with a lower frequency in vildagliptin-treated patients (15.7% vs 21.7% with comparators). The incidences of the most commonly reported specific AEs were also similar between vildagliptin and comparators, except for increased incidences of hypoglycemia, tremor, and hyperhidrosis in the comparator group related to the use of sulfonylureas. Conclusions: The present pooled analysis shows that vildagliptin was overall well tolerated in clinical trials of up to >2 years in duration. The data further emphasize the value of a pooled analysis from a large safety database versus assessing safety and tolerability from individual studies. PMID:21415917

  10. How trust in institutions and organizations builds general consumer confidence in the safety of food: a decomposition of effects.

    PubMed

    de Jonge, J; van Trijp, J C M; van der Lans, I A; Renes, R J; Frewer, L J

    2008-09-01

    This paper investigates the relationship between general consumer confidence in the safety of food and consumer trust in institutions and organizations. More specifically, using a decompositional regression analysis approach, the extent to which the strength of the relationship between trust and general confidence is dependent upon a particular food chain actor (for example, food manufacturers) is assessed. In addition, the impact of specific subdimensions of trust, such as openness, on consumer confidence are analyzed, as well as interaction effects of actors and subdimensions of trust. The results confirm previous findings, which indicate that a higher level of trust is associated with a higher level of confidence. However, the results from the current study extend on previous findings by disentangling the effects that determine the strength of this relationship into specific components associated with the different actors, the different trust dimensions, and specific combinations of actors and trust dimensions. The results show that trust in food manufacturers influences general confidence more than trust in other food chain actors, and that care is the most important trust dimension. However, the contribution of a particular trust dimension in enhancing general confidence is actor-specific, suggesting that different actors should focus on different trust dimensions when the purpose is to enhance consumer confidence in food safety. Implications for the development of communication strategies that are designed to regain or maintain consumer confidence in the safety of food are discussed. PMID:18450326

  11. General safety basis development guidance for environmental restoration decontamination and decommissioning

    SciTech Connect

    Ellingson, D.R.; Kerr, N.; Bohlander, K.; Hansen, J.; Crowley, W.

    1994-02-01

    Safety analyses have the objective of contributing to two essential ingredients of a successful operation. The first is promoting the safety of the operation through worker involvement in information development (safety basis). The second is obtaining approval to conduct the operation (authorization). Typically these ingredients are assembled under separate programs covered by separate DOE requirements. DOE authorization relies on successful development of a document containing up to 21 topics written in terms and language suited to reviewers and approvers. Safety relies on successful training and procedures that convert the technical documented information into terms and language understandable to the worker. This separation can lead to successful incorporation of one ingredient independent of the other. At best, this separation may result in a safe but unauthorized operation; at worst, the separation may result in an unsafe operation authorized to proceed. This guide is based on experiences gained by contractors who have integrated rather than separated the safety and authorization. The short duration of ER/D&D activities, the uncertainties of hazards, and the publicly expressed desire for demonstrable progress in cleanup activities add emphasis to the need to integrate rather than separate and develop new programs. Experience-based information has been useful to workers, safety analysis practitioners, and reviewers in the following ways: (1) Acquiring or developing the needed information in a useful form; (2) Managing the uncertainties during activity development and operation; (3) Identifying the subset of applicable requirements for an activity; (4) Developing the appropriate level of documentation detail for a specific activity; and (5) Increasing the usefulness and use of safety analysis (ownership).

  12. Analysis of general aviation single-pilot IFR incident data obtained from the NASA aviation safety reporting system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bergeron, H. P.

    1980-01-01

    Data obtained from the NASA Aviation Safety Reporting System (ASRS) data base were used to determine problems in general aviation single pilot IFR operations. The data examined consisted of incident reports involving flight safety in the National Aviation System. Only those incidents involving general aviation fixed wing aircraft flying under IFR in instrument meteorological conditions were analyzed. The data were cataloged into one of five major problem areas: (1) controller judgement and response problems; (2) pilot judgement and response problems; (3) air traffic control intrafacility and interfacility conflicts; (4) ATC and pilot communications problems; and (5) IFR-VFR conflicts. The significance of the related problems, and the various underlying elements associated with each are discussed. Previous ASRS reports covering several areas of analysis are reviewed.

  13. Nurses' knowledge of and compliance with universal precautions in an acute care hospital.

    PubMed

    Chan, Regina; Molassiotis, Alexander; Chan, Eunice; Chan, Virene; Ho, Becky; Lai, Chit-ying; Lam, Pauline; Shit, Frances; Yiu, Ivy

    2002-02-01

    A cross-sectional survey was conducted to investigate the nurses' knowledge of and compliance with Universal Precautions (UP) in an acute hospital in Hong Kong. A total of 450 nurses were randomly selected from a population of acute care nurses and 306 were successfully recruited in the study. The study revealed that the nurses' knowledge of UP was inadequate. In addition, UP was not only insufficiently and inappropriately applied, but also selectively practiced. Nearly all respondents knew that used needles should be disposed of in a sharps' box after injections. However, nurses had difficulty in distinguishing between deep body fluids and other general body secretions that are not considered infectious in UP. A high compliance was reported regarding hand-washing, disposal of needles and glove usage. However, the use of other protective wear such as masks and goggles was uncommon. The results also showed no significant relationships between the nurses' knowledge and compliance with UP. It is recommended that UP educational programmes need to consider attitudes in conjunction with empirical knowledge. Nurse managers and occupational health nurses should take a leadership role to ensure safe practices are used in the care of patients. PMID:11755446

  14. Specifying PA/safety design to requirements for the Columbus project and general conclusions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kasper, M.; Gericke, W.

    1991-08-01

    Product assurance (PA) and safety design to requirements are provided by the System Requirements Document (SRD) on the system level. These system level requirements contain technical requirements related to reliability, availability, maintainability, safety, PMP, and EEE parts in dedicated sections. In order to implement these requirements, the contractor needs to elaborate and refine them for the detailed design of the system. The requirements are to be apportioned further when establishing system, subsystem, and equipment level specifications. The Columbus process for establishing, refining, and tracing the requirements from ESA generated sets to industry (prime and lower tier contractors) generated design control requirements is described.

  15. The Elementary Science Safety Manual. Revised.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New Jersey State Dept. of Education, Trenton. Div. of General Academic Education.

    Based on the principle that safety education should be a vital component in science instruction, this manual was designed to assist elementary teachers in doing more experiments and activities more confidently by making them aware of dangers and precautions. It also aims to make students aware that safety is a lifetime process and responsibility.

  16. 10 CFR Appendix A to Subpart B of... - General Statement of Safety Basis Policy

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ..., the public and the environment from adverse consequences. These analyses and hazard controls... respects, as required by 10 CFR 820.11. This is consistent with the DOE enforcement provisions and policy... framework for specifying the methodology and schedule for developing a documented safety analysis. Table...

  17. 29 CFR 1915.503 - Precautions for hot work.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS FOR SHIPYARD EMPLOYMENT Fire Protection in Shipyard... substances is covered in 29 CFR 1915.1000 through 1915.1450, subpart Z. (2) Fuel gas and oxygen supply lines... subassembly areas that are free of fire hazards. (2) Non-designated Areas. (i) Before authorizing hot work...

  18. Awareness and practices of standard precautions for infection control among nurses in a tertiary care hospital.

    PubMed

    Acharya, Anita S; Khandekar, Jyoti; Sharma, Amit; Tilak, H R; Kataria, Asha

    2013-01-01

    Nursing personnel are at a greater risk of acquiring and transmitting blood-borne pathogens. Knowledge about standard precautions and practicing them is very critical in preventing blood borne transmitted infections. This cross sectional hospital-based study sought to assess the level of knowledge and practices regarding standard precautions for infection control amongst nurses and to determine their source of information. In a tertiary care hospital in Delhi, 293 nurses were administered a semi structured questionnaire in December 2011. Questions were asked on knowledge and practices about standard precautions, transmission of blood-borne pathogens, use of gloves, hand washing. Data was entered and analysed in SPSS version 12. The study revealed that the nurses had poor knowledge about standard precautions (97.9%). 189 (64.5%) nurses had inadequate knowledge about the transmission of blood-borne pathogens; more than three-fourth (77.5%) were aware about hepatitis-B vaccine; majority (72.7%) practiced washing soiled hands immediately; and more than half (58.7%) used Gowns and Gloves very often. Refresher training (34.5%) was the major source of information. This study has highlighted major gaps between the knowledge and practices of nurses regarding standard precautions. PMID:24974532

  19. Poverty, human development, environmental and health risks: the role of precaution and cautionary policies.

    PubMed

    Petrini, Carlo

    2007-01-01

    First of all a definition is given of "poverty" and "precaution". A short, by no means comprehensive, presentation of some especially relevant recent publications on both topics is included, with a view to offering also readers who are not familiar with these issues a broad overview of the specialised literature available. This is followed by a description of the solidarity concept, following various philosophical, cultural and religious trends, analysing their relationship with precaution. An attempt is then made to show how solidarity and precaution could help counteract poverty, the risks for the environment and health, with the ensuing social and health damage. Reasons are outlined which support the adoption of the precaution principle in economics, as well as some arguments which could be put forward to oppose these views. The final remarks are a reply to such criticisms with a view to showing how precaution could be an effective economic tool, as well as a way to tackle those health-related and environmental problems that are also associated with poverty. PMID:18209266

  20. Analysis of general aviation single-pilot IFR incident data obtained from the NASA Aviation Safety Reporting System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bergeron, H. P.

    1983-01-01

    An analysis of incident data obtained from the NASA Aviation Safety Reporting System (ASRS) has been made to determine the problem areas in general aviation single-pilot IFR (SPIFR) operations. The Aviation Safety Reporting System data base is a compilation of voluntary reports of incidents from any person who has observed or been involved in an occurrence which was believed to have posed a threat to flight safety. This paper examines only those reported incidents specifically related to general aviation single-pilot IFR operations. The frequency of occurrence of factors related to the incidents was the criterion used to define significant problem areas and, hence, to suggest where research is needed. The data was cataloged into one of five major problem areas: (1) controller judgment and response problems, (2) pilot judgment and response problems, (3) air traffic control (ATC) intrafacility and interfacility conflicts, (4) ATC and pilot communication problems, and (5) IFR-VFR conflicts. In addition, several points common to all or most of the problems were observed and reported. These included human error, communications, procedures and rules, and work load.

  1. Mars mission safety

    SciTech Connect

    Buden, D. )

    1989-06-01

    Precautions that need to be taken to assure safety on a manned Mars mission with nuclear thermal propulsion are briefly considered. What has been learned from the 1955 SNAP-10A operation of a nuclear reactor in space and from the Rover/NERVA project is reviewed. The ways that radiation hazards can be dealt with at various stages of a Mars mission are examined.

  2. Assessing the role of undetected colonization and isolation precautions in reducing Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus transmission in intensive care units

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Screening and isolation are central components of hospital methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) control policies. Their prevention of patient-to-patient spread depends on minimizing undetected and unisolated MRSA-positive patient days. Estimating these MRSA-positive patient days and the reduction in transmission due to isolation presents a major methodological challenge, but is essential for assessing both the value of existing control policies and the potential benefit of new rapid MRSA detection technologies. Recent methodological developments have made it possible to estimate these quantities using routine surveillance data. Methods Colonization data from admission and weekly nares cultures were collected from eight single-bed adult intensive care units (ICUs) over 17 months. Detected MRSA-positive patients were isolated using single rooms and barrier precautions. Data were analyzed using stochastic transmission models and model fitting was performed within a Bayesian framework using a Markov chain Monte Carlo algorithm, imputing unobserved MRSA carriage events. Results Models estimated the mean percent of colonized-patient-days attributed to undetected carriers as 14.1% (95% CI (11.7, 16.5)) averaged across ICUs. The percent of colonized-patient-days attributed to patients awaiting results averaged 7.8% (6.2, 9.2). Overall, the ratio of estimated transmission rates from unisolated MRSA-positive patients and those under barrier precautions was 1.34 (0.45, 3.97), but varied widely across ICUs. Conclusions Screening consistently detected >80% of colonized-patient-days. Estimates of the effectiveness of barrier precautions showed considerable uncertainty, but in all units except burns/general surgery and one cardiac surgery ICU, the best estimates were consistent with reductions in transmission associated with barrier precautions. PMID:20158891

  3. Safety and Sex Practices among Nebraska Adolescents. Technical Report 24.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newman, Ian M.; Perry-Hunnicutt, Christina

    This report describes a range of adolescent behaviors related to their safety and the safety of others. The behaviors reported here range from ordinary safety precautions such as only swimming in supervised areas and wearing helmets when riding a motorcycle to less talked about behaviors such as using condoms during sexual intercourse and carrying

  4. Communication interventions to improve adherence to infection control precautions: a randomised crossover trial

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Ineffective communication of infection control requirements during transitions of care is a potential cause of non-compliance with infection control precautions by healthcare personnel. In this study, interventions to enhance communication during inpatient transfers between wards and radiology were implemented, in the attempt to improve adherence to precautions during transfers. Methods Two interventions were implemented, comprising (i) a pre-transfer checklist used by radiology porters to confirm a patient’s infectious status; (ii) a coloured cue to highlight written infectious status information in the transfer form. The effectiveness of the interventions in promoting adherence to standard precautions by radiology porters when transporting infectious patients was evaluated using a randomised crossover trial at a teaching hospital in Australia. Results 300 transfers were observed over a period of 4 months. Compliance with infection control precautions in the intervention groups was significantly improved relative to the control group (p < 0.01). Adherence rate in the control group was 38%. Applying the coloured cue resulted in a compliance rate of 73%. The pre-transfer checklist intervention achieved a comparable compliance rate of 71%. When both interventions were applied, a compliance rate of 74% was attained. Acceptability of the coloured cue was high, but adherence to the checklist was low (40%). Conclusions Simple measures to enhance communication through the provision of a checklist and the use a coloured cue brought about significant improvement in compliance with infection control precautions by transport personnel during inpatient transfers. The study underscores the importance of effective communication in ensuring compliance with infection control precautions during transitions of care. PMID:23388051

  5. 21 CFR 601.32 - General factors relevant to safety and effectiveness.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... SERVICES (CONTINUED) BIOLOGICS LICENSING Diagnostic Radiopharmaceuticals 601.32 General factors relevant... radiopharmaceutical includes consideration of the following: (a) The proposed use of the diagnostic radiopharmaceutical in the practice of medicine; (b) The pharmacological and toxicological activity of the...

  6. 21 CFR 601.32 - General factors relevant to safety and effectiveness.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... SERVICES (CONTINUED) BIOLOGICS LICENSING Diagnostic Radiopharmaceuticals 601.32 General factors relevant... radiopharmaceutical includes consideration of the following: (a) The proposed use of the diagnostic radiopharmaceutical in the practice of medicine; (b) The pharmacological and toxicological activity of the...

  7. 21 CFR 601.32 - General factors relevant to safety and effectiveness.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... SERVICES (CONTINUED) BIOLOGICS LICENSING Diagnostic Radiopharmaceuticals 601.32 General factors relevant... radiopharmaceutical includes consideration of the following: (a) The proposed use of the diagnostic radiopharmaceutical in the practice of medicine; (b) The pharmacological and toxicological activity of the...

  8. 21 CFR 601.32 - General factors relevant to safety and effectiveness.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... SERVICES (CONTINUED) BIOLOGICS LICENSING Diagnostic Radiopharmaceuticals 601.32 General factors relevant... radiopharmaceutical includes consideration of the following: (a) The proposed use of the diagnostic radiopharmaceutical in the practice of medicine; (b) The pharmacological and toxicological activity of the...

  9. 21 CFR 601.32 - General factors relevant to safety and effectiveness.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... SERVICES (CONTINUED) BIOLOGICS LICENSING Diagnostic Radiopharmaceuticals 601.32 General factors relevant... radiopharmaceutical includes consideration of the following: (a) The proposed use of the diagnostic radiopharmaceutical in the practice of medicine; (b) The pharmacological and toxicological activity of the...

  10. A cross-sectional mixed methods study protocol to generate learning from patient safety incidents reported from general practice

    PubMed Central

    Carson-Stevens, Andrew; Hibbert, Peter; Avery, Anthony; Butlin, Amy; Carter, Ben; Cooper, Alison; Evans, Huw Prosser; Gibson, Russell; Luff, Donna; Makeham, Meredith; McEnhill, Paul; Panesar, Sukhmeet S; Parry, Gareth; Rees, Philippa; Shiels, Emma; Sheikh, Aziz; Ward, Hope Olivia; Williams, Huw; Wood, Fiona; Donaldson, Liam; Edwards, Adrian

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Incident reports contain descriptions of errors and harms that occurred during clinical care delivery. Few observational studies have characterised incidents from general practice, and none of these have been from the England and Wales National Reporting and Learning System. This study aims to describe incidents reported from a general practice care setting. Methods and analysis A general practice patient safety incident classification will be developed to characterise patient safety incidents. A weighted-random sample of 12 500 incidents describing no harm, low harm and moderate harm of patients, and all incidents describing severe harm and death of patients will be classified. Insights from exploratory descriptive statistics and thematic analysis will be combined to identify priority areas for future interventions. Ethics and dissemination The need for ethical approval was waivered by the Aneurin Bevan University Health Board research risk review committee given the anonymised nature of data (ABHB R&D Ref number: SA/410/13). The authors will submit the results of the study to relevant journals and undertake national and international oral presentations to researchers, clinicians and policymakers. PMID:26628526

  11. Debate on MERS-CoV respiratory precautions: surgical mask or N95 respirators?

    PubMed Central

    Chung, Jasmine Shimin; Ling, Moi Lin; Seto, Wing Hong; Ang, Brenda Sze Peng; Tambyah, Paul Anantharajah

    2014-01-01

    Since the emergence of Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) in mid-2012, there has been controversy over the respiratory precaution recommendations in different guidelines from various international bodies. Our understanding of MERS-CoV is still evolving. Current recommendations on infection control practices are heavily influenced by the lessons learnt from severe acute respiratory syndrome. A debate on respiratory precautions for MERS-CoV was organised by Infection Control Association (Singapore) and the Society of Infectious Disease (Singapore). We herein discuss and present the evidence for surgical masks for the protection of healthcare workers from MERS-CoV. PMID:25017402

  12. 48 CFR 252.223-7002 - Safety precautions for ammunition and explosives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... propellants and explosives, pyrotechnics, incendiaries and smokes in the following forms: (i) Bulk, (ii... components containing no explosives, propellants, or pyrotechnics; (ii) Flammable liquids; (iii) Acids;...

  13. 48 CFR 252.223-7002 - Safety precautions for ammunition and explosives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... propellants and explosives, pyrotechnics, incendiaries and smokes in the following forms: (i) Bulk, (ii... components containing no explosives, propellants, or pyrotechnics; (ii) Flammable liquids; (iii) Acids;...

  14. 48 CFR 252.223-7002 - Safety precautions for ammunition and explosives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... propellants and explosives, pyrotechnics, incendiaries and smokes in the following forms: (i) Bulk, (ii... components containing no explosives, propellants, or pyrotechnics; (ii) Flammable liquids; (iii) Acids;...

  15. 48 CFR 252.223-7002 - Safety precautions for ammunition and explosives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... propellants and explosives, pyrotechnics, incendiaries and smokes in the following forms: (i) Bulk, (ii... components containing no explosives, propellants, or pyrotechnics; (ii) Flammable liquids; (iii) Acids;...

  16. General-purpose heat source project and space nuclear safety and fuels program. Progress reportt, January 1980

    SciTech Connect

    Maraman, W.J.

    1980-04-01

    This formal monthly report covers the studies related to the use of /sup 238/PuO/sub 2/ in radioisotopic power systems carried out for the Advanced Nuclear Systems and Projects Division of the Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory. The two programs involved are the general-purpose heat source development and space nuclear safety and fuels. Most of the studies discussed here are of a continuing nature. Results and conclusions described may change as the work continues. Published reference to the results cited in this report should not be made without the explicit permission of the person in charge of the work.

  17. Association between overuse of mobile phones on quality of sleep and general health among occupational health and safety students.

    PubMed

    Eyvazlou, Meysam; Zarei, Esmaeil; Rahimi, Azin; Abazari, Malek

    2016-01-01

    Concerns about health problems due to the increasing use of mobile phones are growing. Excessive use of mobile phones can affect the quality of sleep as one of the important issues in the health literature and general health of people. Therefore, this study investigated the relationship between the excessive use of mobile phones and general health and quality of sleep on 450 Occupational Health and Safety (OH&S) students in five universities of medical sciences in the North East of Iran in 2014. To achieve this objective, special questionnaires that included Cell Phone Overuse Scale, Pittsburgh's Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) and General Health Questionnaire (GHQ) were used, respectively. In addition to descriptive statistical methods, independent t-test, Pearson correlation, analysis of variance (ANOVA) and multiple regression tests were performed. The results revealed that half of the students had a poor level of sleep quality and most of them were considered unhealthy. The Pearson correlation co-efficient indicated a significant association between the excessive use of mobile phones and the total score of general health and the quality of sleep. In addition, the results of the multiple regression showed that the excessive use of mobile phones has a significant relationship between each of the four subscales of general health and the quality of sleep. Furthermore, the results of the multivariate regression indicated that the quality of sleep has a simultaneous effect on each of the four scales of the general health. Overall, a simultaneous study of the effects of the mobile phones on the quality of sleep and the general health could be considered as a trigger to employ some intervention programs to improve their general health status, quality of sleep and consequently educational performance. PMID:26942630

  18. Duty Hours, Quality of Care, and Patient Safety: General Surgery Resident Perceptions

    PubMed Central

    Borman, Karen R; Jones, Andrew T; Shea, Judy A

    2012-01-01

    Background The balance between patient treatment risks and training residents to proficiency is confounded by duty hours limits. Stricter limits have been recommended to enhance quality and safety, although supporting data are scarce. Study Design A previously piloted survey was delivered with the 2010 American Board of Surgery In-Training Exam (ABSITE). First postgraduate year (PGY1) and PGY2 trainees took the Junior exam (IJE); PGY3 and above took the Senior exam (ISE). Residency type, size and location were linked to examinees using program codes. Five survey items queried all residents about care quality impact of further hours limits; online test residents answered 7 more items probing medical error sources. Data were analyzed using factorial ANOVA for association with gender, PGY level, and program demographics. Results 6161 Categorical Surgery residents (CS) took the ABSITE: 60% men, 60% ISE, 2/3 in University programs. Paper (n=5079) and online (n=1082) examinees were similar. Item response rates ranged from 91-98%. Few (<25%) perceived that stricter hours limits would improve care quality to a large or maximal extent. IJE plus West and Northeast residents significantly more often favored fewer hours. Factors perceived as contributing to medical errors usually or always by ? 15% of residents were incomplete handoffs, inexperience or lack of knowledge, insufficient ancillary personnel, and excessive workload. Conclusions Most CS do not perceive that reduced duty hours will noticeably improve quality of care. Resident perceptions of causes of medical errors suggest that system changes are more likely to enhance patient safety than further hours limits. PMID:22632914

  19. 78 FR 58470 - General Technical, Organizational, and Conforming Amendments to the Federal Motor Carrier Safety...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-24

    ... (FR) on October 1, 2001 (66 FR 49867). The last sentence of paragraph (d)(1) is revised by... appendix on March 19, 2002 (67 FR 12715). In Section I titled, ``General,'' paragraph (c)(6), the reference..., which were incorrect in the original publication of the rule (66 FR 43103, August 17, 2001),...

  20. 21 CFR 315.3 - General factors relevant to safety and effectiveness.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... SERVICES (CONTINUED) DRUGS FOR HUMAN USE DIAGNOSTIC RADIOPHARMACEUTICALS 315.3 General factors relevant... radiopharmaceutical includes consideration of the following: (a) The proposed use of the diagnostic radiopharmaceutical in the practice of medicine, (b) The pharmacological and toxicological activity of the...

