Science.gov

Sample records for general safety precautions

  1. Safety Precautions for Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Folks, John; And Others

    Safety information is discussed and outlined in this guide. Areas include: (1) general laboratory safety rules; (2) general rules and guidelines for animals in the elementary classroom; (3) general guidelines for the physical sciences; (4) general rules for using animals in investigations, with specifics on the care and handling of mammals,…

  2. Safety Precautions in Fiber Arts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamilton, Marcia

    1979-01-01

    The author discusses the potential hazards of working with fibers, dyes, and wax in textile art projects: bacteria, dust, poisons, allergies, and fumes. Safety precautions for working with dyes are listed. This article is one of seven in this issue on fiber arts. (SJL)

  3. 10 CFR 35.415 - Safety precautions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Safety precautions. 35.415 Section 35.415 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION MEDICAL USE OF BYPRODUCT MATERIAL Manual Brachytherapy § 35.415 Safety precautions. (a... following removal of the source applicators. (c) A licensee shall notify the Radiation Safety Officer,...

  4. 10 CFR 35.415 - Safety precautions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Safety precautions. 35.415 Section 35.415 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION MEDICAL USE OF BYPRODUCT MATERIAL Manual Brachytherapy § 35.415 Safety precautions. (a... following removal of the source applicators. (c) A licensee shall notify the Radiation Safety Officer,...

  5. 10 CFR 35.415 - Safety precautions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Safety precautions. 35.415 Section 35.415 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION MEDICAL USE OF BYPRODUCT MATERIAL Manual Brachytherapy § 35.415 Safety precautions. (a... following removal of the source applicators. (c) A licensee shall notify the Radiation Safety Officer,...

  6. 10 CFR 35.415 - Safety precautions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Safety precautions. 35.415 Section 35.415 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION MEDICAL USE OF BYPRODUCT MATERIAL Manual Brachytherapy § 35.415 Safety precautions. (a... following removal of the source applicators. (c) A licensee shall notify the Radiation Safety Officer,...

  7. 10 CFR 35.415 - Safety precautions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Safety precautions. 35.415 Section 35.415 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION MEDICAL USE OF BYPRODUCT MATERIAL Manual Brachytherapy § 35.415 Safety precautions. (a... following removal of the source applicators. (c) A licensee shall notify the Radiation Safety Officer,...

  8. 10 CFR 35.315 - Safety precautions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Safety precautions. 35.315 Section 35.315 Energy NUCLEAR... Required § 35.315 Safety precautions. (a) For each patient or human research subject who cannot be released... handle the material and items as radioactive waste. (b) A licensee shall notify the Radiation...

  9. 10 CFR 35.315 - Safety precautions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Safety precautions. 35.315 Section 35.315 Energy NUCLEAR... Required § 35.315 Safety precautions. (a) For each patient or human research subject who cannot be released... handle the material and items as radioactive waste. (b) A licensee shall notify the Radiation...

  10. 10 CFR 35.315 - Safety precautions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Safety precautions. 35.315 Section 35.315 Energy NUCLEAR... Required § 35.315 Safety precautions. (a) For each patient or human research subject who cannot be released... handle the material and items as radioactive waste. (b) A licensee shall notify the Radiation...

  11. 10 CFR 35.315 - Safety precautions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Safety precautions. 35.315 Section 35.315 Energy NUCLEAR... Required § 35.315 Safety precautions. (a) For each patient or human research subject who cannot be released... handle the material and items as radioactive waste. (b) A licensee shall notify the Radiation...

  12. 10 CFR 35.315 - Safety precautions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Safety precautions. 35.315 Section 35.315 Energy NUCLEAR... Required § 35.315 Safety precautions. (a) For each patient or human research subject who cannot be released... handle the material and items as radioactive waste. (b) A licensee shall notify the Radiation...

  13. 43 CFR 3162.5-3 - Safety precautions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Safety precautions. 3162.5-3 Section 3162... for Operating Rights Owners and Operators § 3162.5-3 Safety precautions. The operator shall perform... necessary to provide adequate protection for the health and safety of life and the protection of...

  14. 43 CFR 3162.5-3 - Safety precautions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Safety precautions. 3162.5-3 Section 3162... for Operating Rights Owners and Operators § 3162.5-3 Safety precautions. The operator shall perform... necessary to provide adequate protection for the health and safety of life and the protection of...

  15. 43 CFR 3162.5-3 - Safety precautions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Safety precautions. 3162.5-3 Section 3162... for Operating Rights Owners and Operators § 3162.5-3 Safety precautions. The operator shall perform... necessary to provide adequate protection for the health and safety of life and the protection of...

  16. 43 CFR 3162.5-3 - Safety precautions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Safety precautions. 3162.5-3 Section 3162... for Operating Rights Owners and Operators § 3162.5-3 Safety precautions. The operator shall perform... necessary to provide adequate protection for the health and safety of life and the protection of...

  17. Safety Precautions. Child Health and Safety Series (Module I).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Iscoe, Louise; And Others

    This manual for parents and child care personnel in day care homes and centers provides guidelines and information on indoor and outdoor safety precautions, emergency preparation and first aid. Contents focus on monitoring arrivals and departures, prevention of suffocation and strangulation, control of pets and other animals, preventing and…

  18. Key Rules of the Safety Precautions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In research on phytochemical investigations, we use some equipment and materials which can be hazardous to employees or our environment if suitable precautions are not taken. Certain hazards exist and risks must be carefully considered and examined. The objective of this chapter is to minimize or ...

  19. 48 CFR 252.236-7005 - Airfield safety precautions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Airfield safety precautions. 252.236-7005 Section 252.236-7005 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEFENSE ACQUISITION REGULATIONS SYSTEM, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE CLAUSES AND FORMS SOLICITATION PROVISIONS AND CONTRACT CLAUSES Text of Provisions And Clauses...

  20. 48 CFR 223.370 - Safety precautions for ammunition and explosives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ..., RENEWABLE ENERGY TECHNOLOGIES, OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY, AND DRUG-FREE WORKPLACE Hazardous Material Identification and Material Safety Data 223.370 Safety precautions for ammunition and explosives....

  1. Analysis of safety precautions for coal and gas outburst-hazardous strata

    SciTech Connect

    Hudecek, V.

    2008-09-15

    The author analyses coal and gas outbursts and generalizes the available data on the approaches to solving the problematics of these gas-dynamic events in the framework of Czech Republic Grant 'Estimate of the Safety Precautions for Coal and Gas Outburst Hazardous Strata'.

  2. 29 CFR 1915.131 - General precautions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS FOR SHIPYARD EMPLOYMENT Tools and Related Equipment..., shipbuilding and shipbreaking. (a) Hand lines, slings, tackles of adequate strength, or carriers such as tool bags with shoulder straps shall be provided and used to handle tools, materials, and equipment so...

  3. 29 CFR 1915.131 - General precautions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS FOR SHIPYARD EMPLOYMENT Tools and Related Equipment..., shipbuilding and shipbreaking. (a) Hand lines, slings, tackles of adequate strength, or carriers such as tool bags with shoulder straps shall be provided and used to handle tools, materials, and equipment so...

  4. 29 CFR 1915.131 - General precautions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS FOR SHIPYARD EMPLOYMENT Tools and Related Equipment..., shipbuilding and shipbreaking. (a) Hand lines, slings, tackles of adequate strength, or carriers such as tool bags with shoulder straps shall be provided and used to handle tools, materials, and equipment so...

  5. Safety first: precautions for the massive weight loss patient.

    PubMed

    Davison, Steven P; Clemens, Mark W

    2008-01-01

    A significant increase in bariatric procedures has led to success in maintaining long-term weight loss. The increasing population of patients who have lost massive amounts of weight also has led to a growing responsibility placed on body-contouring surgeons to perform safe and cautious procedures in this inherently difficult patient population. We stratify risk groups and present several case reports and a systematic review of safety precautions. The risks and complications of body contouring can be minimized by a team approach with a meticulous attention to patient evaluation, preoperative planning, safe detailed operative measures, and thorough postoperative care. PMID:18061812

  6. 30 CFR 75.1903 - Underground diesel fuel storage facilities and areas; construction and safety precautions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Underground diesel fuel storage facilities and areas; construction and safety precautions. 75.1903 Section 75.1903 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Diesel-Powered Equipment...

  7. Less restrictive patient-specific radiation-safety precautions can be safely prescribed after permanent seed implantation

    PubMed Central

    Dauer, Lawrence T.; Kollmeier, Marisa A.; Williamson, Matthew J.; St. Germain, Jean; Altamirano, Joaquin; Yamada, Yoshiya; Zelefsky, Michael J.

    2013-01-01

    PURPOSE To utilize radiation exposure-rate measurements to determine patient-specific radiation-safety instructions with the aim of reducing unnecessary precaution times and to evaluate potential doses to members of the public. Materials and Methods Radiation exposure-rate measurements were obtained from 1279 patients with stage T1-2 prostate cancer who underwent transperineal I-125 or Pd-103 seed implantation from January 1995 through July 2008. An algorithm was developed from these measurements to determine required precaution times needed to maintain public effective doses below 50% of the limits for specific exposure situations. Results The median air kerma rates at 30 cm from the anterior skin surface were 4.9 μGy/h (range: 0.1-31.5) for I-125 and 1.5 μGy/h (range: 0.02-14.9) for Pd-103. Derived algorithms depended primarily upon the half-life, Tp, the measured exposure rate at 30 cm, and specific exposure situation factors. For the typical Pd-103 patient, no radiation-safety precautions are required. For the typical I-125 patient, no precautions are required for co-workers, nonpregnant adults that do not sleep with the family member, or nonpregnant adults that sleep with the patient. Typical I-125 patients should only need to avoid sleeping in the “spoon” position (i.e., in contact) with pregnant adults and avoid holding a child for long periods of time in the lap for about 2 months. Conclusions The large number of cases available for this study permitted the development of an algorithm to simply determine patient-specific radiation-safety instructions. Resulting precaution times are significantly less restrictive than precaution times generally prescribed currently. PMID:19853532

  8. 48 CFR 223.370 - Safety precautions for ammunition and explosives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Safety precautions for ammunition and explosives. 223.370 Section 223.370 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEFENSE ACQUISITION REGULATIONS SYSTEM, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE SOCIOECONOMIC PROGRAMS ENVIRONMENT, ENERGY AND WATER EFFICIENCY, RENEWABLE ENERGY...

  9. 10 CFR 35.615 - Safety precautions for remote afterloader units, teletherapy units, and gamma stereotactic...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Safety precautions for remote afterloader units, teletherapy units, and gamma stereotactic radiosurgery units. 35.615 Section 35.615 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION MEDICAL USE OF BYPRODUCT MATERIAL Photon Emitting Remote Afterloader Units, Teletherapy Units,...

  10. 10 CFR 35.615 - Safety precautions for remote afterloader units, teletherapy units, and gamma stereotactic...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Safety precautions for remote afterloader units, teletherapy units, and gamma stereotactic radiosurgery units. 35.615 Section 35.615 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION MEDICAL USE OF BYPRODUCT MATERIAL Photon Emitting Remote Afterloader Units, Teletherapy Units,...

  11. 10 CFR 35.615 - Safety precautions for remote afterloader units, teletherapy units, and gamma stereotactic...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Safety precautions for remote afterloader units, teletherapy units, and gamma stereotactic radiosurgery units. 35.615 Section 35.615 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION MEDICAL USE OF BYPRODUCT MATERIAL Photon Emitting Remote Afterloader Units, Teletherapy Units,...

  12. 10 CFR 35.615 - Safety precautions for remote afterloader units, teletherapy units, and gamma stereotactic...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Safety precautions for remote afterloader units, teletherapy units, and gamma stereotactic radiosurgery units. 35.615 Section 35.615 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION MEDICAL USE OF BYPRODUCT MATERIAL Photon Emitting Remote Afterloader Units, Teletherapy Units,...

  13. 10 CFR 35.615 - Safety precautions for remote afterloader units, teletherapy units, and gamma stereotactic...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Safety precautions for remote afterloader units, teletherapy units, and gamma stereotactic radiosurgery units. 35.615 Section 35.615 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION MEDICAL USE OF BYPRODUCT MATERIAL Photon Emitting Remote Afterloader Units, Teletherapy Units,...

  14. Isolation precautions

    MedlinePlus

    ... is also important to properly clean up afterward . Transmission-based Precautions Transmission-based precautions are extra steps to follow for illnesses that are caused by certain germs. Transmission-based precautions are followed in addition to standard ...

  15. Fingolimod for multiple sclerosis and emerging indications: appropriate patient selection, safety precautions, and special considerations

    PubMed Central

    Ayzenberg, Ilya; Hoepner, Robert; Kleiter, Ingo

    2016-01-01

    Fingolimod (FTY720), an immunotherapeutic drug targeting the sphingosine-1-phosphate receptor, is a widely used medication for relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (MS). Apart from the pivotal Phase III trials demonstrating efficacy against placebo and interferon-β-1a once weekly, sufficient clinical data are now available to assess its real-world efficacy and safety profile. Approved indications of fingolimod differ between countries. This discrepancy, to some extent, reflects the intermediate position of fingolimod in the expanding lineup of MS medications. With individualization of therapy, appropriate patient selection gets more important. We discuss various scenarios for fingolimod use in relapsing-remitting MS and their pitfalls: as first-line therapy, as escalation therapy after failure of previous immunotherapies, and as de-escalation therapy following highly potent immunotherapies. Potential side effects such as bradycardia, infections, macular edema, teratogenicity, and progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy as well as appropriate safety precautions are outlined. Disease reactivation has been described upon fingolimod cessation; therefore, patients should be closely monitored for MS activity for several months after stopping fingolimod. Finally, we discuss preclinical and clinical data indicating neuroprotective effects of fingolimod, which might open the way to future indications such as stroke, Alzheimer’s disease, and other neurodegenerative disorders. PMID:26929636

  16. Fingolimod for multiple sclerosis and emerging indications: appropriate patient selection, safety precautions, and special considerations.

    PubMed

    Ayzenberg, Ilya; Hoepner, Robert; Kleiter, Ingo

    2016-01-01

    Fingolimod (FTY720), an immunotherapeutic drug targeting the sphingosine-1-phosphate receptor, is a widely used medication for relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (MS). Apart from the pivotal Phase III trials demonstrating efficacy against placebo and interferon-β-1a once weekly, sufficient clinical data are now available to assess its real-world efficacy and safety profile. Approved indications of fingolimod differ between countries. This discrepancy, to some extent, reflects the intermediate position of fingolimod in the expanding lineup of MS medications. With individualization of therapy, appropriate patient selection gets more important. We discuss various scenarios for fingolimod use in relapsing-remitting MS and their pitfalls: as first-line therapy, as escalation therapy after failure of previous immunotherapies, and as de-escalation therapy following highly potent immunotherapies. Potential side effects such as bradycardia, infections, macular edema, teratogenicity, and progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy as well as appropriate safety precautions are outlined. Disease reactivation has been described upon fingolimod cessation; therefore, patients should be closely monitored for MS activity for several months after stopping fingolimod. Finally, we discuss preclinical and clinical data indicating neuroprotective effects of fingolimod, which might open the way to future indications such as stroke, Alzheimer's disease, and other neurodegenerative disorders. PMID:26929636

  17. Isolation precautions

    MedlinePlus

    ... the anticipated exposure, types of PPE required include: Gloves Masks and goggles Aprons, gowns, and shoe covers ... in the room should wear a gown and gloves. Droplet precautions are used to prevent contact with ...

  18. 78 FR 28495 - Safety Zone; Safety Precautions to Protect the Public from the Effects of a Potential...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-15

    .... SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Table of Acronyms DHS Department of Homeland Security FR Federal Register NPRM Notice... Illinois River, and the potential structural concerns regarding the Marseilles Dam. This safety zone is... structural survey of the dam is being conducted. On April 29, 2013, the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers...

  19. Fall Risk Awareness and Safety Precautions Taken by Older Community-Dwelling Women and Men—A Qualitative Study Using Focus Group Discussions

    PubMed Central

    Pohl, Petra; Sandlund, Marlene; Ahlgren, Christina; Bergvall-Kåreborn, Birgitta; Lundin-Olsson, Lillemor; Wikman, Anita Melander

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Daily life requires frequent estimations of the risk of falling and the ability to avoid a fall. The objective of this study was to explore older women’s and men’s understanding of fall risk and their experiences with safety precautions taken to prevent falls. Methods A qualitative study with focus group discussions was conducted. Eighteen community-dwelling people [10 women and 8 men] with and without a history of falls were purposively recruited. Participants were divided into two groups, and each group met four times. A participatory and appreciative action and reflection approach was used to guide the discussions. All discussions were audio recorded and transcribed verbatim. Data were analysed by qualitative content analysis, and categories were determined inductively. Findings Three categories describing the process of becoming aware of fall risks in everyday life were identified: 1] Facing various feelings, 2] Recognizing one’s fall risk, and 3] Taking precautions. Each category comprised several subcategories. The comprehensive theme derived from the categories was “Safety precautions through fall risk awareness”. Three strategies of ignoring [continuing a risky activity], gaining insight [realizing the danger in a certain situation], and anticipating [thinking ahead and acting in advance] were related to all choices of actions and could fluctuate in the same person in different contexts. Conclusions The fall risk awareness process might be initiated for various reasons and can involve different feelings and precautions as well as different strategies. This finding highlights that there are many possible channels to reach older people with information about fall risk and fall prevention, including the media and their peers. The findings offer a deeper understanding of older peoples’ conceptualizations about fall risk awareness and make an important contribution to the development and implementation of fall prevention programmes. PMID

  20. Pitfalls and Precautions When Using Predicted Failure Data for Quantitative Analysis of Safety Risk for Human Rated Launch Vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hatfield, Glen S.; Hark, Frank; Stott, James

    2016-01-01

    Launch vehicle reliability analysis is largely dependent upon using predicted failure rates from data sources such as MIL-HDBK-217F. Reliability prediction methodologies based on component data do not take into account risks attributable to manufacturing, assembly, and process controls. These sources often dominate component level reliability or risk of failure probability. While consequences of failure is often understood in assessing risk, using predicted values in a risk model to estimate the probability of occurrence will likely underestimate the risk. Managers and decision makers often use the probability of occurrence in determining whether to accept the risk or require a design modification. Due to the absence of system level test and operational data inherent in aerospace applications, the actual risk threshold for acceptance may not be appropriately characterized for decision making purposes. This paper will establish a method and approach to identify the pitfalls and precautions of accepting risk based solely upon predicted failure data. This approach will provide a set of guidelines that may be useful to arrive at a more realistic quantification of risk prior to acceptance by a program.

  1. Pitfalls and Precautions When Using Predicted Failure Data for Quantitative Analysis of Safety Risk for Human Rated Launch Vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hatfield, Glen S.; Hark, Frank; Stott, James

    2016-01-01

    Launch vehicle reliability analysis is largely dependent upon using predicted failure rates from data sources such as MIL-HDBK-217F. Reliability prediction methodologies based on component data do not take into account system integration risks such as those attributable to manufacturing and assembly. These sources often dominate component level risk. While consequence of failure is often understood, using predicted values in a risk model to estimate the probability of occurrence may underestimate the actual risk. Managers and decision makers use the probability of occurrence to influence the determination whether to accept the risk or require a design modification. The actual risk threshold for acceptance may not be fully understood due to the absence of system level test data or operational data. This paper will establish a method and approach to identify the pitfalls and precautions of accepting risk based solely upon predicted failure data. This approach will provide a set of guidelines that may be useful to arrive at a more realistic quantification of risk prior to acceptance by a program.

  2. Home Safety for People with Alzheimer's Disease: General Safety Concerns

    MedlinePlus

    ... Referral Center Alzheimer's Disease Education and Referral Center Alzheimer's Disease Education and Referral Center Home About Alzheimer’s ... NAPA) About ADEAR Home Safety for People with Alzheimer's Disease General Safety Concerns People with Alzheimer's disease ...

  3. Fillers: Contraindications, Side Effects and Precautions

    PubMed Central

    Lafaille, Philippe; Benedetto, Anthony

    2010-01-01

    Fillers are generally considered safe. However side effects may happen and hence a practicing dermatologist need to be aware of such side effects, contraindicatons and precaution to be adopted while using fillers. PMID:20606987

  4. 29 CFR 1915.503 - Precautions for hot work.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Precautions for hot work. 1915.503 Section 1915.503 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR (CONTINUED) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS FOR SHIPYARD EMPLOYMENT Fire Protection in Shipyard Employment § 1915.503 Precautions...

  5. Standardising infection control precautions.

    PubMed

    Ritchie, Lisa; McIntyre, Jackie

    To minimise the risk of infection transmission, standard infection control precautions must be practised whether a patient is known to have an infection. The main aim of any infection control guideline or policy should, therefore, be to make it easy for staff to do the right thing at the right time. This article outlines standard precautions, explains their importance and presents the critical elements that should be applied in all care settings. PMID:26513984

  6. 10 CFR 39.31 - Labels, security, and transportation precautions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Labels, security, and transportation precautions. 39.31 Section 39.31 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION LICENSES AND RADIATION SAFETY REQUIREMENTS FOR WELL LOGGING Equipment § 39.31 Labels, security, and transportation precautions. (a) Labels. (1) The licensee may not use a source, source holder,...

  7. Prudent precaution in clinical trials of nanomedicines.

    PubMed

    Marchant, Gary E; Lindor, Rachel A

    2012-01-01

    Clinical trials of nanotechnology medical products present complex risk management challenges that involve many uncertainties and important risk-risk trade-offs. This paper inquires whether the precautionary principle can help to inform risk management approaches to nanomedicine clinical trials. It concludes that prudent precaution may be appropriate for ensuring the safety of such trials, but that the precautionary principle itself, especially in its more extreme forms, does not provide useful guidance for specific safety measures. PMID:23289685

  8. The precaution adoption process.

    PubMed

    Weinstein, N D

    1988-01-01

    This article presents a critique of current models of preventive behavior. It discusses a variety of factors that are usually overlooked-including the appearance of costs and benefits over time, the role of cues to action, the problem of competing life demands, and the ways that actual decision behavior differs from the rational ideal implicit in expectancy-value and utility theories. Such considerations suggest that the adoption of new precautions should be viewed as a dynamic process with many determinants. The framework of a model that is able to accommodate these additional factors is described. This alternative model portrays the precaution adoption process as an orderly sequence of qualitatively different cognitive stages. Data illustrating a few of the suggestions made in the article are presented, and implications for prevention programs are discussed. PMID:3049068

  9. Deriving and applying generally applicable safety principles

    SciTech Connect

    Spray, S.D.

    1998-08-01

    The nuclear detonation safety of modern nuclear weapons depends on a coordinated safety theme incorporating three general safety principles: isolation, inoperability, and incompatibility. The success of this approach has encouraged them to study whether these and/or other principles might be useful in other applications. Not surprisingly, no additional first-principles (based on physical laws) have been identified. However, a more widely applicable definition and application of the principle-based approach has been developed, resulting in a selection of strategies that are basically subsets and varied combinations of the more general principles above. However, identification of principles to be relied on is only one step in providing a safe design. As one other important example, coordinating overall architecture and strategy is essential: the authors term this a safety theme.

  10. Precautions for Workers 1

    PubMed Central

    Guest, G. H.

    1948-01-01

    Radioactive isotopes are now available from Chalk River for use by Canadian biologists. Experience has shown that the handling of radioactive isotopes may involve health hazards unless adequate precautions are taken. The nature of these hazards and the type of precautions which must be taken when working with radioactive isotopes are considered. Successful work with radioactive isotopes other than in the smallest tracer amounts requires the use of laboratories and equipment especially designed for the purpose and this is dealt with briefly. The operation of a radioactive laboratory requires certain auxiliary equipment and services, such as health instruments, film monitoring, special laboratory clothing, special cleanable surfaces and disposal of radioactive waste materials. These topics are discussed briefly. Handling of radioactive isotopes involves certain special precautions and a few of these, such as protection of hands, cleaning of glassware, handling of solutions, etc. are reviewed. In addition to protecting all personnel in a laboratory from harmful amounts of radiation, it is necessary to keep the laboratory and the building in which it is housed as free as possible from radioactive substances and this important fact has been stressed. ImagesFig. 1.Fig. 4.Fig. 6. PMID:17648375

  11. 45 CFR 17.3 - Precautions to be taken.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Precautions to be taken. 17.3 Section 17.3 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ADMINISTRATION RELEASE OF ADVERSE INFORMATION TO NEWS MEDIA § 17.3 Precautions to be taken. The issuing organization shall take reasonable...

  12. 45 CFR 17.3 - Precautions to be taken.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Precautions to be taken. 17.3 Section 17.3 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ADMINISTRATION RELEASE OF ADVERSE INFORMATION TO NEWS MEDIA § 17.3 Precautions to be taken. The issuing organization shall take reasonable...

  13. 45 CFR 17.3 - Precautions to be taken.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Precautions to be taken. 17.3 Section 17.3 Public Welfare Department of Health and Human Services GENERAL ADMINISTRATION RELEASE OF ADVERSE INFORMATION TO NEWS MEDIA § 17.3 Precautions to be taken. The issuing organization shall take reasonable...

  14. 33 CFR 6.16-3 - Precautions against sabotage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Precautions against sabotage. 6... GENERAL PROTECTION AND SECURITY OF VESSELS, HARBORS, AND WATERFRONT FACILITIES Sabotage and Subversive Activity § 6.16-3 Precautions against sabotage. The master, owner, agent, or operator of a vessel...

  15. 33 CFR 6.16-3 - Precautions against sabotage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Precautions against sabotage. 6... GENERAL PROTECTION AND SECURITY OF VESSELS, HARBORS, AND WATERFRONT FACILITIES Sabotage and Subversive Activity § 6.16-3 Precautions against sabotage. The master, owner, agent, or operator of a vessel...

  16. 33 CFR 6.16-3 - Precautions against sabotage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Precautions against sabotage. 6... GENERAL PROTECTION AND SECURITY OF VESSELS, HARBORS, AND WATERFRONT FACILITIES Sabotage and Subversive Activity § 6.16-3 Precautions against sabotage. The master, owner, agent, or operator of a vessel...

  17. 33 CFR 6.16-3 - Precautions against sabotage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Precautions against sabotage. 6... GENERAL PROTECTION AND SECURITY OF VESSELS, HARBORS, AND WATERFRONT FACILITIES Sabotage and Subversive Activity § 6.16-3 Precautions against sabotage. The master, owner, agent, or operator of a vessel...

  18. 45 CFR 17.3 - Precautions to be taken.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Precautions to be taken. 17.3 Section 17.3 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ADMINISTRATION RELEASE OF ADVERSE INFORMATION TO NEWS MEDIA § 17.3 Precautions to be taken. The issuing organization shall take reasonable...

  19. 45 CFR 17.3 - Precautions to be taken.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Precautions to be taken. 17.3 Section 17.3 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ADMINISTRATION RELEASE OF ADVERSE INFORMATION TO NEWS MEDIA § 17.3 Precautions to be taken. The issuing organization shall take reasonable...

  20. Generalized implementation of software safety policies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Knight, John C.; Wika, Kevin G.

    1994-01-01

    As part of a research program in the engineering of software for safety-critical systems, we are performing two case studies. The first case study, which is well underway, is a safety-critical medical application. The second, which is just starting, is a digital control system for a nuclear research reactor. Our goal is to use these case studies to permit us to obtain a better understanding of the issues facing developers of safety-critical systems, and to provide a vehicle for the assessment of research ideas. The case studies are not based on the analysis of existing software development by others. Instead, we are attempting to create software for new and novel systems in a process that ultimately will involve all phases of the software lifecycle. In this abstract, we summarize our results to date in a small part of this project, namely the determination and classification of policies related to software safety that must be enforced to ensure safe operation. We hypothesize that this classification will permit a general approach to the implementation of a policy enforcement mechanism.

  1. 29 CFR 1926.20 - General safety and health provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 8 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false General safety and health provisions. 1926.20 Section 1926.20 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND HEALTH REGULATIONS FOR CONSTRUCTION General Safety and...

  2. Safety in the Weightroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fernandez-Balboa, Juan-Miguel

    1993-01-01

    Secondary level physical educators must be sure to instruct their weight lifters in proper spotting and lifting procedures, because weight training carries a high risk of injury. The article explains how to check the equipment, spot properly for specific exercises, and take general safety precautions in the weight room. (SM)

  3. Influencing factors on use of standard precautions against occupational exposures to blood and body fluids among nurses in China

    PubMed Central

    Quan, Mingtao; Wang, Xuyao; Wu, Hualian; Yuan, Xiaoli; Lei, Dan; Jiang, Zhixia; Li, Lezhi

    2015-01-01

    Aims: To investigate how specific factors, including knowledge, attitude, use of protective devices, safety climate, workload, and nurses’ behaviors can influence standard precautions in China through structural equation modeling techniques. Background: Although a number of empirical studies have been conducted, an investigation of how multiple variables influence behaviors of standard precautions among the nurses is still needed. Methods: The study was conducted by selecting registered nurses from 25 public hospitals that operate approximately 500 beds located in different areas of Guizhou Province in China. An anonymous, self-administered questionnaire was distributed to 1000 nurses, and 964 (96.4%) completed questionnaires were returned. exploratory factor analysis was employed to examine associations of attitudes, protective devices, safety climate, workload, and nurses’ behaviors with standard precautions. The identified factors were integrated in the proposed structural equation model. Findings: Protective devices had a positive and major influence on nurses’ use of standard precautions. Knowledge had a positive impact on the use of standard precautions through attitude mediation, and the safety climate had a positive impact on the use of standard precautions. In contrast, increasing workload had a negative effect on the use of standard precautions. The factors affecting the use of standard precautions among nurses in order of decreasing effect size were: protective devices, knowledge, attitude, safety climate, and workload. Conclusions: This study offer valuable information for healthcare management regarding the use of standard precautions to reduce occupational exposure among nurses. PMID:26885227

  4. 29 CFR 1915.131 - General precautions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... the teeth, except for the minimum arc required to permit the base to be tilted for bevel cuts. The lower guard shall cover the saw to the depth of the teeth, except for the minimum arc required to...

  5. 29 CFR 1915.131 - General precautions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... the teeth, except for the minimum arc required to permit the base to be tilted for bevel cuts. The lower guard shall cover the saw to the depth of the teeth, except for the minimum arc required to...

  6. Participatory design of a preliminary safety checklist for general practice

    PubMed Central

    Bowie, Paul; Ferguson, Julie; MacLeod, Marion; Kennedy, Susan; de Wet, Carl; McNab, Duncan; Kelly, Moya; McKay, John; Atkinson, Sarah

    2015-01-01

    Background The use of checklists to minimise errors is well established in high reliability, safety-critical industries. In health care there is growing interest in checklists to standardise checking processes and ensure task completion, and so provide further systemic defences against error and patient harm. However, in UK general practice there is limited experience of safety checklist use. Aim To identify workplace hazards that impact on safety, health and wellbeing, and performance, and codesign a standardised checklist process. Design and setting Application of mixed methods to identify system hazards in Scottish general practices and develop a safety checklist based on human factors design principles. Method A multiprofessional ‘expert’ group (n = 7) and experienced front-line GPs, nurses, and practice managers (n = 18) identified system hazards and developed and validated a preliminary checklist using a combination of literature review, documentation review, consensus building workshops using a mini-Delphi process, and completion of content validity index exercise. Results A prototype safety checklist was developed and validated consisting of six safety domains (for example, medicines management), 22 sub-categories (for example, emergency drug supplies) and 78 related items (for example, stock balancing, secure drug storage, and cold chain temperature recording). Conclusion Hazards in the general practice work system were prioritised that can potentially impact on the safety, health and wellbeing of patients, GP team members, and practice performance, and a necessary safety checklist prototype was designed. However, checklist efficacy in improving safety processes and outcomes is dependent on user commitment, and support from leaders and promotional champions. Although further usability development and testing is necessary, the concept should be of interest in the UK and internationally. PMID:25918338

  7. 14 CFR 121.221 - Fire precautions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Fire precautions. 121.221 Section 121.221..., FLAG, AND SUPPLEMENTAL OPERATIONS Special Airworthiness Requirements § 121.221 Fire precautions. (a... the compartment and so that damage to or failure of the item would not create a fire hazard in...

  8. 14 CFR 121.221 - Fire precautions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Fire precautions. 121.221 Section 121.221..., FLAG, AND SUPPLEMENTAL OPERATIONS Special Airworthiness Requirements § 121.221 Fire precautions. (a... the compartment and so that damage to or failure of the item would not create a fire hazard in...

  9. 14 CFR 121.221 - Fire precautions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Fire precautions. 121.221 Section 121.221..., FLAG, AND SUPPLEMENTAL OPERATIONS Special Airworthiness Requirements § 121.221 Fire precautions. (a... the compartment and so that damage to or failure of the item would not create a fire hazard in...

  10. 14 CFR 125.119 - Fire precautions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... draft control so that the extinguishing agent provided can control any fire that may start in the... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Fire precautions. 125.119 Section 125.119....119 Fire precautions. (a) Each compartment must be designed so that, when used for storing cargo...

  11. 14 CFR 121.221 - Fire precautions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... extinguishing agent provided can control any fire that may start in the compartment. (5) It must be lined with... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Fire precautions. 121.221 Section 121.221..., FLAG, AND SUPPLEMENTAL OPERATIONS Special Airworthiness Requirements § 121.221 Fire precautions....

  12. Efficacy and safety of endoscopic submucosal dissection under general anesthesia

    PubMed Central

    Yamashita, Kanefumi; Shiwaku, Hironari; Ohmiya, Toshihiro; Shimaoka, Hideki; Okada, Hiroki; Nakashima, Ryo; Beppu, Richiko; Kato, Daisuke; Sasaki, Takamitsu; Hoshino, Seiichiro; Nimura, Satoshi; Yamaura, Ken; Yamashita, Yuichi

    2016-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate the efficacy and safety of endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD) under general anesthesia. METHODS: From January 2011 to July 2014, 206 consecutive patients had undergone ESD under general anesthesia for neoplasms of the stomach, esophagus, and colorectum were enrolled in this retrospective study. The efficacy and safety of ESD under general anesthesia were assessed. RESULTS: The en bloc resection rate of esophageal, gastric, and colorectal lesions was 100.0%, 98.3%, and 96.1%, respectively. The complication rate of perforation and bleeding were 0.0% and 0.0% in esophageal ESD, 1.7% and 1.7% in gastric ESD, and 3.9% and 2.0% in colorectal ESD, respectively. No cases of aspiration pneumonia were observed. All complications were managed by conservative treatment, with no surgical intervention required. CONCLUSION: With the cooperation of an anesthesiologist, ESD under general anesthesia appears to be a useful method, decreasing the risk of complications. PMID:27433293

  13. Safety climate in English general practices: workload pressures may compromise safety

    PubMed Central

    Reeves, David; Marsden, Kate; Avery, Anthony

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Objectives Although most health care interactions in the developed world occur in general practice, most of the literature on patient safety has focused on secondary care services. To address this issue, we have constructed a patient safety toolkit for English general practices. We report how practice and respondent characteristics affect scores on our safety climate measure, the PC‐Safequest, and address recent concerns with high levels of workload in English general practices. Methods We administered the PC‐Safequest, a 30‐item tool that was designed to measure safety climate in primary care practices, to 335 primary care staff members in 31 practices in England. Practice characteristics, such as list size and deprivation in the area the practice served, and respondent characteristics, such as whether the respondent was a manager, were also collected and used in a multilevel analysis to predict PC‐Safequest scores. Results Managers gave their practices significantly higher safety climate scores than did non‐managers. Respondents with more years of experience had a more negative perception of the level of workload in their practice. Practices with more registered patients and in areas of higher deprivation provided lower safety climate scores. Conclusions Managers rated their practices more positively on our safety climate measure, so the differences between the perceptions of managers and other staff may need to be reduced in order to build a strong safety culture. Excessive workload for more experienced staff and lower safety climate scores for larger practices may reflect ‘burnout’. Concerns that pressures in primary care could affect patient safety are discussed. PMID:26278127

  14. Compliance with universal precautions in correctional health care facilities.

    PubMed

    Gershon, R R; Karkashian, C D; Vlahov, D; Kummer, L; Kasting, C; Green-McKenzie, J; Escamilla-Cejudo, J A; Kendig, N; Swetz, A; Martin, L

    1999-03-01

    There were three main objectives of this cross-sectional study of Maryland State correctional health care workers. The first was to evaluate compliance with work practices designed to minimize exposure to blood and body fluids; the second, to identify correlates of compliance with universal precautions (UPs); and the third was to determine the relationship, if any, between compliance and exposures. Of 216 responding health care workers, 34% reported overall compliance across all 15 items on a compliance scale. Rates for specific items were particularly low for use of certain types of personal protective equipment, such as protective eyewear (53.5%), face mask (47.2%) and protective clothing (33.9%). Compliance rates were highest for glove use (93.2%) waste disposal (89.8%), and sharps disposal (80.8%). Compliance rates were generally not associated with demographic factors, except for age; younger workers were more likely to be compliant with safe work practices than were older workers (P < 0.05). Compliance was positively associated with several work-related variables, including perceived safety climate (i.e., management's commitment to infection control and the overall safety program) and job satisfaction, and was found to be inversely associated with security-related work constraints, job/task factors, adverse working conditions, workplace discrimination, and perceived work stress. Bloodborne exposures were not uncommon; 13.8% of all respondents had at least one bloodborne exposure within the previous 6 months, and compliance was inversely related to blood and body fluid exposures. This study identified several potentially modifiable correlates of compliance, including factors unique to the correctional setting. Infection-control interventional strategies specifically tailored to these health care workers may therefore be most effective in reducing the risk of bloodborne exposures. PMID:10091141

  15. General aviation crash safety program at Langley Research Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thomson, R. G.

    1976-01-01

    The purpose of the crash safety program is to support development of the technology to define and demonstrate new structural concepts for improved crash safety and occupant survivability in general aviation aircraft. The program involves three basic areas of research: full-scale crash simulation testing, nonlinear structural analyses necessary to predict failure modes and collapse mechanisms of the vehicle, and evaluation of energy absorption concepts for specific component design. Both analytical and experimental methods are being used to develop expertise in these areas. Analyses include both simplified procedures for estimating energy absorption capabilities and more complex computer programs for analysis of general airframe response. Full-scale tests of typical structures as well as tests on structural components are being used to verify the analyses and to demonstrate improved design concepts.

  16. Communicating vaccine safety to the media and general public.

    PubMed

    Oubari, Hiba; Tuttle, Ryan; Rath, Barbara; Bravo, Lulu

    2015-01-01

    Vaccines are among the most effective measures to control and prevent infectious diseases. Yet, the topic of vaccination is difficult to communicate, as it bears upon individual versus common good. The efficacy and safety of vaccines can only be shown by the absence of undesired events, such as vaccine-preventable diseases or adverse events following immunization. The authors of this paper view accurate, transparent and timely vaccine-safety communication to the media and general public as a core responsibility of healthcare providers. The authors wish to explore potential difficulties faced by immunization specialists when talking to the media, and suggest how to successfully convey vaccination messages to the general public. PMID:25859680

  17. 10 CFR Appendix A to Subpart B of... - General Statement of Safety Basis Policy

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false General Statement of Safety Basis Policy A Appendix A to Subpart B of Part 830 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY NUCLEAR SAFETY MANAGEMENT Safety Basis Requirements Pt. 830, Subpt. B, App. A Appendix A to Subpart B of Part 830—General Statement of Safety Basis Policy A. Introduction This appendix describes...

  18. 10 CFR Appendix A to Subpart B of... - General Statement of Safety Basis Policy

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false General Statement of Safety Basis Policy A Appendix A to Subpart B of Part 830 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY NUCLEAR SAFETY MANAGEMENT Safety Basis Requirements Pt. 830, Subpt. B, App. A Appendix A to Subpart B of Part 830—General Statement of Safety Basis Policy A. Introduction This appendix describes...

  19. 77 FR 33777 - General Aviation Safety Forum: Climbing to the Next Level

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-07

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ] NATIONAL TRANSPORTATION SAFETY BOARD General Aviation Safety Forum: Climbing to the Next Level The National Transportation Safety Board (NTSB) will convene a 2- day forum focused on safety issues related to general aviation on June 19-20, 2012 in Washington, DC. The event,...

