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Last update: August 15, 2014.
1

Safety Precautions for Science.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Safety information is discussed and outlined in this guide. Areas include: (1) general laboratory safety rules; (2) general rules and guidelines for animals in the elementary classroom; (3) general guidelines for the physical sciences; (4) general rules for using animals in investigations, with specifics on the care and handling of mammals,…

Folks, John; And Others

2

Safety Precautions in Fiber Arts.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The author discusses the potential hazards of working with fibers, dyes, and wax in textile art projects: bacteria, dust, poisons, allergies, and fumes. Safety precautions for working with dyes are listed. This article is one of seven in this issue on fiber arts. (SJL)

Hamilton, Marcia

1979-01-01

3

Safety Precautions. Child Health and Safety Series (Module I).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This manual for parents and child care personnel in day care homes and centers provides guidelines and information on indoor and outdoor safety precautions, emergency preparation and first aid. Contents focus on monitoring arrivals and departures, prevention of suffocation and strangulation, control of pets and other animals, preventing and…

Iscoe, Louise; And Others

4

10 CFR 35.615 - Safety precautions for remote afterloader units, teletherapy units, and gamma stereotactic...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...615 Safety precautions for remote afterloader units, teletherapy...d) Except for low-dose remote afterloader units, a licensee...equip each treatment room with viewing and intercom systems to permit...dose-rate and pulsed dose-rate remote afterloader units,...

2009-01-01

5

10 CFR 35.615 - Safety precautions for remote afterloader units, teletherapy units, and gamma stereotactic...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...615 Safety precautions for remote afterloader units, teletherapy...d) Except for low-dose remote afterloader units, a licensee...equip each treatment room with viewing and intercom systems to permit...dose-rate and pulsed dose-rate remote afterloader units,...

2010-01-01

6

Isolation precautions  

MedlinePLUS

Isolation precautions create barriers between people and germs. These types of precautions help prevent the spread of germs in the hospital. Anybody who visits a hospital patient who has an isolation ...

7

The home inventory of dangers and safety precautions2: addressing critical needs for prescriptive assessment devices in child maltreatment and in healthcare  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: This paper describes the development and preliminary validation of a prescriptive home danger and safety precaution instrument containing 14 epidemiological categories to be used in the design and evaluation of family-tailored injury prevention and safety interventions.Method: The HIDSP-2 evolved from application and revision of the previous home danger and safety precaution recognition and observation instruments. As part of this

Alexander J Tymchuk; Cathy M Lang; Chrystina A Dolyniuk; Karen Berney-Ficklin; Rebecca Spitz

1999-01-01

8

Interventional musculoskeletal ultrasonography: Precautions and contraindications  

PubMed Central

In recent years ultrasonography (US) has emerged as the imaging technique of choice for guiding diagnostic and therapeutic procedures including those related to the musculoskeletal system. However, the absence of ionizing radiation and the elevated safety of the method must not lead us to forget that there are precautions and contraindications to keep in mind, which are crucial to the protection of both the patient and the physician. Among these precautions it is first of all essential to obtain the patient’s accurate clinical history including current medication, particularly if it involves drugs influencing the blood clotting, and information related to possible allergies. The patient should furthermore receive detailed information concerning the procedure (sterile precautions as well as possible side-effects of the drugs which will be injected). In addition to this, there must be a close contact between the radiologist and the patient’s general physician (GP) in order to obtain the best possible result of the procedure.

Draghi, F.; Robotti, G.; Jacob, D.; Bianchi, S.

2010-01-01

9

Interventional musculoskeletal ultrasonography: Precautions and contraindications.  

PubMed

In recent years ultrasonography (US) has emerged as the imaging technique of choice for guiding diagnostic and therapeutic procedures including those related to the musculoskeletal system. However, the absence of ionizing radiation and the elevated safety of the method must not lead us to forget that there are precautions and contraindications to keep in mind, which are crucial to the protection of both the patient and the physician.Among these precautions it is first of all essential to obtain the patient's accurate clinical history including current medication, particularly if it involves drugs influencing the blood clotting, and information related to possible allergies. The patient should furthermore receive detailed information concerning the procedure (sterile precautions as well as possible side-effects of the drugs which will be injected). In addition to this, there must be a close contact between the radiologist and the patient's general physician (GP) in order to obtain the best possible result of the procedure. PMID:23396633

Draghi, F; Robotti, G; Jacob, D; Bianchi, S

2010-09-01

10

30 CFR 56.10010 - Starting precautions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-SURFACE METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Aerial Tramways § 56.10010 Starting precautions. Where possible, aerial tramways shall not be started until the operator has ascertained that everyone is...

2013-07-01

11

30 CFR 57.10010 - Starting precautions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Aerial Tramways § 57.10010 Starting precautions. Where possible, aerial tramways shall not be started until the operator has ascertained that everyone is...

2013-07-01

12

45 CFR 17.3 - Precautions to be taken.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...17.3 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ADMINISTRATION RELEASE OF ADVERSE INFORMATION TO NEWS MEDIA § 17.3 Precautions to be taken. The issuing organization shall take reasonable precautions to assure that...

2013-10-01

13

Generalized safety equation - A concept  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Concept provides definition of relationship between safety and reliability, personnel safety measurement, and equipment safety evaluation. Safety systems cope with single or combined risks. Cost and effectiveness of alternate hypothetical safety systems are estimated and used as basis for final system design.

Hano, G.

1971-01-01

14

Home Safety for People with Alzheimer's Disease: General Safety Concerns  

MedlinePLUS

... Referral Center Alzheimer's Disease Education and Referral Center Alzheimer's Disease Education and Referral Center Home About Alzheimer’s ... NAPA) About ADEAR Home Safety for People with Alzheimer's Disease General Safety Concerns People with Alzheimer's disease ...

15

Policy Manual - General Safety Practices  

Cancer.gov

It is a goal of each laboratory to ensure that safe work practices are established and followed. All laboratory personnel receive formal training in laboratory safety procedures and are familiar with and annually review the safety manual, which specifies practices and techniques designed to minimize hazards. Safety practices and techniques must be supplemented by appropriate facility design and engineering features, safety equipment and management policies.

16

Network Security and Safety Precautions  

Microsoft Academic Search

A more and more enterprises using Web services to accelerate its own development. At this point, how to network in an open application environment, guard the confidentiality of their data, resources are more and more concern for people, network security has become the network an integral part of the building. This paper introduces the architecture of network security, and further

Yishan Gong; Guanghong Yue; Quansheng Xu

2010-01-01

17

Interventional musculoskeletal ultrasonography: Precautions and contraindications  

Microsoft Academic Search

In recent years ultrasonography (US) has emerged as the imaging technique of choice for guiding diagnostic and therapeutic procedures including those related to the musculoskeletal system. However, the absence of ionizing radiation and the elevated safety of the method must not lead us to forget that there are precautions and contraindications to keep in mind, which are crucial to the

F. Draghi; G. Robotti; D. Jacob; S. Bianchi

2010-01-01

18

Prudent precaution in clinical trials of nanomedicines.  

PubMed

Clinical trials of nanotechnology medical products present complex risk management challenges that involve many uncertainties and important risk-risk trade-offs. This paper inquires whether the precautionary principle can help to inform risk management approaches to nanomedicine clinical trials. It concludes that prudent precaution may be appropriate for ensuring the safety of such trials, but that the precautionary principle itself, especially in its more extreme forms, does not provide useful guidance for specific safety measures. PMID:23289685

Marchant, Gary E; Lindor, Rachel A

2012-01-01

19

The precaution adoption process.  

PubMed

This article presents a critique of current models of preventive behavior. It discusses a variety of factors that are usually overlooked-including the appearance of costs and benefits over time, the role of cues to action, the problem of competing life demands, and the ways that actual decision behavior differs from the rational ideal implicit in expectancy-value and utility theories. Such considerations suggest that the adoption of new precautions should be viewed as a dynamic process with many determinants. The framework of a model that is able to accommodate these additional factors is described. This alternative model portrays the precaution adoption process as an orderly sequence of qualitatively different cognitive stages. Data illustrating a few of the suggestions made in the article are presented, and implications for prevention programs are discussed. PMID:3049068

Weinstein, N D

1988-01-01

20

Structural precaution: the application of premarket approval schemes in EU food legislation.  

PubMed

Structural precaution refers to legal requirements by which food products (whether as ingredients, additives, genetically modified or innovative in some other form) are only admitted to the market after authorization by public authorities and till then are presumed unsafe. In the EU such authorization is granted after provision of conclusive scientific evidence of the product's safety by the applicant. The objective of this article is to critically evaluate structural precaution in the EU against the general principles of European and international law. Moreover, it addresses the positive and negative side-effects of structural precaution for food businesses. The methods which are applied are legal-systematic and empirical. Legal-systematic research shows that the European system of structural precaution may come into conflict with the principles of free trade. Empirical research on the effects of structural precaution shows that the barriers to market access impede food innovations, negatively impact competitiveness, and induce opportunistic strategic responses by food businesses. Among the opportunistic strategic responses that were identified are window-dressing, trespassing and circumventing. These may have adverse effects on food safety. This is remarkable since food safety is the key driving force behind the application of structural precaution. The article advocates an overhaul of the present European risk prevention framework. It argues that the newly proposed European legal framework for innovative foods only partly addresses the identified problems with which the food industry is confronted. Supplementary to legal-systematic overhaul, authorities should invest in accessibility and transparency of the legal framework and provide compliance assistance to reduce regulatory burdens. PMID:24640617

van der Meulen, Bernd M J; Bremmers, Harry J; Wijnands, Jo H M; Poppe, Krijn J

2012-01-01

21

Precautions for Workers 1  

PubMed Central

Radioactive isotopes are now available from Chalk River for use by Canadian biologists. Experience has shown that the handling of radioactive isotopes may involve health hazards unless adequate precautions are taken. The nature of these hazards and the type of precautions which must be taken when working with radioactive isotopes are considered. Successful work with radioactive isotopes other than in the smallest tracer amounts requires the use of laboratories and equipment especially designed for the purpose and this is dealt with briefly. The operation of a radioactive laboratory requires certain auxiliary equipment and services, such as health instruments, film monitoring, special laboratory clothing, special cleanable surfaces and disposal of radioactive waste materials. These topics are discussed briefly. Handling of radioactive isotopes involves certain special precautions and a few of these, such as protection of hands, cleaning of glassware, handling of solutions, etc. are reviewed. In addition to protecting all personnel in a laboratory from harmful amounts of radiation, it is necessary to keep the laboratory and the building in which it is housed as free as possible from radioactive substances and this important fact has been stressed. ImagesFig. 1.Fig. 4.Fig. 6.

Guest, G. H.

1948-01-01

22

Sample Site Safety Plan For Marine In-Situ Burn Operations.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Response situations expose personnel, and sometimes the general public, to potentially hazardous situations. In-situ burn (ISB) operations add an additional element to safety considerations. The precautions necessary for the safety of personnel in an ISB ...

1996-01-01

23

[Patient safety in general dental practice 2009].  

PubMed

In recent years various studies have been published which indicate that adverse events in health care facilities are the result of structural factors. In 2009 a national study was carried out in the Netherlands to gain insight into patient safety in primary care settings, including general dental practices. In 20 randomly selected practices, patient records were investigated and oral care professionals reported, during a period of 2 weeks, adverse events which occurred. For each practice, 2 researchers screened, with the help of a checklist, 50 randomly selected patient records covering a period of 1 year. A total of 8 preventable adverse events were found in the 1000 patient records (0.8%). Anonymous reports made during the 2 weeks of the research period resulted in 7 adverse events. Practically all of the adverse events had to do with diagnostics and treatment and resulted in limited harmful consequences for patients. On the basis of these results, oral care in general dental practice would appear to be safe, but the concept 'patient safety' is not at all or only minimally active among general dental practitioners. Regarding patient safety performance, improvement in the quality of record-keeping would be desirable. PMID:21298891

Mettes, T G; Bruers, J M; van der Sanden, W J M; van Eeten Kruiskamp, L; van der Horst, R H; Harmsen, M; Wensing, M

2010-12-01

24

Generalized implementation of software safety policies  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

As part of a research program in the engineering of software for safety-critical systems, we are performing two case studies. The first case study, which is well underway, is a safety-critical medical application. The second, which is just starting, is a digital control system for a nuclear research reactor. Our goal is to use these case studies to permit us to obtain a better understanding of the issues facing developers of safety-critical systems, and to provide a vehicle for the assessment of research ideas. The case studies are not based on the analysis of existing software development by others. Instead, we are attempting to create software for new and novel systems in a process that ultimately will involve all phases of the software lifecycle. In this abstract, we summarize our results to date in a small part of this project, namely the determination and classification of policies related to software safety that must be enforced to ensure safe operation. We hypothesize that this classification will permit a general approach to the implementation of a policy enforcement mechanism.

Knight, John C.; Wika, Kevin G.

1994-01-01

25

29 CFR 1926.20 - General safety and health provisions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... false General safety and health provisions. 1926.20 Section...Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND HEALTH REGULATIONS FOR...

2013-07-01

26

Policy Manual - Universal Precautions  

Cancer.gov

 CCR Home   About CCR   CCR Intranet        Laboratory of Pathology LP Home Clinical Services Basic Sciences Training LP Staff Accessibility of Web Site Policy Manual Main Page LP Forms and Checklists Safety Program Overview & Training Introduction Roles,

27

Precaution and Solar Radiation Management  

Microsoft Academic Search

Solar radiation management is a form of geoengineering that involves the intentional manipulation of solar radiation with the aim of reducing global average temperature. This paper explores what precaution implies about the status of solar radiation management. It is argued that any form of solar radiation management that poses threats of catastrophe cannot constitute an appropriate precautionary measure against another

Lauren Hartzell-Nichols

2012-01-01

28

General MRC Cleanroom Safety and Procedures Manual  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Research in the MRC cleanroom laboratories is conducted with hazardous materials. Consequently, all personnel working in this environment, must be equipped with thenecessary knowledge and training to maximize their safety as well as that of their colleagues. This booklet serves as an essential, required component in achieving this objective. Together with existing emergency response, safety policies, and individual labsafety plans this document serves to establish the protocol and procedures that will befollowed on a day to day basis.

2011-02-11

29

Safety in the Weightroom.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Secondary level physical educators must be sure to instruct their weight lifters in proper spotting and lifting procedures, because weight training carries a high risk of injury. The article explains how to check the equipment, spot properly for specific exercises, and take general safety precautions in the weight room. (SM)

Fernandez-Balboa, Juan-Miguel

1993-01-01

30

29 CFR 1915.131 - General precautions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...All portable, power-driven circular saws shall be equipped with guards above and...or shoe. The upper guard shall cover the saw to the depth of the teeth, except for...bevel cuts. The lower guard shall cover the saw to the depth of the teeth, except...

2013-07-01

31

Safety Precautions for Total Release Foggers  

MedlinePLUS Videos and Cool Tools

... lights, please contact your local gas utility or management company. Notify family members, neighbors, and anyone else ... refrigerators, thermostats, etc.). Call your gas utility or management company if you need assistance with your pilot ...

32

Science Education Safety  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Downloadable guides published by the Council of State Science Supervisors (CSSS) that provide information on laboratory safety practices in elementary and secondary schools. Topics include legal issues, the purchase, storage, and disposal of chemicals, chemical hygiene, and response to spills or accidents. There is also information on the use of plants or animals in the lab, protective equipment, laboratory layouts, glassware and electricity precautions, field-trip safety, and other topics. The site also includes a science safety checklist, recommendations for general lab safety, and links to safety information from other websites.

33

21 CFR 610.11a - Inactivated influenza vaccine, general safety test.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... 2013-04-01 false Inactivated influenza vaccine, general safety test. 610...Provisions § 610.11a Inactivated influenza vaccine, general safety test. For inactivated influenza vaccine, the general safety...

2013-04-01

34

21 CFR 610.11a - Inactivated influenza vaccine, general safety test.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 2009-04-01 false Inactivated influenza vaccine, general safety test. 610...Provisions § 610.11a Inactivated influenza vaccine, general safety test. For inactivated influenza vaccine, the general safety...

2009-04-01

35

Laser Safety.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A literature survey of the most recent laser safety parameters and precautions is presented. Recent laser safety legislation is discussed. The basic features of a laser are discussed. Recommended safe exposure levels are given for the eye and skin. Models...

W. N. Mohon

1970-01-01

36

General aviation crash safety program at Langley Research Center  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The purpose of the crash safety program is to support development of the technology to define and demonstrate new structural concepts for improved crash safety and occupant survivability in general aviation aircraft. The program involves three basic areas of research: full-scale crash simulation testing, nonlinear structural analyses necessary to predict failure modes and collapse mechanisms of the vehicle, and evaluation of energy absorption concepts for specific component design. Both analytical and experimental methods are being used to develop expertise in these areas. Analyses include both simplified procedures for estimating energy absorption capabilities and more complex computer programs for analysis of general airframe response. Full-scale tests of typical structures as well as tests on structural components are being used to verify the analyses and to demonstrate improved design concepts.

Thomson, R. G.

1976-01-01

37

Compliance with handwashing and barrier precautions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Compliance with handwashing and barrier precautions remains suboptimal in all health care settings and among all types of staff. Interventions to increase compliance include educational and motivational programmes, providing individual and group feedback on performance, modifying and improving equipment available, changing administrative policy and sanctions, and increasing staff commitment with role modelling. Single, isolated interventions are unlikely to meet with

E. Larson; E. K. Kretzer

1995-01-01

38

21 CFR 315.3 - General factors relevant to safety and effectiveness.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 false General factors relevant to safety and effectiveness...ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DRUGS FOR HUMAN USE DIAGNOSTIC RADIOPHARMACEUTICALS § 315.3 General factors relevant to safety and...

2010-04-01

39

21 CFR 315.3 - General factors relevant to safety and effectiveness.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2009-04-01 false General factors relevant to safety and effectiveness...ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DRUGS FOR HUMAN USE DIAGNOSTIC RADIOPHARMACEUTICALS § 315.3 General factors relevant to safety and...

2009-04-01

40

Laser regulation and safety in general dental practice.  

PubMed

Laser devices, instruments and machines vary in their potential for light energy emission from low-powered hand-held or integrated devices, to high-powered units capable of cutting and ablating tissue and materials. The safe use of lasers in dentistry extends to all personnel who might be exposed, either deliberately or by accident, and demands of the lead clinician an approach to their use in order that risk of accidental exposure to laser light is minimised. The scope for regulations extends in similar ways to those imposed on the use of ionising radiation in the dental practice. Laser safety measures in the dental surgery are often drawn from the safe approach to the use of lasers in general and other specialties in medicine and surgery. This article serves to examine the risks involved in laser use in dentistry, the regulations governing safe use and the responsibilities of personnel involved in providing treatment to patients. PMID:17496861

Parker, S

2007-05-12

41

A general model of ship technical systems safety  

Microsoft Academic Search

A multi-state approach to defining basic notions of the system safety analysis is proposed. A system safety function and a system risk function are defined. A basic safety structure of a multi-state series system of components with degrading safety states is defined. For this system the multi-state safety function is determined. The proposed approach is applied to the evaluation of

K. Kolowrocki; J. Soszynska

2008-01-01

42

Practice of universal precautions among healthcare workers.  

PubMed Central

INTRODUCTION: Healthcare workers (HCWs) are exposed to bloodborne infections by pathogens, such as HIV, and hepatitis B and C viruses, as they perform their clinical activities in the hospital. Compliance with universal precautions has been shown to reduce the risk of exposure to blood and body fluids. This study was aimed at assessing the observance of universal precautions by HCWs in Abeokuta, Ogun State, Nigeria. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: The study was conducted in September 2003 in Abeokuta metropolis, Ogun State, Nigeria. The respondents were doctors, trained and auxiliary nurses, laboratory scientists and domestic staff. They were selected through a multistage sampling technique from public and private healthcare facilities within the metropolis. The instrument was an interviewer-administered, semistructured questionnaire that assessed the practice of recapping and disposal of used needles, use of barrier equipment, handwashing and screening of transfused blood. RESULTS: There were 433 respondents, 211 (48.7%) of which were trained nurses. About a third of all respondents always recapped used needles. Compliance with nonrecapping of used needles was highest among trained nurses and worst with doctors. Less than two-thirds of respondents (63.8%) always used personal protective equipment, and more than half of all respondents (56.5%) had never worn goggles during deliveries and at surgeries. The provision of sharps containers and screening of transfused blood by the institutions studied was uniformly high. A high percentage (94.6%) of HCWs observed handwashing after handling patients. The use of barrier equipment was variable in the institutions studied. CONCLUSION: Recapping of used needles is prevalent in the health facilities studied. Noncompliance with universal precautions place Nigerian HCWs at significant health risks. Training programs and other relevant measures should be put in place to promote the appropriate use of protective barrier equipment by HCWs at all times.

Sadoh, Wilson E.; Fawole, Adeniran O.; Sadoh, Ayebo E.; Oladimeji, Ayo O.; Sotiloye, Oladapo S.

2006-01-01

43

Home Safety for People with Alzheimer's Disease: Natural Disaster Safety  

MedlinePLUS

Home Safety for People with Alzheimer's Disease Natural Disaster Safety Natural disasters come in many forms and degrees of severity. ... case of fire, earthquake, flood, tornado, or other disasters. Specific home safety precautions may apply and environmental ...

44

Driving with diabetes: precaution, not prohibition, is the proper approach.  

PubMed

Safety issues posed by driving with diabetes are primarily related to severe hypoglycemia, yet some public authorities rely on categorical restrictions on drivers with diabetes. This approach is misguided. Regulation of all drivers with diabetes, or all drivers using insulin, ignores the diversity of people with diabetes and fails to focus on the subpopulation posing the greatest risk. Advances in diabetes care technology and understanding of safety consequences of diabetes have expanded techniques available to limit risks of driving with diabetes. New means of insulin administration and blood glucose monitoring offer greater ease of anticipating and preventing hypoglycemia, and thus, limit driving risk for persons with diabetes. So too do less sophisticated steps taken by people with diabetes and the health care professionals they consult. These include adoption and endorsement of safety-sensitive behaviors, such as testing before a drive and periodic testing on longer trips. Overall, and in most individual cases, driving risks for persons with diabetes are less than those routinely tolerated by our society. Examples include freedom to drive in dangerous conditions and lax regulation of drivers in age and medical cohorts with elevated overall rates of driving mishaps. Data linking specific diabetes symptoms or features with driving risk are quite uncertain. Hence, there is much to recommend: a focus on technological advances, human precautions, and identifying individuals with diabetes with a specific history of driving difficulty. By contrast, available evidence does not support unfocused regulation of all or most drivers with diabetes. PMID:23566992

Kohrman, Daniel B

2013-01-01

45

An Introduction to Eye Safety. General Metals I, Lesson Plan No. 1.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Designed for a 110-hour general metals course, this lesson plan presents an introduction to eye safety, including a brief guided imagery prelude, an overview of the lesson, an overview of Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) and Department of Occupational Safety and Health (DOSH) rules and regulations regarding eye and face…

Higa, Floyd

46

49 CFR 238.229 - Safety appliances-general.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...considered part of the car body; (ii) The weld...a description of the specific safety appliance bracket...least 4 hours of training specific to the identification...glasses, or other location specific inspection aids. Remote...Standard for Passenger Rail Vehicle Structural Repair...

2013-10-01

47

48 CFR 1252.236-70 - Special precautions for work at operating airports.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Special precautions for work at operating airports. 1252.236-70 Section 1252...Special precautions for work at operating airports. As prescribed in (TAR) 48 CFR...Special Precautions for Work at Operating Airports (OCT 1994) (a) When work is...

2013-10-01

48

48 CFR 3052.236-70 - Special precautions for work at operating airports.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Special precautions for work at operating airports. 3052.236-70 Section 3052...Special precautions for work at operating airports. As prescribed in (HSAR) 48 CFR...Special Precautions for Work at Operating Airports (DEC 2003) (a) When work is...

2013-10-01

49

Policy Manual - General Safety - Biological Safety Cabinets, Chemical Fume Hoods, and other Primary Barrier Protections  

Cancer.gov

All Biological Safety Cabinets (BSC) and Chemical Fume Hoods (CFH) within the Laboratory of Pathology are maintained and monitored for effectiveness by the Technical Assistance Branch of the Division of Occupational Health and Safety (DOHS) provides various services regarding certification, maintenance, repair, and decontamination of specific primary barrier equipment.

50

48 CFR 252.236-7005 - Airfield safety precautions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...glide angle) and then along a horizontal plane, both flaring symmetrically about the...centerline extended. (A) The inclined plane (glide angle) begins in the clear...airfield elevation. At that point the plane becomes horizontal, continuing at...

2013-10-01

51

48 CFR 252.236-7005 - Airfield safety precautions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...approach-departure clearance, or the transitional...approach-departure clearance surface is an extension...an inclined (glide angle) and then along a...inclined plane (glide angle) is the same as the...approach-departure clearance zone is the...

2010-10-01

52

41 CFR 50-204.2 - General safety and health standards.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 50-204.2 Section 50-204.2 Public Contracts and Property...CONTRACTS, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR 204-SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS...and Health Standards § 50-204.2 General safety and health...and Phosphate; Sulphur; and Gold, Silver, or...

2010-07-01

53

41 CFR 50-204.2 - General safety and health standards.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 50-204.2 Section 50-204.2 Public Contracts and Property...CONTRACTS, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR 204-SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS...and Health Standards § 50-204.2 General safety and health...and Phosphate; Sulphur; and Gold, Silver, or...

2009-07-01

54

From cognition to the system: developing a multilevel taxonomy of patient safety in general practice  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper describes the process of developing a taxonomy of patient safety in general practice. The methodologies employed included fieldwork, task analysis and confidential reporting of patient-safety events in five West Midlands practices. Reported events were traced back to their root causes and contributing factors. The resulting taxonomy is based on a theoretical model of human cognition, includes multiple levels

O. Kostopoulou

2006-01-01

55

Traffic Safety: Grants Generally Address Key Safety Issues, Despite State Eligibility and Management Difficulties.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In 2005, the Safe, Accountable, Flexible, Efficient Transportation Equity Act: A Legacy for Users (SAFETEA-LU) included authorizations of nearly $2.2 billion for safety incentive grant programs to assist states in their efforts to reduce traffic fatalitie...

2008-01-01

56

Farm Safety (For Teens)  

MedlinePLUS

... kids and teens die each year due to farm-related injuries. In fact, farm jobs have the highest rate ... and gloom: With appropriate education and safety precautions, farm-related injuries and deaths can be prevented — and teens can ...

57

Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standard No. 209 (Seat Belt Assemblies). General Safety Corporation.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report contains the test data, results and conclusions of tests performed on one set of twelve (12) Type 1 seat belt assemblies for compliance to Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standard No. 209. The set of seat belts without retractors was subjected to ...

1970-01-01

58

Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standard No. 209 (Seat Belt Assemblies). General Safety Corporation.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report contains the test data, results and conclusions of tests performed on one set of twelve (12) Type 1 seat belt assemblies for compliance to Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standard No. 209. This set of seat belts without retractors was subjected to...

1970-01-01

59

Introducing Proper Chemical Hygiene and Safety in the General Chemistry Curriculum  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Chemical safety is an important component of science education for everyone, not just for chemistry majors. Developing a responsible and knowledgeable attitude towards chemical safety best starts at the early stages of a student's career. In many colleges and universities, safety education in undergraduate chemistry has been relegated primarily to a few regulatory documents at the beginning of a laboratory course, or an occasional warning in the description of a specific experiment in a prelaboratory lecture. Safety issues are seldom raised in general chemistry or organic chemistry lecture-based chemistry courses. At Iowa State University we have begun to implement a program, Chemical Hygiene and Safety in the Laboratory, into the undergraduate chemistry curriculum. This program is designed to increase the awareness and knowledge of proper chemical hygiene and laboratory safety issues among all students taking general chemistry and organic chemistry courses. Laboratory protocol, use of safety equipment, familiarity with MSD sheets, basics of first aid, some specific terminology surrounding chemical hygiene, EPA and OSHA requirements, and the use of the World Wide Web to search and locate chemical safety information are topics that are applied throughout the chemistry curriculum. The novelty of this approach is to incorporate MSD sheets and safety information that can be located on the World Wide Web in a series of safety problems and assignments, all related to the chemistry experiments students are about to perform. The fundamental idea of our approach is not only to teach students what is required for appropriate safety measures, but also to involve them in the enforcement of basic prudent practices.

Miller, Gordon J.; Heideman, Stephen A.; Greenbowe, Thomas J.

2000-09-01

60

The success of precaution? Managing the risk of transfusion transmission of variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease.  

PubMed

The precautionary principle has emerged as an important new paradigm influencing decision making in the blood system. The principle has influenced decision making in several nations leading to the institution of policies to protect their blood supplies form variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (vCJD). Increasingly evidence has emerged to support the institution of these policies, which were introduced in advance of clear evidence of risk. These vCJD decisions serve as an example of the successful application of precaution and provide lesions as to how the principle should be applied in future transfusion safety decisions. PMID:15383021

Wilson, Kumanan; Ricketts, Maura N

2004-10-01

61

Pregabalin: its efficacy, safety and tolerability profile in generalized anxiety.  

PubMed

Pregabalin is a structural analogue of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA), one of the key inhibitory neurotransmitters in the brain. Its mode of action is believed to be mediated by the alpha-2-delta-1 subunit protein of voltage-gated calcium channels to bring about its anxiolytic, anticonvulsant and antinociceptive effects. Pregabalin has linear pharmacokinetics, undergoes minimal metabolism and is excreted largely unchanged. It has a mean elimination half-life of 6.3 hours. Pregabalin's anxiolytic activity in generalized anxiety disorder has been demonstrated in seven acute randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trials of four to eight weeks duration, and in one six-month relapse-prevention study at doses of 150-600 mg/day using twice-daily or three-times-daily regimes. The magnitude of pregabalin's anxiolytic effects was similar to that of alprazolam, lorazepam or venlafaxine. However, pregabalin had a more consistent effect on psychic and somatic anxiety factors than the active comparators. Its speed of onset was apparent within one week - similar to the benzodiazepines, but faster than that of venlafaxine. Moreover, pregabalin's anxiolytic effect was apparent in patients with moderate or severe baseline anxiety and high or low baseline severity of sub-syndromic depression. A long-term, 26-week, open-label study showed that pregabalin's anxiolytic effects were maintained, although the fixed-dose design may have contributed to a high attrition rate. Pregabalin showed less cognitive and psychomotor impairment than alprazolam, and it showed different effects on sleep architecture to the latter in terms of REM sleep latency and slow wave stage 3/4 sleep. The most frequently reported adverse events were dizziness and somnolence, although tolerance to these developed within a few weeks. Withdrawal symptoms during a one-week taper phase were mild and were similar after both acute and chronic administration. PMID:17940637

Owen, Richard T

2007-09-01

62

A general stochastic approach to unavailability analysis of standby safety systems  

SciTech Connect

The paper presents a general analytical framework to analyze unavailability caused by latent failures in standby safety systems used in nuclear plants. The proposed approach is general in a sense that it encompasses a variety of inspection and maintenance policies and relaxes restrictive assumptions regarding the distributions of time to failure (or aging) and duration of repair. A key result of the paper is a general integral equation for point unavailability, which can be tailored to any specific maintenance policy. (authors)

Van Der Weide, H. [Faculty of Electrical Engineering, Delft University of Technology, Delft (Netherlands)] [Faculty of Electrical Engineering, Delft University of Technology, Delft (Netherlands); Pandey, M. D. [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of Waterloo, Waterloo, ON, N2L 3G1 (Canada)] [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of Waterloo, Waterloo, ON, N2L 3G1 (Canada)

2013-07-01

63

Policy Manual - Employee Precautions - Particular Aerosols  

Cancer.gov

Any procedure with the potential to generate fine particulate aerosols (e.g., vortexing or sonication of specimens in open tube) should be performed in a biological safety cabinet (BSC). Close and seal all tubes before spinning in a centrifuge. The use of sealed centrifuge rotors or sample cups, if available, should be employed for centrifugation. Ideally, these rotors or cups should be unloaded in a BSC.

64

Patient Safety in Tehran University of Medical Sciences' General Hospitals, Iran  

PubMed Central

Background It is important to focus on creating opportunities for patients’ participation at all levels of health systems in order to promote their ability to improve patient safety and quality of services. The general aim of this study was to determine patient safety level in Tehran University of Medical Sciences’ (TUMS) general hospitals, Tehran, Iran from patients’ perspective and to determine the contributory factors on their perspective. Methods: This was a cross-sectional study. In the spring 2011, the list of clinical departments of the six general hospitals affiliated to TUMS was obtained through the Website of TUMS. By using stratified random sampling, the sample size was calculated 300 patients. Data were collected by using a structured questionnaire and its validity and reliability were acceptable. Descriptive statistics, linear regression and logistic regression were used for analyzing the data. Results: Totally, 60% of patients were female. Patient safety was evaluated high by 60% of respondents. The unmarried or educated or employed individuals tend to score lower than others. Conclusion: TUMS’s general hospitals are enough safe from patients’ perspective, patient safety should be improved. In clinical governance, contributing patients’ perspective to the improvement of patient safety reforms is critical in generating new models of good practice.

ARAB, Mohammad; AKBARI SARI, Ali; MOVAHED KOR, Elham; HOSSEINI, Mostafa; TOLOUI RAKHSHAN, Shiva; EZATI, Mohammad

2013-01-01

65

Art Safety.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Advocating that Canadian art programs should use and model environmentally safe practices, the articles in this journal focus on issues of safe practices in art education. Articles are: (1) "What is WHMIS?"; (2) "Safety Precautions for Specific Art Processes"; (3) "Toxic Substances"; (4) "Using Clay, Glazes, and Kilns Safely in the Classroom"…

BCATA Journal for Art Teachers, 1991

1991-01-01

66

Precaution and Participatory Integrated Assessment of GM crops in Spain.  

PubMed

Qualitative Participatory Integrated Assessment (PIA) has been carried out to unveil the different accounts and uses of the precautionary principle and of the precautionary approach in the management of Bt commercial crops in Spain. In particular, two main interpretations have been identified: a case by case precaution (or caution) and a systemic precaution. Three scenarios on the plausible causes and consequences of commercial GM crops policy futures and the role of the precautionary principle and of precaution in them were also developed. Further research found that these scenarios could be linked to two broader worldviews about different plausible societies, models of agriculture, and of the role of ethics in the management of science and technology. It is argued that such worldviews, which go beyond the bounded rationality of scientific expertise on commercial GM crops, are used by policy makers in Spain, rather than or in conjunction with expert assessments, to make complex decisions in situations of large uncertainties and high stakes. PMID:16304942

Tàbara, J David

2005-01-01

67

National Transportation Safety Board Aircraft Safety Study: Airbag Performance in General Aviation Restraint Systems.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In 2003, airbags were first certificated for pilot and copilot seats on general aviation (GA) aircraft, and as of August 2010, they have been installed in nearly 18,000 seats in over 7,000 GA aircraft. Unlike automotive airbags that typically deploy from ...

2011-01-01

68

Policy Manual - Employee Precautions - Hand Hygiene  

Cancer.gov

All healthcare workers shall practice good hand hygiene to reduce the risk of transmission of organisms to patients, themselves, and coworkers. General hand hygiene practices are listed in the Infection Control Policy of this notebook. See previous section.

69

78 FR 58470 - General Technical, Organizational, and Conforming Amendments to the Federal Motor Carrier Safety...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Safety Administration 49 CFR Parts 325, 350, 355, 365, 369, 370, 372, 375, 376...Regulations, appearing generally at 49 CFR parts 350-399. The administrative powers to enforce...made to correct typographical errors. Part 350 Section 350.205. In paragraph...

2013-09-24

70

Reasons for not reporting patient safety incidents in general practice: A qualitative study  

PubMed Central

Objective To explore the reasons for not reporting patient safety incidents in general practice. Design Qualitative interviews with general practitioners and members of the project group. Setting General practice clinics in the Region of Northern Jutland in Denmark. Subjects Twelve general practitioners. Main outcome measures The experiences and reflections of the involved professionals with regard to system use and non-use. Results While most respondents were initially positive towards the idea of reporting and learning from patient safety incidents, they actually reported very few incidents. The major reasons for the low reporting rates are found to be a perceived lack of practical usefulness, issues of time and effort in a busy clinic with competing priorities, and considerations of appropriateness in relation to other professionals. Conclusion The results suggest that the visions of formal, comprehensive, and systematic reporting of (and learning from) patient safety incidents will be quite difficult to realize in general practice. Future studies should investigate how various ways of organizing incident reporting at the regional level influence local activities of reporting and learning in general practice.

Kousgaard, Marius Brostr?m; Joensen, Anne Sofie; Thorsen, Thorkil

2012-01-01

71

Preliminary reentry safety assessment of the General Purpose Heat Source module for the Cassini mission: Aerospace Nuclear Safety Program  

SciTech Connect

As asked by the U. S. Department of Energy/Office of Special Applications, and in support of the Environmental Impact Statement for the Cassini mission, The Johns Hopkins University/Applied Physics Laboratory (JHU/APL) has conducted preliminary one-dimensional ablation and thermal analyses of the General Purpose Heat Source (GPHS). The predicted earth entry conditions provided by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) for a Cassini Venus-Venus-Earth-Jupiter Gravity Assist (VVEJGA) trajectory were used as initial conditions. The results of this study which constitute the initial reentry analysis assessment leading to the Cassini Updated Safety, Analysis Report (USAR) are discussed in this document.

Conn, D.W.; Brenza, P.T.