  1. 21 CFR 315.3 - General factors relevant to safety and effectiveness.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... SERVICES (CONTINUED) DRUGS FOR HUMAN USE DIAGNOSTIC RADIOPHARMACEUTICALS 315.3 General factors relevant... radiopharmaceutical includes consideration of the following: (a) The proposed use of the diagnostic radiopharmaceutical in the practice of medicine, (b) The pharmacological and toxicological activity of the...

  2. 21 CFR 315.3 - General factors relevant to safety and effectiveness.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... SERVICES (CONTINUED) DRUGS FOR HUMAN USE DIAGNOSTIC RADIOPHARMACEUTICALS 315.3 General factors relevant... radiopharmaceutical includes consideration of the following: (a) The proposed use of the diagnostic radiopharmaceutical in the practice of medicine, (b) The pharmacological and toxicological activity of the...

  3. 21 CFR 315.3 - General factors relevant to safety and effectiveness.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... SERVICES (CONTINUED) DRUGS FOR HUMAN USE DIAGNOSTIC RADIOPHARMACEUTICALS 315.3 General factors relevant... radiopharmaceutical includes consideration of the following: (a) The proposed use of the diagnostic radiopharmaceutical in the practice of medicine, (b) The pharmacological and toxicological activity of the...

  4. 21 CFR 315.3 - General factors relevant to safety and effectiveness.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... SERVICES (CONTINUED) DRUGS FOR HUMAN USE DIAGNOSTIC RADIOPHARMACEUTICALS 315.3 General factors relevant... radiopharmaceutical includes consideration of the following: (a) The proposed use of the diagnostic radiopharmaceutical in the practice of medicine, (b) The pharmacological and toxicological activity of the...

  5. Universal Precautions: An Instructional Module for Nurses and Other Allied Health Personnel.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Marilee A.; Moseley, James L.

    This self-instructional module is designed to inform health care providers about the concept of universal precautions, which has been recommended by the U.S. Public Health Department as a way of minimizing the risk of occupationally acquired human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), infections, and the potential development of acquired immunodeficiency

  6. Improving Anesthesia Nurse Compliance with Universal Precautions Using Group Goals and Public Feedback

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stephens, Sara D.; Ludwig, Timothy D.

    2005-01-01

    Universal Precautions (UPs), procedures to reduce the likelihood of accidental exposure to blood-borne pathogens, were observed among seven Certified Nurse Anesthetists and one anesthesia technician during intravenous line procedures. After six weeks of baseline measures, nurses participated in training, goal setting, and feedback targeting hand…

  7. 48 CFR 3036.570 - Special precautions for work at operating airports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... work at operating airports. Where any acquisition will require work at an operating airport, insert the clause at (HSAR) 48 CFR 3052.236-70, Special Precautions for Work at Operating Airports, in solicitations... work at operating airports. 3036.570 Section 3036.570 Federal Acquisition Regulations System...

  8. Improving Anesthesia Nurse Compliance with Universal Precautions Using Group Goals and Public Feedback

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stephens, Sara D.; Ludwig, Timothy D.

    2005-01-01

    Universal Precautions (UPs), procedures to reduce the likelihood of accidental exposure to blood-borne pathogens, were observed among seven Certified Nurse Anesthetists and one anesthesia technician during intravenous line procedures. After six weeks of baseline measures, nurses participated in training, goal setting, and feedback targeting hand

  9. 36 CFR 9.43 - Precautions necessary in areas where high pressures are likely to exist.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... areas where high pressures are likely to exist. 9.43 Section 9.43 Parks, Forests, and Public Property... Precautions necessary in areas where high pressures are likely to exist. When drilling in wildcat territory, or in any field where high pressures are likely to exist, the operator shall take all...

  10. 36 CFR 9.43 - Precautions necessary in areas where high pressures are likely to exist.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... areas where high pressures are likely to exist. 9.43 Section 9.43 Parks, Forests, and Public Property... Precautions necessary in areas where high pressures are likely to exist. When drilling in wildcat territory, or in any field where high pressures are likely to exist, the operator shall take all...

  11. 36 CFR 9.43 - Precautions necessary in areas where high pressures are likely to exist.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... areas where high pressures are likely to exist. 9.43 Section 9.43 Parks, Forests, and Public Property... Precautions necessary in areas where high pressures are likely to exist. When drilling in wildcat territory, or in any field where high pressures are likely to exist, the operator shall take all...

  12. 36 CFR 9.43 - Precautions necessary in areas where high pressures are likely to exist.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... areas where high pressures are likely to exist. 9.43 Section 9.43 Parks, Forests, and Public Property... Precautions necessary in areas where high pressures are likely to exist. When drilling in wildcat territory, or in any field where high pressures are likely to exist, the operator shall take all...

  13. 36 CFR 9.43 - Precautions necessary in areas where high pressures are likely to exist.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... areas where high pressures are likely to exist. 9.43 Section 9.43 Parks, Forests, and Public Property... Precautions necessary in areas where high pressures are likely to exist. When drilling in wildcat territory, or in any field where high pressures are likely to exist, the operator shall take all...

  14. 21 CFR 111.365 - What precautions must you take to prevent contamination?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false What precautions must you take to prevent contamination? 111.365 Section 111.365 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CURRENT GOOD MANUFACTURING PRACTICE IN MANUFACTURING, PACKAGING, LABELING, OR...

  15. Development of a guide to applying precaution in local public health

    PubMed Central

    Hau, Monica; Cole, Donald; Vanderlinden, Loren; MacFarlane, Ronald; Mee, Carol; Archbold, Josephine; Campbell, Monica

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: The precautionary principle (PP) urges actions to prevent harm even in the face of scientific uncertainty. Members of Toronto Public Health (TPH) sought guidance on applying precaution. Methods: We searched five bibliographic databases (yield 60 articles from 1996 to 2009 and 8 from 2009 to 2011) and Google (yield 11 gray literature sources) for material relevant to local public health. From these sources, we extracted questions until saturation was reached (n = 55). We applied these questions retrospectively to eight case studies where TPH felt precaution was applied. We ranked questions for their importance in applying precaution. Results: Our final guide included 35 questions in five domains: context, assessment, alternative interventions, implementation, and monitoring and evaluation. Importance rankings varied across cases, but the role of stakeholders in driving precautionary action was consistent. Monitoring and evaluation components could have been strengthened across cases. Conclusion: The TPH guide can assist municipal environmental health practitioners in applying precaution in a more transparent manner. PMID:24999853

  16. 48 CFR 1252.236-70 - Special precautions for work at operating airports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...) 48 CFR 1236.570, insert the following clause: Special Precautions for Work at Operating Airports (OCT... operating on the apron, taxiway, runway, and intermediate areas after darkness hours shall have clearance.... Vehicles must be equipped with head and tail lights during the hours of darkness. (End of clause)...

  17. 48 CFR 1252.236-70 - Special precautions for work at operating airports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...) 48 CFR 1236.570, insert the following clause: Special Precautions for Work at Operating Airports (OCT... operating on the apron, taxiway, runway, and intermediate areas after darkness hours shall have clearance.... Vehicles must be equipped with head and tail lights during the hours of darkness. (End of clause)...

  18. 48 CFR 1252.236-70 - Special precautions for work at operating airports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...) 48 CFR 1236.570, insert the following clause: Special Precautions for Work at Operating Airports (OCT... operating on the apron, taxiway, runway, and intermediate areas after darkness hours shall have clearance.... Vehicles must be equipped with head and tail lights during the hours of darkness. (End of clause)...

  19. Safety analysis of thorium-based fuels in the General Electric Standard BWR

    SciTech Connect

    Colby, M.J.; Townsend, D.B.; Kunz, C.L.

    1980-06-01

    A denatured (U-233/Th)O/sub 2/ fuel assembly has been designed which is energy equivalent to and hardware interchangeable with a modern boiling water reactor (BWR) reference reload assembly. Relative to the reference UO/sub 2/ fuel, the thorium fuel design shows better performance during normal and transient reactor operation for the BWR/6 product line and will meet or exceed current safety and licensing criteria. Power distributions are flattened and thermal operating margins are increased by reduced steam void reactivity coefficients caused by U-233. However, a (U-233/Th)O/sub 2/-fueled BWR will likely have reduced operating flexibility. A (U-235/Th)O/sub 2/-fueled BWR should perform similar to a UO/sub 2/-fueled BWR under all operating conditions. A (Pu/Th)O/sub 2/-fueled BWR may have reduced thermal margins and similar accident response and be less stable than a UO/sub 2/-fueled BWR. The assessment is based on comparisions of point model and infinite lattice predictions of various nuclear reactivity parameters, including void reactivity coefficients, Doppler reactivity coefficients, and control blade worths.

  20. General-Purpose Heat Source Development: safety test program. Postimpact evaluation, Design Iteration Test 1

    SciTech Connect

    Schonfeld, F.W.

    1984-04-01

    The General-Purpose Heat Source (GPHS) provides power for space missions by transmitting the heat of /sup 238/PuO/sub 2/ decay to thermoelectric elements. Because of the inevitable return of certain missions, the heat source must be designed and constructed to survive re-entry and Earth impact. The Design Iteration Test (DIT) series is part of an ongoing impact test program. The first DIT used a full GPHS module containing two graphite impact shells (GISs); each GIS contained two iridium (0.3 wt%) capsules filled with /sup 238/PuO/sub 2/. It was impacted at 57 m/s and 930/sup 0/C. All four fuel capsules survived and none was breached. However, serious cracking of the iridium-alloy capsules was found; some cracks extended through approx. 70% of the wall thickness. Postimpact analyses of the unit are described with emphasis on weld structure and performance. 51 figures.

  1. Clinical efficacy and safety of fluoxetine in generalized anxiety disorder in Chinese patients

    PubMed Central

    Zou, Chuan; Ding, Xiang; Flaherty, Joseph H; Dong, Birong

    2013-01-01

    Background Generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) is a prevalent, disabling disease and is highly comorbid with other psychiatric disorders both in Western countries and the People’s Republic of China. Fluoxetine, a selective inhibitor of serotonin reuptake (SSRI), is widely utilized in the management of GAD in clinical practice despite the lack of strong evidence. This article reviews fluoxetine trials to investigate fluoxetine’s efficacy and tolerability in Chinese patients with GAD. Methods A literature review was conducted using the following databases up to and including April 2013: Chinese BioMedical Literature, China National Knowledge Infrastructure, EMBASE, MEDLINE, and PsycINFO. We selected clinical studies that utilized fluoxetine for GAD in which all participants were Chinese. Results Fifteen open-label, non-placebo trials were identified and analyzed; eleven anxiolytics were compared with fluoxetine separately. Short-term efficacy of fluoxetine had been established in these open-label, head-to-head controlled trials. Fluoxetine had rapid onset of action (approximately 1–2 weeks) and seemed to be effective in maintenance treatment. Fluoxetine was generally well-tolerated with the most common side effect of dry month and nausea. Compared to other anxiolytic agents, fluoxetine was equivalent with all of the comparative anxiolytics in terms of efficacy except mirtazapine which showed conflicting results with fluoxetine in two studies. In terms of side effects, fluoxetine was better tolerated than diazepam, doxepine, and amitriptyline, less tolerated than escitalopram, and had similar tolerability with duloxetine as well as alprazolam. Conclusion Given the high risk of bias of the included studies, the overall small sample size of the studies, the lack of placebo control groups as well as the lack of certain clinically meaningful outcomes, it is not possible to recommend fluoxetine as a reliable first-line treatment in Chinese patients with GAD. Furthermore, no definitive implications for clinical practice in choosing anxiolytics can be drawn from this review. Trials with larger sample sizes, better quality, longer duration, and more clinically meaningful outcomes are needed in future research. PMID:24204151

  2. Lithium/sulfur dioxide cell and battery safety

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Halpert, G.; Anderson, A.

    1982-01-01

    The new high-energy lithium/sulfur dioxide primary electrochemical cell, having a number of advantages, has received considerable attention as a power source in the past few years. With greater experience and improved design by the manufacturers, this system can be used in a safe manner provided the guidelines for use and safety precautions described herein are followed. In addition to a description of cell design and appropriate definitions, there is a safety precautions checklist provided to guide the user. Specific safety procedures for marking, handling, transportation, and disposal are also given, as is a suggested series of tests, to assure manufacturer conformance to requirements.

  3. General-Purpose Heat Source Development: safety test program. Postimpact evaluation, Design Iteration Test 4

    SciTech Connect

    George, T.G.; Schonfeld, F.W.

    1984-12-01

    The General-Purpose Heat Source (GPHS) provides power for space missions by transmitting the heat of /sup 238/Pu decay to thermoelectric elements. Because of the inevitable return of certain aborted missions, the heat source must be designed and constructed to survive both re-entry and Earth impact. The Design Iteration Test (DIT) series is part of an ongoing test program. The fourth test (DIT-4) was designed to evaluate the effect on impact behavior of changing the procedure used at the Mound Facility (MF) to remove surface defects from drawn cups. The change involved switching from a manual abrasion technique to a motorized, rubber-bonded abrasive wheel. In DIT-4 a partial GPHS module containing two fueled clads (one cleaned manually, and one cleaned with an abrasive wheel) was impacted at a velocity of 58 m/s and a temperature of 930/sup 0/C. Both capsules were severely deformed by the impact and contained large internal cracks. Although the manually cleaned capsule breached, the breaching crack was only 2 ..mu..m wide and released negligible amounts of fuel. There did not appear to be any correlation between cleaning method and capsule performance. Postimpact analyses of the DIT-4 test components are described with emphasis on microstructure and impact response.

  4. Rewarding safety belt usage at an industrial setting: Tests of treatment generality and response maintenance

    PubMed Central

    Geller, E. Scott

    1983-01-01

    An incentive program to motivate seat belt use was implemented at a large munitions plant. Seat belt usage was assessed daily at an entrance/exit gate of the industrial complex when employees arrived for work in the morning and departed in the afternoon. During treatment incentive fliers, which prompted seat belt usage and gave belt wearers opportunities to win prizes, were distributed only in the afternoon. Seat belt wearing increased from baseline means of 20.4% and 17.3% during the morning and afternoon, respectively, to averages of 55.5% during afternoon departures and 31.1% during morning arrivals. During follow-up, mean belt use dropped almost to baseline levels. Categorizing vehicles according to driver sex and license plate number enabled a study of belt wearing practices of individuals, and revealed that the incentive program influenced some drivers to wear their seat belts during morning arrival when incentives were not distributed (i.e., treatment generalization) and during a follow-up period after the incentives were withdrawn (i.e., response maintenance). PMID:16795663

  5. General-purpose heat source development: Safety test program. Postimpact evaluation, design iteration test 2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schonfeld, F. W.; George, T. G.

    1984-06-01

    The General-Purpose Heat Source (GPHS) provides power for space missions by transmitting the heat of (238)PuO2 decay to thermoelectric elements. Because of the inevitable return of certain missions, the heat source must be designed and constructed to survive both re-entry and Earth impact. The Design Iteration Test (DIT) series is part of an ongoing test program. In the first Design Iteration Test (DIT-1), a full GPHS module containing four iridium-alloy capsules loaded with (238)PuO2 was impacted at 57 m/s and 930(0)C. All four capsules survived and none was breached. The capsules used in DIT-1 were loaded and welded at Los Alamos. The second Design Iteration Test (DIT-2) also used a full GPHS module and was impacted at 58 m/s and 930(0)C. The four iridium-alloy capsules used in this test were loaded and welded at the Savannah River Plant (SRP). Postimpact examination revealed that two capsules had survived and two capsles had breached; a small quantity (approx. = 50 (MU)g) of (238)PuO2 was released from the breached capsules. Internal cracking similar to that observed in the DIT-1 capsules was evident in all four of the DIT-2 capsules. Postimpact analyses of the units are described with emphasis on weld structure and performance.

  6. Guide for preparing annual reports on radiation-safety testing of electronic products (general)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1987-10-01

    For manufacturers of electronic products other than those for which a specific guide has been issued, the guide replaces the Guide for the Filing of Annual Reports (21 CFR Subchapter J, Section 1002.11), HHS Publication FDA 82-8127. The electronic product (general) annual reporting guide is applicable to the following products: products intended to produce x radiation (accelerators, analytical devices, therapy x-ray machines); microwave diathermy machines; cold-cathode discharge tubes; and vacuum switches and tubes operating at or above 15,000 volts. To carry out its responsibilities under Public Law 90-602, the Food and Drug Administration's Center for Devices and Radiological Health (CDRH) has issued a series of regulations contained in Title 21 of the Code of Federal Regulations (CFR). Part 1002 of 21 CFR deals with records and reports. Section 1002.61 categorizes electronic products into Groups A through C. Section 1002.30 requires manufacturers of products in Groups B and C to establish and maintain certain records, while Section 1002.11 requires such manufacturers to submit an Annual Report summarizing the contents of the required records. Section 1002.7 requires that reports conform to reporting guides issued by CDRH unless an acceptable justification for an alternate format is provided.

  7. General-Purpose Heat Source Development: Safety Test Program. Postimpact evaluation, Design Iteration Test 3

    SciTech Connect

    Schonfeld, F.W.; George, T.G.

    1984-07-01

    The General-Purpose Heat Source(GPHS) provides power for space missions by transmitting the heat of /sup 238/PuO/sub 2/ decay to thermoelectric elements. Because of the inevitable return of certain aborted missions, the heat source must be designed and constructed to survive both re-entry and Earth impact. The Design Iteration Test (DIT) series is part of an ongoing test program. In the third test (DIT-3), a full GPHS module was impacted at 58 m/s and 930/sup 0/C. The module impacted the target at an angle of 30/sup 0/ to the pole of the large faces. The four capsules used in DIT-3 survived impact with minimal deformation; no internal cracks other than in the regions indicated by Savannah River Plant (SRP) preimpact nondestructive testing were observed in any of the capsules. The 30/sup 0/ impact orientation used in DIT-3 was considerably less severe than the flat-on impact utilized in DIT-1 and DIT-2. The four capsules used in DIT-1 survived, while two of the capsules used in DIT-2 breached; a small quantity (approx. = 50 ..mu..g) of /sup 238/PuO/sub 2/ was released from the capsules breached in the DIT-2 impact. All of the capsules used in DIT-1 and DIT-2 were severely deformed and contained large internal cracks. Postimpact analyses of the DIT-3 test components are described, with emphasis on weld structure and the behavior of defects identified by SRP nondestructive testing.

  8. Fire Safety. Managing School Facilities, Guide 6.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Department for Education and Employment, London (England). Architects and Building Branch.

    This booklet discusses how United Kingdom schools can manage fire safety and minimize the risk of fire. The guide examines what legislation school buildings must comply with and covers the major risks. It also describes training and evacuation procedures and provides guidance on fire precautions, alarm systems, fire fighting equipment, and escape

  9. Spatio-temporal elements of articulation work in the achievement of repeat prescribing safety in UK general practice.

    PubMed

    Grant, Suzanne; Mesman, Jessica; Guthrie, Bruce

    2016-02-01

    Prescribing is the most common healthcare intervention, and is both beneficial and risky. An important source of risk in UK general practice is the management of 'repeat prescriptions', which are typically requested from and issued by non-clinically trained reception staff with only intermittent reauthorisation by a clinical prescriber. This paper ethnographically examines the formal and informal work employed by GPs and receptionists to safely conduct repeat prescribing work in primary care using Strauss's (1985, 1988, 1993) concept of 'articulation work' across eight UK general practices. The analytical lens of articulation work provided an investigative framing to contextually map the informal, invisible resources of resilience and strength employed by practice team members in the achievement of repeat prescribing safety, where risk and vulnerability were continually relocated across space and time. In particular, the paper makes visible the micro-level competencies and collaborative practices that were routinely employed by both GPs and receptionists across different socio-cultural contexts, with informal, cross-hierarchical communication usually considered more effective than the formal structures of communication that existed (e.g. protocols). While GPs held formal prescribing authority, this paper also examines the key role of receptionists in both the initiation and safe coordination of the repeat prescribing routine. PMID:26283462

  10. Laboratory test ordering and results management systems: a qualitative study of safety risks identified by administrators in general practice

    PubMed Central

    Bowie, Paul; Halley, Lyn; McKay, John

    2014-01-01

    Objective To explore experiences and perceptions of frontline administrators involved in the systems-based management of laboratory test ordering and results handling in general medical practice. Design Qualitative using focus group interviews. Setting West of Scotland general medical practices in three National Health Service (NHS) territorial board areas. Participants Convenience samples of administrators (receptionists, healthcare assistants and phlebotomists). Methods Transcript data were subjected to content analysis. Results A total of 40 administrative staff were recruited. Four key themes emerged: (1) system variations and weaknesses (eg, lack of a tracking process is a known risk that needs to be addressed). (2) Doctor to administrator communication (eg, unclear information can lead to emotional impacts and additional workload). (3) Informing patients of test results (eg, levels of anxiety and uncertainty are experienced by administrators influenced by experience and test result outcome) and (4) patient follow-up and confidentiality (eg, maintaining confidentiality in a busy reception area can be challenging). The key findings were explained in terms of sociotechnical systems theory. Conclusions The study further confirms the safety-related problems associated with results handling systems and adds to our knowledge of the communication and psychosocial issues that can affect the health and well-being of staff and patients alike. However, opportunities exist for practices to identify barriers to safe care, and plan and implement system improvements to accommodate or mitigate the potential for human error in this complex area. PMID:24503302

  11. New insights into in vitro amyloidogenic properties of human serum albumin suggest considerations for therapeutic precautions.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Neetu; Sivalingam, Vishwanath; Maurya, Sonalika; Prasad, Archana; Khandelwal, Puneet; Yadav, Subhash Chandra; Patel, Basant K

    2015-12-21

    Amyloid aggregates display striking features of detergent stability and self-seeding. Human serum albumin (HSA), a preferred drug-carrier molecule, can also aggregate in vitro. So far, key amyloid properties of stability against ionic detergents and self-seeding, are unclear for HSA aggregates. Precautions against amyloid contamination would be required if HSA aggregates were self-seeding. Here, we show that HSA aggregates display detergent sarkosyl stability and have self-seeding potential. HSA dimer is preferable for clinical applications due to its longer retention in circulation and lesser oedema owing to its larger molecular size. Here, HSA was homodimerized via free cysteine-34, without any potentially immunogenic cross-linkers that are usually pre-requisite for homodimerization. Alike the monomer, HSA dimers also aggregated as amyloid, necessitating precautions while using for therapeutics. PMID:26554815

  12. Examining variations in prescribing safety in UK general practice: cross sectional study using the Clinical Practice Research Datalink

    PubMed Central

    Kontopantelis, Evangelos; Akbarov, Artur; Rodgers, Sarah; Avery, Anthony J; Ashcroft, Darren M

    2015-01-01

    Study question What is the prevalence of different types of potentially hazardous prescribing in general practice in the United Kingdom, and what is the variation between practices? Methods A cross sectional study included all adult patients potentially at risk of a prescribing or monitoring error defined by a combination of diagnoses and prescriptions in 526 general practices contributing to the Clinical Practice Research Datalink (CPRD) up to 1 April 2013. Primary outcomes were the prevalence of potentially hazardous prescriptions of anticoagulants, anti-platelets, NSAIDs, ? blockers, glitazones, metformin, digoxin, antipsychotics, combined hormonal contraceptives, and oestrogens and monitoring by blood test less frequently than recommended for patients with repeated prescriptions of angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors and loop diuretics, amiodarone, methotrexate, lithium, or warfarin. Study answer and limitations 49 927 of 949 552 patients at risk triggered at least one prescribing indicator (5.26%, 95% confidence interval 5.21% to 5.30%) and 21 501 of 182 721 (11.8%, 11.6% to 11.9%) triggered at least one monitoring indicator. The prevalence of different types of potentially hazardous prescribing ranged from almost zero to 10.2%, and for inadequate monitoring ranged from 10.4% to 41.9%. Older patients and those prescribed multiple repeat medications had significantly higher risks of triggering a prescribing indicator whereas younger patients with fewer repeat prescriptions had significantly higher risk of triggering a monitoring indicator. There was high variation between practices for some indicators. Though prescribing safety indicators describe prescribing patterns that can increase the risk of harm to the patient and should generally be avoided, there will always be exceptions where the indicator is clinically justified. Furthermore there is the possibility that some information is not captured by CPRD for some practicesfor example, INR results in patients receiving warfarin. What this study adds The high prevalence for certain indicators emphasises existing prescribing risks and the need for their appropriate consideration within primary care, particularly for older patients and those taking multiple medications. The high variation between practices indicates potential for improvement through targeted practice level intervention. Funding, competing interests, data sharing National Institute for Health Research through the Greater Manchester Primary Care Patient Safety Translational Research Centre (grant No GMPSTRC-2012-1). Data from CPRD cannot be shared because of licensing restrictions. PMID:26537416

  13. An evaluation of precaution-based approaches as EMF policy tools in community environments.

    PubMed Central

    Sahl, J; Dolan, M

    1996-01-01

    This paper explores the use of precaution-based approaches as policy tools when responding to concerns about power-frequency electric and magnetic fields (EMF) in community environments. The combination of public concern and scientific uncertainty about potential health impacts from exposure to EMF challenges society to adopt EMF policies that balance the benefits of electric power against the possibility that some aspect of the use of electricity may be harmful. Inappropriate policy responses can undermine the economics of society's use of electricity and have other adverse consequences on public health. These adverse consequences result from the inappropriate diversion of scarce public and private resources. Precaution-based approaches are rooted in individual concepts of common sense and can be an effective component of a comprehensive set of EMF policy options. Precaution-based approaches do not replace science-based policy options and should only be used when the available science-based guidelines are not applicable. The application of these approaches should balance the real and expected costs and benefits of taking or not taking action. Given our current scientific knowledge, actions taken to reduce EMF exposure should necessarily be low cost because the expected benefits are uncertain. Society also needs to avoid adopting EMF policies that could incur high costs from distorting resources from other, more important, personal and public health priorities. PMID:8899365

  14. Lessons learned from Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant accident: efficient education items of radiation safety for general public.