  20. Factors Influencing Nurses’ Use of Hazardous Drug Safe-Handling Precautions

    PubMed Central

    Ames, Nancy J.; Manning, Mary Lou; Touchton-Leonard, Kate; Yang, Li; Wallen, Gwenyth R.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose/Objectives To identify factors associated with oncology nurses’ use of hazardous drug (HD) safe-handling precautions in inpatient clinical research units. Design Descriptive, cross-sectional. Setting The National Institutes of Health Clinical Center in Bethesda, Maryland. Sample 115 RNs working on high-volume HD administration units. Methods Survey data were collected online using the Hazardous Drug Handling Questionnaire. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics and multiple regression analysis. Main Research Variables Exposure knowledge, self-efficacy, barriers to personal protective equipment use, perceived risk, conflict of interest, interpersonal influences, workplace safety climate, and total mean HD precaution use. Findings Participants demonstrated high exposure knowledge, self-efficacy, perceived risk, interpersonal influences, and workplace safety climate. Participants demonstrated moderate barriers and conflict of interest. Total mean HD precaution use proved highest during HD administration and lowest for handling excreta at 48 hours. Average patients per day significantly influenced total HD precaution: nurses exhibited more HD precaution use when assigned fewer patients. Conclusions Despite high exposure knowledge, barriers to personal protective equipment use and conflict of interest may contribute to reduced adoption of personal protective practices among oncology nurses. Implications for Nursing Hospital and unit-specific factors captured by the predictor variables could contribute to institutional HD policy. PMID:27105195

  1. 21 CFR 610.11a - Inactivated influenza vaccine, general safety test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Inactivated influenza vaccine, general safety test... Inactivated influenza vaccine, general safety test. For inactivated influenza vaccine, the general safety test... subcutaneous or intraperitoneal injection of 5.0 milliliters of inactivated influenza vaccine into each...

  2. 21 CFR 610.11a - Inactivated influenza vaccine, general safety test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2011-04-01 2010-04-01 true Inactivated influenza vaccine, general safety test... Inactivated influenza vaccine, general safety test. For inactivated influenza vaccine, the general safety test... subcutaneous or intraperitoneal injection of 5.0 milliliters of inactivated influenza vaccine into each...

  3. 21 CFR 610.11a - Inactivated influenza vaccine, general safety test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Inactivated influenza vaccine, general safety test... Inactivated influenza vaccine, general safety test. For inactivated influenza vaccine, the general safety test... subcutaneous or intraperitoneal injection of 5.0 milliliters of inactivated influenza vaccine into each...

  4. 21 CFR 610.11a - Inactivated influenza vaccine, general safety test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Inactivated influenza vaccine, general safety test... Inactivated influenza vaccine, general safety test. For inactivated influenza vaccine, the general safety test... subcutaneous or intraperitoneal injection of 5.0 milliliters of inactivated influenza vaccine into each...

  5. 21 CFR 610.11a - Inactivated influenza vaccine, general safety test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Inactivated influenza vaccine, general safety test... Inactivated influenza vaccine, general safety test. For inactivated influenza vaccine, the general safety test... subcutaneous or intraperitoneal injection of 5.0 milliliters of inactivated influenza vaccine into each...

  6. 14 CFR 125.119 - Fire precautions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Fire precautions. 125.119 Section 125.119...: AIRPLANES HAVING A SEATING CAPACITY OF 20 OR MORE PASSENGERS OR A MAXIMUM PAYLOAD CAPACITY OF 6,000 POUNDS OR MORE; AND RULES GOVERNING PERSONS ON BOARD SUCH AIRCRAFT Special Airworthiness Requirements §...

  7. 14 CFR 125.119 - Fire precautions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Fire precautions. 125.119 Section 125.119...: AIRPLANES HAVING A SEATING CAPACITY OF 20 OR MORE PASSENGERS OR A MAXIMUM PAYLOAD CAPACITY OF 6,000 POUNDS OR MORE; AND RULES GOVERNING PERSONS ON BOARD SUCH AIRCRAFT Special Airworthiness Requirements §...

  8. 14 CFR 125.119 - Fire precautions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Fire precautions. 125.119 Section 125.119...: AIRPLANES HAVING A SEATING CAPACITY OF 20 OR MORE PASSENGERS OR A MAXIMUM PAYLOAD CAPACITY OF 6,000 POUNDS OR MORE; AND RULES GOVERNING PERSONS ON BOARD SUCH AIRCRAFT Special Airworthiness Requirements §...

  9. Validity and reliability of the Questionnaire for Compliance with Standard Precaution

    PubMed Central

    Valim, Marília Duarte; Marziale, Maria Helena Palucci; Hayashida, Miyeko; Rocha, Fernanda Ludmilla Rossi; Santos, Jair Lício Ferreira

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE : To evaluate the validity and reliability of the Questionnaire for Compliance with Standard Precaution for nurses. METHODS : This methodological study was conducted with 121 nurses from health care facilities in Sao Paulo’s countryside, who were represented by two high-complexity and by three average-complexity health care facilities. Internal consistency was calculated using Cronbach’s alpha and stability was calculated by the intraclass correlation coefficient, through test-retest. Convergent, discriminant, and known-groups construct validity techniques were conducted. RESULTS : The questionnaire was found to be reliable (Cronbach’s alpha: 0.80; intraclass correlation coefficient: (0.97) In regards to the convergent and discriminant construct validity, strong correlation was found between compliance to standard precautions, the perception of a safe environment, and the smaller perception of obstacles to follow such precautions (r = 0.614 and r = 0.537, respectively). The nurses who were trained on the standard precautions and worked on the health care facilities of higher complexity were shown to comply more (p = 0.028 and p = 0.006, respectively). CONCLUSIONS : The Brazilian version of the Questionnaire for Compliance with Standard Precaution was shown to be valid and reliable. Further investigation must be conducted with nurse samples that are more representative of the Brazilian reality. The use of the questionnaire may support the creation of educational measures considering the possible gaps that can be identified, focusing on the workers’ health and on the patients’ safety. PMID:26759967

  10. Conservation, precaution, and Caribbean reefs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aronson, Richard B.; Precht, William F.

    2006-08-01

    Some authors argue that overfishing is an important reason that reef corals have declined in recent decades. Their reasoning is that overfishing removes herbivores, releasing macroalgae to overgrow and kill the corals. The evidence suggests, however, that global climate change and emergent marine diseases make a far greater contribution to coral mortality, and that macroalgae generally grow on the exposed skeletal surfaces of corals that are already dead. Macroalgal dominance, therefore, is an effect rather than a cause of coral mortality. Marine protected areas (MPAs), which are usually established to protect stocks of reef fish, foster populations of herbivorous fish under at least some circumstances. Increased herbivory can reduce algal cover, potentially accelerating the recovery of coral populations inside MPAs; however, establishing MPAs will have only a limited impact on coral recovery unless policymakers confront the accelerating negative effects of the global-scale sources of coral mortality.

  11. Safety of general anaesthesia and surgery in acute hepatic porphyria.

    PubMed Central

    Dover, S B; Plenderleith, L; Moore, M R; McColl, K E

    1994-01-01

    Patients with acute hepatic porphyria are denied essential operations because of concern that general anaesthesia and surgery will precipitate a life threatening porphyric crisis. This study assessed the safety of surgery under general anaesthesia in these patients. A combined prospective and retrospective case note study, with a biochemical study, was conducted in 25 patients with acute hepatic porphyria undergoing 38 surgical operations. Clinical outcome measures were survival and occurrence of porphyric crisis after surgery. The biochemical activity of porphyria was assessed by measurement of the perioperative 24 hour excretion of the haem precursors delta amino-laevulinic acid (ALA) and porphobilinogen (PBG). There were no deaths or crises after 29 operations in 19 patients who were known to have porphyria before their surgery, and therefore given only appropriate drugs. These operations include such major procedures as mitral valve replacement, hip replacement, coronary artery grafting, cholecystectomies, and renal transplantation. In eight of these patients the urinary excretion of ALA and PBG were studied, and showed no sustained postoperative increase. Nine operations were performed in eight patients before the diagnosis of porphyria was known and who thus received routine anaesthetic agents. Seven of these patients developed a postoperative porphyric crisis. Two of them died. It is concluded therefore that even the most major surgery can be undertaken safely in patients with porphyria. The risk is for undiagnosed cases. PMID:7926916

  12. 32 CFR 700.923 - Precautions for health.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 5 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Precautions for health. 700.923 Section 700.923... Contents § 700.923 Precautions for health. The senior officer present shall take precautions to preserve the health of the persons under his or her authority. He or she shall obtain information regarding...

  13. 32 CFR 700.923 - Precautions for health.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 5 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Precautions for health. 700.923 Section 700.923... Contents § 700.923 Precautions for health. The senior officer present shall take precautions to preserve the health of the persons under his or her authority. He or she shall obtain information regarding...

  14. 32 CFR 700.923 - Precautions for health.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 5 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Precautions for health. 700.923 Section 700.923... Contents § 700.923 Precautions for health. The senior officer present shall take precautions to preserve the health of the persons under his or her authority. He or she shall obtain information regarding...

  15. 32 CFR 700.923 - Precautions for health.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 5 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Precautions for health. 700.923 Section 700.923... Contents § 700.923 Precautions for health. The senior officer present shall take precautions to preserve the health of the persons under his or her authority. He or she shall obtain information regarding...

  16. 32 CFR 700.923 - Precautions for health.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 5 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Precautions for health. 700.923 Section 700.923... Contents § 700.923 Precautions for health. The senior officer present shall take precautions to preserve the health of the persons under his or her authority. He or she shall obtain information regarding...

  17. 49 CFR 659.17 - System safety program plan: general requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false System safety program plan: general requirements... Role of the State Oversight Agency § 659.17 System safety program plan: general requirements. (a) The...) The oversight agency shall review and approve the rail transit agency system safety program plan....

  18. 49 CFR 659.17 - System safety program plan: general requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false System safety program plan: general requirements... Role of the State Oversight Agency § 659.17 System safety program plan: general requirements. (a) The...) The oversight agency shall review and approve the rail transit agency system safety program plan....

  19. 49 CFR 214.303 - Railroad on-track safety programs, generally.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Railroad on-track safety programs, generally. 214... RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RAILROAD WORKPLACE SAFETY Roadway Worker Protection § 214.303 Railroad on-track safety programs, generally. (a) Each railroad to which this part...

  20. 49 CFR 214.303 - Railroad on-track safety programs, generally.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Railroad on-track safety programs, generally. 214... RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RAILROAD WORKPLACE SAFETY Roadway Worker Protection § 214.303 Railroad on-track safety programs, generally. (a) Each railroad to which this part...

  1. 49 CFR 214.303 - Railroad on-track safety programs, generally.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Railroad on-track safety programs, generally. 214... RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RAILROAD WORKPLACE SAFETY Roadway Worker Protection § 214.303 Railroad on-track safety programs, generally. (a) Each railroad to which this part...

  2. 49 CFR 214.303 - Railroad on-track safety programs, generally.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Railroad on-track safety programs, generally. 214... RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RAILROAD WORKPLACE SAFETY Roadway Worker Protection § 214.303 Railroad on-track safety programs, generally. (a) Each railroad to which this part...

  3. 49 CFR 214.303 - Railroad on-track safety programs, generally.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Railroad on-track safety programs, generally. 214... RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RAILROAD WORKPLACE SAFETY Roadway Worker Protection § 214.303 Railroad on-track safety programs, generally. (a) Each railroad to which this part...

  4. 49 CFR 214.317 - On-track safety procedures, generally.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false On-track safety procedures, generally. 214.317... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RAILROAD WORKPLACE SAFETY Roadway Worker Protection § 214.317 On-track safety procedures, generally. Each employer subject to the provisions of this part shall...

  5. 49 CFR 214.317 - On-track safety procedures, generally.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false On-track safety procedures, generally. 214.317... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RAILROAD WORKPLACE SAFETY Roadway Worker Protection § 214.317 On-track safety procedures, generally. Each employer subject to the provisions of this part shall...

  6. 49 CFR 214.317 - On-track safety procedures, generally.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false On-track safety procedures, generally. 214.317... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RAILROAD WORKPLACE SAFETY Roadway Worker Protection § 214.317 On-track safety procedures, generally. Each employer subject to the provisions of this part shall...

  7. 49 CFR 214.317 - On-track safety procedures, generally.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false On-track safety procedures, generally. 214.317... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RAILROAD WORKPLACE SAFETY Roadway Worker Protection § 214.317 On-track safety procedures, generally. Each employer subject to the provisions of this part shall...

  8. General Safety. Pre-Apprenticeship Phase 1 Training.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lane Community Coll., Eugene, OR.

    This self-paced student training module on safety is one of a number of modules developed for Pre-apprenticeship Phase 1 Training. Purpose of the module is to teach students the importance of becoming aware of safety, including causes of accidents, unsafe acts, and safety planning. The module may contain some or all of the following: a cover sheet…

  9. 21 CFR 601.32 - General factors relevant to safety and effectiveness.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... SERVICES (CONTINUED) BIOLOGICS LICENSING Diagnostic Radiopharmaceuticals § 601.32 General factors relevant to safety and effectiveness. FDA's determination of the safety and effectiveness of a diagnostic radiopharmaceutical includes consideration of the following: (a) The proposed use of the...

  10. 21 CFR 601.32 - General factors relevant to safety and effectiveness.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... SERVICES (CONTINUED) BIOLOGICS LICENSING Diagnostic Radiopharmaceuticals § 601.32 General factors relevant to safety and effectiveness. FDA's determination of the safety and effectiveness of a diagnostic radiopharmaceutical includes consideration of the following: (a) The proposed use of the...

  11. 21 CFR 601.32 - General factors relevant to safety and effectiveness.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... SERVICES (CONTINUED) BIOLOGICS LICENSING Diagnostic Radiopharmaceuticals § 601.32 General factors relevant to safety and effectiveness. FDA's determination of the safety and effectiveness of a diagnostic radiopharmaceutical includes consideration of the following: (a) The proposed use of the...

  12. Potential risk of using General Estimates System: bicycle safety.

    PubMed

    Kweon, Young-Jun; Lee, Joyoung

    2010-11-01

    Beneficial effects of bicycle helmet use have been reported mostly based on medical or survey data collected from hospitals. This study was to examine the validity of the United States General Estimates System (GES) database familiar to many transportation professionals for a beneficial effect of helmet use in reducing the severity of injury to bicyclists and found potential risk of erroneous conclusions that can be drawn by a narrowly focused study when the GES database is used. Although the focus of the study was on bicycle helmet use, its findings regarding potential risk might be true for any type of traffic safety study using the GES data. A partial proportional odds model reflecting intrinsic ordering of injury severity was mainly used. About 16,000 bicycle-involved traffic crash records occurring in 2003 through 2008 in the United States were extracted from the GES database. Using the 2003-2008 GES data, a beneficial effect of helmet use was found in 2007, yet a detrimental effect in 2004 and no effect in 2003, 2005, 2006, and 2008, which are contrary to the past findings from medical or hospital survey data. It was speculated that these mixed results might be attributable to a possible lack of representation of the GES data for bicycle-involved traffic crashes, which may be supported by the findings, such as the average helmet use rates at the time of the crashes varying from 12% in 2004 to 38% in 2008. This suggests that the GES data may not be a reliable source for studying narrowly focused issues such as the effect of helmet use. A considerable fluctuation over years in basic statistical values (e.g., average) of variables of interest (e.g., helmet use) may be an indication of a possible lack of representation of the GES data. In such a case, caution should be exercised in interpreting and generalizing analysis results. PMID:20728621

  13. Laser tattoo removal, precautions, and unwanted effects.

    PubMed

    Eklund, Yvonne; Rubin, Agneta Troilius

    2015-01-01

    Laser tattoo removal uses the physical properties of photoselective thermolysis in order to remove tattoo pigment. The technique has gradually improved over the years with the development of Q-switched lasers, with overall good results and a relatively low degree of adverse effects. However, lasers cannot always erase the unwanted tattoo completely, and there are still risks of unwanted effects such as scarring, pigment changes, ink darkening, and potential aggravation of latent skin conditions. This chapter will discuss the precautions that have to be taken and what pitfalls to avoid before starting the procedure of laser tattoo removal. PMID:25833629

  14. HIV, AIDS, and Universal Precautions: The Optometry Curriculum's Effect on Students' Knowledge, Attitudes and Implementation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosengren, Kenneth J.; Zoltoski, Rebecca K.

    2000-01-01

    Surveyed entering optometry students (n=404) and again during their fourth year (n=314) for knowledge about and attitudes toward HIV/AIDS. Analysis indicated significant improvement from pre- to post-test for general HIV/AIDS knowledge and optometric-specific HIV/AIDS knowledge and attitudes. For universal precautions implementation, no change in…

  15. Can there be science-based precaution?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weiss, Charles

    2006-10-01

    'Science-based precaution' is possible in logic if not in politics, and should be a normal part of risk management. It should balance the risks and benefits of innovation, or equivalently, specify the price one is willing to pay to avoid risk. The Precaution Principle states that the absence of scientific proof does not preclude precautionary action—or, in its stronger version, that it requires such action. This principle is a useful counterweight to the insistence on rigorous scientific proof, but focuses on costs and risks to the exclusion of benefits. It expresses 'look before you leap', but not 'nothing ventured, nothing gained'. To facilitate adaptive management, we propose a complementary principle: 'precautionary action should not unreasonably interfere with innovation that promises major benefits, until its dangers and benefits are well understood'. In international trade law, we propose that scientific evidence presented in support of discriminatory measures that would otherwise violate the world trade regime—such as the de facto European Union moratorium on importing genetically modified crops—be required to suffice to support a 'reasonable belief' of danger to human health or the environment.

  16. 21 CFR 315.3 - General factors relevant to safety and effectiveness.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false General factors relevant to safety and effectiveness. 315.3 Section 315.3 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DRUGS FOR HUMAN USE DIAGNOSTIC RADIOPHARMACEUTICALS § 315.3 General factors relevant to safety and effectiveness....

  17. 49 CFR 238.229 - Safety appliances-general.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... section in accordance with 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51. You may obtain a copy of the incorporated... support meets all of the conditions contained in § 238.230(b)(1) for being considered part of the car body... disassembly of a car is necessary to visually inspect the involved safety appliance bracket or support,...

  18. 49 CFR 238.229 - Safety appliances-general.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... section in accordance with 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51. You may obtain a copy of the incorporated... support meets all of the conditions contained in § 238.230(b)(1) for being considered part of the car body... disassembly of a car is necessary to visually inspect the involved safety appliance bracket or support,...

  19. 49 CFR 238.229 - Safety appliances-general.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... section in accordance with 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51. You may obtain a copy of the incorporated... support meets all of the conditions contained in § 238.230(b)(1) for being considered part of the car body... disassembly of a car is necessary to visually inspect the involved safety appliance bracket or support,...

  20. 49 CFR 238.229 - Safety appliances-general.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... section in accordance with 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51. You may obtain a copy of the incorporated... support meets all of the conditions contained in § 238.230(b)(1) for being considered part of the car body... disassembly of a car is necessary to visually inspect the involved safety appliance bracket or support,...

  1. 49 CFR 238.229 - Safety appliances-general.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... section in accordance with 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51. You may obtain a copy of the incorporated... support meets all of the conditions contained in § 238.230(b)(1) for being considered part of the car body... disassembly of a car is necessary to visually inspect the involved safety appliance bracket or support,...

  2. General Consideration in the History, Physical Examination, and Safety Determination.

    PubMed

    Buchanan, Jonathan; Dexter, William; Powell, Amy; Wright, Justin

    2015-09-01

    A thorough medical history is perhaps the most important aspect when evaluating an athlete before wilderness adventure. A physical examination should follow focusing on conditions that may be affected by changes in atmospheric pressure, extremes of temperature, or altitude. This information can then be used to make safety recommendations ensuring that adventurers are able to safely enjoy participation in the wilderness pursuit of their choice. PMID:26340730

  3. General Consideration in the History, Physical Examination, and Safety Determination.

    PubMed

    Buchanan, Jonathan; Dexter, William; Powell, Amy; Wright, Justin

    2015-12-01

    A thorough medical history is perhaps the most important aspect when evaluating an athlete before wilderness adventure. A physical examination should follow focusing on conditions that may be affected by changes in atmospheric pressure, extremes of temperature, or altitude. This information can then be used to make safety recommendations ensuring that adventurers are able to safely enjoy participation in the wilderness pursuit of their choice. PMID:26617374

  4. Scientists versus regulators: precaution, novelty & regulatory oversight as predictors of perceived risks of engineered nanomaterials.

    PubMed

    Beaudrie, Christian E H; Satterfield, Terre; Kandlikar, Milind; Harthorn, Barbara H

    2014-01-01

    Engineered nanoscale materials (ENMs) present a difficult challenge for risk assessors and regulators. Continuing uncertainty about the potential risks of ENMs means that expert opinion will play an important role in the design of policies to minimize harmful implications while supporting innovation. This research aims to shed light on the views of 'nano experts' to understand which nanomaterials or applications are regarded as more risky than others, to characterize the differences in risk perceptions between expert groups, and to evaluate the factors that drive these perceptions. Our analysis draws from a web-survey (N = 404) of three groups of US and Canadian experts: nano-scientists and engineers, nano-environmental health and safety scientists, and regulatory scientists and decision-makers. Significant differences in risk perceptions were found across expert groups; differences found to be driven by underlying attitudes and perceptions characteristic of each group. Nano-scientists and engineers at the upstream end of the nanomaterial life cycle perceived the lowest levels of risk, while those who are responsible for assessing and regulating risks at the downstream end perceived the greatest risk. Perceived novelty of nanomaterial risks, differing preferences for regulation (i.e. the use of precaution versus voluntary or market-based approaches), and perceptions of the risk of technologies in general predicted variation in experts' judgments of nanotechnology risks. Our findings underscore the importance of involving a diverse selection of experts, particularly those with expertise at different stages along the nanomaterial lifecycle, during policy development. PMID:25222742

  5. 49 CFR 176.164 - Fire precautions and firefighting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Fire precautions and firefighting. 176.164 Section... Fire precautions and firefighting. (a) Matches, lighters, fire, and other ignition sources are... by a fixed fire extinguishing installation or must be accessible for firefighting operations. (e)...

  6. 49 CFR 176.164 - Fire precautions and firefighting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Fire precautions and firefighting. 176.164 Section... Fire precautions and firefighting. (a) Matches, lighters, fire, and other ignition sources are... by a fixed fire extinguishing installation or must be accessible for firefighting operations. (e)...

  7. 30 CFR 57.6604 - Precautions during storms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Precautions during storms. 57.6604 Section 57... Extraneous Electricity-Surface and Underground § 57.6604 Precautions during storms. During the approach and progress of an electrical storm— (a) Surface blasting operations shall be suspended and persons...

  8. 30 CFR 57.6604 - Precautions during storms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Precautions during storms. 57.6604 Section 57... Extraneous Electricity-Surface and Underground § 57.6604 Precautions during storms. During the approach and progress of an electrical storm— (a) Surface blasting operations shall be suspended and persons...

  9. 30 CFR 56.6604 - Precautions during storms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Precautions during storms. 56.6604 Section 56... Extraneous Electricity § 56.6604 Precautions during storms. During the approach and progress of an electrical storm, blasting operations shall be suspended and persons withdrawn from the blast area or to a...

  10. 30 CFR 56.6604 - Precautions during storms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Precautions during storms. 56.6604 Section 56... Extraneous Electricity § 56.6604 Precautions during storms. During the approach and progress of an electrical storm, blasting operations shall be suspended and persons withdrawn from the blast area or to a...

  11. 30 CFR 57.6604 - Precautions during storms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Precautions during storms. 57.6604 Section 57... Extraneous Electricity-Surface and Underground § 57.6604 Precautions during storms. During the approach and progress of an electrical storm— (a) Surface blasting operations shall be suspended and persons...

  12. 30 CFR 57.6604 - Precautions during storms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Precautions during storms. 57.6604 Section 57... Extraneous Electricity-Surface and Underground § 57.6604 Precautions during storms. During the approach and progress of an electrical storm— (a) Surface blasting operations shall be suspended and persons...

  13. 30 CFR 56.6604 - Precautions during storms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Precautions during storms. 56.6604 Section 56... Extraneous Electricity § 56.6604 Precautions during storms. During the approach and progress of an electrical storm, blasting operations shall be suspended and persons withdrawn from the blast area or to a...

  14. 30 CFR 57.6604 - Precautions during storms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Precautions during storms. 57.6604 Section 57... Extraneous Electricity-Surface and Underground § 57.6604 Precautions during storms. During the approach and progress of an electrical storm— (a) Surface blasting operations shall be suspended and persons...

  15. 30 CFR 56.6604 - Precautions during storms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Precautions during storms. 56.6604 Section 56... Extraneous Electricity § 56.6604 Precautions during storms. During the approach and progress of an electrical storm, blasting operations shall be suspended and persons withdrawn from the blast area or to a...

  16. 30 CFR 56.6604 - Precautions during storms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Precautions during storms. 56.6604 Section 56... Extraneous Electricity § 56.6604 Precautions during storms. During the approach and progress of an electrical storm, blasting operations shall be suspended and persons withdrawn from the blast area or to a...

  17. 12 CFR 555.210 - What precautions must I take?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false What precautions must I take? 555.210 Section... precautions must I take? If you use electronic means and facilities under this subpart, your management must... requirements of part 568 of this chapter....

  18. 49 CFR 176.164 - Fire precautions and firefighting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Fire precautions and firefighting. 176.164 Section... Fire precautions and firefighting. (a) Matches, lighters, fire, and other ignition sources are... handled except in places designated by the master or the COTP. (b) A fire hose of sufficient length...

  19. Adolescents' attitudes towards AIDS precautions and intention to use condoms.

    PubMed

    Barling, N R; Moore, S M

    1990-12-01

    This study investigated attitudes toward AIDS precautions of 370 15- and 16-yr.-old secondary school students. Attitudes reflected levels of apathy, denial, and confusion high enough to lead to concern for this potentially high-risk group. Intention to use condoms in future sexual encounters was related to sex, conflict and confusion about AIDS precautions, plus other attitudinal variables. PMID:2287679

  20. Consultations with general practitioners on patient safety measures based on routinely collected data in primary care

    PubMed Central

    Tsang, Carmen; Majeed, Azeem; Aylin, Paul

    2012-01-01

    Objectives To gauge the opinions of doctors working, or interested, in general practice on monitoring patient safety using administrative data. The findings will inform the development of routinely collected data-based patient safety indicators in general practice and elsewhere in primary care. Design Non-systematic participant recruitment, using personal contacts and colleagues’ recommendations. Setting Face-to-face consultations at participants’ places of work, between June 2010 and February 2011. Participants Four general practitioners (GPs) and a final year medical student. The four clinicians had between eight to 34 years of clinical practice experience, and held non-clinical positions in addition to their clinical roles. Main outcome measures Views on safety issues and improvement priorities, measurement methods, uses of administrative data, role of administrative data in patient safety and experiences of quality and safety initiatives. Results Medication and communication were the most commonly identified areas of patient safety concern. Perceived safety barriers included incident-reporting reluctance, inadequate medical education and low computer competency. Data access, financial constraints, policy changes and technology handicaps posed challenges to data use. Suggested safety improvements included better communication between providers and local partnerships between GPs. Conclusions The views of GPs and other primary care staff are pivotal to decisions on the future of English primary care and the health system. Broad views of general practice safety issues were shown, with possible reasons for patient harm and quality and safety improvement obstacles. There was general consensus on areas requiring urgent attention and strategies to enhance data use for safety monitoring. PMID:22461969

  1. 21 CFR 315.3 - General factors relevant to safety and effectiveness.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... SERVICES (CONTINUED) DRUGS FOR HUMAN USE DIAGNOSTIC RADIOPHARMACEUTICALS § 315.3 General factors relevant to safety and effectiveness. FDA's determination of the safety and effectiveness of a diagnostic radiopharmaceutical includes consideration of the following: (a) The proposed use of the...

  2. 21 CFR 315.3 - General factors relevant to safety and effectiveness.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... SERVICES (CONTINUED) DRUGS FOR HUMAN USE DIAGNOSTIC RADIOPHARMACEUTICALS § 315.3 General factors relevant to safety and effectiveness. FDA's determination of the safety and effectiveness of a diagnostic radiopharmaceutical includes consideration of the following: (a) The proposed use of the...

  3. Health Precautions. Child Health and Safety Series (Module II).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Iscoe, Louise; And Others

    This manual for child care personnel in day care homes and centers provides guidelines on developing and maintaining health records and permission forms, establishing daily cleanliness routines, making daily health checks, and conducting periodic screening to identify children with problems requiring professional help. Section I focuses on…

  4. 48 CFR 252.236-7005 - Airfield safety precautions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... runway centerline extended. (A) The inclined plane (glide angle) begins in the clear zone 200 feet past... inclined plane (glide angle) and ending there. (B) The width of the surface at the beginning of the inclined plane (glide angle) is the same as the width of the clear zone. It then flares uniformly,...

  5. 48 CFR 252.236-7005 - Airfield safety precautions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... runway centerline extended. (A) The inclined plane (glide angle) begins in the clear zone 200 feet past... inclined plane (glide angle) and ending there. (B) The width of the surface at the beginning of the inclined plane (glide angle) is the same as the width of the clear zone. It then flares uniformly,...

  6. 48 CFR 252.236-7005 - Airfield safety precautions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... runway centerline extended. (A) The inclined plane (glide angle) begins in the clear zone 200 feet past... inclined plane (glide angle) and ending there. (B) The width of the surface at the beginning of the inclined plane (glide angle) is the same as the width of the clear zone. It then flares uniformly,...

  7. 48 CFR 252.236-7005 - Airfield safety precautions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... runway centerline extended. (A) The inclined plane (glide angle) begins in the clear zone 200 feet past... inclined plane (glide angle) and ending there. (B) The width of the surface at the beginning of the inclined plane (glide angle) is the same as the width of the clear zone. It then flares uniformly,...

  8. 21 CFR 315.3 - General factors relevant to safety and effectiveness.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false General factors relevant to safety and effectiveness. 315.3 Section 315.3 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DRUGS FOR HUMAN USE DIAGNOSTIC RADIOPHARMACEUTICALS § 315.3 General factors...

  9. 21 CFR 601.32 - General factors relevant to safety and effectiveness.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false General factors relevant to safety and effectiveness. 601.32 Section 601.32 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) BIOLOGICS LICENSING Diagnostic Radiopharmaceuticals § 601.32 General factors...

  10. 21 CFR 315.3 - General factors relevant to safety and effectiveness.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false General factors relevant to safety and effectiveness. 315.3 Section 315.3 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DRUGS FOR HUMAN USE DIAGNOSTIC RADIOPHARMACEUTICALS § 315.3 General factors...

  11. 14 CFR 25.1360 - Precautions against injury.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Precautions against injury. (a) Shock. The electrical system must be designed to minimize risk of electric shock to crew, passengers, and servicing personnel and to maintenance personnel using normal...

  12. 14 CFR 25.1360 - Precautions against injury.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Precautions against injury. (a) Shock. The electrical system must be designed to minimize risk of electric shock to crew, passengers, and servicing personnel and to maintenance personnel using normal...

  13. 14 CFR 25.1360 - Precautions against injury.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Precautions against injury. (a) Shock. The electrical system must be designed to minimize risk of electric shock to crew, passengers, and servicing personnel and to maintenance personnel using normal...

  14. 14 CFR 25.1360 - Precautions against injury.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Precautions against injury. (a) Shock. The electrical system must be designed to minimize risk of electric shock to crew, passengers, and servicing personnel and to maintenance personnel using normal...

  15. 14 CFR 25.1360 - Precautions against injury.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Precautions against injury. (a) Shock. The electrical system must be designed to minimize risk of electric shock to crew, passengers, and servicing personnel and to maintenance personnel using normal...

  16. Art Safety.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    BCATA Journal for Art Teachers, 1991

    1991-01-01

    Advocating that Canadian art programs should use and model environmentally safe practices, the articles in this journal focus on issues of safe practices in art education. Articles are: (1) "What is WHMIS?"; (2) "Safety Precautions for Specific Art Processes"; (3) "Toxic Substances"; (4) "Using Clay, Glazes, and Kilns Safely in the Classroom"…

  17. A general stochastic approach to unavailability analysis of standby safety systems

    SciTech Connect

    Van Der Weide, H.; Pandey, M. D.

    2013-07-01

    The paper presents a general analytical framework to analyze unavailability caused by latent failures in standby safety systems used in nuclear plants. The proposed approach is general in a sense that it encompasses a variety of inspection and maintenance policies and relaxes restrictive assumptions regarding the distributions of time to failure (or aging) and duration of repair. A key result of the paper is a general integral equation for point unavailability, which can be tailored to any specific maintenance policy. (authors)

  18. An alternative approach to prescribing sternal precautions after median sternotomy, "Keep Your Move in the Tube".

    PubMed

    Adams, Jenny; Lotshaw, Ana; Exum, Emelia; Campbell, Mark; Spranger, Cathy B; Beveridge, Jim; Baker, Shawn; McCray, Stephanie; Bilbrey, Tim; Shock, Tiffany; Lawrence, Anne; Hamman, Baron L; Schussler, Jeffrey M

    2016-01-01

    Traditional sternal precautions, given to sternotomy patients as part of their discharge education, are intended to help prevent sternal wound complications. They vary widely but generally include arbitrary load and time restrictions (lifting no more than a specified weight for up to 12 weeks) and may prohibit common shoulder joint and shoulder girdle movements. Having observed the negative effects of restrictive sternal precautions for many years, our research team performed a series of studies that measured the forces exerted during various common activities and their relationship to the sternum. The results, though informative, led us to realize that the goal of identifying "the" appropriate load restriction to prescribe for sternotomy patients was futile. The alternative approach that we introduce applies standard kinesiological principles and teaches patients how to perform load-bearing movements in a way that avoids excessive stress to the sternum. PMID:26722187

  19. [Contact precautions in intensive care units: facilitating and inhibiting factors for professionals' adherence].

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Adriana Cristina; Cardoso, Clareci Silva; Mascarenhas, Daniela

    2010-03-01

    The objective of this study was to identify facilitating and limiting factors for professionals' compliance with contact precautions in an intensive care unit of a general hospital. This cross-sectional study was performed from May to October 2007, using a semi-structured questionnaire for data collection. Participants were 102 professionals, as follows: nursing technician (54.9%), nurse (12.7%), preceptor physician (10.8%), apprentice physiotherapist (8.8%), preceptor physiotherapist (7.8%) and resident physician (4.9%). The limiting factors for compliance with hand cleansing were forgetting, lack of knowledge, distance from sink, skin irritation, and lack of materials. The use of scrubs presented the most difficulty (45%) because they were not available at the shower box, were inappropriately stored, and due to the heat and collective use. Glove use was the practice most easily conducted in everyday practice. Results show the need to implement precaution measures to minimize the dissemination of resistant microorganisms. PMID:20394234

  20. Infection Control and Practice of Standard Precautions Among Healthcare Workers in Northern Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Amoran, OE; Onwube, OO

    2013-01-01

    products, 12.6% reported wash their hand before wearing the gloves, 10.7% washed hands after removal of gloves, and 72.4% changed gloves after each patient. Only 3.3% had a sharp disposal system in their various workplaces. Majority (98.6%) of the respondents reported that the major reason for noncompliance to universal precautions is the nonavailability of the equipments. There was a statistically significant difference in the practice of standard precaution among those that were exposed to blood products and body fluid compared to those that had not been exposed in the last 6 months (χ2 = 3.96, P = 0.03), public healthcare providers when compared to private health workers (χ2 = 22.32, P = 0.001), among those working in secondary and tertiary facilities compared to primary healthcare centers (χ2 = 14.64, P = 0.001) and urban areas when compared to rural areas (χ2 = 4.06, P = 0.02). The only predictor of practice of standard precaution was exposure to blood and body fluid in the last 6 months odds ratio (OR) = 4.56 (confidence interval (CI) = 1.00-21.28). Conclusions: This study implies that inadequate workers’ knowledge and environment related problems, including the lack of protective materials and other equipments and utilities required to ensure safety of HCWs is a crucial issue that need urgent attention. Institution of a surveillance system for hospital acquired infection to improve consistent use of standard precautions among health workers is recommended in Nigeria and other low income countries in Africa. PMID:24672178

  1. Effects of patient safety culture interventions on incident reporting in general practice: a cluster randomised trial

    PubMed Central

    Verbakel, Natasha J; Langelaan, Maaike; Verheij, Theo JM; Wagner, Cordula; Zwart, Dorien LM

    2015-01-01

    Background A constructive safety culture is essential for the successful implementation of patient safety improvements. Aim To assess the effect of two patient safety culture interventions on incident reporting as a proxy of safety culture. Design and setting A three-arm cluster randomised trial was conducted in a mixed method study, studying the effect of administering a patient safety culture questionnaire (intervention I), the questionnaire complemented with a practice-based workshop (intervention II) and no intervention (control) in 30 general practices in the Netherlands. Method The primary outcome, the number of reported incidents, was measured with a questionnaire at baseline and a year after. Analysis was performed using a negative binomial model. Secondary outcomes were quality and safety indicators and safety culture. Mixed effects linear regression was used to analyse the culture questionnaires. Results The number of incidents increased in both intervention groups, to 82 and 224 in intervention I and II respectively. Adjusted for baseline number of incidents, practice size and accreditation status, the study showed that practices that additionally participated in the workshop reported 42 (95% confidence interval [CI] = 9.81 to 177.50) times more incidents compared to the control group. Practices that only completed the questionnaire reported 5 (95% CI = 1.17 to 25.49) times more incidents. There were no statistically significant differences in staff perception of patient safety culture at follow-up between the three study groups. Conclusion Educating staff and facilitating discussion about patient safety culture in their own practice leads to increased reporting of incidents. It is beneficial to invest in a team-wise effort to improve patient safety. PMID:25918337

  2. Preliminary reentry safety assessment of the General Purpose Heat Source module for the Cassini mission: Aerospace Nuclear Safety Program

    SciTech Connect

    Conn, D.W.; Brenza, P.T.

    1993-04-01

    As asked by the U. S. Department of Energy/Office of Special Applications, and in support of the Environmental Impact Statement for the Cassini mission, The Johns Hopkins University/Applied Physics Laboratory (JHU/APL) has conducted preliminary one-dimensional ablation and thermal analyses of the General Purpose Heat Source (GPHS). The predicted earth entry conditions provided by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) for a Cassini Venus-Venus-Earth-Jupiter Gravity Assist (VVEJGA) trajectory were used as initial conditions. The results of this study which constitute the initial reentry analysis assessment leading to the Cassini Updated Safety, Analysis Report (USAR) are discussed in this document.

  3. Preliminary reentry safety assessment of the General Purpose Heat Source module for the Cassini mission: Aerospace Nuclear Safety Program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Conn, D. W.; Brenza, P. T.

    1993-04-01

    As asked by the U.S. Department of Energy/Office of Special Applications, and in support of the Environmental Impact Statement for the Cassini mission, The Johns Hopkins University/Applied Physics Laboratory (JHU/APL) has conducted preliminary one dimensional ablation and thermal analyses of the General Purpose Heat Source (GPHS). The predicted earth entry conditions provided by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) for a Cassini Venus - Venus - Earth - Jupiter gravity assist (VVEJGA) trajectory were used as initial conditions. The results of this study, which constitute the initial reentry analysis assessment leading to the Cassini Updated Safety Analysis Report (USAR), are discussed in this document.

  4. 21 CFR 601.32 - General factors relevant to safety and effectiveness.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2011-04-01 2010-04-01 true General factors relevant to safety and effectiveness. 601.32 Section 601.32 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... estimated absorbed radiation dose of the diagnostic radiopharmaceutical....

  5. 21 CFR 570.20 - General principles for evaluating the safety of food additives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false General principles for evaluating the safety of food additives. 570.20 Section 570.20 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS FOOD ADDITIVES Food...