1993-04-01

72

Preventing Infection in the Classroom: The Use of Universal Precautions.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article reviews the universal precautions for appropriate infection control, including the proper method for putting on gloves and removing gloves, hand washing, and blood/bodily fluid clean up. A sample school board policy and kindergarten health core curriculum is provided, along with a kindergarten classroom illustration. (Contains…

Edens, Retha M.; Murdick, Nikki L.; Gartin, Barbara C.

2003-01-01

73

HIV/AIDS Universal Precaution Practices in Sun Dance Ceremonies.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Aberdeen (South Dakota) Area Indian Health Service has sponsored educational projects to reduce risk of HIV transmission via skin piercing and flesh offerings during traditional Sun Dance ceremonies. Projects emphasized universal precautions, provided medical supplies, and respected the sacredness of the ceremony. Evaluation indicates that…

Giroux, Jennifer; Takehara, Joan; Asetoyer, Charon; Welty, Thomas

1997-01-01

74

Experience of Lyme disease and preferences for precautions: a cross-sectional survey of UK patients  

PubMed Central

Background Lyme disease (LD) is a tick-borne zoonosis currently affecting approximately 1000 people annually in the UK (confirmed through serological diagnosis) although it is estimated that the real figures may be as high as 3000 cases. It is important to know what factors may predict correct appraisal of LD symptoms and how the experience of LD might predict preferences for future precautionary actions. Methods A cross-sectional survey was conducted with early LD patients via the Lyme Borreliosis Unit at the Health Protection Agency. One hundred and thirty participants completed measures of awareness of having been bitten by ticks, knowledge of ticks and LD, interpretation of LD symptoms, suspicions of having LD prior to seeing the General Practitioner (GP), and preferences for precautionary actions during future countryside visits. Chi-square tests and logistic regression were used to identify key predictors of awareness of having been bitten by ticks and of having LD. t-tests assessed differences between groups of participants on suspicions of having LD and preferences for future precautions. Pearson correlations examined relationships between measures of preferences for precautions and frequency of countryside use, knowledge of ticks and LD, and intentions to avoid the countryside in the future. Results 73.8% of participants (n?=?96) reported a skin rash as the reason for seeking medical help, and 44.1% (n?=?64) suspected they had LD before seeing the GP. Participants reporting a direct event in realizing they had been bitten by ticks (seeing a tick on skin or seeing a skin rash and linking it to tick bites) were more likely to suspect they had LD before seeing the doctor. Participants distinguished between taking precautions against tick bites during vs. after countryside visits, largely preferring the latter. Also, the more frequently participants visited the countryside, the less likely they were to endorse during-visit precautions. Conclusions The results suggest that the risk of LD is set in the context of the restorative benefits of countryside practices, and that it may be counterproductive to overemphasize pre- or during-visit precautions. Simultaneously, having experienced LD is not associated with any withdrawal from countryside.

2013-01-01

75

GPHS (General Purpose Heat Source) uranium oxide encapsulations supporting satellite safety tests  

SciTech Connect

General Purpose Heat Source (GPHS) simulant-fueled capsules were assembled, welded, nondestructively examined, and shipped to Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) for satellite safety tests. Simulant-fueled iridium capsules contain depleted uranium oxide pellets that serve as a stand-in for plutonium-238 oxide pellets. Information on forty seven capsules prepared during 1987 and 1988 is recorded in this memorandum along with a description of the processes used for encapsulation and evaluation. LANL expects to use all capsules for destructive safety tests, which are under way. Test results so far have demonstrated excellent integrity of the Savannah River capsule welds. 10 refs., 5 figs., 3 tabs.

Kanne, W.R.

1989-04-24

76

48 CFR 3036.570 - Special precautions for work at operating airports.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Special precautions for work at operating airports. 3036.570 Section 3036.570...Special precautions for work at operating airports. Where any acquisition will require work at an operating airport, insert the clause at (HSAR)...

2013-10-01

77

48 CFR 1236.570 - Special precautions for work at operating airports.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Special precautions for work at operating airports. 1236.570 Section 1236.570...Special precautions for work at operating airports. Where any acquisition will require work at an operating airport, insert the clause at (TAR) 48...

2013-10-01

78

Clinical Safety and Efficacy of Tianeptine in 1,858 Depressed Patients Treated in General Practice  

Microsoft Academic Search

1,927 outpatients were included by 392 general practitioners in an open study in order to evaluate the safety of tianeptine in the ambulatory treatment of depression. The results of 1,858 depressed patients without melancholia and psychotic features, fulfilling DSM III criteria of Major Depressive Episode or Dysthymic Disorder, could be analysed. 1,458 patients completed the 3-month treatment period. The group

J. D. Guelfi; C. Dulcire; P. Le Moine; A. Tafani

1992-01-01

79

30 Hour OSHA General Industry Safety Certification Program Geared Towards Advanced Energy Manufacturing  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The following course was created by Grand Rapids Community College (GRCC), through seed funding from the CAAT, to train workers for entry level positions in the advanced energy manufacturing industry. The course is designed around OSHAâs âStandards for General Industryâ and if taught by an authorized General Industry Outreach Training Program Instructor, students should receive an OSHA General Industry 30-hour Safety certification. Instructional materials include PowerPoint presentations, instructor notes, OSHA instructor and student manuals (handouts/assignments), and lesson objectives. All lessons are intended to be taught through PowerPoint presentations with guidance from the included lesson objectives and notes for instructors. The included PowerPoints are original OSHA presentations modified by GRCC and originals created by GRCC. The lesson topics are: Introduction to OSHA Safety and Health Programs, Hazard Mapping, Personal Protective Equipment, Exit Routes and Emergency Action Plans, Fire Protection and Prevention, Electrical Hazards, Ergonomics and Manual Material Handling, Walking and Working Surfaces, Industrial Hygiene, Flammable and Combustible Liquids  Hazard Communication Exit Routes and Emergency Action Plans, Fire Protection and Prevention, First Aid and CPR, Hand and Power Tool Safety, Machine Guarding, and Control of Hazardous Energy (Lockout/Tag-out). For more information on the course visit https://learning.grcc.edu/ec2k/CourseListing.asp?master_id=777&course_area=CEMF&course_number=102&course_subtitle=00.

Grand Rapids Community College (GRCC)

80

Prevalence and consequences of patient safety incidents in general practice in the Netherlands: a retrospective medical record review study  

PubMed Central

Background Patient safety can be at stake in both hospital and general practice settings. While severe patient safety incidents have been described, quantitative studies in large samples of patients in general practice are rare. This study aimed to assess patient safety in general practice, and to show areas where potential improvements could be implemented. Methods We conducted a retrospective review of patient records in Dutch general practice. A random sample of 1,000 patients from 20 general practices was obtained. The number of patient safety incidents that occurred in a one-year period, their perceived underlying causes, and impact on patients' health were recorded. Results We identified 211 patient safety incidents across a period of one year (95% CI: 185 until 241). A variety of types of incidents, perceived causes and consequences were found. A total of 58 patient safety incidents affected patients; seven were associated with hospital admission; none resulted in permanent disability or death. Conclusions Although this large audit of medical records in general practices identified many patient safety incidents, only a few had a major impact on patients' health. Improving patient safety in this low-risk environment poses specific challenges, given the high numbers of patients and contacts in general practice.

2011-01-01

81

Scoping in environmental impact assessment: Balancing precaution and efficiency?  

SciTech Connect

Scoping is a crucial yet under-researched stage of environmental impact assessment, in which practice falls well behind conceptual ideals. We argue that such 'implementation deficits' reflect dilemmas between two key rationales for scoping - environmental precaution and decision-making efficiency - and between technical and participatory conceptions of the decision-making process. We use qualitative research to understand how scoping practice in the UK reconciles these competing imperatives. Our findings suggest that practitioners mainly rationalise their approach in terms of decision-making efficiency, while justifying excluding the public from scoping on grounds of prematurity, delay and risks of causing confusion. The tendency to scope issues in rather than exclude them reflects a pervasive concern for legal challenge, rather than environmental precaution, but this reinforces standard lists of environmental considerations rather than the investigation of novel, cumulative or indirect risks.

Snell, Tim [Adams Hendry Consulting Ltd., 7 St. Peter Street, Winchester, Hampshire, SO23 8BW (United Kingdom)]. E-mail: t.snell@adamshendry.co.uk; Cowell, Richard [School of City and Regional Planning, Cardiff University, Glamorgan Building, King Edward VII Avenue, Cardiff CF10 3WA (United Kingdom)]. E-mail: cowellrj@cardiff.ac.uk

2006-05-15

82

Framework for controlling infection through isolation precautions in Japan.  

PubMed

In Japan, nurses certified in infection control face organizational and structural challenges to the implementation of the recommended isolation precautions. In this study, we developed a conceptual framework for the problem-solving process of certified nurses in infection control when implementing appropriate isolation-precaution measures. We conducted a qualitative, descriptive study using directed content analysis. Semistructured interviews were conducted with 40 nurses who had over five?years' experience in infection control. Factors assessing the risk of infection in patients were identified, including microorganism characteristics, patient characteristics, and risk of infection to the entire unit. The nurses also assessed the risk of infection in institutions from the following perspectives: organizational culture, infection control system, human resources, environment surrounding the facility, ethical issues, and external factors. Individual characteristics, such as attributes, knowledge, expertise, and job function, were identified as major influencing factors in the problem-solving process. These findings could be useful for newly-certified nurses in infection control and provide recommendations on implementing isolation-precaution measures. PMID:24635895

Kawakami, Kazumi; Misao, Hanako

2014-03-01

83

Evaluation of features to support safety and quality in general practice clinical software  

PubMed Central

Background Electronic prescribing is now the norm in many countries. We wished to find out if clinical software systems used by general practitioners in Australia include features (functional capabilities and other characteristics) that facilitate improved patient safety and care, with a focus on quality use of medicines. Methods Seven clinical software systems used in general practice were evaluated. Fifty software features that were previously rated as likely to have a high impact on safety and/or quality of care in general practice were tested and are reported here. Results The range of results for the implementation of 50 features across the 7 clinical software systems was as follows: 17-31 features (34-62%) were fully implemented, 9-13 (18-26%) partially implemented, and 9-20 (18-40%) not implemented. Key findings included: Access to evidence based drug and therapeutic information was limited. Decision support for prescribing was available but varied markedly between systems. During prescribing there was potential for medicine mis-selection in some systems, and linking a medicine with its indication was optional. The definition of 'current medicines' versus 'past medicines' was not always clear. There were limited resources for patients, and some medicines lists for patients were suboptimal. Results were provided to the software vendors, who were keen to improve their systems. Conclusions The clinical systems tested lack some of the features expected to support patient safety and quality of care. Standards and certification for clinical software would ensure that safety features are present and that there is a minimum level of clinical functionality that clinicians could expect to find in any system.

2011-01-01

84

Teaching Safety Skills to Children: Prevention of Firearm Injury as an Exemplar of Best Practice in Assessment, Training, and Generalization of Safety Skills  

PubMed Central

The focus of this paper is on teaching safety skills to children with an emphasis on recent research on behavioral skills training for the prevention of firearm injury. Following a discussion of safety skills and methods for assessing these skills, the paper reviews recent research on behavioral skills training and in situ training for teaching safety skills to prevent firearm injury. Strategies for promoting generalization and increasing the efficiency of training are then discussed, along with a summary of conclusions that can be drawn from the research and guidelines for best practices in teaching safety skills to children.

Miltenberger, Raymond G

2008-01-01

85

Dental laser safety.  

PubMed

The purpose of this article is to inform the reader about dental laser safety and to suggest practical guidelines. The laser safety officer plays a major role, ensuring that the instrument is used safely and effectively. With adequate precautions and proper training, dental lasers can be used to deliver excellent care. PMID:15464553

Piccione, Pamela J

2004-10-01

86

Maximising harm reduction in early specialty training for general practice: validation of a safety checklist  

PubMed Central

Background Making health care safer is a key policy priority worldwide. In specialty training, medical educators may unintentionally impact on patient safety e.g. through failures of supervision; providing limited feedback on performance; and letting poorly developed behaviours continue unchecked. Doctors-in-training are also known to be susceptible to medical error. Ensuring that all essential educational issues are addressed during training is problematic given the scale of the tasks to be undertaken. Human error and the reliability of local systems may increase the risk of safety-critical topics being inadequately covered. However adherence to a checklist reminder may improve the reliability of task delivery and maximise harm reduction. We aimed to prioritise the most safety-critical issues to be addressed in the first 12-weeks of specialty training in the general practice environment and validate a related checklist reminder. Methods We used mixed methods with different groups of GP educators (n?=?127) and specialty trainees (n?=?9) in two Scottish regions to prioritise, develop and validate checklist content. Generation and refinement of checklist themes and items were undertaken on an iterative basis using a range of methods including small group work in dedicated workshops; a modified-Delphi process; and telephone interviews. The relevance of potential checklist items was rated using a 4-point scale content validity index to inform final inclusion. Results 14 themes (e.g. prescribing safely; dealing with medical emergency; implications of poor record keeping; and effective & safe communication) and 47 related items (e.g. how to safety-net face-to-face or over the telephone; knowledge of practice systems for results handling; recognition of harm in children) were judged to be essential safety-critical educational issues to be covered. The mean content validity index ratio was 0.98. Conclusion A checklist was developed and validated for educational supervisors to assist in the reliable delivery of safety-critical educational issues in the opening 12-week period of training, and aligned with national curriculum competencies. The tool can also be adapted for use as a self-assessment instrument by trainees to guide patient safety-related learning needs. Dissemination and implementation of the checklist and self-rating scale are proceeding on a national, voluntary basis with plans to evaluate its feasibility and educational impact.

2012-01-01

87

General-Purpose Heat Source safety verification test series: SVT-1 through SVT-6  

SciTech Connect

The General-Purpose Heat Source (GPHS) is a modular heat source that will supply energy for Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generators (RTGs) in space missions. The Safety Verification Tests (SVTs) are performed to assess the plutonia containment capability of heat source modules subjected to certain accident environments. This interim report described the GPHS module configuration, the test environment, and the response of the module components following simulated reentry and solid Earth impact. The specific test environment of these initial six tests results from failure of the booster rocket to place the spacecraft in a proper trajectory and subsequent reentry of the GPHS modules from Earth orbit. 36 figs.

Pavone, D.; George, T.G.; Frantz, C.E.

1985-06-01

88

General-purpose heat source project and space nuclear safety fuels program. Progress report, February 1980  

SciTech Connect

This formal monthly report covers the studies related to the use of /sup 238/PuO/sub 2/ in radioisotopic power systems carried out for the Advanced Nuclear Systems and Projects Division of the Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory. The two programs involved are: General-Purpose Heat Source Development and Space Nuclear Safety and Fuels. Most of the studies discussed here are of a continuing nature. Results and conclusions described may change as the work continues. Published reference to the results cited in this report should not be made without the explicit permission of the person in charge of the work.

Maraman, W.J. (comp.)

1980-05-01

89

Barriers to the Operation of Patient Safety Incident Reporting Systems in Korean General Hospitals  

PubMed Central

Objectives This study aimed to explore the barriers to and factors facilitating the operation of patient safety incident reporting systems. Methods A qualitative study that used a methodological triangulation method was conducted. Participants were those who were involved in or responsible for managing incident reporting at hospitals, and they were recruited via a snowballing sampling method. Data were collected via interviews or emails from 42 nurses at 42 general hospitals. A qualitative content analysis was performed to derive the major themes related to barriers to and factors facilitating incident reporting. Results Participants suggested 96 barriers to incident reporting in their hospitals at the organizational and individual levels. Low reporting rates, especially for near misses, were the most commonly reported issue, followed by poorly designed incident reporting systems and a lack of adequate patient safety leadership by mid-level managers. To resolve and overcome these barriers, 104 recommendations were suggested. The high-priority recommendations included introducing reward systems; improving incident reporting systems, by for instance implementing a variety of reporting channels and ensuring reporter anonymity; and creating a strong safety culture. Conclusions The barriers to and factors facilitating incident reporting include various organizational and individual factors. As an important way to address these challenging issues and to improve the incident reporting systems in hospitals, we suggest several feasible methods of doing so.

Hwang, Jee-In; Lee, Sang-IL

2012-01-01

90

Nuclear safety  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Topics dealing with nuclear safety are addressed which include the following: general safety requirements; safety design requirements; terrestrial safety; SP-100 Flight System key safety requirements; potential mission accidents and hazards; key safety features; ground operations; launch operations; flight operations; disposal; safety concerns; licensing; the nuclear engine for rocket vehicle application (NERVA) design philosophy; the NERVA flight safety program; and the NERVA safety plan.

Buden, D.

1991-01-01

91

Environmental assessment of general-purpose heat source safety verification testing  

SciTech Connect

This Environmental Assessment (EA) was prepared to identify and evaluate potential environmental, safety, and health impacts associated with the Proposed Action to test General-Purpose Heat Source (GPHS) Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generator (RTG) assemblies at the Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) 10,000-Foot Sled Track Facility, Albuquerque, New Mexico. RTGs are used to provide a reliable source of electrical power on board some spacecraft when solar power is inadequate during long duration space missions. These units are designed to convert heat from the natural decay of radioisotope fuel into electrical power. Impact test data are required to support DOE`s mission to provide radioisotope power systems to NASA and other user agencies. The proposed tests will expand the available safety database regarding RTG performance under postulated accident conditions. Direct observations and measurements of GPHS/RTG performance upon impact with hard, unyielding surfaces are required to verify model predictions and to ensure the continual evolution of the RTG designs that perform safely under varied accident environments. The Proposed Action is to conduct impact testing of RTG sections containing GPHS modules with simulated fuel. End-On and Side-On impact test series are planned.

NONE

1995-02-01

92

Knowledge and Practice of Standard Precautions and Awareness Regarding Post-Exposure Prophylaxis for HIV among Interns of a Medical College in West Bengal, India  

PubMed Central

Objectives To assess the knowledge of interns on standard precautions and post-exposure prophylaxis for HIV, and identify the gap between knowledge and practice relating to standard precautions, as well as determining the perceived barriers against adherence to standard precautions. Methods The study was conducted on 130 interns of 2010-11 batch from a government-run medical college in Kolkata, India. All participants completed a self-administered questionnaire with items relating to basic components of standard precautions and post-exposure prophylaxis for HIV. The questionnaire also included open ended questions relating to reasons for non-adherence to the practice of standard precautions along with additional space for specific comments, if any. Results Poor adherence in the use of personal protective equipment, hand washing, safe handling and disposal of needles and sharp objects were found to be among the practices for which the interns expressed correct knowledge. While the main reasons for non-adherence were found to be clumsiness in handling needles, wearing gloves, feeling uncomfortable when wearing aprons, impracticality of regular hand-washing and non-availability of equipment. Although the majority of the respondents (84.6%) expressed awareness of washing sites of injured with soap and water, approximately 32.3% did not know that antiseptics could cause more damage. Also, only 63.8% expressed awareness of reporting any incidence of occupational exposure, while knowledge on post-exposure prophylaxis regimens was generally found to be poor. Conclusion The considerable gap between knowledge and practice of standard precautions and inadequate knowledge of post-exposure prophylaxis emphasizes the need for continuous onsite training of interns with supportive supervision and monitoring of their activities.

Mukherjee, Shuvankar; Bhattacharyya, Agnihotri; Goswami, Dipendra N.; Ghosh, Santanu; Samanta, Amrita

2013-01-01

93

General-purpose heat source safety verification test series: SVT-11 through SVT-13  

SciTech Connect

The General-Purpose Heat Source (GPHS) is a modular component of the radioisotope thermoelectric generator that will provide power for the Galileo and Ulysses (formerly ISPM) space missions. The GPHS provides power by transmitting the heat of /sup 238/Pu ..cap alpha..-decay to an array of thermoelectric elements. Because the possibility of an orbital abort always exists, the heat source was designed and constructed to minimize plutonia release in any accident environment. The Safety Verification Test (SVT) series was formulated to evaluate the effectiveness of GPHS plutonia containment after atmospheric reentry and Earth impact. The first two reports (covering SVT-1 through SVT-10) described the results of flat, side-on, and angular module impacts against steel targets at 54 m/s. This report describes flat-on module impacts against concrete and granite targets, at velocities equivalent to or higher than previous SVTs.

George, T.G.; Pavone, D.

1986-05-01

94

General-Purpose Heat Source Safety Verification Test series: SVT-7 through SVT-10  

SciTech Connect

The General-Purpose Heat Source (GPHS) is a modular component of the radioisotope thermoelectric generator that will supply power for the Galileo and Ulysses (formerly ISPM) space missions. The GPHS provides power by transmitting the heat of /sup 238/PuO/sub 2/ ..cap alpha..-decay to an array of thermoelectric elements. Because the possibility of an orbital abort always exists, the heat source was designed and constructed to minimize plutonia release in any accident environment. The Safety Verification Test (SVT) series was formulated to evaluate the effectiveness of GPHS plutonia containment after atmospheric reentry and Earth impact. The first report (covering SVT-1 through SVT-6) described the results of flat and side-on module impacts. This report describes module impacts at angles of 15/sup 0/ and 30/sup 0/.

George, T.G.; Pavone, D.

1985-09-01

95

Generalized railway tank car safety design optimization for hazardous materials transport: Addressing the trade-off between transportation efficiency and safety  

Microsoft Academic Search

North America railways offer safe and generally the most economical means of long distance transport of hazardous materials. Nevertheless, in the event of a train accident releases of these materials can pose substantial risk to human health, property or the environment. The majority of railway shipments of hazardous materials are in tank cars. Improving the safety design of these cars

Mohd Rapik Saat; Christopher P. L. Barkan

2011-01-01

96

Dietary supplements and hypertension: potential benefits and precautions.  

PubMed

Dietary supplements (DSs) are used extensively in the general population and many are promoted for the natural treatment and management of hypertension. Patients with hypertension often choose to use these products either in addition to or instead of pharmacologic antihypertensive agents. Because of the frequent use of DS, both consumers and health care providers should be aware of the considerable issues surrounding these products and factors influencing both efficacy and safety. In this review of the many DSs promoted for the management of hypertension, 4 products with evidence of possible benefits (coenzyme Q10, fish oil, garlic, vitamin C) and 4 that were consistently associated with increasing blood pressure were found (ephedra, Siberian ginseng, bitter orange, licorice). The goals and objectives of this review are to discuss the regulation of DS, evaluate the efficacy of particular DS in the treatment of hypertension, and highlight DS that may potentially increase blood pressure. PMID:22747620

Rasmussen, Carly B; Glisson, James K; Minor, Deborah S

2012-07-01

97

A prospective audit of safety issues associated with general anesthesia for pediatric cardiac magnetic resonance imaging.  

PubMed

Background/Objectives:? Cardiac MRI (CMR) is increasingly used for surgical planning and serial monitoring of children with congenital heart disease (CHD). For small children, general anesthesia (GA) is required. We describe our experience of the safety of GA for pediatric CMR, using data collected prospectively over 3?years. Methods:? All consecutive infants undergoing GA for CMR at our institution, between November 2005 and May 2008, were included. Informed and written consent to participate in research investigation was acquired from the guardians of every patient prior to CMR. The cardiac anesthetist completed a standardized data collection form during each procedure. Information collected included demographics, diagnosis, surgical history, anesthetic management, significant incidents, and discharge circumstances. Results:? A total of 120 patients with varying cardiac physiology and a range of hemodynamics underwent GA for CMR during the study period. Gas induction was predominantly used, even in those with impaired ventricular function. The majority (71%) of procedures were undertaken without significant incident. Minor adverse incidents were recorded in 32 patients, mild hypotension being most frequent. One major adverse event occurred. A patient with hypoplastic left heart syndrome (HLHS) suffered hypotension then cardiac arrest in the scanner. This patient was successfully resuscitated. Conclusion:? Although the majority of cases were safe and without incident, the complication rate in children with CHD receiving a GA for CMR is higher than in the general pediatric population. This reinforces the need for a senior, multidisciplinary team to be involved in the care of these children during imaging. PMID:22458837

Stockton, Emma; Hughes, Marina; Broadhead, Mike; Taylor, Andrew; McEwan, Angus

2012-03-28

98

Safety of iobitridol in the general population and at-risk patients.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to review the rate of adverse events after contrast medium administration in the general population and at-risk patients (renal impairment, heart failure (NYHA III or IV), hypotension or hypertension, coronary artery disease, previous reaction to contrast media, asthma and/or allergies, dehydration, diabetes mellitus, poor general condition) under daily practice conditions in a post-marketing surveillance study. Two hundred and ten radiologists conducted various X-ray examinations in 52,057 patients. To document the safety of iobitridol in routine use, all patients undergoing X-ray examinations were included. Exclusion criteria were contraindications listed in the locally approved summary of product characteristics. The adverse event rate was 0.96% (at-risk patients 1.39%); the rate of serious adverse events 0.044% in all patients (at-risk patients 0.057%). Adverse events occurred more often in women than in men (P < 0.001). In patients who had previously reacted to a contrast medium, adverse events were reported in 3.43% with mild to moderate symptoms. In 47.76% of these patients, a premedication was administered. There was no difference in the frequency of adverse events and serious adverse events whether premedicated or not (P = 0.311 and P = 0.295, respectively). Iobitridol was well-tolerated in 99.04% of cases (at-risk patients 98.61%). PMID:16429272

Vogl, Thomas J; Honold, Elmar; Wolf, Michael; Mohajeri, H; Hammerstingl, R

2006-06-01

99

Measuring Positive Externalities from Unobservable Victim Precaution: An Empirical Analysis of Lojack  

Microsoft Academic Search

Private expenditures on crime reduction have potentially important externalities. Observable measures such as barbed-wire fences and deadbolt locks may shift crime to those who are unprotected, imposing a negative externality. Unobservable precautions, on the other hand, may provide positive externalities since criminals cannot determine a priori who is protected. Focusing on one specific form of victim precaution, Lojack, we provide

Ian Ayres; Steven D. Levitt

1997-01-01

100

10 CFR Appendix A to Subpart B of... - General Statement of Safety Basis Policy  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...requirements. 2. The processes embedded in a safety management system should lead to a contractor...including safety structures, systems, and components; (2) A...attributes (such as special facility system requirements, physical...

2010-01-01

101

10 CFR Appendix A to Subpart B of... - General Statement of Safety Basis Policy  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...requirements. 2. The processes embedded in a safety management system should lead to a contractor...including safety structures, systems, and components; (2) A...attributes (such as special facility system requirements, physical...

2009-01-01

102

Generalized railway tank car safety design optimization for hazardous materials transport: addressing the trade-off between transportation efficiency and safety.  

PubMed

North America railways offer safe and generally the most economical means of long distance transport of hazardous materials. Nevertheless, in the event of a train accident releases of these materials can pose substantial risk to human health, property or the environment. The majority of railway shipments of hazardous materials are in tank cars. Improving the safety design of these cars to make them more robust in accidents generally increases their weight thereby reducing their capacity and consequent transportation efficiency. This paper presents a generalized tank car safety design optimization model that addresses this tradeoff. The optimization model enables evaluation of each element of tank car safety design, independently and in combination with one another. We present the optimization model by identifying a set of Pareto-optimal solutions for a baseline tank car design in a bicriteria decision problem. This model provides a quantitative framework for a rational decision-making process involving tank car safety design enhancements to reduce the risk of transporting hazardous materials. PMID:21367523

Saat, Mohd Rapik; Barkan, Christopher P L

2011-05-15

103

Introducing Proper Chemical Hygiene and Safety in the General Chemistry Curriculum  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chemical safety is an important component of science education for everyone, not just for chemistry majors. Developing a responsible and knowledgeable attitude towards chemical safety best starts at the early stages of a student's career. In many colleges and universities, safety education in undergraduate chemistry has been relegated primarily to a few regulatory documents at the beginning of a laboratory

Gordon J. Miller; Stephen A. Heideman; Thomas J. Greenbowe

2000-01-01

104

[Safety profile of rilpivirine: general and neuropsychiatric tolerability, safety in patients with hepatitis B or C viruses, and lipid profile].  

PubMed

Currently available data on the safety and tolerability of rilpivirine come from the product information document, a phase IIb, dose-finding clinical trial (TMC278-C204), the phase III ECHO and THRIVE clinical trials, and the preliminary data from the STaR and SPIRIT clinical trials, with a total of 1,728 patients. The comparator has usually been efavirenz. All studies have found a lower incidence and severity of neuropsychiatric adverse effects, a better lipid profile, and a lower number of patients with subclinical transaminase elevation in patients treated with rilpivirine. However, because of the relatively low number of patients coinfected with hepatitis B or C virus, definitive conclusions cannot be drawn. Similarly, experience in patients with mild or moderate liver failure is limited and there are no safety data in patients with advanced liver failure. PMID:24252528

López Cortés, Luis F; Martínez, Esteban; von Wichmann, Miguel Ángel

2013-06-01

105

General-Purpose Heat Source development: Safety Verification Test Program. Bullet/fragment test series  

SciTech Connect

The radioisotope thermoelectric generator (RTG) that will provide power for space missions contains 18 General-Purpose Heat Source (GPHS) modules. Each module contains four /sup 238/PuO/sub 2/-fueled clads and generates 250 W/sub (t)/. Because a launch-pad or post-launch explosion is always possible, we need to determine the ability of GPHS fueled clads within a module to survive fragment impact. The bullet/fragment test series, part of the Safety Verification Test Plan, was designed to provide information on clad response to impact by a compact, high-energy, aluminum-alloy fragment and to establish a threshold value of fragment energy required to breach the iridium cladding. Test results show that a velocity of 555 m/s (1820 ft/s) with an 18-g bullet is at or near the threshold value of fragment velocity that will cause a clad breach. Results also show that an exothermic Ir/Al reaction occurs if aluminum and hot iridium are in contact, a contact that is possible and most damaging to the clad within a narrow velocity range. The observed reactions between the iridium and the aluminum were studied in the laboratory and are reported in the Appendix.

George, T.G.; Tate, R.E.; Axler, K.M.

1985-05-01

106

General-purpose heat source project and space nuclear safety and fuels program. Progress report  

SciTech Connect

Studies related to the use of /sup 238/PuO/sub 2/ in radioisotopic power systems carried out for the Advanced Nuclear Systems and Projects Division of LASL are presented. The three programs involved are: general-purpose heat source development; space nuclear safety; and fuels program. Three impact tests were conducted to evaluate the effects of a high temperature reentry pulse and the use of CBCF on impact performance. Additionally, two /sup 238/PuO/sub 2/ pellets were encapsulated in Ir-0.3% W for impact testing. Results of the clad development test and vent testing are noted. Results of the environmental tests are summarized. Progress on the Stirling isotope power systems test and the status of the improved MHW tests are indicated. The examination of the impact failure of the iridium shell of MHFT-65 at a fuel pass-through continued. A test plan was written for vibration testing of the assembled light-weight radioisotopic heater unit. Progress on fuel processing is reported.

Maraman, W.J.

1980-02-01

107

General-Purpose Heat Source Development: Safety Verification Test Program. Flyer plate test series  

SciTech Connect

The General-Purpose Heat Source (GPHS) is a modular component of a radioisotope thermoelectric generator (RTG) that will provide electric power for space missions. The initial RTG applications will be for the NASA Galileo and the ESA Ulysses missions. Each of the 18 GPHS modules in an RTG contains four /sup 238/PuO/sub 2/-fueled clads and generates 250 W/sub (t)/. A series of Safety Verification Tests (SVTs) has been conducted to assess the ability of the GPHS fueled clads to contain the plutonia in accident environments. Because a launch pad or postlaunch explosion of the Space Transportation System Vehicle (space shuttle) is one conceivable accident, the SVT plan included a series of tests to simulate the fragment environment that the RTG and GPHS modules would experience in such an event. These tests deal specifically with the flat-on collision of flyer-plate-type fragments with bare, simulant-fueled (depleted UO/sub 2/) clads. Results of these tests suggest that the fueled clad is only minimally breached by collision with 3.53-mm-thick flyer-plate-type fragments of space shuttle alloy at velocities up to 1170 m/s. However, collision of a 38.1-mm-thick plate with a bare GPHS clad, at a velocity of 270 m/s, results in a total release of fuel.

Cull, T.A.; Pavone, D.

1986-09-01

108

General-Purpose Heat Source Safety Verification Test program: Edge-on flyer plate tests  

SciTech Connect

The radioisotope thermoelectric generator (RTG) that will supply power for the Galileo and Ulysses space missions contains 18 General-Purpose Heat Source (GPHS) modules. The GPHS modules provide power by transmitting the heat of STYPu -decay to an array of thermoelectric elements. Each module contains four STYPuO2-fueled clads and generates 250 W(t). Because the possibility of a launch vehicle explosion always exists, and because such an explosion could generate a field of high-energy fragments, the fueled clads within each GPHS module must survive fragment impact. The edge-on flyer plate tests were included in the Safety Verification Test series to provide information on the module/clad response to the impact of high-energy plate fragments. The test results indicate that the edge-on impact of a 3.2-mm-thick, aluminum-alloy (2219-T87) plate traveling at 915 m/s causes the complete release of fuel from capsules contained within a bare GPHS module, and that the threshold velocity sufficient to cause the breach of a bare, simulant-fueled clad impacted by a 3.5-mm-thick, aluminum-alloy (5052-T0) plate is approximately 140 m/s.

George, T.G.

1987-03-01

109

Explosion overpressure test series: General-Purpose Heat Source development: Safety Verification Test program  

SciTech Connect

The General-Purpose Heat Source (GPHS) is a modular, radioisotope heat source that will be used in radioisotope thermoelectric generators (RTGs) to supply electric power for space missions. The first two uses will be the NASA Galileo and the ESA Ulysses missions. The RTG for these missions will contain 18 GPHS modules, each of which contains four /sup 238/PuO/sub 2/-fueled clads and generates 250 W/sub (t)/. A series of Safety Verification Tests (SVTs) was conducted to assess the ability of the GPHS modules to contain the plutonia in accident environments. Because a launch pad or postlaunch explosion of the Space Transportation System vehicle (space shuttle) is a conceivable accident, the SVT plan included a series of tests that simulated the overpressure exposure the RTG and GPHS modules could experience in such an event. Results of these tests, in which we used depleted UO/sub 2/ as a fuel simulant, suggest that exposure to overpressures as high as 15.2 MPa (2200 psi), without subsequent impact, does not result in a release of fuel.

Cull, T.A.; George, T.G.; Pavone, D.

1986-09-01

110

21 CFR 170.20 - General principles for evaluating the safety of food additives.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...describing the proposed use of an additive and the proposed experiments to determine its safety, the Commissioner will advise a...establish the safety of a food additive whether he believes the experiments planned will yield data adequate for an evaluation of...

2013-04-01

111

21 CFR 570.20 - General principles for evaluating the safety of food additives.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...describing the proposed use of an additive and the proposed experiments to determine its safety, the Commissioner will advise a...establish the safety of a food additive whether he believes the experiments planned will yield data adequate for an evaluation of...

2013-04-01

112

General Safety Manual for Vocational-Technical Education and Industrial Arts Programs. Bulletin No. 1674.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This manual is designed to offer suggestions for teaching safety in Louisiana industrial arts and vocational education programs. The suggestions and information presented are intended for use in an ongoing safety program, not a short unit presented at the beginning of the school year. Following an introduction in unit 1, the material has been…

Dennis, Bill; Poston, David

113

Special Radiation Protection Precautions in Therapeutic Nuclear Medicine  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Therapeutic Nuclear Medicine concerns the administration of appropriate amounts of radioactivity of certain isotopes, in order to achieve internal localized irradiation of neoplasmatic cells. Due to the increased level and the specific isotope characteristics of administered radioactivity, special Radiation Protection precautions must be taken. This study addresses such issues, based on national as well as international legislation and guidelines. Application of the principle of optimization is of outmost importance and is based on individual dose planning. The decision about the release of Nuclear Medicine patients after therapy is determined on an individual basis, taking into account patients' pattern of contact with other people, their age and that of persons in the home environment, in addition to other factors. Estimation of the absorbed dose given to the treated organ is based on uptake measurements and other biokinetic data, as well as on the mass of the treated tissue or organ. Concerning pregnant women, the rule of thumb is that they should not be treated, unless the radionuclide therapy is required to save their lives. In that case, the potential absorbed dose and risk to the foetus should be estimated and conveyed to the patient. After radionuclide therapy, a female should be advised to avoid pregnancy for the period of time depending on the specific radionuclide. This is to ensure that the dose to a conceptus/foetus would probably not exceed 1 mGy (the member of the public dose limit). The radiation risk for relatives and caregivers is small and unlikely to exceed the legal dose constraints during the period of the patient's treatment. Solid waste from the patient's stay in hospital is a different matter, and is normally incinerated or held for a period until radioactive decay brings the activity to an acceptable level.

Stefanoyiannis, A. P.; Gerogiannis, J.

2010-01-01

114

Welding, Cutting and Brazing Safety. Module SH-28. Safety and Health.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This student module on welding, cutting and brazing safety is one of 50 modules concerned with job safety and health. This module addresses safety precautions for oxyacetylene welding and gives information about handling compressed gases. Following the introduction, 17 objectives (each keyed to a page in the text) the student is expected to…

Center for Occupational Research and Development, Inc., Waco, TX.

115

Life stages and risk-avoidance: status- and context-sensitivity in precaution systems.  