    PubMed

    Ohno, K; Endo, K

    2015-07-01

    The Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant (FNP-1) accident, while as tragic as the tsunami, was a man-made disaster created by the ignorance of the effects of radiation and radioactive materials. Therefore, it is important that all specialists in radiation protection in medicine sympathize with the anxiety of the general public regarding the harmful effects of radiation and advise people accordingly. All questions and answers were collected related to inquiries from the general public that were posted to reliable websites, including those of the government and radiation-related organizations, from March 2011 to November 2012. The questions were summarized and classified by similarity of content. (1) The total number of questions is 372. The content was broadly classified into three categories: inquiries for radiation-related knowledge and about health effects and foods. The questions asked to obtain radiation-related knowledge were the most common, accounting for 38 %. Thirty-six percentage of the questions were related to health effects, and 26 % involved foods, whereas 18 % of the questions were related to children and pregnancy. (2) The change over time was investigated in 290 questions for which the time of inquiry was known. Directly after the earthquake, the questions were primarily from people seeking radiation-related knowledge. Later, questions related to health effects increased. The anxiety experienced by residents following the nuclear accident was caused primarily by insufficient knowledge related to radiation, concerns about health effects and uncertainties about food and water safety. The development of educational materials focusing on such content will be important for risk communication with the general public in countries with nuclear power plants. Physicians and medical physicist should possess the ability to respond to questions such as these and should continue with medical examinations and treatments in a safe and appropriate manner. PMID:25889605

  15. Optimism about safety and group-serving interpretations of safety among pedestrians and cyclists in relation to road use in general and under low light conditions.

    PubMed

    King, M J; Wood, J M; Lacherez, P F; Marszalek, R P

    2012-01-01

    Drivers are known to be optimistic about their risk of crash involvement, believing that they are less likely to be involved in a crash than other drivers. However, little comparative research has been conducted among other road users. In addition, optimism about crash risk is conceptualised as applying only to an individual's assessment of his or her personal risk of crash involvement. The possibility that the self-serving nature of optimism about safety might be generalised to the group-level as a cyclist or a pedestrian, i.e., becoming group-serving rather than self-serving, has been overlooked in relation to road safety. This study analysed a subset of data collected as part of a larger research project on the visibility of pedestrians, cyclists and road workers, focusing on a set of questionnaire items administered to 406 pedestrians, 838 cyclists and 622 drivers. The items related to safety in various scenarios involving drivers, pedestrians and cyclists, allowing predictions to be derived about group differences in agreement with items based on the assumption that the results would exhibit group-serving bias. Analysis of the responses indicated that specific hypotheses about group-serving interpretations of safety and responsibility were supported in 22 of the 26 comparisons. When the nine comparisons relevant to low lighting conditions were considered separately, seven were found to be supported. The findings of the research have implications for public education and for the likely acceptance of messages which are inconsistent with current assumptions and expectations of pedestrians and cyclists. They also suggest that research into group-serving interpretations of safety, even for temporary roles rather than enduring groups, could be fruitful. Further, there is an implication that gains in safety can be made by better educating road users about the limitations of their visibility and the ramifications of this for their own road safety, particularly in low light. PMID:22062350

  16. Work Practice Simulation of Complex Human-Automation Systems in Safety Critical Situations: The Brahms Generalized berlingen Model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clancey, William J.; Linde, Charlotte; Seah, Chin; Shafto, Michael

    2013-01-01

    The transition from the current air traffic system to the next generation air traffic system will require the introduction of new automated systems, including transferring some functions from air traffic controllers to on­-board automation. This report describes a new design verification and validation (V&V) methodology for assessing aviation safety. The approach involves a detailed computer simulation of work practices that includes people interacting with flight-critical systems. The research is part of an effort to develop new modeling and verification methodologies that can assess the safety of flight-critical systems, system configurations, and operational concepts. The 2002 Ueberlingen mid-air collision was chosen for analysis and modeling because one of the main causes of the accident was one crew's response to a conflict between the instructions of the air traffic controller and the instructions of TCAS, an automated Traffic Alert and Collision Avoidance System on-board warning system. It thus furnishes an example of the problem of authority versus autonomy. It provides a starting point for exploring authority/autonomy conflict in the larger system of organization, tools, and practices in which the participants' moment-by-moment actions take place. We have developed a general air traffic system model (not a specific simulation of Überlingen events), called the Brahms Generalized Ueberlingen Model (Brahms-GUeM). Brahms is a multi-agent simulation system that models people, tools, facilities/vehicles, and geography to simulate the current air transportation system as a collection of distributed, interactive subsystems (e.g., airports, air-traffic control towers and personnel, aircraft, automated flight systems and air-traffic tools, instruments, crew). Brahms-GUeM can be configured in different ways, called scenarios, such that anomalous events that contributed to the Überlingen accident can be modeled as functioning according to requirements or in an anomalous condition, as occurred during the accident. Brahms-GUeM thus implicitly defines a class of scenarios, which include as an instance what occurred at Überlingen. Brahms-GUeM is a modeling framework enabling "what if" analysis of alternative work system configurations and thus facilitating design of alternative operations concepts. It enables subsequent adaption (reusing simulation components) for modeling and simulating NextGen scenarios. This project demonstrates that BRAHMS provides the capacity to model the complexity of air transportation systems, going beyond idealized and simple flights to include for example the interaction of pilots and ATCOs. The research shows clearly that verification and validation must include the entire work system, on the one hand to check that mechanisms exist to handle failures of communication and alerting subsystems and/or failures of people to notice, comprehend, or communicate problematic (unsafe) situations; but also to understand how people must use their own judgment in relating fallible systems like TCAS to other sources of information and thus to evaluate how the unreliability of automation affects system safety. The simulation shows in particular that distributed agents (people and automated systems) acting without knowledge of each others' actions can create a complex, dynamic system whose interactive behavior is unexpected and is changing too quickly to comprehend and control.

  17. Chemical Safety. Part I: Safety in the Handling of Hazardous Chemicals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Jay A.

    1997-01-01

    Highlights the importance of considering the hazards, precautions, and emergency procedures pertinent to the safe handling of chemicals before introducing students to the laboratory. Discusses safety hazards depending on the chemical's properties including flammability, corrosivity, toxicity, and reactivity; eye protection; and physical hazards.…

  18. Update to the safety program for the general-purpose heat source radioisotope thermoelectric generators for the Galileo and Ulysses missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bennett, Gary L.; Bradshaw, C. T.; Englehart, Richard W.; Bartram, Bart W.; Cull, Theresa A.; Zocher, Roy W.; Eck, Marshall B.; Mukunda, Meera; Brenza, Peter T.; Chan, Chris C.

    1992-01-01

    With the rescheduling of the Galileo and Ulysses launches and the use of new upper stages following the Challenger accident, the aerospace nuclear safety program for the general-purpose heat source radioisotope thermoelectric generators (GPHS-RTGs) was extended to accommodate the new mission scenarios. As in the original safety program, the objectives were to determine the response of the GPHS-RTG to the various postulated accident environments and to determine the risk (if any) associated with these postulated accidents. The extended GPHS-RTG safety program was successfully completed in sufficient time to prepare an updated Final Safety Analysis Report (FSAR) with revisions for the October 1989 launch of the Galileo spacecraft.

  19. Do Active Surveillance and Contact Precautions Reduce MRSA Acquisition? A Prospective Interrupted Time Series

    PubMed Central

    Marshall, Caroline; Richards, Michael; McBryde, Emma

    2013-01-01

    Background Consensus for methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) control has still not been reached. We hypothesised that use of rapid MRSA detection followed by contact precautions and single room isolation would reduce MRSA acquisition. Methods This study was a pre-planned prospective interrupted time series comparing rapid PCR detection and use of long sleeved gowns and gloves (contact precautions) plus single room isolation or cohorting of MRSA colonised patients with a control group. The study took place in a medical-surgical intensive care unit of a tertiary adult hospital between May 21st 2007 and September 21st 2009. The primary outcome was the rate of MRSA acquisition. A segmented regression analysis was performed to determine the trend in MRSA acquisition rates before and after the intervention. Findings The rate of MRSA acquisition was 18.5 per 1000 at risk patient days in the control phase and 7.9 per 1000 at-risk patient days in the intervention phase, with an adjusted hazard ratio 0.39 (95% CI 0.24 to 0.62). Segmented regression analysis showed a decline in MRSA acquisition of 7% per month in the intervention phase, (95%CI 1.9% to 12.8% reduction) which was a significant change in slope compared with the control phase. Secondary analysis found prior exposure to anaerobically active antibiotics and colonization pressure were associated with increased acquisition risk. Conclusion Contact precautions with single room isolation or cohorting were associated with a 60% reduction in MRSA acquisition. While this study was a quasi-experimental design, many measures were taken to strengthen the study, such as accounting for differences in colonisation pressure, hand hygiene compliance and individual risk factors across the groups, and confining the study to one centre to reduce variation in transmission. Use of two research nurses may limit its generalisability to units in which this level of support is available. PMID:23555568

  20. Safety Handbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Montgomery County Public Schools, Rockville, MD.

    Safety policies, procedures, and related information are presented in this manual to assist school personnel in a continuing program of accident prevention. Chapter 1 discusses safety education and accident prevention in general. Chapter 2 covers traffic regulations relating to school safety patrols, school bus transportation, bicycles, and…

  1. Efficacy and safety of low-dose ketamine as an adjunct analgesic and amnesic during caesarean section under general anaesthesia

    PubMed Central

    Rajan, Sunil; Hassain, Anwar; Puthenveettil, Nitu; Kumar, Lakshmi

    2015-01-01

    Background and Aims: The practice of avoiding sedatives or anxiolytics during caesarean section under general anaesthesia (GA) until delivery of the baby could result in exaggerated haemodynamic responses and an increased risk of awareness. We aimed to assess the efficacy and safety of low-dose ketamine, used as an adjunct analgesic and amnesic, in attenuating these responses during caesarean section under GA. Methods: This prospective, randomised study was conducted in 40 patients. Group K (n = 20) received 0.25 mg/kg ketamine, whereas Group C received 5 ml normal saline intravenously (IV) just before induction of anaesthesia. After intubation, patients were ventilated with O2 and N2O (40:60%) with 0.7% end-tidal isoflurane. Fentanyl and midazolam were given following delivery of the baby. Mann–Whitney and Fisher's exact tests were used for statistical analysis. Results: Preinduction haemodynamic parameters and those recorded at 1 min after induction were comparable in both groups. However, heart rate and systolic blood pressure recorded after intubation (at 3, 5, 7, 9, 12, 15, 20, 30 and 45 min after induction) showed significantly high values in Group C (P < 0.05). Mean arterial pressure also showed a similar pattern. Umbilical vein pO2, pCO2 and pH were comparable in both groups. Though Apgar score at 1 min showed a higher scoring in Group K, at 5 min both groups had comparable scores. In Group C, intraoperative lacrimation (50% vs. 0%) and hallucinations/recall of intraoperative events (10% vs. 0%) were high. Conclusion: IV ketamine 0.25 mg/kg can be safely used as an adjunct analgesic and amnesic to attenuate haemodynamic responses during caesarean section under GA without affecting the foetal outcome. PMID:26644613

  2. Safety and feasibility of biventricular devices reuse in general and elderly population – a single-center retrospective cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Şoşdean, Raluca; Mornoş, Cristian; Enache, Bogdan; Macarie, Răzvan I; Ianoş, Raluca; Ştefea, Ana-Maria; Pescariu, Sorin

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT) is known to have very important beneficial effects on heart failure patients. Unfortunately, biventricular implantable cardiac devices (CRT devices), through which this therapy is implemented, are very expensive and sometimes hard to achieve, especially in underdeveloped/developing economies, making this an important problem of public health. As a possible solution, CRT reuse is of great interest nowadays, but unlike simple devices, data in the literature are scarce about biventricular device reuse. Aim To address safety concerns, we aimed to analyze infection burden in the general and elderly population and also early battery depletion and generator malfunction of resterilized biventricular devices compared to new devices. Methods A cohort of 261 CRT patients (286 devices), who underwent implantation between 2000 and 2014, was retrospectively analyzed. The study group included 115 patients and 127 resterilized devices, that was divided into a subgroup of 69 elderly patients (≥60 years) and 74 devices and a subgroup of 47 younger patients (<60 years) and 53 devices, and the control group included 146 patients and 159 new devices. The groups were compared using a multivariate logistic regression model. Results A number of 12 (4.2%) infectious complications were encountered, five (3.9%) in the study group and seven (4.4%) in the control group (odds ratio, 2.83 [0.59–13.44], P=0.189), one (1.3%) in the elderly and four (7.5%) in the younger subgroup (odds ratio, 3.80 [0.36–40.30], P=0.266), with no statistically significant difference between them. There was only one case of early battery depletion, after 17 months, in one study group patient. No generator malfunction was detected. Conclusion Reuse of biventricular cardiac implantable electronics seems feasible and safe in both the general population and the elderly population, and it could be a promising alternative when new devices cannot be obtained in a safe period of time. PMID:26316726

  3. Flood precaution of companies and their ability to cope with the flood in August 2002 in Saxony, Germany

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kreibich, Heidi; Müller, Meike; Thieken, Annegret H.; Merz, Bruno

    2007-03-01

    The German federal state of Saxony was the most affected region during the severe flood in August 2002, and damage to companies was high. A survey of 415 companies representing a variety of sectors and sizes was undertaken to identify deficits in the flood management of companies. In August 2002, preparedness and precaution of companies was low. Additionally, 45% of the companies had not received any flood warning. Consequently, many companies were unable to perform emergency measures successfully. The mean total damage to companies amounted to 1.1 million euros. However, because of relatively good flood compensation, recovery advanced quickly. After the flood, preparedness and precaution increased, but there is still significant potential for more precautionary measures. The flood warning system should be further improved. Specific incentive and communication programs should be developed for the service and financial sectors, where preparedness and precaution is weakest, as well as for the manufacturing sector, which has the highest damage potential.

  4. Safety evaluation of a conceptual fuel recycle complex

    SciTech Connect

    Hodges, M E

    1980-01-01

    A conceptual design integration study for an integrated Fuel Recycle Complex (FRC) has been completed. A safety evaluation of the radiation shielding, fire precautions, handling of nonradioactive hazardous materials, criticality hazards, operating errors, and the influence of natural phenomena on the FRC shows that all federal regulations are met or exceeded.

  5. Chemical Safety. Part II: Tips for Dealing with Laboratory Hazards.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Jay A.

    1997-01-01

    Discusses the importance of involving students in assessing the risks versus the benefits of specific laboratory activities, completing accident/incident reports, and performing periodic safety inspections. Concludes that involving students enhances their awareness of both hazards and precautions that must be taken. Provides them another avenue

  6. Risk management and precaution: insights on the cautious use of evidence.

    PubMed Central

    Hrudey, Steve E; Leiss, William

    2003-01-01

    Risk management, done well, should be inherently precautionary. Adopting an appropriate degree of precaution with respect to feared health and environmental hazards is fundamental to risk management. The real problem is in deciding how precautionary to be in the face of inevitable uncertainties, demanding that we understand the equally inevitable false positives and false negatives from screening evidence. We consider a framework for detection and judgment of evidence of well-characterized hazards, using the concepts of sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value that are well established for medical diagnosis. Our confidence in predicting the likelihood of a true danger inevitably will be poor for rare hazards because of the predominance of false positives; failing to detect a true danger is less likely because false negatives must be rarer than the danger itself. Because most controversial environmental hazards arise infrequently, this truth poses a dilemma for risk management. PMID:14527835

  7. Safety Awareness and Preparedness in Secondary Schools in Kenya: A Case of Turkana District

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kipngeno, Ronoh Richard; Benjamin, Kyalo Wambua

    2009-01-01

    Safety for students and staff from hazards that can be created by unsafe conditions, behaviour, disasters or emergencies in schools cannot be guaranteed. This is because of inadequate preparedness and awareness programs for safety needs. This study investigated the adequacy of procedures, precautions and infrastructure to respond to fire outbreaks

  8. Safety Awareness and Preparedness in Secondary Schools in Kenya: A Case of Turkana District

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kipngeno, Ronoh Richard; Benjamin, Kyalo Wambua

    2009-01-01

    Safety for students and staff from hazards that can be created by unsafe conditions, behaviour, disasters or emergencies in schools cannot be guaranteed. This is because of inadequate preparedness and awareness programs for safety needs. This study investigated the adequacy of procedures, precautions and infrastructure to respond to fire outbreaks…

  9. 48 CFR 2052.235-71 - Safety, health, and fire protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Safety, health, and fire....235-71 Safety, health, and fire protection. As prescribed in 2035.70(a)(2), the contracting officer..., Health, and Fire Protection (JAN 1993) The contractor shall take all reasonable precautions in...

  10. Pedestrian Safety: Injury Control Curriculum Guide (For K - 3rd Grade). Second Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wooner, Rosestelle B., Ed.

    This curriculum guide attempts to help the early childhood teacher show children how to incorporate safety precautions into daily life. Good safety practices can prevent the death or injury of young children by automobile, truck, bus, pedestrian, bicycle, and tricycle accidents. The guide focuses on student involvement in the learning process and

  11. Coping strategy in adolescents with premenstrual syndrome: application of the construal level theory and the precaution adoption process model.

    PubMed

    Delara, Mahin; Ghofranipour, Fazllollah; Fallah, Parviz Azad; Tavafian, Sedighe Sadat; Kazemnejad, Anoushirvan; Montazeri, Ali; Sani, Abolfazl Rahmani; Kooshki, Mehdi

    2013-01-01

    This study aimed to apply the construal level theory (CLT) to increase the relaxation adoption as a coping behavior in adolescents with premenstrual syndrome (PMS). The theory offers a framework that assumes decision-making about adoption of any given behavior depends on perceived temporal distance from the desired or recommended behavior and thus individual might perceive any information or intervention, at two levels (low or high). In doing so, a trial was conducted on 1578 high school students suffering from PMS. The precaution adoption process model was applied to categorize students in six stages, based on their intention to adopt a behavior. The focus of this study was on students who were in stage 3 of the model (undecided to adopt a behavior that was relaxation). Overall, 411 students were identified and randomly assigned to the three study groups: group 1 (n = 98) who received a CLT-driven intervention containing detailed information about relaxation (low-level construal, LLC); group 2 (n = 150) who received a CTL-driven intervention containing general information about relaxation (high-level construal, HLC); and group 3 (n = 163) who received nothing (control group). The progression from stage 3 toward stage 6 (action) was considered as the desired outcome and it was hypothesized that LLC intervention would be more effective than HLC intervention. Compared to participants in the control group, participants in the high and low construal groups were significantly more likely to advance to the action stage (P < 0.001). In addition, students in the low construal group had made an apparent higher stage progression as compared to the high construal group, although this difference was not statistically significant (P = 0.33). The findings suggest that, for people who are undecided to adopt a new health action, LLC intervention might be more effective. PMID:22788244

  12. Ethical acceptability, health policy and foods biotechnology based foods: is there a third way between the precaution principle and an overly enthusiastic dissemination of GMO?

    PubMed

    Meningaud, J P; Moutel, G; Herv, C

    2001-01-01

    The demand for consumer safety with regard to the food-processing industry is becoming, legitimately, more and more urgent. If ingested drugs can carry deleterious effects that exceed the beneficial effect that the research was initially undertaken for, then the same can only be the case for foods that stem from the same new biotechnologies, zero risk being non existent. There are two conflicting viewpoints about the possible risks linked to genetically modified organisms: a posteriori protection (based on vigilance once the product is on the market) and an a priori protection (at present usually supported by the precaution principle). We suggest a third way, which ensures consumer safety, but doesn't hinder scientific progress. Just as there are regulations for the protection of human subjects in biomedical research and regulations for the use of drugs after they are marketed, so should such regulations be introduced in the domains of food production that use biotechnologies. We therefore suggest that the scientific community and the food-processing industry develop evaluation protocols for new foods like the ones that exist for drugs. We thus offer thirteen regulations, based on the Helsinki declaration, in order to establish these protocols. These proposals, applied to food-processing research, would enable the industry to return confidence to consumers and thus avoid the random blocking of scientific progress, which is a source of health for the greater population. PMID:11401233

  13. Development of U.S. Government General Technical Requirements for UAS Flight Safety Systems Utilizing the Iridium Satellite Constellation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murray, Jennifer; Birr, Richard

    2010-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the development of technical requirements for Unmanned Aircraft Systems (UAS) utilization of the Iridium Satellite Constellation to provide flight safety. The Federal Aviation Authority (FAA) required an over-the-horizon communication standard to guarantee flight safety before permitting widespread UAS flights in the National Air Space (NAS). This is important to ensure reliable control of UASs during loss-link and over-the-horizon scenarios. The core requirement was to utilize a satellite system to send GPS tracking data and other telemetry from a flight vehicle down to the ground. Iridium was chosen as the system because it is one of the only true satellite systems that has world wide coverage, and the service has a highly reliable link margin. The Iridium system, the flight modems, and the test flight are described.

  14. 29 CFR 1915.12 - Precautions and the order of testing before entering confined and enclosed spaces and other...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... exposure limit, are located in subpart Z of 29 CFR part 1915, and § 1915.12(c). (c) Toxic, corrosive... confined and enclosed spaces and other dangerous atmospheres. 1915.12 Section 1915.12 Labor Regulations... Dangerous Atmospheres in Shipyard Employment § 1915.12 Precautions and the order of testing before...