  6. Risk factors and precautions of inpatient suicide from the perspective of nurses: A qualitative study.

    PubMed

    Hu, De-ying; Huang, Di; Xiong, Yu; Lu, Cai-hong; Han, Yan-hong; Ding, Xiao-ping; Wang, Shu-jie; Liu, Yi-lan

    2015-04-01

    The risk factors and precautions of inpatient suicide were explored. Thirty suicide victims were drawn from the adverse event reports of suicidal act during hospitalization in a general hospital from 2008 to 2014. Data were gathered from the focus group interviews of twelve nurses who had experienced inpatient suicide. The data were analyzed by using analytical technique based on grounded theory, and software QSR NVIVO8 was used to aid the collation of data. Three main themes of risk factors about inpatient suicide emerged from the analysis: individual value, social factors and environmental factors. The individual value was categorized into different groups such as sense of guilt, hopelessness and low self-esteem. Social factors included two aspects of negative life events and social support. Three themes of precautions about inpatient suicide appeared in this study: evaluation, nursing and information exchange. Evaluation was elaborated from both physical and psychological assessments. This finding extends existing work of risk factors and precautions about inpatient suicide and brings new knowledge about the reasons why inpatients commit suicide. PMID:25877368

  7. Oral Radiology Safety Standards Adopted by the General Dentists Practicing in National Capital Region (NCR)

    PubMed Central

    Jayaprakash, K.; Shivalingesh, K.K.; Agarwal, Vartika; Gupta, Bhuvandeep; Anand, Richa; Sharma, Abhinav; Kushwaha, Sumedha

    2016-01-01

    Introduction With advancement in diagnostic techniques, the utilization of radiologic examination has risen to many folds in the last two decades. Ionizing radiations from the radiographic examination carry the potential for harm by inducing carcino-genesis in addition to the diagnostic information extracted. Radiation doses utilized in the course of dental treatment might be low for individual examinations but patients are exposed to repeated examinations very often and many people are exposed during the course of dental care. Therefore, principles of radiation protection and safety are necessary for the dentists to follow to ensure minimum and inevitable exposure. Aim The aim of this study was to investigate the knowledge and behaviour of general dentists practicing in the National Capital Region (NCR) regarding radiation safety during oral radiographic procedures. Materials and Methods The study was a questionnaire based cross-sectional study. A total of 500 general dentists were contacted to participate in the study. The target population entailed of general dentists practicing in the National Capital Region. Data was computed and tabulated in Microsoft excel sheet and statistical analysis was performed with the help of SPSS version 21.0. Results The total response rate recovered was 70.6% and the respondents comprised of 59% and 41% males & females respectively. Only 64.8% of the general dentists contemplated thyroid to be the most important organ for radiation protection. Only 28.8% of the general dentists followed the position & distance rule appropriately. Conclusion The results showed that the knowledge and behaviour of the general dentists and the practices adopted by them regarding radiation safety is not satisfactory. To ensure the following of basic and necessary guidelines for radiation safety and protection, strict rules with penalties should be implemented by the state councils and new and interesting methods of education for this spectrum of the

  8. GPHS (General Purpose Heat Source) uranium oxide encapsulations supporting satellite safety tests

    SciTech Connect

    Kanne, W.R.

    1989-04-24

    General Purpose Heat Source (GPHS) simulant-fueled capsules were assembled, welded, nondestructively examined, and shipped to Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) for satellite safety tests. Simulant-fueled iridium capsules contain depleted uranium oxide pellets that serve as a stand-in for plutonium-238 oxide pellets. Information on forty seven capsules prepared during 1987 and 1988 is recorded in this memorandum along with a description of the processes used for encapsulation and evaluation. LANL expects to use all capsules for destructive safety tests, which are under way. Test results so far have demonstrated excellent integrity of the Savannah River capsule welds. 10 refs., 5 figs., 3 tabs.

  9. The Frankfurt Patient Safety Climate Questionnaire for General Practices (FraSiK): analysis of psychometric properties.

    PubMed

    Hoffmann, Barbara; Domanska, Olga Maria; Albay, Zeycan; Mueller, Vera; Guethlin, Corina; Thomas, Eric J; Gerlach, Ferdinand M

    2011-09-01

    BACKGROUND Safety culture has been identified as having a major impact on how safety is managed in healthcare. However, it has not received much attention in general practices. Hence, no instrument yet exists to assess safety climate-the measurable artefact of safety culture-in this setting. This study aims to evaluate psychometric properties of a newly developed safety climate questionnaire for use in German general practices. METHODS The existing Safety Attitudes Questionnaire, Ambulatory Version, was considerably modified and enhanced in order to be applicable in general practice. After pilot tests and its application in a random sample of 400 German practices, a first psychometric analysis led to modifications in several items. A further psychometric analysis was conducted with an additional sample of 60 practices and a response rate of 97.08%. Exploratory factor analysis with orthogonal varimax rotation was carried out and the internal consistency of the identified factors was calculated. RESULTS Nine factors emerged, representing a wide range of dimensions associated with safety culture: teamwork climate, error management, safety of clinical processes, perception of causes of errors, job satisfaction, safety of office structure, receptiveness to healthcare assistants and patients, staff perception of management, and quality and safety of medical care. Internal consistency of factors is moderate to good. CONCLUSIONS This study demonstrates the development of a patient safety climate instrument. The questionnaire displays established features of safety climate and additionally contains features that might be specific to small-scale general practices. PMID:21571753

  10. HIV/AIDS Universal Precaution Practices in Sun Dance Ceremonies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Giroux, Jennifer; Takehara, Joan; Asetoyer, Charon; Welty, Thomas

    1997-01-01

    The Aberdeen (South Dakota) Area Indian Health Service has sponsored educational projects to reduce risk of HIV transmission via skin piercing and flesh offerings during traditional Sun Dance ceremonies. Projects emphasized universal precautions, provided medical supplies, and respected the sacredness of the ceremony. Evaluation indicates that…

  11. Preventing Infection in the Classroom: The Use of Universal Precautions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edens, Retha M.; Murdick, Nikki L.; Gartin, Barbara C.

    2003-01-01

    This article reviews the universal precautions for appropriate infection control, including the proper method for putting on gloves and removing gloves, hand washing, and blood/bodily fluid clean up. A sample school board policy and kindergarten health core curriculum is provided, along with a kindergarten classroom illustration. (Contains…

  12. Improving general practice computer systems for patient safety: qualitative study of key stakeholders

    PubMed Central

    Avery, Anthony J; Savelyich, Boki S P; Sheikh, Aziz; Morris, Caroline J; Bowler, Isobel; Teasdale, Sheila

    2007-01-01

    Objective The authors sought to identify ways in which the use of general practice computer systems could be improved to enhance safety in primary care. Design Qualitative study using semistructured interviews. Participants Thirty one participants, representing a broad range of relevant disciplines and interest groups. Participants included clinicians, computer system and drug database suppliers, academics with interests in health informatics and members of governmental, professional and patient representative bodies. Setting UK. Results Participants identified deficiencies in current systems that pose serious threats to patient safety. To bring about improvements, providers need to supply clinicians with safe, accurate and accessible information for decision support; be aware of the importance of human ergonomics in the design of hazard alerts; consider the value of audit trails and develop mechanisms to allow for the accurate transfer of information between clinical computer systems. These improvements in computer systems will be most likely to occur if mandated through regulations. Individual practices are in need of improved education and training which focuses, in particular, on providing support with recording data accurately and using call, recall and reminders effectively. Conclusion There are significant opportunities for improving the safety of general practice computer systems. Priorities include improving the knowledge base for clinical decision support, paying greater attention to human ergonomics in system design, improved staff training and the introduction of new regulations mandating system suppliers to satisfy essential safety requirements. PMID:17301200

  13. Radiological Safety Handbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Army Ordnance Center and School, Aberdeen Proving Ground, MD.

    Written to be used concurrently with the U.S. Army's Radiological Safety Course, this publication discusses the causes, sources, and detection of nuclear radiation. In addition, the transportation and disposal of radioactive materials are covered. The report also deals with the safety precautions to be observed when working with lasers, microwave…

  14. Evaluation of features to support safety and quality in general practice clinical software

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Electronic prescribing is now the norm in many countries. We wished to find out if clinical software systems used by general practitioners in Australia include features (functional capabilities and other characteristics) that facilitate improved patient safety and care, with a focus on quality use of medicines. Methods Seven clinical software systems used in general practice were evaluated. Fifty software features that were previously rated as likely to have a high impact on safety and/or quality of care in general practice were tested and are reported here. Results The range of results for the implementation of 50 features across the 7 clinical software systems was as follows: 17-31 features (34-62%) were fully implemented, 9-13 (18-26%) partially implemented, and 9-20 (18-40%) not implemented. Key findings included: Access to evidence based drug and therapeutic information was limited. Decision support for prescribing was available but varied markedly between systems. During prescribing there was potential for medicine mis-selection in some systems, and linking a medicine with its indication was optional. The definition of 'current medicines' versus 'past medicines' was not always clear. There were limited resources for patients, and some medicines lists for patients were suboptimal. Results were provided to the software vendors, who were keen to improve their systems. Conclusions The clinical systems tested lack some of the features expected to support patient safety and quality of care. Standards and certification for clinical software would ensure that safety features are present and that there is a minimum level of clinical functionality that clinicians could expect to find in any system.

  15. Scoping in environmental impact assessment: Balancing precaution and efficiency?

    SciTech Connect

    Snell, Tim . E-mail: t.snell@adamshendry.co.uk; Cowell, Richard . E-mail: cowellrj@cardiff.ac.uk

    2006-05-15

    Scoping is a crucial yet under-researched stage of environmental impact assessment, in which practice falls well behind conceptual ideals. We argue that such 'implementation deficits' reflect dilemmas between two key rationales for scoping - environmental precaution and decision-making efficiency - and between technical and participatory conceptions of the decision-making process. We use qualitative research to understand how scoping practice in the UK reconciles these competing imperatives. Our findings suggest that practitioners mainly rationalise their approach in terms of decision-making efficiency, while justifying excluding the public from scoping on grounds of prematurity, delay and risks of causing confusion. The tendency to scope issues in rather than exclude them reflects a pervasive concern for legal challenge, rather than environmental precaution, but this reinforces standard lists of environmental considerations rather than the investigation of novel, cumulative or indirect risks.

  16. Receptionist input to quality and safety in repeat prescribing in UK general practice: ethnographic case study

    PubMed Central

    Greenhalgh, Trisha; Russell, Jill; Myall, Michelle

    2011-01-01

    Objective To describe, explore, and compare organisational routines for repeat prescribing in general practice to identify contributors and barriers to safety and quality. Design Ethnographic case study. Setting Four urban UK general practices with diverse organisational characteristics using electronic patient records that supported semi-automation of repeat prescribing. Participants 395 hours of ethnographic observation of staff (25 doctors, 16 nurses, 4 healthcare assistants, 6 managers, and 56 reception or administrative staff), and 28 documents and other artefacts relating to repeat prescribing locally and nationally. Main outcome measures Potential threats to patient safety and characteristics of good practice. Methods Observation of how doctors, receptionists, and other administrative staff contributed to, and collaborated on, the repeat prescribing routine. Analysis included mapping prescribing routines, building a rich description of organisational practices, and drawing these together through narrative synthesis. This was informed by a sociological model of how organisational routines shape and are shaped by information and communications technologies. Results Repeat prescribing was a complex, technology-supported social practice requiring collaboration between clinical and administrative staff, with important implications for patient safety. More than half of requests for repeat prescriptions were classed as “exceptions” by receptionists (most commonly because the drug, dose, or timing differed from what was on the electronic repeat list). They managed these exceptions by making situated judgments that enabled them (sometimes but not always) to bridge the gap between the idealised assumptions about tasks, roles, and interactions that were built into the electronic patient record and formal protocols, and the actual repeat prescribing routine as it played out in practice. This work was creative and demanded both explicit and tacit knowledge

  17. Framework for controlling infection through isolation precautions in Japan.

    PubMed

    Kawakami, Kazumi; Misao, Hanako

    2014-03-01

    In Japan, nurses certified in infection control face organizational and structural challenges to the implementation of the recommended isolation precautions. In this study, we developed a conceptual framework for the problem-solving process of certified nurses in infection control when implementing appropriate isolation-precaution measures. We conducted a qualitative, descriptive study using directed content analysis. Semistructured interviews were conducted with 40 nurses who had over five years' experience in infection control. Factors assessing the risk of infection in patients were identified, including microorganism characteristics, patient characteristics, and risk of infection to the entire unit. The nurses also assessed the risk of infection in institutions from the following perspectives: organizational culture, infection control system, human resources, environment surrounding the facility, ethical issues, and external factors. Individual characteristics, such as attributes, knowledge, expertise, and job function, were identified as major influencing factors in the problem-solving process. These findings could be useful for newly-certified nurses in infection control and provide recommendations on implementing isolation-precaution measures. PMID:24635895

  18. General-Purpose Heat Source safety verification test series: SVT-1 through SVT-6

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pavone, D.; George, T. G.; Frantz, C. E.

    1985-06-01

    The General-Purpose Heat Source (GPHS) is a modular heat source that will supply energy for Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generators (RTGs) in space missions. The Safety Verification Tests (SVTs) are performed to assess the plutonium containment capability of heat source modules subjected to certain accident environments. This interim report described the GPHS module configuration, the test environment, and the response of the module components following simulated reentry and solid Earth impact. The specific test environment of these initial six tests results from failure of the booster rocket to place the spacecraft in a proper trajectory and subsequent reentry of the GPHS modules from Earth orbit.

  19. General-purpose heat source project and space nuclear safety fuels program. Progress report, February 1980

    SciTech Connect

    Maraman, W.J.

    1980-05-01

    This formal monthly report covers the studies related to the use of /sup 238/PuO/sub 2/ in radioisotopic power systems carried out for the Advanced Nuclear Systems and Projects Division of the Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory. The two programs involved are: General-Purpose Heat Source Development and Space Nuclear Safety and Fuels. Most of the studies discussed here are of a continuing nature. Results and conclusions described may change as the work continues. Published reference to the results cited in this report should not be made without the explicit permission of the person in charge of the work.

  20. Nuclear safety

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buden, D.

    1991-01-01

    Topics dealing with nuclear safety are addressed which include the following: general safety requirements; safety design requirements; terrestrial safety; SP-100 Flight System key safety requirements; potential mission accidents and hazards; key safety features; ground operations; launch operations; flight operations; disposal; safety concerns; licensing; the nuclear engine for rocket vehicle application (NERVA) design philosophy; the NERVA flight safety program; and the NERVA safety plan.

  1. An alternative approach to prescribing sternal precautions after median sternotomy, “Keep Your Move in the Tube”

    PubMed Central

    Lotshaw, Ana; Exum, Emelia; Campbell, Mark; Spranger, Cathy B.; Beveridge, Jim; Baker, Shawn; McCray, Stephanie; Bilbrey, Tim; Shock, Tiffany; Lawrence, Anne; Hamman, Baron L.; Schussler, Jeffrey M.

    2016-01-01

    Traditional sternal precautions, given to sternotomy patients as part of their discharge education, are intended to help prevent sternal wound complications. They vary widely but generally include arbitrary load and time restrictions (lifting no more than a specified weight for up to 12 weeks) and may prohibit common shoulder joint and shoulder girdle movements. Having observed the negative effects of restrictive sternal precautions for many years, our research team performed a series of studies that measured the forces exerted during various common activities and their relationship to the sternum. The results, though informative, led us to realize that the goal of identifying “the” appropriate load restriction to prescribe for sternotomy patients was futile. The alternative approach that we introduce applies standard kinesiological principles and teaches patients how to perform load-bearing movements in a way that avoids excessive stress to the sternum. PMID:26722187

  2. Environmental assessment of general-purpose heat source safety verification testing

    SciTech Connect

    1995-02-01

    This Environmental Assessment (EA) was prepared to identify and evaluate potential environmental, safety, and health impacts associated with the Proposed Action to test General-Purpose Heat Source (GPHS) Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generator (RTG) assemblies at the Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) 10,000-Foot Sled Track Facility, Albuquerque, New Mexico. RTGs are used to provide a reliable source of electrical power on board some spacecraft when solar power is inadequate during long duration space missions. These units are designed to convert heat from the natural decay of radioisotope fuel into electrical power. Impact test data are required to support DOE`s mission to provide radioisotope power systems to NASA and other user agencies. The proposed tests will expand the available safety database regarding RTG performance under postulated accident conditions. Direct observations and measurements of GPHS/RTG performance upon impact with hard, unyielding surfaces are required to verify model predictions and to ensure the continual evolution of the RTG designs that perform safely under varied accident environments. The Proposed Action is to conduct impact testing of RTG sections containing GPHS modules with simulated fuel. End-On and Side-On impact test series are planned.

  3. General Framework for Animal Food Safety Traceability Using GS1 and RFID

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Weizhu; Zheng, Limin; Zhu, Hong; Wu, Ping

    GS1 is global traceability standard, which is composed by the encoding system (EAN/UCC, EPC), the data carriers identified automatically (bar codes, RFID), electronic data interchange standards (EDI, XML). RFID is a non-contact, multi-objective automatic identification technique. Tracing of source food, standardization of RFID tags, sharing of dynamic data are problems to solve urgently for recent traceability systems. The paper designed general framework for animal food safety traceability using GS1 and RFID. This framework uses RFID tags encoding with EPCglobal tag data standards. Each information server has access tier, business tier and resource tier. These servers are heterogeneous and distributed, providing user access interfaces by SOAP or HTTP protocols. For sharing dynamic data, discovery service and object name service are used to locate dynamic distributed information servers.

  4. General-Purpose Heat Source Safety Verification Test series: SVT-7 through SVT-10

    SciTech Connect

    George, T.G.; Pavone, D.

    1985-09-01

    The General-Purpose Heat Source (GPHS) is a modular component of the radioisotope thermoelectric generator that will supply power for the Galileo and Ulysses (formerly ISPM) space missions. The GPHS provides power by transmitting the heat of /sup 238/PuO/sub 2/ ..cap alpha..-decay to an array of thermoelectric elements. Because the possibility of an orbital abort always exists, the heat source was designed and constructed to minimize plutonia release in any accident environment. The Safety Verification Test (SVT) series was formulated to evaluate the effectiveness of GPHS plutonia containment after atmospheric reentry and Earth impact. The first report (covering SVT-1 through SVT-6) described the results of flat and side-on module impacts. This report describes module impacts at angles of 15/sup 0/ and 30/sup 0/.

  5. Social safety, self-rated general health and physical activity: changes in area crime, area safety feelings and the role of social cohesion.

    PubMed

    Ruijsbroek, Annemarie; Droomers, Mariël; Groenewegen, Peter P; Hardyns, Wim; Stronks, Karien

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine whether changes over time in reported area crime and perceived area safety were related to self-rated general health and physical activity (PA), in order to provide support for a causal relationship between social safety and health. Additionally, we investigated whether social cohesion protects the residents against the negative impact of unsafe areas on health and PA. Multilevel logistic regression analyses were performed on Dutch survey data, including 47,926 respondents living in 2974 areas. An increase in area level unsafety feelings between 2009 and 2011 was associated with more people reporting poor general health in 2012 in that area, but was not related to PA. Changes in reported area crime were not related to either poor general health or PA. The social cohesion in the area did not modify the effect of changes in social safety on health and PA. The results suggest that tackling feelings of unsafety in an area might contribute to the better general health of the residents. Because changes in area social safety were not associated with PA, we found no leads that such health benefits were achieved through an increase in physical activity. PMID:25463916

  6. Safety review of the design, operation, and radiation sections of the General Electric Morris Operation Consolidated Safety Analysis Report

    SciTech Connect

    McBride, J.P.

    1981-01-30

    A safety review was made of Sections 4 through 9 of the Consolidated Safety Analysis Report (CSAR) for the GE Morris Operation spent-fuel storage facility. The sections reviewed include Design Criteria and Compliance, Facility Design and Description, Radiation Protection, Accident Analysis, and Conduct of Operations. The safety review was performed in accordance with the Code of Federal Regulations, Title 10, Part 72, ''Licensing Requirements for the Storage of Spent Fuel in an Independent Spent Fuel Storage Installation'' and contains independent estimations of source terms and dose-commitments from postulated accidents in the storage facility and a structural analysis of the Morris Operation cranes as an appendix. The review confirms that the features of the facility as described in Sections 4 through 9 of the CSAR fulfilled the safety requirements of 10 CFR 72, and it is concluded that spent-fuel handling and storage at the Morris Operation do not present significant risks to public health and safety. 15 refs., 3 tabs.

  7. The experience of Ugandan nurses in the practice of universal precautions.

    PubMed

    Nderitu, Esther Wanjiku; Mill, Judy; Richter, Solina

    2015-01-01

    In Uganda, nurses do not always practice universal precautions unless they know the patients' HIV status. In our study, focused ethnography was used to explore the experiences of Ugandan nurses in the practice of universal precautions while caring for persons living with HIV. In-depth interviews were completed with 16 participants from a variety of units at a large teaching hospital in Uganda. Although participants were knowledgeable about universal precautions, the primary challenge to the practice of universal precautions was the inadequate supply of resources, both material and human. Despite challenges, the nurses displayed an enthusiasm for their work and a dedication to provide the best possible care for patients. The findings highlight the urgent need for governments and institutions, particularly in resource-constrained countries, to develop and implement policies related to universal precaution practice and to provide a consistent supply of protective equipment to ensure that universal precautions are consistently used. PMID:25769751

  8. Safety of iobitridol in the general population and at-risk patients.

    PubMed

    Vogl, Thomas J; Honold, Elmar; Wolf, Michael; Mohajeri, H; Hammerstingl, R

    2006-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to review the rate of adverse events after contrast medium administration in the general population and at-risk patients (renal impairment, heart failure (NYHA III or IV), hypotension or hypertension, coronary artery disease, previous reaction to contrast media, asthma and/or allergies, dehydration, diabetes mellitus, poor general condition) under daily practice conditions in a post-marketing surveillance study. Two hundred and ten radiologists conducted various X-ray examinations in 52,057 patients. To document the safety of iobitridol in routine use, all patients undergoing X-ray examinations were included. Exclusion criteria were contraindications listed in the locally approved summary of product characteristics. The adverse event rate was 0.96% (at-risk patients 1.39%); the rate of serious adverse events 0.044% in all patients (at-risk patients 0.057%). Adverse events occurred more often in women than in men (P < 0.001). In patients who had previously reacted to a contrast medium, adverse events were reported in 3.43% with mild to moderate symptoms. In 47.76% of these patients, a premedication was administered. There was no difference in the frequency of adverse events and serious adverse events whether premedicated or not (P = 0.311 and P = 0.295, respectively). Iobitridol was well-tolerated in 99.04% of cases (at-risk patients 98.61%). PMID:16429272

  9. Support for the revocation of general safety test regulations in biologics license applications.

    PubMed

    Evans, Dana M; Thorn, Jennifer M; Arch-Douglas, Katherine; Sperry, Justin B; Thompson, Bruce; Davis, Heather L; McCluskie, Michael J

    2016-05-01

    The United States Food and Drug Administration recently removed the requirement for a General Safety Test (GST) for biologics in the Code of Federal Regulations (21 CFR 610.11). The GST, as well as abnormal toxicity (European Pharmacopeia) and innocuity tests (World Health Organization), were designed to test for extraneous toxic contaminants on each product lot intended for human use. Tests require one-week observations for general health and weight following injection of specified volumes of product batches into guinea pigs and mice. At the volumes specified, dose-related toxicity may result when the product is pharmacologically active in rodents. With vaccines, required doses may be > 3 logs higher than intended human dose on a weight-adjusted basis and if an immune modulatory adjuvant is included, systemic immune hyperactivation may cause toxicity. Herein, using the CpG/alum adjuvant combination we evaluated the different test protocols and showed their unsuitability for this adjuvant combination. PMID:26996102

  10. 21 CFR 170.20 - General principles for evaluating the safety of food additives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... proposed experiments to determine its safety, the Commissioner will advise a person who wishes to establish the safety of a food additive whether he believes the experiments planned will yield data adequate...

  11. 21 CFR 570.20 - General principles for evaluating the safety of food additives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... and the proposed experiments to determine its safety, the Commissioner will advise a person who wishes to establish the safety of a food additive whether he believes the experiments planned will...

  12. 21 CFR 170.20 - General principles for evaluating the safety of food additives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... proposed experiments to determine its safety, the Commissioner will advise a person who wishes to establish the safety of a food additive whether he believes the experiments planned will yield data adequate...

  13. 21 CFR 170.20 - General principles for evaluating the safety of food additives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... proposed experiments to determine its safety, the Commissioner will advise a person who wishes to establish the safety of a food additive whether he believes the experiments planned will yield data adequate...

  14. 21 CFR 570.20 - General principles for evaluating the safety of food additives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... and the proposed experiments to determine its safety, the Commissioner will advise a person who wishes to establish the safety of a food additive whether he believes the experiments planned will...

  15. 21 CFR 570.20 - General principles for evaluating the safety of food additives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... and the proposed experiments to determine its safety, the Commissioner will advise a person who wishes to establish the safety of a food additive whether he believes the experiments planned will...

  16. 21 CFR 570.20 - General principles for evaluating the safety of food additives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... and the proposed experiments to determine its safety, the Commissioner will advise a person who wishes to establish the safety of a food additive whether he believes the experiments planned will...

  17. 21 CFR 170.20 - General principles for evaluating the safety of food additives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... proposed experiments to determine its safety, the Commissioner will advise a person who wishes to establish the safety of a food additive whether he believes the experiments planned will yield data adequate...

  18. Patient safety in primary care: incident reporting and significant event reviews in British general practice.

    PubMed

    Rea, David; Griffiths, Sarah

    2016-07-01

    Over the past 20 years, healthcare has adapted to the 'quality revolution' by moving away from direct provision and hierarchical control mechanisms. In their place, new structures based on contractual relationships are being developed coupled with attempts to create an organisational culture that shares learning and that scrutinises existing practice so that it can be improved. The issue here is that contractual arrangements require surveillance, monitoring, regulation and governance systems that can be perceived as antipathetic to the examination of practice and subsequent learning. Historically, reporting levels from general practice have remained low; little information is shared and consequently lessons are not shared across the general practice community. Given large-scale under-engagement of general practitioners (GPs) in incident reporting systems, significant event analysis is advocated to encourage sharing of information about incidents to inform the patient safety agenda at a local and national level. Previous research has concentrated on the secondary care environment and little is known about the situation in primary care, where the majority of patient contacts with healthcare occur. To explore attitudes to incident reporting, the study adopted a qualitative approach to GPs working in a mixture of urban and rural practices reporting to a Welsh Local Health Board. The study found that GPs used significant event analysis methodology to report incidents within their practice, but acknowledged under-reporting. They were less enthusiastic about reporting externally. A number of barriers exist to reporting, including insufficient time to report, lack of feedback, fear of blame, and damage to reputations and patient confidence in a competitive environment. If incident reporting processes are perceived as supportive and formative, and where protected time is allocated to discuss incidents, then GPs are willing to participate. They also need to know how the

  19. Swine Worker Precautions During Suspected Outbreaks of Influenza in Swine.

    PubMed

    Paccha, Blanca; Neira-Ramirez, Victor; Gibbs, Shawn; Torremorell, Montserrat; Rabinowitz, Peter M

    2016-05-01

    To assess the behavior and precautions that swine workers take during suspected influenza outbreaks in swine, six commercial swine farms in the Midwest U.S. region were visited when influenza outbreaks were suspected in herds during the fall/winter of 2012-2013. Use of personal protective equipment (PPE) and type of task performed by swine workers were recorded based on farm representative reports. Between one to two workers were working on the day of each visit and spent approximately 25 minutes performing work-related tasks that placed them in close contact with the swine. The most common tasks reported were walking the aisles (27%), handling pigs (21%), and handling equipment (21%). The most common PPE were boots (100%), heavy rubber gloves (75%), and dedicated nondisposable clothing (74%). Use of N95 respirators was reported at three farms. Hand hygiene practices were common in most of the farms, but reportedly performed for only 20% to 25% of tasks. PMID:27263180

  20. Safety.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Education in Science, 1996

    1996-01-01

    Discusses safety issues in science, including: allergic reactions to peanuts used in experiments; explosions in lead/acid batteries; and inspection of pressure vessels, such as pressure cookers or model steam engines. (MKR)

  1. General-Purpose Heat Source Safety Verification Test program: Edge-on flyer plate tests

    SciTech Connect

    George, T.G.

    1987-03-01

    The radioisotope thermoelectric generator (RTG) that will supply power for the Galileo and Ulysses space missions contains 18 General-Purpose Heat Source (GPHS) modules. The GPHS modules provide power by transmitting the heat of STYPu -decay to an array of thermoelectric elements. Each module contains four STYPuO2-fueled clads and generates 250 W(t). Because the possibility of a launch vehicle explosion always exists, and because such an explosion could generate a field of high-energy fragments, the fueled clads within each GPHS module must survive fragment impact. The edge-on flyer plate tests were included in the Safety Verification Test series to provide information on the module/clad response to the impact of high-energy plate fragments. The test results indicate that the edge-on impact of a 3.2-mm-thick, aluminum-alloy (2219-T87) plate traveling at 915 m/s causes the complete release of fuel from capsules contained within a bare GPHS module, and that the threshold velocity sufficient to cause the breach of a bare, simulant-fueled clad impacted by a 3.5-mm-thick, aluminum-alloy (5052-T0) plate is approximately 140 m/s.

  2. General-Purpose Heat Source development: Safety Verification Test Program. Bullet/fragment test series

    SciTech Connect

    George, T.G.; Tate, R.E.; Axler, K.M.

    1985-05-01

    The radioisotope thermoelectric generator (RTG) that will provide power for space missions contains 18 General-Purpose Heat Source (GPHS) modules. Each module contains four /sup 238/PuO/sub 2/-fueled clads and generates 250 W/sub (t)/. Because a launch-pad or post-launch explosion is always possible, we need to determine the ability of GPHS fueled clads within a module to survive fragment impact. The bullet/fragment test series, part of the Safety Verification Test Plan, was designed to provide information on clad response to impact by a compact, high-energy, aluminum-alloy fragment and to establish a threshold value of fragment energy required to breach the iridium cladding. Test results show that a velocity of 555 m/s (1820 ft/s) with an 18-g bullet is at or near the threshold value of fragment velocity that will cause a clad breach. Results also show that an exothermic Ir/Al reaction occurs if aluminum and hot iridium are in contact, a contact that is possible and most damaging to the clad within a narrow velocity range. The observed reactions between the iridium and the aluminum were studied in the laboratory and are reported in the Appendix.

  3. General-Purpose Heat Source Development: Safety Verification Test Program. Flyer plate test series

    SciTech Connect

    Cull, T.A.; Pavone, D.

    1986-09-01

    The General-Purpose Heat Source (GPHS) is a modular component of a radioisotope thermoelectric generator (RTG) that will provide electric power for space missions. The initial RTG applications will be for the NASA Galileo and the ESA Ulysses missions. Each of the 18 GPHS modules in an RTG contains four /sup 238/PuO/sub 2/-fueled clads and generates 250 W/sub (t)/. A series of Safety Verification Tests (SVTs) has been conducted to assess the ability of the GPHS fueled clads to contain the plutonia in accident environments. Because a launch pad or postlaunch explosion of the Space Transportation System Vehicle (space shuttle) is one conceivable accident, the SVT plan included a series of tests to simulate the fragment environment that the RTG and GPHS modules would experience in such an event. These tests deal specifically with the flat-on collision of flyer-plate-type fragments with bare, simulant-fueled (depleted UO/sub 2/) clads. Results of these tests suggest that the fueled clad is only minimally breached by collision with 3.53-mm-thick flyer-plate-type fragments of space shuttle alloy at velocities up to 1170 m/s. However, collision of a 38.1-mm-thick plate with a bare GPHS clad, at a velocity of 270 m/s, results in a total release of fuel.

  4. Enhancing patient safety through the management of Clostridium difficile at Toronto East General Hospital.

    PubMed

    Tomiczek, Arladeen; Stumpo, C; Downey, James F

    2006-01-01

    In 2005 Toronto East General Hospital experienced a steady increase in the number of C. difficile cases diagnosed within the hospital. This was identified as a patient safety issue, and several areas of the hospital came together to address the problem. Pharmacy immediately started a medication review of past cases. Environmental services took the lead on the environmental cleaning, and a process was put into place with Infection Control so that housekeeping knew of every room that contained a patient with C. difficile and enhanced cleaning could be practised. Staff, including nursing, housekeeping and porters, were educated on C. difficile and the methods of transmission. A business case was developed for a disposable bedpan system, and this was approved by the senior team. A new washable product was tried out with success for the overhead patient light pulls and bathroom call bell systems. Infection rates were shared with staff through a variety of venues. As a result of the initiatives, the hospital has seen a decrease of 50% in the rates of C. difficile. A bonus was that our MRSA rates dropped as well. PMID:17087168

  5. Explosion overpressure test series: General-Purpose Heat Source development: Safety Verification Test program

    SciTech Connect

    Cull, T.A.; George, T.G.; Pavone, D.

    1986-09-01

    The General-Purpose Heat Source (GPHS) is a modular, radioisotope heat source that will be used in radioisotope thermoelectric generators (RTGs) to supply electric power for space missions. The first two uses will be the NASA Galileo and the ESA Ulysses missions. The RTG for these missions will contain 18 GPHS modules, each of which contains four /sup 238/PuO/sub 2/-fueled clads and generates 250 W/sub (t)/. A series of Safety Verification Tests (SVTs) was conducted to assess the ability of the GPHS modules to contain the plutonia in accident environments. Because a launch pad or postlaunch explosion of the Space Transportation System vehicle (space shuttle) is a conceivable accident, the SVT plan included a series of tests that simulated the overpressure exposure the RTG and GPHS modules could experience in such an event. Results of these tests, in which we used depleted UO/sub 2/ as a fuel simulant, suggest that exposure to overpressures as high as 15.2 MPa (2200 psi), without subsequent impact, does not result in a release of fuel.

  6. General-Purpose Heat Source Safety Verification Test Program: Edge-on flyer plate tests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    George, T. G.

    1987-03-01

    The radioisotope thermoelectric generator (RTG) that will supply power for the Galileo and Ulysses space missions contains 18 General-Purpose Heat Source (GPHS) modules. The GPHS modules provide power by transmitting the heat of Pu-238 alpha-decay to an array of thermoelectric elements. Each module contains four Pu-238O2-fueled clads and generates 250 W(t). Because the possibility of a launch vehicle explosion always exists, and because such an explosion could generate a field of high-energy fragments, the fueled clads within each GPHS module must survive fragment impact. The edge-on flyer plate tests were included in the Safety Verification Test series to provide information on the module/clad response to the impact of high-energy plate fragments. The test results indicate that the edge-on impact of a 3.2-mm-thick, aluminum-alloy (2219-T87) plate traveling at 915 m/s causes the complete release of fuel from capsules contained within a bare GPHS module, and that the threshold velocity sufficient to cause the breach of a bare, simulant-fueled clad impacted by a 3.5-mm-thick, aluminum-alloy (5052-TO) plate is approximately 140 m/s.

  7. General-purpose heat source project and space nuclear safety and fuels program. Progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Maraman, W.J.

    1980-02-01

    Studies related to the use of /sup 238/PuO/sub 2/ in radioisotopic power systems carried out for the Advanced Nuclear Systems and Projects Division of LASL are presented. The three programs involved are: general-purpose heat source development; space nuclear safety; and fuels program. Three impact tests were conducted to evaluate the effects of a high temperature reentry pulse and the use of CBCF on impact performance. Additionally, two /sup 238/PuO/sub 2/ pellets were encapsulated in Ir-0.3% W for impact testing. Results of the clad development test and vent testing are noted. Results of the environmental tests are summarized. Progress on the Stirling isotope power systems test and the status of the improved MHW tests are indicated. The examination of the impact failure of the iridium shell of MHFT-65 at a fuel pass-through continued. A test plan was written for vibration testing of the assembled light-weight radioisotopic heater unit. Progress on fuel processing is reported.

  8. Dietary supplements and hypertension: potential benefits and precautions.

    PubMed

    Rasmussen, Carly B; Glisson, James K; Minor, Deborah S

    2012-07-01

    Dietary supplements (DSs) are used extensively in the general population and many are promoted for the natural treatment and management of hypertension. Patients with hypertension often choose to use these products either in addition to or instead of pharmacologic antihypertensive agents. Because of the frequent use of DS, both consumers and health care providers should be aware of the considerable issues surrounding these products and factors influencing both efficacy and safety. In this review of the many DSs promoted for the management of hypertension, 4 products with evidence of possible benefits (coenzyme Q10, fish oil, garlic, vitamin C) and 4 that were consistently associated with increasing blood pressure were found (ephedra, Siberian ginseng, bitter orange, licorice). The goals and objectives of this review are to discuss the regulation of DS, evaluate the efficacy of particular DS in the treatment of hypertension, and highlight DS that may potentially increase blood pressure. PMID:22747620

  9. 48 CFR 1252.236-70 - Special precautions for work at operating airports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Provisions and Clauses 1252.236-70 Special precautions for work at operating airports. As prescribed in (TAR) 48 CFR 1236.570, insert the following clause: Special Precautions for Work at Operating Airports (OCT... work at operating airports. 1252.236-70 Section 1252.236-70 Federal Acquisition Regulations...

  10. 48 CFR 1252.236-70 - Special precautions for work at operating airports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Provisions and Clauses 1252.236-70 Special precautions for work at operating airports. As prescribed in (TAR) 48 CFR 1236.570, insert the following clause: Special Precautions for Work at Operating Airports (OCT... work at operating airports. 1252.236-70 Section 1252.236-70 Federal Acquisition Regulations...

  11. 21 CFR 111.365 - What precautions must you take to prevent contamination?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... contamination? 111.365 Section 111.365 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND... contamination? You must take all the necessary precautions during the manufacture of a dietary supplement to prevent contamination of components or dietary supplements. These precautions include: (a)...

  12. 7 CFR 1980.318 - Flood or mudslide hazard area precautions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 14 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Flood or mudslide hazard area precautions. 1980.318... Flood or mudslide hazard area precautions. RHS policy is to discourage lending in designated flood and mudslide hazard areas. Loan guarantees shall not be issued in designated flood/mudslide hazard areas...

  13. 7 CFR 1980.318 - Flood or mudslide hazard area precautions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 14 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Flood or mudslide hazard area precautions. 1980.318... Flood or mudslide hazard area precautions. RHS policy is to discourage lending in designated flood and mudslide hazard areas. Loan guarantees shall not be issued in designated flood/mudslide hazard areas...

  14. 7 CFR 1980.318 - Flood or mudslide hazard area precautions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 14 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Flood or mudslide hazard area precautions. 1980.318... Flood or mudslide hazard area precautions. RHS policy is to discourage lending in designated flood and mudslide hazard areas. Loan guarantees shall not be issued in designated flood/mudslide hazard areas...

  15. 7 CFR 1980.433 - Flood or mudslide hazard area precautions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 14 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Flood or mudslide hazard area precautions. 1980.433... Program § 1980.433 Flood or mudslide hazard area precautions. (See subpart A, § 1980.42.) Administrative The State Director is responsible for determining if a project is located in a special flood...

  16. 7 CFR 1980.433 - Flood or mudslide hazard area precautions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 14 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Flood or mudslide hazard area precautions. 1980.433... Program § 1980.433 Flood or mudslide hazard area precautions. (See subpart A, § 1980.42.) Administrative The State Director is responsible for determining if a project is located in a special flood...

  17. 7 CFR 1980.433 - Flood or mudslide hazard area precautions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 14 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Flood or mudslide hazard area precautions. 1980.433... Program § 1980.433 Flood or mudslide hazard area precautions. (See subpart A, § 1980.42.) Administrative The State Director is responsible for determining if a project is located in a special flood...

  18. 7 CFR 1980.433 - Flood or mudslide hazard area precautions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 14 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Flood or mudslide hazard area precautions. 1980.433... Program § 1980.433 Flood or mudslide hazard area precautions. (See subpart A, § 1980.42.) Administrative The State Director is responsible for determining if a project is located in a special flood...

  19. 7 CFR 1980.318 - Flood or mudslide hazard area precautions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 14 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Flood or mudslide hazard area precautions. 1980.318... Flood or mudslide hazard area precautions. RHS policy is to discourage lending in designated flood and mudslide hazard areas. Loan guarantees shall not be issued in designated flood/mudslide hazard areas...