PubMed

Human typical life history involves specific tradeoffs, resulting in the selection of specific cognitive adaptations, among which a suite of age- and gender-specific precaution systems sensitive to variations in the physical and social environment. Precaution systems take into account the individual's status and life-stage, information about specific threats, as well as the fact that the organism can or cannot address those threats unassisted. Systematic variation in individual decision-making and behavior in risky situations provide insights into the operation of those precaution systems. The literature survey is completed by data gathered among the pastoral Turkana of Kenya showing how variations in precautions and risk avoidance correlate with age, sex, and social conditions. PMID:20883720

Lienard, Pierre

2011-03-01

116

Safety.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses safety issues in science, including: allergic reactions to peanuts used in experiments; explosions in lead/acid batteries; and inspection of pressure vessels, such as pressure cookers or model steam engines. (MKR)

Education in Science, 1996

1996-01-01

117

General safety basis development guidance for environmental restoration decontamination and decommissioning  

SciTech Connect

Safety analyses have the objective of contributing to two essential ingredients of a successful operation. The first is promoting the safety of the operation through worker involvement in information development (safety basis). The second is obtaining approval to conduct the operation (authorization). Typically these ingredients are assembled under separate programs covered by separate DOE requirements. DOE authorization relies on successful development of a document containing up to 21 topics written in terms and language suited to reviewers and approvers. Safety relies on successful training and procedures that convert the technical documented information into terms and language understandable to the worker. This separation can lead to successful incorporation of one ingredient independent of the other. At best, this separation may result in a safe but unauthorized operation; at worst, the separation may result in an unsafe operation authorized to proceed. This guide is based on experiences gained by contractors who have integrated rather than separated the safety and authorization. The short duration of ER/D&D activities, the uncertainties of hazards, and the publicly expressed desire for demonstrable progress in cleanup activities add emphasis to the need to integrate rather than separate and develop new programs. Experience-based information has been useful to workers, safety analysis practitioners, and reviewers in the following ways: (1) Acquiring or developing the needed information in a useful form; (2) Managing the uncertainties during activity development and operation; (3) Identifying the subset of applicable requirements for an activity; (4) Developing the appropriate level of documentation detail for a specific activity; and (5) Increasing the usefulness and use of safety analysis (ownership).

Ellingson, D.R.; Kerr, N. [Westinghouse Hanford Co., Richland, WA (United States); Bohlander, K. [EG and G Rocky Flats, Golden, CO (United States); Hansen, J. [Westinghouse Savannah River Co., Aiken, SC (United States); Crowley, W. [Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc., Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

1994-02-01

118

Peer Tutoring to Prevent Firearm Play: Acquisition, Generalization, and Long-term Maintenance of Safety Skills  

PubMed Central

Hundreds of accidental injuries and deaths to children occur annually in the United States as a result of firearm play. Behavioral skills training (BST) and in situ training have been found to be effective in teaching children the skills to use if they find a firearm, but training requires substantial time and effort. The current study examined the use of peers as tutors as a potential way to decrease the time and resources needed to teach these safety skills to youngsters. Peer trainers conducted BST and in situ training with other children. Children taught by the peer trainers acquired the safety skills and demonstrated them in naturalistic situations in which the skills were needed. Furthermore, all of the peer trainers acquired and maintained the skills. These results support the use of peer tutoring for teaching safety skills to other children.

Jostad, Candice M; Miltenberger, Raymond G; Kelso, Pamela; Knudson, Peter

2008-01-01

119

The Elementary Science Safety Manual. Revised.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Based on the principle that safety education should be a vital component in science instruction, this manual was designed to assist elementary teachers in doing more experiments and activities more confidently by making them aware of dangers and precautions. It also aims to make students aware that safety is a lifetime process and responsibility.…

New Jersey State Dept. of Education, Trenton. Div. of General Academic Education.

120

Analysis of general aviation single-pilot IFR incident data obtained from the NASA Aviation Safety Reporting System  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An analysis of incident data obtained from the NASA Aviation Safety Reporting System (ASRS) has been made to determine the problem areas in general aviation single-pilot IFR (SPIFR) operations. The Aviation Safety Reporting System data base is a compilation of voluntary reports of incidents from any person who has observed or been involved in an occurrence which was believed to have posed a threat to flight safety. This paper examines only those reported incidents specifically related to general aviation single-pilot IFR operations. The frequency of occurrence of factors related to the incidents was the criterion used to define significant problem areas and, hence, to suggest where research is needed. The data was cataloged into one of five major problem areas: (1) controller judgment and response problems, (2) pilot judgment and response problems, (3) air traffic control (ATC) intrafacility and interfacility conflicts, (4) ATC and pilot communication problems, and (5) IFR-VFR conflicts. In addition, several points common to all or most of the problems were observed and reported. These included human error, communications, procedures and rules, and work load.

Bergeron, H. P.

1983-01-01

121

Biological effects of ultrasound: development of safety guidelines. Part II: general review.  

PubMed

In the 1920s, the availability of piezoelectric materials and electronic devices made it possible to produce ultrasound (US) in water at high amplitudes, so that it could be detected after propagation through large distances. Laboratory experiments with this new mechanical form of radiation showed that it was capable of producing an astonishing variety of physical, chemical and biologic effects. In this review, the early findings on bioeffects are discussed, especially those from experiments done in the first few decades, as well as the concepts employed in explaining them. Some recent findings are discussed also, noting how the old and the new are related. In the first few decades, bioeffects research was motivated partly by curiosity, and partly by the wish to increase the effectiveness and ensure the safety of therapeutic US. Beginning in the 1970s, the motivation has come also from the need for safety guidelines relevant to diagnostic US. Instrumentation was developed for measuring acoustic pressure in the fields of pulsed and focused US employed, and standards were established for specifying the fields of commercial equipment. Critical levels of US quantities were determined from laboratory experiments, together with biophysical analysis, for bioeffects produced by thermal and nonthermal mechanisms. These are the basis for safety advice and guidelines recommended or being considered by national, international, professional and governmental organizations. PMID:11369117

Nyborg, W L

2001-03-01

122

Hybrid Electic Vehicle (HEV) Safety Considerations  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This module consists of a presentation and lab both concerning HEV safety and were developed to enhance automotive courses with HEV technologies through a seed grant from the CAAT. Some safety considerations discussed are wire sheathing color, safety gloves, insulated tools, multimeters, high voltage disabling procedures, and HEV smart keys. The lab will familiarize technicians with the safety precautions associated with working on HEVs such as dealing with high voltage and isolating these potentially dangerous circuits.

College, Lewis A.

123

Safety and Sex Practices among Nebraska Adolescents. Technical Report 24.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report describes a range of adolescent behaviors related to their safety and the safety of others. The behaviors reported here range from ordinary safety precautions such as only swimming in supervised areas and wearing helmets when riding a motorcycle to less talked about behaviors such as using condoms during sexual intercourse and carrying…

Newman, Ian M.; Perry-Hunnicutt, Christina

124

General-purpose heat source project and space nuclear safety and fuels program. Progress reportt, January 1980  

SciTech Connect

This formal monthly report covers the studies related to the use of /sup 238/PuO/sub 2/ in radioisotopic power systems carried out for the Advanced Nuclear Systems and Projects Division of the Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory. The two programs involved are the general-purpose heat source development and space nuclear safety and fuels. Most of the studies discussed here are of a continuing nature. Results and conclusions described may change as the work continues. Published reference to the results cited in this report should not be made without the explicit permission of the person in charge of the work.

Maraman, W.J. (comp.)

1980-04-01

125

Debate on MERS-CoV respiratory precautions: surgical mask or N95 respirators?  

PubMed

Since the emergence of Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) in mid-2012, there has been controversy over the respiratory precaution recommendations in different guidelines from various international bodies. Our understanding of MERS-CoV is still evolving. Current recommendations on infection control practices are heavily influenced by the lessons learnt from severe acute respiratory syndrome. A debate on respiratory precautions for MERS-CoV was organised by Infection Control Association (Singapore) and the Society of Infectious Disease (Singapore). We herein discuss and present the evidence for surgical masks for the protection of healthcare workers from MERS-CoV. PMID:25017402

Chung, S J; Ling, M L; Seto, W H; Ang, B S; Tambyah, P A

2014-06-01

126

Machinery Safety on the Farm  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Machinery Safety on the Farm is an online publication designed for Virginia Tech students and instructors that provides an overview of various aspects of maintaining safety in a farm setting. The document highlights common hazards in machinery, complete with diagrams and descriptions for each type; then delves into the various precautions necessary to avoid accidents involving the aforementioned problem areas. The article is available as the html page, or as an optional pdf at the bottom of the page.

Grisso, Robert

2006-12-31

127

Brazilian mothers’ knowledge about home dangers and safety precautions: An initial evaluation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Worldwide, unintentional injuries are a major cause of emergency department visits, hospitalization, permanent disability, and death among children. Today, unintentional injuries are the leading cause of death in children aged 1–14 years in South American countries, including Brazil and Argentina. The majority of unintentional injuries happen in or near the home, and researchers have pointed out that prevention efforts should

Rodolfo de Castro Ribas Jr.; Alexander J. Tymchuk; Adriana F. P. Ribas

2006-01-01

128

48 CFR 252.223-7002 - Safety precautions for ammunition and explosives.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...1) Means liquid and solid propellants and explosives, pyrotechnics, incendiaries and smokes in the following forms: (i...Inert components containing no explosives, propellants, or pyrotechnics; (ii) Flammable liquids; (iii) Acids;...

2013-10-01

129

General-Purpose Heat Source Development: Safety Verification Test Program. Bullet/Fragment Test Series.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The radioisotope thermoelectric generator (RTG) that will provide power for space missions contains 18 General-Purpose Heat Source (GPHS) modules. Each module contains four sup 238 PuO sub 2 -fueled clads and generates 250 W/sub (t)/. Because a launch-pad...

T. G. George R. E. Tate K. M. Axler

1985-01-01

130

Numerical solutions of the aerosol general dynamic equation for nuclear reactor safety studies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Methods and approximations inherent in modeling of aerosol dynamics and evolution for nuclear reactor source term estimation have been investigated. Several aerosol evolution problems are considered to assess numerical methods of solving the aerosol dynamic equation. A new condensational growth model is constructed by generalizing Mason's formula to arbitrary particle sizes, and arbitrary accommodation of the condensing vapor and background

1988-01-01

131

Constrained Mathematics for Calculating Logical Safety and Reliability Probabilities with Uncertain Inputs.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Calculating safety and reliability probabilities with functions of uncertain variables can yield incorrect or misleading results if some precautions are not taken. One important consideration is the application of constrained mathematics for calculating p...

D. K. Cooper J. Cooper

1999-01-01

132

General-purpose heat source development: Safety verification test program. Titanium bullet\\/fragment test series  

Microsoft Academic Search

The radioisotope thermoelectric generator (RTG) that will provide power for the Galileo and Ulysses space missions contains 18 General-Purpose Heat Source (GPHS) modules. Each module contains four 238PuO2-fueled clads and generates 250 W(t). Because the possibility of launch-pad or postlaunch explosion exists and because any explosion would generate a field of high-energy fragments, the fueled clads within each GPHS module

T. G. George

1986-01-01

133

General-purpose heat source development: Safety Verification Test Program. Bullet\\/fragment test series  

Microsoft Academic Search

The radioisotope thermoelectric generator (RTG) that will provide power or space missions contains 18 General-Purpose Heat Source (GPHS) modules. Each module contains four (238)PuO2-fueled clads and generates 250 W sub (t). Because a launch-pad or post-launch explosion is always possible, the ability of GPHS fueled clads within a module to survive fragment impact needs to be determined. The bullet\\/fragment test

T. G. George; R. E. Tate; K. M. Axler

1985-01-01

134

General-Purpose Heat Source Safety Verification Test Program: Edge-on flyer plate tests  

Microsoft Academic Search

The radioisotope thermoelectric generator (RTG) that will supply power for the Galileo and Ulysses space missions contains 18 General-Purpose Heat Source (GPHS) modules. The GPHS modules provide power by transmitting the heat of Pu-238 alpha-decay to an array of thermoelectric elements. Each module contains four Pu-238O2-fueled clads and generates 250 W(t). Because the possibility of a launch vehicle explosion always

T. G. George

1987-01-01

135

Improving universal precautions and client teaching for rural health workers: a peer-group intervention  

Microsoft Academic Search

Health workers can contribute to HIV prevention by minimizing HIV transmission in health facilities and increasing client teaching. We offered a peer-group intervention for Malawian rural health workers to build their universal precautions and teaching skills. A quasi-experimental design using independent sample surveys and observations compared health workers in an intervention and delayed intervention control district at baseline and at

Diana L. Jere; Chrissie P. N. Kaponda; Angela Chimwaza; Kathleen S. Crittenden; Sitingawawo I. Kachingwe; Linda L. McCreary; James L. Norr; Kathleen Norr

2010-01-01

136

Occupational injury history and universal precautions awareness: a survey in Kabul hospital staff  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Health staff in Afghanistan may be at high risk of needle stick injury and occupational infection with blood borne pathogens, but we have not found any published or unpublished data. METHODS: Our aim was to measure the percentage of healthcare staff reporting sharps injuries in the preceding 12 months, and to explore what they knew about universal precautions. In

Ahmad Shah Salehi; Paul Garner

2010-01-01

137

Compliance With Universal Precautions Among Emergency Department Personnel Caring for Trauma Patients  

Microsoft Academic Search

Study objective: Emergency department personnel are at high risk of occupational infection with bloodborne pathogens. The objective of this study was to observe and analyze the use of barrier precautions among ED personnel caring for trauma patients. Methods: This observational study used videotapes of trauma cases seen at an urban Level I trauma center. Study participants were ED and trauma

Bradley Evanoff; Lynn Kim; Sunita Mutha; Donna Jeffe; Carolyn Haase; Debbie Andereck; Victoria Fraser

1999-01-01

138

A model of the precaution adoption process: evidence from home radon testing  

Microsoft Academic Search

The authors present the precaution adoption process model--a stage theory consisting of seven distinct states between ignorance and completed preventive action. The stages are unaware of the issue,' aware of the issue but not personally engaged,' engaged and deciding what to do,' planning to act but not yet having acted,' having decided not to act,' acting,' and maintenance.' The theory

Neil D. Weinstein; Peter M. Sandman

1992-01-01

139

General-Purpose Heat Source Development: safety test program. Postimpact evaluation, Design Iteration Test 1  

SciTech Connect

The General-Purpose Heat Source (GPHS) provides power for space missions by transmitting the heat of /sup 238/PuO/sub 2/ decay to thermoelectric elements. Because of the inevitable return of certain missions, the heat source must be designed and constructed to survive re-entry and Earth impact. The Design Iteration Test (DIT) series is part of an ongoing impact test program. The first DIT used a full GPHS module containing two graphite impact shells (GISs); each GIS contained two iridium (0.3 wt%) capsules filled with /sup 238/PuO/sub 2/. It was impacted at 57 m/s and 930/sup 0/C. All four fuel capsules survived and none was breached. However, serious cracking of the iridium-alloy capsules was found; some cracks extended through approx. 70% of the wall thickness. Postimpact analyses of the unit are described with emphasis on weld structure and performance. 51 figures.

Schonfeld, F.W.

1984-04-01

140

Clinical efficacy and safety of fluoxetine in generalized anxiety disorder in Chinese patients  

PubMed Central

Background Generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) is a prevalent, disabling disease and is highly comorbid with other psychiatric disorders both in Western countries and the People’s Republic of China. Fluoxetine, a selective inhibitor of serotonin reuptake (SSRI), is widely utilized in the management of GAD in clinical practice despite the lack of strong evidence. This article reviews fluoxetine trials to investigate fluoxetine’s efficacy and tolerability in Chinese patients with GAD. Methods A literature review was conducted using the following databases up to and including April 2013: Chinese BioMedical Literature, China National Knowledge Infrastructure, EMBASE, MEDLINE, and PsycINFO. We selected clinical studies that utilized fluoxetine for GAD in which all participants were Chinese. Results Fifteen open-label, non-placebo trials were identified and analyzed; eleven anxiolytics were compared with fluoxetine separately. Short-term efficacy of fluoxetine had been established in these open-label, head-to-head controlled trials. Fluoxetine had rapid onset of action (approximately 1–2 weeks) and seemed to be effective in maintenance treatment. Fluoxetine was generally well-tolerated with the most common side effect of dry month and nausea. Compared to other anxiolytic agents, fluoxetine was equivalent with all of the comparative anxiolytics in terms of efficacy except mirtazapine which showed conflicting results with fluoxetine in two studies. In terms of side effects, fluoxetine was better tolerated than diazepam, doxepine, and amitriptyline, less tolerated than escitalopram, and had similar tolerability with duloxetine as well as alprazolam. Conclusion Given the high risk of bias of the included studies, the overall small sample size of the studies, the lack of placebo control groups as well as the lack of certain clinically meaningful outcomes, it is not possible to recommend fluoxetine as a reliable first-line treatment in Chinese patients with GAD. Furthermore, no definitive implications for clinical practice in choosing anxiolytics can be drawn from this review. Trials with larger sample sizes, better quality, longer duration, and more clinically meaningful outcomes are needed in future research.

Zou, Chuan; Ding, Xiang; Flaherty, Joseph H; Dong, Birong

2013-01-01

141

General-Purpose Heat Source Development: safety test program. Postimpact evaluation, Design Iteration Test 4  

SciTech Connect

The General-Purpose Heat Source (GPHS) provides power for space missions by transmitting the heat of /sup 238/Pu decay to thermoelectric elements. Because of the inevitable return of certain aborted missions, the heat source must be designed and constructed to survive both re-entry and Earth impact. The Design Iteration Test (DIT) series is part of an ongoing test program. The fourth test (DIT-4) was designed to evaluate the effect on impact behavior of changing the procedure used at the Mound Facility (MF) to remove surface defects from drawn cups. The change involved switching from a manual abrasion technique to a motorized, rubber-bonded abrasive wheel. In DIT-4 a partial GPHS module containing two fueled clads (one cleaned manually, and one cleaned with an abrasive wheel) was impacted at a velocity of 58 m/s and a temperature of 930/sup 0/C. Both capsules were severely deformed by the impact and contained large internal cracks. Although the manually cleaned capsule breached, the breaching crack was only 2 ..mu..m wide and released negligible amounts of fuel. There did not appear to be any correlation between cleaning method and capsule performance. Postimpact analyses of the DIT-4 test components are described with emphasis on microstructure and impact response.

George, T.G.; Schonfeld, F.W.

1984-12-01

142

General-Purpose Heat Source development: safety test program. Postimpact evaluation, Design Iteration Test 2  

SciTech Connect

The General-Purpose Heat Source (GPHS) provides power for space missions by transmitting the heat of /sup 238/PuO/sub 2/ decay to thermoelectric elements. Because of the inevitable return of certain missions, the heat source must be Designed and constructed to survive both re-entry and Earth impact. The Design Iteration Test (DIT) series is part of an ongoing test program. In the first Design Iteration Test (DIT-1), a full GPHS module ontaining four iridium-alloy capsules loaded with /sup 238/PuO/sub 2/ was impacted at 57 m/s and 930/sup 0/C. All four capsules survived and none was breached. The capsules used in DIT-1 were loaded and welded at Los Alamos. The second Design Iteration Test (DIT-2) also used a full GPHS module and was impacted at 58 m/s and 930/sup 0/C. The four iridium-alloy capsules used in this test were loaded and welded at the Savannah River Plant (SRP). Postimpact examination revealed that two capsules had survived and two capsules had breached; a small quantity (approx. = 50 ..mu..g) of /sup 238/PuO/sub 2/ was released from the breached capsules. Internal cracking similar to that observed in the DIT-1 capsules was evident in all four of the DIT-2 capsules. Postimpact analyses of the units are described with emphasis on weld structure and performance.

Schonfeld, F.W.; George, T.G.

1984-06-01

143

Laboratory test ordering and results management systems: a qualitative study of safety risks identified by administrators in general practice  

PubMed Central

Objective To explore experiences and perceptions of frontline administrators involved in the systems-based management of laboratory test ordering and results handling in general medical practice. Design Qualitative using focus group interviews. Setting West of Scotland general medical practices in three National Health Service (NHS) territorial board areas. Participants Convenience samples of administrators (receptionists, healthcare assistants and phlebotomists). Methods Transcript data were subjected to content analysis. Results A total of 40 administrative staff were recruited. Four key themes emerged: (1) system variations and weaknesses (eg, lack of a tracking process is a known risk that needs to be addressed). (2) Doctor to administrator communication (eg, unclear information can lead to emotional impacts and additional workload). (3) Informing patients of test results (eg, levels of anxiety and uncertainty are experienced by administrators influenced by experience and test result outcome) and (4) patient follow-up and confidentiality (eg, maintaining confidentiality in a busy reception area can be challenging). The key findings were explained in terms of sociotechnical systems theory. Conclusions The study further confirms the safety-related problems associated with results handling systems and adds to our knowledge of the communication and psychosocial issues that can affect the health and well-being of staff and patients alike. However, opportunities exist for practices to identify barriers to safe care, and plan and implement system improvements to accommodate or mitigate the potential for human error in this complex area.

Bowie, Paul; Halley, Lyn; McKay, John

2014-01-01

144

Fire Safety. Managing School Facilities, Guide 6.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This booklet discusses how United Kingdom schools can manage fire safety and minimize the risk of fire. The guide examines what legislation school buildings must comply with and covers the major risks. It also describes training and evacuation procedures and provides guidance on fire precautions, alarm systems, fire fighting equipment, and escape…

Department for Education and Employment, London (England). Architects and Building Branch.

145

A model of the precaution adoption process: evidence from home radon testing.  

PubMed

We present the precaution adoption process model--a stage theory consisting of seven distinct states between ignorance and completed preventive action. The stages are "unaware of the issue," "aware of the issue but not personally engaged," "engaged and deciding what to do," "planning to act but not yet having acted," "having decided not to act," "acting," and "maintenance." The theory asserts that these stages represent qualitatively different patterns of behavior, beliefs, and experience and that the factors that produce transitions between stages vary depending on the specific transition being considered. Data from seven studies of home radon testing are examined to test some of the claims made by this model. Stage theories of protective behavior are contrasted with theories that see precaution adoption in terms of movement along a single continuum of action likelihood. PMID:1618171

Weinstein, N D; Sandman, P M

1992-01-01

146

Special precautions reduce oropharyngeal contamination in bronchoalveolar lavage for bacteriologic studies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Despite the use of quantitative culture, oropharyngeal contamination of bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) specimens is still a\\u000a factor that limits the usefulness of this technique in the diagnosis of lower respiratory tract infection. To investigate\\u000a whether special precautions could reduce contamination, 20 noninfected patients undergoing diagnostic bronchoscopy were randomized\\u000a into 2 groups of 10 patients: BAL was performed routinely in group

J. A. Pang; A. F. B. Cheng; H. S. Chan; G. L. French

1989-01-01

147

Use of the Precaution Adoption Process Model to examine predictors of osteoprotective behavior in epilepsy.  

PubMed

In the neurology literature it is well established that anti-epileptic drugs (AEDs) lead to bone loss (osteopenia and osteoporosis). Several large epidemiologic studies have found twice the fracture rate in persons with epilepsy compared to the non-epilepsy population. While an increasing level of awareness for preventative measures and screening by neurologists and primary care physicians are recommended, so far no one has attempted to address how knowledge related to calcium and exercise, health beliefs (based on the Health Belief Model) and self-efficacy (confidence in abilities) impact osteoprotective behaviors in epilepsy, based on the Precaution Adoption Process Model (PAPM). The seven-stage PAPM, unlike other health behavior theories where a person is either practicing or not practicing the behavior, conceptualizes behavior change as dynamic and occurring over time. Validated instruments were used to assess knowledge, health beliefs, self-efficacy and stages of the precaution adoption process for four osteoprotective behaviors. For dietary calcium; exercise knowledge and calcium self-efficacy predicted higher stages of precaution adoption. For calcium supplements; age perceived susceptibility for osteoporosis and perceived benefits of calcium predicted higher stages. Exercise adoption stage was most predicted by exercise knowledge and health motivation. For DEXA screening adoption; age and perceived susceptibility predicted higher stages. This study provides hints how persons with epilepsy could be influenced to move from the unaware/unengaged positions into to the stages of adoption and maintenance for osteoprotective behaviors. PMID:17446092

Elliott, John O; Seals, Brenda F; Jacobson, Mercedes P

2007-07-01

148

Precautions for health care workers to avoid hepatitis B and C virus infection.  

PubMed

The burden of exposure to blood-borne pathogens (such as hepatitis B and C viruses) is considerable for health care workers. Hepatitis virus transmission requires a non-immune host, an infectious source, and skin or mucous membrane injury. These three aspects are the main fields for preventional interventions. We reviewed major recent studies on this topic to identify precautions health care workers should take to avoid hepatitis B (HBV) and C virus (HCV) infections. Accordingly, this review looks at aspects of epidemiology, risk factors, economy, knowledge, attitudes, practice, and ethics of HBV and HCV that affect health care workers. The risk of transmission depends on the load of pathogen, infectious characteristics and exposure frequency. Health care workers skill levels and the specific hospital department involved appear to be the most important factors in the exposure of health care workers to blood-borne pathogens. However, many health care workers surveyed, believed that educational programs about standard precautions in their setting were not adequate. Obviously, more detailed studies will be needed to clarify risks and opportunities for health care workers precautions aimed at avoiding HBV and HCV infection, especially in emerging health research communities. PMID:23022838

Askarian, M; Yadollahi, M; Kuochak, F; Danaei, M; Vakili, V; Momeni, M

2011-10-01

149

Work Practice Simulation of Complex Human-Automation Systems in Safety Critical Situations: The Brahms Generalized berlingen Model  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The transition from the current air traffic system to the next generation air traffic system will require the introduction of new automated systems, including transferring some functions from air traffic controllers to on­-board automation. This report describes a new design verification and validation (V&V) methodology for assessing aviation safety. The approach involves a detailed computer simulation of work practices that includes people interacting with flight-critical systems. The research is part of an effort to develop new modeling and verification methodologies that can assess the safety of flight-critical systems, system configurations, and operational concepts. The 2002 Ueberlingen mid-air collision was chosen for analysis and modeling because one of the main causes of the accident was one crew's response to a conflict between the instructions of the air traffic controller and the instructions of TCAS, an automated Traffic Alert and Collision Avoidance System on-board warning system. It thus furnishes an example of the problem of authority versus autonomy. It provides a starting point for exploring authority/autonomy conflict in the larger system of organization, tools, and practices in which the participants' moment-by-moment actions take place. We have developed a general air traffic system model (not a specific simulation of Überlingen events), called the Brahms Generalized Ueberlingen Model (Brahms-GUeM). Brahms is a multi-agent simulation system that models people, tools, facilities/vehicles, and geography to simulate the current air transportation system as a collection of distributed, interactive subsystems (e.g., airports, air-traffic control towers and personnel, aircraft, automated flight systems and air-traffic tools, instruments, crew). Brahms-GUeM can be configured in different ways, called scenarios, such that anomalous events that contributed to the Überlingen accident can be modeled as functioning according to requirements or in an anomalous condition, as occurred during the accident. Brahms-GUeM thus implicitly defines a class of scenarios, which include as an instance what occurred at Überlingen. Brahms-GUeM is a modeling framework enabling "what if" analysis of alternative work system configurations and thus facilitating design of alternative operations concepts. It enables subsequent adaption (reusing simulation components) for modeling and simulating NextGen scenarios. This project demonstrates that BRAHMS provides the capacity to model the complexity of air transportation systems, going beyond idealized and simple flights to include for example the interaction of pilots and ATCOs. The research shows clearly that verification and validation must include the entire work system, on the one hand to check that mechanisms exist to handle failures of communication and alerting subsystems and/or failures of people to notice, comprehend, or communicate problematic (unsafe) situations; but also to understand how people must use their own judgment in relating fallible systems like TCAS to other sources of information and thus to evaluate how the unreliability of automation affects system safety. The simulation shows in particular that distributed agents (people and automated systems) acting without knowledge of each others' actions can create a complex, dynamic system whose interactive behavior is unexpected and is changing too quickly to comprehend and control.

Clancey, William J.; Linde, Charlotte; Seah, Chin; Shafto, Michael

2013-01-01

150

Feasibility, safety, and efficacy of domiciliary thrombolysis by general practitioners: Grampian region early anistreplase trial. GREAT Group.  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE--To assess the feasibility, safety, and efficacy of domiciliary thrombolysis by general practitioners. DESIGN--Randomised double blind parallel group trial of anistreplase 30 units intravenously and placebo given either at home or in hospital. SETTING--29 rural practices in Grampian admitting patients to teaching hospitals in Aberdeen (average distance 36 (range 16-62) miles). PATIENTS--311 patients with suspected acute myocardial infarction and no contraindications to thrombolytic therapy seen at home within four hours of onset of symptoms. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES--Time saving, adverse events, Q wave infarction, left ventricular function. RESULTS--Anistreplase was administered at home 101 minutes after onset of symptoms, while anistreplase was given in hospital 240 minutes after onset of symptoms (median times). Adverse events after thrombolysis were infrequent and, apart from cardiac arrest, not a serious problem when they occurred in the community: seven of 13 patients were resuscitated after cardiac arrest out of hospital. By three months after trial entry the relative reduction of deaths from all causes in patients given thrombolytic therapy at home was 49% (13/163 (8.0%) v 23/148 (15.5%); difference -7.6% (95% confidence interval -14.7% to -0.4%), p = 0.04). Full thickness Q wave infarction was less common in patients with confirmed infarction receiving treatment at home (65/122 (53.3%) v 76/112 (67.9%); difference -14.6% (95% confidence interval -27.0% to -2.2%), p = 0.02). CONCLUSIONS--General practitioners provided rapid pre-hospital coronary care of a high standard. Compared with later administration in hospital, giving anistreplase at home resulted in reduction in mortality, fewer cardiac arrests, fewer Q wave infarcts, and better left ventricular function. Benefits were most marked where thrombolytic therapy was administered within two hours of the onset of symptoms.

1992-01-01

151

Update to the safety program for the general-purpose heat source radioisotope thermoelectric generators for the Galileo and Ulysses missions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

With the rescheduling of the Galileo and Ulysses launches and the use of new upper stages following the Challenger accident, the aerospace nuclear safety program for the general-purpose heat source radioisotope thermoelectric generators (GPHS-RTGs) was extended to accommodate the new mission scenarios. As in the original safety program, the objectives were to determine the response of the GPHS-RTG to the various postulated accident environments and to determine the risk (if any) associated with these postulated accidents. The extended GPHS-RTG safety program was successfully completed in sufficient time to prepare an updated Final Safety Analysis Report (FSAR) with revisions for the October 1989 launch of the Galileo spacecraft.

Bennett, Gary L.; Bradshaw, C. T.; Englehart, Richard W.; Bartram, Bart W.; Cull, Theresa A.; Zocher, Roy W.; Eck, Marshall B.; Mukunda, Meera; Brenza, Peter T.; Chan, Chris C.

1992-01-01

152

Preparation of Teachers and Schools for Safety in Activity Oriented Science Classes.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reports 1978/1979 survey results which determined degree of importance Malaysian schools (n=90) and science teachers placed on laboratory safety. Results of 40-item questionnaire (included in an appendix) focusing on laboratory rules, safety precautions, equipment storage, and teacher attitudes, indicate high concern for safety, continuing…

Aun, Koe Chung

1981-01-01

153

Universal Precautions in the Era of HIV\\/AIDS: Perception of Health Service Providers in Yunnan, China  

Microsoft Academic Search

With a rising HIV\\/AIDS epidemic, it has become especially important for health service providers in China to understand and\\u000a correctly adhere to universal precautions. Using qualitative interview data, perspectives from both health administrators\\u000a and service providers working at all levels of China’s health care system were examined. Service providers admitted selective\\u000a adherence and non-adherence to universal precautions in their daily

Sheng Wu; Li Li; Zunyou Wu; Haijun Cao; Chunqing Lin; Zhihua Yan; Manhong Jia; Haixia Cui

2008-01-01

154

Optimism about safety and group-serving interpretations of safety among pedestrians and cyclists in relation to road use in general and under low light conditions.  

PubMed

Drivers are known to be optimistic about their risk of crash involvement, believing that they are less likely to be involved in a crash than other drivers. However, little comparative research has been conducted among other road users. In addition, optimism about crash risk is conceptualised as applying only to an individual's assessment of his or her personal risk of crash involvement. The possibility that the self-serving nature of optimism about safety might be generalised to the group-level as a cyclist or a pedestrian, i.e., becoming group-serving rather than self-serving, has been overlooked in relation to road safety. This study analysed a subset of data collected as part of a larger research project on the visibility of pedestrians, cyclists and road workers, focusing on a set of questionnaire items administered to 406 pedestrians, 838 cyclists and 622 drivers. The items related to safety in various scenarios involving drivers, pedestrians and cyclists, allowing predictions to be derived about group differences in agreement with items based on the assumption that the results would exhibit group-serving bias. Analysis of the responses indicated that specific hypotheses about group-serving interpretations of safety and responsibility were supported in 22 of the 26 comparisons. When the nine comparisons relevant to low lighting conditions were considered separately, seven were found to be supported. The findings of the research have implications for public education and for the likely acceptance of messages which are inconsistent with current assumptions and expectations of pedestrians and cyclists. They also suggest that research into group-serving interpretations of safety, even for temporary roles rather than enduring groups, could be fruitful. Further, there is an implication that gains in safety can be made by better educating road users about the limitations of their visibility and the ramifications of this for their own road safety, particularly in low light. PMID:22062350

King, M J; Wood, J M; Lacherez, P F; Marszalek, R P

2012-01-01

155

On School Bus Safety. Report of the Department of Education to the Governor and the General Assembly of Virginia. House Document No. 10.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An advisory committee, in response to a 1985 resolution by the Virginia General Assembly, presents this analysis and makes recommendations concerning state school bus safety. The report is divided into eight topics; six appendices comprise three-fourths of the study. "Origin of the Study" states requests to be investigated by the department of…

Virginia State General Assembly, Richmond. House.

156

Improvements in patient safety as a result of preparing for a CNST assessment: observation at district general hospital  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundPatient safety is the utmost concern for clinicians and the Trust. CNST (clinical negligence scheme for Trusts) is designed to ensure high quality is embedded in organisational governance, patient care and safety. Achieving high standards will benefit the patient safety and decrease the premium paid.MethodSince January 2009, the authors reviewed and updated many guidelines and devised carbon copy proformas to

N Katakam; S Patel; AJ Tomlinson; S Das

2010-01-01

157

Safety-analysis report for packaging (SARP) general-purpose heat-source module 750-Watt shipping container  

SciTech Connect

The SARP includes discussions of structural integrity, thermal resistance, radiation shielding and radiological safety, nuclear criticality safety, and quality control. Extensive tests and evaluations were performed to show that the container will function effectively with respect to all required standards and when subjected to normal transportation conditions and the sequence of four hypothetical accident conditions (free drop, puncture, thermal, and water immersion). In addition, a steady state temperature profile and radiation profile were measured using two heat sources that very closely resemble the GPHS. This gave an excellent representation of the GPHS temperature and radiation profile. A nuclear criticality safety analysis determined that all safety requirements are met.

Whitney, M.A.; Burgan, C.E.; Blauvelt, R.K.; Zocher, R.W.; Bronisz, S.E.

1981-10-15

158

Chemical Safety. Part I: Safety in the Handling of Hazardous Chemicals.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Highlights the importance of considering the hazards, precautions, and emergency procedures pertinent to the safe handling of chemicals before introducing students to the laboratory. Discusses safety hazards depending on the chemical's properties including flammability, corrosivity, toxicity, and reactivity; eye protection; and physical hazards.…

Young, Jay A.

1997-01-01

159

Model Checking Safety Properties.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Safety properties are an interesting subset of general temporal properties for systems. In the linear time paradigm, model checking of safety properties is simpler than the general case, because safety properties can be captured by finite automata. This w...

T. Latvala

2002-01-01

160

Air Bag Safety  

MedlinePLUS

... Safety Technology Tires Tires Rating Passenger Van Safety Air Bag Safety Air Bag Basics General Information Air Bag Deployment After Deployment ... Bag Module Crash Sensors Electronic Control Unit Counterfeit Air Bags General Information What Consumers Should Know About Counterfeit ...

161

Safety Handbook.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Safety policies, procedures, and related information are presented in this manual to assist school personnel in a continuing program of accident prevention. Chapter 1 discusses safety education and accident prevention in general. Chapter 2 covers traffic regulations relating to school safety patrols, school bus transportation, bicycles, and…

Montgomery County Public Schools, Rockville, MD.

162

Compliance Test Report. General Tire and Rubber Company Safety Jet, Size 8.25-14, Ply/Ply Rating 4.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report pertains to tests conducted by an independent contractor as part of the National Highway Safety Bureau compliance testing program to determine whether or not motor vehicles and items of motor vehicle equipment comply with applicable Federal Mot...

1969-01-01

163

Policy Manual - Safety Program Overview and Training - Documentation  

Cancer.gov

The safety committee member of each section maintains all safety documentation for his or her appointed area of responsibility. Copies of the Orientation checklists, Universal Precautions and TB training documentation, chemical exposure monitoring, chemical inventory and chemical evaluation, electrical ground checks, and accident reports must be sent to the Program Support Assistant for Clinical Operations. All documentation must be readily available for inspection purposes and tracking of compliance. The program assistant will maintain files and assist the safety committee with monitoring compliance.

164

Flood precaution of companies and their ability to cope with the flood in August 2002 in Saxony, Germany  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The German federal state of Saxony was the most affected region during the severe flood in August 2002, and damage to companies was high. A survey of 415 companies representing a variety of sectors and sizes was undertaken to identify deficits in the flood management of companies. In August 2002, preparedness and precaution of companies was low. Additionally, 45% of the companies had not received any flood warning. Consequently, many companies were unable to perform emergency measures successfully. The mean total damage to companies amounted to 1.1 million euros. However, because of relatively good flood compensation, recovery advanced quickly. After the flood, preparedness and precaution increased, but there is still significant potential for more precautionary measures. The flood warning system should be further improved. Specific incentive and communication programs should be developed for the service and financial sectors, where preparedness and precaution is weakest, as well as for the manufacturing sector, which has the highest damage potential.