  15. 29 CFR 1915.12 - Precautions and the order of testing before entering confined and enclosed spaces and other...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... exposure limit, are located in subpart Z of 29 CFR part 1915, and § 1915.12(c). (c) Toxic, corrosive... confined and enclosed spaces and other dangerous atmospheres. 1915.12 Section 1915.12 Labor Regulations... Dangerous Atmospheres in Shipyard Employment § 1915.12 Precautions and the order of testing before...

  16. 29 CFR 1915.12 - Precautions and the order of testing before entering confined and enclosed spaces and other...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... exposure limit, are located in subpart Z of 29 CFR part 1915, and § 1915.12(c). (c) Toxic, corrosive... confined and enclosed spaces and other dangerous atmospheres. 1915.12 Section 1915.12 Labor Regulations... Dangerous Atmospheres in Shipyard Employment § 1915.12 Precautions and the order of testing before...

  17. 29 CFR 1915.12 - Precautions and the order of testing before entering confined and enclosed spaces and other...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... exposure limit, are located in subpart Z of 29 CFR part 1915, and § 1915.12(c). (c) Toxic, corrosive... confined and enclosed spaces and other dangerous atmospheres. 1915.12 Section 1915.12 Labor Regulations... Dangerous Atmospheres in Shipyard Employment § 1915.12 Precautions and the order of testing before...

  18. 29 CFR 1915.12 - Precautions and the order of testing before entering confined and enclosed spaces and other...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... exposure limit, are located in subpart Z of 29 CFR part 1915, and § 1915.12(c). (c) Toxic, corrosive... confined and enclosed spaces and other dangerous atmospheres. 1915.12 Section 1915.12 Labor Regulations... Dangerous Atmospheres in Shipyard Employment § 1915.12 Precautions and the order of testing before...

  19. Factors influencing nurses' compliance with Standard Precautions in order to avoid occupational exposure to microorganisms: A focus group study

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Nurses may acquire an infection during the provision of nursing care because of occupational exposure to microorganisms. Relevant literature reports that, compliance with Standard Precautions (a set of guidelines that can protect health care professionals from being exposed to microorganisms) is low among nurses. Additionally, high rates of exposure to microorganisms among nurses via several modes (needlesticks, hand contamination with blood, exposure to air-transmitted microorganisms) occur. The aim of the study was to study the factors that influence nurses' compliance with Standard Precaution in order to avoid occupational exposure to pathogens, by employing a qualitative research design. Method A focus group approach was used to explore the issue under study. Four focus groups (N = 30) were organised to elicit nurses' perception of the factors that influence their compliance with Standard Precautions. The Health Belief Model (HBM) was used as the theoretical framework and the data were analysed according to predetermined criteria. Results Following content analysis, factors that influence nurses' compliance emerged. Most factors could be applied to one of the main domains of the HBM: benefits, barriers, severity, susceptibility, cues to action, and self-efficacy. Conclusions Changing current behavior requires knowledge of the factors that may influence nurses' compliance with Standard Precautions. This knowledge will facilitate in the implementation of programs and preventive actions that contribute in avoiding of occupational exposure. PMID:21255419

  20. Site Safety Plan for Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory CERCLA investigations

    SciTech Connect

    Bainer, R.; Duarte, J.

    1993-07-01

    The safety policy of LLNL is to take every reasonable precaution in the performance of work to protect the environment and the health and safety of employees and the public, and to prevent property damage. With respect to hazardous agents, this protection is provided by limiting human exposures, releases to the environment, and contamination of property to levels that are as low as reasonably achievable (ALARA). It is the intent of this Plan to supply the broad outline for completing environmental investigations within ALARA guidelines. It may not be possible to determine actual working conditions in advance of the work; therefore, planning must allow the opportunity to provide a range of protection based upon actual working conditions. Requirements will be the least restrictive possible for a given set of circumstances, such that work can be completed in an efficient and timely fashion. Due to the relatively large size of the LLNL Site and the different types of activities underway, site-specific Operational Safety Procedures (OSPs) will be prepared to supplement activities not covered by this Plan. These site-specific OSPs provide the detailed information for each specific activity and act as an addendum to this Plan, which provides the general plan for LLNL Main Site operation.

  1. Evaluation of safety and efficacy of zonisamide in adult patients with partial, generalized, and combined seizures: an open labeled, noncomparative, observational Indian study

    PubMed Central

    Dash, Amitabh; Ravat, Sangeeta; Srinivasan, Avathvadi Venkatesan; Shetty, Ashutosh; Kumar, Vivek; Achtani, Renu; Mathur, Vivek Narain; Maramattom, Boby Varkey; Bajpai, Veeresh; Manjunath, Nanjappa C; Narayana, Randhi Venkata; Mehta, Suyog

    2016-01-01

    A prospective, multicentric, noncomparative open-label observational study was conducted to evaluate the safety and efficacy zonisamide in Indian adult patients for the treatment of partial, generalized, or combined seizures. A total of 655 adult patients with partial, generalized, or combined seizures from 30 centers across India were recruited after initial screening. Patients received 100 mg zonisamide as initiating dose as monotherapy/adjunctive therapy for 24 weeks, with titration of 100 mg every 2 weeks if required. Adverse events, responder rates, and seizure freedom were observed every 4 weeks. Efficacy and safety were also assessed using Clinicians Global Assessment of Response to Therapy and Patients Global Assessment of Tolerability to Therapy, respectively. Follow-up was conducted for a period of 24 weeks after treatment initiation. A total of 655 patients were enrolled and received the treatment and 563 completed the evaluation phase. A total of 20.92% of patients received zonisamide as monotherapy or alternative monotherapy and 59.85% patients received zonisamide as first adjunctive therapy. Compared with baseline, 41.22% of patients achieved seizure freedom and 78.6% as responder rate at the end of 24 week study. Most commonly reported adverse events were loss of appetite, weight loss, sedation, and dizziness, but discontinuation due to adverse events of drug was seen in 0.92% of patients. This open label real-world study suggests that zonisamide is an effective and well-tolerated antiepileptic drug in Indian adults for treatment of partial, generalized as well as combined seizures type. No new safety signals were observed. PMID:27013882

  2. Large-Scale Spacecraft Fire Safety Tests

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Urban, David; Ruff, Gary A.; Ferkul, Paul V.; Olson, Sandra; Fernandez-Pello, A. Carlos; T'ien, James S.; Torero, Jose L.; Cowlard, Adam J.; Rouvreau, Sebastien; Minster, Olivier; Toth, Balazs; Legros, Guillaume; Eigenbrod, Christian; Smirnov, Nickolay; Fujita, Osamu; Jomaas, Grunde

    2014-01-01

    An international collaborative program is underway to address open issues in spacecraft fire safety. Because of limited access to long-term low-gravity conditions and the small volume generally allotted for these experiments, there have been relatively few experiments that directly study spacecraft fire safety under low-gravity conditions. Furthermore, none of these experiments have studied sample sizes and environment conditions typical of those expected in a spacecraft fire. The major constraint has been the size of the sample, with prior experiments limited to samples of the order of 10 cm in length and width or smaller. This lack of experimental data forces spacecraft designers to base their designs and safety precautions on 1-g understanding of flame spread, fire detection, and suppression. However, low-gravity combustion research has demonstrated substantial differences in flame behavior in low-gravity. This, combined with the differences caused by the confined spacecraft environment, necessitates practical scale spacecraft fire safety research to mitigate risks for future space missions. To address this issue, a large-scale spacecraft fire experiment is under development by NASA and an international team of investigators. This poster presents the objectives, status, and concept of this collaborative international project (Saffire). The project plan is to conduct fire safety experiments on three sequential flights of an unmanned ISS re-supply spacecraft (the Orbital Cygnus vehicle) after they have completed their delivery of cargo to the ISS and have begun their return journeys to earth. On two flights (Saffire-1 and Saffire-3), the experiment will consist of a flame spread test involving a meter-scale sample ignited in the pressurized volume of the spacecraft and allowed to burn to completion while measurements are made. On one of the flights (Saffire-2), 9 smaller (5 x 30 cm) samples will be tested to evaluate NASAs material flammability screening tests. The first flight (Saffire-1) is scheduled for July 2015 with the other two following at six-month intervals. A computer modeling effort will complement the experimental effort. Although the experiment will need to meet rigorous safety requirements to ensure the carrier vehicle does not sustain damage, the absence of a crew removes the need for strict containment of combustion products. This will facilitate the first examination of fire behavior on a scale that is relevant to spacecraft fire safety and will provide unique data for fire model validation.

  3. A Comparison of the Effectiveness of Interactive Laser Disc and Classroom Video Tape for Safety Instruction of General Motors Workers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bosco, James; Wagner, Jerry

    1988-01-01

    Describes evaluation that assessed the effectiveness of the Interactive Laser Disc System (ILDS) Training Program in comparison with classroom instruction with videotape for training of General Motors workers. Topics discussed include achievement test, attitude scales, opinion surveys, user preference questionnaires, interviews, and variables that…

  4. Late Lessons from Early Warnings: Toward Realism and Precaution with Endocrine-Disrupting Substances

    PubMed Central

    Gee, David

    2006-01-01

    The histories of selected public and environmental hazards, from the first scientifically based early warnings about potential harm to the subsequent precautionary and preventive measures, have been reviewed by the European Environment Agency. This article relates the “late lessons” from these early warnings to the current debates on the application of the precautionary principle to the hazards posed by endocrine-disrupting substances (EDSs). Here, I summarize some of the definitional and interpretative issues that arise. These issues include the contingent nature of knowledge; the definitions of precaution, prevention, risk, uncertainty, and ignorance; the use of differential levels of proof; and the nature and main direction of the methodological and cultural biases within the environmental health sciences. It is argued that scientific methods need to reflect better the realities of multicausality, mixtures, timing of dose, and system dynamics, which characterize the exposures and impacts of EDSs. This improved science could provide a more robust basis for the wider and wise use of the precautionary principle in the assessment and management of the threats posed by EDSs. The evaluation of such scientific evidence requires assessments that also account for multicausal reality. Two of the often used, and sometimes misused, Bradford Hill “criteria,” consistency and temporality, are critically reviewed in light of multicausality, thereby illustrating the need to review all of the criteria in light of 40 years of progress in science and policymaking. PMID:16818262

  5. Thai nursing students' knowledge and health beliefs about AIDS and use of universal precautions: a cross-sectional descriptive research study.

    PubMed

    Earl, Catherine E

    2010-08-01

    This study examined Thai nursing students' knowledge and health beliefs about the use of universal precautions to prevent infections, particularly HIV. After providing informed consent, 26 nursing students participated in the study. The students responded to a questionnaire with four sections: demographics, education, knowledge about universal precautions and transmission of HIV, and health belief. Students had substantial knowledge about the transmission of HIV; however they were not confident in the use of universal precautions to prevent transmission. This research will assist occupational health nurses in hospitals and educational institutions develop programs to enhance skills and attitudes to prevent HIV infection. PMID:20669861

  6. A randomized clinical trial comparing the efficacy and safety of ramosetron versus ondansetron in patients undergoing abdominal surgery under general anesthesia

    PubMed Central

    Kaja, Sriramamurthy; Giri, Ravindra S.; Tugave, Deepak V.; Iqbal, Mukarram

    2014-01-01

    Background: Post-operative nausea and vomiting is one of the most common and distressing complications after anesthesia and surgery. It may lead to serious post-operative complications. Ramosetron is a newer 5-HT3 receptor antagonist and has more potent and longer duration of antiemetic effects compared to first generation 5HT3 receptor antagonists. The purpose of this study was to compare the efficacy of Ramosetron for the prevention of post-operative nausea and vomiting with that of Ondansetron in patients undergoing abdominal surgeries under general anesthesia. Methods: In this randomized, double-blind study, 60 patients, 18-60 years of both genders falling under ASA I-II category scheduled for abdominal surgery were included. Group I received I.V ramosetron 0.3 mg while group II received I.V Ondansetron 4 mg at the time of extubation. The standard general anesthetic technique was used throughout. Postoperatively the incidences of nausea, vomiting, and safety assessments were performed at 1, 2, 6, and 24 h during the first 24 h after surgery. Results: There were no differences between groups with respect to patient demographics. The percentage of patients who had complete response (no PONV, and no need for another rescue antiemetic) from 0 to 24 h after anesthesia was 56% with ramosetron and 33% with ondansetron. The corresponding rates at 1, 2, 6, and 24 h after anesthesia were 76% and 63%, 76% and 50%, 100 and 83%, 100 and 93%, respectively. Safety profiles of the two drugs were comparable, as no clinically serious adverse effects caused by study drugs were observed in either of the groups. Conclusion: Our study concludes that prophylactic therapy with ramosetron is highly efficacious than ondansetron in preventing PONV in patients undergoing abdominal surgery under general anesthesia. PMID:24665241

  7. Precautions and strategies in using a commercial flatbed scanner for radiochromic film dosimetry.

    PubMed

    Paelinck, L; De Neve, W; De Wagter, C

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the value of a commercially available flatbed scanner for film dosimetry with radiochromic film for external radiotherapy. The EPSON Pro 1680 Expression scanner was examined as a densitometer for two-dimensional film dosimetry with Gafchromic EBT film. An accurate and efficient scanning procedure was established. Possible drift and warm-up effects of the scanner were studied and the direct physical influence of the scanner light on the radiochromic film was assessed. Next, we investigated the scan field uniformity. Also, we examined if the accuracy of radiochromic film was improved by subtracting the optical density of the unirradiated blank film from the optical density of the irradiated film. To assess the accuracy of Gafchromic EBT film when the EPSON scanner was used as a densitometer, the depth dose of a 2 x 15 cm(2) field and the in-plane and cross-plane profiles of a 15 x 15 cm(2) field were measured and compared with diamond detector measurements. When taking consecutive scans, we found that the optical density taken from the first scan was about 1% higher than the optical density taken from subsequent scans. We attribute this to the warming up of the lamp of the scanner. Longer-term drift of the scanner was found to be absent. We found that the use of a correction matrix was necessary to correct for the non-uniform scanner response over the scan field. Subtracting the optical density of the unirradiated blank film from the irradiated film improves the precision of the Gafchromic EBT film. Depth dose and profile measurements with Gafchromic EBT film and the diamond detector are in agreement within 2.5%. The EPSON Pro 1680 Expression scanner is an excellent tool for accurate two-dimensional film dosimetry with Gafchromic EBT film provided that some precautions and corrections are taken into account. PMID:17183138

  8. Missouri Elementary Science Safety Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lemons, Judith L.

    The purpose of this safety manual is to provide a resource to help manage and minimize potential risks in science classrooms where students spend up to 60% of instructional time engaged in hands-on activities. Information on general laboratory safety, science equipment safety, safety with plants, safety with animals, safety with chemicals, field

  9. Precautions in warming light therapy as an adjuvant to postoperative flap care.

    PubMed

    Zukowski, M L; Lord, J L; Ash, K

    1998-06-01

    Warming lights, circulating-water blankets, space heaters, and the Bair Hugger are used by surgeons in the perioperative period to maintain a patients core body temperature. Warming lights in particular are often used by plastic surgeons to augment the postoperative vasodilatation of reconstructive flaps by increasing the ambient temperature of the area around the flap. A review of the literature fails to elucidate even anecdotal experience regarding the actual intensity of thermal energy directly imparted to tissues from these modalities with respect to distance. The purpose of our study was to quantify actual tissue temperatures generated, as a function of distance, with the Emerson warming light. Our interest in this is a result of a full-thickness burn which occurred to a portion of a pedicled TRAM flap used for breast reconstruction when a warming light was inadvertently positioned, during the course of the first postoperative night, at a distance less than that recommended by the manufacturer. A biological model was created simulating a sympathectomized flap and the temperature curves generated by Emerson warming lights were recorded by calibrated glass bulb thermometers at 15 min intervals for distances of 32 and 71 cm using both focused and defocused light beams. The distance of 32 cm was used as a parameter as it was the distance noted between the patient and the warming light when the TRAM flap burn occurred. Temperatures obtained at a distance of 32 cm rose to 120 degrees F (48.8 degrees C) within 30 min for the focused beam and 118 degrees F (48 degrees C) after 1 h for the defocused beam. This exceeds the temperature at which tissue necrosis is known to occur (111.2 degrees F/44 degrees C). However, temperatures obtained at 71 cm for the focused and defocused beams plateaued at 93.2 and 96.8 degrees F (34 and 36 degrees C) respectively, which is well within physiologic limits and below the temperature resulting in tissue necrosis. Our conclusion is that warming lights can be successfully used as a safe adjuvant in order to optimize flap vasodilatation without compromising the thermal threshold of tissue damage if maintained at the manufacturer's minimum recommended distance of 71 cm. If this source of thermal energy is used, however, strict precautions and nursing guidelines must be instituted to maintain this minimum distance parameter and prevent patient morbidity. PMID:9688205

  10. Quality and safety issues highlighted by patients in the handling of laboratory test results by general practicesa qualitative study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background In general practice internationally, many care teams handle large numbers of laboratory test results relating to patients in their care. Related research about safety issues is limited with most of the focus on this workload from secondary care and in North American settings. Little has been published in relation to primary health care in the UK and wider Europe. This study aimed to explore experiences and perceptions of patients with regards to the handling of test results by general practices. Methods A qualitative research approach was used with patients. The setting was west of Scotland general practices from one National Health Service territorial board area. Patients were purposively sampled from practice held lists of patients who received a number of laboratory tests because of chronic medical problems or surveillance of high risk medicines. Focus groups were held and were audio-recorded. Tapes were transcribed and subjected to qualitative analysis. Transcripts were coded and codes merged into themes by two of the researchers. Results 19 participants from four medical practices took part in four focus groups. The main themes identified were: 1. Patients lacked awareness of the results handling process in their practice. 2. Patients usually did not contact their practice for test results, unless they considered themselves to be ill. 3. Patients were concerned about the appropriateness of administrators being involved in results handling. 4. Patients were concerned about breaches of confidentiality when administrators were involved in results handling. 5. Patients valued the use of dedicated results handling staff. 6. Patients welcomed the use of technology to alert them to results being available, and valued the ability to choose how this happened. Conclusions The study confirms the quality and safety of care problems associated with results handling systems and adds to our knowledge of the issues that impact in these areas. Practices need to be aware that patients may not contact them about results, and they need to publicise their results handling processes to patients and take steps to reassure patients about confidentiality with regards to administrators. PMID:24885953

  11. Undergraduate Organic Chemistry Laboratory Safety

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luckenbaugh, Raymond W.

    1996-11-01

    Each organic chemistry student should become familiar with the educational and governmental laboratory safety requirements. One method for teaching laboratory safety is to assign each student to locate safety resources for a specific class laboratory experiment. The student should obtain toxicity and hazardous information for all chemicals used or produced during the assigned experiment. For example, what is the LD50 or LC50 for each chemical? Are there any specific hazards for these chemicals, carcinogen, mutagen, teratogen, neurotixin, chronic toxin, corrosive, flammable, or explosive agent? The school's "Chemical Hygiene Plan", "Prudent Practices for Handling Hazardous Chemicals in the Laboratory" (National Academy Press), and "Laboratory Standards, Part 1910 - Occupational Safety and Health Standards" (Fed. Register 1/31/90, 55, 3227-3335) should be reviewed for laboratory safety requirements for the assigned experiment. For example, what are the procedures for safe handling of vacuum systems, if a vacuum distillation is used in the assigned experiment? The literature survey must be submitted to the laboratory instructor one week prior to the laboratory session for review and approval. The student should then give a short presentation to the class on the chemicals' toxicity and hazards and describe the safety precautions that must be followed. This procedure gives the student first-hand knowledge on how to find and evaluate information to meet laboartory safety requirements.

  12. A survey of aseptic precautions and needle type for paediatric caudal block in Australia and New Zealand.

    PubMed

    Fahy, C J; Costi, D A; Cyna, A M

    2013-01-01

    This cross-sectional survey was designed to evaluate the current practice of anaesthetists in Australia and New Zealand with regard to aseptic technique and needle type during the performance of single-shot caudal blocks. Professional bodies suggest that full aseptic precautions be taken during the administration of caudal or epidural blocks. It has been suggested that using an intravenous cannula or a styletted needle may obviate the occurrence of epidermoid tumours. A total of 202 members of the Society for Paediatric Anaesthesia in New Zealand and Australia were invited to participate in this internet-based survey. Eighty-four responses were received. Most respondents used some form of antiseptic handwash (81%), wore sterile gloves (85.7%), used antiseptic skin preparation (100%) and draped the site (57.1%). When performing caudal blocks, 43.1% used unstyletted needles, 27.2% used styletted spinal needles and 29.6% used intravenous cannulas. However, 11.9% did not wash hands, 10.7% did not wear gloves and 42.9% did not drape the site. Three respondents reported neither handwashing, wearing gloves or draping, instead only using an alcohol swab for skin preparation. The majority of respondents in our region appear to use some level of aseptic precautions, albeit to a variable degree. Published recommendations may either be perceived as overly cautious or as ambiguous in that they do not specify caudal practice as distinct from other epidural blocks. There is a need for clearer professional guidance to support a minimum level of aseptic precaution for single-shot caudal epidural blocks. PMID:23362898

  13. Long-term safety of perampanel and seizure outcomes in refractory partial-onset seizures and secondarily generalized seizures: Results from phase III extension study 307

    PubMed Central

    Krauss, Gregory L; Perucca, Emilio; Ben-Menachem, Elinor; Kwan, Patrick; Shih, Jerry J; Clment, Jean-Franois; Wang, Xuefeng; Bagul, Makarand; Gee, Michelle; Zhu, Jin; Squillacote, David

    2014-01-01

    Objective To evaluate safety, tolerability, seizure frequency, and regional variations in treatment responses with the AMPA antagonist, perampanel, in a large extension study during up to 3years of treatment. Methods Patients ?12years old with partial-onset seizures despite treatment with 13 antiepileptic drugs at baseline completed a perampanel phase III trial and entered extension study 307 (NCT00735397). Patients were titrated to 12mg/day (or their individual maximum tolerated dose) during the blinded conversion period, followed by open-label maintenance. Exposure, safety (adverse events [AEs], vital signs, weight, electrocardiography [ECG], laboratory values) and seizure outcomes were analyzed; key measures were assessed by geographic regions. Results Among 1,216 patients, median exposure was 1.5years (range 1week to 3.3years), with >300 patients treated for >2years. Treatment retention was 58.5% at cutoff. AEs reported in ?10% of patients were dizziness, somnolence, headache, fatigue, irritability, and weight increase. Only dizziness and irritability caused discontinuation in >1% of patients (3.9% and 1.3%, respectively). The only serious AEs reported in >1% of patients were epilepsy-related (convulsion, 3.0%; status epilepticus, 1.1%). No clinically relevant changes in vital signs, ECG or laboratory parameters were seen. After titration/conversion, responder rate and median percentage change from baseline in seizure frequency were stable: 46% for both measures at 9months (in 980 patients with ?9months' exposure) and 58% and 60%, respectively, at 2years (in the 337 patients with 2years' exposure). Median percentage reduction in frequency of secondarily generalized (SG) seizures ranged from 77% at 9months (N=422) to 90% at 2years (N=141). Among the 694 patients with maintenance data ?1year, 5.3% were seizure-free for the entire year. Significance No new safety signals emerged during up to 3years of perampanel exposure in 39 countries. Seizure responses remained stable, with marked reductions, particularly in SG seizures. PMID:24867391

  14. Pro/Con debate: Are barrier precautions cost-effective in improving patient outcomes in the intensive care unit?

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    You are responsible for a large medical surgical ICU. Your hospital administration has been very focused on reducing rates of hospital-acquired infections particularly in the wake of increasing public attention. However, it is time for budget preparation and your financial officer is concerned about the escalating costs associated with patient isolation and barrier precautions/personal protective equipment. Having become aware of the high costs associated with these interventions, you start to wonder about the wisdom of spending so much in this area. Your hospital administration wants your direction on next year's expenditures. You are debating whether the expense is worthwhile and advise your hospital administration accordingly. PMID:22264293

  15. [The risk of iatrogenic burn must not be forgotten while struggling against nosocomial infection: rules and precautions in operating rooms].