  20. 7 CFR 1980.433 - Flood or mudslide hazard area precautions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 14 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Flood or mudslide hazard area precautions. 1980.433... Program § 1980.433 Flood or mudslide hazard area precautions. (See subpart A, § 1980.42.) Administrative The State Director is responsible for determining if a project is located in a special flood...

  1. 7 CFR 1980.318 - Flood or mudslide hazard area precautions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 14 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Flood or mudslide hazard area precautions. 1980.318... Flood or mudslide hazard area precautions. RHS policy is to discourage lending in designated flood and mudslide hazard areas. Loan guarantees shall not be issued in designated flood/mudslide hazard areas...

  2. 21 CFR 111.365 - What precautions must you take to prevent contamination?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... contamination? 111.365 Section 111.365 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND... contamination? You must take all the necessary precautions during the manufacture of a dietary supplement to prevent contamination of components or dietary supplements. These precautions include: (a)...

  3. 21 CFR 111.365 - What precautions must you take to prevent contamination?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... contamination? 111.365 Section 111.365 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND... contamination? You must take all the necessary precautions during the manufacture of a dietary supplement to prevent contamination of components or dietary supplements. These precautions include: (a)...

  4. 21 CFR 111.365 - What precautions must you take to prevent contamination?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... contamination? 111.365 Section 111.365 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND... contamination? You must take all the necessary precautions during the manufacture of a dietary supplement to prevent contamination of components or dietary supplements. These precautions include: (a)...

  5. 10 CFR Appendix A to Subpart B of... - General Statement of Safety Basis Policy

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    .... Introduction This appendix describes DOE's expectations for the safety basis requirements of 10 CFR Part 830..., safety, and health into work planning and execution (48 CFR 970.5223-1, Integration of Environment... directives (48 CFR 970.5204-2, Laws, Regulations and DOE Directives), the contractor will have...

  6. 10 CFR Appendix A to Subpart B of... - General Statement of Safety Basis Policy

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    .... Introduction This appendix describes DOE's expectations for the safety basis requirements of 10 CFR Part 830..., safety, and health into work planning and execution (48 CFR 970.5223-1, Integration of Environment... directives (48 CFR 970.5204-2, Laws, Regulations and DOE Directives), the contractor will have...

  7. 41 CFR 50-204.2 - General safety and health standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Other Nonmetallic Minerals, Including Silica Sand. (3) U.S. Department of Transportation: 49 CFR parts 171-179 and 14 CFR part 103 Hazardous material regulation—Transportation of compressed gases. (4) U.S... Labor—Title 29 CFR— Part 1501—Safety and Health Regulations for Ship Repairing. Part 1502—Safety...

  8. 41 CFR 50-204.2 - General safety and health standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Labor—Title 29 CFR— Part 1501—Safety and Health Regulations for Ship Repairing. Part 1502—Safety and... Other Nonmetallic Minerals, Including Silica Sand. (3) U.S. Department of Transportation: 49 CFR parts 171-179 and 14 CFR part 103 Hazardous material regulation—Transportation of compressed gases. (4)...

  9. General Safety Manual for Vocational-Technical Education and Industrial Arts Programs. Bulletin No. 1674.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dennis, Bill; Poston, David

    This manual is designed to offer suggestions for teaching safety in Louisiana industrial arts and vocational education programs. The suggestions and information presented are intended for use in an ongoing safety program, not a short unit presented at the beginning of the school year. Following an introduction in unit 1, the material has been…

  10. 10 CFR Appendix A to Subpart B of... - General Statement of Safety Basis Policy

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... basis requirements, DOE revised the language in 10 CFR 830.122(e)(1) to make clear that hazard controls.... Introduction This appendix describes DOE's expectations for the safety basis requirements of 10 CFR Part 830..., safety, and health into work planning and execution (48 CFR 970.5223-1, Integration of...

  11. Restructuring within an academic health center to support quality and safety: the development of the Center for Quality and Safety at the Massachusetts General Hospital.

    PubMed

    Bohmer, Richard M J; Bloom, Jonathan D; Mort, Elizabeth A; Demehin, Akinluwa A; Meyer, Gregg S

    2009-12-01

    Recent focus on the need to improve the quality and safety of health care has created new challenges for academic health centers (AHCs). Whereas previously quality was largely assumed, today it is increasingly quantifiable and requires organized systems for improvement. Traditional structures and cultures within AHCs, although well suited to the tripartite missions of teaching, research, and clinical care, are not easily adaptable to the tasks of measuring, reporting, and improving quality. Here, the authors use a case study of Massachusetts General Hospital's efforts to restructure quality and safety to illustrate the value of beginning with a focus on organizational culture, using a systematic process of engaging clinical leadership, developing an organizational framework dependent on proven business principles, leveraging focus events, and maintaining executive dedication to execution of the initiative. The case provides a generalizable example for AHCs of how applying explicit management design can foster robust organizational change with relatively modest incremental financial resources. PMID:19940570

  12. Contact Precautions for Multidrug-Resistant Organisms (MDROs): Current Recommendations and Actual Practice

    PubMed Central

    Clock, Sarah A.; Cohen, Bevin; Behta, Maryam; Ross, Barbara; Larson, Elaine L.

    2009-01-01

    Background Contact precautions are recommended for interactions with patients colonized/infected with multidrug-resistant organisms; however, rates of contact precautions practice are unknown. Methods Observers recorded the availability of supplies and staff/visitor adherence to contact precautions at rooms of patients indicated for contact precautions. Data were collected at three sites in a New York City hospital network. Results Contact precautions signs were present for 85.4% of indicated patients. The largest proportions were indicated for isolation for vancomycin-resistant enterococci and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus cultures. Isolation carts were available outside 93.7-96.7% of rooms displaying signs, and personal protective equipment was available at rates of 49.4-72.1% for gloves (all sizes: small, medium, and large) and 91.7-95.2% for gowns. Overall adherence rates upon room entry and exit, respectively, were 19.4% and 48.4% for hand hygiene, 67.5% and 63.5% for gloves, and 67.9% and 77.1% for gowns. Adherence was significantly better in intensive care units (p<0.05) and by patient-care staff (p<0.05), and patient-care staff compliance with one contact precautions behavior was predictive of adherence to additional behaviors (p<0.001). Conclusions Our findings support the recommendation that methods to monitor contact precautions and identify and correct non-adherent practices should be a standard component of infection prevention and control programs. PMID:19913329

  13. Validation of an instrument to assess factors associated with adherence to standard precautions among dentists in primary healthcare.

    PubMed

    Ribeiro, Patrícia H V; Gir, Elucir; Santos, Claudia B; Ribeiro, Renata P; Hayashida, Miyeko; Malaguti-Toffano, Silmara E; da Silva, Adriana M

    2014-01-01

    Accidents with biological material are a reality in dental practice. The use of preventive measures such as the adoption of Standard Precautions (SP) is essential, thus this study aims to validate an instrument to check factors associated with adherence to SP among dentists. The scales of psychosocial and organizational factors that influence adherence to SP were the starting point. These scales have already been nationally validated for doctors and nurses. The instrument consisted of 49 items divided into five dimensions. The process of instrument validation involved the following steps: its adaptation for situations that pose risks to dentists; content and semantic analysis by a committee of judges, and application to dentists. The adapted instrument was applied to 224 dentists who provided primary healthcare in the north region of Paraná State. After the application of scales, the psychometric properties were analyzed using the factor analysis technique and a reliability test. The factor analysis confirmed three domains: Obstacles to following standard precautions; Knowledge of occupational transmission of HIV and Safety climate. The reliability of the domains was considered adequate (Cronbach's alpha between 0.73 and 0.88.). The instrument demonstrated adequate psychometric properties to assess factors that influence adherence to SP among dentists. PMID:25335360

  14. Validity and reliability assessment of the Compliance with Standard Precautions Scale Arabic version in Saudi nursing students.

    PubMed

    Cruz, Jonas P; Colet, Paolo C; Al-Otaibi, Jazi H; Soriano, Shiela S; Cacho, Gabby M; Cruz, Charlie P

    2016-01-01

    Strict compliance with standard precautions (SPs) is warranted to ensure the safety of patients in healthcare facilities. Nursing students (NSs), who are regarded as nurses in training, potentially play a role in cross-contamination in the hospital. NSs are also at high risk of acquiring infections in cases of ineffective compliance with SPs. Thus, an assessment of NSs' compliance with SPs should be conducted on a regular basis, which necessitates a valid and reliable tool. This study was conducted to assess the validity and reliability of the Compliance with Standard Precautions Scale Arabic version (CSPS-A) in Saudi NSs. A convenient sample of 230 respondents (158 NSs and 72 staff nurses) was included in this descriptive, cross-sectional study. The CSPS English version was translated into the Arabic language following a recommended guideline from cross-cultural adaptation and translation instruments. The Cronbach's alpha, the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) of the test-retest scores, and the item-total correlations (ITC) were computed to establish the reliability. Content validity and construct validity by the known-groups method and hypothesis testing method were performed. The CSPS-A exhibited good internal consistency and reliability (Cronbach's alpha, 0.89; ICC, 0.88; ITCs, 0.325-0.728). A satisfactory content and construct validity was also reported. The CSPS-A is a valid and reliable tool that can measure the compliance to SPs among NSs in Saudi Arabia. PMID:26947548

  15. Mine safety: Occupational health -- general studies. (Latest citations from the NTIS Bibliographic database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-04-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning occupational hazards in the metals and fossil fuel mining environment. Topics include the detection, control and effects of respirable dust, safety aspects of various mining methods, gas detection, and field surveys of specific operations. Some attention is given to legislative aspects of mine safety and benefits to the disabled. (Contains 250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  16. Mine safety: Occupational health -- general studies. (Latest citations from the NTIS bibliographic database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    1996-07-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning occupational hazards in the metals and fossil fuel mining environment. Topics include the detection, control and effects of respirable dust, safety aspects of various mining methods, gas detection, and field surveys of specific operations. Some attention is given to legislative aspects of mine safety and benefits to the disabled.(Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.) (Copyright NERAC, Inc. 1995)

  17. Precautions surrounding blood transfusion in autoimmune haemolytic anaemias are overestimated

    PubMed Central

    Yürek, Salih; Mayer, Beate; Almahallawi, Mohammed; Pruss, Axel; Salama, Abdulgabar

    2015-01-01

    Background It is very evident that many precautions are taken regarding transfusion of red blood cells in patients with autoimmune haemolytic anaemia. Frequently, considerable efforts are made to examine the indication and serological compatibility prior to transfusion in such patients. However, at times, this may unnecessarily jeopardize patients who urgently require a red blood cell transfusion. Materials and methods Thirty-six patients with warm-type autoimmune haemolytic anaemia were included in this study. All patients had reactive serum autoantibodies and required blood transfusion. Standard serological assays were employed for the detection and characterization of antibodies to red blood cells. Results A positive direct antiglobulin test was observed in all 36 patients, in addition to detectable antibodies in both the eluate and serum. Significant alloantibodies were detected in the serum samples of three patients (anti-c, anti-JKa, and anti-E). In 32 patients, red blood cell transfusion was administered with no significant haemolytic transfusion reactions due to auto- and/or allo-antibodies. Due to overestimation of positive cross-matches three patients received no transfusion or delayed transfusion and died, and one patient died due to unrecognised blood loss and anaemia which was attributed to an ineffective red blood cell transfusion. Discussion Many of the reported recommendations regarding transfusion of red blood cells in autoimmune haemolytic anaemia are highly questionable, and positive serological cross-matches should not result in a delay or refusal of necessary blood transfusions. PMID:26192772

  18. How trust in institutions and organizations builds general consumer confidence in the safety of food: a decomposition of effects.

    PubMed

    de Jonge, J; van Trijp, J C M; van der Lans, I A; Renes, R J; Frewer, L J

    2008-09-01

    This paper investigates the relationship between general consumer confidence in the safety of food and consumer trust in institutions and organizations. More specifically, using a decompositional regression analysis approach, the extent to which the strength of the relationship between trust and general confidence is dependent upon a particular food chain actor (for example, food manufacturers) is assessed. In addition, the impact of specific subdimensions of trust, such as openness, on consumer confidence are analyzed, as well as interaction effects of actors and subdimensions of trust. The results confirm previous findings, which indicate that a higher level of trust is associated with a higher level of confidence. However, the results from the current study extend on previous findings by disentangling the effects that determine the strength of this relationship into specific components associated with the different actors, the different trust dimensions, and specific combinations of actors and trust dimensions. The results show that trust in food manufacturers influences general confidence more than trust in other food chain actors, and that care is the most important trust dimension. However, the contribution of a particular trust dimension in enhancing general confidence is actor-specific, suggesting that different actors should focus on different trust dimensions when the purpose is to enhance consumer confidence in food safety. Implications for the development of communication strategies that are designed to regain or maintain consumer confidence in the safety of food are discussed. PMID:18450326

  19. General safety basis development guidance for environmental restoration decontamination and decommissioning

    SciTech Connect

    Ellingson, D.R.; Kerr, N.; Bohlander, K.; Hansen, J.; Crowley, W.

    1994-02-01

    Safety analyses have the objective of contributing to two essential ingredients of a successful operation. The first is promoting the safety of the operation through worker involvement in information development (safety basis). The second is obtaining approval to conduct the operation (authorization). Typically these ingredients are assembled under separate programs covered by separate DOE requirements. DOE authorization relies on successful development of a document containing up to 21 topics written in terms and language suited to reviewers and approvers. Safety relies on successful training and procedures that convert the technical documented information into terms and language understandable to the worker. This separation can lead to successful incorporation of one ingredient independent of the other. At best, this separation may result in a safe but unauthorized operation; at worst, the separation may result in an unsafe operation authorized to proceed. This guide is based on experiences gained by contractors who have integrated rather than separated the safety and authorization. The short duration of ER/D&D activities, the uncertainties of hazards, and the publicly expressed desire for demonstrable progress in cleanup activities add emphasis to the need to integrate rather than separate and develop new programs. Experience-based information has been useful to workers, safety analysis practitioners, and reviewers in the following ways: (1) Acquiring or developing the needed information in a useful form; (2) Managing the uncertainties during activity development and operation; (3) Identifying the subset of applicable requirements for an activity; (4) Developing the appropriate level of documentation detail for a specific activity; and (5) Increasing the usefulness and use of safety analysis (ownership).

  20. Analysis of general aviation single-pilot IFR incident data obtained from the NASA aviation safety reporting system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bergeron, H. P.

    1980-01-01

    Data obtained from the NASA Aviation Safety Reporting System (ASRS) data base were used to determine problems in general aviation single pilot IFR operations. The data examined consisted of incident reports involving flight safety in the National Aviation System. Only those incidents involving general aviation fixed wing aircraft flying under IFR in instrument meteorological conditions were analyzed. The data were cataloged into one of five major problem areas: (1) controller judgement and response problems; (2) pilot judgement and response problems; (3) air traffic control intrafacility and interfacility conflicts; (4) ATC and pilot communications problems; and (5) IFR-VFR conflicts. The significance of the related problems, and the various underlying elements associated with each are discussed. Previous ASRS reports covering several areas of analysis are reviewed.

  1. Sternal Precautions: Is It Time for Change? Precautions versus Restrictions – A Review of Literature and Recommendations for Revision

    PubMed Central

    LaPier, Tanya Kinney; Shaw, Donald K.

    2011-01-01

    The processes that occur with normal sternal healing and potential complications related to median sternotomy are of particular interest to physical therapists. The premise of patients following sternal precautions (SP) or specific activity restrictions is the belief that avoiding certain movements will reduce risk of sternal complications. However, current research has identified that many patients remain functionally impaired long after cardiothoracic surgery. It is possible that some SP may contribute to such functional impairments. Currently, SP have several limitations including that they: (1) have no universally accepted definition, (2) are often based on anecdotal/expert opinion or at best supported by indirect evidence, (3) are mostly applied uniformly for all patients without regard to individual differences, and (4) may be overly restrictive and therefore impede ideal recovery. The purpose of this article is to present an overview of current research and commentary on median sternotomy procedures and activity restrictions. We propose that the optimal degree and duration of SP should be based on an individual patient's characteristics (eg, risk factors, comorbidities, previous activity level) that would enable physical activity to be targeted to particular limitations rather than restricting specific functional tasks and physical activity. Such patient-specific SP focusing on function may be more likely to facilitate recovery after median sternotomy and less likely to impede it. PMID:21448343

  2. Life stages and risk-avoidance: status- and context-sensitivity in precaution systems.

    PubMed

    Lienard, Pierre

    2011-03-01

    Human typical life history involves specific tradeoffs, resulting in the selection of specific cognitive adaptations, among which a suite of age- and gender-specific precaution systems sensitive to variations in the physical and social environment. Precaution systems take into account the individual's status and life-stage, information about specific threats, as well as the fact that the organism can or cannot address those threats unassisted. Systematic variation in individual decision-making and behavior in risky situations provide insights into the operation of those precaution systems. The literature survey is completed by data gathered among the pastoral Turkana of Kenya showing how variations in precautions and risk avoidance correlate with age, sex, and social conditions. PMID:20883720

  3. 48 CFR 1252.236-70 - Special precautions for work at operating airports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...) 48 CFR 1236.570, insert the following clause: Special Precautions for Work at Operating Airports (OCT... Contractor. The maximum speed allowed at the airport shall be established by airport management....

  4. Special Radiation Protection Precautions in Therapeutic Nuclear Medicine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stefanoyiannis, A. P.; Gerogiannis, J.

    2010-01-01

    Therapeutic Nuclear Medicine concerns the administration of appropriate amounts of radioactivity of certain isotopes, in order to achieve internal localized irradiation of neoplasmatic cells. Due to the increased level and the specific isotope characteristics of administered radioactivity, special Radiation Protection precautions must be taken. This study addresses such issues, based on national as well as international legislation and guidelines. Application of the principle of optimization is of outmost importance and is based on individual dose planning. The decision about the release of Nuclear Medicine patients after therapy is determined on an individual basis, taking into account patients' pattern of contact with other people, their age and that of persons in the home environment, in addition to other factors. Estimation of the absorbed dose given to the treated organ is based on uptake measurements and other biokinetic data, as well as on the mass of the treated tissue or organ. Concerning pregnant women, the rule of thumb is that they should not be treated, unless the radionuclide therapy is required to save their lives. In that case, the potential absorbed dose and risk to the foetus should be estimated and conveyed to the patient. After radionuclide therapy, a female should be advised to avoid pregnancy for the period of time depending on the specific radionuclide. This is to ensure that the dose to a conceptus/foetus would probably not exceed 1 mGy (the member of the public dose limit). The radiation risk for relatives and caregivers is small and unlikely to exceed the legal dose constraints during the period of the patient's treatment. Solid waste from the patient's stay in hospital is a different matter, and is normally incinerated or held for a period until radioactive decay brings the activity to an acceptable level.

  5. The Impact of Discontinuing Contact Precautions for VRE and MRSA on Device-Associated Infections.

    PubMed

    Edmond, Michael B; Masroor, Nadia; Stevens, Michael P; Ober, Janis; Bearman, Gonzalo

    2015-08-01

    The impact of discontinuing contact precautions for patients with MRSA and VRE colonization/infection on device-associated hospital-acquired infection rates at an academic medical center was investigated in this before-and-after study. In the setting of a strong horizontal infection prevention platform, discontinuation of contact precautions had no impact on device-associated hospital-acquired infection rates. PMID:25915205

  6. The Elementary Science Safety Manual. Revised.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New Jersey State Dept. of Education, Trenton. Div. of General Academic Education.

    Based on the principle that safety education should be a vital component in science instruction, this manual was designed to assist elementary teachers in doing more experiments and activities more confidently by making them aware of dangers and precautions. It also aims to make students aware that safety is a lifetime process and responsibility.…

  7. Cold, Ice, and Snow Safety (For Parents)

    MedlinePlus

    ... to Know About Zika & Pregnancy Cold, Ice, and Snow Safety KidsHealth > For Parents > Cold, Ice, and Snow Safety Print A A A Text Size What's ... a few. Plus, someone has to shovel the snow, right? Once outdoors, however, take precautions to keep ...

  8. Investigating Compliance with Standard Precautions During Residency Physicians in Gynecology and Obstetrics

    PubMed Central

    de Carvalho, Milton Jorge; Pereira, Fernanda Maria Vieira; Gir, Elucir; Lam, Simon Ching; Barbosa, Caio Parente

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Physician compliance with standard precautions is important in the specialty of gynecology and obstetrics because of the high frequency of invasive procedures. The current study investigated compliance with standard precautions among resident physicians working in gynecology and obstetrics. METHOD: A cross-sectional study was conducted among resident physicians in gynecology and obstetrics in their first (R1), second (R2) and third (R3) years of residency at a teaching hospital in a city in São Paulo. A structured questionnaire that included demographic and professional aspects and the Standard Precautions Adherence Scale were used to collect data. Statistical analysis was performed using IBM® SPSS version 20. Ethical aspects were considered. RESULTS: Fifty-eight resident physicians participated in the study. Of the enrolled participants, 27 (46.6%) were in R1, 12 (20.7%) were in R2 and 19 (32.8%) were in R3. The standard precautions compliance score was 4.1, which was classified as intermediate. There were no significant differences in the compliance scores of the resident physicians across the three years of residency (H=2.34, p=0.310). CONCLUSION: Compliance with standard precautions among resident physicians was intermediate. Preventive measures in clinical practice are not fully adopted in the specialty of gynecology and obstetrics. More important, many professionals claimed lack of sufficient training in standard precautions in the workplace. Such circumstances should draw the attention of hospital management with regard to occupational health risks. PMID:27464295

  9. Analysis of general aviation single-pilot IFR incident data obtained from the NASA Aviation Safety Reporting System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bergeron, H. P.

    1983-01-01

    An analysis of incident data obtained from the NASA Aviation Safety Reporting System (ASRS) has been made to determine the problem areas in general aviation single-pilot IFR (SPIFR) operations. The Aviation Safety Reporting System data base is a compilation of voluntary reports of incidents from any person who has observed or been involved in an occurrence which was believed to have posed a threat to flight safety. This paper examines only those reported incidents specifically related to general aviation single-pilot IFR operations. The frequency of occurrence of factors related to the incidents was the criterion used to define significant problem areas and, hence, to suggest where research is needed. The data was cataloged into one of five major problem areas: (1) controller judgment and response problems, (2) pilot judgment and response problems, (3) air traffic control (ATC) intrafacility and interfacility conflicts, (4) ATC and pilot communication problems, and (5) IFR-VFR conflicts. In addition, several points common to all or most of the problems were observed and reported. These included human error, communications, procedures and rules, and work load.

  10. Nurses' knowledge of and compliance with universal precautions in an acute care hospital.

    PubMed

    Chan, Regina; Molassiotis, Alexander; Chan, Eunice; Chan, Virene; Ho, Becky; Lai, Chit-ying; Lam, Pauline; Shit, Frances; Yiu, Ivy

    2002-02-01

    A cross-sectional survey was conducted to investigate the nurses' knowledge of and compliance with Universal Precautions (UP) in an acute hospital in Hong Kong. A total of 450 nurses were randomly selected from a population of acute care nurses and 306 were successfully recruited in the study. The study revealed that the nurses' knowledge of UP was inadequate. In addition, UP was not only insufficiently and inappropriately applied, but also selectively practiced. Nearly all respondents knew that used needles should be disposed of in a sharps' box after injections. However, nurses had difficulty in distinguishing between deep body fluids and other general body secretions that are not considered infectious in UP. A high compliance was reported regarding hand-washing, disposal of needles and glove usage. However, the use of other protective wear such as masks and goggles was uncommon. The results also showed no significant relationships between the nurses' knowledge and compliance with UP. It is recommended that UP educational programmes need to consider attitudes in conjunction with empirical knowledge. Nurse managers and occupational health nurses should take a leadership role to ensure safe practices are used in the care of patients. PMID:11755446

  11. Safety and Sex Practices among Nebraska Adolescents. Technical Report 24.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newman, Ian M.; Perry-Hunnicutt, Christina

    This report describes a range of adolescent behaviors related to their safety and the safety of others. The behaviors reported here range from ordinary safety precautions such as only swimming in supervised areas and wearing helmets when riding a motorcycle to less talked about behaviors such as using condoms during sexual intercourse and carrying…

  12. A cross-sectional mixed methods study protocol to generate learning from patient safety incidents reported from general practice

    PubMed Central

    Carson-Stevens, Andrew; Hibbert, Peter; Avery, Anthony; Butlin, Amy; Carter, Ben; Cooper, Alison; Evans, Huw Prosser; Gibson, Russell; Luff, Donna; Makeham, Meredith; McEnhill, Paul; Panesar, Sukhmeet S; Parry, Gareth; Rees, Philippa; Shiels, Emma; Sheikh, Aziz; Ward, Hope Olivia; Williams, Huw; Wood, Fiona; Donaldson, Liam; Edwards, Adrian

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Incident reports contain descriptions of errors and harms that occurred during clinical care delivery. Few observational studies have characterised incidents from general practice, and none of these have been from the England and Wales National Reporting and Learning System. This study aims to describe incidents reported from a general practice care setting. Methods and analysis A general practice patient safety incident classification will be developed to characterise patient safety incidents. A weighted-random sample of 12 500 incidents describing no harm, low harm and moderate harm of patients, and all incidents describing severe harm and death of patients will be classified. Insights from exploratory descriptive statistics and thematic analysis will be combined to identify priority areas for future interventions. Ethics and dissemination The need for ethical approval was waivered by the Aneurin Bevan University Health Board research risk review committee given the anonymised nature of data (ABHB R&D Ref number: SA/410/13). The authors will submit the results of the study to relevant journals and undertake national and international oral presentations to researchers, clinicians and policymakers. PMID:26628526

  13. General-purpose heat source project and space nuclear safety and fuels program. Progress reportt, January 1980

    SciTech Connect

    Maraman, W.J.

    1980-04-01

    This formal monthly report covers the studies related to the use of /sup 238/PuO/sub 2/ in radioisotopic power systems carried out for the Advanced Nuclear Systems and Projects Division of the Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory. The two programs involved are the general-purpose heat source development and space nuclear safety and fuels. Most of the studies discussed here are of a continuing nature. Results and conclusions described may change as the work continues. Published reference to the results cited in this report should not be made without the explicit permission of the person in charge of the work.

  14. Machine and Woodworking Tool Safety. Module SH-24. Safety and Health.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center for Occupational Research and Development, Inc., Waco, TX.

    This student module on machine and woodworking tool safety is one of 50 modules concerned with job safety and health. This module discusses specific practices and precautions concerned with the efficient operation and use of most machine and woodworking tools in use today. Following the introduction, 13 objectives (each keyed to a page in the…

  15. Association between overuse of mobile phones on quality of sleep and general health among occupational health and safety students.

    PubMed

    Eyvazlou, Meysam; Zarei, Esmaeil; Rahimi, Azin; Abazari, Malek

    2016-01-01

    Concerns about health problems due to the increasing use of mobile phones are growing. Excessive use of mobile phones can affect the quality of sleep as one of the important issues in the health literature and general health of people. Therefore, this study investigated the relationship between the excessive use of mobile phones and general health and quality of sleep on 450 Occupational Health and Safety (OH&S) students in five universities of medical sciences in the North East of Iran in 2014. To achieve this objective, special questionnaires that included Cell Phone Overuse Scale, Pittsburgh's Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) and General Health Questionnaire (GHQ) were used, respectively. In addition to descriptive statistical methods, independent t-test, Pearson correlation, analysis of variance (ANOVA) and multiple regression tests were performed. The results revealed that half of the students had a poor level of sleep quality and most of them were considered unhealthy. The Pearson correlation co-efficient indicated a significant association between the excessive use of mobile phones and the total score of general health and the quality of sleep. In addition, the results of the multiple regression showed that the excessive use of mobile phones has a significant relationship between each of the four subscales of general health and the quality of sleep. Furthermore, the results of the multivariate regression indicated that the quality of sleep has a simultaneous effect on each of the four scales of the general health. Overall, a simultaneous study of the effects of the mobile phones on the quality of sleep and the general health could be considered as a trigger to employ some intervention programs to improve their general health status, quality of sleep and consequently educational performance. PMID:26942630

  16. 10 CFR 39.31 - Labels, security, and transportation precautions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... accompanied with appropriate shipping papers in accordance with regulations set out in 10 CFR part 71. (b... Section 39.31 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION LICENSES AND RADIATION SAFETY REQUIREMENTS FOR WELL... radiation symbol specified in § 20.1901(a), without the conventional color requirements, and the...

  17. 10 CFR 39.31 - Labels, security, and transportation precautions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... accompanied with appropriate shipping papers in accordance with regulations set out in 10 CFR part 71. (b... Section 39.31 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION LICENSES AND RADIATION SAFETY REQUIREMENTS FOR WELL... radiation symbol specified in § 20.1901(a), without the conventional color requirements, and the...

  18. 10 CFR 39.31 - Labels, security, and transportation precautions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... accompanied with appropriate shipping papers in accordance with regulations set out in 10 CFR part 71. (b... Section 39.31 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION LICENSES AND RADIATION SAFETY REQUIREMENTS FOR WELL... radiation symbol specified in § 20.1901(a), without the conventional color requirements, and the...

  19. 10 CFR 39.31 - Labels, security, and transportation precautions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... accompanied with appropriate shipping papers in accordance with regulations set out in 10 CFR part 71. (b... Section 39.31 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION LICENSES AND RADIATION SAFETY REQUIREMENTS FOR WELL... radiation symbol specified in § 20.1901(a), without the conventional color requirements, and the...

  20. 29 CFR 1915.503 - Precautions for hot work.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... energizing and energy release are covered by 29 CFR 1915.181, Subpart L. Exposure to toxic and hazardous substances is covered in 29 CFR 1915.1000 through 1915.1450, subpart Z. (2) Fuel gas and oxygen supply lines... (CONTINUED) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS FOR SHIPYARD EMPLOYMENT Fire Protection in...

  1. 29 CFR 1915.503 - Precautions for hot work.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... energizing and energy release are covered by 29 CFR 1915.181, Subpart L. Exposure to toxic and hazardous substances is covered in 29 CFR 1915.1000 through 1915.1450, subpart Z. (2) Fuel gas and oxygen supply lines... (CONTINUED) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS FOR SHIPYARD EMPLOYMENT Fire Protection in...

  2. 29 CFR 1915.503 - Precautions for hot work.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... energizing and energy release are covered by 29 CFR 1915.181, Subpart L. Exposure to toxic and hazardous substances is covered in 29 CFR 1915.1000 through 1915.1450, subpart Z. (2) Fuel gas and oxygen supply lines... (CONTINUED) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS FOR SHIPYARD EMPLOYMENT Fire Protection in...

  3. 29 CFR 1915.503 - Precautions for hot work.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... energizing and energy release are covered by 29 CFR 1915.181, Subpart L. Exposure to toxic and hazardous substances is covered in 29 CFR 1915.1000 through 1915.1450, subpart Z. (2) Fuel gas and oxygen supply lines... (CONTINUED) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS FOR SHIPYARD EMPLOYMENT Fire Protection in...

  4. Poverty, human development, environmental and health risks: the role of precaution and cautionary policies.

    PubMed

    Petrini, Carlo

    2007-01-01

    First of all a definition is given of "poverty" and "precaution". A short, by no means comprehensive, presentation of some especially relevant recent publications on both topics is included, with a view to offering also readers who are not familiar with these issues a broad overview of the specialised literature available. This is followed by a description of the solidarity concept, following various philosophical, cultural and religious trends, analysing their relationship with precaution. An attempt is then made to show how solidarity and precaution could help counteract poverty, the risks for the environment and health, with the ensuing social and health damage. Reasons are outlined which support the adoption of the precaution principle in economics, as well as some arguments which could be put forward to oppose these views. The final remarks are a reply to such criticisms with a view to showing how precaution could be an effective economic tool, as well as a way to tackle those health-related and environmental problems that are also associated with poverty. PMID:18209266

  5. 78 FR 58470 - General Technical, Organizational, and Conforming Amendments to the Federal Motor Carrier Safety...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-24

    ... (FR) on October 1, 2001 (66 FR 49867). The last sentence of paragraph (d)(1) is revised by... appendix on March 19, 2002 (67 FR 12715). In Section I titled, ``General,'' paragraph (c)(6), the reference..., which were incorrect in the original publication of the rule (66 FR 43103, August 17, 2001),...

  6. A review of significant events analysed in general practice: implications for the quality and safety of patient care

    PubMed Central

    McKay, John; Bradley, Nick; Lough, Murray; Bowie, Paul

    2009-01-01

    Background Significant event analysis (SEA) is promoted as a team-based approach to enhancing patient safety through reflective learning. Evidence of SEA participation is required for appraisal and contractual purposes in UK general practice. A voluntary educational model in the west of Scotland enables general practitioners (GPs) and doctors-in-training to submit SEA reports for feedback from trained peers. We reviewed reports to identify the range of safety issues analysed, learning needs raised and actions taken by GP teams. Method Content analysis of SEA reports submitted in an 18 month period between 2005 and 2007. Results 191 SEA reports were reviewed. 48 described patient harm (25.1%). A further 109 reports (57.1%) outlined circumstances that had the potential to cause patient harm. Individual 'error' was cited as the most common reason for event occurrence (32.5%). Learning opportunities were identified in 182 reports (95.3%) but were often non-specific professional issues not shared with the wider practice team. 154 SEA reports (80.1%) described actions taken to improve practice systems or professional behaviour. However, non-medical staff were less likely to be involved in the changes resulting from event analyses describing patient harm (p < 0.05) Conclusion The study provides some evidence of the potential of SEA to improve healthcare quality and safety. If applied rigorously, GP teams and doctors in training can use the technique to investigate and learn from a wide variety of quality issues including those resulting in patient harm. This leads to reported change but it is unclear if such improvement is sustained. PMID:19723325

  7. Safety analysis of thorium-based fuels in the General Electric Standard BWR

    SciTech Connect

    Colby, M.J.; Townsend, D.B.; Kunz, C.L.

    1980-06-01

    A denatured (U-233/Th)O/sub 2/ fuel assembly has been designed which is energy equivalent to and hardware interchangeable with a modern boiling water reactor (BWR) reference reload assembly. Relative to the reference UO/sub 2/ fuel, the thorium fuel design shows better performance during normal and transient reactor operation for the BWR/6 product line and will meet or exceed current safety and licensing criteria. Power distributions are flattened and thermal operating margins are increased by reduced steam void reactivity coefficients caused by U-233. However, a (U-233/Th)O/sub 2/-fueled BWR will likely have reduced operating flexibility. A (U-235/Th)O/sub 2/-fueled BWR should perform similar to a UO/sub 2/-fueled BWR under all operating conditions. A (Pu/Th)O/sub 2/-fueled BWR may have reduced thermal margins and similar accident response and be less stable than a UO/sub 2/-fueled BWR. The assessment is based on comparisions of point model and infinite lattice predictions of various nuclear reactivity parameters, including void reactivity coefficients, Doppler reactivity coefficients, and control blade worths.

  8. Communication interventions to improve adherence to infection control precautions: a randomised crossover trial

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Ineffective communication of infection control requirements during transitions of care is a potential cause of non-compliance with infection control precautions by healthcare personnel. In this study, interventions to enhance communication during inpatient transfers between wards and radiology were implemented, in the attempt to improve adherence to precautions during transfers. Methods Two interventions were implemented, comprising (i) a pre-transfer checklist used by radiology porters to confirm a patient’s infectious status; (ii) a coloured cue to highlight written infectious status information in the transfer form. The effectiveness of the interventions in promoting adherence to standard precautions by radiology porters when transporting infectious patients was evaluated using a randomised crossover trial at a teaching hospital in Australia. Results 300 transfers were observed over a period of 4 months. Compliance with infection control precautions in the intervention groups was significantly improved relative to the control group (p < 0.01). Adherence rate in the control group was 38%. Applying the coloured cue resulted in a compliance rate of 73%. The pre-transfer checklist intervention achieved a comparable compliance rate of 71%. When both interventions were applied, a compliance rate of 74% was attained. Acceptability of the coloured cue was high, but adherence to the checklist was low (40%). Conclusions Simple measures to enhance communication through the provision of a checklist and the use a coloured cue brought about significant improvement in compliance with infection control precautions by transport personnel during inpatient transfers. The study underscores the importance of effective communication in ensuring compliance with infection control precautions during transitions of care. PMID:23388051

  9. 30 CFR 75.1903 - Underground diesel fuel storage facilities and areas; construction and safety precautions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... percent of the maximum capacity of the fuel storage system; and (7) Provided with a competent concrete...) When it is necessary to weld, cut, or solder pipelines, tanks, or other containers that may have..., tanks, or containers that have been welded, soldered, brazed, or cut until the metal has cooled...

  10. 30 CFR 75.1903 - Underground diesel fuel storage facilities and areas; construction and safety precautions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... percent of the maximum capacity of the fuel storage system; and (7) Provided with a competent concrete...) When it is necessary to weld, cut, or solder pipelines, tanks, or other containers that may have..., tanks, or containers that have been welded, soldered, brazed, or cut until the metal has cooled...

  11. 30 CFR 75.1903 - Underground diesel fuel storage facilities and areas; construction and safety precautions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... with at least 240 pounds of rock dust and provided with two portable multipurpose dry chemical type... laboratory and have a 10A:60B:C or higher rating. Both fire extinguishers must be easily accessible to... of the facility, in intake air; or (2) Provided with three portable multipurpose dry chemical...

  12. 30 CFR 75.1903 - Underground diesel fuel storage facilities and areas; construction and safety precautions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... with at least 240 pounds of rock dust and provided with two portable multipurpose dry chemical type... laboratory and have a 10A:60B:C or higher rating. Both fire extinguishers must be easily accessible to... of the facility, in intake air; or (2) Provided with three portable multipurpose dry chemical...

  13. 48 CFR 252.223-7002 - Safety precautions for ammunition and explosives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... propellants and explosives, pyrotechnics, incendiaries and smokes in the following forms: (i) Bulk, (ii... components containing no explosives, propellants, or pyrotechnics; (ii) Flammable liquids; (iii) Acids;...

  14. 48 CFR 252.223-7002 - Safety precautions for ammunition and explosives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... propellants and explosives, pyrotechnics, incendiaries and smokes in the following forms: (i) Bulk, (ii... components containing no explosives, propellants, or pyrotechnics; (ii) Flammable liquids; (iii) Acids;...

  15. 48 CFR 252.223-7002 - Safety precautions for ammunition and explosives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... propellants and explosives, pyrotechnics, incendiaries and smokes in the following forms: (i) Bulk, (ii... components containing no explosives, propellants, or pyrotechnics; (ii) Flammable liquids; (iii) Acids;...

  16. 48 CFR 252.223-7002 - Safety precautions for ammunition and explosives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... propellants and explosives, pyrotechnics, incendiaries and smokes in the following forms: (i) Bulk, (ii... components containing no explosives, propellants, or pyrotechnics; (ii) Flammable liquids; (iii) Acids;...

  17. 48 CFR 252.223-7002 - Safety precautions for ammunition and explosives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... propellants and explosives, pyrotechnics, incendiaries and smokes in the following forms: (i) Bulk, (ii... components containing no explosives, propellants, or pyrotechnics; (ii) Flammable liquids; (iii) Acids;...

  18. Nuclear safety technology and public acceptance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kienle, F.

    1985-11-01

    In the years 1976 to 1982 officialdom intensified the safety regulations in German nuclear power plants out of all proportion, without actually bringing about a recognizable plus in safety or indeed a greater acceptance by the public of the peaceful use of nuclear energy. Although the risk to employees of nuclear power plants and to the population living in their vicinity is substantially smaller than the dangers of modern civilization, the general public still regards with concern the consequences of radioactive exposure and the hazards to later generations from long-life radionuclides. The task for the coming years must be to maintain the safety standard now attained, while simultaneously reducing those exaggerated individual requirements in order to establish a balance in safety precautions. Additionally, a proposal put forward by Sir Walter Marshall, Chairman of the CEGB, should be pursued, i.e., to put the presumed risks of nuclear energy into their correct perspective in the public eye using comprehensible comparisons such as the risks from active or passive smoking. This cannot be accomplished by quoting abstract statistics.