Kreibich, Heidi; Müller, Meike; Thieken, Annegret H.; Merz, Bruno

2007-03-01

165

Nuclear criticality safety guide  

SciTech Connect

This technical reference document cites information related to nuclear criticality safety principles, experience, and practice. The document also provides general guidance for criticality safety personnel and regulators.

Pruvost, N.L.; Paxton, H.C. [eds.] [eds.

1996-09-01

166

Pedestrian Safety: Injury Control Curriculum Guide (For K - 3rd Grade). Second Edition.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This curriculum guide attempts to help the early childhood teacher show children how to incorporate safety precautions into daily life. Good safety practices can prevent the death or injury of young children by automobile, truck, bus, pedestrian, bicycle, and tricycle accidents. The guide focuses on student involvement in the learning process and…

Wooner, Rosestelle B., Ed.

167

PROBLEMS CONCERNING THE SAFETY OF GRAPHITE-MODERATED GAS-COOLED NATURAL URANIUM POWER REACTORS  

Microsoft Academic Search

The safety of natural uranium power reactors, graphitemoderated and gas-; cooled, depends on a number of factors. The most important of these are ; reviewed, and their relative significance in certain hypothetical accident ; conditions is estimated. After a brief outline of the irtrinsic safety ; characteristics of the reactors considered, the precautions to be taken in the ; choice

J. Bourgeois; D. Costes; C. Henri; G. Lamiral; Ch. Segot

1962-01-01

168

Risk management and precaution: insights on the cautious use of evidence.  

PubMed Central

Risk management, done well, should be inherently precautionary. Adopting an appropriate degree of precaution with respect to feared health and environmental hazards is fundamental to risk management. The real problem is in deciding how precautionary to be in the face of inevitable uncertainties, demanding that we understand the equally inevitable false positives and false negatives from screening evidence. We consider a framework for detection and judgment of evidence of well-characterized hazards, using the concepts of sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value that are well established for medical diagnosis. Our confidence in predicting the likelihood of a true danger inevitably will be poor for rare hazards because of the predominance of false positives; failing to detect a true danger is less likely because false negatives must be rarer than the danger itself. Because most controversial environmental hazards arise infrequently, this truth poses a dilemma for risk management.

Hrudey, Steve E; Leiss, William

2003-01-01

169

Precautions to be taken by radiologists and radiographers when prescribing hyoscine-N-butylbromide.  

PubMed

Hyoscine-N-butylbromide (Buscopan, Boehringer Ingelheim) is a widely used antispasmodic in radiological practice. There seems to be no consensus as to best practice within radiology regarding the precautions that need to be taken when prescribing Buscopan. We have performed a thorough review of the available literature and make the following recommendations to those administering Buscopan: (1) enquire whether there is an allergic history; (2) ensure patient literature warns that "in the rare event that following the examination you develop painful, blurred vision in one or both eyes, you must attend hospital immediately for assessment"; (3) warn patients to expect blurred vision and not to drive until this has worn off; (4) remind clinicians that special consideration needs to be given as to the method of investigating patients with cardiac instability, such as those recently admitted with acute coronary syndrome, recurrent cardiac pain at rest, uncontrolled left ventricular failure and recent ventricular arrhythmias. PMID:18555031

Dyde, R; Chapman, A H; Gale, R; Mackintosh, A; Tolan, D J M

2008-07-01

170

Coping strategy in adolescents with premenstrual syndrome: application of the construal level theory and the precaution adoption process model.  

PubMed

This study aimed to apply the construal level theory (CLT) to increase the relaxation adoption as a coping behavior in adolescents with premenstrual syndrome (PMS). The theory offers a framework that assumes decision-making about adoption of any given behavior depends on perceived temporal distance from the desired or recommended behavior and thus individual might perceive any information or intervention, at two levels (low or high). In doing so, a trial was conducted on 1578 high school students suffering from PMS. The precaution adoption process model was applied to categorize students in six stages, based on their intention to adopt a behavior. The focus of this study was on students who were in stage 3 of the model (undecided to adopt a behavior that was relaxation). Overall, 411 students were identified and randomly assigned to the three study groups: group 1 (n = 98) who received a CLT-driven intervention containing detailed information about relaxation (low-level construal, LLC); group 2 (n = 150) who received a CTL-driven intervention containing general information about relaxation (high-level construal, HLC); and group 3 (n = 163) who received nothing (control group). The progression from stage 3 toward stage 6 (action) was considered as the desired outcome and it was hypothesized that LLC intervention would be more effective than HLC intervention. Compared to participants in the control group, participants in the high and low construal groups were significantly more likely to advance to the action stage (P < 0.001). In addition, students in the low construal group had made an apparent higher stage progression as compared to the high construal group, although this difference was not statistically significant (P = 0.33). The findings suggest that, for people who are undecided to adopt a new health action, LLC intervention might be more effective. PMID:22788244

Delara, Mahin; Ghofranipour, Fazllollah; Fallah, Parviz Azad; Tavafian, Sedighe Sadat; Kazemnejad, Anoushirvan; Montazeri, Ali; Sani, Abolfazl Rahmani; Kooshki, Mehdi

2013-01-01

171

Development of U.S. Government General Technical Requirements for UAS Flight Safety Systems Utilizing the Iridium Satellite Constellation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This slide presentation reviews the development of technical requirements for Unmanned Aircraft Systems (UAS) utilization of the Iridium Satellite Constellation to provide flight safety. The Federal Aviation Authority (FAA) required an over-the-horizon communication standard to guarantee flight safety before permitting widespread UAS flights in the National Air Space (NAS). This is important to ensure reliable control of UASs during loss-link and over-the-horizon scenarios. The core requirement was to utilize a satellite system to send GPS tracking data and other telemetry from a flight vehicle down to the ground. Iridium was chosen as the system because it is one of the only true satellite systems that has world wide coverage, and the service has a highly reliable link margin. The Iridium system, the flight modems, and the test flight are described.

Murray, Jennifer; Birr, Richard

2010-01-01

172

Safety and efficacy of nifedipine 20 mg tablets in hypertension using electronic data collection in general practice.  

PubMed Central

Electronic data collection was used in this open study to survey the safety and efficacy of nifedipine when used in the treatment of 3972 patients with mild to moderate essential hypertension. The safety and efficacy results are presented and discussed as well as the advantages, disadvantages and reliability of electronic data collection. The validity of data collected electronically has not previously been tested, such data having been assumed to be reliable. The pattern of adverse events reported in this study is compared with the pattern of reports to the Committee on Safety of Medicine (CSM), to Bayer UK and in a large paper-based study of nifedipine, in order to test these assumptions. Reported adverse medical events pre-treatment, prior to entry to the study and noted at visit 1, were compared with reports during treatment in the study at visits 2 and 3. The expected incidence of flushing and headache was seen which diminished with continued treatment. Reductions were seen in dyspnoea and impotence. Ankle oedema was observed and was not reduced by time alone. After one month of treatment with nifedipine 20 mg tablets twice daily, 66.5% of patients had a sitting phase V diastolic blood pressure of 90 mmHg or below and 79% of 95 mmHg or below.

Marley, J E

1989-01-01

173

Health and Safety Manual.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The manual consists of the following chapters: general policies and administration; the Environmental Health and Safety Department; the Medical Services Department: biological hazards; chemical safety; confined space entry; cryogenic safety; electrical sa...

1980-01-01

174

Knowledge and practice of universal precautions among nurses in central hospital, Benin-City, Edo State, Nigeria.  

PubMed

Nurses are faced with professional hazards such as needle pricks and blood-borne infections in their day to day activities in the work place. This study is aimed at finding out the knowledge and practice of universal precautions among nurses at the Central Hospital, Benin City, Edo State, Nigeria. One hundred and fifty-five (155) nurses participated in the cross-sectional study. The nurses were selected using the stratified random sampling method. The nurses had a poor knowledge about universal precautions as only 34.2% of nurses had heard about universal precautions. There was also a poor observance of universal precautions. Knowledge of measures to be taken after the occurrence of occupational accidents/ injuries was also poor, as only 26(16.8%) nurses would report puncture injuries to the clinic, only 13(8.4%) nurses would screen patients for HIV antibody after consent when they sustain work related accident/injuries. Twelve (7.7%) nurses would screen patient to determine hepatitis B status of patient while only 8(5.2%) nurses would go for medical check-up/immunisation with hepatitis B vaccine. PMID:12717461

Ofili, A N; Asuzu, M C; Okojie, O H

2003-03-01

175

The influence of employee, job\\/task, and organizational factors on adherence to universal precautions among nurses  

Microsoft Academic Search

Universal precautions (UP) refer to recommended work practices designed to help prevent occupational exposure to HIV\\/AIDS and other blood-borne pathogens in health care settings. However, despite widespread dissemination of UP guidelines and subsequent government regulatory action, worker adherence remains less than satisfactory. The present study used hierarchical, multiple regression analysis to examine the relative influence of four sets of factors

David M. Dejoy; Lawrence R. Murphy; Robyn M. Gershon

1995-01-01

176

Factors influencing nurses' compliance with Standard Precautions in order to avoid occupational exposure to microorganisms: A focus group study  

PubMed Central

Background Nurses may acquire an infection during the provision of nursing care because of occupational exposure to microorganisms. Relevant literature reports that, compliance with Standard Precautions (a set of guidelines that can protect health care professionals from being exposed to microorganisms) is low among nurses. Additionally, high rates of exposure to microorganisms among nurses via several modes (needlesticks, hand contamination with blood, exposure to air-transmitted microorganisms) occur. The aim of the study was to study the factors that influence nurses' compliance with Standard Precaution in order to avoid occupational exposure to pathogens, by employing a qualitative research design. Method A focus group approach was used to explore the issue under study. Four focus groups (N = 30) were organised to elicit nurses' perception of the factors that influence their compliance with Standard Precautions. The Health Belief Model (HBM) was used as the theoretical framework and the data were analysed according to predetermined criteria. Results Following content analysis, factors that influence nurses' compliance emerged. Most factors could be applied to one of the main domains of the HBM: benefits, barriers, severity, susceptibility, cues to action, and self-efficacy. Conclusions Changing current behavior requires knowledge of the factors that may influence nurses' compliance with Standard Precautions. This knowledge will facilitate in the implementation of programs and preventive actions that contribute in avoiding of occupational exposure.

2011-01-01

177

Health and safety manual  

SciTech Connect

The manual consists of the following chapters: general policies and administration; the Environmental Health and Safety Department; the Medical Services Department: biological hazards; chemical safety; confined space entry; cryogenic safety; electrical safety; emergency plans; engineering and construction; evacuations, trenching, and shoring; fire safety; gases, flammable and compressed; guarding, mechanical; ladders and scaffolds, work surfaces; laser safety; materials handling and storage; noise; personal protective equipment; pressure safety; radiation safety, ionizing and non-ionizing; sanitation; seismic safety; training, environmental health and safety; tools, power and hand-operated; traffic and transportation; and warning signs and devices. (JGB)

Not Available

1980-02-01

178

Risk evaluation for a General Electric BWR, effects of fire protection system actuation on safety-related equipment  

SciTech Connect

Nuclear power plants have experienced actuations of fire protection systems (FPSs) under conditions for which these systems were not intended to actuate. They have also experienced advertent actuations with the presence of a fire. These actuations have often damaged nearby plant equipment. A review of past occurrences of both types of such events on nuclear power plant safety has been performed. Thirteen different scenarios leading to actuation of fire protection systems due to a variety of causes were identified. These scenarios range from inadvertant actuation caused by human errors to hardware failures and include seismic root causes and seismic/fire interactions. A quantification of these thirteen scenarios, where applicable, was performed on a BWR4/MKI. This report estimates the contribution of FPS actuations to core damage frequency and to risk.

Lambright, J.; Ross, S.; Daniel, S. (Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)); Klamerus, E. (Science and Engineering Associates, Inc., Albuquerque, NM (United States))

1992-12-01

179

Laser safety in head and neck cancer surgery  

Microsoft Academic Search

The use of trans-oral laser techniques for the resection of head and neck carcinomas has increased exponentially over the\\u000a last four decades. Inadvertent laser damage to the patient or operating theatre staff is an acknowledged risk. However, no\\u000a data exist to verify the safety margin of commonly employed precautions. The aims of this study was to assess the safety margins

Ferhan Ahmed; Andrew J. Kinshuck; Michael Harrison; Dan O’Brien; Jeffrey Lancaster; Nicholas J. Roland; Shaun R. Jackson; Terrence M. Jones

2010-01-01

180

Laser safety monitoring considerations for the largest dam by means of the generalized three-point method  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Laser systems for monitoring dam deformation based on the three-point method in a vacuum line have been used on dams for more than 10 years. Here we describe some basic and improved optical and laser designs developed for use on the long distance Three Gorges Water Control Project. The basis of the generalized three-point method is also described.

Wang, Shaomin; Zhao, Daomu; Jiang, Xiaoqing; Huang, Fuquan

2001-04-01

181

Precautions taken to avoid abandoning the act of hanging and reducing pain in suicidal hanging cases.  

PubMed

This study presents 17 cases of hanging with some preventative measures, when compared with usual hanging fatalities, between 2002 and 2006 in the province of Konya, Turkey. We observed in 4 cases that the victim had only tied together their hands, whereas in 1 case both the hands (with a clothesline) and mouth (with a plastic bag) had been fastened. In a further case, the oral orifice had been closed using a scarf and in the remaining 11 cases, soft materials such as a scarf, hood, the collar of a coat or shirt had been used as padding against the ligature loop. At first glance, the cases where the victim's hands and/or mouth were found tied were thought to be homicides. However, an investigation of the death scene, together with the autopsy findings and inquiry data, showed the cause of death was from suicide. Thus, in suicidal hanging cases certain precautions and preventative measures were observed. For example, tying the hands together was regarded as a means to make self-release impossible; closure of the oral orifice as a means to prevent the victim from calling out for help, and placing soft material against the ligature loop was thought to be an attempt to lessen the feeling of pain. PMID:19237850

Demirci, Serafettin; Dogan, Kamil Hakan; Erkol, Zerrin; Deniz, Idris

2009-03-01

182

Late lessons from early warnings: Toward realism and precaution with endocrine-disrupting substances.  

PubMed

The histories of selected public and environmental hazards, from the first scientifically based early warnings about potential harm to the subsequent precautionary and preventive measures, have been reviewed by the European Environment Agency. This article relates the "late lessons" from these early warnings to the current debates on the application of the precautionary principle to the hazards posed by endocrine-disrupting substances (EDSs). Here, I summarize some of the definitional and interpretative issues that arise. These issues include the contingent nature of knowledge; the definitions of precaution, prevention, risk, uncertainty, and ignorance; the use of differential levels of proof; and the nature and main direction of the methodological and cultural biases within the environmental health sciences. It is argued that scientific methods need to reflect better the realities of multicausality, mixtures, timing of dose, and system dynamics, which characterize the exposures and impacts of EDSs. This improved science could provide a more robust basis for the wider and wise use of the precautionary principle in the assessment and management of the threats posed by EDSs. The evaluation of such scientific evidence requires assessments that also account for multicausal reality. Two of the often used, and sometimes misused, Bradford Hill "criteria," consistency and temporality, are critically reviewed in light of multicausality, thereby illustrating the need to review all of the criteria in light of 40 years of progress in science and policymaking. PMID:16818262

Gee, David

2006-04-01

183

Determinants of Emergency Department Procedure and Condition-Specific Universal (Barrier) Precaution Requirements for Optimal Provider Protection  

Microsoft Academic Search

Study objective: To determine potential blood and body fluid (B\\/BF) contacts with specific body areas associated with procedures commonly performed in the emergency department and to thereby delineate appropriate procedure-specific precautions.Design: Prospective, observational study assessing procedure-related B\\/BF contacts by use of stratified, blocked sampling of shifts. Participants: ED patients in an inner-city tertiary care university hospital. Results: Of 2,529 procedures

Gabor D Kelen; Karen N Hansen; Gary B Green; Nelson Tang; Chandana Ganguli

1995-01-01

184

Electronic Sensors for Assessing Interactions between Healthcare Workers and Patients under Airborne Precautions  

PubMed Central

Background Direct observation has been widely used to assess interactions between healthcare workers (HCWs) and patients but is time-consuming and feasible only over short periods. We used a Radio Frequency Identification Device (RFID) system to automatically measure HCW-patient interactions. Methods We equipped 50 patient rooms with fixed sensors and 111 HCW volunteers with mobile sensors in two clinical wards of two hospitals. For 3 months, we recorded all interactions between HCWs and 54 patients under airborne precautions for suspected (n?=?40) or confirmed (n?=?14) tuberculosis. Number and duration of HCW entries into patient rooms were collected daily. Concomitantly, we directly observed room entries and interviewed HCWs to evaluate their self-perception of the number and duration of contacts with tuberculosis patients. Results After signal reconstruction, 5490 interactions were recorded between 82 HCWs and 54 tuberculosis patients during 404 days of airborne isolation. Median (interquartile range) interaction duration was 2.1 (0.8–4.4) min overall, 2.3 (0.8–5.0) in the mornings, 1.8 (0.8–3.7) in the afternoons, and 2.0 (0.7–4.3) at night (P<10?4). Number of interactions/day/HCW was 3.0 (1.0–6.0) and total daily duration was 7.6 (2.4–22.5) min. Durations estimated from 28 direct observations and 26 interviews were not significantly different from those recorded by the network. Conclusions The RFID was well accepted by HCWs. This original technique holds promise for accurately and continuously measuring interactions between HCWs and patients, as a less resource-consuming substitute for direct observation. The results could be used to model the transmission of significant pathogens. HCW perceptions of interactions with patients accurately reflected reality.

Lucet, Jean-Christophe; Laouenan, Cedric; Chelius, Guillaume; Veziris, Nicolas; Lepelletier, Didier; Friggeri, Adrien; Abiteboul, Dominique; Bouvet, Elisabeth; Mentre, France; Fleury, Eric

2012-01-01

185

Missouri Elementary Science Safety Manual.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this safety manual is to provide a resource to help manage and minimize potential risks in science classrooms where students spend up to 60% of instructional time engaged in hands-on activities. Information on general laboratory safety, science equipment safety, safety with plants, safety with animals, safety with chemicals, field…

Lemons, Judith L.

186

Safety: An Attitude  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes eight safety concepts developed by the author to teach safety and accident prevention in industrial arts shops and to promote more positive student attitudes toward shop safety. Stressing several general safety concepts instead of requiring dozens of rules has been found to work. (MF)

Smith, Harry T.

1978-01-01

187

Closeout of IE Bulletin 84-02: Failures of General Electric Type HFA relays in use in Class 1E safety systems  

SciTech Connect

Documentation is provided in this report to close IE Bulletin 84--02 regarding the failure of General Electric Type HFA relays in Class 1E safety systems. The relay failures were due to aging of coil wire insulation and nylon or Lexan spools under certain environmental conditions. The bulletin was issued to nuclear power reactor licensees and holders of construction permits to provide assurance that the manufacturer's recommendations for corrective actions would be implemented. The bulletin required four specific actions, plus a review of the general concerns of the bulletin even though some facilities had different relays from those of bulletin concern. Evaluation of utility responses, NRC/Region inspection reports, and regional telephone calls has resulted in bulletin closeout of 116 (98%) of the 118 facilities to which the bulletin was issued for action. Facilities which were shut down or had construction halted indefinitely or permanently when the report was issued are not included in this review. A follow-up item is proposed in Appendix C for the two facilities with open status. Background information is supplied in the Introduction and Appendix A.

Foley, W.J.; Dean, R.S.; Hennick, A. (Parameter, Inc., Elm Grove, WI (USA))

1991-01-01

188

Quality and safety issues highlighted by patients in the handling of laboratory test results by general practices-a qualitative study  

PubMed Central

Background In general practice internationally, many care teams handle large numbers of laboratory test results relating to patients in their care. Related research about safety issues is limited with most of the focus on this workload from secondary care and in North American settings. Little has been published in relation to primary health care in the UK and wider Europe. This study aimed to explore experiences and perceptions of patients with regards to the handling of test results by general practices. Methods A qualitative research approach was used with patients. The setting was west of Scotland general practices from one National Health Service territorial board area. Patients were purposively sampled from practice held lists of patients who received a number of laboratory tests because of chronic medical problems or surveillance of high risk medicines. Focus groups were held and were audio-recorded. Tapes were transcribed and subjected to qualitative analysis. Transcripts were coded and codes merged into themes by two of the researchers. Results 19 participants from four medical practices took part in four focus groups. The main themes identified were: 1. Patients lacked awareness of the results handling process in their practice. 2. Patients usually did not contact their practice for test results, unless they considered themselves to be ill. 3. Patients were concerned about the appropriateness of administrators being involved in results handling. 4. Patients were concerned about breaches of confidentiality when administrators were involved in results handling. 5. Patients valued the use of dedicated results handling staff. 6. Patients welcomed the use of technology to alert them to results being available, and valued the ability to choose how this happened. Conclusions The study confirms the quality and safety of care problems associated with results handling systems and adds to our knowledge of the issues that impact in these areas. Practices need to be aware that patients may not contact them about results, and they need to publicise their results handling processes to patients and take steps to reassure patients about confidentiality with regards to administrators.

2014-01-01

189

["Standard precautions" practices among nurses in a university hospital in Western Algeria].  

PubMed

Health care workers are exposed daily to blood borne injury and infection with a high risk of hepatitis B or C and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) transmission. In the 1980s, the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) developed a set of protocols and guidelines known as standard precautions (SP) to prevent accidental transmission of pathogens. The SP should be followed for each intervention or delivery of care in order to protect health care workers from risks associated with contact with blood and other biological liquids. A survey was conducted in a Western Algerian university hospital to assess nurses' adherence to SP practices. A questionnaire was administered to 450 nurses in the hospital workplace setting. A field survey was also conducted in order to take into account the means and support available to the nurses in these hospital departments, namely to determine availability of hand washing and drying facilities. A total of 133 nurses, 81 women and 52 men, participated in the survey. Personal and professional data, hand-washing frequency, glove wearing practices were collected as data. A large majority (95%) of nurses reported washing their hands after removing their gloves, and 69% of them reported washing their hands between two patients. Male nurses wear gloves more often than females (respectively 77% and 53%). Sharp instruments were correctly disposed of in a puncture-resistant container more of the time. Recapping needles has been reported by two-thirds of survey respondents. Lack of liquid soap and alcohol-based washing solution were noted as major deficiencies as well as the lack of means to properly dry hands in many health care wards. Lack of SP adherence is primarily due to the lack of awareness and knowledge as well as insufficient supply of equipment and materials for good hand hygiene maintenance. This study highlights the urgent need to implement a programme to improve SP adherence among nurses and to increase the supply of hand washing and drying materials. Greater adherence to SP practices will also reduce the risk of occupational exposure to blood borne injury and infection. PMID:19086684

Beghdadli, Benali; Belhadj, Zora; Chabane, Walid; Ghomari, Omar; Kandouci, Abdelkader Baderdine; Fanello, Serge

2008-01-01

190

Constrained Mathematics for Calculating Logical Safety and Reliability Probabilities with Uncertain Inputs  

SciTech Connect

Calculating safety and reliability probabilities with functions of uncertain variables can yield incorrect or misleading results if some precautions are not taken. One important consideration is the application of constrained mathematics for calculating probabilities for functions that contain repeated variables. This paper includes a description of the problem and develops a methodology for obtaining an accurate solution.

Cooper, D.K.; Cooper, J.A.; Ferson, S.

1999-01-21

191

Validation and cross-cultural pilot testing of compliance with standard precautions scale: self-administered instrument for clinical nurses.  

PubMed

Objective.?To perform detailed psychometric testing of the compliance with standard precautions scale (CSPS) in measuring compliance with standard precautions of clinical nurses and to conduct cross-cultural pilot testing and assess the relevance of the CSPS on an international platform. Design.?A cross-sectional and correlational design with repeated measures. Setting.?Nursing students from a local registered nurse training university, nurses from different hospitals in Hong Kong, and experts in an international conference. Methods.?The psychometric properties of the CSPS were evaluated via internal consistency, 2-week and 3-month test-retest reliability, concurrent validation, and construct validation. The cross-cultural pilot testing and relevance check was examined by experts on infection control from various developed and developing regions. Results.?Among 453 participants, 193 were nursing students, 165 were enrolled nurses, and 95 were registered nurses. The results showed that the CSPS had satisfactory reliability (Cronbach ? = 0.73; intraclass correlation coefficient, 0.79 for 2-week test-retest and 0.74 for 3-month test-retest) and validity (optimum correlation with criterion measure; r = 0.76, P < .001; satisfactory results on known-group method and hypothesis testing). A total of 19 experts from 16 countries assured that most of the CSPS findings were relevant and globally applicable. Conclusions.?The CSPS demonstrated satisfactory results on the basis of the standard international criteria on psychometric testing, which ascertained the reliability and validity of this instrument in measuring the compliance of clinical nurses with standard precautions. The cross-cultural pilot testing further reinforced the instrument's relevance and applicability in most developed and developing regions. PMID:24709724

Lam, Simon C

2014-05-01

192

Health and Safety Manual. (Revision).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This revised manual consists of the following chapters: general policies and administration; the Environmental Health and Safety Department; the Medical Services Department; biological hazards; chemical safety; confined space entry; cryogenic safety; elec...

1986-01-01

193

Pro/con debate: are barrier precautions cost-effective in improving patient outcomes in the intensive care unit?  

PubMed

You are responsible for a large medical surgical ICU. Your hospital administration has been very focused on reducing rates of hospital-acquired infections particularly in the wake of increasing public attention. However, it is time for budget preparation and your financial officer is concerned about the escalating costs associated with patient isolation and barrier precautions/personal protective equipment. Having become aware of the high costs associated with these interventions, you start to wonder about the wisdom of spending so much in this area. Your hospital administration wants your direction on next year's expenditures. You are debating whether the expense is worthwhile and advise your hospital administration accordingly. PMID:22264293

Thampi, Nisha; Morris, Andrew M

2012-01-01

194

Highway Safety Program Manual: Volume 3: Motorcycle Safety.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Volume 3 of the 19-volume Highway Safety Program Manual (which provides guidance to State and local governments on preferred highway safety practices) concentrates on aspects of motorcycle safety. The purpose and specific objectives of a State motorcycle safety program are outlined. Federal authority in the highway safety area and general policies…

National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (DOT), Washington, DC.

195

National Chemistry Teacher Safety Survey  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study evaluated the status of secondary school instructional chemistry laboratory safety using a survey instrument which focused on Teacher background Information, Laboratory Safety Equipment, Facility Safety, General Safety, and a Safety Content Knowledge Survey. A fifty question survey instrument based on recent research and questions developed by the researcher was mailed to 500 secondary school chemistry teachers who participated

Barbra A. Plohocki

1998-01-01

196

Test Methods for Sodalime Carbon Dioxide Absorbents.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The following are general safety precautions that are not related to any specific procedures; therefore, they do not appear elsewhere in this document. These are recommended precautions that personnel must understand and use during various phases of testi...

E. T. Long

2002-01-01

197

Health and safety manual. (Revision)  

SciTech Connect

This revised manual consists of the following chapters: general policies and administration; the Environmental Health and Safety Department; the Medical Services Department; biological hazards; chemical safety; confined space entry; cryogenic safety; electrical safety; emergency plans; engineering and construction; evacuations, trenching, and shoring; fire safety; gases, flammable and compressed; guarding, mechanical; ladders and scaffolds, work surfaces; laser safety; materials handling and storage; noise; personal protective equipment; pressure safety; radiation safety, ionizing and non-ionizing; sanitation; seismic safety; training, environmental health and safety; tools, power and hand-operated; traffic and transportation; and warning signs and devices.

Not Available

1986-07-01

198

Vocational Safety Guide to Generalized Safety Provisions as They Apply to: Agricultural Education, Business and Office Education, Health Occupations Education, Home Economics Education, Industrial Arts Education, Marketing and Distributive Education, Trade and Technical Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This vocational safety guide is designed to help Missouri school practitioners at all levels in providing for the safe instruction and work associated with practical arts and vocational and technical subjects. Covered in the individual sections of the guide are the following topics: Missouri legislation and regulations pertaining to school safety;…

Dyrenfurth, Michael J.; Linhardt, Richard E.

199

Comparing Software Measures with Fault Counts Derived from Unit-Testing of Safety-Critical Software  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Systematic validation and verification of safety-critical software is of crucial importance. A key precaution is intensive\\u000a testing at several levels, from the entire system down to individual functional elements, the latter often carried out as\\u000a unit testing. This paper presents results from a unit test performed on a C++ package from a testbed of a safety critical\\u000a application at the

Wolfgang Herzner; Stephan Ramberger; Thomas Länger; Christian Reumann; Thomas Gruber; Christian Sejkora

2005-01-01

200

Efficacy and safety of duloxetine in the treatment of generalized anxiety disorder: a flexible-dose, progressive-titration, placebo-controlled trial.  

PubMed

Generalized anxiety disorder (GAD), a prevalent and chronic illness, is associated with dysregulation in both serotonergic and noradrenergic neurotransmission. Our study examined the efficacy, safety, and tolerability of duloxetine hydrochloride, a dual reuptake inhibitor of serotonin and norepinephrine, for short-term treatment of adults with GAD. In a 10-week, double-blind, progressive-titration, flexible-dose trial, 327 adult outpatients with a DSM-IV-defined GAD diagnosis were randomized to duloxetine 60-120 mg (DLX, N=168) or placebo (PLA, N=159) treatment. The primary efficacy measure was mean change from baseline to endpoint in Hamilton Anxiety Scale (HAMA) total score. Secondary outcome measures included response rate (HAMA total score reduction > or =50% from baseline), Clinician Global Impression-Improvement (CGI-I) scores, and Sheehan Disability Scale (SDS) scores. Patients who received duloxetine treatment demonstrated significantly greater improvement in HAMA total scores (P=.02); a higher response rate (P=.03), and greater improvement (P=.04) than patients who received placebo. Duloxetine-treated patients were also significantly more improved than placebo-treated patients on SDS global functional (P<.01) and work, social, and family/home impairment scores (P<.05). The rate of discontinuation due to adverse events (AEs) was higher for the duloxetine group compared with the placebo group (P=.002). The AEs most frequently associated with duloxetine were nausea, dizziness, and somnolence. Duloxetine was an efficacious, safe, and well-tolerated treatment that resulted in clinically significant improvements in symptom severity and functioning for patients with GAD. PMID:17311303

Rynn, Moira; Russell, James; Erickson, Janelle; Detke, Michael J; Ball, Susan; Dinkel, Jeff; Rickels, Karl; Raskin, Joel

2008-01-01

201

Evaluation of Vancomycin-Resistant Enterococci (VRE)-Associated Morbidity Following Relaxation of VRE Screening and Isolation Precautions in a Tertiary Care Hospital.  

PubMed

Objective.?To determine whether relaxing vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE) precautions results in an increase in the incidence of invasive VRE infections over time. Design.?Retrospective analysis of a microbiology database before and after relaxation of VRE screening and isolation precautions. Setting.?Urban tertiary care teaching hospital in Montreal, Canada. Participants.?All hospitalized and emergency room patients over a 13-year period from January 1, 2000, to March 31, 2013. Methods.?We assessed the results of all microbiology cultures for the presence of VRE as well as the results of all polymerase chain reaction assays for vanA and vanB during the study period. Applying criteria for 4 clinical situations (bacteremia, definite infection, possible infection, and colonization with VRE), we analyzed the effects of relaxed VRE screening and isolation precautions on the incidence of each of these outcomes over the time preceding and following this change. Results.?When VRE screening and isolation precautions were relaxed, a marked rise in VRE colonization was observed, with a lesser but definite rise in the 3 other outcomes. Despite this initial rise in all measures, all incidences other than colonization plateaued during the 34 months of follow-up. Conclusions.?Relaxation of VRE screening and isolation precautions was associated with an immediate increase in colonization and infection incidence. Despite increasing colonization, infection outcomes remained infrequent and stable, suggesting a finite number of susceptible hosts at risk. Relaxation of VRE protocols may not lead to increasing infection incidence in a hospital setting, advocating that cost effectiveness exercises, with targeted screening and isolation precautions, are crucial. PMID:24915209

Popiel, Kristin Y; Miller, Mark A

2014-07-01

202

Child Development Associate Training Program. Unit I: Health and Safety in the Classroom. Module 4: Nutrition for Young Children.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The importance of an adequate diet in a child's growth and development is the topic of this Child Development Associate (CDA) training module. The material emphasizes different nutrients, their food sources and their availability through a variety and combination of different foods. Correct food handling, as well as safety precautions and the…

Philadelphia Community Coll., PA.

203

Microwave and Man--The Direct and Indirect Hazards, and the Precautions  

PubMed Central

Microwave-radar is a form of electromagnetic energy with potential hazards to human health and safety. Its lethal and non-lethal harmful effects have been demonstrated in experimental animals. Lethal effects upon humans from exposure to microwave have not been proved. Alleged non-lethal effects have been limited primarily to cataractogenesis. Increasing use of microwave commercially in communications and domestically, as in micro-ovens, increases the hazard of exposure to microwave. Increasing use of devices which are at risk from microwave, such as implanted cardiac pacemakers and metal surgical appliances and electronic monitoring devices in operating rooms and clinics, present increasing environmental hazards.

Merckel, Charles

1972-01-01

204

49 CFR 385.5 - Safety fitness standard.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Safety fitness standard. 385.5 Section 385.5 ...MOTOR CARRIER SAFETY REGULATIONS SAFETY FITNESS PROCEDURES General § 385.5 Safety fitness standard. The satisfactory safety...

2013-10-01

205

Tutorial on nuclear thermal propulsion safety for Mars  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A range of safety topics related to the use of nuclear thermal propulsion (NTP) are examined including risk and safety analysis methodologies, NERVA reliability, and life-cycle risk assessments. A list of goals for the safe use of NTP is given which includes low radiation levels, avoiding unplanned core destruction, and preventing inadvertent criticality. Safety analysis and failure-mode analysis for NTP are illustrated by means of the fault tree analysis, event tree analysis, failure modes and effects analysis, and preliminary hazards analysis. Data from the NERVA propulsion program show that safety requirements built into the NTP engine are important for diagnostic and preventive assessments. Other key issues affecting the safety of an NTP program encompass precautions at the launch pad, crew isolation from reactor radiation, flight operations safety, and final disposal of the NTP engines and wastes.

Buden, David

1992-07-01

206

Early interactions between animal psychologists and animal activists and the founding of the APA Committee on Precautions in Animal Experimentation.  

PubMed

The current conflict between animal psychologists and animal rights activists often is presented as a recent and unique phenomenon. Although its scope may be unprecedented, the fundamental issues are longstanding. Early criticisms of animal psychologists are viewed in the context of the broader Victorian antivivisectionist movement and are seen as similar to those of the present time. Various attitudes toward animals and research were expressed by individuals such as Charles Darwin, George John Romanes, William James, and John Dewey. Media attacks on animal research were directed at psychologists such as G. Stanley Hall, John B. Watson, Ivan P. Pavlov, and Edward L. Thorndike. The American Psychological Association Committee on Precautions in Animal Experimentation was founded in 1925 at the instigation of Walter B. Cannon, with Robert M. Yerkes as the first chair. PMID:2178508

Dewsbury, D A

1990-03-01

207

Healthcare worker safety is a pre-requisite for injection safety in developing countries.  

PubMed

Unsafe injection practices, including the re-use of unsterile needles and syringes, are commonplace in developing country health settings, and contribute substantially to the global burden of blood-borne viral disease. Unsafe injection practices place at risk not only patients, but also healthcare workers, who practice universal precautions inconsistently and are commonly exposed to blood in the course of their work. Global awareness of the link between unsafe injection practices and the burden of blood-borne viral disease was slow to emerge but has grown in the recent years. In 1999, the World Health Organization (WHO) established the Safe Injection Global Network (SIGN), which advocates a range of interventions for the promotion of injection safety. As well as exhorting healthcare workers to use a new needle and syringe for every injection, they should also be encouraged and supported to protect themselves from exposure to blood. It is argued here that promoting the occupational safety of healthcare workers in developing countries is an essential and currently under-valued component of the response to the problem of unsafe injection practices. Protecting healthcare workers from occupational infection with blood-borne viruses has a range of potential benefits, including safer injection practices for patients and less discrimination against people with HIV/AIDS. There is an urgent need for organisational commitment to the occupational safety of healthcare workers in developing countries, along with the provision of training in injection safety and universal precautions, adequate supplies of personal protective equipment, and hepatitis B vaccination. PMID:15494253

Kermode, Michelle

2004-11-01

208

Space engine safety system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A rocket engine safety system was designed to initiate control procedures to minimize damage to the engine or vehicle or test stand in the event of an engine failure. The features and the implementation issues associated with rocket engine safety systems are discussed, as well as the specific concerns of safety systems applied to a space-based engine and long duration space missions. Examples of safety system features and architectures are given, based on recent safety monitoring investigations conducted for the Space Shuttle Main Engine and for future liquid rocket engines. Also, the general design and implementation process for rocket engine safety systems is presented.

Maul, William A.; Meyer, Claudia M.

1991-01-01

209

Compliance Test Report. General Tire and Rubber Company Safety Jet, Size 9.00-15, Ply/Ply Rating 4, 4/4.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report pertains to tests conducted by an independent contractor as part of the National Highway Safety Bureau compliance testing program to determine whether or not motor vehicles and items of motor vehicle equipment comply with applicable Federal Mot...

1969-01-01

210

Compliance Test Report. General Tire and Rubber Company Safety Jet, Size 6.50-13, Ply/Ply Rating 4, 4/4.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report pertains to tests conducted by an independent contractor as part of the National Highway Safety Bureau compliance testing program to determine whether of not motor vehicles and items of motor vehicle equipment comply with applicable Federal Mot...