    PubMed

    Cassier, S; Duhamel, P; Duhoux, A; Brachett, M; Lakhel, A; Bey, E

    2011-12-01

    Accidental burns in the operating room are hopefully rare events, but it could happen during any surgical procedure. To reduce the nosocomial infection, the use of alcohol-base products is recommended by all the recent guidelines. Yet these inflammables products represent a potential danger if they are not carefully employed, and the surgeon's responsibility can be involved. We therefore thought it would be interesting to show the benefit provided by such products in terms of wound infection and skin preparation. However, two recent cases of severe accidental burn illustrate the importance of precautions when using such products. PMID:21146912

  16. Discontinuation of Systematic Surveillance and Contact Precautions for Vancomycin-Resistant Enterococcus (VRE) and Its Impact on the Incidence of VRE faecium Bacteremia in Patients with Hematologic Malignancies.

    PubMed

    Almyroudis, Nikolaos G; Osawa, Ryosuke; Samonis, George; Wetzler, M; Wang, Eunice S; McCarthy, Philip L; Segal, Brahm H

    2016-04-01

    OBJECTIVE To study the effect of discontinuation of systematic surveillance for vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus (VRE) and contact isolation of colonized patients on the incidence of VRE bacteremia SETTING A hematology-oncology unit with high prevalence of VRE colonization characterized by predominantly sporadic molecular epidemiology PARTICIPANTS Inpatients with hematologic malignancies and recipients of hematopoietic stem cell transplantation METHODS The incidence of VRE bacteremia was measured prospectively during 2 different 3-year time periods; the first during active VRE surveillance and contact precautions and the second after discontinuation of these policies. We assessed the collateral impact of this policy change on the incidence of bacteremia due to methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and Clostridium difficile infection even though we maintained contact precautions for these organisms. Incidence of infectious events was measured as number of events per 1,000 patients days per month. Time series analysis was used to evaluate trends. RESULTS The incidence of VRE bacteremia remained stable after discontinuation of VRE surveillance and contact precautions. The incidence of MRSA bacteremia and Clostridium difficile infection for which we continued contact precautions also remained stable. Aggregated antibiotic utilization and nursing hours per patient days were similar between the 2 study periods. CONCLUSION Active surveillance and contact precautions for VRE colonization did not appear to prevent VRE bacteremia in patients with hematologic malignancies and recipients of hematopoietic stem cell transplantation with high prevalence of VRE characterized by predominantly sporadic molecular epidemiology. Infect. Control Hosp. Epidemiol. 2016;37(4):398-403. PMID:26750087

  17. Hand Safety

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Lawnmower Safety Snowblower safety Pumpkin Carving Gardening Safety Turkey Carving Removing a Ring Cómo sacarse un anillo ... Lawnmower Safety Snowblower safety Pumpkin Carving Gardening Safety Turkey Carving Removing a Ring Cómo sacarse un anillo ...

  18. Vocational Safety Guide to Generalized Safety Provisions as They Apply to: Agricultural Education, Business and Office Education, Health Occupations Education, Home Economics Education, Industrial Arts Education, Marketing and Distributive Education, Trade and Technical Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dyrenfurth, Michael J.; Linhardt, Richard E.

    This vocational safety guide is designed to help Missouri school practitioners at all levels in providing for the safe instruction and work associated with practical arts and vocational and technical subjects. Covered in the individual sections of the guide are the following topics: Missouri legislation and regulations pertaining to school safety;

  19. LNG safety, safety regulations and public perception

    SciTech Connect

    Lewis, J.P.; Outtrim, P.A.

    1995-12-31

    Although the subjects of safety, safety regulations and public perception are relatively separate, they should be discussed within the context of their total impact on the owner`s operation. The safety of LNG is a major issue both on an absolute safety basis and perceived safety basis. Public and regulatory perception are the dominant factors in the development of regulations and issue of permits. A safe operation includes protection of the public, plant personnel, investment in facilities and continued operation. In addition, protection of the company from litigation and regulatory restraint are also considerations. The paper discusses general safety considerations, safety regulation considerations, storage and impoundment, transport, odorization, personnel training, recent OSHA and EPA rule making activities, and recent research and progress in LNG safety.

  20. Child Development Associate Training Program. Unit I: Health and Safety in the Classroom. Module 4: Nutrition for Young Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Philadelphia Community Coll., PA.

    The importance of an adequate diet in a child's growth and development is the topic of this Child Development Associate (CDA) training module. The material emphasizes different nutrients, their food sources and their availability through a variety and combination of different foods. Correct food handling, as well as safety precautions and the

  1. School Safety Audit Protocol.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeMary, Jo Lynne; Owens, Marsha; Ramnarain, A. K. Vijay

    The 1997 Virginia General Assembly passed legislation directing school boards to require all schools to conduct safety audits. This audit is designed to assess the safety conditions in each public school to: (1) identify and, if necessary, develop solutions for physical safety concerns, including building security issues; and (2) identify and…

  2. Revitalizing Nuclear Safety Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Academy of Sciences - National Research Council, Washington, DC.

    This report covers the general issues involved in nuclear safety research and points out the areas needing detailed consideration. Topics included are: (1) "Principles of Nuclear Safety Research" (examining who should fund, who should conduct, and who should set the agenda for nuclear safety research); (2) "Elements of a Future Agenda for Nuclear

  3. Revitalizing Nuclear Safety Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Academy of Sciences - National Research Council, Washington, DC.

    This report covers the general issues involved in nuclear safety research and points out the areas needing detailed consideration. Topics included are: (1) "Principles of Nuclear Safety Research" (examining who should fund, who should conduct, and who should set the agenda for nuclear safety research); (2) "Elements of a Future Agenda for Nuclear…

  4. Tanning salons: an area survey of proprietors' knowledge of risks and precautions.

    PubMed

    Beyth, R; Hunnicutt, M; Alguire, P C

    1991-02-01

    An area survey of tanning salon proprietors was conducted in a medium-sized midwestern city. Proprietors reported they were in compliance with federal safety regulations, but not all had age, frequency, or duration restrictions. Similarly, proprietors were not uniformly informing patrons of potential tanning hazards, including the possibility of skin cancer, and were not knowledgeable about the risk and benefits of tanning. Some establishments reported selling psoralens to patrons to enhance tanning. More explicit guidelines regarding the use of tanning equipment and more accurate consumer information are needed. PMID:2007675

  5. Precaution, governance and the failure of medical implants: the ASR((TM)) hip in the UK.

    PubMed

    Wienroth, Matthias; McCormack, Pauline; Joyce, Thomas J

    2014-01-01

    Hip implants have provided life-changing treatment, reducing pain and improving the mobility and independence of patients. Success has encouraged manufacturers to innovate and amend designs, engendering patient hopes in these devices. However, failures of medical implants do occur. The failure rate of the Articular Surface Replacement metal-on-metal hip system, implanted almost 100,000 times world-wide, has re-opened debate about appropriate and timely implant governance. As commercial interests, patient hopes, and devices' governance converge in a socio-technical crisis, we analyse the responses of relevant governance stakeholders in the United Kingdom between 2007 and 2014. We argue that there has been a systemic failure of the governance system entrusted with the safety of patients fitted with medical implants. Commercial considerations of medical implants and the status quo of medical implant governance have been given priority over patient safety despite the availability of significant failure data in an example of uncertainty about what constitutes appropriate precautionary action. PMID:26573983

  6. Early interactions between animal psychologists and animal activists and the founding of the APA Committee on Precautions in Animal Experimentation.

    PubMed

    Dewsbury, D A

    1990-03-01

    The current conflict between animal psychologists and animal rights activists often is presented as a recent and unique phenomenon. Although its scope may be unprecedented, the fundamental issues are longstanding. Early criticisms of animal psychologists are viewed in the context of the broader Victorian antivivisectionist movement and are seen as similar to those of the present time. Various attitudes toward animals and research were expressed by individuals such as Charles Darwin, George John Romanes, William James, and John Dewey. Media attacks on animal research were directed at psychologists such as G. Stanley Hall, John B. Watson, Ivan P. Pavlov, and Edward L. Thorndike. The American Psychological Association Committee on Precautions in Animal Experimentation was founded in 1925 at the instigation of Walter B. Cannon, with Robert M. Yerkes as the first chair. PMID:2178508

  7. Evolving societal risks and necessary precautions in the age of nuclear power and therapeutic radiation: an American perspective.

    PubMed

    Pham, Martin H; Yu, Cheng; Rusch, Mairead; Holloway, Charles; Chang, Eric; Apuzzo, Michael L J

    2014-12-01

    Terrorism involving nuclear or radiologic weapons can devastate populations, city infrastructures, and entire sociopolitical systems. In our age of nuclear medicine and therapeutic radiation delivery, the unauthorized and illegal acquisition of radioactive materials needed for such an attack is always a possibility and risk. Physicians handling high-energy isotopes for medical radiotherapy must be aware of the basic security requirements as outlined by the Nuclear Regulation Commission, which include background checks and authorized access, physical protection during radionuclide use, and physical protection during its transit. The Leksell Gamma Knife and its Category 1 cobalt-60 radioactive source are discussed because of their significant potential for deployment in a weaponized device. Although this article presents a perspective relating to American rules and regulations, these precautions are applicable anywhere that similar situations exist. Understanding these materials and the security they require is essential to preventing the disastrous outcomes should these isotopes fall into terrorists' hands. PMID:25218709

  8. Preventing Transmission of Zika Virus in Labor and Delivery Settings Through Implementation of Standard Precautions - United States, 2016.

    PubMed

    Olson, Christine K; Iwamoto, Martha; Perkins, Kiran M; Polen, Kara N D; Hageman, Jeffrey; Meaney-Delman, Dana; Igbinosa, Irogue I; Khan, Sumaiya; Honein, Margaret A; Bell, Michael; Rasmussen, Sonja A; Jamieson, Denise J

    2016-01-01

    Zika virus transmission was detected in the Region of the Americas (Americas) in Brazil in May 2015, and as of March 21, 2016, local mosquito-borne transmission of Zika virus had been reported in 32 countries and territories in the Americas, including Puerto Rico and the U.S. Virgin Islands.* Most persons infected with Zika virus have a mild illness or are asymptomatic. However, increasing evidence supports a link between Zika virus infection during pregnancy and adverse pregnancy and birth outcomes (1), and a possible association between recent Zika virus infection and Guillain-Barré syndrome has been reported (2). Although Zika virus is primarily transmitted through the bite of Aedes species of mosquitoes, sexual transmission also has been documented (3). Zika virus RNA has been detected in a number of body fluids, including blood, urine, saliva, and amniotic fluid (3-5), and whereas transmission associated with occupational exposure to these body fluids is theoretically possible, it has not been documented. Although there are no reports of transmission of Zika virus from infected patients to health care personnel or other patients, minimizing exposures to body fluids is important to reduce the possibility of such transmission. CDC recommends Standard Precautions in all health care settings to protect both health care personnel and patients from infection with Zika virus as well as from blood-borne pathogens (e.g., human immunodeficiency virus [HIV] and hepatitis C virus [HCV]) (6). Because of the potential for exposure to large volumes of body fluids during the labor and delivery process and the sometimes unpredictable and fast-paced nature of obstetrical care, the use of Standard Precautions in these settings is essential to prevent possible transmission of Zika virus from patients to health care personnel. PMID:27010422

  9. Range Safety Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schrock, Kenneth W.; Humphries, Ricky H. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The high kinetic and potential energy of a launch vehicle mandates there be a mechanism to minimize possible damage to provide adequate safety for the launch facilities, range, and, most importantly, the general public. The Range Safety System, sometimes called the Flight Termination System or Flight Safety System, provides the required level of safety. The Range Safety System section of the Avionics chapter will attempt to describe how adequate safety is provided, the system's design, operation, and it's interface with the rest of the launch vehicle.

  10. Precautions against biological and chemical terrorism directed at food and water supplies.

    PubMed

    Khan, A S; Swerdlow, D L; Juranek, D D

    2001-01-01

    Deliberate food and water contamination remains the easiest way to distribute biological or chemical agents for the purpose of terrorism, despite the national focus on dissemination of these agents as small-particle aerosols or volatile liquids. Moreover, biological terrorism as a result of sabotage of our food supply has already occurred in the United States. A review of naturally occurring food- and waterborne outbreaks exposes this vulnerability and reaffirms that, depending on the site of contamination, a significant number of people could be infected or injured over a wide geographic area. Major knowledge gaps exist with regard to the feasibility of current disinfection and inspection methods to protect our food and water against contamination by a number of biological and chemical agents. However, a global increase in food and water safety initiatives combined with enhanced disease surveillance and response activities are our best hope to prevent and respond quickly to food- and waterborne bioterrorism. PMID:11571403

  11. Predictors of Intention To Take Precautions against AIDS among Black College Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tashakkori, Abbas; Thompson, Vaida D.

    This research explored the effects of a number of factors derived from extant intention-behavior models on a general behavioral intention to engage in protection against Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) and a specific behavioral intention to use condoms as protection in vaginal sex. Data pertaining to beliefs, knowledge about AIDS, fear…

  12. Safety evaluation of some wild plants in the New Nordic Diet.

    PubMed

    Mithril, Charlotte; Dragsted, Lars Ove

    2012-12-01

    One of the dietary components in the New Nordic Diet, is plants from the wild countryside. However, these may have a high content of bioactive components, some of which could be toxic in larger quantities. The objective of this paper is to outline a strategy for safety evaluation of wild plants not covered in current food compositional databases and to apply the method for selected plants used in the New Nordic Diet recipes. Four examples of typical wild edible plants were evaluated (stinging nettle, sorrel, chickweed and common lambsquarters), and based on substantial equivalence with known food plants the majority of the bioactive components reported were within the range experienced when eating or drinking typical food stuffs. For most compounds the hazards could be evaluated as minor. The only precaution found was for common lambsquarters because of its presumed high level of oxalic acid. It is concluded that a substance-by-substance evaluation of intake by equivalence to common foods is a useful and efficient strategy to evaluate the safety of newly introduced wild edible plants. Further evaluation and better compositional analyses are warranted before a daily consumption of significant amounts of wild edible plants can be generally regarded as safe. PMID:23009884

  13. From general policy to legal rule: aspirations and limitations of the precautionary principle.

    PubMed Central

    Marchant, Gary E

    2003-01-01

    The rapid spread of the precautionary principle (PP) demonstrates the need to explicitly address the role of precaution in environmental decision making. Unfortunately, the PP in its current form is limited by the vagueness of, and variations in, the many formulations of the PP. This ambiguity in the meaning of the PP would not be so serious if the PP were limited to a general aspirational policy, but in every jurisdiction that has adopted the PP it has been transformed rapidly into a binding legal rule. As a legal rule, the ambiguity of the PP results in arbitrary application by regulatory agencies and reviewing courts and limits the capability of reviewing courts to perform their function in overseeing agency actions. To improve the explicit application of precaution, we must go beyond the current form of the PP and attempt to define the factors that weigh in favor of more or less precaution for specific risks. PMID:14594635

  14. Barriers and Facilitators of Compliance with Universal Precautions at First Level Health Facilities in Northern Rural Pakistan

    PubMed Central

    Yousafzai, Mohammad Tahir; Janjua, Naveed Zafar; Siddiqui, Amna Rehana; Rozi, Shafquat

    2015-01-01

    Aim We assessed the compliance at first level care facilities (FLCF) with universal precautions (UP) and its behavioral predictors using Health Belief Model (HBM). Methods A sample of FLCF from public clinic (PC), privately owned licensed practitioners’ clinic (LPC) and non-licensed practitioners’ clinic (NLPC) was obtained. Health Care Workers (HCW) who diagnose and prescribe medication was termed as Prescriber and that carries out prescriber’s order was defined Assistant. Compliance to UP was measured on 11 items Likert scale. HCW responded “always” or “often” to all items of UP were added to compute a binary variable of overall compliance. We used linear regression to assess association between HBM and UP score. Results We interviewed 485 HCW (75% prescribers) from 365 clinics; mean age 38±10.4 years. Overall, compliance to UP was 6.6%; 11.6% LPC, 5.3% PC, and 4.4% NLPC. Prescribers were less compliant than Assistants. Compliance with not recapping contaminated needle was poor (PC=32%, LPC=33%, NLPC=15%). Compliance with wearing gloves during blood or body fluid exposure was lowest (30%) at PC. Modes of transmission knowledge, self-efficacy and perceived benefits of safe practice, and susceptibility to blood borne infections were positively associated with UP score. Conclusion Higher perception of barriers and severity of blood borne infection result in lower compliance. PMID:26715918

  15. Using the Precaution Adoption Process model to describe a disaster preparedness intervention among low-income Latinos.

    PubMed

    Glik, Deborah C; Eisenman, David P; Zhou, Qiong; Tseng, Chi-Hong; Asch, Steven M

    2014-04-01

    Only 40-50% of households in the United States are currently disaster prepared. In this intervention study, respondent-driven sampling was used to select a sample (n = 187) of low income, Latino residents of Los Angeles County, randomly assigned into two treatment conditions: (i) household preparedness education received through 'promotora' (community health worker) led small group meetings, and (ii) household preparedness education received through print media. Weinstein's Precaution Adoption Process, a stage model appropriate for risk communication guided the intervention. Outcomes are conceptualized as stages of decision making linked to having disaster supplies and creating a family communication plan. Quantitative results showed a significant shift over time from awareness to action and maintenance stages for disaster communication plans and supplies in both study arms; however, the shift in stage for a communication plan for those in the 'platica' study arm was (P < 0.0001) than for those in the media arm. For changes in stage linked to disaster supplies, people in both media and 'platica' study arms improved at the same rate. Simple media-based communications may be sufficient to encourage disadvantaged households to obtain disaster supplies; however, adoption of the more complex disaster family communication requires interpersonal education. PMID:24399266

  16. Pharmacovigilance as a tool for safety and monitoring: a review of general issues and the specific challenges with end-stage renal failure patients

    PubMed Central

    Jacob, Dalia; Marrn, Beln; Ehrlich, Jay; Rutherford, Peter A

    2013-01-01

    Pharmacovigilance is instrumental in helping to ensure patient safety for both newly released drugs and those that are well established in the market. However, while pharmacovigilance procedures are strictly regulated in the clinical trial setting, post-marketing adverse event reporting is not well implemented or enforced. As such, the underreporting of adverse events, in relation to drugs that are on the market, is estimated to be in the region of 90%. The identification of drug safety issues in patients with complex diseases and extensive comorbidities is therefore particularly challenging. Dialysis patients those with end-stage renal disease and often other comorbidities such as diabetes, hypertension, and cardiovascular disease are a population with significant treatment challenges. Patients receive dialysis using complex medical devices (eg, a peritoneal dialysis home cycler) and also receive a range of pharmaceutical agents as part of dialysis itself (eg, peritoneal dialysis solutions). Many of the pharmaceutical agents used to treat these patients have been developed in populations without these complications and, therefore, an extensive knowledge of potential problems and contraindications in the dialysis population is lacking. It is important that the nephrology community understands the concept of pharmacovigilance the pharmacologic science relating to the detection, assessment, understanding, and prevention of adverse effects, particularly long-term and short-term side effects, of medicines. Health care professionals (HCPs) and providers, pharmaceutical companies, global regulatory agencies, and the patients themselves all play unique and critical roles in this process. This review defines the science of pharmacovigilance and the process of adverse event reporting, highlights the new directions that pharmacovigilance has taken, and provides insight for HCPs managing dialysis patients into the important role that they play in helping to shape the understanding of a drugs safety profile in order to continually enhance patient safety. PMID:23637559

  17. Tracing Glacial-Interglacial Thermohaline Circulation with Nd isotopes: Progress and Precautions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goldstein, S. L.; Hemming, S. R.; Piotrowski, A. M.; Rutberg, R. L.

    2002-12-01

    The variability of thermohaline circulation through glacial cycles is still an open issue because conventional paleoceanographic proxies disagree. Nd isotopes are potentially an effective tracer of ocean circulation because the end-member water masses are very different, with the Pacific having much higher values than the North Atlantic. Moreover, depth profiles show that Nd isotope ratios follow water masses. Nd is sequestered from deep water by Fe-Mn oxide precipitation, leaving a record that is extractable from deep sea cores. Unlike light stable isotopes or trace element ratios, Nd isotope ratios are not fractionated by biological processes. Over the few last years the Lamont group has focussed on testing the Nd isotope proxy through comparison of surface sediments and deep water, and examining variations through the last glacial period in deep sea cores with known chronologies. Samples that fail to give marine Sr isotope ratios are rejected. Finding samples that pass the Sr test is a challenge in some regions (for example, the Circum-Antarctic and North Atlantic). Experience shows that if a sample fails the Sr isotope test, then the entire core is likely to fail. Successful cores strongly indicate major changes in the export of NADW to the Southern Ocean over since the last interglacial on both long and millennial time-scales. The current data set can be summarized as follows. (1) Holocene coretop samples reflect present-day bottom water. (2) The conveyor was weak during MIS 2 and 4, and stronger during MIS 3. (3) Data from different depths in the Atlantic are not consistent with a shallowing of NADW and a constant flux during the LGM, but rather indicate weakening of the conveyor. (4) During Termination I, NADW export began to strengthen prior to the Bolling warming, and shows a general strengthening through the transition but a significant weakening during the Younger Dryas. (5) Dansgaard-Oeschger warmings during MIS 3 are accompanied by a strengthened conveyor. The current data indicate Nd isotopes in the Fe-Mn oxide fractions of cores are sensitive tracers of thermohaline circulation changes if samples are screened for the integrity of the marine signal.

  18. Farm Safety

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, G. S.

    1966-01-01

    Accident and safety are related terms; the higher the accident rate in any industry, the greater is the need for safety measures designed to prevent accidents. This article discusses the accident and safety problems in agriculture, which includes horticulture and forestry. There is still a tendency among townspeople to think of the countryside as peaceful and tranquil, a place where nothing happens very quickly and far removed from violent death or crippling injury. This pleasant rustic picture has undergone a striking change in the last 30 years owing to considerable agricultural mechanization and the development of chemical pesticides, which have brought new dangers to those who live and work on the land. Although men have readily adapted themselves to new machines and methods, they have not proved as able to recognize new dangers and learn how to guard against them. In consequence, accidents have increased to such an extent that the whole industry has realized the need for positive preventive measures. In this country, it is generally accepted that an employer of labour has a responsibility to provide safe working conditions for those he employs. Farm safety legislation goes a little further and usually requires an employer to provide necessary safeguards, with the added requirement on a worker to make use of them. It is a feature of accident prevention work that it never reaches a stage when it can be regarded as complete. Even when a reduction in accidents has been achieved, the effort must be sustained or the trend will be quickly reversed. Images PMID:5904095

  19. Manicure and Pedicure Safety

    MedlinePLUS

    ... beauty General skin care Hair care Nail care Artificial nails Manicure, pedicure safety Nail biting Tips for ... make nails break more frequently. Do not wear artificial nails to cover up nail problems as they ...

  20. Religious Candles Safety

    MedlinePLUS

    ... windows where a blind or curtain could catch fire. KKK Candles placed on, or near tables, altars, ... in a deep basin filled with water. General Fire Safety Matches and lighters should be stored out ...