  19. General-purpose heat source development: Safety verification test program. Titanium bullet/fragment test series

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    George, T. G.

    1986-06-01

    The radioisotope thermoelectric generator (RTG) that will provide power for the Galileo and Ulysses space missions contains 18 General-Purpose Heat Source (GPHS) modules. Each module contains four 238PuO2-fueled clads and generates 250 W(t). Because the possibility of launch-pad or postlaunch explosion exists and because any explosion would generate a field of high-energy fragments, the fueled clads within each GPHS module must be able to survive fragment impact. In this test series we investigated the response of bare, simulant-fueled (UO2) clads to the impact of high-energy titanium alloy fragments. We determined that 425m/s is the threshold impact velocity of a 3.25-g titanium bullet that will cause direct mechanical failure of a bare fueled clad.

  20. General-purpose heat source development: Safety Verification Test Program. Titanium bullet/fragment test series

    SciTech Connect

    George, T.G.

    1986-06-01

    The radioisotope thermoelectric generator (RTG) that will provide power for the Galileo and Ulysses space missions contains 18 General-Purpose Heat Source (GPHS) modules. Each module contains four /sup 238/PuO/sub 2/-fueled clads and generates 250 W(t). Because the possibility of launch-pad or postlaunch explosion exists and because any explosion would generate a field of high-energy fragments, the fueled clads within each GPHS module must be able to survive fragment impact. In this test series we investigated the response of bare, simulant-fueled (UO/sub 2/) clads to the impact of high-energy titanium alloy fragments. We determined that 425m/s is the threshold impact velocity of a 3.25-g titanium bullet that will cause direct mechanical failure of a bare fueled clad. 40 figs.

  1. General-Purpose Heat Source Development: safety test program. Postimpact evaluation, Design Iteration Test 1

    SciTech Connect

    Schonfeld, F.W.

    1984-04-01

    The General-Purpose Heat Source (GPHS) provides power for space missions by transmitting the heat of /sup 238/PuO/sub 2/ decay to thermoelectric elements. Because of the inevitable return of certain missions, the heat source must be designed and constructed to survive re-entry and Earth impact. The Design Iteration Test (DIT) series is part of an ongoing impact test program. The first DIT used a full GPHS module containing two graphite impact shells (GISs); each GIS contained two iridium (0.3 wt%) capsules filled with /sup 238/PuO/sub 2/. It was impacted at 57 m/s and 930/sup 0/C. All four fuel capsules survived and none was breached. However, serious cracking of the iridium-alloy capsules was found; some cracks extended through approx. 70% of the wall thickness. Postimpact analyses of the unit are described with emphasis on weld structure and performance. 51 figures.

  2. Clinical efficacy and safety of fluoxetine in generalized anxiety disorder in Chinese patients

    PubMed Central

    Zou, Chuan; Ding, Xiang; Flaherty, Joseph H; Dong, Birong

    2013-01-01

    Background Generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) is a prevalent, disabling disease and is highly comorbid with other psychiatric disorders both in Western countries and the People’s Republic of China. Fluoxetine, a selective inhibitor of serotonin reuptake (SSRI), is widely utilized in the management of GAD in clinical practice despite the lack of strong evidence. This article reviews fluoxetine trials to investigate fluoxetine’s efficacy and tolerability in Chinese patients with GAD. Methods A literature review was conducted using the following databases up to and including April 2013: Chinese BioMedical Literature, China National Knowledge Infrastructure, EMBASE, MEDLINE, and PsycINFO. We selected clinical studies that utilized fluoxetine for GAD in which all participants were Chinese. Results Fifteen open-label, non-placebo trials were identified and analyzed; eleven anxiolytics were compared with fluoxetine separately. Short-term efficacy of fluoxetine had been established in these open-label, head-to-head controlled trials. Fluoxetine had rapid onset of action (approximately 1–2 weeks) and seemed to be effective in maintenance treatment. Fluoxetine was generally well-tolerated with the most common side effect of dry month and nausea. Compared to other anxiolytic agents, fluoxetine was equivalent with all of the comparative anxiolytics in terms of efficacy except mirtazapine which showed conflicting results with fluoxetine in two studies. In terms of side effects, fluoxetine was better tolerated than diazepam, doxepine, and amitriptyline, less tolerated than escitalopram, and had similar tolerability with duloxetine as well as alprazolam. Conclusion Given the high risk of bias of the included studies, the overall small sample size of the studies, the lack of placebo control groups as well as the lack of certain clinically meaningful outcomes, it is not possible to recommend fluoxetine as a reliable first-line treatment in Chinese patients with GAD

  3. Guide for preparing annual reports on radiation-safety testing of electronic products (general)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1987-10-01

    For manufacturers of electronic products other than those for which a specific guide has been issued, the guide replaces the Guide for the Filing of Annual Reports (21 CFR Subchapter J, Section 1002.11), HHS Publication FDA 82-8127. The electronic product (general) annual reporting guide is applicable to the following products: products intended to produce x radiation (accelerators, analytical devices, therapy x-ray machines); microwave diathermy machines; cold-cathode discharge tubes; and vacuum switches and tubes operating at or above 15,000 volts. To carry out its responsibilities under Public Law 90-602, the Food and Drug Administration's Center for Devices and Radiological Health (CDRH) has issued a series of regulations contained in Title 21 of the Code of Federal Regulations (CFR). Part 1002 of 21 CFR deals with records and reports. Section 1002.61 categorizes electronic products into Groups A through C. Section 1002.30 requires manufacturers of products in Groups B and C to establish and maintain certain records, while Section 1002.11 requires such manufacturers to submit an Annual Report summarizing the contents of the required records. Section 1002.7 requires that reports conform to reporting guides issued by CDRH unless an acceptable justification for an alternate format is provided.

  4. Rewarding safety belt usage at an industrial setting: Tests of treatment generality and response maintenance

    PubMed Central

    Geller, E. Scott

    1983-01-01

    An incentive program to motivate seat belt use was implemented at a large munitions plant. Seat belt usage was assessed daily at an entrance/exit gate of the industrial complex when employees arrived for work in the morning and departed in the afternoon. During treatment incentive fliers, which prompted seat belt usage and gave belt wearers opportunities to win prizes, were distributed only in the afternoon. Seat belt wearing increased from baseline means of 20.4% and 17.3% during the morning and afternoon, respectively, to averages of 55.5% during afternoon departures and 31.1% during morning arrivals. During follow-up, mean belt use dropped almost to baseline levels. Categorizing vehicles according to driver sex and license plate number enabled a study of belt wearing practices of individuals, and revealed that the incentive program influenced some drivers to wear their seat belts during morning arrival when incentives were not distributed (i.e., treatment generalization) and during a follow-up period after the incentives were withdrawn (i.e., response maintenance). PMID:16795663

  5. General-Purpose Heat Source development: safety test program. Postimpact evaluation, Design Iteration Test 2

    SciTech Connect

    Schonfeld, F.W.; George, T.G.

    1984-06-01

    The General-Purpose Heat Source (GPHS) provides power for space missions by transmitting the heat of /sup 238/PuO/sub 2/ decay to thermoelectric elements. Because of the inevitable return of certain missions, the heat source must be Designed and constructed to survive both re-entry and Earth impact. The Design Iteration Test (DIT) series is part of an ongoing test program. In the first Design Iteration Test (DIT-1), a full GPHS module ontaining four iridium-alloy capsules loaded with /sup 238/PuO/sub 2/ was impacted at 57 m/s and 930/sup 0/C. All four capsules survived and none was breached. The capsules used in DIT-1 were loaded and welded at Los Alamos. The second Design Iteration Test (DIT-2) also used a full GPHS module and was impacted at 58 m/s and 930/sup 0/C. The four iridium-alloy capsules used in this test were loaded and welded at the Savannah River Plant (SRP). Postimpact examination revealed that two capsules had survived and two capsules had breached; a small quantity (approx. = 50 ..mu..g) of /sup 238/PuO/sub 2/ was released from the breached capsules. Internal cracking similar to that observed in the DIT-1 capsules was evident in all four of the DIT-2 capsules. Postimpact analyses of the units are described with emphasis on weld structure and performance.

  6. Lithium/sulfur dioxide cell and battery safety

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Halpert, G.; Anderson, A.

    1982-01-01

    The new high-energy lithium/sulfur dioxide primary electrochemical cell, having a number of advantages, has received considerable attention as a power source in the past few years. With greater experience and improved design by the manufacturers, this system can be used in a safe manner provided the guidelines for use and safety precautions described herein are followed. In addition to a description of cell design and appropriate definitions, there is a safety precautions checklist provided to guide the user. Specific safety procedures for marking, handling, transportation, and disposal are also given, as is a suggested series of tests, to assure manufacturer conformance to requirements.

  7. Development of a guide to applying precaution in local public health

    PubMed Central

    Hau, Monica; Cole, Donald; Vanderlinden, Loren; MacFarlane, Ronald; Mee, Carol; Archbold, Josephine; Campbell, Monica

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: The precautionary principle (PP) urges actions to prevent harm even in the face of scientific uncertainty. Members of Toronto Public Health (TPH) sought guidance on applying precaution. Methods: We searched five bibliographic databases (yield 60 articles from 1996 to 2009 and 8 from 2009 to 2011) and Google (yield 11 gray literature sources) for material relevant to local public health. From these sources, we extracted questions until saturation was reached (n = 55). We applied these questions retrospectively to eight case studies where TPH felt precaution was applied. We ranked questions for their importance in applying precaution. Results: Our final guide included 35 questions in five domains: context, assessment, alternative interventions, implementation, and monitoring and evaluation. Importance rankings varied across cases, but the role of stakeholders in driving precautionary action was consistent. Monitoring and evaluation components could have been strengthened across cases. Conclusion: The TPH guide can assist municipal environmental health practitioners in applying precaution in a more transparent manner. PMID:24999853

  8. 48 CFR 3052.236-70 - Special precautions for work at operating airports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... work at operating airports. As prescribed in (HSAR) 48 CFR 3036.570, insert the following clause: Special Precautions for Work at Operating Airports (DEC 2003) (a) When work is to be performed at an... work at operating airports. 3052.236-70 Section 3052.236-70 Federal Acquisition Regulations...

  9. 48 CFR 3052.236-70 - Special precautions for work at operating airports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... work at operating airports. As prescribed in (HSAR) 48 CFR 3036.570, insert the following clause: Special Precautions for Work at Operating Airports (DEC 2003) (a) When work is to be performed at an... work at operating airports. 3052.236-70 Section 3052.236-70 Federal Acquisition Regulations...

  10. Improving Anesthesia Nurse Compliance with Universal Precautions Using Group Goals and Public Feedback

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stephens, Sara D.; Ludwig, Timothy D.

    2005-01-01

    Universal Precautions (UPs), procedures to reduce the likelihood of accidental exposure to blood-borne pathogens, were observed among seven Certified Nurse Anesthetists and one anesthesia technician during intravenous line procedures. After six weeks of baseline measures, nurses participated in training, goal setting, and feedback targeting hand…

  11. 48 CFR 3036.570 - Special precautions for work at operating airports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... clause at (HSAR) 48 CFR 3052.236-70, Special Precautions for Work at Operating Airports, in solicitations... work at operating airports. 3036.570 Section 3036.570 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY, HOMELAND SECURITY ACQUISITION REGULATION (HSAR) SPECIAL CATEGORIES...

  12. Universal Precautions: An Instructional Module for Nurses and Other Allied Health Personnel.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Marilee A.; Moseley, James L.

    This self-instructional module is designed to inform health care providers about the concept of universal precautions, which has been recommended by the U.S. Public Health Department as a way of minimizing the risk of occupationally acquired human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), infections, and the potential development of acquired immunodeficiency…

  13. Fire Safety. Managing School Facilities, Guide 6.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Department for Education and Employment, London (England). Architects and Building Branch.

    This booklet discusses how United Kingdom schools can manage fire safety and minimize the risk of fire. The guide examines what legislation school buildings must comply with and covers the major risks. It also describes training and evacuation procedures and provides guidance on fire precautions, alarm systems, fire fighting equipment, and escape…

  14. Spatio-temporal elements of articulation work in the achievement of repeat prescribing safety in UK general practice.

    PubMed

    Grant, Suzanne; Mesman, Jessica; Guthrie, Bruce

    2016-02-01

    Prescribing is the most common healthcare intervention, and is both beneficial and risky. An important source of risk in UK general practice is the management of 'repeat prescriptions', which are typically requested from and issued by non-clinically trained reception staff with only intermittent reauthorisation by a clinical prescriber. This paper ethnographically examines the formal and informal work employed by GPs and receptionists to safely conduct repeat prescribing work in primary care using Strauss's (1985, 1988, 1993) concept of 'articulation work' across eight UK general practices. The analytical lens of articulation work provided an investigative framing to contextually map the informal, invisible resources of resilience and strength employed by practice team members in the achievement of repeat prescribing safety, where risk and vulnerability were continually relocated across space and time. In particular, the paper makes visible the micro-level competencies and collaborative practices that were routinely employed by both GPs and receptionists across different socio-cultural contexts, with informal, cross-hierarchical communication usually considered more effective than the formal structures of communication that existed (e.g. protocols). While GPs held formal prescribing authority, this paper also examines the key role of receptionists in both the initiation and safe coordination of the repeat prescribing routine. PMID:26283462

  15. Examining variations in prescribing safety in UK general practice: cross sectional study using the Clinical Practice Research Datalink

    PubMed Central

    Kontopantelis, Evangelos; Akbarov, Artur; Rodgers, Sarah; Avery, Anthony J; Ashcroft, Darren M

    2015-01-01

    Study question What is the prevalence of different types of potentially hazardous prescribing in general practice in the United Kingdom, and what is the variation between practices? Methods A cross sectional study included all adult patients potentially at risk of a prescribing or monitoring error defined by a combination of diagnoses and prescriptions in 526 general practices contributing to the Clinical Practice Research Datalink (CPRD) up to 1 April 2013. Primary outcomes were the prevalence of potentially hazardous prescriptions of anticoagulants, anti-platelets, NSAIDs, β blockers, glitazones, metformin, digoxin, antipsychotics, combined hormonal contraceptives, and oestrogens and monitoring by blood test less frequently than recommended for patients with repeated prescriptions of angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors and loop diuretics, amiodarone, methotrexate, lithium, or warfarin. Study answer and limitations 49 927 of 949 552 patients at risk triggered at least one prescribing indicator (5.26%, 95% confidence interval 5.21% to 5.30%) and 21 501 of 182 721 (11.8%, 11.6% to 11.9%) triggered at least one monitoring indicator. The prevalence of different types of potentially hazardous prescribing ranged from almost zero to 10.2%, and for inadequate monitoring ranged from 10.4% to 41.9%. Older patients and those prescribed multiple repeat medications had significantly higher risks of triggering a prescribing indicator whereas younger patients with fewer repeat prescriptions had significantly higher risk of triggering a monitoring indicator. There was high variation between practices for some indicators. Though prescribing safety indicators describe prescribing patterns that can increase the risk of harm to the patient and should generally be avoided, there will always be exceptions where the indicator is clinically justified. Furthermore there is the possibility that some information is not captured by CPRD for some practices—for example, INR results in

  16. Safety in School Science: Possible Carcinogenic Hazards in School Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Education in Science, 1979

    1979-01-01

    This is the fourth in a series of articles concerned with safety in school science. This article presents some facts about eight types of carcinogenic chemicals and suggests precautions in their use in British schools. A safety bibliography is also included. (HM)

  17. Lessons learned from Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant accident: efficient education items of radiation safety for general public.

    PubMed

    Ohno, K; Endo, K

    2015-07-01

    The Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant (FNP-1) accident, while as tragic as the tsunami, was a man-made disaster created by the ignorance of the effects of radiation and radioactive materials. Therefore, it is important that all specialists in radiation protection in medicine sympathize with the anxiety of the general public regarding the harmful effects of radiation and advise people accordingly. All questions and answers were collected related to inquiries from the general public that were posted to reliable websites, including those of the government and radiation-related organizations, from March 2011 to November 2012. The questions were summarized and classified by similarity of content. (1) The total number of questions is 372. The content was broadly classified into three categories: inquiries for radiation-related knowledge and about health effects and foods. The questions asked to obtain radiation-related knowledge were the most common, accounting for 38 %. Thirty-six percentage of the questions were related to health effects, and 26 % involved foods, whereas 18 % of the questions were related to children and pregnancy. (2) The change over time was investigated in 290 questions for which the time of inquiry was known. Directly after the earthquake, the questions were primarily from people seeking radiation-related knowledge. Later, questions related to health effects increased. The anxiety experienced by residents following the nuclear accident was caused primarily by insufficient knowledge related to radiation, concerns about health effects and uncertainties about food and water safety. The development of educational materials focusing on such content will be important for risk communication with the general public in countries with nuclear power plants. Physicians and medical physicist should possess the ability to respond to questions such as these and should continue with medical examinations and treatments in a safe and appropriate manner. PMID

  18. What Transmission Precautions Best Control Influenza Spread in a Hospital?

    PubMed

    Blanco, Natalia; Eisenberg, Marisa C; Stillwell, Terri; Foxman, Betsy

    2016-06-01

    Influenza is a significant problem within hospitals, leading to extended hospital stays, excess morbidity and mortality, and economic loss. Prevention and control strategies are generally "bundled"; therefore, the individual effects of particular strategies and the value of combined strategies cannot be determined directly, making it difficult to discern the optimal strategy. To quantify the individual and joint effectiveness of several known influenza infection control measures used in general hospitals, we simulated influenza transmission at a hypothetical hospital in Ann Arbor, Michigan, during a 1-year seasonal epidemic (June 2012-June 2013), using a susceptible-exposed-infected-recovered (SEIR) compartmental model. The hospital population comprised patients and health-care workers, interacting with its larger community population. Parameter ranges and values were determined from the literature (both national and local to Ann Arbor) and took into account coverage levels and effects of vaccination. The most effective individual strategies, based on percent reduction of cases, were: hand-washing (11%-27%), health-care worker vaccination (6%-19%), prevaccination of patients (4%-17%), patient isolation (5%-16%), antiviral treatment (4%-14%), and use of face masks (3%-10%). Use of all strategies together with ideal levels of compliance could potentially halve the number of observed hospital cases of influenza; under a more realistic scenario, an almost 40% reduction could be achieved. A multifaceted approach is imperative to control and prevent nosocomial influenza in health-care settings. PMID:27188950

  19. The efficacy and safety of multiple doses of vortioxetine for generalized anxiety disorder: a meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Fu, Jie; Peng, Lilei; Li, Xiaogang

    2016-01-01

    Objective Vortioxetine is a novel antidepressant approved for the treatment of major depressive disorder by the US Food and Drug Administration in September 2013. This meta-analysis assessed the efficacy and safety of different doses of vortioxetine for generalized anxiety disorder of adults. Methods PubMed, Cochrane Library, PsycINFO, and Clinical Trials databases were searched from 2000 through 2015. The abstracts of the annual meetings of the American Psychiatric Association and previous reviews were searched to identify additional studies. The search was limited to individual randomized controlled trials (RCTs), and there was no language restriction. Four RCTs met the selection criteria. These studies included 1,843 adult patients. Results were expressed as odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). The data were pooled with a random-effects or fixed-effects model. Results The results showed that multiple doses (2.5, 5, and 10 mg/d) of vortioxetine did not significantly improve the generalized anxiety disorder symptoms compared to placebo (OR=1.16, 95% CI=0.84–1.60, Z=0.89, P=0.38; OR=1.41, 95% CI=0.82–2.41, Z=1.25, P=0.21; OR=1.05, 95% CI=0.76–1.46, Z=0.32, P=0.75, respectively). We measured the efficacy of 2.5 mg/d vortioxetine compared to 10 mg/d, and no significant differences were observed. The common adverse effects included nausea and headache. With increased dose, nausea was found to be more frequent in the vortioxetine (5 and 10 mg/d) group (OR=2.99, 95% CI=1.31–6.84, Z=2.60, P=0.009; OR=2.80, 95% CI=1.85–4.25, Z=4.85, P<0.00001, respectively), but no significant differences were observed for headache. Conclusion The results showed no significant improvement in the treatment of generalized anxiety disorder for vortioxetine compared to placebo, and nausea was more frequent with higher doses. So the current evidences do not support using vortioxetine for the treatment of generalized anxiety disorder. Few RCTs were included in our

  20. Optimism about safety and group-serving interpretations of safety among pedestrians and cyclists in relation to road use in general and under low light conditions.

    PubMed

    King, M J; Wood, J M; Lacherez, P F; Marszalek, R P

    2012-01-01

    Drivers are known to be optimistic about their risk of crash involvement, believing that they are less likely to be involved in a crash than other drivers. However, little comparative research has been conducted among other road users. In addition, optimism about crash risk is conceptualised as applying only to an individual's assessment of his or her personal risk of crash involvement. The possibility that the self-serving nature of optimism about safety might be generalised to the group-level as a cyclist or a pedestrian, i.e., becoming group-serving rather than self-serving, has been overlooked in relation to road safety. This study analysed a subset of data collected as part of a larger research project on the visibility of pedestrians, cyclists and road workers, focusing on a set of questionnaire items administered to 406 pedestrians, 838 cyclists and 622 drivers. The items related to safety in various scenarios involving drivers, pedestrians and cyclists, allowing predictions to be derived about group differences in agreement with items based on the assumption that the results would exhibit group-serving bias. Analysis of the responses indicated that specific hypotheses about group-serving interpretations of safety and responsibility were supported in 22 of the 26 comparisons. When the nine comparisons relevant to low lighting conditions were considered separately, seven were found to be supported. The findings of the research have implications for public education and for the likely acceptance of messages which are inconsistent with current assumptions and expectations of pedestrians and cyclists. They also suggest that research into group-serving interpretations of safety, even for temporary roles rather than enduring groups, could be fruitful. Further, there is an implication that gains in safety can be made by better educating road users about the limitations of their visibility and the ramifications of this for their own road safety, particularly in low

  1. Work Practice Simulation of Complex Human-Automation Systems in Safety Critical Situations: The Brahms Generalized berlingen Model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clancey, William J.; Linde, Charlotte; Seah, Chin; Shafto, Michael

    2013-01-01

    The transition from the current air traffic system to the next generation air traffic system will require the introduction of new automated systems, including transferring some functions from air traffic controllers to on­-board automation. This report describes a new design verification and validation (V&V) methodology for assessing aviation safety. The approach involves a detailed computer simulation of work practices that includes people interacting with flight-critical systems. The research is part of an effort to develop new modeling and verification methodologies that can assess the safety of flight-critical systems, system configurations, and operational concepts. The 2002 Ueberlingen mid-air collision was chosen for analysis and modeling because one of the main causes of the accident was one crew's response to a conflict between the instructions of the air traffic controller and the instructions of TCAS, an automated Traffic Alert and Collision Avoidance System on-board warning system. It thus furnishes an example of the problem of authority versus autonomy. It provides a starting point for exploring authority/autonomy conflict in the larger system of organization, tools, and practices in which the participants' moment-by-moment actions take place. We have developed a general air traffic system model (not a specific simulation of Überlingen events), called the Brahms Generalized Ueberlingen Model (Brahms-GUeM). Brahms is a multi-agent simulation system that models people, tools, facilities/vehicles, and geography to simulate the current air transportation system as a collection of distributed, interactive subsystems (e.g., airports, air-traffic control towers and personnel, aircraft, automated flight systems and air-traffic tools, instruments, crew). Brahms-GUeM can be configured in different ways, called scenarios, such that anomalous events that contributed to the Überlingen accident can be modeled as functioning according to requirements or in an

  2. Feasibility, safety, and efficacy of domiciliary thrombolysis by general practitioners: Grampian region early anistreplase trial. GREAT Group.

    PubMed Central

    1992-01-01

    OBJECTIVE--To assess the feasibility, safety, and efficacy of domiciliary thrombolysis by general practitioners. DESIGN--Randomised double blind parallel group trial of anistreplase 30 units intravenously and placebo given either at home or in hospital. SETTING--29 rural practices in Grampian admitting patients to teaching hospitals in Aberdeen (average distance 36 (range 16-62) miles). PATIENTS--311 patients with suspected acute myocardial infarction and no contraindications to thrombolytic therapy seen at home within four hours of onset of symptoms. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES--Time saving, adverse events, Q wave infarction, left ventricular function. RESULTS--Anistreplase was administered at home 101 minutes after onset of symptoms, while anistreplase was given in hospital 240 minutes after onset of symptoms (median times). Adverse events after thrombolysis were infrequent and, apart from cardiac arrest, not a serious problem when they occurred in the community: seven of 13 patients were resuscitated after cardiac arrest out of hospital. By three months after trial entry the relative reduction of deaths from all causes in patients given thrombolytic therapy at home was 49% (13/163 (8.0%) v 23/148 (15.5%); difference -7.6% (95% confidence interval -14.7% to -0.4%), p = 0.04). Full thickness Q wave infarction was less common in patients with confirmed infarction receiving treatment at home (65/122 (53.3%) v 76/112 (67.9%); difference -14.6% (95% confidence interval -27.0% to -2.2%), p = 0.02). CONCLUSIONS--General practitioners provided rapid pre-hospital coronary care of a high standard. Compared with later administration in hospital, giving anistreplase at home resulted in reduction in mortality, fewer cardiac arrests, fewer Q wave infarcts, and better left ventricular function. Benefits were most marked where thrombolytic therapy was administered within two hours of the onset of symptoms. PMID:1393033

  3. Seismic analysis of the large 70-meter antenna. Part 2: General dynamic response and a seismic safety check

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kiedron, K.; Chian, C. T.

    1985-01-01

    An extensive dynamic analysis for the new JPL 70-meter antenna structure is presented. Analytical procedures are based on the normal mode decomposition which include dumping and special forcing functions. The dynamic response can be obtained for any arbitrarily selected point on the structure. A new computer program for computing the time-dependent, resultant structural displacement, summing the effects of all participating modes, was developed also. Program compatibility with natural frequency analysis output was verified. The program was applied to the JPL 70-meter antenna structure and the dynamic response for several specially selected points was computed. Seismic analysis of structures, a special application of the general dynamic analysis, is based also on the normal modal decomposition. Strength specification of the antenna, with respect to the earthquake excitation, is done by using the common response spectra. The results indicated basically a safe design under an assumed 5% or more damping coefficient. However, for the antenna located at Goldstone, with more active seismic environment, this study strongly recommends and experimental program that determines the true damping coefficient for a more reliable safety check.

  4. Update to the safety program for the general-purpose heat source radioisotope thermoelectric generators for the Galileo and Ulysses missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bennett, Gary L.; Bradshaw, C. T.; Englehart, Richard W.; Bartram, Bart W.; Cull, Theresa A.; Zocher, Roy W.; Eck, Marshall B.; Mukunda, Meera; Brenza, Peter T.; Chan, Chris C.

    1992-01-01

    With the rescheduling of the Galileo and Ulysses launches and the use of new upper stages following the Challenger accident, the aerospace nuclear safety program for the general-purpose heat source radioisotope thermoelectric generators (GPHS-RTGs) was extended to accommodate the new mission scenarios. As in the original safety program, the objectives were to determine the response of the GPHS-RTG to the various postulated accident environments and to determine the risk (if any) associated with these postulated accidents. The extended GPHS-RTG safety program was successfully completed in sufficient time to prepare an updated Final Safety Analysis Report (FSAR) with revisions for the October 1989 launch of the Galileo spacecraft.

  5. New insights into in vitro amyloidogenic properties of human serum albumin suggest considerations for therapeutic precautions.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Neetu; Sivalingam, Vishwanath; Maurya, Sonalika; Prasad, Archana; Khandelwal, Puneet; Yadav, Subhash Chandra; Patel, Basant K

    2015-12-21

    Amyloid aggregates display striking features of detergent stability and self-seeding. Human serum albumin (HSA), a preferred drug-carrier molecule, can also aggregate in vitro. So far, key amyloid properties of stability against ionic detergents and self-seeding, are unclear for HSA aggregates. Precautions against amyloid contamination would be required if HSA aggregates were self-seeding. Here, we show that HSA aggregates display detergent sarkosyl stability and have self-seeding potential. HSA dimer is preferable for clinical applications due to its longer retention in circulation and lesser oedema owing to its larger molecular size. Here, HSA was homodimerized via free cysteine-34, without any potentially immunogenic cross-linkers that are usually pre-requisite for homodimerization. Alike the monomer, HSA dimers also aggregated as amyloid, necessitating precautions while using for therapeutics. PMID:26554815

  6. Difference in compliance with Standard Precautions by nursing staff in Brazil versus Hong Kong.

    PubMed

    Pereira, Fernanda Maria Vieira; Lam, Simon Ching; Chan, Jackie Hoi Man; Malaguti-Toffano, Silmara Elaine; Gir, Elucir

    2015-07-01

    The Standard Precautions (SP) are measures to reduce the risk of transmission of bloodborne and other pathogens, and should be used by health professionals in the care of all patients regardless of their condition of infection. However, suboptimal compliance with SP has been consistently reported in the nursing literature. This study evaluated the differences of compliance with SP among nurses from Brazil and Hong Kong. This cross-sectional study was conducted in 2 countries-Hong Kong and Brazil-with nurses working in hospitals who responded to a self-administered questionnaire with demographic data and responses to a 20-item Compliance with Standard Precautions Scale. The compliance rate of 560 nurses was 69.4% for the Brazilian sample and 57.4% for the Hong Kong sample. The additional clinical experience of the Brazilian nurses versus those in Hong Kong may be related to differences in compliance with SP between nurses. PMID:25934059

  7. On School Bus Safety. Report of the Department of Education to the Governor and the General Assembly of Virginia. House Document No. 10.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Virginia State General Assembly, Richmond. House.

    An advisory committee, in response to a 1985 resolution by the Virginia General Assembly, presents this analysis and makes recommendations concerning state school bus safety. The report is divided into eight topics; six appendices comprise three-fourths of the study. "Origin of the Study" states requests to be investigated by the department of…

  8. Safety Handbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Montgomery County Public Schools, Rockville, MD.

    Safety policies, procedures, and related information are presented in this manual to assist school personnel in a continuing program of accident prevention. Chapter 1 discusses safety education and accident prevention in general. Chapter 2 covers traffic regulations relating to school safety patrols, school bus transportation, bicycles, and…

  9. Occupational injury history and universal precautions awareness: a survey in Kabul hospital staff

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Health staff in Afghanistan may be at high risk of needle stick injury and occupational infection with blood borne pathogens, but we have not found any published or unpublished data. Methods Our aim was to measure the percentage of healthcare staff reporting sharps injuries in the preceding 12 months, and to explore what they knew about universal precautions. In five randomly selected government hospitals in Kabul a total of 950 staff participated in the study. Data were analyzed with Epi Info 3. Results Seventy three percent of staff (72.6%, 491/676) reported sharps injury in the preceding 12 months, with remarkably similar levels between hospitals and staff cadres in the 676 (71.1%) people responding. Most at risk were gynaecologist/obstetricians (96.1%) followed by surgeons (91.1%), nurses (80.2%), dentists (75.4%), midwives (62.0%), technicians (50.0%), and internist/paediatricians (47.5%). Of the injuries reported, the commonest were from hollow-bore needles (46.3%, n = 361/780), usually during recapping. Almost a quarter (27.9%) of respondents had not been vaccinated against hepatitis B. Basic knowledge about universal precautions were found insufficient across all hospitals and cadres. Conclusion Occupational health policies for universal precautions need to be implemented in Afghani hospitals. Staff vaccination against hepatitis B is recommended. PMID:20113517

  10. An evaluation of precaution-based approaches as EMF policy tools in community environments.

    PubMed Central

    Sahl, J; Dolan, M

    1996-01-01

    This paper explores the use of precaution-based approaches as policy tools when responding to concerns about power-frequency electric and magnetic fields (EMF) in community environments. The combination of public concern and scientific uncertainty about potential health impacts from exposure to EMF challenges society to adopt EMF policies that balance the benefits of electric power against the possibility that some aspect of the use of electricity may be harmful. Inappropriate policy responses can undermine the economics of society's use of electricity and have other adverse consequences on public health. These adverse consequences result from the inappropriate diversion of scarce public and private resources. Precaution-based approaches are rooted in individual concepts of common sense and can be an effective component of a comprehensive set of EMF policy options. Precaution-based approaches do not replace science-based policy options and should only be used when the available science-based guidelines are not applicable. The application of these approaches should balance the real and expected costs and benefits of taking or not taking action. Given our current scientific knowledge, actions taken to reduce EMF exposure should necessarily be low cost because the expected benefits are uncertain. Society also needs to avoid adopting EMF policies that could incur high costs from distorting resources from other, more important, personal and public health priorities. PMID:8899365

  11. Efficacy and safety of low-dose ketamine as an adjunct analgesic and amnesic during caesarean section under general anaesthesia

    PubMed Central

    Rajan, Sunil; Hassain, Anwar; Puthenveettil, Nitu; Kumar, Lakshmi

    2015-01-01

    Background and Aims: The practice of avoiding sedatives or anxiolytics during caesarean section under general anaesthesia (GA) until delivery of the baby could result in exaggerated haemodynamic responses and an increased risk of awareness. We aimed to assess the efficacy and safety of low-dose ketamine, used as an adjunct analgesic and amnesic, in attenuating these responses during caesarean section under GA. Methods: This prospective, randomised study was conducted in 40 patients. Group K (n = 20) received 0.25 mg/kg ketamine, whereas Group C received 5 ml normal saline intravenously (IV) just before induction of anaesthesia. After intubation, patients were ventilated with O2 and N2O (40:60%) with 0.7% end-tidal isoflurane. Fentanyl and midazolam were given following delivery of the baby. Mann–Whitney and Fisher's exact tests were used for statistical analysis. Results: Preinduction haemodynamic parameters and those recorded at 1 min after induction were comparable in both groups. However, heart rate and systolic blood pressure recorded after intubation (at 3, 5, 7, 9, 12, 15, 20, 30 and 45 min after induction) showed significantly high values in Group C (P < 0.05). Mean arterial pressure also showed a similar pattern. Umbilical vein pO2, pCO2 and pH were comparable in both groups. Though Apgar score at 1 min showed a higher scoring in Group K, at 5 min both groups had comparable scores. In Group C, intraoperative lacrimation (50% vs. 0%) and hallucinations/recall of intraoperative events (10% vs. 0%) were high. Conclusion: IV ketamine 0.25 mg/kg can be safely used as an adjunct analgesic and amnesic to attenuate haemodynamic responses during caesarean section under GA without affecting the foetal outcome. PMID:26644613

  12. Nuclear criticality safety guide

    SciTech Connect

    Pruvost, N.L.; Paxton, H.C.

    1996-09-01

    This technical reference document cites information related to nuclear criticality safety principles, experience, and practice. The document also provides general guidance for criticality safety personnel and regulators.

  13. Demonstration of the Health Literacy Universal Precautions Toolkit: Lessons for Quality Improvement.

    PubMed

    Mabachi, Natabhona M; Cifuentes, Maribel; Barnard, Juliana; Brega, Angela G; Albright, Karen; Weiss, Barry D; Brach, Cindy; West, David

    2016-01-01

    The Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality Health Literacy Universal Precautions Toolkit was developed to help primary care practices assess and make changes to improve communication with and support for patients. Twelve diverse primary care practices implemented assigned tools over a 6-month period. Qualitative results revealed challenges practices experienced during implementation, including competing demands, bureaucratic hurdles, technological challenges, limited quality improvement experience, and limited leadership support. Practices used the Toolkit flexibly and recognized the efficiencies of implementing tools in tandem and in coordination with other quality improvement initiatives. Practices recommended reducing Toolkit density and making specific refinements. PMID:27232681

  14. Research and Development of Region Power Grid Wind Hazard Precaution System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jun, Xiong; Han, Lin; Qinghua, Wang; Junjia, He

    The severe wind is one of the most threatening natural disasters for power grid operation. To solve the problem of the wind hazard assessment of power grid, a region power grid wind hazard precaution system is proposed in this paper by using weather and power grid data and geographical information. This system consists of two forecast models that the first is the statistical diagnosis model based on Partial least-squares and Model Output Statistics (PLS-MOS) method, and the second is the numerical forecasting model by the combination of mesoscale numerical model and microscale boundary layer model (MM5-CALMAT). Finally, according to the wind-resistant design parameters of transmission towers, a precaution information management platform based on the grid disaster prevention and reduction system (GDPRS) is supplied in order to remind the relevant operator for their decision-making and emergency treatment through real-time SMS and GIS location display. It is of important practical significance and application value for power grid disaster prevention and reduction.

  15. Safety Awareness and Preparedness in Secondary Schools in Kenya: A Case of Turkana District

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kipngeno, Ronoh Richard; Benjamin, Kyalo Wambua

    2009-01-01

    Safety for students and staff from hazards that can be created by unsafe conditions, behaviour, disasters or emergencies in schools cannot be guaranteed. This is because of inadequate preparedness and awareness programs for safety needs. This study investigated the adequacy of procedures, precautions and infrastructure to respond to fire outbreaks…

  16. 48 CFR 2052.235-71 - Safety, health, and fire protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Safety, health, and fire....235-71 Safety, health, and fire protection. As prescribed in 2035.70(a)(2), the contracting officer..., Health, and Fire Protection (JAN 1993) The contractor shall take all reasonable precautions in...

  17. Development of U.S. Government General Technical Requirements for UAS Flight Safety Systems Utilizing the Iridium Satellite Constellation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murray, Jennifer; Birr, Richard

    2010-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the development of technical requirements for Unmanned Aircraft Systems (UAS) utilization of the Iridium Satellite Constellation to provide flight safety. The Federal Aviation Authority (FAA) required an over-the-horizon communication standard to guarantee flight safety before permitting widespread UAS flights in the National Air Space (NAS). This is important to ensure reliable control of UASs during loss-link and over-the-horizon scenarios. The core requirement was to utilize a satellite system to send GPS tracking data and other telemetry from a flight vehicle down to the ground. Iridium was chosen as the system because it is one of the only true satellite systems that has world wide coverage, and the service has a highly reliable link margin. The Iridium system, the flight modems, and the test flight are described.

  18. Site Safety Plan for Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory CERCLA investigations

    SciTech Connect

    Bainer, R.; Duarte, J.

    1993-07-01

    The safety policy of LLNL is to take every reasonable precaution in the performance of work to protect the environment and the health and safety of employees and the public, and to prevent property damage. With respect to hazardous agents, this protection is provided by limiting human exposures, releases to the environment, and contamination of property to levels that are as low as reasonably achievable (ALARA). It is the intent of this Plan to supply the broad outline for completing environmental investigations within ALARA guidelines. It may not be possible to determine actual working conditions in advance of the work; therefore, planning must allow the opportunity to provide a range of protection based upon actual working conditions. Requirements will be the least restrictive possible for a given set of circumstances, such that work can be completed in an efficient and timely fashion. Due to the relatively large size of the LLNL Site and the different types of activities underway, site-specific Operational Safety Procedures (OSPs) will be prepared to supplement activities not covered by this Plan. These site-specific OSPs provide the detailed information for each specific activity and act as an addendum to this Plan, which provides the general plan for LLNL Main Site operation.

  19. Evaluation of safety and efficacy of zonisamide in adult patients with partial, generalized, and combined seizures: an open labeled, noncomparative, observational Indian study.