1969-01-01

211

Precautions against biological and chemical terrorism directed at food and water supplies.  

PubMed

Deliberate food and water contamination remains the easiest way to distribute biological or chemical agents for the purpose of terrorism, despite the national focus on dissemination of these agents as small-particle aerosols or volatile liquids. Moreover, biological terrorism as a result of sabotage of our food supply has already occurred in the United States. A review of naturally occurring food- and waterborne outbreaks exposes this vulnerability and reaffirms that, depending on the site of contamination, a significant number of people could be infected or injured over a wide geographic area. Major knowledge gaps exist with regard to the feasibility of current disinfection and inspection methods to protect our food and water against contamination by a number of biological and chemical agents. However, a global increase in food and water safety initiatives combined with enhanced disease surveillance and response activities are our best hope to prevent and respond quickly to food- and waterborne bioterrorism. PMID:11571403

Khan, A S; Swerdlow, D L; Juranek, D D

2001-01-01

212

Measuring Positive Externalities From Unobservable Victim Precaution: An Empirical Analysis Of Lojack  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lojack is a hidden radio-transmitter device used for retrieving stolen vehicles. Because there is no external indication that Lojack has been installed, it does not directly affect the likelihood that a protected car will be stolen. There may, however, be positive externalities due to general deterrence. We find that the availability of Lojack is associated with a sharp fall in

Ian Ayres; Steven D. Levitt

1998-01-01

213

Resource Burden Associated with Contact Precautions for Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus and Vancomycin-Resistant Enterococcus: The Patient Access Managers' Perspective  

PubMed Central

We surveyed Patient Access Managers on the impact of Contact Precautions (CP) for methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and vancomycin-resistant enterococcus (VRE) on time-to-bed-assignment, and investigated the factors influencing infection control policies allowing for discontinuation of CP. The majority of respondents reported an increase in time-to-bed-assignment for MRSA/VRE patients.

Shenoy, Erica S.; Walensky, Rochelle P.; Lee, Hang; Orcutt, Benjamin; Hooper, David C.

2012-01-01

214

29 CFR 1926.416 - General requirements.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND HEALTH REGULATIONS FOR CONSTRUCTION Electrical Safety-Related Work Practices § 1926.416 General requirements. (a) Protection of employees...

2013-07-01

215

From general policy to legal rule: aspirations and limitations of the precautionary principle.  

PubMed Central

The rapid spread of the precautionary principle (PP) demonstrates the need to explicitly address the role of precaution in environmental decision making. Unfortunately, the PP in its current form is limited by the vagueness of, and variations in, the many formulations of the PP. This ambiguity in the meaning of the PP would not be so serious if the PP were limited to a general aspirational policy, but in every jurisdiction that has adopted the PP it has been transformed rapidly into a binding legal rule. As a legal rule, the ambiguity of the PP results in arbitrary application by regulatory agencies and reviewing courts and limits the capability of reviewing courts to perform their function in overseeing agency actions. To improve the explicit application of precaution, we must go beyond the current form of the PP and attempt to define the factors that weigh in favor of more or less precaution for specific risks.

Marchant, Gary E

2003-01-01

216

Preparing a Community Hospital to Manage Work-related Exposures to Infectious Agents in BioSafety Level 3 and 4 Laboratories  

Microsoft Academic Search

Construction of new BioSafety Level (BSL) 3 and 4 lab- oratories has raised concerns regarding provision of care to exposed workers because of healthcare worker (HCW) unfamiliarity with precautions required. When the National Institutes of Health began construction of a new BSL-4 labo- ratory in Hamilton, Montana, USA, in 2005, they contracted with St. Patrick Hospital in Missoula, Montana, for

George F. Risi; Marshall E. Bloom; Nancy P. Hoe; Thomas Arminio; Paul Carlson; Tamara Powers; Heinz Feldmann; Deborah Wilson

2010-01-01

217

Farm Safety  

PubMed Central

Accident and safety are related terms; the higher the accident rate in any industry, the greater is the need for safety measures designed to prevent accidents. This article discusses the accident and safety problems in agriculture, which includes horticulture and forestry. There is still a tendency among townspeople to think of the countryside as peaceful and tranquil, a place where nothing happens very quickly and far removed from violent death or crippling injury. This pleasant rustic picture has undergone a striking change in the last 30 years owing to considerable agricultural mechanization and the development of chemical pesticides, which have brought new dangers to those who live and work on the land. Although men have readily adapted themselves to new machines and methods, they have not proved as able to recognize new dangers and learn how to guard against them. In consequence, accidents have increased to such an extent that the whole industry has realized the need for positive preventive measures. In this country, it is generally accepted that an employer of labour has a responsibility to provide safe working conditions for those he employs. Farm safety legislation goes a little further and usually requires an employer to provide necessary safeguards, with the added requirement on a worker to make use of them. It is a feature of accident prevention work that it never reaches a stage when it can be regarded as complete. Even when a reduction in accidents has been achieved, the effort must be sustained or the trend will be quickly reversed. Images

Wilson, G. S.

1966-01-01

218

Conceptual Design and Resources for a General-Purpose Safety and Performance Verification and Validation Toolkit (V2T) for Life-Critical Wireless Medical Device Networks (WMDN)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Wireless medical device network (WMDN) deployment is occurring to facilitate ambulatory patient care, increase safer and more intelligent diagnostic and therapeutic capabilities, and improve flexible patient bed configuration that matches census requirements. Patient safety risks exist from delayed or lost WMDN alarm and data streams, however, and non-proprietary verification and validation (V2) techniques do not exist. Single-vendor and heterogeneous multi-vendor

Elliot B. Sloane; Rick Schrenker

2005-01-01

219

Pharmacovigilance as a tool for safety and monitoring: a review of general issues and the specific challenges with end-stage renal failure patients  

PubMed Central

Pharmacovigilance is instrumental in helping to ensure patient safety for both newly released drugs and those that are well established in the market. However, while pharmacovigilance procedures are strictly regulated in the clinical trial setting, post-marketing adverse event reporting is not well implemented or enforced. As such, the underreporting of adverse events, in relation to drugs that are on the market, is estimated to be in the region of 90%. The identification of drug safety issues in patients with complex diseases and extensive comorbidities is therefore particularly challenging. Dialysis patients – those with end-stage renal disease and often other comorbidities such as diabetes, hypertension, and cardiovascular disease – are a population with significant treatment challenges. Patients receive dialysis using complex medical devices (eg, a peritoneal dialysis home cycler) and also receive a range of pharmaceutical agents as part of dialysis itself (eg, peritoneal dialysis solutions). Many of the pharmaceutical agents used to treat these patients have been developed in populations without these complications and, therefore, an extensive knowledge of potential problems and contraindications in the dialysis population is lacking. It is important that the nephrology community understands the concept of pharmacovigilance – the pharmacologic science relating to the detection, assessment, understanding, and prevention of adverse effects, particularly long-term and short-term side effects, of medicines. Health care professionals (HCPs) and providers, pharmaceutical companies, global regulatory agencies, and the patients themselves all play unique and critical roles in this process. This review defines the science of pharmacovigilance and the process of adverse event reporting, highlights the new directions that pharmacovigilance has taken, and provides insight for HCPs managing dialysis patients into the important role that they play in helping to shape the understanding of a drug’s safety profile in order to continually enhance patient safety.

Jacob, Dalia; Marron, Belen; Ehrlich, Jay; Rutherford, Peter A

2013-01-01

220

Experimental evidence for stages of health behavior change: the precaution adoption process model applied to home radon testing.  

PubMed

Hypotheses generated by the precaution adoption process model, a stage model of health behavior, were tested in the context of home radon testing. The specific idea tested was that the barriers impeding progress toward protective action change from stage to stage. An intervention describing a high risk of radon problems in study area homes was designed to encourage homeowners in the model's undecided stage to decide to test, and a low-effort, how-to-test intervention was designed to encourage homeowners in the decided-to-act stage to order test kits. Interventions were delivered in a factorial design that created conditions matched or mismatched to the recipient's stage (N = 1,897). Both movement to a stage closer to testing and purchase of radon test kits were assessed. As predicted, the risk treatment was relatively more effective in getting undecided people to decide to test than in getting decided-to-act people to order a test. Also supporting predictions, the low-effort intervention proved relatively more effective in getting decided-to-act people to order tests than in getting undecided people to decide to test. PMID:9776003

Weinstein, N D; Lyon, J E; Sandman, P M; Cuite, C L

1998-09-01

221

Using the precaution adoption process model to describe a disaster preparedness intervention among low-income Latinos.  

PubMed

Only 40-50% of households in the United States are currently disaster prepared. In this intervention study, respondent-driven sampling was used to select a sample (n = 187) of low income, Latino residents of Los Angeles County, randomly assigned into two treatment conditions: (i) household preparedness education received through 'promotora' (community health worker) led small group meetings, and (ii) household preparedness education received through print media. Weinstein's Precaution Adoption Process, a stage model appropriate for risk communication guided the intervention. Outcomes are conceptualized as stages of decision making linked to having disaster supplies and creating a family communication plan. Quantitative results showed a significant shift over time from awareness to action and maintenance stages for disaster communication plans and supplies in both study arms; however, the shift in stage for a communication plan for those in the 'platica' study arm was (P < 0.0001) than for those in the media arm. For changes in stage linked to disaster supplies, people in both media and 'platica' study arms improved at the same rate. Simple media-based communications may be sufficient to encourage disadvantaged households to obtain disaster supplies; however, adoption of the more complex disaster family communication requires interpersonal education. PMID:24399266

Glik, Deborah C; Eisenman, David P; Zhou, Qiong; Tseng, Chi-Hong; Asch, Steven M

2014-04-01

222

46 CFR 197.326 - Oxygen safety.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-10-01 false Oxygen safety. 197.326 Section 197...GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS GENERAL...Equipment § 197.326 Oxygen safety. (a) Equipment...

2013-10-01

223

Tracing Glacial-Interglacial Thermohaline Circulation with Nd isotopes: Progress and Precautions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The variability of thermohaline circulation through glacial cycles is still an open issue because conventional paleoceanographic proxies disagree. Nd isotopes are potentially an effective tracer of ocean circulation because the end-member water masses are very different, with the Pacific having much higher values than the North Atlantic. Moreover, depth profiles show that Nd isotope ratios follow water masses. Nd is sequestered from deep water by Fe-Mn oxide precipitation, leaving a record that is extractable from deep sea cores. Unlike light stable isotopes or trace element ratios, Nd isotope ratios are not fractionated by biological processes. Over the few last years the Lamont group has focussed on testing the Nd isotope proxy through comparison of surface sediments and deep water, and examining variations through the last glacial period in deep sea cores with known chronologies. Samples that fail to give marine Sr isotope ratios are rejected. Finding samples that pass the Sr test is a challenge in some regions (for example, the Circum-Antarctic and North Atlantic). Experience shows that if a sample fails the Sr isotope test, then the entire core is likely to fail. Successful cores strongly indicate major changes in the export of NADW to the Southern Ocean over since the last interglacial on both long and millennial time-scales. The current data set can be summarized as follows. (1) Holocene coretop samples reflect present-day bottom water. (2) The conveyor was weak during MIS 2 and 4, and stronger during MIS 3. (3) Data from different depths in the Atlantic are not consistent with a shallowing of NADW and a constant flux during the LGM, but rather indicate weakening of the conveyor. (4) During Termination I, NADW export began to strengthen prior to the Bolling warming, and shows a general strengthening through the transition but a significant weakening during the Younger Dryas. (5) Dansgaard-Oeschger warmings during MIS 3 are accompanied by a strengthened conveyor. The current data indicate Nd isotopes in the Fe-Mn oxide fractions of cores are sensitive tracers of thermohaline circulation changes if samples are screened for the integrity of the marine signal.

Goldstein, S. L.; Hemming, S. R.; Piotrowski, A. M.; Rutberg, R. L.

2002-12-01

224

Resource burden associated with contact precautions for methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus: the patient access managers' perspective.  

PubMed

We surveyed patient access managers on the impact of contact precautions (CP) for methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and vancomycin-resistant enterococcus (VRE) on time to bed assignment, and we investigated the factors influencing infection control policies allowing for discontinuation of CP. The majority of respondents reported an increase in time to bed assignment for patients with a history of MRSA and/or VRE infection or colonization. PMID:22759555

Shenoy, Erica S; Walensky, Rochelle P; Lee, Hang; Orcutt, Benjamin; Hooper, David C

2012-08-01

225

U.S. Consumer Product Safety Commission, Office of the Inspector General, Semiannual Report to Congress: October 1, 2006 to March 31, 2007.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This semiannual report summarizes the major activities performed by the Office of the Inspector General during the period, October 1, 2006 through March 31, 2007. During the reporting period, this office completed 2 audits and 3 investigations. At the end...

2007-01-01

226

Safety Guide for Health Occupations Programs.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The handbook is intended to be utilized by health occupations teachers as supplementary instructional materials for a unit on safety. The document contains general safety rules applicable to hospitals and other health care institutions. Outlined are general rules for fire safety and office and clerical safety and more specific rules for the…

Illinois State Board of Vocational Education and Rehabilitation, Springfield. Div. of Vocational and Technical Education.

227

Data Integration Research of Coal Mine Safety Production System for Emergency Decision-Making  

Microsoft Academic Search

Today the serious casualties of Chinese coal mines happened frequently and caused great casualties and property losses. This situation is extremely associated with scarcity of advanced emergency management(EM) methods for emergences forecast & precaution and decision-making. Data integration of coal mine safety production (CMSP) system is the foundation of solving above problems. According to the multi-source and heterogeneous features of

Pan Qi-dong; Zhang Rui-xin; Duan Dong-sheng; Sun Gang

2009-01-01

228

49 CFR 385.19 - Safety fitness information.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Safety fitness information. 385.19 Section 385...MOTOR CARRIER SAFETY REGULATIONS SAFETY FITNESS PROCEDURES General § 385.19 Safety fitness information. (a) Final ratings...

2013-10-01

229

49 CFR 385.11 - Notification of safety fitness determination.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-10-01 false Notification of safety fitness determination. 385.11 Section 385...MOTOR CARRIER SAFETY REGULATIONS SAFETY FITNESS PROCEDURES General § 385.11 Notification of safety fitness determination. (a) The...

2013-10-01

230

Nuclear-fuel-cycle education: Module 6. Criticality safety  

SciTech Connect

This educational module on criticality safety has chapters devoted to: fundamentals of nuclear criticality safety, nuclear criticality safety experience base, tools for criticality evaluation, subcritical limits, regulation and related impacts, the general practice of nuclear criticality safety, and plant applications.

Knief, R.

1981-12-01

231

46 CFR 197.324 - Diver's safety harness.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-10-01 false Diver's safety harness. 197.324 Section...GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS GENERAL... § 197.324 Diver's safety harness. Each safety...

2013-10-01

232

14 CFR 417.213 - Flight safety limits analysis.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 2009-01-01 2009-01-01 false Flight safety limits analysis. 417.213 Section 417...TRANSPORTATION LICENSING LAUNCH SAFETY Flight Safety Analysis § 417.213 Flight safety limits analysis. (a) General. A...

2009-01-01

233

14 CFR 417.213 - Flight safety limits analysis.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Flight safety limits analysis. 417.213 Section 417...TRANSPORTATION LICENSING LAUNCH SAFETY Flight Safety Analysis § 417.213 Flight safety limits analysis. (a) General. A...

2010-01-01

234

Consideration of Aging in Probabilistic Safety Assessment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Probabilistic safety assessment is a standardised tool for assessment of safety of nuclear power plants. It is a complement to the safety analyses. Standard probabilistic models of safety equipment assume component failure rate as a constant. Ageing of systems, structures and components can theoretically be included in new age-dependent probabilistic safety assessment, which generally causes the failure rate to be

Banjac Titina

235

Laser Hazards and Safety.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The references deal with the precautions employed, or suggested while working with, and administering laser equipment. Hazards to primates, and lower forms of life are discussed. Included are Corporate Author-Monitoring Agency, Subject, and Title indexes.

1971-01-01

236

Safety in Highway Surveying.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Shows the hazards and appropriate precautions for a highway survey party working in rough country, dense vegetation, timberland, mountainous country, and along the highway. Explains safe working practices for various hand tools and equipment.

1994-01-01

237

Risk evaluation for a General Electric BWR, effects of fire protection system actuation on safety-related equipment. Evaluation of generic issue 57  

SciTech Connect

Nuclear power plants have experienced actuations of fire protection systems (FPSs) under conditions for which these systems were not intended to actuate. They have also experienced advertent actuations with the presence of a fire. These actuations have often damaged nearby plant equipment. A review of past occurrences of both types of such events on nuclear power plant safety has been performed. Thirteen different scenarios leading to actuation of fire protection systems due to a variety of causes were identified. These scenarios range from inadvertant actuation caused by human errors to hardware failures and include seismic root causes and seismic/fire interactions. A quantification of these thirteen scenarios, where applicable, was performed on a BWR4/MKI. This report estimates the contribution of FPS actuations to core damage frequency and to risk.

Lambright, J.; Ross, S.; Daniel, S. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Klamerus, E. [Science and Engineering Associates, Inc., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

1992-12-01

238

Precautions to Prevent Rabies  

MedlinePLUS

... for exposure to rabies, such as veterinarians, wildlife officers, animal handlers, and some laboratory workers, may get ... Suzanne Jenkins, V.M.D., M.P.H., Veterinary Epidemiology Consultant for the Virginia Department of Health. ...

239

Policy Manual - Employee Precautions  

Cancer.gov

The Clinical Center (CC) is instituting a strict category of isolation for patients with special respiratory disease, including Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS). It is anticipated that emerging infections or smallpox could be managed with this type of isolation.

240

Missouri Secondary Science Safety Manual.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this safety manual is to provide a resource to help manage and minimize potential risks in science classrooms where students spend up to 60% of instructional time engaged in hands-on activities. This manual contains information on standards, legal aspects, and responsibilities for science safety; general laboratory safety for…

Lemons, Judith L.

241

SAFETY IN THE CHEMICAL LABORATORY.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

MONTHLY ARTICLES ON LABORATORY SAFETY THAT APPEARED IN THE "JOURNAL OF CHEMICAL EDUCATION" BETWEEN JANUARY 1964, AND JANUARY 1967, ARE COMBINED IN THIS MANUAL FOR HIGH SCHOOL AND COLLEGE CHEMISTRY TEACHERS. A GENERAL SECTION DEALS WITH (1) RESPONSIBILITY FOR ACCIDENT PREVENTION, (2) SAFETY CONSIDERATION IN RESEARCH PROPOSALS, (3) A SAFETY

STEERE, NORMAN V.

242

Safety relevant knowledge of orally anticoagulated patients without self-monitoring: a baseline survey in primary care  

PubMed Central

Background Effective and safe management of oral anticoagulant treatment (OAT) requires a high level of patient knowledge and adherence. The aim of this study was to assess patient knowledge about OAT and factors associated with patient knowledge. Methods This is a baseline survey of a cluster-randomized controlled trial in 22 general practices with an educational intervention for patients or their caregivers. We assessed knowledge about general information on OAT and key facts regarding nutrition, drug-interactions and other safety precautions of 345 patients at baseline. Results Participants rated their knowledge about OAT as excellent to good (56%), moderate (36%) or poor (8%). However, there was a discrepancy between self-rated knowledge and evaluated actual knowledge and we observed serious knowledge gaps. Half of the participants (49%) were unaware of dietary recommendations. The majority (80%) did not know which non-prescription analgesic is the safest and 73% indicated they would not inform pharmacists about OAT. Many participants (35-75%) would not recognize important emergency situations. After adjustment in a multivariate analysis, older age and less than 10 years education remained significantly associated with lower overall score, but not with self-rated knowledge. Conclusions Patients have relevant knowledge gaps, potentially affecting safe and effective OAT. There is a need to assess patient knowledge and for structured education programs. Trial registration Deutsches Register Klinischer Studien (German Clinical Trials Register): DRKS00000586. Universal Trial Number (UTN U1111-1118-3464).

2014-01-01

243

Safety against lightning for linemen working on de-energized power lines  

SciTech Connect

Where the risk of accidental power-frequency energization is concerned, the safety ground has a short-circuit discharge duty determined by the configuration and parameters of the power system. Safety is thus assured by selecting a safety ground having a short-circuit safety rating which matches the duty imposed by the power system. Up to now, a similar matching for lightning currents has not been possible. This paper addresses this problem by: 1. Determining the lightning current rating of typical safety grounds. 2. Calculating the lightning current discharge duty of safety grounds in terms of the insulatuon level of the line and the distance from the location of the thunderstorm. The analysis shows that special precautions are needed when working on power lines of voltage classes above 360 kV.

Mousa, A.M.; Srivastava, K.D.

1986-01-01

244

General aviation's meteorological requirements  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Communication of weather theory and information about weather service products to pilots in an accurate and comprehensible manner is essential to flying safety in general. Probably no one needs weather knowledge more than the people who fly through it. The specific subject of this overview is General Aviation's Meteorological Requirements.

Newton, D.

1985-01-01

245

Propeller Safety  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

With over 412,000 members, the Aircraft Owners and Pilots Association (AOPA) continues to work for the issues that are important to its members. One area that they are very concerned with is providing educational materials and opportunities for those persons who would like to enter the aircraft maintenance field. They are continuingly updating their online collection of technical primers and general overviews. One particular noteworthy publication is their "Propeller Safety" manual. Within the document's 12 pages, visitors can learn the basics about working around the propeller, prop mechanics, and key maintenance matters. Along the way, interested parties will find helpful graphics, photographs, and visual aids that will help them identify various problem areas.

246

Herbal Safety  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In the past decade, there has been an increased interest in herbal medicines and treatments, both from the mainstream medical community and the general public. One need look no further than the cold drink section of the local supermarket to see the various herbal supplements that are prominently displayed on many drink labels. In an effort to provide critical evaluations of these various herbs and related products, the University of Texas at El Paso has created this important website in order to disseminate information about research findings related to herbal use and to provide these findings in both English and Spanish. There are a number of very helpful fact sheets presented here, including those that the deal with such commonly used medicinal herbs and plants, such as ginseng, chamomile, pumpkin seeds, and St. John's Wort. The Herbal Safety site also contains information on recent medical studies that examine the effectiveness of such medicinal treatments.

247

Laser safety.  

PubMed

The use of lasers in medical practice has seen great expansion in the past decades. However, these devices may also pose a significant hazard. Laser hazards are generally divided into beam hazards and nonbeam hazards. Beam hazards inflict ocular and cutaneous injury, whereas nonbeam hazards stem from the laser device itself or its interaction with materials within the surgical environment. The latter include laser plume hazards, fire hazards, and electrical hazards inherent in a high-voltage system that is a laser device. Therefore, a thorough understanding of these hazards along with methods to reduce their risk is of paramount importance in order to ensure maximal safety for the surgeon, the staff, and the patient. PMID:21865796

Dudelzak, Jacob; Goldberg, David J

2011-01-01

248

Safety Panel Resources  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The goal of this paper is to explore what resources are potentially available to safety panels and to provide some guidance on how to utilize those resources. While the examples used in this paper will concentrate on the Flight Equipment and Reliability Review Panel (FESRRP) and Extravehicular Activity (EVA) hardware that have come through that panel, as well as resources at Johnson Space Center, the paper will address how this applies to safety panels in general, and where possible cite examples for other safety panels.

Stewart, Christine E.

2008-01-01

249

ORGANIZATIONAL CULTURE, SAFETY CULTURE, AND SAFETY PERFORMANCE AT RESEARCH FACILITIES.  

SciTech Connect

Organizational culture surveys of research facilities conducted several years ago and archival occupational injury reports were used to determine whether differences in safety performance are related to general organizational factors or to ''safety culture'' as reflected in specific safety-related dimensions. From among the organizations surveyed, a pair of facilities was chosen that were similar in size and scientific mission while differing on indices of work-related injuries. There were reliable differences in organizational style between the facilities, especially among workers in environment, safety, and health functions; differences between the facilities (and among job categories) on the safety scale were more modest and less regular.

BROWN,W.S.

2000-07-30

250

Worker health and safety in concentrated animal feeding operations.  

PubMed

A trend in consolidating livestock and poultry operations into concentrated animal feeding operations (CAFOs) potentially increases farm worker exposure to the hazards associated with high animal density conditions. The two main contributors of documented injury (fatal and non-fatal) are related to accidents with machinery and animals. Tractor rollovers are the leading accident in the area of farming machinery issues; kicks, bites, and workers being pinned between animals and fixed objects are non-machinery issues typically caused by inadequate precautions taken in the vicinity of livestock. These types of accidents are well documented; however, recommended safety strategies continue to be studied to reduce the risks and numbers of injuries associated with both machines and animals. Unlike accidents involving machinery and animals, air emission exposure and potential health effects from CAFOs are not well documented. CAFOs have the potential to show higher gaseous and particulate matter emissions compared to smaller farms. Pollutants like hydrogen sulfide, ammonia, volatile organic compounds, particulate matter, and endotoxin are emitted on CAFOs and can potentially affect worker health. These specific air emissions, their sources, and some of their harmful capabilities have been identified, and regulations have been implemented to create improved work environments on CAFOs. Despite such precautions, farm workers continue to report respiratory health symptoms related to their work environment. Air pollutant exposure and its health effects on farm workers require focused research to arrive at improved safety strategies that include mitigation techniques and protective gear to minimize adverse effects of working in CAFOs. PMID:18524283

Mitloehner, F M; Calvo, M S

2008-04-01

251

Hand Safety  

MedlinePLUS

... is a Hand Therapist? About ASSH Hand Safety Fireworks Lawnmowers Snowblowers Pumpkin Carving Gardening Turkey Carving Removing ... is a Hand Therapist? About ASSH Hand Safety Fireworks Lawnmowers Snowblowers Pumpkin Carving Gardening Turkey Carving Removing ...

252

Tractor Safety  

MedlinePLUS

... tractor is involved in a high proportion of farm fatalities and severe injuries. To avoid them, follow safe management principles and implement a tractor safety program on your farm. • Develop a "safety first" attitude. Follow safe work ...

253

ATV Safety  

MedlinePLUS

... an accident less likely and help prevent serious injuries if an accident does happen. Reviewed by: Sean M. Elwell, MSN, RN, EMT, and Patti ... Safety Center Farm Safety Broken Bones Learning to Drive: Tips and ...

254

49 CFR 801.10 - General.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...10 Section 801.10 Transportation...NATIONAL TRANSPORTATION SAFETY BOARD PUBLIC AVAILABILITY...Administration § 801.10 General...files containing aviation and surface investigators...National Transportation Safety Board, Attention...this information change. (e) The...

2010-10-01

255

29 CFR 1910.22 - General requirements.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS Walking-Working Surfaces § 1910.22 General requirements. This section applies to all permanent places of...

2010-07-01

256

Safety Rules  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Safety is an important part of a science lesson or activity. This safety material is part of a series of hands-on science activities designed to arouse student interest. Sixteen rules reinforce common safety concerns for science classrooms. Among the safety rules are the recommendations that teachers practice demonstrations before presenting them, make proper eyewear and shields available, use customary disposal techniques, and possess a thorough knowledge of the chemical reactions being used. Copyright 2005 Eisenhower National Clearinghouse

Mid-continent Research for Education and Learning (McREL); Jacobs, Steve

2004-01-01

257

Safety management vs. picking leaves.  

PubMed

A safety program will generally have as its base a comprehensive written document made available for everyone in the organization. The document should indicate a positive commitment to safety by management. It should not be a "how to" guide, but rather a broad outline to establish responsibilities, goals, and methods. The safety manager is appointed in writing and answers to the highest level of management. As opposed to a "doer," the safety manager acts as a director and administrator of the safety program. This is accomplished through the advisory capacity of the safety program for solicited and unsolicited problems. The focus of the safety manager is on the system and how it contributes to safety problems, rather than individual problems. Management has the ultimate responsibility for safety. Their efforts should reflect a proactive attitude to correct problems in the system. In order to identify areas of interest, technically competent input from the safety manager should be required. The support of the safety program by top management determines the success of the program. Without a clear and firm commitment by the organization, safety will receive no more than lip service from the employees. The benefits of a proactive approach will be realized in the organization's ability to manage safety issues, rather than reacting to them. PMID:10113760

Wright, D

1991-09-01

258

77 FR 55371 - System Safety Program  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Association (ASLRRA); American Train Dispatchers Association... Institute of Makers of Explosives; International Association...securement, passenger safety in train stations, and system safety...intercity or commuter passenger train service on the general...

2012-09-07

259

Questioned Highway Safety Program Costs in Mississippi.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Department of Transportation's Office of Inspector General conducted two audits of the Mississippi State Highway Safety Grant Program at the request of the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration. GAO believes that the State's response to quest...

1981-01-01

260

14 CFR 34.6 - Aircraft safety.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Aircraft safety. 34.6 Section 34.6 ...ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT FUEL VENTING AND EXHAUST EMISSION...AIRPLANES General Provisions § 34.6 Aircraft safety. (a) The...

2014-01-01

261

47 CFR 36.605 - Calculation of safety net additive.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 2010-10-01 false Calculation of safety net additive. 36.605 Section 36.605 Telecommunication...Fund General § 36.605 Calculation of safety net additive. (a) “Safety net additive support.” A rural incumbent local...

2010-10-01

262

47 CFR 36.605 - Calculation of safety net additive.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... 2011-10-01 false Calculation of safety net additive. 36.605 Section 36.605 Telecommunication...Fund General § 36.605 Calculation of safety net additive. (a) “Safety net additive support.” A rural incumbent local...

2011-10-01

263

47 CFR 36.605 - Calculation of safety net additive.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... 2012-10-01 false Calculation of safety net additive. 36.605 Section 36.605 Telecommunication...Support General § 36.605 Calculation of safety net additive. (a) “Safety net additive support.” Beginning January...

2012-10-01

264

49 CFR 176.4 - Port security and safety regulations.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-10-01 false Port security and safety regulations. 176.4 Section...PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... General § 176.4 Port security and safety regulations. (a)...

2013-10-01

265

29 CFR 1926.21 - Safety training and education.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...OF LABOR (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND HEALTH REGULATIONS FOR CONSTRUCTION General Safety and Health Provisions § 1926.21 Safety...environment to control or eliminate any hazards or other exposure to illness or injury. (3) Employees required to handle or...

2013-07-01

266

21 CFR 610.11 - General safety.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...test prescribed in this section need not be performed for Whole Blood, Red Blood Cells, Cryoprecipitated AHF, Platelets, Plasma, or Cellular Therapy Products. (2) For products other than those identified in paragraph (g)(1) of...

2011-04-01

267

The Product Engineering Class in the Software Safety Risk Taxonomy for Building Safety-Critical Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

When software safety requirements are imposed on legacy safety-critical systems, retrospective safety cases need to be formulated as part of recertifying the systems for further use and risks must be documented and managed to give confidence for reusing the systems. The SEI software development risk taxonomy focuses on general software development issues. It does not, however, cover all the safety

Janice Hill; Daniel Victor

2008-01-01

268

Safety in the Chemical Laboratory. Safety in the Laboratory: Are We Making Any Progress?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reviews trends in laboratory safety found in both industrial and academic situations. Reports that large industrial labs generally have excellent safety programs but that, although there have been improvements, academia still lags behind industry in safety. Includes recommendations for improving lab safety. (ML)

McKusick, Blaine C.

1987-01-01

269

General Aviation Pilot Education Program.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

General Aviation Pilot Education (GAPE) was a safety program designed to improve the aeronautical education of the general aviation pilot in anticipation that the national aircraft accident rate might be improved. GAPE PROGRAM attempted to reach the average general aviation pilot with specific and factual information regarding the pitfalls of his…

Cole, Warren L.

270

49 CFR 385.7 - Factors to be considered in determining a safety rating.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...TRANSPORTATION FEDERAL MOTOR CARRIER SAFETY REGULATIONS SAFETY FITNESS PROCEDURES General § 385.7 Factors to be considered... The factors to be considered in determining the safety fitness and assigning a safety rating include information from...

2013-10-01

271

49 CFR 385.17 - Change to safety rating based upon corrective actions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...FEDERAL MOTOR CARRIER SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION FEDERAL MOTOR CARRIER SAFETY REGULATIONS SAFETY FITNESS PROCEDURES General § 385.17 Change to safety rating based upon corrective actions. (a) A motor carrier that...

2013-10-01

272

Lasers and laser applications in the 1990s: A survey of laser safety schemes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A survey of the status of laser safety in UK laser companies is reported. UK laser manufacturers/suppliers were questioned on the types of laser sold, their application and about their laser safety schemes. Nearly two-thirds of suppliers produce lasers in the Class IIIB and IV categories, i.e. those requiring the highest level of safety precautions. However, just under half the companies had difficulties in implementing the current UK laser safety standards (BS 7192/IEC 825). A case is demonstrated for a mechanism providing practical advice on implementation of these standards. This is further strengthened by comparison of a survey carried out five years ago indicating a similar number of manufacturers with difficulties.

Vassie, L. H.; Tyrer, J. R.; Soufi, B.; Clarke, A. A.

273

Guide for Science Laboratory Safety.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

General and specific safety procedures and recommendations for secondary school science laboratories are provided in this guide. Areas of concern include: (1) chemicals (storage, disposal, toxicity, unstable and incompatible chemicals); (2) microorganisms; (3) plants; (4) animals; (5) electricity; (6) lasers; (7) rockets; (8) eye safety and…

McDermott, John J.

274

Science & Safety: Making the Connection.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document provides information on the most commonly asked science safety questions by science teachers primarily at the secondary school level. Topics include the legal responsibilities of a science teacher, a general safety checklist, proper labeling and storing of chemicals, purchasing of new chemicals and disposing of old chemicals, a…

Council of State Science Supervisors, VA.

275

Safety First in Science Teaching.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This publication is intended to be a resource for teachers and administrators who are responsible for the safety of students, and others, in the general areas where science instructing is occurring. The handbook is designed to assist teachers of science regardless of their background in science. Particular concerns such as laboratory safety

North Carolina State Dept. of Public Instruction, Raleigh. Div. of Science Education.

276

Patient Safety in Clinical Trials  

Cancer.gov

Information for patients, their families and friends, and the general public about how the rights and safety of people who take part in clinical trials are protected. Learn about informed consent, institutional review boards (IRB's), and how trials are closely monitored for safety.

277

Atomic Power Safety.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This publication is one of a series of information booklets for the general public published by The United States Atomic Energy Commission. Among the topics discussed are: What is Atomic Power?; What Does Safety Depend On?; Control of Radioactive Material During Operation; Accident Prevention; Containment in the Event of an Accident; Licensing and…

Hogerton, John F.

278

78 FR 71715 - Amendments to Highway Safety Program Guidelines  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...the American Automobile Association (AAA), American Traffic Safety Services Association...several organizations or associations: AAA, Advocates for Highway and Auto Safety...as well as from one individual. General AAA offered general support for the...

2013-11-29

279

Policy Manual - Safety Practice References  

Cancer.gov

 CCR Home   About CCR   CCR Intranet        Laboratory of Pathology LP Home Clinical Services Basic Sciences Training LP Staff Accessibility of Web Site Policy Manual Main Page LP Forms and Checklists General Safety Practices Introduction Standard

280

49 CFR 806.1 - General policy.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...General policy. 806.1 Section 806.1 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) NATIONAL TRANSPORTATION SAFETY BOARD NATIONAL SECURITY INFORMATION POLICY AND GUIDELINES, IMPLEMENTING REGULATIONS...

2009-10-01

281

49 CFR 806.1 - General policy.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...General policy. 806.1 Section 806.1 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) NATIONAL TRANSPORTATION SAFETY BOARD NATIONAL SECURITY INFORMATION POLICY AND GUIDELINES, IMPLEMENTING REGULATIONS...

2010-10-01

282

5 CFR 550.906 - Termination of hazard pay differential.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

(b) Safety precautions have reduced the element of hazard to a less than significant level of risk, consistent with generally accepted standards that may be applicable, such as those published by the Occupational Safety and Health Administration, Department of Labor;...

2014-01-01

283

The Committee Studying Contagious Disease Training for Public Safety Personnel. Report of the Committee on Training of the Criminal Justice Services Board to the Governor and the General Assembly of Virginia. House Document No. 15.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Through discussion and extensive research, the Committee Studying Contagious Disease Training attempted to address concerns regarding education and training of public safety personnel with regard to human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and hepatitis B virus (HBV). The committee's findings were based on Occupational Safety and Health Administration…

Virginia State Dept. of Criminal Justice Services, Richmond.

284

Safety issues  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The purpose of the NASA safety review process is to make sure that any system hazards that can endanger the manned flight system are precluded. The systems that address manned flight in a payload safety review process are discussed. The types of basic hazards that are normally addressed on any of the payloads are: contamination, electrical shock, explosions, radiation, and temperature extremes.

Rohal, R.

1991-01-01

285

Safety First!  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Working with young children and chemicals requires attention to safety. This article details the experiences of a third-grade teacher who used a "disaster" to create a hands-on inquiry that introduces children to chemistry safety during a third-grade acid/base exploration.

Longfield, Judith

2006-02-01

286

Lab Safety.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In response to the Texas Hazardous Communication Act (THCA) of 1986 which raised many new health and liability issues regarding students in science laboratories, a laboratory safety survey was generated for use in evaluating laboratory safety. This article contains the easy-to-use survey. (ZWH)

West, Sandra S.

1991-01-01

287

Laser safety.  