  1. Safety Guide for Health Occupations Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Illinois State Board of Vocational Education and Rehabilitation, Springfield. Div. of Vocational and Technical Education.

    The handbook is intended to be utilized by health occupations teachers as supplementary instructional materials for a unit on safety. The document contains general safety rules applicable to hospitals and other health care institutions. Outlined are general rules for fire safety and office and clerical safety and more specific rules for the…

  2. Drug Safety

    MedlinePLUS

    ... over-the-counter drug. The FDA evaluates the safety of a drug by looking at Side effects ... clinical trials The FDA also monitors a drug's safety after approval. For you, drug safety means buying ...

  3. Food Safety

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Waste Food Safety Newsroom Dietary Guidelines Communicator’s Guide Food Safety You are here Home / Audience / Children / Preschoolers Food Safety Print Share Preschoolers' immune systems are still developing. ...

  4. Safety Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daniels, James H.; And Others

    1980-01-01

    Five articles in this issue focus on safety education in agricultural laboratories. Topics discussed include teacher liability; elements of a safety instruction program; state and federal safety standards; ground fault current protection; and eye protection requirements and equipment. (SK)

  5. Vaccine Safety

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Vaccine Safety Smallpox Vaccine Safety Common Concerns Adjuvants Autism CDC Statement: 2004 Pediatrics Paper on MMR and Autism Fainting (Syncope) Febrile Seizures Guillain-Barre Syndrome Multiple ...

  6. 49 CFR 192.53 - General.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) PIPELINE SAFETY TRANSPORTATION OF NATURAL AND OTHER GAS BY PIPELINE: MINIMUM FEDERAL SAFETY STANDARDS Materials 192.53 General. Materials for pipe...

  7. The determining of the coefficient of safety of bearing ability of anisotropic bars in the general case of their complex resistance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sibgatullin, K. E.; Sibgatullin, E. S.

    2014-12-01

    The bars of any form made of a uniform anisotropic material are considered. Generally in the cross section of a bar all internal power factors (IPF) - three forces and three moments are other than zero. Values IPF are known from the solution of the corresponding task. The coefficient of a stock of bearing ability of a bar is defined by a way of comparison of known vector IPF vec R* with the corresponding required vector of durability vec R in IPF space.

  8. Missouri Secondary Science Safety Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lemons, Judith L.

    The purpose of this safety manual is to provide a resource to help manage and minimize potential risks in science classrooms where students spend up to 60% of instructional time engaged in hands-on activities. This manual contains information on standards, legal aspects, and responsibilities for science safety; general laboratory safety for

  9. SAFETY IN THE CHEMICAL LABORATORY.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    STEERE, NORMAN V.

    MONTHLY ARTICLES ON LABORATORY SAFETY THAT APPEARED IN THE "JOURNAL OF CHEMICAL EDUCATION" BETWEEN JANUARY 1964, AND JANUARY 1967, ARE COMBINED IN THIS MANUAL FOR HIGH SCHOOL AND COLLEGE CHEMISTRY TEACHERS. A GENERAL SECTION DEALS WITH (1) RESPONSIBILITY FOR ACCIDENT PREVENTION, (2) SAFETY CONSIDERATION IN RESEARCH PROPOSALS, (3) A SAFETY

  10. Safety in the Chemical Laboratory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steere, Norman V.

    1969-01-01

    Presents the Safety Guide used in the Research Center at Monsanto Chemical Company (St. Louis). Topics include: general safety practices, safety glasses and shoes, respiratory protection, electrical wiring, solvent handling and waste disposal. Procedures are given for evacuating, "tagging out, and "locking out. Special mention is given to…

  11. Missouri Secondary Science Safety Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lemons, Judith L.

    The purpose of this safety manual is to provide a resource to help manage and minimize potential risks in science classrooms where students spend up to 60% of instructional time engaged in hands-on activities. This manual contains information on standards, legal aspects, and responsibilities for science safety; general laboratory safety for…

  12. Safety in the Chemical Laboratory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steere, Norman V.

    1969-01-01

    Presents the Safety Guide used in the Research Center at Monsanto Chemical Company (St. Louis). Topics include: general safety practices, safety glasses and shoes, respiratory protection, electrical wiring, solvent handling and waste disposal. Procedures are given for evacuating, "tagging out, and "locking out. Special mention is given to

  13. Safety against lightning for linemen working on de-energized power lines

    SciTech Connect

    Mousa, A.M.; Srivastava, K.D.

    1986-01-01

    Where the risk of accidental power-frequency energization is concerned, the safety ground has a short-circuit discharge duty determined by the configuration and parameters of the power system. Safety is thus assured by selecting a safety ground having a short-circuit safety rating which matches the duty imposed by the power system. Up to now, a similar matching for lightning currents has not been possible. This paper addresses this problem by: 1. Determining the lightning current rating of typical safety grounds. 2. Calculating the lightning current discharge duty of safety grounds in terms of the insulatuon level of the line and the distance from the location of the thunderstorm. The analysis shows that special precautions are needed when working on power lines of voltage classes above 360 kV.

  14. Software Safety Progress in NASA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Radley, Charles F.

    1995-01-01

    NASA has developed guidelines for development and analysis of safety-critical software. These guidelines have been documented in a Guidebook for Safety Critical Software Development and Analysis. The guidelines represent a practical 'how to' approach, to assist software developers and safety analysts in cost effective methods for software safety. They provide guidance in the implementation of the recent NASA Software Safety Standard NSS-1740.13 which was released as 'Interim' version in June 1994, scheduled for formal adoption late 1995. This paper is a survey of the methods in general use, resulting in the NASA guidelines for safety critical software development and analysis.

  15. Mercury contamination study for flight system safety

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gorzynski, C. S., Jr.; Maycock, J. N.

    1972-01-01

    The effects and prevention of possible mercury pollution from the failure of solar electric propulsion spacecraft using mercury propellant were studied from tankage loading of post launch trajector injection. During preflight operations and initial flight mode there is little danger of mercury pollution if proper safety precautions are taken. Any spillage on the loading, mating, transportation, or launch pad areas is obvious and can be removed by vacuum cleaning soil and chemical fixing. Mercury spilled on Cape Kennedy ground soil will be chemically complexed and retained by the sandstone subsoil. A cover layer of sand or gravel on spilled mercury which has settled to the bottom of a water body adjacent to the system operation will control and eliminate the formation of toxic organic mercurials. Mercury released into the earth's atmosphere through leakage of a fireball will be diffused to low concentration levels. However, gas phase reactions of mercury with ozone could cause a local ozone depletion and result in serious ecological hazards.

  16. Falls and Fear of Falling among Community-Dwelling Seniors: The Dynamic Tension between Exercising Precaution and Striving for Independence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ward-Griffin, Catherine; Hobson, Sandra; Melles, Pauline; Kloseck, Marita; Vandervoort, Anthony; Crilly, Richard

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this phenomenological study was to explore the everyday experience of community-dwelling elders, with particular attention to seniors' perceptions of safety, fear of falling, independence, and quality of life. We also aimed to identify contextual factors that influence the health of elders who had fallen and/or had a fear of

  17. Auto Safety

    MedlinePLUS

    ... KidsHealth in the Classroom What Other Parents Are Reading Zika & Pregnancy: What to Know Signing Kids Up ... kids by following simple safety measures and by teaching some basic rules. Importance of Child Safety Seats ...

  18. Water Safety

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Caring for Your Child All About Food Allergies Water Safety KidsHealth > For Parents > Water Safety Print A ... best measure of protection. previous continue Making Kids Water Wise It's important to teach your kids proper ...

  19. Safety Panel Resources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stewart, Christine E.

    2008-01-01

    The goal of this paper is to explore what resources are potentially available to safety panels and to provide some guidance on how to utilize those resources. While the examples used in this paper will concentrate on the Flight Equipment and Reliability Review Panel (FESRRP) and Extravehicular Activity (EVA) hardware that have come through that panel, as well as resources at Johnson Space Center, the paper will address how this applies to safety panels in general, and where possible cite examples for other safety panels.

  20. 14 CFR 415.117 - Ground safety.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Ground safety. 415.117 Section 415.117... TRANSPORTATION LICENSING LAUNCH LICENSE Safety Review and Approval for Launch of an Expendable Launch Vehicle From a Non-Federal Launch Site § 415.117 Ground safety. (a) General. An applicant's safety...

  1. 14 CFR 415.117 - Ground safety.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Ground safety. 415.117 Section 415.117... TRANSPORTATION LICENSING LAUNCH LICENSE Safety Review and Approval for Launch of an Expendable Launch Vehicle From a Non-Federal Launch Site § 415.117 Ground safety. (a) General. An applicant's safety...

  2. Organizational culture, safety culture, and safety performance at research facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, William S.

    2000-07-30

    Organizational culture surveys of research facilities conducted several years ago and archival occupational injury reports were used to determine whether differences in safety performance are related to general organizational factors or to ''safety culture'' as reflected in specific safety-related dimensions. From among the organizations surveyed, a pair of facilities was chosen that were similar in size and scientific mission while differing on indices of work-related injuries. There were reliable differences in organizational style between the facilities, especially among workers in environment, safety, and health functions; differences between the facilities (and among job categories) on the safety scale were more modest and less regular.

  3. Robotic safety

    SciTech Connect

    Kessel, D.S.

    1984-10-01

    The introduction of industrial robots in the workplace has improved safety by reducing human exposure to some of the traditional hazardous tasks and environments, yet at the same time robots have introduced new hazards in the workplace. There are currently no national consensus standards for robotic safety in the US. This report discusses the hazards associated with industrial robots and provides safety guidelines to protect workers from these hazards. In conclusion, it is the responsibility of manufacturers and users of industrial robots to develop and implement robotic safety guidelines for each application to ensure worker safety. 13 references.

  4. Risk Amid Recovery: Occupational Health and Safety of Latino Day Laborers in the Aftermath of the Gulf Coast Hurricanes

    PubMed Central

    Delp, Linda; Podolsky, Laura; Aguilar, Toms

    2011-01-01

    After Katrina, the Bush administration suspended Department of Labor workplace regulations throughout the Gulf, a move consistent with their general emphasis on voluntary workplace protection programs rather than government oversight. This approach left many workers in hurricane reconstruction jobs unprotected, especially Latino immigrant day laborers who, facing language barriers and legal constraints, were least able to negotiate workplace safety or other labor conditions. Fifty-three immigrant workers and 28 key informants from community, union, church, and relief organizations in Louisiana and Mississippi were interviewed at job hiring sites and relief organizations using an inductive, exploratory approach. In this multihazard and changing work environment with a new and fluctuating workforce, enforceable policies mandating worker protection and education were sorely lacking. Free market conditions, driven by incentives to work as fast as possible, and the preponderance of unregulated small contractors and individual home owners as employers contributed to the unsafe environment. Although workers and home owners attempted to take precautions, they usually lacked adequate education about hazards, access to protective equipment, and training in its proper use. However, the labor conditions during the hurricane recovery in the Gulf Coast are likely to be duplicated throughout the country in workplaces employing Latino day laborers unless workers' health is given greater priority by regulatory agencies. PMID:21394225

  5. A pragmatic cluster randomised controlled trial to evaluate the safety, clinical effectiveness, cost effectiveness and satisfaction with point of care testing in a general practice setting rationale, design and baseline characteristics

    PubMed Central

    Laurence, Caroline; Gialamas, Angela; Yelland, Lisa; Bubner, Tanya; Ryan, Philip; Willson, Kristyn; Glastonbury, Briony; Gill, Janice; Shephard, Mark; Beilby, Justin

    2008-01-01

    Background Point of care testing (PoCT) may be a useful adjunct in the management of chronic conditions in general practice (GP). The provision of pathology test results at the time of the consultation could lead to enhanced clinical management, better health outcomes, greater convenience and satisfaction for patients and general practitioners (GPs), and savings in costs and time. It could also result in inappropriate testing, increased consultations and poor health outcomes resulting from inaccurate results. Currently there are very few randomised controlled trials (RCTs) in GP that have investigated these aspects of PoCT. Design/Methods The Point of Care Testing in General Practice Trial (PoCT Trial) was an Australian Government funded multi-centre, cluster randomised controlled trial to determine the safety, clinical effectiveness, cost effectiveness and satisfaction of PoCT in a GP setting. The PoCT Trial covered an 18 month period with the intervention consisting of the use of PoCT for seven tests used in the management of patients with diabetes, hyperlipidaemia and patients on anticoagulant therapy. The primary outcome measure was the proportion of patients within target range, a measure of therapeutic control. In addition, the PoCT Trial investigated the safety of PoCT, impact of PoCT on patient compliance to medication, stakeholder satisfaction, cost effectiveness of PoCT versus laboratory testing, and influence of geographic location. Discussion The paper provides an overview of the Trial Design, the rationale for the research methodology chosen and how the Trial was implemented in a GP environment. The evaluation protocol and data collection processes took into account the large number of patients, the broad range of practice types distributed over a large geographic area, and the inclusion of pathology test results from multiple pathology laboratories. The evaluation protocol developed reflects the complexity of the Trial setting, the Trial Design and the approach taken within the funding provided. The PoCT Trial is regarded as a pragmatic RCT, evaluating the effectiveness of implementing PoCT in GP and every effort was made to ensure that, in these circumstances, internal and external validity was maintained. Trial Registration 12612605000272695 PMID:18681979

  6. General aviation's meteorological requirements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Newton, D.

    1985-01-01

    Communication of weather theory and information about weather service products to pilots in an accurate and comprehensible manner is essential to flying safety in general. Probably no one needs weather knowledge more than the people who fly through it. The specific subject of this overview is General Aviation's Meteorological Requirements.

  7. NASA and general aviation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ethell, J. L.

    1986-01-01

    General aviation remains the single most misunderstood sector of aeronautics in the United States. A detailed look at how general aviation functions and how NASA helps keep it on the cutting edge of technology in airfoils, airframes, commuter travel, environmental concerns, engines, propellers, air traffic control, agricultural development, electronics, and safety is given.

  8. Evaluation of the efficacy and safety of imidacloprid 10% plus moxidectin 2.5% spot-on in the treatment of generalized demodicosis in dogs: results of a European field study.

    PubMed

    Heine, J; Krieger, K; Dumont, P; Hellmann, K

    2005-10-01

    Efficacy and safety of the test product imidacloprid 10%+moxidectin 2.5% spot on (Advocate, Advantage multi) in the treatment of canine generalized demodicosis were evaluated in a multi-centre, controlled, randomized, blinded field study in Albania, France, and Germany. The study was conducted according to a non-inferiority design to demonstrate that the efficacy of the test product is not inferior to that of a control product containing milbemycin oxime (Interceptor, tablets for oral application). Of the 72 dogs enrolled, all of which expressed clinical signs of generalized demodicosis, 63 completed the study. Of these, 30 dogs were treated 2-4 times, at 4-week intervals, with the test product at the recommended dose of at least 0.1 ml/kg body weight. Thirty-three dogs were treated daily for two to four periods of 4 weeks with the control product according to label instructions (0.5-1 or 1-2 mg/kg body weight). Presence of mites in deep skin scrapings and clinical improvement were assessed 3-6 times at each inspection at 4-week intervals. Treatment was discontinued in dogs negative for mites on two subsequent examinations 4 weeks apart or at the last examination on day 84. At the end of the trial, dogs in both groups showed a similar clinical improvement. No Demodex mites were detected in 26 of 30 dogs treated with imidacloprid/moxidectin and in 29 of 33 dogs treated with milbemycin oxime. Statistical evaluation confirmed that the efficacy of the test product in the treatment of generalized canine demodicosis was not inferior to that of milbemycin oxime. PMID:16228281

  9. Skateboard Safety.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Della-Giustina, Daniel

    1979-01-01

    The growing number of skateboard injuries clearly indicates a need for both recreational facilities designed exclusively for skateboarders, and for accident- prevention-oriented safety education programs. (LH)

  10. [Vaccine safety].

    PubMed

    Weisser, K; Barth, I; Keller-Stanislawski, B

    2009-11-01

    Vaccinations rank among the most effective preventive measures for protection against infectious diseases. Advances in development, production, and control of vaccines facilitate the increasing standards of vaccine safety and tolerance. Comprehensive pre-clinical and clinical tests as well as modern manufacturing and testing methods ensure that vaccines marketed nowadays are safe. As a rule, clinical trials performed before granting the marketing authorisation identify the most frequent adverse events and these results are used to evaluate the safety of the product. Such trials can identify relatively rare adverse events, which occur with a frequency of 1:1,000 to 1:10,000 of all vaccinated individuals. These adverse events will then be included in the summary of product characteristics (SPC) for the vaccine. Even after comprehensive clinical trials of vaccines, it is possible that very rare adverse events may be observed for the first time during general use of a vaccine. In recent years concern over real and alleged risks of vaccines relative to their benefit has grown in many countries including Germany. One reason for this is the fact that most infections that were previously feared have now faded from memory. This situation can be ascribed in part to the success of vaccination. In recent years an increased awareness of substantiated and assumed risks following immunization has been reported in Germany as well as many other countries. In part this may be due to the absence of infectious disease-related mortality and morbidity and to the fact that the severity of vaccine-preventable diseases is no longer observable. Consequently, rare and hypothetical adverse events attain undue public attention. As vaccination willingness diminishes, a resulting lower vaccination rate renders the population susceptible to the natural wild type infection with concomitant increases in mortality and morbidity of vaccine-preventable diseases. Thus, very rare or even unproven adverse events have attracted public attention. Declining vaccination rates resulting from these fears may result in a renewed increase of vaccine-preventable diseases. Adverse events following immunization (AEFI) need to be recognized and adequately assessed. This review presents the scientific knowledge concerning causality and frequency of several AEFI and hypothetical risks. PMID:19771402

  11. 14 CFR 417.205 - General.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... performed for a launch flown with a flight safety system and the typical dependencies that might exist among... TRANSPORTATION LICENSING LAUNCH SAFETY Flight Safety Analysis § 417.205 General. (a) Public risk management. A flight safety analysis must demonstrate that a launch operator will, for each launch, control the risk...

  12. 14 CFR 417.205 - General.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... performed for a launch flown with a flight safety system and the typical dependencies that might exist among... TRANSPORTATION LICENSING LAUNCH SAFETY Flight Safety Analysis § 417.205 General. (a) Public risk management. A flight safety analysis must demonstrate that a launch operator will, for each launch, control the risk...

  13. 14 CFR 417.205 - General.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... performed for a launch flown with a flight safety system and the typical dependencies that might exist among... TRANSPORTATION LICENSING LAUNCH SAFETY Flight Safety Analysis § 417.205 General. (a) Public risk management. A flight safety analysis must demonstrate that a launch operator will, for each launch, control the risk...

  14. 14 CFR 417.205 - General.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... performed for a launch flown with a flight safety system and the typical dependencies that might exist among... TRANSPORTATION LICENSING LAUNCH SAFETY Flight Safety Analysis § 417.205 General. (a) Public risk management. A flight safety analysis must demonstrate that a launch operator will, for each launch, control the risk...

  15. 14 CFR 417.301 - General.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... TRANSPORTATION LICENSING LAUNCH SAFETY Flight Safety System § 417.301 General. (a) Applicability. This subpart applies to any flight safety system that a launch operator uses. The requirements of § 417.107(a) define when a launch operator must use a flight safety system. A launch operator must ensure that its...

  16. 29 CFR 1926.21 - Safety training and education.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... health training programs the Secretary provides. (2) The employer shall instruct each employee in the... Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND HEALTH REGULATIONS FOR CONSTRUCTION General Safety and...

  17. 29 CFR 1926.21 - Safety training and education.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... health training programs the Secretary provides. (2) The employer shall instruct each employee in the... Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND HEALTH REGULATIONS FOR CONSTRUCTION General Safety and...

  18. 29 CFR 1926.21 - Safety training and education.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... health training programs the Secretary provides. (2) The employer shall instruct each employee in the... Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND HEALTH REGULATIONS FOR CONSTRUCTION General Safety and...

  19. 29 CFR 1926.403 - General requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 8 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false General requirements. 1926.403 Section 1926.403 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND HEALTH REGULATIONS FOR CONSTRUCTION Electrical Installation Safety Requirements § 1926.403 General requirements....

  20. Atomic Power Safety.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hogerton, John F.

    This publication is one of a series of information booklets for the general public published by The United States Atomic Energy Commission. Among the topics discussed are: What is Atomic Power?; What Does Safety Depend On?; Control of Radioactive Material During Operation; Accident Prevention; Containment in the Event of an Accident; Licensing and…

  1. Fire Safety Training Handbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Montgomery County Dept. of Fire and Rescue Services, Rockville, MD. Div. of Fire Prevention.

    Designed for a community fire education effort, particularly in which local volunteers present general information on fire safety to their fellow citizens, this workbook contains nine lessons. Included are an overview of the household fire problem; instruction in basic chemistry and physics of fire, flammable liquids, portable fire extinguishers,

  2. Safety First

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taft, Darryl

    2011-01-01

    Ned Miller does not take security lightly. As director of campus safety and emergency management at the Des Moines Area Community College (DMACC), any threat requires serious consideration. As community college administrators adopt a more proactive approach to campus safety, many institutions are experimenting with emerging technologies, including…

  3. Safety Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Halligan, Tom

    2009-01-01

    Colleges across the country are rising to the task by implementing safety programs, response strategies, and technologies intended to create a secure environment for teachers and students. Whether it is preparing and responding to a natural disaster, health emergency, or act of violence, more schools are making campus safety a top priority. At

  4. Safety First

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taft, Darryl

    2011-01-01

    Ned Miller does not take security lightly. As director of campus safety and emergency management at the Des Moines Area Community College (DMACC), any threat requires serious consideration. As community college administrators adopt a more proactive approach to campus safety, many institutions are experimenting with emerging technologies, including

  5. Safety Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Halligan, Tom

    2009-01-01

    Colleges across the country are rising to the task by implementing safety programs, response strategies, and technologies intended to create a secure environment for teachers and students. Whether it is preparing and responding to a natural disaster, health emergency, or act of violence, more schools are making campus safety a top priority. At…

  6. Science & Safety: Making the Connection.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Council of State Science Supervisors, VA.

    This document provides information on the most commonly asked science safety questions by science teachers primarily at the secondary school level. Topics include the legal responsibilities of a science teacher, a general safety checklist, proper labeling and storing of chemicals, purchasing of new chemicals and disposing of old chemicals, a…

  7. Guide for Science Laboratory Safety.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McDermott, John J.

    General and specific safety procedures and recommendations for secondary school science laboratories are provided in this guide. Areas of concern include: (1) chemicals (storage, disposal, toxicity, unstable and incompatible chemicals); (2) microorganisms; (3) plants; (4) animals; (5) electricity; (6) lasers; (7) rockets; (8) eye safety and…

  8. Patient Safety in Clinical Trials

    Cancer.gov

    Information for patients, their families and friends, and the general public about how the rights and safety of people who take part in clinical trials are protected. Learn about informed consent, institutional review boards (IRB's), and how trials are closely monitored for safety.