    PubMed

    Dash, Amitabh; Ravat, Sangeeta; Srinivasan, Avathvadi Venkatesan; Shetty, Ashutosh; Kumar, Vivek; Achtani, Renu; Mathur, Vivek Narain; Maramattom, Boby Varkey; Bajpai, Veeresh; Manjunath, Nanjappa C; Narayana, Randhi Venkata; Mehta, Suyog

    2016-01-01

    A prospective, multicentric, noncomparative open-label observational study was conducted to evaluate the safety and efficacy zonisamide in Indian adult patients for the treatment of partial, generalized, or combined seizures. A total of 655 adult patients with partial, generalized, or combined seizures from 30 centers across India were recruited after initial screening. Patients received 100 mg zonisamide as initiating dose as monotherapy/adjunctive therapy for 24 weeks, with titration of 100 mg every 2 weeks if required. Adverse events, responder rates, and seizure freedom were observed every 4 weeks. Efficacy and safety were also assessed using Clinicians Global Assessment of Response to Therapy and Patients Global Assessment of Tolerability to Therapy, respectively. Follow-up was conducted for a period of 24 weeks after treatment initiation. A total of 655 patients were enrolled and received the treatment and 563 completed the evaluation phase. A total of 20.92% of patients received zonisamide as monotherapy or alternative monotherapy and 59.85% patients received zonisamide as first adjunctive therapy. Compared with baseline, 41.22% of patients achieved seizure freedom and 78.6% as responder rate at the end of 24 week study. Most commonly reported adverse events were loss of appetite, weight loss, sedation, and dizziness, but discontinuation due to adverse events of drug was seen in 0.92% of patients. This open label real-world study suggests that zonisamide is an effective and well-tolerated antiepileptic drug in Indian adults for treatment of partial, generalized as well as combined seizures type. No new safety signals were observed. PMID:27013882

  20. Evaluation of safety and efficacy of zonisamide in adult patients with partial, generalized, and combined seizures: an open labeled, noncomparative, observational Indian study

    PubMed Central

    Dash, Amitabh; Ravat, Sangeeta; Srinivasan, Avathvadi Venkatesan; Shetty, Ashutosh; Kumar, Vivek; Achtani, Renu; Mathur, Vivek Narain; Maramattom, Boby Varkey; Bajpai, Veeresh; Manjunath, Nanjappa C; Narayana, Randhi Venkata; Mehta, Suyog

    2016-01-01

    A prospective, multicentric, noncomparative open-label observational study was conducted to evaluate the safety and efficacy zonisamide in Indian adult patients for the treatment of partial, generalized, or combined seizures. A total of 655 adult patients with partial, generalized, or combined seizures from 30 centers across India were recruited after initial screening. Patients received 100 mg zonisamide as initiating dose as monotherapy/adjunctive therapy for 24 weeks, with titration of 100 mg every 2 weeks if required. Adverse events, responder rates, and seizure freedom were observed every 4 weeks. Efficacy and safety were also assessed using Clinicians Global Assessment of Response to Therapy and Patients Global Assessment of Tolerability to Therapy, respectively. Follow-up was conducted for a period of 24 weeks after treatment initiation. A total of 655 patients were enrolled and received the treatment and 563 completed the evaluation phase. A total of 20.92% of patients received zonisamide as monotherapy or alternative monotherapy and 59.85% patients received zonisamide as first adjunctive therapy. Compared with baseline, 41.22% of patients achieved seizure freedom and 78.6% as responder rate at the end of 24 week study. Most commonly reported adverse events were loss of appetite, weight loss, sedation, and dizziness, but discontinuation due to adverse events of drug was seen in 0.92% of patients. This open label real-world study suggests that zonisamide is an effective and well-tolerated antiepileptic drug in Indian adults for treatment of partial, generalized as well as combined seizures type. No new safety signals were observed. PMID:27013882

  1. Coping strategy in adolescents with premenstrual syndrome: application of the construal level theory and the precaution adoption process model.

    PubMed

    Delara, Mahin; Ghofranipour, Fazllollah; Fallah, Parviz Azad; Tavafian, Sedighe Sadat; Kazemnejad, Anoushirvan; Montazeri, Ali; Sani, Abolfazl Rahmani; Kooshki, Mehdi

    2013-01-01

    This study aimed to apply the construal level theory (CLT) to increase the relaxation adoption as a coping behavior in adolescents with premenstrual syndrome (PMS). The theory offers a framework that assumes decision-making about adoption of any given behavior depends on perceived temporal distance from the desired or recommended behavior and thus individual might perceive any information or intervention, at two levels (low or high). In doing so, a trial was conducted on 1578 high school students suffering from PMS. The precaution adoption process model was applied to categorize students in six stages, based on their intention to adopt a behavior. The focus of this study was on students who were in stage 3 of the model (undecided to adopt a behavior that was relaxation). Overall, 411 students were identified and randomly assigned to the three study groups: group 1 (n = 98) who received a CLT-driven intervention containing detailed information about relaxation (low-level construal, LLC); group 2 (n = 150) who received a CTL-driven intervention containing general information about relaxation (high-level construal, HLC); and group 3 (n = 163) who received nothing (control group). The progression from stage 3 toward stage 6 (action) was considered as the desired outcome and it was hypothesized that LLC intervention would be more effective than HLC intervention. Compared to participants in the control group, participants in the high and low construal groups were significantly more likely to advance to the action stage (P < 0.001). In addition, students in the low construal group had made an apparent higher stage progression as compared to the high construal group, although this difference was not statistically significant (P = 0.33). The findings suggest that, for people who are undecided to adopt a new health action, LLC intervention might be more effective. PMID:22788244

  2. Ethical acceptability, health policy and foods biotechnology based foods: is there a third way between the precaution principle and an overly enthusiastic dissemination of GMO?

    PubMed

    Meningaud, J P; Moutel, G; Hervé, C

    2001-01-01

    The demand for consumer safety with regard to the food-processing industry is becoming, legitimately, more and more urgent. If ingested drugs can carry deleterious effects that exceed the beneficial effect that the research was initially undertaken for, then the same can only be the case for foods that stem from the same new biotechnologies, zero risk being non existent. There are two conflicting viewpoints about the possible risks linked to genetically modified organisms: a posteriori protection (based on vigilance once the product is on the market) and an a priori protection (at present usually supported by the precaution principle). We suggest a third way, which ensures consumer safety, but doesn't hinder scientific progress. Just as there are regulations for the protection of human subjects in biomedical research and regulations for the use of drugs after they are marketed, so should such regulations be introduced in the domains of food production that use biotechnologies. We therefore suggest that the scientific community and the food-processing industry develop evaluation protocols for new foods like the ones that exist for drugs. We thus offer thirteen regulations, based on the Helsinki declaration, in order to establish these protocols. These proposals, applied to food-processing research, would enable the industry to return confidence to consumers and thus avoid the random blocking of scientific progress, which is a source of health for the greater population. PMID:11401233

  3. Risk management and precaution: insights on the cautious use of evidence.

    PubMed Central

    Hrudey, Steve E; Leiss, William

    2003-01-01

    Risk management, done well, should be inherently precautionary. Adopting an appropriate degree of precaution with respect to feared health and environmental hazards is fundamental to risk management. The real problem is in deciding how precautionary to be in the face of inevitable uncertainties, demanding that we understand the equally inevitable false positives and false negatives from screening evidence. We consider a framework for detection and judgment of evidence of well-characterized hazards, using the concepts of sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value that are well established for medical diagnosis. Our confidence in predicting the likelihood of a true danger inevitably will be poor for rare hazards because of the predominance of false positives; failing to detect a true danger is less likely because false negatives must be rarer than the danger itself. Because most controversial environmental hazards arise infrequently, this truth poses a dilemma for risk management. PMID:14527835

  4. Large-Scale Spacecraft Fire Safety Tests

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Urban, David; Ruff, Gary A.; Ferkul, Paul V.; Olson, Sandra; Fernandez-Pello, A. Carlos; T'ien, James S.; Torero, Jose L.; Cowlard, Adam J.; Rouvreau, Sebastien; Minster, Olivier; Toth, Balazs; Legros, Guillaume; Eigenbrod, Christian; Smirnov, Nickolay; Fujita, Osamu; Jomaas, Grunde

    2014-01-01

    An international collaborative program is underway to address open issues in spacecraft fire safety. Because of limited access to long-term low-gravity conditions and the small volume generally allotted for these experiments, there have been relatively few experiments that directly study spacecraft fire safety under low-gravity conditions. Furthermore, none of these experiments have studied sample sizes and environment conditions typical of those expected in a spacecraft fire. The major constraint has been the size of the sample, with prior experiments limited to samples of the order of 10 cm in length and width or smaller. This lack of experimental data forces spacecraft designers to base their designs and safety precautions on 1-g understanding of flame spread, fire detection, and suppression. However, low-gravity combustion research has demonstrated substantial differences in flame behavior in low-gravity. This, combined with the differences caused by the confined spacecraft environment, necessitates practical scale spacecraft fire safety research to mitigate risks for future space missions. To address this issue, a large-scale spacecraft fire experiment is under development by NASA and an international team of investigators. This poster presents the objectives, status, and concept of this collaborative international project (Saffire). The project plan is to conduct fire safety experiments on three sequential flights of an unmanned ISS re-supply spacecraft (the Orbital Cygnus vehicle) after they have completed their delivery of cargo to the ISS and have begun their return journeys to earth. On two flights (Saffire-1 and Saffire-3), the experiment will consist of a flame spread test involving a meter-scale sample ignited in the pressurized volume of the spacecraft and allowed to burn to completion while measurements are made. On one of the flights (Saffire-2), 9 smaller (5 x 30 cm) samples will be tested to evaluate NASAs material flammability screening tests

  5. [Adherence to standard precautions by the public pre-hospital health team in Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais State, Brazil].

    PubMed

    Lopes, Aline Cristine Souza; Oliveira, Adriana Cristina; Silva, Jussara Teixeira; Paiva, Maria Henriqueta Rocha Siqueira

    2008-06-01

    This was a cross-sectional study of workers in the pre-hospital care team in Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais State, Brazil, aimed at evaluating adherence to precautions. The study instrument included questions on knowledge, attitudes, and facilitating factors for adherence to standard precautions. Adherence was verified by percentage of adequacy: > 75% correct answers. Drivers showed the lowest degree of knowledge and physicians the highest. In self-reported answers, none of the workers demonstrated adequate use of face masks, goggles, or personal protective equipment (PPE), and drivers reported inadequate attitudes on all the items. In the univariate analysis, job position, gender, and specific rescue unit were associated with adoption of precautions. Meanwhile, in the multivariate analysis, only job position was related (drivers and nurse technicians/aides). The most frequently cited facilitating factors for improvement of adherence were: training focusing on infections, occupational risks, and use of PPE; periodic team meetings; and creation of a central unit for cleaning, disinfecting, and sterilizing equipment and materials. Workers in the pre-hospital care service demonstrated attitudes that were compatible with knowledge, but professional class affected knowledge on standard precautions and self-reported adequate attitudes. PMID:18545764

  6. A Comparison of the Effectiveness of Interactive Laser Disc and Classroom Video Tape for Safety Instruction of General Motors Workers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bosco, James; Wagner, Jerry

    1988-01-01

    Describes evaluation that assessed the effectiveness of the Interactive Laser Disc System (ILDS) Training Program in comparison with classroom instruction with videotape for training of General Motors workers. Topics discussed include achievement test, attitude scales, opinion surveys, user preference questionnaires, interviews, and variables that…

  7. A randomized clinical trial comparing the efficacy and safety of ramosetron versus ondansetron in patients undergoing abdominal surgery under general anesthesia

    PubMed Central

    Kaja, Sriramamurthy; Giri, Ravindra S.; Tugave, Deepak V.; Iqbal, Mukarram

    2014-01-01

    Background: Post-operative nausea and vomiting is one of the most common and distressing complications after anesthesia and surgery. It may lead to serious post-operative complications. Ramosetron is a newer 5-HT3 receptor antagonist and has more potent and longer duration of antiemetic effects compared to first generation 5HT3 receptor antagonists. The purpose of this study was to compare the efficacy of Ramosetron for the prevention of post-operative nausea and vomiting with that of Ondansetron in patients undergoing abdominal surgeries under general anesthesia. Methods: In this randomized, double-blind study, 60 patients, 18-60 years of both genders falling under ASA I-II category scheduled for abdominal surgery were included. Group I received I.V ramosetron 0.3 mg while group II received I.V Ondansetron 4 mg at the time of extubation. The standard general anesthetic technique was used throughout. Postoperatively the incidences of nausea, vomiting, and safety assessments were performed at 1, 2, 6, and 24 h during the first 24 h after surgery. Results: There were no differences between groups with respect to patient demographics. The percentage of patients who had complete response (no PONV, and no need for another rescue antiemetic) from 0 to 24 h after anesthesia was 56% with ramosetron and 33% with ondansetron. The corresponding rates at 1, 2, 6, and 24 h after anesthesia were 76% and 63%, 76% and 50%, 100 and 83%, 100 and 93%, respectively. Safety profiles of the two drugs were comparable, as no clinically serious adverse effects caused by study drugs were observed in either of the groups. Conclusion: Our study concludes that prophylactic therapy with ramosetron is highly efficacious than ondansetron in preventing PONV in patients undergoing abdominal surgery under general anesthesia. PMID:24665241

  8. Hand Safety

    MedlinePlus

    ... en gatillo See More... Hand Anatomy Hand Safety Fireworks Safety Lawnmower Safety Snowblower safety Pumpkin Carving Gardening ... en gatillo See More... Hand Anatomy Hand Safety Fireworks Safety Lawnmower Safety Snowblower safety Pumpkin Carving Gardening ...

  9. Hand Safety

    MedlinePlus

    ... Fireworks Safety Lawnmower Safety Snowblower safety Pumpkin Carving Gardening Safety Turkey Carving Removing a Ring Español Artritis ... Fireworks Safety Lawnmower Safety Snowblower safety Pumpkin Carving Gardening Safety Turkey Carving Removing a Ring Español Artritis ...

  10. Quality and Safety of General Anesthesia with Propofol and Sevoflurane in Children Aged 1-14 Based on Laboratory Parameters

    PubMed Central

    Vanis-Vatrenjak, Selma; Mesic, Amira; Abdagic, Ines; Mujezinovic, Djenita; Zvizdic, Zlatan

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Knowledge of anatomic, physiological, biochemical and physical characteristics of children of all age groups, the existing illness and possible pathological response of the organism to the existing situation, require a pediatric anesthesiologist to participate in the preparation of a child for surgical treatment, to choose the best anesthesia technique and medications, and manipulative techniques to enable the scheduled surgical treatment with minimum anesthesia risks. The aim of this clinical study was to prove reliability and quality of propofol or sevoflurane general anesthesia in children in the age group of 1-14 years from the ASA I group and in the elective surgical treatments in duration of 60 minutes, based on preoperative and postoperative levels of laboratory findings (transaminases, blood sugar, urea and creatinine). Materials and methods: the study included 160 patients randomized in two groups based on different approaches: total intravenous anesthesia was used for the propofol group (n=80) (TIVA) and the inhalation technique was used for the sevoflurane group (n=80). Results: statistical evaluation of the obtained results indicates stability of laboratory findings in the immediate postoperative course (after 24 hours) in respect to the preoperative period. Based on the Mann Whitney test (P), preoperative and postoperative blood sugar levels in the sevoflurane vs. propofol group were P=0.152 vs. 0.021; creatinine levels P=0.113 vs. 0.325; urea levels P= 0.016 vs. 0.900; AST levels P=0,031 vs. 0,268 and ALT levels P=0.021 vs. 0.058. Level of significance was P<0.5. Conclusion: Analysis of the examined laboratory parameters show that propofol and sevoflurane provide full security and quality of general anesthesia in children age group 1-14 years, from the ASA I group. All analyzed laboratory levels in the postoperative course remained in their referential values in both groups of participants. PMID:26543304

  11. Missouri Elementary Science Safety Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lemons, Judith L.

    The purpose of this safety manual is to provide a resource to help manage and minimize potential risks in science classrooms where students spend up to 60% of instructional time engaged in hands-on activities. Information on general laboratory safety, science equipment safety, safety with plants, safety with animals, safety with chemicals, field…

  12. An evaluation of hospital emergency department (HED) adherence to universal precautions.

    PubMed

    Rydman, R J; Tannebaum, R D; Zalenski, R J

    1994-08-01

    A longitudinal cross sectional study of Hospital Emergency Department (HED) procedures over a nine month period was conducted. A total of 1,541 procedures were observed on 56 randomly selected 8-h work shifts. Shifts were distributed: 34% day shift; 34% evening shift; and 32% on the night shift. Observations on the evening shift were oversampled to capture an adequate number of trauma patients. Observations were distributed: 33% day shift; 39% evening shift; and 28% on the night shift. Measurements included: type of procedure; adherence to specific barrier technique, i.e., use of gloves, gowns, masks, and eye protection; and occurrence of adverse exposure. Ten types of HED procedures were documented and analyzed. Computerized tracking of study observations established periodic rates of HED health care worker (HCW) adherence to universal precautions. These data are important for internal quality control/assurance programs and rate comparisons within and across institutions over time. The longitudinal evaluation of the database revealed that glove compliance increased over the period of the study and adverse exposure decreased. Conducting ongoing or periodic observational studies of this kind are important and necessary in order to gauge HED response to the epidemiologic challenges of urban society. PMID:7829982

  13. Using the Health Literacy Universal Precautions Toolkit to Improve the Quality of Patient Materials.

    PubMed

    Brega, Angela G; Freedman, Megan A G; LeBlanc, William G; Barnard, Juliana; Mabachi, Natabhona M; Cifuentes, Maribel; Albright, Karen; Weiss, Barry D; Brach, Cindy; West, David R

    2015-01-01

    Patient materials are often written above the reading level of most adults. Tool 11 of the Health Literacy Universal Precautions Toolkit ("Design Easy-to-Read Material") provides guidance on ensuring that written patient materials are easy to understand. As part of a pragmatic demonstration of the Toolkit, we examined how four primary care practices implemented Tool 11 and whether written materials improved as a result. We conducted interviews to learn about practices' implementation activities and assessed the readability, understandability, and actionability of patient education materials collected during pre- and postimplementation site visits. Interview data indicated that practices followed many action steps recommended in Tool 11, including training staff, assessing readability, and developing or revising materials, typically focusing on brief documents such as patient letters and information sheets. Many of the revised and newly developed documents had reading levels appropriate for most patients and--in the case of revised documents--better readability than the original materials. In contrast, the readability, understandability, and actionability of lengthier patient education materials were poor and did not improve over the 6-month implementation period. Findings guided revisions to Tool 11 and highlighted the importance of engaging multiple stakeholders in improving the quality of patient materials. PMID:26513033

  14. Factors Affecting Cervical Cancer Screening Behaviors Based on the Precaution Adoption Process Model: A Qualitative Study

    PubMed Central

    Bahmani, Afshin; Baghianimoghadam, Mohammad Hossein; Enjezab, Behnaz; Mahmoodabad, Seyed Saeed Mazloomy; Askarshahi, Mohsen

    2016-01-01

    One of the most preventable cancers in women is cervical cancer. Pap smear test is an effective screening program; however, it is not conducted very frequently. The aim of this study is explaining the determinants affecting women’s participation in the Pap smear test based on precaution adoption process model with a qualitative approach. This study was a qualitative approach using a Directed Content Analysis methodology which was conducted in 2014. Participants were 30 rural women who participated in this study voluntarily in sarvabad, Iran. Purposive sampling was initiated and continued until data saturation. Semi-structured interviews were the primary method of data collection. Data were analyzed using qualitative content analysis and continuous comparisons. Women`s information and awareness about cervical cancer and Pap smear is insufficient and most of them believed that they were not at risk; however, they perceived the severity of the disease. Some of them had no adequate understanding of the test benefits. They pointed to the lack of time, financial difficulties, fear of test result and lack of awareness as the main barriers against the Pap smear test; however, they did not say that they were not willing to do the test. Findings could help health policy makers to find the right area and purpose to facilitate the participation of women in the Pap smear test. PMID:26755465

  15. Late Lessons from Early Warnings: Toward Realism and Precaution with Endocrine-Disrupting Substances

    PubMed Central

    Gee, David

    2006-01-01

    The histories of selected public and environmental hazards, from the first scientifically based early warnings about potential harm to the subsequent precautionary and preventive measures, have been reviewed by the European Environment Agency. This article relates the “late lessons” from these early warnings to the current debates on the application of the precautionary principle to the hazards posed by endocrine-disrupting substances (EDSs). Here, I summarize some of the definitional and interpretative issues that arise. These issues include the contingent nature of knowledge; the definitions of precaution, prevention, risk, uncertainty, and ignorance; the use of differential levels of proof; and the nature and main direction of the methodological and cultural biases within the environmental health sciences. It is argued that scientific methods need to reflect better the realities of multicausality, mixtures, timing of dose, and system dynamics, which characterize the exposures and impacts of EDSs. This improved science could provide a more robust basis for the wider and wise use of the precautionary principle in the assessment and management of the threats posed by EDSs. The evaluation of such scientific evidence requires assessments that also account for multicausal reality. Two of the often used, and sometimes misused, Bradford Hill “criteria,” consistency and temporality, are critically reviewed in light of multicausality, thereby illustrating the need to review all of the criteria in light of 40 years of progress in science and policymaking. PMID:16818262

  16. Safety: An Attitude

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Harry T.

    1978-01-01

    Describes eight safety concepts developed by the author to teach safety and accident prevention in industrial arts shops and to promote more positive student attitudes toward shop safety. Stressing several general safety concepts instead of requiring dozens of rules has been found to work. (MF)

  17. Prospective Validation of Cessation of Contact Precautions for Extended-Spectrum β-Lactamase–Producing Escherichia coli1

    PubMed Central

    Frei, Reno; Schwahn, Friedbert; Tomic, Milanka; Conzelmann, Martin; Stranden, Anne; Widmer, Andreas F.

    2016-01-01

    After contact precautions were discontinued, we determined nosocomial transmission of extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL)–producing Escherichia coli by screening hospital patients who shared rooms with ESBL-producing E. coli–infected or –colonized patients. Transmission rates were 2.6% and 8.8% at an acute-care and a geriatric/rehabilitation hospital, respectively. Prolonged contact was associated with increased transmission. PMID:27191171

  18. Quality and safety issues highlighted by patients in the handling of laboratory test results by general practices–a qualitative study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background In general practice internationally, many care teams handle large numbers of laboratory test results relating to patients in their care. Related research about safety issues is limited with most of the focus on this workload from secondary care and in North American settings. Little has been published in relation to primary health care in the UK and wider Europe. This study aimed to explore experiences and perceptions of patients with regards to the handling of test results by general practices. Methods A qualitative research approach was used with patients. The setting was west of Scotland general practices from one National Health Service territorial board area. Patients were purposively sampled from practice held lists of patients who received a number of laboratory tests because of chronic medical problems or surveillance of high risk medicines. Focus groups were held and were audio-recorded. Tapes were transcribed and subjected to qualitative analysis. Transcripts were coded and codes merged into themes by two of the researchers. Results 19 participants from four medical practices took part in four focus groups. The main themes identified were: 1. Patients lacked awareness of the results handling process in their practice. 2. Patients usually did not contact their practice for test results, unless they considered themselves to be ill. 3. Patients were concerned about the appropriateness of administrators being involved in results handling. 4. Patients were concerned about breaches of confidentiality when administrators were involved in results handling. 5. Patients valued the use of dedicated results handling staff. 6. Patients welcomed the use of technology to alert them to results being available, and valued the ability to choose how this happened. Conclusions The study confirms the quality and safety of care problems associated with results handling systems and adds to our knowledge of the issues that impact in these areas. Practices need to be

  19. Undergraduate Organic Chemistry Laboratory Safety

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luckenbaugh, Raymond W.

    1996-11-01

    Each organic chemistry student should become familiar with the educational and governmental laboratory safety requirements. One method for teaching laboratory safety is to assign each student to locate safety resources for a specific class laboratory experiment. The student should obtain toxicity and hazardous information for all chemicals used or produced during the assigned experiment. For example, what is the LD50 or LC50 for each chemical? Are there any specific hazards for these chemicals, carcinogen, mutagen, teratogen, neurotixin, chronic toxin, corrosive, flammable, or explosive agent? The school's "Chemical Hygiene Plan", "Prudent Practices for Handling Hazardous Chemicals in the Laboratory" (National Academy Press), and "Laboratory Standards, Part 1910 - Occupational Safety and Health Standards" (Fed. Register 1/31/90, 55, 3227-3335) should be reviewed for laboratory safety requirements for the assigned experiment. For example, what are the procedures for safe handling of vacuum systems, if a vacuum distillation is used in the assigned experiment? The literature survey must be submitted to the laboratory instructor one week prior to the laboratory session for review and approval. The student should then give a short presentation to the class on the chemicals' toxicity and hazards and describe the safety precautions that must be followed. This procedure gives the student first-hand knowledge on how to find and evaluate information to meet laboartory safety requirements.

  20. Constrained Mathematics for Calculating Logical Safety and Reliability Probabilities with Uncertain Inputs

    SciTech Connect

    Cooper, D.K.; Cooper, J.A.; Ferson, S.

    1999-01-21

    Calculating safety and reliability probabilities with functions of uncertain variables can yield incorrect or misleading results if some precautions are not taken. One important consideration is the application of constrained mathematics for calculating probabilities for functions that contain repeated variables. This paper includes a description of the problem and develops a methodology for obtaining an accurate solution.

  1. Programmable Electronic Safety Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Parry, R.

    1993-05-01

    Traditionally safety systems intended for protecting personnel from electrical and radiation hazards at particle accelerator laboratories have made extensive use of electromechanical relays. These systems have the advantage of high reliability and allow the designer to easily implement failsafe circuits. Relay based systems are also typically simple to design, implement, and test. As systems, such as those presently under development at the Superconducting Super Collider Laboratory (SSCL), increase in size, and the number of monitored points escalates, relay based systems become cumbersome and inadequate. The move toward Programmable Electronic Safety Systems is becoming more widespread and accepted. In developing these systems there are numerous precautions the designer must be concerned with. Designing fail-safe electronic systems with predictable failure states is difficult at best. Redundancy and self-testing are prime examples of features that should be implemented to circumvent and/or detect failures. Programmable systems also require software which is yet another point of failure and a matter of great concern. Therefore the designer must be concerned with both hardware and software failures and build in the means to assure safe operation or shutdown during failures. This paper describes features that should be considered in developing safety systems and describes a system recently installed at the Accelerator Systems String Test (ASST) facility of the SSCL.

  2. Efficacy and safety of ramosetron versus ondansetron for postoperative nausea and vomiting after general anesthesia: a meta-analysis of randomized clinical trials

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Chengjie; Li, Bo; Xu, Lufeng; Lv, Fubin; Cao, Guimao; Wang, Huixia; Wang, Fei; Wu, Guanghan

    2015-01-01

    Background Postoperative nausea and vomiting is a common side effect of general anesthesia. In this study, we performed a meta-analysis on the efficacy and safety of ramosetron versus ondansetron in the prevention of postoperative nausea and vomiting using the most recently published randomized controlled clinical studies. Methods PubMed and EMBASE were searched for randomized controlled clinical trials comparing the efficacy and safety of ramosetron and ondansetron. The meta-analysis was performed using Review Manager version 5.3 (Cochrane Collaboration, Oxford, UK). Dichotomous outcomes are presented as the relative risk (RR) with a 95% confidence interval (CI). Results A total of 898 patients from nine selected studies were treated with antiemetics after surgery, including 450 patients who received ondansetron 4 mg and 448 patients who received ramosetron 0.3 mg. The meta-analysis showed no statistically significant difference between the two groups with regard to prevention of postoperative nausea (PON) during different time periods in the 48 hours after surgery. When comparing the efficacy of ramosetron and ondansetron in the prevention of postoperative vomiting (POV), at various time intervals in the 24 hours after surgery, ramosetron was significantly more efficient than ondansetron: 0–6 hours (RR 0.46, 95% CI 0.24–0.92; P=0.03), 0–24 hours (RR 0.72, 95% CI 0.52–1.00; P=0.05), and 6–24 hours (RR 0.51, 95% CI 0.31–0.84; P=0.008). At other time periods between 24 and 48 hours after surgery, ramosetron did not show better efficacy than ondansetron. When comparing the safety profiles of ramosetron and ondansetron, fewer side effects were recorded in the ramosetron group (RR 0.65, 95% CI 0.47–0.91; P=0.01). Conclusion Our meta-analysis demonstrates that ramosetron was more effective than ondansetron in the prevention of early POV (0–24 hours) with fewer recorded side effects. However, our study did not reveal any statistically significant

  3. Highway Safety Program Manual: Volume 3: Motorcycle Safety.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (DOT), Washington, DC.

    Volume 3 of the 19-volume Highway Safety Program Manual (which provides guidance to State and local governments on preferred highway safety practices) concentrates on aspects of motorcycle safety. The purpose and specific objectives of a State motorcycle safety program are outlined. Federal authority in the highway safety area and general policies…

  4. ["Standard precautions" practices among nurses in a university hospital in Western Algeria].

    PubMed

    Beghdadli, Benali; Belhadj, Zora; Chabane, Walid; Ghomari, Omar; Kandouci, Abdelkader Baderdine; Fanello, Serge

    2008-01-01

    Health care workers are exposed daily to blood borne injury and infection with a high risk of hepatitis B or C and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) transmission. In the 1980s, the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) developed a set of protocols and guidelines known as standard precautions (SP) to prevent accidental transmission of pathogens. The SP should be followed for each intervention or delivery of care in order to protect health care workers from risks associated with contact with blood and other biological liquids. A survey was conducted in a Western Algerian university hospital to assess nurses' adherence to SP practices. A questionnaire was administered to 450 nurses in the hospital workplace setting. A field survey was also conducted in order to take into account the means and support available to the nurses in these hospital departments, namely to determine availability of hand washing and drying facilities. A total of 133 nurses, 81 women and 52 men, participated in the survey. Personal and professional data, hand-washing frequency, glove wearing practices were collected as data. A large majority (95%) of nurses reported washing their hands after removing their gloves, and 69% of them reported washing their hands between two patients. Male nurses wear gloves more often than females (respectively 77% and 53%). Sharp instruments were correctly disposed of in a puncture-resistant container more of the time. Recapping needles has been reported by two-thirds of survey respondents. Lack of liquid soap and alcohol-based washing solution were noted as major deficiencies as well as the lack of means to properly dry hands in many health care wards. Lack of SP adherence is primarily due to the lack of awareness and knowledge as well as insufficient supply of equipment and materials for good hand hygiene maintenance. This study highlights the urgent need to implement a programme to improve SP adherence among nurses and to increase the supply of

  5. Vocational Safety Guide to Generalized Safety Provisions as They Apply to: Agricultural Education, Business and Office Education, Health Occupations Education, Home Economics Education, Industrial Arts Education, Marketing and Distributive Education, Trade and Technical Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dyrenfurth, Michael J.; Linhardt, Richard E.

    This vocational safety guide is designed to help Missouri school practitioners at all levels in providing for the safe instruction and work associated with practical arts and vocational and technical subjects. Covered in the individual sections of the guide are the following topics: Missouri legislation and regulations pertaining to school safety;…

  6. School Safety Audit Protocol.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeMary, Jo Lynne; Owens, Marsha; Ramnarain, A. K. Vijay

    The 1997 Virginia General Assembly passed legislation directing school boards to require all schools to conduct safety audits. This audit is designed to assess the safety conditions in each public school to: (1) identify and, if necessary, develop solutions for physical safety concerns, including building security issues; and (2) identify and…

  7. Revitalizing Nuclear Safety Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Academy of Sciences - National Research Council, Washington, DC.

    This report covers the general issues involved in nuclear safety research and points out the areas needing detailed consideration. Topics included are: (1) "Principles of Nuclear Safety Research" (examining who should fund, who should conduct, and who should set the agenda for nuclear safety research); (2) "Elements of a Future Agenda for Nuclear…

  8. 78 FR 41853 - Safety Advisory Guidance: Heating Rail Tank Cars To Prepare Hazardous Material for Unloading or...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-12

    ...This guidance provides safety precautions and recommended guidance for persons responsible for unloading or transloading \\1\\ hazardous materials from rail tank cars, specifically those persons heating a rail tank car to prepare its hazardous material contents for unloading or transloading. Further, this guidance reminds such persons of current regulatory requirements addressing this type of......

  9. Discontinuation of Systematic Surveillance and Contact Precautions for Vancomycin-Resistant Enterococcus (VRE) and Its Impact on the Incidence of VRE faecium Bacteremia in Patients with Hematologic Malignancies.

    PubMed

    Almyroudis, Nikolaos G; Osawa, Ryosuke; Samonis, George; Wetzler, M; Wang, Eunice S; McCarthy, Philip L; Segal, Brahm H

    2016-04-01

    OBJECTIVE To study the effect of discontinuation of systematic surveillance for vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus (VRE) and contact isolation of colonized patients on the incidence of VRE bacteremia SETTING A hematology-oncology unit with high prevalence of VRE colonization characterized by predominantly sporadic molecular epidemiology PARTICIPANTS Inpatients with hematologic malignancies and recipients of hematopoietic stem cell transplantation METHODS The incidence of VRE bacteremia was measured prospectively during 2 different 3-year time periods; the first during active VRE surveillance and contact precautions and the second after discontinuation of these policies. We assessed the collateral impact of this policy change on the incidence of bacteremia due to methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and Clostridium difficile infection even though we maintained contact precautions for these organisms. Incidence of infectious events was measured as number of events per 1,000 patients days per month. Time series analysis was used to evaluate trends. RESULTS The incidence of VRE bacteremia remained stable after discontinuation of VRE surveillance and contact precautions. The incidence of MRSA bacteremia and Clostridium difficile infection for which we continued contact precautions also remained stable. Aggregated antibiotic utilization and nursing hours per patient days were similar between the 2 study periods. CONCLUSION Active surveillance and contact precautions for VRE colonization did not appear to prevent VRE bacteremia in patients with hematologic malignancies and recipients of hematopoietic stem cell transplantation with high prevalence of VRE characterized by predominantly sporadic molecular epidemiology. Infect. Control Hosp. Epidemiol. 2016;37(4):398-403. PMID:26750087

  10. Space engine safety system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maul, William A.; Meyer, Claudia M.

    1991-01-01

    A rocket engine safety system is designed to initiate control procedures which will minimize damage to the engine and vehicle or test stand in the event of an engine failure. This report describes the features and the implementation issues associated with rocket engine safety systems. Specific concerns of safety systems applied to a space-based engine and long duration space missions are discussed. Examples of safety system features and architectures are given from recent safety monitoring investigations conducted for the Space Shuttle Main Engine and for future liquid rocket engines. Also, a general design and implementation process for rocket engine safety systems is presented.

  11. Space engine safety system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maul, William A.; Meyer, Claudia M.

    1991-01-01

    A rocket engine safety system was designed to initiate control procedures to minimize damage to the engine or vehicle or test stand in the event of an engine failure. The features and the implementation issues associated with rocket engine safety systems are discussed, as well as the specific concerns of safety systems applied to a space-based engine and long duration space missions. Examples of safety system features and architectures are given, based on recent safety monitoring investigations conducted for the Space Shuttle Main Engine and for future liquid rocket engines. Also, the general design and implementation process for rocket engine safety systems is presented.

  12. The Effects of Safety Behavior Directed Towards a Safety Cue on Perceptions of Threat.

    PubMed

    Engelhard, Iris M; van Uijen, Sophie L; van Seters, Niels; Velu, Nicolette

    2015-09-01

    Safety behavior involves precautions to prevent or minimize a feared outcome, and is involved in the maintenance of anxiety disorders. Earlier research has shown that safety behavior prevents the extinction of conditioned fear and maintains threat expectations. This study tested whether safety behavior directed towards an objectively safe stimulus increases the perceived threat of that stimulus when it is subsequently experienced in the absence of the safety measure. In a conditioning task, participants first learned that one "danger" cue (A) was followed by shock and two "safety" cues (B, C) were not. Then they learned to apply safety behavior during A trials, which prevented the shock. Next, the experimental group, and not the control group, was given the opportunity to display safety behavior to C trials, which had never been coupled with the shock. In a subsequent test phase, A, B, and C were presented without the opportunity for participants to engage in safety behavior. Results showed that safety behavior increased shock expectancy to C in the test phase and maintained a preexisting shock expectancy in the experimental group, but not in the control group. This is the first study to show that safety behavior can maintain threat appraisal to stimuli that only ever acquired threat indirectly. This may be a possible mechanism for the origin of biased threat beliefs, superstitious behaviors, and irrational fears. It is also practically relevant: safety behavior reduces actual danger, but in relatively safe situations, its potential costs may outweigh the benefits. PMID:26459841

  13. Safety evaluation of some wild plants in the New Nordic Diet.

    PubMed

    Mithril, Charlotte; Dragsted, Lars Ove

    2012-12-01

    One of the dietary components in the New Nordic Diet, is plants from the wild countryside. However, these may have a high content of bioactive components, some of which could be toxic in larger quantities. The objective of this paper is to outline a strategy for safety evaluation of wild plants not covered in current food compositional databases and to apply the method for selected plants used in the New Nordic Diet recipes. Four examples of typical wild edible plants were evaluated (stinging nettle, sorrel, chickweed and common lambsquarters), and based on substantial equivalence with known food plants the majority of the bioactive components reported were within the range experienced when eating or drinking typical food stuffs. For most compounds the hazards could be evaluated as minor. The only precaution found was for common lambsquarters because of its presumed high level of oxalic acid. It is concluded that a substance-by-substance evaluation of intake by equivalence to common foods is a useful and efficient strategy to evaluate the safety of newly introduced wild edible plants. Further evaluation and better compositional analyses are warranted before a daily consumption of significant amounts of wild edible plants can be generally regarded as safe. PMID:23009884

  14. Evaluation of the contribution of isolation precautions in prevention and control of multi-resistant bacteria in a teaching hospital.

    PubMed

    Eveillard, M; Eb, F; Tramier, B; Schmit, J L; Lescure, F X; Biendo, M; Canarelli, B; Daoudi, F; Laurans, G; Rousseau, F; Thomas, D

    2001-02-01

    From February 1999 to January 2000, a control programme to prevent the spread multi-resistant bacteria (MRB) was implemented in a French teaching hospital. This programme focused on methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and Enterobacteriaceae producing extended-spectrum beta-lactamases (ESBL), and was based on the application of barrier precautions (washing hands with antiseptic soaps, wearing disposable gloves and gowns, identifying MRB carriers). No changes in antibiotic policy occurred during the year. Our aim was to conduct an evaluation of this programme by measuring incidence rates. Concurrently, the effect of barrier precautions was estimated in an indirect way, by documenting the availability of barrier precautions in MRB carriers' rooms and by analysing the monthly correlation between the supply of such material and the theoretical cumulated length of MRB carriers' isolation in six randomized wards. All MRB isolated in hospitalized patients were recorded, and differentiated between acquisition in our hospital or from elsewhere. For the analysis of trends, the year was divided in three periods of four months. Over the year, the global MRB incidence was 1.26 per 1000 patient-days (PD) [95% confidence interval (95%CI)=1.16-1.36]. The MRSA incidence was 0.89 per 1000 PD (95%CI=0.81- 0.97) and the ESBL incidence was 0.38 per 1000 PD (95% CI=0.33-0.43). The MRB incidence decreased significantly in all types of specialties except for surgical wards. The incidence decreased by 17.9% for MRSA, 54.9% for ESBL and 34.8% for both MRB. Concurrently, the proportion of strains acquired in our hospital decreased for MRSA (P for trend > or = 0.05) and ESBL (P for trend > or = 0.01), whereas the incidence of imported strains increased slightly. The proportion of multiresistant strains in S. aureus (36.8%) and Enterobacter aerogenes (37.0%) remained similar throughout the year. Thus, the decrease of the incidence concerned both resistant and susceptible strains

  15. Microwave and Man—The Direct and Indirect Hazards, and the Precautions

    PubMed Central

    Merckel, Charles

    1972-01-01

    Microwave-radar is a form of electromagnetic energy with potential hazards to human health and safety. Its lethal and non-lethal harmful effects have been demonstrated in experimental animals. Lethal effects upon humans from exposure to microwave have not been proved. Alleged non-lethal effects have been limited primarily to cataractogenesis. Increasing use of microwave commercially in communications and domestically, as in micro-ovens, increases the hazard of exposure to microwave. Increasing use of devices which are at risk from microwave, such as implanted cardiac pacemakers and metal surgical appliances and electronic monitoring devices in operating rooms and clinics, present increasing environmental hazards. PMID:5039801

  16. Evolving societal risks and necessary precautions in the age of nuclear power and therapeutic radiation: an American perspective.