PubMed

Laser safety is a critical component in any laser surgery program. When used improperly, lasers have the potential to cause severe skin burns, induce corneal opacity and cataracts, damage the retina leading to blindness, and cause chronic respiratory diseases. For these reasons, each laser user is obligated to establish and comply with a laser safety program as outlined by ANSI. PMID:12064040

Fry, Thomas R

2002-05-01

288

Safety Systems  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Colleges across the country are rising to the task by implementing safety programs, response strategies, and technologies intended to create a secure environment for teachers and students. Whether it is preparing and responding to a natural disaster, health emergency, or act of violence, more schools are making campus safety a top priority. At…

Halligan, Tom

2009-01-01

289

The procedure safety system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Telerobotic operations, whether under autonomous or teleoperated control, require a much more sophisticated safety system than that needed for most industrial applications. Industrial robots generally perform very repetitive tasks in a controlled, static environment. The safety system in that case can be as simple as shutting down the robot if a human enters the work area, or even simply building a cage around the work space. Telerobotic operations, however, will take place in a dynamic, sometimes unpredictable environment, and will involve complicated and perhaps unrehearsed manipulations. This creates a much greater potential for damage to the robot or objects in its vicinity. The Procedural Safety System (PSS) collects data from external sensors and the robot, then processes it through an expert system shell to determine whether an unsafe condition or potential unsafe condition exists. Unsafe conditions could include exceeding velocity, acceleration, torque, or joint limits, imminent collision, exceeding temperature limits, and robot or sensor component failure. If a threat to safety exists, the operator is warned. If the threat is serious enough, the robot is halted. The PSS, therefore, uses expert system technology to enhance safety thus reducing operator work load, allowing him/her to focus on performing the task at hand without the distraction of worrying about violating safety criteria.

Obrien, Maureen E.

1990-01-01

290

Bromine Safety  

SciTech Connect

The production and handling in 1999 of about 200 million kilograms of bromine plus substantial derivatives thereof by Great Lakes Chemical Corp. and Albemarle Corporation in their southern Arkansas refineries gave OSHA Occupational Injury/Illness Rates (OIIR) in the range of 0.74 to 1.60 reportable OIIRs per 200,000 man hours. OIIRs for similar industries and a wide selection of other U.S. industries range from 1.6 to 23.9 in the most recent OSHA report. Occupational fatalities for the two companies in 1999 were zero compared to a range in the U.S.of zero for all computer manufacturing to 0.0445 percent for all of agriculture, forestry and fishing in the most recent OSHA report. These results show that bromine and its compounds can be considered as safe chemicals as a result of the bromine safety standards and practices at the two companies. The use of hydrobromic acid as an electrical energy storage medium in reversible PEM fuel cells is discussed. A study in 1979 of 20 megawatt halogen working fluid power plants by Oronzio de Nora Group found such energy to cost 2 to 2.5 times the prevailing base rate at that time. New conditions may reduce this relative cost. The energy storage aspect allows energy delivery at maximum demand times where the energy commands premium rates. The study also found marginal cost and performance advantages for hydrobromic acid over hydrochloric acid working fluid. Separate studies in the late 70s by General Electric also showed marginal performance advantages for hydrobromic acid.

Meyers, B

2001-04-09

291

Applications and safety data  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A general overview of activities involving lithium batteries, which shows the various applications and data that were performed for numerous industry and government sponsors is presented. Brief discussions on electrochemical criteria selection, and typical storage and performance data obtained from three systems being developed are presented. Current safety work being done on high-rate, D, SO2 cells is also discussed. Three chemistries were developed and are discussed: lithium vanadium pentoxide, lithium sulfur dioxide, and lithium thionyl chloride. Storage, performance and safety data are graphically presented.

Berlangieri, N. J.

1978-01-01

292

Stacked generalization  

Microsoft Academic Search

: This paper introduces stacked generalization, a scheme for minimizing the generalizationerror rate of one or more generalizers. Stacked generalization works by deducing the biases of thegeneralizer(s) with respect to a provided learning set. This deduction proceeds by generalizing ina second space whose inputs are (for example) the guesses of the original generalizers when taughtwith part of the learning set

David H. Wolpert

1992-01-01

293

42 CFR 93.100 - General policy.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE POLICIES ON RESEARCH MISCONDUCT General § 93.100 General policy. (a) Research misconduct involving PHS support...safety of the public, to the integrity of research, and to the conservation of...

2012-10-01

294

Safety in the presence of lightning.  

PubMed

Not enough emphasis is usually placed on the proactive ability to recognize the lightning hazard. Instead, most literature and training materials treat the reactive mode. The latter approach emphasizes the posture to take when a person is caught by surprise in the open by a thunderstorm when the lightning threat is at its greatest; in other words, it is too late for precautions. The same reactive approach concentrates on what a person is wearing or holding when lightning is overhead instead of how the person came to be in this situation in the first place. Rather than focusing on these last-minute factors, the primary issue must be on the ability of a person, whether in a baseball game, riding a bike, or on a golf course, to recognize in advance the existence of a major lightning threat. This proactive approach emphasizes advance planning and recognition of a potential threat from lightning. A complete plan involves a sequence of decisions on a time scale from days to seconds. Although most of the available information in pamphlets and safety guidelines is correct concerning the reactive phase of lightning safety, the hazard remains important because of the lack of emphasis on planning and awareness. PMID:8848656

Holle, R L; López, R E; Howard, K W; Vavrek, J; Allsopp, J

1995-12-01

295

Defibrillation safety in emergency helicopter transport.  

PubMed

Rotary aircraft play a growing role in the transport of critically ill patients who may require emergency treatment, including defibrillation, during transport. The close quarters and proximity of vital electronic equipment have generated concern among personnel carrying out defibrillation in the air. We address the chief safety issues in helicopter defibrillation by providing measurements of the transient leakage current resulting from contact with a paddle and tested in-flight electronic interference and survey the defibrillation experience of helicopter programs. Our data show that airborne defibrillation is safe. A maximum of 1.5 mA of transient leakage current was measured from a standard battery-powered defibrillator, well within the accepted safety standard of 50 mA. In flight, there was no interference with the avionics or medical equipment, and adequate clearance was available for personnel. Of the helicopter programs surveyed, 69 (87%) had defibrillated in flight without incident. We conclude that defibrillation can be performed in the helicopter without hesitation whether on the ground or in the air, provided standard defibrillation precautions are observed. PMID:2910165

Dedrick, D K; Darga, A; Landis, D; Burney, R E

1989-01-01

296

Safety - PPE  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This high school activity from the Florida Advanced Technological Education (FL-ATE) Center challenges "your students' ability to identify safety hazards, as they play the role of a safety inspector." On this page, visitors will find a link to two company overview sheets, one with information about TECO, a company that generate and distributes electricity, and another with information about CF Industries, a fertilizer producer. The site also provides a lesson plan, a PowerPoint presentation, and a student handout. This is a great resource to introduce students to hands-on practices in safety inspection in different industries.

2009-10-07

297

Software safety  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Software safety and its relationship to other qualities are discussed. It is shown that standard reliability and fault tolerance techniques will not solve the safety problem for the present. A new attitude requires: looking at what you do NOT want software to do along with what you want it to do; and assuming things will go wrong. New procedures and changes to entire software development process are necessary: special software safety analysis techniques are needed; and design techniques, especially eliminating complexity, can be very helpful.

Leveson, Nancy

1987-01-01

298

Effect of implementation of safety measures in tae kwon do competition  

PubMed Central

Background: Previous reviews of tae kwon do (TKD) tournaments have documented injury rates of 25/1000 to 12.7/100 athlete exposures. Most injuries have been reported to be to the head and the neck and are occasionally very serious. Many of these studies involved high level TKD competitions with minimal safety precautions. Recently, safety measures have been implemented in many TKD competitions. Objective: To evaluate retrospectively the incidence of injuries in TKD competitions involving a wide range of participants and featuring extensive safety precautions. Methods: A total of 2498 participants ranged in age from 18 to 66, included both men and women, and ranged in rank from yellow to black belt. Traumas, defined as any event requiring interaction with medical staff, were documented with respect to mechanism, diagnosis, treatment, and follow up recommendations. An injury was defined as a trauma that prevented a contestant from resuming competition on the day that the trauma occurred, according to National Collegiate Athletic Association criteria. Results: The injury rate was 0.4/1000 athlete exposures. This is lower than reported in previous studies of TKD tournaments and in many other sports. Conclusion: TKD tournaments that emphasise limited contact, protective equipment, and medical supervision are relatively safe and compare favourably with other sports.

Burke, D; Barfoot, K; Bryant, S; Schneider, J; Kim, H; Levin, G

2003-01-01

299

Pesticide Exposure, Safety Issues, and Risk Assessment Indicators  

PubMed Central

Pesticides are widely used in agricultural production to prevent or control pests, diseases, weeds, and other plant pathogens in an effort to reduce or eliminate yield losses and maintain high product quality. Although pesticides are developed through very strict regulation processes to function with reasonable certainty and minimal impact on human health and the environment, serious concerns have been raised about health risks resulting from occupational exposure and from residues in food and drinking water. Occupational exposure to pesticides often occurs in the case of agricultural workers in open fields and greenhouses, workers in the pesticide industry, and exterminators of house pests. Exposure of the general population to pesticides occurs primarily through eating food and drinking water contaminated with pesticide residues, whereas substantial exposure can also occur in or around the home. Regarding the adverse effects on the environment (water, soil and air contamination from leaching, runoff, and spray drift, as well as the detrimental effects on wildlife, fish, plants, and other non-target organisms), many of these effects depend on the toxicity of the pesticide, the measures taken during its application, the dosage applied, the adsorption on soil colloids, the weather conditions prevailing after application, and how long the pesticide persists in the environment. Therefore, the risk assessment of the impact of pesticides either on human health or on the environment is not an easy and particularly accurate process because of differences in the periods and levels of exposure, the types of pesticides used (regarding toxicity and persistence), and the environmental characteristics of the areas where pesticides are usually applied. Also, the number of the criteria used and the method of their implementation to assess the adverse effects of pesticides on human health could affect risk assessment and would possibly affect the characterization of the already approved pesticides and the approval of the new compounds in the near future. Thus, new tools or techniques with greater reliability than those already existing are needed to predict the potential hazards of pesticides and thus contribute to reduction of the adverse effects on human health and the environment. On the other hand, the implementation of alternative cropping systems that are less dependent on pesticides, the development of new pesticides with novel modes of action and improved safety profiles, and the improvement of the already used pesticide formulations towards safer formulations (e.g., microcapsule suspensions) could reduce the adverse effects of farming and particularly the toxic effects of pesticides. In addition, the use of appropriate and well-maintained spraying equipment along with taking all precautions that are required in all stages of pesticide handling could minimize human exposure to pesticides and their potential adverse effects on the environment.

Damalas, Christos A.; Eleftherohorinos, Ilias G.

2011-01-01

300

Fireworks Safety  

MedlinePLUS

... at 350 °F Water boils at 212 °F Fireworks Safety Fireworks are often used to mark special ... fireworks NFPA is opposed to consumer use of fireworks. This includes sparklers and firecrackers. Even sparklers burn ...

301

Bike Safety  

MedlinePLUS

... for speed on a paved surface, all those high-tech shocks and other mountain-climbing gadgets will do ... and look inside for either a CPSC (Consumer Product Safety Commission) or Snell sticker. Only buy helmets ...

302

Auto Safety  

MedlinePLUS

... from forward-facing child safety seat to belt-positioning booster seat. Review the forward-facing convertible seat ... of age and older. Some convert to belt-positioning booster seats. Weight and height limits will vary ...

303

Water Safety  

MedlinePLUS

... best measure of protection. Back Continue Making Kids Water Wise It's important to teach your kids proper ... water during bad weather, especially lightning. Back Continue Water Park Safety Water parks can be a lot ...

304

Sun Safety  

MedlinePLUS

... Related Links Buttons and Badges Cancer Home Sun Safety The sun’s ultraviolet (UV) rays can damage your ... UV protection than a dry one, and darker colors may offer more protection than lighter colors. Some ...

305

Cryogenics Safety.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The safety hazards associated with handling cryogenic fluids are discussed in detail. These hazards include pressure buildup when a cryogenic fluid is heated and becomes a gas, potential damage to body tissues due to surface contact, toxic risk from breat...

R. Reider

1977-01-01

306

Pedestrian Safety  

MedlinePLUS

... blurb should go here Social Media ACEP in Social Media Campaigns Campaigns Read Patient Stories Health News About Emergencies Childhood / Student Emergencies Diseases & Infections Disaster Preparedness Elderly Safety Holiday & Seasonal Injury Prevention Travel & Motor Vehicle ...

307

Safety Guidelines  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In order for students to inquire confidently, we must create safe classroom environments. Safety is not just a set of rules but a state of mind, and perhaps, most importantly, it is an attitude and a set of skills that carry over into a students' daily life. But research also shows that the space in which students inquire is vital to their safety and security. This chapter summarizes some of the important factors that contribute to safe laboratory environments.

Biehle, James T.; Motz, Lamoine L.; West, Sandra S.

2007-01-01

308

System safety education focused on flight safety  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The measures necessary for achieving higher levels of system safety are analyzed with an eye toward maintaining the combat capability of the Air Force. Several education courses were provided for personnel involved in safety management. Data include: (1) Flight Safety Officer Course, (2) Advanced Safety Program Management, (3) Fundamentals of System Safety, and (4) Quantitative Methods of Safety Analysis.

Holt, E.

1971-01-01

309

Millwright Apprenticeship. Related Training Modules. 1.1-1.8 Safety.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This packet, part of the instructional materials for the Oregon apprenticeship program for millwright training, contains eight modules covering safety. The modules provide information on the following topics: general safety, hand tool safety, power tool safety, fire safety, hygiene, safety and electricity, types of fire and fire prevention, and…

Lane Community Coll., Eugene, OR.

310

Perceptions about safety and risks in gender-based violence research: implications for the ethics review process.  

PubMed

Does research on gender-based violence (GBV) pose greater than minimal risk to researchers and participants? This question needs to be understood particularly in light of hesitancy by Institutional Review Boards to approve research on GBV. The safety and risks of doing GBV studies and the implications for the ethical review process have not been a focus of much research. This qualitative study collected data through in-depth interviews with 12 experienced GBV researchers from various countries and a desk review. This paper explores researchers' interpretation of and meanings of the safety recommendations as provided in the WHO guidelines and whether there is empirical evidence on the presence of risks and safety concerns unique to GBV research. Informants raised a number of safety concerns about GBV research, yet in the interviews there were very few examples of problems having occurred, possibly because of the precautions applied. This paper argues that the notion that GBV studies carry greater than minimal risk when ethics precautions are followed is based on speculation, not evidence. It highlights the need for empirical evidence to support assertions of risk in research. PMID:21824018

Sikweyiya, Yandisa; Jewkes, Rachel

2011-10-01

311

Safety in the scanning electron microscopy laboratory--1984 update.  

PubMed

Recent information on hazards as they relate to safety in the SEM laboratory has been compiled. The paper concentrates on recent information on formaldehyde, embeddants, and a reminder of the possible hazards of photographic chemicals. A review of formaldehyde does not substantiate it as a human carcinogen or mutagen. However, the other hazards associated with it suggest that formaldehyde needs to be handled with care. The recent substantiation of epoxy resins as mutagens suggests that all operations involving embeddants should be undertaken in an effective fume hood. Other precautions are also important. The hazards of photographic chemicals need to be reiterated. It should also be pointed out that adequate ventilation of dark rooms would do a lot to reduce this hazard. PMID:6529456

Barber, V C

1984-01-01

312

Testing the reliability and validity of a measure of safety climate.  

PubMed

The lack of compliance with universal precautions (UP) is well documented across a wide variety of healthcare professions and has been reported both before and after the enactment of the Occupational Safety and Health Administration's Bloodborne Pathogens Standard. Gershon, Karkashian, and Felknor (1994) found that several factors correlated significantly with healthcare workers' lack of compliance with UP, including a measure of organizational safety climate (e.g., the employees' perception of their organizational culture and practices regarding safety). We conducted a secondary analysis using data from a cross-sectional survey of a convenience sample of 1,746 healthcare workers at risk of occupational exposure to bloodborne pathogens to assess the validity and reliability of Gershon's measure of safety climate. Findings revealed no relationship between safety climate and employees' gender, age, education, tenure in position, profession, hours worked per day, perceived risk, attitude toward risk, and training. An association was demonstrated between safety climate and (1) healthcare worker compliance with UP and (2) the availability of personal protective equipment, providing support for the construct validity of this measure of safety climate. These findings could be used by occupational health professionals to assess employees' perceptions of the safety culture and practices in the workplace and to guide the institution's risk management efforts in association with U.P. PMID:10847862

Anderson, E; McGovern, P M; Kochevar, L; Vesley, D; Gershon, R

2000-01-01

313

Electrical Power Transmission and Distribution Safety. Module SH-40. Safety and Health.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This student module on electrical power transmission and distribution safety is one of 50 modules concerned with job safety and health. This module focuses on some of the general safety rules, techniques, and procedures that are essential in establishing a safe environment for the electrical power transmission worker. Following the introduction,…

Center for Occupational Research and Development, Inc., Waco, TX.

314

49 CFR 385.9 - Determination of a safety rating.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...MOTOR CARRIER SAFETY REGULATIONS SAFETY FITNESS PROCEDURES General § 385.9 Determination...385.7 as computed under the Safety Fitness Rating Methodology set forth in appendix...carrier are consistent with the safety fitness standard set forth in § 385.5,...

2013-10-01

315

Plant air systems safety study: Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant  

SciTech Connect

The Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant Air System facilities and operations are reviewed for potential safety problems not covered by standard industrial safety procedures. Information is presented under the following section headings: facility and process description (general); air plant equipment; air distribution system; safety systems; accident analysis; plant air system safety overview; and conclusion. (JGB)

Not Available

1982-05-01

316

Texas Driver and Traffic Safety Education Teacher Preparation Guide.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This guide contains detailed descriptions of four university courses designed to give basic driver and traffic safety education preparation to prospective driver education teachers. The basic courses are as follows: Safety Education (general safety education concepts with emphasis on nontraffic areas); Driver and Traffic Safety Education I…

Texas Education Agency, Austin. Div. of Curriculum Development.

317

Science Safety  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Created by specialists at the Baylor College of Medicine's BioEd Online team, the Science Safety site brings together videos, pamphlets, and other instructional resources designed to help students and educators learn about lab safety. The site contains three key videos: "Tools and Equipment of Science," "Using a Bright Field Light Microscope," and "Using a Micropipettor." Demonstrators include scientists and teachers from around Texas and the tone of the films is erudite, age-appropriate, and accessible. Additionally, the site includes links to Lesson Demonstrations, which address subjects such as ecology, forces and motion, and microorganisms.

Vu, Michael

318

NASA Aerospace Safety Advisory Panel  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Established by Congress after the Apollo spacecraft fire in January 1967, the Aerospace Safety Advisory Panel (ASAP) is an independent group of experts tasked with advising "the NASA Administrator and Congress on all safety-related issues -- design, development, manufacturing, flight preparation, and missions operations -- concerning NASA's human space flight programs." The ASAP homepage features the text of previous annual reports and general information about the Panel and its activities.

319

Agricultural Safety  

MedlinePLUS

... than 20 years of age die annually from farm-related injuries (1995 -2002), with most of these deaths occurring ... an estimated 14,000 youth were injured on farms; 2,700 of these injuries were due to farm work. National occupational safety ...

320

Child Safety  

MedlinePLUS

... right child safety seat in your car Teach children how to cross the street safely Make sure they wear the right gear and equipment for sports Install and test smoke alarms Store medicines, cleaners and other dangerous ... your home Don't leave small children unattended

321

Water Safety  

MedlinePLUS

... be sure to wear a Coast Guard-approved life jacket when necessary, and be sure there is lifeguard supervision. And make sure you do slide runs feet first or you'll put yourself at risk for a ride that's a lot less fun — one to your doctor or dentist. Boating Safety ...

322

Safety Analysis.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

We are engaged in a research program in safety-critical computing that is based on two case studies. We use these case studies to provide application-specific details of the various research issues, and as targets for evaluation of research ideas. The fir...

1995-01-01

323

Safety First!  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this article, the author relates how a hands-on chemistry investigation provided her the inspiration to develop an effective safety lesson for her third grade chemistry class. She began the lesson by demonstrating the use of pH indicator paper to show that ordinary household (white) vinegar was an acid. With the students, she wondered aloud…

Longfield, Judith

2006-01-01

324

First Aid and Safety  

MedlinePLUS

... for Toddlers and Preschoolers Computer-Related Repetitive Stress Injuries Concussions Electrical, Heating & Cooling: Household Safety Checklist Farm Safety Fire Safety Firesetting First-Aid Kit Food ...

325

CRITICALITY SAFETY TRAINING AT FLUOR HANFORD (FH)  

SciTech Connect

The Fluor Hanford Criticality Safety engineers are extensively trained. The objectives and requirements for training are derived from Department of Energy (DOE) and American National Standards Institute/American Nuclear Society Standards (ANSI/ANS), and are captured in the Hanford Criticality Safety Program manual, HNF-7098. Qualification cards have been established for the general Criticality Safety Engineer (CSE) analyst, CSEs who support specific facilities, and for the facility Criticality Safety Representatives (CSRs). Refresher training and continuous education in the discipline are emphasized. Weekly Brown Bag Sessions keep the criticality safety engineers informed of the latest developments and historic perspectives.

TOFFER, H.

2005-05-02

326

Current Immunization Methods and Precautions  

PubMed Central

The more commonly used immunizing agents appear to be safe and remarkably effective when administered according to the present routines. The most serious deficiency at the present in the prevention of pertussis, diphtheria, tetanus, smallpox, and measles lies, not in ineffective antigens, but in administration of the present antigens to a larger proportion of the population. It is expected that appropriate sampling techniques will define areas of poor vaccine utilization in many communities. Proper coordination of immunization efforts in each community should result in a more satisfactory level of immunization.

Wehrle, Paul F.

1964-01-01

327

Precautions regarding Nonword Repetition Tasks  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Using nonword repetition tasks as an experimental approach with both adults and children has become quite common in the past 10 to 15 years for studying lexical learning and phonological processing (e.g., Bailey & Hahn, 2001; Gathercole, Frankish, Pickering & Peaker, 1998; Munson, Edwards, & Beckman, 2005; Storkel, 2001; Vitevich & Luce, 2005). In…

Smith, Bruce

2006-01-01

328

Disease Precautions for Dog Walkers  

MedlinePLUS

... wind to unintended targets (such as other non-aggressive dogs or yourself), and use caution. The best ... dogs or dogs that you know have shown aggression toward people or other dogs. Make sure that ...

329

Safety Assessment of Probiotics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Viable microbes have been a natural part of human diet throughout the history of mankind. Today, different fermented foods and other foods containing live microbes are consumed around the world, including industrialized countries, where the diet has become increasingly sterile during the last decades. By definition, probiotics are viable microbes with documented beneficial effects on host health. Probiotics have an excellent safety record, both in humans and in animals. Despite the wide and continuously increasing consumption of probiotics, adverse events related to probiotic use are extremely rare. Many popular probiotic strains such as lactobacilli and bifidobacteria can be considered as components of normal healthy intestinal microbiota, and thus are not thought to pose a risk for the host health - in contrast, beneficial effects on health are commonly reported. Nevertheless, the safety of probiotics is an important issue, in particular in the case of new potential probiotics which do not have a long history of safe use, and of probiotics belonging to species for which general assumption of safety cannot be made. Furthermore, safety of probiotics in high-risk populations such as critically ill patients and immunocompromized subjects deserves particular attention, as virtually all reported cases of bacteremia and fungemia associated with probiotic use, involve subjects with underlying diseases, compromised immune system or compromised intestinal integrity.

Lahtinen, Sampo J.; Boyle, Robert J.; Margolles, Abelardo; Frias, Rafael; Gueimonde, Miguel

330

30 CFR 77.200 - Surface installations; general.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS, SURFACE COAL MINES AND SURFACE WORK AREAS OF UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Surface Installations § 77.200 Surface installations; general. All mine...

2013-07-01

331

75 FR 52587 - 2009 Fatality Analysis Reporting System (FARS)/National Automotive Sampling System General...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...National Highway Traffic Safety Administration [U...FARS)/National Automotive Sampling System General...National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA...National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA...FARS) & National Automotive Sampling System...

2010-08-26

332

Laparoscopic cholecystectomy: technique, safety, and results  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Laparoscopic cholecystectomy (LC) is a minimally invasive method of removing the diseased gallbladder. It was introduced into Lithuania in December 1992 and has gained wide acceptance. While LC offers many advantages over the conventional laparotomy procedure one of its drawbacks is delayed biliary complications. Those complications may be avoided with appropriate precautions. The aim of this research is to maximize the safety of LC. The potential way to solve this problem is to minimize the possible heat damage and electrical injury remote from the site of surgery during dissection of the cystic duct, cystic artery, and the gallbladder. Neodymium:YAG laser applications with endoscopic fiber have been investigated. The possibilities to use it as a scalpel and as coagulator to release the gallbladder from all its peritoneal attachments during LC have been investigated. The controversy over optimal sources for thermal dissection of the gallbladder has been performed. The potential benefits of Nd:YAG laser in surgery -- precise cutting, limited collateral tissue damage, and improved capillary and arteriole hemostasis -- have been found.

Simutis, Gintaras; Bubnys, A.; Vaitkuviene, Aurelija

1994-12-01

333

Systematic assessment of laser safety in otolaryngology  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Risk management of lasers can be broadly define das a process of identification of the risk, assessment of the risk and steps taken to avert the risk. The risk management may be divided into: Risk inherent to the technology and risk in clinical use. Within the National Health Service in the UK, a useful document, which provides hospital laser users with advice on safety, is the 'Guidance on the Safe Use of Lasers in Medical and Dental Practice' issued by the Medical Devices Agency for the Department of Health in the UK. It recommends the appointment of a Laser Protection Adviser (LPA) who is knowledgeable in the evaluation of laser hazards. One of the duties LPA is to ensure that Local Rules are drawn up for each specific application of a laser. A Laser Protection Supervisor (LPS) should also be appointed with responsibility to ensure that the Local Rules are observed. It is a sensible precaution that laser users should be those approved by the Laser Protection Supervisor in consultation with the Laser Protection Advisor. All laser users should sign a statement that they have read and understood the Local Rules.

Oswal, V. H.

2001-01-01

334

The safety of intermittent warm blood cardioplegia.  

PubMed

Continuous warm blood cardioplegia is considered to be an effective method for myocardial protection. However, frequently the flow of the cardioplegia needs to be interrupted for better visualization. Intermittent warm blood cardioplegia was reported to be safe by some investigators. To assess the degree of this safety, 76 patients who underwent operations for coronary or valvular disease, or both, were divided into two groups of 38 patients each. The two groups were well matched for age, ejection fraction, number of coronary bypasses and type of valvular procedures. Cold blood cardioplegia (CBC) was used intermittently every 15 min in the first group while the second group received warm blood cardioplegia (WBC) intermittently every 15 min. The clamp time range was 50-140 min. There were no deaths in either group, four myocardial infarctions occurred, two in each group. Low cardiac output occurred in 13 patients of the WBC group and in 7 patients of the CBC group, electrocardiogram (ECG) global ischemic changes were recorded in 14 patients of the WBC group compared to 6 patients of the CBC group. Statistically the results indicate that the techniques are comparable if the clamp time is less than 90 min. However, after 90 min the development of ECG changes and low cardiac output are significantly higher when WBC is used P < 0.001. Therefore, it is concluded that using the WBC intermittently is as safe as CBC when the clamp time is less than 90 min, however extra precautions are needed with longer clamp times. PMID:7826654

Ali, I M; Kinley, C E

1994-01-01

335

Safety harness  

DOEpatents

A safety harness to be worn by a worker, especially a worker wearing a plastic suit thereunder for protection in a radioactive or chemically hostile environment, which safety harness comprises a torso surrounding portion with at least one horizontal strap for adjustably securing the harness about the torso, two vertical shoulder straps with rings just forward of the of the peak of the shoulders for attaching a life-line and a pair of adjustable leg supporting straps releasibly attachable to the torso surrounding portion. In the event of a fall, the weight of the worker, when his fall is broken and he is suspended from the rings with his body angled slightly back and chest up, will be borne by the portion of the leg straps behind his buttocks rather than between his legs. Furthermore, the supporting straps do not restrict the air supplied through hoses into his suit when so suspended.

Gunter, Larry W. (615 Sand Pit Rd., Leesville, SC 29070)

1993-01-01

336

Safety valve  

DOEpatents

The safety valve contains a resilient gland to be held between a valve seat and a valve member and is secured to the valve member by a sleeve surrounding the end of the valve member adjacent to the valve seat. The sleeve is movable relative to the valve member through a limited axial distance and a gap exists between said valve member and said sleeve.

Bergman, Ulf C. (Malmoe, SE)

1984-01-01

337

Safety and Liability.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This series of five articles highlights Pensacola Junior College's occupational safety course, involving simulated emergencies, Florida's standards for teacher liability, electrical safety in the classroom and laboratory, color coding for machine safety, and Florida industrial arts safety instructional materials. (SK)

Berthelot, Ronald J.; And Others

1982-01-01

338

General anesthesia  

MedlinePLUS

General anesthesia is a treatment with certain medicines that puts you into a deep sleep so you do not ... You will receive general anesthesia in a hospital or outpatient office. Most times, a doctor called an anesthesiologist will put you to sleep. Sometimes, a ...

339

A pragmatic cluster randomised controlled trial to evaluate the safety, clinical effectiveness, cost effectiveness and satisfaction with point of care testing in a general practice setting – rationale, design and baseline characteristics  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Point of care testing (PoCT) may be a useful adjunct in the management of chronic conditions in general practice (GP). The provision of pathology test results at the time of the consultation could lead to enhanced clinical management, better health outcomes, greater convenience and satisfaction for patients and general practitioners (GPs), and savings in costs and time. It could

Caroline Laurence; Angela Gialamas; Lisa Yelland; Tanya Bubner; Philip Ryan; Kristyn Willson; Briony Glastonbury; Janice Gill; Mark Shephard; Justin Beilby

2008-01-01

340

Safety study - oversight of rail rapid-transit safety  

SciTech Connect

Annually, about 1.8 billion passengers ride on the rail rapid transit systems operating in the United States. Although this form of transportation is generally safe, the potential exists for a substantial loss of life in the event of a collision, derailment, fire, or other emergency. The safety study examines the adequacy of current oversight of rail rapid transit safety. The safety issues discussed are the effectiveness of current oversight activities exercised by the States in which rail rapid transit systems are operating; the preciseness of rail rapid transit accident/injury data; and the Federal Government's role in the oversight of rail rapid transit safety. Recommendations concerning these issues were made to the Department of Transportation, the Urban Mass Transportation Administration, the District of Columbia, and States in which rail rapid transit systems are currently operating.

Not Available

1991-07-23

341

Scope on Safety: Proactive safety  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Horrifying stories of accidents in the science lab abound. You may think that such accidents could never happen in your lab, but accidents do happen even in the most controlled environments. So, the best thing you can do to protect yourselves and your students is to implement and document proactive safety procedures. The following actions are recommended to reduce accidents in the lab and litigation in the courtroom.

Roy, Ken

2006-09-01

342

Product Engineering Class in the Software Safety Risk Taxonomy for Building Safety-Critical Systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

When software safety requirements are imposed on legacy safety-critical systems, retrospective safety cases need to be formulated as part of recertifying the systems for further use and risks must be documented and managed to give confidence for reusing the systems. The SEJ Software Development Risk Taxonomy [4] focuses on general software development issues. It does not, however, cover all the safety risks. The Software Safety Risk Taxonomy [8] was developed which provides a construct for eliciting and categorizing software safety risks in a straightforward manner. In this paper, we present extended work on the taxonomy for safety that incorporates the additional issues inherent in the development and maintenance of safety-critical systems with software. An instrument called a Software Safety Risk Taxonomy Based Questionnaire (TBQ) is generated containing questions addressing each safety attribute in the Software Safety Risk Taxonomy. Software safety risks are surfaced using the new TBQ and then analyzed. In this paper we give the definitions for the specialized Product Engineering Class within the Software Safety Risk Taxonomy. At the end of the paper, we present the tool known as the 'Legacy Systems Risk Database Tool' that is used to collect and analyze the data required to show traceability to a particular safety standard

Hill, Janice; Victor, Daniel

2008-01-01

343

General Dentist  

MedlinePLUS

... information you need from the Academy of General Dentistry Monday, July 14, 2014 About | Contact InfoBites Quick ... Instead of specializing in just one area of dentistry, they can provide plenty of different services for ...

344

Practical photochemistry: General considerations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Practical aspects of laboratory scale preparative photochemistry are discussed under the headings of: (1) lamps: dimensions, power ratings, spectral distributions and output intensities of different lamp types; (2) the reaction mixture: factors involved in establishing the most suitable wavelength region to use to carry out a particular reaction; the selection of the appropriate solvents, filters, and glassware; concentration of the photoactive component; (3) preparative photoreactions: immersion well, falling film, external irradiation and elliptical configurations; (4) apparatus for quantitative work: carousel and optical bench arrangements; (5) hazards: effects of ultraviolet radiation on eyes and skin and precautions to be taken.

Hutchison, J.

1986-05-01

345

General Relativity  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a General Relativity—Einstein’s theory of gravity—is the most beautiful and elegant of physical theories. It is the foundation\\u000a of cosmology—the subject that traces the evolution of the universe from its first intensely hot and dense beginning to its\\u000a possible futures.1 General Relativity is also the foundation for our understanding of compact stars. Neutron stars and black holes Can be understood\\u000a correctly

Norman K. Glendenning

346

Safety Gear  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The following resource is from Lessonopoly, which has created student activities and lesson plans to support the video series, Science of the Olympic Winter Games, created by NBC Learn and the National Science Foundation. Featuring exclusive footage from NBC Sports and contributions from Olympic athletes and NSF scientists, the series will help teach your students valuable scientific concepts. In this lesson, students will consider the design factors that impact safety gear by creating their own âhelmetâ for an egg. Students will experiment with shape, materials and design in this hands-on project. Students will use their experiences and additional research to debate the topic of having a mandatory helmet law for bicyclists.

2010-01-01

347

Safety Grooving  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Safety grooving, the cutting of grooves in concrete to increase traction and prevent injury, was first developed to reduce aircraft accidents on wet runways. Represented by the International Grooving and Grinding Association (IG&GA), the industry expanded into highway and pedestrian applications. The technique originated at Langley, which assisted in testing the grooving at airports and on highways. Skidding was reduced, stopping distance decreased, and a vehicle's cornering ability on curves was increased. The process has been extended to animal holding pens, steps, parking lots and other potentially slippery surfaces.

1985-01-01

348

Review of recent safety programs at the Hanford Site for new in-tank equipment  

SciTech Connect

The general safety criteria are reviewed; examples of several different safety programs are illustrated; cost and schedule information are presented; and outlines of general safety considerations and specific safety design requirements and solutions are listed. A suggested program approach is covered in some detail.

Berglin, E.J.; Johansen, F.P., Westinghouse Hanford

1996-10-31

349

Food Safety Month  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Did you know that September is Food Safety Month? To find out more about it, visit this Website from the US Food and Drug Administration, where you can take the 'Fridge Quiz, learn about the "thaw law" and download the cold storage chart (.pdf). Although the site is intended primarily for food science educators, it contains factsheets, games and activities that might be of interest to general audiences. For instance, did you know that non-dairy whipped topping is safe in the refrigerator for 3 months?! Heaps of graphics and brochures for educators can be downloaded from .pdf files.

2001-01-01

350

The Psychology of Safety  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Many studies of mishaps show that human error is a factor in a significant majority of accidents. Trying to decide how to change human behavior to be safer is generally the biggest challenge of any safety program. However, understanding the human psyche is the first step to changing behavior. Many studies focus on the before and after of an accident, but what about the thoughts of a person in the commission of an unsafe act? This is a less understood area. Examining it reveals why it is not well comprehended. This paper attempts to examine a part of the thought process, with an eye to helping influence people to less hurtful actions.

Anderson, Brenda Lindley

2011-01-01

351

School Safety Audit: Protocol, Procedures, and Checklists.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The 1997 Virginia General Assembly passed HB 1851, which directs local school boards to require all schools under their supervisory control to conduct school safety audits. This type of audit should "assess the safety conditions in each public school." HB 1851 also directed the Superintendent of Public Instruction to develop a list of items to be…

Virginia State Dept. of Education, Richmond.

352

Consumer Perception of Safety: A Survey.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report presents the results of a survey of consumer attitudes toward product safety. In general, American consumers are not optimistic about the safety of the products they buy: foods, medicines, and cosmetics. More specifically, some two-thirds of al...

M. Poprik

1974-01-01

353

Safety in Science. Curriculum Support Series.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Since the major causes of accidents are carelessness and a negative or apathetic attitude towards safety, this guide was developed to facilitate safe, stimulating science laboratory activities by providing both general and specific safety information presented in 12 sections. Subject areas considered in these sections include: 1)…

Lulashnyk, Lorne; Boonov, Janet

354

Upper Colorado River Recreation Area.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Contents: Vicinity Map; General Description--Introduction, Area Description, Brief History; Outdoor Recreation Opportunities; Trip Planning--Access, Availability of Sites, Safety Precautions and Hazards; River Segment Descriptions and River Maps; Protecti...

1992-01-01

355

Histology safety: now and then  

Microsoft Academic Search

Histology safety usually focuses on general laboratory issues, but this article concentrates on the hazards affecting the individual histotech and their evolution in the last half a century. Using the information from a survey especially designed for the occasion, the hazards were divided into 4 groups, and their prevalence was expressed as percentages for national and foreign laboratories. All the

René J. Buesa

2007-01-01

356

Medical laser safety hazard evaluation.  