  9. SAFETY IN THE CHEMICAL LABORATORY.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    STEERE, NORMAN V.

    MONTHLY ARTICLES ON LABORATORY SAFETY THAT APPEARED IN THE "JOURNAL OF CHEMICAL EDUCATION" BETWEEN JANUARY 1964, AND JANUARY 1967, ARE COMBINED IN THIS MANUAL FOR HIGH SCHOOL AND COLLEGE CHEMISTRY TEACHERS. A GENERAL SECTION DEALS WITH (1) RESPONSIBILITY FOR ACCIDENT PREVENTION, (2) SAFETY CONSIDERATION IN RESEARCH PROPOSALS, (3) A SAFETY…

  10. Bromine Safety

    SciTech Connect

    Meyers, B

    2001-04-09

    The production and handling in 1999 of about 200 million kilograms of bromine plus substantial derivatives thereof by Great Lakes Chemical Corp. and Albemarle Corporation in their southern Arkansas refineries gave OSHA Occupational Injury/Illness Rates (OIIR) in the range of 0.74 to 1.60 reportable OIIRs per 200,000 man hours. OIIRs for similar industries and a wide selection of other U.S. industries range from 1.6 to 23.9 in the most recent OSHA report. Occupational fatalities for the two companies in 1999 were zero compared to a range in the U.S.of zero for all computer manufacturing to 0.0445 percent for all of agriculture, forestry and fishing in the most recent OSHA report. These results show that bromine and its compounds can be considered as safe chemicals as a result of the bromine safety standards and practices at the two companies. The use of hydrobromic acid as an electrical energy storage medium in reversible PEM fuel cells is discussed. A study in 1979 of 20 megawatt halogen working fluid power plants by Oronzio de Nora Group found such energy to cost 2 to 2.5 times the prevailing base rate at that time. New conditions may reduce this relative cost. The energy storage aspect allows energy delivery at maximum demand times where the energy commands premium rates. The study also found marginal cost and performance advantages for hydrobromic acid over hydrochloric acid working fluid. Separate studies in the late 70s by General Electric also showed marginal performance advantages for hydrobromic acid.

  11. 14 CFR 417.213 - Flight safety limits analysis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Flight safety limits analysis. 417.213..., DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION LICENSING LAUNCH SAFETY Flight Safety Analysis § 417.213 Flight safety limits analysis. (a) General. A flight safety analysis must identify the location of populated or other...

  12. 14 CFR 417.213 - Flight safety limits analysis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Flight safety limits analysis. 417.213..., DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION LICENSING LAUNCH SAFETY Flight Safety Analysis § 417.213 Flight safety limits analysis. (a) General. A flight safety analysis must identify the location of populated or other...

  13. 14 CFR 417.213 - Flight safety limits analysis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Flight safety limits analysis. 417.213..., DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION LICENSING LAUNCH SAFETY Flight Safety Analysis § 417.213 Flight safety limits analysis. (a) General. A flight safety analysis must identify the location of populated or other...

  14. Of Acceptable Risk: Science and the Determination of Safety.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lowrance, William W.

    This book looks at the problems of determination of safety and the underlying concept of safety itself. It is believed that if certain pervasive themes are properly appreciated, the whole field of safety will be better understood. The first chapter of the book sketches the general nature of safety decisions, defining safety as a measure of the…

  15. 29 CFR 1926.21 - Safety training and education.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 8 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Safety training and education. 1926.21 Section 1926.21 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND HEALTH REGULATIONS FOR CONSTRUCTION General Safety and Health Provisions § 1926.21 Safety training and education....

  16. 29 CFR 1926.21 - Safety training and education.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 8 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Safety training and education. 1926.21 Section 1926.21 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND HEALTH REGULATIONS FOR CONSTRUCTION General Safety and Health Provisions § 1926.21 Safety training and education....

  17. Of Acceptable Risk: Science and the Determination of Safety.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lowrance, William W.

    This book looks at the problems of determination of safety and the underlying concept of safety itself. It is believed that if certain pervasive themes are properly appreciated, the whole field of safety will be better understood. The first chapter of the book sketches the general nature of safety decisions, defining safety as a measure of the

  18. 49 CFR 385.5 - Safety fitness standard.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Safety fitness standard. 385.5 Section 385.5... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION FEDERAL MOTOR CARRIER SAFETY REGULATIONS SAFETY FITNESS PROCEDURES General 385.5 Safety fitness standard. The satisfactory safety rating is based on the degree...

  19. 49 CFR 385.5 - Safety fitness standard.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Safety fitness standard. 385.5 Section 385.5... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION FEDERAL MOTOR CARRIER SAFETY REGULATIONS SAFETY FITNESS PROCEDURES General 385.5 Safety fitness standard. The satisfactory safety rating is based on the degree...

  20. 49 CFR 385.5 - Safety fitness standard.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Safety fitness standard. 385.5 Section 385.5... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION FEDERAL MOTOR CARRIER SAFETY REGULATIONS SAFETY FITNESS PROCEDURES General 385.5 Safety fitness standard. The satisfactory safety rating is based on the degree...

  1. National Chemistry Teacher Safety Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plohocki, Barbra A.

    This study evaluated the status of secondary school instructional chemistry laboratory safety using a survey instrument which focused on Teacher background Information, Laboratory Safety Equipment, Facility Safety, General Safety, and a Safety Content Knowledge Survey. A fifty question survey instrument based on recent research and questions developed by the researcher was mailed to 500 secondary school chemistry teachers who participated in the 1993 one-week Woodrow Wilson National Fellowship Foundation Chemistry Institute conducted at Princeton University, New Jersey. The data received from 303 respondents was analyzed by t tests and Analysis of Variance (ANOVA). The level of significance for the study was set at ~\\ <.05. There was no significant mean difference in test performance on the Safety Content Knowledge Survey and secondary school chemistry teachers who have had undergraduate and/or graduate safety training and those who have not had undergraduate and/or graduate safety training. Secondary school chemistry teachers who attended school district sponsored safety inservices did not score higher on the Safety Content Knowledge Survey than teachers who did not attend school district sponsored safety inservice sessions. The type of school district (urban, suburban, or rural) had no significant correlation to the type of laboratory safety equipment found in the instructional chemistry laboratory. The certification area (chemistry or other type of certificate which may or may not include chemistry) of the secondary school teacher had no significant correlation to the type of laboratory equipment found in the instructional chemistry laboratory. Overall, this study indicated a majority of secondary school chemistry teachers were interested in attending safety workshops applicable to chemistry safety. Throughout this research project, many teachers indicated they were not adequately instructed on the collegiate level in science safety and had to rely on common sense and self-study in their future teaching careers.

  2. Software safety

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leveson, Nancy

    1987-01-01

    Software safety and its relationship to other qualities are discussed. It is shown that standard reliability and fault tolerance techniques will not solve the safety problem for the present. A new attitude requires: looking at what you do NOT want software to do along with what you want it to do; and assuming things will go wrong. New procedures and changes to entire software development process are necessary: special software safety analysis techniques are needed; and design techniques, especially eliminating complexity, can be very helpful.

  3. Seismic Safety Guide

    SciTech Connect

    Eagling, D.G.

    1983-09-01

    This guide provides managers with practical guidelines for administering a comprehensive earthquake safety program. The Guide is comprehensive with respect to earthquakes in that it covers the most important aspects of natural hazards, site planning, evaluation and rehabilitation of existing buildings, design of new facilities, operational safety, emergency planning, special considerations related to shielding blocks, non-structural elements, lifelines, fire protection and emergency facilities. Management of risk and liabilities is also covered. Nuclear facilities per se are not dealt with specifically. The principles covered also apply generally to nuclear facilities but the design and construction of such structures are subject to special regulations and legal controls.

  4. Safety Tips.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nagel, Miriam C., Ed.

    1984-01-01

    Outlines a cooperative effort in Iowa to eliminate dangerous or unwanted chemicals from school science storerooms. Also reviews the Council of State Science Supervisor's safety program and discusses how to prevent cuts and punctures from jagged glass tubing. (JN)

  5. Antibiotic Safety

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Copyright © 2005 by The Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology (APIC). www.apic.org Antibiotic Safety What are Antibiotics? Antibiotics are powerful medicines that help stop bacterial infections. They are used to kill germs that cause ...

  6. The Committee Studying Contagious Disease Training for Public Safety Personnel. Report of the Committee on Training of the Criminal Justice Services Board to the Governor and the General Assembly of Virginia. House Document No. 15.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Virginia State Dept. of Criminal Justice Services, Richmond.

    Through discussion and extensive research, the Committee Studying Contagious Disease Training attempted to address concerns regarding education and training of public safety personnel with regard to human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and hepatitis B virus (HBV). The committee's findings were based on Occupational Safety and Health Administration

  7. Mechanical Demolition of Buildings with Concrete Asbestos Board Siding: Methodology, Precautions, and Results at the Hanford Central Plateau - 12417

    SciTech Connect

    Kehler, Kurt

    2012-07-01

    Since the start of its contract in 2008, the CH2M Hill Plateau Remediation Company (CH2M HILL) has demolished 25 buildings with concrete asbestos board (CAB) siding using mechanical means. While the asbestos contained in CAB siding is not friable in its manufactured form, concerns persist that mechanical methods of demolition have the potential to render the asbestos friable and airborne, therefore posing a health risk to demolition workers and the public. CH2M HILL's experience demonstrates that when carefully managed, mechanical demolition of CAB siding can be undertaken safely, successfully, and in compliance with regulatory requirements for the disposal of Class II Asbestos-Containing Material (ACM). While the number of buildings demolished at Hanford and the number of samples collected does not make a conclusive argument that CAB cannot be made friable with normal demolition techniques, it certainly provides a significant body of evidence for the success of the approach. Of course, there are many factors that affect how to demolish a structure and dispose of the waste. These factors will impact the success depending on each site. The most obvious factors which contribute to this success at Hanford are: 1. The availability of onsite waste disposal where the handling and cost of asbestos-containing waste is not much different than other potentially contaminated waste. Therefore, segregation of demolition debris from the potential asbestos contamination is not necessary from a debris handling or asbestos disposal aspect. 2. The space between structures is typically significant enough to allow for large exclusion zones. There are not many restrictions due to cohabitation issues or potential contamination of adjacent facilities. 3. The willingness of the regulators and client to understand the industrial safety issues associated with manual CAB removal. (authors)

  8. Safety and patients satisfaction of transcutaneous Supraorbital NeuroStimulation (tSNS) with the Cefaly device in headache treatment: a survey of 2,313 headache sufferers in the general population

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Transcutaneous supraorbital nerve stimulation (tSNS) with the Cefaly device was recently found superior to sham stimulation for episodic migraine prevention in a randomized trial. Its safety and efficiency in larger cohorts of headache sufferers in the general population remain to be determined. The objective of this study was to assess the satisfaction with the Cefaly device in 2,313 headache sufferers who rented the device for a 40-day trial period via Internet. Methods Only subjects using specific anti-migraine drugs, and thus most likely suffering from migraine, were included in the survey. Adverse events (AEs) and willingness to continue tSNS were monitored via phone interviews after the trial period. A built-in software allowed monitoring the total duration of use and hence compliance in subjects who returned the device to the manufacturer after the trial period. Results After a testing period of 58.2days on average, 46.6% of the 2,313 renters were not satisfied and returned the device, but the compliance check showed that they used it only for 48.6% of the recommended time. The remaining 54.4% of subjects were satisfied with the tSNS treatment and willing to purchase the device. Ninety-nine subjects out of the 2,313 (4.3%) reported one or more AEs, but none of them was serious. The most frequent AEs were local pain/intolerance to paresthesia (47 subjects, i.e. 2.03%), arousal changes (mostly sleepiness/fatigue, sometimes insomnia, 19 subjects, i.e. 0.82%), headache after the stimulation (12 subjects, i.e. 0.52%). A transient local skin allergy was seen in 2 subjects, i.e. 0.09%. Conclusions This survey of 2,313 headache sufferers in the general population confirms that tSNS with is a safe and well-tolerated treatment for migraine headaches that provides satisfaction to a majority of patients who tested it for 40days. Only 4.3% of subjects reported AEs, all of them were minor and fully reversible. PMID:24289825

  9. General Aviation Pilot Education Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cole, Warren L.

    General Aviation Pilot Education (GAPE) was a safety program designed to improve the aeronautical education of the general aviation pilot in anticipation that the national aircraft accident rate might be improved. GAPE PROGRAM attempted to reach the average general aviation pilot with specific and factual information regarding the pitfalls of his

  10. Teaching Safety in the Elementary School.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yost, Charles Peter

    This teaching manual is divided into four sections: (1) general safety information for teachers, (2) special problems in teaching safety, (3) learning experiences for first through third grades and fourth through sixth grades and (4) selected sources of information and safety teaching aids. Subjects include definition and causes of accidents,

  11. 40 CFR 87.6 - Aircraft safety.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true Aircraft safety. 87.6 Section 87.6... POLLUTION FROM AIRCRAFT AND AIRCRAFT ENGINES General Provisions 87.6 Aircraft safety. The provisions of... be met within the specified time without creating a hazard to aircraft safety....

  12. 40 CFR 87.6 - Aircraft safety.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Aircraft safety. 87.6 Section 87.6... POLLUTION FROM AIRCRAFT AND AIRCRAFT ENGINES General Provisions 87.6 Aircraft safety. The provisions of... be met within the specified time without creating a hazard to aircraft safety....

  13. 14 CFR 415.117 - Ground safety.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... system and operation used in launch processing and post-flight operations as required by § 417.109 of... TRANSPORTATION LICENSING LAUNCH LICENSE Safety Review and Approval for Launch of an Expendable Launch Vehicle From a Non-Federal Launch Site § 415.117 Ground safety. (a) General. An applicant's safety...

  14. 14 CFR 415.117 - Ground safety.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... system and operation used in launch processing and post-flight operations as required by § 417.109 of... TRANSPORTATION LICENSING LAUNCH LICENSE Safety Review and Approval for Launch of an Expendable Launch Vehicle From a Non-Federal Launch Site § 415.117 Ground safety. (a) General. An applicant's safety...

  15. 14 CFR 415.117 - Ground safety.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... system and operation used in launch processing and post-flight operations as required by § 417.109 of... TRANSPORTATION LICENSING LAUNCH LICENSE Safety Review and Approval for Launch of an Expendable Launch Vehicle From a Non-Federal Launch Site § 415.117 Ground safety. (a) General. An applicant's safety...

  16. 47 CFR 95.1125 - RF safety.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false RF safety. 95.1125 Section 95.1125 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES PERSONAL RADIO SERVICES Wireless Medical Telemetry Service (WMTS) General Provisions 95.1125 RF safety. Portable...

  17. 47 CFR 95.1125 - RF safety.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false RF safety. 95.1125 Section 95.1125 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES PERSONAL RADIO SERVICES Wireless Medical Telemetry Service (WMTS) General Provisions 95.1125 RF safety. Portable...

  18. 47 CFR 95.1125 - RF safety.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false RF safety. 95.1125 Section 95.1125 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES PERSONAL RADIO SERVICES Wireless Medical Telemetry Service (WMTS) General Provisions 95.1125 RF safety. Portable...

  19. 47 CFR 95.1125 - RF safety.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false RF safety. 95.1125 Section 95.1125 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES PERSONAL RADIO SERVICES Wireless Medical Telemetry Service (WMTS) General Provisions § 95.1125 RF safety. Portable...

  20. 47 CFR 95.1125 - RF safety.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false RF safety. 95.1125 Section 95.1125 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES PERSONAL RADIO SERVICES Wireless Medical Telemetry Service (WMTS) General Provisions § 95.1125 RF safety. Portable...

  1. 49 CFR 238.103 - Fire safety.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ..., 1999 (see 49 CFR parts 200-399, revised as of October 1, 1999), if prior to June 25, 2002 the material... 49 Transportation 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Fire safety. 238.103 Section 238.103..., DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION PASSENGER EQUIPMENT SAFETY STANDARDS Safety Planning and General...

  2. 40 CFR 87.6 - Aircraft safety.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Aircraft safety. 87.6 Section 87.6... POLLUTION FROM AIRCRAFT AND AIRCRAFT ENGINES General Provisions § 87.6 Aircraft safety. The provisions of... met within the specified time without creating a safety hazard....

  3. 40 CFR 87.6 - Aircraft safety.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Aircraft safety. 87.6 Section 87.6... POLLUTION FROM AIRCRAFT AND AIRCRAFT ENGINES General Provisions § 87.6 Aircraft safety. The provisions of... met within the specified time without creating a safety hazard....

  4. 49 CFR 238.103 - Fire safety.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ..., 1999 (see 49 CFR parts 200-399, revised as of October 1, 1999), if prior to June 25, 2002 the material... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Fire safety. 238.103 Section 238.103..., DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION PASSENGER EQUIPMENT SAFETY STANDARDS Safety Planning and General...

  5. 46 CFR 197.326 - Oxygen safety.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Oxygen safety. 197.326 Section 197.326 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS GENERAL PROVISIONS Commercial Diving Operations Equipment § 197.326 Oxygen safety. (a) Equipment used...

  6. 46 CFR 197.326 - Oxygen safety.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Oxygen safety. 197.326 Section 197.326 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS GENERAL PROVISIONS Commercial Diving Operations Equipment § 197.326 Oxygen safety. (a) Equipment used...

  7. Pesticide Exposure, Safety Issues, and Risk Assessment Indicators

    PubMed Central

    Damalas, Christos A.; Eleftherohorinos, Ilias G.

    2011-01-01

    Pesticides are widely used in agricultural production to prevent or control pests, diseases, weeds, and other plant pathogens in an effort to reduce or eliminate yield losses and maintain high product quality. Although pesticides are developed through very strict regulation processes to function with reasonable certainty and minimal impact on human health and the environment, serious concerns have been raised about health risks resulting from occupational exposure and from residues in food and drinking water. Occupational exposure to pesticides often occurs in the case of agricultural workers in open fields and greenhouses, workers in the pesticide industry, and exterminators of house pests. Exposure of the general population to pesticides occurs primarily through eating food and drinking water contaminated with pesticide residues, whereas substantial exposure can also occur in or around the home. Regarding the adverse effects on the environment (water, soil and air contamination from leaching, runoff, and spray drift, as well as the detrimental effects on wildlife, fish, plants, and other non-target organisms), many of these effects depend on the toxicity of the pesticide, the measures taken during its application, the dosage applied, the adsorption on soil colloids, the weather conditions prevailing after application, and how long the pesticide persists in the environment. Therefore, the risk assessment of the impact of pesticides either on human health or on the environment is not an easy and particularly accurate process because of differences in the periods and levels of exposure, the types of pesticides used (regarding toxicity and persistence), and the environmental characteristics of the areas where pesticides are usually applied. Also, the number of the criteria used and the method of their implementation to assess the adverse effects of pesticides on human health could affect risk assessment and would possibly affect the characterization of the already approved pesticides and the approval of the new compounds in the near future. Thus, new tools or techniques with greater reliability than those already existing are needed to predict the potential hazards of pesticides and thus contribute to reduction of the adverse effects on human health and the environment. On the other hand, the implementation of alternative cropping systems that are less dependent on pesticides, the development of new pesticides with novel modes of action and improved safety profiles, and the improvement of the already used pesticide formulations towards safer formulations (e.g., microcapsule suspensions) could reduce the adverse effects of farming and particularly the toxic effects of pesticides. In addition, the use of appropriate and well-maintained spraying equipment along with taking all precautions that are required in all stages of pesticide handling could minimize human exposure to pesticides and their potential adverse effects on the environment. PMID:21655127

  8. System safety education focused on flight safety

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holt, E.

    1971-01-01

    The measures necessary for achieving higher levels of system safety are analyzed with an eye toward maintaining the combat capability of the Air Force. Several education courses were provided for personnel involved in safety management. Data include: (1) Flight Safety Officer Course, (2) Advanced Safety Program Management, (3) Fundamentals of System Safety, and (4) Quantitative Methods of Safety Analysis.

  9. 49 CFR 383.151 - General.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION FEDERAL MOTOR CARRIER SAFETY REGULATIONS COMMERCIAL DRIVER'S LICENSE STANDARDS; REQUIREMENTS AND PENALTIES Commercial Driver's License Document 383.151 General. The CDL shall be a...

  10. Ultraviolet germicidal irradiation safety concerns: a lesson from the Tuberculosis Ultraviolet Shelter Study: Murphy's Law affirmed.

    PubMed

    Brickner, Philip W; Vincent, Richard L

    2013-01-01

    Concerns about the safety of Ultraviolet Germicidal Irradiation (UVGI) applications on human beings have been an issue at least since the introduction of this technology for practical use in the 1930s. The resurgence of tuberculosis (TB) in the United States in the mid-1980s led to a revival of interest in UV technology, a focus that had almost disappeared because alternate means of controlling TB had inaccurately been deemed successful. These failures in TB control led to a revival of UVGI use. And with that revival grew necessary and appropriate concerns about attempts to eliminate human overexposure. For all those working in the field of UVGI, safety issues must be a concern because when UVGI fixtures are placed improperly, or precautions ignored, room occupants are placed at risk of photokeratoconjunctivitis and photodermatitis. If safety is so prominent a concern, why do incidents of UV side effects continue to occur? See Murphy's Law. PMID:23278626

  11. First Aid and Safety

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Outdoors A Safe and Spooktacular Halloween All-Terrain Vehicle (ATV) Safety Auto Safety Backpack Safety Booster Seat ... the Whole Family Play It Safe All-Terrain Vehicle (ATV) Safety Bike Safety How to Choose & Use ...

  12. Safety in the scanning electron microscopy laboratory--1984 update.

    PubMed

    Barber, V C

    1984-01-01

    Recent information on hazards as they relate to safety in the SEM laboratory has been compiled. The paper concentrates on recent information on formaldehyde, embeddants, and a reminder of the possible hazards of photographic chemicals. A review of formaldehyde does not substantiate it as a human carcinogen or mutagen. However, the other hazards associated with it suggest that formaldehyde needs to be handled with care. The recent substantiation of epoxy resins as mutagens suggests that all operations involving embeddants should be undertaken in an effective fume hood. Other precautions are also important. The hazards of photographic chemicals need to be reiterated. It should also be pointed out that adequate ventilation of dark rooms would do a lot to reduce this hazard. PMID:6529456

  13. School Safety.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    The Newsletter of the Comprehensive Center-Region VI, 1999

    1999-01-01

    The articles in this issue dealing with school safety discusses what rural and small urban settings are doing to prevent violence and to educate young people about prosocial alternatives to violence. The research is quite clear that female, minority, and gay students are the targets of a disproportionate amount of harassment and violence, both in

  14. Safety First!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Longfield, Judith

    2006-01-01

    In this article, the author relates how a hands-on chemistry investigation provided her the inspiration to develop an effective safety lesson for her third grade chemistry class. She began the lesson by demonstrating the use of pH indicator paper to show that ordinary household (white) vinegar was an acid. With the students, she wondered aloud

  15. Safety First!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Longfield, Judith

    2006-01-01

    In this article, the author relates how a hands-on chemistry investigation provided her the inspiration to develop an effective safety lesson for her third grade chemistry class. She began the lesson by demonstrating the use of pH indicator paper to show that ordinary household (white) vinegar was an acid. With the students, she wondered aloud…

  16. Child Safety

    MedlinePLUS

    ... your children safe: Install the right child safety seat in your car Teach children how to cross the street safely Make sure they wear the right gear and equipment for sports Install and test smoke alarms Store ... your home Don't leave small children unattended

  17. Safety climate practice in Korean manufacturing industry.

    PubMed

    Baek, Jong-Bae; Bae, Sejong; Ham, Byung-Ho; Singh, Karan P

    2008-11-15

    Safety climate survey was sent to 642 plants in 2003 to explore safety climate practices in the Korean manufacturing plants, especially in hazardous chemical treating plants. Out of 642 plants contacted 195 (30.4%) participated in the surveys. Data were collected by e-mail using SQL-server and mail. The main objective of this study was to explore safety climate practices (level of safety climate and the underlying problems). In addition, the variables that may influence the level of safety climate among managers and workers were explored. The questionnaires developed by health and safety executive (HSE) in the UK were modified to incorporate differences in Korean culture. Eleven important factors were summarized. Internal reliability of these factors was validated. Number of employees in the company varied from less than 30 employees (9.2%) to over 1000 employees (37.4%). Both managers and workers showed generally high level of safety climate awareness. The major underlying problems identified were inadequate health and safety procedures/rules, pressure for production, and rule breaking. The length of employment was a significant contributing factor to the level of safety climate. In this study, participants showed generally high level of safety climate, and length of employment affected the differences in the level of safety climate. Managers' commitment to comply safety rules, procedures, and effective safety education and training are recommended. PMID:18060692

  18. 30 CFR 77.1007 - Drilling; general.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Drilling; general. 77.1007 Section 77.1007 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS, SURFACE COAL MINES AND SURFACE WORK AREAS OF UNDERGROUND COAL MINES...