    PubMed

    Pham, Martin H; Yu, Cheng; Rusch, Mairead; Holloway, Charles; Chang, Eric; Apuzzo, Michael L J

    2014-12-01

    Terrorism involving nuclear or radiologic weapons can devastate populations, city infrastructures, and entire sociopolitical systems. In our age of nuclear medicine and therapeutic radiation delivery, the unauthorized and illegal acquisition of radioactive materials needed for such an attack is always a possibility and risk. Physicians handling high-energy isotopes for medical radiotherapy must be aware of the basic security requirements as outlined by the Nuclear Regulation Commission, which include background checks and authorized access, physical protection during radionuclide use, and physical protection during its transit. The Leksell Gamma Knife and its Category 1 cobalt-60 radioactive source are discussed because of their significant potential for deployment in a weaponized device. Although this article presents a perspective relating to American rules and regulations, these precautions are applicable anywhere that similar situations exist. Understanding these materials and the security they require is essential to preventing the disastrous outcomes should these isotopes fall into terrorists' hands. PMID:25218709

  17. Early interactions between animal psychologists and animal activists and the founding of the APA Committee on Precautions in Animal Experimentation.

    PubMed

    Dewsbury, D A

    1990-03-01

    The current conflict between animal psychologists and animal rights activists often is presented as a recent and unique phenomenon. Although its scope may be unprecedented, the fundamental issues are longstanding. Early criticisms of animal psychologists are viewed in the context of the broader Victorian antivivisectionist movement and are seen as similar to those of the present time. Various attitudes toward animals and research were expressed by individuals such as Charles Darwin, George John Romanes, William James, and John Dewey. Media attacks on animal research were directed at psychologists such as G. Stanley Hall, John B. Watson, Ivan P. Pavlov, and Edward L. Thorndike. The American Psychological Association Committee on Precautions in Animal Experimentation was founded in 1925 at the instigation of Walter B. Cannon, with Robert M. Yerkes as the first chair. PMID:2178508

  18. Precaution, governance and the failure of medical implants: the ASR((TM)) hip in the UK.

    PubMed

    Wienroth, Matthias; McCormack, Pauline; Joyce, Thomas J

    2014-01-01

    Hip implants have provided life-changing treatment, reducing pain and improving the mobility and independence of patients. Success has encouraged manufacturers to innovate and amend designs, engendering patient hopes in these devices. However, failures of medical implants do occur. The failure rate of the Articular Surface Replacement metal-on-metal hip system, implanted almost 100,000 times world-wide, has re-opened debate about appropriate and timely implant governance. As commercial interests, patient hopes, and devices' governance converge in a socio-technical crisis, we analyse the responses of relevant governance stakeholders in the United Kingdom between 2007 and 2014. We argue that there has been a systemic failure of the governance system entrusted with the safety of patients fitted with medical implants. Commercial considerations of medical implants and the status quo of medical implant governance have been given priority over patient safety despite the availability of significant failure data in an example of uncertainty about what constitutes appropriate precautionary action. PMID:26573983

  19. Preventing Transmission of Zika Virus in Labor and Delivery Settings Through Implementation of Standard Precautions - United States, 2016.

    PubMed

    Olson, Christine K; Iwamoto, Martha; Perkins, Kiran M; Polen, Kara N D; Hageman, Jeffrey; Meaney-Delman, Dana; Igbinosa, Irogue I; Khan, Sumaiya; Honein, Margaret A; Bell, Michael; Rasmussen, Sonja A; Jamieson, Denise J

    2016-01-01

    Zika virus transmission was detected in the Region of the Americas (Americas) in Brazil in May 2015, and as of March 21, 2016, local mosquito-borne transmission of Zika virus had been reported in 32 countries and territories in the Americas, including Puerto Rico and the U.S. Virgin Islands.* Most persons infected with Zika virus have a mild illness or are asymptomatic. However, increasing evidence supports a link between Zika virus infection during pregnancy and adverse pregnancy and birth outcomes (1), and a possible association between recent Zika virus infection and Guillain-Barré syndrome has been reported (2). Although Zika virus is primarily transmitted through the bite of Aedes species of mosquitoes, sexual transmission also has been documented (3). Zika virus RNA has been detected in a number of body fluids, including blood, urine, saliva, and amniotic fluid (3-5), and whereas transmission associated with occupational exposure to these body fluids is theoretically possible, it has not been documented. Although there are no reports of transmission of Zika virus from infected patients to health care personnel or other patients, minimizing exposures to body fluids is important to reduce the possibility of such transmission. CDC recommends Standard Precautions in all health care settings to protect both health care personnel and patients from infection with Zika virus as well as from blood-borne pathogens (e.g., human immunodeficiency virus [HIV] and hepatitis C virus [HCV]) (6). Because of the potential for exposure to large volumes of body fluids during the labor and delivery process and the sometimes unpredictable and fast-paced nature of obstetrical care, the use of Standard Precautions in these settings is essential to prevent possible transmission of Zika virus from patients to health care personnel. PMID:27010422

  20. Health Care Workers and Standard Precautions: Perceptions and Determinants of Compliance in the Emergency and Trauma Triage of a Tertiary Care Hospital in South India

    PubMed Central

    Punia, Sangini; Nair, Suma; Shetty, Ranjitha S.

    2014-01-01

    Background. Careful adherence to standard precautions can protect both health care workers (HCWs) and patients from infections. The present study identified the perceptions and compliance with the use of standard precautions and assessed the determinants of noncompliance among the HCWs in an emergency and trauma triage centre. Methods. A cross-sectional study using a semistructured questionnaire was carried out to collect the relevant information from the study participants. Results. A total of 162 HCWs were recruited into the study, who reported varying degrees of compliance with standard precautions. While most of them declared the use of hand rub (95%) and gloves (77%), reported use of protective eye gear and outer protective clothing was very low (22 and 28%, resp.). Despite a perceived risk of exposure to blood-borne infections, 8% of the HCWs had not completed the hepatitis B vaccination schedule. About 17% reported at least one needle stick injury in the past year but only 5.6% received medical attention. Conclusion. Inadequate adherence to standard precautions among health care providers warrants new training and monitoring strategies. Establishment of an effective occupational health cell incorporating these elements including periodic surveillance could be the way forward.

  1. Sharps safety.

    PubMed

    Fluke, C

    1992-10-01

    All employees need to be very careful handling sharps to minimize risks to themselves and coworkers. The attention, awareness and attitude that lend themselves to safe practice can only be developed through thorough training and following correct procedures. If you have an accident/injury, report it immediately and follow your hospital's Exposure Control Plan. Many resources are available to further your learning in this area. If you are uncomfortable with your knowledge of infection control, Universal Precautions, sharps handling, etc., check with your supervisor, hospital library, and infection control staff for reference materials to increase your level of understanding. PMID:10121533

  2. Predictors of Intention To Take Precautions against AIDS among Black College Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tashakkori, Abbas; Thompson, Vaida D.

    This research explored the effects of a number of factors derived from extant intention-behavior models on a general behavioral intention to engage in protection against Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) and a specific behavioral intention to use condoms as protection in vaginal sex. Data pertaining to beliefs, knowledge about AIDS, fear…

  3. From general policy to legal rule: aspirations and limitations of the precautionary principle.

    PubMed Central

    Marchant, Gary E

    2003-01-01

    The rapid spread of the precautionary principle (PP) demonstrates the need to explicitly address the role of precaution in environmental decision making. Unfortunately, the PP in its current form is limited by the vagueness of, and variations in, the many formulations of the PP. This ambiguity in the meaning of the PP would not be so serious if the PP were limited to a general aspirational policy, but in every jurisdiction that has adopted the PP it has been transformed rapidly into a binding legal rule. As a legal rule, the ambiguity of the PP results in arbitrary application by regulatory agencies and reviewing courts and limits the capability of reviewing courts to perform their function in overseeing agency actions. To improve the explicit application of precaution, we must go beyond the current form of the PP and attempt to define the factors that weigh in favor of more or less precaution for specific risks. PMID:14594635

  4. 49 CFR 385.11 - Notification of safety rating and safety fitness determination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Notification of safety rating and safety fitness... REGULATIONS SAFETY FITNESS PROCEDURES General § 385.11 Notification of safety rating and safety fitness... notice of remedial directive will constitute the notice of safety fitness determination. If FMCSA has...

  5. 49 CFR 385.11 - Notification of safety rating and safety fitness determination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Notification of safety rating and safety fitness... REGULATIONS SAFETY FITNESS PROCEDURES General § 385.11 Notification of safety rating and safety fitness... notice of remedial directive will constitute the notice of safety fitness determination. If FMCSA has...

  6. Science Safety Procedure Handbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lynch, Mervyn A.; Offet, Lorna

    This booklet outlines general safety procedures in the areas of: (1) student supervision; (2) storage safety regulations, including lists of incompatible chemicals, techniques of disposal and storage; (3) fire; and (4) first aid. Specific sections exist for elementary, junior high school, senior high school, in which special procedures are…

  7. Farm Safety

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, G. S.

    1966-01-01

    Accident and safety are related terms; the higher the accident rate in any industry, the greater is the need for safety measures designed to prevent accidents. This article discusses the accident and safety problems in agriculture, which includes horticulture and forestry. There is still a tendency among townspeople to think of the countryside as peaceful and tranquil, a place where nothing happens very quickly and far removed from violent death or crippling injury. This pleasant rustic picture has undergone a striking change in the last 30 years owing to considerable agricultural mechanization and the development of chemical pesticides, which have brought new dangers to those who live and work on the land. Although men have readily adapted themselves to new machines and methods, they have not proved as able to recognize new dangers and learn how to guard against them. In consequence, accidents have increased to such an extent that the whole industry has realized the need for positive preventive measures. In this country, it is generally accepted that an employer of labour has a responsibility to provide safe working conditions for those he employs. Farm safety legislation goes a little further and usually requires an employer to provide necessary safeguards, with the added requirement on a worker to make use of them. It is a feature of accident prevention work that it never reaches a stage when it can be regarded as complete. Even when a reduction in accidents has been achieved, the effort must be sustained or the trend will be quickly reversed. Images PMID:5904095

  8. Religious Candles Safety

    MedlinePlus

    ... windows where a blind or curtain could catch fire. KKK Candles placed on, or near tables, altars, ... in a deep basin filled with water. General Fire Safety • Matches and lighters should be stored out ...

  9. Safety Guide for Health Occupations Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Illinois State Board of Vocational Education and Rehabilitation, Springfield. Div. of Vocational and Technical Education.

    The handbook is intended to be utilized by health occupations teachers as supplementary instructional materials for a unit on safety. The document contains general safety rules applicable to hospitals and other health care institutions. Outlined are general rules for fire safety and office and clerical safety and more specific rules for the…

  10. Summertime Safety

    MedlinePlus

    ... Violence & Safety Life Stages & Populations Travelers' Health Workplace Safety & Health Features Media Sign up for Features Get Email Updates ... Submit What's this? Submit Button Past Emails CDC Features Summertime Safety Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir The feature ...

  11. Drug Safety

    MedlinePlus

    ... over-the-counter drug. The FDA evaluates the safety of a drug by looking at Side effects ... clinical trials The FDA also monitors a drug's safety after approval. For you, drug safety means buying ...

  12. Safety Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daniels, James H.; And Others

    1980-01-01

    Five articles in this issue focus on safety education in agricultural laboratories. Topics discussed include teacher liability; elements of a safety instruction program; state and federal safety standards; ground fault current protection; and eye protection requirements and equipment. (SK)

  13. Labor unions and safety climate: perceived union safety values and retail employee safety outcomes.

    PubMed

    Sinclair, Robert R; Martin, James E; Sears, Lindsay E

    2010-09-01

    Although trade unions have long been recognized as a critical advocate for employee safety and health, safety climate research has not paid much attention to the role unions play in workplace safety. We proposed a multiple constituency model of workplace safety which focused on three central safety stakeholders: top management, ones' immediate supervisor, and the labor union. Safety climate research focuses on management and supervisors as key stakeholders, but has not considered whether employee perceptions about the priority their union places on safety contributes contribute to safety outcomes. We addressed this gap in the literature by investigating unionized retail employee (N=535) perceptions about the extent to which their top management, immediate supervisors, and union valued safety. Confirmatory factor analyses demonstrated that perceived union safety values could be distinguished from measures of safety training, workplace hazards, top management safety values, and supervisor values. Structural equation analyses indicated that union safety values influenced safety outcomes through its association with higher safety motivation, showing a similar effect as that of supervisor safety values. These findings highlight the need for further attention to union-focused measures related to workplace safety as well as further study of retail employees in general. We discuss the practical implications of our findings and identify several directions for future safety research. PMID:20538104

  14. Barriers and Facilitators of Compliance with Universal Precautions at First Level Health Facilities in Northern Rural Pakistan

    PubMed Central

    Yousafzai, Mohammad Tahir; Janjua, Naveed Zafar; Siddiqui, Amna Rehana; Rozi, Shafquat

    2015-01-01

    Aim We assessed the compliance at first level care facilities (FLCF) with universal precautions (UP) and its behavioral predictors using Health Belief Model (HBM). Methods A sample of FLCF from public clinic (PC), privately owned licensed practitioners’ clinic (LPC) and non-licensed practitioners’ clinic (NLPC) was obtained. Health Care Workers (HCW) who diagnose and prescribe medication was termed as Prescriber and that carries out prescriber’s order was defined Assistant. Compliance to UP was measured on 11 items Likert scale. HCW responded “always” or “often” to all items of UP were added to compute a binary variable of overall compliance. We used linear regression to assess association between HBM and UP score. Results We interviewed 485 HCW (75% prescribers) from 365 clinics; mean age 38±10.4 years. Overall, compliance to UP was 6.6%; 11.6% LPC, 5.3% PC, and 4.4% NLPC. Prescribers were less compliant than Assistants. Compliance with not recapping contaminated needle was poor (PC=32%, LPC=33%, NLPC=15%). Compliance with wearing gloves during blood or body fluid exposure was lowest (30%) at PC. Modes of transmission knowledge, self-efficacy and perceived benefits of safe practice, and susceptibility to blood borne infections were positively associated with UP score. Conclusion Higher perception of barriers and severity of blood borne infection result in lower compliance. PMID:26715918

  15. Using the Precaution Adoption Process model to describe a disaster preparedness intervention among low-income Latinos.

    PubMed

    Glik, Deborah C; Eisenman, David P; Zhou, Qiong; Tseng, Chi-Hong; Asch, Steven M

    2014-04-01

    Only 40-50% of households in the United States are currently disaster prepared. In this intervention study, respondent-driven sampling was used to select a sample (n = 187) of low income, Latino residents of Los Angeles County, randomly assigned into two treatment conditions: (i) household preparedness education received through 'promotora' (community health worker) led small group meetings, and (ii) household preparedness education received through print media. Weinstein's Precaution Adoption Process, a stage model appropriate for risk communication guided the intervention. Outcomes are conceptualized as stages of decision making linked to having disaster supplies and creating a family communication plan. Quantitative results showed a significant shift over time from awareness to action and maintenance stages for disaster communication plans and supplies in both study arms; however, the shift in stage for a communication plan for those in the 'platica' study arm was (P < 0.0001) than for those in the media arm. For changes in stage linked to disaster supplies, people in both media and 'platica' study arms improved at the same rate. Simple media-based communications may be sufficient to encourage disadvantaged households to obtain disaster supplies; however, adoption of the more complex disaster family communication requires interpersonal education. PMID:24399266

  16. Resource burden associated with contact precautions for methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus: the patient access managers' perspective.

    PubMed

    Shenoy, Erica S; Walensky, Rochelle P; Lee, Hang; Orcutt, Benjamin; Hooper, David C

    2012-08-01

    We surveyed patient access managers on the impact of contact precautions (CP) for methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and vancomycin-resistant enterococcus (VRE) on time to bed assignment, and we investigated the factors influencing infection control policies allowing for discontinuation of CP. The majority of respondents reported an increase in time to bed assignment for patients with a history of MRSA and/or VRE infection or colonization. PMID:22759555

  17. Safety in the Chemical Laboratory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steere, Norman V.

    1969-01-01

    Presents the Safety Guide used in the Research Center at Monsanto Chemical Company (St. Louis). Topics include: general safety practices, safety glasses and shoes, respiratory protection, electrical wiring, solvent handling and waste disposal. Procedures are given for evacuating, "tagging out, and "locking out. Special mention is given to…

  18. Missouri Secondary Science Safety Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lemons, Judith L.

    The purpose of this safety manual is to provide a resource to help manage and minimize potential risks in science classrooms where students spend up to 60% of instructional time engaged in hands-on activities. This manual contains information on standards, legal aspects, and responsibilities for science safety; general laboratory safety for…

  19. Safety relevant knowledge of orally anticoagulated patients without self-monitoring: a baseline survey in primary care

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Effective and safe management of oral anticoagulant treatment (OAT) requires a high level of patient knowledge and adherence. The aim of this study was to assess patient knowledge about OAT and factors associated with patient knowledge. Methods This is a baseline survey of a cluster-randomized controlled trial in 22 general practices with an educational intervention for patients or their caregivers. We assessed knowledge about general information on OAT and key facts regarding nutrition, drug-interactions and other safety precautions of 345 patients at baseline. Results Participants rated their knowledge about OAT as excellent to good (56%), moderate (36%) or poor (8%). However, there was a discrepancy between self-rated knowledge and evaluated actual knowledge and we observed serious knowledge gaps. Half of the participants (49%) were unaware of dietary recommendations. The majority (80%) did not know which non-prescription analgesic is the safest and 73% indicated they would not inform pharmacists about OAT. Many participants (35-75%) would not recognize important emergency situations. After adjustment in a multivariate analysis, older age and less than 10 years education remained significantly associated with lower overall score, but not with self-rated knowledge. Conclusions Patients have relevant knowledge gaps, potentially affecting safe and effective OAT. There is a need to assess patient knowledge and for structured education programs. Trial registration Deutsches Register Klinischer Studien (German Clinical Trials Register): DRKS00000586. Universal Trial Number (UTN U1111-1118-3464). PMID:24885192

  20. Software Safety Progress in NASA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Radley, Charles F.

    1995-01-01

    NASA has developed guidelines for development and analysis of safety-critical software. These guidelines have been documented in a Guidebook for Safety Critical Software Development and Analysis. The guidelines represent a practical 'how to' approach, to assist software developers and safety analysts in cost effective methods for software safety. They provide guidance in the implementation of the recent NASA Software Safety Standard NSS-1740.13 which was released as 'Interim' version in June 1994, scheduled for formal adoption late 1995. This paper is a survey of the methods in general use, resulting in the NASA guidelines for safety critical software development and analysis.

  1. [Construction of a tool for risk assessment of infectious diseases in a workplace--as a primary precaution].

    PubMed

    Ohtsu, Mayumi; Miyamoto, Hiroshi; Yoshioka, Suzuka; Kajiki, Shigeyuki; Ishimatsu, Sumiyo; Ogawa, Midori; Mori, Koji; Taniguchi, Hatsumi

    2008-12-01

    We describe here a tool for risk assessment and management of infectious diseases in a workplace. This was constructed as a primary precaution for the prevention of infectious diseases in a workplace, not to be used as a countermeasure of diseases in the time of or after an occurrence. The tool grades risk levels of each of the factors influencing infectious diseases in the workplace and an assessment based on the total point are given. Ordinary workplaces should be chosen, such as factories and office buildings, not places where medical experts or hygienists work, such as hospitals, schools and concessionaries, etc. Three risk factors for infection are pathogens, route and human host. The factor of a pathogen is divided into two groups, spreadable (from human to human) and non-spreadable. The risk of spreadable pathogens is assessed by the ages of workers, CO2 concentration and air volume, and the combination of the existence of common places and collaborative work. The risk of non spreadable pathogens is evaluated by the ages of workers, air current and air volume, and existence of equipment generating aerosol. In cases where the total point is over 7, the risk is assessed as high level (group A) and daily measures must be taken, such as ensuring proper operation of the infection control committee, education, management of working conditions and management of working environments. In cases where the score is 5 or 6, the risk is assessed as intermediate level (group B) and daily measures are recommended, such as ensuring proper operation of the infection control committee and education. In the case of a score less than 4, the risk is assessed as low level (group C) and these daily measures are not necessary. Instead, an infection control committee should be organized and concrete measures should be taken upon an outbreak of an infectious disease. PMID:19086704

  2. 16 CFR 1204.11 - General.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false General. 1204.11 Section 1204.11 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY ACT REGULATIONS SAFETY STANDARD FOR OMNIDIRECTIONAL CITIZENS BAND BASE STATION ANTENNAS Certification § 1204.11 General. Section 14(a) of the Consumer Product Safety Act (“the...

  3. Safety against lightning for linemen working on de-energized power lines

    SciTech Connect

    Mousa, A.M.; Srivastava, K.D.

    1986-01-01

    Where the risk of accidental power-frequency energization is concerned, the safety ground has a short-circuit discharge duty determined by the configuration and parameters of the power system. Safety is thus assured by selecting a safety ground having a short-circuit safety rating which matches the duty imposed by the power system. Up to now, a similar matching for lightning currents has not been possible. This paper addresses this problem by: 1. Determining the lightning current rating of typical safety grounds. 2. Calculating the lightning current discharge duty of safety grounds in terms of the insulatuon level of the line and the distance from the location of the thunderstorm. The analysis shows that special precautions are needed when working on power lines of voltage classes above 360 kV.

  4. [Hemostasis-altering drugs and regional anesthetic techniques: safety guidelines].

    PubMed

    Llau Pitarch, J V; De Andrés Ibáñez, J; Gomar Sancho, C; Gómez Luque, A; Hidalgo Martínez, F; Torres Morera, L M

    2004-03-01

    New developments--in the form of emerging clinical settings for regional anesthesia as well as problems arising with the concomitant use of regional techniques and hemostasis-altering drugs--require the ongoing revision of safety guidelines. The annual meeting of ESRA held in Spain in 2003 saw the discussion and clarification of a variety of issues of current concern, including conclusions reached on the estimated risk of spinal hematoma when published safety guidelines are followed or not, precautions to take in epidural anesthesia during cardiac surgery, guidelines for using fondaparinux for thromboprophylaxis, the circumstances under which neuroaxial techniques can be used safely in patients under the effects of platelet aggregation inhibitors such as thienopyridine, and the application of epidural anesthesia in parturients with eclampsia who have received platelet aggregation inhibitors. Conclusions drawn at the meeting enrich and clarify certain important safety issues related to local and regional anesthesia in patients receiving antiplatelet drugs and/or anticoagulants. PMID:15200185

  5. Mercury contamination study for flight system safety

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gorzynski, C. S., Jr.; Maycock, J. N.

    1972-01-01

    The effects and prevention of possible mercury pollution from the failure of solar electric propulsion spacecraft using mercury propellant were studied from tankage loading of post launch trajector injection. During preflight operations and initial flight mode there is little danger of mercury pollution if proper safety precautions are taken. Any spillage on the loading, mating, transportation, or launch pad areas is obvious and can be removed by vacuum cleaning soil and chemical fixing. Mercury spilled on Cape Kennedy ground soil will be chemically complexed and retained by the sandstone subsoil. A cover layer of sand or gravel on spilled mercury which has settled to the bottom of a water body adjacent to the system operation will control and eliminate the formation of toxic organic mercurials. Mercury released into the earth's atmosphere through leakage of a fireball will be diffused to low concentration levels. However, gas phase reactions of mercury with ozone could cause a local ozone depletion and result in serious ecological hazards.

  6. Vaccine Safety

    MedlinePlus

    ... During Pregnancy Frequently Asked Questions about Vaccine Recalls Historical Vaccine Safety Concerns FAQs about GBS and Menactra ... CISA Resources for Healthcare Professionals Evaluation Current Studies Historical Background 2001-12 Publications Technical Reports Vaccine Safety ...

  7. Safety Panel Resources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stewart, Christine E.

    2008-01-01

    The goal of this paper is to explore what resources are potentially available to safety panels and to provide some guidance on how to utilize those resources. While the examples used in this paper will concentrate on the Flight Equipment and Reliability Review Panel (FESRRP) and Extravehicular Activity (EVA) hardware that have come through that panel, as well as resources at Johnson Space Center, the paper will address how this applies to safety panels in general, and where possible cite examples for other safety panels.

  8. 49 CFR 238.103 - Fire safety.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Fire safety. 238.103 Section 238.103 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION PASSENGER EQUIPMENT SAFETY STANDARDS Safety Planning and General Requirements § 238.103 Fire safety. (a) Materials. (1)...

  9. 14 CFR 415.117 - Ground safety.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Ground safety. 415.117 Section 415.117... TRANSPORTATION LICENSING LAUNCH LICENSE Safety Review and Approval for Launch of an Expendable Launch Vehicle From a Non-Federal Launch Site § 415.117 Ground safety. (a) General. An applicant's safety...

  10. Organizational culture, safety culture, and safety performance at research facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, William S.

    2000-07-30

    Organizational culture surveys of research facilities conducted several years ago and archival occupational injury reports were used to determine whether differences in safety performance are related to general organizational factors or to ''safety culture'' as reflected in specific safety-related dimensions. From among the organizations surveyed, a pair of facilities was chosen that were similar in size and scientific mission while differing on indices of work-related injuries. There were reliable differences in organizational style between the facilities, especially among workers in environment, safety, and health functions; differences between the facilities (and among job categories) on the safety scale were more modest and less regular.

  11. Fusion reactor breeder material safety compatibility studies

    SciTech Connect

    Jeppson, D.W.; Cohen, S.; Muhlestein, L.D.

    1983-09-01

    Tritium breeder material selection for fusion reactors is strongly influenced by the desire to minimize safety and environmental concerns. Breeder material safety compatibility studies are being conducted to identify and characterize breeder-coolant-material interactions under postulated reactor accident conditions. Recently completed scoping compatibility tests indicate the following. 1. Ternary oxides (LiAlO/sub 2/, Li/sub 2/ZrO/sub 3/, Li/sub 2/SiO/sub 3/, Li/sub 4/SiO/sub 4/, and LiTiO/sub 3/) at postulated blanket operating temperatures are chemically compatible with water coolant, while liquid lithium and Li/sub 7/Pb/sub 2/ reactions with water generate heat, aerosol, and hydrogen. 2. Lithium oxide and 17Li-83Pb alloy react mildly with water requiring special precautions to control hydrogen release. 3. Liquid lithium reacts substantially, while 17Li83Pb alloy reacts mildly with concrete to produce hydrogen. 4. Liquid lithium-air reactions may present some major safety concerns. Additional scoping tests are needed, but the ternary oxides, lithium oxide, and 17Li-83Pb have definite safety advantages over liquid lithium and Li/sub 7/Pb/sub 2/. The ternary oxides present minimal safetyrelated problems when used with water as coolant, air or concrete; but they do require neutron multipliers, which may have safety compatibility concerns with surrounding materials. The combined favorable neutronics and minor safety compatibility concerns of lithium oxide and 17Li-83Pb make them prime candidates as breeder materials. Current safety efforts are directed toward assessing the compatibility of lithium oxide and the lithium-lead alloy with coolants and other materials.

  12. Worker health and safety in concentrated animal feeding operations.

    PubMed

    Mitloehner, F M; Calvo, M S

    2008-04-01

    A trend in consolidating livestock and poultry operations into concentrated animal feeding operations (CAFOs) potentially increases farm worker exposure to the hazards associated with high animal density conditions. The two main contributors of documented injury (fatal and non-fatal) are related to accidents with machinery and animals. Tractor rollovers are the leading accident in the area of farming machinery issues; kicks, bites, and workers being pinned between animals and fixed objects are non-machinery issues typically caused by inadequate precautions taken in the vicinity of livestock. These types of accidents are well documented; however, recommended safety strategies continue to be studied to reduce the risks and numbers of injuries associated with both machines and animals. Unlike accidents involving machinery and animals, air emission exposure and potential health effects from CAFOs are not well documented. CAFOs have the potential to show higher gaseous and particulate matter emissions compared to smaller farms. Pollutants like hydrogen sulfide, ammonia, volatile organic compounds, particulate matter, and endotoxin are emitted on CAFOs and can potentially affect worker health. These specific air emissions, their sources, and some of their harmful capabilities have been identified, and regulations have been implemented to create improved work environments on CAFOs. Despite such precautions, farm workers continue to report respiratory health symptoms related to their work environment. Air pollutant exposure and its health effects on farm workers require focused research to arrive at improved safety strategies that include mitigation techniques and protective gear to minimize adverse effects of working in CAFOs. PMID:18524283

  13. Risk Amid Recovery: Occupational Health and Safety of Latino Day Laborers in the Aftermath of the Gulf Coast Hurricanes

    PubMed Central

    Delp, Linda; Podolsky, Laura; Aguilar, Tomás

    2011-01-01

    After Katrina, the Bush administration suspended Department of Labor workplace regulations throughout the Gulf, a move consistent with their general emphasis on voluntary workplace protection programs rather than government oversight. This approach left many workers in hurricane reconstruction jobs unprotected, especially Latino immigrant day laborers who, facing language barriers and legal constraints, were least able to negotiate workplace safety or other labor conditions. Fifty-three immigrant workers and 28 key informants from community, union, church, and relief organizations in Louisiana and Mississippi were interviewed at job hiring sites and relief organizations using an inductive, exploratory approach. In this multihazard and changing work environment with a new and fluctuating workforce, enforceable policies mandating worker protection and education were sorely lacking. Free market conditions, driven by incentives to work as fast as possible, and the preponderance of unregulated small contractors and individual home owners as employers contributed to the unsafe environment. Although workers and home owners attempted to take precautions, they usually lacked adequate education about hazards, access to protective equipment, and training in its proper use. However, the labor conditions during the hurricane recovery in the Gulf Coast are likely to be duplicated throughout the country in workplaces employing Latino day laborers unless workers' health is given greater priority by regulatory agencies. PMID:21394225

  14. Risk Amid Recovery: Occupational Health and Safety of Latino Day Laborers in the Aftermath of the Gulf Coast Hurricanes.

    PubMed

    Delp, Linda; Podolsky, Laura; Aguilar, Tomás

    2009-10-01

    After Katrina, the Bush administration suspended Department of Labor workplace regulations throughout the Gulf, a move consistent with their general emphasis on voluntary workplace protection programs rather than government oversight. This approach left many workers in hurricane reconstruction jobs unprotected, especially Latino immigrant day laborers who, facing language barriers and legal constraints, were least able to negotiate workplace safety or other labor conditions. Fifty-three immigrant workers and 28 key informants from community, union, church, and relief organizations in Louisiana and Mississippi were interviewed at job hiring sites and relief organizations using an inductive, exploratory approach. In this multihazard and changing work environment with a new and fluctuating workforce, enforceable policies mandating worker protection and education were sorely lacking. Free market conditions, driven by incentives to work as fast as possible, and the preponderance of unregulated small contractors and individual home owners as employers contributed to the unsafe environment. Although workers and home owners attempted to take precautions, they usually lacked adequate education about hazards, access to protective equipment, and training in its proper use. However, the labor conditions during the hurricane recovery in the Gulf Coast are likely to be duplicated throughout the country in workplaces employing Latino day laborers unless workers' health is given greater priority by regulatory agencies. PMID:21394225

  15. NASA and general aviation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ethell, J. L.

    1986-01-01

    General aviation remains the single most misunderstood sector of aeronautics in the United States. A detailed look at how general aviation functions and how NASA helps keep it on the cutting edge of technology in airfoils, airframes, commuter travel, environmental concerns, engines, propellers, air traffic control, agricultural development, electronics, and safety is given.

  16. General aviation's meteorological requirements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Newton, D.

    1985-01-01

    Communication of weather theory and information about weather service products to pilots in an accurate and comprehensible manner is essential to flying safety in general. Probably no one needs weather knowledge more than the people who fly through it. The specific subject of this overview is General Aviation's Meteorological Requirements.

  17. National Safety Council

    MedlinePlus

    ... Introduction Safety Management Systems Workplace Safety Consulting Employee Perception Surveys Research Journey to Safety Excellence Join the ... Safety Safety Management Systems Workplace Safety Consulting Employee Perception Surveys Research Journey to Safety Excellence Join the ...

  18. Biotechnology-based foods: is there a third way between the precaution principle and an overly enthusiastic dissemination of GMO?

    PubMed

    Meningaud, J P; Moutel, G; Herv, C

    2000-01-01

    The demand for consumer safety with regard to the food-processing industry is becoming, legitimately, more and more urgent. If ingested drugs can carry deleterious effects that exceed the beneficial effect that the research was initially undertaken for, then the same can only be the case for foods that stem from the same new biotechnologies, zero risk being non existent. PMID:11289641

  19. Falls and Fear of Falling among Community-Dwelling Seniors: The Dynamic Tension between Exercising Precaution and Striving for Independence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ward-Griffin, Catherine; Hobson, Sandra; Melles, Pauline; Kloseck, Marita; Vandervoort, Anthony; Crilly, Richard

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this phenomenological study was to explore the everyday experience of community-dwelling elders, with particular attention to seniors' perceptions of safety, fear of falling, independence, and quality of life. We also aimed to identify contextual factors that influence the health of elders who had fallen and/or had a fear of…

  20. The Hermes safety strategy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosso, R.

    The Hermes space vehicle currently in project for the European Space Agency will open the road to European autonomous manned space missions at the beginning of the 21st century. The safety objectives are very ambitious and will require the implementation of a comprehensive safety assurance program, aimed at reducing the risks to an acceptable level. The risk acceptance is based on identification, ranking and minimization of Critical Items including all potential departures from the safety requirements. Prime contractors shall prepare a Critical Item List for their elements, and submit it to the Hermes Program Directorate for review; approval of the residual open critical items shall be obtained before launch. An independent committee (HESAC) has been set up by the ESA and the French National Space Center (CNES) Directors General to assess the adequacy of the Safety Control Program.

  1. 21 CFR 610.11 - General safety.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... grams each and mice weighing less than 22 grams each shall be used. The animals shall not have been used... intraperitoneally 0.5 milliliter of the liquid product or the reconstituted product into each of at least two mice....9. Administer the test product as approved on at least two mice and at least two guinea pigs....

  2. 21 CFR 610.11 - General safety.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... grams each and mice weighing less than 22 grams each shall be used. The animals shall not have been used... intraperitoneally 0.5 milliliter of the liquid product or the reconstituted product into each of at least two mice....9. Administer the test product as approved on at least two mice and at least two guinea pigs....

  3. 21 CFR 610.11 - General safety.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... grams each and mice weighing less than 22 grams each shall be used. The animals shall not have been used... intraperitoneally 0.5 milliliter of the liquid product or the reconstituted product into each of at least two mice....9. Administer the test product as approved on at least two mice and at least two guinea pigs....

  4. 21 CFR 610.11 - General safety.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... grams each and mice weighing less than 22 grams each shall be used. The animals shall not have been used... intraperitoneally 0.5 milliliter of the liquid product or the reconstituted product into each of at least two mice....9. Administer the test product as approved on at least two mice and at least two guinea pigs....

  5. 21 CFR 610.11 - General safety.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... grams each and mice weighing less than 22 grams each shall be used. The animals shall not have been used... intraperitoneally 0.5 milliliter of the liquid product or the reconstituted product into each of at least two mice....9. Administer the test product as approved on at least two mice and at least two guinea pigs....

  6. Steel Erection Safety. Module SH-39. Safety and Health.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center for Occupational Research and Development, Inc., Waco, TX.

    This student module on steel erection safety is one of 50 modules concerned with job safety and health. This module identifies typical jobsite hazards encountered by steel erectors, as well as providing safe job procedures for general and specific construction activities. Following the introduction, 11 objectives (each keyed to a page in the text)…

  7. Fire Safety Training Handbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Montgomery County Dept. of Fire and Rescue Services, Rockville, MD. Div. of Fire Prevention.

    Designed for a community fire education effort, particularly in which local volunteers present general information on fire safety to their fellow citizens, this workbook contains nine lessons. Included are an overview of the household fire problem; instruction in basic chemistry and physics of fire, flammable liquids, portable fire extinguishers,…

  8. Safety Management Systems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fido, A. T.; Wood, D. O.

    This document discusses the issues that need to be considered by the education and training system as it responds to the changing needs of industry in Great Britain. Following a general introduction, the development of quality management ideas is traced. The underlying principles of safety and risk management are clarified and the implications of…

  9. Atomic Power Safety.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hogerton, John F.

    This publication is one of a series of information booklets for the general public published by The United States Atomic Energy Commission. Among the topics discussed are: What is Atomic Power?; What Does Safety Depend On?; Control of Radioactive Material During Operation; Accident Prevention; Containment in the Event of an Accident; Licensing and…

  10. Safety Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Halligan, Tom

    2009-01-01

    Colleges across the country are rising to the task by implementing safety programs, response strategies, and technologies intended to create a secure environment for teachers and students. Whether it is preparing and responding to a natural disaster, health emergency, or act of violence, more schools are making campus safety a top priority. At…

  11. Solidifying Safety

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Covault, Craig

    2003-01-01

    Contents include the following: 1. Solidifying Safety: NASA s new safety organization spools up, as the 1SS program grapples with long-term risk. 2. Earth to Orbit O'Keefe telling skeptical lawmakers Orbital Space Plan (OSP) will cover exploration vision. China's rapid pace.

  12. Safety First

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taft, Darryl

    2011-01-01

    Ned Miller does not take security lightly. As director of campus safety and emergency management at the Des Moines Area Community College (DMACC), any threat requires serious consideration. As community college administrators adopt a more proactive approach to campus safety, many institutions are experimenting with emerging technologies, including…

  13. Highway Safety Program Manual: Volume 8: Alcohol in Relation to Highway Safety.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (DOT), Washington, DC.

    Volume 8 of the 19-volume Highway Safety Program Manual (which provides guidance to State and local governments on preferred highway safety practices) concentrates on alcohol in relation to highway safety. The purpose and objectives of the alcohol program are outlined. Federal authority in the area of highway safety and general policies regarding…

  14. Safety in the Chemical Laboratory. Safety in the Laboratory: Are We Making Any Progress?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKusick, Blaine C.

    1987-01-01

    Reviews trends in laboratory safety found in both industrial and academic situations. Reports that large industrial labs generally have excellent safety programs but that, although there have been improvements, academia still lags behind industry in safety. Includes recommendations for improving lab safety. (ML)

  15. Balancing Safety and Free Speech

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hudson, David L., Jr.

    2004-01-01

    According to Jay Worona, general counsel for the New York State School Board Association, "Balancing safety and student constitutional rights is not easy. It has to be a careful balance. School officials must be prudent and not overreact. But one part of the equation has to be paramount. And safety should be the primary concern" (personal…

  16. Science & Safety: Making the Connection.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Council of State Science Supervisors, VA.

    This document provides information on the most commonly asked science safety questions by science teachers primarily at the secondary school level. Topics include the legal responsibilities of a science teacher, a general safety checklist, proper labeling and storing of chemicals, purchasing of new chemicals and disposing of old chemicals, a…

  17. SAFETY IN THE CHEMICAL LABORATORY.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    STEERE, NORMAN V.

    MONTHLY ARTICLES ON LABORATORY SAFETY THAT APPEARED IN THE "JOURNAL OF CHEMICAL EDUCATION" BETWEEN JANUARY 1964, AND JANUARY 1967, ARE COMBINED IN THIS MANUAL FOR HIGH SCHOOL AND COLLEGE CHEMISTRY TEACHERS. A GENERAL SECTION DEALS WITH (1) RESPONSIBILITY FOR ACCIDENT PREVENTION, (2) SAFETY CONSIDERATION IN RESEARCH PROPOSALS, (3) A SAFETY…

  18. Guide for Science Laboratory Safety.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McDermott, John J.

    General and specific safety procedures and recommendations for secondary school science laboratories are provided in this guide. Areas of concern include: (1) chemicals (storage, disposal, toxicity, unstable and incompatible chemicals); (2) microorganisms; (3) plants; (4) animals; (5) electricity; (6) lasers; (7) rockets; (8) eye safety and…

  19. 16 CFR 1209.3 - General requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false General requirements. 1209.3 Section 1209.3 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY ACT REGULATIONS INTERIM SAFETY STANDARD FOR CELLULOSE INSULATION The Standard § 1209.3 General requirements. (a) All cellulose insulation to which this interim...

  20. 29 CFR 1910.303 - General.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 5 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false General. 1910.303 Section 1910.303 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS Electrical Design Safety Standards for Electrical Systems § 1910.303 General. (a) Approval. The conductors...

  1. 29 CFR 1910.303 - General.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 5 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false General. 1910.303 Section 1910.303 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS Electrical Design Safety Standards for Electrical Systems § 1910.303 General. (a) Approval. The conductors...