PubMed

Health care laser systems offer general laser hazards and additional specific concerns unique to the clinical environment. A formal laser hazard evaluation procedure provides an efficient mechanism for identifying potential laser safety hazards. This paper outlines such a medical laser hazard evaluation program and highlights the unique characteristics of medical lasers. PMID:12132727

Edwards, Ben E; Barnes, L K; Gibbs, J B; Nguyen, G B

2002-08-01

357

49 CFR 599.501 - Generally.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...TRAFFIC SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) REQUIREMENTS AND PROCEDURES FOR CONSUMER ASSISTANCE TO RECYCLE AND SAVE ACT PROGRAM Enforcement § 599.501 Generally. The provisions of 5 U.S.C. 554, 556 and 557 do not...

2013-10-01

358

General Aviation (FAR 23) Cockpit Standardization Analysis.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Cockpit design features amenable to standardization in small general aviation aircraft were studied with the goal of increasing safety. A list of 101 cockpit design features was presented to 82 experienced pilots who indicated where they believed increase...

R. J. Ontiveros R. L. Sulzer R. M. Spangler

1978-01-01

359

PSI annual report 1995. General volume.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report gives an overview of the PSI's activities in 1995 in the fields of research: nuclear and particle physics, life sciences, solid state research at large facilities, applied solid state physics, nuclear energy, safety, and general energy research...

M. Salzmann

1996-01-01

360

49 CFR 192.453 - General.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...FEDERAL SAFETY STANDARDS Requirements for Corrosion Control § 192.453 General. The corrosion control procedures required by § 192...direction of, a person qualified in pipeline corrosion control methods. [Amdt....

2013-10-01

361

42 CFR 88.2 - General provisions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH RESEARCH AND RELATED ACTIVITIES WORLD TRADE CENTER HEALTH PROGRAM § 88.2 General provisions. (a) Designated representative. (1) An applicant,...

2012-10-01

362

49 CFR 572.151 - General description.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) ANTHROPOMORPHIC TEST DEVICES CRABI 12-Month-Old Infant, Alpha Version § 572.151 General description. (a) The 12-month-old-infant crash test dummy is described by...

2013-10-01

363

46 CFR 61.40-1 - General.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...PERIODIC TESTS AND INSPECTIONS Design Verification and Periodic Testing of Vital System Automation § 61.40-1 General...subjected to tests and inspections to evaluate the operation and reliability of controls, alarms, safety features, and...

2013-10-01

364

29 CFR 1926.701 - General requirements.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...SAFETY AND HEALTH REGULATIONS FOR CONSTRUCTION Concrete and Masonry Construction § 1926.701 General... No construction loads shall be placed on a concrete structure or portion of a concrete structure unless the employer...

2013-07-01

365

49 CFR 192.453 - General.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...FEDERAL SAFETY STANDARDS Requirements for Corrosion Control § 192.453 General. The corrosion control procedures required by § 192...direction of, a person qualified in pipeline corrosion control methods. [Amdt....

2010-10-01

366

12 CFR 1282.61 - General.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...MISSION ENTERPRISE HOUSING GOALS AND MISSION Reporting Requirements § 1282.61 General. This subpart establishes data submission and reporting requirements to carry out the requirements of the Enterprises' Charter Acts and the Safety and Soundness...

2012-01-01

367

Weather Safety: Making Emergency Preparations.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Precautions to take before, what to do if outdoors or indoors during, and inspecting for damage after thunderstorms, tornadoes, hurricanes, and floods. Sidebars discuss emergency supplies to keep on hand, calculating distance from thunderstorms, and the Fujita tornado rating scale. (TD)

Lobe, Bill

1997-01-01

368

Occupational Safety and Health. A Bibliography.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The publication consists of an annotated bibliography of published sources treating occupational safety and health both generally and specifically. The literature included deals primarily with causes, and possible prevention, of occupational injury and di...

1974-01-01

369

Generalizing the generalized Chaplygin gas  

Microsoft Academic Search

The generalized Chaplygin gas is characterized by the equation of state p=-A\\/rhoalpha, with alpha>-1 and w>-1. We generalize this model to allow for the cases where alpha<-1 or w-? at late times, and a transient model with w≈-1 at early times and w-->0 at late times. We consider these three cases as models for dark energy alone and examine constraints

A. A. Sen; Robert J. Scherrer

2005-01-01

370

Georgia Healthy Farmers Farm Safety Camp  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Georgia Healthy Farmers Farm Safety Camp was instituted in 1992 in order to reduce childhood farm injuries in Georgia. In 1994, the camp began offering two tracks -a general track for 10- to 13-year-olds and a tractor certification program for 14- and 15-year-olds. This article describes the general track and impact of camp attendance upon farm safety knowledge and

W. Jay Hughes; Judy Hartley

2000-01-01

371

Aerospace Safety Advisory Panel  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

During 1997, the Aerospace Safety Advisory Panel (ASAP) continued its safety reviews of NASA's human space flight and aeronautics programs. Efforts were focused on those areas that the Panel believed held the greatest potential to impact safety. Continuing safe Space Shuttle operations and progress in the manufacture and testing of primary components for the International Space Station (ISS) were noteworthy. The Panel has continued to monitor the safety implications of the transition of Space Shuttle operations to the United Space Alliance (USA). One area being watched closely relates to the staffing levels and skill mix in both NASA and USA. Therefore, a section of this report is devoted to personnel and other related issues that are a result of this change in NASA's way of doing business for the Space Shuttle. Attention will continue to be paid to this important topic in subsequent reports. Even though the Panel's activities for 1997 were extensive, fewer specific recommendations were formulated than has been the case in recent years. This is indicative of the current generally good state of safety of NASA programs. The Panel does, however, have several longer term concerns that have yet to develop to the level of a specific recommendation. These are covered in the introductory material for each topic area in Section 11. In another departure from past submissions, this report does not contain individual findings and recommendations for the aeronautics programs. While the Panel devoted its usual efforts to examining NASA's aeronautic centers and programs, no specific recommendations were identified for inclusion in this report. In lieu of recommendations, a summary of the Panel's observations of NASA's safety efforts in aeronautics and future Panel areas of emphasis is provided. With profound sadness the Panel notes the passing of our Chairman, Paul M. Johnstone, on December 17, 1997, and our Staff Assistant, Ms. Patricia M. Harman, on October 5, 1997. Other changes to the Panel composition during the past year were: the resignation of Mr. Dennis E. Fitch as a Consultant; the appointment of Mr. Roger D. Schaufele as a Consultant; and the assignment of Ms. Susan M. Smith as Staff Assistant.

1998-01-01

372

Multi-approach model for improving agrochemical safety among rice farmers in Pathumthani, Thailand  

PubMed Central

The large-scale use of agrochemicals has raised environmental and human health concerns. A comprehensive intervention strategy for improving agrochemical safety among rice farmers in Thailand is lacking. The objective of this study is to develop a model in order to improve farmers’ health and prevent them from being exposed to agrochemical hazards, in addition to evaluating the effectiveness of the intervention in terms of agrochemical safety. This study was conducted between October 2009 and January 2011. It measures changes in the mean scores of agrochemical knowledge, health beliefs, agrochemical use behaviors, and in-home pesticide safety. Knowledge of agrochemical use constitutes a basic knowledge of agrochemicals and agrochemical safety behaviors. Health beliefs constitute perceived susceptibility, severity, benefits, and barriers to using agrochemicals. Agrochemical use behaviors include self-care practices in terms of personal health at specific times including before spraying, while spraying, during storage, transportation, waste management, and health risk management. Fifty rice farmers from Khlong Seven Community (study group) and 51 rice farmers from Bueng Ka Sam community (control group) were randomly recruited with support from community leaders. The participants were involved in a combination of home visits (ie, pesticide safety assessments at home) and community participatory activities regarding agrochemical safety. This study reveals that health risk behaviors regarding agrochemical exposure in the study area are mainly caused by lack of attention to safety precautions and the use of faulty protective gear. After 6 months, the intervention program showed significant improvements in the overall scores on knowledge, beliefs, behaviors, and home pesticide safety in the study group (P < 0.05). Therefore, this intervention model is effective in improving agrochemical safety behaviors among Khlong Seven Community rice farmers. These findings demonstrate that a multi-approach model for improving agrochemical safety behaviors can lead to sustainable prevention of agrochemical hazards for farmers.

Raksanam, Buppha; Taneepanichskul, Surasak; Siriwong, Wattasit; Robson, Mark

2012-01-01

373

Electrical Safety  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

All About Circuits is a website that âÂÂprovides a series of online textbooks covering electricity and electronics.â Written by Tony R. Kuphaldt, the textbooks available here are wonderful resources for students, teachers, and anyone who is interested in learning more about electronics. This specific section, Electrical Safety, is the third chapter in Volume I. Topics covered in this chapter include: shock current path, OhmâÂÂs law, safe practices, emergence response, safe circuit design, safe meter usage, and electric shock data. Diagrams and detailed descriptions of concepts are included throughout the chapter to provide users with a comprehensive lesson. Visitors to the site are also encouraged to discuss concepts and topics using the All About Circuits discussion forums (registration with the site is required to post materials).

Kuphaldt, Tony R.

2008-07-23

374

General psychopathology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Reviews 22 works on psychopathology (1914-1916). There have been a number of publications dealing with general or theoretical psychopathology. Some of them deal with newer notions of certain mental disorders; others attempt to provide complete information regarding them. The books include works on cortex lesions in anomalies of dementia praecox, pathological liars and swindlers, anti-social groups, the psychology of the

E. E. Southard

1916-01-01

375

Generalized Parabolas  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this article we explore the consequences of modifying the common definition of a parabola by considering the locus of all points equidistant from a focus and (not necessarily linear) directrix. The resulting derived curves, which we call "generalized parabolas," are often quite beautiful and possess many interesting properties. We show that…

Joseph, Dan; Hartman, Gregory; Gibson, Caleb

2011-01-01

376

Attentional bias toward safety predicts safety behaviors.  

PubMed

Safety studies have primarily focused on how explicit processes and measures affect safety behavior and subsequent accidents and injuries. Recently, safety researchers have paid greater attention to the role of implicit processes. Our research focuses on the role of attentional bias toward safety (ABS) in workplace safety. ABS is a basic, early-stage cognitive process involving the automatic and selective allocation of attentional resources toward safety cues, which reflect the implicit motivational state of employees regarding safety goal. In this study, we used two reaction time-based paradigms to measure the ABS of employees in three studies: two modified Stroop tasks (Studies 1 and 2) and a visual dot-probe task (Study 3). Results revealed that employees with better safety behavior showed significant ABS (Study 2), and greater ABS than employees with poorer safety behavior (Studies 1 and 2). Moreover, ABS was positively associated with the perceived safety climate and safety motivation of employees, both of which mediate the effect of ABS on safety behavior (Study 3). These results contributed to a deeper understanding of how early-stage automatic perceptual processing affects safety behavior. The practical implications of these results were also discussed. PMID:24922613

Xu, Yaoshan; Li, Yongjuan; Wang, Guangxi; Yuan, Xiao; Ding, Weidong; Shen, Zhongxiang

2014-10-01

377

General relativity  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This book is intended to provide a thorough introduction to the theory of general relativity. It is intended to serve as both a text for graduate students and a reference book for researchers. According to general relativity, as formulated by Einstein in 1915, the intrinsic, observer-independent, properties of spacetime are described by a spacetime metric, as in special relativity. The structure of spacetime is related to the matter content of spacetime. Manifolds and tensor fields are considered along with curvature, Einstein's equation, isotropic cosmology, the Schwarzschild solution, methods for solving Einstein's equation, causal structure, singularities, the initial value formulation, asymptotic flatness, black holes, spinors, and quantum effects in strong gravitational fields. Attention is also given to topological spaces, maps of manifolds, Lie derivatives, Killing fields, conformal transformations, and Lagrangian and Hamiltonian formulations of Einstein's equation.

Wald, R. M.

378

General remarks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mixing of living human and animal biological material to create chimeras or hybrids (“chimbrids”) challenges our understanding\\u000a of what it is to be a member of the human species. Cellular, embryonic, foetal and post-natal human-animal mixtures raise\\u000a a wide range of conceptual, ethical and legal problems. General scientific, ethical and legal issues have to be considered\\u000a as well as the

Jochen Taupitz; Marion Weschka

379

Diesel Technology: Safety Skills. [Teacher and Student Editions.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Competency-based teacher and student materials are provided for three units on safety skills as part of a diesel technology curriculum. The units cover the following topics: general safety; workplace safety; and first aid. The materials are based on the curriculum-alignment concept of first stating the objectives, then developing instructional…

Kellum, Mary

380

STATISTICAL SIGNAL PROCESSING FOR AUTOMOTIVE SAFETY SYSTE MS  

Microsoft Academic Search

The amount of software in general and safety systems in particular increases rapidly in the automotive industry. T he trend is that functionality is decentralized, so new safety functions are distributed to common shared computer hard- ware, sensors and actuators using central data buses. This paper overviews recent and future safety systems, and high- lights the big challenges for researchers

Fredrik Gustafsson

381

Integrating Occupational Health and Safety into TAFE Courses: Curriculum Topics.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This guide is designed to help technical and further education (TAFE) curriculum writers in Australia integrate safety education into vocational education courses. It provides a general overview of occupational health and safety from the perspective of TAFE trade training and a brief summary of the major health and safety issues that might be…

Hall, Bob; Mageean, Pauline

382

Generalizing the generalized Chaplygin gas  

SciTech Connect

The generalized Chaplygin gas is characterized by the equation of state p=-A/{rho}{sup {alpha}}, with {alpha}>-1 and w>-1. We generalize this model to allow for the cases where {alpha}<-1 or w<-1. This generalization leads to three new versions of the generalized Chaplygin gas: an early phantom model in which w<<-1 at early times and asymptotically approaches w=-1 at late times, a late phantom model with w{approx_equal}-1 at early times and w{yields}-{infinity} at late times, and a transient model with w{approx_equal}-1 at early times and w{yields}0 at late times. We consider these three cases as models for dark energy alone and examine constraints from type Ia supernovae and from the subhorizon growth of density perturbations. The transient Chaplygin gas model provides a possible mechanism to allow for a currently accelerating universe without a future horizon, while some of the early phantom models produce w<-1 without either past or future singularities.

Sen, A.A.; Scherrer, Robert J. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, Tennessee 37235 (United States)

2005-09-15

383

Workplace Safety and Health  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

An index of information on workplace hazards, illnesses, injuries, and safety compiled by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Includes information on biosafety, chemical safety, and electrical safety.

2010-03-02

384

Water Safety Quiz  

MedlinePLUS

Water Safety Quiz Trivia quiz loading... Please enable javascript. Stay Safe around Water Download water safety tips in English or Spanish and share them with your friends. Make Water Safety a Priority Contact your local Red Cross ...

385

Paper Shredder Safety Alert  

MedlinePLUS

Paper Shredder Safety Alert Consumer model paper shredders are very popular. The U.S. Consumer Product Safety Commission ( ... offers the following safety tips when using a paper shredder: ? Never allow children to operate paper shredders, ...

386

Activities report in safety  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Conventional and radiation aspects of safety management, and safety programs at a nuclear research institute are presented. The design of the laboratory is described. The technical execution of the safety management is outlined.

1984-12-01

387

Kids and Car Safety  

MedlinePLUS Videos and Cool Tools

... Safety HealthDay June 25, 2014 Related MedlinePlus Pages Child Safety Heat Illness Motor Vehicle Safety Transcript As ... parents that cars can be extremely dangerous for children even when they're in park. Council experts ...

388

ETE Electrical Safety  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This resource is a collection of safety topics that may be discussed in electrical safety meetings or classes. Topics include fuse removal, GFCIs, electrical shock, first aid, LOTO, PPE, fire safety, and hazardous locations.

2013-06-13

389

Policy Manual - Safety Appendices - Safety Committee  

Cancer.gov

 CCR Home   About CCR   CCR Intranet        Laboratory of Pathology LP Home Clinical Services Basic Sciences Training LP Staff Accessibility of Web Site Policy Manual Main Page LP Forms and Checklists Safety Appendices Contents Safety Committee Clinical

390

Workplace Safety and Health Topics: Safety & Prevention  

MedlinePLUS

... in Mining Topic Page Ergonomic Interventions in the Building, Repair, and Dismantling of Ships Eye Safety Topic Page Slips, trips and falls PREVENTION THROUGH DESIGN NIOSH Safety and Health Topic: Industry and Occupation ...

391

Safety analysis  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We are engaged in a research program in safety-critical computing that is based on two case studies. We use these case studies to provide application-specific details of the various research issues, and as targets for evaluation of research ideas. The first case study is the Magnetic Stereotaxis System (MSS), an investigational device for performing human neurosurgery being developed in a joint effort between the Department of Physics at the University of Virginia and the Department of Neurosurgery at the University of Iowa. The system operates by manipulating a small permanent magnet (known as a 'seed') within the brain using an externally applied magnetic field. By varying the magnitude and gradient of the external magnetic field, the seed can be moved along a non-linear path and positioned at a site requiring therapy, e.g., a tumor. The magnetic field required for movement through brain tissue is extremely high, and is generated by a set of six superconducting magnets located in a housing surrounding the patient's head. The system uses two X-ray cameras positioned at right angles to detect in real time the locations of the seed and of X-ray opaque markers affixed to the patient's skull. the X-ray images are used to locate the objects of interest in a canonical frame of reference. the second case study is the University of Virginia Research Nuclear Reactor (UVAR). It is a 2 MW thermal, concrete-walled pool reactor. The system operates using 20 to 25 plate-type fuel assemblies placed on a rectangular grid plate. There are three scramable safety rods, and one non-scramable regulating rod that can be put in automatic mode. It was originally constructed in 1959 as a 1 MW system, and it was upgraded to 2 MW in 1973. Though only a research reactor rather than a power reactor, the issues raised are significant and can be related to the problems faced by full-scale reactor systems.

Knight, John C.

1995-01-01

392

Why system safety programs can fail  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Factors that cause system safety programs to fail are discussed from the viewpoint that in general these programs have not achieved their intended aims. The one item which is considered to contribute most to failure of a system safety program is a poor statement of work which consists of ambiguity, lack of clear definition, use of obsolete requirements, and pure typographical errors. It is pointed out that unless safety requirements are stated clearly, and where they are readily apparent as firm requirements, some of them will be overlooked by designers and contractors. The lack of clarity is stated as being a major contributing factor in system safety program failure and usually evidenced in: (1) lack of clear requirements by the procuring activity, (2) lack of clear understanding of system safety by other managers, and (3) lack of clear methodology to be employed by system safety engineers.

Hammer, W.

1971-01-01

393

Space reactor safety, 1985-1995 lessons learned  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Space reactor safety activities and decisions have evolved over the last decade. Important safety decisions have been made in the SP-100, Space Exploration Initiative, NEPSTP, SNTP, and Bimodal Space Reactor programs. In addition, international guidance on space reactor safety has been instituted. Space reactor safety decisions and practices have developed in the areas of inadvertent criticality, reentry, radiological release, orbital operation, programmatics, and policy. In general, the lessons learned point out the importance of carefully reviewing previous safety practices for appropriateness to space nuclear programs in general and to the specific mission under consideration.

Marshall, Albert C.

1996-03-01

394

29 CFR 1910.160 - Fixed extinguishing systems, general.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Fixed extinguishing systems, general. 1910...SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS Fire Protection Fixed Fire Suppression Equipment § 1910.160 Fixed extinguishing systems, general. (a)...

2013-07-01

395

47 CFR 80.1085 - Ship radio equipment-General.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Telecommunication 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Ship radio equipment-General. 80.1085 Section...Safety System (GMDSS) Equipment Requirements for Ship Stations § 80.1085 Ship radio equipment—General. This section...

2012-10-01

396

47 CFR 80.1085 - Ship radio equipment-General.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Telecommunication 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Ship radio equipment-General. 80.1085 Section...Safety System (GMDSS) Equipment Requirements for Ship Stations § 80.1085 Ship radio equipment—General. This section...

2011-10-01

397

47 CFR 80.1085 - Ship radio equipment-General.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Ship radio equipment-General. 80.1085 Section...Safety System (GMDSS) Equipment Requirements for Ship Stations § 80.1085 Ship radio equipment—General. This section...

2010-10-01

398

49 CFR 192.475 - Internal corrosion control: General.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Internal corrosion control: General. 192.475 Section...FEDERAL SAFETY STANDARDS Requirements for Corrosion Control § 192.475 Internal corrosion control: General. (a)...

2010-10-01

399

49 CFR 192.479 - Atmospheric corrosion control: General.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Atmospheric corrosion control: General. 192.479 Section...FEDERAL SAFETY STANDARDS Requirements for Corrosion Control § 192.479 Atmospheric corrosion control: General. (a) Each...

2013-10-01

400

49 CFR 192.475 - Internal corrosion control: General.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Internal corrosion control: General. 192.475 Section...FEDERAL SAFETY STANDARDS Requirements for Corrosion Control § 192.475 Internal corrosion control: General. (a)...

2013-10-01

401

47 CFR 80.1085 - Ship radio equipment-General.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Telecommunication 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Ship radio equipment-General. 80.1085 Section...Safety System (GMDSS) Equipment Requirements for Ship Stations § 80.1085 Ship radio equipmentâGeneral. This section...

2013-10-01

402

47 CFR 80.1085 - Ship radio equipment-General.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Telecommunication 5 2009-10-01 2009-10-01 false Ship radio equipment-General. 80.1085 Section...Safety System (GMDSS) Equipment Requirements for Ship Stations § 80.1085 Ship radio equipmentâGeneral. This section...

2009-10-01

403

49 CFR 192.479 - Atmospheric corrosion control: General.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Atmospheric corrosion control: General. 192.479 Section...FEDERAL SAFETY STANDARDS Requirements for Corrosion Control § 192.479 Atmospheric corrosion control: General. (a) Each...

2010-10-01

404

Sociology, systems and (patient) safety: knowledge translations in healthcare policy.  

PubMed

In 2000 the American Institute of Medicine, adviser to the federal government on policy matters relating to the health of the public, published the report To Err is Human: Building a Safer Health System, which was to become a call to arms for improving patient safety across the Western world. By re-conceiving healthcare as a system, it was argued that it was possible to transform the current culture of blame, which made individuals take defensive precautions against being assigned responsibility for error - notably by not reporting adverse events, into a culture of safety. The IOM report draws on several prominent social scientists in accomplishing this re-conceptualisation. But the analyses of these authors are not immediately relevant for health policy. It requires knowledge translation to make them so. This paper analyses the process of translation. The discussion is especially pertinent due to a certain looping effect between social science research and policy concerns. The case here presented is thus doubly illustrative: exemplifying first how social science is translated into health policy and secondly how the transformation required for this to function is taken as an analytical improvement that can in turn be redeployed in social research. PMID:18290938

Jensen, Casper Bruun

2008-03-01

405

Farm Health and Safety  

MedlinePLUS

... jobs in the United States. Farms have many health and safety hazards, including Chemicals and pesticides Machinery, ... equipment can also reduce accidents. Occupational Safety and Health Administration

406

National Ag Safety Database  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

A national central repository of agricultural health, safety, and injury prevention materials for the agricultural community and especially for agricultural safety specialists. Spanish materials are included.

2007-01-15

407

CRITICALITY SAFETY CONTROLS AND THE SAFETY BASIS AT PFP  

SciTech Connect

With the implementation of DOE Order 420.1B, Facility Safety, and DOE-STD-3007-2007, 'Guidelines for Preparing Criticality Safety Evaluations at Department of Energy Non-Reactor Nuclear Facilities', a new requirement was imposed that all criticality safety controls be evaluated for inclusion in the facility Documented Safety Analysis (DSA) and that the evaluation process be documented in the site Criticality Safety Program Description Document (CSPDD). At the Hanford site in Washington State the CSPDD, HNF-31695, 'General Description of the FH Criticality Safety Program', requires each facility develop a linking document called a Criticality Control Review (CCR) to document performance of these evaluations. Chapter 5, Appendix 5B of HNF-7098, Criticality Safety Program, provided an example of a format for a CCR that could be used in lieu of each facility developing its own CCR. Since the Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP) is presently undergoing Deactivation and Decommissioning (D&D), new procedures are being developed for cleanout of equipment and systems that have not been operated in years. Existing Criticality Safety Evaluations (CSE) are revised, or new ones written, to develop the controls required to support D&D activities. Other Hanford facilities, including PFP, had difficulty using the basic CCR out of HNF-7098 when first implemented. Interpretation of the new guidelines indicated that many of the controls needed to be elevated to TSR level controls. Criterion 2 of the standard, requiring that the consequence of a criticality be examined for establishing the classification of a control, was not addressed. Upon in-depth review by PFP Criticality Safety staff, it was not clear that the programmatic interpretation of criterion 8C could be applied at PFP. Therefore, the PFP Criticality Safety staff decided to write their own CCR. The PFP CCR provides additional guidance for the evaluation team to use by clarifying the evaluation criteria in DOE-STD-3007-2007. In reviewing documents used in classifying controls for Nuclear Safety, it was noted that DOE-HDBK-1188, 'Glossary of Environment, Health, and Safety Terms', defines an Administrative Control (AC) in terms that are different than typically used in Criticality Safety. As part of this CCR, a new term, Criticality Administrative Control (CAC) was defined to clarify the difference between an AC used for criticality safety and an AC used for nuclear safety. In Nuclear Safety terms, an AC is a provision relating to organization and management, procedures, recordkeeping, assessment, and reporting necessary to ensure safe operation of a facility. A CAC was defined as an administrative control derived in a criticality safety analysis that is implemented to ensure double contingency. According to criterion 2 of Section IV, 'Linkage to the Documented Safety Analysis', of DOESTD-3007-2007, the consequence of a criticality should be examined for the purposes of classifying the significance of a control or component. HNF-PRO-700, 'Safety Basis Development', provides control selection criteria based on consequence and risk that may be used in the development of a Criticality Safety Evaluation (CSE) to establish the classification of a component as a design feature, as safety class or safety significant, i.e., an Engineered Safety Feature (ESF), or as equipment important to safety; or merely provides defense-in-depth. Similar logic is applied to the CACs. Criterion 8C of DOE-STD-3007-2007, as written, added to the confusion of using the basic CCR from HNF-7098. The PFP CCR attempts to clarify this criterion by revising it to say 'Programmatic commitments or general references to control philosophy (e.g., mass control or spacing control or concentration control as an overall control strategy for the process without specific quantification of individual limits) is included in the PFP DSA'. Table 1 shows the PFP methodology for evaluating CACs. This evaluation process has been in use since February of 2008 and has proven to be simple and effective. Each control identified i

Kessler, S

2009-04-21

408

A comparison of commercial/industry and nuclear weapons safety concepts  

SciTech Connect

In this paper the authors identify factors which influence the safety philosophy used in the US commercial/industrial sector and compare them against those factors which influence nuclear weapons safety. Commercial/industrial safety is guided by private and public safety standards. Generally, private safety standards tend to emphasize product reliability issues while public (i.e., government) safety standards tend to emphasize human factors issues. Safety in the nuclear weapons arena is driven by federal requirements and memoranda of understanding (MOUs) between the Departments of Defense and Energy. Safety is achieved through passive design features integrated into the nuclear weapon. Though the common strand between commercial/industrial and nuclear weapons safety is the minimization of risk posed to the general population (i.e., public safety), the authors found that each sector tends to employ a different safety approach to view and resolve high-consequence safety issues.

Bennett, R.R.; Summers, D.A.

1996-07-01

409

Safety Practices for Demolition Procedures. Module SH-41. Safety and Health.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This student module on safety practices for demolition procedures is one of 50 modules concerned with job safety and health. This module presents a general outline of the safe work practices that should be followed at a demolition job site in order for workers to avoid injury. Following the introduction, 10 objectives (each keyed to a page in the…

Center for Occupational Research and Development, Inc., Waco, TX.

410

A Safety Management System Model with Application to Fire Safety Offshore  

Microsoft Academic Search

A systemic approach has been adopted to construct a model for a safety management system (SMS). It has been applied to the case of fire safety for an oil and gas organization as an illustration, although the approach is general. The essential purpose has been not merely to identify functions but to create a “structure” for a SMS, within which

Alan N. Beard; Jaime Santos-Reyes

2003-01-01

411

Hard and Soft Safety Verifications  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The purpose of this paper is to examine the differences between and the effects of hard and soft safety verifications. Initially, the terminology should be defined and clarified. A hard safety verification is datum which demonstrates how a safety control is enacted. An example of this is relief valve testing. A soft safety verification is something which is usually described as nice to have but it is not necessary to prove safe operation. An example of a soft verification is the loss of the Solid Rocket Booster (SRB) casings from Shuttle flight, STS-4. When the main parachutes failed, the casings impacted the water and sank. In the nose cap of the SRBs, video cameras recorded the release of the parachutes to determine safe operation and to provide information for potential anomaly resolution. Generally, examination of the casings and nozzles contributed to understanding of the newly developed boosters and their operation. Safety verification of SRB operation was demonstrated by examination for erosion or wear of the casings and nozzle. Loss of the SRBs and associated data did not delay the launch of the next Shuttle flight.

Wetherholt, Jon; Anderson, Brenda

2012-01-01

412

Safety: Preventive Medicine.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Underscores the need for community colleges to practice safety within the institutions and to instruct students in workplace safety procedures and requirements. Reviews Occupational Safety and Health Act (OSHA) regulations and their impact on industry and education. Looks at the legal responsibilities of colleges for safety. (DMM)

Kotula, John R.; Digenakis, Anthony

1985-01-01

413

Safety Standards for Projectors.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The safety of projectors and related viewing devices for school, home, and business use is of paramount importance. The Advisory Committee on Safety (ACOS) of the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) has established a working group to consider the problem of projector safety and to make recommendations for safety standards. (CMV)

Wyman, Raymond

1979-01-01

414

Safety Concept Trees  

Microsoft Academic Search

The development of safety-critical systems requires the dasiasafepsila development of a dasiasafepsila system. Not only should the realized system fulfill specific safety goals, but for certification purposes the development process itself has to comply with safety standards. Both of these tasks are complex and cause a lot of effort and costs that cannot be sufficiently reduced by existing safety engineering

Dominik Domis; M. Forster; S. Kemmann; M. Trapp

2009-01-01

415

The Relationship between Organizational Leadership for Safety and Learning from Patient Safety Events  

PubMed Central

Objective To examine the relationship between organizational leadership for patient safety and five types of learning from patient safety events (PSEs). Study Setting Forty-nine general acute care hospitals in Ontario, Canada. Study Design A nonexperimental design using cross-sectional surveys of hospital patient safety officers (PSOs) and patient care managers (PCMs). PSOs provided data on organization-level learning from (a) minor events, (b) moderate events, (c) major near misses, (d) major event analysis, and (e) major event dissemination/communication. PCMs provided data on organizational leadership (formal and informal) for patient safety. Extraction Methods Hospitals were the unit of analysis. Seemingly unrelated regression was used to examine the influence of formal and informal leadership for safety on the five types of learning from PSEs. The interaction between leadership and hospital size was also examined. Principal Findings Formal organizational leadership for patient safety is an important predictor of learning from minor, moderate, and major near-miss events, and major event dissemination. This relationship is significantly stronger for small hospitals (<100 beds). Conclusions We find support for the relationship between patient safety leadership and patient safety behaviors such as learning from safety events. Formal leadership support for safety is of particular importance in small organizations where the economic burden of safety programs is disproportionately large and formal leadership is closer to the front lines.

Ginsburg, Liane R; Chuang, You-Ta; Blair Berta, Whitney; Norton, Peter G; Ng, Peggy; Tregunno, Deborah; Richardson, Julia

2010-01-01

416

Ground Safety Issues  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In the history of humankind, every space adventure, great or small, has begun on the ground. While this seems to be stating the obvious, mission and flight hardware designers who have overlooked this fact have paid a high price, either in loss or damage to the hardware pre-launch, or in mission failure or reduction. Designers may risk not only their flight hardware, but they may also risk their lives, their co-workers lives and even the general public by not heeding safety on the ground. Their eyes may be on the stars but their feet are on the ground! This discussion applies to all forms of flight hardware from the largest rockets to the smallest spare parts.

Kirkpatrick, Paul D.

2007-01-01

417

HTGR safety research program  

SciTech Connect

An HTGR safety research program is being performed supporting and guided in priorities by the AIPA Probabilistic Risk Study. Analytical and experimental studies have been conducted in four general areas where modeling or data assumptions contribute to large uncertainties in the consequence assessments and thus, in the risk assessment for key core heat-up accident scenarios. Experimental data have been obtained on time-dependent release of fission products from the fuel particles, and plateout characteristics of condensible fission products in the primary circuit. Potential failure modes of primarily top head PCRV components as well as concrete degradation processes have been analyzed using a series of newly developed models and interlinked computer programs. Containment phenomena, including fission product deposition and potential flammability of liberated combustible gases have been studied analytically.

Barsell, A.W.; Olsen, B.E.; Silady, F.A.

1980-08-01

418

EMS spinal precautions and the use of the long backboard - resource document to the position statement of the National Association of EMS Physicians and the American College of Surgeons Committee on Trauma.  

PubMed

Field spinal immobilization using a backboard and cervical collar has been standard practice for patients with suspected spine injury since the 1960s. The backboard has been a component of field spinal immobilization despite lack of efficacy evidence. While the backboard is a useful spinal protection tool during extrication, use of backboards is not without risk, as they have been shown to cause respiratory compromise, pain, and pressure sores. Backboards also alter a patient's physical exam, resulting in unnecessary radiographs. Because backboards present known risks, and their value in protecting the spinal cord of an injured patient remains unsubstantiated, they should only be used judiciously. The following provides a discussion of the elements of the National Association of EMS Physicians (NAEMSP) and American College of Surgeons Committee on Trauma (ACS-COT) position statement on EMS spinal precautions and the use of the long backboard. This discussion includes items where there is supporting literature and items where additional science is needed. PMID:24559236

White, Chelsea C; Domeier, Robert M; Millin, Michael G

2014-01-01

419

New Hampshire Alcohol Safety Action Project. Description and Evaluation of the Public Information and Education Countermeasure of the New Hampshire Alcohol Safety Action Project.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

During the period from 1972 to 1976 the New Hampshire Alcohol Safety Action Project conducted a public information and education countermeasure with the objectives of increasing the general public's knowledge of the traffic safety hazard posed by drunken ...

R. G. Ulmer H. H. Jacobs

1977-01-01

420

Construction safety program for the National Ignition Facility Appendix A: Safety Requirements  

SciTech Connect

These rules apply to all LLNL employees, non-LLNL employees (including contract labor, supplemental labor, vendors, personnel matrixed/assigned from other National Laboratories, participating guests, visitors and students) and construction contractors/subcontractors. The General Safety and Health rules shall be used by management to promote accident prevention through indoctrination, safety and health training and on-the-job application. As a condition for contracts award, all contractors and subcontractors and their employees must certify on Form S & H A-1 that they have read and understand, or have been briefed and understand, the National Ignition Facility OCIP Project General Safety Rules.

Cerruti, S.J.

1997-01-14

421

Safety. Unit 8: A Core Curriculum of Related Instruction for Apprentices.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The safety education unit is presented to assist apprentices to acquire a general knowledge of procedures for insuring safety on the job. The unit consists of 10 modules: (1) the Occupational Safety and Health Act: safety and health bill of rights for workers; (2) accident prevention; (3) first aid; (4) accident reports; importance, use, and how…

New York State Education Dept., Albany. Bureau of Occupational and Career Curriculum Development.

422

Good housekeeping: Safety and order in the scientific laboratory  

SciTech Connect

Laboratory safety might not seem, at first, to be very profoundly related to scientific knowledge. Of course safety is a relatively trivial issue in many scientific settings, especially in comparison to the kind of safety concerns found, say, at a construction site or a chemical plant. However, as scientific work has come to involve more exotic chemicals, biological organisms, and forms of radiation, and generally become more industrial in character, safety has become more of a concern. This has occurred alongside a general expansion of government regulation of workplace safety during the 20thc entury, and a recent trend toward extending work lace safety efforts to new kinds of work, including administrative and professional tasks. As a result of these trends, scientists find that they are increasingly being held responsible for following safety regulations in their re{approx}earc

Sims, B. H. (Benjamin H.)

2002-01-01

423

The relationship between safety climate and safety performance: a meta-analytic review.  

PubMed

The current study used meta-analysis to examine the criterion-related validity of the relationships between safety climate, safety performance (participation and compliance), and occupational accidents and injuries. Support was found for the study's hypotheses linking organizational safety climate to employee safety compliance and participation, with the latter demonstrating the stronger relationship; however, the subsequent links to accident involvement were found to be weak, suggesting limited support for a fully mediated model. The relationship between safety climate and accident involvement was found to be moderated by the study design, such that only prospective designs, in which accidents were measured following the measurement of safety climate, demonstrated validity generalization. The implications of the findings and suggestions for further research are discussed. PMID:17059296

Clarke, Sharon

2006-10-01

424

UC-San Diego Laboratory Safety Videos  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The University of California-San Diego has gone above and beyond with this marvelous collection of laboratory safety videos. Designed for use in academic settings, these short and informative videos provide a wealth of information. Currently there are twelve videos on the site and they include "Flash Chromatography 101," "Basic Fume Hood Air Flow and Operation," and "How to Handle Pyrophoric Reagents." One of the more fun videos here is "The Periodic Table of Videos," which offers a brief video on each of the elements. Visitors should also note that the site includes helpful information about general lab safety and chemical safety training.