  19. 14 CFR 417.205 - General.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... TRANSPORTATION LICENSING LAUNCH SAFETY Flight Safety Analysis § 417.205 General. (a) Public risk management. A flight safety analysis must demonstrate that a launch operator will, for each launch, control the risk to... must employ risk assessment, hazard isolation, or a combination of risk assessment and...

  20. Using stories to battle unintentional injuries: narratives in safety and health communication.

    PubMed

    Ricketts, Mitch; Shanteau, James; McSpadden, Breeanna; Fernandez-Medina, Kristen M

    2010-05-01

    After 14 years of rising death rates due to unintentional injuries in the U.S., it is time to ask how safety messages can be redesigned to have a greater impact on risky behavior. To this end, many researchers have called for a new, narrative approach to prevention messages-based on persuasive stories about people who have suffered injuries and illnesses in the past. Still, there is scant evidence that story-based communications are more effective than equivalent non-narrative messages at changing actual (rather than self-reported) safety and health behavior. Our research examined the impact of injury stories on actual safety behavior in a controlled experimental setting at a US university. Teams of participants assembled a product (a child's swing) using written instructions. The instructions contained safety messages targeting assembly mistakes that have been linked to serious injuries in children who play on swings. Participant teams were randomly assigned to three conditions: assembly instructions containing story-based safety messages, instructions with concrete (but non-anecdotal) safety messages, and instructions with traditional abstract safety messages. After adjustment for covariates, story-based messages resulted in a 19 percent improvement in safety behavior, compared with non-narrative communications. Importantly, injury stories did not create undue fear of the message object, demonstrating that brief anecdotes about accident victims can convince people to take reasonable precautions without creating unwarranted alarm about risks. PMID:20176428

  1. Safety harness

    DOEpatents

    Gunter, Larry W. (615 Sand Pit Rd., Leesville, SC 29070)

    1993-01-01

    A safety harness to be worn by a worker, especially a worker wearing a plastic suit thereunder for protection in a radioactive or chemically hostile environment, which safety harness comprises a torso surrounding portion with at least one horizontal strap for adjustably securing the harness about the torso, two vertical shoulder straps with rings just forward of the of the peak of the shoulders for attaching a life-line and a pair of adjustable leg supporting straps releasibly attachable to the torso surrounding portion. In the event of a fall, the weight of the worker, when his fall is broken and he is suspended from the rings with his body angled slightly back and chest up, will be borne by the portion of the leg straps behind his buttocks rather than between his legs. Furthermore, the supporting straps do not restrict the air supplied through hoses into his suit when so suspended.

  2. Routine Use of Contact Precautions for Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus and Vancomycin-Resistant Enterococcus: Which Way Is the Pendulum Swinging?

    PubMed

    Russell, Dana; Beekmann, Susan E; Polgreen, Philip M; Rubin, Zachary; Uslan, Daniel Z

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND Studies have suggested that contact precautions (CP) for methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and vancomycin-resistant enterococcus may have risks that outweigh the benefits. These risks, coupled with more widespread use of horizontal interventions such as daily bathing with chlorhexidine gluconate, have brought into question the value of routine CP for these organisms. OBJECTIVE To assess the state of utilization of CP as well as adjunctive measures to reduce the risk of transmission in US hospitals. DESIGN Cross-sectional survey. PARTICIPANTS Total of 751 physician members of the Emerging Infections Network. METHODS An 8-question electronic survey distributed by email. RESULTS A total of 426/751 (57%) responded to the survey; 337/364 (93%) of respondents use routine CP for methicillin-resistant S. aureus and 335/364 (92%) use routine CP for vancomycin-resistant enterococcus. The most widely used trigger for initiation of CP for both pathogens was positive clinical culture. Practices for discontinuation of isolation varied widely. We found that 325/354 (92%) perform routine chlorhexidine gluconate bathing and 236/353 (67%) perform S. aureus decolonization with mupirocin for 1 or more subsets of inpatients, and 82/356 (23%) reported using either hydrogen peroxide vapor or ultraviolet-C room disinfection at discharge. Free text responses noted frustration and variation in the application, practice, and process for initiation and discontinuation of CP. CONCLUSIONS Use of CP for methicillin-resistant S. aureus and vancomycin-resistant enterococcus remains commonplace, although horizontal interventions such as chlorhexidine gluconate bathing are increasingly used. The heterogeneity of practices and policies was striking. Evidence-based guidelines regarding CP and horizontal interventions are needed. Infect. Control Hosp. Epidemiol. 2015;37(1):36-40. PMID:26486272

  3. Nonimpact of Decolonization as an Adjunctive Measure to Contact Precautions for the Control of Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus Transmission in Acute Care.

    PubMed

    Peterson, Lance R; Wright, Marc O; Beaumont, Jennifer L; Komutanon, Vanida; Patel, Parul A; Schora, Donna M; Schmitt, Bryan H; Robicsek, Ari

    2015-01-01

    This was an observational study comparing methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) transmission with no decolonization of medical patients to required decolonization of all MRSA carriers during two consecutive periods: baseline with no decolonization of medical patients (16 months) and universal MRSA carrier decolonization (13 months). The setting was a one-hospital, 156-bed facility with 9,200 annual admissions. Regression models were used to compare rates of MRSA acquisition. The chi-square test was used to compare event frequencies. We used rates of MRSA clinical disease as an outcome monitor of the program. Analysis was done on 15,666 patients who had admission and discharge tests; 27.9% of inpatient days were occupied by a MRSA-positive patient (colonized patient-days) who received decolonization while hospitalized during the baseline period (this 27.9% represented those who had planned surgery) compared to 76.0% during the intervention period (P < 0.0001). The rate of MRSA transmission was 97 events (1.0%) for 9,415 admissions (2.0 transmission events/1,000 patient-days) during baseline and was 87 (1.4%) for 6,251 admissions (2.7 transmission events/1,000 patient-days) during intervention (P = 0.06; rate ratio, 0.74; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.55 to 1.00). The MRSA nosocomial clinical disease rate was 5.9 infections/10,000 patient-days in the baseline period and was 7.2 infections/10,000 patient-days for the intervention period (rate ratio, 0.82; 95% CI, 0.46 to 1.45; P = 0.49). Decolonization of MRSA patients does not add benefit when contact precautions are used for patients colonized with MRSA in acute (hospital) care. PMID:26459898

  4. Safety valve

    DOEpatents

    Bergman, Ulf C. (Malmoe, SE)

    1984-01-01

    The safety valve contains a resilient gland to be held between a valve seat and a valve member and is secured to the valve member by a sleeve surrounding the end of the valve member adjacent to the valve seat. The sleeve is movable relative to the valve member through a limited axial distance and a gap exists between said valve member and said sleeve.

  5. Electrical Power Transmission and Distribution Safety. Module SH-40. Safety and Health.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center for Occupational Research and Development, Inc., Waco, TX.

    This student module on electrical power transmission and distribution safety is one of 50 modules concerned with job safety and health. This module focuses on some of the general safety rules, techniques, and procedures that are essential in establishing a safe environment for the electrical power transmission worker. Following the introduction,…

  6. Millwright Apprenticeship. Related Training Modules. 1.1-1.8 Safety.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lane Community Coll., Eugene, OR.

    This packet, part of the instructional materials for the Oregon apprenticeship program for millwright training, contains eight modules covering safety. The modules provide information on the following topics: general safety, hand tool safety, power tool safety, fire safety, hygiene, safety and electricity, types of fire and fire prevention, and…

  7. Laboratory safety handbook

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Skinner, E.L.; Watterson, C.A.; Chemerys, J.C.

    1983-01-01

    Safety, defined as 'freedom from danger, risk, or injury,' is difficult to achieve in a laboratory environment. Inherent dangers, associated with water analysis and research laboratories where hazardous samples, materials, and equipment are used, must be minimized to protect workers, buildings, and equipment. Managers, supervisors, analysts, and laboratory support personnel each have specific responsibilities to reduce hazards by maintaining a safe work environment. General rules of conduct and safety practices that involve personal protection, laboratory practices, chemical handling, compressed gases handling, use of equipment, and overall security must be practiced by everyone at all levels. Routine and extensive inspections of all laboratories must be made regularly by qualified people. Personnel should be trained thoroughly and repetitively. Special hazards that may involve exposure to carcinogens, cryogenics, or radiation must be given special attention, and specific rules and operational procedures must be established to deal with them. Safety data, reference materials, and texts must be kept available if prudent safety is to be practiced and accidents prevented or minimized.

  8. Safety Assessment of Probiotics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lahtinen, Sampo J.; Boyle, Robert J.; Margolles, Abelardo; Frias, Rafael; Gueimonde, Miguel

    Viable microbes have been a natural part of human diet throughout the history of mankind. Today, different fermented foods and other foods containing live microbes are consumed around the world, including industrialized countries, where the diet has become increasingly sterile during the last decades. By definition, probiotics are viable microbes with documented beneficial effects on host health. Probiotics have an excellent safety record, both in humans and in animals. Despite the wide and continuously increasing consumption of probiotics, adverse events related to probiotic use are extremely rare. Many popular probiotic strains such as lactobacilli and bifidobacteria can be considered as components of normal healthy intestinal microbiota, and thus are not thought to pose a risk for the host health - in contrast, beneficial effects on health are commonly reported. Nevertheless, the safety of probiotics is an important issue, in particular in the case of new potential probiotics which do not have a long history of safe use, and of probiotics belonging to species for which general assumption of safety cannot be made. Furthermore, safety of probiotics in high-risk populations such as critically ill patients and immunocompromized subjects deserves particular attention, as virtually all reported cases of bacteremia and fungemia associated with probiotic use, involve subjects with underlying diseases, compromised immune system or compromised intestinal integrity.

  9. 14 CFR 417.309 - Flight safety system analysis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Flight safety system analysis. 417.309..., DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION LICENSING LAUNCH SAFETY Flight Safety System § 417.309 Flight safety system analysis. (a) General. (1) Each flight termination system and command control system, including each...

  10. 14 CFR 415.129 - Flight safety system test data.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Flight safety system test data. 415.129... Launch Vehicle From a Non-Federal Launch Site § 415.129 Flight safety system test data. (a) General. An applicant's safety review document must contain the flight safety system test data required by this...

  11. 14 CFR 417.309 - Flight safety system analysis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Flight safety system analysis. 417.309..., DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION LICENSING LAUNCH SAFETY Flight Safety System § 417.309 Flight safety system analysis. (a) General. (1) Each flight termination system and command control system, including each...

  12. 14 CFR 415.129 - Flight safety system test data.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Flight safety system test data. 415.129... Launch Vehicle From a Non-Federal Launch Site § 415.129 Flight safety system test data. (a) General. An applicant's safety review document must contain the flight safety system test data required by this...

  13. 14 CFR 417.309 - Flight safety system analysis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Flight safety system analysis. 417.309 Section 417.309 Aeronautics and Space COMMERCIAL SPACE TRANSPORTATION, FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION LICENSING LAUNCH SAFETY Flight Safety System § 417.309 Flight safety system analysis. (a) General. (1) Each...

  14. 14 CFR 417.309 - Flight safety system analysis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Flight safety system analysis. 417.309..., DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION LICENSING LAUNCH SAFETY Flight Safety System § 417.309 Flight safety system analysis. (a) General. (1) Each flight termination system and command control system, including each...

  15. 14 CFR 415.129 - Flight safety system test data.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Flight safety system test data. 415.129... Launch Vehicle From a Non-Federal Launch Site § 415.129 Flight safety system test data. (a) General. An applicant's safety review document must contain the flight safety system test data required by this...

  16. Texas Driver and Traffic Safety Education Teacher Preparation Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Texas Education Agency, Austin. Div. of Curriculum Development.

    This guide contains detailed descriptions of four university courses designed to give basic driver and traffic safety education preparation to prospective driver education teachers. The basic courses are as follows: Safety Education (general safety education concepts with emphasis on nontraffic areas); Driver and Traffic Safety Education I

  17. 49 CFR 390.209 - Pre-authorization safety audit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Pre-authorization safety audit. 390.209 Section 390.209 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL MOTOR CARRIER SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION FEDERAL MOTOR CARRIER SAFETY REGULATIONS FEDERAL MOTOR CARRIER SAFETY REGULATIONS; GENERAL...

  18. 14 CFR 417.309 - Flight safety system analysis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Flight safety system analysis. 417.309 Section 417.309 Aeronautics and Space COMMERCIAL SPACE TRANSPORTATION, FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION LICENSING LAUNCH SAFETY Flight Safety System § 417.309 Flight safety system analysis. (a) General. (1) Each...

  19. 16 CFR 1031.3 - Consumer Product Safety Act amendments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Consumer Product Safety Act amendments. 1031.3 Section 1031.3 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION GENERAL COMMISSION... Consumer Product Safety Act amendments. The Consumer Product Safety Act, as amended, contains...

  20. 16 CFR 1031.3 - Consumer Product Safety Act amendments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Consumer Product Safety Act amendments. 1031.3 Section 1031.3 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION GENERAL COMMISSION... Consumer Product Safety Act amendments. The Consumer Product Safety Act, as amended, contains...

  1. 29 CFR 1910.252 - General requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 5 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false General requirements. 1910.252 Section 1910.252 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS Welding, Cutting and Brazing § 1910.252 General requirements. (a) Fire prevention and...

  2. 29 CFR 1926.451 - General requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 8 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false General requirements. 1926.451 Section 1926.451 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND HEALTH REGULATIONS FOR CONSTRUCTION Scaffolds § 1926.451 General requirements. This section does not apply to aerial...

  3. 29 CFR 1926.300 - General requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 8 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false General requirements. 1926.300 Section 1926.300 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND HEALTH REGULATIONS FOR CONSTRUCTION Tools-Hand and Power § 1926.300 General requirements. (a) Condition of tools. All...

  4. 29 CFR 1926.300 - General requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 8 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false General requirements. 1926.300 Section 1926.300 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND HEALTH REGULATIONS FOR CONSTRUCTION Tools-Hand and Power § 1926.300 General requirements. (a) Condition of tools. All...

  5. 29 CFR 1926.300 - General requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 8 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false General requirements. 1926.300 Section 1926.300 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND HEALTH REGULATIONS FOR CONSTRUCTION Tools-Hand and Power § 1926.300 General requirements. (a) Condition of tools. All...

  6. 29 CFR 1915.152 - General requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false General requirements. 1915.152 Section 1915.152 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR (CONTINUED) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS FOR SHIPYARD EMPLOYMENT Personal Protective Equipment (PPE) § 1915.152 General...

  7. 29 CFR 1915.152 - General requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false General requirements. 1915.152 Section 1915.152 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR (CONTINUED) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS FOR SHIPYARD EMPLOYMENT Personal Protective Equipment (PPE) § 1915.152 General...

  8. Facebook: Perils, Perceptions and Precautions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    La Roche, Claire Reeves; Flanigan, Mary A.; La Roche, St. Clair Reeves

    2009-01-01

    Facebook is one of the fastest growing applications of the Internet. Social networking via Facebook provides a popular way for students and others to connect with a wide audience and expand their circle of friends. Facebook account holders have been denied admission to universities, not hired for jobs, lost scholarships, been disciplined by

  9. Disease Precautions for Dog Walkers

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Room Professional Development Jobs Veterinary Salary Calculator Personal Development Training & Service Opportunities Excellence in Veterinary Medicine Awards Veterinary Education Economics & Practice Economics & Finance Practice Management Client Materials Insurance ...

  10. Precautions regarding Nonword Repetition Tasks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Bruce

    2006-01-01

    Using nonword repetition tasks as an experimental approach with both adults and children has become quite common in the past 10 to 15 years for studying lexical learning and phonological processing (e.g., Bailey & Hahn, 2001; Gathercole, Frankish, Pickering & Peaker, 1998; Munson, Edwards, & Beckman, 2005; Storkel, 2001; Vitevich & Luce, 2005). In

  11. CRITICALITY SAFETY TRAINING AT FLUOR HANFORD (FH)

    SciTech Connect

    TOFFER, H.

    2005-05-02

    The Fluor Hanford Criticality Safety engineers are extensively trained. The objectives and requirements for training are derived from Department of Energy (DOE) and American National Standards Institute/American Nuclear Society Standards (ANSI/ANS), and are captured in the Hanford Criticality Safety Program manual, HNF-7098. Qualification cards have been established for the general Criticality Safety Engineer (CSE) analyst, CSEs who support specific facilities, and for the facility Criticality Safety Representatives (CSRs). Refresher training and continuous education in the discipline are emphasized. Weekly Brown Bag Sessions keep the criticality safety engineers informed of the latest developments and historic perspectives.

  12. A philosophy for space nuclear systems safety

    SciTech Connect

    Marshall, A.C.

    1992-08-01

    The unique requirements and contraints of space nuclear systems require careful consideration in the development of a safety policy. The Nuclear Safety Policy Working Group (NSPWG) for the Space Exploration Initiative has proposed a hierarchical approach with safety policy at the top of the hierarchy. This policy allows safety requirements to be tailored to specific applications while still providing reassurance to regulators and the general public that the necessary measures have been taken to assure safe application of space nuclear systems. The safety policy used by the NSPWG is recommended for all space nuclear programs and missions.

  13. Delivering safety

    SciTech Connect

    Baldwin, N.D.; Spooner, K.G.; Walkden, P.

    2007-07-01

    In the United Kingdom there have been significant recent changes to the management of civil nuclear liabilities. With the formation in April 2005 of the Nuclear Decommissioning Authority (NDA), ownership of the civil nuclear licensed sites in the UK, including the Magnox Reactor Stations, passed to this new organisation. The NDAs mission is to seek acceleration of the nuclear clean up programme and deliver increased value for money and, consequently, are driving their contractors to seek more innovative ways of performing work. British Nuclear Group manages the UK Magnox stations under contract to the NDA. This paper summarises the approach being taken within its Reactor Sites business to work with suppliers to enhance working arrangements at sites, improve the delivery of decommissioning programmes and deliver improvements in safety and environmental performance. The UK Magnox stations are 1. generation gas-graphite reactors, constructed in the 1950's and 1960's. Two stations are currently still operating, three are shut-down undergoing defueling and the other five are being decommissioned. Despite the distractions of industry restructuring, an uncompromising policy of demanding improved performance in conjunction with improved safety and environmental standards has been adopted. Over the past 5 years, this policy has resulted in step-changes in performance at Reactor Sites, with increased electrical output and accelerated defueling and decommissioning. The improvements in performance have been mirrored by improvements in safety (DACR of 0 at 5 sites); environmental standards (reductions in energy and water consumption, increased waste recycling) and the overall health of the workforce (20% reduction in sickness absence). These achievements have, in turn, been recognised by external bodies, resulting in several awards, including: the world's first ISRS and IERS level 10 awards (Sizewell, 2006), the NUMEX plant maintenance award (Bradwell, 2006), numerous RoSPA awards at site and sector level and nomination, at Company level, for the RoSPA George Earle trophy for outstanding performance in Health and Safety (Reactor Sites, 2006). After 'setting the scene' and describing the challenges that the company has had to respond to, the paper explains how these improvements have been delivered. Specifically it explains the process that has been followed and the parts played by sites and suppliers to deliver improved performance. With the experience of already having transitioned several Magnox stations from operations to defueling and then to decommissioning, the paper describes the valuable experience that has been gained in achieving an optimum change process and maintaining momentum. (authors)

  14. Safety Grooving

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1985-01-01

    Safety grooving, the cutting of grooves in concrete to increase traction and prevent injury, was first developed to reduce aircraft accidents on wet runways. Represented by the International Grooving and Grinding Association (IG&GA), the industry expanded into highway and pedestrian applications. The technique originated at Langley, which assisted in testing the grooving at airports and on highways. Skidding was reduced, stopping distance decreased, and a vehicle's cornering ability on curves was increased. The process has been extended to animal holding pens, steps, parking lots and other potentially slippery surfaces.

  15. General aviation technology assessment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jacobson, I. D.

    1975-01-01

    The existing problem areas in general aviation were investigated in order to identify those which can benefit from technological payoffs. The emphasis was placed on acceptance by the pilot/passenger in areas such as performance, safety, handling qualities, ride quality, etc. Inputs were obtained from three sectors: industry; government; and user, although slanted toward the user group. The results should only be considered preliminary due to the small sample sizes of the data. Trends are evident however and a general methodology for allocating effort in future programs is proposed.

  16. Surgeon General

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Commissioned Corps Internships, Scholarships, and Employment History Previous Surgeons General PRIORITIES Tobacco Free Living Mental and Emotional ... Prevention Strategy Family Health History REPORTS & PUBLICATIONS Surgeon General's Reports Calls to Action Conference and Workshop ...

  17. Weather Safety: Making Emergency Preparations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lobe, Bill

    1997-01-01

    Precautions to take before, what to do if outdoors or indoors during, and inspecting for damage after thunderstorms, tornadoes, hurricanes, and floods. Sidebars discuss emergency supplies to keep on hand, calculating distance from thunderstorms, and the Fujita tornado rating scale. (TD)

  18. B PLANT DOCUMENTED SAFETY ANALYSIS

    SciTech Connect

    DODD, E.N.; KERR, N.R.

    2003-08-01

    This document provides the documented safety analysis (DSA) and Central Plateau Remediation Project (CP) requirements that apply to surveillance and maintenance (S&M) activities at the 221-B Canyon Building and ancillary support structures (B Plant). The document replaces BHI-010582, Documented Safety Analysis for the B-Plant Facility. The B Plant is non-operational, deactivated and undergoing long term S&M prior to decontamination and decommissioning (D&D). This DSA is compliant with 10 CFR 830, Nuclear Safety Management, Subpart B, ''Safety Basis Requirements.'' The DSA was developed in accordance with U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) standard DOE-STD-1120-98, Integration of Environment, Safety, and Health into Facility Disposition Activities (DOE 1998) per Table 2 of 10 CFR 830 Appendix A, DOE Richland Operation Office (RL) direction (02-ABD-0053, Fluor Hanford Nuclear Safety Basis Strategy and Criteria) for facilities in long term S&M, and RL Direction (02-ABD-0091, ''FHI Nuclear Safety Expectations for Nuclear Facilities in Surveillance and Maintenance''). A crosswalk was prepared to identify potential inconsistencies between the previous B Plant safety analysis and DOE-STD-1120-98 guidance. In general, the safety analysis met the criteria of DOE-STD-1120-98. Some format and content changes have been made, including incorporating recent facility modifications and updating the evaluation guidelines and control selection criteria in accordance with RL direction (02-ABD-0053). The facility fire hazard analysis (FHA) and Technical Safety Requirements (TSR) are appended to this DSA as an aid to the users, to minimize editorial redundancy, and to provide an efficient basis for update.

  19. 49 CFR 390.209 - Pre-authorization safety audit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... MOTOR CARRIER SAFETY REGULATIONS; GENERAL Unified Registration System 390.209 Pre-authorization safety... 385.607(c) of this subchapter as a condition for receiving registration under this part....

  20. 46 CFR 197.324 - Diver's safety harness.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... GENERAL PROVISIONS Commercial Diving Operations Equipment § 197.324 Diver's safety harness. Each safety harness used in surface-supplied diving must have— (a) A positive buckling device; and (b) An...