  2. 29 CFR 1926.403 - General requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 8 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false General requirements. 1926.403 Section 1926.403 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND HEALTH REGULATIONS FOR CONSTRUCTION Electrical Installation Safety Requirements § 1926.403 General requirements....

  3. Bromine Safety

    SciTech Connect

    Meyers, B

    2001-04-09

    The production and handling in 1999 of about 200 million kilograms of bromine plus substantial derivatives thereof by Great Lakes Chemical Corp. and Albemarle Corporation in their southern Arkansas refineries gave OSHA Occupational Injury/Illness Rates (OIIR) in the range of 0.74 to 1.60 reportable OIIRs per 200,000 man hours. OIIRs for similar industries and a wide selection of other U.S. industries range from 1.6 to 23.9 in the most recent OSHA report. Occupational fatalities for the two companies in 1999 were zero compared to a range in the U.S.of zero for all computer manufacturing to 0.0445 percent for all of agriculture, forestry and fishing in the most recent OSHA report. These results show that bromine and its compounds can be considered as safe chemicals as a result of the bromine safety standards and practices at the two companies. The use of hydrobromic acid as an electrical energy storage medium in reversible PEM fuel cells is discussed. A study in 1979 of 20 megawatt halogen working fluid power plants by Oronzio de Nora Group found such energy to cost 2 to 2.5 times the prevailing base rate at that time. New conditions may reduce this relative cost. The energy storage aspect allows energy delivery at maximum demand times where the energy commands premium rates. The study also found marginal cost and performance advantages for hydrobromic acid over hydrochloric acid working fluid. Separate studies in the late 70s by General Electric also showed marginal performance advantages for hydrobromic acid.

  4. Efficacy and Safety of FospropofolFD Compared to Propofol When Given During the Induction of General Anaesthesia: A Phase II, Multi-centre, Randomized, Parallel-Group, Active-Controlled, Double-Blind, Double-Dummy Study.

    PubMed

    Liu, Rong; Luo, Chaozhi; Liu, Jin; Zhang, Wensheng; Li, Yan; Xu, Jing

    2016-07-01

    The present phase II study aimed to compare the efficacy and safety of fospropofol disodium for injection (FospropofolFD ) and propofol when given during the induction of general anaesthesia in patients scheduled for elective surgery. FospropofolFD is a water-soluble prodrug of propofol. Approved by the Ethical Committee, 240 participants aged 18-65 years were equally randomly allocated to receive an intravenous bolus of FospropofolFD 20 mg/kg or propofol 2 mg/kg without any anaesthetic pre-treatment. The primary efficacy end-point was the sedation success rate within 5 min. after administering investigational drugs (the sedation success is defined as obtaining Modified Observer's Assessment of Alertness/Sedation scale score of 1). All the participants completed the induction and intubation within 25 min. after administration. The sedation success rates within 5 min. after administration of FospropofolFD 20 mg/kg and propofol 2 mg/kg were 94.50% versus 100% in the intention-to-treat population and 95.10% versus 100% in the per-protocol population, respectively. The non-inferiority test obtained a p-value less than 0.025, and the lower limits of the one-sided 97.5% confidence interval were more than -0.09. This meant that FospropofolFD 20 mg/kg was considered non-inferior to propofol 2 mg/kg for the primary efficacy end-point. Compared with propofol 2 mg/kg, FospropofolFD 20 mg/kg had a slower sedation efficacy. No serious adverse events were observed in the two groups. The sedation success rate within 5 min. after administration of FospropofolFD 20 mg/kg was non-inferior to propofol 2 mg/kg, and FospropofolFD 20 mg/kg can be used for the induction of general anaesthesia safely. PMID:26781338

  5. 29 CFR 1926.21 - Safety training and education.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 8 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Safety training and education. 1926.21 Section 1926.21 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND HEALTH REGULATIONS FOR CONSTRUCTION General Safety and Health Provisions § 1926.21 Safety training and education....

  6. 29 CFR 1926.21 - Safety training and education.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 8 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Safety training and education. 1926.21 Section 1926.21 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND HEALTH REGULATIONS FOR CONSTRUCTION General Safety and Health Provisions § 1926.21 Safety training and education....

  7. 14 CFR 417.213 - Flight safety limits analysis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Flight safety limits analysis. 417.213..., DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION LICENSING LAUNCH SAFETY Flight Safety Analysis § 417.213 Flight safety limits analysis. (a) General. A flight safety analysis must identify the location of populated or other...

  8. 14 CFR 417.213 - Flight safety limits analysis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Flight safety limits analysis. 417.213..., DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION LICENSING LAUNCH SAFETY Flight Safety Analysis § 417.213 Flight safety limits analysis. (a) General. A flight safety analysis must identify the location of populated or other...

  9. 14 CFR 417.213 - Flight safety limits analysis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Flight safety limits analysis. 417.213..., DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION LICENSING LAUNCH SAFETY Flight Safety Analysis § 417.213 Flight safety limits analysis. (a) General. A flight safety analysis must identify the location of populated or other...

  10. 14 CFR 417.213 - Flight safety limits analysis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Flight safety limits analysis. 417.213..., DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION LICENSING LAUNCH SAFETY Flight Safety Analysis § 417.213 Flight safety limits analysis. (a) General. A flight safety analysis must identify the location of populated or other...

  11. Of Acceptable Risk: Science and the Determination of Safety.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lowrance, William W.

    This book looks at the problems of determination of safety and the underlying concept of safety itself. It is believed that if certain pervasive themes are properly appreciated, the whole field of safety will be better understood. The first chapter of the book sketches the general nature of safety decisions, defining safety as a measure of the…

  12. 49 CFR 385.5 - Safety fitness standard.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Safety fitness standard. 385.5 Section 385.5... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION FEDERAL MOTOR CARRIER SAFETY REGULATIONS SAFETY FITNESS PROCEDURES General § 385.5 Safety fitness standard. A motor carrier must meet the safety fitness standard set...

  13. 49 CFR 385.5 - Safety fitness standard.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Safety fitness standard. 385.5 Section 385.5... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION FEDERAL MOTOR CARRIER SAFETY REGULATIONS SAFETY FITNESS PROCEDURES General § 385.5 Safety fitness standard. The satisfactory safety rating is based on the degree...

  14. 49 CFR 385.19 - Safety fitness information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Safety fitness information. 385.19 Section 385.19... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION FEDERAL MOTOR CARRIER SAFETY REGULATIONS SAFETY FITNESS PROCEDURES General § 385.19 Safety fitness information. (a) Final safety ratings, remedial directives, and...

  15. 49 CFR 385.5 - Safety fitness standard.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Safety fitness standard. 385.5 Section 385.5... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION FEDERAL MOTOR CARRIER SAFETY REGULATIONS SAFETY FITNESS PROCEDURES General § 385.5 Safety fitness standard. The satisfactory safety rating is based on the degree...

  16. 49 CFR 385.5 - Safety fitness standard.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Safety fitness standard. 385.5 Section 385.5... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION FEDERAL MOTOR CARRIER SAFETY REGULATIONS SAFETY FITNESS PROCEDURES General § 385.5 Safety fitness standard. A motor carrier must meet the safety fitness standard set...

  17. 49 CFR 385.5 - Safety fitness standard.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Safety fitness standard. 385.5 Section 385.5... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION FEDERAL MOTOR CARRIER SAFETY REGULATIONS SAFETY FITNESS PROCEDURES General § 385.5 Safety fitness standard. The satisfactory safety rating is based on the degree...

  18. 49 CFR 385.19 - Safety fitness information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Safety fitness information. 385.19 Section 385.19... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION FEDERAL MOTOR CARRIER SAFETY REGULATIONS SAFETY FITNESS PROCEDURES General § 385.19 Safety fitness information. (a) Final safety ratings, remedial directives, and...

  19. The procedure safety system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Obrien, Maureen E.

    1990-01-01

    Telerobotic operations, whether under autonomous or teleoperated control, require a much more sophisticated safety system than that needed for most industrial applications. Industrial robots generally perform very repetitive tasks in a controlled, static environment. The safety system in that case can be as simple as shutting down the robot if a human enters the work area, or even simply building a cage around the work space. Telerobotic operations, however, will take place in a dynamic, sometimes unpredictable environment, and will involve complicated and perhaps unrehearsed manipulations. This creates a much greater potential for damage to the robot or objects in its vicinity. The Procedural Safety System (PSS) collects data from external sensors and the robot, then processes it through an expert system shell to determine whether an unsafe condition or potential unsafe condition exists. Unsafe conditions could include exceeding velocity, acceleration, torque, or joint limits, imminent collision, exceeding temperature limits, and robot or sensor component failure. If a threat to safety exists, the operator is warned. If the threat is serious enough, the robot is halted. The PSS, therefore, uses expert system technology to enhance safety thus reducing operator work load, allowing him/her to focus on performing the task at hand without the distraction of worrying about violating safety criteria.

  20. Software safety

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leveson, Nancy

    1987-01-01

    Software safety and its relationship to other qualities are discussed. It is shown that standard reliability and fault tolerance techniques will not solve the safety problem for the present. A new attitude requires: looking at what you do NOT want software to do along with what you want it to do; and assuming things will go wrong. New procedures and changes to entire software development process are necessary: special software safety analysis techniques are needed; and design techniques, especially eliminating complexity, can be very helpful.

  1. The moderating role of safety-specific trust on the relation between safety-specific leadership and safety citizenship behaviors.

    PubMed

    Conchie, Stacey M; Donald, Ian J

    2009-04-01

    The authors examined whether safety-specific trust moderates or mediates the relationship between safety-specific transformational leadership and subordinates' safety citizenship behavior. Data from 139 subordinate-supervisor dyads were collected from the United Kingdom construction industry and analyzed using hierarchical regression models. Results showed that safety-specific trust moderated rather than mediated the effects of safety-specific transformational leaders on subordinates' behavior. Specifically, in conditions of high and moderate safety-specific trust, leaders had a significant effect on subordinates' safety citizenship behavior. However, in conditions of low safety-specific trust, leaders did not significantly influence subordinates' safety citizenship behavior. The implications of these findings for general safety theory and practice are discussed. PMID:19331476

  2. Seismic Safety Guide

    SciTech Connect

    Eagling, D.G.

    1983-09-01

    This guide provides managers with practical guidelines for administering a comprehensive earthquake safety program. The Guide is comprehensive with respect to earthquakes in that it covers the most important aspects of natural hazards, site planning, evaluation and rehabilitation of existing buildings, design of new facilities, operational safety, emergency planning, special considerations related to shielding blocks, non-structural elements, lifelines, fire protection and emergency facilities. Management of risk and liabilities is also covered. Nuclear facilities per se are not dealt with specifically. The principles covered also apply generally to nuclear facilities but the design and construction of such structures are subject to special regulations and legal controls.

  3. Safety Tips.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nagel, Miriam C., Ed.

    1984-01-01

    Outlines a cooperative effort in Iowa to eliminate dangerous or unwanted chemicals from school science storerooms. Also reviews the Council of State Science Supervisor's safety program and discusses how to prevent cuts and punctures from jagged glass tubing. (JN)

  4. Food Safety

    MedlinePlus

    ... are four basic steps to food safety at home: Clean - always wash your fruits and vegetables, hands, counters, and cooking utensils. Separate - keep raw foods to themselves. Germs can spread from one food ...

  5. The Committee Studying Contagious Disease Training for Public Safety Personnel. Report of the Committee on Training of the Criminal Justice Services Board to the Governor and the General Assembly of Virginia. House Document No. 15.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Virginia State Dept. of Criminal Justice Services, Richmond.

    Through discussion and extensive research, the Committee Studying Contagious Disease Training attempted to address concerns regarding education and training of public safety personnel with regard to human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and hepatitis B virus (HBV). The committee's findings were based on Occupational Safety and Health Administration…

  6. Defibrillation safety in emergency helicopter transport.

    PubMed

    Dedrick, D K; Darga, A; Landis, D; Burney, R E

    1989-01-01

    Rotary aircraft play a growing role in the transport of critically ill patients who may require emergency treatment, including defibrillation, during transport. The close quarters and proximity of vital electronic equipment have generated concern among personnel carrying out defibrillation in the air. We address the chief safety issues in helicopter defibrillation by providing measurements of the transient leakage current resulting from contact with a paddle and tested in-flight electronic interference and survey the defibrillation experience of helicopter programs. Our data show that airborne defibrillation is safe. A maximum of 1.5 mA of transient leakage current was measured from a standard battery-powered defibrillator, well within the accepted safety standard of 50 mA. In flight, there was no interference with the avionics or medical equipment, and adequate clearance was available for personnel. Of the helicopter programs surveyed, 69 (87%) had defibrillated in flight without incident. We conclude that defibrillation can be performed in the helicopter without hesitation whether on the ground or in the air, provided standard defibrillation precautions are observed. PMID:2910165

  7. 40 CFR 87.6 - Aircraft safety.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true Aircraft safety. 87.6 Section 87.6... POLLUTION FROM AIRCRAFT AND AIRCRAFT ENGINES General Provisions § 87.6 Aircraft safety. The provisions of... be met within the specified time without creating a hazard to aircraft safety....

  8. 40 CFR 87.6 - Aircraft safety.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Aircraft safety. 87.6 Section 87.6... POLLUTION FROM AIRCRAFT AND AIRCRAFT ENGINES General Provisions § 87.6 Aircraft safety. The provisions of... be met within the specified time without creating a hazard to aircraft safety....

  9. 46 CFR 197.326 - Oxygen safety.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Oxygen safety. 197.326 Section 197.326 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS GENERAL PROVISIONS Commercial Diving Operations Equipment § 197.326 Oxygen safety. (a) Equipment used...

  10. 46 CFR 197.326 - Oxygen safety.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Oxygen safety. 197.326 Section 197.326 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS GENERAL PROVISIONS Commercial Diving Operations Equipment § 197.326 Oxygen safety. (a) Equipment used...

  11. 47 CFR 95.1125 - RF safety.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false RF safety. 95.1125 Section 95.1125 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES PERSONAL RADIO SERVICES Wireless Medical Telemetry Service (WMTS) General Provisions § 95.1125 RF safety. Portable...

  12. 47 CFR 95.1125 - RF safety.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false RF safety. 95.1125 Section 95.1125 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES PERSONAL RADIO SERVICES Wireless Medical Telemetry Service (WMTS) General Provisions § 95.1125 RF safety. Portable...

  13. 47 CFR 95.1125 - RF safety.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false RF safety. 95.1125 Section 95.1125 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES PERSONAL RADIO SERVICES Wireless Medical Telemetry Service (WMTS) General Provisions § 95.1125 RF safety. Portable...

  14. 47 CFR 95.1125 - RF safety.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false RF safety. 95.1125 Section 95.1125 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES PERSONAL RADIO SERVICES Wireless Medical Telemetry Service (WMTS) General Provisions § 95.1125 RF safety. Portable...

  15. 47 CFR 95.1125 - RF safety.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false RF safety. 95.1125 Section 95.1125 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES PERSONAL RADIO SERVICES Wireless Medical Telemetry Service (WMTS) General Provisions § 95.1125 RF safety. Portable...

  16. Teaching Safety in the Elementary School.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yost, Charles Peter

    This teaching manual is divided into four sections: (1) general safety information for teachers, (2) special problems in teaching safety, (3) learning experiences for first through third grades and fourth through sixth grades and (4) selected sources of information and safety teaching aids. Subjects include definition and causes of accidents,…

  17. Safety is Everyone's Responsibility in the Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hanssmann, Charles O.

    1980-01-01

    Pinpoints common areas of neglect in considering science safety. Familiar hazards are discussed, with special consideration of improper chemical storage, old and unlabeled chemicals, and faulty circuits and equipment. An appendix lists basic safety rules and presents a checklist for general laboratory safety. (CS)

  18. Safety and patients’ satisfaction of transcutaneous Supraorbital NeuroStimulation (tSNS) with the Cefaly® device in headache treatment: a survey of 2,313 headache sufferers in the general population

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Transcutaneous supraorbital nerve stimulation (tSNS) with the Cefaly® device was recently found superior to sham stimulation for episodic migraine prevention in a randomized trial. Its safety and efficiency in larger cohorts of headache sufferers in the general population remain to be determined. The objective of this study was to assess the satisfaction with the Cefaly® device in 2,313 headache sufferers who rented the device for a 40-day trial period via Internet. Methods Only subjects using specific anti-migraine drugs, and thus most likely suffering from migraine, were included in the survey. Adverse events (AEs) and willingness to continue tSNS were monitored via phone interviews after the trial period. A built-in software allowed monitoring the total duration of use and hence compliance in subjects who returned the device to the manufacturer after the trial period. Results After a testing period of 58.2 days on average, 46.6% of the 2,313 renters were not satisfied and returned the device, but the compliance check showed that they used it only for 48.6% of the recommended time. The remaining 54.4% of subjects were satisfied with the tSNS treatment and willing to purchase the device. Ninety-nine subjects out of the 2,313 (4.3%) reported one or more AEs, but none of them was serious. The most frequent AEs were local pain/intolerance to paresthesia (47 subjects, i.e. 2.03%), arousal changes (mostly sleepiness/fatigue, sometimes insomnia, 19 subjects, i.e. 0.82%), headache after the stimulation (12 subjects, i.e. 0.52%). A transient local skin allergy was seen in 2 subjects, i.e. 0.09%. Conclusions This survey of 2,313 headache sufferers in the general population confirms that tSNS with is a safe and well-tolerated treatment for migraine headaches that provides satisfaction to a majority of patients who tested it for 40 days. Only 4.3% of subjects reported AEs, all of them were minor and fully reversible. PMID:24289825

  19. System safety education focused on flight safety

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holt, E.

    1971-01-01

    The measures necessary for achieving higher levels of system safety are analyzed with an eye toward maintaining the combat capability of the Air Force. Several education courses were provided for personnel involved in safety management. Data include: (1) Flight Safety Officer Course, (2) Advanced Safety Program Management, (3) Fundamentals of System Safety, and (4) Quantitative Methods of Safety Analysis.

  20. General Aviation Pilot Education Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cole, Warren L.

    General Aviation Pilot Education (GAPE) was a safety program designed to improve the aeronautical education of the general aviation pilot in anticipation that the national aircraft accident rate might be improved. GAPE PROGRAM attempted to reach the average general aviation pilot with specific and factual information regarding the pitfalls of his…

  1. Pesticide Exposure, Safety Issues, and Risk Assessment Indicators

    PubMed Central

    Damalas, Christos A.; Eleftherohorinos, Ilias G.

    2011-01-01

    approved pesticides and the approval of the new compounds in the near future. Thus, new tools or techniques with greater reliability than those already existing are needed to predict the potential hazards of pesticides and thus contribute to reduction of the adverse effects on human health and the environment. On the other hand, the implementation of alternative cropping systems that are less dependent on pesticides, the development of new pesticides with novel modes of action and improved safety profiles, and the improvement of the already used pesticide formulations towards safer formulations (e.g., microcapsule suspensions) could reduce the adverse effects of farming and particularly the toxic effects of pesticides. In addition, the use of appropriate and well-maintained spraying equipment along with taking all precautions that are required in all stages of pesticide handling could minimize human exposure to pesticides and their potential adverse effects on the environment. PMID:21655127

  2. First Aid and Safety

    MedlinePlus

    ... First-Aid Kit Food Safety for Your Family Gun Safety Halloween Candy Hints Household Safety Checklists Household ... Climbing, and Grabbing Household Safety: Preventing Injuries From Firearms Household Safety: Preventing Injuries in the Crib Household ...

  3. General Dentist

    MedlinePlus

    ... to your desktop! more... What Is a General Dentist? Article Chapters What Is a General Dentist? General ... Reviewed: January 2012 ?xml:namespace> Related Articles: General Dentists FAGD and MAGD: What Do These Awards Mean? ...

  4. The safety of probiotics.

    PubMed

    Snydman, David R

    2008-02-01

    Probiotics are generally defined as microorganisms that, when consumed, generally confer a health benefit on humans. There is considerable interest in probiotics for a variety of medical conditions, and millions of people around the world consume probiotics daily for perceived health benefits. Lactobacilli, bifidobacteria, and lactococci have generally been regarded as safe. There are 3 theoretical concerns regarding the safety of probiotics: (1) the occurrence of disease, such as bacteremia or endocarditis; (2) toxic or metabolic effects on the gastrointestinal tract; and (3) the transfer of antibiotic resistance in the gastrointestinal flora. In this review, the evidence for safety of the use of or the study of probiotics is examined. Although there are rare cases of bacteremia or fungemia related to the use of probiotics, epidemiologic evidence suggests no population increase in risk on the basis of usage data. There have been many controlled clinical trials on the use of probiotics that demonstrate safe use. The use of probiotics in clinical trials should be accompanied by the use of a data-safety monitoring board and by knowledge of the antimicrobial susceptibilities of the organism used. PMID:18181712

  5. Ultraviolet germicidal irradiation safety concerns: a lesson from the Tuberculosis Ultraviolet Shelter Study: Murphy's Law affirmed.

    PubMed

    Brickner, Philip W; Vincent, Richard L

    2013-01-01

    Concerns about the safety of Ultraviolet Germicidal Irradiation (UVGI) applications on human beings have been an issue at least since the introduction of this technology for practical use in the 1930s. The resurgence of tuberculosis (TB) in the United States in the mid-1980s led to a revival of interest in UV technology, a focus that had almost disappeared because alternate means of controlling TB had inaccurately been deemed successful. These failures in TB control led to a revival of UVGI use. And with that revival grew necessary and appropriate concerns about attempts to eliminate human overexposure. For all those working in the field of UVGI, safety issues must be a concern because when UVGI fixtures are placed improperly, or precautions ignored, room occupants are placed at risk of photokeratoconjunctivitis and photodermatitis. If safety is so prominent a concern, why do incidents of UV side effects continue to occur? See Murphy's Law. PMID:23278626

  6. Playground Safety.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sipes, James L.

    2000-01-01

    Discusses the issues of risk, liability, and fun when landscaping playgrounds with safety in mind. The importance of playground surfaces and several preventive measures landscapers can use to reduce the risk of injury are discussed. Concluding comments address playground design features and liability. (GR)

  7. School Safety.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    The Newsletter of the Comprehensive Center-Region VI, 1999

    1999-01-01

    The articles in this issue dealing with school safety discusses what rural and small urban settings are doing to prevent violence and to educate young people about prosocial alternatives to violence. The research is quite clear that female, minority, and gay students are the targets of a disproportionate amount of harassment and violence, both in…

  8. Safety First!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Longfield, Judith

    2006-01-01

    In this article, the author relates how a hands-on chemistry investigation provided her the inspiration to develop an effective safety lesson for her third grade chemistry class. She began the lesson by demonstrating the use of pH indicator paper to show that ordinary household (white) vinegar was an acid. With the students, she wondered aloud…

  9. Safety climate practice in Korean manufacturing industry.

    PubMed

    Baek, Jong-Bae; Bae, Sejong; Ham, Byung-Ho; Singh, Karan P

    2008-11-15

    Safety climate survey was sent to 642 plants in 2003 to explore safety climate practices in the Korean manufacturing plants, especially in hazardous chemical treating plants. Out of 642 plants contacted 195 (30.4%) participated in the surveys. Data were collected by e-mail using SQL-server and mail. The main objective of this study was to explore safety climate practices (level of safety climate and the underlying problems). In addition, the variables that may influence the level of safety climate among managers and workers were explored. The questionnaires developed by health and safety executive (HSE) in the UK were modified to incorporate differences in Korean culture. Eleven important factors were summarized. Internal reliability of these factors was validated. Number of employees in the company varied from less than 30 employees (9.2%) to over 1000 employees (37.4%). Both managers and workers showed generally high level of safety climate awareness. The major underlying problems identified were inadequate health and safety procedures/rules, pressure for production, and rule breaking. The length of employment was a significant contributing factor to the level of safety climate. In this study, participants showed generally high level of safety climate, and length of employment affected the differences in the level of safety climate. Managers' commitment to comply safety rules, procedures, and effective safety education and training are recommended. PMID:18060692

  10. Operation QUICKSILVER. Onsite radiological safety report, October 1978-September 1979

    SciTech Connect

    Mullen, O.W.; Eubank, B.F.

    1980-02-01

    QUICKSILVER was the name assigned to the series of underground nuclear experiments conducted at the Nevada Test Site from October 1, 1978 to September 30, 1979. Remote radiation measurements were taken during and after each nuclear experiment by a telemetry system. Monitors with portable radiation detection instruments surveyed reentry routes into ground zeroes before other planned entries were made. Continuous surveillance was provided while personnel were in radiation areas and appropriate precautions were taken to protect persons from unnecessary exposure to radiation and toxic gases. Protective clothing and equipment were issued as needed. Complete radiological safety and industrial hygiene coverage was provided during drilling and mineback operations. Telemetered and portable radiation detector measurements are listed. Detection instrumentation used is described and specific optional procedures are defined.

  11. Safety in the scanning electron microscopy laboratory--1984 update.

    PubMed

    Barber, V C

    1984-01-01

    Recent information on hazards as they relate to safety in the SEM laboratory has been compiled. The paper concentrates on recent information on formaldehyde, embeddants, and a reminder of the possible hazards of photographic chemicals. A review of formaldehyde does not substantiate it as a human carcinogen or mutagen. However, the other hazards associated with it suggest that formaldehyde needs to be handled with care. The recent substantiation of epoxy resins as mutagens suggests that all operations involving embeddants should be undertaken in an effective fume hood. Other precautions are also important. The hazards of photographic chemicals need to be reiterated. It should also be pointed out that adequate ventilation of dark rooms would do a lot to reduce this hazard. PMID:6529456

  12. Mechanical Demolition of Buildings with Concrete Asbestos Board Siding: Methodology, Precautions, and Results at the Hanford Central Plateau - 12417

    SciTech Connect

    Kehler, Kurt

    2012-07-01

    Since the start of its contract in 2008, the CH2M Hill Plateau Remediation Company (CH2M HILL) has demolished 25 buildings with concrete asbestos board (CAB) siding using mechanical means. While the asbestos contained in CAB siding is not friable in its manufactured form, concerns persist that mechanical methods of demolition have the potential to render the asbestos friable and airborne, therefore posing a health risk to demolition workers and the public. CH2M HILL's experience demonstrates that when carefully managed, mechanical demolition of CAB siding can be undertaken safely, successfully, and in compliance with regulatory requirements for the disposal of Class II Asbestos-Containing Material (ACM). While the number of buildings demolished at Hanford and the number of samples collected does not make a conclusive argument that CAB cannot be made friable with normal demolition techniques, it certainly provides a significant body of evidence for the success of the approach. Of course, there are many factors that affect how to demolish a structure and dispose of the waste. These factors will impact the success depending on each site. The most obvious factors which contribute to this success at Hanford are: 1. The availability of onsite waste disposal where the handling and cost of asbestos-containing waste is not much different than other potentially contaminated waste. Therefore, segregation of demolition debris from the potential asbestos contamination is not necessary from a debris handling or asbestos disposal aspect. 2. The space between structures is typically significant enough to allow for large exclusion zones. There are not many restrictions due to cohabitation issues or potential contamination of adjacent facilities. 3. The willingness of the regulators and client to understand the industrial safety issues associated with manual CAB removal. (authors)

  13. Laboratory testing in management of patients with suspected Ebolavirus disease: infection control and safety.

    PubMed

    Gilbert, G L

    2015-08-01

    If routine laboratory safety precautions are followed, the risk of laboratory-acquired infection from handling specimens from patients with Ebolavirus disease (EVD) is very low, especially in the early 'dry' stage of disease. In Australia, border screening to identify travellers returning from EVD-affected west African countries during the 2014-2015 outbreak has made it unlikely that specimens from patients with unrecognised EVD would be sent to a routine diagnostic laboratory. Australian public health and diagnostic laboratories associated with hospitals designated for the care of patients with EVD have developed stringent safety precautions for EVD diagnostic and other tests likely to be required for supportive care of the sickest (and most infectious) patients with EVD, including as wide a range of point-of-care tests as possible. However, it is important that the stringent requirements for packaging, transport and testing of specimens that might contain Ebolavirus--which is a tier 1 security sensitive biology agent--do not delay the diagnosis and appropriate management of other potentially serious but treatable infectious diseases, which are far more likely causes of a febrile illness in people returning from west Africa. If necessary, urgent haematology, biochemistry and microbiological tests can be performed safely, whilst awaiting the results of EVD tests, in a PC-2 laboratory with appropriate precautions including: use of recommended personal protective equipment (PPE) for laboratory staff; handling any unsealed specimens in a class 1 or II biosafety cabinet; using only centrifuges with sealed rotors; and safe disposal or decontamination of all used equipment and laboratory waste. PMID:26132899

  14. Fire safety applications for spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Friedman, Robert; Olson, Sandra L.

    1989-01-01

    Fire safety for spacecraft is reviewed by first describing current practices, many of which are adapted directly from aircraft. Then, current analyses and experimental knowledge in low-gravity combustion, with implications for fire safety are discussed. In orbiting spacecraft, the detection and suppression of flames are strongly affected by the large reduction in buoyant flows under low gravity. Generally, combustion intensity is reduced in low gravity. There are some notable exceptions, however, one example being the strong enhancement of flames by low-velocity ventilation flows in space. Finally, the future requirements in fire safety, particularly the needs of long-duration space stations in fire prevention, detection, extinguishment, and atmospheric control are examined. The goal of spacecraft fire-safety investigations is the establishment of trade-offs that promote maximum safety without hampering the useful human and scientific activities in space.

  15. 30 CFR 77.1007 - Drilling; general.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Drilling; general. 77.1007 Section 77.1007 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS, SURFACE COAL MINES AND SURFACE WORK AREAS OF UNDERGROUND COAL MINES...

  16. 30 CFR 77.1007 - Drilling; general.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Drilling; general. 77.1007 Section 77.1007 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS, SURFACE COAL MINES AND SURFACE WORK AREAS OF UNDERGROUND COAL MINES...

  17. 30 CFR 77.1007 - Drilling; general.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Drilling; general. 77.1007 Section 77.1007 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS, SURFACE COAL MINES AND SURFACE WORK AREAS OF UNDERGROUND COAL MINES...

  18. 30 CFR 77.1007 - Drilling; general.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Drilling; general. 77.1007 Section 77.1007 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS, SURFACE COAL MINES AND SURFACE WORK AREAS OF UNDERGROUND COAL MINES...

  19. 30 CFR 77.1007 - Drilling; general.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Drilling; general. 77.1007 Section 77.1007 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS, SURFACE COAL MINES AND SURFACE WORK AREAS OF UNDERGROUND COAL MINES...

  20. Safety harness

    DOEpatents

    Gunter, Larry W.

    1993-01-01

    A safety harness to be worn by a worker, especially a worker wearing a plastic suit thereunder for protection in a radioactive or chemically hostile environment, which safety harness comprises a torso surrounding portion with at least one horizontal strap for adjustably securing the harness about the torso, two vertical shoulder straps with rings just forward of the of the peak of the shoulders for attaching a life-line and a pair of adjustable leg supporting straps releasibly attachable to the torso surrounding portion. In the event of a fall, the weight of the worker, when his fall is broken and he is suspended from the rings with his body angled slightly back and chest up, will be borne by the portion of the leg straps behind his buttocks rather than between his legs. Furthermore, the supporting straps do not restrict the air supplied through hoses into his suit when so suspended.

  1. Safety valve

    DOEpatents

    Bergman, Ulf C.

    1984-01-01

    The safety valve contains a resilient gland to be held between a valve seat and a valve member and is secured to the valve member by a sleeve surrounding the end of the valve member adjacent to the valve seat. The sleeve is movable relative to the valve member through a limited axial distance and a gap exists between said valve member and said sleeve.

  2. Electrical Power Transmission and Distribution Safety. Module SH-40. Safety and Health.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center for Occupational Research and Development, Inc., Waco, TX.

    This student module on electrical power transmission and distribution safety is one of 50 modules concerned with job safety and health. This module focuses on some of the general safety rules, techniques, and procedures that are essential in establishing a safe environment for the electrical power transmission worker. Following the introduction,…

  3. Millwright Apprenticeship. Related Training Modules. 1.1-1.8 Safety.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lane Community Coll., Eugene, OR.

    This packet, part of the instructional materials for the Oregon apprenticeship program for millwright training, contains eight modules covering safety. The modules provide information on the following topics: general safety, hand tool safety, power tool safety, fire safety, hygiene, safety and electricity, types of fire and fire prevention, and…

  4. Laboratory safety handbook

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Skinner, E.L.; Watterson, C.A.; Chemerys, J.C.

    1983-01-01

    Safety, defined as 'freedom from danger, risk, or injury,' is difficult to achieve in a laboratory environment. Inherent dangers, associated with water analysis and research laboratories where hazardous samples, materials, and equipment are used, must be minimized to protect workers, buildings, and equipment. Managers, supervisors, analysts, and laboratory support personnel each have specific responsibilities to reduce hazards by maintaining a safe work environment. General rules of conduct and safety practices that involve personal protection, laboratory practices, chemical handling, compressed gases handling, use of equipment, and overall security must be practiced by everyone at all levels. Routine and extensive inspections of all laboratories must be made regularly by qualified people. Personnel should be trained thoroughly and repetitively. Special hazards that may involve exposure to carcinogens, cryogenics, or radiation must be given special attention, and specific rules and operational procedures must be established to deal with them. Safety data, reference materials, and texts must be kept available if prudent safety is to be practiced and accidents prevented or minimized.

  5. Safety Assessment of Probiotics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lahtinen, Sampo J.; Boyle, Robert J.; Margolles, Abelardo; Frias, Rafael; Gueimonde, Miguel

    Viable microbes have been a natural part of human diet throughout the history of mankind. Today, different fermented foods and other foods containing live microbes are consumed around the world, including industrialized countries, where the diet has become increasingly sterile during the last decades. By definition, probiotics are viable microbes with documented beneficial effects on host health. Probiotics have an excellent safety record, both in humans and in animals. Despite the wide and continuously increasing consumption of probiotics, adverse events related to probiotic use are extremely rare. Many popular probiotic strains such as lactobacilli and bifidobacteria can be considered as components of normal healthy intestinal microbiota, and thus are not thought to pose a risk for the host health - in contrast, beneficial effects on health are commonly reported. Nevertheless, the safety of probiotics is an important issue, in particular in the case of new potential probiotics which do not have a long history of safe use, and of probiotics belonging to species for which general assumption of safety cannot be made. Furthermore, safety of probiotics in high-risk populations such as critically ill patients and immunocompromized subjects deserves particular attention, as virtually all reported cases of bacteremia and fungemia associated with probiotic use, involve subjects with underlying diseases, compromised immune system or compromised intestinal integrity.

  6. 49 CFR 390.209 - Pre-authorization safety audit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Pre-authorization safety audit. 390.209 Section... SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION FEDERAL MOTOR CARRIER SAFETY REGULATIONS FEDERAL MOTOR CARRIER SAFETY REGULATIONS; GENERAL Unified Registration System § 390.209 Pre-authorization...

  7. 33 CFR 160.109 - Waterfront facility safety.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) PORTS AND WATERWAYS SAFETY PORTS AND WATERWAYS SAFETY-GENERAL Control of Vessel and Facility Operations § 160.109 Waterfront facility safety. (a) To prevent damage to, or the destruction of, any bridge... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Waterfront facility safety....

  8. 33 CFR 160.109 - Waterfront facility safety.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) PORTS AND WATERWAYS SAFETY PORTS AND WATERWAYS SAFETY-GENERAL Control of Vessel and Facility Operations § 160.109 Waterfront facility safety. (a) To prevent damage to, or the destruction of, any bridge... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Waterfront facility safety....

  9. 33 CFR 160.109 - Waterfront facility safety.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) PORTS AND WATERWAYS SAFETY PORTS AND WATERWAYS SAFETY-GENERAL Control of Vessel and Facility Operations § 160.109 Waterfront facility safety. (a) To prevent damage to, or the destruction of, any bridge... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Waterfront facility safety....

  10. 33 CFR 160.109 - Waterfront facility safety.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) PORTS AND WATERWAYS SAFETY PORTS AND WATERWAYS SAFETY-GENERAL Control of Vessel and Facility Operations § 160.109 Waterfront facility safety. (a) To prevent damage to, or the destruction of, any bridge... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Waterfront facility safety....

  11. 14 CFR 417.113 - Launch safety rules.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Launch safety rules. 417.113 Section 417.113 Aeronautics and Space COMMERCIAL SPACE TRANSPORTATION, FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION LICENSING LAUNCH SAFETY Launch Safety Responsibilities § 417.113 Launch safety rules. (a) General. For each launch, a...

  12. 49 CFR 385.19 - Safety fitness information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Safety fitness information. 385.19 Section 385.19... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION FEDERAL MOTOR CARRIER SAFETY REGULATIONS SAFETY FITNESS PROCEDURES General § 385.19 Safety fitness information. (a) Final ratings will be made available to other Federal...

  13. 49 CFR 385.19 - Safety fitness information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Safety fitness information. 385.19 Section 385.19... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION FEDERAL MOTOR CARRIER SAFETY REGULATIONS SAFETY FITNESS PROCEDURES General § 385.19 Safety fitness information. (a) Final ratings will be made available to other Federal...

  14. 49 CFR 385.19 - Safety fitness information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Safety fitness information. 385.19 Section 385.19... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION FEDERAL MOTOR CARRIER SAFETY REGULATIONS SAFETY FITNESS PROCEDURES General § 385.19 Safety fitness information. (a) Final ratings will be made available to other Federal...

  15. 16 CFR 1031.3 - Consumer Product Safety Act amendments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Consumer Product Safety Act amendments. 1031.3 Section 1031.3 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION GENERAL COMMISSION... Consumer Product Safety Act amendments. The Consumer Product Safety Act, as amended, contains...

  16. Texas Driver and Traffic Safety Education Teacher Preparation Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Texas Education Agency, Austin. Div. of Curriculum Development.

    This guide contains detailed descriptions of four university courses designed to give basic driver and traffic safety education preparation to prospective driver education teachers. The basic courses are as follows: Safety Education (general safety education concepts with emphasis on nontraffic areas); Driver and Traffic Safety Education I…

  17. 49 CFR 385.321 - What failures of safety management practices disclosed by the safety audit will result in a...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... disclosed by the safety audit will result in a notice to a new entrant that its USDOT new entrant... MOTOR CARRIER SAFETY REGULATIONS SAFETY FITNESS PROCEDURES New Entrant Safety Assurance Program § 385... to a new entrant that its USDOT new entrant registration will be revoked? (a) General. The...

  18. Safety and Liability.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berthelot, Ronald J.; And Others

    1982-01-01

    This series of five articles highlights Pensacola Junior College's occupational safety course, involving simulated emergencies, Florida's standards for teacher liability, electrical safety in the classroom and laboratory, color coding for machine safety, and Florida industrial arts safety instructional materials. (SK)

  19. A philosophy for space nuclear systems safety

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marshall, A. C.

    The unique requirements and contraints of space nuclear systems require careful consideration in the development of a safety policy. The Nuclear Safety Policy Working Group (NSPWG) for the Space Exploration Initiative has proposed a hierarchical approach with safety policy at the top of the hierarchy. This policy allows safety requirements to be tailored to specific applications while still providing reassurance to regulators and the general public that the necessary measures have been taken to assure safe application of space nuclear systems. The safety policy used by the NSPWG is recommended for all space nuclear programs and missions.

  20. CRITICALITY SAFETY TRAINING AT FLUOR HANFORD (FH)

    SciTech Connect

    TOFFER, H.

    2005-05-02

    The Fluor Hanford Criticality Safety engineers are extensively trained. The objectives and requirements for training are derived from Department of Energy (DOE) and American National Standards Institute/American Nuclear Society Standards (ANSI/ANS), and are captured in the Hanford Criticality Safety Program manual, HNF-7098. Qualification cards have been established for the general Criticality Safety Engineer (CSE) analyst, CSEs who support specific facilities, and for the facility Criticality Safety Representatives (CSRs). Refresher training and continuous education in the discipline are emphasized. Weekly Brown Bag Sessions keep the criticality safety engineers informed of the latest developments and historic perspectives.