2012-01-01

425

Primary battery design and safety guidelines handbook  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This handbook provides engineers and safety personnel with guidelines for the safe design or selection and use of primary batteries in spaceflight programs. Types of primary batteries described are silver oxide zinc alkaline, carbon-zinc, zinc-air alkaline, manganese dioxide-zionc alkaline, mercuric oxide-zinc alkaline, and lithium anode cells. Along with typical applications, the discussions of the individual battery types include electrochemistry, construction, capacities and configurations, and appropriate safety measures. A chapter on general battery safety covers hazard sources and controls applicable to all battery types. Guidelines are given for qualification and acceptance testing that should precede space applications. Permissible failure levels for NASA applications are discussed.

Bragg, Bobby J.; Casey, John E.; Trout, J. Barry

1994-12-01

426

Primary battery design and safety guidelines handbook  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This handbook provides engineers and safety personnel with guidelines for the safe design or selection and use of primary batteries in spaceflight programs. Types of primary batteries described are silver oxide zinc alkaline, carbon-zinc, zinc-air alkaline, manganese dioxide-zionc alkaline, mercuric oxide-zinc alkaline, and lithium anode cells. Along with typical applications, the discussions of the individual battery types include electrochemistry, construction, capacities and configurations, and appropriate safety measures. A chapter on general battery safety covers hazard sources and controls applicable to all battery types. Guidelines are given for qualification and acceptance testing that should precede space applications. Permissible failure levels for NASA applications are discussed.

Bragg, Bobby J.; Casey, John E.; Trout, J. Barry

1994-01-01

427

Teaching Science: Lab Safety  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Before entering the world of pipettes and Geiger counters, budding scientists will need to know about lab safety. Science educators will benefit from this laboratory safety site, developed by Professor Norman Herr, who teaches at California State University, Northridge. On his site, Professor Herr provides topically organized links that fall into the areas of safety standards, chemical hazards, chemical storage, and five other relevant topics. Within each section, visitors will find links to state safety standards, sample laboratory safety contracts, and fact sheets on chemical hazards. One potentially delightful classroom activity is the laboratory safety "scavenger hunt". Through this activity, students will learn about storage requirements, chemical risks, and other potential delicate matters.

428

Vocational Education Safety Instruction Manual.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This manual describes four program areas in vocational education safety instruction: (1) introduction to a safety program; (2) resources to ensure laboratory safety; (3) safety program implementation; and (4) safety rules and safety tests. The safety rules and tests included in section four are for the most common tools and machines used in…

Cropley, Russell, Ed.; Doherty, Susan Sloan, Ed.

429

Construction safety program for the National Ignition Facility, Appendix A  

SciTech Connect

Topics covered in this appendix include: General Rules-Code of Safe Practices; 2. Personal Protective Equipment; Hazardous Material Control; Traffic Control; Fire Prevention; Sanitation and First Aid; Confined Space Safety Requirements; Ladders and Stairways; Scaffolding and Lift Safety; Machinery, Vehicles, and Heavy Equipment; Welding and Cutting-General; Arc Welding; Oxygen/Acetylene Welding and Cutting; Excavation, Trenching, and Shoring; Fall Protection; Steel Erection; Working With Asbestos; Radiation Safety; Hand Tools; Electrical Safety; Nonelectrical Work Performed Near Exposed High-Voltage Power-Distribution Equipment; Lockout/Tagout Requirements; Rigging; A-Cranes; Housekeeping; Material Handling and Storage; Lead; Concrete and Masonry Construction.

Cerruti, S.J.

1997-06-26

430

SNTP environmental, safety, and health  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Viewgraphs on space nuclear thermal propulsion (SNTP) environmental, safety, and health are presented. Topics covered include: program safety policy; program safety policies; and DEIS public hearing comments.

Harmon, Charles D.

1993-01-01

431

29 CFR 1977.3 - General requirements of section 11(c) of the Act.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...CONTINUED) DISCRIMINATION AGAINST EMPLOYEES EXERCISING RIGHTS UNDER THE WILLIAMS-STEIGER OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ACT OF 1970 General § 1977.3 General requirements of section 11(c) of the Act. Section 11(c) provides in general...

2013-07-01

432

Practicing Fireworks Safety  

MedlinePLUS

... the Sun Eye Health News Consumer Alerts Practicing Fireworks Safety Tweet Fireworks eye injuries common in young people, bystanders Nearly ... to avoid the risk of serious eye injury." Fireworks Safety Tips The Academy advises that the best ...

433

Safety organizations and experts  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Handbook lists organizations and experts in specific, well defined areas of safety technology. Special emphasis is given to relevant safety information sources on aircraft fire hazards and aircraft interior flammability.

Mandel, G.; Rubinstein, R. I.; Pinto, J. J.; Meschkow, S. Z.

1977-01-01

434

State Highway Safety Laws  

MedlinePLUS

State Highway Safety Laws & Funding State Laws Each state and U.S. territory has enacted laws governing various driver behaviors, ... page contains charts for a specific type of highway safety law, listing the provisions for all U.S. ...

435

Air Bag Safety  

MedlinePLUS

... be properly secured in car safety seats , belt-positioning booster seats, or the lap and shoulder belts ... their car safety seat should use a belt-positioning booster seat until the vehicle seat belt fits ...

436

Design for fire safety  

SciTech Connect

This book aims to present a broad knowledge of the basic technical concepts of fire development and fire safety, and their relation to the design process. The book explains the design options open to the architect to make fire safety an integral part of building design and not merely a set of rules and regulations to be followed. The contents are: Concepts in fire safety design . Relationship between design process and the potential fire scenario . Concepts of environmental change . Fire safety objective in building . Fire safety evaluation . Intraspatial fire safety . Fire risk associated with spatial activity . Reduction of ignition risk . Fire prevention (hazard reduction) . Properties of combustible materials . Occupant safety . Smoke control systems . Detection systems . Fire growth and development . Fire suppression systems . Inter-spatial fire safety . Smoke control systems . Escape route design . Fire control by construction . High temperature behaviour of combustible materials.

Marchant, E.W.

1987-01-01

437

Safety without Stuttering.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A new formalization of safety properties is given. The formalization agrees with the informal definition - that a safety property stipulates that some bad thing doesn't happen during execution - for properties that are not invariant under stuttering, as w...

B. Alpern A. J. Demers F. B. Schneider

1985-01-01

438

Water safety and drowning  

MedlinePLUS

... among people of all ages. Learning and practicing water safety is important to prevent drowning accidents. ... Water safety tips for all ages include: Learn CPR. Never swim alone. Never dive into water unless ...

439

Flood Fire Safety  

MedlinePLUS

... USFA Home Citizens Home Fire Prevention Flood Safety Flood Fire Safety This page may contain links to ... Fire Related Hazards Present During and After a Flood Generators are often used during power outages. Unless ...

440

Pet Fire Safety  

MedlinePLUS

... Family › Home Fire Prevention › Pet Fire Safety Pet Fire Safety Protecting Your Pets from Potential Danger Home ... evacuate them, too. Prevent Your Pet from Starting Fires The National Fire Protection Association estimates that nearly ...

441

Bedroom Fire Safety  

MedlinePLUS

... Citizens Home Fire Prevention Bedroom Fire Safety Bedroom Fire Safety This page may contain links to non- ... and property resulting from bedroom fires. Kids and Fire: A Bad Match Children are one of the ...

442

Spacecraft Fire Safety  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Fire detection, fire standards and testing, fire extinguishment, inerting and atmospheres, fire-related medical science, aircraft fire safety, Space Station safety concerns, microgravity combustion, spacecraft material flammability testing, and metal combustion are among the topics considered.

Margle, Janice M. (editor)

1987-01-01

443

Gun Safety Tips  

MedlinePLUS

... You are here Home > Safety Tips > Tip > Guns Gun Safety Tips Store Guns and Ammunition Safely Store ... visit about safe gun storage practices. Dispose of Guns You Don't Need If you decide that ...

444

Summer Storm Fire Safety  

MedlinePLUS

... Read more about generator safety Heating Safety Kerosene heaters may not be legal in your area and ... can be a source of toxic fumes. Alternative heaters need their space. Keep anything combustible at least ...

445

Swimming Pool Safety  

MedlinePLUS

... Teen: 12-18 yrs. Dating & Sex Fitness Nutrition Safety School Substance Abuse Young Adult: 18-21 yrs. Healthy Living Nutrition Fitness Sports Oral Health Emotional Wellness Growing Healthy Safety & Prevention Immunizations Chickenpox Tdap Haemophilus Influenzae Type B ( ...

446

Policy Manual - Safety Appendices  

Cancer.gov

 CCR Home   About CCR   CCR Intranet        Laboratory of Pathology LP Home Clinical Services Basic Sciences Training LP Staff Accessibility of Web Site Policy Manual Main Page LP Forms and Checklists Safety Appendices Contents Safety Committee Clinical

447

Teaching Children Fire Safety  

MedlinePLUS

... USFA Home Citizens Parents Teaching Children Fire Safety Teaching Children Fire Safety This page may contain links ... Take the mystery out of fire play by teaching children that fire is a tool, not a ...

448

Accrediting industrial safety training programs  

SciTech Connect

There are job-specific training requirements established by regulations that Impose stringent training requirements on a contractor, for example, the Occupational Safety Health Act (OSHA). Failure to comply with OSHA training requirements can result in severe penalties being levied against a company. Although an accredited training program is expensive, it is a possible solution for minimizing risks associated with job-specific training requirements for employees. Operating DOE contractors direct approximately 10 percent of the operating funds toward training activities. Training needs for contractors span a broad range, from requirements awareness training for managers, to general training required on a one-time basis for all employees, to highly specialized training programs for employees involved In clean-up operations at hazardous waste sites. With this kind of an investment in training, it is logical to maximize the most return on an investment of training funds and to limit exposure to liability suits whenever possible. This presentation will provide an overview of accredited industrial safety programs. The criteria for accredited industrial safety programs will be defined. The question of whether accredited training programs are necessary will be examined. Finally, advantages and disadvantages will be identified for accrediting industrial safety training programs.

Beitel, L.

1992-01-01

449

Accrediting industrial safety training programs  

SciTech Connect

There are job-specific training requirements established by regulations that Impose stringent training requirements on a contractor, for example, the Occupational Safety & Health Act (OSHA). Failure to comply with OSHA training requirements can result in severe penalties being levied against a company. Although an accredited training program is expensive, it is a possible solution for minimizing risks associated with job-specific training requirements for employees. Operating DOE contractors direct approximately 10 percent of the operating funds toward training activities. Training needs for contractors span a broad range, from requirements awareness training for managers, to general training required on a one-time basis for all employees, to highly specialized training programs for employees involved In clean-up operations at hazardous waste sites. With this kind of an investment in training, it is logical to maximize the most return on an investment of training funds and to limit exposure to liability suits whenever possible. This presentation will provide an overview of accredited industrial safety programs. The criteria for accredited industrial safety programs will be defined. The question of whether accredited training programs are necessary will be examined. Finally, advantages and disadvantages will be identified for accrediting industrial safety training programs.

Beitel, L.

1992-12-31

450

Safety analysts training  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this task was to support ESH-3 in providing Airborne Release Fraction and Respirable Fraction training to safety analysts at LANL who perform accident analysis, hazard analysis, safety analysis, and/or risk assessments at nuclear facilities. The task included preparation of materials for and the conduct of two 3-day training courses covering the following topics: safety analysis process; calculation model; aerosol physic concepts for safety analysis; and overview of empirically derived airborne release fractions and respirable fractions.

Bolton, P.

2000-10-01

451

Agriscience Shop Safety  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

After completing this project, you should be able to pass the Shop Safety Test, allowing you to participate in the Agriscience Shop. Before you are allowed into the shop, you are required to pass a Shop Safety Test. The tools that follow will help you prepare for the test. Use the Shop Safety Chart that Mr. Creel gave you in class to take notes on important safety rules. OSHA is the "governmental ...

Creel, Mr.

2011-11-02

452

Generic safety documentation model  

SciTech Connect

This document is intended to be a resource for preparers of safety documentation for Sandia National Laboratories, New Mexico facilities. It provides standardized discussions of some topics that are generic to most, if not all, Sandia/NM facilities safety documents. The material provides a ``core`` upon which to develop facility-specific safety documentation. The use of the information in this document will reduce the cost of safety document preparation and improve consistency of information.

Mahn, J.A.

1994-04-01

453

DOE handbook electrical safety  

SciTech Connect

Electrical Safety Handbook presents the Department of Energy (DOE) safety standards for DOE field offices or facilities involved in the use of electrical energy. It has been prepared to provide a uniform set of electrical safety guidance and information for DOE installations to effect a reduction or elimination of risks associated with the use of electrical energy. The objectives of this handbook are to enhance electrical safety awareness and mitigate electrical hazards to employees, the public, and the environment.

NONE

1998-01-01

454

Electrical safety guidelines  

SciTech Connect

The Electrical Safety Guidelines prescribes the DOE safety standards for DOE field offices or facilities involved in the use of electrical energy. It has been prepared to provide a uniform set of electrical safety standards and guidance for DOE installations in order to affect a reduction or elimination of risks associated with the use of electrical energy. The objectives of these guidelines are to enhance electrical safety awareness and mitigate electrical hazards to employees, the public, and the environment.

Not Available

1993-09-01

455

49 CFR 192.13 - What general requirements apply to pipelines regulated under this part?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... What general requirements apply to pipelines regulated under this part? 192.13...Relating to Transportation (Continued) PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY ADMINISTRATION...DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) PIPELINE SAFETY TRANSPORTATION OF NATURAL...

2013-10-01

456

Tools for measuring patient safety in primary care settings using the RAND/UCLA appropriateness method  

PubMed Central

Background The majority of patient contacts occur in general practice but general practice patient safety has been poorly described and under-researched to date compared to hospital settings. Our objective was to produce a set of patient safety tools and indicators that can be used in general practices in any healthcare setting and develop a ‘toolkit’ of feasible patient safety measures for general practices in England. Methods A RAND/UCLA Appropriateness Method exercise was conducted with a panel of international experts in general practice patient safety. Statements were developed from an extensive systematic literature review of patient safety in general practice. We used standard RAND/UCLA Appropriateness Method rating methods to identify necessary items for assessing patient safety in general practice, framed in terms of the Structure-Process-Outcome taxonomy. Items were included in the toolkit if they received an overall panel median score of ?7 with agreement (no more than two panel members rating the statement outside a 3-point distribution around the median). Results Of 205 identified statements, the panel rated 101 as necessary for assessing the safety of general practices. Of these 101 statements, 73 covered structures or organisational issues, 22 addressed processes and 6 focused on outcomes. Conclusions We developed and tested tools that can lead to interventions to improve safety outcomes in general practice. This paper reports the first attempt to systematically develop a patient safety toolkit for general practice, which has the potential to improve safety, cost effectiveness and patient experience, in any healthcare system.

2014-01-01

457

School Bus Safety.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Equipment to allow safe transportation of disabled children is reviewed. Such equipment includes infant car seats, child safety seats, safety vests, and accommodations for children in casts and/or braces. Five principles for evaluation and selection of safe seating options are given as are safety rules and information on standards and resources.…

Stroup, Karen Bruner; And Others

1991-01-01

458

Virtual Safety Training.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Multimedia Tool Box Talk is a web-based quick reference safety guide and training tool for construction personnel. An intended outcome of this effort was to provide an efficient and effective way to locate and interpret crucial safety information while at the job site. The tool includes information from the Occupational Safety and Health…

Fuller, Scott; Davis, Jason

2003-01-01

459

Factors affecting tanker safety  

Microsoft Academic Search

The major factors influencing tanker safety are discussed. For the discussion information has been gleaned from maritime labour officials, industry experts and a recent United States Coast Guard study on tanker safety. Results of other tanker safety studies and\\/or accident reports are also utilized. Some of the factors analysed are the size and age of vessel, licence qualifications for mates

Craig J. Forsyth

1991-01-01

460

EHS Online Safety Training  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This page from Oklahoma State University provides access to a number of occupational safety modules. All modules are available to view online, and some include PowerPoint or Microsoft Word documents as well. Topics include electrical safety, lockout/tagout, safety data sheets, asbestos and bloodborne pathogens.

2013-08-06

461

Recognizing Safety and Liveness  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper substantiates that experience by formalizing safety and liveness in a way that permits the relationship between safety and invariance and between liveness and wellfoundedness to be demonstrated for a large class of properties. In so doing, we give new characterizations of safety and liveness and prove that they satisfy the formal definitions in [Alpera & Schneider 85a

Bowen Alpern

1986-01-01

462

Nuclear Reactor Safety  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nuclear Reactor Safety (NRS), published monthly, is a collection of abstracts of worldwide information available on all safety-related aspects of reactors, including accident analysis, safety systems, radiation protection, decommissioning and dismantling, and security measures. This publication contains the abstracts of DOE reports, journal articles, conference papers, patents, theses, and monographs added to the Energy Science and Technology Database during the

J. D. Bales; R. Boshears

1996-01-01

463

NUCLEAR REACTOR SAFETY SYSTEMS  

Microsoft Academic Search

A nuclear reactor safety system is designed to provide an automatic ; safeguard for the reactor under fault conditions. It is also important that the ; safety system does not generate faults of its own. The basic layout of a safety ; system is described, and it is shown that application of the principles of ; coincidence and redundancy to

Jervis

1962-01-01

464

46 CFR Appendix A to Subpart C to... - Sample Substance Safety Data Sheet, Benzene  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... Sample Substance Safety Data Sheet, Benzene A Appendix A to Subpart C to Part...HEALTH STANDARDS GENERAL PROVISIONS Benzene Pt. 197, Subpt. C, App. A Appendix...Sample Substance Safety Data Sheet, Benzene I. Substance Identification...

2009-10-01

465

46 CFR Appendix A to Subpart C to... - Sample Substance Safety Data Sheet, Benzene  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... Sample Substance Safety Data Sheet, Benzene A Appendix A to Subpart C to Part...HEALTH STANDARDS GENERAL PROVISIONS Benzene Pt. 197, Subpt. C, App. A Appendix...Sample Substance Safety Data Sheet, Benzene I. Substance Identification...

2010-10-01

466

47 CFR 74.23 - Interference jeopardizing safety of life or protection of property.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...DISTRIBUTIONAL SERVICES General; Rules Applicable to All Services...Interference jeopardizing safety of life or protection of property...1 of the Commission's rules, to radio communications involving the safety of life or protection of...

2013-10-01

467

14 CFR 91.1021 - Internal safety reporting and incident/accident response.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...safety reporting and incident/accident response. 91.1021 Section...RULES GENERAL OPERATING AND FLIGHT RULES Fractional Ownership...safety reporting and incident/accident response. (a) Each...respond to an aviation...

2009-01-01

468

14 CFR 91.1021 - Internal safety reporting and incident/accident response.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...safety reporting and incident/accident response. 91.1021 Section...RULES GENERAL OPERATING AND FLIGHT RULES Fractional Ownership...safety reporting and incident/accident response. (a) Each...respond to an aviation...

2010-01-01

469

Uses and Benefits of Probabilistic Risk Assessment in Nuclear Reactor Safety.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) has proven to be an important tool in the safety assessment of nuclear reactors throughout the world. Decision making with regard to many safety issues has been facilitated by both general insights from and direct appli...

R. A. Bari T. P. Speis

1989-01-01

470

Highway Safety Program Manual: Volume 14: Pedestrian Safety.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Volume 14 of the 19-volume Highway Safety Program Manual (which provides guidance to State and local governments on preferred highway safety practices) concentrates on pedestrian safety. The purpose and objectives of a pedestrian safety program are outlined. Federal authority in the area of pedestrian safety and policies regarding a safety program…

National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (DOT), Washington, DC.

471

Equipment Safety. An International Survey.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Contents: International rules--The International Labor Office; Model code of safety regulations of ILO; Agreement No. 119 on equipment safety; Recommendation No. 118 on equipment safety; Ergonomics and equipment safety. CIS Information Sheet 10; Further d...

1977-01-01

472

Optical triggering for enhanced safety  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Firing systems typically incorporate isolation-based architectures that are established by the safety themes of particular weapon systems. Robust electrical diversion barriers are implemented to isolate energy from detonation-critical components until the event of intended use of the system. An optical trigger assembly is being developed to enhance the safety of new firing systems. It couples a fast trigger signal through an exclusion region barrier without compromising the integrity of the barrier in abnormal environment situations. A laser diode generates an optical pulse that is coupled through a sapphire stub to a photoconductive semiconductor switch (PCSS). The PCSS drives a vacuum switch tube to complete the triggering chain in the firing system. A general discussion and comparison of triggering technology options, and the design characteristics and performance parameters of the specific optical trigger point design are presented in this paper.

Smith, Pat; Briner, Clif; Plichta, Todd; Shagam, Richard; Mar, Alan; Cich, Mike; Baca, Albert; Martin, Dennis; Omdahl, Glenn

2005-09-01

473

Safety and IVHM  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

When we address safety in a book on the business case for IVHM, the question arises whether safety isn t inherently in conflict with the need of operators to run their systems as efficiently (and as cost effectively) as possible. The answer may be that the system needs to be just as safe as needed, but not significantly more. That begs the next question: How safe is safe enough? Several regulatory bodies provide guidelines for operational safety, but irrespective of that, operators do not want their systems to be known as lacking safety. We illuminate the role of safety within the context of IVHM.

Goebel, Kai

2012-01-01

474

System safety in manned spaceflight  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

System safety in manned spaceflight is discussed with attention to the organization of the NASA safety effort, hazard identification and resolution, safety program integration, risk management visibility, and space transportation system payload safety. Key ingredients of the safety program, including concepts such as a distinct and appropriate level of responsibility for safety, and comprehensive and appropriate safety requirements from the policy level to the system level, are summarized. Program safety interrelationships are indicated.

Hammack, J. B.

1977-01-01

475

49 CFR 238.229 - Safety appliances-general.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...include but are not limited to such items as mirrors, magnifying glasses, or other location specific inspection aids. Remote viewing aids possessing equivalent sensitivity are permissible for restricted areas. (5) Any weld found with a...

2010-10-01

476

49 CFR 238.229 - Safety appliances-general.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...include but are not limited to such items as mirrors, magnifying glasses, or other location specific inspection aids. Remote viewing aids possessing equivalent sensitivity are permissible for restricted areas. (5) Any weld found with a...

2009-10-01

477

Safety Benefits Analysis of General Aviation Cockpit Standardization.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The purpose of this study was to assess the societal benefits that may be gained by implementation of cockpit standardization as a countermeasure to fuel mismanagement accidents and accidents involving improper operation of the powerplant and powerplant c...

B. E. Beddow S. Berger C. E. Roberts

1982-01-01

478

NASA Software Safety Standard  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

If software is a critical element in a safety critical system, it is imperative to implement a systematic approach to software safety as an integral part of the overall system safety programs. The NASA-STD-8719.13A, "NASA Software Safety Standard", describes the activities necessary to ensure that safety is designed into software that is acquired or developed by NASA, and that safety is maintained throughout the software life cycle. A PDF version, is available on the WWW from Lewis. A Guidebook that will assist in the implementation of the requirements in the Safety Standard is under development at the Lewis Research Center (LeRC). After completion, it will also be available on the WWW from Lewis.

Rosenberg, Linda

1997-01-01

479

Policy Manual - Safety Overview - Annual Fire Safety  

Cancer.gov

Fire drills are conducted at least annually with the guidance of the fire prevention inspector. The Safety Officer is responsible for notifying hearing impaired persons or alarm situations. Evacuation routes are posted in each section.

480

Electrosurgical safety: conducting a safety audit.  

PubMed

ECRI detailed some of the lesser-known risks of electrosurgery in a collection of articles published in the August 2005 Health Devices. However, it's also important to recognize that even hazards that are well understood by clinical personnel can lead to injury if appropriate safety measures aren't applied consistently. In this follow-up to our August 2005 articles, we offer guidance to help healthcare facilities conduct a safety audit that examines critical aspects of the facility's use of electrosurgical technology. ECRI recommends that healthcare facilities periodically conduct such an audit to ensure that the appropriate equipment and procedures are in place to protect patients and staff from injury. This article reviews some of the key questions to ask during a safety audit, and it includes detailed guidance for developing an electrosurgical safety checklist. PMID:16483127

2005-12-01

481

System safety based on a coordinated principle-based theme  

SciTech Connect

In this paper, the authors demonstrate a logical progression for the identification of assets, threats, vulnerabilities, and protective measures, based on a structured approach that incorporates the results of the previous paper. The authors utilize a logical structure for identifying the constituents of the problem, derive appropriate applicable principles, and demonstrate a technique for incorporating the principles into a coordinated safety theme. They also show how to qualitatively assess such generally non-quantifiable items such as safety-component and safety-system response to severe abnormal environments. An illustrative example is followed step-by-step through to a safety system design approach and a safety assessment approach. The general approach is illustrated here through an example, generally representing a test rocket launch scenario, where the concern is the potential for loss of life.

Cooper, J.A.

1998-08-01

482

A Taxonomy of Fallacies in System Safety Arguments  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Safety cases are gaining acceptance as assurance vehicles for safety-related systems. A safety case documents the evidence and argument that a system is safe to operate; however, logical fallacies in the underlying argument may undermine a system s safety claims. Removing these fallacies is essential to reduce the risk of safety-related system failure. We present a taxonomy of common fallacies in safety arguments that is intended to assist safety professionals in avoiding and detecting fallacious reasoning in the arguments they develop and review. The taxonomy derives from a survey of general argument fallacies and a separate survey of fallacies in real-world safety arguments. Our taxonomy is specific to safety argumentation, and it is targeted at professionals who work with safety arguments but may lack formal training in logic or argumentation. We discuss the rationale for the selection and categorization of fallacies in the taxonomy. In addition to its applications to the development and review of safety cases, our taxonomy could also support the analysis of system failures and promote the development of more robust safety case patterns.

Greenwell, William S.; Knight, John C.; Holloway, C. Michael; Pease, Jacob J.

2006-01-01

483

Vortex safety in aviation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The objective is the general review of impact of aircraft wake vortices on the follower aircraft encountering the wake. Currently, the presence of wake vortices past aircraft limits the airspace capacity and flight safety level for aircraft of different purposes. However, wake vortex nature and evolution have not been studied in full measure. A mathematical model simulating the process of near wake generation past bodies of different shapes, as well as the wake evolution after rolling-up into wake vortices (far wake) is developed. The processes are suggested to be modeled by means of the Method of Discrete Vortices. Far wake evolution is determined by its complex interaction with the atmosphere and ground boundary layer. The main factors that are supposed to take into account are: wind and ambient turbulence 3Ddistributions, temperature stratification of the atmosphere, wind shear, as well as some others which effects will be manifested as considerable during the investigation. The ground boundary layer effects on wake vortex evolution are substantial at low flight altitudes and are determined through the boundary layer separation.

Turchak, L. I.

2012-10-01

484

DOE explosives safety manual  

SciTech Connect

This manual is applicable to all DOE facilities engaged in operations of development, manufacturing, handling, storage, transportation (on site), processing, or testing of explosives, or assemblies containing explosives. It contains guidelines and standards for these operations in order to safeguard personnel and to prevent property damage. Criteria established by this manual are specific to high explosives but also apply to propellants and pyrotechnics when these materials can undergo explosive reactions. The standards of this manual deal with the operations involving explosives and the safe management of such operations. Design criteria for facilities used in conjunction with explosives operations are addressed only indirectly. Design criteria for explosives facilities are contained in DOE 6430.1, ''General Design Criteria Manual.'' It is not intended that existing physical facilities be changed arbitrarily to comply with this manual's provisions, except as required by law. Facility conditions determined to be noncompliant shall be resolved among the DOE Field Operations Office (FOO), Program Office, and the Office of Operational Safety (OOS). The standards are presented as either mandatory or advisory. Mandatory standards, denoted by the words ''shall,'' ''must,'' or ''will,'' are requirements that must be followed unless written authority for deviation is granted as an exemption by the DOE. Advisory standards denoted by ''should'' are standards that may be deviated from with a waiver granted by facility management. 2 refs.

Not Available

1987-08-01

485

Principles of Safety Pharmacology  

PubMed Central

Safety Pharmacology is a rapidly developing discipline that uses the basic principles of pharmacology in a regulatory-driven process to generate data to inform risk/benefit assessment. The aim of Safety Pharmacology is to characterize the pharmacodynamic/pharmacokinetic (PK/PD) relationship of a drug's adverse effects using continuously evolving methodology. Unlike toxicology, Safety Pharmacology includes within its remit a regulatory requirement to predict the risk of rare lethal events. This gives Safety Pharmacology its unique character. The key issues for Safety Pharmacology are detection of an adverse effect liability, projection of the data into safety margin calculation and finally clinical safety monitoring. This article sets out to explain the drivers for Safety Pharmacology so that the wider pharmacology community is better placed to understand the discipline. It concludes with a summary of principles that may help inform future resolution of unmet needs (especially establishing model validation for accurate risk assessment). Subsequent articles in this issue of the journal address specific aspects of Safety Pharmacology to explore the issues of model choice, the burden of proof and to highlight areas of intensive activity (such as testing for drug-induced rare event liability, and the challenge of testing the safety of so-called biologics (antibodies, gene therapy and so on.).

Pugsley, M K; Authier, S; Curtis, M J

2008-01-01

486

Occupational Analysis: Safety and Health Coordinator  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Advanced Technology Environmental and Energy Center (ATEEC) has provided this document which includes an overview of general required competencies for safety and health coordinators in the workplace. General areas of competence such as monitoring health and physical hazards in the work environment, conducting audits and providing information are included, as well as specific tasks in each category. Users must download this resource for viewing, which requires a free log-in. There is no cost to download the item.

2011-03-09

487

Handbook of road safety research  

SciTech Connect

This book describes the road safety, accident investigation or vehicle and highway design. This book also discusses the nature and cause of road accidents. It discusses the following contents: Forward; Preface; The main features of the accident situation in Great Britain; The interacting roles of road environment, vehicle and road user in accidents; Roads - features which may be related to accidents; Movements of vehicles and road users before accidents; What happens to vehicles during and after accidents; Injuries to road users; The potential for savings in accidents involving injury; General remarks on accident investigation; Appendices References.

Grime, G.

1987-01-01

488

Standardized Curriculum for General Industrial Maintenance Trades.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Standardized vocational education course titles and core contents for two courses in Mississippi are provided: general industrial maintenance trades I and II. The first course contains the following units: (1) orientation and leadership activities; (2) safety; (3) blueprint reading; (4) oxyacetylene cutting; (5) preventative maintenance; (6)…

Mississippi State Dept. of Education, Jackson. Office of Vocational, Technical and Adult Education.

489

Critical flow: General theory and spurious solutions  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is hardly necessary to emphasize the importance that an accurate prediction of the parameters of critical flow plays in a number of industries, notably in nuclear reactor safety calculations and in metering. In spite of its importance, the literature of the subject still contains erroneous statements. Many of them result from an unjustified belief in the generality of certain

Kestin

1991-01-01

490

General traffic sign recognition by feature matching  

Microsoft Academic Search

Traffic sign recognition is a technology which allows us to recognize signs in real time, typically in videos, or sometimes just (off-line) in photos. It is used for Driver Assistance Systems (DAS), road surveys, or the management of road assets (to improve road safety). In this paper, we propose a method for general traffic sign recognition (tested for the New

FeiXiang Ren; Jinsheng Huang; Ruyi Jiang; Reinhard Klette

2009-01-01

491

NASA and General Aviation. NASA SP-485.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A detailed examination of the nature and function of general aviation and a discussion of how the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) helps keep it on the cutting edge of technology are offered in this publication. The intricacies of aerodynamics, energy, and safety as well as the achievements in aeronautical experimentation are…

Ethell, Jeffrey L.

492

Laser safety in head and neck cancer surgery.  

PubMed

The use of trans-oral laser techniques for the resection of head and neck carcinomas has increased exponentially over the last four decades. Inadvertent laser damage to the patient or operating theatre staff is an acknowledged risk. However, no data exist to verify the safety margin of commonly employed precautions. The aims of this study was to assess the safety margins of protective strategies commonly adopted when using CO(2) lasers to resect tumours of the head and neck. A Sigmacon Acupulse Lumenis CO(2) laser was evaluated. The beam was focused to 2 mm diameter at 402 mm focal length. Gauze swabs, neurosurgical patties, surgical gloves, paper drapes and conventional endotracheal (ET) tubes were tested against the following laser variables: power, beam characteristics and angle of beam incidence (90 & 45°). Laser penetration time through the material under test was recorded in seconds (s). All the materials where tested dry and some, when appropriate, were tested wet. The mean of three recordings was calculated. The results demonstrated dry gauze swabs, neurosurgical patties and paper drapes provided 0 s protection at 2 W (lowest power). However, when wet, the laser failed to penetrate the swabs and neurosurgical patties, even after 180 s of continuous application. Gloves (single or double layer), and ET cuffs were penetrated in less than 1 s at 2 W. Time to penetrate a size 6.0 ET tube at 2 W continuous setting increased from <1 s at 90° to 42 s at 45°. These data are essential for anyone using CO(2) lasers for the resection of head and neck tumours. The importance of keeping laser consumables wet throughout the procedure is highlighted. The angle at which the laser hits the ET tube may impart some protection against airway fire but the data support the need to cover the ET tube with damp swabs or neuropatties when possible. PMID:20652294

Ahmed, Ferhan; Kinshuck, Andrew J; Harrison, Michael; O'Brien, Dan; Lancaster, Jeffrey; Roland, Nicholas J; Jackson, Shaun R; Jones, Terrence M

2010-11-01

493

Space Weather Nowcasting of Atmospheric Ionizing Radiation for Aviation Safety  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

There is a growing concern for the health and safety of commercial aircrew and passengers due to their exposure to ionizing radiation with high linear energy transfer (LET), particularly at high latitudes. The International Commission of Radiobiological Protection (ICRP), the EPA, and the FAA consider the crews of commercial aircraft as radiation workers. During solar energetic particle (SEP) events, radiation exposure can exceed annual limits, and the number of serious health effects is expected to be quite high if precautions are not taken. There is a need for a capability to monitor the real-time, global background radiations levels, from galactic cosmic rays (GCR), at commercial airline altitudes and to provide analytical input for airline operations decisions for altering flight paths and altitudes for the mitigation and reduction of radiation exposure levels during a SEP event. The Nowcast of Atmospheric Ionizing Radiation for Aviation Safety (NAIRAS) model is new initiative to provide a global, real-time radiation dosimetry package for archiving and assessing the biologically harmful radiation exposure levels at commercial airline altitudes. The NAIRAS model brings to bear the best available suite of Sun-Earth observations and models for simulating the atmospheric ionizing radiation environment. Observations are utilized from ground (neutron monitors), from the atmosphere (the METO analysis), and from space (NASA/ACE and NOAA/GOES). Atmospheric observations provide the overhead shielding information and the ground- and space-based observations provide boundary conditions on the GCR and SEP energy flux distributions for transport and dosimetry simulations. Dose rates are calculated using the parametric AIR (Atmospheric Ionizing Radiation) model and the physics-based HZETRN (High Charge and Energy Transport) code. Empirical models of the near-Earth radiation environment (GCR/SEP energy flux distributions and geomagnetic cut-off rigidity) are benchmarked against the physics-based CMIT (Coupled Magnetosphere- Ionosphere-Thermosphere) and SEP-trajectory models.

Mertens, Christopher J.; Wilson, John W.; Blattnig, Steve R.; Solomon, Stan C.; Wiltberger, J.; Kunches, Joseph; Kress, Brian T.; Murray, John J.

2007-01-01

494

An axiomatic approach to deciding query safety in deductive databases  

Microsoft Academic Search

A database query is safe if its result consists of a finite set of tuples. If a query is expressed using a set of pure Horn Clauses, the problem of determining query safety is, in general, undecidable. In this paper we consider a slightly stronger notion of safety, called supersafety, for Horn databases in which function symbols are replaced by

Michael Kifer; Raghu Ramakrishnan; Abraham Silberschatz

1988-01-01

495

Highway Safety Program Manual: Volume 2: Motor Vehicle Registration.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Volume 2 of the 19-volume Highway Safety Program Manual (which provides guidance to State and local governments on preferred highway safety practices) describes the purposes and specific objectives of motor vehicle registration. Federal authority for vehicle registration and general policies regarding vehicle registration systems are outlined.…

National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (DOT), Washington, DC.

496

Safety and Health Concerns in Academic and Public Libraries.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The library is a relatively safe work place, but no place is completely free from hazards. This paper examines the major health and safety concerns of staff and patrons of academic and public libraries, based on a literature review of approximately 60 articles. According to this literature, general safety hazards are not considered a major problem…

Louis, Dorothy M.

497

Food Safety and Security: Operational Risk Management Systems Approach.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The United States Air Force, Office of the Surgeon General is developing guidelines for food safety and security for military personnel. Due to their support for national food safety and security and homeland defense they allowed their document to be used...

2001-01-01

498

Safety Analysis Report for the Triton Test Facility.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This safety analysis report provides a comprehensive review of the design, construction, and operations of the Triton test facility, located in Room 1006 of Building 332. The safety of the general public, LLNL on-site personnel, and those employees workin...

R. E. Nietert J. L. Morse J. H. Moyer

1984-01-01

499

21 CFR 25.16 - Public health and safety emergencies.  

...2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Public health and safety emergencies. 25.16 Section...AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ENVIRONMENTAL...Environmental Consideration § 25.16 Public health and safety emergencies. There...

2014-04-01

500

Implementation of food safety management systems in the UK  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reports the first stage of work being undertaken to understand the factors that have impacted on the current state of food safety in the UK food manufacturing sector. The paper first explores developments in international food safety regulation in general and in particular, the UK. Using a survey and case study methodology, the paper examines the response of

Lena Dzifa Mensah; Denyse Julien

2011-01-01